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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

3. 



ft. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FORTY-EIGHTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




HELD AT 



DUBLIN IN AUGUST 1878. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MUERAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1879. 

[Office of the Association: 22 Albemarle Street, London, W.] 



LOXDON : PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

AND PARLIAMENT STREET 




CONTENTS. 



-•«.-♦- 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxi 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxviii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement XXXV 

Evening Lectures xlvii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xlix 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings 1 

Treasurer's Account Hi 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Dublin Meeting liii 

Officers and Council, 1878-79 lv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee lvi 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports and 
Researches in Science lviii 

Synopsis of Money Grants lxiv 

Places of Meeting in 1879 and 1880 lxv 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
purposes Ixvi 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lxxv 

Address by the President, William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., D.O.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S 1 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Catalogue of the Oscillation-frequencies of Solar Rays ; drawn up under the 
superintendence of a Committee of the British Association, consisting of 
Dr. Huggins (Chairman), Dr. De La Rue, Mr. J. Norman Lockver, Dr. 
J. Emerson Reynolds, Mr. Spottiswoode, Dr. W. Marshall Watts, 

and Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney (Reporter) 87 

a 2 



iy CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Professor Oatlet, Dr. Farr, Mr. J. 
W. L. Glaisher, Dr. Pole, Professor Fuller, Professor A. B. W. Ken- 
nedy, Professor Clifford, and Mr. C. W. Merrifield, appointed to 
consider the advisability and to estimate the expense of constructing Mr. 
Babbage's Analytical Machine, and of printing Tables by its means. Drawn 
up by Mr. Merrifield 02 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir W. 
Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor 
Maxwell, appointed for the purpose of determining the Mechanical Equiva- 
lent of Heat 102 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, and Professor Everett, appointed for the purpose of 
making arrangements for the taking of certain Observations in India, and 
Observations on Atmospheric Electricity at Madeira 103 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. F. J. 
Bramwell, Mr. W. Froude, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, for commencing 
Secular Experiments upon the Elasticity of Wires. Drawn up by J. T. 
Bottomley 103 

Report of the Committee on the Chemistry of some of the lesser-known Alka- 
loids, especially Veratria and Bebeerine ; the Committee consisting of W. 
Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. (Sec), Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, and Mr. 
A. P. Luff 105 

Report on the best Means for the Development of Light from Coal-Gas of 
different qualities, by a Committee consisting of Dr. William Wallace 
(Secretary), Professor Dittmar, and Mr. Thomas Wills, F.C.S., F.I.C. ... 108 

Fourteenth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire — the Committee consisting of John Evans, F.R.S. , Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., 
William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshford Sanford, F.G.S., 
John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter)... 124 

Report of Committee, consisting of Professor Harkness and Mr. William 
Jolly (H. M. Inspector of Schools), reappointed for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Fossils in the North-west Highlands of Scotland. By Mr. 
Jolly, Secretary 130 

Fifth Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Herschel, M.A., 
F.R.A.S., and G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to determine the 
Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geological 
Aspects of the Investigation 133 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes-Lawrence, 
C. Spence Bate, Esq., H. E. Dresser, Esq. (Sec), Dr. A. Gunther, J. E. 
Hasting, Esq., Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Professor Newton, and the Rev. 
Canon Tristram, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into the possibility 
of establishing a " Close Time " for Indigenous Animals 146 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of arranging with Dr. 
Dohrn for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples ; 
the Committee consisting of Mr. Dew-Smith (Secretary), Professor Huxley, 
Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Dr. M. Foster, Mr. F. 
M. Balfour, and Professor Ray Lankester 149 

.Report of 'the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Farr, Lord 
Aberdare, Dr. W. Bain, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Sir George 
Campbell. Captain Dillon, The Earl of Ducie, Professor Flower, Mr. 
Distant, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. Park Harrison, Mr. J. 
Heywi od, Mr. P. Hallett, Major-General Lane Fox (Sec), Inspector- 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
General Lawson, Mr. George Shaw Lefevre, Professor Leone Levi, 
Dr. Waller Lewis, Dr. Mouat, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. Alexander 
Redgrave, and Professor Rolleston 152 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. 
Siemens, Mr. 0. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. F. J. Abel, 
Mr. J. R. Napier, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. 
Carbutt, and Mr. Macrory, appointed for the purpose of watching and re- 
porting to the Council on Patent Legislation 157 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. H. Bes- 
semer, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Captain Douglas Galton, Sir John 
Hawkshaw, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Professor Abel, and Mr. E. H. Carbutt 
(Sec), appointed for the purpose of considering the Use of Steel for Struc- 
tural Purposes 157 

Report on the Geographical Distribution of the Chiroptera. By G. E. Dobson, 
M.A., M.B 158 

On ReceDt Improvements in the Port of Dublin. By Bindon B. Stoney, 
M.A., M.R.I.A., M. Inst. C.E., Engineer of the Dublin Port and Docks 
Board 167 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S., Professor 
G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., Professor Sir 
William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. 
L. Glaisher, F.R.S. (Secretary), on Mathematical Tables 172 

Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Ansteu, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. 
Galloway, and Mr. Joseph Dickinson, appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in 
various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor 
Everett (Secretary) 178 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Haughton, Professor 
Leith Adams, Professor Barrett, Mr. Hardman, and Dr. Macalister, 
appointed for the purpose of Exploring the Fermanagh Caves. Drawn up 
by Mr. Thomas Plunkett, Enniskillen, for Dr. Macalister, Secretary of 
the Committee 183 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, Professor 
Harkness, Professor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Professor L. C. Miall, Messrs. G. H. Morton, D. Mackintosh, 
R. H. Ttddeman, J. E. Lee, James Plant, and W. Pengelly, Dr. Deane, 
Mr. 0. J. Woodward, and Mr. Molyneux, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and 
origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other 
matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for their 
preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary 185 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. — Part. IV. 
On Development. By 0. S?ence Bate, F.R.S 103 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor Rolleston, Major-General 
Lane Fox, Professor Busk, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Dr. John Evans, 
and Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, appointed for the purpose of examining Two 
Caves containing human remains, in the neighbourhood of Tenby 209 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Mr. W. Froude, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas Galton, 
and Mr. James N. Shoolbred (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
obtaining information respecting the Phenomena of the Stationary Tides in 
the English Channel and in the North Sea; and of representing to the 
Government of Portugal and the Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion of 
the British Association, Tidal Observations at Madeira or other islands in 
the North Atlantic Ocean would be very valuable, with the view to the 
advancement of our knowledge of -the tides in the Atlantic Ocean 217 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Major-General Strachey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of considering the Datum-level of the 
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, with a view to its establishment on a 
surer foundation than hitherto, and for the tabulation and comparison of 
other Datum-marks 21!) 

Report of the Committee on Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships, 
consisting of Mr. W. Froude, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, Mr. C. W. Merrlfield, Dr. 
C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brtjnel, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), 
Professor James Thomson, and Professor Sir William Thomson 219 

Report of a Committee appointed for the purpose of further developing the 
investigations into a Common Measure of Value in Direct Taxation, the 
Committee consisting of the Right Hon. J. G. Hubbard, M.P., Mr. Chad- 
wick, M.P., Mr. Morlet, M.P., Dr. Farr, Sir George Campbell, M.P., 
Mr. Hallett, Professor Jevons, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. SHAEN,Mr. Macneel 
Caird, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Professor Leone Levi, Mr. Heyyvood, and 
Mr. Hallett (Secretary) 220 

Deport on Sunspots and Rainfall. By Charles Meldrum, F.R.S 230 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the Year 1877-78, by a 
Committee consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S. , &c, R. P. Greg, F.G.S., 
F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S.. Professor G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter 
Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., and Professor A.. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S. 
(Reporter) 25s 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Pro- 
fessor Prestwich, Professor Busk, Professor T. McK. Hughes, Professor 
W. B. Dawkins, Professor Miall, Rev. H. W. Crossket, Mr. II. C. Sorby, 
and Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the 
Exploration of the Settle Caves (Victoria Cave). Drawn up by Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman (Reporter) .. 377 

Deport of a Committee, consisting of Mr. Godwin-Austen, Professor Prest- 
wich, Mr. Davidson, Mr. Etheridge, Mr. Willett, and Mr. Topley, 
appointed for the purpose of assisting the Kentish Boring Exploration. 
Drawn up by Mr. Godwin-Austen 380 

Fourth Report of the Committee for Investigating the Circulation of the 
Underground Waters in the Jurassic, New Red Sandstone, and Permian 
Formations of England, and the Quantity and Character of the Waters 
supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Formations ; with 
Appendix, by Mr. Roberts, on the Filtration of Water through Triassic 
Sandstone ; the Committee consisting of Professor Hull, Rev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, Mr. Glaisher, Mr. II. H. Howell, Mr. G. 
A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. Morton, Mr. Pengelly, Professor 
Prestwich, Mr. James Plant, Mi-. Mellard Reade, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
and Mr. De Rance (Reporter) 382 

Report of the Committee, consisting of James R. Napier, F.R.S., Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., W. Froude, F.R S., J. T. Bottomley, and Osborne 
Reynolds, F.R.S. (Secretary), appointed to investigate the effect of Pro- 
pellers on the Steering of Vessels 4l!» 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature 43:) 

2. Report of the Committee on the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 433 

3. An Account of some Experiments on Specific Inductive Capacity. By J. 

E. H. Gordon, Assistant Secretary of the British Association 433 

4. On the Effect of Variation of Pressure on the Length of Disruptive Dis- 
charge in Air. By J. E. H. Gordon, Assistant Secretary of the British 
Association '. 433 

5. On the Absorption Spectrum of Chlorochromic Anhydride. By G. 
Johnstone Stonet, M.A., F.R.S., Secretary to the Queen's University 
in Ireland, and J. Emerson Reynolds, M.D., F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry 

in the University of Dublin 434 

6. On the Flow of Water in uniform regime in Rivers and in Open Channels 
generally. By Professor James Thomson, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S 434 

7. Note on the Pedetic Action of Soap. By Professor W. Stanley Jevons, 
F.R.S 435 

8. Motions produced by Dilute Acids on some Amalgam Surfaces. By Robert- 

Sabine 435 

9. Note on Surface Tension. By George Francis FitzGerald 430 

10. New Application of Gas for Lighthouses, illustrated by Models, full-sized 

Apparatus, &c. By J. R. Wigham, M.R.I.A 430 

11. A Short Description of two kinds of Fog Signals. By J. R. Wigham, 
M.R.I.A 437 

12. A New Atmospheric Gas Machine. By J. R. Wigham, M.R.I.A 437. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

1. Report of Committee on the Oscillation- Frequencies of the Rays of the 

Solar Spectrum. By G. Johnstone Stoney 438 

2. General Results of some Recent Experiments upon the Co-efficient of 

Friction between Surfaces Moving at High Velocities. By Douglas 
Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c 438 

3. On a Spectroscope of unusually large Aperture. By G. J. Stoney 441 

4. On the Support of Spheroidal Drops and allied Phenomena. By G. John- 

stone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S., George F. Fitzgerald, M.A., F.T.C.D., 
and Richard J . Moss, Keeper of the Miuerals in the Museum of Science 
and Art, Dublin 441 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 

5. On the Cause of Travelling Motion of Spheroidal Drops. By G. John- 
stone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S 442 

6. The Stanhope "Demonstrator," or Logical Machine. By Robert Harlet 442 

7. Sur ur.e nouvelle Methode de Photographie Solaire et les Decouvertes 
qu'elle donne touchant la veritable nature de la Photosphere. Par Dr. 

J. Janssen 443 

8. Sur la Constitution des Spectres Photographiques quand Taction lumi- 
neuse est extrernenient courte. Par Dr. J. Janssen 445 

9. Quelques remarques sur l'eclipse totale et la Couronne. Par Dr. J. 
Janssen 445 

10. On a New Form, of Receiving Instrument for Microphone. By W. J. 

Millar, C.E., Sec. Inst. Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland 440 



MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

General Section. 

1. Report of the Committee on Atmospheric Electricity 448 

2. On Edmunds' Electrical Phonoscope. By W. Ladd 448 

3. On Byrne's Compound Plate Pneumatic Battery. By W. Ladd 448 

4. A Diagonal Eyepiece for certain Optical Experiments. By Professor G. 

Forbes 449 

5. A Clock with Detached Train. By Professor G. Forbes 449 

0. An Instrument for Indicating and Measuring the Fire-damp in Mines. By 
Professor G. Forbes .'. 449 

7. On certain Phenomena Accompanying Rainbows. By Professor Silyant/s 

P. Thompson, D.Sc, B.A 450 

8. New Magnetic Figures. By Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc, Pro- 
fessor of Experimental Physics in University College, Bristol 450 

9. On Dimensional Equations, and on some Verbal Expressions in Numerical 

Science. By Professor James Thomson, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S 451 

10. On Lead and Platinised Lead as a Substitute for Carbon and Platinised 

Silver, in Leclanche, Bichromate, and Smee's Batteries. By Edward T. 
Haedman, F.O.S., &c 453 

11. On a New Form of Electro-Registering Apparatus. By Denny Lane ... 454 

12. On an Isochronic Pendulum. By Denny Lane 455 

18. The Temperature of the Earth Within. By William Morris 450 

14. On Sunspots and Rainfall. By O. Meldeum 457 

15. On Lightning Conductors. By R. Anderson 457 

Department of Mathematics. 

1. Report of the Committee on Babbage's Analytical Engine 457 

2. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables, with an Explanation of 

the Mode of Formation of the Factor Table for the Fourth Million 457 

3. On a New Form of Tangential Equation. By John Casey, LL.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A., Professor of Mathematics in the Catholic University of Ireland 457 

4. On the Eighteen Co-ordinates of a Conic in Space. By William Spottis- 

woode, F.R.S., &c, &c, President 402 

5. On the Modular Curves. By Professor II. J. S. Smith -103 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
(5. On the Principal Screws of Inertia of a free or constrained Rigid Body. 
By Professor R. S. Ball 463 

7. On the Applicability of Lagrange's Equations to certain Problems of Fluid 
Motion. By Professor J. Purser 463 

8. On the Occurrence of Equal Roots in Lagrange's Determinental Equation 

of Small Oscillations. By Frederick Purser, M.A 463 

9. On Halphen's New Form of Chasles's Theorem on Systems of Conies 

satisfying Four Conditions. By Dr. T. Archer Hirst, F.R.S 464 

1 0. On the Law of Force to any Point when the Orbit is a Conic. By J. W. 

L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 464 

1 1 . Note on the Geometrical Treatment of Bicircular Quartics. By Frede- 
rick Purser, M.A 465 

12. On Quadric Transformation. By Professor H. J. S, Smith 465 

18. On Certain Linear Differential Equations. By the Rev. Robert Harley, 

F.R.S 466 

14. On the Solution of a Differential Equation allied to Riccati's. By J. W. 

L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 469 

15. On Certain Special Enumerations of Primes. By J. W. L. Glaisher. 
M.A., F.R.S '. 470 

16. Notes on Circulating Decimals. By J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 471 

17. Elementary Demonstration of the Theorem of Multiplication of Deter- 

minants. By M. Falk, Docens of Mathematics in the University of 
Upsala 473 

18. On the Motion of Two Cylinders in a Fluid. By W. M. Hicks, M.A. ... 475 



TUESDA Y, A UG UST 20, 1878. 
Department of Astronomy. . 

1. Report of the Committee on Luminous Meteors. By James Glaisher... 477 

2. Report of the Committee on the Tides in the English Channel 477 

8. On an Equatorial Mounting for a Three-Foot Reflector. By the Earl of 
Rosse 477 

4. On the Tides of the Southern Hemisphere and of the Mediterranean. By 

Capt. Evans, R.N, and Sir William Thomson, LL.D 477 

5. On the Influence of the Straits of Dover on the Tides of the British 

Channel and the North Sea. By Sir William Thomson 481 

(>. On the Sun-heat received at the several Latitudes of the Earth, taking 
Account of the Absorption of Heat by the Atmosphere, with Conclusions 
as to the absolute Radiation of Earth Heat into Space, and the Minimum 
Duration of Geological Time. By Professor S. Haughton 482 

7. Researches made at Dunsink on the Annual Parallax of Stars. By Professor 

R. S. Ball 482 

8. On the Precession of a Viscous Spheroid. By G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 482 

9. On the Limits of Hypotheses regarding the Physical Properties of the 

Matter of the Interior of the Earth. By Professor Henry Hennessy, 
F.R.S 485 

10. On the Climate of the British Islands. By Professor Henry Hennessy, 
F.R.S 485 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

11. On a new Method of maintaining the Motion of a Free Pendulum in 

vacuo. By David Gill 486 

12. On Space Numbers : an Extension of Arithmetic. By B. H. Hinton 486 

Department op Physical Science. 

1. Report of the Committee for commencing Secular Experiments on the 
Elasticity of Wires 486 

2. A New Form of Polariscope. By Professor William Grylls Adams, 

M.A., F.R.S 486 

3. A New Determination of the Number of Electrostatic Units in the Electro- 

Magnetic Unit. By W. E. Ayrton and J. Perry. Telegram and Letter 

to Sir W. Thomson from Professor W. E. Atrton 487 

4. On Apparatus employed in Researches on Orookes's Force. By Richard 

J. Moss, FC.S 489 

5. On Spheroidal Drops. By Richard J. Moss, F.C.S 489 

6. On the Spherical Class-Cubic with Three Single Foci. By Henry M. 

Jeffery, M.A 490 

7. On a Cubic Surface referred to a Pentad of Co-tangential Poiuts. By 
Henry M. Jeffery, M.A 491 

8. A New Form of Trap-Door Electrometer. By Professor Barrett 495 

9. On Unilateral Conductivity in Tourmaline Crystals. By Professor Sil- 

vanus P. Thompson and Dr. Oliver J. Lodge 495 

10. On Gaussin's Warning regarding the Sluggishness of Ships' Magnetism. 

By Sir William Thomson, F.R.S 496 

11. On the Electrical Properties of Bees' Wax and Lead Chloride. By Pro- 
fessors J. Perry and W. E. Atrton 497 

12. Theory of Voltaic Action. By J. Brown 498 

13. Mutual Action of Vortex Atoms and Ultramundane Corpuscles. By 

Professor G. Forbes 498 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Address by Professor Maxwell Simpson, M.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., President of 

the Section 501 

1. Report of Committee on some of the lesser-known Alkaloids 504 

2. Report on the best means of Developing Light from Coal Gas, Part I. ... 504 

3. On the Amounts of Sugar contained in the Nectar of various Flowers. Bv 
Alex. S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc .'. 504 

4. On the Action of Chlorine upon the Nitroprussides. By Dr. Edmund W. 
Davy, Professor of Forensic Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland 505 

5. The Adulteration Act in so far as it relates to the Prosecution of Milk- 

sellers. By Ernest H. Cook, B.Sc, F.R.C.S., Lecturer upon Experi- 
mental Physics at the Bristol Trade and Mining School 506 

6. On some Fluor Compounds of Vanadium. Bv Professor H. E. Roscoe, 
Ph.D., F.R.S 507 



CONTENTS. XI 

. FRIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

Page 

1. Notes on Aluminium Alcohols. By Dr. Gladstone and Alfred Tribe... 508 

2. On the Estimation of Mineral Oil or Paraffin Wax when mixed with 

other Oils or Fats. By Willtam Thomson, F.K.S.E 508 

3. On the ActioD of Heat on the Selenate of Ammonium. By Dr. Ed- 
mund W. Davy, Professor of Forensic Medicine, Royal College of 
Surgeons, Ireland 509 

4. A New Method of Alkalimetry. By Louis Siebold, F.O.S 509 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

1. Notes on Water from the Severn Tunnel Springs. By William Lant 

Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, F.C.S 511 

2. On the Thetines. By E. A. Letts, Professor of Chemistry, University 

College, Bristol 511 

3. On the Spectrum of Chlorochromic Acid. By G. Johnstone Stonev and 
Professor J. Emerson Reynolds 511 

4. Summary of Investigations on the Pyridine Series. By Dr. W. Ramsay 511 

5. On some of the Derivatives of Furfural. By Dr. W. Ramsay 512 

6. Nitric Acid ; its Reproduction from the lower Oxides of Nitrogen. By 
Bernard 0. Molloy 512 

7. On some Substances obtained from the Root of the Strawberry. Bv Dr. 

T. L. Phipson, F.C.S 514 

8. On a new Mineral White Pigment. By Dr. T. L. Phipson, F.C.S 514 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1878. 

1. On a Simplification of Graphic Formulae. By Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc. ... 516 

2. On the Detection by means of the Microphone of Sounds which accom- 
pany the Diffusion of Gases through a thin Septum. By W. Chandler 
Roberts, F.R.S 517 

3. A short Account of Baeyer's Synthesis of Indigo. By Professor J. Emer- 
son Reynolds, M.A., F.C.S 517 

4. Dr. Ramsay exhibited Victor Meyer's Apparatus for taking Vapour Den- 
sities of Substances with High Boiling Points 517 

5. On the Condensation of the Gases hitherto called Permanent. Hy Pro- 
fessor James Dewar, F.R.S 517 

6. On a Method of Elementary Organic Analysis by a Moist Process. By 
Professor Wanklyn and W. J. Cooper 517 

7. On some Peculiarities of the Vartry Water, and on the Action of that 

Water upon Boiler Plates. By Charles R. O. Tichborne, LL.D., Ph.D., 
F.C.S 517 

8. On a New Process of Photo-Chemical Printing in Metallic Platinum. By 

W. Willis, jun 518 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Address by Mr. John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., President of 

the Section 519 



Xll . CONTENTS. 

Page 

1. Sketch of the Geology of the Environs of Dublin. By Professor E. Hull, 
F.R.S .'. 527 

2. On the Ancient Volcanic District of Slieve Gullion. By Joseph Nolan, 

M.R.I.A., &c, of H.M. Geological Survey of Ireland 527 

8. Notes on the Glaciation of Ireland, and the Tradition of Lough Lurgan. 
By W. Mattieu Williams, F.R.A.S., F.O.S 528 

4. Notice of some additional Labyrinthodont Amphibia and Fish from the 
Coal of Jarrow Colliery, near Castlecomer, County of Kilkenny, Ireland. 
By William Hellier Bailt, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A., &c, Acting 
Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of Ireland 530 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

1. On the Exploration of Kent's Cave. Fourteenth Report 531 

2. Sixth Report on the Victoria Cave, Settle 531 

3. Report on Fermanagh Caves i 531 

4. Fourth Report of Commission on Underground Waters 531 

5. The Relative Ages of the Raised Beaches and Submerged Forests of 

Torbay. By W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c 531 

6. Experiments on Filtration of Sea Water through Triassic Sandstone. By 
Isaac Roberts, F.G.S 532 

7. On the New Geological Map of India. By V. Ball, M.A., F.G.S 532 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 17, 1878. . 

1. On the supposed Radiolarians and Diatoms of tbe Carboniferous Rocks. 

By Professor W. 0. Williamson, F.R.S 534 

2. On some Fossils from the Northampton Sands. By John Evans, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., &c 534 

3. Notes on some New Species of Irish Fossils. By William Hellier 

Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I A., &c, Acting Paleontologist to tbe Geo- 
logical Survey of Ireland 535 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

1. On the Metamorphic and Intrusive Rocks of Tyrone. By Joseph Nolan, 

M.R.I. A., &c, of H.M. Geological Survey of Ireland 536 

2. On the Origin of Crystalline Rocks. By T. Sterrt Hunt, F.R.S 53G 

3. On Some New Areas of Pre-Cambrian Rocks in North Wales By Henry 

Hicks, M.D., F.G.S 536 

4. On " Cervus Megaceros." By William AVilli ams 537 

5. On the Rocks of Ulster as a Source of Water-Supply. By William A. 

Traill, M.A.I. , H.M. Geological Survey of Ireland 537 

6. On the Occurrence of certain Fish Remains in the Coal Measures, and the 

Evidence they afford of their Fresh-water Origin. By James W. Davis, 
F.G.S., L.S., Hon. Secretary of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society ." 530 

7. On the Discovery of Marine Shells in the Ganuister Beds of Northumber- 

land. By G. A. Lebour, F.G.S 589 

8. Report on proposed Kentish Explorations 540 

9. Report on Fossils of N.W. Highlands of Scotland 540 



CONTENTS. Xlii 

TUESDA T, A UGUST 20, 1878. 

Page 

1. On the Influence of "Strike" on the Physical Features of Ireland. By 

Edward T. Hardman, F.C.S., F.R.G.S.t., Geological Survey of Ireland 541 

2. On Hullite, a hitherto undescrihed Mineral ; a Hydrous Silicate of peculiar 

composition, from Carnmoney Hill, Co. Antrim, with Analysis. By 
Edward T. Hardman, F.C.S., H.M. Geological Survey. With Notes on 
the Microscopic Appearances, hy Professor E. Hull, M.A., F.R.S 542 

3. The Progress of the Geological Survey of Ireland. By Professor Edward 

Hull, M.A., F.R.S. , Director 543 

4. Report of the Committee on Erratic Blocks 543 

5. The Geological Relations of the Atmosphere. By T. Sterrt Hunt, 

LL.D., F.R.S ; 544 

6. Report of Committee on the Conductivity of Rocks 545 

7. On the Saurians of the Dakota Cretaceous Rocks of Colorado. By Pro- 
fessor E. D. Cope 545 

8. Notes on Eribollia Mackayi, a New Fossil from the Assynt Quartzite in 

the North-Western Highlands of Scotland. By James Nicol, F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., Professor of Natural History in the University of Aberdeen 545 

9. On the Influence that Microscopic Vegetable Organisms have had on the 
production of some Hydrated Iron Ores. By M. Alphonse Gages 545 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 21, 1878. 

1. On the Age of the Crystalline Rocks of Donegal. By Professor W. King, 
D.Sc 547 

2. On the Correlation of Lines of Direction on the Globe, and particularly of 
Coast Lines. By Professor J. P. O'Reilly 547 

3. Concerning the Extent of Geological Time. By Rev. M. H. Close, 
F.G.S 548 

4. On the Earth's Axis. By Rev. Professor Haughton, M.D., F.R.S 548 

5. Geological Results of the late British Arctic Expedition. By Captain 
Feilden, R.A., and Mr. De Rance 548 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 

Department of Zoology and Botany. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Address by Professor William Henry Flower, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. , 

President of the Section 540 

1. Report of the Close-time Committee 558 

2. Report of the Committee on the Zoological Station at Naples 558 

3. On the Geographical Distribution of the Chiroptera. By Dr. G. E. 
Dobson 558 

4. Notes on the Geographical Distribution and Migrations of Birds, &c, on 

the Northern Shores and Lands of Hudson's Bay. By J. Rae, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.G.S ". .* 558 



x i v CONTENTS. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

Page 

1. Note3 on a case of Commensalism in the Holothuria. By Dr. A. F. 
Anderson 55J 

2. On certain Osteological Characters in the Cervidae and their probable bear- 

ings on the past History of the Group. By Sir Victor Brooke, Bart. ... 559 

3. The Habits of Ants. By Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S 559 

4 On the Habits of the Field- Vole {Arvkola agrestis, L.). By Sir Walter 

Elliot, F.R.S 559 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

1. Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. Part IV. 

— On Development 561 

2. On the Willemoesia Group of Crustacea. By C. Spence Bate, F.R.S ... 561 

3. On the supposed Radiolarians and Diatoms of the Coal-measures. By 
Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S 564 

4. On the Association of an Inconspicuous Corolla with Proterogyaous Di- 
chogamy in Insect-fertilised Flowers. By Alex. S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc. 564 

5. On the Nectar of Flowers. By Alex. S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc 567 

6. Notes on some Dimorphic Plants. By Alex. S. Wilson, M A., B.Sc 568 

7. Some Mechanical Arrangements subserving Cross-fertilisation of Plants 

by Insects. By Alex. S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc 568 

8. On the Stipules of Spergularia Marina. By Alexander Dickson, M.D., 
Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow 568 

9. On the Inflorescence of Senebiera didyma. By Alexander Dickson, M.D., 

Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow 569 

10. On the Six-celled Glands of Cephalotus, and their similarity to the Glands 

of Sarracenia purpurea. By Alexander Dickson, M.D , Regius Professor 

of Botany in the University of Glasgow 569 

11. Exhibition of Specimens of Isoetes echinospora. By Alexander Dickson, 

M.D., Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow 570 

12. Some rare Scottish Alpine Plants. By Dr. I. Baylet Balfour 570 

13. Notes on Naiadacese. By Dr. I. Bayley Balfour 570 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1878. 

1. The Vertebrata of the Permian Formation of Texas. By Professor 

Edward D. Cope, F.S.A 571 

2. Note on the Genus Holopus. By Sir Wyville Thomson 571 

3. Note on some Deep Sea Radiolarians. By Sir Wyville Thomson 571 

4. On the genus Ctenodus (Agassiz). By Dr. R. H. Traquatr 571 

5. The Mammoth in Siberia. By Henry H. Howorth, F.S.A 571 

6. Recent Additions to the List of Irish Lepidoptera. By R. W. Sinclair 572 

7. A Wryneck obtained in Ireland was exhibited by A. E. Jacob 572 

8. Germinating specimens of Cardamine pratensis were exhibited by Dr. John 
Price 572 



CONTENTS. XV 



Department of Anthropology. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

Page 
Address by Professor Huxley, Sec. R.S 573 

1. Notes on the Prehistoric Monuments of Cornwall as compared with those 

in Ireland. By Miss A. W. Buckland 578 

2. Flint Factories at Portstewart and elsewhere in the North of Ireland. By 

W. J. Knowles 579 

3. The Prehistoric Sculptures of Ilkley, Yorkshire. By J. Eomilly Allen 580 

4. Report of the Earth-works Committee ; being an account of Excavations 

in Csesar's Camp, Folkestone. 580 

5. On Excavations at Mount Caburn, Lewes, Sussex. By Major-General 
Lane Fox, F.R.S 580 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

1. Methods and Results of Measurements of the Capacity of Human Crania. 

By William Henry Flower, F.R.S 581 

2. Eeport of the Anthropometric Committee 582 

3. On a Colour Scale. By E. W. Brabrook 582 

4. Left-handedness. By Henry Muirhead, M.D 582 

5. On the Evils arising from the use of Historical National Names as Scientific 
Terms. By A. L. Lewis 583 

6. On some American Illustrations of new Varieties of Man. By Professor 
Daniel Wilson, LL.D 583 

7. On the Courses of Migration and Commerce, traced by Art Relics and 
Religious Emblems By J. S. Phene, LL.D., F.S.A 583 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1878. 

1. Les Races Anciennes de l'lilande. Utilite de 1'etude des traditions qui 
les concernent pour l'ethnographie de l'Europe primitive. Par Henri 
Martin 585 

2. On some objects of Ethnological Interest collected in India and its Islands. 

By V. Ball, M.A., F.G.S 588 

3. Notes on the Tribes of Midian. By Captain R. F . Burton 589 

4. Notes on some Tribes of Tropical Aborigines. By T. J. Hutchinson, late 

Her Majesty's Consul at Callao 589 

5. On the Prehistoric Relations of the Babylonian, Egyptian, and Chinese 
Characters and Culture. By Hyde Clarke, V.P.A.S., V.P.S.S 590 

6. On the Spread of the Sclavs. By H. H. Howorth 590 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 21, 1878. 

1. On Flint Implements in Egypt and in Midian'. By Captain R. F. Burton 591 

2. Notices of an Expiring Race on the Bhutan Frontier. By T. Durant 
Beighton 591 

3. Report of Excavation of a Bone Cave near Tenby, S. Wales 591 

4. Inscribed Bone Implements. By J. Pare Harrison, M.A 591 

5. The Primitive Human Family. By C. Staniland Wake, M.A.I 592 



xvi contents. 

Department of Anatomy and Physiology. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Address by Dr. R. McDonnell, F.R.S 593 

1. Observations on some Points in the Osteology of an Infantile Gorilla 

Skeleton. By Allen Thomson, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 597 

2. The Intrinsic Muscles of the Mammalian Foot. By D. J. Cunningham, 
M.D., F.R.S.E., Senior Demonstrator of Anatomy,University of Edinburgh 599 

3. On the Gill Skeleton of Selache Maxima. By A. Macalister, M.D 600 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

1. Phenomena of Binaural Audition. Bv Professor Silv anus P. Thompson, 

D.Sc, B.A 001 

2. On the Theory of Muscular Contraction. By G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A. ... 601 

3. On the Nervous System of Medusae. By G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 601 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1878. 

1. On the Excretion of Nitrogen. Part II. — By the Skin. By J. Byrne 

Power 602 

2. On a Direct Method for determining the Calorific Power of Alimentary 
Substances. By J. A. Wanklyn and W. J. Cooper 605 

3. On the Aberrant Form of the Sacrum connected with Naegele's Obliquely 

Contracted Pelvis. By Allen Thomson, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 605 

4. Note on the Occurrence of a Sacral Dimple and its possible Significance. 

By Lawson Tait, F.R.C.S 606 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 21, 1878. 

1. The Rate of Cardiac Hvpertrophv. Bv William H. Stone, M.A., 
F.R.C.P 60s 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Address by Professor Sir C. Wyville Thomson, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

F.R.S.E., F.G.S., F.L.S., President of the Section 613 

1. A Journey on Foot through Arabia Petrsea. By the Rev. F. W. Hol- 
land, M. A., F.R.G.S 622 

2. Survey of Galilee. By Lieut. H. H. Kitchener, R.E., F.R.G.S 624 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

1. Notes on some Geographical Variations on the Coast of France. By J. S. 

PhenE, LL.D., F.S.A 628 

2. On Processes of Map-producing. By Captain J. Waterhouse, B C.S., 

Assistant Surveyor-General of India 628 

3. Bichthofen, Prejevalsky, and Lake Lob. By E. Delmar Morgan, 

F.R.G.S 629 



CONTENTS. xvii 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

Page 

1. The Land of Midian. By Captain R. Burton, II.B.M. Consul, Trieste ... 630 

2. On a Journey to Fez and Mequinez. By A. Leared, M.D., F.R G.S., 

M.R.I.A : 631 

3. On tbo Progress in the Official Report of the " Challenger " Expedition. 

By Sir C. Wyville Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E 633 

4. On the Characteristic Features of Alaska, as developed bv the U. S. Survey 

By W. H. Ball, U.S.C.S " 633 

5. On the Acquisition by England of Cyprus, and some Observations on the 
Islands in the Levant. By J. S. Phene, LL.D., F.S.A 634 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1878. 

1. On the Best Route to attain a high Northern Latitude, or the Pole itself. 

By John Rae, M.D., LL.D., F.R.G.S 636 

2. Geographical Significance of North Polar Ice. By E. L. Moss, M.D 636 

3. Livingstonia. — The Opening up of the East African Lake District. By 
James Stevenson, F.R.G.S 636 

4. Cyprus. By Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S 637 

5. On the Geographical Distribution of the Tea Plant. By A. Burrell, 
F.S.S 638 

6. Influence of the Straits of Dover on the Tides of the- British Channel and 
North Sea. By Sir William Thomson, F.R.S 639 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 

Address by Professor J. K. Ingram, LL.D., M.R.I.A., President of the Section 641 

1. Report of Anthropometric Committee 658 

2. On Canadian Statistics. By A. E. Bateman, F.S.S 658 

3. How to meet the Requirements of Population displaced by Artizans' 

Dwellings Act. By Sir James Watson 658 

4. On the Boarding-out of Pauper Children. By Miss Isabella M. Tod 659 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 16, 1878. 

1. On the Condition of Small Farmers, and their Position with reference to 

the Land Question. By Murrotjgh O'Brien 661 

2. The Creation of a Public Commission to purchase Land for Resale to 

Occupiers in Ireland. By Francis Nolan 662 

3. Suggestions for a Bill to regulate Sales of Property. By James II. 

Monahan, Q.0 662 

4. On the Application of Copyhold Enfranchisement to long Leases in Ire- 
land, the assimilation of Chattel and Freehold Succession, and the 
simplification of Transfer of Land. By J. H. Edge 663 

5. On Impediments to the prompt carrying out of the principles conceded by 

Parliament on the Irish Land Question. By W. Neilson Hancock 
LT..D : 64 

1878. a 



XV111 CONTESTS. 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

•Page 

1. Report of Committee on Oommou Measure of Value in Direct Taxation ... 660 

2. The Periodicity of Commercial Crises, and its Physical Explanation. By 
Professor W. Stanley Jevons, F.R.S 666 

3. The Definitions of Political Economy. By Professor Maguike 667 

4. Some Statistical Researches into the Poor Removal Question, with special 
reference to the Removal of Persons of Irish Birth from Scotland. By 

W. Neilson Hancock, LL.D 667 

5. On the Education and Training of the Insane. By Joseph Laloe, M.D., 
Resident Medical Superintendent, Richmond District Lunatic Asylum, 
Dublin 667 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1878. 

1. Some Remarks on the Desirability of Simultaneous and Identical Legisla- 

tion for England and Ireland. By H. L. Jephson 673 

2. On the Importance of raising Ireland to the Level of England and Scotland 
in the matter of Industrial Schools and Compulsory Education. By W. 
Neilson Hancock, LL.D 674 

3. On some Economic Fallacies of Trades Unionists. By Professor J. J. 

Shaw 675 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 21, 1878. 

1. On the Social Aspects of Trades Unionism. By J. H. M. Campbell 676 

2. On Adam Smith's Theory of Rent. By W. D. Henderson 677 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1878. 
Address by Mr. Edward Easton, C.E., President of the Section 679 

1. On RiverControl. By J. Clarke Hawkshaw 687 

2. On the Effect of River or Arterial Drainage Works upon River Floods. 

By James Dillon, Mem. Inst. C.E.I 687 

3. On the Control of Rivers. By W. Shelford, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S 6f)0 

4. On Movable and Fixed Weirs, with reference to the Improvement of the 

Navigation, Mill Power, and Drainage of Flood Waters of Rivers, with 
especial Notice of the River Shannon. By J. Neville, C.E., M.R.I.A., 
Dundalk 691 

5. The Rainfall of Ireland. By G. J. Stmons, F.R.S 692 

6. On the Hydrogeologieal Survey of England. By Joseph Lucas, F.G.S... . 692 

FBIDAY, AUGUST 16, 1878. 

1. On the Drainage of the Fenland considered in relation to the Conservancy 

of the Rivers of Great Britain. By W. H. Wheeler, M. Inst. C.E 693 

2. On the Discharge of Sewage in Tidal Rivers. By Henry Law, Mem. 

I.CE r. ! 695 

3. Recent Improvements in the Port of Dublin. By B. B. Stoney 696 



CONTENTS. XIX 

MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1878. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee on the Patent Laws 697 

2. Report of Committee on the Use of Steel for Structural Purposes 697 

•3. Report of Committee on the Steering of Screw Steamers 697 

4. On the Steering of Screw Steamers. By Professor Osborne Reynolds, 
F.R.S 697 

5. General Results of some recent Experiments upon the Co-efficient of 
Friction between Surfaces moving at High Velocities. By Captain 
Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S 697 

6. Recent Improvements in Telegraphic Apparatus. By W. H. Preece 697 

7. The Filtration of Salt from Sea Water into Wells in the Trias Sandstone. 

By I. Roberts 697 

8. Description of a new Lift Bridge for the Midland Great Western Railway 
over the Royal Canal at Newcomen Bridge, Dublin. By Bindon B. 
Stonet, M.A., M. Inst. C.E 697 

9. The Irish Siren Fog Signal. By J. R. Wigham 698 

10. A New Form of Mining Lamp. By Dr. Charles Ball 698 

TUESDAY, A UGUST 20, 1878. 

1. Report of Committee on Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships ... 699 

2. Report of Committee on the Datum Level of the Ordnance Survey 699 

3. Report of Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel, &c... 699 

4. The River Shannon : its present State, and the Means of Improving the 
Navigation and the Drainage. By James Ltnam 699 

5. On the Present State of Electric Lighting. By James N. Shoolbred, 
B.A., M. Inst. C.E 706 

6. On a Process for Cutting through Sand-bars in Rivers and Harbour En- 
trances. By C. Bergeron, C.E 708 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 21, 1878. 

1. On the Use of Wind Power for Raising Water, Disposal of Sewage, and 
Drainage, with special reference to Ireland. By James Price, M. Inst. 
C.E., M.A.I 709 

2. A System of Ventilation by Means of Fans and Punkahs worked by Com- 
pressed Air for use in Hospitals and Barracks in India and other Tropical 
Climates. By the Hon. R. C. Parsons 710 

3. On the Dublin Waterworks. By Parke Neville 712 

4. The Design and Use of Boilers. By F. J. Rowan, M. Inst. M.E 712 

5. On the System of Dredging usually employed in the United States. By 
Robert Briggs 713 

6. On a New Ship-raising Machine. By Thomas A. Dillon 713 



a2 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I., II., and III. 

Illustrative of Mr. Bindon B. Stoney's Paper on Reeent Improvements in the 

Port of Dublin. 

PLATE IV. 

Illustrative of tbe Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables. 

PLATES V., VI., and VII. 

Illustrative of Mr. C. Spence Bate's Report on the Present State of our Knowledge 

of the Crustacea. 



ERRATA IN THE PRESENT VOLUME. 

P. 304, line 25 :— -for M„ (at 155 + 47) read M 8 (at 160 + 49). [And in the Note 
on p. 103, Vol. for 1872 of these Reports, for R. A. 160°, N. Decl. 51° read R. A. 150°, 
N. Decl. 61° ; and for R. A. 155°, N. Decl. 47° read R. A. 160°, N. Decl. 49° (the real 
places in Greg's and Heis' lists of 1864 and 1867, of their radiant -points M 8 .)] 

P. 304, line 38 :— -for over the town of Beckingham, near Market Harborough read 
over a point between Buckingham and Market Harborough. 



ERRATA IN REPORT FOR 1877. 

Page 75 (Sections), line 3 ct seq., 

for 88 read 88 

27 27 

27 — 

27 — 

169 Tl5 



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who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees-.* 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 
* Passad by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 



XXXV BULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,* and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 a.m., to settle the terms of their Report, after which their functions as 
an Organizing Committee shall cease. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.] 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 p.m. in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 a.m., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 

ingly ' , ^ 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees. J 

* Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract, of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 
before -. , addressed thus — "General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section " If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. 

j- Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

J These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 



ItULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV 

At the first meeting, one o£ the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minnte-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of tne Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.* The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed, At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section should call at the Printing Office and 
revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entei-ed 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xix), and will receive, 
on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Becommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association, 

* This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 187] . 



XXVI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 
can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting ; nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such gra.nts, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of tbe Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of tbe Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto can be used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other p>urposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely tbe Chair will be taken, and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV11 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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1878. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHSIC3. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I. A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S.. &c. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

b2 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. -G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof . Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



XXXVI 



REPORT — 1878. 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



The Earl of Bosse, M.A., K.P., 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.RA.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D. 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. .. 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F. Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G» 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. "Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford IJohn Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1833. Cambridge I John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV11 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



Date and Place 

1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 
1810. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 



Presidents 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whe well, F.R. S . 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A.Miller,M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C.B.,F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D..F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

WD C 

W.Odiing, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Dr. H.' Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L.Playfair, E.Solly,T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt. Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Elunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone, Dr. Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F, Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 



XXXV111 



REPORT — 1878. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


Prof. H. E. Roscoe B.A., 


Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 






F.R.S., F.C.S. 


Dr. W. J. Russell. 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 


J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... . 


Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 


1873. 


Bradford . . . 


Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 


Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 


1874. 




Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 


Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 






F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 


ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 


1875. 


Bristol 


A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 


Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 






F.R.S., F.C.S. 


Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 


W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 


Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 


1878. 


Dublin 


Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 


W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 






F.R.S., F.C.S. 


son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin, 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. . 
1S39. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 
ton 



R.J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geoqraphy, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G. B .Greenough , 

F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhope. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.I. A. 

Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 
Geol. Soc. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. 
J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norten, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI X 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1 849. Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh* 


Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 


Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



section c (continued). — geology 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S, 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



Lieut,- Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R#I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A..LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL. D. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D. r 

F.R.S.,. F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart,, 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart,, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



1851. Ipswich ... WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 

52. Belfast Lieut,- Col. Portlock, R.E., James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, . 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 
T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir,. 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt, 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. . 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. . 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly. W. Boyd Dawkins, . 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, . 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. McKenny. 
Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

* At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved " That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the ' Geographical and Ethno- • 
logical Section,' " for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxix. 



REPORT — 1878. 



Dat 


i and Place 
Brighton... 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1872. 


R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 


L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 






.F.R.S. 


Topley, Henry Woodward. 


1873. 


Bradford . . . 


Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 


L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 






F.R.S., F.G.S. 


Topley. 


1874. 




Prof. Hull. M.A., F.R.S., 


F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 






F.G.S. 


R. H. Tiddeman. 


1875. 


Bristol 


Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 


L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 






F.G.S. 


ley. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 




J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


W. Pengelly, F.R.S 


Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 


1878. 


Dublin 


John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 


E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 






F.S.A., F.G.S. 


R. H. Tiddeman. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOCT, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinburgh. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babiogton, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



1837. 


Liverpool... 


18S8. 


Newcastle 


1 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 


1841. 
1842. 


Plymouth... 
Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1 844. 


York 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen. F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



1845. Cambridge 
1S46. Southamp- 
ton 
.1847. Oxford 



John Richardson, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.8. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch,Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



section d (continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 



[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xxxviii.] 

L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 'Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
William Spence, F.R.S I Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
-for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xxxviii. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Xli 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray; F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D,, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 

kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W.E.Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



SECTION D {continued). — BIOLOGY.* 

Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Dep., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Dep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 



George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — Dep. of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Dep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.5,8.— Dep. of Bot. and 
.&W.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol, 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King-. 



* At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved :— "That the title 
of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and " That for the word ' Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word'Department'besubstituted. 



xlii 



REPORT — 1878. 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol .... 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart,,F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anab. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Dep. of 
Anat.and Pki/siol., Prof . Ru- 
therford, M.D.— Dep. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.D.— Dep. of 
Zool. and Dot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— Dep.ofAn- 
throp., Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Dep. of 
Anat.and Phi/siol.,Piof. Cle- 
land, M.D., F.R.S.— Dep. of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S.— Dep. of Zool. and 
Bot.,Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Dep. of Anthropol, 
Francis Galton, M.A..F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W.T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
bam, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge |Dr. Haviland I Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget, 

1834. Edinburgh | Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E. (UNTIL 1847.) — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844 York 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pit cairn, M.D. ... 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford* ... 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. .. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. .. 



Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent, 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. Edinburgh Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
1855. Glasgow ...Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

1857. Dublin Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

1858. Leeds Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 

1859. Aberdeen... Prof. Sbarpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

1860. Oxford Prof. G. Rolleston, M.D., 

F.L.S. 

1861. Manchester Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

1862. Cambridge C. E. Paget, M.D 

1863. Newcastle iProf. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 

1864. Bath Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

1865.Birminghm.f Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 

Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr, W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCE 



Q. 



[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. xxxiv.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOCY. 



1851. 


Ipswich . . . 


1852. 




1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of " Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology " (see p. xxxvi). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

f Vide note on page xxxvii. 



xliv 



REPORT 1878. 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 



Presidents 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R.I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 



Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Calla- 
ghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 
Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright, 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Stur- 
rock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



section E {continued). — geography. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bt,, 

K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut, - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt, Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm.SirE. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 

Clements R. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S IJ. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart |Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool. 



1838 
1839 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork . 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool... 



1855. Glasgow ... 



SECTION F.- 
Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R.Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian. M.P., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



STATISTICS. 

W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Mac Adam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, Wm. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



section F {continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines , 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A. . . . 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B , 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. , 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt, 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 
Macrory. 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1878. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843 Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 
1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt, Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Heywood, M.A.,F.R.S., 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 
M.R.I.A. 



Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 
F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 

Macrory. 
A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, 

Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I. A ... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., 

F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 
F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Man by. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1858. Leeds 

1850. Aberdeen.. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



William Fairbairn, F.K.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 



Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S... . 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, "V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S. 



Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 



Secretaries 



J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 

.. P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
Chas.B.Vignoles,C.E., F.R.S. H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, E. 

H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. 

N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, J. 

N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T 

Wood. J 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


1842. Manchester 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 


1843. Cork 


R. I. Murchison 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 


1844. York 


Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S 


1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Russia. 
The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the ^Egean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse*s Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Russia. 
Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi'. 



xlviii 



BEPORT — 1878. 



Date and Place 



1846. Southamp- 
ton — cont. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull. 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



Lecturer 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlo;k, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



1864. Bath. 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
pract ical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the pre- 
sent time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



1865. Birmingham 



1866, 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 

1871. 



Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich ... 
Exeter ...... 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton .. 






1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Bradford 
Belfast ... 



Bristol 

Glasgow . . . 
Plymouth.., 



1878. Dublin 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



Lecturer 



1870. Liverpool . 

1872. Brighton . 

1873. Bradford . 

1874. Belfast.... 

1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth . 

1S78. 



J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. , 



William Huggins, F. R. S. ... 

Dr. J. D.Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J.Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.... 

Prof. J. Tyndall.LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D., 

Prof. W K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F.-J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought, 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The Challenger Expedition. 

The Physical Phenomena connected 
with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 

The new Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

' Chemical Action. 



Lectures to the Operative Glasses. 

Matter and Force. 
A Piece of Chalk. 
Experimental illustrations 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

c 



of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 
Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen, 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 



REPORT — 1878. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 




Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 


1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20-... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 .. 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 .. 

1873, Sept. 17 .. 

1874, Aug. 19 .. 

1875, Aug. 25 .. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15 .. 

1878, Aug. 14 .. 




The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne . . . 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccle\ich,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.RS. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 


169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 


65 

169 

28 

150 

36 

10 

18 

3 

12 

9 

8 

10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 

! 21 

113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 


Oxford 






Dublin 






Newcastle-on-Tyne 








Cork 


York 














Belfast 


Hull 








Dublin 




Aberdeen 


Oxford 


Manchester 


Cambridge 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 




Norwich 




Edinburgh 


Brighton 


Bradford 


Belfast 








Dublin 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



li 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 


Sums paid or 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 


L 

Year 




Old 

Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 


Ladies 


For- 


Total 




Members 


Members 


ciates 




eigners 




Meeting 


Purposes 


















£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 






46 
75 
71 
45 
94 
65 
197 
54 


317 

376 
185 
190 
22 
39 
40 
25 


33f 

"V 

407 

270 

495 

376 


1100* 

"60* 

331* 

160 

260 

172 

196 

203 

197 


34 

40 

28 

35 
36 
53 
15 


353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 

1079 
857 

1320 
819 






1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 


















20 

167 

435 

922 12 6 

932 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

831 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 

275 1 8 
























































707 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




1-28 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


' 524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45+ 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 
t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. j Including Ladies 

c 2 



o 

$25 

o 

co 

O 

w 
o 

J25 
<1 
t> 

P 
<1 

w 

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OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

DUBLIN MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — Rev. Professor Salmon, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor R. S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. Professor S 
Haughton, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Henry Hennessy, F.R.S. , 
M.R.I.A; Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S.; General Menabrea ; Rev. Dr, 
Molloy, M.R.I.A. ; Rev. Professor S. J. Perry, F.R.S. ; Professor 
John Purser, M.R.I.A.; Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., LL.D., 
F.R.S. ; G. Johnstone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. ; Professor J. J, 
Sylvester, LL.D., F.R.S.; Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., 
F.R.S. ; Rev. Professor R. Townsend, F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Secretaries.— Professor John Casey, LL.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. ; G. F. Fitz- 
gerald, M.A., F.T.C.D., M.R.I.A. ; J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S. ; 
Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President. — Professor Maxwell Simpson, M.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Apjohn, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Win. Crooker, 
F.R.S. ; Professor Dewar, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.; Sir 
R. Kane, F.R.S. ; Dr. Longstaff, F.C.S. ; Professor J. Emerson Rey- 
nolds, M.D., F.C.S., M.R.I.A. ; Professor Roscoe, F.R.S. ; Professor 
Rowney, F.C.S. ; Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. ; J. M. Thomson, F.C.S. ; 
C. R. Tichborne, M.D. ; T. Wills, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Maxwell Close, F.G.S. ; Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S. ; Sir R. Griffith, Bart., LL.D. ; Rev. Pro- 
fessor Hanghton, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor T. M'K. Hughes, M.A., 
F.R.S.; Professor Hull, M.A., F.R.S.; J. Gwyn Jeffreys, LL.D., 
F.R.S. ; W. Pengelly, F.R.S. ; H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., Pres. G.S. 

Secretaries.— E. T. Hardman, F.C.S.; Professor J. O'Reilly, C.E., 
M.R.I.A; R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President— Professor W. H. Flower, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — W. Archer, F.R.S.; Professor Alexander Dickson; 
Lord Gough ; Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., Pres. R.S. ; Professor 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. ; Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; 
Professor Macalister, M.D. ; R. M'Donm 11, M.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. Allen 
Thomson, F.R.S. ; Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Dr. R. J. Harvey ; Dr. T. Hay den ; Professor W. R. M'Nab, 
•M.D. ; Professor J. M. Purser, M.D.; J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S. ; 
F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 



liv KEPOBT — 1878-. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President— Professor Sir C. Wyville Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S.L. & E., 
F.G.S., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Captain R. F. Burton, F.R.G.S., H.B.M. Consul, Trieste ; 
Sir Walter Elliot, K.C.S.I., F.R.S. ; Sir Rawson W. Rawson, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., F.R.G.S. ; The Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahide, F.R.S. ; 
Captain Verney, R.N., F.R.G.S. ; Major C. W. Wilson, C.B., R.E., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries. — John Coles, F.R.G.S., Curator of the Map Collection R.G.S. ; 
E. C. Rye, F.Z.S., Librarian R.G.S. 

SECTION P. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Professor J. K. Ingram, LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Attorney- General for Ireland, MP. ; Dr. Burke ; 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., MP., F.R.S. ; Lord Emly ; W. Neil- 
son Hancock, LL.D., M.R.I.A. ; G. Shaw Lefevre, MP. ; John 
Lentaigne, C.B. ; Right Hon. M. Longfield, LL.D. ; Sir James 
Watsou. 

Secretaries. — W. J. Hancock, F.I.A ; Constantine Molloy, M.A. ; J. T. 
Pirn. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Edward Easton, C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— C. Bergeron, C.E. ; F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor Downing, LL.D. ; Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S. ; 
Howard Grubb, F.R.A.S. ; Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S. ; Robert 
Manning ; Parke Neville, C.E. ; B. B. Stoney, E.C. ; Professor James 
Thomson, C.E., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— A. T. Atchison, M.A. ; R. G. Symes, M.A. ; H. Trueman 
Wood, B.A. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1878-79. 



PRESIDENT. 
WILLIAM SFOTTISWOODE, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres. U.S., F.R.A.S., 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. ' 



F.R.G.S. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of Dublin. 
The Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. 
His Grace the Duke of Abercorn, K.G. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Ennisklllen, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Rosse, B.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S., M.R.I.A. 
The Right Hon. Lord O'Hagax, M.R.I.A. 
Professor G. G. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., LL D 

Sec. R.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
PROFESSOR G. J. ALLMAN, M.D., F.R.S. L. & E„ F.L.S., M.R.I.A. 



VICE 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, E.G., M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilllui, E.G., 

F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Wharxcliffe.F.R.G.S. 



PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

The Master Cutler. 

Professor T. H. Huxley, Ph.D., LL.D., Sec. R.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Professor W. Odltng, M.B., F.R.S. , F.C.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT SHEFFIELD. 
H. Clifton Sorby, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. J. F. Moss, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT SHEFFIELD. 

Henry Stephenson, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abel, F. A., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Bramwell, F. J., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 
Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 
Evans, Captain, C.B., F.R.S. 
Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Farr, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. G, F.R.S. 
Froude, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
HUGGINS, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



Lefevre, George Shaw, Esq., M.P. 
Maskelyxe, Professor N. S., F.R.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Ommaxney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Prestwich, Professor J., F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Rolleston, Professor G., F.R.S. 
Roscoe, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Prof. J. S. Burdon, F.R.S. 
Smyth, Warlngton W., Esq., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
Phild? Lutley Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 11 Hanover Square, London, W. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General Secretaries for the present and former years, the late Assistant 
General Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

General Sir Edward Sabine. K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Professor Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Sec. R.S. 



Prof. Sir Win. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, U.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Allen Thomson. F.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Gen. Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B., F.R.S. I Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
| W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. | George Griffith, Esq., M.A. 



Warren De La Rue, Esq., F.R.S. | 



AUDITORS. 
Professor W. H. Flower, F.R.S. 



| Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



lvi REPORT — 1878. 



Report of the Council for the Year 1877-78, presented to the General 
Committee at Dublin on Wednesday, August 14, 1878. 

The Council have received Reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

The following Resolution was referred by the General Committee at 
Plymouth to the Council for consideration, and for action, if it should seem 
desirable, viz. : — 

" That the question of the appointment of a Committee, consisting of 
Mr. P. J. Bramwell, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. 
Rogers Field, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. R. B. Grantham, Mr. 
Baldwin Latham, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, and Mr. G. J. Symons, 
for carrying on Observations on the'Rainfall of the British Isles, be 
referred to the Council for consideration, and action, if it seem 
desirable ; and that the sum of 150L be placed at the disposal of the 
Council for the purpose." 

The Council having considered the Resolution, and having placed 
themselves in communication with Mr. Symons, decided that it would not 
be desirable to appoint the proposed Committee, as, under the system or- 
ganised by Mr. Symons, the grant which had been made in former years 
by the Association could be discontinued without detriment to science. 

The General Committee adopted last year certain modifications of the 
Rules of the Association, which bad for their object the exclusion of un- 
scientific or other unsuitable papers and discussions from the sectional 
proceedings of the Association : and the Council have, during the past year, 
further considered this question. 

The Council are of opinion that the existing Rules of the Association, 
with the additions hereto subjoined, will afford, if carried out in their in- 
tegrity, a sufficient guarantee for the exclusion of unscientific and un- 
suitable papers : — 

1. — That the appointment of Sectional Presidents, Vice-Presidents, 

and Secretaries be made either a year in advance or at such early 

period as the Council may find practicable: 
2. — That no paper received after the commencement of the Meeting 

shall be read, unless recommended by the Committee of the Section, 

after it has been referred and reported upon. 

At the Meeting of the Association held at Plymouth, invitations were 
laid before the General Committee, for the year 1879, from Swansea and 
from Nottingham. 

The invitation from the Mayor and Town Council of Nottingham to 
meet in that town in 1879 was accepted ; and it was understood that it 
would be preferable to defer the meeting at Swansea until 1880. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



lvii 



In the course of the Autumn the Council received a communication 
from the Town Council of Nottingham, to the effect that it would not be 
convenient for them to receive the Association in 1879. 

The Mayor and Town Council of Sheffield have intimated to the 
Council that they are desirous of receiving the Association in 1879; and 
invitations from the Mayor and Town Council of Sheffield, and from the 
Scientific Bodies in that town, will be laid before the General Committee 
in due course. 

The invitation from Swansea for 1880, received last year, will be re- 
newed on the present occasion ; and it will be in the recollection of the 
General Committee that an invitation was received last year from York, 
proposing that the fiftieth anniversary of the Association be held in that 
city in 1881. 

In accordance with a recommendation made by the Committee of 
Section D. at Plymouth, and adopted by the General Committee, the 
"Rules for Zoological Nomenclature," drawn up in 1842 at the instance 
of the Association, have been reprinted and published. 

The following men of science, who have attended meetings of the 
Association, have been elected Corresponding Members : — 



Professor H. L. F. Helmholtz, 

Berlin. 
Dr. H. Kronecker, Berlin. 
M. Akin Karoly, Pesth. 



Dr. Lindeman, Bremen. 
Professor Moissonet, Paris. 



The Council have nominated the Duke of Abercorn, K.G., and the 
Earl of Enniskillen, F.R.S., as Vice-Presidents of the present Meeting ; 
and they submit these nominations for confirmation by the General 
Committee. 

The following are the names of the Members of Council for the past 
year, who, in accordance with the regulations, are not eligible for re-elec- 
tion this year, viz. : — 



Mr. De La Rue. 
Professor Maxwell. 
Professor H. J. S. Smith. 



Lord Houghton. 
Colonel Grant. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the ordinary Members of 
Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list :- — 



Abel, F. A., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Adams, Prof. W. G., F.R.S. 

Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Bramwell, F. J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Cayley, Prof., F.R.S. 

Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Evans, Captain, F.R.S. 

Farr. Dr. W., F.R.S. 

Foster, Prof. G. C, F.R.S. 

Froude, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 

Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



*Lefevre, George Shaw, Esq., M.P. 

Maskelyne, Prof. N. S., F.R.S. 

Newton, Prof. A., F.R.S. 

Ommanney, Adm. Sir E., F.R.S. 

Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Prestwich, Prof. J., F.R.S. 
*Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 

Rolleston, Prof., F.R.S. 

Roscoe, Prof., F.R.S. 

Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 

Sanderson, Prof. J. B., F.R.S. 

Smyth, Warington W., Esq , 
F.R.S. 



lviii report — 1878. 

The Council regret that pressing engagements compel Mr. Griffith to 
withdraw finally from the position of Assistant-General Secretary after 
the present meeting of the Association, and take this opportunity of ex- 
pressing their high estimation of the value of the services which Mr. 
Griffith has rendered to the Association during a period of sixteen years, 
and of the serious loss which his retirement will occasion to the Council 
and to the Association. Mr. Griffith remains an ex-officio Member of 
Council, as a former general officer, so that the Council trust they may 
still retain the benefit of his experience. 

In accordance with the Report of last year, the Council will propose to 
the General Committee that the post of Assistant Secretary be filled by 
the election of Mr. J. B. H. Gordon. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Duplin Meeting in August 1878. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir "William Thomson, Mr. 
James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher (Secretary), be reappointed ; 
and that the sum of 150Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose of 
calculating Factor Tables of the fifth and sixth millions. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester (Secretary) 
and Professor Cayley, be appointed for the purpose of calculating Tables 
of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms ; and that the sum of 
501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G Forbes (Secretary), 
Professor Sir William Thomson, and Professor J. D. Everett, for the pur- 
pose of making certain observations in India, and observations on Atmos- 
pheric Electricity at Madeira, be reappointed ; and that the grant of 15L 
that has lapsed be renewed. 

That the Rev. Dr. Haughton and Mr. B. Williamson be a Committee 
for the calculation of Tables of Sun-heat Coefficients ; that Mr. B. 
Williamson be the Secretary, and that the sum of 30Z. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule (Secretary), Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and 
Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, for effecting the Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of Heat be reappointed ; and that the grant of 65Z. 
that has lapsed be renewed. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), 
Professor W. G. Adams, and Mr. W. E. Ayrton, be appointed for the pur- 
pose of improving an instrument for detecting the presence of Fire-damp in 
Mines ; and that the sum of 30Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. E. Ayrton (Secretary), Dr. O. J. Lodge, and Mr. J. E. H. 
Gordon be appointed a Committee for accurately measuring the specific 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lix 

inductive capacity of a good Sprengel Vacuum ; and that the sum of 40Z. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher (Secretary), 
Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. Charles Brooke, Dr. Flight, and Professor A. S. 
Herschel, on Luminous Meteors be reappointed ; and that the sum of 
201. be placed at their disposal. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. David Gill (Secretary), Professor 
G. Forbes, Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. C. H. Gimingham (with power 
to add to their number), be appointed to consider the question of im- 
provements in Astronomical Clocks ; and that the sum of 307. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. C. R. A. Wright, and Mr. A. P. 
Luff be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Chemical Com- 
position and Structure of some of the less-known Alkaloids ; that Dr. 
Wright be the Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Wallace, Professor Dittmarr, and Mr. T. Wills be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reporting on the best means for the development 
of Light from Coal-gas of different qualities ; that Mr. Wills be the Sec- 
retary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. John M. Thomson, Mr. W. N. 
Hartley, and Mr. James T. Bottomley be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the law of the " Electrolysis of mixed metallic solutions and 
solutions of compound salts ; " that Mr. John M. Thomson be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 25Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. John Evans, Sir John Lubbock, Major- General Lane Fox, 
Mr. George Busk, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Pengelly, and Mr. A. W. 
Franks be a Committee for the purpose of exploring Caves in Borneo ; 
that Mr. Evans be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Hull, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, Mr. 
Glaisher, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. Morton, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Prestwich, Mr. Plant, Mr. Mellard Reade, Mr. Roberts, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, and Mr. De Ranee be a Committee for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Circulation of the Underground Waters in the Permian, New Red 
Sandstone, and Jurassic Formations of England, and the Quantity and 
Character of the Water supplied to towns and districts from those forma- 
tions ; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and that the sum of 15Z. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Godwin-Austen, Professor Prestwich, Mr. Davidson, Mr. 
Etheridge, Mr. Willett, and Mr. Topley be a Committee for the purpose 
of assisting the Kentish Boring Exploration ; that Mr. Willett and Mr. 
Topley be the Secretaries, and that the sum of 100L be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. - 

That Dr. J. Erans, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. E. VMan, Mr. W. 
Pengelly, Mr. G. Busk, Professor W. B. Dawkins, Mr. W. A. Sandford, 
and Mr. J. E. Lee be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the Ex- 
ploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 100Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, the Rev. T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Carruthers, Mr. F. 
Drew, Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., Mr. G. A. Lebour, Professor L. C. Miall, 
Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. E. B. Tawney, Mr. W. 



ll EEPOET — 1878. 

Topley, and Mr. W. Whitaker be a Committee for the purpose of carry- 
ing on the Geological Record ; that Mr. Whitaker be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 100Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Rev. Dr. Haughton, Professor Leith Adams, Professor 
Barrett, Mr. Hardman, and Dr. Macalister be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of exploring the Fermanagh Caves ; that Dr. Macalister be the Sec- 
retary, and that the sum of 51. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Rev. Maxwell Close, Professor W. C. Williamson, and Mr. 
W. H. Baily be a Committee for the purpose of collecting and reporting 
on the Tertiary (Miocene) Flora, &c, of the Basalt of the North of 
Ireland ; that Mr. W. H. Baily be the Secretary, and that the sum of 20Z. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Spence Bate and Mr. J. Brooking Rowe be a Committee for 
the purpose of exploring the Marine Zoology of South Devon ; that Mr. 
Spence Bate be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir J. Lubbock, and Mr. E. C. Rye be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Litex-a- 
ture ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 1001. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. M. Foster, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Dew-Smith, Professor 
Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Bal- 
four, Sir C. Wyville Thomson, and Professor Ray Lankester be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of arranging with Dr. Dohrn for the occupa- 
tion of a table at the Zoological Station at Naples during the ensuing 
year ; that Mr. Dew-Smith be the Secretary, and that the sum of 751. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Victor Brooke, Professor Flower, and Mr. Sclater be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of assisting Professor Leith Adams in preparing 
Plates illustrating a Monograph on the Mammoth ; that Sir Victor 
Brooke be the Secretary, and that the sum of 171. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Sclater, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir Joseph Hooker, Captain J. W. 
Hunter, and Professor Flower be a Committee for the purpose of taking 
steps for the investigation of the Natural History of Socotra ; that Mi-. 
Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sum of 1001. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor Rolleston, Major-General Lane Fox, Dr. John Evans, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. Edward Laws be a Committee for the 
purpose of exploring certain Bone Caves in South Wales ; that Professor 
Rolleston be the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their 
-disposal for the purpose. 

That Major-General Lane Fox, Professor Rolleston, and Mr. F. G. H. 
Price be a Committee for the purpose of exploring Ancient Earthworks ; 
that Major-General Lane Fox be the Secretary,, and that the sum of 251. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. William James Knowles, Dr. Leith 
Adams, and the Rev. Dr. Grainger be a Committee for the purpose of con- 
ducting Excavations at Portstewart and elsewhere in the North of Ireland ; 
that Mr. Knowles be the Secretary, and that the sum of 151. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Farr, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Sir George Campbell, Mr. 
F. P. Fellows, Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Park 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxi 

Harrison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Sir 
Rawson Rawson, Professor Rolleston, and Mr. Charles Roberts be a Com- 
mittee for the pnrpose of continuing tbe collection of observations on the 
Systematic Examination of Heights, Weights, &c, of Hnman Beings in 
the British Empire, and the publication of photographs of the typical 
Races of the Empire ; that Mr. E. W. Brabrook be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Major-General Strachey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. 
Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred, be reappointed 
for the purpose of considering the Datum-level of the Ordnance Survey of 
Great Britain, with a view to its establishment on a surer foundation than 
hitherto, and for the tabulation and comparison of other Datum-marks ; 
that Mr. James N Shoolbred be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships, 
consisting of Mr. W. Froude, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
the Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, 
Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunei, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred, Professor 
James Thomson, and Professor Sir William Thomson, be reappointed ; 
that Mr. James 1ST. Shoolbred be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50L 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James R. Napier, Sir William 
Thomson, Mr. William Froude, Professor Osborne Reynolds, and Mr. J. T. 
Bottomley, for the purpose of making experiments and of reporting on the 
effect of the Propeller on the turning of Steam-vessels be reappointed (with 
power to communicate with the Government) ; that Professor Osborne 
Reynolds be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Dr. Merrifield, Mr. W. Froude, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain 
Douglas Galton, and Mr. James N. Shoolbred (with power to add to their 
number), be reappointed for the purpose of obtaining information respect- 
ing the Phenomena of the stationary Tides in the English Channel and in 
the North Sea, and of representing to the Government of Portugal and 
the Governor of Madeira that in the opinion of the British Association 
tidal observations at Madeira or other islands in the North Atlantic 
Ocean would be very valuable, with the view to the advancement of our 
knowledge of the tides in the Atlantic Ocean ; that Mr. James N. Shool- 
bred be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson 
(Secretary), Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, 
Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. W. Froude, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, for continu- 
ing secular experiments upon the Elasticity of Wires be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. Huggins (Secretary), Mr. 
J. N. Lockyer, Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Mr. W. 
Spottiswoode, Dr. De La Rue, and Dr. W. M. Watts, for the purpose of 
preparing and printing Tables of Oscillation-frequencies be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett (Secretary),. 



Ixii report — 1878. 

Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pen- 
gelly, Pi'ofessor Edward Hull, Professor Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Neve 
Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, and Mr. G. F. Deacon, on Under- 
ground Temperature be reappointed. 

That the Committee consisting of Professor G. C. Foster, Professor 
W. G. Adams, Professor R. B. Clifton, Professor Cayley, Professor J. D. 
Everett, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Spottiswoode, and Professor P. G. Tait 
be reappointed, for the purpose of endeavouring to procure Reports on the 
progress of the chief branches of Mathematics and Physics; and that 
Professor G. Carey Foster be the Secretary. 

That Mr. C. W. Merrifield be requested to report on the present state 
of knowledge of the Application of Quadratures and Interpolation to 
Actual Data. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher 
(Secretary), on Mathematical Notation and Printing: be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson 
(Secretary), Professor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Professor 
Purser, Professor G. Forbes, and Mr. David Gill, for the Measurement 
of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity be reappointed. 

That a Committee, consisting of Captain Abney (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor W. G. Adams, and Professor G. C. Foster, be appointed to carry 
out an investigation for the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light. 

That Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. J. T. Dunn, and Mr. G. A. Lebour 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of making experiments on 
the Thermal Conductivities of certain rocks ; and that Professor Herschel 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. R. J. Moss, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Professor Hull, Dr. 
Moss, R.N., Mr. Pengelly, Dr. Leith Adams, Professor O'Reilly, and Mr. 
John Evans be a Committee for the purpose of obtaining information 
with regard to the mode of occurrence of the remains of Cervus Megaceros 
in Ireland ; and that Mr. R. J. Moss be the Secretary. 

That Professor Prestwich, Professor Harkness, Professor Hughes, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Professor L.C. Miall, 
Messrs. G. H. Morton, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, 
J. Plant, W. Pengelly, Dr. Deane, Mr. C. J. Woodward, and Mr. Moly- 
neux be a Committee for the purpose of recording the position', height 
above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic 
Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest 
connected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation ; 
and that the Rev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That Mr. C. Spence Bate be requested to continue his Report " On the 
present state of our knowledge of the Crustacea." 

That Sir George Campbell, M.P., Lord O'Hagan, Mr. Morley, M.P., 
Mr. Chadwick, M.P., Mr. Shaw Lefevre, M.P. Mr. Heywood, Mr. Hallett, 
Professor Jevons, Dr. Farr, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Hammick, Professor 
Leone Levi, Professor J. K. Ingram, Dr. Hancock, and Mr. J. T. Pirn 
(with power to add to their number) be a Committee to continue the 
researches into the Incidence of Direct Taxation, with special reference to 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxiii 

Probate, Legacy, and Succession Duty, and the Assessed Taxes ; and that 
Dr. Hancock be the Secretary. 

That the Committee consisting of Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. 
W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Professor Abel, 
Mr. J. R. Napier, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. 
Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, and Mr. H. Trueman Wood be reappointed, for 
the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on Patent Legis- 
lation ; and that Mr. F. J. Bramwell be the Secretary. 

Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Dr. Dobson's paper " On the Geographical Distribution of the 
Chiroptera" be printed in extenso among the Reports. 

That the paper by Mr. Bindon B. Stoney, on " Recent Improvements 
in the Port of Dublin," be printed in extenso among the Reports, with such 
plans and diagrams as may be deemed necessary by the Council. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if it seem 

desirable. 

That the attention of the Council of the Association be called to the 
fact that the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Science have 
been altogether disregarded in the Act lately passed to enable the Trustees 
of the British Museum to remove the Natural History Collection to South 
Kensington, and that the Council be requested to take such steps in the 
matter as they shall think most desirable in the interests of science. 

That the question of the reappointment of the Committee, consisting 
of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, Mr. Spence Bate, Mr. H. B. Dresser (Secretary), 
Mr. J. E. Harting, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Professor Newton, the Rev. Canon 
Tristram, and Mr. G. Shaw Lefevre, for the purpose of inquiring into the 
possibility of establishing a " close time," for the protection of indigenous 
animals, be referred to the Council for consideration ; and that the Council 
be empowered to take such steps in the matter as they shall think most 
desirable in the interests of science. 

That the question of the appointment of a Committee, consisting of 
Mr. James Dillon, Mr. Edward Easton, Mr. P. Le Neve Foster, Captain 
Douglas Galton, Mr. T. Hawksley, Sir John Hawkshaw, Professor Hull, 
Mr. Robert Manning, Professor Prestwich, Professor Ramsay, Mr. C. E. 
De Ranee, the Earl of Rosse, Mr. W. Shelford, Mr. J. N. Shoolbredj 
Mr. John Smyth, jun., Mr. G. J. Symons, and Mr. A. T. Atchison 
(Secretary), for the purpose of conferring with the Council as to 
the advisability of urging Government to take immediate action to pro- 
cure unity of control of each of our principal river basins, be referred to 
the Council for consideration and action if it seem desirable. 



lxvi REPORT 1878. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes 
by the General Committee at the Dublin Meeting in August 
1878. The Names of the Members who would be entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are pre- 
fixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Cayley, Prof.— Calculation of Factor Tables for the Fifth. £ s. d. 
and Sixth Millions 150 

Sylvester, Prof. — Tables of Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraic Forms 50 

*Forbes, Prof. G. — Observation of Atmospheric Electricity 

at Madeira (renewed) 15 

Haughton, Rev. Prof. — Tables of Sun-heat Co-efficients ... 30 

*Joule, Dr. — Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat (renewed) 65 

Forbes, Prof. G. — Instrument for Detecting the Presence of 

Fire-damp in Mines 30 

Ayrton, Mr. W. E. — Specific Inductive Capacity of a good 

Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors 20 

Gill, Mr. D. — Improvements in Astronomical Clocks 30 

Chemistry. 

*Roberts, Mr. Chandler. — Composition and Structure of some 

of the less-known Alkaloids 25 

*Wallace, Dr. — Development of Light from Coal-Gas of 

different Qualities 10 

Adams, Prof. W. G. — Electrolysis of Metallic Solutions and 

Solutions of Compound Salts 25 

Evans, Dr. J. — Exploration of Caves in Borneo 50 

*Hull, Prof.— Circulation of Underground Waters 15 

*Godwin-Austen, Mr. — Kentish Boring Exploration (re- 
newed) 100 

*Evans, Dr. J. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

*Evans, Dr. J. — Record of the Progress of Geology 100 

*Haughton, Rev. Dr. — Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

• Close, Rev. Maxwell. — Miocene Flora of the Basalt of the 

North of Ireland 20 

Carried forward 880 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. lxv 

Biology. 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 880 

Bate, Mr. Spence C. — Marine Zoology of South Devon 20 

*Stainton, Mr. — Record of Zoological Literature 100 

*Foster, Dr. M.— Tahle at the Zoological Station, Naples ... 75 
Brooke, Sir Victor, Bart. — Illustrations for a Monograph on 

theMammoth 17 

Sclater, Mi-.— Natural History of Socotra 100 

*Rolleston, Prof. — Exploration of Bone-caves in South "Wales 

(partly renewed) 50 

*Fox, General Lane. — Exploration of Ancient Earthworks ... 25 
Fox, General Lane. — Excavation at Portstewart and else- 
where in the North of Ireland 15 

Statistics and Economic Science. 

*Farr, Dr. — Anthropometric Committee 50 

Mechanics. 

*Thomson, Sir W. — Datum-level of the Ordnance Survey . . 10 

*Froude, Mr. "W. — Instruments for measuring the Speed of 

Ships (renewed) 50 

*Napier, Mr. J. R. — Steering of Screw Steamers 10 

*Thomson, Sir W. — Tidal Observations in the English 

Channel 10 



£1412 



* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1879. 
The Meeting at Sheffield will commence on "Wednesday, August 20, 1879. 

Place of Meeting in 1880. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1880 will be held at Swansea. 

1878. d 



lxvi 



report — 1878. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions 20 







1835. 
Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-Gauges 9 13 

Effraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of ) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of )... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 1 00 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 






1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

FossirReptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 

£1595 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature... 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations. 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Mag-netical Observations 185 



t. 


&. 


2 





18 


6 


11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 








11 











13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 














7 











9 

£1546 16 1 




13 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 

neanTemperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents .• 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 







8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxvii 



£ 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of ) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels : 193 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Eed Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 



s. 


A. 


12 


8 








18 


6 








5 





19 


6 



































6 


1 





12 











18 


8 














1 


10 


6 


3 















10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments... 113 

Anoplura Britannia; 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds .., 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 

£1449 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 
























8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 







£ 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whe well's Meteorological 
Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological ObserTations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Obser- 
vatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of Rail- 
ways 20 

Publication of Report on Fos- 
sil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Eartbquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Ojjerations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


d. 














12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 









5 




8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



lxviii 



EEPORT — 1878. 



£ s d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Eevision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 18 42 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publications of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells ; 20 

Exotic Anoplura ... 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



15 






































7 















1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1 829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York „. 12 

£685 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1 829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



15 

















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 



6 3 







16 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



5 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxix 



£ t. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Eadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 <r~7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates... .„_ 10 

_ £304 — 6 7 



£ t. d. 
1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 
of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

"£480 ~16 4 



1856. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 



tory :— 
1854. 
1855. 



.£75 
.£500 



01 
0/ 



575 



Strickland's Ornithological 



Synonyms 100 



Dredging 



and 



Dredging 



Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



lxx 



REPOKT— 1878. 



£ ». d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of Calif ornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History' of Mada- 
gascar 20 .0 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats ■■ 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidas 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 T 

1860. 

Maintaining' the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



£ *. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

~£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 











































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 









6 





















































9 


6 


1 






























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxi 



£ s. d. 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and Distri- 
bution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 

1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus ' 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 710 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 



lxxii 



REPORT 1878. 



d. 











~4 



£ s. 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fun d... 1 00 0_ 

£1750 13 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c, Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds. 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature .. . 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£ 1622 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Kiltorcon Quarries Fossils ... 20 



s. d. 










II 













































































































































































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxiii 



£ s. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 

1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committ ee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 160 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects , 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf- Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 "2~~6 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave- Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism '. , 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 60 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



















































2 


6 












































































































































































1878. 



£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables^ 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. 

Zoological Record , ... 100 

Chemistry Record ioo 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&° 60 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone -Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 6 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£116 1 16~0 

1875. 

Eliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



lxxiv 



REPORT — ] 878. 



£ s. d. 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. ~~ ~ " 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate or Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 

1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Record 100 



£ s. d. 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpse, Report on 20 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Explanation 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 

1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

An thropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



GENERAL MEETINGS. lxXV 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 14, at 8 p.m., in the Exhibition Palace, 
Professor Allen Thomson, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President, resigned the 
office of President to William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see 
page 1. 

On Thursday, August 15, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Royal 
Dublin Society's rooms. 

On Friday, August 16, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition Palace, G. J. 
Romanes, Esq., F.L.S., delivered a Discourse on " Animal Intelligence." 

On Monday, August 19, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition Palace, 
Professor Dewar, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on " Dissociation, or 
Modern Ideas of Chemical Action." 

On Tuesday, August 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Royal 
Irish Academy. 

On Wednesday, August 21, the concluding General Meeting took 
place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Sheffield.* 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 20, 1879. 



ADDRESS 



OF 



WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE, Esq., 

M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.P.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



On looking back at the long array of distinguished men who both in this 
and in the sister countries have filled the chair of the British Association ; 
on considering also the increased pains which have been bestowed upon, 
and the increased importance attaching to, the Presidential Address ; it 
may well happen when, as on this occasion, your choice has fallen upon 
one outside the sphere of professional Science, that your nominee should 
feel unusual diffidence in accepting the post. Two considerations have 
however in my own case outweighed all reasons for hesitation : First, the 
uniform kindness which I received at the hands of the Association 
throughout the eight years during which I had the honour of holding 
another office ; and, secondly, the conviction that the same goodwill 
which was accorded to your Treasurer would be extended to your Presi- 
dent. 

These considerations have led me to arrange my observations under 
two heads, viz., I propose first to offer some remarks upon the purposes 
and prospects of the Association with which, through your suffrages, I 
have been so long and so agreeably connected ; and, secondly, to indulge 
in a few reflexions, not indeed upon the details or technical progress, but 
upon the external aspects and tendencies of the Science which on this 
occasion I have the honour to represent. The former of these subjects is 
perhaps trite ; but as an old man is allowed to become garrulous on his 
own hobby, so an old officer may be pardoned for lingering about a 
favourite theme. And although the latter may appear somewhat un- 
promising, I have decided to make it one of the topics of my discourse, 
from the consideration that the holder of this office will generally do 
better by giving utterance to what has already become part of his 
own thought, than by gathering matter outside of its habitual range for 
the special occasion. For, as it seems to me, the interest (if any) of an 
1878. a 



2 REPORT 1878. 

address consists, not so much in the multitude of things therein brought 
forward, as in the individuality of the mode in -which they are treated. 

The British Association has already entered its fifth decade. It has 
held its meetings, this the 48th, in twenty-eight different towns. In six 
cities of note, viz., York, Bristol, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Plymouth, Man- 
chester, and Belfast, its curve of progress may be said to have a node, or 
point through which it has twice passed ; in the five Universities of 
Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Glasgow, and in the two 
great commercial centres, Liverpool and Birmingham, it may similarly 
be said to have a triple point, or one through which it has three times 
passed. Of our forty-six Presidents more than half (twenty-six, in fact) have 
passed away ; while the remainder hold important posts in Science, and in 
the Public Service, or in other avocations not less honourable in themselves, 
nor less useful to the commonwealth. And whether it be due to the salu- 
brity of the climate or to the calm and dispassionate spirit in which Science 
is pursued by its votaries here, I do not pretend to say ; but it is a fact 
that the earliest of our ex- Presidents still living, himself one of the original 
members of the Association, is a native of and resident in this country. 

At both of our former meetings held in Dublin, in 1835 and 1857 
respectively, while greatly indebted to the liberal hospitality of the citi- 
zens at large, we were, as we now are, under especial obligations to the 
authorities of Trinity College for placing at our disposal buildings, not 
only unusually spacious and convenient in themselves, but full of remini- 
scences calculated to awake the scientific sympathies of all who may be 
gathered in them. At both of those former Dublin meetings the vene- 
rable name of Lloyd figured at our head ; and if long-established custom 
had not seemed to preclude it, I could on many accounts have wished 
that we had met for a third time under the same name. And although 
other distinguished men, such as Dr. Robinson, Professors Stokes, Tyn- 
dall, and Andrews, are similarly disqualified by having already passed the 
Presidential chair, while others again, such as Sir W. R. Hamilton, Dr. 
M'Cullagh, and Professor Jukes, are permanently lost to our ranks ; still 
we should not have had far to seek, had we looked for a President in this 
fertile island itself. But as every one connected with the place of meet- 
ing partakes of the character of host towards ourselves as guests, it has 
been thought by our oldest and most experienced members that we 
should better respond to an invitation by bringing with us a President to 
speak as our representative than by seeking one on the spot ; and we 
may always hope on subsequent occasions that some of our present hosts 
may respond to a similar call. 

But leaving our past history, which will form a theme more appro- 
priate to our jubilee meeting in 1881, at the ancient city of York, I will 
ask your attention to a few particulars of our actual operations. 

Time was when the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh and 
the Royal Irish Academy were the only representative bodies of 



ADDRESS. 3 

British Science and the only receptacles of memoirs relating thereto. 
Bat latterly, the division of labour, so general in industrial life, has 
operated in giving rise to special Societies, such as the Astronomical, the 
Linnsean, the Chemical, the Geological, the Geographical, the Statistical, 
the Mathematical, the Physical, and many others. To both the earlier, or 
more general, and the later or more special societies alike, the British 
Association shows resemblance and affinity. We are general in our com- 
prehensiveness ; we are special in our sectional arrangement ; and in this 
respect we offer not only a counterpart, but to some extent a counterpoise, 
to the general tendency to sub -division in Science. Further still, while 
maintaining in their integrity all the elements of a strictly scientific body, 
we also include, in our character of a microcosm, and under our more 
social aspect, a certain freedom of treatment, and interaction of our 
various branches, which is scarcely possible among separate and inde- 
pendent societies. 

The general business of our meetings consists, first, in receiving and 
discussing communications upon scientific subjects at the various sections 
into which our body is divided, with discussions thereon ; secondly, in 
distributing, under the advice of our Committee of Recommendations, 
the funds arising from the subscriptions of members and associates ; and 
thirdly, in electing a Council upon whom devolves the conduct of our 
affairs until the next meeting. 

The communications to the sections are of two kinds, viz., papers 
from individuals, and reports from Committees. 

As to the subject-matter of the papers, nothing which falls within the 
range of Natural Knowledge, as partitioned among our sections, can be 
considered foreign to the purposes of the Association ; and even many 
applications of Science, when viewed in reference to their scientific basis, 
may properly find a place in our proceedings. So numerous, however, 
are the topics herein comprised, so easy the transition beyond these limits, 
that it has been thought necessary to confine ourselves strictly within this 
range, lest the introduction of other matters, however interesting to indivi- 
dual members, should lead to the sacrifice of more important subjects. As to 
the form of the communications, while it is quite true that every scientific 
conclusion should be based upon substantial evidence, every theory com- 
plete before being submitted for final adoption, it is not the less desirable 
that even tentative conclusions and hypothetical principles when supported 
by sufficient prima facie evidence, and enunciated in such a manner as to 
be clearly apprehended, should find room for discussion at our sectional 
meetings. Considering, however, our limitations of time, aud the varied 
nature of our audience, it would seem not inappropriate to suspend, 
mentally if not materially, over the doors of our section rooms, the 
Frenchman's dictum, that no scientific theory ' can be considered complete 
until it is so clear that it can be explained to the first man you meet in 
the street.' 

A2 



4 REPORT — 1878. 

Among the communications to the Sections, undoubtedly the most 
important, as a rule, are the Reports ; that is to say, documents issuing 
from specially appointed committees, some of which have been recipients 
of the grants mentioned above. These Reports are in the main of two 
kinds, first, accounts of observations carried on for a series of years, and 
intended as records of information on the special subjects ; such for 
instance have been those made by the Kew Committee, by the committees 
on Luminous Meteors, on British Rainfall, on the Sneed of Steamships, 
on Underground Temperature, on the Exploration of certain Geological 
Caverns, (fee. These investigations, frequently originating in the energy 
and special qualifications of an individual, but conducted under the con- 
trol of a Committee, have in many cases been continued from year to 
year, until either the object has been fully attained, or the matter has 
passed into the hands of other bodies, which have thus been led to 
recognise an inquiry into these subjects as part and parcel of their appro- 
priate functions. The second class is one which is perhaps even more 
peculiar to the Association ; viz., the Reports on the progress and present 
state of some main topics of Science. Among these may be instanced 
the early Reports on Astronomy, on Optics, on the Progress of Analysis ; 
and later, those on Electrical Resistance, and on Tides ; that of Professor 
G. G. Stokes on Double Refraction ; that of Professor H. J. Smith on the 
Theory of "Numbers ; that of Mr. Russell on Hyperelliptic Transcendents ; 
and others. On this head Professor Carey Poster, in his address to the 
Mathematical and Physical Section at our meeting last year, made some 
excellent recommendations, to which< however. I need not at present more 
particularly refer, as the result of them will be duly laid before the section 
in the form of the report from a Committee to whom they were referred. 
It will be sufficient here to add that the wide extension of the Sciences 
in almost every branch, and the consequent specialisation of the studies 
of each individual, have rendered the need for such reports more than 
ever pressing ; and if the course of true Science should still run smooth 
it is probable that the need will increase rather than diminish. 

If time and space had permitted, I should have further particularised 
the Committees, occasionally appointed, on subjects connected with edu- 
cation. But T must leave this theme for some future President, and 
content myself with pointing out that the British Association alone among 
scientific societies concerns itself directly with these questions, and is 
open to appeals for counsel and support from the great teaching body of 
the country. 

One of the principal methods by which this Association materially 
promotes the advancement of Science, and consequently one of its most 
important functions, cotisists in grants of money from its own income in 
aid of special scientific researches. The total amount so laid out during 
the forty-seven years of our existence has been no less than 44,0007. ; and 
the average during the last ten years has been 1,4507. per aniram. These 



ADDKESS. O 

sums have not only been in the main wisely voted and usefully expended ; 
but they have been themselves productive ot much additional voluntary 
expenditure of both time and money on the part of those to whom the 
grants have been entrusted. The results have come back to the Associa- 
tion in the form of papers and reports, many of which have been printed 
in our volumes. By this appropriation of a large portion of its funds, 
the Association has to some extent anticipated, nay even it may have 
partly inspired the ideas, now so much discussed, ot the Endowment of 
Research. And whether the aspirations of those who advocate such 
endowment be ever fully realised or not, there can 1 think be no doubt 
whatever that the Association in the matter of these grants has afforded 
a most powerful stimulus to original research and discovery. 

Regarded from another point of view these grants, together with 
others to be hereafter mentioned, present a strong similarity to that use- 
ful institution, the Professoriate Extraordinary of Germany, to which 
there are no foundations exactly corresponding in this country. For, 
beside their more direct educational purpose, these Professorships are 
intended, like our own grants, to afford, to special individuals an oppor- 
tunity of following out the special work for which they have previously 
proved themselves competent. And in this respect the British Associa- 
tion may be regarded as supplying, to the extent of its means, an elasticity 
which is wanting in our own Universities. 

Besides the funds which through your support are at the disposal of 
the British Association there are, as is well known to many here present, 
other funds of more or less similar character, at the disposal or subject 
to the recommendations of the Royal Society. There is the Donation 
Fund, the property of the Society ; the Government Grant of 1,000£. per 
annum, administered by the Society ; and the Government Fund of 4,000Z. 
per annum (an experiment for five years) to be distributed by the Science 
and Ait Department, both lor research itself, and for the support of 
those engaged thereon, according to the recommendations of a Committee 
consisting mainly of Fellows of the Royal Society. To these might be 
added other funds in the hands of different Scientific Societies. 

But although it must be admitted that the purposes of these various 
funds are not to be distinguished by any very simple line of demarcation, 
and that they may therefore occasionally appear to overlap one another, 
it may still, 1 think, be fairly maintainea that this fact does not furnish 
any sufficient reason against their co- existence. There are many topics 
of research too minute in their range, too tentative in their present con- 
dition, to come fairly within the scope of the funds administered by the 
Royal Society. There are others, ample enough in their extent, and long 
enough in their necessary duration, to claim for their support a national 
grant, but which need to be actually set on foot or tried before they can 
iairly expect the recognition either of the public or of the Government. 
To these categories others might be added ; but the above-mentioned 



6 REPOKT 1878. 

instances will perhaps suffice to show that even if larger and more perma- 
nent funds were devoted to the promotion of research than is the case at 
present, there would still be a field of activity open to the British Asso- 
ciation as well as to other scientific bodies which may have funds at their 
disposal. 

On the general question it is not difficult to offer strong arguments in 
favour of permanent national Scientific Institutions ; nor is it difficult to 
picture to the mind an ideal future when Science and Art shall walk hand 
in hand together, led by a willing minister into the green pastures of the 
Endowment of Research. But while allowing this to be no impossible 
a future, we must still admit that there are other and less promising possi- 
bilities, which under existing circumstances cannot be altogether left out 
of our calculations. I am therefore on the whole inclined to think that, 
while not losing sight of larger schemes, the wisest policy, for the present 
at all events, and pending the experiment of the Government fund, will be 
to confine our efforts to a careful selection of definite persons to carry out de- 
finite pieces of work ; leaving to them the honour (or the onus if they so think 
it) of justifying from time to time a continuation of the confidence which 
the Government or other supporting body may have once placed in them. 

Passing from the proceedings to other features and functions of our 
body, it should be remembered that the continued existence of the Asso- 
ciation must depend largely upon the support which it receives from its 
members and associates. Stinted in the funds so arising, its scientific effec- 
tiveness would be materially impaired ; and deprived of them, its existence 
would be precarious. The amount at our disposal in each year will naturally 
vary with the population, with the accessibility, and with other circum- 
stances of the place of meeting ; there will be financially, as well as 
scientifically, good years and bad years. But we have in our invested 
capital a sum sufficient to tide over all probable fluctuations, and even to 
carry us efficiently through several years of financial famine, if ever such 
should occur. This seems to me sufficient ; and we have therefore, I 
think, no need to increase our reserve, beyond perhaps the moderate 
addition which a prudent treasurer will always try to secure, against 
expenditure which often increases and rarely diminishes. 

But however important this material support may be to our existence 
and well being, it is by no means all that is required. There is another 
factor which enters into the product, namely, the personal scientific 
support of our best men. It is, I think, not too much to say, that without 
their presence our meetings would fail in their chief and most important 
element, and had best be discontinued altogether. We make, it must be 
admitted, a demand of sensible magnitude in calling upon men who have 
been actively engaged during a great portion of the year, at a season 
when they may fairly look for relaxation, to attend a busy meeting, and 
to contribute to its proceedings ; but unless a fair quota at least of our 
veterans, and a good muster of our younger men, put in their appearance, 



ADDRESS. 7 

our gatherings will be to little purpose. There was a period within my 
own recollection when it was uncertain whether the then younger members 
of our scientific growth would cast in their lot with us or not, and when 
the fate of the Association depended very much upon their decision. They 
decided in our favour ; they have since become Presidents, Lecturers, and 
other functionaries of our body ; with what result it is for you to judge. 

Of the advantages which may possibly accrue to the locality in which 
our meetings are held, it is not for us to speak ; but it is always a ground 
for sincere satisfaction to learn that our presence has been of any use in 
stimulatiug an interest, or in promoting local efforts, in the direction of 
Science. 

The functions of the British Association do not, however, terminate 
with the meeting itself. Beside the special committees already mentioned, 
there remains a very important body, elected by the General Committee, 
viz., the Council, which assembles at the office in London from time to 
time as occasion requires. To this body belongs the duty of proposing a 
President, of preparing for the approval of the General Committee the list 
of Vice-Presidents and sectional officers, the selection of evening lecturers, 
and other arrangements for the coming meeting. 

At the present time another class of questions occupies a good deal of 
the attention of the Council. In the first generation of the Association, 
and during the period of unwritten, but not yet traditional, law, questions 
relating to our own organisation or procedure either " settled themselves," 
or were wisely left to the discretionary powers of those who had taken 
part in our proceedings during the early years of our existence. These 
and other kindred subjects now require more careful formularisation and 
more deliberate sanction. And it is on the shoulders of the Council that the 
weight of these matters in general falls. These facts deserve especial men- 
tion on the present occasion, because one part of our business at the close of 
this meeting will be to bid farewell officially to one who has served us as 
Assistant Secretary so long and so assiduously that he has latterly become 
our main repertory of information, and our mentor upon questions of prece- 
dent and procedure. The post hitherto held by Mr. Griffith (for it is to 
him that I allude) will doubtless be well filled by the able and energetic 
member who has been nominated in his place ; but I doubt not that even 
he will be glad for some time to come to draw largely upon the knowledge 
and experience of his predecessor. 

But, beside matters of internal arrangement and organisation, the 
duties of the Council comprise a variety of scientific subjects referred to 
them by the General Committee, at the instance of the Committee of Re- 
commendations, for deliberation and occasionally for action. With the 
increasing activity of our body in general, and more particularly with that 
of our various officers, these duties have of late years become more varied 
and onerous than formerly ; nor is it to be wished that they should 
diminish in either variety or extent. 



8 REPORT — 1878. 

Once more, questions beyond our own constitution, and even beyond 
the scope of our own immediate action, such as education, legislation 
affecting either the promotion or the applications of science to industrial 
and social life, which have suggested themselves at our meetings, and 
received the preliminary sanction of our Committee of Recommendations, 
are frequently referred to our Council. These, and others which it is 
unnecessary to particularise, whether discussed in full Council or in com- 
mittees specially appointed by that body, render the duties of our coun- 
cillors as onerous as they are impoi'tant. 

While the Government has at all times, but in a more marked manner 
of late years, recognised the Royal Society of London, with representa- 
tives from the sister societies of Dublin and of Edinburgh, as the body 
to which it should look for counsel and advice upon scientific questions, 
it has still never shown itself indisposed to receive and entertain any 
well-considered recommendation from the British Association. Two 
special causes have in all probability contributed largely to this result. 
First, the variety of elements comprised by the Association, on account 
of which its recommendations imply a more general concurrence of scien- 
tific opinion than those of any other scientific body. Secondly, the pecu- 
liar fact, that our period of maximum activity coincides with that of 
minimum activity of other scientific bodies, is often of the highest import- 
ance. At the very time when the other bodies are least able, we are 
most able, to give deliberate consideration, and formal sanction, to recom- 
mendations whether in the form of applications to Government or other- 
wise which may arise. In many of these, time is an element so essential, 
that it is not too much to say, that without the intervention of the British 
Association many opportunities for the advancement of Science, especially 
at the seasons in question, might have been lost. The Government has 
moreover formally recognised our scientific existence by appointing our 
President for the time being a member of the Government Fund Com- 
mittee ; and the public has added its testimony to our importance and 
utility by imposing upon our President and officers a variety of duties, 
among which are conspicuous those which arise out of its very liberal 
exercise of civic and other hospitality. 

Of the nature and functions of the Presidential address this is perhaps 
neither the time nor the place to speak ; but if I might for a moment for- 
get the purpose for which we are now assembled, I would take the oppor- 
tunity of reminding those who have not attended many of our former 
meetings that our annual volumes contain a long series of addresses on 
the progress of Science, from a number of our most eminent men, to 
which there is perhaps no parallel elsewhere. These addresses are per- 
haps as remarkable for their variety in mode of treatment as for the value 
of their subject-matter. Some of our Presidents, and especially those 
who officiated in the earlier days of our existence, have passed in review 
the various branches of Science, and have noted the progress made in 



ADDRESS. 9 

each during the current year. But, as the various Sciences have demanded 
more and more special treatment on the part of those who seriously pursue 
them, so have the cases of individuals who can of their own knowledge 
give anything approaching to a general review become more and more 
rare. To this may be added the fact that although no year is so barren 
as to fail in affording sufficient crop for a strictly scientific budget, or for 
a detailed report of progress in research, yet one year is more fertile than 
another in growths of sufficient prominence to arrest the attention of the 
general public, and to supply topics suitable for the address. On these 
accounts apparently such a Presidential survey has ceased to be annual, 
and has dropped into an intermittence of longer period. Some Presi- 
dents have made a scientific principle, such as the Time-element in natural 
phenomena, or Continuity, or Natural Selection, the theme of their dis- 
course, and have gathered illustrations from various branches of know- 
ledge. Others again, taking their own special subject as a fundamental 
note, and thence modulating into other kindred keys, have borne testi- 
mony to the fact that no subject is so special as to be devoid of bearing 
or of influence on many others. Some have described the successive stages 
of even a single but important investigation ; and while tracing the growth 
of that particular item, and of the ideas involved in it, have incidentally 
shown to the outer world what manner of business a serious investigation 
is. But there is happily no pattern or precedent which the President 
is bound to follow ; both in range of subject-matter and in mode of treat- 
ment each has exercised his undoubted right of taking an independent 
line. And it can hardly be doubted that a judicious exercise of this free- 
dom has contributed more than anything else to sustain the interest of a 
series of annual discourses extending now over nearly half a century . 

The nature of the subjects which may fairly come within the scope of 
such a discourse has of late been much discussed ; and the question is one 
upon which everyone of course is entitled to form his own judgment ; but 
lest there should be any misapprehension as to how far it concerns us in our 
corporate capacity, it will be well to remind my hearers that as, on the one 
hand, there is no discussion on the Presidential address, and the members 
as a body express no formal opinion upon it, so, on the other, the Association 
cannot fairly be considered as in any way committed to its tenour or con- 
clusions. Whether this immunity from comment and reply be really on 
the whole so advantageous to the President as might be supposed need 
not here be discussed ; but suffice it to say, that the case of an audience 
assembled to listen without discussion finds a parallel elsewhere, and in 
the parallel case it is not generally considered that the result is altogether 
either advantageous to the speaker or conducive to excellence in the 
discourse. 

But, apart from this, the question of a limitation of range in the 
subject-matter for the Presidential address is not quite so simple as may 
at first sight appear. It must, in fact, be borne in mind that, while on 



10 REPORT— 1878. 

the one hand knowledge is distinct from opinion, from feeling, and from 
all other modes of subjective impression, still the limits of knowledge are 
at all times expanding, and the boundaries of the known and the unknown 
are never rigid or permanently fixed. That which in time past or present 
has belonged to one category may in time future belong to the other. 
Our ignorance consists partly in ignorance of actual facts, and partly also 
in ignorance of the possible range of ascertainable fact. If we could lay 
down beforehand precise limits of possible knowledge, the problem of 
Physical Science would be already half solved. But the question to which 
the scientific explorer has often to address himself is not merely whether 
he is able to solve this or that problem, but whether he can so far unravel 
the tangled threads of the matter with which he has to deal as to weave 
them into a definite problem at all. He is not like a candidate at an 
examination with a precise set of questions placed before him ; he must 
first himself act the part of the examiner and select questions from the 
repertory of nature, and upon them found others, which in some sense 
are capable of definite solution. If his eye seem dim, he must look stead- 
fastly and with hope into the misty vision, until the very clouds wreath 
themselves into definite forms. If his ear seem dull, he must listen 
patiently and with sympathetic trust to the intricate whisperings of 
nature, — the goddess, as she has been called, of a hundred voices — until 
here and there he can pick out a few simple notes to which his own 
powers can resound. If, then, at a moment when he finds himself placed 
on a pinnacle from which he is called upon to take a perspective survey 
of the range of science, and to tell us what he can see from his vantage 
ground ; if, at such a moment, after straining his gaze to the very verge 
of the horizon, and after describing the most distant of well-defined 
objects, he should give utterance also to some of the subjective impres- 
sions which he is conscious of receiving from regions beyond ; if he 
should depict possibilities which seem opening to his view ; if he 
should explain why he thinks this a mere blind alley and that an open 
path ; then the fault and the loss would be alike ours if we refused to 
listen calmly, and temperately to form our own judgment on what we 
hear ; then assuredly it is we who would be committing the error of con- 
founding matters of fact and matters of opinion if we failed to discriminate 
between the various elements contained in such a discourse, and assumed 
that they had all been put on the same footing. 

But to whatever decision we may each come on these controverted 
points, one thing appears clear from a retrospect of past experience, viz., 
that first or last, either at the outset in his choice of subject or in the 
conclusions ultimately drawn therefrom, the President, according to his 
own account at least, finds himself on every occasion in a position of 
" exceptional or more than usual difficulty." And your present repre- 
sentative, like his predecessors, feels himself this moment in a similar 
predicament. The reason which he now offers is that the branch of 



ADDRESS. 



11 



science which he represents is one whose lines of advance, viewed from a 
mathematician's own point of view, offer so few points of contact with 
the ordinary experiences of life or modes of thought, that any account of 
its actual progress which he might have attempted must have failed in 
the first requisite of an address, namely, that of being intelligible. 

Now if this esoteric view had been the only aspect of the subject 
which he could present to his hearers, he might well have given up the 
attempt in despair. But although in its technical character Mathematical 
Science suffers the inconveniences, while it enjoys the dignity, of its 
Olympian position, still in a less formal garb, or in disguise, if you are 
pleased so to call it, it is found present at many an unexpected turn ; 
and although some of us may never have learnt its special language, not 
a few have, all through our scientific life, and even in almost every 
accurate utterance, like Moliere's well known character, been talking 
mathematics without knowing it. It is, moreover, a fact not to be over- 
looked that the appearance of isolation, so conspicuous in mathematics, 
appertains in a greater or less degree to all other sciences, and perhaps 
also to all pursuits in life. In its highest flight each soars to a distance 
from its fellows. Each is pursued alone for its own sake, and without 
reference to its connection with, or its application to, any other subject. 
The pioneer and the advanced guard are of necessity separated from the 
main body, and in this respect mathematics does not materially differ 
from its neighbours. And, therefore, as the solitariness of mathematics 
has been a frequent theme of discourse, it may be not altogether unpro- 
fitable to dwell for a short time upon the other side of the question, and 
to inquire whether there be not points of contact in method or in subject- 
matter between mathematics and the outer world which have been 
frequently overlooked ; whether its lines do not in some cases run parallel 
to those of other occupations and purposes of life ; and lastly, whether we 
may not hope for some change in the attitude too often assumed towards 
it by the representatives of other branches of knowledge and of mental 
activity. 

In his Preface to the ' Principia ' Newton gives expression to some 
general ideas which may well serve as the key-note for all future utter- 
ances on the relation of mathematics to natural, including also therein 
what are commonly called artificial, phenomena. 

" The ancients divided mechanics into two parts, rational and prac- 
tical ; and since artizans often work inaccurately, it came to pass that 
mechanics and geometry were distinguished in this way, that everything 
accurate was referred to geometry, and everything inaccurate to 
mechanics. But the inaccuracies appertain to the artizan and not to the 
art, and geometry itself has its foundation in mechanical practice, and is 
in fact nothing else than that part of universal mechanics which accu- 
rately lays down and demonstrates the art of measuring." He next 
explains that rational mechanics is the science of motion resulting from 



12 REPOBT— 1878. 

forces, and adds, " The whole difficulty of philosophy seems to me to lie 
in investigating the forces of nature from the phenomena of motion, and 
in demonstrating that from these forces other phenomena will ensue." 
Then, after stating the problems of which he has treated in the work 
itself, he says, " I would that all other natural phenomena might simdarly 
be deduced from mechanical principles. For many things move me to 
suspect that everything depends upon certain forces in virtue of which 
the particles of bodies, through forces not yet understood, are either 
impelled together so as to cohere in regular figures, or are repelled and 
recede from one another." 

Newton's views, then, are clear. He regards mathematics, not as a 
method independent of, though applicable to, various subjects, but as 
itself the higher side or aspect of the subjects themselves ; and it would 
be little more than a translation of his notions into other language, little 
more than a paraphrase of his own words, if we were to describe the 
mathematical as one aspect of the material world itself, apart from which 
all other aspects are but incomplete sketches, and, however accurate 
after their own kind, are still liable to the imperfections of the inaccu- 
rate artificer. Mr. Burrowes, in his Preface to the first volume of the 
' Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy,' has carried out the same 
argument, approaching it from the other side. " No one science," he says, 
" is so little connected with the rest as not to afford many principles 
whose use may extend considerably beyond the science to which they 
primarily belong, and no proposition is so purely theoretical as to be in- 
capable of being applied to practical purposes. There is no apparent 
connexion between duration and the cycloidal arch, the properties of 
which have furnished us with the best method of measuring time ; and 
he who has made himself master of the nature and affections of the loga- 
rithmic curve has advanced considerably towards ascertaining the propor- 
tionable density of the air at various distances from the earth. The 
researches of the mathematician are the only sure ground on which we 
can reason from experiments ; and how far experimental science may 
assist commercial interests is evinced by the success of manufactures in 
countries where the hand of the artificer has taken its direction from 
the philosopher. Every manufacture is in reality but a chemical process, 
and the machinery requisite for carrying it on but the right application 
of certain propositions in rational mechanics." So far your Academician. 
Every subject, therefore, whether in its usual acceptation scientific or 
otherwise, may have a mathematical aspect ; as soon, in fact, as it 
becomes a matter of strict measurement, or of numerical statement, so 
soon does it enter upon a mathematical phase. This phase may, or it 
may not, be a prelude to another in which the laws of the subject are 
expressed in algebraical formulae or represented by geometrical figures. 
But the real gist of the business does not always lie in the mode of 
expression, and the fascination of the formulas or other mathematical 



ADDRESS. 1 3 

paraphernalia may after all be little more than that of a theatrical trans- 
formation scene. The process of reducing to formula? is really one of 
abstraction, the restilts of which are not always wholly on the side of 
gain ; in fact, through the process itself the subject may lose in one 
respect even more than it gains in another. But long before such 
abstraction is completely attained, and even in cases where it is never 
attained at all, a subject may to all intents and purposes become mathe- 
matical. It is not so much elaborate calculations or abstruse processes 
which characterise this phase as the principles of precision, of exactness, 
and of proportion. But these are principles with which no true know- 
ledge can entirely dispense. If it be the general scientific spirit which 
at the outset moves upon the face of the waters, and out of the unknown 
depth brings forth light and living forms, it is no less the mathematical 
spirit which breathes the breath of life into what would otherwise have 
ever remained mere dry bones of fact, which reunites the scattered limbs 
and re-creates from them a new and organic whole. 

And as a matter of fact, in the words used by Professor Jellett at our 
meeting at Belfast, viz., " Not only are we applying our methods to many 
sciences already recognised as belonging to the legitimate province of 
mathematics, but we are learning to apply the same instrument to sciences 
hitherto wholly or partially independent of its authority. Physical 
Science is learning more and more every day to see in the phenomena of 
Nature modifications of that one phenomenon (namely, Motion) which is 
peculiarly under the power of mathematics." Echoes are these, far off 
and faint perhaps, but still true echoes, in answer to Newton's wish that 
all these phenomena may some day " be deduced from mechanical prin- 
ciples." 

If, turning from this aspect of the subject, it were my purpose to 
enumerate how the same tendency has evinced itself in the Arts, un- 
consciously it may be to the artists themselves, I might call as witnesses 
each one in turn with full reliance on the testimony wbich they would 
bear. And, having more special reference to mathematics, I might con- 
fidently point to the accuracy of measurement, to the truth of curve, 
which according to modern investigation is the key to the perfection of 
classic art. I might triumphantly cite not only the architects of all ages, 
whose art so manifestly rests upon mathematical principles ; but I might 
cite also the literary as well as the artistic remains of the great artists of 
Cinqueceuto, both painters and sculptors, in evidence of the geometry 
and the mechanics which, having been laid at the foundation, appear to 
have found their way upwards through the superstructure of their works. 
And in a less ambitious sphere, but nearer to ourselves in both time and 
place, I might point with satisfaction to the great school of English con- 
structors of the 18th century in the domestic arts ; and remind you^that 
not only the engineer and the architect, but even the cabinetmakers, 
devoted half the space of their books to perspective and to the principles 



14 REPORT 1878. 

whereby solid figures may be delineated on paper, or what is now termed 
descriptive geometry. 

Nor perhaps wonld the sciences which concern themselves with 
reasoning and speech, nor the kindred art of Music, nor even Literature 
itself, if thoroughly probed, offer fewer points of dependence upon the 
science of which I am speaking. What, in fact, is Logic but that part 
of universal reasoning ; Grammar but that part of universal speech ; 
Harmony and Counterpoint but that part of universal music, " which accu- 
rately lays down," and demonstrates (so far as demonstration is possible) 
precise methods appertaining to each of these Arts ? And I might even 
appeal to the common consent which speaks of the mathematical as the 
pattern form of reasoning and model of a precise style. 

Taking, then, precision and exactness as the characteristics which 
distinguish the mathematical phase of a subject, we are naturally led to 
expect that the approach to such a phase will be indicated by increasing 
application of the principle of measurement, and by the importance 
which is attached to numerical results. And this very necessary condition 
for progress may, I think, be fairly described as one of the main features 
of scientific advance in the present day. 

If it were my purpose, by descending into the arena of special sciences, 
to show how the most various investigations alike tend to issue in 
measurement, and to that extent to assume a mathematical phase, I should 
be embarrassed by the abundance of instances which might be adduced. 
I will therefore confine myself to a passing notice of a very few, selecting 
those which exemplify not only the general tendency, but also the special 
character of the measurements now particularly required, viz., that of 
minuteness, and the indirect method by which alone we can at present 
hope to approach them. An object having a diameter of an 80,000th of 
an inch is perhaps the smallest of which the microscope could give any 
well-defined representation ; and it is improbable that one of 120,000th of 
an inch could be singly discerned with the highest powers at our com- 
mand. But the solar beams and the electric light reveal to us the presence 
of bodies far smaller than these. And, in the absence of any means of 
observing them singly, Professor Tyndall has suggested a scale of these 
minute objects in terms of the lengths of luminiferous waves. To this 
he was led, not by any attempt at individual measurement, but by taking 
account of them in the aggregate, and observing the tints which they 
scatter laterally when clustered in the form of actinic clouds. The small 
bodies with which experimental Science has recently come into contact 
are not confined to gaseous molecules, but comprise also complete organisms ; 
and the same philosopher has made a profound study of the momentous 
influence exerted by these minute organisms in the economy of life. And if, 
in view of their specific effects, whether deleterious or other, on human life, 
any qualitative classification, or quantitative estimate be ever possible, it 
seems that it must be effected by some such method as that indicated above. 



ADDBESS. 1 5 

Again, to enumerate a few more instances of the measurement of 
minute quantities, there are the average distances of molecules from 
one another in various gases and at various pressures ; the length of their 
free path, or range open for their motion without coming into collision ; 
there are movements causing the pressures and differences of pressure 
under which Mr. Crookes' radiometers execute their wonderful revolutions. 
There are the excursions of the air while transmitting notes of high pitch, 
which through the researches of Lord Rayleigh appear to be of a diminu- 
tiveness altogether unexpected. There are the molecular actions brought 
into play in the remarkable experiments by Dr. Kerr, who has succeeded, 
where even Faraday failed, in effecting a visible rotation of the plane of 
polarisation of light in its passage through electrified dielectrics, and on 
its reflexion at the surface of a magnet. To take one more instance, which 
must be present to the minds of us all, there are the infinitesimal ripples 
of the vibrating plate in Mr. Graham Bell's most marvellous invention. 
Of the nodes and ventral segments in the plate of the telephone which 
actually converts sound into electricity and electricity into sound, we can 
at present form no conception. All that can now be said is that the most 
perfect specimens of Chladni's sand figures on a vibrating plate, or of 
Kundt's lycopodium heaps in a musical tube, or even Mr. Sedley Taylor's 
more delicate vortices in the films of the Phoneidoscope, are rough and 
sketchy compared with these. For notwithstanding the fact that in the 
movements of the Telephone-plate we have actually in our hand the solu- 
tion of that old world problem, the construction of a speaking machine ; 
yet the characters in which that solution is expressed are too small for our 
powers of decipherment. In movements such as these we seem to lose 
sight of the distinction, or perhaps we have unconsciously passed the 
boundary between massive and molecular motion. 

Through the Phonograph we have not only a transformation but a per- 
manent and tangible record of the mechanism of speech. But the differ- 
ences upon which articulation (apart from loudness, pitch, and quality) 
depends, appear from the experiments of Fleeming Jenkin and of others 
to be of microscopic size. The Microphone affords another instance of the 
unexpected value of minute variations, — in this case of electric currents ; 
and it is remarkable that the gist of the instrument seems to lie in obtain- 
ing and perfecting that which electricians have hitherto most scrupulously 
avoided, viz., loose contact. 

Once more, Mr. De La Rue has brought forward as one of the results 
derived from his stupendous battery of 10,000 cells, strong evidence for 
supposing that a voltaic discharge, even when apparently continuous, may 
still be an intermittent phenomenon ; but all that is known of the period 
of such intermittence is, that it must recur at exceedingly short intervals. 
And in connexion with this subject, it may be added that, whatever be 
the ultimate explanation of the strange stratification which the voltaic 
discharge undergoes in rarefied gases, it is clear that the alternate disposi- 



16 REPORT — 1878. 

tion of light and darkness must be dependent on some periodic distribution 
in space or sequence in time which can at present be dealt with only in a 
very general way. In the exhausted column we have a vehicle for elec- 
tricity not constant like an ordinary conductor, but itself modified by the 
passage of the discharge, and perhaps subject to laws differing materially 
from those which it obeys at atmospheric pressure. It may also be that 
some of the features accompanying stratification form a magnified image 
of phenomena belonging to disruptive discharges in general ; and that 
consequently, so far from expecting among the known facts of the latter 
any clue to an explanation of the former, we must hope ultimately to find 
in the former an elucidation of what is at present obscure in the latter. A 
prudent philosopher usually avoids hazarding any forecast of the practical 
application of a purely scientific research. But it would seem that the 
configuration of these striae might some day prove a very delicate means 
of estimating low pressures, and perhaps also for effecting some electrical 
measurements. 

Now it is a curious fact that almost the only small quantities of which 
we have as yet any actual measurements are the wave lengths of light ; 
and that all others, excepting so far as they can be deduced from these, 
await future determination. In the meantime, when unable to approach 
these small quantities individually, the method to which we are obliged 
to have recourse is, as indicated above, that of averages, whereby, disre- 
garding the circumstances of each particular case, we calculate the average 
size, the average velocity, the average direction, &c, of a large number of 
instances. But although this method is based upon experience, and leads 
to results which may be accepted as substantially true; although it 
may be applicable to any finite interval of time, or over any finite area of 
space (that is, for all practical purposes of life), there is no evidence to 
show that it is so when the dimensions of interval or of area are indefinitely 
diminished. The truth is that the simplicity of nature which we at present 
grasp is really the result of infinite complexity ; and that below the uni- 
formity there underlies a diversity whose depths we have not yet probed, 
and whose secret places are still beyond our reach. 

The present is not an occasion for multiplying illustrations, but I can 
hardly omit a passing allusion to one all-important instance of the appli- 
cation of the statistical method. Without its aid social life, or the History 
of Life and Death, could not be conceived at all, or only in the most super- 
ficial manner. Without it we could never attain to any clear ideas of the 
condition of the Poor, we could never hope for any solid amelioration of 
their condition or prospects. Without its aid, sanitary measures, and even 
medicine would be powerless. Without it, the politician and the philan- 
thropist would alike be wandering over a trackless desert. 

It is, however, not so much from the side of Science at large as from 
that of Mathematics itself, that I desire to speak. I wish from the latter 
point of view to indicate connexions between Mathematics and other sub- 



ADDRESS. 17 

l'ects, to prove that hers is not after all such a far-off region, nor so unde- 
cipherable an alphabet, and to show that eveu at unlikely spots we may 
trace under-currents of thought which having issued from a common source 
fertilise alike the mathematical and the non-mathematical world. 

Having this in view, I propose to make the subject of special remark 
some processes peculiar to modern Mathematics ; and, partly with the 
object of incidentally removing some current misapprehensions, I have 
selected for examination three methods in respect of which mathematicians 
are often thought to have exceeded all reasonable limits of speculation, 
and to have adopted for unknown purposes an unknown tongue. And it 
will be my endeavour to show not only that in these very cases our science 
has not outstepped its own legitimate range, but that even art and litera- 
ture have unconsciously employed methods similar in principle. The 
three methods in question are, first, that of Imaginary Quantities ; secondly, 
that of Manifold Space ; and thirdly, that of Geometry not according to 
Euclid. 

First it is objected that, abandoning the more cautious methods of 
ancient mathematicians, we have admitted into our formulas quantities 
which by our own showing, and even in our own nomenclature, are 
imaginary or impossible ; nay, more, that out of them we have formed a 
variety of new algebras to which there is no counterpart whatever in 
reality ; but from which we claim to arrive at possible and certain results. 

On this head it is in Dublin, if anywhere, that I may be permitted to 
speak. For to the fertile imagination of the late Astronomer Royal for 
Ireland we are indebted for that marvellous Calculus of Quaternions, which 
is only now beginning to be fully understood, and which has not yet 
received all the applications of which it is doubtless capable. And even 
although this calculus be not coextensive with another which almost simul- 
taneously germinated on the Continent, nor with ideas more recently 
developed in America ; yet it must always hold its position as an original 
discovery, and as a representative of one of the two great groups of gene- 
ralised algebras (viz., those the squares of whose units are respectively 
negative unity and zero), the common origin of which must still be 
marked on our intellectual map as an unknown region. Well do I re- 
collect how in its early days we used to handle the method as a magician's 
page might try to wield his master's wand, trembling as it were between 
hope and fear, and hardly knowing whether to trust our own results 
until they had been submitted to the present and ever-ready counsel of 
Sir W. R. Hamilton himself. 

To fix our ideas, consider the measurement of a line, or the reckoning 
of time, or the performance of any mathematical operation. A Hue may 
be measured in one direction or in the opposite ; time may be reckoned 
forward or backward ; an operation may be performed or be reversed, it 
may be done or may be undone ; and if having once reversed any of these 
processes we reverse it a second time, wc shall find that we have come 
1878. B 



18 REPORT— 1878. 

back to the original direction of measurement or of reckoning, or to the 
original kind of operation. 

Suppose, however, that at some stage of a calculation our formulas 
indicate an alteration in the mode of measurement such that, if the 
alteration be repeated, a condition of things, not the same as, but the 
reverse of the original, will be produced. Or suppose that, at a certain 
stage, our transformations indicate that time is to be reckoned in some 
manner different from future or past, but still in a way having definite 
algebraical connexion with time which is gone and time which is to come. 
It is clear that in actual experience there is no process to which such 
measurements correspond. Time has no meaning except as future or past ; 
and the present is but the meeting point of the two. Or, once more, 
suppose that we are gravely told that all circles pass through the same 
two imaginary points at an infinite distance, and that every line drawn 
through one of these points is perpendicular to itself. On hearing the 
statement, we shall probably whisper, with a smile or a sigh, that we hope 
it is not true ; but that in any case it is a long way off, and perhaps, after 
all, it does not very much signify. If, however, as mathematicians we are 
not satisfied to dismiss the question on these terms, we ourselves must 
admit that we have here reached a definite point of issue. Our science 
must either give a rational account of the dilemma, or yield the position 
as no longer tenable. 

Special modes of explaining this anomalous state of things have 
occurred to mathematicians. But, omitting details as unsuited to the 
present occasion, it will, I think, be sufficient to point out in general terms 
that a solution of the difficulty is to be found in the fact that the formula? 
which give rise to these results are more comprehensive than the significa- 
tion assigned to them ; and when we pass out of the condition of things 
first contemplated they cannot (as it is obvious they ought not) give us 
any results intelligible on that basis. But it does not therefore by any 
means follow that upon a more enlarged basis the formulae are incapable 
of interpretation ; on the contrary, the difficulty at which we have 
arrived indicates that there must be some more comprehensive state- 
ment of the problem which will include cases impossible in the more 
limited, but possible in the wider view of the subject. 

A very simple instance will illustrate the matter. If from a point out- 
side a circle we draw a straight line to touch the curve, the distance 
between the starting point and the point of contact has certain geometrical 
properties. If the starting point be shifted nearer and nearer to the circle 
the distance in question becomes shorter, and ultimately vanishes. But 
as soon as the point passes to the interior of the circle the notion of a 
tangent and distance to the point of contact cease to have any meaning ; 
and the same anomalous condition of things prevails as long as the point 
remains in the interior. But if the point be shifted still further until it 
emerges on the other side, the tangent and its properties resume their 



ADDRESS. 1 9 

reality, and are as intelligible as before. Now tlie process whereby we 
have passed from the possible to the impossible, and again repassed to the 
possible (namely, the shifting of the starting point) is a perfectly con- 
tinuons one, while the conditions of the problem as stated above have 
abruptly changed. If, however, we replace the idea of a line touching by 
that of a line cutting the circle, and the distance of the point of contact 
. by the distances at which the line is intercepted by the curve, it will easily 
be seen that the latter includes the former as a limiting case, when the cut- 
ting line is turned about the starting point until it coincides vith the tangent 
itself. And further, that the two intercepts have a perfectly distinct and 
intelligible meaning whether the point be outside or inside the area. The 
only difference is that in the first case the intercepts are measured in the 
same direction ; in the latter in opposite directions. 

The foregoing instance has shown one purpose which these imaginaries 
may serve, viz., as marks indicating a limit to a particular condition of 
things, to the application of a particular law, or pointing out a stage 
where a more comprehensive law is required. To attain to such a law we 
must, as in the instance of the circle and tangent, reconsider our statement 
of the problem ; we must go back to the principle from which we set out, 
and ascertain whether it may not be modified or enlarged. And even if 
in any particular investigation, wherein imaginaries have occurred, the 
most comprehensive statement of the problem of which we are at present 
capable fails to give an actual representation of these quantities ; if they 
must for the present be relegated to the category of imaginaries ; it still 
does not follow that we may not at some future time find a law which will 
endow them with reality, nor that in the meantime we need hesitate to 
employ them, in accordance with the great principle of continuity, for 
bringing out correct results. 

If, moreover, both in Geometry and in Algebra we occasionally make 
use of points or of quantities, which from our present outlook have no 
real existence, which can neither be delineated in space of which we have 
experience, nor measured by scale as we count measurement ; if these 
imaginaries, as they are termed, are called up by legitimate processes of 
our science ; if they serve the purpose not merely of suggesting ideas, but 
of actually conducting us to practical conclusions ; if all this be true in 
abstract science, I may perhaps be allowed to point out, in illustration 
of my argument, that in Art unreal forms are frequently used for suggesting 
ideas, for conveying a meaning for which no others seem to be suitable or 
adequate. Are not forms unknown to Biology, situations incompatible 
with gravitation, positions which challenge not merely the stability but 
even the possibility of equilibrium,— are not these the very means to which 
the artist often has recourse in order to convey his meaning and to fulfil 
his mission ? Who that has ever revelled in the ornamentation of the 
Renaissance, in the extraordinary transitions from the animal to the 
vegetable, from faunic to floral forms, and from these again to almost 

b2 



20 REPORT — 187 S. 

purely geometric curves, who lias not felt that these imaginaries have 
a claim to recognition very similar to that of their congeners in mathe- 
matics ? How is it that the grotesque paintings of the Middle Ages, the 
fantastic sculpture of remote nations, and even the rude art of the pre- 
historic past, still impress us, and have an interest over and above their 
antiquarian value; unless it be that they are symbols which, although 
hard of interpretation when taken alone, are yet capable from a more com- 
prehensive point of view of leading us mentally to something beyond 
themselves, and to truths which, although reached through them, have a 
reality scarcely to be attributed to their outward forms ? 

Ao-ain if we turn from Art to Letters, truth to nature and to fact is un- 
doubtedly a characteristic of sterling literature ; and yet in the delinea- 
tion of outward nature itself, still more in that of feelings and affections, 
of the secret parts of character and motives of conduct, it frequently 
happens that the writer is driven to imagery, to an analogy, or even to 
a paradox, in order to give utterance to that of which there is no direct 
counterpart in recognised speech. And yet which of us cannot find 
a meaning for these literary figures, an inward response to imaginative 
poetry, to social fiction, or even to those tales of giant and fairyland 
written, it is supposed, only for the nursery or schoolroom ? But in order 
thus to reanimate these things with a meaning beyond that of the mere 
words, have we not to reconsider our first position, to enlarge the ideas with 
which we started ; have we not to cast about for some thing which is 
common to the idea conveyed and to the subject actually described, and 
to seek for the sympathetic spring which underlies both ; have we not, 
like the mathematician, to go back as it were to some first principles, or, 
as it is pleasanter to describe it, to become again as a little child ? 

Passing to the second of the three methods, viz., that of Manifold 
Space, it may first be remarked that our whole experience of space is in 
three dimensions, viz., of that which has length, breadth, and thickness; 
and if for certain purposes we restrict our ideas to two dimensions as in 
plane geometry, or to one dimension as in the division of a straight line, 
we do this only by consciously and of deliberate purpose setting aside, 
but not annihilating, the remaining one or two dimensions. Negation, as 
Hecel has justly remarked, implies that which is negatived, or, as he 
expresses it, affirms the opposite. It is by abstraction from previous ex- 
perience, by a limitation of its results, and not by any independent process, 
that we arrive at the idea of space -whose dimensions are less than three. 

It is doubtless on this account that problems in plane geometry which, 
although capable of solution on their own account, become much more 
intelligible more easy of extension, if viewed in connexion with solid 
space, and as special cases of corresponding problems in solid geometry. 
So eminently is this the case, that the very language of the more general 
method often leads us almost intuitively to conclusions which, from the 
more restricted point of view, require long and laborious proof. Such a 



ADDRESS. 21 

change in the base of operations has, in fact, been snccessf ully made in 
geometry of two dimensions, and although we have not the same experi- 
mental data for the further steps, yet neither the modes of reasoning, nor 
the validity of its conclnsions, are in any way affected by applying an 
analogous mental process to geometry of three dimensions ; and hj 
regarding figures in space of three dimensions as sections of figures in 
space of four, in the same way that figures in piano are sometimes con- 
sidered as sections of figures in solid space. The addition of a fourth 
dimension to space not only extends the actual properties of geometrical 
figures, but it also adds new properties which are often useful for*the pur- 
poses of transformation or of proof. Thus it has recently been shown 
that in four dimensions a closed material shell could be turned inside out 
by simjile flexure, without either stretching or tearing ; and that in such 
a space it is impossible to tie a knot. 

Again, the solution of problems in geometry is often effected by means 
of algebra; and as three measurements, or co-ordinates as they are called, 
determine the position of a point in space, so do three letters or measure- 
able quantities serve for the same purpose in the language of algebra. 
Now, many algebraical problems involving three unknown or variable 
quantities admit of being generalised so as to give problems involving 
many such quantities. And as, on the one hand, to every algebraical 
problem involving unknown quantities or variables by ones, or by twos, 
or by threes, there corresponds a problem in geometry of one or of two or 
of three dimensions : so on the other it may be said that to every 
algebraical problem involving many variables there corresponds a problem 
in geometry of many dimensions. 

There is, however, another aspect under which even ordinary space 
presents to us a four-fold, or indeed a mani-fold, character. In modern 
Physics, space is regarded not as a vacuum in which bodies are placed 
and forces have play, but rather as a plenum with which matter is co- 
extensive. And from a physical point of view the properties of space are 
the properties of matter, or of the medium which fills it. Similarly from 
a mathematical point of view, space may be regarded as a locus in quo, 
as a plenum, filled with those elements of geometrical magnitude which 
we take as fundamental. These elements need not always be the same. 
For different purposes different elements may be chosen ; and upon the 
degree of complexity of the subject of our choice will depend the internal 
structure or mani-foldness of space. 

Thus, beginning with the simplest case, a point may have any siDgly 
infinite multitude of positions in a line, which gives a one-fold system of 
points in a line. The line may revolve in a plane about any one of its 
points, giving a two-fold system of points in a plane ; and the plane may 
revolve about any one of the lines, giving a three-fold system of points in 
space. 

Suppose, however, that we take a straight line as our element, and 



22 report— 1878. 

conceive space as filled with such lines. This will be the case if we take 
two planes, e.g., two parallel planes, and join every point in one with 
every point in the other. Now the points in a plane form a two-fold 
system, and it therefore follows that the system of lines is fonr-f old ; in 
other words, space regarded as a plenum of lines is four-fold. The same 
result follows from the consideration that the lines in a plane, and the 
planes through a point, are each two-fold. 

Again, if we take a sphere as our element we can through any point 
as a centre draw a singly infinite number of spheres, but the number of 
such centres is triply infinite ; hence space as a plenum of spheres is four- 
fold. And, generally, space as a plenum of surfaces has a mani-foldness 
equal to the number of constants required to determine the surface. 
Although it would be beyond our present purpose to attempt to pursue 
the subject further, it should not pass unnoticed that the identity in the 
four-fold character of space, as derived on the one hand from a system of 
straight lines, and on the other from a system of spheres, is intimately 
connected with the principles established by Sophus Lie in his researches 
on the correlation of these figures. 

If we take a circle as our element we can around any point in a plane 
as a centre draw a singly infinite system of circles ; but the number of 
such centres in a plane is doubly infinite ; hence the circles in a plane 
form a three-fold system, and as the planes in space form a three-fold 
system, it follows that space as a plenum of circles is six-fold. 

Again, if we take a circle as our element, we may regard it as a 
section either of a sphere, or of a right cone (given except in position) by 
a plane perpendicular to the axis. In the former case the position of the 
centre is three-fold ; the directions of the plane, like that of a pencil of 
lines perpendicular thereto, two-fold ; and the radius of the sphere one- 
fold; six-fold in all. In the latter case, the position of the vertex is 
three-fold ; the direction of the axis two-fold ; and the distance of the 
plane of section one-fold : six-fold in all, as before. Hence space as a 
plenum of circles is six- fold. 

Similarly, if we take a conic as our element we may regard it as a 
section of a right cone (given except in position) by a plane. If the 
nature of the conic be defined, the plane of section will be inclined at a 
fixed angle to the axis ; otherwise it will be free to take any inclination 
whatever. This being so, the position of the vertex will be three-fold ; 
the direction of the axis two-fold ; the distance of the plane of section 
from the vertex one-fold ; and the direction of that plane one-fold if the 
conic be defined, two-fold if it be not defined. Hence, space as a plenum 
of definite conies will be seven-fold, as a plenum of conies in general, 
eight-fold. And so on for curves of higher degrees. 

This is in fact the whole story and mystery of manifold space. It is 
not seriously regarded as a reality in the same sense as ordinary space ; 



ADDRESS. 23 

it is a mode of representation, or a method which, having served its pur- 
pose, vanishes from the scene. Like a rainbow, if we try to grasp it, it 
eludes our very touch ; but, like a rainbow, it arises out of real conditions 
of known and tangible quantities, and if rightly apprehended it is a true 
and valuable expression of natural laws, and serves a definite purpose in 
the science of which it forms part. 

Again, if we seek a counterpart of this in common life, I might remind 
you that perspective in drawing is itself a method not altogether dissimilar 
to that of which I have been speaking ; and that the third dimension of 
space, as represented in a picture, has its origin in the painter's mind, and 
is due to his skill, but has no real existence upon the canvas which is the 
groundwork of his art. Or again, turning to literature, when in legendary 
tales, or in works of fiction, things past and future are pictured as present, 
has not the poetic fancy correlated time with the three dimensions of 
space, and brought all alike to a common focus ? Or once more, when 
space already filled with material substances is mentally peopled with 
immaterial beings, may not the imagination be regarded as having added 
a new element to the capacity of space, a fourth dimension of which there 
is no evidence in experimental fact? 

The third method proposed for special remark is that which has been 
termed Non- Euclidean Geometry; and the train of reasoning which has 
led to it may be described in general terms as follows : some of the pro- 
perties of space which on account of their simplicity, theoretical as well as 
practical, have, in constructing the ordinary system of geometry, been con- 
sidered as fundamental, are now seen to be particular cases of more general 
properties. Thus a plane surface, and a straight line, may be regarded as 
special instances of surfaces and lines whose curvature is everywhere uni- 
form or constant. And it is perhaps not difficult to see that, when the 
special notions of flatness and straightness are abandoned, many properties 
of geometrical figures which we are in the habit of regarding as fundamen- 
tal will undergo profound modification. Thus a plane may be considered 
as a special case of the sphere, viz., the limit to which a sphere approaches 
when its radius is increased without limit. But even this consideration 
trenches upon an elementary proposition relating to one of the simplest of 
geometrical figures. In plane triangles the interior angles are together 
equal to two right angles ; but in triangles traced on the surface of a 
sphere this proposition does not hold good. To this, other instances might 
be added. 

Further, these modifications may affect not only our ideas of particular 
geometrical figures, but the very axioms of the Science itself. Thus, the 
idea, which in fact lies at the foundation of Euclid's method, viz., that a geo- 
metrical figure may be moved in space without change of size or alteration 
of form, entirely falls away, or becomes only approximate in a space 
wherein dimension and form are dependent upon position. For instance, 
if we consider merely the case of figures traced on a flattened globe like 



24 report— 1878. 

the earth's surface, or upon an eggshell, such figures cannot be made to 
slide upon the surface without change of form, as is the case with figures 
traced upon a plane or even upon a sphere. But, further still, these 
generalisations are not restricted to the case of figures traced upon a sur- 
face ; they may apply also to solid figures in a space whose very configu- 
ration varies from point to point. We may, for instance, imagine a space 
in which our rule or scale of measurement varies as it extends, or as it 
moves about, in one direction or another ; a space, in fact, whose geometric 
density is not uniformly distributed. Thus we might picture to ourselves 
such a space as a field having a more or less complicated distribution of 
temperature, and our scale as a rod instantaneously susceptible of expan- 
sion or contraction under the influence of heat: or we might suppose 
space to be even crystalline in its geometric formation, and our scale and 
measuring instruments to accept the structure of the locality in which 
they are applied. These ideas are doubtless difficult of apprehension, at 
all events at the outset; but Helmholtz has pointed out a very familiar 
phenomenon which may be regarded as a diagram of such a kind of space. 
The picture formed by reflexion from a plane mirror may be taken as a 
carrect representation of ordinary space, in which, subject to the usual 
laws of perspective, every object appears in the same form and of the same 
dimensions whatever be its position. In like manner the picture formed 
by reflexion from a curved mirror may be regarded as the representation 
•of a space wherein dimension and form are dependent upon position. 
Thus in an ordinary convex mirror objects appear smaller as they recede 
laterally from the centre of the jficture ; straight lines become curved ; 
objects infinitely distant in front of the mirror appear at a distance only 
equal to the focal length behind. And by suitable modifications in the 
curvature of the mirror, representations could similarly be obtained of 
space of various configurations. 

The diversity in kind of these spaces is of course infinite ; they vary 
with the mode in which we generalise our conceptions of ordinary space ; 
but upon each as a basis it is possible to construct a consistent system of 
geometry, whose laws, as a matter of strict reasoning, have a validity and 
truth not inferior to those with which we are habitually familiar. Such 
systems having been actually constructed, the question has not unnaturally 
been asked, whether there is anything in nature or in the outer world to 
which they correspond ; whether, admitting that for our limited experi- 
ence ordinary geometry amply suffices, we may understand that for powers 
more extensive in range or more minute in definition some more general 
scheme would be requisite ? Thus, for example, although the one may 
serve for the solar system, is it legitimate to suppose that it may fail to 
apply at distances reaching to the fixed stars, or to regions beyond ? Or 
again, if our vision could discern the minute configuration of portions of 
space, which to our ordinary powers appear infinitesimally small, should 
we expect to find that all our usual Geometry is but a special case, suffi- 



ADDRESS. 25 

cient indeed for daily use, but after all only a rougli approximation to a 
truer although perhaps more complicated scheme ? Traces of these ques- 
tions are in fact to be found in the writings of some of our greatest and 
most original mathematicians. Gauss, Riemann, and Helmholtz have 
thrown out suggestions radiating as it were in these various directions 
from a common centre ; while Cayley, Sylvester, and Clifford in this 
country, Klein in Germany, Lobatcheffsky in Russia, Bolyai in Hungary, 
and Beltrami in Italy, with many others, have reflected kindred ideas with 
all the modifications due to the chromatic dispersion of their individual 
minds. But to the main question the answer must be in the negative. 
And, to use the words of Newton, since " Geometry has its foundation in 
mechanical practice," the same must be the answer until our experience 
is different from what it now is. And yet, all this notwithstanding, 
generalised conceptions of space are not without their practical utility. 
The principle of representing space of one kind by that of another, and 
figures belonging to one by their analogues in the other, is not only 
recognised as legitimate in pure mathematics, but has long ago found its 
application in cartography. In maps or charts, geographical positions, 
the contour of coasts, and other featiires, belonging in reality to the 
Earth's surface, are represented on the flat ; and to each mode of repre- 
sentation, or projection as it is called, there corresponds a special correla- 
tion between the spheroid and the plane. To this might perhaps be added 
the method of descriptive geometry, and all similar processes in use by 
engineers, both military and civil. 

It has often been asked whether modern research in the field of Pure 
Mathematics has not so completely outstripped its physical applications 
as to be practically useless ; whether the analyst and the geometer might 
not now, and for a long time to come, fairly say, " hie artem remumque 
repono," and turn his attention to Mechanics and to Physics. That the 
Pui'e has outstripped the Applied is largely true ; but that the former is 
on that account useless is far from true. Its utility often crops up ao 
unexpected points ; witness the aids to classification of physical quanti- 
ties, furnished by the ideas (of Scalar and Vector) involved in the Calculus 
of Quaternions ; or the advantages which have accrued to Physical Astro- 
nomy from Lagrange's Equations, and from Hamilton's Principle of Vary- 
ing Action ; on the value of Complex Quantities, and the properties of 
general Integrals, and of general theorems on integration for the Theories 
of Electricity and Magnetism. The utility of such researches can in no 
case be discounted, or even imagined beforehand ; who, for instance, would 
have supposed that the Calculus of Forms or the Theory of Substitu- 
tions would have thrown much light upon ordinary equations ; or that 
Abelian Functions and Hyperelliptic Transcendents would have told us 
anything about the properties of curves ; or that the Calculus of Opera- 
tions would have helped us in any way towards the figure of the Earth ? 
But upon such technical points I must not now dwell. If, however, as 



26 eepoet— 1878. 

I hope, it has been sufficiently shown that any of these more extended 
ideas enable us to combine together, and to deal with as one, properties 
and processes which from the ordinary point of view present marked dis- 
tinctions, then they will have justified their own existence ; and in using 
them we shall not have been walking in a vain shadow, nor disquieting 
our brains in vain. 

These extensions of mathematical ideas would, however, be over- 
whelming, if they were not compensated by some simplifications in the 
processes actually employed. Of these aids to calculation I will men- 
tion only two, viz., symmetry of form, and mechanical appliances ; or, 
say, Mathematics as a Fine Art, and Mathematics as a Handicraft. And 
first, as to symmetry of form. There are many passages of algebra in 
which long processes of calculation at the outset seem unavoidable. Re- 
sults are often obtained in the first instance through a tangled maze of 
formulas, where at best we can just make sure of our process step by 
step, without any general survey of the path which we have traversed, 
and still less of that which we have to pursue. But almost within our 
own generation a new method has been devised to clear this entangle- 
ment. More correctly speaking, the method is not new, for it is inhe- 
rent in the processes of algebra itself, and instances of it, unnoticed per- 
haps or disregarded, are to be found cropping up throughout nearly all 
mathematical treatises. By Lagrange, and to some extent also by Gauss, 
among the older writers, the method of which I am speaking was recog- 
nised as a principle ; but beside these perhaps no others can be named 
until a period within our own recollection. The method consists in sym- 
metry of expression. In algebraical formulas combinations of the quan- 
tities entering therein occur and recur ; and by a suitable choice of these 
quantities the various combinations may be rendered symmetrical, and 
reduced to a few well-known types. This having been done, and one 
such combination having been calculated, the remainder, together with 
many of their results, can often be written down at once, without further 
calculations, by simple permutations of the letters. Symmetrical expres- 
sions, moreover, save as much time and trouble in reading as in writing. 
Instead of wading laboriously through a series of expressions which, 
although successively dependent, bear no outward resemblance to one 
another, we may read off symmetrical formulas, of almost any length, at 
a glance. A page of such formulae becomes a picture : known forms are 
seen in definite groupings ; their relative positions, or perspective as it 
may be called, their very light and shadow, convey their meaning almost 
as much through the artistic faculty as through any conscious ratioci- 
native process. Few principles have been more suggestive of extended 
ideas or of new views and relations than that of which I am now speak- 
ing. In order to pass from questions concerning plane figures to those 
which appertain to space, from conditions having few degrees of freedom 
to others which have many — in a word, from more restricted to less re- 



ADDRESS. ^7 

stricted problems — we have in many cases merely to add lines and columns 
to our array of letters or symbols already formed, and then read off 
pictorially the extended theorems. 

Next as to mechanical appliances. Mr. Babbage, when speaking of 
the difficulty of ensuring accuracy in the long numerical calculations of 
theoretical astronomy, remarked that the science which in itself is the 
most accurate and certain of all had, through these difficulties, become 
inaccurate and uncertain in some of its results. And it was doubtless 
some such consideration as this, coupled with his dislike of employing 
skilled labour where unskilled would suffice, which led him to the inven- 
tion of his calculating machines. The idea of substituting mechanical 
for intellectual power has not lain dormant ; for beside the arith- 
metical machines whose name is legion (from Napier's Bones, Earl 
Stanhope's calculator, to Schultz and Thomas's machines now in actual 
use) an invention has lately been designed for even a more difficult 
task. Prof. James Thomson has in fact recently constructed a machine 
which, by means of the mere friction of a disk, a cyUnder, and 
a ball, is capable of effecting a variety of the complicated calcula- 
tions which occur in the highest application of mathematics to 
physical problems. By its aid it seems that an unskilled labourer 
may, in a given time, perform the work of ten skilled arithmeticians. 
The machine is applicable alike to the calculation of tidal, of mag- 
netic, of meteorological, and perhaps also of all other periodic phe- 
nomena. It will solve differential equations of the second and perhaps 
of even higher orders. And through the same invention the problem 
of finding the free motions of any number of mutually attracting particles, 
unrestricted by any of the approximate suppositions required in the treat- 
ment of the Lunar and Planetary Theories, is reduced to the simple 
process of turning a handle. 

When Faraday had completed the experimental part of a physical 
problem, and desired that it should thenceforward be treated mathemati- 
cally, he used irreverently to say, "Hand it over to the calculators." But 
truth is ever stranger than fiction ; and if he had lived until our day, he 
might with perfect propriety have said, " Hand it over to the machine." 

Had time permitted, the foregoing topics would have led me to point 
out that the mathematician, although concerned only with abstractions, 
uses many of the same methods of research as are employed in other 
sciences, and in the arts, such as observation, experiment, induction, 
imagination. But this is the less necessary because the subject has 
been already handled very ably, although with greater brevity than might 
have been wished, by Professor Sylvester in his address to Section A. 
at our meeting at Exeter. 

In an exhaustive treatment of my subject there would still remain a 
question which in one sense lies at the bottom of all others, and which 
through almost all time has had an attraction for reflective minds, viz., 



28 report — 1878. 

what was the origin of mathematical ideas ? Are they to be regarded as 
independent of, or dependent upon, experience ? The question has been 
answered sometimes in one way and sometimes in another. But the 
absence of any satisfactory conclusion may after all be understood as im- 
plying that no answer is possible in the sense in which the question is put ; 
or rather that there is no question at all in the matter, except as to the 
history of actual facts. And, even if we distinguish, as we certainly 
should, between the origin of ideas in the individual and their origin in a 
nation or mankind, we should still come to the same conclusion. If we 
take the case of the individual, all we can do is to give an account of our 
own experience ; how we played with marbles and apples ; how we learnt 
the multiplication table, fractions, and proportion : how Ave were after- 
wards amused to find that common things conformed to the rules of 
number ; and later still how we came to see that the same laws applied to 
music and to mechanism, to astronomy, to .chemistry, and to many other 
subjects. And then, on trying to analyse our own mental processes, we 
find that mathematical ideas have been imbibed in precisely the same way 
as all other ideas, viz., by learning, by experience, and by reflexion. The ap- 
parent difference in the mode of first apprehending them and in their ulti- 
mate cogency arises from the difference of the ideas themselves, from the pre- 
ponderance of quantitative over qualitative considerations in mathematics, 
from the notions of absolute equality and identity which they imply. 

If we turn to the other question, How did the world at large acquire 
and improve its idea of number and of figures ? How can we span the 
interval between the savage who counted only by the help of outward 
objects, to whom 15 was " half the hands and both the feet," and Newton 
or Laplace ? The answer is the history of mathematics and its successive 
developments, arithmetic, geometry, algebra, &c. The first and greatest 
step in all this was the transition from number in the concrete to number 
in the abstract. This was the beginning not onlv of mathematics but of 
all abstract thought. The reason and mode of it was the same as in the 
individual. There was the same general influx of evidence, the same 
unsought-for experimental proof, the same recognition of general laws 
running through all manner of purposes and relations of life. No wonder 
then if, under such circumstances, mathematics, like some other subjects 
and perhaps with better excuse, came after a time to be clothed with 
mysticism ; nor that, even in modern times, they should have been placed 
upon an a priori basis, as in the philosophy of Kant. Number was no 
soon found to be a principal common to many branches of knowledge that 
it was readily assumed to be the key to all. It gave distinctness of 
expression, if not clearness of thought, to ideas which were floating in the 
untutored mind, and even suggested to it new conceptions. In " the one," 
"the all," "the many in one," (terms of purely arithmetic origin,) it gave 
the earliest utterance to men's first crude notions about God and the 
world. In " the equal," " the solid," " the straight," and " the crooked," 



ADDRESS. 29 

which still survive as figures of speech among ourselves, it supplied a voca- 
bulary for the moral notions of mankind, and quickened them by <nvino- 
them the power of expression. In this lies the great and enduring interest 
in the fragments which remain to us of the Pythagorean philosophy. 

The consecutive processes of Mathematics led to the consecutive pro- 
cesses of Logic ; but it was not until long after mankind had attained to 
abstract ideas that they attained to any clear notion of their connexion 
with one another. In process of time the leading ideas of Mathematics 
became the leading ideas of Logic. The " one " and the " many " passed 
into the " whole " and its " parts ; " and thence into the " universal " and 
the "particular." The fallacies of Logic, such as the well-known puzzle 
of Achilles and the tortoise, partake of the nature of both sciences. 
And perhaps the conception of the infinite and the infinitesimal, as well 
as of negation, may have been in early times transferred from Logic to 
Mathematics. But the connexion of our ideas of number is probably 
anterior to the connexion of any of our other ideas. And as a matter of 
fact, geometry and arithmetic had already made considerable progress 
when Aristotle invented the syllogism. 

Genei'al ideas there were, beside those of mathematics — true flashes of 
genius which saw that there must be general laws "to which the universe 
conforms, but which saw them only by occasional glimpses, and through 
the distortion of imperfect knowledge ; and although the only records of 
them now remaining are the inadequate representations of later writers 
yet we must still remember that to the existence of such ideas is due not 
only the conception but even the possibility of Physical Science. But 
these general ideas were too wide in their grasp, and in early days at 
least were connected to their subjects of application by links too shadowy, 
to be thoroughly apprehended by most minds ; and so it came to pass 
that one form of such an idea was taken as its only form, one application 
of it as the idea itself ; and philosophy, unable to maintain itself at the- 
level of ideas, fell back upon the abstractions of sense, and, by preference 
upon those which were most ready to hand, namely, those of mathematics. 
Plato's ideas relapsed into a doctrine of numbers ; mathematics into mys- 
ticism, into neo-Platonism, and the like. And so, through many lono- 
ages, through good report and evil report, mathematics have always held 
an unsought-for sway. It has happened to this science as to many other 
subjects, that its warmest adherents have not always been its best friends. 
Mathematics have often been brought into matters where their presence 
has been of doubtful utility. If they have given precision to literary 
style, that precision has sometimes been carried to excess, as in Spinoza 
and perhaps Descartes ; if they have tended to clearness of expression in 
philosophy, that very clearness has sometimes given an appearance of 
finality not always true ; if they have contributed to definition in theology 
that definiteness has often been fictitious, and has been attained at the 
cost of spiritual meaning. And, coming to recent times, although we 



30 BEPOKT— -1878. 

may admire the ingenuity displayed in the logical machines of Earl 
Stanhope and of Stanley Jevons, in the ' Formal Logic ' of De Morgan, 
and in the ' Calculus ' of Boole ; although as mathematicians we may feel 
satisfaction that these feats (the possibility of which was clear a priori) 
have been actually accomplished ; yet we must bear in mind that their 
application is really confined to cases where the subject-matter is perfectly 
uniform in character, and that beyond this range they are liable to 
encumber rather than to assist thought. 

Not unconnected with this intimate association of ideas and their 
expression is the fact that, whichever may have been cause, which- 
ever effect, or whether both may not in turn have acted as cause and 
effect, the culminating age of classic art was contemporaneous with the 
first great development of mathematical science. In an earlier part of 
this discourse I have alluded to the importance of mathematical precision 
recognised in the technique of art during the Cinquecento ; and I have 
now time only to add that on looking still further back it would seem 
that sculpture and painting, architecture and music, nay even poetry 
itself, received a new, if not their first true, impulse at the period when 
geometric form appeared fresh chiselled by the hand of the mathematician, 
and when the first ideas of harmony and proportion rang joyously 
together in the morning tide of art. 

Whether the views on which I have here insisted be in any way 
novel, or whether they be merely such as from habit or from inclination 
are usually kept out of sight, matters little. But whichever be the case, 
they may still furnish a solvent of that rigid aversion which both Literature 
and Art are too often inclined to maintain towards Science of all kinds. 
It is a very old story that, to know one another better, to dwell upon, 
similarities rather than upon diversities, are the first stages towards a 
better understanding between two parties ; but in few cases has it a truer 
application than in that here discussed. To recognise the common 
growth of scientific and other instincts until the time of harvest is not 
only conducive to a rich crop, but it is also a matter of prudence, lest in 
trying to root up weeds from among the wheat, we should at the same 
time root up that which is as valuable as wheat. When Pascal's father 
had shut the door of his son's study to mathematics, and closeted him 
with Latin and Greek, he found on his return that the walla were 
teeming with formulae and figures, the more congenial product of the 
boy's mind. Fortunately for the boy, and fortunately also for Science, 
the mathematics were not torn up, but were suffered to grow together 
with other subjects. And all said and done, the lad waa not the worse 
scholar or man of letters in the end. But, truth to tell, considering the 
severance which still subsists in education and during our early years 
between Literature and Science, we can hardly wonder if when thrown 
together in the afterwork of life they should meet as strangers ; or if the 
severe garb, the curious implements, and the strange waives of the latter 



ADDRESS. 31 

should seem little attractive when contrasted with the light companion- 
ship of the former. The day is yet young, and in the early dawn many 
things look weird and fantastic which in fuller light prove to be familiar 
and useful. The outcomings of Science, which at one time have been 
deemed to be but stumbling-blocks scattered in the way, may ultimately 
prove stepping stones which have been carefully laid to form a pathway 
. over difficult places for the children of " sweetness and of light." 

The instances on which we have dwelt are only a few out of many in 
which Mathematics may be found ruling and governing a variety of sub- 
jects. It is as the supreme result of all experience, the framework in 
which all the varied manifestations of nature have been set, that our 
science has laid claim to be the arbiter of all knowledge. She does not 
indeed contribute elements of fact, which must be sought elsewhere ; but 
she sifts and regulates them : she proclaims the laws to which they must 
conform if those elements are to issue in precise results. From the data 
of a problem she can infallibly extract all possible consequences, whether 
they be those first sought, or others not anticipated ; but she can introduce 
nothing which was not latent in the original statement. Mathematics 
cannot tell us whether there be or be not limits to time or space ; but to 
her they are both of indefinite extent, and this in a sense which neither 
affirms nor denies that they are either infinite or finite. Mathematics 
cannot tell us whether matter be continuous or discrete in its structure ; 
but to her it is indifferent whether it be one or the other, and her conclu- 
sions are independent of either particular hypothesis. Mathematics can 
tell us nothing of the origin of matter, of its creation or its annihilation ; 
she deals only with it in a state of existence ; but within that state its 
modes of existence may vary from our most elementary conception to our 
most complex experience. Mathematics can tell us nothing beyond the 
problems which she specifically undertakes ; she will carry them to their 
limit, but there she stops, and upon the great region beyond she is im- 
perturbably silent. 

Conterminous with space and coeval with time is the kino-dom of 
Mathematics ; within this range her dominion is supreme ; otherwise than 
according to her order nothing can exist ; in contradiction to her laws 
nothing takes place. On her mysterious scroll is to be found written for 
those who can read it that which has been, that which is, and that which 
is to come. Everything material which is the subject of knowledge has 
number, order, or position ; and these are her first outlines for a sketch of 
the universe. If our more feeble hands cannot follow out the details, 
still her part has been drawn with an unerring pen, and her work cannot 
be gainsaid. So wide is the range of mathematical science, so indefinitely 
may it extend beyond our actual powers of manipulation, that at some 
moments we are inclined to fall down with even more than reverence 
before her majestic presence. But so strictly limited are her promises and 
powers, about so much that we might wish to know does she offer no 



32 REPORT — 1878. 

information whatever, that at other moments we are fain to call her results 
but a vain thing, and to reject them as a stone when we had asked for 
bread. If one aspect of the subject encourages our hopes, so does the 
other tend to chasten our desires ; and he is perhaps the wisest, and in 
the long run the happiest among his fellows, who has learnt not only 
this science, but also the larger lesson which it indirectly teaches, 
namely, to temper our aspirations to that which is possible, to moderate 
our desires to that which is attainable, to restrict our hopes to that of 
which accomplishment, if not immediately practicable, is at least distinctly 
within the range of conception. That which is at present beyond our ken 
may, at some period and in some manner as yet unknown to us, fall within 
our grasp ; but our science teaches us, while ever yearning with Goethe 
for " Light, more light," to concentrate our attention upon that of which 
our powers are capable, and contentedly to leave for future experience the 
solution of problems to which we can at present say neither yea nor nay. 

It is within the region thus indicated that knowledge in the true sense 
of the word is to be sought. Other modes of influence there are in society 
and in individual life, other forms of energy beside that of intellect. There 
is the potential energy of sympathy, the actual energy of work ; there are 
the vicissitudes of life, the diversity of circumstance, health, and disease, 
and all the perplexing issues, whether for good or for evil, of impulse and 
of passion. But although the book of life cannot at present be read by 
the light of Science alone nor the wayfarers be satisfied by the few loaves 
of knowledge now in oar hands ; yet it would be difficult to overstate the 
almost miraculous increase which may be produced by a liberal distribution 
of what we already have, and by a restriction of our cravings within the 
limits of possibility. 

In proportion as method is better than impulse, deliberate purpose than 
erratic action, the clear glow of sunshine than irregular reflexion, and 
definite utterances than an uncertain sound ; in proportion as knowledge 
is better than surmise, proof than opinion ; in that proportion will the 
mathematician value a discrimination between the certain and the uncer- 
tain, and a just estimate of the issues which depend upon one motive 
power or the other. While on the one hand he accords to his neighbours 
full liberty to regard the unknown in whatever way they are led by the 
noblest powers that they possess ; so on the other he claims an equal right 
to draw a clear line of demarcation between that which is a matter of 
knowledge, and that which is at all events something else, and to treat the 
one category as fairly claiming our assent, the other as open to further 
evidence. And yet, when he sees around him those whose aspirations are 
so fair, whose impulses so strong, whose receptive faculties so sensitive, as 
to o-ive objective reality to what is often but a reflex from themselves, or a 
projected image of their own experience, he will be willing to admit that 
there are influences which he cannot as yet either fathom or measure, but 
whose operation he must recognise among the facts of our existence. 



NOTES. 



Page 6, line 10. It is worth while to compare the following passage from 
Plato's ' Republic,' Book vii. (Jowett's translation) : 

"After plane geometry, we took solids in revolution instead of taking solids in 
themselves ; whereas after the second dimension the third, which is concerned with 
cubes and dimensions of depth, ought to have been followed. 

" It is true, Socrates ; but these subjects seem to be as yet hardly explored. 

" Why, yes, T said, and for two reasons ; in the first place, no government patro- 
nises them, which leads to a want of energy in the study of them, and they are 
difficult ; in the second place, students cannot learn them unless they have a 
teacher. But then a teacher is hardly to be found, and even if one could be found, 
as matters now stand the students of these subjects, who are very conceited, would 
not mind him ; that, however, would be otherwise if the whole state patronised 
and honoured them, then they would listen, and there would be continuous and 
earnest search, and discoveries would be made ; since even now, disregarded as 
they are by the world, and maimed of their fair proportions, and although none of 
their votaries can tell the use of them, still these studies force their way by their 
natural charm, and very likely they may emerge into light." 

P. 11, 1. 44. Compare with this the latter part of Plato's ' Philebus,' on know- 
ledge and the handicraft arts ; also Prof. Jowett's ' Introduction ' thereto. 

P. 13, 1. 40. See ' Trattato della Pittura,' by Leonardo da Vinci ; also the 
' Memoir on the MSS. of L. d. V.,' by Venturi, 1797. 

P. 14, 1. 2. ' The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director,' by Thomas 
Chippendale, London, 1754. 

' The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book,' by Thomas Sheraton, 
London, 1793. 

P. 14, 1. 32. See Sorby's ' Address to the Microscopical Society,' 1876. 

P. 14, 1. 38. 'Phil. Trans, of the Royal Society,' 1870, p. 333; and 1870, p. 27. 

P. 14, 1. 42. < Phil. Trans.,' 1877, p. 149. 

P. 15, 1. 6. 'On Attraction and Repulsion resulting from Radiation,' 'Phil. 
Trans.,' 1874, p. 501 ; 1875, p. 519 ; 1876, p. 325. 

P. 15, 1. 9. ' Philosophical Magazine,' April, 1878. 

P. 15, 1. 10. 'Philosophical Magazine,' 1875, Vol. ii., pp. 337, 446: 187 
Vol. i., p. 321 ; 1878, Vol. i., p. 161. 

P. 15, 1. 20. PoggendorfFs ' Annalen,' Tom. xxxv., p. 337. 

P. 15, 1. 21. ' Royal Society's Proceedings,' 1878. 

P. 15, 1. 28. The Papers on the Telephone are too numerous to specify. 

P. 15, 1. 29. See various Papers in ' Nature,' and elsewhere, during the last 
twelve months. 

1878. C 



34 REPORT — 1878. 

Page 15, line 23. ' Royal Society's Proceedings,' May 9, 1878. 

P. 15, 1. 33. ' Phil. Trans./ Vol. 169, pp. 55 and 155, and other Papers cata- 
logued in the ' Appendix to Part II. of the Memoir.' 

Page 16, line 25. See Maxwell ' On Heat,' chap. xxii. 

P. 17, 1. 29. Grunert's ' Archiv,' Vol. vi., p. 337 ; also separate work, Berlin, 
1862. 

P. 17, 1. 31. ' Linear Associative Algebra,' by Benjamin Peirce, Washington 
City, 1870. 

P. 18, 1. 10. Sir W. Thomson, ' Cambridge Mathematical Journal,' Vol. iii., p. 
174. Jevons' ' Principles of Science,' Vol. ii., p. 438. 

But an explanation of the difficulty seems to me to be found in the fact that the 
problem, as stated, is one of the conduction of heat, and that the " impossibility " 
which attaches itself to the expression for the " time " merely means that previous 
to a certain epoch the conditions which gave rise to the phenomena were not those 
of conduction, but those of some other action of heat. If, therefore, we desire to 
comprise the phenomena of the earlier as well as of the later period in »ne problem 
we must find some more general statement, viz., that of physical conditions which 
at the critical epoch will issue in a case of conduction. I think that Prof. Clifford 
has somewhere given a similar explanation. 

P. 21 1. 13. S. Newcomb ' On Certain Transformations of Surfaces/ ' American 
Journal of Mathematics,' Vol. i., p. 1. 

P. 21, 1. 14. Tait ' On Knots,' ' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,' 
Vol. xxviii., p. 145; Klein, ' Mathematische Annalen,' ix., p. 478. 

P. 27, 1. 18. ' Royal Society's Proceedings,' February 3, 1876, and May 9 
1878. i™™5 

P. 30, 1. 1. For example, in Herbart's ' Psychologies 

P. 30, 1.3. A specimen will be found in the ' Moralia ' of Gregory the Great, 
Lib. I. c. xiv., of which I quote only the arithmetical part: 

" Quid in septenario numero, nisi sunima perfectionis accipitur ? Ut eniui 
humanee rationis causas de septenario numero taceamus, quae afferunt, quod idcirco 
perfectus sit, quia expriino pari constat, et primo,_ impari ; ex primo, qui 
dividi potest, et primO, qui dividi non potest; certissime scimus, quod sep- 
tenarium numerum Scriptura Sacra pro perfectione ponere consuevit. _. . 
A septenario quippe numero in duodenarium surgitur. Nam septenariu3 suis in 
se partibus niultiplicatus, ad duodenarium tenditur. Sive enim quatuor 
per tria, sive per quatuor tria ducantur, septem in duodecim vertuutur. . . . 
Jam superius dictum est quod in quinquagenario numero, qui septem hebdomadibus 
ac monade addita impletur, requies desiguatur ; deuario autem numero suuinia per- 
fectionis exprimetur." 

P. 30, 1. 16. Approximate dates B.C. of — 



rs, Painters, and Poets. 


Mathematicians. 


Stesichorus 


,600. 


Thales, 


600. 


Pindar, 


522-442. 


Pythagoras, 


550. 


yEschylus, 


500-450. 


Anaxagoras, 


500-450 


Sophocles, 


495-400. 


Hippocrates, 


460. 


Euripides, 


480-400. 






Phidias, 


488-432. 






Praxiteles, 


450-400. 


Theaetetus, 


440. 


Zeuxis, 


400. 


Archytas, 


400. 


Apelles, 


350. 






Scopas, 


350. 


Euclid, 


323-283 



EEPOKTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Catalogue of the Oscillation-frequencies of Solar Rays ; drawn up under 
the superintendence of a Committee of the British Association, consist- 
ing of Dr. Huggins (Chairman), Dr. De La Rue, Mr. J. Norman 
Lockyer, Dr. J. Emerson Reynolds, Mr. Spottiswoode, Dr. W. 
Marshall Watts, and Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney (Reporter) *. 

Eveey periodic disturbance of the ether which can be propagated through 
it as an undulation may be represented mathematically by one or more 
terms of the harmonic expansion known as Fourier's series. A single term 
of this scries suffices to represent the undulation when the waves are of 
that simplest type which can be represented by a curve of sines — the curve 
which represents the small oscillations of a pendulum. Eut when the waves 
are of a more complicated form, two or more terms, perhaps all the terms, 
of the series must be retained in order to represent it ; and in such cases 
the terms of the series which remain severally represent the simple sinusoid 
or pendulous undulations, which, if made to coexist in the medium by being 
piled on one another, would become identical with the actual complex undu- 
lation which is present in it. 

The non-periodic disturbances which traverse a medium are of two kinds — 
those which, like the clang of a bell, may be represented by a series consisting 
of sinusoid terms with distinct periodic times, though in this case not 
harmonically, or at least not all harmonically, related ; and those which can 
be decomposed into sinusoid elements only under the condition that the 
elementary undulations have periodic times which pass without hiatus into 
one another. 

Now so long as light is propagated through what is called a vacuum, the 
undulation, however complex, maintains its form unaltered at all distances 
from the source of light ; for in vacuous spaces waves of different periods 
advance at the same rate and directly forwards, and therefore the simple 
component undulations which are represented by the several terms of a 

* A Map of Oscillation-frequencies is in preparation, and will be presented to the 
British Association at the Meeting at Sheffield in 1879. 



38 report — 1878. 

sinusoid series accurately accompany each other throughout their whole 
journey. 

But the event is different if the light encounters an optical agent which 
acts differently on waves of different periods. Of this kind are the prisms 
and diffraction-gratings of our spectroscopes. Here Nature herself effects 
the decomposition which is indicated hy the theory. Waves of different 
periods are compelled to travel in different directions, and thus the several 
terms of the sinusoid series appear under the form of lines in the spectrum. 
The wave-lengths corresponding to each position in the spectrum have been 
determined with great care, and these when corrected for the dispersion of 
the air are proportional to the corresponding periodic times, which thus 
become known. Moreover, the intensities of the lines may be observed, and 
will give the coefficients to be applied to the corresponding terms of the 
sinusoid series. Hence by a discussion of the observations we may expect 
to learn much with regard to the original disturbance caused by the source ot* 
light. Non-periodic disturbances of the second class will be indicated by 
continuous spectra, while the other two classes of disturbances will be dis- 
tinguished by spectra which consist of separate rays : and a careful study of 
the positions and intensities of the rays may give valuable information as to 
the periodic time, and sometimes even as to the particular form of the original 
disturbance. 

Hence in the present state of science it is of importance to facilitate this 
inquiry as much as possible ; and it is hoped that aid will be given to the 
student of nature by the Table now published, in which the oscillation- 
frequencies of the principal rays of the visible part of the solar spectrum 
have been computed from Angstrom's admirable determinations of their 
wave-lengths in air, combined with Ketteler's observations on the dispersion of 
air. Such a table and its accompanying map afford the most assistance that 
can be given towards the detection of harmonic relations ; for rays that are 
harmonically related are therein represented in the simplest form that is 
practicable — in the Table by an arithmetic series of the same type as the series 
of natural numbers, where the common difference is equal to the first term ; 
and in the Map by a series of equidistant lines. 

While this theoretic advantage has been the guiding aim of the Committee, 
they have also kept constantly in view the convenience of observers. A map 
of Oscillation-frequencies offers peculiar facilities for this, as its red end is 

o 

less extended when compared with its blue end than in Angstrom's map and 
more extended than in Kirchhoft's. It thus delineates the spectrum with an 
appearance intermediate between that of a diffraction spectrum and that of 
a prismatic spectrum, and does not distort either spectrum too much for 
practical use. It may thus be employed without inconvenience by observers 
with either of the two great classes of spectroscope. The Committee are 
accordingly occupied in preparing such a Map to accompany the Table. 

The Committee Q were of opinion that it would prove a boon to observers to 
have Kirchhoff's, Angstrom's, and the new numbers in reference to each ray 
brought together in one horizontal line. Before this could be accomplished it 
was necessary to make a systematic comparison of Angstrom's numbers and 
maps with Kirchhoff's, and of both with the actual solar spectrum, in order 
to identify the rays wherever practicable. 

The Committee therefore felt that it was desirable that this work should be 
undertaken ; and it has been satisfactorily accomplished by Charles E. Burton, 
Esq., B.A., F.R.A.S., who has made all observations and computations required 
by the Committee. He has, moreover, inserted (in brackets) in column 2 the 



OSCILLATIOX-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 39 

o 

wave-lengths of those rays of KirchhofFs list which are not found in Ang- 
strom's, wherever it appeared O possiblc to make the interpolation with safety. 

The small corrections which Angstrom indicates at p. 29 of his memoir ('Le 
Spectre Normal du Soleil ') have been applied to his numbers before insert- 
ing them in column 2. Accordingly the numbers of this column which are 
not in brackets represent Angstrom's work in its finished state. 

In column 6 the intensities and widths which Kirchhoff assigns to rays 
between A and G have been reproduced ; and Mr. Burton has continued 

o 

these determinations to all the rays recorded by Angstrom between G and U, 
so that they now cover the whole spectrum from A to H. Before entering on 
this work Mr. Burton prepared himself by a revision of portions of the spec- 
trum which Kirchhoff had delineated, so as to ensure that he should employ 
KirchhofFs symbols in the same sense in which they had been used 1)y Kirch- 
hoff and his assistant Hofmann. 

And in the last column Mr. Burton has thrown the solar rays into such 
groups as appeared to him to be the most convenient to an observer. It will 
probably be possible to improve this part of the work, if a second edition of the 
Catalogue is called for. 
• In columns 3 and 4 are given the steps by which the oscillation-frequencies 
of the rays have been computed from their wave-lengths, in order that it may 
be easy to revise the former if improvements are at any time made upon 

o 

Angstrom's table of wave-lengths, or on the values for the refraction of air 
which have been used. 

The Map which the Committee arc engaged in preparing will bo a mere 
chart, in which the intensities of the rays will be indicated by lines of diffe- 
rent lengths. It does not appear to the Committee to be desirable that they 
should attempt a finished drawing of the Solar Spectrum in the present state 
of spectroscopic science, in which observers may hope soon to have in their 
hands good photographs of every part of the visible spectrum. In order 
meanwhile to supply as far as possible the place of a more finished map, 
tables will be appended which will enable any one 'who possesses KirchhofTs 

. . o 

exquisite map or Angstrom's to place upon them the outlines of a scale of 
oscillation-frequencies, so as to make these maps in a large degree available. 
The Committee will feel obliged to any spectroscopists who are so good as 
to send to G. Johnstone Stoney, 3 Palmerston Park, Dublin, such corrections of 
the present tables as may occur to them, with a view to their insertion in 
future editions. 



Catalogue of the principal Dark Bays of the visible part of the Solar Spec- 
trum, containing all the rays registered by Kirchhoff and Angstrom, 
arranged on a scale of Oscillation-frequencies. 

Explanation'. 

Column 1 gives the position on the Arbitrary Scale attached to Kirchhoffs maps. 

Column 2 reproduces the waye-lengths in tenth-metres as determined by Angstrom, after 
applying to the numbers of Angstrom's list the small corrections which lie indicates 
at p. 29 of his memoir, " Le Spectre Normal du Soleil." The wave-lengths of rays 
recorded by Kirchhoff, but not by Angstrom, hare been introduced within brackets 



40 REPORT — 1878. 

into this column wherever it appeared that the interpolation could be inr.de with 
sufficient safety. The wave-lengths of this list are wave-lengths in air of 700 millims. 
pressure at Upsala and 10° C. temperature. 

Column 3 contains the reciprocals of the numbers in column 2, each multiplied by 10". 
Each number in this column may accordingly be regarded either as the number of 
times that the corresponding wave-length-in-air goes into one millimetre, or as the 
number of complete oscillations in the time fir, where ft is the index of refraction 
of air for that ray. 

Column 4 contains the correction for the dispersion of air of 760 millims. pressure and 
16° temperature, deduced from Ketteler's observations. (See ' Philosophical Maga- 
zine ' for 1866, vol. ii. p. 336.) 

Column 5 gives the oscillation-frequency of each ray in the time r, the time that light 
takes to advance one millimetre in vacuo. Or the numbers of this column may be 
regarded as the numbers of waves per millimetre in vacuo. 

Column 6 indicates the intensity and width of each ray between A and G, as determined 
by Kirehhoff, and between G and H 2 , as determined by Mr. Burton, 6 being the 
most intense and g being very wide, viz. about 0'15 of one degree of the scale of 
oscillation-frequencies. 

Column 7 enumerates the substances which have been found to emit bright rays coincident 
with dark solar rays, and contains some other remarks. 

Column 8. In the last column the rays are bracketed into the groups which strike the eye 
in looking at the spectrum, and to each group is assigned a number winch suffi- 
ciently indicates its position upon the standard scale. 





O 




Cor- 










Position on 


Ang- 




rection 


Oscillation- 


Inten- 




Groups 
of 


KirchhofTs 


strom's 


Reci- 


for the 


frequency 


sity 


1 )l*t(Tlll ,v(l 


Arbitrary 


wave- 


procals. 


disper- 


in the 


and 


'.'1 ■LN.il, (Xli 




Scale. 


lengths 
in air. 




sion of 
the air. 


time r. 


width. 








7604-0 


1315-10 


0-36 


131474 




A. 




... 


73151 


67-03 


0-38 


1366 65 




^ Kirehhoff records 57 rays 






7307-4 


68-48 


» 


136810 




less refrangible than 
4801 (see Appendix 






7300-4 


6979 


II 


136941 




)■ I.), but none of them 






7289-7 


71-80 


Jl 


137142 




have been identified 
with these rays of 






7285-7 


72-55 


II 


137217 





' Angstrom s. 




/4So-i 
\48o - 4 


7274-4 


74-68 


M 


137430 


6c 






(7271-3) 


75-3 


II 


13749 


4d 






; 4*1-2 


72621 


77-01 


11 


137663 


4c 






482-1 


(7260-5) 


77'3 


II 


13769 


2d 




4 


4»3'3 


(7258-3) 


777 


l» 


1377-3 


4d 






484-1 


7256-9 


78-00 


II 


137762 


2d 






4 s 5 -i 


(7253-4) 


787 


)) 


13783 


3d 






486-2 


7249-5 


79-40 


)» 


137902 


6e 






486-8 


(7248-3) 


79-6 


>• 


1379 2 


2 c 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



41 



Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc' 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


488-2 ) 

to I 

488-8 j 


7241-9 


1380-85 


038 


138047 


1 
5a 






4896 


72375 


81-69 


a 


138131 


6c 






/49 1 '* ' 
\49'"5 










f3e 






7230-3 


83-07 


ji 


138269 


i 5b 






49''9 J 










.4c 






493"i 


7224-8 


84-12 


»» 


138374 


2c 






494-1 

/495'4 
H957 


7219-9 
(7214-6) 


85-06 
86-i 


11 
1) 


138468 
13857 


3b 
le 






7213-4 


86-31 


») 


1385 93 


2b 






497'2 


(7208-5) 


87-3 


»» 


13869 


lb 






497'5 


(72075) 


87-4 


» 


13870 


2a 






4984 
4990 

499'9 


7204-6 
7202-5 
71981 


88-00 
8841 
89-25 




138762 
138803 
138887 


4c 

5b 
5d 




Group 1392 

(the a Group). 
Strong. 


500-8 
501-8 


7195-6 
(7191-8) 


89-74 
905 


>> 

1) 


138936 
13901 


3d 
2 c- 






5020 
502-6 
5038 


71910 
7189-3 

7184-7 


90-63 
90-96 
9185 


038 


139025 
139058 
139147 


5b> 
5 c 
6d 






S°4'3 


7182-5 


92-27 


039 


139188 


5b 






5051 


7179-2 


9291 


j) 


139252 


6c 






/5o6 - 2 
\5o6-4 
/5o6 - 6 

\5°7 - 4 
508-2 
509-1 


7175-7 
(7175-0) 
(7143-3) 

7171-3 
(7164-5) 

7163-0 


93'59 

937 

939 

94-45 

958 

96-06 


>> 
)> 
»» 


139320 

13933 

13935 

139406 

13954 

139567 


2b 
5b 
2b 
5c 
3b 
3b 






509-9 


7160-2 . 


96-61 


j» 


1396 22 


2b- 




5 1 09 
5129 


(7156-4) 

(7148-7) 


974 
989 




13970 
13985 


la 
2b 






5I3-6 
517-1 

5'9'3 


7146-0 
(7133-3) 
(7125-3) 


1399-38 
1401-9 
03-5 




139899 

14015 

14031 


3b 
2b 
2b 


Fe. 




5216 


(7116-9) 


05-1 


ti 


14047 


lb. 






529-4 


(7088-6) 


107 


>r 


14103 


lb 






53o-4 


(7085-0) 


114 


it 


14110 


lc 







1»7» 



42 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchhoff. 



532-8 
53 6 '9 
537'3 
54 o-6 
5411 
542-0 

543'6 
544-6 

547'° 

S47-9 
549-6 

551-2 

552'S 
/553-S 

\554-o 
554-6 



557'° 
557-7 
558-1 

559'7 

5615 

562-5 

563-0 

564-1 
565-0 
5660 
5669 

5 6 7'4 

5686 

to 
569-2 

to 
570-0 

570-6 



Aiig- 
sti-om. 



(7075-8) 

(7061-3) 

(70599) 

7047-9 

(7045-6) 

(7041-4) 

7034-0 

(7031-3) 

70250 

7021-6 

7014-2 

70090 

7003-4 

(6998-3) 

69975 

(6995-0) 

6992-5 

6987-2 

6984-3 

(6981-8) 

(6980-1) 

(6973-4) 

6969-5 

(6965-7) 

69643 

(6961-5) 

69623 

69597 

6957-5 

6954-7 

6951-7 

69493 

6945-8 
6941-7 

6940-5 

6938-6 
6936-4 



Reci- 
procals. 



i4i3'3 
16-2 

165 

1886 
193 

20'2 

2I-67 

222 

23-49 

24-18 

2568 

26-74 

2 7 -88 

289 

29-08 

29-6 

30-10 

31-19 

3 ,- 7 8 

3 2 '3 

326 

34-0 

34-82 

356 

35-89 

36-5 

36-31 

36-84 

37-3 
37-88 

38-50 
3899 

397 2 
40-57 

4082 

4121 
4167 



Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 



Frequency. 



Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 



0-39 



0-39 

0-40 



1412 9 
14158 

14161 

141847 

14189 

14198 

142128 

14218 

142310 

142379 

142529 

142635 

142748 

14285 

142868 

14292 

142970 

143079 

143138 

14319 

14322 

14336 

143442 

14352 

143549 

14361 

143591 

143644 

143690 

143748 

143810 

143859 

143932 
144017 

144042 

1440-81 
144127 



lb 
2b 
lb 
3b 
2c 
la 
4b 
3d 
4c 
2b 
3e 
3c 
3c 
lc 
3b 
2b 



la 
2b 
lb 
lc 

lb 

3b 

2c 

4c 

2c 

2c 

2b 

3b 

2b 

1 

2b 

1 

3c 

2b 



Origin, &c. 



Groups. 



Winged 



ray. 



OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



43 



Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion tc 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


572-2 


69321 


144256 


0-40 


144216 


3b 




57*'9 


(6930-0) 


43-0 


?> 


14426 


lb 






573" 6 


69279 


43'44 


»> 


144304 


3c 






S74'4 


(69260) 


43-8 


)» 


14434 


lb 






57S'i 


6922-4 


44-59 


j» 


144419 


2d 






S766 


69171 


45-69 


»j 


144529 


2d 






578-1 


69121 


46-74 


>» 


1446 34 


3d 






579' 6 
581-1 
582-5 


6907-8 
6903-2 
68990 


47'64 
48-60 

49-48 


>> 


144724 
144820 
144908 


3d 
3e 
3e. 




Group 1450 
(the B Group). 
Very strong ; 
atmospheric. 


S83-8 


(6895-0) 


50-3 


)j 


14499 


4e 






585-o 


6891-4 


51-08 


>> 


145068 


4f 






5862 


6888-3 


51-74 


n 


145134 


4e 






587-0 


6885-0 


52-43 


)» 


145203 


3e 






587-9 


6882-6 


52-94 


„ 


145254 


2b 






589-0 


6878 5 


53-80 


)» 


145340 


3b 






5894 


6876-2 


54-29 


)» 


145389 


3b 






5899 


(6875-0) 


54-5 


>> 


14541 


3b 






59°'3 


(6874-0) 


54-8 


J) 


14544 


3b 






590-7 


(6873-0) 


55'° 


»J 


14546 


3b 






591-1 


(6872-0) 


55-2 


J) 


14548 


3b 






59'5 


6871-0 


55-39 


J) 


145499 


4b 


■ 




59>"9 


6869-9 


5562 


» 


145522 


4b 






59 2 '3 






• 




3b 




/59*7 
\5931 


6867-1 


5622 


)> 


145582 


6c 


B. 


(6866-2) 


56-4 


j» 


14560 


4g 


1 


595- 


(6861-8) 


57-3 


)» 


1456-9 


la 




- 


596-6 


(6858-1) 


581 


j» 


14577 


la 






597-4 


6856-3 


5851 


0-40 


145811 


lb 




6oi'2 


(6843-8) 


6 1 -2 


O-4I 


14608 


la 






6or8 


(6841-8) 


61-6 


j> 


14612 


lb 






602-8 


(6838-5) 


62-3 


>» 


14619 


la 




606 
608-3 


6828-0 
6819-0 


6456 

6649 


»» 


146415 
146608 


lb 
la 




Group 1466. 
Faint. 


612-4 


(6806-3) 


692 


>» 


14688 


lb 






6i34 


(6803-1) 

6788-7 


69-9 
73-04 




14695 
1472-63 


1 a 







d2 



44 



REPORT — 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 









Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchkoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


623-4 


(67719) 


1476-7 


0-41 


14763 


lb 






6261 


6763-5 


78-52 


» 


147811 


lb 






6314 


(6761-9) 


78-9 


n 


14785 


lb 






... 


6761-2 


79-03 


» 


147862 








6384 


6726-5 


8666 


»> 


148625 


lb 


Ca. 




6398 


(67210) 


87-9 


1) 


14875 


lb 






641-0 


671716 


88-72 


m 


148831 


2b 


Ca. 




• •• 


6713-8 


89-47 


jj 


148906 








645 '3 


(6704-5) 


9''5 


11 


149H 


lb 






.. . 


67030 


9187 


» 


1491-46 


... 








67010 


9231 


0-41 


149190 


... 






648- 1 










lb 






6543 


6677-6 


i497'54 


0-42 


149712 


2b 






6593 


66631 


1500-80 


11 


150038 


2a 


Fe. 




6657 
669-5 


6659-9 
66431 
66333 


01-52 
05-32 

°7'54 


11 
11 
11 


150110 
150490 
150712 


2 a 
2b 



C Identification of Ang- 

< Strom's ray with Kirch- 

[ hoffs doubtful. 




678-6 


66041 


14-21 


11 


151379 


lb 


Fe. 




6814 


65976 


15-70 


11 


1515 28 


la 






682-8 


6593-3 


16-69 


11 


151627 


lb 






683-1 


65926 


1685 


11 


151643 


2a 


Fe. 




685-3 


65859 


1839 


11 


151797 


lb 






... 


65806 


19-62 


11 


151920 








6898 


65740 


21*14 


11 


152072 


2b 


Fe. 




690-9 


65714 


21-75 


11 


152133 


la 






692-1 


65679 


22-56 


11 


152214 


2a 






6934 1 
to | 

694-1 
to I 

694-8 J 


656210 
6559-79 


23-90 
24-44 


11 
11 


152348 
152402 


6e 


1 C, H, Air. 




... 


6558-42 


»475 


11 


152433 








•«■ 


6557-58 


24-95 


fl 


152453 








■ • . 


655619 


25-27 


11 


1524-85 








• •• 


6551-78 


26-30 


11 


152588 








698-1 


655007 


26-70 


11 


1526-28 


2a 






700-0 


6547-86 


27-22 


11 


152680 


2a 






701-1 


6545-40 


27-79 


11 


152737 


2b 


Fe. 




702'! 


6543-23 


28-29 


11 


1527-87 


2a 























OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



45 









Catalogue 


(continued). 




Kirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion tc 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


702-6 
705-5 


6541-45 
653623 
653322 


1528-71 
2993 
3064 


042 
»» 
11 


152829 

1529-51 
153022 


lb 
2a 






705-9 


6531-74 


30-98 


>t 


153056 


2a 






707-S 


(6526-6) 


32-2 


042 


15318 


lb 






7086 


652314 


33-00 


043 


153257 


2b 






710-5 


651855 
651759 


34-08 
343 1 




153365 
153388 


2e 






711-4 


6515-80 


3473 


i> 


153430 


3c 






712-0 


6514-17 


35I 1 


»> 


1534 68 


2b 






713-2 


(6512-9) 


35'4 


»» 


15350 


lb 






7'4'4 


6511-64 
6501-79 


3571 
38-04 


11 


1535 28 
153761 


lc 






717-8 
7187 I 
to i. 
719-6 J 


6498-25 
6496-31 

6495-12 
6494-18 


38-88 
39'34 

39-62 
39-84 


it 

J» 

t> 

n 


153845 
153891 

153919 
153941 


•2b 
2 
3a 


Ca. 
Ba. 

Fe. 


Group 1539. 
Strong. 


... 


6493-00 


40-12 


a 


153969 








720-1 


6492-41 


40-26 


it 


1539-83 


2e 


Ca. 




721-1 


649007 

6488-68 


40-81 
41-14 


>» 
»» 


153938 
154071 


2b 


Fe. 




7237 

724-2 


6482-79 
648118 


42-5S 
4 2 '93 


a 


154212 
154250 


2c 
lb 


Appears to be the mean of 
two rays. 




725-1 
726-7 
727-8 


647901 

647485 
6471-85 


43-45 
44-44 
45-I5 


tt 
tt 
tt 


154302 
154401 
154472 


lb 
3c 
lc 


Air. 




728-0 

... 


(6471-3) 
6470-75 


45 - 3 
45-42 


tt 
tt 


1544-9 

154499 


2a 






7290 


6468-78 


4589 


a 


154546 


2b 


Ca. 




... 


646714 


4628 


is 


1545-85 








73'7 


6463-74 
646198 


47-09 
47-5I 


tt 
11 


154666 
154708 


5b 


Ca, Fe. 




734-Q 






... 




Id 






... 
7369 


645409 
6449-27 


49-40 
5056 


tt 
tt 


154897 
155013 


3b 


Ca. 




740-9 


6438-35 


53>9 


tt 


155276 


5b 


Ca, Cd. 




743'7 

— ■ • — 


643173 


5479 


tt 


155436 


2b 







46 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue {continued). 



Eirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Eeduc- 
Eeci- tion to 
procals. va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


744'3 


643012 


1555-18 


0-43 


155475 


4b 


Fe. 


748-1 


6420-63 


57-48 


)> 


155705 


4b 


Fe. 


Group 1560- 
Strong. 


748-7 


641917 


57-83 


») 


155740 


3b 




750-1 


6415-90 


58-63 


»» 


155820 


la 






75''° 
752-3 


6414-10 
6410-62 


59-06 
59-9 1 


J) 


155863 
155948 


lb 
4b 


Fe. 




753-8 


6407-38 


60-70 


)» 


156027 


3b 


Sr, Fe. 




756-9 


6399-28 


62-68 


») 


156225 


5b 


Fe. 




759-3 


6392-87 


64-24 


°'43 


156381 


3b 


Fe. 




7642 


6379-99 
6377-58 


67-40 
67-99 


°'44 


156690 
156755 


la 








6364-49 


71-22 


» 


157078 








77i-8 
773-4 
7748 
778-3 
7795 
7819 
783-1 


6361-41 
6357-92 
6354-28 
6346-34 
6343-40 
6338-21 
633616 


7198 
71-84 

7374 
75-71 
76-44 

77'73 
78-24 


■j 
if 


157154 
157140 
157330 
157527 
157600 
157729 
157780 


la 
2b 
2b 
lb 
lb 
3b 
4b 


Zn. 
Fe. 
Fe. 
Eu, Ir. 

Fe. 




783-8 
786-8 
788-9 


6334-54 
(6327 0) 
6321-81 


7865 

80-5 

81-83 




1578-21 

15801 

1581-39 


3b 
la 
3b 


Fe. 
Fe. 




79 i-c 


6318-41 


82-68 


>» 


158224 


Id 


Fe. 




79 1- 4 
792-9 


631717 
6314-18 


8299 

83-74 


>» 
>» 


158255 
158330 


3b 
2d 


Fe. 




794-5 
7981 


6309-78 
6301-88 


84-84 
8683 




158440 
1586 


Id 
3 a 






798-5 
7998 


6301-03 
6298-74 


87-04 
87-62 




158660 
1587-18 


4a 
2b 


Fe. 
Fe. 




800-3 


6296-95 


88-07 


>j 


158763 


2b 






801-5 






ji 




la 






801-2 


6294-27 


8878 


>? 


1588 34 


la 






802-7 


6291-78 


8938 


ti 


158894 


lb 






803-5 


6290 31 


89-75 


»j 


158931 


2a 






... 


6286-69 


90-66 


)» 


159022 








805-8 


6284-99 


91-09 


?> 


159065 


lb 






807-4 

808-2 


6281-81 
6279-79 


91-89 
9241 


11 
11 


159145 
159197 


2b 
2c 




Group 1592- 
Strong. 



















OSCILLATION -FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



47 



Kirchhoff. 


O 

Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


8087 


6278-47 


1592-74 


0-44 


159230 


lc 






809-5 


6277-09 


93-09 


JJ 


159265 


3b 


Au. 




8099 


6276-32 


93-29 


II 


159285 


2d 






8127 


6270-16 


94-86 


)» 


159442 


la 






813-1 


6269-35 


95-06 


)» 


159462 


2a 






8150 


6264-31 
6262-68 


96-34 
9676 


Jl 


159590 
159632 


4b 


Fe. 


Group 1597. 
Strong. 


8168 


6260-37 


9735 


)! 


159691 


2b 


Ti. 




8180 


6257-84 


98-00 


»J 


159756 


3c 






819-0 


6255-51 


98-59 


)J 


159815 


4b 


Fe. 




820-1 


625340 


99-13 


J) 


159869 


4b 


Fe. 




8209 


6251-76 


'599-55 


tJ 


159911 


4b 


Fe. 




823-5 


6246-55 


1600-88 


)» 


160044 


la 


Fe. 




8240 


6245-62 


01-12 


0-44 


160068 


4b 


Fe. 




824-9 


6243-49 


01-67 


0-45 


160122 


Id 


1 




... 


624260 


01-90 


3) 


160145 








... 


624051 
623942 
6237 55 


02-43 
02-71 
0319 




160198 
160226 
160274 




Two other rays of Kirch- 
hoff's lie within this 
space, viz. 826-4 (2 a), 
and 827-6 (1 a). 






6237-09 


03-31 


)) 


160286 








828-0 


6236-33 


03-51 


») 


160306 


2 a 


/ 




830-2 


6231-72 


04- 6 9 


J> 


160424 


3b 


Fe. 


Group 1604 


8310 


6229-91 


05-16 


>> 


160471 


4c 


Fe. 


Strong. 


8317 


6228 35 


05-56 


J» 


160511 


lb 






... 


6225-62 


0626 


Jl 


160581 










9222-57 


07-05 


J> 


1606-60 










6221-10 


07-43 


JJ 


1606 98 








836-5 


621846 


08-11 


JJ 


160766 


2b 


Ti. 




838-2 


6215-67 


08-83 


Jl 


160838 


lb 






8386 


6214-30 


0919 


JJ 


160874 


2b 


Ti. 




8392 


6212-55 


09-64 


J 1 


160919 


2b 


Fe. 




8457 


6199 85 


12-94 


1) 


161249 


2 b 


Fe. 




8497 


6190-71 


15-32 


JJ 


161487 


3c 


Fe. 




8512 


(6188-3) 


'59 


JJ 


16154 


la 






8518 


618726 


1622 


jj 


161577 


la 






8550 


617946 


1826 


)» 


161781 


2a 


Fe. 





48 



REPORT — 1878. 
Catalogue (continued). 





O 




Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


856-8 


6175-95 


1619-19 


0-45 


161874 


2a 


Ni. 




857-5 


6174-51 


1956 


)) 


1619H 


2a 






858-3 


6172-49 


20-09 


»J 


161964 


2 a 


Fe. 




859-7 
860-2 


6169-59 
616848 


20-85 
21-14 


11 
It 


162040 
162069 


3a 

3d 


Ca. 


Group 1621 
Strong. 


8616 


616562 


21-90 


11 


162145 


2a 






862-2 


(6165-0) 


22" I 


11 


16216 


la 






863-2 


6163-95 


22-34 


11 


162189 


2c 






8639 


616269 


22-67 


J! 


162222 


5 b 






864-4 


6161-40 


23-0I 


II 


162256 


Id 


Ca. 




... 


6160-23 


23-32 


J) 


162287 




Na. 




8662 
867-1 


6156-90 
(6155-3) 


24-19 
24-6 


11 
It 


162374 
16241 


2b 
2b 



Identification of Angstrom's 
ray with Kirchhoflf's 
doubtful. 




8676 


6154-41 


2485 


It 


162440 


la 


Na. 




... 


615389 


2499 


11 


162454 








... 


6153-33 


2514 


1* 


162469 








869-2 


6150-68 


25-84 


19 


162539 


2b 






870-9 


6148-28 


26-47 


11 


1626-02 


lb 


Fe. 




871-4 
872-5 


6146-76 
614409 


26-82 

27-58 


11 


162637 
162713 


2b 
lb 




Group 1628- 
Strong. 


874-0 


(6141-4) 


28-3 


11 


16278 


lb 






874-3 


6140-81 


28-45 


It 


162800 


4b 


Ba. 






6136-32 


2964 


It 


162919 


... 






876-5 


6136-82 


29-51 


H 


162906 


4a 






877-0 


613582 


29-77 


11 


162932 


4c 


Fe. 




879-8 


6130-59 


3I-l6 


11 


163071 


lb 






880-9 


6128-61 


3169 


11 


1631-24 


la 






88r6 


612700 


3212 


it 


163167 


2a 


Ti. 




8826 


6125-29 


32-58 


It 


163213 


la 






883-2 


6123-92 


3*'94 


11 


1632-49 


lb 






884-9 


6121-34 


33' 6 3 


it 


163318 


4b 


Ca, Co. 




... 


6118-93 


34-27 


11 


163382 








8877 


6115-51 


35-I9 


0-45 


163474 


2a 


Ni. 




890-2 


611011 


3663 


0-46 


163617 


lb 


Ba. 




891-7 


6107-36 


37'37 


j» 


1636-91 


2a 


Ni. 




... 


6104-58 


38-11 


it 


1637-65 









OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 
Catalogue (continued). 



49 









Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirehhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


8949 


610192 


1638-83 


046 


163837 


2e 


Ca, Li. 




896-! 


6099-08 


3959 


» 


163913 


la 






8967 


609766 


39"97 


n 


163951 


lb 


Ti. 




8989 


6095-20 


40-63 


»» 


164017 


la 






8991 


609402 


4095 


n 


1640-49 


la 






900a 


6092-42 


4138 


*> 


164092 


la 


f Identification on Kirch- 
\ hoff's map doubtful. 




... 


6090-59 


41-88 


» 


1641-42 




Ti. 




901-4 


6088-42 


42-46 


ii 


164200 


la 


"1 Identification on Kirch- 
j hoff s map doubtful. 




9or6 


6086-69 


4293 


tt 


164247 


la 




902-4 


(6085-1) 


43'4 


n 


16429 


la 






903-1 


6083-27 


43-85 


m 


164339 


la 


Ti. 




903-6 


6082-10 


44'i7 


n 


164371 


la 






904^6 


(6080-4) 


44-6 


f» 


16441 


la 






906-1 


6077-80 


45"33 


»i 


164487 


2c 


Fe. 




... 


6075-87 


45-85 


11 


1645 39 


... 






912-1 


6064-70 


48-89 


»» 


164843 


3b 


Fe, Ti. 




916-3 


6055-29 


5i'45 


n 


165099 


2b 


Fe. 






6053-28 


52-00 


u 


165154 








923-0 


6041-37 


55 #2 5 


11 


165479 


2b 






929-5 


602614 


59"44 


ji 


165898 


2b 


Fe. 


Group 1666- 


931-3 


602316 


6026 


11 


165980 


4b 


Fe. 


Strong. 


93 2 '5 


6020-91 


6088 


11 


166042 


4b 


Mn. 




933 3 


6019-33 


61-31 


11 


166085 


4c 


Fe. 




935 1 


6015-81 


62-29 


11 


166183 


4b 


Mn. 




936-7 


6012-68 


63-15 


•11 


166269 


4b 


Mn. 




937'4 


6011-42 


63-50 


11 


166304 


lb 






940-1 


6007-65 


6454 


11 


166408 


3b 


Fe. 




940-4 


(6007-2) 


64-7 


11 


1664-2 


3b 


Ti? 




943'4 


6002-25 


66-04 


11 


1665-58 


3 b 


Fe. 




946-6 


5997-08 


67-48 


11 


166702 


3b 






947-0 


5996-44 


6766 


n 


1667-20 


la 






949'4 


(5995-6) 


67-9 


11 


16674 


lb 






949-8 


5990-20 


69-39 


11 


1668 93 


lb 








5989-89 


69-48 


11 


166902 








95 I- 7 


598810 


6998 


11 


1669-52 


1c 






952-9 


5986-35 


70-47 


11 


167001 


3b 


Fe. 




9543 


5984-35 


71-02 


11 


167056 


3b 


Fe. 





50 








REPORT- 


-1878 


. 




• 








Catalogue (continued). 









Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchkoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


;ion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


9548 


598301 


1671-40 


0-46 


167094 


3b 


Fe. 




... 


5977-27 


73-00 


0-47 


1672-53 




Ti. 




9588 


597623 


73'3° 


It 


1672-83 


3b 


Fe. 




959-6 


5974-79 


73-70 


it 


167323 


3b 


Fe. 




961-9 


5970-44 


74-92 


It 


1674-45 


la 








5909-22 


7526 


it 


167479 








9637 


596735 


7579 


it 


1675-32 


lc 






964-4 


(5965-9) 


762 


it 


16757 


lc 








596352 


7686 


»j 


167639 


... 








5961-67 


7738 


it 


167691 


... 






968-7 


5957-22 


7863 


a 


167816 


2a 






969-0 


(5956-2) 


78-9 


11 


1678-4 


2 a 






9696 


5955-63 


79-08 


a 


167861 


3a 






97°'5 


5953-90 


79'57 


11 


167910 


lb 






971'S 


5951-96 


80-12 


ti 


167965 


2c 


Ti. 




972-1 


5950-41 


80-56 


11 


168009 


lb 






973-1 


5948-44 


8rn 


tt 


168064 


3 a 






973'5 


5947-62 


8i-35 


it 


168088 


3a 


Fe. 




974'3 


5945-97 


8181 


tt 


168134 


2a 






975-0 


5944-98 


82-09 


11 


1681-62 


2a 








594362 


82-48 


tt 


168201 


... 






9768 


5941-71 


83-02 


11 


168255 


3a 






977-4 


(5940-9) 


83-2 


11 


16827 


2a 






977-7 


594043 


83-38 


11 


168291 


2a 






979-1 


593744 


8423 


11 


168376 


lb 


' 


Two otber rays of 




... 


593505 


84-91 


11 


168444 






Kii'chkofFs lie in 
this interval, viz. 




... 


5934-03 


85-20 


»» 


168473 




Fe. j 9808 (1 a) and 




9820 


5931-76 


85-84 


it 


1685 37 


la 


) 981-2 (3 b). 




982-3 


5931-18 


86-00 


it 


168553 


2a 






983-0 


5929-46 


86-49 


)1 


168602 


3c 


Fe. 




984-5 


5927-37 


87-09 


a 


168662 


lc 


j Identification on Kirck- 
[ koff's map doubtful. 




986-3 


592402 


88-04 


it 


168757 


la 






9867 


592299 


8834 


tt 


168787 


2c 






987-4 


592169 
592087 


88-71 
8894 


it 

1) 


168824 
168847 


lb 






9889 


591909 


8945 


it 


168898 


2a 






989-2 


(5918-4) 


896 


it 


16891 


2a 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



51 



Kirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Keei- 
procals. 


Eeduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


9896 


5917-51 


1689-90 


0-47 


168943 


2a 






990-8 


5914-60 


90-73 


11 


169026 


2a 






991-2 


(5914-1) 


90-9 


JJ 


16904 


la 






99'-9 


5913-30 


91-10 


) J 


1690-63 


3b 


Fe. 




992-4 


5912-09 


9''45 


It 


169098 


la 






9939 


5909-72 


9213 


»J 


169166 


lb 






994 - 3 


5908-13 


92-58 


JJ 


169211 


lb 






995-0 


590725 


92-84 


») 


169237 


la 






997-2 


5904-56 


9361 


)) 


169314 


2b 


Fe. 




9981 


5902-77 


9412 


»» 


169365 


la 






9989 


5901-44 


94-50 


)» 


169403 


la 






999-2 


5900-52 


94-76 


)J 


169429 


la 






iooo-o 


5899-10 


95'i7 


J) 


169470 


la 


Ti. 




1000-4 


5898-09 
5897-40 


95-46 
9566 




1694-99 
169519 


la 






1 00 1 -4 


5897-08 


9575 


„ 


169528 


la 








5895-53 


96-20 


1) 


169573 








1002-8 


5895-13 
5895 04 


9631 
96-34 


J) 


169584 
1695 87 


6b 


D p Na. 


Group 1697 
(theD Group). 


1005-0 


5892-50 
5892-10 


97-07 
97-19 


J) 

J) 


1696-60 
1696-72 


2b 


Hi. 




... 


5891-56 


97-3+ 


)J 


1696-87 








... 


5890-78 


97-57 


J) 


169710 








1006-8 


5889-12 


98-05 


» 


169758 


6b 


D 2 , Na. 




... 


5886-69 


9875 


»J 


169828 


... 






... 


5885-29 


9915 


>» 


169868 


... 






IOII'2 


588319 


9977 


)» 


169930 


3a 


Fe. 




... 


5882-71 
5880-22 


1699-90 

1700-62 




169943 
170015 


... 






... 


587915 


00-93 


»> 


1700-46 








I023-0 


5865-47 


04- 8 9 


,, 


1704-42 


la 


Ti. 




... 


5863-34 


05-51 


0-47 


170504 








1025-5 
1027-7 


5861 -56 

5858-68 


06-03 
0687 


0-48 


170555 
170639 


3 a 
2a 


Fe. 

Fe. 


Group 1705. 

Strong. 


I029 - 3 


5856-60 
5855-38 


07-47 
07-83 


it 


170699 
170735 


3c 


Ni, Ca. 





















52 



REPORT — 1878. 









Catalogue 


[continued). 










Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


... 


585453 


1708-08 


048 


170760 








1031-8 


5852-84 


08-57 


it 


170809 


2 a 


Ba. 




1032-8 
1035-3 


5851-48 
5847-50 
5846-41 


08-97 
10-13 

1045 


n 

it 

it 


1708-49 
170965 
170997 


la 
la 


/Identification on Kirch - 
I hofFs map doubtful. 




... 


5832-63 
5821-85 


14-49 
17-67 


11 
tt 


171401 
171719 








1058-0 


5815-66 
5813-28 


19-49 

2O-20 


it 
11 


171901 
171972 


2b 


Fe. 


Group 1719. 
Faint. 


1063-0 


5808-48 
5807-30 


21-62 

2197 


tt 
it 


172114 
1721-49 


2 b 


Fe. 


Group 1722. 
Faint. 


1065-0 


580596 


22-37 


ii 


172189 


2b 






1066-0 


5804-57 


22-78 


11 


172230 


la 






1067-0 


5803-64 


23-06 


11 


1722-58 


2b 


Fe. 




1070-5 


579739 
5796-52 


2491 

25-17 


tt 
tt 


172443 
1724-69 


2b 


Fe. 


Group 1725. 
Faint. 


1073-5 


579317 


26-17 


It 


172569 


la 






1074-2 


5792-40 


26-40 


tt 


172592 


la 






1075-5 


5790-30 


27-03 


» J 


172655 


3a 


Fe. 
















C Identification of Ang- 




1077-5 


5787-07 


27-99 


tt 


1727-51 


la 


< strom's ray with Kirch- 
[ hoflTs doubtful. 




1078-9 I 

to I 

1079-7 J 


5784-79 


28-67 


it 


172819 


1 




Group 1729. 
Faint. 


1080-3 


(5783-7) 


29-0 


It 


17285 


la 






1080-9 


5782-80 


29-27 


11 


172879 


la 






1081-8 


5781-39 


2969 


11 


172921 


2b 


Cu. 




1083-0 


5779-94 


30-12 


it 


1729-64 


2a 


Ba. 




... 


5777-60 


30-82 


it 


173034 


... 






1087-5 


5774-21 


31-84 


tt 


173136 


2a 


Fe. 




1089-6 


5771-33 


32-70 


a 


173222 


2a 






1096-1 
1096-8 


5762-04 
(5761-3) 


35'5° 

357 


it 
11 


173502 
17352 


3c 

la 


Fe. 


Group 1737. 
Faint. 


1097-8 


5760-30 


36-02 


»» 


173554 


la 






1 1 00-4 


5756-20 


37-26 


it 


173678 


la 






II02'1 


5753-66 


38-02 


tt 


173754 


3b 


Fe. 




II02'9 


5752-27 


3844 


ti 


173796 


3a 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES 01' SOLAR RAYS. 



53 











Catalogue i 


contin 


ued). 






O 




Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirckhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 
va- 


Frequency. 


sity 
and 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 








cuum. 




width. 






1103-3 


575209 


1738-50 


0-48 


173802 


2b 






1104-1 


(5751-9) 


386 


11 


17381 


2b 






1107-1 


5746-88 


40-07 


048 


173959 


2c 






1 1 1 1 '4 


5741-02 


41-85 


0-49 


174136 


la 






1119-0 


5730-64 


45-01 






174452 


2a 


Fe. 




II22'6 


5725-90 


46-45 






174596 


2a " 






1128-3 


5716-98 
5716-26 


49 -I 7 
49'39 






1748-68 
174890 


2b 


Fe. 


Group 1752. 
Faint. 


1130-9 


5714-09 


50-06 






174957 


2b 


Fe, Ti. 




... 


5713-43 


50-26 






174977 


... 






1133-1 


5710-94 


51-02 






175053 


3c 


Fe. 




II33-9 


571005 


51-30 






175081 


3c 






1135-1 


5708-45 


5179 






175130 


4d 


Fe. 




1135-9 


5707-28 


52-15 






175166 


2c 






1137-0 


5706-14 


5*'5° 






175201 


2b 






1137-8 


5705-16 


52-80 






175231 


3b 


Fe. 




... 


5703-59 
5702-72 


53^8 
53-55 






175279 
175306 


... 






1141-3 


57C054 


54-22 






175373 


2c 


Fe. 




1143-6 


5697-38 
5695-60 


5519 
5574 






175470 
175525 


2c 






1146*2 


569411 


56-20 






175571 


lb 






1 147-2 


5692-91 


56-57 






175608 


lb 






1-48-6 


5690-74 


57'24 






175675 


lb 




Group 1758. 


1 1494 


5689-48 


57-63 






175714 


lb 


Ti. 


Strong. 


1151-1 


5687-34 


5829 






175780 


4b 


Na. 




1152-5 


5685-68 


58-80 






175831 


2b 


Fe. 




1154-2 


568361 


59'44 






175895 


2b 






/ I, 557 
\"55-9 


5681-52 


60-09 






175960 


3b 


Na. 














2c 


Ti. 




1158-3 


5678-08 


6ri6 






176067 


2a 


Fe. 




1 1 60-9 


5674-58 


62-24 






176175 


2a 


Ti. 




11652 


(5668-6) 


64- 1 






17636 


la 






1165-7 


(5667-9) 


64-3 






17638 


la 






1167-0 


566617 


6486 






1764-37 


Id 




Group 1767- 


11683 


5664-67 


65-33 






176484 


la 




Strong. 


1169-4 


5662-95 


6586 






176537 


la 







54 








REPORT 1878. 








Catalogue (continued). 










Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchkoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1170-6 


566165 


1766-27 


0-49 


176578 


2c 


Fe, Ti. 




... 


5659-77 


66-86 


)» 


1766 37 


... 






1174-2 


5657-70 


67-50 


it 


176701 


5d 


Fe. 




1175-0 


5656-85 


6y77 


)» 


1767-28 


2 a 




11766 


5654-56 


6848 


ft 


176799 


3 c Fe. 




1177-0 


(56540) 


68-7 


»» 


1768-2 


2a 1 




1177-3 


5653-50 


6882 


)» 


1768-33 


la 




1177-6 


(56531) 


689 


»» 


17684 


la 




1178-6 


5651-74 


69-37 


»» 


176888 


la 




1179-0 


(5651-2) 


695 


)» 


17690 


la 






1179-4 


(5650-7) 


69-7 


J> 


17692 


la 






1179-8 


(56500) 


699 


»' 


17694 


la 






11802 


5648-11 


70-50 


J» 


177001 


la 






1183-4 


5644-73 


71-56 


„ 


177107 


2a 






1 1 848 


564319 


72-05 


»» 


177156 


3a 


Ti. 




11868 


(5640-7) 


72-8 


„ 


17723 


2a 






1187-1 


5640-35 


72-94 


)] 


1772-45 


2a 


Fe. 




11893 


5637-36 


7388 


») 


177339 


3b 


Fe. 


Group 1774 


1190T 


5636-39 
563467 


7418 
74-73 


» J 


177369 
177424 


2b 
... 


Faint. 


11931 


5632-79 


75-32 


O49 


1774-83 


3a 


Fe. 




1 J996 

I200'6 


5624-50 
5623-36 


77 - 93 

78-30 


0'50 

J* 


177743 
1777-80 


2d 
4 b 


Fe. 


Group 1779. 
Strong. 


I20I-0 


(5622-8) 


78-5 


J» 


17780 


2a 






1203-5 


(5621-1) 


79'° 


it 


1778-5 


2c 






... 


561941 


79-55 


»> 


177905 


... 






I204-2 


5618-63 


7979 


II 


177929 


2c 






1204-9 


5617-95 


8o - oi 


11 


177951 


2d 






I206l 


5616-22 


80-56 


J» 


178003 


lc 






1207-3 


561465 


8105 


)) 


1780-55 


5g 


Fe. 




I2I7-8 
1219-2 

I220-I 


5601-84 
5600 35 
5599-06 


85-13 
8560 
86-oi 


|1 


178463 
178510 
178551 


5d 

3c 
2c 


Fe, Ca. 
Ca. 


Group 1787 

(the Calcium 

Group). Very 

strong. 


I22J-6 


5597-31 


86-57 


J» 


178607 


5d 


Ca, Fe. 




1224-7 


5593-56 


87-77 


»> 


178727 


5d 


Ca. 




I225-3 


5592-76 


88-03 


11 


1787-53 


lb 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



55 









Catalogue (continued). 




Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 

1 


1464-8 










la 






1465-3 




... 






la 






1226-6 


5591-32 


1788-49 


0-50 


178799 


2d 


Fe. 




1228-3 


5589-17 


89-17 




178867 


2d 


Ca. 




1229-6 


5587-76 


89-63 




178913 


4c 


Ca. 




1230-5 


5586-79 


89-94 




178944 


2c 






1231-3 


5585-69 


90-29 




178979 


5d 


Fe. 




1232-8 


5583-96 


90-84 




179034 


2b 


Fe. 




1235-0 
1237-8 


5580-94 
5577-69 


9181 
9286 




179131 
1792-36 


3d 

2c 


Ca. 
Fe. 


Group 1795. 
Strong. 


1239-9 


557504 


93-71 




1793-21 


4a 


Fe. 




1242-6 


5571-82 


94-75 




179425 


6c 


Fe. 




1245-6 


5568-64 


95-77 




179527 


4d 


Fe. 




1247-4 


5566-50 


9646 




179596 


3b 






12486 


5564-78 


97-02 




1798-52 


3d 


Fe. 




1250-4 


5562-88 


97-63 




179713 


3c 






1251-1 


5561-92 


97-94 




179744 


2b 






1253-3 


5559-40 


9876 




179826 


2b 






1255-2 


5557-22 


179946 




179896 


2b 






1257-5 


555404 


1800-49 




179999 


3c 






1258-5 


5552-79 


00-90 




180040 


2b 






1264-4 


(5546-2) 


03-0 




1802-5 


la 






1264*9 


554559 


03-23 




180273 


2 a 


Fe. 




12673 


5542-83 


04-13 




1803-63 


3a 






1268-0 


5542-10 


04-37 




180387 


3 a 


Fe. 




1271-9 


(5537-1) 


06-0 




18055 


la 






1272-4 


5536-48 


06'20 




180570 


la 






1274-2 


5534-21 


0694 




180644 


3b 


Ba. 




1274-7 


(5533-6) 


07-1 




18066 


3 a 


Sr. 




1276-2 


5531-77 


°7'74 




180724 


2a 


Fe. 




1276-7 


(5531-2) 
5529-64 


°7'9 
08 -44 




18074 
180794 


la 






1280-0 
1281-3 


5527-54 
5526-05 


0912 
0961 




180862 
180911 


6d 
3c 


Mg. 
Fe. 


Group 1809 
Faint. 


1282-6 


5524 81 
5523-17 


IO P 02 

10-55 




180952 
181004 


2c 






!28 5 -3 


5521-64 


iro6 




181055 


2c 























56 



REPORT 1878. 

Catalogtte (continued). 



Kirchkoff. 


•Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1287-5 


5519-64 


1811-71 


0-50 


1811-20 


lc 


Ba. 




1289*7 


5515-73 


1298 






181247 


2c 






1 291 "9 
12938 


5513-49 
5511-95 


1373 

14-24 






181322 
181373 


3c 
3c 


Ti. 
Ti. 


Group 1817- 
Fainfc. 


1294-5 


5511-65 


H'34 






181383 


3c 






1295-6 


(5510-3) 


14-8 






18143 


la 






1296-3 


5509-43 


15-07 






181456 


2c 






1297-5 


550769 


1564 






181513 


la 






1298-9 


5505-99 


16-20 






181569 


5c 






1299-7 


5505-29 


16-43 






181592 


2c 








5502-90 


17-22 






181671 


... 


Ti. 




1302-0 


5501-99 


17-52 






181701 


2c 






J3°3'5 


5500-65 


i7"97 






1817-46 


5c 


Fe. 




13067 


5496-74 
5493-62 
5492-63 


19-26 
20-29 
20-62 






1818-75 
181978 
182011 


5c 


Fe. 






548905 


21-81 






182130 




Fe, Ti. 




13150 
13*57 


548694 
(5486-2) 


22-51 

228 






182200 
18223 


4c 
2 b 


Fe, Ti. 


Group 1824- 
Faint. 


1319-0 


5482-51 


2398 


0-50 


1823-47 


3c 


Co. 




1320-6 


5480-29 


24-72 


051 


182421 


4c 


Sr, Ti. 




1321-1 


(5479-7) 


24-9 






18244 


3b 






1323-3 


547754 


2564 






182513 


2b 






1324-0 


(5476-8) 


25-9 






1825-4 


2b 






1324-8 


547604 


26-14 






182563 


4d 


Ni. 




!325'3 


(5475-6) 


26-3 






18258 


2d 






1327-7 


5473-43 


27-OI 






182650 


4b 


Ti. 




1328-7 


5472-40 


27-35 






182684 


2b 






!33°'4 


5469-88 


28-19 






182768 


3b 






13333 


(5466-6) 


293 






18288 


la 






1334-0 


5465-75 


*9"57 






182906 


4b 


Fe. 




>336-3 


5463-33 


30-39 






182988 


lb 






1337-0 


5462-44 


3068 






183017 


4d 


Fe. 




13378 


(5461-5) 


31-0 






1830-5 


lb 






1338S 


(5460-7) 


3''3 






18308 


lb 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



57 









1 


Jatalogue 


(continued). 




Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc 
tioii tc 
va- 
cuum 


Frequency 


Inten 

sity 

' and 

width 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


'343'5 


5454-84 


1833-23 


0-51 


183272 


6c 


Fe 1 

Between these ray 


i 


1351-1 

1352-7 


5446-07 
5444-38 


36-19 
3676 




183568 
1836 25 


5d 
5b 


Fe, Ti. j is a rav of Ti - 

|Fe. 


Group 1839- 

Strong. 


'356-5 


(5440-3) 


381 


>) 


18376 


la 




1360-9 


5435-58 


3973 


it 


1839 22 


la 






1361-6 


543499 


39'93 


)) 


183942 


la 






1362-9 

1364-3 
1364-7 

1367-0 


543317 

5431-89 
(54315) 

542896 


4°'55 

4098 
411 

41-97 


J) 


184004 

184047 
18406 

184146 


5b 

la 
la 

6d 


Fe. 

( These positions are on the 

assumption that what 
\ Angstrom measured was 

the less refrangible of 
v. the two rays. 
Fe, Ti. 




1371-4 


(5424-8) 


43-4 


V 


18429 


lb 


Ba. 




1372-1 


(5424-2) 


436 


Fj 


18431 


lb 






13726 


5423-70 


43-76 


it 


184325 


5b 


Fe. 




1374-8 
'375'8 


5420-26 
541962 


44 - 93 

45-I5 


it 
0' 5 I 


184442 
184464 


lc 
2a 



r Identification of A ng- 
strom's ray with Kirch- 
L hoffs doubtful. 




'377 - 4 


5418-06 


45-68 


C52 


184516 


la 


Ti. 




1379-0 
1380-5 


5416-22 
5414-63 


46-31 

46-85 


tt 


184579 
184633 


la 
4c 


Fe. 


Group 1850- 

Strong. 


13847 

'3857 
13863 
1387-4 


5413-54 
5412-57 
541015 
540912 
5408-73 
5406-67 


47-22 

47-55 
48-38 

48-73 
4886 

49-57 


)» 
tt 
)) 
h 
it 


184670 
184703 
1847-86 
1848-21 
1848 34 
184905 


4c 
5 b 
2b 
2b 


Fe. 

Cr. 

f Identification with 

Ti. \ Kirchhoffs very 
1 doubtful. 




'389-+ 


5404-95 


50-16 


it 


1849-64 


6 c 


Fe. 




1390-9 


5403-28 


50-73 


it 


185021 


5d 


Fe, Ti. 




1394-2 

'395'3 
13964 


5399-71 
539840 
5397-35 


5I-95 
52-40 
52-76 


tt 


185143 
1851-88 
185224 


4c 
lc 
2c 


Fe. 




'397'5 
1400-2 
1401-6 


539619 
5393-63 
5392-38 
5391-38 


53-16 

54-04 

54-47 
54-8 1 


is 

tt 

tt 


185264 
185352 
185395 
185429 


5c 
3 b 

4c i 


Fe, Ti. 

Fe. 




14031 


539073 


55'°4 


11 


185452 


3c 






1404-1 


5389-60 


55-42 


> > 


1854-90 


lb 


Fe. 




187 


3. 















58 








REPORT— 


-1878 




% 




Catalogue (continued). 








] 


leduc- 




Inten- 






Kirthhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Keci- 
procals. 


ionto 

va- 
cuum. 


frequency. 


sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1405-2 


5388-63 


185576 


0*52 


185524 


3b 






1410-5 


5382-47 


57-88 


»' 


1857-36 


4c 


Fe. 




1412-5 


538034 


5862 


1 i 


185810 


2b 


Ti. 




1414-0 


5378-76 


59-16 


j» 


185864 


2b 


Fe. 




1415-8 


5376-70 


5988 


jj 


185936 


2b 






1419-4 


537271 


61-26 


j) 


186074 


2b 




Group 1863 
Strong. 


1421-5 


537065 


61-97 


)» 


186145 


6c 


Fe. 


14230 


536915 


62-49 


)j 


186197 


5 b 


Fe. 




i4*3'5 


(5368-6) 


62-7 


») 


18622 


2b 


Co. 




14:-. 5-4 


5366-65 


63-36 


j» 


1862-84 


5b 


Fe. 




H«7'5 


536453 


64-10 


»» 


186358 


3b 






1428-2 


536411 


64-24 


>> 


1863-72 


5b 


Fe. 




1433-1 


536204 


6496 


j» 


1864-44 


5b 


Fe. 




14312 


5360-86 


65'37 


II 


186485 


lb 






1438-9 


5352-57 


68-26 


J» 


186774 


4c 


Co, Fe. 


Group 1870 
Strong. 


144 D'2 


5351-36 


6868 


a 


1868-16 


lb 


Co. 


1443-I 


5348 75 


69-59 


u 


186907 


2b 


Fe, Ca. 




144 rs 


(5348-4) 


69-7 


ji 


18692 


2b 


Ca. 




1444-4 


5347-51 


70-03 


fi 


186951 


4b 






14457 


5345-58 
5345-12 


70-70 
70-86 


11 


187019 
1870-35 


4c 






1443-7 


5342-75 


71-69 


Jj 


187118 


2a 


Co. 




1449-4 


5342-21 


7188 


)j 


187137 


la 


Co. 




1450-8 


534038 


7*'53 


1) 


187201 


5c 


Fe. 




1451-8 


533935 


72-89 


»» 


187237 


5b 


Fe. 




145:57 


533775 


73'45 


)) 


187293 


la 






14547 


5337-07 


73-69 


j* 


187317 


3b 


Ti. 






5336-03 


74'°5 


»» 


187353 




Ti. 




1456-6 


5333-96 


7478 


1i 


1874-26 


la 






14586 


533215 


7 5 '42 


M 


187490 


3c 


Fe. 




1461-5 


5330-68 


75"93 


)> 


1875-41 








532921 


76-45 


II 


1875-93 


2c 




Group 187: 
Strong. 


1461/2 


(5328-5) 


76-7 


)' 


1876-2 


2c 




1462-8 | 

H 6 r3 J 


5327-42 


77-08 


U 


1876-56 


/5c 
\5c 


Fe. 
Fe. 




146.1-8 


... 


... 






la 






H 6 5'3 




... 






la 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



59 



Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Re due 
tion tc 

va- 
cuum. 


) 

Frequency 


Inten- 
| sity 
, and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1466-8 


5323-50 


187846 


0-52 


187794 


5c 


Fe. 




1468-8 


5321-44 


79-19 


„ 


187867 


2b 






1469-6 


532063 


79-48 


0-52 


187896 


lb 






I473-9 


5316-07 


81-09 


0-53 


188056 


5b 


Fe. 




H75"3 


531454 


8163 


JJ 


1881-10 


la 






14768 


5313-15 


82-12 


JJ 


188159 


la 






H77-5 


(5312-4) 
5307-87 


82-4 
83-99 


13 
J J 


18819 
188346 


la 






1483-0 


530661 
5305-12 
530301 


84-44 
84-97 
8572 


I) 


1883-91 
188444 
1885-19 


4b 


Fe. 




14877 
1489-2 


5301-61 
530010 


86-22 

86-76 


JJ 
JJ 


1885-69 
188623 


5b 
2c 


Fe. 


Group 1887- 
Faint. 


14899 


(52997) 


86-9 


,, 


1886-4 


la 






/i4 9 i-2 
\149r6 


(52980) 


87-5 


»J 


18870 


lc 






529763 


87-64 


JJ 


1887-H 


3c 






1492-4 


5296-70 


87-97 


JJ 


188744 


4b 






1493-1 


5296-21 


88-14 


J> 


188761 


4b 






H94S 


(5294-8) 


88-6 


JJ 


. 18881 


la 






H95'9 


5292-71 


8939 


JJ 


188886 


la 






H97-3 


5291-82 


8971 


JJ 


188918 


la 


Co. 




1501-3 


5287-75 
528637 


91-16 
91-66 


JJ 


189063 
189113 


2b 


Fe. 




15048 


(5284-3) 


92-4 


JJ 


1891-9 


la 






'5°S-3 


(5283-8) 


926 


J7 


18921 


la 






1505-7 


(5283-4) 


92-7 


» 


18922 


2a 






1506-3 
15086 


5282-78 
5281-06 


92-94 
93-56 




189241 
189303 


5c 
5b 


Fe. 

Fe. 


Group 1893. 
Strong. 


1510-3 


5279-73 


94-04 


a 


1893-51 


2c 


Co. 




ISI5S 


5275-18 


95-67 


>r 


189514 


4d 




Group 1898 


15165 

1519-0 


5274-41 
5272-66 


9595 
9658 


jj 
jj 


189542 
189605 


4c 
4d 


Fe. 


(theEGroup). 
Very strong. 


1522-7 


5269-59 


97-68 


jj 


189715 


6 c E„ Fe, Ca. 




1523-7 


5268-67 


9801 


jj 


189748 


6 c 


E 2 , Fe. 




1525-0 


5267-39 


98-47 


jj 


1897-94 


lb 


Co. 




j »5 2 77 


5265-94 


99-00 


jj 


189847 


5c 


Fe, Co. 





e a 



60 



REPORT 1878. 









Catalogue | 


'continued). 




Kirchhofl". 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1528-7 


5264-68 


189945 


0-53 


189892 


5c 


Ca. 




15302 


5263-51 


189987 


»» 


189934 


4c 


Ca. 




1531-2 


5262-60 


1900-20 


it 


1899-67 


4c 


Fe. 




J53*"5 \ 
1533-1 J 


526111 


00-74 


tt 


190021 


r4b 

l4b 


Ca. 
Ca. 






5259-78 


0I - 22 


it 


190069 








/'54''4 
V'541'9 


(5254-6) 


03-I 


)) 


19026 


lg 




Group 1904- 


5254-21 


03-23 


11 


190270 


3b 


Fe, Mn. 


Faint. 


'5437 


525260 


03-82 


11 


190329 


2a 


Fe. 




"545'5 


5251 15 


04-34 


»> 


190381 


2a 


Fe. 




1547-2 


5249-81 


04-83 


°'53 


1904 30 


3a 


Fe. 




i547'7 


5248-60 


05-27 


0-54 


190473 


2a 






1551-0 | 
1551-6 J 


5246-43 


0606 


>• 


190552 


r2a 
l2a 


Fe. 




I555' 6 


5242-86 


07-36 


»» 


190682 


2a 


Fe. 




I557-3 


5241-67 


07-79 


H 


1907-25 


3a 


Fe. 




1561-0 


523916 


08-70 


11 


190816 


la 


Fe. 




1564-2 


5236-44 


09-69 


)) 


190915 


la 






15665 


5234-52 


IO39 


»J 


1909-85 


2b 


Co. 


Group 1912- 


1567-5 


523372 


I069 


I) 


191015 


2b 


Mn. 


Strong. 


1569-6 


5232-24 


11-23 


)» 


191069 


5c 


Fe. 




'573'5 


522914 


12-36 


1i 


191182 


5a 


Fe. 




'575'4 


522763 


12-91 


t) 


191237 


lb 






/i577"2 

\i 5 7 7 -6 


5226-38 


>3'37 


it 


191283 


5c 


Fe. 




(5226 0) 


'35 


it 


19130 


3c 






J579'4 1 
1580-1 J 


5224-42 


14-09 


n 


191355 


r2a 
l2a 


Ti. 




1588-3 


521728 


16-71 


»» 


191617 


lg 


Cu. 


Group 1917. 


1589-1 


5216-64 


16-94 


it 


1916-40 


3b 


Fe. 


Faint. 


1590-7 


5215-64 


17-31 


a 


191677 


3b 


Fe. 




1592-3 


5214-50 


»7'73 


>■ 


191719 


3b 


Fe. 




1598-9 


5209-59 


»9"54 


„ 


191900 


2b 


Ti. 


Group 1921 


/ 1601-4 
Vi6oi-7 


5207-78 
(5207-6) 


20 - 20 
20-3 




1919-66 
19198 


6 b 
3d 


Or, Fe. 


(the Chro- 
mium Group). 

Strong. 


1 604-4 


5205-37 


21*09 


>> 


192055 


5b 


Or. 




1606-4 


520388 


2I"64 


11 


192110 


5b 


Cr, Fe. 





OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



61 









Catalogue 


(continued). 




Jvirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Eeci- 
procals. 


Beduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1609-2 


5201-69 


1922-45 


0-54 


192191 


5b 


Fe. 




1611-3 


519989 


23-12 


» 


192258 


lc 






1613-9 
1615-6 
1616-6 


5198-08 
519719 


2379 

24-12 


II 


1923 25 
192358 


3b 

2b 
lb 


Fe. 

f Identification on Kirch- 

\ b.off's map doubtful. 


Group 1924 
Faint. 


1617-4 










2b 






16182 










3b 








519533 


24-81 


)l 


192427 




Mn. 




16189 


5194-24 


25-21 


IJ 


192467 


4b 


Fe. 




1621-5 










lb 




Group 1926- 


1622-3 


5191-80 


261 1 


)» 


192557 


. 5c 


Fe. 


Strong. 


1623-4 


5190-68 


26-33 


11 


1925-99 


5b 


Fe. 




1627-2 


5188-33 


27-40 


>» 


192686 


5 b 


Ca. 




1628-2 


5187-49 


27-71 


» 


192717 


\ b 


Ti. 




1631-5 

/16335 

^1634-1 
(^1634-7 


5185-24 
518310 


28-55 
29-35 




192801 
192881 


lb 


Fe. 


Group 1932 
(the great 
Magnesium 


5182-75 


2948 


u 


192894 


6g 


b lf M g . 


Group). 


(5182-3) 


29-6 


|] 


19291 


4g 






16387 


5179-66 


3063 


11 


193009 


lb 


Fe. 






5178-27 


31-15 


II 


193061 


... 






1642-1 


5176-52 


31-80 


,, 


1931-26 


lb 






16430 


5175-73 


3209 


)» 


193155 


lb 


Ni. 




1647-3 


(5173-1) 


33-1 


») 


19326 


5a 


• 




/ 1 648 -4 
^164.8-8 
^1649-2 


(5172-4) 


333 


t> 


19328 


4e 






5172-16 


33-43 


»» 


193289 


6f 


b 8 , Mg. Winged ray. 




(5171-9) 


33'5 


it 


19330 


4e 






1650-3 


5171-20 


3379 


II 


1933-25 


6b 


Fe. 




/16537 
1,16540 


516848 
(5168-2) 


34-80 
34"9 




193426 
19344 


6b 
4c 


b 3 , Fe, Ni. 




/16556 
\16559 


5166-88 
(5166-7) 


3 5 '4o 
35'5 


II 
II 


1934-86 
19350 


6e 
4d 


b 4> Fe, Mg. 




1657-1 


5165-88 


3578 


l» 


193524 


5 b 


Fe. 




1658-3 ) 

to I 

1659-4 J 


5164-73 


36-21 


»i 


193567 


2b 
1 


Fe. 




16628 


5161-76 


3732 


ll 


193678 


5b 


Fe. 




1667-4 | 


515764 


38-49 


If 


193794 


3a 


Fe. 




1670-3 


(51560) 


395 


>» 


19390 


la 







62 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 







Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


1671-5 | 
1672-2 J 


5155-20 


193979 


0-54 


193925 


r3b 
l4a 


m. 




1673-7 


5153-22 


4 0- 53 


)) 


193999 


4a 






1674-7 


515269 


40-73 


.. 


194019 


3 c 


Cu. 




/i676 - 2 
V16765 


(5151-6) 


411 


11 


19406 


2d 






5151-40 


41-22 


1» 


194068 


4b 


Fe. 




1677-9 


5150-28 


41-64 


11 


194110 


4c 


Fe. 




1681-6 


5147-63 


42-64 


)) 


194210 


4c 


Fe. 




16840 


5145 87 


43-30 


11 


194276 


4a 


Ni, Fe. 




1684-4 




... 


)) 


... 


lb 






1685-9 | 
1686-3 J 


514464 


4377 


j» 


194323 


{ 2a 
l2a 






1689-5 -1 
1690*0 J 


5142-16 


4471 


M 


194417 


r 5 c 
l5b 


Fe, Ni. 


Group 1945- 

Strong. 


1691-0 


5141-37 


45-01 


11 


194457 


5b 


Fe. 




16938 


5138-78 


4599 


l» 


194545 


6e 






1696-5 -1 
1697-0 J 


513693 


4669 


11 


194615 


r3c 
L3c 


Fe, Ni. 




1701-8 


513310 


48-14 


)) 


1947-60 


5c 


Fe. 




71704-6 -1 
\17049 J 


5130-97 


489S 


1J 


194841 


{ 2c 
L 3b 


Fe. 




71707-6 -. 
\i707 - 9 J 


512874 


49-80 


0-54 


194926 


/2c 


Ti. 




1710-7 


5126-81 


5°'53 


o-55 


194998 


5a 


Fe. 




1712-2 


5125-61 


50-99 


H 


195044 


3b 






1713-4 


5124-54 


51-39 


11 


1950 84 


5b 


Fe. 




1715-2 


5123-32 


51-86 


It 


1951-31 


4b 


Fe. 




1717-9 


5121-18 


52-67 


1) 


195212 


4b 


Fe. 




1719-4 


5120-08 


53-09 


»» 


1952-54 


lc 


Ti. 




1726-9 


(5115-3) 


54-9 


" 


19544 


la 






1727-3 


5115-01 


55'°3 


li 


195448 


3b 


Ni. 






5112-46 


56-00 


II 


195545 


... 






17336 


5109-94 


56-97 


1> 


195642 


5 b 


Fe. 




1734-6 


5108-98 


57 - 34 


1» 


195679 


3b 






1737-7 


510716 


58-03 


)J 


195748 


5d 


Fe. 




1741-0 


5105-07 


5884 


11 


1958 29 


4b 


Cu. 




1742-7 -1 
1743-1 J 


5103-77 


59'33 


11 


1958 79 


fla 

L la 






1744-6 


510234 


59-88 


11 


195933 


2a 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



63 



Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchkoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Keci- 
procals. 


Keduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


17489 
17496 


5099-19 


1961-10 


o- 


55 


196055 


3c 
2d 


Ni. 
Ni. 


Group 1261. 
Strong. 


1750-4 


5098-28 


6145 






196090 


5 c 


Fe. 




1752-0 


(5097-2) 


619 






19614 


2b 






1752-8 


5096-64 


62-08 






196153 


4c 


Fe. 




1762-0 


5090-45 


64-46 






196391 


3c 


Fe. 




1771-5 
1772-5 


5083-68 
5082-60 


67-08 
67-50 






196653 
196695 


3c 
3c 


Fe. 


Group 1968 
Faint. 


1774-0 


5081-92 


67-76 






196721 


2b 






1775-8 


5080-78 


68-20 






196765 


3b 


Ni. 




1776-5 


5079-88 


68-55 






1967-99 


3c 


Ni. 




1777-5 


5078-95 


6891 






1968 30 


3c 


Fe. 




1778-5 


50780L 


69-27 






196872 


3c 


Fe. 




1782-7 


5075-96 


70-07 






1969-52 


3b 


Fe. 




1784-4 


(5074-7) 


706 






19701 


lb 






1785-0 


5074-24 


7°*74 






197019 


4b 


Fe. 




1787-7 


(5072-5) 


7i-4 






19709 


2c 






17887 


5071-84 


71-67 






197112 


3b 


Fe. 




17938 


506827 


73-06 






197251 


4b 


Fe. 


Group 1973. 


I795-4 


(50670) 


73-6 






19731 


la 




Strong. 


1796-0 


5066-51 


73-74 






197319 


3a 


Fe. 




1797-8 


(5065-3) 


74-2 






19737 


la 






1799-0 


5064-53 


74' 5 2 






197397 


4c 


Ti. 




1799-6 












3b 






1806-4 


5059-87 


76 - 34 






197579 


2b 


Fe. 




1818-7 


5051-11 


79-76 






197921 


5b 


Fe. 


Group 1980 


1821-4 


5049-49 


8040 






197985 


5b 


Fe. 


Stror g. 


1822-6 


(5048-7) 


80-7 






1980-2 


3a 






1823-2 


(5048-3) 


80-9 






19804 


2a 






1823-6 


5047-92 


8101 






198046 


2a 


Fe. 




18286 
1830-1 


(5044-6) 
5043-54 


82-3 

82-73 
83-0 






19818 

198218 

19825 


lb 
3b 


I" Possibly this ray 
Fe. I is K 18286 or 
[ K 1830-1. 




1832-8 


(5041-7) 


835 






19830 


2a 


Ca. • 





G4 



REPORT 1878. 

Catalogue (continued). 





O 




Reduc- 




Inten- 








Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 
va- 


Frequency. 


sity 
and 


Origin , &c. 


Groups. 








cuum. 




width. 



















'Angstrom repre- 


Group 1984 














sents the Fe and 


Strong. 


*»33'4 


5041-32 
5040-80 


1983-61 
83-81 


°-55 


198306 
198326 


6c 


Fe, Ca.- 


Ca rays as coin- 
cident ; Kirch- 
hoff as separate 
^ but close. 




1834-3 


5040-28 


84-02 


)) 


198347 


6c 


Fe. 






18359 1 












f"Ti. 
] Fe. 






1836-7 V 


5038-30 


84-80 


o'55 


198425 


3c 






i837-S J 
















1841*0"] 












fTi. 






1841-6 I 


503547 


85-91 


0*56 


198535 


4b 


Ti. 






1842-2 J 












[XL 






18489 


5030-27 


87-96 


»» 


198740 


2c 








18510 


5029-12 


88-42 


j» 


198786 


lc 








1853-2 


5027-43 


8909 


)» 


1988-53 


3b 


Fe. 






1854-0 


5026-54 


89-44 


i» 


1988-88 


2b 


Fe. 






1854-9 


5025-76 


8975 


)> 


198919 


4c 








1856-9 


(5024-5) 


90-2 


m 


19896 


lc 








1857-9 


(5023-9) 


90-5 


»» 


19899 


2b 








1860-4 


(5022-4) 


911 


>j 


1990S 


2b 








1861-3 


5021-89 


91-28 


„ 


199072 


3c 








1862-3 


5021-30 


91-52 


j> 


199096 


2b 


Fe. 






1864-9 


5019-52 


92-22 


•> 


199166 


3b 


Ti. 






1867-1 


5017-76 


92-92 


«i 


1992-36 


5d 


,This ray is repre- 

1 ° 


Group 1993. 

Strong. 
















sented on Ang- 




18684 


(5016-7) 


933 


j» 


19928 


5b 


Ni. ■{ 

{ 


strom's map, but 
not inserted in 
















his list. 




1869-5 


(5016-2) 


93'5 


JJ 


19929 


lc 








1870-6 


(5015-4) 


939 


JJ 


1993-3 


3a 








1872-4 


5014-22 


94*33 


19 


199377 


5b 


Fe. 






1873-4 5013-48 


94-62 


Jl 


199406 


6 b 


Ti. 






1874-2 


(5013-0) 


948 


„ 


19942 


2a 








1874-8 


(5012-6) 


95'° 


n 


19944 


2 a 








,o„,.o 
»"/3 ° 


(5012-0) 


95-2 


n 


19946 


2c 








1876-5 


5011-56 


9539 


tt 


199483 


6b 


Fe. 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



05 



Catalogue (continued). 





O 




Eeduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 
va- 


Frequency. 


sity 
and 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 








cuum. 




width. 






1884-3 


500672 


1997-32 


0-56 


199676 


6 b 


Fe, Ti. 


Group 1997. 


1885-8 I 
1886-4 J 


5005-14 


9795 


n 


199739 


r6b 
I 6b 


Fe. 
Fe. 


Strong. 


18895 


500321 


98-72 


II 


199816 


lg 


Fe. 




1891-0 


5002-11 


99-16 


II 


1998 60 


3b 


Fe. 




1892-5 


5001-17 


99'53 


II 


199897 


5b 




1 


18938 


(5000-4) 


19998 


>l 


19992 


lb 






1894-8 


4999-86 


2000-06 


II 


199950 


3b 






1896-2 


4998-94 


00-42 


11 


199986 


4b 


Ti. 




1897-9 


4997-54 


00-98 


,, 


200042 


lc 






1900-0 


499605 


01-58 


11 


200102 


lc 






19045 


4993-42 


0263 


11 


200207 


4b 


Fe. 




1905-1 


(4993-2) 


02-7 


II 


20021 


2c 






1908-5 


499048 


03-81 


II 


200325 


5d 


Fe, Ti. 




1911-9 


4988-46 


04-63 


ll 


200407 


3c 


Fe. 




1916-2 


(4985-8) 


05-7 


ll 


20051 


Id 






■9'7-5 J_ 
19179 J 


4984-84 


0608 


II 


200552 


r4b 

l4b 


Fe. f Uncertain which of 
\ these rays belongs 
[ toFe. 


Group 2006 
Strong. 


1919-8 -. 
1920-2 J 
1921-1 


4983-45 
498273 


0664 
06-93 


II 

II 


200608 
2006-37 


r4b 

I 4b 

4b 


Fe, 1 (The less refrangible 

Ni. J edge of a sodium 

Tband.) 

Fe. L ; 




1922-0 1 
1922-4 J 


498196 


07-24 


" 


200668 


(-4b 
Ub 


1 (The more refrangible 
J edge of a sodium band.) 




1923-5 


498117 


07-56 


11 


200700 


4b 


Ti. 




19258 


4979-76 


08-13 


J> 


200757 


4b 


Ni. 




1928*0 


4977-94 


08-86 


>» 


200830 


4b 


Fe. 




1931-2 


4975-89 


09-69 


11 


200913 


lc 






1932-5 


(4975-0) 


IO - I 


It 


20095 


lc 






1936-2 


4972-43 


1 1 09 


11 


201053 


3c 


Fe. 




i939'5 


(4970-3) 


I-2-O 


11 


20114 


3c 






1940-6 


(4969-6) 


I2'2 


11 


20116 


2c 






'941-5 


(4969-0) 


12-5 


11 


20119 


3b 






»943 - 5 1 
I944-5 ■" 


4967-44 


13-11 


11 


201255 


r2c 
l3b 


Fe. 
Fe. 




1947-6 


4965-47 


13-91 


11 


201335 


4c 


Fe. 




1 949-4 


4964-78 


14-19 


11 


201363 


lc 






'953-6 


496r*0 


15-40 


11 


201484 


2b 


Fe. 





66 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 









Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 












f6b 






/i96o-8 | 
\196r2 J 


4956-87 


2017-40 


0*56 


201684 


4 

1.6 b 


c. 




19643 


(4954-0) 


186 


n 


20180 


2c 






1966-2 1 
1966-7 1 


4952-10 


!9'34 


0-56 


201878 


r2b 
l2b 


Fe. 




1970-1 


4949-54 


2039 


0-57 


201982 


3b 


Fe. 




19747 


4945-67 


21-97 


n 


202140 


4b 


Fe. 




J97S7 


4944-69 


22-37 


n 


202180 


2d 






1979-2 


4941-97 


23-48 


n 


202291 


3c 


Fe. 




1982-8 "| 

'983-3 


4938-74 


24-81 


n 


202424 


(5a 
5a 


Fe. 
Fe. 


Group 2025- 
Strong. 


1983-8 | 










[5a 






1984-5 


4937-37 


25'37 


»» 


202480 


4b 






1985-8 


493649 


z 5-73 


ii 


202516 


4b 






1986-9 


(4935-7) 


26-1 


II 


20255 


2 a 






1987-5 


4935-21 


26-26 


II 


2025 69 


3a 


Ni. 




1989-5 


4933-55 


2694 


II 


202637 


6c 


Ba. 




1990-4 


4932-89 


27-21 


II 


202664 


5b 


Fe. 




1991-8 


493131 


27-86 


II 


202729 


lb 






1994-1 


4929-61 


28-56 


II 


2027-99 


5b 


Fe. 




1996-9 -1 
1997-5 J 


4927-00 


29-63 


11 


202906 


r 2a 
l2a 


Fe. 




1999-6 


4924-64 


3061 


II 


203004 


2c 


» 




2000"6 


(4923-9) 


309 


II 


20303 


5a 






20016 
2003-2 1 
2003-7 -" 


4923-20 
4921-44 


31-20 
3193 


11 
II 


203063 
203136 


5c 
r3b 
lla 


Fe. 

• 


Group 2032- 

Strong. 


/2004 < 9 

\2005 - 2 


(4920-1) 


3^5 


11 


20319 


2d 




* 


4919-89 


32-57 


11 


203200 


6d 


Fe. 




2007-2 


491831 


33-22 


11 


203265 


6c 


Fe. 




2oo8"i 


4917-75 


33'45 


11 


203288 


lb 


Ni. 




2008-6 


(4917-4) 


336 


11 


20330 


lb 






2009 8 


4916-57 


33-94 


11 


203337 


2b 






2013-9 1 
2014-3 J 


491335 


35-27 


11 


2034 70 


| 2a 

L2a 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



07 









Catalogue 


[continued). 




Kirchboff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


... 


4911-32 


2036-11 


0-57 


203554 


... 






20157 ] 

to I 

2016-9 J 


49111 


362 


)» 


2035-6 


1 






72017-7 -1 
\20185 J 


(4909-3) 


37-0 


» 


20364 


[2b 






20195 


(4908-5) 


37'3 


>> 


20367 


2a 






202 1 - 2 


490714 


37-85 


„ 


203728 


lg 


Fe. 




2024-9 


(4904-2) 


391 


it 


20385 


la 






2025-7 


490408 


39-12 


|J 


2038 55 


4a 


Ni. 




2026-8 


4902(11 


3973 


)) 


203916 


4b 


Fe. 




203I-I 


4899-47 


41-04 


)» 


204047 


2c 


Ba. 




2035-4 


4895-96 


42-50 


JJ 


204193 


lb 






2039-6 


489233 


44-01 


)) 


204344 


lb 




Group 2046- 


2041-3 


4890-98 


44-58 


II 


204401 


6c 


Fe. 


Strong. 


2042-2 


4890-19 


4491 


)) 


204434 


6b 


Fe. 




2044-5 -1 
2045-0 J 


4888-40 


4566 


'1 


204509 


r 5b 

l5b 


Fe. 




2047-0 


4886-81 


4632 


)» 


204575 


3d 


Fe. 




2047-8 


488602 


4666 


Tl 


204609 


3b 


Fe. 




20493 1 
2049-7 J 


4884-66 


47-23 


J) 


204666 


f3a 
l3a 


Ti. 




20513 


4883-30 


47-80 


»t 


204723 


3c 






... 


4883-02 


47-9 1 


)» 


204734 


... 






2053-0 "I 
2053-7 j 


4881-12 


4871 


)) 


204814 


r4b 

l4c 


Fe. 




2058-0 


4877-57 


50-20 


)) 


204963 


6c 


Fe, Ca. 


Group 2051- 


2060-0 


4875-46 


51-09 


*» 


205052 


2b 


Fe. 


Strong. 


20606 






)J 




2a 






206 1 - 






>J 




la 






2064-7 


487308 


52-09 


It 


2051-52 


2c 


Ni. 




2066-2 


487143 


52-78 


)) 


205221 


5c 


Fe. 




2067-1 


487061 


53'3 


J) 


2052-56 


5c 


Fe. 




2067-8 


(4870-1) 


53-3 


)» 


20527 


3b 






2068-8 


(4869-4) 


536 


II 


20530 


3b 






2070-6 


(4868-1) 


54'2 


)» 


20536 


lb 






2071-3 


4867-65 


54-38 


0-57 


205381 


lb 


Co. 




2073-5 


4865-44 


55*3i 


0-58 


205473 


3 b 


Ni. 





68 



REPORT 1878. 









Catalogue 


(continued). 










Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2074-6 


(4864-8) 


2055-6 


0-58 


20550 


2b 






2076-5 


4863-68 


56-06 


J) 


2055-48 


lb 


Fe. 




2077-3 


(4863-0) 


56-3 


11 


20557 


2b 






(■2079-5 1 

S2080 - !• 
(2080-5 J 










f4e 


1 


Group 2058 


486074 


57-3I 


PI 


5673 


6g 


J- F, H. Winged ray. 


(theF Group). 










[4e 


1 


Strong. 


2082-0 


4859-29 


579 1 


11 


205733 


6a 


Fe. 




2084-6 


(4856-7) 


59-0 


71 


20584 


2b 






2086-0 


(4855-3) 


596 


11 


20590 


1 






to 










1 






2086-9 


485485 


59-80 


11 


205922 


J 3 b 


Fe, Ni. 




2087-6 


(4854-2) 


6o-i 


11 


20595 


la 






2089-7 


(4852-2) 


60-9 


11 


2060-3 


la 






2090-9 


4851-02 


61-42 


11 


206084 


la 






2094-0 


4848-23 


6261 


11 


206203 


2b 


Ca. 




20968 










lb 






2098-8 










la 






2099-8 


484253 


65-04 


11 


206446 


2a 


Fe. 




210C4 


(4842-1) 


65-2 


11 


20646 


la 






2102-6 


(4840-0) 


66- 1 


11 


20656 


4 a 






2IO33 


4839-29 


66-42 


11 


206584 


4b 


Co, Fe. 


Group 2068- 


2104*0 


(4838-7) 


66-7 


11 


20661 


4a 




Faint. 


2105-1 


4837-80 


67-05 


11 


206647 


4b 






2107-0 


(4835-6) 


68-o 


If 


20674 


la 






2107-4 


4835-19 


68-17 


11 


206759 


2a 


Fe. 




2109-1 


4833-38 


68-95 


1» 


2068 37 


2b 






21 II'I 


483191 


69-57 


11 


206899 


3b 


Fe. 




2II2 - 7 


4830-34 


70-25 


11 


208967 


3b 


Ni. 




2115-0 "1 
2115-4 J 


4828-57 


71-01 


11 


207043 


/3a 

13a 


Ni. 




2II9 - 8 


(4824-2) 


72-9 


If 


20723 


lb 






2I2I-2 


482290 


73'44 


It 


207286 


4b 


Mn. 


Group 2074- 

Faint. 


2I2I9 










5c 






2124-3 


4819-91 


7473 


11 


207415 


lb 






2125-1 


(4819-2) 


75-0 


11 


20744 


2b 






2127-7 


4817-07 


75"95 


11 


207537 


3b 






21323 


4811-70 


78-27 


If 


207769 


2a 


Ca. 


Group 2081. 
Faint. 


2132-7 






ft 




1 a 


Zn. 





OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



69 





O 




Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
striJin. 


Eeci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 




Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2133-8 | 
2134-3 J 


4809-83 


2079-08 


0-58 


2078-50 


{ 2a 
lla 


Ca. 






2136-0 


4808-17 


7979 


t) 


2079-21 


5 a 


Zn. 






/2I38-0 
\21384 










2g 








4806-49 


80-52 


») 


207994 


4a 








2I 395 






11 




4a 








2140-4 






1) 




4a 








21419 






ri 




2a 








2142-4 


4804-54 


81-36 


u 


208078 


5a 


Ti. 






2144-6 


4802-46 


82-27 


„ 


208169 


4a 


Fe. 






2146-9 I 
2147-4 J 


480004 


8332 


" 


208274 


r3a 
l4a 


Fe. 






2148-5 | 
2148-9 J 


4799-13 


8371 


it 


208313 


r4a 
l3a 








2150-1 -I 
2150-5 J 


4797-70 


84-33 




208375 


r3a 
l3a 


Fe. 






2157-0 
2157-4 


4791-78 


8691 




208633 


3a 

5 a 


Co. 

Co. 




Group 2088- 
Faint. 


2159-0 


(47903) 


87-7 


tj 


20871 


lc 








2160-6 


4788-73 


88-24 


j> 


208766 


5a 


Fe. 






2160-9 


(4788-4) 


88-4 


»> 


20878 


4a 








2161-7 


(4787-8) 


88-6 


ts 


20880 


4a 








2162-6 


(4787-0) 


890 


a 


20884 


3a 






2163-7 -1 
' 2164-0 J 


4785-90 


89-47 


0-58 


208889 


f 4a 1 
l4a JNi. 






2167-5 


4782-73 


9086 


0-59 


2090 27 


6 b |Mn. 






2171-5 


4778-85 


9 2 '55 


i) 


2091S6 


3 b 


Co. 






2172-2 


(4778-3) 


92-8 


,1 


20922 


2a 








2175-7 


4775-66 


93-9S 


»> 


209336 


2b 








2176-4 


(4775-0) 


94-2 


., 


2093-6 


lb 








21799 


4771-92 


93-59 


)* 


209300 


5 b Fe. 






2l8l'2 


4770-37 


96-27 


11 


209568 


3e 1 






2184-9 
2186-5 


4767-59 
4765-92 


97*49 
9823 


it 


209690 
2097 64 


5b 
3b 


Fe. 
Mn. 




Group 2100- 
Strong. 


2187-1 "I 
2187-9 J 


4764-79 


9873 


>» 


209814 


r 5a 
I 5a 


Mn. - 

1 


The identity of either 

of these rays with 





2188-5 


(4764-5) 


98-9 


i» 


20983 


5a 

1 


Angstrom's is 
doubtful. 





70 



KEPQKT — 1878. 









Catalogue (continued). 










Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2190-1 


(4703-3) 


2099-4 


0-59 


20988 


5 b 






/21919 

\2I92-3 


(47C.2-0) 


2I00'0 




2099-4 


3e 






4761-68 


OO'IO 




209951 


5b 


Mn. Winged ray. 




2193-3 


4760-85 


OO46 




209987 


5a 


Mn. 




2195-7 


(47586) 


OI- 5 




21009 


2b 






2197-1 1 
2197-7 J 


4757-07 


02-I3 




210154 


r2b 
L2b 


Ti. 




2198-8 -1 

2199-2 J 


475534 


02-90 




210231 


r4a 
13a 


Ni. 




220I - I 


(4754-0) 


03-5 




21029 


2b 






2201-9 


4753-47 


°3'73 




210314 


5c 


Mn. 




2203-3 


(4752-5) 


04-2 




21036 


2a 






2203-8 


(4752-2) 


04-3 




21037 


la 






2205I 


475132 


04-68 




210409 


lb 






2206-4 


(4749-0) 


05-7 




21051 


la 


Co. 




2206-7 


(4748-8) 


05-8 




21052 


la 






2209-1 


474734 


0644 




210585 


4c 






22II-7 


4745-32 


07-34 




210695 


4b 


Fe. 




2213-4 


4743-57 


0812 




2107-53 


4b 






22I5-I 


4741-89 


0886 




2108 27 


lb 


Ti. 




22167 


(4740-2) 


096 




21090 


3b 






2217-5 


(4739-5) 


09-9 




21093 


3b 






22l8-3 


(4739-0) 


IO'2 




21096 


3a 






2219-8 


(4737-5) 


io-8 




21102 


3b 






2221'3 


(4737-0) 


Il'O 




21104 


la 






22217 


(4736-6) 


II"S 




21106 


la 






2222' 3 

2223-5 


473624 
(4735-1) 


11-38 
119 




211079 
21113 


5c 
3c 


Fe. 


Group 2113- 
Faint. 


227 54 | 
2226-2 J 


473307 


12-79 




211220 


f 2b 

14b 


Fe. 




2227-6 


(4731-7) 


13-5 




21129 


2a 






2228-6 


(4731-0) 


13-7 




21131 


2a 






2229-1 


4730-95 


•13-74 




211315 


4b 


Fe. 




2230-7 


(4729-3) 


14-5 




21139 


4a 






223I-2 


(4729-0) 


14-6 




21140 


2a 






2232-3 

Z22337 
^22340 


(4727-8) 
4726-70 


15-1 
15-64 


... 


21145 
211505 


4a 

5 c 
2c 


-p f Winged on more re- 
\ frangible side. 





OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



71 



Kirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Red 

tion 

va 

cum 


10- 

Frequency. 

n. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2237-4 


4723-69 


2116-99 


0-5. 


? 211640 


lb 






2238-7 










lb 






2240-0 


4721-53 


1796 


)» 


211737 


3b 


Zn. 




2241-4 


(4720-5) 


18-4 


)) 


21178 


2b 






2245*1 


(-4717-1) 


19-9 


II 


21193 


3b 






2246-2 


(4716-1) 


20-4 


»» 


21198 


lb 






2248-2 

/2249'7 
\2250-0 


4714-44 
471381 


21-14 
21-43 


J) 


212055 
212084 


3c 
6a 

3d 


w . f Winged on more re- 
\ frangible side. 


Group 2124- 
Very strong. 




4711-98 


22-25 


J) 


212166 








2255-4 


4709-50 


*3"37 


J» 


212278 


4b 


Ti. 




22562 


(4708-7) 


23'7 


„ 


21231 


2b 






2257-1 


4708-37 


2388 


J» 


212329 


4d 


Fe. 




2257-6 


(4707-8) 


24-1 


11 


21235 


2b 






2258-5 


(4707-0) 


24-5 


») 


21239 


2c 






2259-4 


4706-61 


24-67 


0-5 


, 212408 


4c 


Fe. 




2261-4 


(4704-9) 


25-4 


o-6 


r- 21248 


lb 






2262-1 


(4704-3) 


257 


>) 


21251 


2a 






2263-4 


(4703-0) 


26-3 


jj 


21257 


2a 


Mg. 




2264-3 


4702-44 


26-56 


>» 


212596 


6d 






2266-2 1 

2266-6 J 


4700-95 


27-23 


>) 


212663 


r2a 
l2a 






2268-0 


4698-09 


28-52 


J» 


212792 


3a 


Ti. 




2269-1 


(4697-3) 


28-9 


»» 


21283 


3a 






2269-9 
2270-2 


(4696-7) 
(4696-5) 


J 29-2 


)» 


21286 


f3a 
13a 






2274-2 


(4693-7) 


30-5 


1) 


21299 


Id 




Group 2135- 


2278-4 


4690-69 


3188 


>• 


213128 


4c 


Fe, Ti. 


Faint. 


2279-8 






.. 


... 


2a 






2280-7 








... 


2a 






2282-0 






.. 




la 






2282-3 






.. 




lb 






2283-6 


... 




.. 


... 


2a 






2284-9 


... 






... 


2b 






2286-1 


... 






... 


2b 






22881 


... 




•* 


| 


2a 







72 



REPORT — 1878. 

Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchhoff. 


O 

Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


72289*1 
\2z89*9 










1 


Band. 




4681*37 


2136*13 


o*6o 


2135 53 


2b 


Ti. 




2290*4 










lb 






2291*8 


4679*65 


3691 


ll 


213631 


2g 


Zn. 




22931 

to 
2293*6 


467803 


37-6 5 


l] 


213705 


1 2a 
J 3b 


Fe. 




2294*5 


4676*91 


38*16 





213756 


2b 


Cd. 




2301*7 
2302*9 


4672 41 


40*22 


" 


213962 


4c 
3b 


Fe. 


Group 2142- 
Strong. 


23°5'3 










3d 






2306*8 




... 






4c 






2307*8 




... 






lb 






2308*2 


4667*20 


4261 


I» 


2142-01 


5b 






2309*0 
to 


4666*45 


42-96 


1» 


214236 


|5o 


d. Ti. Winged ray.. 




2310*4 










J 






2310*9 








... 


2e 






2312*5 


4663*51 


44'3' 


»» 


2143-71 


3b 






2313*7 








... 


3b 






2314-3 


4661*80 


45-09 


»f 


2145-49 


3 b 






23160 






»J 




2b 






2316*6 


... 


... 


») 




lb 






2322*0 1 
2323*0 J 


4fio(ilo 


47*70 


If 


2147-10 


r2b 
l2b 


Ti. 


Group 2150- 
Strong. 


23 2 5'3 


4654 07 


4866 


1* 


214806 


6d 


Fe, Cr. 




2328*3 1 
2329*5 J 


4651*25 


4996 


11 


214936 


r5b 

l5b 


Cu. 




z-2332-8 
U333' 




... 


11 


... 


2b 






4647*99 


5 1 "47 


91 


215087 


5b 






2334-1 


(4647*2) 


5, *8 


11 


21512 


2d 


Ni. 




2335*0 


(46466) 


52*1 


n 


21515 


5b 


Fe, Cr. 




2336*2 




... 












2336*8 
2339*9 


4645*39 
464333 


52*67 
53*63 


H 
11 


215207 
215303 


5 b 
4b 


f Between these rays a 
Fe. 1 rayofTi. 




2342-5 
/»3437 

U345 - i 


4639-81 

4638-98 


55*26 
5565 


)) 
*)» 


2154 66 
215505 


Id 

1 

2d 


f Identification with Kirch- 
\ hoff s ray verv doubtful. 
Ti. 





OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



73 



Kirehhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c 


Groups. 


2346-7 -1 
2347'3 J 


4637-30 


2156-43 


o'6o 


215583 


r4b 

l4b 


Fe. 
Fe. 




23494 


(4635-9) 


57-i 


II 


21565 


lb 






23499 


(4635-6) 


57'i 


II 


2156'6 


2b 






235''4 1 
2352-2 / 


4634-10 


57-92 


» 


215732 


{ lc 
l2b 






2354-1 


463218 


5881 


It 


215821 


6c 


Fe. 




*357'4 1 
23584 J 


4629-77 


S9'93 


o - 6o 


2159-33 


r 5a 
15b 


Between these a ray of Ti. 




2361-0 


462732 


6ro8 


o-6i 


216047 


Id 






2362-2 


(4625-3) 


620 


>i 


21614 


lc 






2362-6 1 
2364-0 J 


4625-01 


62-16 


n 


216155 


r4b 

l4b 


Fe. 




2365-9 


(4622-7) 


63-2 


>i 


2162-6 


2b 






2366-8 


(4622-1) 


635 


II 


21629 


lb 






2367-7 


4621-78 


63-67 


II 


216306 


2b 






2369-7 


(46201) 


64-5 


11 


21639 


2b 






/*37 1- 4 
\237i-6 


(4618-8) 
461871 


65-1 
65-11 


11 

11 


2164-5 
2164-50 


2b 
4b 


Fe. 


, 

Group 2166- 
Strong. 


2372-4 


(4618-0) 


654 


II 


21648 


4b 






2374-2 


4616-79 


66-oi 


11 


2165-40 


3b 


Ti. 




2375-0 


(4615-9) 


66-4 


11 


21658 


2b 






2375-6 


4615-56 


66-58 


11 


216597 


4b 






2376-1 


(46153) 


66-7 


11 


21661 


lb 






23790 


4612-78 


67-89. 


II 


216728 


6c 


. 




2381-6 


4610-78 


6883 


II 


216822 


6c 


Fe. 




23861 
23866 


4606-80 


70-70 


11 


217009 


3b 

2a 


Ca. 


Group 2172. 
Faint. 


2388-7 
23897 
2390-7 


460463 


7173 


11 


217112 


2c 
2c 
3a 


f Identification with Kirch- 
\ hoff 's ray doubtful. 




2391-2 






... 


... 


lb 


• 




23931 


4602-77 


72-60 


II 


217199 


5b 


Fe. 




2394-4 










4a 






,23958 
\23961 




... 




... 


If 






460062 


73-62 


II 


217301 


3b 






18 


78. 










F 





74 



REPORT — 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 



Kirckhoff. 



23967 

to 
2397-4 



2399'6 
2399-9 

2402-2 
2403-2 
2404-9 
2406*2 



Ang- 
strom. 



459961 



4597-36 

459500 

(45937) 
(45923) 



Eeci- 
procals. 



Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 



2174-10 



75-16 

76-28 

769 
77-6 



Frequency. 



061 



217349 



217455 

217567 

21763 
21770 



Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 



2a 
1 

2a 



3a 
3a 
3b 
3b 
2b 
2b 



Origin, &e. 



Band. 



Groups. 



2406-6 
2407-2 
2408-2 
2409-0 
24102 
24128 
2414-7 
/24160 
\24163 
2418-0 
2419-3 
2420-6 

2422-3 



2423-8 
2424-4 
24265 



:i 



459204 
(4591-6) 

459091 
(4590-3) 

4589-48 
(4587-8) 
(4586-4) 
(4585-6) 

4585-36 
(4584-4) 

458335 
(4582-3) 

458093 

4579-65 
4578-37 



2428-4 
2429-5 

M3 1 '9 

2432-4 



(4577-2) 
(4576-4) 

457366 



/*435'3 

VH35'5 

/ 2 4357 

U436-S 

2438-S 

*439'4 

2440-0 

24418 



(4571-7) 

4571-59 
(4571-5) 

4570-94 
(4569-3) 

4568-64 
(4568-3) 

4567-26 



77-68 

77'79 
78-22 

78-5 
78-90 

797 

804 

80-7 

8085 

813 

8r8i 

82-3 

82-96 

8 3'57 
84- 1 8 



84-7 
85-1 

8643 



87-4 

87-42 

87-5 

8 773 

88-5 

8883 

89-0 

89-50 



217707 

2177-3 

217761 

21779 

2178 29 

21791 

21798 

21801 

218024 

21807 

218120 

21817 

218235 

218296 
218357 



21841 
2184-5 

2185 S2 



21868 

218681 

21869 

218712 

21879 

218822 

21884 
218889 



6c 
lb 
4b 
lb 
4b 
3b 
2b 
3d 
5b 
3b 
5b 
2b 

6d 

j 3c 

\4b 

4b 



la 
3b 
2b 
lb 



2b 
5c 
2b 
5a 
] a 
2b 
la 
2a 



Fe. 



Group 2180- 
Strong. 



Mg. 



Fe, Ca. 



" Co, according to Kirch- 
hoff, but according to 

o 

Angstrom it is a compo- 
- site ray due to Fe, Ca. 



Fe, Ca. 



Ti. 



Group 2189- 
Strong. 



OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OP SOLAR RAYS. 



75 









Catalogue (continued). 




Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
proeals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2442-4 


456671 


2189-76 


o'6i 


218915 


la 






2443 '9 | 
2444-2 J 


456493 


90-61 


)» 


219000 


r5a 
15a 






*445'3 


(45641) 


910 


j> 


21904 


lc 






2446-6 


4563-30 


91-40 


»» 


219079 


5b 


Ti. 




2452-1 


4559-54 


93-20 


j» 


219259 


2c 






2454-1 


4558-16 


9387 


»j 


219326 


4b 






2457-5 | 
2457'9 J 


4555-42 


95-I9 


o'6i 


219458 


r4b 

l4b 


Ti. 

Fe. 


Group 2196- 
Strong. 


24586 


(4555-0) 


95 '4 


062 


21948 


3a 






H59'5 


(4554-5) 


956 


»j 


21950 


2b 






2460-4 


(4554-0) 


95'9 


>j 


21953 


lc 






2461-2 


4553-50 


9611 


» 


219549 


6b 


Ba. 




. 246 3 '4 


4551-84 


9691 


>> 


219629 


4b 


Ti. 




2466-0 


455029 


97-66 


j» 


219704 


3a 






,2467-3 
\24676 
^2467-9 


(4549-2) 


982 


»» 


21976 


3c 


e. Ti. 1 Winged ray. 




4548-97 


98-30 


ii 


219768 


5c 




(4548-8) 


98-4 


j) 


21978 


3c 




2468-7 


(4548-3) 


98-6 


j» 


21980 


3a 






2470-1 


(45473) 


991 


>> 


21985 


4a 






/247I-2 

\247K4 


4546-56 


99-46 


>» 


219884 


2b 


Fe.. 


- 


(4546-3) 


2199-6 


>i 


21990 


4a 






2472-9 1 










f4a 






2473-8 


454398 


2200-71 


11 


220009 


J2c 






24746 J 










Ub 


Ti. 




2475'5 


(4542-1) 


01 -6 


>> 


22010 


lc 






*477'4 1 
2477-8 J 


4541-84 


0175 


»j 


220113 


r2a 
l2a 






2478-7 


(4541-1) 


02- 1 


>> 


22015 


2a 






2479-7 | 
2480-1 J 


4540-30 


02-50 


>» 


220188 


r2a 
L2a 






2481-1 










la 






2482-1 


(4538-1) 


oj-6 


>» 


22030 


la 


• 




2402-4 


4537-88 


03-67 


»i 


220305 


lc 






248 6 6 -I 
2487-0 J 


4535-59 


04-78 


>T 


2204-16 


r5b 

l5b 


Ti. 
Ca. 


Group 2210. 
Strong. 


24882 


(4534-4) 


05-4 


>> 


22048 


4b 


Ca. 





f2 



76 



REPORT — 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 









Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

■width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


24894 


4533-31 


2205-89 


062 


220527 


5d 


Fe. 




f*49°'5 -1 
^2490-8 J 


453213 


06-47 


>> 


220585 


r5a 
l3d 


Ca. 
Ti. 




2493'o 


(4530-7) 


07-2 


») 


22066 


3a 






2493-6 


4530-32 


°7'35 


»> 


220673 


5 a 


Co. Winged ray. 




2493-9 






j) 


... 


3f 


. 




24958 


4528-83 


08-07 


»» 


220745 


5b 






2497-2 


4528-08 


08-44 


tt 


220782 


6d 


Fe. 




24990 ~\ 










f3b 






2499-8 { 


4526-15 


0938 


>> 


220876 


j 3b 


Ti. 




2500-3 J 










l_4c 






/2502-2 I 
\2502-4 J 


4524-48 


IO-20 


»» 


2209 58 


r4c 
lib 


Fe. JBa. 






452302 


109I 


*i 


221029 




A very faint ray. 




2505-6 


452209 


11-37 


jj 


221075 


4d 


Ti. 




2509-4 


451966 


12-56 


»> 


221194 


2d 






25I2'I " 










r le 






25I2-5 1 

25'3' 2 J 


4517-90 


13-42 


)> 


221280 


J 2a 
J2b 


Ti. 




2513-5 J 










lib 






2517-0 


(4514-2) 


15-2 


>j 


22146 


3b 






/■25i8-2 
^2518-4 

2520-9 
2522-3 


(4513-3) 


I5-7 


11 


22151 


2c 


1 Band. 

f The interpolated vrave- 
| lengths and oscillation- 
frequencies of these rays 
(_ are very doubtful. 




(45132) 

(4510-4) 
(4509-4) 


'57 

I7-I 
I7"6 




22151 

22165 
22170 


3a 

3a 
la 




2525-0 -1 
2525-4 J 


4507-74 


I 84I 


}i 


221779 


r2a 
lib 






2527-0 


(4506-6) 


I9'0 


» 


22184 


4a 






25320 


(4503-5) 


20"5 


j» 


22199 


2b 






2 535'5 1 
2 535"9 J 


4501-75 


2136 


tt 


222074 


r2b 
l2b 




Group 2223- 
Strong. 


2536-6 . 


450076 


2185 


tt 


222123 


lb 






2537'! 


4500-31 


22-07 


» 


222145 


5c 


Ti. 




2538-0 -, 
2538-3 J 


(4499-7) 


22 - 4 


tt 


22218 


rib 

l2a 






2540-5 


4498-27 


23-08 


»» 


222246 


2g 


Pt, Ma. 




2 543'5 


4496-22 


24-09 


tt 


222347 


4c 


Ti. 





OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



77 









Catalogue 


[continued). 






• 




Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Eeci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2544'S 


(4495-6) 


2224-4 


0-62 


22238 


2d 


Mn. 




1545 '4 


(44950) 


24-7 


>! 


22241 


lc 






2547-2 


4493-81 


2528 


)» 


222466 


6c 


Fe. 




2S477 


(4493-5) 


25-4 


It 


22248 


2b 






25484 










lc 






25497 










lb 






2550-1 
/ 2 55''2 
\255r4 

/*55 2 '4 
V25526 


(4491-0) 


26-7 


)» 


22261 


lb 

lb 

3a 
3 a 


C Possibly this may be the 
\ ray due to Mn instead 
[ of next. 
Mn. 


Group 2227- 
Faint. 










lb 






2553'6 










3a 






2554-0 










3a 






/ 2 5549 
Us55 - « 


448949 


27-42 


JJ 


2226-80 


3a 


Fe, Mn. 












2c 






25563 










2c 






2 5599 


4484-96 


29-67 


it 


222905 


3b 


Fe. 


Group 2230. 


2562-1 


448389 


30-21 


>» 


222959 


4b 


Fe. 


Strong. 




448309 


30-60 


- 62 


222998 








2564-0 -] 
2565-0 J 


4482-30 


31-00 


0-63 


223037 


r3b 
l6e 


Fe. 




25659 


(4481-3) 


3i"5 


»» 


22309 


2b 






2566-3 


448100 


31-64 


») 


223101 


3d 


Mg. 




2567-8 | 
2568-4 J 


4479-37 


32-46 


>» 


223183 


r3b 
L2b 


Fe. 
Mn. 




a 5744 


4475-49 


34"39 


)> 


223376 


5c 


Fe. 


Group 2235- 


2 579'3 


4472-48 


35-90 


»> 


2235 27 


3d 


Mn. 


Strong. 


25810 


(4471-5) 


36-4 


»» 


22358 


la 






2581-5 


(4471-2) 


365 


»» 


22359 


la 






2582-0 -I 
2582-4 J 


(4470-7) 


368 


»» 


22362 


r2a 
l2a 






25828 
2584-0 -I 
2585-4 J 


(4470-4) 
446954 


36-9 

37'37 




22363 
223674 


la 
j3e 
l5b 


, Doubtful whether 

Fe ° 

{ Angstrom's position 

Ti. | is the mean of these. 




2 587'9 "1 
2588-5 J 


446605 


39-11 


»» 


223818 


r3a 
l5b 






25897 


(4465-2) 


395 


J» 


22389 


lb 























78 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 









deduc- 




Inten- 






Kircbhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


259t'3 


446409 


2240-10 


0*63 


223947 


4a 


Mn. 




25917 


(4463-8) 


40-2 


a 


22396 


2c 






2593-0 


(44630) 


40-6 


a 


22400 


lc 






2594-9 "I 
to \ 


(4461-6) 


4' 3 


if 


22407 


2b 
1 


Mn. 

Band. 


Group 2242. 
Strong. 


aS9i"4 } 


446123 


4i'53 


it 


224090 


r4a 

14a 

1 






2595 9 { 
to I 










Band. 




25964 1 


(4460-7) 


418 


it 


22412 


2c 


Mn. 




25977 


(4460-3) 


42-0 


it 


22414 


3b 






25985 


(44595) 


42-4 


it 


22418 


lb 






/ 2 599'4 1 
\25997 J 


4456-72 


42-80 


a 


2242-17 


r3c 
\5b 


Fe. 




2600-6 "J 










r 2a 






2601-0 I 


4457'83 


43-24 


11 


224261 


J 2c 






2602-1 J 










[4 b 


Mn, Ti. 




26029 








• •• 


la 






2603 6 










2b 






2604-0 -I 
26048 J 


4455-38 


44-48 


tt 


224385 


rla 
L4b 

\T 

(.5c 


Mn. Double. 
Mn. 


• 


/26058 I 
(2606-6 J 


445416 


45-09 


:» 


224946 


Ca. 




2607-1 


(4453-6) 


45 '4 


it 


22448 


2b 






2608-2 


(44530) 


457 


it 


22451 


3c 






2608-6 


(4452-8) 


458 


»» 


22452 


lc 






2608-9 


(44526) 


45'9 


11 


22453 


la 






2610-2 


(4451-8) 


4 6 "3 




224fr7 


la 






2612-3 


4450-50 


4694 


it 


224631 


3b 


Mn. 




2613-6 


(4449-8) 


47"3 




22467 


2c 






2614-1 


4449-59 


47-40 


11 


224677 


3c 


Ti. 




2616-5 


(4448-6) 


47'9 


a 


2247 


2b 






2619-1 










j"5b 


Fe. 




2619-9 


4447-07 


48-67 


it 


224804 


J3a 


Ti. 




2620-3 










[3a 






2622-3 
2624-1 


... 


. .. 




. . . 


lb 

lb 




Group 225C 

Strong. 



OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OP SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



79 



Kircbhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2625-2 ^ 
2625-9 
2626-3 I 
2627-0 J 










r 5a 
J 4a 
1 2a 
*■ 5b 


Ti. 




4442-40 


2251-03 


0-63 


2250-40 


Fe. 












Fe. 




2627-9 










2a 






2628-9 






... 






lc 






2629-7 












lb 






2630-5 












la 






2633-6 
2634-4 












2c 
Id 




Group 2254. 
Faint. 


2635-5 












3b 






2636-4 












2c 






2637-4 
/26 3 8- 5 , 
^2638-8 J 


44, 


J4-65 


54 - 97 


tt 


225434 


4b 
r5b 
I 3b 


] Ca. It is not certain 
L which of this pair is 
J the ray of Ca. 




26396 


... 








lc 




■ 


2640-6 












2c 






2641-6 












3c 






2642-5 












2a 






26432 






... 


... 




la 






2(43-5 












la 








4431-48 


56-58 


it 


225595 





f Not shown in Angstrom's 
\ map. 




2645-6 -I 
2646-2 J 


442997 


57-35 


j» 


225672 


r4b 
l2g 


Fe. 

La, Di (Kirchhoff). 




/26505 -i 
^2650-7 J 


442690 


58-92 


'» 


2258-29 


r5b 
l3c 


Fe, Ti. 


Group 2259- 
Strong. 


72652-9 | 
\2653-2 J 


442507 


59-85 


a 


225922 


rid 

l5b 


|Ca. 




72656-7 | 
\*657-9 










p 






4422-12 


61-36 


tt 


226073 






26586 J 










lib 






26649 1 
2665-9 ■* 


4418-20 


6336 


»» 


2262-73 


r3a 
1 3b 


Ti. 


Group 2264 
Strong. 


2666-7 


(4417-4) 


638 




2263-2 


lb 






2667-6 I 
2668-0 J 


441669 


64-14 




226351 


r3a 
Lib 

























80 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 









iteduc- 




Inten- 




Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 1 
procals. 


ion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2669-4 
26700 


(4415-2) 
4414-77 


2264-9 
65-12 


0-63 
0-64 


22643 
2264-48 


3b 
6e 


f Fe, Mn. Winged, chiefly 
\ on less refrangible side. 




2673-8 
2674-5 










la 
2a 


| Identification of Kirch- 


Group 2269- 
Strong. 


2675-6 


(4411- ) 


67-1 




22665 


2c 


Ti \ ° 

hoffs ray with Ang- 




2676-5 










2a 


'- Strom's doubtful. 




2677-2 






... 


... 


la 






2678-4 










la 






2679-0 


(4408-6) 


68-3 




22677 


2a 






72680-0 1 

\268o-2 J 


4407-80 


68-70 




226806 


r5b 
13b 


Fe, Ca. 
Ca. 




2681-2 


(4407-0) 


69-1 


it 


22685 


5 a 






2683-1 


(4405-9) 


69-7 


tt 


22691 


4b 






/26860] 
^2686-4 I 
^■2686-8 J 










3c 






4404-26 


7° - 53 


It 


226989 


■ 6f 


Fe. Winged ray. 












3e 






2688-4 


(4403-2) 


71-1 


it 


22705 


2e 






/2690-8 I 
\z69n J 


4401-74 


71-83 


it 


2271-19 


r5b 
I3e 


Fe, Ni. 




2692*3 


4400-78 


72-32 


tt 


2271-68 


3c 






2693-5 


4399 64 


72-91 


it 


227227 


4c 






/2695'2 -1 
V26968 J 


(4398-2) 


737 


tt 


22731 


1 


Band. 




2698-2 


(4397-0) 


74'3 


tt 


22737 


If 






/2699-8 -1 
\27007 J 


(43958) 


74*9 


n 


22743 


l2a 






,2702-1 ~\ 
^2702-3 I 
^2702-5 J 










3b 






439464 


75'5° 


tt 


2274-86 


4a 














13b 






2703-5 


(4393-7) 


76-0 


„ 


2275-4 


3a 






,2703-8 
( to 
'2704-9 


4393-55 
4393-03 


7606 
7633 


tt 

tt 


2275-42 
2275-69 


1' 


Ti. 




/27074 1 

V27077 J 




... 




... 


I 1 ' 
l3a 






2708-9 


.. . 








4b 






27096 




... 


... 




2b 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



81 







Reduc-| 


] 


! nten- 








Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- t 
procals. 


ion to 
vaJ [Frequency. 


sity 
and 




Origin, &c. 


Groups. 








cuum. 




width. 








/27io'6 1 
\27io - 9 J 


4389-48 


2278-17 


0-64 


227753 


3a 


Ca. 


\ 












lg 








2711-9 


438853 


7867 


j) 


227803 


la 


Fe. 






2712-8 










2a 








2713-3 










3a 








2714-3 


4386-84 


79-54 


11 


227890 


2a 








2715-2 










2b 








2716-1 




... 






Id 








2718-5 1 

2719-0 i 

to I 
2720-2 < 

to I 
2720-8 i 

to I 
2721-6 I 

to I 
2722-8 J 


43S4-75 


80-63 


j» 


227999 


(3g 
\4c 

1 


Ca. , 




Group 2281 
Strong. 













Fe. 


Winged ray. Wing 
very broad on less 




4382-82 


81-64 


>j 


2281-00 


6 




refrangible side. 












3 


j 






(4382-1) 


82-0 


tf 


22814 










/^725'5 
U7a5 - 8 


4380-49 


82-85 


1* 


2282-21 


2d 








(4380-3) 


82-9 


n 


22823 


3a 








2726-8 


(4379-8) 


832 


it 


22826 


2a 








2728-0 


4379-16 


8354 


it 


2282-90 


4b 


Ca, Fe. 




2728-4 










lb 








2729-8 










2c 








2730-7 










lb 








2731-6 


437546 


85-47 


if 


228483 




Ca, Fe. 


Group 2285- 


2732-4 








... 


lc 






Faint. 


2733-7 


4374-22 


86-12 


)) 


228548 










/2734.-I | 
27357 1 










(? b 






Group 2288- 
Faint. 










[3b 








273 6 '5 










3b 








2736-9 






... 




3b 








2737'4 










la 








2737-8 










2a 








2739'2 










2c 








2739-9 










lb 








2741-3 


4370-60 


8801 


»> 


228737 


3d 









82 



REPORT 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Eeci- 
procals. 


Eeduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &o. 


Groups. 


2741-7 
/2 7 43-8 
V2744-I 

(27443 

2746-8 1 

to I 

Z2747-2 J 

\ 2747-6 

2748-0 

27498 


(4370-4) 
(4369-4) 
4369-27 
(4369-2) 

(4368-2) 

(4368-0) 
(4367-8) 
4367-56 
4366-39 


22881 
88-6 
88-71 
887 
89-3 

89-4 
89-5 
8961 
90-22 


0-64 
ji 

jj 
j» 
j» 

j) 

>> 
»» 


22875 

22880 

228807 

22881 

22887 

2288-8 
22889 
2288-97 
22895S 


3b 

1 f 
4c 
Id 

}' 

3a 

4c 
3c 


Cr, Fe. 1 Winged ray. 
Band. 

Fe. 




2750-6 

2754-5 
2755'4 
2755-8 


(4366-0) 
(4363-7) 
(4363-2) 
4362-97 


90-4 
91-6 
91-9 

92-02 


»» 


22898 
22910 
22913 
229138 


3a 

2c 
lb 
2b 




Group 2291 
Faint, 


2756-5 
2757-2 
2759-4 
2760-1 
2760-6 
2762-0 
2763-8 
2767-2 

2768-2 

2768-5 


(4362-7) 
(4362-0) 
(4360-5) 
(4360-1) 
(43599) 
435910 
4358-24 

435572 


92-2 
92-5 
93 - 3 
93-5 
936 

94-05 

94-50 

9583 


)» 
»» 


22916 

22919 

22927 

22929 

22930 

2293-41 

2293-86 

229519 


lc 

lc 
la 
2d 
2d 
4e 
3f 
Id 

2a 

la 


/'The interpolated wave- 
1 length and oscillation- 
j frequency of this ray 
^ doubtful. 

Cr. 
Fe. 

1 Identification of Kirch- 

-1 hoff's ray with Ang- 
[ Strom's doubtful. 




2770-0 

2770-8 

2774-0 
/2775'4 1 
V775-7 \ 
(2776-0 J 

2777-3 1 
to [ 

2777-8 -I 
to \ 

2778-5 J 


4354-56 
(4354-2) 
4352-51 

4351-86 

4350-86 

43504 


96-44 

96-6 

97-52 

97-87 

984.0 

2298-6 


)) 
jj 


229580 

22960 

229688 

229723 

229776 

22980 


2b 

2b 

5c 

f4c 

j 6c 

Uc 

3a 

2 

1 


Fe. 
Cr. 

f Wing on more refrang- 
\ ible side of this ray. 

Band. 


Group 2297 
Strong. 


2781-2 
2782*2 
2782-9 








... 


2b 
lb 
3b 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



83 










Reduc- 




Inten- 








Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 

0-64 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 




Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2783-9 


4346-74 


2300-57 


2299-93 


lb 








/2 7 8 4 -8 
^2785-1 


(4346-3) 


oo-8 


,, 


23002 


lc 








(4346-1) 


00-9 


0-64 


23003 


2c 








/2788-8 ' 
12789-1 . 


4344-44 


01-79 


0-65 


230H4 


rib 

l3e 


Cr. 






2790-5 


(4343-4) 


02-3 


it 


23016 


lc 








2791-1 


4343-10 


02-50 


it 


230185 


3b 


Fe. 






2793-0 , 
to t 






... 




1 






Group 2305 

(theG'group). 
Very strong. 


2794-0 j 


















to I 






... 




2 








27957 j 
to I 

2796-7 J 
to I 

2797-6 J 

to I 

1 

2798-0 J 


4340-10 


04-09 




230345 


6 


H.I 


'This hydrogen ray is 
sometimes called the 
















rayG'. 












2 
















3b 








(4339-5) 


04-4 


)) 


23037 


2 
















3b 








to I 






... 




1 








2798-9 J 




... 


JJ 




2c 








to I 


(4338-2) 


05-1 




2304-4 


1 








2799-5 \ 




... 






2c 








to I 






... 




1 








2800-1 J 


... 


... 


ss 


... 


3b 








to I 


(4337-3) 


05-6 


... 


2304-9 


1 








2800-7 J 

to J. 

2801-4 J 


... 




is 


... 


3b 








(4337-0) 


057 


SI 


23050 


1 








4336-80 


05-85 


ss 


2305-20 


4d 


Cr. 






2804-5 


4335-15 


06-72 


St 


230607 


lb 








2805-4 


4334-63 


07-00 


n 


230635 


lb 








2806-9 




... 




... 


lc 








2807-2 








... 


2a 








•2808-6 ~l 
52808-8 [ 

^28090 J 










fib 


) 






4332-72 


08-02 


Si 


230737 


2a 














lib 









84 



Report — 1878. 



Catalogue (continued). 










Seduc- 




Inten- 






Xirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


28108 






... 


... 


2b 






2811-7 






... 




2a 






28120 


... 








2a 






/28l2 - 5 

V28128 










2a 



C Identification of Ang- 




433010 


2309-41 


C65 


230876 


le 


\ Strom's ray with Kirch- 




2814-1 


... 




... 




lb 


[ hoffs very doubtful. 




2817-7 


... 


... 






3c 






2819-2 










3b 






2819-6 




... 






2b 






2820*6 , 

to 
2821-0 < 

to I 

2821-6 J 

to I 
2822-3 \ 

to V 
2823-4 ' 














Group 2313- 










2 




Very strong. 










3 




















4325-24 


I2'OI 


It 


231136 


6 


Fe. Winged ray. 


























3 














4c 






2824-2 , 










3a 






to - 
2825-0 - 






. . . 




2 






• •• 








4c 






to 










3 






2825-9 : 






... 


... 


4b 


) It is uncertain whe- 
ther K 2825-9 or 




to 


... 


... 


... 


... 


3 


V K 2826-5 is the 
Titanium line mea- 




2826-5 • 


4322-88 


13-27 


tt 


231262 


4e 


Ti. ) sured by Angstrom. 




28289 


• ■• 








3b 






2830-7 


4320-33 


14-64 


n 


231399 


3g 


Ti. 




2834-2 


4318-07 


I5-8S 


tt 


231520 


5 c 


Ca. 




2837-7 


4316-69 


1659 


VI 


231593 


lg 






/284I-4 -1 
\284r7 J 


4314-62 


17-70 


n 


231705 


r5b 
l4e 


Fe. 


Group 2321 
(theG Group). 












Very strong. 


/28430 -I 
\2843-3 J 


4313-76 


l8-l6 


it 


231751 


3d 
4a 


Ti. 




2844-0 


... 


... 


... 




3b 






2845'3 1 
to \ 

2846-1 \ 
to } 


4312-47 


18-86 


j» 


2318-21 


4f 


Ti. 






... 


. .. 




2 






4311-73 


19-25 


it 


231860 


3c 






- 




... 




2 







OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 



85 









Catalogue (continued). 




Kirchhoff. 




Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


2846-9 
to 










4c 

1 






2847-7 J 










4a 






to 
2848-0 < 
to I 






... 




2 










... 




4a 
2 






2848-4 | 






... 




3b 






to I 






... 




2 






2848-9 i 






... 




3b 






to I 






... 




2 






2849-3 1 

to I 

2849-8 I 






... 




3b 
2 










... 




3b 






to I 










2 






2850-2 ■ 










3b 






to 1 










2 






28507 j 










3b 






to I 










2 






2851-1 < 










3b 






to I 






... 




2 






2851-6 < 






... 




3b 






to I 






... 




2 






2852-0 < 






... 




4a 






to I 






... 




2 






2852-3 j 

to I 










4a 
1 






2853-1 1 

to I 










3 






2853-6 J 

to I 










4 






2854-1 < 

to I 


4307-25 


2321-67 


0-65 


232102 


6 


G. Fe, Ti. 




* 8 547 i 
to I 

2855-2 j 

to i- 










4 














3 






2855-7 - 1 

2856-9 


... 


... 


... 


... 


4d 







86 



REPORT 1878. 

Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchhoff. 



2857-9 1 
to [ 

2858-5 i 
to 

2858-9 J 

to V 

2859-4 J 

to 
2860-2 1 
to I 

2860-9 I 

to [ 

2861-7 J 

2861-9 -, 
to [ 

2863-1 J 
2863-6 -. 

to 

2864-2 i 

to 

2864-7 J 

28653 -, 

to \ 

2866-3 1 

to \ 

2867-1 < 

to \ 

28681 J 

2869-7 1 

to [ 

2871-2 J 

2872-2 



Ang- 
strom. 



4305-30 



Reci- 
procals. 



Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 



2322-72 



Frequency. 



4301-95 
4300-66 

4298-56 
4297-65 

4296-77 



429503 



429396 
429208 
4290-70 
4289-44 

4288-78 
4287-47 



2 4'53 
25-22 

26-36 
2685 

27-33 



2827 



2885 
2987 
30-62 
31-31 
31-67 
32-38 



0-65 



232207 



232388 
2324-57 

232571 
2326-20 

2326-68 



Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 



232762 



2328-20 
232922 
232997 
233066 
233102 
233173 



3 

4a 
2 

3 

1 

2 

1 
4b 

3b 

1 
3b 

4 

5b 
2 
4b 

4c 
1 

5b 
3 

2 
4c 

5c 
4 

4d 



Origin, &c. 



3b 



5c 
3b 
3c 
3b 
2a 
4a 



Ti. 
Fe. 



Groups. 



Fe, C*. 



Ca. 



Fe, Ca. 



'Kirchhoff records 
five other rays in 
this region, viz. 
2873-4(2^,2873-9 
Fe. \ (2 b), 2874-3 (3 b), 
2874-7 (2 b), and 
2875-2 (4 c), on a 
background of in- 
tensity 1. 



Ti. 



Fe, Ti. 

Ti. 
Ca, Cr. 

Fe, Ti. 



Group 2331 
Faint. 



OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



87 



Kirchhoff. 


Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


... 


428398 


2334-28 


0-65 


233363 


lb 






... 


4282-23 
4280-51 
427967 


35' 2 3 

36-17 
3663 


0-65 
o-66 

If 


2334 58 
233551 

2335 97 


la 

rla 
l3b 


f ^ a - 1 Probably the mean 
I Fe. J °f a P 8 **- 
Mm. 

> Mean of a pair. 


Group 2335 
Faint. 


... 


4276-96 
4274-68 
427305 

427133 


38-11 
3938 

40-25 

41-19 


!» 


233745 
233872 
233959 

234053 


lb 
6e 
lb 

( 6f 
I6e 


Ca, Or. 

Ti. 

Fe, Ca.P oublera y; Each 
•( component wmg- 

Fe. [ ed on both sides. 


Group 2340- 
Faint. 


... 


4269-51 
4267-75 

4263-97 


42-19 
4315 

45' 2 3 


11 


234153 
2342-49 

234457 


4a 

5a 

r2a 

l2a 


Fe. Triple ray. 

Fe. 1 

\ Double ray. 

Fe. J J 




•«• 


4261-42 

4260-02 
4258-43 


4664 

47 '4 1 
48-28 


H 
H 


234598 
234675 
234762 


la 
6e 
2a 


Fe. 
Mn. 


Group 2347- 

Faint. 


... 


4255-38 
4253-90 


49'97 

50-78 




234931 
235012 


la 
6d 


Fe. 
Fe, Cr. 


Group 2350- 
Faint. 


... 


4252-45 
4250-54 
424981 
42481(5 
4246-89 
4245-20 
4243-12 
4241-92 


5I-S8 
52-64 

53'°5 
53-96 
54-66 
55-60 
5676 
57 - 4* 


)» 

J» 

») 
11 
J) 
J) 
»» 


235092 
235198 
2352-39 
235330 
2354-00 
235494 
235610 
235676 


lg 
5d 
4d 
3b 
5c 
5c 
5d 
4d 


Fe. 
Fe, Ca. 

Fe, Ca. 
Fe. 




• •• 


4238-75 
4236-66 

4235-56 


59-19 
60-35 

60-96 




235853 
235969 

236030 


5c 

3d 

[6c 
■1 on 

Ug 


Fe. r Between these two 
rp. \ other rays, Fe and 
X - - [ Fe, Ca. 

Ifo. 


Group 2359 
Strong. 



88 



REPORT 1878. 

Catalogue (continued). 



Kirchboff. 


o 

Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 




4233-00 


2362-39 


o-66 


236137 


6b 


Fe, Ca. 


Group 2363. 




4229-16 


64 - S3 


J» 


236387 


5b 


Fe. 


Faint. 




4226-36 


66 - io 


>) 


236544 


(6a 
\ on 

Ug 


1 g. Ca. Winged on both 
f sides. Very strong. 


Group 2367- 
Strong. 


• •• 


4224-22 


67-30 


)) 


236664 


la 



Not in Angstrom's map. 




... 


4222-88 


68-05 


it 


2367-39 


2b 


Not in Angstrom's map. 




.... 


4221-71 


6871 


ft 


236805 


5d 


Fe. 






4218-34 


70-60 


o-66 


236994 


5d 


Fe. 


Group 2371- 


• ■• 


4216-58 


7* - 59 


0^67 


2370-92 


3b 


"1 Between these a ray 
Ca. J ofPe. 


Faint. 


... 


4215-33 


72-29 


»> 


237162 


6e 






4213-43 


73-36 


TJ 


237269 


2a 


Fe. 




... 


420990 
4206-25 
4204-55 


75'35 
77-41 

78-37 


J) 
1) 


2374-68 
237674 
2377-70 


5c 
4b 
4b 


Fe. "1 Between these two 
-p, J other rays of Fe. 

1 Between these a ray 
Fe. J ofFe. 




... 


4203-29 
4201-56 


79-09 

80-07 


91 


237842 
2379-40 


la 

(6b 
•1 on 
1 2g 


Fe. 

L Fe. Winged ray. 


Group 2380- 

Strong. 


... 


4200-27 


8o-8o 


IJ 


238013 


4g 


Fe. 




... 


4198-13 


82-01 


»» 


238134 


5a 


Fe. 




... 


4197-98 


82-10 


»J 


238143 


r4a 

l6d 


Fe. Double and nebulous. 




... 


4196-52 


82-93 


»» 


2382.26 


la 


1 Between these a ray 






4195-42 


83-55 


J» 


238288 


2a 


f of Fe. 
Fe. J 






4194-73 


8394 


VI 


238327 


4a 






... 


4191-17 


85-97 


>» 


238530 


r6a 

J on 
4f 


, of Ca. 

iFe. J 


Group 2387- 
Strong. 


... 


4188-48 


87-50 


1 t 


2386-83 


r 3a 
l3a 


I Double ray. 

Ca. J ' 





OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAll RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



89 









Reduc- 




Inten- 






Kirchhoff. 


Aug- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


sity 

and 

width 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 




4187-18 


2388-24 


C67 


238757 


5f 


Fe. 1 

-p, • Double winged ray. 

"1 Between these a ray 






4186-68 


88-53 


t> 


238786 


5d 




1 












J of Fe, Ti. 






4183-53 
418135 


9°"33 
9 r 57 




238966 
239090 


2b 

{ 2a 
l5f 


Fe. 


Group 2392 
Faint. 




4178-85 


93-00 


>, 


239233 


4e | 




... 


4177-10 


94-00 


»> 


239333 


5e 

-j 4e 
Ug 


f Fe. The least refrangible 
of a group of four rays 
1 of Fe. 

Fe. 


Group 2395- 
Faint. 


... 


4171-77 


2397-06 


»> 


239639 


Fe. 














e ' 1 Between these a 






... 


4166-64 


2400-01 


,, 


239934 


5e 


Fe. j ray of Fe - 


... 


4164-95 


00-99 


TJ 


240032 


3c 








4163-14 


02-03 


>) 


240136 


4c 


Ti. 




... 


4160-87 


°3"34 


)7 


240267 


r3b 
13b 


1 Double, nebulous. 




... 


4158-52 


04-70 


)> 


240403 


r4c 
L4b 


Fe. 




... 


415743 


°5'33 


0-67 


2404 66 


5d 


Fe. 




... 


4155-74 


06-31 


o-68 


240563 


r6d 

l4c 


Fe. 














f4b 


Fe. 




... 


4153-79 


07-44 


J» 


240676 


« 4b 
5c 


Fe. 
Fe. 




... 


4151-53 


0875 


1 J 


240807 


6e 


Fe. 




... 


4150-36 


09-43 


1J 


240875 


4d 


Fe. 




... 


4148-60 


10-45 


J> 


240977 


4c 


Fe. 






414710 


11-32 


" 


2410-64 


2b 


Fe. 




... 


4143-14 


13-63 


j) 


241295 


r6f 

15 c 


^ e - 1 Double. Winged ex- 
p e- J ternally. 


Group 2413- 

Faint. 


... 


4141-73 


H'45 


>> 


241377 


rib 
I la 






... 


4139-26 


1589 


a 


241521 


r 1 a 
lla 






18 


78. 










e 





90 



REPORT 1878. 

Catalogue {continued). 



Kirch hoff. 


o 

Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


... 


4136-36 


2417-58 


o-68 


241690 


lla 






... 


4133-94 
4131-52 


19-00 
20-42 


t J 


241832 
241974 


r4b 
l4b 

6e 


I Fe. Winged double ray. 

| Between these two 
I rays of Fe. 
Fe, Ca. J Winged ray. 


Group 2419- 
Strong. 


... 


4127-27 


22-91 


" 


242223 


r3a 
l4c 


Fe. 




... 


4125-66 


23-85 


-. 


242317 


f 2a 
I 2 a 






■ •• 


4122-83 


25-52 


'» 


242484 


3a 


Fe. 




• • • 


4121-53 


26-28 


,, 


242560 


4b 


Fe. 




• • • 


4120-57 


26-85 


,, 


242617 


4b 


Fe. 




... 


4118-72 


27-94 


H 


242726 


2b 






... 


4117-78 


2849 


» 


242781 


r6a 

I 5a 


"I Fe. Closely double ray. 
J Both may be Fe. 




... 


4101-20 


38-31 


)» 


243763 


rob 

< on 

Us 


1 h. H. Winged on both 
sides. 


Group 2439 
(the h group). 
Very strong. 


... 


409755 


40-48 


o-68 


243980 


3b 


Ca, Fc. 




... 


4095-04 


4162 


0*69 


2440 93 


3b 


Ca. 






4094-59 


42-25 


»» 


2441-56 


4d 






»•• 


4091-87 


43-87 


;» 


244318 


5g 


Ca. 






4089-81 


45-10 


" 


2444 41 


2 a 






... 


4084-17 


48-48 


)» 


244779 


4c 

4f 

4f 

r3a 

l3a 


Fe. I 

[ Between these two 

rays of Mn. 

Mn. ) 

f Ca. Winged, especially on 

\ less refrangible side. 


Group 2448- 
Faint. 


... 


4079-68 
407705 


51-17 
5*75 


») 


2450-48 
245205 


Group 2453- 

Strong. 


... 


4076 35 


53'«7 


ft 


245248 


[ Fe. Closely double. 




... 


407100 
4006-33 
4052-90 


56-40 
59-22 
6130 


if 


245571 
245853 
246061 


Gg 

f 2a 

l2a 

Gg 


Fe. Winged on both sides. 
iFe. 

"i Fe, Mn. Winged on both 
r sides. 

1 


Group 2458- 

Strong. 



OSCILLATION-FREQUENCIES OF SOLAR RAYS. 

Catalogue (continued). 



91 



Ki rchhoff. 


o 

Ang- 
strom. 


Reci- 
procals. 


Reduc- 
tion to 

va- 
cuum. 


Frequency. 


Inten- 
sity 
and 

width. 


Origin, &c. 


Groups. 


... 


4057-22 
4054-48 
4051-75 


2464-74 
6641 
6807 


069 
0-69 
070 


246405 
246572 
246737 


6a 
5a 
2a 


Fe, Mn. 
Fe. 


Group 2466- 
Faint. 


... 


4048-22 


7022 


7» 


246952 


5b 


Mn. 




1 


404510 
4040-13 


72-13 

75"i7 


II 
l> 

II 
II 


2471-43 
2474-47 


6g 
r6 c 

l3a 


Fe. Winged on both sides. 

Mn. -1 

Fe. } Triple - 


Group 2473 
Strong. 


... 


4033-92 
4029-50 


78-98 
81-70 


247828 
248100 


6c 
6 c 


Mn.~| Between these two 
rays of Mn and one 
of Fe. 

Mn. J Wing on more re- 
frangible side. 


Group 2480 
Strong. 


: 


4024-43 
4020-27 
401678 


84-82 

8y39 
8956 


II 
II 
II 


248412 
248669 

248886 


4b 
5c 
4 c 


Fe. 
Fe. 
Fe. Close double ray. 




... 


4004-90 
4001-55 
3997-98 


9694 
2499-03 
2501-36 


)l 

0-70 


249624 
249833 
2500-66 


6g 
3b 

4g 


/ Fe. Winged, especially on 
1 less refrangible side. 
Fe. 

Fe. 


Group 2498- 
Strong. 




39G810 
3933-00 


20 - I0 
42-59 


C7I 
II 


251939 

2541-88 


6 
6 


Hj, Fe, 
Ca. 

H 2 ,Fe,' 
Ca. 


( Very strong ne- 
bulous wings on 
both sides of 
each of these 
rays. Many rays 
between them, 
especially two 
rays of Al, both 

^ winged. 


Group 2530 

(the great H 

Group). Very 

strong. 

1 



92 eeport— 1878. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Dr. Fare, 
Mr. J. W. L. Gtlaisheb, Dr. Pole, Professor Fuller, Professor 
A. B. W. Kennedy, Professor Clifford, and Mr. C. W. Merri- 
field, appointed to consider the advisability and to estimate the 
expense of constructing Mr. Babbage's Analytical Machine, and of 
printing Tables by its means. Draivn up by Mr. Merrifield. 

We desire in the first place to record our obligations to General Henry 
Babbage for the frank and liberal manner in which he has assisted the 
Committee, not only by placing at their disposal all the information with- 
in his reach, but by exhibiting and explaining to them, at no small loss of 
time and sacrifice of personal convenience, the machinery and papers left 
by his father, the late Mr. Babbage. Without the valuable aid thus kindly 
rendered to them by General Babbage it would have been simply impos- 
sible for the Committee to have come to any definite conclusions, or to 
present any useful report. 

We refer to the chapter in Mr. Babbage's ' Passages from the Life of a 
Philosopher,' and to General Menabrea's paper, translated and annotated 
by Lady Lovelace, in the third volume of Taylor's ' Scientific Memoirs,' for 
a general description of the Analytical Engine. 

I. The General Principles of Calculating Engines. 

The application of arithmetic to calculating machines differs from or- 
dinary clockwork, and from geometrical construction, in that it is essen- 
tially discontinuous. In common clockwork, if two wheels are geared 
together so as to have a velocity ratio of 10 to 1 (say), when the faster 
wheel moves through the space of one tooth, the angular space moved 
through by the slower wheels is one-tenth of a tooth. Now in a calcu- 
lating machine, which is to work with actual figures and to print them, 
this is exactly what we don't want. We require the second wheel not to 
move at all until it has to make a complete step, and then we require that 
step to be taken all at once. The time can be very easily read from the 
hands of a clock, and so can the gas consumption from an ordinary 
counter ; but a moment's reflection will show what a mess any such ma- 
chinery would make of an attempt at printing. 

This necessity of jumping discontinuously from one figure to another 
is the fundamental distinction between calculating and numbering machines 
on the one hand, and millwork or clockwork on the other. A parallel 
distinction is found in pure mathematics, between the theory of numbers 
on the one hand, and the doctrine of continuous variation, of which the 
Differential Calculus is the type, on the other. A calculating machine 
may exist in either case. The common slide-rnle is, in fact, a very power- 
ful calculating machine in which the continuous process is used, and the 
planimeter is another. 

Geometrical construction, being essentially continuous, would be quite 
out of place in the calculating machine which has to print its results. 
Linkwork also, for the same reason, is out of place as an auxiliary in any 
form to the calculation. It may be of service in simplifying the construc- 
tion of the machine ; but it must not enter into the work as an equivalent 
for arithmetical computation. 



ox 



babbage's 



ANALYTICAL MACHINE. 



93 



The primary movement of calculating engines is the discontinuous 
train, of which one form is sketched in the accompanying diagram (fig. 1) : 
— B is the follower, an ordinary spur wheel with (say) 10 teeth ; A is its 
driver, and this has only a single tooth. With a suitable proportion of parts, 
the single tooth of A only moves B one interval for a whole revolution of 
A; for it only gears with B by means of this single tooth. "When that is 
not in gear, A simply slips past the teeth of B without moving the latter. 

All the other machinery of calculating engines leads up to and makes 
use of this, or of some transformation of it, as its means of dealing with 
units of whatever decimal rank, instead of allowing indefinite fractions of 
units to appear in the result which has to be printed from. 

Fig. 1. 




The primary operation of calculation is counting : the secondary opera- 
tion is addition, with its counterpart, subtraction. The addition and sub- 
traction are in reality effected by means of counting, which still remains 
the primary operation ; but the necessity for economising labour and time 
forces upon us devices for performing the counting processes in a summary 
manner, and for allowing several of them to go on simultaneously in the 
calculating engine. For, if we use simple counting as our only operation, 
and suppose our engine set to 2312 (say), then, in order to add 3245 to it 
by mere repetition, we have 3245 unit operations to perform, and this is 
practically intolerable. If, however, we can separate the counting, so as 
to count on units to units only, tens to tens only, hundreds to hundreds 
only, and so forth, we shall only have 

3 + 2 + 4 + 5 = 14 

turns of the handle, as against 3245 turns. In general terms the number 
of operations will be measured by the sum of the digits of the number, 
instead of by the actual number itself. This is exactly analogous to what 
we should do ourselves in ordinary arithmetic in working an addition 
sum, if we had not learnt the addition table, but had to count on our 
fingers in order to add. This statement of the work is, however, incom- 
plete. In the first place the convenience of machinery obliges us to pro- 
vide 10 steps for each figure, whatever it may be, and there must be an 
arrangement by which the setting of the figure to be added shall cause a 
wheel to gain ground by so many steps as the number indicates, and to 
mark time without gaining ground for the other steps up to 10. Thus, in 
adding 7 our driver must make a complete turn or 10 steps, equivalent to 
1 step of the follower ; but only 7 of these steps of the driver must be 
effective steps, the others being skipped steps. There are various devices 
for this. One of the simplest and most direct is that used in Thomas's 



94 



REPORT — 1878. 



1 Arithmometre ;' * another is the Reducing Bar used by Mr. Babbage.f In 
the second place, the carrying has to be provided for just as in ordinary 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 



D 



i: 



J? 



x> 



V- 



tv 



dj 



f 



addition of numbers. Taking account of all this, it follows that by 
separating the counting on the whole into counting on figure by figure, 

* Let ZO (fig. 2) be a plate with ten ribs of different lengths, Aa, Bb, . . . . K7i 
soldered on it. Let Mw. be a square axis on which the wheel N is made to slide by 
the fork P. Then, supposing N to have teeth which can engage in the ribs Aa, Sec, 
when the plate is pushed past the wheel N, the number of teeth through which the 
wheel N, carrying with it the shaft Mm, is made to rotate, depends upon the number 
of ribs in which it engages, and this depends upon how far along the axis N is made 
to slide by means of the fork P. If this fork is set opposite the line marked 3, Mm 
will turn through a space equivalent to 3 teeth. If a wheel, keyed to the shaft Mm, 
be geared to other wheels, this enables us to add any digit to any number at a 
single motion of the plate, by simply changing the position of P to suit the digit 
required. This is the principle used in Thomas's arithmometre, only that there the 
traversing plate is replaced by a rotating cylinder. 

t Suppose Aa, Bb, . . . . F/ (fig. 3) to be a series of racks passing hrough mor- 
tices in a plate aw, and meeting a series of spur-wheels mounted loos<> n a shaft, so 
that each wheel gears with one of the racks at the line pq, and that 11 the whole 
series can be thrown in or out of gear together. Starting with them out of gear, 
let the racks be drawn out through the plate <rz as indicated. Next throw the shaft 
pq into gear, and then press a plate PQ against the ends of the racks, pushing them 
back until the plates PQ and sez meet. Then each wheel aa jiq will turn through 
the number of teeth corresponding to the original projection of the racks. In this 
way, if the wheels on pq stood at any given number, say 543243, we should have 
added 314236 to them, and they would then stand at the sum of these two numbers, 
namely, 857479. This, it will be observed, makes no provision for carrying. PQ is 



ON CABBAGE'S ANALYTICAL MACniNE. 95 

the number of separate steps is reduced from that expressed by the number 
itself to eleven times the number of its digits ; that is to say, for example, 
the addition of the number 73592 to any otber number is reduced from 
73592 to 55 steps, and although of this latter some are slipped, there is 
no gain of time thereby, except in so far as several of the steps may be 
made simultaneously. The ordinary engines beat the human calculator 
in respect of adding all the figures simultaneously ; but Mr. Babbage was 
the first to devise a method of performing all the carrying simultaneously 
too. 

Mechanical invention has not yet gone bejond the reduction of the 
distinct steps involved in the addition of a number consisting of n digits 
to less than Wn ; practically, from the necessity of accompanying the 
carrying with a warning step, rather more are required. 

In all the calculating machines at present known, including Mr. 
Babbage's analytical engine, multiplication is really effected by repeated 
addition. It is true that, by a multiplication of parts, more than one addi- 
tion may be going on simultaneously ; but it yet remains true, as a matter 
of mechanism, that the process is purely one of iterated addition. 

By means of reversing wheels or trains, subtraction is as easily and 
directly performed as addition, and that without becoming in any degree 
a tentative process. But it is important to observe that the process can 
be made tentative, so as to give notice when a minuend is, or is about to 
become, exhausted. This is the necessary preparation for division, which is 
thus essentially a tentative process. That does not take it out of the power 
of the machine, because the machine may be, and is, so devised as to accept 
and act upon the notice. Nevertheless it is a step alieni generis from the 
direct processes of addition, multiplication, and subtraction. It need hardly 
be stated that the process of obtaining a quotient consists in counting the 
number of subtractions employed, up to the machine giving notice of the 
minuend being exhausted. 

Another essentially distinct train is involved in the decimal shift of the 
unit, in all the four elementary rules. This is most simply and most 
commonly effected by the sliding of an axis or frame longitudinally, after 
the manner of a common sliding- scale or rule, so as to bring either the 
figures, or the teeth which represent them, against those to which their 
decimal places correspond, and to no others. In multiplication and divi- 
sion, this means a shift for each step of the multiplication and division. 

II. Special Characteristics of Mr. Babbage's Analytical Engine. 

1. The mill. — The fundamental operation of Mr. Babbage's analytical 
engine is simple additition. This and the other elementary rules of sub- 
traction, multiplication, and division, and all combinations of these, are 
performed in what is called " the mill." All the shifts which have to take 
place, such as changing addition into subtraction by throwing a reversing 
train into gear, or the shift of the decimal place, carrying and borrowing, 
and so forth, are effected by a system of rotating cams acting upon or 

the reducing bar. In practice the arrangement is usually circular, the bar PQ 
revolving about an axis parallel to itself instead of sliding. If the numbers on the 
wheels pq are placed one way we get addition ; if reversed, subtraction. Otherwise 
we may reverse by introducing an additional set of wheels between the wheels^ 
and the racks. 

This is the bare principle, admitting of many transformations, and making, like 
the other, no provision for carrying. 



96 report — 1878. 

actuated by bell-cranks, tangs, and otber similar devices commonly used 
in shifting machinery, sometimes under the name of clutches or escape- 
ments. These clutches and bell-cranks control the purely additive and 
carrying processes effected in the additive trains described in the note to 
§ I., and, being themselves suitably directed, secure that the proper processes 
shall be performed upon the proper subject-matter of operation, and duly 
recorded, or used, as may be required. 

2. The store. — A series of columns, each containing a series of wheels, 
constitutes the store. This store, which may be in three or more dimen- 
sions, both receives the results of operations performed in the mill, and 
serves as a store for the numbers which are to be used in the mill, whether 
as original or as fresh subjects of operation in it. Each column in the 
store corresponds to a definite number, to which it is set either automati- 
cally or by hand, and the number of digits in this number is limited by 
the number of wheels carried on the shaft of the column. The wheels 
o-ear into a series of racks, which can be thrown into or out of gear by 
means of the cards. 

3. Variable cards. — All the numbers which are the subject of operation 
in the mill, whether they are the result of previous operations therein, or 
new numbers to be operated upon for the first time, are introduced to it 
in the form of Jacquard* cards, such as are used in weaving. One set of 
wires or axes transfers the numbers on these cards to the subject of ope- 
ration in the mill, exactly as similar cards direct which of the warp 
threads are to be pushed up, and which down, in the Jacquard loom. The 
mill itself punches such cards when required. 

4. Operation cards. — A different set of cards selects and prescribes the 
sequence of operations. These act, not upon the number wheels of the 
mill or store, but upon the cams and clutches which direct the gearing 
of these wheels and trains. Thus, in such an operation as (a b + c) d, 
we should require : — 

1st, 4 variable cards with the numbers a, b, c, d. 

2nd, an operation card directing the machine to multiply a and b 

together. 
3rd, a record of the result, namely the product ab = p, as a fifth 

variable card. 
4th, an operation card directing the addition of p and c. 
5th, a record of the result, namely the sum p + c=q, as a 6th variable 

card, 
6th, an operation card directing the machine to multiply ~q and d 

together. 
7th, a record of the result, namely the product qd=p 2 , either printed 

as a final result or punched in a seventh variable card. 

* In a letter written by Mr. Babbage to Arago in December 1839, the following 
explanation of the use of these cards is given. It probably conveys the idea in the 
fewest words possible. It is only necessary to add that their twofold employment 
embodies the separation of the symbols of operation from those of quantity. " You 
are aware that the system of cards which Jacquard invented are the means by 
which we can communicate to a very ordinary loom orders to weave any pattern 
that may be desired. Availing myself of the same beautiful invention, I have by 
similar means communicated to my calculating engine orders to calculate any 
formula however complicated ; but I have also advanced one stage further, and I 
have communicated through the same means orders to follow certain laws in the use 
of those cards, and thus the calculating engine can solve any equations, eliminate 
between any number of variables, and perform the highest operations of analysis." 



on babbage's analytical machine. 97 

III. Capability of the Engine. 

It has already been remarked that the direct work of the engine is a 
combination and repetition of the processes of addition and subtraction. 
But in leading up to any given datum by these combinations, there is no 
difficulty in ascertaining tentatively when this datum is reached, or about 
to be reached. This is strictly a tentative process, and it appears probable 
that each such tentamen requires to be specially provided for, so as to be 
duly noted in the subsequent operations of the machine. There is, how- 
ever, no necessary restriction to any particular process, such as division ; 
but any direct combination of arithmetic, such as the formation of a poly- 
nomial, can be made to lead up to a given value in such a manner as to yield 
the solution of 'the corresponding equation. In any such process, how- 
ever, it is evident that there can be only (to choose a simile from mechanism) 
one degree of freedom ; otherwise the problem would yield a locus, inde- 
terminate alike in common arithmetic, and as regards the capabilities of 
the machine. The possibility of several roots would be a difficulty of 
exactly the same character as that which presents itself in Horner's solu- 
tion of equations, and the same may be said of imaginary roots differing 
but little from equality. These, however, are extreme cases, with which 
it is usually possible to deal specially as they arise, and they need not be 
considered as detracting materially from the value of the engine. Theo- 
retically, the grasp of the engine appears to include the whole synthesis 
of arithmetic, together with one degree of freedom tentatively. Its capa- 
bility thus extends to any system of operations or equations which leads 
to a single numerical result. 

It appears to have been primarily designed with the following general 
object in view — to be coextensive with numerical synthesis and solution, 
without any special adaptation to a particular class of work, such as we 
see in the difference engine. It includes that a majori, and it can either 
calculate any single result, or tabulate any consecutive series of results 
just as well. But the absence of any speciality of adaptation is one of the 
leading features of the design. 

Mr. Babbage had also considered the indication of the passage through 
infinity as well as through zero, and also the approach to imaginary roots. 
For details upon these points we must refer to his ' Passages from the 
Life of a Philosopher.' 

IV. Present state of the Design. 

The only part of the analytical engine which has yet been put together 
is a small portion of " the mill," sufficient to show the methods of addition 
and subtraction, and of what Mr. Babbage called his " anticipating car- 
riage." It is understood that General Babbage will (independently of 
this report) publish a full account of this method. No further mention 
of it will therefore be made here, 

A small portion of the work is in gun-metal wheels and cranks, 
mounted for the most part on steel shafts. But the greater part of the 
wheels are in a sort of pewter hardened with zinc. This was adopted from 
motives of economy. They are for the most part not cast, but moulded 
by pressure, and the moulds of most of them are in existence. 

A large number of drawings of the machinery are also in existence. It 
is supposed that these are complete to the extent of giving an account of 
1878. h 



98 bepoet— 1878. 

every particular movement essential to the design of the engine ; but, for 
the most part, they are not working drawings, that is to say, they are not 
drawings suited to be sent straight to the pattern or fitting shop, to be 
rendered in metal. There are also drawings for the erection of the 
■engine, and there appears to be a complete set of descriptive notes of it in 
Mr. Babbage's "mechanical notation." There remains, however, a great 
deal to be done in the way of calculating quantities and proportions, and 
in tbe preparation of working drawings, before any work could actually 
be set in hand, even if the design be really complete. There is some doubt 
on this point as the matter stands, and it certainly would be unsafe to rely 
upon the design being really complete, until the working drawings had been 
got out. Mechanical engineers are well aware that no complex design 
can be trusted without this test, at least. 

It was Mr. Babbage's rule, in designing mechanism, in the first place 
to work to his object, in utter disregard of any questions of complexity. 
This is a good rule in all devising of methods, whether analytical, 
mechanical, or administrative. But it leaves in doubt, until the design 
finally leaves the inventor's hands in a finished state, whether it really 
represents what is meant to be rendered in metal, or whether it is simply 
a provisional solution, to be afterwards simplified. 

V. Provable Cost. 

It has not been possible for us to form any exact conclusion as to the 
• cost. Nevertheless there are some data in existence which appear to fix 
a lower limit to the cost. Mr. Babbage, in his published papers, talks of 
having 1,000 columns of wheels, each containing 50 distinct wheels ; this 
apparently refers to his store. Besides the many thousand moulded 
pewter wheels for these, and the axes on which they are mounted, there 
is the mill, also consisting of a series of columns of wheels and of a vast 
machinery of cams, clutches, and cranks for their control and connection, 
■so as to bring them within the directing power of the Jacqnard systems 
of variable cards and operation cards. Without attempting any exact 
estimate, we may say that it would surprise us very much if it were found 
possible to obtain tenders for less than 10,000L, while it would pretty 
certainly cost a considerable sum to put the design in a fit state for 
obtaining tenders. On the other hand, it would not surprise us if the cost 
were to reach three or four times the amount above suggested. 

It is understood that towards the close of his life Mr. Babbage had 
contemplated carrying out the manufacture of the engine on a smaller 
scale, confining himself to 25 figures instead of 50, and to 200 columns 
instead of 1000 or more. This would of course reduce the amount of 
the metal- work proportionately, but we do not think that it would mate- 
rially reduce the charge which we anticipate for bringing the design into 
working order. 

VI. Strength and Durability. 

The questions of strength and durability had by no means escaped Mr. 
Babbage's attention, and a great deal of his detail bears marks of having 
been designed with especial reference to these two points That was 
essential in a large amd complex engine with some thousands of whe els, all 
requiring at some time or other, although not simultaneously, to be driven 
by the means of one shaft. This necessarily throws a great deal ot 
pressure, and also a grv«*t deal of wear and tear, on the mam driving shatt 



on babbage's analytical machine. 99 

and the gear immediately connected with it. We have no means of 
knowing, in the present state of the design, to what extent Mr. Babbage 
had sncceeded in redncing this, or whether he had always been successful 
in arranging his cams and cranks so as to secure the best working angles, 
and to avoid their being jammed at dead points or otherwise. Giving 
him full credit for being quite aware of the importance of this, we cannot 
but doubt whether the design was ever in a sufficiently forward state to 
enable him, or any one else, to speak with certainty on this point. Several 
of the existing calculating machines show signs of weakness in the 
driving-pinions. 

One of the movements apparently necessary to the tentative processes 
of the engine is, when the spur-wheels on a given shaft have been brought 
into certain definite positions depending on previous operations, to bring 
up a sharp straight edge against them in a plane passing through the 
axis of the shaft. This pushes some to right and others to left, according 
to the position of the crown of the tooth relatively to the straight edge. 
This operation is necessary to secure that the clearance of the different 
parts of the machinery, whether originally provided in order to allow it 
to work smoothly, or whether afterwards increased by working, shall not 
introduce a numerical error into the result. The principle of this operation 
is used generally throughout the analytical engine. Its consequent 
effect, both in respect of the work which it throws upon the main driving 
gear, and of the wear of the parts which it pushes, forms an important 
element in considering the durability of the machine. This bar also 
serves the purpose of locking part of the machine when required. 

On the other hand, it is to be remarked, that the use of springs has 
been wholly discarded by Mr. Babbage, as directors of motion, although 
he occasionally uses them for return motions. 

VII. Probable utilization of the Analytical Engine. 

It has been already remarked that one of the main features of the 
engine is, that its function is coextensive with numerical synthesis and 
solution, and that there is an absence of any special adaptation. In thus 
widening the sphere of its capability, it is made to diverge from the 
general tendency of mechanical design, which is towards the selection and 
particularization of the work to be performed, and the restriction of the 
machinery to one particular cycle of operation, usually within close 
numerical limits, as well as limited in kind. Nevertheless, modern 
engineering practice finds ample room for " universal " drills, shaping 
tools, and other machines having very general adjustments and appli- 
cations. But it remains practically true that each step of freedom of 
adjustment is also a step in diminution of special aptitude. 

While the analytical engine is capable of turning out a single result, 
as the combination of a complex series of numbers and operations per- 
formed upon them, it can also yield a series of such results in a consecutive 
form, and thus give tabulated results. Only it is not restricted, as is the 
difference engine, to the special method of tabulation by finite differences, 
nor is tabulation its primary function or intention. If its actual capa- 
bilities are found to realize the intentions of its inventor, it will tabulate 
all functions which are within the reach of numerical synthesis, and those 
direct inversions of it which are known under- the name of solutions. It 
deals, however, with number, and not with analytical form. 

h 2 



100 REPORT — 1878. 

Theoretically it might supersede the difference engine, a majori; but 
for reasons already stated, the specialization of the difference engine 
would probably give it an advantage over the more powerful engine, 
when the work was specially suited to finite differences. 

There would remain much work, tabular and other, for which diffe- 
rences are not very directly suited. Among these may be mentioned the 
determination of heavy series of constants and of definite functions of 
them, such as Bernoulli's numbers, 2a; -n , coefficients of various expan- 
sions of functions, and inversions of known expansions, solutions of 
simultaneous equations with large numerical coefficients and many 
variables, including, as a particular, but important case, the practical 
correction of observations by the method of least squares. If all sorts of 
heavy work of this kind could be easily and quickly, as well as certainly, 
done, by merely selecting or punching a few Jacquard cards and turning 
a handle, not only much saving of labour would result, but much which is 
now out of human possibility would be brought within easy reach. 

If intelligently directed and saved from wasteful use, such a machine- 
might mark an era in the history of computation, as decided as the intro- 
duction of logarithms in the seventeenth century did in trigonometrical 
and astronomical arithmetic. Care might be required to guard against 
misuse, especially against the imposition of Sisyphean tasks upon it by 
influential sciolists. This, however, is no more than has happened in 
the history of logarithms. Much work has been done with them which 
could more easily have been done without them, and the old reproach is 
probably true, that more work has been spent upon making tables than 
lias been saved by their use. Yet, on the whole, there can be no reason- 
able doubt that the first calculation of logarithmic tables was an expen- 
diture of capital which has repaid itself over and over again. So- 
probably would the analytical engine, whatever its cost, if we could be 
assured of its success. 

VIII. Possible Modification of the Engine. 

Without prejudging the general question referred to us as to the 
advisability of completing Mr. Babbage's engine in the exact shape in 
which it exists in the machinery and designs left by its inventor, it is 
open to consideration whether some modification of it, to the sacrifice 
of some portion of its generality, would not reduce the cost, and simplify 
the machinery, so as to bring it within the range of both commercial and 
mechanical certainty. The "mill,"'for example, is an exceedingly good 
mechanical arrangement for the operations of addition and subtraction, 
and with a slight modification, with or without store-columns, for multi- 
plication. We have already called attention to the imperfection of the 
existing machines, which show weakness and occasional uncertainty. It 
is at least worth consideration whether a portion of the analytical engine 
might not thus be advantageously specialized, so as to furnish a better 
multiplying machine than we at present possess. This, we have reason 
to believe, is a great desideratum both in public and private offices, as 
well as in aid of mathematical calculators. 

Another important desideratum to which the machine might be 
adapted, without the introduction of any tentative processes (out of 
which the complications of the machinery chiefly arise) is the solution of 
simultaneous equations containing many variables. This would include 



on babbage's analytical machine. 101 

a large part of the calculations involved in the practical application of 
the method of least squares. The solution of such equations can always 
be expressed as the quotient of two determinants, and the obtaining 
this quotient is a final operation, which may be left to the operator to 
perform by ordinary arithmetic, or which may be the subject of a separate 
piece of machinery, so that the more direct work of forming the deter- 
minant, which is a mere combination of the three direct operations of 
addition, subtraction, and multiplication, may be entirely freed from the 
tentative process of division, which would thus be prevented from compli- 
cating the direct machinery. In the absence of a special engine for the 
purpose, the solution of large sets of simultaneous equations is a most 
laboi'ious task, and a very expensive pi-ocess indeed, when it has to be 
paid for, in the cases in which the result is imperatively needed. An engine 
that would do this work at moderate cost would place a new and most 
valuable computing power at the disposal of analysts and physicists. 

Other special modifications of the engine might also find a fair field 
for reproductive employment. We do not think it necessary to go into 
these questions at any great length, because they involve a departure, in 
the way of restriction and specialization, from Mr. Babbage's idea, of 
which generality was the« leading feature. Nevertheless, we think that 
we should be guilty of an omission, if we were to fail to suggest them for 
consideration. 

IX. General Conclusions, and Recommendation. 

1. We are of opinion that the labours of Mr. Babbage, firstly on his 
Difference Engine, and secondly on his Analytical Engine, are a marvel 
of mechanical ingenuity and resource. 

2. We entertain no doubt as to the utility of such an engine as was 
in his contemplation when he undertook the invention of his analytical 
engine, supposing it to be successfully constructed and maintained in 
efficiency. 

S. We do not consider that the possibilities of its misuse are any 
serious drawback to its use or value. 

4. Apart from the question of its saving labour in operations now 
possible, we think the existence of such an instrument would place within 
reach much which, if not actually impossible, has been too close to the 
limits of human skill and endurance to be practically available. 

5. We have come to the conclusion that in the present state of the 
design of the engine it is not possible for us to form any reasonable 
estimate of its cost, or of its strength and durability. 

6. We are also of opinion that, in the present state of the design, 
it is not more than a theoretical possibility ; that is to say, we do not 
consider it a certainty that it could be constructed and put together so as 
to run smoothly and correctly, and to do the work expected of it. 

7. We think that there remains much detail to be worked out, and 
possibly some further invention needed, hefore the design can be brought 
into a state in which it would be possible to judge whether it would 
really so work. 

8. We think that a further cost would have to be incurred in order 
to bring the design to this stage, and that it is just possible that a 
mechanical failure might cause this expenditure to be lost. 

9. While we are unable to frame any exact estimates, we have reason 



102 REPORT — 1878. 

to think that the cost of the engine, after the drawings are completed, 
would be expressed in tens of thousands of pounds at least. 

10. We think there is even less possibility of forming an opinion as 
to its strength and durability than as to its feasibility or cost. 

11. Having regard to all these considerations, we have come, not 
without reluctance, to the conclusion, that we cannot advise the British 
Association to take any steps, either by way of recommendation or other- 
wise, to procure the construction of Mr. Babbage's Analytical Engine 
and the printing tables by its means. 

12. We think it, however, a question for further consideration 
whether some specialized modification of the engine might not be worth 
construction, to serve as a simple multiplying machine, and another 
modification of it arranged for the calculation of determinants, so as to 
serve for the solution of simultaneous equations. This, however, inas- 
much as it involves a departure from the general idea of the inventor, we 
regard as lying outside the terms of reference, and therefore perhaps 
rather for the consideration of Mr. Babbage's representatives than ours. 
We accordingly confine ourselves to the mere mention of it by way of 
suggestion. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor 
Sir W. Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and 
Professor Maxwell, appointed for the purpose of determining 
the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

It will not be necessary to make a long report to the Association this 
year. Dr. Joule has published a paper, giving in extetiso the experiments 
summarized in the last two reports in the ' Philosophical Transactions of 
the Boyal Society,' which was the medium of the publication of his former 
paper in 1850. The new result, which confirms the old one, gives 772'55 
foot-pounds as the equivalent at the sea level and the latitude of Green- 
wich of the heat which can raise a pound of water, weighed in vacuo, 
frcm 60° to 01° Fahr. of the mercurial thermometer, where the perma- 
nent freezing point is called 32°, and the permanent boiling point of 
water under a barometrical pressure of 30 inches of mercury raised to 
G0° Fahr. is 212°. The work at present in hand is a more accurate 
investigation of the true position of the freezing and boiling points of 
the thermometers when cleared from the effects of the imperfect elasticity 
of the glass of which they are constructed. The correction of the above 
equivalent which may thus accrue is not expected to be of considerable 
amount. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. 103 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes, Pro- 
fessor Sir William Thomson, and Professor Everett, appointed 
for the purpose of making arrangements for the taking of cer- 
tain Observations in India, and Observations on Atmospheric 
Electricity at Madeira. 

The Committee lias purchased three electrometers. These hare been 
given, one to Surgeon-Major Johnson, in India ; the second to Mr. Michie 
Smith, in India ; and the third to Dr. Grabham, in Madeira. Surgeon- 
Major Johnson was engaged in the frontier war in India ; and Dr. Grab- 
ham has hitherto been too much occupied to make observations, while 
Mr. Michie Smith has not yet had time to furnish any. So that up to the 
present time no observations have been received. Tour Committee feel 
confident of obtaining results from Mr. Smith, and hope also from the 
other observers, but in the event cf their being unable to furnish regular 
observations, your Committee would get the electrometers back and make 
them available for other persons. They propose that the Committee 
should be reajipomted. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. 
Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. W. Froude, and Mr. J. T. 
Bottomlet, for commencing Secular Experiments upon the 
Elasticity of Wires. Drawn up by J. T. Bottomlet. 

The Committee have to report that the arrangements for suspending the 
wires for secular experiments on elasticity are now complete ; and that 
within the last few days two wires, one of palladium, and the other of 
platinum, have been suspended in their places. 

An iron tube has been erected in one of the rooms in the tower of 
the University buildings in Glasgow. It is 60 feet long, 9 inches wide, 
and 4^ inches deep from face to back. It is of rectangular section, in 
lengths of 6 feet ; and it is supported by being firmly attached to the 
heavy outer stone wall of the tower. 

At the top of the tube there is a heavy gun-metal plate, which is sup- 
ported independently of the iron tube ; and from this plate the wires 
under examination are to be suspended, as well as additional wires to be 
used for carrying additional comparison marks. With this arrangement 
no yielding of the supporting plate that may take place will introduce 
errors into the results of measurement of the lengths of the wires ; for 
the point of support of the wire carrying comparison marks will expe- 
rience the same amount of lowering, due to the yielding, as is experienced 
by the wire to be measured against these marks. The gun-metal plate 
has been pierced with three rows of holes through which the wires are 
to pass. The holes are trumpeted at each end so as to avoid sharp con- 
tact with the wires, and the rows are arranged so that the wires shall 
hang down in planes parallel to the face of the tube. It has not yet 
been decided what is the best way of fixing the upper ends of the 



104 BEPOET — 1878. 

wires above the gun-metal plate, or of attaching the weights to their 
lower ends. No thoroughly satisfactory mode of attachment has yet 
been found. In the course of experiments which have been carried on 
at Glasgow on the breaking weight, and the Young's modulus of elasticity 
of the gold, platinum, and palladium wires, which it is intended shall be 
first suspended for examination, several modes of suspension have been 
tried ; but it has not been found possible to make sure of avoiding very 
considerable weakening of the wire at the points of attachment at the ends. 

At the bottom of the iron tube there is a window of plate glass 
through which the lower parts of the wires can be viewed, and the 
window can be drawn up so as to allow of the lower parts of the wires 
being reached. 

In front of the window a strong gun-metal table is set up. It is sup- 
ported, independently of the iron tube and of the floor of the room, on 
iron brackets fixed to the stone wall of the chamber, and is very carefully 
levelled. On this table a cathetometer is carried, by means of which 
marks on the wires are to be observed. The cathetometer moves on the 
table parallel to the planes of the rows of wires. It has the two back 
feet of the triangular sole-plate on which it is supported movable in a 
V-groove cut in the table, the third foot resting on the plane upper sur- 
face. There is also a slot cut in the table through which a screw passes 
up from below to the sole-plate of the cathetometer, and by means of this 
screw the cathetometer can be clamped in any required place. 

The cathetometer is a small instrument which has been constructed 
by Mr. James White, of Glasgow, for the purpose of these experiments. 
The main pillar is 1 foot high. It is supported on a 3ole-plate having 
three levelling screws. The telescope or microscope, having cross fibres, 
is raised or lowered on this pillar on a proper geometrical slide, and has 
also a lifting screw in connection with a vernier for giving fine adjust- 
ment. The vertical pillar is carefully graduated ; and by means of this 
scale the differences of levels of proper marks put upon the wires are 
to be determined. 

The arrangements have only been completed within the last few days. 
They require to be carefully tested in several points, and particularly the 
cathetometer requires careful examination. There is every reason, how- 
ever, to expect that the work will turn out quite satisfactory. As soon 
as possible the work of testing will be completed and wires suspended, 
measured, and marked. 

During the past year experiments in connection with this investiga- 
tion have been carried on in the laboratory of the University of Glasgow, 
on the breaking-weights and elastic properties of various wires. In the 
first place the breaking-weights and the Young's modulus, or modulus of 
elasticity for longitudinal pull, have been determined for the gold, pla- 
tinum, and palladium wires, with which it is proposed that the secular 
experiments on elasticity shall commence. A large number of experi- 
ments on the effect of stress, maintained for a considerable time, in alter- 
ing the breaking weight and the extension under increased stress of 
various wires, have been carried on. Soft iron wire, steel wire, and tin 
wire in particular, have been experimented upon, and already some inte- 
resting results have been obtained, showing that prolonged application of 
stress certainly produces a noticeable effect. 



ON THE CHEMISTRY OF SOME OF THE LESSER-KNOWN ALKALOIDS. 105 

Report of the Committee on the Chemistry of some of the lesser- 
known Alkaloids, especially Veratria and Bebeerine ; the Com- 
mittee consisting of W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. (Sec), Dr. C. 
R. Alder Wright, and Mr. A. P. Luff. 

The work at present completed has led to conclusions very diverse from 
those arrived at by previous experimenters who have partially examined 
the alkaloids contained in the seeds of Veratrum Sabaclilla (Asagroea 
officinalis) ; in consequence, other species of the Veratrum family (such as 
Veratrum album) are being investigated with a view to finding out how- 
far the alkaloids therein contained are related to the bases found in V. 
Sabaclilla. These investigations being at present incomplete, it would be 
premature to report on them otherwise than in general terms. The same 
remark applies to Bebeerine ; the experiments with this alkaloid having 
at present led to little that is definite. 

Amongst other pharmaceutical and chemical researches on the alkaloids 
of Veratrum Sabadilla may be briefly mentioned those of Pelletier and 
Caventou, who isolated in 1819 an amorphous alkaloid or alkaloidal 
mixture fusing at 50° ; and of Couerbe, who, in 1834, obtained three 
alkaloidal bodies, one of which was amorphous, but yielded a crystalline 
sulphate ahd hydrochloride ; to this base he applied the term Veratrine. 
The second base isolated was soluble in water, and crystallisable there- 
from, and was termed by him Sabadilline ; whilst the third substance was 
soluble in water, but non-crystallisable ; this was termed by Couerbe 
Hydrate of Sabadilline. Later on, in 1855, Merck isolated from the 
amorphous mixture sold under the name of " Yeratria " an alkaloid readily 
crystallisable from alcohol, but forming salts quite uncrystallisable, the 
aurochloride excepted. Notwithstanding that this base differed entirely 
in properties from the Veratrine of Couerbe, Merck applied to it the same 
name, "Veratrine," and ascribed to it the formula C 3 2H 52 N 2 8 . In 1871 
Weigelin, working in Dragendorff's laboratory, obtained from V. Sabadilla 
three alkaloidal substances, one of which was apparently the Veratrine of 
Merck in an impure state ; whilst the other two were soluble in water, 
and were termed respectively Sabadilline and Sabatrine. Within the 
last year or two, Schmidt and Koppen have re-examined the so-called 
"Veratria" of commerce, and have obtained from it and from Sabadilla 
seeds direct a crystallisable base, fusing at 205°, and evidently identical 
with the Veratrine of Merck. To this, however, they assign the formula, 
C 32 H 50 NO 9 , somewhat different from Merck's formula, especially in the 
nitrogen . 

On working up a quantity of crushed Sabadilla seeds by percolating 
with alcohol acidulated with tartaric acid, evaporating to a small bulk, 
adding water, filtering from resin, and extraction of alkaloids by adding 
soda and shaking with large bulks of ether, we have obtained an alkaloidal 
mixture from which, by further operations, there have been separated 
three distinct alkaloids. As the process employed has been already 
described at length ('Journal of the Chemical Society,' 1878), it is un- 
necessary to repeat it here. 

One of these alkaloids melted at 205°-206°, crystallised finely from 
alcohol, formed a crystallised aurochloride, but no other crystalline salts, 
and was evidently identical with the Veratrine of Merck. The second did 
not crystallise itself, but formed a well- crystallised sulphate and hydro- 



106 REPORT— 1878. 

chloride, and was apparently identical with the Veratrine of Couerhe. The 
third neither crystallised nor yielded crystalline salts, but was sharply dis- 
tinguished by its sparing solubility in ether. Nothing agreeing in properties 
with the ' Sabadilline ' of Couerbe and of Weigelin could be found either in 
the alkaloids extracted from the seeds, in a quantity of tbe alkaloidal mix- 
ture sold commercially as " Veratria," or, finally, in a substance purchased 
from Messrs. Burgoyne and Burbidges (Kablbaum's agents) as being Saba- 
dilline itself ! This last substance consisted entirely of the third base 
above mentioned, the only point of similarity between it and ' Sabadilline ' 
being very sparing solubility in ether. 

Each one of the three bases was saponified by alcoholic soda, the first 
and third apparently forming the same acid product which has been 
identified with the Methylcrotonic Acid of Frankland and Duppa, and 
with the Gevadic Acid of Pelletier and Caventou ; the second bass yielded, 
by similar treatment, Bimetlujlprotccateclmic Acid, identical with that 
similarly obtained from pseudaconitine, and, as Korner has shown, 
identical with that isolated by Merck from V. Sahadilla seeds, and 
termed by him Veratric Acid. From these circumstances we propose 
to assign to the three bases respectively the following names. The for- 
mula? attached are those derived from our own analyses ; in the case of 
the first base our numbers are practically identical with those of Merck 
and of Schmidt and Koppen, Merck's nitrogen determination excepted. 

(1 .) Cevadine, C 32 H 49 NO s ; the " Veratrine " of Merck. We term this 
Cevadine because the prior right to the name, "Veratrine," rests with 
Couerbe's base (vide infra), and because it forms Cevadic acid on saponi- 
fication, the reaction being 

C 32 H 49 N0 9 + H 2 = C 5 H 8 2 + C 2 .H,,XO g . 

(2.) Veratrine, C 37 H 53 NO n ; the 'Veratrine' of Couerbe. We term 
this Veratrine because, as just stated, the prior right to the name belongs 
to it, and because it forms Veratric acid on saponification ; the reaction 
being 

C 37 H 53 NO„ + H 2 0= C 9 H 10 O 4 + C 28 H 45 N0 8 . 

(3.) CevadiUine, C 34 H 53 N0 8 . We term this Cevadilline because it 
exhibits a certain amount of similarity to the " Sabadilline " described by 
Weigelin, and because it appears to form Cevadic acid on saponification. 

The basic complementary products formed by saponification from these 
three bases we propose to term respectively Gevuie, Verine, and Cevilline. 
Cevine and Verine are non-crystalline, and much resemble one another. 

When Cevadic acid is heated with fusing potash, hydrogen is evolved, 
and acetic and propionic acids formed. As Cevadic acid melts at 64°-65°, 
its identity with the Methylcrotonic acid of Frankland and Duppa is 
thereby demonstrated, this acid having been found to melt at 62° (F. and 
D.) ; whilst Angelic acid, which also forms acetic and propionic acids by 
fusion with potash, melts at 45°. 

When Cevadine is heated to 100° with excess of benzoic anhydride, it 
forms a benzoylated derivative, Benzoyl Cevadine, in virtue of the reaction 

C 32 H 49 N0 9 + (C 7 H 5 0) 2 = C 7 H 6 2 + C 32 H 48 (C 7 H 5 0)N0 9 . 

It results from these experiments that the following " structural " for- 
mula? may be assigned, since Methylcrotonic acid is indicated by CH 4 = 
C(CH 3 ) -CO. OH:— 



ON THE CHEMISTRY OF SOME OF THE LESSER-KNOWN ALKALOIDS. 107 

OTT 

Cevadine, (C 27 H 4l N0 6 ) _ .CO.C(CH 3 )=C 2 H 4 

= CavH^NO^) _ .C 5 H 7 
Benzoyl Cevadine, (C 27 H 41 N0 6 ) q ' qX C(CR )=C H 

=(c 27 H 41 No 6 )zg;^; 

Cevine, (C 27 H 41 ]SrO c ) _ qjj' 

Veratrine, (C 28 H 44 N0 7 ) . O . CO . C 6 H 3 (0 . CH 3 ) 2 . 
Verine, (C 28 H 44 N0 7 ) .OH. 

A large proportion of the alkaloidal mixture obtained from V. Saba- 
dilla seeds, even with most careful working, so as to avoid as much as 
possible alteration of alkaloids during extraction, refuses to crystallise 
either as free base or as a salt. This has been considered by Weigelin and 
by Schmidt and Koppen to indicate the existence of an isomeric amor- 
phous modification of Cevadine (the Veratrine of Merck) ; another modi- 
fication being also considered to exist, soluble in water, and obtainable 
from this amorphous mixture by treatment with water. We find, however, 
that the amorphous mass is simply a mixture of Cevadine and Veratrine, 
the one base preventing the other from crystallising in the free state, and 
the other preventing the sulphate, or other salt of the first, from crystal- 
lising readily, and the crystallisability being further hindered by the 
presence of more or less Cevine, Verine, &c, formed by partial spontaneous 
saponification. This latter, too, is the cause of the partial solubility of 
the amorphous mixture in water, the cevadates and veratrates formed by 
the partial change being readily soluble in water. 

Doubtless the " Sabatrine " of "Weigelin was a mixture of saponification 
and alteration products. Whether his Sabadilline was a definite precon- 
tained principle or not we cannot say, not having been able to find it, 
even in the preparation sold as being the body itself. 

In pursuance of these results, we are investigating the alkaloids of 
V. album roots. These have been already shown by Pelletier and 
Caventou, Simon, Mitchell, and others, to contain at least two alkaloids, 
one being nou-sternutatory, crystallisable from alcohol, and forming very 
sparingly soluble salts with certain mineral acids, e.g., sulphuric acid ; 
another being non-crystalline, but powerfully sternutatory. Since both 
the Cevadine and Veratrine above described are powerfully provocative of 
sneezing and tickling of the throat when inhaled as dust, it would seem 
probable that the former alkaloid, Jervine (which has never been found in 
V. Sabadilla seeds), is utterly distinct in its nature from the latter one. 
Our experiments, at present far from complete, lead us to believe that 
" Jervine " is not a single alkaloid, but a mixture of two or more closely 
alike in many respects, and quite dissimilar from the sternutatory base - r 
whilst the latter is a mixture of bases, of which one is, if not identical 
with the Veratrine above described, closely allied to it, as on saponification 
the mixture forms a small quantity of Veratric acid. 



108 EEPOET— 1878. 



Report on the best Means for the Development of Light from 
Goal-Gas of different qualities, by a Committee consisting of 
Dr. William Wallace (Secretary), Professor Dittmar, and Mr. 
Thomas Wills, F.G.S., F.I.G. 

Part I. — Drawn up by Dr. Wallace. 

The fact has long been recognised that the illumination afforded by the 
combustion of coal-gas depends, to a large extent, upon the way in which it 
is burned. Setting aside, for the present, all reference to the different 
theories of Davy, Frankland, Heumann, and others, as to the source of the 
illumination, whether from solid highly-heated particles of carbon or from 
incandescent gases, the fact is patent that a given quantity of gas may be 
burned under different conditions, so as to yield widely different illumi- 
nating effects. For example, a gas made from bituminous coal gave, when 
burned by Sugg's Improved London Argand at the rate of 5 cubic feet 
per hour, the light of 14'81 candles. The same quantity burned by a 
union jet at -5 inch (water) pressure gave 11-46 candles ; and by a union 
jet at 1'5 inch pressure 3"66 candles ; these quantities corresponding to 
100, 77, and 25. Pattinson states that burners are in extensive use in 
Newcastle which, for 5 cubic feet of gas, give a light equal to only 3£ 
candles, which gas, burned in a good Argand, gives for the same consump- 
tion 17| candles, and in good union or fishtail burners 12±- candles. 
In the case of cannel-gas, the variations are not so extensive"; but the 
following illustrates the effect of pressure alone in influencing the light 
obtained, the burners being of the same kind in each case, but with orifices 
suited to deliver 5 cubic feet of gas at the different pressures : at i-inch pres- 
sure a union jet of the best construction gave a light equal to 28~47 candles, 
while at 1^-inch pressure the light from an equally good union jet was 
21T4 candles ; these numbers being in the proportion of 100 to 74. In 
these instances the quantities of gas were the same (5 cubic feet per hour) ; 
but if we take smaller quantities of gas, and calculate the results to 
5 feet, the numbers obtained are still more startling. The following cases 
are quoted from Wallace's paper on the " Economic Combustion of Coal- 
Gas," * all the burners used being Bray's " adam as-tipped " union jets for 
cannel-gas. A No. at 1^-inch pressure burned 2 cubic feet per hour, and 
gave a light of 35 candles, or for 5 cubic feet per hour, 88 candles ; a 
No. 8 at 1-inch pressure burned 7T cubic feet per hour, and gave 45-4 
candles, or for 5 cubic feet, 32 candles. Between ordinary working 
limits of pressure and with equally good burners, we have, therefore, a 
given quantity of gas (5 cubic feet per hour) giving, in the one case, 32 
candles, and in the other 8'8 ; or in the proportion of 100 to 27^. The 
loss of light here shown, amounting to 72^ per cent, of the whole, is ex- 
ceededwhen still higher pressures are used,"and it is greater with common 
than with cannel-gas. A remarkable effect is obtained with a mixture of 
cannel-gas with about twice its bulk of air. At a low pressure in an 
Argand jet with large holes it gives a fairly luminous flame, while, at a 
high pressure (3 or 4 inches), although the quantity of gas consumed is 
three times as great, the flame is almost totally non-luminous, and has a 
greenish tint. The gas, used somewhat extensively in the United States, 

* Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1873-4. Journal of Gas 
Lighting, 1874. 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 10ft 

made by saturating air with petroleum spirit, requires to be burned at a> 
pressure not exceeding '1 of an inch, which can be obtained only with an- 
Argand with very large holes, or a batwing of peculiar construction, 
called the " American Regulating Batwing." At ordinary pressures, such 
as are used for coal-gas, there is scarcely any light, and the flame keeps 
about a quarter of an inch or more above the burner. 

It is not only on the score of economy that it is desirable to burn gas- 
in such a manner as to afford the greatest possible amount of light. The 
burning of a moderate sized jet of gas produces as much carbonic an- 
hydride as the breathing of two grown-up men, and as, in an ordinary 
apartment, we have usually from three to six of these, the air becomes 
vitiated with remarkable rapidity. It is therefore desirable, in relation to 
health, to obtain the illumination we require with the least possible ex- 
penditure of gas. The sulphur in gas is a very serious drawback to its 
use. In burning it is, no doubt, converted chiefly, if not entirely, into 
sulphurous anhydride ; but it is soon converted into sulphuric acid, which 
attacks with avidity all the more readily destructible articles in the apart- 
ment. So far back as forty years since the effects of the sulphuric acid 
arising from the combustion of gas upon the binding of books and many 
articles of furniture was noted, and recent experiments have shown that 
leather, paper, &c, in ill-ventilated apartments exposed to the emanations 
from burning gas for a series of years contain very large quantities of sul- 
phuric acid. One of us has had occasion recently to investigate the action 
of burning gas upon cotton goods stored in warehouses in London, Manches- 
ter, and other cities and towns, and found that, in some cases, a few 
months are sufficient to affect certain colours ; while within a year enough 
sulphuric acid is absorbed to seriously injure the strength of the fabrics. 
No doubt the true remedy for this evil is to ventilate the warehouses ; but 
it is obvious that if the gas were burned in an advantageous manner, and 
the quantity reduced to one-half or one-third, the damaging effects would 
be proportionately lessened. 

There are several distinct qualities of gas in use in this country. The 
best may be described as Scotch cannel-gas, as it is made only in Scot- 
land, where the illuminating power varies from 2-1 to 30 standard for 5 
cubic feet per hour, consumed in a union or fishtail jet ; the average may 
be fairly stated as 26 candles. In London a cannel-gas is used in small 
proportion, the illuminating power of which is about 23 candles ; and in 
Liverpool, Manchester, Carlisle, and probably some other towns, an inter- 
mediate gas is manufactured, the illuminating power of which is about 20 
candles. The common gas in London and most other English and Irish 
towns has an illuminating power of 14 to 16 candles. In the present 
Report it is our intention to confine our investigations to two qualities of 
gas, i.e., cannel-gas of 26 candles, and common gas of 16 candles illumi- 
nating power. The photometric results in each case will be calculated 
to these standards, although in the actual experiments the gas may have 
been a little higher or lower in quality. In the case of cannel-gas the 
standard is found by testing the gas by a union jet consuming 5 cubic 
feet at a pressure of "5 of an inch ; while the common gas is tested by 
Sugg's London Argand, consuming 5 cubic feet per hour at a pressure of 
about - 05 of an inch. The best means at present known of burning each 
quality of gas will be pointed out, and tabulated results will be given, 
containing the details of the testings of the different kinds of burners 
under varying conditions of pressure. 



110 



REPOKT 1878. 



The burners at present in nse may be divided into the four following 
classes : — 1st, Cockspur or rattail ; 2nd, Union or fishtail ; 3rd, Bat- 
wing ; 4th, Argand. Of each of these there are a number of modifica- 
tions. 

The cockspur or rattail burner is the simplest possible form of gas 
jet, and it was at one time the only one used for burning gas. It may 
be made by simply drawing out a piece of glass tube and breaking off 
the point so as to leave an orifice, having a diameter of 1 millimetre or 
less ; but it is usually constructed of cast iron, which is drilled out as wide 
as possible from the bottom, leaving only a thin shell, which is then bored 
with a fine drill. Two sizes of these were tested, No. 1 having an orifice 
of about -6, and No. 2 of about 75 millimetre. These jets are used in 
Glasgow for lighting common stairs, and the larger size were formerly 
employed for street lamps, but are now discarded in favour of union jets. 
The following are the results with 26-candle gas : — 



Burner 
No. 


Pressure in 
inches 


Length of 

flame in 

inches 


Gas per 

hour, cubic 

feet 


Illuminating 

Power, in 

Standard Candles 


Illuminating 
Power of 5 cubic 
feet per hour, 
Candles 


1 


•5 


2 


•45 


•89 


9-9 


1 


1 


h 


•60 


1-69 


14-1 


1 


1-5 


4| 


•90 


2-40 


133 


2 


■5 


71 


■80 


2-49 


i.vi; 


2 


1 


51 


113 


3-55 


157 


2 


1-5 


H 


1-45 


4-53 


15-6 



These figures show that even with the larger jet no more than 60 per 
cent, of the real value of the gas can be obtained. Various modified 
forms of the jet were tried, some having " adamas " tips, and contracted at 
the bottom or otherwise obstructed, so as to diminish the pressure at the 
point of ignition, but they did not show any marked superiority over 
those referred to above. 

When two rat-tails are held at a right angle to one another, the lights 
•coalesce and form a flat sheet of flame. When this discovery was first 
made, two burners were fitted up in this way ; but soon a single burner 
was contrived which combined the two, and hence was called a "union " 
jet : it is also known as a fishtail, from the resemblance of the flame to 
the tail of a fish. It is a short cylindrical tube with a flat top in which 
the two orifices are drilled at about 90° to one another, and meeting in 
the centre. The union jet is much improved by substituting for the 
metal top porcelain or stoneware, the principal advantage gained being 
that the orifices remain clean and constant in size, while those of iron 
gradually rust up and require to be frequently cleaned in order to give 
a satisfactory light, and are consequently enlarged. Some fishtail 
burners are made entirely of a kind of stoneware or of steatite, but these 
are troublesome to remove when they get broken. The best form of 
burner is that with a brass body and porcelain top. Such burners are 
made by Leoni of London, Bray of Leeds, and other makers ; but usually 
with some means of reducing the pressure. The fishtail burner is not 
suited for burning at a high pressure, under which the two flames refuse 
to spread out into a flat sheet but form an irregular flame, at the same 
time emitting a most disagreeable hissing or blazing sound. This effect 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FEOM COAL-GAS. 



Ill 



may also result from other causes — such as a sharp bend in the gas supply 
tube, a speck of dust in one of the orifices of the burner, or, in fact, any- 
thing that disturbs the even and quiet flow of the gas. One singular 
example of this is the following : — If a union jet is burning 5 cubic feet 
of gas at - 5 inch pressure, and a portion of the gas is led away by means 
of a tube inserted a few inches below the flame, the flame, although 
diminished in volume, immediately begins to blow. 

In testing flat flames the custom has invariably been to present the 
flat side to the disc of the photometer ; but although the results so ob- 
tained are satisfactory in comparing one flat flame with another, they 
cannot fairly be compared with rattail or Argand flames, which give an 
equal light all round. The edge of a flat flame gives considerably less 
light than the side, but the difference between the two depends very much 
upon the richness of the gas, or, in other words, the opacity of the flame. 
A flame of gas of low quality is so transparent that an ordinary news- 
paper can be read through it ; but this cannot be done with a flame of 
cannel gas except at the lower portion, which in any case offers scarcely 
any obstruction to the passage s>f light. The following example may be 
given: — A union jet consuming 5 cubic feet of cannel-gas at '5 inch 
pressure gave a light of 27 candles when tested in the ordinary manner 
with the flat side towards the photometer disc, but the edge gave only 
23 candles, and when rotated so as to give the flame in every position 
the average result was, as nearly as possible, 26 candles, showing that the 
ordinary test gave one candle too much, or nearly 4 per cent. In the case 
of paraffin flat-flame lamps, the difference between the front of the flame 
and the average all round varies from 4 to 10 per cent. In the latter case 
the flame is intensely opaque and of a deep yellow colour. All the figures 
given in this report refer to the flat side of the flame ; and this must be 
borne in mind in comparing flat with round flames. 

The following table gives the results obtained with Bray's union jets 
without obstruction to retard the flow of the gas and reduce its pressure ; 
gas by ordinary test 26 candles : — 





At -5 inch Pressure 


At 1 inch Pressure 


At 1-5 inch Pressure 


Gas 
per hour 


Illuminat- 
ing Power 


I. P. per 

5 cubic 

feet 


Gas 
per 
hour 


Illuminat- 
ing Power 


Five 
cubic 

feet 


Gas 
per 

hour 


Illumin- 
ating 
Power 


Five 
cubic 
feet 




1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 


115 

1-45 

1-7 

2-35 

2-85 

3-25 

41 

4-75 

5 


1-96 

3-77 
4-85 
8-98 
11.97 
13-84 
19-6 
24-76 
26 


8-52 
1300 
14-27 
19-10 
21-00 
21-30 
23-90 
26-00 
26-00 


1-55 

2-15 

2-5 

3-4 

4-05 

4-5 

5-7 


2-35 

5-28 

6-74 
11-73 
15-44 
18-78 
25-60 
Gas blows 

Do. 


7-6 
12-28 
13-48 
17-25 
19-06 
20-87 
22-46 


1-8 

2-85 

31 

4-3 

5-0 

5-55 


"2-45 

5-47 

7-62 

13-67 

16-62 

21-90 

Gas blows 

Do. 

Do. 


6.8 

9-6 
12-3 
15-9 
16-62 
19-73 



This table gives instructive information as to the effects of mass or 
quantity of gas, and of pressure. As regards mass, we see that at the 
same pressure the light afforded by 5 cubic feet of gas per hour varies 
from 8h to 26 candles, according to the quantity burned ; the lowest 



112 EEPOET — 1878. 

result being obtained with about 1 cubic foot per bour, and the highest 
■with 5 cubic feet. This last result, i.e., 26 candles for 5 cubic feet of gas 
per hour, burned in a union jet at - 5 inch pressure, is taken as the 
standard of comparison in all the experiments in cannel-gas. The ratio 
of illuminating power to quantity is nearly the same at higher pressures, 
and there is no difficulty in deducing the general law that the value in 
illuminating effect per cubic foot of gas increases with the mass of the 
flame. • 

The effects of pressure are not less striking, and might have been 
more so had the gas been tested at lower pressures than - 5 inch and higher 
than 1-5 inch. The results obtained with a jet consuming 5 cubic feet 
per hour gave 26 candle3 at the low pressure and only 166 at 1*5 inch, 
showing a loss'of lighting power amounting to about 36 per cent, ; 3 feet 
per hour, calculated to 5 feet, gave at the low pressure 21 candles, at the 
high pressure 123 candles; the burner being a No. 4 in the one case and 
a No. 2 in the other. The medium pressure gave results intermediate 
between these. At the higher pressures some of the larger-sized burners 
became useless, as already explained. 

As in practice it is found impossible to distribute gas at a pressure of 
less than 12 or 15 tenths of an inch of water, various contrivances for 
breaking the force of the gas have been invented. Among union jets of 
this kind, the simplest, perhaps, is that of Leoni, consisting of a brass and 
an iron tube which fit into one another, and between which a thin film of 
cotton wool is placed. This is a very good burner, but it cannot be 
depended upon for delivering exact quantities of gas. Bray has con- 
structed a very good burner similar to those already mentioned, but 
having a double ply of cotton cloth stretched across a metal ring placed 
in the tube, in order to reduce the pressure. The same manufacturer has 
more recently invented another burner in which the reduction of pressure 
is attained by passing the gas through an orifice in a porcelain plate 
cemented into the lower part of the burner. He calls these special 
burners, and they are of two kinds — one intended for general use and the 
other for street lamps, in which the orifices are somewhat smaller, and 
in which, consequently, the pressure is further reduced. Morley's patent 
burner is of brass and vase-shaped, with a porcelain top, and at the bottom 
one or two small orifices in the metal for admitting the gas. Williamson's- 
jet is similar in principle, but more complicated in construction. Da 
Costa's burner consists of a hollow vase stuffed with iron turnings, into 
which an ordinary iron union jet is screwed. There are others, but all 
have the same object in view ; and the simpler and cheaper burners, such 
as Bray's, accomplish it as successfully as those of more complicated con- 
struction, and these have, therefore, been selected for a series of com- 
parative trials, all being made with 26 candle gas. Some of the burners 
referred to are called regulators, but this is a mere name, for it is obvious 
that they merely obstruct the flow of the gas, the quantity delivered rising 
as the pressure is increased. In Bray's special burners the two holes 
forming the " union " jet are placed at an angle of about 120°. 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 113 

Bray's "Regulator" Union Gas Jets for Cannel-Gas. 





At 


•5 inch 


pressure 


At 1 inch pressure 


At 1-5 inch pressure 


n 


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3-21 


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11-9 


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18-7 


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7-25 


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221 


2-75 


10-11 


18-4 


3-55 


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11-26 


23-4 


3-6 


15-21 


21-1 


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17-8 


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2-6 


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315 


15-95 


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7 


3-8 


20-07 


26-4 


6-05 


32-75 


27-1 




Gasblows 




8 


4-7 


24-76 


26-3 


71 


40-63 


28-6 




Do. 





In both series of the special burners, in which the pressure is much 
reduced, the best results are obtained at 1 inch pressure, while at - 5 inch 
the flames are sluggish, and in some cases show a tendency to smoke. 

Mr. Holdsworth, of Bradford, has introduced a simple arrangement 
which he calls a gas feeder, which has been adopted rather extensively in the 
manufacturing towns of Yorkshire. It is simply a little wedge-shaped piece 
of lead pierced in the centre with a hole the area of which is less than that 
of the holes in the burner, and this is fixed in the gaspipe several inches 
from the burner. Several sizes are made to suit varying circumstances of 
local pressure, as well as different sizes of burners, and, if fitted up by an 
intelligent workman, they accomplish the end in view very successfully. 

Bray's " Special " Union Jets for General Use. 





At 


5 inch 


pressure 


At 1 inch pr 


assure 


1 

At 1-5 inch pressure 


a 


be 


60*0 


u 


be 


bcio 


a 


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a 


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1-44 


5-61 


19-13 


2-16 


9-22 


21-34 


2-59 


10-80 


20-85 


1 


1-55 


6-11 


19-71 


2-36 


10-33 


21-88 


2-87 


12-00 


20-91 


2 


1-86 


7-50 


20-16 


2-76 


12-38 


22-43 


3-36 


14-51 


21-59 


3 


2-10 


8-90 


21-19 


3-10 


14-27 


23-01 


3-74 


17-29 


2311 


4 


2-44 


10-94 


22-42 


3-62 


17-69 


24-43 


4-41 


20-83 


23-60 


5 


2-71 , 


13-39 


24-70 


4-13 


21-13 


25-58 | 


5-16 


26-17 


2.5-36 


6 


3-12 


15-42 


24-71 


4-76 


24-40 


25-63 i 


5-71 


28-66 


25-09 


7 


3-63 j 


18-43 


25-89 


5-51 


28-65 


26-00 | 


6-70 


34-33 


25-62 


8 


4-28 

■ 1 


22-26 


26-00 


6-39 


34-37 


26-89 


7-92 


40-67 


25-67 


J 


1*7*. 








1 











114 EEPORT — 1878. 

Bray's " Special " Union Jets foe Street Lamps. 





At • 


5 inch pressure 


1 

At 1 inch pressure 


At 1-5 inch p 


i-essure 


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CD 
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1-30 


4-85 


18-65 


1-96 


8-22 


20-97 


9-70 


20-73 


1 


1-46 


6-04 


20-68 


2-21 


9-57 


21-65 


2-63 


11-45 


21-77 


2 


1-73 


7-28 


21-04 


2-56 


12 


23-44 


3-01 


14-86 


24-68 


3 


2-07 


9-36 


22-61 


3 


14-64 


24-40 


3-57 


17-63 


24-69 


4 


2-24 


10-73 


23-95 


3-33 


16-57 


24-88 


4-05 


20-39 


25-17 


5 


2-68 


13-15 


24-53 


4-08 


21-17 


25-94 


4-85 


25-67 


26-46 


6 


2-97 


14-77 


24-86 


4-45 


23-73 


26-66 


5-37 


28-87 


26-88 


7 


3-44 


17-37 


25-25 


5-31 


28-26 


26-61 


0-43 


34-32 


26-69 


8 


3-84 


19-21 


25-01 


5-92 


31-22 


26-37 


7-23 


37-32 


25-81 



Many years ago Mr. Scholl, of London, adopted the system of placing 
a small plate of platinum between the two orifices of the union jet, the 
result being that the initial velocity with which the gas escapes is spent by 
striking against this plate, and the gas ascends in a somewhat sluggish 
flame, which, in the case of cannel-gas, has a tendency to smoke, and is 
easily blown about by currents of air. This is the case also with all 
union jet flames burned at very low pressures, aud practically a jet of this 
kind cannot be burned much below 3 or 4 tenths for small sizes and 5 tenths 
for large sizes consuming 4 or 5 cubic feet per hour. Scholl's " perfecter," 
as he has called it, has been used extensively in London and other towns 
for common gas, but it is not suitable for the richer gas used in Scottish 
towns. 

A flame formed by a jet of gas issuing with considerable velocity 
possesses a certain degree of stiffness, and resists, to some extent, the 
influence of currents of air. This is particularly necessary in the case of 
cannel-gas, since, whenever the flame is much deflected by air currents, a 
portion of the carbon arising from the heating of the richer hydrocarbons 
(e.g., olifmes, benzole, &c.) passes off unconsumed, and a smoky flame is 
the result. In practice it is necessary to sacrifice a certain proportion of 
the possible illuminating value in order to give the flame sufficient stiff- 
ness to resist currents of air. 

Next to the union jet, the " batwing " is that most commonly used for 
burning gas. It is simply a little tube closed at one end in which a 
straight slit is cut, varying in breadth from about two-tenths to one 
millimetre. It is made of cast iron, brass, porcelain, or steatite ; the best 
form being that having a brass body and steatite top. The flame of the 
batwing is wider and shorter than that of the union jet, and in order to 
be equally effective requires to be burned at lower pressures. It is 
particularly adapted for large flames burning from 3£ to 5 cubic feet of 
gas per hour. With rich cannei-gas (25 to 30 candles) it gives results at 
least equal to the union jet, and with gas of 18 to 22 candles it is decidedly 
superior. 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 



115 



The following table gives the results of tests of a series of steatite 
batwing burners manufactured in Germany — gas 26 candles: — 



M 


At 


5 incli pressure 


At 1 inch pi 


•essure 


At 1-5 inch pressure 


u 


bo 


bmo 


?H 


be 


bo i© 


H 


bo 


b0»O 


a 


o 




E ^H ^ 


O 


a 


.9 n *> 


O 


a 


9 W *» 


3 

O 


,£] 




-M £> 0> 


^ 


■is j 1 


-*J o> ^* 


■3 




■ts * & 


0) 

2-. 


03 <D 


■a s.2 

I £-5 


0) 

ft 


S «= 

3 ° 


3 *-S 


S 

CO 


5 * 

'3 ° 


g ft«8 

•1 3.2 
a %& 


o 


G5 


Ph 


3£" 


C5 


1— » 


3£ s 


o 


a 


g£.; g 


2 


1-1 


424 


19-27 


2-35 


9-05 


19-25 


3-15 


11-56 


18-35 


3 


1-45 


5-68 


19-58 


2-65 


10-02 


18-90 


3-55 


13-2 


18-59 


4 


1-9 


8-76 


23-05 


3-1 


12-71 


20-50 


4 


15-41 


19-26 


5 


3-4 


16-18 


23-80 


5-2 


24-07 


23-14 




Gas blows 




6 


4-05 


19-09 


23-57 




Gas blows 






Gas blows 





The considerable loss of light experienced when gas is consumed in 
batwing burners at any but comparatively low pressures has given rise 
to many efforts to combine with the jet an apparatus to reduce the pres- 
sure of the gas before it issues from the narrow slit. Various burners 
having obstructions have been constructed, of which Bronner's is one of 
the best known. It consists of a somewhat pear-shaped brass body, with 
a steatite top similar to those of which the results are given above, and at 
the bottom a small piece of steatite in which is an oblong slit. There 
are, for cannel-gas, six sizes of bodies, the sizes depending upon the area 
of the slits ; and five sizes of tops, and as these screw into one another, . 
there are thirty possible combinations. In none of these combinations, 
does the pressure of the gas at the point of ignition exceed - 5 of an 
inch with an initial pressure of 1'5 inch, while in some it is only j2, and 
in some it is so low that the flame smokes and is useless. The rate of 
combustion is dependent on these conditions — 1st, the area of the opening 
at the bottom ; 2nd, the area of the slit of the burner ; and 3rd, the 
initial pressure of the gas. The range of combinations enables one to 
select a burner to suit almost any description of gas or any standard of 
pressure. The accompanying table gives the results of tests at i inch 
and 1-5 inch, with 26 candles; the burners are not adapted for lower 
pressures than 1 inch. 

For common gas (i.e., of 14 to 16 candles) a different series of tops 
is provided, in which the areas are considerably greater than in those 
made for cannel-gas, and in which the pressure is reduced to from -1 to 
•3 of an inch. These burners cannot be used with cannel-gas, although 
with common gas they are exceedingly effective and are much in use, 
especially in London : — 



i2 



116 



REPORT — 1878. 





At 1 inch 


pressure 






At 1-5 inch 


pressure 




h 
§ 

M 

O 

o" 


o 
H 

O 

6 
[25 


•8 g 

<S o 

o 


a 

'+3 ** 


a u +> 
• -3 d g 

a ££ 


S 
a 

o 

6 
to 


c 
H 

cm 

O 

d 

to 


CD fl 
<S O 

6 & 


bD 

a 

'"S £ 
|| 


bDO 

.2 « -e 

« &«£ 
St. 

2 fc-2 

g£" 


2 


2 


1-2 


5-07 


24-13 


2 


2 


1-4 


5-25 


18-75 


2 


3 


1-4 


6-64 


23-71 


2 


3 


1-95 


7-37 


18-90 


2 


4 




Smokes 




2 


4 


2-3 


10-33 


22-46 


2 


5 




Smokes 




2 


5 


2-4 


11-24 


23-42 


2 


6 




Smokes 




2 


6 




Smokes 




2A 


2 


1-4 


5-53 


19-75 


2* 


2 


1-9 


8-3 


21-84 


2 

2£ 


o 

o 


17 


8-48 


24-94 


s* 


3 


2-3 


10-14 


22-04 


2£ 


4 


2-03 


10-33 


25-49 


2i 


4 


2-7 


1208 


22-37 


2 

2* 


5 




Smokes 




2£ 


5 


2-85 


14-29 


25-07 


2^ 


6 




Smokes 




2i 


6 


3 


15-21 


25-35 


3" 


2 


1-45 


6-27 


21-62 


3 


2 


2 


8-48 


21-20 


3 


o 
o 


1-90 


8-66 


22-79 


3 


3 


2-4 


11-34 


23-63 


3 


4 


2-13 


11-24 


26-39 


3 


4 


2-8 


14-84 


26-50 


3 


5 




Smokes 




O 


5 


3-15 


17-04 


27-20 


3 


6 




Smokes 




3 


6 


3-25 


18-07 


27-80 


Si 

3£ 


2 


1-5 


5-81 


19-36 


3i 


2 


2-12 


8-85 


20-87 


3 


1-95 


8-3 


21-28 


3| 


3 


2-55 


12-63 


24-76 


4 


2-55 


12-08 


23-68 


3A 


4 


3 


14-47 


26-12 


3* 
3£ 


5 


2-8 


14-38 


25-68 


8* 


5 


3-5 


18-07 


25-81 


6 


3 


15-58 


25-97 


3i 


6 


3-6 


19-45 


27-01 


4 


2 


1-6 


6-30 


19-87 


4 


2 


2-3 


9-77 


21-24 


4 


3 


2-1 


10-69 


25-45 


4 


3 


2-9 


13-83 


23-84 


4 


4 


2-65 


13-37 


25-23 


4 


4 


3-3 


17-06 


25-85 


4 


5 


3-45 


17-61 


25-52 


4 


5 


4-1 


21-57 


26-30 


4 


6 


3-55 


18-07 


25-45 


4 


6 


4-2 


22-40 


26-66 


5 


2 


1-77 


7-38 


20-85 


5 


2 


2-6 


9-68 


18-81 


5 


3 


2-3 


11-9 


25-87 


5 


3 


3-3 


13-64 


20-67 


5 


4 


3-3 


15-4 


23-33 


5 


4 


4 


19-91 


24-14 


5 


5 


4-1 


20-74 


25-29 


5 


5 


.5 


25-36 


25-36 


5 


6 


4-3 


22-68 


26-37 


5 


6 


5-3 


27-66 


2610 



This table shows that it is easy, with properly adjusted batwing 
burners, to obtain, with a consumption of from 3 to 5 cubic feet per hour, 
at least the full effect of illumination exhibited in the standard mode 
of testing already referred to ; and that even with a consumption of 
2 cubic feet a very favourable result may be obtained. In no case is the 
loss of light with batwing burners so great as with badly arranged union 

jets. 

Many other descriptions of improved batwings have been constructed, 
some of which have been tested. The " Clegg " batwing, manufactured 
by Sugo-, has a steatite top and a conical brass body closed at the bottom, 
and with a slit cut in it with a fine saw. The respective sizes of the 
slits above and below determine the consumption of gas and the pressure 
at the point of ignition. In Silber's batwing, made by the Silber Light 
Company, one burner is placed above another, both being of steatite, the 
slitcf the lower one being much smaller than that of the upper, and con- 



ON TEE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 



117 



nected by a vase of brass. Only the three smallest sizes of these are 
suitable for rich cannel-gas, the larger ones being intended for^ gas of 
lower quality. The following are the results obtained with 26 candle 







Clegg and Silber 


Batwings. 










At -5 inch pressure 


At 1 inch pressure 


At l - 5 inch pressure 


Gas, cubic 
feet per hour 


fee 

.2 


Illuminating 

Power per 5 

cubic feet 


Gas, cubic 
feet per hour 


.2 

c3 03 

.2 £ 

r— 1 
M 


Illuminating 

Power per 5 

cubic feet 


Gas, cubic 
feet per hour 


fco 
a 
"-i . 

03 03 

• 3 1 


Illuminating 

Power per 5 

cubic feet 


Clegg, No. 2 . 


2 


915 


22-87 


3-4 


14-77 


21-72 


4-45 


18-3 


20-56 




2-9 


13 


22-41 


4-45 


21-11 


23-72 


5-7 


27-04 


23-72 


4 . 


4-2 


20-37 


24-25 


6-45 


31-2 


24-19 




Blows 




JJ «j o . 


4-8 


23-92 


24-92 




Blows 






Blows 




Silber, A 


•95 


3-07 


16-16 


1-5 


6-31 


21-03 


1-9 


10-03 


26-4 


„ B 


1 -55 


7-34 


23-68 


2-35 


12-07 


25-68 


3 


15-04 


25-07 


„ C . 


22 


11-24 


25-54 


3-3 


17-27 


2617 


4-25 


23-12 


27-2 



Several varieties of regulating batwings have been invented by Sugg, 
Witthoft, Winsor, and others ; the principle of their construction being 
to check the flow of gas by means of a plug regulated by a screw. At a 
given pressure in the pipes the burners may be regulated to deliver any 
desired quantity of gas ; and in the experiments on the Winsor and Sugg 
burners quoted below, they were regulated so as to burn the number of 
cubic feet per hour corresponding with the numbers marked on the 
burners. Gas used = 26 candles : — 



Sugg's " Winsor " Batwing 


Sugg's " Begulating " Batwing 


No. 


Gas per 
hour 


Illumin- 
ating 
Power 


Illuminat- 
ing Power 
per 5 cubic 

feet 


No. 


Gas per 
ho ui- 


Illumin- 
ating 
Power 


Illuminat- 
ing Power 
per 5 cubic 

feet 


2 
3 
4 
5 


2 
3 
4 
5 


9-6 

15 

19-87 

25-2 


24 
25 

24-84 
25-2 


2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


9-2 
15-34 
19-9 
24-75 

28-74 


23 

25-56 
24-88 
24-75 
23-95 



If two batwing flames are brought together, especially if the slits be 
narrow, the gas of low quality, and the pressure somewhat high, the 
illuminating power of the united flame is greatly in excess of the sum of 
the two tested separately. Upon this principle is constructed a double- 
slit batwing, the slits being about 1 millimetre apart, which is used in 



118 REPORT— 1878. 

Manchester and other towns in England, and which is an excellent burner 
for gas not exceeding 20 candle power, but gives a somewhat smoky 
flame with gas of high quality. 

The only other batwing that requires further to be noticed is the 
patent regulating batwing used in the United States of America, where 
it was introduced in 1871, and which is practically the only flat flame 
burner capable of burning advantageously the "air-gas" made by saturat- 
ing air with the vapour of petroleum spirit. It consists of a very much 
elongated iron batwing with an exceedingly narrow slit, surrounded by a 
brass tube at the distance of about 2 millimetres ; into the space between 
the two, gas is admitted by a wide orifice (the amount being regulated 
by a screw) , and this gas ascends entirely without pressure, while the 
force of the gas issuing from the narrow slit spreads it out into a fine 
soft flame. This burner gives excellent results with gas of all qualities, 
but its shape is not adapted to the gas fittings in use in this country, and 
it has not been used here except for air-gas made for private houses. 

Argand burners are exclusively used in the photometric testing of 
common gas, and they are also employed rather extensively for lighting 
shops and public buildings, but to a limited extent for private houses. 
They give a higher photometric effect with common gas than any flat- 
flame bui'ner known ; and even with cannel-gas, the best descriptions, 
especially those of Sugg and Silber, give results which approach very near 
to those obtained when the gas is tested at a comparatively low pressure 
by large-sized fishtail or batwing burners. 

The original form of Argand was a brass double cylinder with, above, 
an iron ring perforated with small holes, and below, a " crutch " or forked 
tube, by which the gas was introduced at opposite sides. A wide and 
short glass chimney was used, but this was afterwards modified in a variety 
of ways with a view to making the current of air impinge more directly 
upon the flame and so increase the intensity of combustion. The holes 
being small, the gas escaped at a comparatively high pressure ; and the 
character of the flame both as to volume, shape, and luminosity, depended 
partly upon the initial velocity with which the gas escaped from the 
burner, and partly upon the shape and dimensions of the funnel. The 
enlargement of the holes enabling the gas to escape at a moderate pressure 
was proposed by the late Dr. Letheby, who was afterwards associated with 
Mr. Sugg, by whom many improvements in Argand burners have been 
introduced. The Letheby burner raised the apparent quality of London 
gas from 12 to 14 candles, and a further increase of 2 candles was obtained 
by Sugg's London Argand now generally accepted as the standard burner 
for testing gas made from common coal. In this burner the principle is 
recognised of permitting the gas to escape practically without pressure, 
the shape and volume of the flame being determined by the narrow funnel 
and a " cone " of thin metal which serves to throw the current of air into 
close contact with the outside of the flame. The upper portion of the 
burner is of steatite, and instead of the ordinary " crutch " below, the gas 
is introduced by three very narrow tubes. A number of sizes of this 
burner are made of which details are given below, but the following are 
the various dimensions of the standard burner used in photometry : — 
Diameter of steatite top, external, '84 inch ; internal, - 47 inch ; number of 
holes, 24 ; diameter of holes '04 inch, chimney 6 x If inches, for gas of 14 
candles, and 6x2 for gas of 16 candles. The narrow funnel and the 
cone restrict the quantity of air to very little more than is required to 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 



119 



barn the gas, thus avoiding the diminution of light which results from a 
too rapid combustion of the gas, and the cooling effect of a large quantity 
of air. The pressure of the gas inside the steatite top is considerably less 
than -1 of an inch, and that required to pass 5 feet per hour through the 
complete burner is about -2 of an inch. 

In the burner introduced by Mr. A. M. Silber, the steatite top with 
wide holes (about 1 millimetre or -04 inch) is also adopted, but the body 
of the burner is considerably prolonged, and the so-called "cone" is long 
and cylindrical with a curved top. A very essential feature in the Silber 
Argand is an air tube introduced into the centre of the jet, which is said 
to carry a portion of the air to the upper part of the name, and which 
certainly has a remarkable effect in steadying it. The funnel is 7 or 8 
x If inches, and in consequence of the form of the " cone " is kept so cool 
at the bottom that it may be handled without difficulty while the flame is 
burning. Funnels of 10 inches high are also used, but while the con- 
sumption of gas is thereby increased, the illuminating power per cubic 
foot of gas remains almost quite constant. Mr. Silber has recently dis- 
covered the remarkable fact that a globe or vase placed below his Argand 
increases the illuminating power considerably ; and his statement has been 
verified both as to common and cannel gas, the increase with the former 
being about a candle, and with the latter about 1| candle. The effect of 
placing a vase below an ordinary union jet was also tried, but no increase 
of light was obtained, while the flame showed a distinct tendency to 
"blow." That the flame of the Argand should have its illuminating- 
power increased 6 per cent, by passing the gas through a glass vase (or 
•cylindrical metal bos, which answers the purpose equally well) is a phe- 
nomenon which appears to be at present incapable of explanation. 

The following table gives the results of photometric tests of various 
Argand burners with cannel-gas of 26 candles illuminating power. From 
3 to 4 cubic feet of gas per hour was burned in each case, and the result 
calculated to the usual standard of 5 feet per hour: — 



German porcelain Argand, with cone (40 small holes) ... 

Leoni 40-hole burner, '-'adanias" top, with cone 

Sugg-Letheby, 15 holes, in steatite ring, perforated gallery 
American regulating Argand, brass, 40 very large holes ... 
Sugg's London Argand, 24 holes, with cone and regulator 
Silber 40-hole burner, steatite top, cone, and centre tube... 

Do. 32 do. do. do. do. ... 

Do. 24 do. do. do. do. ... 

Do. do. do. with glass vase below 



Size of 
Funnel 



7 
7 



If 



2 
2 

If 



8df 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Illumi- 
nating 
Power 



17-80 
18-18 
18-86 
21-03 
22-40 
22-54 
23-08 
24-04 
25-61 



The following tests were made with various Argands in order to test 
the effect produced by the cone and by the centre tube of the Silber 
burner : — 



120 



REPORT — 1878. 



• 


Pressure 

at inlet of 

Burner 


Gas per 

hour, 

cubic feet 


Illumi- 
nating 
Power 


Illumi- 
nating 

Power pr. 

5 cubic ft. 


Sugg's London Ar°-and, 24 holes 


•19 inch 
•17 inch 
•05 inch 


3-3 
2-6 
4-0 
4-0 
4-0 

4-15 

3-8 

3-4 


15-0 
11-8 
16-75 
17 
19-2 

19-0 

17-2 
13-1 


22-73 
22-7 
20-94 
21-25 

24-00 

22-89 
22-63 
19-26 


Do. do. without cone 


Do. do. older pattern, 36 holes 


Silher's 24-hole burner, complete 

Do. do. without cone, but 

with air tube 

Do. do. without air tube, but 
with cone 


Do. do. without cone or air 



These tests show that the cone, by increasing the draught, enables a 
larger quantity of gas to be burned, an effect which could be obtained' 
equally well by increasing the height of the chimney ; and the air tube of 
the Silber burner also produces a similar effect, increasing at the same 
time the heat and illuminating power of the flame and its stability. 
Indeed, the Silber burner without cone and centre tube, and especially 
when the latter is removed, gives so unsteady a flame that it is practically 
useless for illumination, while, in its complete condition, it gives the 
steadiest flame of any Argand yet constructed. 

A series of experiments were made in order to ascertain the relative 
dimensions of the inlet and outlet of various burners. The npper steatite 
portion of each burner was removed and fitted up in a little bit of appa- 
ratus extemporised for the purpose, so that gas could be passed through the 
boles, while the bottom portions were simply screwed on in the usual 
manner, and the gas allowed to escape without lighting it. In all the 
trials the pressure of the gas was maintained steadily at • 2 of an inch of 
-water. The numbers represent cubic feet of gas per hour : — 



Sugg-Letheby 15-hole burner 

Sugg 24-hole standard London Argand 

Do . 36-hole older pattern 

Silber 24-hole 

Do. 40-hole 



Bottom 


Top 


Complete! 
Burner 


16-7 


28-7 


14-6 


4-9 


28-8 


4-5 


61 


29-1 


6-0 


17-7 


29-5 


17 


191 


28-8 


18-7 



These results show that the pressure of the gas is checked much more 
efficiently at the bottom of the burner by Sugg's arrangement than by 
that of Silber, and in fact the latter has usually attached to it a small 
regulator adjustable by a screw, without which, and when regulated only 
by a stopcock, a disagreeable hissing noise is produced by the passage of 
the gas through the almost closed stopcock. 

The " Bee a Bengel," or Bengel Argand burner, used for gas testing in 
Paris, has a porcelain top, with 30 rather small holes, a brass cone, and at 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GA?. 



121 



the bottom what is called a " pauier," constructed of porcelain, and pierced 
with numerous holes for the admission of air. The funnel is 8 X If 
inches. With 26 candle gas it burned 2-5 cubic feet, and gave a light of 
10 - 8 candles, or for 5 feet per hour 2L6 candles. 

Sugg has constructed a series of " London Argands," burning from 
3 to 12 cubic feet per hour of common gas, and from 1-| to 7^ cubic feet of 
cannel-gas per hour. Those from A to I resemble in every respect the 
standard London burner already described ; K has, in addition, a single 
or rat-tail jet in the centre, and that marked double is formed of two 



concentric Argands 


They gave the following results : — 
















Illuminat- 


Burner 


No. of 
holes 


Funnel 


Height of 
ilarne 


Gas per 
hour 


Illuminat- 
ing Power 


ing Power 

per 5 cubic 

feet 


A 


15 


6 x If 


2{ inches 


1-85 


7-67 


20-73 


B 


18 


Do. 


2f » 


2-65 


11-90 


2245 





21 


6 x If 


3 „ 


2-85 


12-63 


22-16 


D 


24 


7 x 1£ 


3 „ 


3-25 


13-74 


21-14 


E 


27 


Do. 


o 


3-4 


14-67 


21-57 


F 


30 


Do. 


u 4 }) 


3-72 


15-97 


21-48 


G 


33 


8 x If 


Q3 

°4 » 


4-5 


19-13 


21-25 


H 


36 


9x2 


i „ 


5-05 


21-17 


20-96 


I 


40 


Do. 


•i „ 


5-3 


22-3 


21-04 


K 


42 


Do. 


H » 


0-5 


28-4 


21-84 


Double 


54-21 


10 x 2£ 


6 „ 


7-8 


36-4 


23-33 



It is only right to state that all these burners are constructed to burn 
common rather than cannel gas. A Silber Argand of 24 holes, with 
chimney 8 X If inches, was tested at the same time for comparison, and 
gave, for a consumption of 3*75 cubic feet per hour, calculated to 5 cubic 
feet, an illuminating power of 2402 candles, a somewhat higher result than 
was obtained with any of Sugg's series, and proving that Silber's Argand 
is well adapted for burning cannel-gas. 

The standard of comparison is a sperm candle burning at the rate of 
120 grains per hour, and in practice two candles are used. It is well known 
to gas examiners that the candle cannot be depended upon to give a con- 
stant illumination, so that a series of tests, using candles as the standard 
of comparison, would be certain to present such ^regularities as to be of 
little value. It would be out of place in this report to refer to the 
methods proposed by Crookes, Harcourt, and others, for obviating this 
difficulty by substituting other sources of light ; it is sufficient to indicate 
the system pursued in making the tests with cannel-gas, the results of 
which have been given. A 100-inch photometer was fitted up with two 
complete sets of apparatus — each side having its experimental meter, 
balance, governor, and pressure-gauge. At the right-hand side was the 
light to be tested, and at the left two small straight or rat- tail jets, occupying 
the exact position of the candles in the ordinary system of gas testing. 
These were attached to a bracket hinged so that by the aid of two plumb- 
lines they could be brought into exact position when required. The 
Keate's candle balance, which was used for standardising the small gas 
flames, was removed after a very careful test was made with the candles, 



122 report— 1878. 

and the gas jets placed in position and accurately adjusted by the governor 
to exactly two candles. Both meters were placed on the left side, and close 
together, and were provided with three-way cocks, so that the gas could be 
turned off or on each meter without disturbing the burning of the gas. 
In making the test with the candles, these were carefully selected and 
prepared, and after being lighted were allowed to burn for twenty minutes 
before the test was proceeded with. The photometer room was large and 
well ventilated, but absolutely free from sensible currents of air ; dia- 
phragms covered with black velvet were placed in well-selected positions, 
and all surfaces which by any possibility could reflect light were also 
covered with the same material. After working for some hours the gas 
was tested again in order to ascertain whether its quality remained con- 
stant, and if it had changed sensibly the tests which had been made 
were rejected. 

Experiments were made in order to ascertain the loss of light result- 
ing from the use of globes of different kinds and of various shapes. The 
loss is always considerable and in many cases excessive, and it results 
partly from the absorption of light from the material of the globe and 
partly from the draught caused by the ascension of the heated air in the 
confined space. As regards material, a piece of clear window-glass held 
in front of a gas flame diminishes the light to the extent of about 10 per 
cent., but in the case of a clear globe it is in some cases less owing to 
the reflection from the surface farthest from the photometer. Globes 
frosted or ground all over, technically known as " moons," absorb about 
25 per cent, of the light when well shaped, and opal or " cornelian " globes 
40 to 50 per cent., according to the thickness and quality of the glass. 
The following results were obtained with globes of different sizes ground 
all over, and shew the effect of increased draught in diminishing: the 
light:- 

A 6-inch globe caused a loss of 25 per cent. 

A 10 „ „ „ „ 38 „ 

All these globes had the usual sized opening below — about If inches in 
diameter. Experiments were made with clear 1\ inch globes, having 
openings below varying from 2f inches to 1 inch in diameter. The 
source of light was a Bronner batwing, No. 5 top, No. 4 bottom, burning 
under a pressure of 1 inch 3*35 cubic feet of gas. 

The naked flame gave a light of 16-8 caudles. 

With clear globe, opening below 2| inches, 154, loss 8-0 per cent. 

Oi T PC. 9 t)-t\ 



U „ 13-0 „ 22-G 



13-6 „ 19 
13-0 „ 22-i 
12-0 „ 28-6 



With the two larger sized openings the flame was perfectly steady, 
with the 2 inch opening there was a slight flickering caused by the 
draught ; this was more marked with the li inch opening and was exces- 
sive with the 1 inch opening, making the flame practically useless as a 
source of light. It is evident, therefore, that the openings of the globes 
should be as wide as possible, and not less than 2i inches. The 
cornelian globes used in Bronner's system of gas lighting have an open- 
ing of 2| inches diameter, and Sugg has introduced globes of similar 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 123 

material, which lie calls " albatrine," but with openings of 4^- inches 
diameter. These globes are constructed of various sizes to suit certain 
burners, both batwing and Argand, and the combinations are known by- 
certain names, such as the Westminster, Viennese, Frankfort, Italienne, 
Parisienne, &c. Some of these arrangements are fitted with Argands, 
and some with batwings, and some have attached to them regulator's 
with the intention of maintaining a constant pressure. 

One of the difficulties connected with gas illumination is that the 
pressure in the mains varies considerably in different parts of a town, 
and at different hours of the day and night. One result is that a system 
of lighting adapted for a part of a town situated in a low level will show 
inferior results in a more elevated situation. A rise of 10 feet gives, 
roughly, a tenth of an inch of increase of pressure, so that it may easily 
happen that in the same town or city the pressure in one place may be 
1 inch, while in another it may be 2^ inches. Again, the pressure of the 
gas as sent out from the gaswork is altered from time to time in accord- 
ance with the consumption, and as public works, shops, &c, are suddenly 
lit up or extinguished at certain hours, private consumers are annoyed in 
the one case by a falling off in the amount of light, and in the other by 
a flaring flame and hissing sound, both of which are very irritating. The 
cure for these evils is to be found in the use of governors or regulators. 
Every district of a town, the elevation of which is such as to affect appre- 
ciably the pressure of the gas, should have a governor, which may either 
be self-acting to maintain a constant pressure throughout the day, or to 
vary sympathetically with the governor at the gasworks. Many of these 
have been invented, among which may be mentioned those of Catheis,. 
Peebles, and Eoulis. The pressure in the mains should not be reduced 
below 12 or 14 tenths of an inch ; but as over that is too high a pres- 
sure for the economical burning of gas, each house should have a regulator 
in order to reduce the pressure constantly to about 7 or 8 tenths. Some 
of these regulators are dependent on the action of the gas upon a broad 
leather disc, attached to which is a ball-and-socket valve, while others 
have metal or glass bells floating in mercury, and acting upon a valve of 
the same kind. Both of these work satisfactorily. Among the best dry 
regulators are those of Sugg of London, and Peebles of Edinburgh, 
while probably the best mercurial governor is that of Busch of Oldham. 
In the case of public works, and other buildings consisting of several floors, 
a regulator should be placed in each floor, and one should be placed on 
each street lamp, for which a special form is constructed. The best street 
lamp regulators made in this country are those of Peebles and Sugg, 
but a very admirable little instrument called a rheorneter is extensively 
used in Paris, and has been tried with tolerably successful results in 
several of our own cities. It is the invention of M. Gh-aud of Paris, and 
it differs from the regulators which maintain a constant pressure in 
delivering a constant volume of gas, with any size of burner, and under 
any pressure, provided that the pressure is not less than 7 or 8 tenths of 
an inch, and the burner is sufficiently large to pass the requisite quantity 
of gas. The recently invented " needle governor " of Peebles is similar in 
principle, and maintains a given volume of gas with remarkable constancy. 



124 report— 1878. 

Fourteenth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, 
Devonshire — the Committee consisting of John Evans, F.R.S., 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George 
Busk, F.R.S., William Botd Daavkins, F.R.S., William Ayshford 
Sanford, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William 
Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter). 

The Thirteenth Report of the Committee, read to the Geological Section 
of the Association, at Plymouth, in August 1877, brought up the history 
of the Exploration of Kent's Hole to the end of July of that year. (See 
' Report Brit. Assoc.,' 1877, pp. 1-8.) In their present Reportthe history 
is continued to the end of July of the current year. During the twelve 
months thus defined, the work has been carried on without intermission ; 
it has been conducted and superintended in all respects as in former years ; 
the workmen — George Smerdon and William Matthews — named in 1877 
are still engaged on the investigation ; and the public, who continue to 
visit the Cavern in large numbex's, have been admitted under the regula- 
tions described in former Reports. 

On the day following the close of the meeting of the Association in 
1877, a large number of the Members and Associates were conducted 
into the Cavern by one of the Superintendents, who, on the spot, described 
the principal facts which had been discovered ; and on the 25th of the 
following month the same Superintendent had the pleasure of receiving 
the members of the Teign Naturalists' Field Club, on the occasion of 
their holding one of their meetings there. 

The following maybe mentioned amongst the numerous other visitors 
who have been accompanied by the Superintendents : — The Duke of 
Somerset; Lord Justice Bramwell ; Sir S. W. Baker; Revs. Prebendary 
R. R. Wolfe, W. Gregor, R. E. Lomax, and J. F. Mitchell ; Professors 
J. H. Gladstone, H. D. Garrison (Chicago), and A. Thomson (Pres. 
Brit. Assoc.) ; Drs. Armstrong, Bell, Boycott, Ogle, and Taylor ; and 
Messrs. W. Aldam, W. W. Aldam, G. T. Bettany, F. W. Blood, E. 
Broderip, J. B. Byrom, G. Campbell, A. V. Dobson, A. M. Gibson, G. 
Gladstone, E. H. Griffiths, H. B. Hederstedt, J. E. Howard, A. R. Hunt, 
P. Jenkins, A. Jessup, F. P. Latham, F. H. Lloyd, F. J. Lowe, T. Luck- 
craft, G. Macdonald, O. W. Malet, S. S. Marling, C. Martin, H. C. Moffatt, 
W. Morrison, E. Oldfield, A. Pengelly (Punjab), J. H. Pollard, R. Pollard, 
W. Pollard, J. Smith, W. J. Sollas, T. E. Stabb, W. W. Stabb, T. S. 
Stooke, G. H. Storrs, W. H. Storrs, J. M. Thomson, T. Tozer, F. R. 
Wolfe, J. E. Wolfe, W. Wolfe, and C. W. Wood ; and a large number of 
Ladies. 

The Tortuous Gallery. — When their Thirteenth Report was drawn, the 
Committee were engaged in the exploration of a branch of the Cavern 
opening out of the southern end of the " Bear's Den," to which, on 
account of its form, they had given the name of the "Tortuous Gallery." 
(See ' Report Brit. Assoc.,' 1877, p. 7.) This gallery divides itself into 
two reaches and a small terminal chamber. The first or outermost reach 
extends southwards from the Bear's Den about 23 feet, where it is suc- 
ceeded by the second reach, which, after a course of 11 feet in an easterly 
direction, reaches the terminal chamber. The reaches vary from 6 to 8 
feet from the roof to the bottom of the excavation, and from 1'5 to 4'5 



ON THE EXPLOITATION OF KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 125 

feet in width — the second or innermost being the narrower. The upper 
surface of the deposits they contained inclined inwards, falling 13 - 5 feet 
in the 34 feet between the Bear's Den and the terminal chamber, or at a 
mean gradient of 1 in 2'5. In the eastern wall of the first reach, about 
16 feet from its entrance or northern end, an opening leads to a consider- 
able undervaulting, to be subsequently described; and near the junction 
of the reaches a small recess extends southwards about 5 feet. At the 
end of July 1877 the two reaches only had been explored. (See ' Report 
Brit. Assoc.,' 1877, pp. 7-8.) 

On entering the terminal chamber, its floor was found to be a complete 
pavement of blocks of limestone, some of them of considerable size. 
Their removal disclosed an almost horizontal bed of the typical Breccia 
— the most ancient deposit yet found in the cavern — the thickness of 
which was undetermined. It was excavated to the customary depth of 
4 feet, but without reaching its base anywhere. The chamber measured 
about 30 feet from north to south, from 7 to 13 feet from east to west, 
and from 8 to 13 feet from the roof to the bottom of the excavation. A 
narrow gully extended towards S.S.B. from the southern end, but became 
too contracted for a man to pass beyond 7 feet in that direction. The 
roof of tbe chamber was much fretted, and had several vertical and 
almost cylindrical cavities, about a foot in diameter as well as in height. 
The walls were very angular, and presented everywhere so much the 
appearance of fresh fracture as to suggest that the blocks of limestone 
forming the floor, as already stated, had fallen from them in compara- 
tively recent times. 

The only objects of interest found in the chamber were four pieces of 
bone (Nos. 7093-5), which occurred at depths exceeding a foot, and a 
lump of oxide of manganese (No. 7092) found in the third foot-level. 

The recess, near the junction of the two reaches, as mentioned pre- 
viously, was in proportion to its capacity much more productive, as it 
yielded four "finds" (Nos. 7096-9), including 12 teeth of bear and 
sevferal pieces of bone. One of the finds (No. 7098) occurred in the 
Crystalline Stalagmite, and the others in the Breccia, at depths exceeding 
a foot. 

The exploration of the Tortuous Gallery was closed on October 30,1877, 
after having occupied very nearly 5 months. It yielded a total of 23 
" finds," of which 15 were described in the Thirteenth Report. The entire 
series, from first to last, included 26 teeth of bear — several of them in 
pieces of jaws — 1 tooth of horse, several bones and pieces of bone, 3 
bits of coarse friable black pottery, and a piece of black flint — in all pro- 
bability a "strike-light" of the present century. The relic of horse, as 
well as the potsherds and the strike-light, was found on the surface, 
and very near the Bear's Den. 

The Undervault. — On the completion of the Tortuous Gal.ery, the ex- 
ploration of the branch thrown off towards the west, from its first reach, 
as stated above, was at once undertaken. This has been called the 
"Undervault," as it was probably the principal "undervaulting" men- 
tioned by Mr. MacEnery in the following passage from his Cavern Re- 
searches (see 'Trans. Devon. Assoc.,' iii., 307-8): — "In a narrow neck 
which, on the right hand as you enter, issues from the Bear's Den, you 
come to a naked floor of rock (see ' Report Brit. Assoc.,' 1877, p. 7) per- 
forated with numerous shafts or spiracles by which you descend, by the 



126 export— 1878. 

aid of hands and feet, as down a chimney, into a low space. They expand 
into a low range of undervaultings. extending under the upper cave to a 
considerable extent, but too low to be accessible to any extent. From the 
first landing place there is a gradual descent, step by step, into a second 
and even a third terrace, like so many stories. Broken flags of stalag- 
mite — the debris of the successive formations — were strewed about and 
partially inserted in the latest crust now actually accumulating. In one 
place the crust went bodily down entire with the loam it covered ; in 
another it may be seen extending across in the form of a bridge ; in more 
places it was shattered to pieces and reversed." 

The observations made by the superintendents of the present explora- 
tion harmonise well with Mr. Mac Enery's description just quoted. The 
deposit found in the Undervault must be regarded as an uncertain mix- 
ture of cave-earth and breccia, probably washed confusedly together by 
water descending rapidly, and at intervals, to the lower levels. The total 
number of "finds" met with was 35, of which by far the greater num. 
ber were not more than 2 feet below the surface. They included 47 teeth 
of bear, 33 of hyaena, and 2 of fox, numerous bones and fragments of 
bone, 1 chert flake, and the greater portion of a large quartzite pebble. 
Many of the teeth, of both bear and hyaena, were in jaws or portions of 
jaws. 

Amongst noteworthy specimens may be mentioned the right lower jaw 
of a hyasna (No. 7101), which contains all the teeth with the exception of 
two of the incisors, the outer and inner, and is almost perfect ; whereas 
most of the jaws of the hyaenine deposits in Kent's Hole are more or 
less mutilated, having lost the condyles, or the lower border, or both. It 
was found within a foot of the surface, with 1 tooth of bear, a vertebra 
of the same hue as the jaw, and several bone chips, on November 3, 1877. 

No. 7129, also a right lower jaw of hyaena, and a fine specimen, has 
lost its condyles and all the incisors, but is otherwise perfect. The teeth, 
however, have seen more service than those in the jaw described pre- 
viously. It was found with 4 detached teeth of hyaena, and several 
bones, in the second foot-level, on November 4, 1877. 

In striking contrast to the two foregoing specimens is a portion of a 
left lower jaw of hyaena (No. 7131), which, whilst it retains all the molar 
teeth, has lost its condyles and lower border, and is thus in a condition 
much more characteristic of the Cavern. It was found, with a canine 
tooth of fox and several bones, in the first foot-level on November 7, 
1877. 

The "find" No. 7234 included part of the left lower jaw of bear, 
containing the canine and 2 molar teeth, and a detached tooth of bear ; 
and was found in the second foot-level on December 11, 1877. This was 
the last " find " met with in the Undervault. 

The chert flake (No. 7102) is of a dark grey colour, has a pentagonal 
outline, and was in all probability produced artificially. It was found, 
with a canine tooth of fox and pieces of bone, in the first foot-level, on 
November 3, 1877. 

The fragment of a quartzite pebble mentioned above (No. 7119) is 
more than half of a well-rounded ellipsoidal mass, weighing nearly 3 lbs. 
avoir. It was met with in the second foot-level, without any object of 
interest near it, on November 19, 1877 ; and does not bear any traces of 
having been used as a li hammer stone." The exploration of the Under- 
vault ended on December 17, 1877. 



DEVONSHIRE. 127 

The Great Oven. — The narrow branch of the Cavern connecting the 
Cave of Inscriptions -with the Bear's Den, by passing from the southern 
side of the former to the north-western corner of the Den, is known as 
the " Great Oven." It consists of three reaches — the western, opening 
out of the Cave of Inscriptions ; the central ; and the eastern, opening out 
of the Bear's Den. They are all, and especially the central reach, very 
contracted in both height and width. The western reach was explored in 
1875 (see ' Report Brit. Assoc' for 1876, pp. 2-3), the central one does not 
appear to have ever contained deposits of any kind, and the eastern 
reach occupied the Committee from December 18, 1877, to February 15 
1878. 

At its junction with the Bear's Den, the eastern reach had a continuous 
unfractured floor of stalagmite of great thickness, and, with the exception 
of a thin upper layer, all belonging to the Crystalline or most ancient 
variety ; whilst at the southern angle was a boss of the same material fully 
5 feet high. Beneath this floor lay the deposit termed the Breccia ; but 
at 6 feet from the entrance, and thence onward, Cave-earth presented itself 
between the two stalagmites. At first it was found adjacent to the 
northern wall only, and in a depression in the surface of the Crystalline 
Stalagmite, but it soon extended itself from wall to wall, and for a few 
feet the successive sections were in descending order. 

1. Granular stalagmite, a few inches thick only. 

2. Cave-earth, also but a few inches thick. 

3. Crystalline stalagmite, from 2 to 3 feet thick. 

4. Breccia, the base of which was nowhere reached. 

At about 10 feet from the entrance the lowest two deposits occupied so 
narrow a slit that all attempts to excavate them were abandoned ; and from 
that point to the inner end of the reach, the Granular Stalagmite varied 
from 6 to 12 inches in thickness, and the Cave-earth from 6 to 24 inches. 

The length of this reach of the Great Oven was 34 feet, and its width 
varied from 10 feet at the outer to 3 feet at the inner end. It may be 
described as a narrow oblique slit in the limestone. 

It yielded a total of 29 "finds," 2 of them in the Granular or least 
ancient Stalagmite, 16 in the Cave-earth, 2 in the Crystalline Stalagmite, 

and 9 in the Breccia. The animal remains included 36 teeth of bear of 

which 20 were in the Cave-earth, 1 in the Crystalline Stalagmite, and 15 in 
the Breccia — 8 of hysena, and 3 of fox. The only relics found in the 
Breccia were those or bear. The presence of the hyama was also attested 
by a few coprolites in the Cave-earth. 

The only noteworthy "find," perhaps, was No. 7138, which included 
an almost perfect left lower jaw of hysena, 2 detached teeth of hyaena ; 
5 teeth of bear ; a few bones, including a perfect left radius ; pieces of 
bone ; and a few coprolites. This " find " was met with in the first foot- 
level, in the cave-earth, on January 30,1878. 

A total of 40 " finds " was met with in the two reaches of the Oven, in 
1875 and 1878 together; 2 of them were in the Granular Stalagmite, 18 in 
the Cave-earth, 2 in the Crystalline Stalagmite, and 18 in the Breccia. The 
relics in the Cave-earth included 20 teeth of bear, 9 of hysena, and 3 of 
fox, whilst those of the Crystalline Stalagmite and the Breccia included 
25 teeth of bear. 

Nothing indicating the presence of man was detected in any part of 
the Great Oven. 



128 report — 1878. 

The High Chamber. — la their Eleventh Report (1875) the Committee 
stated that on June 15, 1875, they commenced the exploration of a 
" Recess," opening out of thenorth-west corner of the Cave of Inscriptions, 
which it was expected would lead to a new external opening to the Cavern ; 
that its floor, a sheet of Crystalline Stalagmite, abruptly truncated at the 
junction of the recess and the Cave of Inscriptions, had been found, by 
boring, to be 18 inches thick ; that this floor covered and rested on a 
thick accumulation of Breccia, reaching a higher level than elsewhere in 
the Cavern so far as was known ; that it had been intended to leave the 
floor intact, and to burrow under it ; that at 10 feet from the entrance the 
lateral walls were so very nearly together as to render it necessary to 
abandon the work altogether, or to break up the floor so as to secure, at a 
higher level, sufficient space for the operations of the excavators ; and that 
the work had been reluctantly suspended on July 6, 1875, after no more 
than three weeks had been spent on the recess. (See ' Report Brit. Assoc.,' 
1875, p. 11.) 

The workmen, on completing the Great Oven, were directed to return to 
the Recess just mentioned, and, in accordance with the conclusion arrived 
at in 1875, as already stated, to break up the thick floor of stalagmite, 
instead of attempting to burrow under it. From that time they have been 
exclusively occupied there, and at the end of July, 1878, had advanced 
upwards of 30 feet from the entrance, and reached a level of about 6 feet 
above that of the adjacent Cave of Inscriptions. On account of this com- 
paratively high level, the name of the " High Chamber" has been given 
to the so-called Recess. 

From the entrance up to 25 feet within it, there was a continuous un- 
broken floor of stalagmite from 5 to 6 feet thick, with several large bosses 
of the same material rising from it ; but everywhere beyond, so far as the 
work has at present advanced, the floor consisted of large blocks of lime- 
stone fallen from the roof, and extending almost from wall to wall, but 
with stalagmite in some of the vertical spaces between them. 

The stalagmitic floor consisted mainly of the more ancient, or Crystalline, 
variety, covered with a thin sheet of the less ancient, or Granular, kind. 
In most cases the two stalagmites lay one immediately on the other, but 
a few instances of " pockets," occupied with some Cave-earth, were met 
with between them ; and the Breccia — or, so far as is known, the most 
ancient deposit in the Cavern — was found everywhere beneath, and in con- 
tact with the Crystalline Stalagmite. Large fallen blocks of limestone 
occurred abundantly in this lowest accumulation, many of them requiring 
to be blasted before they could be removed ; whilst several others, pene- 
trating into the deposit below the depth to which the excavation was 
carried, were left undisturbed. 

From the time the work was resumed in the high chamber up to the 
end of July, 1878, a total of 53 " finds " had been met with, of which 2 
occurred in the Granular Stalagmite, 1 in the Cave-earth, and 50 in the 
Breccia. Of those in the Granular Stalagmite (Nos. 7153 and 7170), the 
former consisted of three specimens of black, perhaps charred, bone ; 
whilst No. 7170 was the greater part of an ulna unfortunately broken by the 
workman who extracted it. The " find " in the Cave-earth, No. 7193, 
was a solitary molar tooth of a horse. 

The specimens yielded by the Breccia included 89 teeth of bear, 
many of them in jaws or portions of jaws ; pieces of skulls, bones and 
pieces of bone, one flint nodule tool, two flint flakes, and a quartzite 
pebble. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 129 

Several of the osseous remains are good specimens, but none of them 
require detailed description. 

The flint implement (No. 7167) was found, without any object of 
interest near it, on May 16, 1878, in the fourth or lowest foot-level. It 
is about 31 inches long, 2 - 5 inches in greatest breadth, and 2'2 inches in 
greatest thickness. It is rounded, but by no means smooth, at one end, 
where the original surface of the nodule remains ; and is abruptly truncated 
at the other, where its edge is smooth, almost a plane, and measures 1'6 
inch by "5 inch. The prevalent colour is slightly pink, as is usual with 
the Breccia implements ; but the truncated edge, already mentioned, is 
almost white, and suggested that it was, perhaps, fractured by the 
workman who extracted it. This, however, he asserts was not the case ; 
and, from the frankness which has always characterised him, the assertion 
is no doubt correct. The implement is very convex and irregular on each 
face, whence several flakes have been dislodged. It possesses the rude, 
massive, unsymmetrical characters which mark the Breccia series of tools. 

The flake (No. 7189) is not of much importance. In form it is not 
unlike an elm leaf; and, though no doubt artificially dislodged from a 
nodule, it was probably never intended to be used as a tool. It is 2'25 
inches long, 1*5 inch in greatest breadth, and - 4 inch in greatest thickness. 
Its entire edge is thin, and it seems neither to have been used by man 
nor to have undergone any natural abrasion. It was found in the third 
.foot-level, without any object of interest very near it, on June 11, 1878. 

The flake, or, perhaps, fragment of a tool (No. 7203), is 1*5 inch long, 
1*2 inch in greatest breadth, and - 6 inch in greatest thickness. It is 
rudely triangular in form, obliquely truncated at the base where it is 
broadest, convex on one face, and somewhat flat, but by no means plane 
on the other. Several distinct facets occur on each face, and especially 
on the convex one ; and its general appearance suggests that it is probably 
a fragment of a larger tool. It was found alone in the third foot-level on 
July 27, 1878 ; but at 2 feet higher level a portion of jaw of bear, con- 
taining one tooth, with a few fragments of bone, were found vertically 
above it the day before. 

The quartzite pebble, a rolled fragment of a larger one, is an oblique 
semi-ellipsoid, measuring 33 X 2'2 x 2'2 inches, and, though of a form 
and size suitable for a " hammer- stone," bears no marks of having been 
utilised in any way. It was found alone in the fourth foot-level on July 
29, 1878. 

It is, perhaps, worthy of remark that, whilst the Breccia in the High 
Chamber has yielded fifty "finds," the "tools," which form three of them, 
have never been found with any relic of an animal, and have, on the 
whole, occupied a decidedly lower zone. Thus of the 46 osseous "finds " 
31 occurred in the first or uppermost foot-level, 11 in the second, 3 in 
the third, and 1 in the fourth or lowest, whilst the 3 flints have been 
found only in the third and fourth foot-levels. 

It is difficult to understand how the tools found their way to a branch 
of the Cavern so remote from the known entrances, and occupying so high 
a level. The problem is apparently insoluble except on the hypothesis 
that the workmen are approaching an entrance hitherto unknown ; and 
as this supposition has been forced on the minds of the Superintendents 
by other and independent facts, they believe it to be most desirable to 
settle this question if possible, as they do not doubt that it would give a 
definiteness to the explication of some of the Cavern phenomena, 
1878. k 



130 REPORT— 1878. 

Report of Committee, consisting of Professor Harkness and Mr. 
William Jolly (H. M. Inspector of Schools), reappointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Fossils in the North-west High- 
lands of Scotland. By Mr. Jolly, Secretary. 

At last year's meeting of the Association at Plymouth, the old Committee 
was reappointed for the discovery of fossils in remote parts of the North- 
west Highlands of Scotland. One of the most active members of the 
Committee, and of this Association, the well-known Dr. James Bryce, who 
had given special attention to the problem of the nature and succession of 
the rocks of the North-west Highlands, and had frequently studied it on 
the spot, has perished since last Report, in the prosecution of his favourite 
science, at Inverfarigaig, near the Falls of Foyers, on the shores of Loch 
Ness, a loss to science and to friendship. 

For several years the Committee have carried on diggings at various 
points along the great limestone strike that runs from Durness and Loch 
Eribol, near Cape "Wrath, to Loch Kishorn, opposite Skye. These were 
made chiefly by various local parties resident in the district and interested 
in the subject, by Dr. Bryce, and by the Secretary, whose official duties 
as Inspector of Schools have given him unwonted opportunities for this 
purpose. The fossils discovered were obtained almost entirely in the 
Durness Limestone, an isolated basin on the Kyle of Durness, fourteen 
miles east of Cape Wrath. The only other place where fossils have been 
found in the limestone is at Inchnadamph, on Loch Assynt, in the west of 
Sutherland. These consist of a single fragment of Orthoceratite, dis- 
covered many years ago by the lynx-eyed Mr. Peach, and spoken of in 
Sir Roderick Murchison's valuable paper on these rocks ; and another 
piece, found by the Secretary, which may turn out to be organic, and 
which is sent for examination to the present meeting of the Association. 

The purpose for which the Committee was originally appointed was to 
obtain as many fossils as possible from this limestone and its associated 
rocks, in order that a more decided determination of the kind and age of 
the fossils might be made, than was possible when Mr. Salter wrote his 
monograph on the few fragmentary specimens discovered by Mr. Peach in 
the Durness limestone, and submitted to him for examination. The Com- 
mittee, after working for some years, succeeded in obtaining a considerable 
collection of fossils mostly from the same limestone. These were placed 
under Dr. Bryce's care, and remained with him until his sudden death. 
Unfortunately, however, on account of his unexpected decease, his collec- 
tion of fossils was left in a more or less scattered and unmarked state, and 
though careful search has been made in his house, the Durness specimens 
have not yet been found. The Secretary has also corresponded with 
several of his scientific friends on the subject, and with the Jermyn Street 
Museum, with no better success. Mr. Ralph Tate, to whom it was known 
Dr. Bryce purposed submitting them, is now in Australia, and could not 
be communicated with in time for the present meeting. It is sincerely to 
be hoped that the loss of these fossils is not irretrievable, but that further 
search will be successful. This will be made in all possible quarters, and 
the Secretary trusts to be able to report their discovery to the next meet- 
ing of the Association. 

During the past year, through the good offices of several local friends, 
particularly the Rev. W. C. M. Grant, the minister of Durness, who 
has all along taken the most intelligent interest in the subject, and given 



ON FOSSILS IN THE NORTH-WEST HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 131 

the Committee ready and efficient assistance, a considerable collection of 
fossils has been made, which are now submitted for inspection to the 
present meeting. These were obtained from an isolated, steep, rocky islet, 
called Garveilan, or the Rough Island, a few miles east of Cape Wrath. 
This island is a bare uninhabited rock, the home of the sea-gull and his 
associates, which is composed entirely of the Durness limestone. It is fall 
of fossils, which appear protruding from the weathered surfaces of the 
rock, the hard but less indurated matrix enclosing them having yielded to 
the action of the wild weather and the wilder waves of that iron-bound 
coast. The fossils are so imbedded in the crystalline limestone on the 
level surfaces, that they can be abstracted only with the greatest difficulty. 
Hence many of those obtained were got out only in fragments ; but the 
fossils sent, considering the whole circumstances, are numerous and in 
singularly good condition. The specimens are mostly of the smaller kinds, 
the larger not being now obtainable, or having been carried off on pre- 
vious visits. 

The island is very difficult of access, and can be approached only in 
the very calmest weather. On one occasion, the late Dr. Bryce and the 
Secretary sailed, with some friends, to the island for the purpose of obtain- 
ing fossils, but though the day was calm and the sea unbroken, the 
great Atlantic swell sweeping round Cape Wrath, which rose against the 
steep sides of the rock, entirely prevented landing, though anxiously 
attempted ; and the Rev. Mr. Grant and party, in obtaining the fossils 
now submitted, narrowly escaped with their lives, the great thunderstorm 
of June last having overtaken them on their return voyage. 

Mr. Grant has learned from the boatmen that accompanied him that 
there is another place, on a cape on the mainland, near Durness, con- 
taining good fossils. This he purposes visiting, if he has not already 
done so ; but the Secretary has not yet received any fossils from the Dur- 
ness limestone, besides those sent. 

Some miles east of the Kyle of Durness lies the sea firth called Loch 
Eribol, on the shores of which there is a great development of the same 
or a similar limestone, with its associated quarzites and fucoid beds. These 
rocks give to Loch Eribol its special character of wildness and picturesque- 
ness. The limestone has been worked, for commercial purposes, at Heilim 
Inn, on its east shore, where the ferry crosses the loch ; but, though diligent 
search has been made on the spot, on many occasions, by members of the 
Committee and by local and other parties, no fossil remains have yet 
been discovered in that rock. In the thin, brown, shaly strata, called 
the Fucoid Beds from their contents, very distinct and well-preserved 
impressions of sea-plants are abundant on Loch Eribol, and along the 
great limestone strike from north to south. In the thicker-bedded 
Quartzite which occurs along this strike in immense masses, forming some 
of the highest mountains, and giving rise to some of the most striking 
scenery on the North-west coast of Scotland, with its pronounced features 
of combined grandeur, mass, wildness, and beauty, the only evidences of 
ancient life hitherto found are certain worm or annelid boi'ings, more 
or less abundant everywhere, which are very distinct, having been, in most 
cases, filled up with different-coloured matter. Both of these proofs 
of organic life in the past have been spoken of and pictured, in the excellent 
joint paper on these rocks by Sir R. Murchison and Professor Geikie. 

During this year, however, a discovery has been made in this Quartzite, 
in the shape of certain fossil remains which have not yet been described, 

k2 



132 report — 1878. 

and which may turn out to be of importance. This was made by Mr. Donald 
Mackay (innkeeper at Portnacon, or the Dog's Port, at the western side of 
the ferry over Loch Eribol), an intelligent man, with sharp eyes, which he 
has used to some purpose. On making his discovery, Mr. Mackay com- 
municated with Professor Nicol of Aberdeen, whose valuable paper on 
these controverted rocks represents one of the two great solutions of the 
problem of these north-west strata, the other being Sir Roderick 
Murchison's. Mr. Mackay also sent to Professor Nicol specimens of the 
new fossils, which are now in his possession. Since finding these first 
fossils, the discoverer has also succeeded in obtaining others, which he 
has sent to the Secretary. Unfortunately, the Secretary, who writes the 
present report in the Outer Hebrides, had to leave home on official duties 
before the fossils arrived, and has, therefore, had no opportunity of 
examining them. He has, however, forwarded them to the present 
meeting for inspection, that they may speak for themselves, Mr. Mackay 
reserving the ownership of the largest slab for himself. It would be well 
to have these fossils carefully examined and reported on for the Associa- 
tion, before returning them to their discoverer, in order to determine 
their nature, and ascertain their bearing on the general problem of the 
place and succession of the rocks of the North-west Highlands. The 
specimens in Professor Nicol's possession should also be examined along 
with them. 

In view of the present loss of the fossils once in Dr. Bryce's 
possession, of the successful search for fossils now being carried on at 
Garveilan and at the new point already mentioned near Cape Wrath, and 
of the importance of the discovery of new fossils in the Quartzite of Loch 
Eribol • it would be most desirable that the Committee should be con- 
tinued, with a grant at their disposal as hitherto, in order to prosecute 
the search at Durness and Loch Eribol, and at other points along the 
great limestone strike. The fact that fossils have been discovered in Loch 
Assynt shows that diligent search maybe crowned with success, there and 
elsewhere in these interesting rocks. 

It is also most desirable that all the fossils discovered in these regions 
should be submitted to experts, in order that a full report may be obtained 
in regard to them, so as to have as correct and decided a determination 
of their character and age as is possible with the new discoveries placed 
at our disposal. The materials available for this purpose are these : 

(1) The fossils from the Durness limestone reported on by Salter for Sir 
Roderick Murchison, and since deposited in the Jermyn Street Museum ; 

(2) those in the hands of the Committee, obtained from Durness, Loch 
Eribol, and Loch Assynt ; (3) those placed under Dr. Bryce's care, which 
it is hoped may yet be found ; (4) a suite of Durness fossils in the Museum 
of Aberdeen University, gathered for Professor Nicol, and those sent to 
him from Eribol by Mr. Mackay; (5) others that future search may 
reveal. 

Such a Report would sum up the labours of the Committee, and would, 
no doubt, be a valuable contribution to Scotch geology. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN BOCKS. 133 



Fifth Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Hebschel, 
M.A., F.R.A.S., and Gr. A. Leboub, F.G.S., on Experiments^ to 
determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing 
especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation. , 

The best means used for determining the thermal conductivities of sub- 
stances are of two distinct descriptions, which may be denoted severally 
as direct and indirect methods of procedure. In methods of the former 
kind which were principally used by Peclet, and to which this Committee 
has had recourse, the rate of passage of heat through the trial substance 
is measured by the change of temperature of a standard body which it 
leaves or enters, while the temperature of the trial substance itself is 
practically free from alteration. In methods of the indirect kind the 
measure of the quantity of heat which passes is given by changes of 
temperature of the trial substance itself, and a knowledge of the thermal 
capacity of the substance per unit of volume is therefore necessary for 
their application. These latter methods commend themselves not only 
by a larger choice of conditions most favourable for exact observation 
which they offer, but also by the absence of any discontinuity in the 
materials through which the passage of the heat takes place, and conse- 
quently of any uncertainty about the area of surface which enters into 
conducting contact where two solid bodies are placed or pressed together 
as perfectly as possible. The Committee has indeed found that a film of 
water wetting two such surfaces completely, and uniting them, renders 
the whole of their areas effective in conducting heat without introducing 
any sensible resistance, and fine wires of a thermopile lodged in this 
water stratum measure the two extreme temperatures of a trial layer of 
the substance to be tested with the greatest certainty and convenience ; 
but the application of water to porous and to soluble bodies like chalk 
and rock-salt gives for obvious reasons doubtful values of their conduc- 
tivities, and only those bodies which resist, and which do not absorb 
water can be tested accurately for thermal conductivity by those means.* 
It has therefore appeared very desirable to the Committee, for the suc- 
cessful use of processes in which the indirect method is adopted, to deter- 
mine as exactly as possible the specific gravities and specific heats of the 
series of rock-specimens now at their disposal ; and in the table presented 
with this report the results of their observations of these quantities are 
given of every plate which has hitherto been prepared for their examination. 
The measurements have been made at their request by Mr. J. T. Dunn,f 
whose name as a careful and active prosecutor of these investigations the 
Committee desires, in the event of its reappointment for another year, 
to add to the rather restricted number of its present members. A brief 
description of the process of these observations will explain the results 
of the measurements obtained from them, the statements of which, in 
a very abridged form, are presented in the table. 

* As a means of excluding water without breach of its intimate contact with 
soluble or porous rock surfaces, it has been suggested to the Committee to " silver " 
the plate-surfaces with mercury and tinfoil in the same manner that the face of a 
plate-glass mirror is silvered ; and there appears every reason to expect that the coat- 
ing of amalgam thus applied, while impervious to water would firmly attach itself to 
and fill up quite solidly all the asperities of the surface ; but the actual efficacy of 
this method for some of the very porous rocks has not yet been practically tested. 

f B. Sc, Demonstrator of Chemistry and Physics in the University of Durham, 
College of Physical Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



134 report— 1878. 

The mean diameter and thickness of each rock-plate was ascertained 
by callipers applied with the help of a magnifying glass to a standard 
steel scale of inches divided into tenths and fiftieths of an inch. The 
volume was thus obtained in cubic inches with a probable error which 
on account of the small thickness (about half an inch) and its occasional 
unevenness, together with some irregularity, occasionally, in the diameter 
of the nearly circular plates, it would be fair to reckon at between a half 
and one per cent. The rock-plate was then weighed in its state of natural 
dryness in the atmosphere,* and its specific gravity in the dry state was 
then deduced by comparison with its water- weight, at 253 grains of water 
(at maximum density) to a cubic inch. The plate was then heated fourteen 
or fifteen minutes in boiling water, and quickly transferred to a well- 
jacketed calorimeter containing (inclusive of its own water-equivalent of 
1500 grains) a charge of 15,000 grains of cold water, in which, with the 
assistance of an agitator (enclosing the indicating thermometer), it was 
allowed to disengage its heat. The time taken by the plates to impart 
to the water in the calorimeter its highest temperature varied considerably, 
from two or three minutes with rock-salt to about twenty-five minutes 
with pit-coal, with the different plates, and a rough control of the relative 
conductivities of the various specimens, already previously determined, 
presented itself accordingly during these immersions. The calorimeter 
was freshly supplied with water a little colder than the room for each 
experiment, and it was besides so thoroughly protected by coverings of 
cork and vulcanised india rubber from outward influence that no correction 
for heat-loss by radiation was required to be applied. The lumps of rock- 
salt were thinly painted with wet oil-paint, folded in tin-foil similarly 
painted inside, and thus rendered waterproof, and were heated (as were 
also the plates of chalk, plaster of Paris, and two plates of brick) in a 
well-jacketed steam space until they acquired its temperature, before im- 
mersion in the calorimeter. The experiments with brick were conducted 
to determine the proportion of boiling hot water which porous rocks 
imbibe by steaming, and by boiling them before plunging into cold water, 
as the heat conveyed by this water to the calorimeter must be known and 
deducted before assigning to the dry rock its real specific heat. 

After removal from the cold water of the calorimeter each rock speci- 
men was weighed, and being regarded as now perfectly saturated with 
water, the specific gravity of the rock in its thoroughly wet state was 
thence obtained, which is given with parentheses, for the porous rocks, in 
the table. A slight gain of weight was almost always observable, but 
where this did not amount to one-half per cent., the small amount of 
porosity which it denotes is regarded as without influence in distinguish- 
ing the properties of the wet from those of the dry rock, and only single 
values of the specific gravities and specific heats of these rocks are noted 
in the table. It is to be remarked that the percentage gain of weight of 
the absorbed water must, in order to afford the porosity of the rock as 
the percentage volume of pores or cavities which it contains, be multi- 
plied by the specific gravity of the dry rock (which is the bulkiness which 
water has in comparison with the rock), and the result will be the 

* A sensible proportion, perhaps 10 or 12 per cent, of the possible quantity of 
water absorbable by a porous rock, adheres to it when left to find its own condition 
of dryness in the open air ; and no experiments on rocks artificially dried and freed 
from this hygroscopic moisture in a water-bath have been attempted, but the "dry" 
state recorded in the table is the nearly constant condition which the rock naturally 
assumes in the atmosphere of a well-ventilated room. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 135 

space which the absorbed water occupies in proportion, per cent., to 
the whole volume of the rock, or the porosity as a fraction of that volume. 
Some special deportment of the water in the rock-pores may, however, 
sometimes interfere with such a calculation, so as not to allow the real 
volume of the spaces open to its penetration to be thus determined. It 
was thus observed that the addition of water to dry sand contracts, and 
of water to dry clay expands its volume considerably, so that the per- 
centage gain of specific gravity of these substances (dry sand and dry 
clay) by water saturation, is not the same as their percentage weight of 
imbibed or appropriated water. Two numbers are given for these sub- 
stances in the column of percentage gain, the last of which, in brackets, 
denotes the water added, while to obtain the first or the change of the 
specific gravity, a new measure of the altered volume of the wet com- 
pound material made by the mixture had to be obtained. 

The several experiments of heating brick plates in steam and boiling 
water, without afterwards immersing them in cold water, showed that a 
single such treatment impregnated the plate with about a half, or up- 
wards, of the whole quantity of water which the plate finally absorbs by- 
plunging it in cold water, and although the same experiments have 
not yet been extended to other porous rocks, a provisional assumption is 
adopted for them all, to calculate the specific heats, that the rocks which 
sensibly absorbed water in the process were laden with one half of it at 
the boiling temperature, when they were plunged into the calorimeter. 
It is not possible to say if this allowance is too great or too small in any 
given case, but any rectification which it requires cannot at least 
exceed (positively or negatively) the adopted value itself, and the per- 
centage change in the calculated specific heats, which a plus or minus 
rectification to the whole extent of the adopted allowance would introduce, 
is subjoined in the column of the table immediately following the specific 
heats, wherever the capacity of absorption of a rock specimen was so 
great as to render needful a distinction between its properties in the wet 
and dry condition. If the allowance of one half of the final water- gain, 
supposed to be introduced by boiling, is deficient, so that any fractional 
increase, or positive rectification of it is actually required, the same frac- 
tion of the percentage correction given in the table must be subtracted 
from each of the specific heats recorded as the provisional observed values 
in the table. If the allowance was in any case too great by a known 
part or fraction of itself, and therefore required a negative rectification to 
the extent of such a fraction, the same fraction of the percentage correction in 
the table is to be added to the recorded values of all the different specific heats 
to obtain their real values. The adopted allowance is probably very near 
the truth for the slightly porous rocks (whose coefficient of absorption is 
less than 6 per cent.), and no corrections of the specific heats given in 
the table are required for these, nor for any of the perfectly compact and 
solid kinds of rock in which no sensible signs of porosity and of water 
absorption were observed. With the increa'se of porosity, however, the 
assumed allowance probably requires an increasing addition of perhaps 
nearly its full value for some of the most porous ones (as chalk and 
plaster of Paris) ; but considering the smallness of the correction itself 
in the rocks of small and moderate absorbing powers, a common rule of 
adding half its value to the adopted allowance, and therefore of subtract- 
ing half the percentage amount named in the table from the recorded 
specific heats of all the porous rocks, is one whose results will certainly 
not deviate far (it may be five or six per cent, in the most absorbent 



136 report— 1878. 

rocks), from their real thermal capacities in the wet and dry states, by- 
volume and by weight. 

Percentage corrections thus deducted from the specific heats by volume 
of porous rocks in the table, must be added, however, (and vice versa) to 

the value of the ratio - given in its last column. The specific heats of 

dry and wet sand were found by enclosing them hermetically in a thin 
flask, and are free from any such source of uncertainty as that described ; 
while the amount of water present in the heated clay and in two speci- 
mens of brick was known, and the real allowances having been made for 
these, the specific heats assigned to them in the table need not be cor- 
rected. The following examples of the correction when it seems to be 
required will illustrate its use in other cases. 

The average specific heat by volume of three specimens of Calton Hill 
trap rock (taken from the escarpment of rock on the west side of the 
Observatory) is 052* ; the average percentage limit of correction to this 
quantity is 3g- per cent. Taking a half as a probable fraction of it (or 
0-016 X 0'52 = ■£$ X '52 = -009) and subtracting it from the provisional 
value, the corrected specific heat by volume of the Calton Hill trap rock 
is 0511 ; or 051 instead of - 52 as presented in the table. The average 

value of the quantity - for the same specimens is O0060, in the Table, and 

c 

the rate of correction which this requires will be the same as that just 
used (^o)) for the specific heat, but to be added instead of subtracted 
from it, with the result O'OOBl instead of O0060 taken from the table. The 
value of the same ratio calculated by Sir W. Thomson from the under- 
ground thermometer observations was O00786 ; and adopting for this 
rock's specific heat by volume the value - 524, which agrees very closely 
with the value 0-511 here arrived at, he deduced a value of the thermal 
conductivity of - 00415, rather higher than the mean, - 00312, of the values 
here concluded by the application of the direct method of experiments. 

The average specific heat by volume of six specimens of Craigleith 
sandstone, four of which are from the site of the thermometer borehole 
which was established there f by Professor Forbes in the year 1837, is 

* Two additional places of figures to which the observations and calculations 
for the table originally extended are suppressed in this abridgment of its determi- 
nations in order to present them together in an easily apprehended view, where it is 
believed that very little material utility of the individual results is sacrificed by 
rejecting the last two figures obtained by the reductions. 

•* f" The quarry was visited on March 17th, 1878, under the direction of Mr. Wedder- 
burn from Messrs. Adie & Sons, and of Mr. Wallace from the Edinburgh Eoyal Ob- 
servatory, by Professor Herschel ; the foreman of the present tenant (Mr. Hunter, of 
Newcastle) soon communicating the object of his search to the best possible authority 
at the quarry, one of the oldest workmen there, Robert Buchanan, who assisted in 
sinking the hole, and in depositing the thermometers in it in January, 1837. The 
face of the quarry in that neighbourhood has not been altered, although the field 
between it and the tenant's house of Craigleith-Hill, in which the hole was sunk to a 
depth of 24 feet, was opened over nearly the whole area near the house to a depth of 
about 20 feet to seek for " Liver rock " (the finest, stone of the quarry) in the imme- 
dia e neighbourhood of the tenant's house. But the search was unavailing. Robert 
Buchanan was Mr. Johnson's foreman when the ground was thus turned over and the 
thermometers were taken up ; and he directed the excavations. He selected for Pro- 
fessor Herschel from the face of the quarry near their site several specimens of the 
rock coinciding as nearly as possible with the top and bottom beds of the sandstone, 
.through which the thermometer hole must have passed. Four plates cut from these 
specimens are named T 1, 2, and B 1, 2 in the table ; and two more plates of ordinary 
samples of the quarry stone, " Liver rock," a uniform stone without clefts or partings, 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 137 

0405 ; and half the average limit of correction which it may require is 
7j per cent., making a part of the whole quantity equal to 0029. Sub- 
tracting this presumptive correction from the whole mean value, the 
resulting specific heat is - 376, instead of - 405 as obtained directly from 

the table.* The average value of the ratio — for the six specimens, 

0"01947, corrected by addition to it of the same proportional quantity, or 7\ 
per cent., is - 02088. Sir W. Thomson's determination of the same ratio's 
value by reduction of the thermometer records, is 0"02311, 11 per cent. 
greater than the value given by these direct experiments. But the agree- 
ment is yet very noteworthy if we reflect that (with the single exception 
of rocksalt, - 0288) no other description of rock in the present list 

exhibits such a high average value of the ratio — as Craigleith sand- 

6 

stone ; quartz itself being a little inferior to it. It owes this property 

partly to its high conductivity, which in the slightly wetted state that the 

process entails (averaging in the actual experiments less than 3 per cent., 

or less than half the quantity of water needed to thoroughly saturate the 

stone) almost attains that of quartz ; and partly to its low heat capacity 

by volume arising from a specific gravity much less than that of quartz, 

which it enjoys in common with other building sandstones. 

Using for the specific heat by volume of Craigleith sandstone a value, 

0"4625, which somewhat exceeds the above found average thermal 

capacity of the rock, Sir W. Thomson's deduction of its absolute thermal 

k 
conductivity (from the high value of its ratio - already found by his re- 

ductions) is also higher, - 01068, for this second reason, than anything 
which the Committee has yet met with among rocks of the ordinarily 
occurring kinds. It must, however, be acknowledged that in its thermal 
conductivity this building sandstone ranks so high that only compact 
quartz surpasses it, as the following series of measurements, made during 
the past year with the apparatus in the excellent state of permanent 
efficiency which it acquired last year (by the use of German silver and 
iridio-platinum wires), very plainly indicate. 

As a check upon the exactness of the measures of the thermal 
capacities the annexed table will also supply useful comparisons with some 
well-known standard observations of these quantities for a few minerals 

much used for buildings, and "Bed rock," the more general produce of the quarry, better 
suited for foundations, were also made from specimens obtained for the Committee 
from the quarry, before Professor Herschel's visit to it, by Mr. K. Irvine, of Granton. 
Two tenants of the quarry, before Mr. Hunter's succession to it, have occupied Craig- 
leith-Hill House, and have vacated it since Mr. Johnson's residence there* and the 
thermometer hole, or well, seems to have been demolished not long after the four or 
five years' records of its thermometers were ended and discontinued. It took three 
months to sink it to the full depth of twenty-four feet, with a diameter of three inches 
at the bottom and six inches at the top ; it was full of water always to a certain height 
while it was in progress, and was packed, when the thermometers were placed in it 
.at their proper depths, with sand. A damp or wet state of the rock (and of the in- 
troduced sand) it may be gathered from these preserved accounts of its construction 
must have prevailed in the whole or a great part of the stratum of rock through 
which the bore-hole passed. 

* Had the measurement of the specific heat of each porous plate been repeated 
with the rock in its perfectly saturated state, it is evident that the necessity of this 
correction would have been avoided. It is superfluous, apparently, for the sand- 
stones and less porous rocks, for which one average error-range (for the wet and dry 
states together), only, is given in the table. 



138 



REPORT — 1878. 



of common occurrence, and of very simple compositions. The high 
value found for white chalk, after deducting the above correction, perhaps 
arises from a considerable amount of hygroscopic moisture contained in 
the stone in its ordinary state ; but, if on account of its extreme porosity 







Thermal Conductivity 


Rock Specimen tested 


00 

t~ 

oo 

i— < 

JO 

•d o 

> © 
u 

0> 
DQ 

o 


Water absorbed, 
per cent. 


00 

o 

2§ 

&"£ o 
«H C« o 
O > o 

Op to 

S5 ° 
> 

< 


q 

i— i 


3'i 


Ordinary plate glass * ; two plates... < 

The same glass toughened ; two plates < 

Calton Hill trap, red, close grained ... 
„ „ red, open grained ... 
„ „ grey, weathered 


201 \ 
195 / 
191 \ 
179/ 
280 
295 
360 
508 

606 

641 

714 

741 

854 

/681 

1661 

838 
795 
843 
749 

862 


[198 

[185 

• 1-4 
1-0 
04 

38 

2-9 
5-9 
66 
2-7 
23 
05 
2-8 
2-4 
2-7 
30 


average] 

average] 

23 
10 
10 

61 

4-5 
75 

8-4 
6-5 
5-9 "1 

6-1 
6-1 
5-9 

5-8 


[204; plate 
[glass, 1876 

(520? 1874) 

542 
f594 (wet; 
1 5-7 p. c.) 

738 (1876) 








Galas 

Xi o 
."S « 

<u P 

Si " 
g a 
J* ts 

O CD 


hiels (red) sandstone 

Thermometer f to ? bed \ t! 

beds L j-g 
(bottom bed < p 1 

"Bed rock" 


Opaq 
De 


tie white quartz (Morthoe, N. 



the whole (instead of half) of the correction noted in the Table is sub- 
tracted from the specific heat there given, the result, 0*190, is less instead 
of greater than the known value ; and no real discordance of the obser- 
vation from the known property of this porous stone can, therefore, be 
properly suspected, with a suitable allowance. The proportion of foreign 
mineral (which is compact quartz) contained in the specimen of galena 
may be calculated approximately from the specific gravity (4'90) of the 
specimen, which is less than the usual specific gravity (7"59) of galena; 
and the resulting specific heat of the galena alone, which appears to 
occupy in reality scarcely a half (47 per cent.) of the volume of the 
thick plate used in the experiments, agrees very fairly with this material 
substitution, with the specific heat by weight of pure galena given by 
Regnault. 

* The plates of toughened and untoughened glass were obtained from makers in 
Berlin. Their average conductivities are respectively -00185 and -00198, showing a 
loss of i, or of 6£ per cent, in the conductivity by toughening. The property of 
hard-drawn metal wires is probably analogous to this, which are known to be less 
perfect conductors of electricity than soft annealed ones. There is a sensible 
and nearly proportional difference, also, in the specific heats by weight ; but none, 
apparently, in the specific gravities of the two plates. (See the accompanying list, 
of this Report.) 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 



139 



The specific gravity as well as the specific heat of the specimen of 
English alabaster proves it (as moistening it with an acid also shows) not 
to be " oriental alabaster," or calcic carbonate, but calcic sulphate, or a semi- 
crystalline and compact form of a hydrate of that substance which appears 



Substance 



Coke (of anthra- 
cite) 

Coal 

Burnt Clay 

White marble... 

Grey marble ... 
White chalk ... 



Silica (quartz) 

Sodic chloride... 
Iron pyrites . . . 



Galena. 



Calcic Sulphate, 
anhydrous . . . 

Calcic Fluoride 



Authority 



Regnault 

Crawford 

Gladolin 
Regnault 



Specific Heat by 

weight 



0-201 

0-278 

0-185 
0-216 

0-210 
0-215 

0-191 

0-214 
0-130 

O051 
0197 



Observed 
1878 



I 



{ 



0-193 
0-287 

0-374 

0188 
0-210 

0-221 

0-215 
0-280 



f 0.187 

\ 0-195 
0192 
0-126 

[ 0-084 

| 0-046 
f 0284 

I O260 
0-200 



Description of rock, and number 
of specimens tested (1878) 



Gas-coke (1 specimen). 
Cannel-coal (3 specimens). 
/Newcastle house coal (1 speci- 
J_ men). 
Brick and firebrick (4 specimens). 
White Sicilian and Italian mar- 
bles (2 specimens). 
Other marbles (7 specimens). 
" Godstone 

}, chalk „ 

about ' j Pure white f 2s P eCimenS 

chalk 
Opaqiie white quartz (3 ~| white 
specimens). >sand 

Quartzite (2 specimens) J - 200 
Bocksalt (1 specimen). 
Iron pyrites (1 specimen), 
f Galena (with 28i p. c. of quartz) ; 
\. 1 specimen. 

/Galena (with 28^ p. c. of quartz ; 
I. corrected for quartz). 
English alabaster (1 specimen). 

/ Plaster of Paris (1 specimen, de- 
\ ducting half the poss. cor.) 
Fluor-spar (1 specimen). 



to agree in the property of its specific heat sensibly with plaster of Paris, 
although not with anhydrous calcic sulphate, to which Regnault assigns a 



Substance tested, directly and indirectly, 


Specific 


Absolute 


Value of 


for Thermal Conductivity ; and for 


Heat by 


Conduc- 


the ratio 


Thermal Capacity by volume, and 


volume 


tivity 


k 


by weight 





k 


V 


Dry white sand (specific gravity, and 








specific heat tested directly, 1878 ; and 








thermal conductivity, directly, 1877) ... 


0-292 


0-00093 


0-00318 


White sand thoroughly wet (specific 








gravity, and specific heat tested directly 








1878 ; and thermal conductivity, directly, 








1877) 


0-567 (?) 


0-00726 


01279 (?) 


Sand of experimental garden (reduction 








of Professor Forbes's Thermometer Re- 








cords, by Sir W. Thomson) 


0-300 


0-00262 


0-00872 





much lower specific heat by weight. These properties of minerals, like 
their specific gravities, certainly form very valuable and easily deter- 



140 REPORT— 1878. 

mined characters capable of affording most useful assistance as permanent 
and special qualities for distinguishing them from one another. 

Another example of comparison between the direct and indirect 
methods of experiment has presented itself in the Committee's observa- 
tions of Thermal Conductivities, where, however, they have not yet 
investigated the original substance which was the subject of the earlier 
experiments, but only an approximately similar one in two different con- 
ditions which permit a fair comparison of the measurements to be made, 
which have been obtained by direct, and also by a totally different method 
of procedure. The quantity of water (23 per cent.) found to be taken 
up by dry sand when thoroughly wet, as stated in the table, should raise 
its specific heat by weight from 0*200, there given, to 0*348 ; but the 
specific heat observed in the second case was only 0*284, corresponding 
to an absorption of only 12 per cent, of water. The specific heats by 
weight and by volume given in the table for thoroughly wet sand are, there- 
fore, too low, and the value of the ratio - deduced from them must be 

c 

sensibly higher than its real value for saturated sand. For perfectly dry 

sand it is 0*0032, for thoroughly wet sand it must accordingly be about 

0-0100, and for the sand in the experimental garden in Edinburgh, Sir 

h 
W. Thomson obtained the value 0*0087, of the ratio — , by a reduction 

of the records of Professor Forbes' underground thermometers. Could 
a specimen of the sand itself, which the Committee hopes to procure, be 
obtained in which the thermometers were sunk, the value of the ratio 
found by Sir W. Thomson would no doubt be very closely corroborated ; 
and, at the same time, the real values of the absolute conductivity and 
specific heat of a loose and porous earth like that in which these ther- 
mometers were placed, which the Committee has not yet determined, 
would be added to the present list. 

The Committee has the satisfaction to notice with peculiar commenda- 
tion the series of excellent and accurate experiments on the thermal con- 
ductivities and capacities of certain specimens of rocks of Japan, which 
the professors of the Tokio College there, Messrs. J. Perry and W". 
Ayrton, have conducted with the greatest skill and originality of method 
and ©f practical execution. Of the very excellent memoir of these 
experimenters, and of the contributions from other sources to the practical 
investigation of the subject of rock-conductivity which have been made 
recently and in bygone years, the Committee hope to point out the 
bearings in a collective review, if the production of such a historical 
report, during the coming year, presents itself as a sufficiently desirable 
object for their reappointment. Thin microscopic sections of about 
twenty of the rock- specimens upon which they have experimented have 
been prepared by Mr. G. F. Cuttell, of London, which convey much 
information to the eye regarding the causes of the various degrees of con- 
ductivity that are met with in particular rocks. The compact, almost 
purely siliceous nature of the quartzites is thus visibly presented, and 
the reason of their ranking with quartz much higher in conductivity 
than the more heterogeneous sandstones is very obvious. A similar 
minute inspection of the structure of Craigleith sandstone will no doubt 
furnish evidence of similar purity of its material in comparison with other 
sandstones, in explanation of the very distinctive quality of remarkably 
high thermal conductivity which it appears to possess among them. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTITITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 



141 



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146 beport— 1878. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes- 
Lawrence, C. Spence Bate, Esq., H. E. Dresser, Esq. (Sec), 
Dr. A. Gtunther, J. E. Harting, Esq., Dr. G-wtn Jeffreys, Pro- 
fessor Newton, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the 
purpose of inquiring into the possibility of establishing a " Close 
Time " for Indigenous Animals. 

It is with regret that your Committee has to report that, for the first time 
since its original appointment in August 1868, the work it has not unsuc- 
cessfully had in hand has been brought in question, and this in a way 
which requires serious attention on the part of all who wish to preserve 
our indigenous animals from the extermination that, until the last few 
years, was threatening so many of them. 

In July 1877, it having been reported to Her Majesty's Secretary of 
State for the Home Department that " the Herring Fishery on the coast 
of Scotland is in an unsatisfactory state, and that it is desirable that 
inquiries should be made to ascertain whether any legislative regulations 
would tend to promote the welfare of the fishermen engaged in the said 
fishery, and to increase the supply of herrings for the benefit of the 
public," that gentleman appointed Mr. Buckland, Mr. Spencer Walpole, 
and Mr. Archibald Young to be Commissioners to make such inquiries 
and to report to him the result thereof. 

In accordance therewith the Commissioners above named reported to 
the Home Secretaiy, under date of March 1, 1878, and their ' Report,' 
with ' Appendices,' was subsequently presented to both Houses of Par- 
liament by command of Her Majesty. 

This ' Report,' containing certain conclusions arrived at by the Com- 
missioners, naturally attracted the notice of your Committee ; and after 
due consideration it was resolved that a letter should be addressed on 
behalf of your Committee to the Home Secretary in regard to some of 
those conclusions. 

The following is a copy of the letter thereupon sent : — 



" To the Right Honourable B. A. Cross, H.M. Principal Secretary of State 

for the Home Department. 

" 6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, W., 

" London, July 6, 1878. 

" Sir, — The Committee of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into the possibility of 
establishing a close time for indigenous animals, having had under their 
consideration the ' Report on the Herring Fisheries of Scotland,' dated 
March 1, 1878, and the conclusions at which the Commissioners have 
arrived (pp. xxxv., xxxvi. of that Report), beg leave respectfully to sub- 
mit to your consideration the following observations, viz. : — 

" I. That conclusions Nos. 2 and 3 of the Commissioners — viz., that 
' legislation in past periods has had no appreciable effect,' and that 
* nothing that man has yet done, and nothing that man is likely to do, 



ON ESTABLISHING A "CLOSE TIME" FOE INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 147 

Las diminished, or is likely to diminish, the general stock of herrings in 
the sea ' — if correct, are absolutely contradicted by conclusion No. 13, 
which recommends that ' The Sea-Birds Preservation Act, pi'otecting 
gannets and other predaceous birds which cause a vast annual destruction 
of herrings, should be repealed in so far as it applies to Scotland.' 

" II. That conclusion No. 1, stating that ' the Herring Fishery on the 
coast of Scotland, as a whole, has increased and is increasing,' clearly 
shows that there can be no necessity for the step recommended in conclu- 
sion No. 13 as above cited. 

" III. That conclusion No. 13 seems to have been arrived at from ex- 
aggerated or incorrect information, as will appear from the following con- 
siderations : — The number of gannets on Ailsa is estimated (Report, 
p. xi.) at 10,000, and a yearly consumption of 21,600,000 herrings is 
assigned to them ; while the Commissioners assume that there are ' 50 
gannets in the rest of Scotland for every one on Ailsa,' and on that 
assumption declare that the total destruction of herrings by Scottish 
gannets is more than 1,110,000,000 per annum. This is evidently a mis- 
calculation ; for, on the premisses, this last number should be 1,101,000,000, 
a difference of more than 8,000,000. 

" But, more than this, supposing the figures at the outset are right, it 
appears to the Close Time Committee that the succeeding assumption of 
the Commissioners must be altogether wrong ; at any rate there is no 
evidence adduced in its support, and some that is contradictory of it. 

" The number of breeding-places of the gannet in the Scottish seas 
has long been known to be five only, as, indeed, is admitted by one of the 
Commissioners (Appendix No. 2, p. 171); and the evidence of Captain 
M'Donald, which is quoted in a note to the same passage, while estimating 
the Ailsa gannets at 12,000 in 1869 (not 1859, as printed), puts the whole 
number of Scottish gannets at 324,000 instead of 510,000, which there 
would be at the rate of 50 in the rest of Scotland for one on Ailsa, accord- 
ing to the Commissioners' assumption. 

" Moreover, 50,000 of these 324,000 birds, or nearly one-sixth, are 
admitted by this same Commissioner to be ' of great value to the inhabit- 
ants ' of St. Kilda ; and, indeed, they are of far greater value to them 
than any number of herrings, since it is perfectly well known that the 
people of St. Kilda could hardly live without their birds ; therefore this 
50,000 must be omitted from any estimate of detriment. Deducting, 
then, 50,000 from Captain M'Donald's 324,000, we have 274,000, and 
these, at the Commissioners' estimate, would consume 600,060,000 her- 
rings instead of the 1,110,000,000 alleged by the Report, and, therefore, 
nearly 200,000,000 fewer than the Commissioners' estimate of the annual 
take of the Scottish fisheries (800,000,000) — 25 per cent, less, instead of 
37 per cent. more. 

" Hitherto the supposition of the Report, that the gannets frequent the 
Scottish seas all the year round, has been followed ; but the Close Time 
Committee begs leave to observe that, as a matter of fact, these birds are 
not there in force for more than half the year. 

" This, then, will require another abatement to be made. Not to exag- 
gerate the case, the Committee assumes them to frequent these waters 
seven months, or seven-twelfths of a year. This will make their annual 
capture of herrings 350,350,000, instead of the more than 1,110,000,000 

L2 



148 kepokt — 1878. 

of the Commissioners, being nearly 700,000,000, or much less than one- 
third, fewer. 

"IV. That in all the evidence received and published by the Commis- 
sioners only two witnesses allege that any harm has resulted to the fisheries 
from the Sea-Birds Protection Act. Of these, the first, Robert M'Connell, 
presented a petition from the fishermen of Girvan, in which it is stated 
(p. 145) that ' no legislation is called for or required ; ' while another 
witness from the same place, John Melville (a fishery officer), declares (at 
p. 146) that ' the fishery has very much increased this last year. Recent 
years have also shown a gradual increase. The increase is partly due to 
the increased machinery, and partly to the increase in the number of 
herrings.' 

" The second witness unfavourable to the Act, John M'William (an In- 
spector of Poor), speaks (pp. 147-49) only from personal knowledge 
acquired between 1833 and 1853, when he ceased to be a fisherman, and 
not from any recent experience. He can therefore scarcely be held com- 
petent to give an opinion of his own as to whether the Sea-Birds Pro- 
tection Act (passed in 1869) has injured the fisheries. Another witness 
recommends the repeal of this Act ; but he, Hugh MacLachlan, expressly 
states (p. 143) that he ' thinks the cause of the decrease [in the number 
of herrings taken] is the catching immature fish ; ' and the remedy ho 
proposes is the adoption of a strict close time. 

" V. That, on the other hand, the utility of sea-birds in pointing out 
the situation of shoals of herrings and other fish is not only generally 
notorious, but is even admitted in the Report (pp. 57 and 175). 

"VI. That if the Sea-Birds Act be repealed on the grounds alleged for 
Scotland, its repeal for England and Ireland must logically follow ; and 
this Committee trusts that no steps may be taken to repeal the Act for 
Scotland. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Yours obediently, 

" H. E. Dresser, 

"Sec. to the Brit. Assoc. Close Time Committee." 

To this letter the following reply has been received : — 

Whitehall, July 12, 1878. 

" Sir, — I am directed by the Secretary of State to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 6th inst., submitting observations on behalf 
of the Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
on the Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the herring 
fisheries of Scotland, dated the 1st March last. 

"lam, Sir, 

" Tour obedient servant. 
(Signed) " Godfrey Lushington. 

"H. E. Dresser, Esq., 

6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, W." 

Tour Committee conceives that the points at issue between it and the 
Scottish Herring Fishery Commissioners are thus fairly stated, and is 
confident that all unbiassed persons will admit that those Commissioners 
have over-stated their case. Your Committee would further remark that, 



ON OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 1 49 

though the Sea-Birds Preservation Act contains a provision (in section 3) 
for varying the close time therein enacted on due application, no such 
application appears ever to hava been made on the ground of detriment 
to the herring fisheries caused by sea-birds ; while there can be no reason- 
able doubt that any application for shortening the close time on that 
ground, if duly made, would be granted — circumstances which would 
seem to show that the conclusions of the Commissioners were not gene- 
rally shared by those interested in the fisheries. On the other hand, your 
Committee may refer to the fact, already mentioned in former Reports, 
that several applications have been made for prolonging the existence of 
the close time. 

With regard to the Wild-Fowl Preservation Act your Committee has 
to report that the discontent caused by its establishing a close time, 
different from that which was originally proposed by your Committee, 
still exists in some quarters, but that the power of variation the Act con- 
tains has been put in force in many counties ; and your Committee trusts 
when this power has been still further exercised, as it doubtless will be, 
and the Act practically brought into accordance with your Committee's 
first proposal, of which there are many indications, dissatisfaction will be 
reduced to a minimum, or will altogether cease. 

A Bill for the Protection of Freshwater Fish has been introduced into 
Parliament during the present Session, and will doubtless receive the 
Royal assent. It has not, however, been of a kind that needed any action 
on the part of your Committee. 

In view of any proceedings which may be taken in the Session of 1879 
in regard to the recommendations of the Scottish Herring Fishery Com- 
missioners already recited, as well as on general grounds, your Committee 
respectfully urges its reappointment. 



Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of arranging 
with Dr. Dohkn for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples ; the Committee consisting of Mr. Dew-Smith 
{Secretary), Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. GrWYN Jeffreys, 
Mr. Sclater, Dr. M. Foster, Mr. F. M. Balfour, and Professor 
Ray Lankester. 

Your Committee have the honour to report that the working of the Zoo- 
logical Station is proceeding in the most satisfactory manner, and that its 
efficiency has greatly increased since the last report was made. 

Since August 1, 1877, no less than twenty-one naturalists have been 
engaged in working at the Station, which is a larger number than in any 
former year. 

The steam launch presented by the Berlin Academy of Sciences has 
been of great service in providing animals found at a distance from Naples, 
and of short-lived animals requiring rapid transit, to enable them to be 
used in a sufficiently fresh condition. 



150 



EEPOET 1878. 



Of late, one of the main objects of the Station has been largely de- 
veloped, viz., the supplying of animals for research, and for museum 
specimens at a small cost to persons applying for them. 

The animals are procured and preserved by the staff at the Station, 
and are sent off and charged for at the bare cost of the animals, plus the 
cost of the preservation solutions. 

Since August 1, 1877, packages of specimens have been sent to forty- 
nine different naturalists residing in various parts of the world. A list 
is appended to this report, giving the names of those to whom the speci- 
mens were sent, and also the nature of the specimens themselves. 

The scientific work of the Station is progressing well, as the following 
list of monographs preparing for publication will show : — 

On Ctenophoridse By Dr. Chun. 

„ Balanoglossns „ Dr. Spengel. 

„ Sipunculoida? „ Dr. Spengel. 

„ CapitellicUe (Annelida) „ Dr. Eisig. 

„ C'aprellida; , „ Dr. Mayer. 

„ Pycnogonida; „ Dr Dohrn. 

„ Dr. Emery. 

„ Hyperidae „ Dr. Mayer. 

Also several algological monographs by Dr. Falkenberg, Dr. Schaiitz, 
and Professor Solms-Laubach are nearly ready, besides many papers on 
minor investigations, 

We hear that the monographs on Ctenophoridfe, by Dr. Chun, and 
on Balanoglossns, by Dr. Spengel, are already in the press. 

We very much regret that no naturalists have availed themselves of 
the use of the table engaged by the Association, and we would suggest 
that members should endeavour to make it more widely known that 
naturalists desirous of working at some group of animals may, with the 
consent of the Committee, proceed to Naples, and there find every con- 
venience for their work, including material and use of the steam launch 
for dredging purposes, supplied to them free of all cost. 

Lastly, we very strongly urge the desirability of renewing the grant 
of £75, as although, as we have shown, the Station is in a most prosperous 
condition, still it can only remain so when liberally supported by public 
bodies interested in the advancement of science. 



List of the Naturalists who have worked in the Station from 

August 1, 1877, to August 1, 1878. 

Prof. Th. Eimer, Tu- 
bingen Table Wiirtemberg 18 August 1877 to 4 September 1877 

Dr. Bonnet, Munich ... „ Bavaria 20 ,, >, „ 4 „ „ 

Prof. Stendner, Halle „ Prussia 25 „ ,, „ 15 October „ 

Prof . His, Leipzig „ Saxony 7 September „ „ 27 September ,, 

Prof. Graf Salms-Lau- 

bach, Strasburg „ Strasburg 26 „ „ „ 24 October „ 

Dr. Taschenberg, Leip- 
zig „ Saxony 3 November „ „ 28 June 187S 

Dr. P. Mayer, Liiden- 

scheidt „ Prussia 1 January 1878 „ 

Dr. Zincone, Naples ... „ Italy 1 „ ,, „ 

Dr. De la Valle, Naples „ Italy 1 January 1 878 „ — 



ON OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 151 

Dr. A. Lang, Berne ...Table Switzerland 14 January 1878 to 7 May 1878 

Dr. Schmitz, Kassel ... „ Prussia 22 ,, „ „ 



Dr. R. Valiante, Naples 


•> 


Italy 


11 


February 


Dr. E. Everts, Hague 


j) 


Holland 


11 March 


Dr. V. Koch, Darm- 










stadt 


>> 


Darmstadt 


12 


.«> 


Prof. Graf Salnis-Lau- 












jj 


Strasburg 


14 


j> 


Dr. C. Chun, Frank- 


)» 


Berlin Aca- 






fort 




demy 


14 


>> 


Dr. v. Rohlfs, Leipzig 


j> 


Saxony 


20 


>» . 


Dr. L. Graff, Aschaffen- 














Bavaria 


31 




Professor Metchinkoff, 












» 


Russia 


17 


» 


Prof. v. Rougemont, 














Switzerland 


8 


Mav 


Dr. Emery, Naples ... 


j> 


Italy 


28 June 



7 May 
30 June 


18 May 


24 „ 


25 April 


28 „ 
18 May 


L - » 


3 June 


2 July 



List of Naturalists and Places to 
from August 1, 1877, 



tvhich Animals have been sent 
to August 1, 1878. 



Aug. 
1877. 








1 


Dr. M. Lanzi 


Rome 


Salpie. 


3 


Mr. Balfour 


Paris 


Ascidia. 


3 


Dr. Grobben 


Vienna 


Crustacea. 


3 


Prof. Studer 


Berne 


Salpre, Coelenterata. 


Sept. 








10 


Prof. Eimer 


Tubingen 


Selachia. 


22 


Prof. Greeff 


Marburg 


Miscellaneous. 


Oct. 








30 


Prof, Gotte 


Strassburg 


Embryos of Torpedo, and Scyllium 


30 


Prof. Heller 


Innsbruck 


Crustacea. 


Nov. 








5 


Anat. Institute 


Halle 


Miscellaneous. 


5 


L. Blaschka 


Dresden 


Mollusca, Coelenterata. 


28 


Prof. Hoffmann 


Leyden 


Miscellaneous. 


28 


Kgl. Naturaliencab. 


Stuttgart 


do. 


Dec 








19 


Prof. Ausserer 


Graz 


do. 


31 


Museo Zoologico 


Palermo 


Fishes. 


31 


W. Percy Sladen 


Halifax 


Echinodermata. 


31 


Prof. Greeff 


Marburg 


Echinod., Coelent. 


81 


Zool. Museum 


Berlin 


Miscellaneous. 


Jan. 








1878. 








10 


/Kgl. C. Thierarzneio 
I Schule / 


Munich 


do. 


12 


Professor Kollmann 


Munich 


Heteropoda and Pteropoda. 


28 


Prof. F. E. Schulze 


Graz 


Spongidas. 


28 


Zool. Station 


Trieste 


Hydromedusas. 


Feb. 








4 


C. Armbruster 


London 


Cephalopoda. 


4 


Prof. Ehlers 


Gottingen 


Coelent., Echinod. 


4 


Dr. Emery 


Palermo 


Eyes of fishes. 


4 


A. Waters 


Woodbrook 


Bryozoa. 


March 








9 


Prof. Semper 


Wiirzburg 


Lamellibranchiata. 


9 


Prof. Todaro 


Rome 


Miscellaneous. 


30 


H. Karthaus 


Marburg 


do. 


30 


Dr. Ludwig 


Gottingen 


Echinodermata. 



152 




REPORT— 


-1878. 




1878 










April 










8 


C. Stacy Watson 


London 


Fishes. 




16 


Prof. Claus 


Vienna 


Coelenterata. 




30 


Prof. Bimer 


Tubingen 


Fishes, Echinod., 


Coelent. 


30 


K. Felsche 


Leipzig 


Brachyura. 




30 


Dr. v. Thering 


Erlangen 


Mollusca. 




30 


Prof. Leuckart 


Leipzig 


Miscellaneous. 




May 










7 


Dr. Lang 


Berne 


do. 




11 


Dr. Everts 


Hague 


do. 




14 


Prof. Graff 


Aschaffenb. 


do. 




15 


Prof. Hoffmann 


Leyden 


Eyes of Cephalop 


and Pterop. 


18 


Dr. de Man 


Leyden 


Mollusca. 




19 


Zool. Cabinet 


St.Petersburg 


Hydra polyps. 




25 


Prof. v. Koch 


Darmstadt 


Mollusca, Coelent 




25 


Prof. Steindachner 


Vienna 


Fishes, Coelent. 




June 










29 


Prof, de Rougemont 


Neuchatel 


Fishes. 




29 


Zoolog. Institute 


Halle 


Miscellaneous. 




July 










27 


Zoolog. Museum 


Berlin 


do. 




31 


K. Heider 


Graz 


Coelent. 




31 


Leeds Museum 


Leeds 


Mollusca, Fishes, 


Coelent., Vermes 


31 


Dr. Preper 


Olfen 


Miscellaneous. 





Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Fare, 
Lord Aberdare, Dr. W. Bain, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Sir 
G-eorge Campbell, Captain Dillon, The Earl of Ducie, Professor 
Flower, Mr. Distant, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. 
Park Harrison, Mr. J. Hetwood, Mr. P. Hallett, Major-Gen. 
Lane Fox (Sec), Inspector-General Lawson, Mr. George Shaw 
Lefevre, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. Waller Lewis, Dr. Mouat, 
Sir Kawson Rawson, Mr. Alexander Redgrave, and Professor 
Rolleston. 

A considerable delay has been unavoidably incurred in preparing and 
circulating the schedules and accompanying instructions for collecting 
the desired observations, with a view of testing by practical experience 
the extent to which the Committee might look for useful results, and the 
sufficiency of the instructions to ensure both accuracy and uniformity. 
The work, therefore, has hitherto been rather tentative and experimental. 
The forms and instruments used by the Committee are : (1). Explicit 
instructions to observers on the mode of filling-in the blank schedules, 
and on the use of the instruments. (2). A schedule for the measure- 
ments and other observations. This contains, when full, twenty names. 
(3). A printed circular, by Dr. Farr, explaining the objects of the Com- 
mittee. (4). Book of tinted papers, named and numbered, to assist 
observers in specifying the different colours of the hair. (5). A circular 
fey Mr. Brabrook, in relation to photographs. (6). A diagram showing 



BEPOBT OF THE ANTHROPOMETEIC COMMITTEE. 153 

the position in which the strength of arm shonld be tested ; and (7) a 
card containing dots for testing eyesight. 

The instruments are : (1). A weighing machine. (2). A simple ap- 
paratus for measuring height. (3). A spirometer ; and (4) a spring 
balance for testing strength of arm. Of these instruments the Committee 
have purchased four complete sets. 

A great number of the forms have been distributed to persons in various 
parts of the country. 

The schedules already filled up and received by the Committee relate 
to the measurements of the boys at Westminster School, the 2nd Royal 
Surrey Militia, letter-sorters in the General Post Office, recruits, persons 
employed in a large manufactory in Bedford, criminals ; and a few relate 
to persons engaged in different occupations. Some of these, however, 
have not been taken strictly according to the instructions drawn out by 
the Committee, and some of them are of less value than the rest. 

Other measurements have been promised by Dr. Mouat ; by the Rev. 
George Style, the head-master of a grammar-school in Yorkshire ; by Dr. 
Farr ; and by Capt. Brown, of the 18th Kent Rifle Volunteers. Capt.Brown 
states, in his letter to Dr. Farr, that he will have much pleasure in fur- 
nishing measurements of the men in his corps — about 100 ; and that he 
will see personally the other eight commanding officers, and ask them to 
assist the Committee. Should Capt. Brown be able to obtain the whole, 
they will amount to about 900 men. 

Amongst those who have furnished the Committee with measurements 
may be mentioned the names of Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. Francis 
Galton, Inspector-General Lawson, Dr. Waller Lewis, Dr. Bain, Dr. Scott, 
the head-master of Westminster School, and Professor Rudler. 

A few sets of tables have been prepared from the above returns, show- 
ing the age and height, age and weight, age and strength, and average 
height, weight, and strength, as well as the ratio between height and 
weight and the ratio between height and strength. 

An extract from the tables relating to criminals has been drawn out by 
Mr. Francis Galton, as an illustration of one of the methods in which it 
is proposed to deal with facts collected by the Committee, to be circulated 
with their forms and instructions. 

General Lane Fox has written a full report on the measurements, which 
he personally superintended, of the 2nd Royal Surrey Militia ; and from 
which he has prepared several tables, which are shown at the end of his 
report. His tables, though differently constructed, agree in nearly every 
particular with those prepared under the direction of Dr. Farr. 

It will be observed that several gentlemen have promised to furnish the 
Committee with measurements, and they hope soon to be in possession of 
such facts as will enable them to compare the results with the different 
classes of the population, and to determine the physical characters of 
persons born and living in different parts of the country. 

In the meantime the Committee abstain from submitting incomplete 
results ; they, however, think the following short abstract from some of 
the tables alluded to may be of sufficient interest to deserve consideration. 



154 



EEPOET — 1 878. 



Age 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 J 



184 



t ilass 



Non-coramissioned officers 
and men 2nd Royal Surrey 

Militia 

Boys at Westminster School 
General Post Office (letter- 
sorters, &c.) . 

Non-commissioned officers 
and men 2nd Royal Surrey 

Militia 

Boys at Westminster School 
General Post Office (letter- 
sorters, &c.) 

Non-commissioned officers 
and men 2nd Royal Surrey 

Militia 

Bo3 r s at Westminster School 
General Post Office (letter- 
sorters, &c.) 

Non-commissioned officers 
and men 2nd Royal Surrey 

Militia 

Boys at Westminster School 
General Post Office (letter- 
sorters, &c.) 

Non-commissioned officers 
and men 2nd Royal Surrey 

Militia 

Boys at Westminster School 
General Post Office (letter- 
sorters, &c.) 

Non-commissioned officers 
and men 2nd Royal Surrey 

Militia 

Boys at Westminster School 
General Post Office (letter- 
sorters, Sec.) 



3 



ft e3 



o 



20 
36 

48 
503 

39 
670 



4 
43 

275 



13 

18 

124 

35 

8 

98 



Averages 



03 0) 

.d -d 

? d 

sp~ 

M d 
> 



59 7 
55-9 

61-3 
60-3 

64-8 
61-7 



64-5 
66-5 

63-9 



64-0 
67-8 

65-4 



64-7 
67-5 

65-4 



03 TS 

> d 

03 O 

op a 

t-. d 

> 

< 



86-2 
74-7 

953 
93-3 

111-6 

100-5 



122-5 
124-2 

111-5 



119-4 
129-6 

120-5 



126-2 
138-1 

123-3 



-d « 



03 • 

sr 

U 



47-8 



55-6 



59-1 



61-3 

69-8 



61-7 
81-6 



67-4 
92-5 



Ratio 

between 

height 

and 
weio-ht 



"3 G 

I S3 

o o in 

«h -d -d 

^ op d 



1-4 
1-3 

1-6 
1-5 

1-7 
1-6 



1-9 

1-9 

1-7 



1-9 
1-9 

20 



1-9 
2-0 

1-9 



Ratio 

between 

height 

and 
strength 



I- 

d°.s 

2,d 



0-8 



0-9 



0-9 



1-0 
10 



10 
1-2 



1-0 
1-4 



For the purpose of inquiring into and determining the typical forms of 
our race a sub-committee has been formed, consisting of Mr. Brabrook, 
Sir Rawson Rawson, Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. 
Park Harrison, Professor Leone Levi, and Mr. Distant. 

The Report of the Sub- Committee is annexed hereto. 

In conclusion, it may be said that the Committee have now organised the 
system of observations, and have tested them sufficiently; they have 
distributed blank schedules, which they expect to have returned to them 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 155 

filled up ; they have also agreed on the more important points concerned 
in the forms of reduction of the raw materials. 

They are now prepared, with instruments sufficient to enter upon a large 
field of observation. 

They have expended .£83 lis. 2d. in their prefatory work of the £100 
that was voted to them, and have handed the residue back to the 
Treasurer. They now beg that the residue be re-granted to them, to- 
gether with an additional sum of £83 lis. 2d., which will put them in 
possession of £100 to carry on operations during the next year, which 
they trust will produce a valuable harvest of results. 

William Fare, 

July, 1878. Chairman of Anthrojjometric Committee. 



Report of Sub-Committee. 

The Sub-Committee appointed by the Anthropometric Committee to 
deal with that portion of the reference to them which relates to " the 
publication of photographs of the typical races of the empire," resolved 
in the first instance to limit the inquiry to the investigation, by means of 
photographs, of the national or local types of races prevailing in different 
parts of the United Kingdom. 

The plan which the Sub-Committee thought it best to adopt was to 
select a number of districts in which it is believed a distinct type prevails, 
and in each such district to request the assistance of as many competent 
observers as can be found ; each to be asked to obtain a limited number 
of photographs, six to ten, representing in his opinion the type chiefly 
prevalent among individuals belonging to families long settled and inter- 
marrying in the district. From the materials thus obtained, the Sub- 
Committee hope to be able to select representative specimens. 

In the carrying out of this plan, the assistance of professional and 
amateur photographers, of medical men, and of clergymen, has been 
sought. A circular has been addressed to about a hundred members of 
the Association, and a letter has been published, by authority of the 
Committee, in the ' Photographic News.' This inquiry is one, however, 
in which almost every member of the Association may be able to assist, 
and the Sub-Committee (presuming the Association will authoi'ise the 
continuance of the work) appeal to the members generally for such 
assistance. 

The Sub-Committee recommend — 

1. That the selected individuals should be adults. 

2. That the details of their pedigree, as far as possible, should be given. 

3. That, in general, only those should be accepted whose two parents 
and four grandparents were born in or belonged to the district. 

4. That the colour of bair and eyes should be stated, if practicable. 

5. That the photographs should be accompanied by a written description 
of the particular features they portray as being characteristic of the dis- 
trict. 

In pursuance of this plan, the Sub-Committee have received from Pro- 
fessor Rudler an excellent selection of 5 male and 5 female inhabitants of 
Aberystwith, which are laid upon the table, as specimens of the way in 
which the work should be done. Mr. Park Harrison, one of their body, 
has made a selection of types from Wales and Cornwall, and others from 



156 report — 1878. 

Sussex and East Kent. Miss Whitmore-Jones, of Chastleton House, 
Oxfordshire, has kindly arranged for the photographing of some of the 
inhabitants of that parish whose pedigree can be traced in the parish 
registers up to their very commencement, nearly 300 years ago. (Six 
groups thus obtained are laid upon the table.) Mr. Hooper, a skilled 
photographer, has promised to furnish the Sub-Committee with specimens 
from several districts. They have had also most liberally placed at their 
disposal the important collections which have been made during many 
years past by their colleague, Dr. Beddoe. The Rev. Mr. Crompton, in 
Norfolk, Mr. Spence Bate, in Cornwall, Mr. C. Staniland Wake, at Hull, 
Mr. Sorby, at Sheffield, Dr. Muirhead, for Scotland, and numerous others, 
have also kindly undertaken to collect photographs for the Sub- Committee. 
Collectors for Ireland are much wanted. 

Though the Sub-Committee are as yet only on the threshold of their task, 
and their operations have been hitherto tentative, they are hopeful of use- 
ful results. Their sense of the importance and interest of the work has 
grown with every step they have taken, and it is abundantly clear that, 
if not now completed, it will become more and more difficult in future 
years. The influence of railways has during the last fifty years greatly 
increased migration and intermixture, and that influence must increase 
instead of diminishing. It has indeed been suggested to the Sub- Committee 
by some of their correspondents that the requirement as to pedigree is 
already too onerous for urban and manufacturing districts, and that in 
such cases it will be necessary to be content with proof that a mere 
majority of the three generations, and not the whole, belong to the dis- 
trict. 

The Sub- Committee respectfully recommend that they be reappointed, 
with the view of pressing forward the work to completion. They would 
be glad if a few practical photographers could be added to their number ; 
and they again ask for the assistance of any competent persons who will 
undertake to select six or ten typical photographs in the district they 
know best, and for any other aid in carrying out the undertaking that the 
members can give. 

In connexion with this branch of the subject, the Sub- Committee have 
watched with much interest the experiments of their colleague, Mr. Francis 
Galton, in preparing compound photographs from several individuals 
belonging to the same category. In dealing with the features of criminals, 
Mr. Galton has produced some remarkable results, and the Sub-Committee 
will not fail to inquire whether an application of his process would not be 
useful for their own purposes in generalising the peculiar features observed 
in different localities. 

Though the Sub-Committee have of necessity postponed the collection 
of photographs of races of the empire outside the United Kingdom, Sir 
Rawson Rawson has been kind enough to obtain for them from the 
Colonial Office a set of the very fine series of photographs which that 
department obtained some years ago under the advice of Professor Huxley ; 
and the authorities of the India Office have also kindly placed at the dis • 
posal of the Sub-Committee their valuable collection of photographs of 
Indian races. 

For the Sub- Committee, 

E. W. Brabrook. 

July, 1878. 



ON THE USE OF STEEL FOR STRUCTURAL PURPOSES. 157 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. W. Williamson, Pro- 
fessor Sir William Thomson, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. St. John Vin- 
cent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson 
Hancock, Mr. F. J. Abel, Mr. J. E. Napier, Captain Douglas 
G-alton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, and Mr. Macrory, 
appointed for the purpose of watching and reporting to the 
Council on Patent Legislation. 

This Committee begs leave to report that, with the exception of the 
introduction of a Bill on the Patent Law by a private member, which 
Bill was not proceeded with, there has not been any attempt at legisla- 
tion on the subject. The Committee request that they may be reap- 
pointed. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. H. 
Bessemer, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Captain Douglas G-alton, Sir 
John Hawkshaw, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Professor Abel, and Mr. E. 
H. Carbutt (Sec), appointed for the purpose of considering the 
Use of Steel for Structural Purposes. 

Owing to the action of your Committee, the Board of Trade requested 
two of your members, viz., Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S., and Mr. W. H. 
Barlow, F.R.S., to co-operate with Colonel Yolland, "to consider whether 
it is practicable to assign a safe co-efficient for steel." 

After a long and careful consideration they, on March 19, 1877, re- 
ported as follows : — 

" We assume that with steel, as with iron, the engineer will take care 
that, as well as the required strength, he secures a proper amount of 
ductility. 

" Having given the subject our best consideration, we recommend that 
the employment of steel in engineering structures should be authorised by 
the Board of Trade under the following conditions, namely : — 

" 1. That the steel employed should be cast steel or steel made by 
some process of fusion, subsequently rolled or hammered, and that it 
should be of a quality possessing considerable toughness and ductility, 
and that a certificate to the effect that the steel is of this description 
and quality should be forwarded to the Board of Trade by the engineer 
responsible for the structure. 

" 2. That the greatest load which can be brought upon the bridge or 
structure, added to the weight of the superstructure, should not produce 
a greater strain in any part than 6£ tons per square inch. 

" In conclusion we have to remark that in recommending a co- efficient 
of 6| tons per square inch for the employment of steel in railway struc- 
tures generally, we are aware that cases may and probably will arise when 
it will be proposed to use steel of special make and still greater tenacity, 
and when a higher co-efficient might be permissible ; but we think those 



158 report— 1878. 

cases must be left for consideration when they arise, and that a higher co- 
efficient may be then allowed in those instances where the reasons given 
appear to the Board of Trade to justify it. 

" We are, &c, 

(Signed) "John Hawkshaw, 

"W. YOLLAND, 

" W. H. Barlow. 
" The Secretary of the Board of Trade, &c." 

This Report has since been acted upon by the Board of Trade in the 
printed paper issued by them in reference to railway structures. 

It will be observed that a co-efficient of 6^ tons per square inch is 
assigned to steel, that of iron being 5 tons per square inch. 

This increase of the co-efficient will effect important economy in 
structures, especially in bridges of large spans, and will also tend gene- 
rally to increase the employment of steel for railway and shipbuilding 
purposes. 

The labours of your Committee having ended in such a satisfactory 
manner, there is no necessity to reappoint them. 



Report on the Geographical Distribution of the Chiroptera. 
By Gr. E. Dobson, M.A., M.B. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in externa 

among the Reports.] 

In his work on the Geographical Disti'ibution of Animals, published 
scarcely two years ago, Mr. Wallace writes : — " The genera of Chiroptera 
are in a state of great confusion, the names used by different authors 
being often not at all comparable, so that the few details given of the 
distribution of the bats are not trustworthy. We have therefore made 
little use of this order in the theoretical part of the work." And again : 
" The bats are a very difficult study, and it is quite uncertain how many 
distinct species there are ; the genera are exceedingly numerous, but they 
are in a very unsettled state, and the synonymy is exceedingly confused. 
The details of their distribution cannot therefore be usefully entered upon 
here." 

These remarks furnish a suitable preface to this paper. The recent 
publication of my work on the Chiroptera renders them, I hope, no longer 
applicable, and I purpose now to set forth in greater detail the results of 
my inquiries into the geographical distribution of these animals than the 
space at my disposal in the introduction to the work referred to has per- 
mitted. 

Mr. Wallace points out the pre-eminent importance of the distribution 
of Mammals in determining the limits of zoological regions ; but also 
remarks that, " there are two groups which have quite exceptional means 
of dispersal — the bats which fly, and the cetacea, seals, &c., which swim. 
The former are capable of traversing considerable spaces of sea, since two 



, ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHIROPTERA. 159 

North American species either regularly or occasionally visit the Ber- 
mudas, a distance of 600 miles from the mainland." 

I do not think that the occurrence of two American species of bats in 
the Bermudas affords much proof of the general capability of the species 
of Chiroptera in traversing considerable spaces of sea, for it is exceedingly 
probable that the few individuals which have been noticed there have 
been carried thitber by storms (to which cause is evidently due the great 
number of straggling species of birds which have been found there), or 
have been imported into the island while hybernating in the holds of 
vessels, or are the descendants of such accidentally imported individuals. 
However, even if it be granted that the Chiroptera possess great powers 
of dispersal, it is certain that quite nine-tenths of the species avail them- 
selves of them in a very limited degree indeed, and it is significant that 
the distribution of the species is limited by barriers similar to those which 
govern it in the case of other species of mammals. This is well shown 
by the small number of species which are known to inhabit more than 
one of the recognised zoological regions, which amount to 22 only out 
of 400. The following list includes these species, and shows also their 
distribution. 

1. Pterojnis hypomelanus Australian and Oriental. 

2. Maeroglossus minimus Oriental and Australian. 

i 3. Rhinolophus ferrvm-eqwmwm Ethiopian and Palasarctic. 

4. Vesperugo serotinus All regions except the Australian. 

5. Vesperugo noctula Ethiopian, Oriental, Palasarctic. 

6. Vesperugo maurus Oriental and Palasarctic. 

7. Vesperugo abranms Oriental and Australian. 

8. Vesperugo Kuhlii . . Oriental and Palasarctic. 

9. Nycticejus crepuscularis Nearctic and Neotropical. 

10. Atalapha noveboracensis Nearctic and Neotropical. 

11. Atalapha cinerea Nearctic and Neotropical. 

12. Htvrpioceplialus luwpia Oriental and Australian. 

13. Vespcrtilio adversus Oriental and Australian. 

14. Vespcrtilio capaccinii Oriental and Palasarctic. 

15. Vespcrtilio daubcntonii Palasarctic and Oriental. 

16. Vespertilio murieola Oriental and Australian. 

17. Vespcrtilio lucifugus Nearctic and Neotropical. 

18. Kerivoula hwdivichii Oriental and Australian. 

19. Miniopterus schreibersii Oriental, Australian, Ethiopian, and 

Palasarctic. 

20. Taphozous nudiventris Ethiopian, Oriental, and Palasarctic. 

21. Shitwpoma microphyllum Ethiopian, Oriental, and Palasarctic. 

22. Nyctinomus brasiliensis Neotropical and Nearctic. 

Estimating the total number of known species of Chiroptera at 400, it 
follows that 5^ per cent, only wander beyond their respective zoological 
regions, or, in other words, 94^ per cent, are characteristic. It is also 
noticeable that more than two-thirds of these wandering species belong 
to the family Vespertilionidae, which has by far the widest geographical 
distribution, and includes the least specialised forms. 

The following table exhibits the numbers of families, genera, and species 
inhabiting each zoological region ; and shows that in the regions situated 
principally within the tropics (as the Oriental and Neotropical regions) 
the number of species is more than three times that of those lying chiefly 
in the temperate zones (as the Nearctic and Palsearctic regions). 



160 



REPORT 1878. 





Paltearctic 


Ethiopian 


Oriental 


Australian 


Neotropical 


Nearctic | 


pa 

1 
ft 

1 

1 
1 

3 


S3 
u 
o 

a 
o 

a 

2 

7 
2 

11 


s 

'o 

a 

CO 

5 

25 
2 

32 


tn 
to 

3 

a 

03 

ft 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

5 


B 
3 

a 
a> 
CS 

3 
3 

2 
6 
5 

19 


J 

o 
-.0 

18 

11 

8 

28 
18 

83 


m 
to 

03 

ft 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

5 


5 
s 

c 

5 
3 
2 
6 
5 

21 


09 

"3 

20 
28 
3 
47 
13 

111 


DO 

3 
I 

fa 

1 
1 

1 

1 

4 


03 
§ 

a 

u 

7 
3 

7 
4 

21 


| 

o 
$ 

a 

09 

33 
6 

18 

7 

64 


S3 

a 

S 

03 
ft 

1 
1 
1 

3 


OS 
E 
9 

a 
a 
a 

5 

8 

31 

44 


i 
8 { 
'3 

8. ; 

CO 1 

24 
26 
55 

105 


| 

a 

OS 

ft 

1 

1 

2 


B 

i 

<5 

5 
I 

6 


03 

iS 

"3 

a 

CO 

14 

1 

15 


Pteropodidffi . . . 
Rbinolophidse ... 

VespertilionicLe . 
Bmballonuridse .. 
Phyllostomidae. . . 


Total . . . 



In considering the geographical distribution of each family of the 
Chiroptera and the range of its genera and species, I think it well to 
commence with the Vespertilionidas and EmballomiridsB, as these alone are 
to any extent cosmopolitan in their distribution. 

Of the sixteen genera of Vespertilionidas five (Antrozous, Nycticejus, 
Atalapha, Natalus and Thyroptera), are peculiar to America, but these are 
represented by nine species only. Of the remaining eleven genera, eight 
are peculiar to the Eastern hemisphere, and of these Nyctophilias and 
Chalinolobus (subgen.) are limited to the Australian region ; Synotus, 
Otonyderis, and Plecotus (subgen.) to the Patearctic. A second species 
of Plecotus (the type of a well-defined subgenus Corinorhinus) is found in 
the Nearctic region only. Two genera alone, Vesperugo and Vespertilio 
are cosmopolitan ; but of the fifty species of the former, eleven only inhabit 
America, and the few American species of the latter genus are closely 
related to one another. A single species of Vespertilionidae — Vesperugo 
serotinus — is alone known with certainty to extend into both hemispheres, 
although it is probable that V. abramus and V. borealis may be found 
hereafter to have as wide a distribution. 

Although the genera of Emballonuridaa are much more equally distri- 
buted in number between the two hemispheres, half of the whole being 
American, a single genus alone, Nyctinomus, is common to both, and it 
is worthy of note that, of the twenty-one species of this genus, four only 
inhabit America, and these are all closely related to one another, and very 
far removed from any of the Old World species. Furia, Amorphocheilus, 
Rhynchonycteris, Saccopteryx, Diclidurus, Noctilio, and Molossiis, repre- 
sented by twenty-six species, are peculiar to the Neotropical region, while 
the remaining genera with thirty-seven species are limited to the Eastern 
hemisphere. Of these Mystacina with a single species is found in New 
Zealand only. Colenra appears to be limited to East Africa and the 
Malagasy subregion, but the species from these subregions are very 
distinct. Emballonura extends from Madagascar to the Malay Archipelago, 
and throughout the larger islands of the Polynesian subregion, but has 
not been recorded from any part of the adjacent continents. 

The Neotropical genera of this family are, on the whole, more closely 
related to each other than to any of the old world genera ; nevertheless 
there are certain peculiar forms of limited distribution in the Eastern 
hemisphere, which seem to have their nearest allies among neotropical 
species. Thus, the very remarkable species,, Cheiromeles torquatus, which 
has not been found beyond the Indo-Malayan subregion, appears to be 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHIROPTERA. 161 

closely related to some of the species of the Neotropical genus Molossus 
than to any of the Old World forms; and the same remark applies to 
Nyctinomw) australis, which is characteristic of the Australian region. 

Although the Emballonuridae have as wide an eastwardly and west- 
wardly distribution as the Vespertilionidas, yet they are far exceeded by 
the latter family in their northern and southern range. While the 
Vespertilionidae extend in the Northern hemisphere as far as the isothermal 
of 32° Fahr. or thereabouts, the Emballonuridas are rarely found north or 
south of the isothermal of 55°. 

The RhinolophidaB are limited to the Eastern hemisphere, and within 
these limits the species have much less extended bounds than even those 
of the preceding family. No species has as yet been recorded with cer- 
tainty from the Polynesian subregion, from Tasmania, or from New 
Zealand. With the exception of Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, which 
extends throughout the Ethiopian and warmer parts of the Patearctic 
region, the species of this family inhabiting each of the zoological regions 
comprised within the area of its distribution are distinct and charac- 
teristic. No species of the subfamily Phyllorhinince extends into the 
Palaearctic region ; Ccelops is limited to the Oriental region, and Rhino, 
nyctens to the Australian ; these last two genera, however, include but 
a single species each. The very remarkable forms Phyllorhina commer- 
sonn^ and Ph. cyclops belong to the Ethiopian region, but the former 
species alone extends int) the Malagasy subregion. 

The Nycterida? are limited to the Ethiopian and Oriental regions one 
species only passing slightly beyond the limits of the latter region,' and 
none have as yet been found in the Malagasy subregion of the former. 
The Ethiopian species of the genus Megaderma are more closely related to 
each other than to the Oriental species. The distribution of Nycteris is 
remarkable : six species are limited to the Ethopian region, the seventh is 
found m Java, and differs from all the rest in the large size of the second 
lower premolar. 

The Phyllostomidas present the only instance of a family of Chiroptera 
limited to a single zoological region. None of the species are known 
with certainty to inhabit permanently any of the countries beyond the 
recognized limits of the Neotropical region. This family is therefore 
eminently characteristic of that region. Although Central America and 
Southern Mexico have representatives of almost every genus of Phyllo- 
stomidae, none of the species have been, with any certainty, recorded from 
the Southern States of North America, though the mean annual tempera- 
ture ot a great part of these countries equals or exceeds that of many 
parts of South America where representatives of the family are abundant 
It is worthy of note that Macrotus waterhousii, which has been alone found 
as tar north as Cape St. Lucas in California, is apparently omnivorous 
living indifferently on fruit, insects, and probably on small bats : and 
rrachyops cirrhosus recorded doubtfully from South Carolina and from 
.Bermuda, is evidently, judging from its structure, of the same habits 
Ine power possessed by these species of varying their food evidently 
renders them more capable of extending their range beyond the limits of 
their original homes Few, if any, of the species of this family, in the 
present state of our knowledge, can be said to be characteristic of any of 
the JNeotropical subregions ; but certain species appear to be limited in 
their distribution within the region. 

1878 6 Me S achiro P tera > ^presented by the single family Pteropodida?/ 



162 



REPORT — 1878. 



present probably more peculiarities in their distribution tban aDy other 
group of Chiroptera. Like the Rhinolophidae and Nycteridse, they are 
strictly limited to the Old World, and scarcely extend anywhere beyond 
the tropics. Their limitation to the tropical parts is easily explained by 
a consideration of the fact that there only is found a continuous supply 
at all seasons of the tree-fruits on which they subsist ; but this does not 
account for certain peculiarities in their distribution in an eastwardly or 
westwardly direction. While the family is distributed throughout the 
Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions (except Tasmania and New 
Zealand), a single genus only, Cynonycteris, extends throughout all these 
regions. Epomoplwrus, which includes certain species so different from all 
other Megachiroptera, as to almost necessitate the formation of a distinct 
subfamily for their reception, is strictly limited to that part of the 
Ethiopian region included within the continent of Africa. Cynopterus is 
also limited to the Oriental region ; a single anomalous species, G. latidens 
(which differs widely from all the other species in the form of its teeth) 
being found in the Moluccas. Eonycteris is, as yet, known from the 
Indo-Malayan subregion alone ; Notopteris appears to be limited to the 
Polynesian subregion ; Harpyia and Cephalotes are characteristic of the 
Austro-Malayan subregion. 

The distribution of the genus Pteropiis (which includes more than half 
the whole number of the species of Pteropodidce) is more remarkable than 
that of any of the other genera of Chiroptera. The Comoro Islands 
in the Mozambique Channel form its westward limit, thence the species 
extend throughout the Malagasy subregion, even to the small hurricane- 
swept island of Rodriguez (from which 1 have lately described a new 
species), and northwards through the Amirantes and Seychelle Islands 
to India, where their westward limit is found at the southern frontier of 
Baluchistan : from India they extend eastwards throughout the Oriental 
and Australian regions (except Tasmania and New Zealand), inhabiting 
Polynesia as far eastwards as Samoa and Savage Island. Although one 
thousand miles of unbroken ocean divide the Seychelle Islands from the 
Chagos group (the nearest intermediate land to India), the Indian and 
Madagascar species (Pteropus medius and Pt. edwardsii) are very closely 
allied ; while, on the other hand, not a single species crosses the narrow 
channel between the Great Comoro Island and the African coast, although 
certainly two species (Pteropus edwardsii and Pt. livingstonii), and pro- 
bably a third (Pt. vulgaris), inhabit the Comoro group. 

The following table exhibits the very remarkable distribution of the 
species of this genus : — 



Regions 


Subregione 


Number 
of Species 


Remarks 


Ethiopian... ■ 
Oriental ... ■ 
Australian... ■ 


3. J 

2. Ceylon 


None 
5 

4 

4 
15 

5 

5 
None 


All these species very distinct. 
Very closely allied to one of the 

Malagasy species. 
Three very closely allied. 
Three very closely allied. 

1 All the species very distinct. 


3. Indo- China 

4. Indo- Malaya 

1. Austro- Malaya ... 

2. Australia 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHIROPTERA. 163 



3 

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164 report— 1878. 

From the table (p. 162) it may be observed, that of the 39 species, 30 
(or nearly 80 per cent.) inhabit the Malagasy snbregion, and the Austra- 
lian region ; and that more than 50 per cent, of the whole are fonnd within 
the narrow limits of the Malagasy and Austro-Malayan subregions. 

It is worthy of notice, that of the nine species inhabiting the Oriental 
region, three only can be considered very distinct, and these are closely 
related to some of the species from the Malagasy and Austro-Malayan 
subregions, so that it appears evident that the species now inhabiting 
the Oriental region, were derived at a comparatively recent period from 
the above-named subregions. 

The sum of the foregoing remarks is well set forth in the second 
table (p. 163), which exhibits the number of peculiar genera and species 
of each and of all the families of Chiroptera in each zoological region, 
and also shows their percentage on the total number of the genera and 
species. This table also shows that among the Vespertilionidse and 
Emballonuridaaonly, which are cosmopolitan in their distribution, does the 
percentage of peculiar species in each zoological region fall below 90, 
while even in these families it is rarely as low as 70. 

We may now proceed to consider to what extent the recognised zoo- 
logical regions are severally characterised by the possession of peculiar 
families, genera, or species of Chiroptera. 

In the first place, the two primary divisions of the earth, Palasogsea 
and Neoga?a, are well characterised by their Chiropterous fauna : the 
former by the possession of three peculiar families, the Pteropodida?, 
Rhinolophidse, and Nycterida?, and by the absence of the Phyllostomida? ; 
the latter by the absence of the three first-named families, and by the 
presence of the latter. Although the Vespertilionida? and Emballonuridse 
are common to both hemispheres, one species only is known with certainty 
to inhabit both the New and the Old World, and all the genera except 
three are peculiar. 

The remarkable poverty of the Nearctic and Palasarctic regions in 
species, and especially in peculiar species, is well shown in the table. 
In the Nearctic region the number of peculiar species is but one-tenth of 
those which are characteristic of the closely connected Neotropical region; 
in the Palasarctic, one-sixth of those in the Ethiopian, and one-seventh of 
those in the Oriental region. Moreover, the few species which appear to 
be peculiar to these two regions do not present such marked differences 
in structure from the species of the adjoining regions as the peculiar 
species of other regions ; in other words, they are not so characteristically 
peculiar. This taken into consideration with the comparatively large 
percentage of non-peculiar species which are found in these and in the 
adjoining regions, and which extend as a rule into the southern parts only 
of these regions, shows that the Chiropterous fauna of the Nearctic and 
Palasarctic regions is mainly, if not wholly, derivative. 

This is precisely what we should have expected theoretically ; for, know- 
ing that the greater part of the Nearctic and Palsearctic regions was covered 
with ice at a comparatively recent period, and therefore uninhabitable by 
a class of animals few of which now extend even in summer as far as the 
limit of permanently frozen ground, we must suppose that on the cessa- 
tion of the glacial epoch, these regions derived their Chiropterous fauna 
from countries lying south of them. 

It appears evident, however, that the Nearctic region has derived 
many of its species from the Palasarctic, probably by way of Bearing 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHIROPTERA. 165 

Straits, at a time when more dry land existed in the northern parts of the 
Pacific Ocean. Although Vesperugo serotinus is the only species known 
with certainty to extend from the Palrearctic to the Nearctic region, yet 
so close is the connection between many other Patearctic and Nearctic 
species (between Vespertilio mystacinus and V. nitidus, Vesperugo abramus 
and V. hesperus, Vesperugo borealis and V. propinquus, e.g.), that it is not 
necessary to require long separation to account for the few specific dif- 
ferences now noticeable. 

Of the eleven species which appear to be peculiar to the Paljearctic 
region, both the species of Ehinolophidas are evidently very closely 
related to Ethiopian forms ; and the Vespertilionida?, with the exception of 
Plecotus auritus, and Synotus barbastellus, are also represented by nearly 
allied forms in either the Ethiopian or Oriental regions. 

The Nearctic and Pala^arctic regions are therefore more characterised, 
so far as their Chiropterous fauna, by the absence rather than by the 
presence of peculiar genera and species. 

The remaining four regions, however, present a remarkable contrast in 
this respect. Each region appears to be as well characterised by its 
Chiroptera as by any other order of Mammalia. 

This is especially noticeable in the Neotropical region, which possesses 
a very remarkable family, the Phyllostomida?, nowhere represented beyond 
its limits ; also six peculiar genera of Emballonuridae (amounting to 75 
per cent, of the genera of that family) ; and two of Vespertilionida?, 
making in all 39 genera peculiar to this region. 

The Ethiopian region (excluding Madagascar and its islands) is cha- 
racterised by that very remarkable genus of Pteropodidas, Epomophorus, 
which stands so far apart from all other genera of this family ; also by 
71 species of other genera, of which more than 90 per cent, are peculiar. 

Madagascar and adjoining islands, included by Mr. Wallace under the 
name of the Malagasy subregion, although possessing some species 
(Phyllorhina commersoiiii, Nyctinomus acetabulosus, Taphozous mauritianus, 
Vesperugo minutus, e.g.) which are also found on the African continent, 
has other species representing a genus of which the remaining representa- 
tives are found in far distant continents. Thus, as I have remarked 
when treating of the distribution of the Pteropodida?, the genus Tteropus 
is well represented in Madagascar and adjoining islands, and in the 
Oriental and Australian regions as far as the Navigator's Islands, although 
not a single species extends into the continent of Africa. This genus 
includes by far the largest and most highly organised species of Chiro- 
ptera, which in number also amount to more than one-tenth of the whole 
order ; and their remarkable distribution can only be accounted for by 
adopting the hypothesis of the existence at a comparatively recent date 
of a continent, or, more probably, of an archipelago of very closely con- 
nected islands, in the wide space of ocean now separating Madagascar 
from India and Australia. It is inconceivable that species to which a 
narrow channel of less than 200 miles suffices to act as an effectual 
barrier, could traverse thousands of miles of unbroken ocean in other 
directions. 

Even if we suppose that their presence in Africa is prevented by some 
cause unknown to us, still it is difficult to imagine species so slow in their 
flight as those of this genus crossing a channel of even half the width 
of that separating the Comoro Islands from the coast of Africa. But 
Tteropus medius of India is so closely related to Pt. edwardsii of Mada- 



166 kepokt— 1878. 

gascar, that by many zoologists it would most probably be considered a 
variety only of the former species — a variety, it is quite conceivable, which 
might result from separation in a comparatively very short period. 

The Malagasy subregion also possesses four other species of Pteropus 
all very distinct from each other, having their nearest allies in the Aus- 
tralian region. One of these species, Pt. rodricensis, recently described by 
me, inhabits the small wind-swept island of Rodriguez, where its means of 
subsistence must now be very limited. It is difficult to account for the 
presence of such large and highly- organised species in these small islands, 
except on the supposition that the islands were not only much larger at 
some former time, but were also, as I have already remarked, closely 
connected with a chain of slightly separated islands, uniting them with 
the Indian and Australian continents. 

The Oriental region falls very slightly short of the Ethiopian in the 
percentage of its peculiar species, and slightly exceeds it in genera. Of 
110 species eighty-eight are peculiar ; of these eight only are also found in 
the Ethiopian region, and they also extend into the Palsearctic. The 
genera Cijnopterus,Eonycteris, Gcelops, and Cheiomeles are characteristic, but 
the latter three are each represented by a single species only. Of the 
remaining seventeen genera, two, Pteropus and Emballonura, are also com- 
mon to the Malagasy subregion and to the Australian region, and ten are 
also found in the Oriental and Australian regions. With the exception 
of such cosmopolitan species as Miniopterus schreibersii and Vesperugo 
abramus, the Oriental species extending into the Australian region appear 
to inhabit only the adjacent parts of that region. The distinctiveness of 
the Oriental and Australian Chiropterous faunas is well shown by a collec- 
tion made lately in Duke of York Island and New Ireland, in which, 
out of twelve species, two only are also known from the Oriental region. 

The Australian region comes next to the Neotropical in the number of 
its peculiar genera ; of the twenty-one known, six are peculiar, and of these 
four belong to the Pteropodidas, being nearly half the whole number of the 
genera of that family. This region may therefore be considered the cradle 
of the Megachiroptera, although the total number of all species falls far 
short of either that of the Ethiopian or of the Oriental region, yet in the 
percentage of peculiar forms it holds an intermediate place. 

Two of the Australian subregions, the Austro-Malayan and the New 
Zealand, claim particular attention, the former for the great number of 
its species, the latter for the opposite reason. Of sixty-four Australian 
species, fifty-seven are peculiar, and of these nearly half appear to be limited 
to the Austro-Malayan subregion ; while two species only, of which one is 
peculiar, inhabit New Zealand. 

Great Britain, which nearly equals New Zealand in extent, has eight 
times the number of its species ; and Madagascar, which is alone com- 
parable with it in peculiarity of fauna, exceeds it almost in the same 
proportion. 

The poverty of this subregion in species is, therefore, unequalled, and 
undoubtedly depends to a great extent, if not altogether, on the com- 
parative absence of insects, and probably especially of those species on 
which bats prey. The peculiar structure of Mystacina tuberculata* appears 
to indicate that this species seeks its food among the branches and leaves 
of trees on which Longicorn Coleoptera, which are most abundant among 

* See my paper on this species in P. Z. S., 1876, p. 486. 



ON RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PORT OF DUBLIN. 167 

the New Zealand insects, feed. This remarkable species of Emballonuridse 
constitutes a distinct group of that family, but has its nearest allies in the 
species of the group Molossi. Its fancied relationship to the Phyllostomidse 
of the Neotropical region (as set forth by Mr. R. F. Tomes) is altogether 
illusory, as it depends only on the agreement between it and the species 
of that family in possessing a third phalanx in the index finger, which is 
related, as I have shown,* to the peculiar manner in which the wing is 
folded in repose, and occurs not only in this species, but also in some of 
the larger species of Molossi. 

A review of the above-stated facts shows : — 

1. That the Chiroptera, though possessing exceptional powers of loco- 
motion, and therefore of dispersal, appear to be almost as strictly limited 
by certain barriers as other orders of Mammalia. 

2. That while the geographical distribution of the families, genera, and 
species of this order on the whole adds further remarkable confirmation 
of the accuracy of the division of the earth into six zoological regions as 
defined by Mr. Sclater and subsequently adopted by Mr. Wallace, the 
peculiar distribution of the most highly organised and distinct, as well as 
of the largest genus, namely, Pteropus, adds additional strength to the 
views of those who, in consideration of the very peculiar nature of the 
fauna of Madagascar, feel disposed to form with it and the adjoining 
islands a seventh zoological region, to which Mr. Sclater's name " Lemuria" 
has been applied. 



On Recent Improvements in the Port of Dublin. By Bindon B. 
Stonet, M.A., M.R.I. A., M. Inst. C.E., Engineer of the Dublin 
Port and Docks Board. 

[Plates I., II., and III.] 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso 

among the Reports.] 

The trade of few harbours in the United Kingdom has made greater 
relative progress within the last twenty years than that of Dublin. This, 
no doubt, is mainly due to the increased prosperity of the country as a 
whole, but it may also be attributed in great measure to the convergence 
of the main fines of internal traffic to Dublin, which has thus naturally 
become more and more the mart and emporium for a great portion of 
Ireland. During this period of twenty years the tonnage entering the 
port has much more than doubled. In 1857 it amounted to 880,844 tons, 
and last year it rose to 1,973,781 tons, while during the current year 
there is a good promise that it will surpass the 2,000,000 limit. For the 
sake of comparison I have placed in a tabular form the tonnage of Liver- 
pool and Glasgow, as well as those of the three principal ports in Ireland, 
for the three years preceding 1858 and 1878 respectively, so as to give 
fair averages of their respective rates of progress within the last twenty 
years. 

From this table it will be observed that while the tonnages of Liver- 
pool and Glasgow have respectively increased fifty per cent, in the last 

* P. Z. S., I. c. 



168 



HEPORT — 1878. 



twenty years, those of Belfast and Cork have nearly doubled, and that of 
Dublin has considerably more than doubled in the same time. Also, the 
tonnage of Glasgow is only one-fourth more and that of Liverpool is not 
four times greater than that of Dublin. 





Liverpool 

(including 

Birkenhead) 


Glasgow 


Dublin 


Belfast 


Cork* 




Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


1855 
1856 
1857 
Average of preced- "\ 
ing 3 years J 
1875 
1876 
1877 


4,096,160 
4,320,618 
4,645,362 

4,354,047 


1,666,518 
1,673,096 
1,612,681 

1,650,765 


882,719 
904,903 
880,844 

889,488 


744,364 
772,127 
796,968 

771,153 


328,658 
347,126 
384,167 

353,317 


6,588,731 
6,805,970 
7,000,726 


2,249,857 
2,298,076 
2,428,616 


1,677,543 

1,879,886 
1,973,781 


1,434,754 
1,497,585 
1,566,752 


623,463 
740,558 
740,201 


Average of preced- "1 
ing 3 years J 


6,798,476 


2,325,516 


1,843,737 


1,499,697 


701,407 



The increase in the tonnage of the Port of Dublin is not confined to 
one class of vessel alone ; for we find that while the coasting trade 
increased from 821,640 tons to 1,543,861 tons, or nearly doubled in the 
last twenty years, the oversea trade increased from 67,848 tons to 
299,876 tons, or more than quadrupled in the same period. Previous to 
1865 the shipping quays of Dublin were, with the exception of a short 
length opposite the Custom House, founded at or close to low water 
level, and when the tide was out the foreshore used to strip out a long 
way in front of the walls. .To meet the demand for a greater depth than 
this, timber jetties had been from time to time constructed along portions 
of the North Wall, so as to give about 8 feet at low water in line of keel ; 
and for many years this expedient was found to answer for the cross- 
channel steam trade and for a few of the smaller oversea vessels, while 
the larger vessels of the latter class either discharged in Kingstown 
Harbour, or in a small excavation called Halpin's Pool, which had been 
dredged in the open harbour beyond the end of the North Wall. The 
first real attempt at providing deep water quays was commenced in 1864 
by rebuilding nearly 700 feet in length of the east end of the North Wall 
quay, so as to allow vessels drawing 17 feet to lie afloat alongside at low 
water ; but the most important improvements of this kind were not 
commenced till 1870, since which date 6500 feet of quay have either 
been rebuilt or constructed where no quays existed before, so as to give 
depths of from 15 to 24 feet at low water, and enable the cross-channel 
steamers to sail at fixed hours independently of the tide, as well as allow 
the larger class of oversea vessels which now frequent the port to lie 
always afloat. It will be observed that the rebuilding of the former 
quay walls at a greater depth did not add to their length, though it 
enabled rather more vessels than formerly to be accommodated in a given 
length of wall, and the extending commerce of the port rendered it 
necessary to provide additional deep water accommodation to suit the 
oversea trade, which, as already observed, has increased more than four- 

* The tonnage of Cork Harbour is exclusive of vessels calling for orders, mails, 
or passengers, and not loading or unloading cargo. 



<».* Report Brit. Assoc IS 78 




venvents 






-.< ■t Mt .«TI 



EfID ELEVATION Of FLOATING SMEARS 




I 



nUulrullna If. ««.(/,./,,,■,, /W « '<"»" Improvrmmu ... </.. ftrt of Dublin 



48#>-Rep,irt Krii. Assoc. 1S78. 



tell. 















Springs 



Tide' 



Cross section of wharf & Face of >ck. 



iv.-oyile &:Co Lit; 



IUaetrcutinAj MV B. 




I 



ffluertnuirui M'' Ji B.Sionvy'n Paper <■" Recent hnpravenutnia i>< tJie iWc of Dublin 



■AST'' Report BrU,. Assoc- 1878. 




IUxju6trcutvrvq 



■ 



i V i N S BE. 




I 



End E l t vftTiOh 



?1VDJ"'' J '' 



ItluaU-utxng M' B B Stoneys Pupw an Recent Tmpi'avem.cnU in the Part of Dublin 



ON RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PORT OF DUBLIN. 169 

fold in the space of twenty years. Accordingly it was determined, after 
mature consideration, to extend the North Wall, and construct a large 
tidal basin with 24 feet at low water inside and 22 feet along the river 
face, so as to float the largest commercial vessels at all states of tides. 
The masonry was commenced in 1871, and up to the present about 2500 
lineal feet of wall have been built on a novel principle which avoids the 
trouble and expense of cofferdams, pumping, staging and other tem- 
porary works, the expenditure on which frequently exceeds the cost of 
the permanent work to which they are merely ancillary. The new mode 
of construction consists in the use of blocks of masonry of unprecedented 
size in the foundations below low water level, as represented in the 
diagrams which accompany this paper. Each block is 29 feet high, 
11^ feet long, and 21 feet 4 inches broad at the base, and weighs 350 
tons ; they are built on land on a block wharf (Plate II.), and about three 
months after completion they are lifted by a powerful floating shears 
(Plate I.), and conveyed to their destination in the quay where each 
block forms 11-| feet in length of the lower portion of the wall as far 
as low water level, and when a number of these blocks have been thus 
laid in position the superstructure up to the coping level is built over 
them in the usual manner by tidal work, the total height of the wall 
being 45 feet. Besides the large floating shears for lifting and moving 
the blocks about, there is one other special appliance — namely, a diving 
bell (Plate III.), also of unprecedented size and peculiar in construction. 
This bell, which weighs 80 tons, is used for excavating and levelling the 
river bed on which the blocks lie. The chamber is cast-iron, 20 feet 
square and 6^- feet high, with a tube or funnel 3 feet in diameter, and 
rising to a height of 44 feet over the bottom of the bell ; and this is 
the greatest depth of water for which the present bell is intended, 
though by adding to the length of the funnel it might be worked in 
greater depths. The upper end of the funnel forms an air lock 6£ 
feet high, with double doors and suitable cocks for admitting the com- 
pressed air from the chamber into the lock, or for letting that in the 
lock escape into the external atmosphere, and by this arrangement the 
workmen can pass up and down without lifting the bell off the bottom or 
stopping the work of excavation. Inside the chamber are two large iron 
trays, and the men shovel the excavated earth into these trays. When 
they are filled the bell is lifted a few feet off the ground, and the 
barge hauled some yards to the rear of the wall where the trays are dis- 
charged, by pulling out a detent, and the barge is then brought back to 
its working position, and the bell lowered as before. 

The operation of lifting and setting a block is as follows : — The float- 
ing shears is brought bow-on to the block wharf during flood tide, and 
the lifting chains are attached to iron suspending bars which pass 
through each block. The chains are then hauled in by the winches on 
board, and water is pumped into a large tank at the after- end of the 
vessel to counterbalance the weight of the block, which is then floated 
away to its destination and lowered into place the following low water, 
so that at one step 11^ feet forward of wall are built up to low water level. 

The cost of both floating shears and diving bell was under 25,000?., 
and the whole of this was repaid in the first GOO feet of wall by the 
superior economy of this system over ordinary cofferdam and pumping 
work, and the relative saving now amounts to about 16,000Z. per annum. 

It would obviously be useless to construct deep water quays if the 



170 



REPORT 1878. 



river channel and bar were not also deepened to correspond. Sixty- 
years since the depth of water on Dublin bar was about 6 feet ; indeed, 
there was, a few years ago, an old man in the harbour employment who 
had in his youth stood on the bar at a good low water. At this time the 
North Bull Wall did not exist, and the bar, consisting of hard sand, 
extended in a curved direction about half a mile east of Poolbeg Light- 
house. As soon, however, as the Bull Wall was built, the large volume 
of water flowing and ebbing over the 2500 acres which were enclosed 
between it and the Pigeon House Wall, was confined in direction and 
augmented in velocity, so that it impinged against the bar and scoured 
it away to its present depth of about 16 feet at low water, giving a depth 
of 28 feet at high water springs, and this is still gradually improving ; 
for 20 years since there was 3 feet less than at present, and it is believed 
that there is no other instance on record of a bar being so successfully 
deepened by artificial means. The depth in the river channel has 
recently made great progress, corresponding to the other improvements 
in the port. The average tonnage dredged in each of the ten years 
preceding 1860 did not reach 150,000 tons, and it is now close on a 
million tons per annum. The greater portion of this dredged material is 
now conveyed to sea in very large hopper barges, each of which carries 
850 to 1000 tons, according to the state of the weather, to a distance of 
8 miles from Dublin, or about 2 miles beyond the Bailey Lighthouse, 
where it is deposited in deep water beyond the influence of tides within 
the bay. Very great economy has resulted from this system of large 
hopper barges as compared with the older methods ; for, multiplying 
the present tonnage dredged by the saving per ton, the gross saving 
amounts to considerably over 40,000Z. per annum. Indeed, without this 
economy it would have been impossible to carry out the other improve- 
ments in the port ; for Dublin, though one of the larger ports in the 
kingdom, has relatively the smallest income, as there are no dues on 
goods except some small ones on timber, bricks and marble, which in 
the aggregate do not reach 2000Z. annually. This will appear at a 
glance from the following table, which gives the revenue derived by the 
ports already mentioned from tonnage dues and dues on goods for the 
year 1877, and also the income which each ton yields the several ports as 
well as their respective debts. 



Port 


Tonnage 
Rates 


Rates on 
Goods 


Total 


Registered 
Tonnage 


Income 
per Ton 
Register 


Debt 




£ 
377,612 
45,253 
58,451 
41,275 
13,432 


£ 

599,024 

123,147 

1,799 

37,630 

18,306 


£ 

976,636 

168,400 

60,250 

78,905 

31,738 


Tons 
7,000,726 
2,428,616 
1,973,781 


Pence 
33-5 
16-64 
7-32 


£ 

15,249,290 

3,211,383 

330,734 

716,708 

103,885 




Dublin 


Belfast 

Cork 


1,566,752 12-1 
740,201 io-3 









The rates on goods for Liverpool include the so-called " Town dues " 
on goods, amounting to 263,3292. ; but as these were purchased by the 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board from the Corporation of Liverpool in 
1857 for their then estimated value of a million and a half sterling, they 
now form a very valuable portion of the port revenues. 



ON RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE POKT OF DUBLIN. 171 

The tonnage rates for Cork include 3791Z. derived from one half- 
penny per ton levied on vessels using or entering the harbour as a port 
of call, but not loading or unloading cargo therein. It represents a 
tonnage of 1,819,860 tons, and is quite distinct from the 740,201 tons 
which represents vessels loading or unloading cargo ; but, as it is avail- 
able for port purposes, it is included in the tonnage rates of Cork 
harbour, in the second column above. If this were omitted, the income 
would be reduced to 9d. per ton register. 

This table shows that for every ton entering their respective ports, 
Liverpool receives more than four and a half times and Glasgow more 
than twice the revenue that Dublin gets, while Belfast gets two-thirds 
more, and Cork nearly fifty per cent. more. 

The floating shears and diving bell are useful for many other purposes 
besides building quay walls. Among others they are well adapted for 
breakwater construction and laying the foundations of beacons and light- 
houses in suitable localities. There is at present a lighthouse in process 
of construction at the extremity of the Bull Wall which forms the north 
side of the entrance to Dublin Harbour, the foundations of which in such 
an exposed place would have been very costly if built by any of the ordi- 
nary methods. The base is formed of two large semicircular blocks, 
each sixteen feet high, and together forming a circle of thirty feet in 
diameter and weighing nearly 700 tons. These blocks were built on the 
block wharf and conveyed about three miles down the harbour, where 
they were laid at a depth of several feet below equinoctial low waters on 
the rubble stone forming the extremity of the Bull Wall which had been 
previously excavated by the diving bell. On top of these blocks is built 
in heavy granite ashlar with solid rubble hearting the lower part, or what 
may be called the plinth of the tower, rising some feet over high water, 
and on top of this again the shaft of the tower is in process of construc- 
tion, formed of wrought iron lined with timber, the total height from 
foundation to top of lantern being 79 feet. Opposite this lighthouse, and 
at the south side of the harbour entrance, stands Poolbeg Lighthouse, 
erected in the last century at the extremity of the pier beyond the Pigeon 
House Fort. The foundations of this latter lighthouse were laid at about 
low water level in the centre of a mound of rubble stone, and it was 
originally surrounded by a handsome cut stone platform, which was heavy 
enough to stand ordinary rough weather, but which, with the rubble stone 
on which it was laid, was constantly washed away by heavy storms from 
the sea front of the lighthouse, leaving the base of the latter exposed and 
liable to be undermined, and causing heavy annual expense from hauling 
the rubble back again, to be again scattered in the next gale. The light- 
house base and foreshore are now protected by large blocks weighing 
140 tons each, two of which were carried at a trip by the floating shears 
and dropped on the irregular foreshore in front of the lighthouse, which 
they now protect from the violence of the sea which breaks on them before 
reaching the lighthouse. This work was exposed to the full brunt of the . 
great storm of January 3rd, 1877, which nearly cut across the east pier 
of Howth Harbour and did considerable damage to the paved slope of 
Kingstown West Pier, and to the railways both at Monkstown and at 
Howth, which, strange to say, were apparently completely covered by 
their respective piers. The big blocks, however, protected the base of 
Poolbeg Lighthouse, and no damage whatever occurred to it. Besides 
excavating, the diving bell has been used for removing portions of wreck 



172 report— 1878. 

and pulling up pile stumps in deep water, in which latter operation it is 
very successful, and three or four pile stumps can be drawn at one effort 
by attaching chains hanging from the ceiling of the bell chamber to the 
heads of the piles, and then raising the pile by its hoisting chains, which 
have a surplus working strength of about seventy tons when the bell is 
under water. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S., 
Professor G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., 
Professor Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, 
F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S. {Secretary), on Ma- 
thematical Tables. 

[Plate IV.] 

Account of the Calculation of the Factor Table for the Fourth Million. 

A description of the different factor tables that have been .published 
is given in the British Association Report, 1873, pp. 34-40 ; and a more 
complete historical account of factor tables, especially of Felkel's and the 
manuscript tables of the last century is contained in the ' Proceedings of 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society,' vol. hi. part iv. pp. 99-138, 1878. 
It is only necessary, therefore, to give a brief notice of the extensive 
tables that have been published during the present century, and which 
it is the object of the Committee to complete. 

These tables are : — 

(1). Chernac's Cribrum Arithmeticum, which gives all factors of all 
numbers not divisible by 2, 3, or 5 from 1 to 1,000,000. 

(2). Burckhardt's Table des Diviseurs, which gives the least factor of 
all numbers not divisible by 2, 3, or 5 from 1 to 3,036,000." 

(3). Dase's Factoren Tafeln, which give the least factor of all num- 
bers not divisible by 2, 3, or 5 from 6,000,000 to 9,000,000. 

The reason of the gap between 3,036,000 and 6,000,000 is as follows : 
— Burckhardt completed the publication of his three millions in 1817, and 
some time previous so 1849 Crelle presented to the Berlin Academy the 
manuscript of the factor tables for the fourth, fifth, and sixth millions. 
In 1850 Gauss urged Dase to calculate factor tables for the seventh, 
eighth, ninth, and tenth millions, as the three intermediate millions 
were in the possession of the Berlin Academy, and he did not doubt 
that sooner or later they would be published. In 1860, through the 
support of friends in his native town, Hamburg, Dase, who was 
distinguished for his ability in calculation, was enabled to devote him- 
self wholly to the carrying out of Gauss's project. On September 
11th, 1861, he died suddenly, leaving the seventh million complete and 
the eighth million nearly complete; he had also determined a great 
number of the factors for the ninth and tenth millions. Dr. Rosen- 
berg, of Hamburg, undertook the continuation of the work, and the 
seventh million was published at Hamburg in 1862, the eighth in 
1863, and the ninth in 1865. In the preface to the ninth million it is 
stated that the tenth million was near completion. There was thus left 



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ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 173 

a gap of three millions between the third and seventh millions, which 
it was very desirable to fill up not only for the sake of completing the 
table up to nine millions, but also in order to render more useful the 
millions already published. Accordingly, Professor Cayley, the chair- 
man of the Committee, wrote to Professor Kummer, the secretary of the 
Mathematical Section of the Berlin Academy, asking if there were any 
chance of the publication of the manuscript ; and Professor Kummer, in a 
letter dated April 29th, 1877, replied that it had been examined on a 
former occasion, and found to be so inaccurate that " the Academy was 
convinced that the publication would never be advisable." The calcula- 
tion was then at once commenced by Mr. James Glaisher, with the assis- 
tance of two computers, and has been continued without interruption since. 
The fourth million is completed and ready for press, and some progress 
has been made with the fifth and sixth millions, which are being calcu- 
lated together, and which will be completed, it is believed, by the meeting 
of the Association at Sheffield. The tenth million has not been published. 
It remained in the possession of the widow of Dr. Rosenberg till the early 
part of the present year, when it was presented by her to the Berlin 
Academy. 

The method employed in the calculation of the fourth million, and by 
which the fifth and sixth millions are being calculated, is practically 
the same as that which was invented by Burckhardt, and was adopted by 
Dase. As the method is a very remarkable one, and as no description 
of it (with the exception of a brief notice by Burckhardt himself) has 
been published, the following account of it is given here : — 

A form was lithographed (Plate rV\), having 78 vertical lines and 81 
horizontal lines (besides several other lines used for headings, <fec.) ; it is 
thus divided into 77 x 80 oblong spaces which may for convenience be 
called squares. The eighty rows are numbered, at the extreme left of the 
sheet, 01,07... 97; 01,03. ..99; 03,09,. ..99; there being two white spaces 
separating the hundreds. This is the same as in Burckhardt's or Dase's 
tables, each column representing 300 numbers. The advantage of having 77 
columns is that the 7's and ll's are lithographed on the form and have not 
to be determined and inserted by hand. Thus if 77 consecutive columns 
of Burckhardt's tables be taken, and all the headings and tabular results 
except 7's and ll's be supposed to be removed, we have a representation of 
the form. The form actually used was constructed to begin from 3,000,000, 
so that for the exact representation of it we are to commence with the 
column headed 201 on p. 3 of Burckhardt's table (i.e., the 68th column). 

Since each sheet corresponds to 77 X 300 numbers, a million -occupies 
about 43^ sheets, and as on each sheet the number of 7's lithographed is 
880, and the number of ll's is 480, it follows that, by adopting a form 
which permits the 7's and ll's to be lithographed, about 59,000 entries 
are saved in each million ; and, what is even more important, the accuracy 
of these 59,000 tabular results is assured. 

The squares to which the least factor 13 belongs were obtained as fol- 
lows : Find the numbers between 3,000,000 and 3,000,000 + 13 x 300, 
which are divisible by 13, but not by 2, 3, or 5. Take 13 consecutive 
columns of any blank form and cut them off from the rest of the form ; 
then, supposing the first column to correspond to the column headed 
3,000,000, make a mark in the squares that correspond to the multiples of 
13, previously found, and cutout the squares so marked. We thus have 
a group of 13 columns, from which a number of squares (80) have been 



174 report— 1878. 

removed, and which may be called a screen or sieve. Place the sieve over 
the first 13 columns of the first sheet of the fourth million ; then either 
empty squares or squares containing a 7 or 11 will appear through the 
holes of the sieve ; in each empty square write the number 13. Then 
place the sieve over the next 13 columns and proceed as before, and so on 
throughout the whole 44 sheets. 

The sieve for the next prime, 17, contains 17 columns, and is made in 
the same way, viz., by cutting out the squares corresponding to the num- 
bers between 3,000,000 and 3,000,000 + 17 x 300, which are divisible by 
17, and not by 2, 3, or 5. Then this sieve is placed over the first 17 
columns, and 17 entered in all the empty squares, then placed over the next 
17, &c, and so on. 

The sieves for 13 and 17 are drawn in the plate (Plate TV.), the 
shaded squares being those that are cut out. The 13-sieve is formed of 
the first thirteen columns of one of the sheets, and the margin, con- 
taining the figures 01,07,..., is retained in order to show the arrangement 
of the form, which contains 77 columns. Of course in using the sieve 
this margin is cut off as in the 17-sieve. The 13-sieve shows the num- 
bers between 3,000,000 and 3,000,000 + 13 x 300 which have least factors 
7, 11, or 13 ; thus, for example, from the third column we see that 

3,000,613 3,000,739 3,000,823 

3,000,641 3,000,767 3,000,851 

3,000,683 3,000,781 3,000,893 

3,000,697 3,000,809 

have 7 as their least factor ; that 

3,000,679 3,000,811 3,000,877 

3,000,701 3,000,833 3,000,899 

have 11 as their least factor, and that 

3,000,647 3,000,751 3,000,829 

3,000,673 3,000,803 3,000,881 

have 13 as their least factor. Of course the numbers such as 3,000,179, 
for which 7 appears in a shaded square, have 7 as their least factor, and 
are also divisible by 13 ; and similarly, when 11 appears in a shaded square, 
the number has 11 for its least factor and is also divisible by 13. 

The 80 argument numbers 01, 07,. ..97 ; 01, 03,.. .99 ; 03, 09,. ..99 cor- 
respond to the 80 numbers 1, 7,. ..97; 101, 103,. ..199; 203, 209,. ..299 that 
remain when the numbers divisible by 2, 3, or 5 are thrown out from the 
300 numbers 1, 2, 3, 4,. ..300. The numbers 01, 03... at the side are 
lithographed on the form, but the headings of the columns of course are 
different for each sheet and are written in. Each page in the printed 
table contains 30 columns, and one advantage of this method of construc- 
tion- is that the original sheets, when completed, are sent to the printer as 
they stand, so that there is no copying required. 

The actual size of the form employed is 3P69 inches in length and 
16 - 20 inches in width, exclusive of the argument numbers at the left. A 
somewhat smaller form would have sufficed, but this gives ample space 
in each square for four figures, and was not found to be inconveniently 
large in use. The squares in the sieves were cut out by a punch made for 
the purpose. The sieves drawn in the plate have been reduced to suit 
the size of the page of this volume. 

The sieves were formed thus : Take for example 13 ; the first uneven 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 175 

multiple of 13 exceeding 3,000,000 is 3,000,023 : add 26 continually till 
3,000,000 -f- 13 x 300 is reached, and then throw out the multiples of 3 
and 5 ; there are thus left 80 numbers, which correspond to the squares 
to be cut out from the sieve. The accuracy of the 80 numbers that 
remain was verified by differencing them ; as the differences recur with a 
period of eight.* 

In general the sieve for the prime p contains p columns, and it is to be 
noted that every sieve, whatever its length, has exactly 80 squares cut 
out, one in each line. To show that there must be one square cut out in 
each line it is only necessary to observe that p must have some multiple, 
not divisible by 2, 3, or 5, of the form 300 q + a, where a is any one of the 
80 numbers less than 300 and prime to it. For, by a known theorem, if 
p be prime to r, and if p, 2p, 3p,. . . (r— 1) p be divided by r, the remainders 
are the r — 1, numbers 1, 2, 3,...r— 1 ; in this case, therefore, if p, 2p, 3p, 
...299p be divided by 300, the remainders are the 299 numbers 1, 2, 3,... 
299, and if 2p, 3p,4p,... and all the multiples of p divisible by 2, 3, or 5 be 
thrown out, the remainders divisible by 2, 3, or 5 are thrown out also, and 
the remainders left are the 80 numbers less than 300 and prime to it. Also, 
there cannot be two squares in the same line cut out from the sieve, for a 
being a given number, if 3002 + a be divisible by^>, the next number in 
the same line divisible by p is 300qp + a, viz.,. is a number^ columns fur- 
ther on. 

The cube root of 4,000,000 is 158 - 74..., and in a factor table extend- 
ing to 4,000,000, the prime 157 appears once, and only once, as the least 
factor of a three-factor number, viz., for 3,869,893. Thus 163 and larger 
primes will only occur as least factors of two-factor numbers, and we 
may find the numbers to which they belong without the use of the sieves 
as follows : — 

Supposing that we are constructing a factor table from the commence- 
ment, the least factor 163 first appears at the number 163 x 163, then at 
167x163, 173x163, 179x163, 181x163, &c. ; 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 
&c, being the series of primes starting from 163 ; for we only consider 
products of two primes, of which 163 is the smaller, that is, numbers 
formed by multiplying l63 by the primes greater than itself. To obtain 
the results of the multiplications it is only necessary to add to 163 x 163 
the product 4 x 163, and to this 6 x 163, &c. ; the work standing thus — 

26,569 = 163 x 163 
652 = 4 x 163 



27,221 = 167 x 163 
978 = 6 x 163 



28,199 = 173 x 163 
978 = 6 x 163 



29,177 = 179 x 163 
326 = 2 x 163 



29,503 = 181 x 163 
&c. «fec. 

* It is easily seen that this must be so ; for form the multiples of the prime p 
that are not divisible by 2, 3, or 5; these are p, Ip, Up, 13/>, Up, 19p, 23p, 29p, 
then the next eight are obtained by adding 30/; to each of these and so on. Thus 
the differences are 6p, ip, 2p, ip, 2p, 4p, 6p, 2p, recurring with a period of eight. 



J 76 report— 1878. 

This process will give all the numbers to which 163 belongs as least 
factor up to (163) 3 = 4,330,747, where the three-factor numbers commence. 
All that is required in order to reduce this to mere addition is a list of 
differences of consecutive primes from 163 to y^Z, I being the limit of the 
table, supposed less than 4,330,747, and a small table of even multiples of 
163 from 2 x 163 to 2m X 163, 2m being the greatest difference between 
two consecutive primes between these limits. If I be 4,000,000, the nearest 
prime below j^l is 24,533 ; and the greatest difference is 52, between 
19,609 and 19,661.* The accuracy of the work can be verified at any 
stage and as often as thought necessary by multiplying together the two 
factors. Of course in the calculation of the fourth million the commence- 
ment would be made at 18,413 x 163 = 3,001,319, the smallest number 
exceeding 3,000,000 to which the least factor 163 belongs. 

There are thus two distinct methods, each of which has its special 
advantages, viz., the sieve method and the method by calculation of multi- 
ples. The latter is unsuitable for small primes, which appear as least 
factors of numbers having three or more prime factors ; in fact, this 
method is only appropriate for two-factor numbers. On the other hand, 
the sieve method is rather more suitable for the entry of small primes, as, 
when the prime is large, the great size of the sieve is inconvenient ; this 
method, however, points out all multiples of the prime, not divisible by 
2, 3, or 5, whether they be two-factor, three-factor, four-factor, &c, 
numbers. 

It is clear that up to 163 the sieve method should be used ; and that for 
163 and beyond we may employ the multiple method. Burckhardt states 
that he used sieves for primes up to 500, and the multiple method for 
higher primes. In the calculation of the fourth million sieves were used 
for primes up to and including 307, and the multiple method was employed 
for primes from 211 to 1999. The numbers corresponding to the least 
factors from 211 to 307 inclusive were obtained by both methods. 

As the multiple method only gives numbers where the least factor is 
the given prime p, it follows that every number so found must correspond' 
to an empty square, and the verification thus afforded of the entries 
already made was very valuable. 

The sieve for 307 contains 307 columns, and therefore occupies four 
sheets all but one column : considered as a whole, therefore, it has only 
to be moved 11 times for the million, while the sieve for 13 has to be- 
moved 257 times.f 

Before the calculation was begun, it seemed as if the excessive length 

* The greatest difference between two consecutive primes up to 100,000 is 
72(31,397 — 31,469). For a list of the differences that exceed 50 and other allied 
tables, see ' Messenger of Mathematics,' vol. vii. pp. 174-175 (March, 1878). 

f In the fourth million the 13's were entered by a sieve consisting of 13 columns, 
the 17's by a sieve of 17 columns, and so on. In the fifth and sixth millions now in 
progress, the 13*s were entered by a sieve of 78 columns, equivalent to six 13-sieves 
fixed together. This was found to greatly facilitate the entries, as the number of 
removals of the sieve was reduced in the proportion of 6 to 1, and there was less 
risk of error. The saving of time effected by the use of the 78-column sieve 
amounted to nearly one-half. For the 17's a sieve of 5 x 17, = 85, columns was 
used, for the 19's a sieve of 4 x 19, = 76, columns, and so on, the number of columns 
being made as nearly as possible equal to the number of columns (77) on a sheet. 
It was found also that by the use of the long sieves the sheets were much better 
preserved from wear and tear, as the sheet upon which the factors were being 
entered was in general almost wholly covered by the sieve, and so protected from 
friction, &c. 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 177 

of the sieves (the 307-sieve is 10 feet 6 inches in length, and the 
499-sieve 17 feet 1 inch) is productive of great inconvenience, and would 
also necessitate very great accuracy and care in the lithographing and 
printing of the sheets, so that the squares should correspond exactly, over 
so great a distance ; and it seemed surprising that Burckhardt should 
have continued the sieve method so far. But this was on the supposition 
that the portions of the sieve would he all fixed together, so that it would 
consist of one long sheet. Experience, however, soon showed that nothing 
was gained by fixing the sheets together, and in fact that it was a positive 
inconvenience to do so. The sheets forming the sieve were numbered 1, 
2, 3, &c, and all that was requisite was to use sheet 1 first, then sheet 2, 
then sheet 3, then sheet 1 again (if the sieve consisted of only 3 sheets), 
and so on ; in fact, the long sieves were found to be quite as easy to use 
as the smaller ones. Above 307, however, it seemed to be scarcely worth 
while to construct the sieves, as so little use was made of them, and as the 
multiple method was preferable in consequence of the verification afforded 
by it. 

The mode of work was as follows : The entries were made by the 
sieves, and one multiple of $ obtained from each position of the £>-sieve 
was divided out by p, in order to verify that the sieve was always rightly 
placed ; this verification was employed for each position of every sieve. The 
numbers were then examined by Mr. Glaisher himself by the sieves. They 
were then examined a third time by the sieves, and every number ticked. 
The least factors obtained by the multiple method were read out and 
entered on the sheets ; and they were subsequently read out again in a 
different manner and ticked. Any numbers found unticked were after- 
wards specially examined. The proofs of the table when printed will be 
read with the original calculations of numbers by the multiple method. 

On the whole the method of construction is a very perfect one. It has 
been explained in some detail, because Burckhardt contents himself with 
a very brief sketch occupying only two paragraphs ; and the process is 
sufficiently interesting to deserve a more complete account. Bach sieve, 
as stated, has 80 squares cut out, one in each line ; though of course, as 
there are only 80 squares cut out, whatever be the length of the sieve, 
many of the columns on the longer sieves are left intact. The patterns 
formed by the holes in the sieves were very curious, some being very 
regular, while in others the holes were very scattered, and no two were 
much alike. The sieves for 149 and 151 were remarkable, the holes 
running steadily up in the one case and steadily down in the other.* The 
reason for this is that these numbers are nearly equal to the half of 300, 
the difference between two adjacent squares in the same line, so that 
numbers distant from one another by even multiples of 150 are in the 
same line. For a similar reason the holes in the sieves for 59 and 61, and 
29 and 31, show a steady ascent and descent. When the sieve for 23 is 
laid in its proper position on any one of the sheets a slightly ascending 
row of 13's (including some 7's and ll's) is seen through the holes ; this 
is connected with the fact that 13 x 23 = 299, and differs from 300 by 1 
only. Similarly, when the 43-sieve is laid on the sheets a slightly de- 
scending row of 7's is seen, as 7 X 43 = 301, and other instances of the 
same kind were remarked. It may be observed that when the pattern 

* Several of the sieves, including those for 149 and 151, were exhibited to the 
Section at the Meeting at Dublin. 

1878. N 



178 REPORT— 1878. 

was regular (as in the case of the 13-sieve and 17-sieve, where the holes 
slope down in parallel lines) the entry of the factors was much facilitated. 
Great care was always required in order to be certain that no factor had 
escaped entry ; but this examination was much more rapidly performed when 
the pattern was fairly regular. The size of the volume would, however, be 
increased very greatly if all the factors were given, without any propor- 
tionate advantage. Burckhardt's arrangement of the table is an admirable 
piece of condensation, p as the least factors of 9,000 numbers are given, in 
the space of half a square foot, on each page. 

It will be evident from this description that it would be just as easy 
to enter all prime factors in the table as to enter only the least ; and if all 
the prime factors were entered the verification would be easier, and in the 
numbers entered by the multiple method no error could occur, unless the 
same mistake were made independently in entering both factors. 

The methods described in this section are no doubt practically iden- 
tical with those employed by Burckhardt, and the calculation of the million 
suggested no improvements upon them, except in a few matters of detail. 
The construction of the table, though very simple in theory, required such 
continual care at every step, and such constant supervision, that it could 
not be undertaken by any one who was not prepared to devote a great 
portion of his time to the work. • 



Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. 
Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, 
Mr. G. A. Lebocr, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, and Mr. 
Joseph Dickinson, appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in 
various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up 
by Professor Everett {Secretary). 

Dr. Stapff has continued his observations of the temperature in the 
St. Gothard Tunnel, and has contributed to the Swiss Natural History 
Society a paper* of 56 quarto pages, embodying the results. 

The following is his description (pp. 26, 27) of the mode of observing 
the temperature of the rocks in the tunnel : — 

" The exact determination of the temperature of the rocks in the tun- 
nel formerly occasioned a notable expenditure of time and money. At 
first thermometers about a metre long (made by J. Goldschmid, of Zurich) 
were employed for this purpose ; their tubes being cemented into a wooden 
cylinder, so that only the bulb (surrounded by a perforated steel cap) 
projected below, and the scale (extending from 15° to 30° C.) above. 
Tallow was poured round the wooden cylinder, and the whole thermo- 
meter was then thrust into a bore-hole a metre deep, so that only the 

* ' Studien iiber die Warmevertheilung im Gotthard,' i. Theil. ' Der Schwei- 
zerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu ihrer sechzigsten Jahresversammlung 
in Bex gewidmet,' von F. M. Stapff. Bern, 1877. 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERG ROUND TEMPERATURE. 179 

scale projected, from which readings were taken from time to time nntil 
the temperature became constant. The final reading had to be corrected 
not only for rise of zero but also for the temperature of the quicksilver in 
the thermometer tube which extends from the opening to the bottom of 
the bore-hole. Another very notable correction was required for the 
more or less oblique position of the thermometer; for the hydrostatic 
pressure of the quicksilver presses out the glass bulb so far that without 
change of temperature the long thermometer reads from o- 4 to l o- less 
in the vertical than in the horizontal position. 

" After about from three to ten days, the reading of a thermometer 
luted into a bore-hole ceased to alter. 

" Separate trials with thermometers of similar construction, but different 
length, showed moreover that, after months, the temperature of the rock 
at about a metre deep was still unchanged. This is obviously owing to 
the small difference of temperature between the rock and the surrounding 
air. 

"From the observations at No. 8 and No. 15, in Table III., it is seen 
that the temperature at the bottom of the bore-hole was sometimes a little 
lower and sometimes a little higher than nearer its mouth. 

" This mode of observing gave correct results, but was laborious and 
costly, not only on account of the necessity of making special bore-holes 
for the purpose, but because almost every experiment cost a thermometer. 
The projecting end was often maliciously broken off, and on account of 
the swelling of the wooden case it almost never happened that at the end 
of an experiment a thermometer was drawn out again uninjured. 

" Hermann and Pfister remedied this latter evil by surrounding the 
thermometer tube, from the bulb to the scale, with a glass case, and this 
with a steel jacket. This arrangement, however, involves not only con- 
duction through the steel, but also continual interchange of heat by 
currents of air in the glass case, from the mouth to the bottom of the hole. 
For these reasons the observations made with these thermometers could 
not be employed without intricate corrections. 

" Later I tried a Thomson's maximum thermometer,* kindly placed at 
my disposal by Professor Everett, which (after previous strong cooling) 
was left for several days at the bottom of the bore-hole, closed air-tight. 
The results agreed with those obtained by other methods ; but who can 
guarantee that the higher temperature prevailing in a newly-bored hole 
is always just so much depressed by the cold mass of the thermometer 
and its copper case, that the rock temperature alone determines the final 
indication of the maximum thermometer. 

" This consideration induced me to employ for rock-temperature 
observations (and they also serve for air and water observations) the 
above-mentioned short thermometers with insulated bulbs, the first of 
which Professor Everett caused to be made by Negretti and Zambra 
for this express purpose. These thermometers, enclosed in a metal 
box provided with a handle, are thrust to the bottom of the bore-hole, which 
is at least a metre deep. To the handle is fastened a strong cord reach- 
ing to the mouth of the hole, by which it can be drawn out again at 
the end of the trial. The bore-hole, from the thermometer to the 
mouth, is stopped with greased rag or other similar material, as air- 
tight as possible. After two or three days, the thermometers have 

* It was one of the protected Negretti maximum thermometers constructed for 
the Committee. 

N 2 



180 REPORT— 1878. 

usually assumed the temperature of the surrounding rock, that is to 
say, their reading has ceased to alter. The insulation of the quick- 
silver prevents alterations during the drawing out and reading of the 
thermometer. The correctness of the result is in no way prejudiced 
by sediment from the boring which may yet remain in the hole-. The 
pouring in of some water may even be useful in accelerating the experi- 
ment. Wet bore-holes with standing water are, however, to be avoided, 
because rock- temperature and water-temperature are not identical. 

" In the manner last described, at every available opportunity, that 
is to say, when the work of the tunnel is from any cause compelled to 
cease for a few days, rock-temperature observations are now instituted in 
bore-holes ready to our hand. The observations are simple, give exact 
results if taken with proper precaution and sufficient duration of the 
experiment, and cause no further expense, since the thermometers, being 
sunk in the rock, are secured against wanton injury, and there are always 
bore-holes available." 

Dr. Stapff further states by letter that, the two original thermometers 
supplied by Negretti and Zambra having been broken, he has had others 
made, in which he has introduced the improvement of hermetically seal- 
ing the outer glass case, instead of closing it with a waxed cork, which 
gradually admitted moisture. 

In the Report for 1876 an account was given of the observations of 
Herr Dunker in a bore about 4000 feet deep at Sperenberg, and allusion 
was made to the undue weight which had been attached by some writers 
to the empirical formula in which Herr Dunker sums up his observations ; 
a formula which indicates a retarded rate of increase, and, if extended to 
greater depths, leads to the conclusion that the temperature reaches its 
maximum at the depth of about a mile. 

A discussion has been carried on in Germany on this subject,* chiefly 
in the ' Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie,'&e, and the best authorities seem 
to be unanimous in rejecting the hypothesis of a retarded rate of increase 
in the earth's surface as unwarranted, either by the Sperenberg observa- 
tions or any others. Herr Dunker himself concurs in this opinion. Dr. 
Stapff also, though some of his own empirical formula? indicate a retarded 
rate of increase, writes to Professor Everett in the following terms : — 
" As to my formulas, I beg you to remember that they are not con- 
structed for expressing laws of Nature. They simply are made for 
facilitating the view over a heap of figures and data of observation. And 
genei'ally I beg you to be sure that those formulas in my mind cannot 
express any law for the increase of warmth at greater depths than those 
in which the tunnel observations were made. The formulas give good 
means for eliminating empirically some of the influences of the shape of 
surface which occur in the profile of the mountain." 

Mr. W. Galloway, one of H. M. Inspectors of Mines, has taken 
observations in Fowler's Colliery, Pontypridd, South Wales. The shaft 
is 846 feet deep, and the air current down it amounts to between twenty 
and thirty thousand cubic feet per minute. 

In order to determine the normal temperature of the coal, a hole 1^- 
inch in diameter was bored in the side of a narrow place that was being 

* See papers by Mohr, Heinrich (two papers), Dunker, and Hottenroth, in the 
' Neues Jahrbuch ' for 1878, 1876, and 1877, by Brauns, in the ' Zeitschrift fiir die 
gesammten Naturwissenschaften,' 1874, p. 483, and by Hann in the ' Zeitschrift der 
osterreichischen Gesellschaft fiir Meteorologie,' 1878, p. 17. 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 181 

rapidly driven in the solid coal. The hole was bored in the very face, to 
the depth of four feet. The thermometer (one of the Committee's slow- 
action non-registering instruments) was placed at the inner end ; then a 
wooden cylinder of nearly the same diameter as the bore-hole, and 9 inches 
long, was pushed in until it came in contact with the copper case of the 
thermometer ; and lastly a wooden plug, wrapped round with cloth, was 
driven firmly into the mouth of the hole. The thermometer was at 58° F. 
when it was put into the hole, and after remaining there from 2 p.m. on 
August 25th, 1876, to 3.45 p.m. on the following day, it stood at 62°7. 
There was no water whatever in the hole, and the depth below the surface 
of the ground was 855 feet. 

The circumstances of this observation seem to preclude any consider- 
able disturbance of the normal temperature ; and combining it with the 
mean annual temperature at the surface, which is said to be 51 0, 5, we 
have an increase of ll°-2 F. in 855 feet ; which is at the rate of 1° F. for 
76 feet. 

Two other observations were taken in other parts of the mine. They 
are not directly available for the purposes of the Committee, but were 
intended to test the influence of air-currents on the temperature of the 
coal ; and they show variations of 2° or 3° according to the season of 
the year. 

Observations are being taken for the Committee by Mr. G. F. Deacon, 
Borough Engineer of Liverpool, in a bore which has attained the depth 
of 1004 feet, in connexion with the Liverpool Waterworks at Bootle. 

The temperature at this depth is 58°1. The observation nearest the 
surface was at the depth of 226 feet, the temperature at this depth 
being 52°. We have here a difference of 6°'l in 778 feet, which is at the 
rate of 1° for 128 feet, and the same rate is approximately maintained 
throughout the descent. For instance, at 750 feet the temperature was 
56°, which gives 1° for 131 feet by comparison with the depth of 226 feet, 
and 1° for 121 feet by comparison with the bottom. 

The bore is 24 inches in diameter, and the observations were taken 
with a protected Phillips's maximum thermometer every Monday morning. 
The operation of boring was continued up to twelve o'clock on Saturday 
night, and was not resumed till the temperature had been taken on the 
following Monday. The time that the thermometer remained at the 
bottom was not less than a quarter of an hour, and was sometimes half 
an hour. 

The rock-formation consists of the pebble beds of the Bunter or lower 
trias, and most of it is described as hard, close-grained, and compact. 
The speed of boring is indicated by the dates of the observations at 
226 and 1004 feet, the former being Nov. 12th, 1877, and the latter 
Aug. 12th, 1878. A month was lost by the jamming of the drilling 
tool, in May and June, 1878, when a depth of about 890 feet had been 
attained. 

The depth from the surface of the ground to the surface of water in 
the bore has gradually decreased from 66 feet, when the bore was at 318 
feet, to 52 feet when the bore was at 800 feet, and to 51-1 feet at the 
present depth. It would thus appear that the inflow of water from below 
has increased with the depth attained. There is a slow percolation 
from the upper part of the water-column to an underground reservoir 
near at hand, the top of the water-column being considerably higher than 
the top of the water in the reservoir. Mr. Deacon remarks that the 



182 report— 1878. 

slow upward flow which supplies the water for this gradual discharge 13 
favourable to the accuracy of the observations (which have always been 
taken at the bottom,) by checking the tendency of the colder and 
heavier upper water to descend and mix with the lower. As bearing on 
the subject of the disturbance of temperature by the stirring of the 
water in boring, as well as by the generation of heat in the concussions of 
the tool, it may be mentioned that the last observation before the month's 
interruption by the jamming of the tool was o7°'5, at 886 feet, and the 
first observation after the extraction of the tool, was 57 o- 0, at 898-6 feet ; 
the former being on May 20th, and the latter on July 1st. The smallness 
of the difference between these two temperatures seems to indicate 
smallness of disturbance by the action of the tool. 

It appears from these various circumstances that the observations are 
entitled to considerable weight, and that the rate of increase of tempera- 
ture downwards at Liverpool is exceptionally slow. It will be remembered 
that the rate found by Mr. Fairbairn, at Dukinfield Colliery, in the 
adjacent county (Cheshire), was also very slow, though not nearly so slow 
as that indicated by these Liverpool observations. — (See our Report in 
the Volume for 1870.) 

Mr. E. Wethered, of Weston, near Bath, has also commenced obser- 
vations in a colliery in that neighbourhood. Mr. J. Merivale, of Ned- 
derton, near Morpeth, has received a thermometer for observations in a 
colliery. Mr. J. T. Boot, of Hucknall, near Mansfield, has received a 
second thermometer (in place of a broken one) for observations in a deep 
bore, and Mr. Rowland Gascoigne, of the same town, has received one for 
a similar purpose. 

In the eleven years which have elapsed since the appointment of this 
Committee, a large amount of useful work has been done, by methods of 
observation not requiring any elaborate or expensive appliances, or any 
special training on the part of the observers. 

Two difficulties are encountered in investigating underground tem- 
perature. We have to contrive instruments which shall truly indicate 
the temperature at the point of observation, and we* have further to 
ensure that this temperature shall be the same at the time of observation 
as it was before the locality was artificially disturbed. 

As regards the first of these difficulties, the Committee have been 
completely successful, and have largely increased the resources at the 
command of observers. 

But in regard to the second difficulty, the same amount of success 
has not been attained. The circulation of water in bore-holes and of air 
in mines are disturbing elements difficult to deal with. Even such firm 
plugging as was employed to isolate portions of the water-column in the 
great bore at Sperenberg cannot altogether remove the error arising from 
convective disturbance ; for the long-continued presence of water at a 
temperature different from that proper to the depth affects the tempera- 
ture of the surrounding rocks, and the temporary isolation of a short 
column would not abolish this source of error, even if the plugs them- 
selves were impervious to conduction and convection. 

After the experience which has now been gained of rough and ready 
methods, it is time to consider the propriety of resorting to a more- 
special method, which has been more than once suggested, but has 
hitherto been postponed on account of the additional labour and skill 
which would be requisite for carrying it out. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE FERMANAGH CAVES. 183 

There can be no doubt that the surest way to bring any point of a 
boring to its original temperature is to fill up the bore, and reduce it as 
nearly as possible to its original condition. Several instruments have 
been contrived which, when buried in the earth, with wires coming from 
them to the surface, admit of having their temperature observed by 
electrical means. 

One of these is Siemens' resistance thermometer, another is Wheat- 
stone's telegraphic thermometer, of which a description will be found in 
the Report of the Dundee Meeting of the British Association ; another 
is Becquerel's thermo-electric apparatus, which has been employed by its 
inventor and his son and grandson for some forty years. It is described 
in the following terms in the first report of this Committee (1868) : — 

" The thermo-electric method might also be followed with great 
advantage. Two wires, one of iron and the other of copper, insulated by 
gutta-percha or some other covering, as in submarine cables, and 
connected at their ends, might be let down, so as to bring their lower 
junction to the point where the temperature is to be taken, their upper 
junction being immersed in a basin of water, and the circuit completed 
through a galvanometer. The temperature of the water in the basin 
might then be altered till the galvanometer gave zero indication." 

Sir Wm. Thomson now adds the recommendation, that, in carrying 
out this method, the two wires, each well covered with gutta-percha, 
should be twisted together ; that the wires should be stout and as homo- 
geneous as possible throughout, and that a piece of stout copper tube 
should be attached to the lower junction, this tube being uncovered and 
in close contact with the earth all round, its purpose being to ensure that 
the junction takes the proper temperature. 

It would probably be desirable, in filling up the bore, to mix clay 
with the original material, to render it watertight, for it would be 
impossible to render the filling of the bore as compact as the surrounding 
rock. 

Several pairs of wires would be buried in the same bore, with their 
lower junctions at different carefully measured depths. 

The upper junctions would be kept in a room provided with a steady 
table for a mirror-galvanometer. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Haughton, Prof. 
Leith Adams, Prof. Barrett, Mr. Hardman, and Dr. Macalister, 
appointed for the purpose of Exploring the Fermanagh Caves. 
Drawn up by Mr. Thomas Plunkett, Enniskillen, for Dr. Mac- 
alister, Secretary of the Committee. 

Probably there is no locality in Ireland where there are so many 
interesting caves found as in the region of Knockmore, in Fermanagh. 
Fifteen of these caves have been explored during the past three years, 
every one of which yielded memorials of man, and were no doubt used by 
savage tribes as dwelling-places. 

A. — The first cave explored this year was partially excavated last year. 
It penetrates a deep escarpment on the eastern side of a rocky hill, and 



184 report— 1878. 

attains a length of about fifty yards, and in width varies from three to 
nine feet. The floor was irregularly formed, some parts of it being quite 
level, but in some places the floor passed in with a very swift incline. 

The first or top layer was composed of dark mould, and varied in 
thickness from one to two feet deep. In this layer bones of the sheep, 
goat, and Bos longifrons were found, also some sea shells and a large iron 
cloak-pin or skewer, 5^ inches long, which had a ring on the head or larger 
end of the pin. Underneath this stratum there was a deposit of rock debris 
and yellow clay, in which were found large angular blocks of limestone 
which had fallen from the roof. This stratum was very irregular in depth, 
and varied from two to eight feet deep ; charcoal, rude pottery, and a 
very large quantity of animal bones — some of them broken — were dug 
out of this stratum, also flint flakes and one bone pin. Underneath the 
above deposit there was a layer of calcareous breccia, covered over in 
some places with sheets of stalagmite ; the latter in some places attained 
a thickness of two feet. Animal bones were found embedded in the stalag- 
mite, also charcoal, and in the stratum underneath, on which the sheets 
of stalagmite rested, bone pins and flint flakes were found associated with 
broken bones.* 

The next stratum reached during the excavation was composed of 
brown tenacious clay, which resembled brick earth and rested on gravel, 
and was no doubt deposited at the period when water traversed the cave. 
This was excavated to a depth of ten feet, but no animal remains or work 
of art was found in it. 

B. — " The Ram's Cave " was the second explored, and occurs in the 
top of a cliff several hundred feet high. It is a small chamber, about 
four feet high and ten feet long, and was very dry inside. The deposit on 
the surface of the floor was composed of black mould, which had a depth 
of two feet, and contained charcoal, burnt bones, and a bronze pin. The 
next stratum was composed of a gravelly kind of earth, and contained a 
few angular blocks of limestone. This stratum yielded rude pottery, 
charcoal, and the bones of the red deer, wild boar, goat, sheep, and fox. 

C. — The third cave examined was about six feet wide, and extended 
into the rock for a distance of twelve feet. This cave yielded a large 
quantity of broken pottery, some of it very rude. The first stratum re- 
moved was composed of carbonate of lime mingled with brown earth, and 
contained bones of the pig and red deer, and pieces of pottery which bore 
traces of ornamentation. The next layer removed was" of an average thick- 
ness of about eighteen inches, and was composed of dark mould, and con- 
tained a quantity of charcoal and rude pottery devoid of any ornamen- 
tation, also broken bones belonging to Bos longifrons, horse, deer, dog, 
and sheep. 

D. — The fourth cave explored opens out on a rocky slope, and the 
surface of the floor passes in with a gentle incline for a distance of thirty 
yards, when the passage becomes entirely choked up with a deposit of 
stalagmite. The surface of the floor was covered over from end to end 
with rough angular limestones ; while these stones were being removed, 
bones of the horse and boar were found mingled with them. These stones 
rested on a deposit of yellow clay and carbonate of lime. During the 
removal of this stratum a quantity of animal bones were found associated 

* The bones have been submitted to Dr. Macalister for examination, and his 
report will be presented to the next meeting of the Association. The caves have no 
local names, so we have indicated them by letters. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 185 

with charcoal ; nothing else of any interest was found during the explora- 
tion except the tusk of a boar, which was whetted to a sharp edge, and 
probably was used as a knife by the cave-dwellers. 

E. — " Shining Rock " cave enters a rock on the south side of Knock- 
more, and prior to its excavation was nearly filled to the roof with rubbish 
and debris. The top stratum was almost entirely composed of vegetable 
earth, and of an average depth of two feet, and yielded some bones of fox, 
dog, and deer. The layer underlying this contained a quantity of bronze 
or iron clay, also bones of the pig, deer, and rabbit. Near the bottom 
of the cave a quantity of bones were found in calcareous breccia. A 
large portion of the bones found in the lower strata of this cave were 
bound up in this material. 

F. is a commodious cave a short distance from the above ; it passes 
through a rocky hillock and can be entered at either end. Midway it 
assumes the form of a square chamber, which measured ten feet high 
and six feet broad; the top stratum was of a dark mouldy character, 
and yielded similar bones as the other caves explored. In the lower 
stratum, which was composed of reddish clay, flint flakes and marine 
shells were found. 

The explorations were suspended after the exploration of F cave, as 
the probability is that none of the caves in this district will yield bones 
of extinct mammalia or objects of any great interest. 



Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, 
Professor Harkness, Professor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Rev. H. W. Crossket, Professor L. C. Miall, Messrs. 
Or. H. Morton, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, 
James Plant, and W. Pengelly, Dr. Deane, Mr. C. J. Woodward, 
and Mr. Molyneux, appointed for the purpose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and 
origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and 
taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the 
Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary. 

This Committee has pursued its inquiries, and is able to record many 
new and important observations. In many districts, however, the obser- 
vations are not yet completed, and it will be necessary for the work of 
the Committee to be continued for some time, before they can be justified 
in classifying the facts collected, or in presenting any theoretical con- 
clusions. 

The Committee are favoured with the following notes on Boulders 
near Kendal by Mr. J. R. Dakyns : — 

The most remarkable boulders near Kendal are those of the granite of 
Wastdale Crag, near Shap Wells. These boulders are specially interest- 
ing, for two reasons : in the first place, boulders of the granite of Wastdale 
Crag, or the Shap Granite, as it is often called, can be readily identified 



186 kepokt— 1878. 

by means of the large crystals of pink orthoclase felspar which the rock 
contains ; and, secondly, the distribution of these boulders near Kendal 
would seem to show that they must have travelled over the high ground 
south of the granite area, and not followed the course of the present drain- 
age ; for I have traced these boulders, north of Kendal, directly towards 
this area on the one hand, while on the other hand I have not noticed 
them in the depression extending from Kendal to the river Lune, along 
which the London and North -Western Railway runs, east of Docker Garth j 
but as I have not minutely examined this part of the country, I cannot 
say which is the precise eastern limit of the boulders. It seems, then, that 
the Shap granite boulders came nearly due south from Shap Fells, across 
the high ground over which the old coach road goes from Kendal to 
Shap. The highest point where the granite occurs in place, viz., Sleddale 
Pike, 1659 feet above the sea, is higher than the greater part of this 
ground ; but the greater part of the granite area is lower than the ground 
across which the boulders travelled in their southerly course ; nor is there 
immediately to the north of the granite any ground as high as the granitic 
fell itself. The greater part of this fell, sloping northward, drains into 
Wet Sleddale, whose waters, forming the river Lowther, flow north, and, 
joining the Eden, go out to sea by the Solway ; the remaining small por- 
tion, including the site of the quarries, facing southward, overlooks Wast- 
dale Beck. This beck flows N.E. along the strike of the rocks to Shap 
Wells, where its waters turn sharp at more than a right angle, and thence 
flow S.S.E., and join the Lune at Tebay. On the south side of Wastdale 
rise the Upper Silurian falls to the heights of 1691, 1589, 1494, 1588, 
1544, 1523 feet above the sea ; the lowest part of the range being the 
Hause, over which the coach road goes. The height of this point is not 
given on the Ordnance one-inch map ; but it is between 1300 and 1500 
feet above the sea, and is probably over 1400. Across this high ground 
the Shap granite boulders travelled south from their parent rock, which 
attains an extreme height of 1659 feet at its most westerly outcrop, and 
a height of 1478 on its steep southward face ; while north of these points 
the granitic area falls gently away northward, the centre of the area being 
about 1373 feet above the sea. 

The general due south course of the boulders is further shown by an 
examination of their distribution south of Kendal. It is not to be expected 
that very many boulders should now remain scattered over the surface of 
the rich and highly cultivated land near Kendal ; they have mostly been 
long since cleared off the surface of the pasture and meadow land, and are 
now to be found built into the walls, where, however, they are good evi- 
dence of their existence in the country, because boulders are not carted 
a long distance for walling in a country that has plenty of such material 
at hand; but there are some large boulders still remaining unmoved, from 
the place where they were once dropped by the ice, and in ploughed 
lands others are from time to time turned up and placed among heaps of 
stones for road metal. 

I have traced these boulders as far south as Milnthrop ; they occupy a 
narrow band of country, whose long axis points directly for the granite 
of Shap Fells. I have not seen any west of the river Kent. The most 
westerly I have seen are some near Hincaster, still lying undisturbed in a 
lane. A line drawn from Sleddale Pike, the most westerly outcrop of 
granite on Shap Fells, to these boulders bears south by west. The most 
easterly that I have noted in this neighbourhood is a large one in a field 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 187 

near Windy Hill, about two miles S.E. of Kendal railway station; but I 
once saw one high up on the side of Grayrigg Fell, north of Grayrigg 
Tarn, which lies a good deal farther east. 

The chief boulders still in their original position are the following : 
Several on SpitalWood; one near the Kendal reservoir ; one or two on the 
Castle Hill, Kendal ; the one near Windy Hill ; one on the east side of 
Helm ; some boulders of granite and of the altered rock surrounding the 
granitic area near the footpath by Murley Moss to Oxenholme ; one in a 
drift bank cut through by the canal near Larkrigg ; several in the fields 
east of Stainton ; others near the footpath from Stainton to Sedgwick ; 
one on the top of a drift hill, half a mile due west of Sellet Hall ; several 
near Hincaster ; some in front of a farm house at Wath Sutton. I have 
also found granite boulders on the roadside between Natland and Helm, 
at the inns near Helm End, and in a field a quarter of a mile west of Storth 
End, and on the road half-a-mile N.E. by north of Storth End, and at 
the bend of road east of Milnthrop station, besides in many other places, 
which it would be tedious to mention. 

Boulders of the dark compact altered rock that surrounds the granitic 
area are generally found along with the granite boulders. 

When the localities where granite boulders occur are marked on a 
map, the steady lineal north and south direction of their course is very 
striking. 

Boulders of the ordinary volcanic rocks of the Lake Mountains indicate 
other directions for the ice-flow ; thus a large boulder of volcanic breccia 
from the Lake Mountains may be seen lying on the side of the Sedbergh 
road, about two and a half miles out of Kendal, and east of the line of 
granite boulders. As the granitic area of Shap Fells is at the extreme east 
end of the volcanic rocks, this boulder must have crossed the line of flow 
along which the granite boulders travelled. Amongst noteworthy boulders 
is a monster boulder, by the natives designated by the undignified term 
of a "cobble," of volcanic ash in the beck course at Stainton, measuring 
9x0x4 feet, or 216 cubic feet. 

The distribution of boulders on the bare limestone fells in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kendal is in some particulars remarkable. Thus, on Farleton 
Fell, a conspicuous hill of bare limestone on the east side of the Lancaster 
and Carlisle Railway, there are very many large limestone boulders lying 
on glaciated surfaces, and often having pebbles and small boulders of Upper 
Silurian rock beneath them. Some of these limestone boulders, too, are 
standing on edge with their planes of stratification vertical or highly 
inclined, so that there can be no doubt about their being true boulders. 
On the same fell there are, as already stated, many small boulders of 
Upper Silurian rock ; but I have met with no boulders of volcanic rock^ or 
of granite on this fell. Unfortunately I could find no good scratches to 
show the direction of the ice-flow ; but, considering the great size and 
number of the limestone boulders, and the smallness of the Upper Silurian 
ones, I should be inclined to think the ice came from the N.W., in which 
case it would traverse a great extent of limestone country, and the Upper 
Silurian rocks that were the origin of the boulders would be several miles 
distant ; and this transport of boulders probably took place while the 
adjacent limestone area was free of drift, and therefore before the trans- 
port of the granite boulders, which, as being found in the drift that now 
covers the low ground N.W. of Farleton Fell, belong to the time of the 
deposition of this drift. 



188 report— 1878. 

The limestone fell immediately west of Kendal, which ends in the fine 
escarpments known as Scout and Cunswick Scars, overlooking a broken 
foreground of Upper Silurian rocks to the Lake Mountains in the distance, 
is singularly free from limestone boulders. This is only what might be 
expected, as it is the extreme north end of the limestone area ; for 
this fell is plentifully strewn with large boulders of Upper Silurian rock, 
and small ones of volcanic rocks, though there are a few large boulders 
of volcanic rock as well ; for instance, one well-glaciated boulder of 
volcanic ash about a mile and a half S.W. of Kendal, and a large one 
above Cunswick Scar, near the footpath to Kendal. 

Whitbarrow, too (another bare limestone fell), is generally free of 
limestone boulders, except at the south end, where there are several large 
ones ; but Silurian boulders are pretty generally distributed over it, and 
amongst these one large boulder of ash deserves notice. This boulder, 
which is a tolerably conspicuous object on the fell, is situated on the 
western side of the fell, perhaps a mile or better S.W. of Row. It is 
about six feet high, and is split in two, the inner surface of one portion 
corresponding to that of the other. But the southern portion has been 
moved away from its fellow, slightly on the western side, but as much as 
several feet (five or six) on the east ; the general result being motion from 
north to south. One might fancy that the boulder was originally split as it 
fell off the end of the ice, and that subsequently the ice had shoved one part 
slightly away from the other. Connected with boulders is the difficult 
subject of the accumulation of drift. For a geologist who has a day to 
spare at Kendal no more instructive walk can be recommended than this. 
Walk out along the Kendal and Sedbergh road for about five or six miles 
till you come to the summit level, 930 feet above sea, then tarn south 
acoss the fell called New Hutton Common to its summit, 1097 feet high. 
Looking S.W. from this point yon will see spread out before you in the 
Gatebeck and Saint Sunday Valleys, a tumultuous assemblage of mounds, 
a truly wonderful sight. These mounds are the vast moraine, or system 
of moraines, which the great glacier, or ice sheet if you will, of old threw 
down in the low ground between Helm on the right and the uplands on 
the left, ending in Scout Hill. 

And if anyone wishes to see moraines of the ordinary Swiss type, shed 
by local glaciers, let him go to the recesses of the mountains to the head of 
Long Sleddale ; there in one of the finest dales of the lake country, though 
one but rarely visited — he will see plenty such. 

Mr. D. Mackintosh reports some new facts relative to the derivation of 
boulders already discovered by members of the Committee, the existence 
of several large boulders previously unrecorded, aud the extent to which 
Ireland has sent erratics into England. 

In our Report for 1875 there is a full account of many large blocks of 
felspathic rock in the neighbourhood of Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. I 
have principally examined them between Catsbill and Hagley, in a district 
from which granite would appear to be entirely absent. From a com- 
parison of their shape, size, appeai'ance of weathered surface and internal 
structure as revealed by chips, I have no doubt whatever that these 
boulders are what may be called an overshot load from the great Arenig 
stream of erratics which has found its way through Llangollen Vale into 
the central plain of England, and which has left large blocks about Chirk 
and Welsh Frankton (west of Ellesmere). In our Report for 1876 there is 
an account of the Arenig dispersion, and the enormous Cefn felstone 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OP ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 189 

bonlder is mentioned. Some distance S.E. of Cefn, and about a quarter 
of a mile S.E. of Chirk Bridge, on the east side of the Holyhead road, there 
is a felstone boulder, the greater part of which is evidently buried. The 
exposed part is about 13 x 7 feet, and three feet above ground. Between 
this boulder and Welsh Frankton, Arenig erratics are numerous, and 
some of them are very large. A short distance west of Welsh Frankton, 
and close to where a canal is crossed by the main road, 8x8 feet of an 
Arenig boulder may be seen above ground. It is somewhat varied in 
structure, part of it approaching the character of hornstone. Around 
Welsh Frankton there are numerous moderate-sized, and a few very large 
Arenig boulders, One, close to Mr. Oswell's house, is quite 8 feet in 
average diameter ; and another, a few yards distant, 8| x 6 X 5 feet. 
They are accompanied by good-sized boulders of Silurian grit and Carboni- 
ferous sandstone and quartzite from the Welsh borders. 

Mr. Mackintosh lately found a number of lumps of a very white rock 
in a gravel-pit which had been excavated in an undulating continuation of 
the Wge and abrupt mounds of middle drift age which may be seen south 
of Ellesmere, Shropshire. He has since found many more lumps at 
Wrexham, and, after much inquiry, he cannot hear of any rock like it in 
situ. It looks very much like silicified chalk, but the fossil evidence is 
in favour of its Jurassic age. A fragment of lias, with characteristic 
fossils (now in the possession of Mr. W. Shone), was very lately found 
about 8 feet down in upper boulder clay at Guilden Sutton, near 
Chester; and Mr. Watts, F.G.S., has found large chalk flints and a 
specimen of Grypluea incurva in a boulder clay at Piethorne, near Rochdale. 
These erratics, in all probability, came from Ireland. 

Mr. Moltneux reports as follows upon Boulders in the Midland 
District : — 

Stretching westwards from the town of Burton-on-Trent, and bounded 
on the south and east by the Trent Valley and on the north by that of the 
Dove, is a range of table-land, from 100 to 300 feet above the levels of 
those rivers, and comprising within its limits the broad acreage anciently 
included in the Royal Forest of Needwood. The whole area is covered 
more or less thickly with one or the other or each of the three different 
deposits which constitute the Boulder clay group of the Midlands. These 
deposits consist in well-defined divisions of sand, gravel, clay, and boul- 
ders, and are of an aggregate thickness of 120 feet. On the iess elevated 
face of the country under consideration they repose directly on Red marls, 

and on the higher tracts of Christchurch-on-ISreedwood and Bagot's Park 

... . . P 

are the lower division of the Rhaetic beds, which there appear in charac- 
teristic force and condition. The boulders, or rock masses, occur prin- 
cipally at from three to ten feet below the surface, intermixed with blue 
and yellow clay, and consist of angular, sub-angular, and rounded frag- 
ments of Carboniferous limestone and chert, Yoredale sandstone, Millstone 
grits, Granites, Porphyry, Syenite, Greenstone, Trachyte, and Toadstone, 
with smaller fragments of Liassic and Oolitic rocks, many of which bear 
the usual evidences of the action of ice. There is also, stretching across 
the high grounds of Hanbury Woodend, running east and west, an extra- 
ordinary trail of Chalk flint flakes. The Boulder clays, with their asso- 
ciated deposits, cap the high land of Waterloo Hill and Moat Bank on the 
east side of the Trent Valley, and the same description of rock masses 



190 REPORT— 1878. 

en,ters largely into the composition of the basement bed of the valley- 
gravels at Burton-on- Trent, but in a more rounded condition. Gryphtea 
and other Liassic shells are frequently found in the sand and gravel of 
each deposit. 

During some drainage operations at Sinai Park, overlooking Burton- 
on-Trent, many hundreds of tons of boulders were excavated, the weight 
varying from a few pounds to half a ton each. I am in a position to 
place on record one only of these boulders, which deserves a place in the 
catalogue of Staffordshire erratic rocks. This was exhumed from near the 
surface of some gravel workings at Postern House, three miles due west 
from Burton-on- Trent, and where the letter P, of Postern House, in the 
Ordnance Survey map, occurs. It lay at 180 feet above the Trent 
Valley, and is an angular fragment of coarse Millstone grit five feet six 
inches long by four feet six inches deep, one of its sides being planed 
down by ice action. Another sub-angular boulder of Syenite was about 
two years' ago obtained from the bottom of a well sunk in the valley 
gravel at the brewery of Messrs. Truman, Hanbury, and Buxton, _at a 
point just north of the letter B in Burton-on-Trent, between the road and 
railway, as shown on the Ordnance map. It lay at twenty-four feet 
from the surface, embedded in a foot or two of Boulder clay, which there 
comes between the valley gravel and the Red marls, and which with 
other similar evidences is conclusive proof of the excavation of the Trent 
Valley hereabouts before the Boulder clay period. The boulder weighs 
nearly a ton, and was removed for preservation to the residence of the 
writer, about a mile south of Burton-on-Trent on the Lichfield road. 



Mr. James Plant continues his reports upon the Boulders in Leices- 
tershire : — 

(1.) Isolated Boulders. 

The "great erratic" from Humberston (briefly described in a former 
report) has been recently laid quite bare to the bottom. 

There is a great quantity of traditional material connected with it, 
and it must have excited considerable interest in the " olden time." 
Several distinguished antiquarians have written upon it, and described 
these traditions. 

I believe that this block has a certain relation to the monolith " St. 
John's Stone," exactly three miles S.W. by W. across the valley of the 
river. Both blocks are on the rise of the land, and visible from either 
locality if a fire was lighted on each at night. 

A festival (Romish) was formerly held near the St. John's Stone (a 
vestige of old " fire, or sun worship ") on Midsummer Day, and this 
Humberston block woidd be in the line of the greatest eastern stmrise. 

This boulder is situated in St. Mary's parish, on the Pochin estate, on 
Kirby's Farm, Humberston, Leicestershire, close to the bend of the road 
from Humberston to Thurmaston. It measures 8 feet x 7 feet x 5 feet, 
and its weight is nearly 20 tons. It is pentagonal, edges sharp and an- 
gular. Longest axis is N.W. by S.E. It has about six deep irregular 
grooves two inches deep on the top, sides nearly vertical and smooth, 
and the striations are in direction of the longer axis. It is composed of 
the syenitic granite of Mount Sorrel, distant 5^ miles N.W. from the 
locality. Many legends are connected with this block, and it is known 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 191 

in the locality as Helstone. It is 230 feet above sea (ordnance datum), 
and marks a boundary on the farm ; all land on the farm east of the 
stone is called Ost-end, and all west West-end. It lies amongst lower 
glacial " drift-clay," and is quite isolated. It was thought by many per- 
sons to be the rock in situ. It rests upon worn surface of Rhaetic beds. 
It is to be removed to the grounds of the Leicester Museum, and photo- 
graph taken before removal. 

Another large isolated boulder is situated at Loseby, Leicestershire, 
on the estate of Sir F. T. Fowke, Bart., Loseby Hall, Leicestershire. It 
measures 5 feet 3 inches X 3 feet 5 inches X 2 feet 4 inches. It is 
rounded and worn, is long shaped, has never been moved by man, and has 
small groovings at various angles on all the sides exposed. It is composed 
of millstone grit, which occurs 35 to 40 miles N.W., but it may have 
travelled 80 miles if it came from the north. It is 650 feet (ordnance 
datum) above the sea; and rests in "upper glacial drift," composed of 
sand, flints, chalk, has, sandstone, millstone grit and pebbles of various 
sorts, and lumps of clay. 

(2.) Oroups of Boulders. 

The first group recently found in the " Coleman Road " (a new road 
about two miles from here) is quite a new district for boulders. The group 
occurs in Bvington parish, near Leicester ; the road is about two miles 
long, in a "cutting" through "Crown Hill." The largest boulders 
are 3 feet 3 inches x 3 feet x 2 feet 6 inches ; the smallest 1 foot 3 inches 
X 1 foot x 1 foot. They are angular and sub-angular, except the block of 
"limestone," which seems rounded, but it may have been done in situ. 
All have been moved in excavating the road, and many broken up. 
Most of the sandstones, grits, and limestones, have striations in various 
directions on the top and sides, and at different angles. The localities at 
which rocks of the same nature as the boulders occur are — Mount Sorrel, 
Groby, and Markfield. east side of " Pennine Chain," in valley of River 
Derwent, and Stanton, valley of the Erewash, Sherwood Forest, country 
round Nottingham, Ticknall, Crick Hill, Wirksworth, Derbyshire. The 
distances of these localities are as follows : — 

Miles. 

Mount Sorrel 8 N.N.W. 

' Groby 8 N.W. 

Markfield 10 N.W. 

Stanton 22 N.W. 

Erewash 24 N.W. 

Derwent 35 and 40 N.W. 

Sherwood and Nottingham 24 N.N.W. 

Ticknall 20 N.W. 

Crick and Wirksworth 40 N.W. 

Sixteen blocks were measured and examined ; 7 of these were syenite and 
syenitic granite, 5 triassic sandstones, 2 millstone grit, and 2 mountain 
limestone. A great many of the limestones, grits, and sandstones have 
been broken up for road metal, being softer than the syenites. The group 
is about 350 feet above the sea. The area covered is about 50 yards long 
by 10 yards wide. A few boulders occur in other parts of the road, but 
of smaller dimensions ; many boulders are left in the sides of the cutting, 
and every indication seems to be that great numbers spread out in the 



192 report — 1878. 

hill. The boulders were found at depths of four, six, and eight feet in 
cutting the road through the hill, many lying in the gravel (flint 
gravel) on the narrow end, as if all the materials had been solidified when 
deposited on the lower lias clay. 

A second group occurs in Aylestone parish, near Leicester, near the third 
milestone from Leicester. The largest boulder is 3 feet x 2 feet 10 
inches X 2 feet 10 inches ; and the smallest 2 feet x 1 foot x 10 inches. 
The boulders are angular, and all having been moved out of a sand-bed ; 
no striations can be seen. They are derived from Groby, Markfield, and 
Charnwood Forest. Groby is six miles distant N.N.W., and Markfield 
eight miles N. All are composed of syenite. The group is 280 feet above 
the sea, and has about two feet of gravel over it, and covers an area about 
ten yards square. The boulders were all covered by a deposit of gravelly 
drift, and were found in the sand. 

A third group occurs in Aylestone parish, Belmont Park, Leicester, 
half a mile east of Aylestone. The largest boulder is 2 feet 6 inches x 2 
feet x 1 foot 10 inches ; the smallest is 1 foot x 10 inches x 9 inches. 
The boulders are angular and sub-angular ; and all have been moved in 
making new roads. There are no striations. Rocks of the same nature 
are found at Mount Sorrel, Groby, Markfield, Bradgate Park, in Charnwood 
Forest, at a distance of six to eight miles. They are composed of syenite 
greenstone, syenitic granite, 20 blocks were measured and examined. 
The group is 320 feet above the sea, and covers an area about 100 yards 
by 20 yards. It is covered by gravel containing flint. 

A fourth group occurs in St. Margaret's parish, on the estate of the 
Freehold Land Society, Leicester, on the road leading to Evington from 
Leicester. The largest boulder is 3 feet 1 inch x 2 feetxl foot 10 
inches, and the smallest 1 foot 5 inches X 1 foot 2 inches x 1 foot 1 inch. 
The boulders are rounded, angular, and subangular; out of twelve 
boulders eight are syenitic granite, two triassic sandstone, one millstone 
grit, one oolite. The group is 290 feet above the sea, and covers an area 
100 yards square. It was uncovered by making foundations for houses ; 
all have been moved. No striations exist on the igneous rocks, but the 
sandstones and oolitic blocks are striated at various angles. Igneous rocks 
of the same nature are found at Mount Sorrel, Groby, sandstones at 
Nottingham, ooUtic rocks at Ketton near Stamford, at the respective 
distances of eight, twenty- six, and twenty miles. 

A fifth group, occurs in Evington parish, "Spinney Hills" Road, 
Leicester. The largest boulder is 3 feet x 1 foot x 1 foot ; the smallest, 
2 feet 6 inches x 1 foot 2 inches x 1 foot 4 inches The boulders are sharp, 
fresh looking, angles all round ; no striations are visible. Rocks of the 
same nature are found at Mount Sorrel, a distance of six and a half miles. 
They are composed of syenitic granite, and are at the height of 290 feet 
above the sea. They have been moved out of a field to the side of the 
road, but are on the S.E. side of " Spinney Hills," and therefore must have 
come over them. 

A sixth group occurs in Saxe-Coburg Street, Leicester. The largest 
boulder is 3 feet 3 inches x 2 feet 2 inches x 2 feet ; the smallest, 2 feet 
6 inches x 2 feet x 1 foot 10 inches. The boulders are angular and sub- 
angular ; no striations are visible. Rocks of the same nature occur at 
Mount Sorrel, a distance of six miles N.N.W. They are composed of 
syenitic granite, and are 260 feet above the sea, and cover an area 
twenty yards square. They have been exposed by the excavations for 
streets and sewers, and foundations of houses. 



ON OUlt PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CUUSTACEA. 193 

A seventh group occurs on the Town Estate, Victoria Road, Leicester. 
The largest boulder is 2 feet 9 inches x 2 feet x 1 foot 10 inches, and the 
smallest 1 foot 8 inches x 1 foot 6 inches x 1 foot. The boulders are 
angular, and without striations. Rocks of the same nature occur at 
Groby and Markfield, a distance of five miles and seven miles N.W. 
They are composed of syenite, and are 260 feet above the sea, covering an 
area of 30 yards x 10 yards. They have been exposed in excavations. 

An eighth group occurs at Clarendon Park, near Leicester. The largest 
boulder is 2 feet 6 inches x 1 foot 5 inches X 1 foot 7 inches, and the 
smallest 1 foot 9 inches X 1 foot 5 inches x 10 inches. Three are rounded, 
others are angular and sub-angular, but the rounded edges may have 
been done in situ. All have been moved out of excavations ; no striations. 
Rocks of the same nature occur at Mount Sorrel at a distance of seven- 
and-a-half miles N.N.W. The boulders are all composed of syenitic 
granite, and are 300 feet above the sea, covering an area of 20 yards x 10 
yards. 



Report on the Present State of our Knoiuledge of the Crustacea. — 
Part IV. On Development. By C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. 

[Plates V., VI., & VII.] 

Having, during the last three Reports, given an account of the present 
state of our knowledge of the dermal skeleton of the higher forms of 
Crustacea as it appears in various genera in the adult animal, it is 
desirable that we should next obtain some knowledge of the forms that 
these animals undergo in their passage from the ovum to the adult. 

It is highly probable, judging from the very perfect resemblance to the 
parent form that the animal attains while yet young, that the earlier 
zoologists believed them to quit the egg in this condition. For when Bosc 
took in mid-Atlantic the small animal which he christened Zoe, he never 
for a moment thought that it was the young of some other form. 

It was in 1802 that it was first described, and ranged by the author 
between the Branchiopoda and Amphipoda. But Latreille, in the first 
edition of the ' Regne Animal ' of Cuvier, placed it at the. end of the 
Branchiopoda, between Polyphemus and Cyclops, while expressing an 
opinion that it approached nearly to the Schizopoda. 

Leach seems to have held this same opinion, for without giving his 
reasons, he placed it at the end of the legion of Podophthalma, by side 
of Nelalia. 

Desmarest, in his ' Consid. sur Crustaces,' places it in the order 
Branchiopoda, near Branchipes, while Latreille ranks it with " Monocles," 
while Milne-Edwards ranges it, with doubt, at the end of the Decapoda, 
with other questionable genera, after the Schizopoda, and before the 
Stomapoda. 

In 1830 Vaughan Thompson took a zoaea in Cork harbour that while 
in his possession passed into the Megalopa stage, which induced him to 
assert that zoasa was nothing more than the larval stage of one of the 
crabs common to our shores. 

This idea was much doubted by the naturalists of the day, more 
1878. o 



194 report — 1878. 

especially Milne-Edwards, Latreille, and Westwood, as the idea of any 
metamorphosis in the development of the Crustacea was contrary to 
preconceived opinions, and to the careful and very complete observations 
of Rathke on the development of the embryo in the common crayfish of 
Europe (Astacus fluvialis) . 

The articles of Milne-Ed wards in the 'Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire 
Naturelle, and the remarks of Latreille in the ' Cours d'Entomologie,' 
were followed in 1835 by what appeared at the time to be an exhaustive 
discussion of the subject by Mr. Westwood. His observations were 
carried out upon the ova of some land crabs, that were living in the 
Zoological Gardens, with an exactitude and care that has left little to be 
added. Mr. Westwood's memoir was published in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society,' and he received the honour of the Society's 
gold medal for what, at the time, appeared to be a complete refutation of 
Mr. Vaughan Thompson's theory of metamorphosis in Crustacea. 

It is, however, a very remarkable coincidence, that the same volume of 
the 'Philosophical Transactions,' 1835, that contains Mr. Westwood's com- 
munication on the absence of any morphology in the progressive develop. 
ment of the Gegarcinus, also published a memoir of Mr. Vaughan Thomp- 
son on the larva of the Cirripedia, showing not only that a very extensive 
form of morphology takes place, but demonstrating conclusively that they 
are crustaceous animals, and bear no relation to the mollusca among which 
they previously had been generally classed by naturalists. 

From this time until the present, the young form and development of 
these animals have been of the foremost interest in marine zoology. 

In 1839 Capt. Du Cane sent to the British Association, and pub- 
lished in the ' Annals of Natural History,' a communication on the forms 
in which the young left the egg in the common prawns and shrimps of our 
coast. And soon after (1852), Mr. R. Q. Couch gave an account at the 
Dublin Meeting of the British Association of the form in which the 
young left the ovum in the common crawfish (Palinurus vulgaris) of our 
seas. In each of these the form so differed from one another, and from 
any of the others, that it began to appear as if the young of every genus 
in the Crustacea left the egg in a larval form, different in character. 

This view appears to receive much strength from the development of 
the larva in Mysis, although many of the changes which this animal 
undergoes are those of a subembryonic rather than a larval condition, 
since they take place pi-eviously to the animal's becoming an independent 
creature. An elaborate account of the development of this animal is 
o-iven by Van Beneden, in his memoir on the littoral animals of Belgium. 

Since then, the crowning interest was given by Dr. Fritz-Muller, when 
he captured a small crustaceous animal in the high seas which in general 
form corresponds with the small entomostracous genus known as 
Nauplius. This he prononnced to be the early condition in which some 
of the prawns, and especially Penasus, quits the ovum. Some naturalists 
accept this hypothetical discovery as conclusive, while others more 
cautiously consider that the evidence Fritz-Muller has received is not 
sufficient, the more especially since several genera of prawns are known 
to quit the ovum in a more advanced form. (PI. V., fig. 1.) 

It should be remembered in the reporting on this discovery of Fritz- 
Miiller, that first it has not been taken in connection with the parent, 
second, that it has not been traced from the nauplius to the zoaea con- 
dition, and lastly, has not been traced by Midler beyond the Schizopod 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 19.5 

stage, hence its connexion with Penseus has not been demonstrated at 
either extremity of the chain of evidence. 

The little creature, according to Muller, is rather opaque and of a 
brownish colour, darkest towards the extremities of the appendages. 

It is by these little appendages that the young animal swims, lashing 
the water and working its way upwards to the light. 

The first change that is observable is that it becomes slightly larger, 
and the terminal part projects into two pointed processes, terminating in 
the two long caudal hairs which were previously present, and to which 
others less important have been added. The number of hairs on the 
natatory appendages have also increased. 

At this stage the form of the carapace is first indicated in the presence 
of a transverse line. In this we perceive an important variation from 
the forms of either the Cirripedia or decapod Crustacea, and moreover 
contrary to that of the Euphausia as illustrated by Metschnikoff. 

In the youngest forms of Decapoda and Cirripeds the carapace is defined 
from the earliest stages. 

In Lophogaster, according to Sars, the development resembles that of 
Mysis. The form of the embryo is more annulose and the formation of 
the great dorsal shield is more progressive. According to Fritz-Miiller 
the development of the carapace in the young of Penaaus is upon the 
same plan, and is first detected by the presence of a line immediately 
behind the third pair of appendages. In the anterior pair may now be 
seen that which after the next moult Fritz-Miiller takes to be the first 
pair of antennae. The second pair becomes the second antennas, and the 
third pair becomes the mandibles : close to which a large helmet-shaped 
protuberance, which is taken to be the homologue of the anterior labrum, 
is present. In this early stage Dr. Muller sees within the third pair of 
appendages the mandibles with a prominent acute tooth and a broad 
transversely furrowed masticatory surface, and he says that the mandible 
must bear a non-setigerous appendage. Posterior to these three pairs of 
lobes, the embryonic condition of the future oral appendages make their 
appearance ; the eyes still continuing to be represented by a solitary 
central organ. 

The rudimentary appendages exhibit within the sacs the presence of 
hairs, which induced Dr. Muller to believe that after the next moult the 
animal will pass into the Zocea stage. But here the progressive link is 
broken in his researches, and there is nothing to demonstrate that this 
Nauplius form passes into a Zooea stage more than the young of Mysis does. 
Previously to the time that Muller found his Nauplius, Professor Sars 
(1862)* studied the development of Lophogaster typicus, a Schizopod 
belonging to the family Eupliausidm, and this he states to be precisely 
similar to that of Mysis. 

In 1871 Metschnikoff communicated to ' Zeitschrif t fur Zool.' his ob- 
servations on the young of Euphausia. The first specimens he found 
in the open sea, and hypothetically assumed that they were the young of 
Euphausia, although they were not in any way connected with the parent, 
and had undergone one or two changes of form since quitting the ovum! 
He says : "I was yet convinced that it by no means represented the 
earliest larval form as it escaped from the ovum. I could only hypo- 

* Archiv. des Sci. Phys. et Nat., tome xxi., p. 87, and An. Nat. Hist., vol xii 18fi4 
p. 461. ' "' » 

o 2 



196 . report— 1878. 

thetically point to a six-legged transparent Nauplius as to the earliest 
larval condition of Euphausia. This supposition has since been confirmed 
by the examination of a considerable number of free-swimming Euphausia 
larvae. Besides the larvse, which were in various stages of progress, I fished 
up, he says, some ova from which I procured some Nauplii of the youngest 
form, but as my observations on the embryonic development of the Schizo- 
poda have not been concluded, I shall only describe the ovum containing 
a mature larva." (PI. V., fig. 2.) 

" The ovum is a complete ball, in which one can distinguish two mem- 
branes. Between the exterior membrane — the extraordinarily delicate 
Morion — and the inner, the yolk skin, is a fluid clear as water, which 
I have also seen in the ova of Penams. The yolk skin covers closely the 
now quite mature and highly transparent larva, which latter shows three- 
distinctly developed pairs of extremities. Through the movements of the 
larva the egg-membranes are torn, and there escapes a peculiar animal, 
on the oval body of which three pairs of appendages are attached which 
exhibit the peculiarities of the Nauplius form of Crustacea." 

" The first pair is simple, while the two others are branched and articu- 
lated into three joints, i.e. two basal and the terminal ; the only existing 
opening is the oral aperture which is in the median line between the 
base of the third pair of appendages. It appears in the form of a very 
small hole which leads to a narrow oesophagus. With the exception of 
red tint on the ventral surface, the larva is otherwise colourless and 
transparent, and it is with much difficulty that some of the interior 
organs can be distinguished." 

Herr Metschnikoff was able to trace some of the early changes, and was 
in hopes to be able to remove some of the objections against Fritz-Miiller's 
treatment of the development of Penaeus. He tried to follow the various 
alterations in the same specimen, but failed to keep the animals alive 
after a short period in his vessels. He was however here enabled to 
trace the changes which conduct, he says, the larva "into that condition 
which Claus has already described," but remarks that all the forms 
examined by him lost with their moulting the indented or crenulated 
margin of the carapace, which shows that he had to do with another 
species than Euphausia Mulleri of Claus. He concludes with saying that 
he " must draw attention to a phenomenon which is common to the 
Nauplius stage of Euphausia and Penaeus, the contemporaneous formation 
of the several pairs of appendages succeeding the larval and swimming 
feet." " It is," he continues, "remai'kable that such a mode of formation is 
not observed in any Entomostraca which have been developed through the 
Nauplius metamorphosis. I have examined in this relation the Cirripedes 
and Branchiopoda, and became convinced that in these Crustacea the 
maxillaries are developed apart from the other appendages, as has been 
shown by Claus to be the case in the Copepoda." 

Professor Claus has given the subject his attention, but his researches, 
like those of Fritz-Muller, were carried on upon specimens taken in the 
high sea, without any immediate clue to the parent from which they 
derived their origin. 

It is certainly remarkable that so advanced an observer as Professor 
Claus should have been content to have drawn his conclusions from such 
incomplete and unsatisfactory data, particularly as he considers that an 
imperfect appreciation of the development of the Crustacea has occasioned 
in recent davs the supposition relative to the genetic relationship of 






ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 197 

insects, and as a further consequence to considerable inquiries about the 
origin of Crustacea. 

The importance of obtaining accurate knowledge of the relationship of 
the young and immature forms with those of the adult animals, is exem- 
plified by the numerous speculative theories which have arisen and depend 
upon the correctness of Fritz- Miiller's discovery. 

Claus, in his ' Crustaceen Systems,' says that Fritz-Muller even 
believed that he found in the Zoaea of Crustacea the origin of the insects, 
and very soon this view was made use of by others for the Arachnoidea. 

"Anton Dorhn," says Claus, " has endeavoured by peculiar reasoning ' 
to prove the Zoaea form to be a stage in the development of the Ento- 
mostraca, and sought to show that the Phyllopodes, Ostracodes, and Co- 
pepoda have once passed through a free Zoaea stage during the phylogmatic 
development." 

Claus distinguishes two more typical stages in the metamorphosis of 
Crustacea between Nuuplius and Zoaa, which he distinguishes by the 
names of Metanauplius and Protozoeil ; but as these are given to stages in 
the progress of development rather than to forms that represent the stages 
as they leave the egg and become free creatures, I doubt if this addition 
to the nomenclature will ultimately be found to prove convenient. He 
moreover contends that of all Crustacea now existing that of the Phyllopoda 
is most probably that which bears the nearest resemblance to the primordial 
type, and that Nebalia and Bmnchipus most nearly approximate the earliest 
representations. 

In the Schizopoda and Peneidce the larva he asserts is hatched as a 
NaupUus, and undergoes its further development in free life ; the rest of 
the Caridea go through the Nauplius and Protozoaea stages within the 
ovum, and that the first stage of free life is that of the Zoaea, mingled with 
features of the Mysis-like stage. The Thalassinidae and Paguridae are 
hatched in the Zoaea stage. 

In the course of his researches Dr. C. Claus has determined the early 
forms of Leucifer and Sergestis, neither of which, although Schizopods, 
pass through the Nauplius condition, and Professor Sars says that Lophi- 
gaster, one of the Euphausidce., develops its young as Mysis. And we 
know from actual observation that the young of the Anomura leave the 
ovum in a form little distinguishable from the Zoaea of the Brachyura, and 
in a more advanced condition. 

It is desirable in a Report which is intended to record the present state 
of our knowledge of the subject, to define clearly what is understood by 
the several names applied to the larvae of Crustacea according to the form 
in which they quit the ovum. 

Here I feel it a duty to protest strongly against the terms larva and 
pupa which have of late been much introduced into the study of carcino- 
logy. They are the more objectionable at this present time when there 
is a desire to trace the connection of one class of animals with another, 
inasmuch as the terms are likely to convey the idea of a closer approxi- 
mation by the resemblance of the nomenclature than may exist in natural 
phenomena. The term larva is suggestive of the grub or caterpillar con- 
dition in which insects leave their ovum, but as the condition in which the 
young of the Crustacea varies in form and degree, is not only different in 
families but in animals that might be classified as belonging to the same 
genus, as is the case in Crangon vulgaris and Crangon horeas, but for the 
different stages in which the young are hatched. 



198 report— 1878. 

For the term pupa I believe that Mr. Darwin is mainly responsible. He 
having introduced it in his monograph on the Cirripedia, when there ap- 
peared to be a great change in the progressive growth of the young which 
was thought to equal the metamorphosis of insects, if not to represent it 
in kind. 

I therefore propose to substitute the term Brephalus (from f3pE<pog f 
infant : a\c, sea), or young marine animal, for the term larva, while 
that of " pupa " had better be suppressed. Seeing that the development of 
the animal is gradually progressive, there is no stage or state of the 
animal which can be represented by it. 

In this Report, whenever used, the term brephalus will mean the form of 
the animal as it quits the ovum, no matter whatever stage of develop- 
ment it may represent. 

The several terms used for the young animal in its separate stages have 
been taken from animals which had been previously described as adults. 
These are, Nauplius, Zoa?a, Phylosoma, and Megalopa. Each of which is 
now recognised as being a stage in which the brephalus quits the ovum, 
and therefore one in the development of the Crustacea. To these must now 
be added those of Metanauplius and Protozcaea. 

The term nauplius, as representing one of the stages in which the 
embryo of the Crustacea quits the ovum, was introduced by Fritz-Miiller 
in 1864, in consequence of his having taken a small crustacean that 
while in general form it resembled the entomostracan genus Nauplius, 
yet exhibited unmistakable evidence of being the young of some macrurous 
decapod : which he believed to be that of Penceus. 

Metschnikoff has announced that the brephalus of Euphausia is in the 
form of nauplius, while it is known to be that of all the cirripedes as well 
as most of the entomostracous Crustacea, but these last, excepting Bran- 
chipvs, differ from the typical Nauplius in having but two pairs of free 
appendages. 

The nauplius, as it quits the ovum of the Malacostracous parent, is an 
animal of an ovate form, having three pairs of free appendages, the first 
of which is unibranched while the other two are biramose, and a single 
ophthalmic spot or imperfect central eye, and a strongly projecting 
labrum or anterior lip. 

This is the state in which Euphausia (Plate V., fig. 4) is hatched accord- 
ing to Metschnikoff ; and Pena?us according to Fritz-Miiller. (PI. V., 
fig. 1.) 

Shortly after it has become a free swimming animal it moults its 
external skin, and with each successive exuviation it advances a stage in 
development, its first apparent advance is in the appearance of lobes that 
ultimately become the appendages of the mouth. Metschnikoff remarks 
that this phenomenon is common to the nauplius of Euphausia and Penceus, 
that is, the contemporaneous formation of several appendages succeeding 
the three original pairs of swimming feet. 

He says moreover that it is remarkable that such a mode of formation 
is not observed in any of the Entomostraca which have been developed 
through the nauplius metamorphosis. 

It is this stage for which Clans has suggested the tercn Metanauplius 
(PI. V., fig. 2), while that for which he proposes the name of Protozowa 
is when the pleon is developed, but neither the pereiopoda or appendages 
of the pleon are present. (PI. V., fig. 3.) 

But here we have so close an approximation to the Zoaea as it leaves the 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 199 

ovum of the Braehynra, that it appears doubtful if there be any distinction 
between Protozosea and Zosea. 

Fritz-Miiller comprehends under the term Zosea all those brephaliQarvss) 
that have two pairs of antennas. The oral appendages and the gnathopoda 
present the latter in the form of swimming appendages. Having in view 
the young of the Brachyura, Anomura and Macrura, as well as certain stages 
in the development of the Stomapoda, whilst he could not include the young 
Schizopoda with the six pairs of legs (Euphasia) which Claus considers must 
be accepted as a zoaaa form. Claus considers that there is a highly im- 
portant character excluded from this definition, — the stage of the develop- 
ment of the pereion, or, as he terms it, the limbless central body (Gleid- 
massenlosen Mittelleibes) in contrast with the pleon (Hinterleib) and its ap- 
pendages This is, he says, just the characteristic of the zosea, which needs 
explanation, and at the same time contains the key tor the comprehension 
of the structure of the zoasa stage of the Malacostraca. It is necessary to 
understand and explain the striking relation of the pereion that exists in 
an immature condition, and from which sprout the five pairs of pereiopoda 
between the cephalon, with its numerous well-developed appendages and 
the well-formed but still limbless pleon. He says that almost in all forms 
of brephalus (larva) the pereion is either completely suppressed as in the 
Decapoda, or appears in the form of rudimentary somites, as in Schizo- 
poda and Stomapoda. The pereiopoda are produced later than the ap- 
pendages of the pleon. " Of course," he continues, " an exception must be 
made for the zoaea of Penceus, from which the limbs of the pereion are pro- 
duced previously to those of the pleon, with the exception of the two 
lateral appendages of the tail, which as belonging to the sixth somite of 
the pleon appears sooner, or at least about the same period, as those of the 
pereion." 

In arriving at this conclusion Claus appears to have gathered his facts 
from too circumscribed an area. Assuming his observations on the 
development of Penceus to be correct, he has overlooked that of the 
typical zoaea when it quits the ovum, as seen in Garcinus Mcenas, and that 
of Stenorhyncus, Inachus and Maia, of the latter two of which he has 
himself given figures that represent the pereiopoda advancing in develop- 
ment anterior in degree to that of the pleopoda. Moreover, the • bre- 
phalus (larva) of Homarus and Palinurus have the pereiopoda well ad- 
vanced in formation previously to any evidence of the pleopoda being in 
existence. Whilst others have them developed in a common ratio. 

The zoaea of Crustacea therefore may be defined as a brephalus (larva) 
that has two pairs of antennas, the oral appendages and gnathopoda more 
or less developed, but in which the pereiopoda and pleopoda are yet 
absent or in an immature condition. 

This is the condition in which the brephalus quits the ovum as the zoaea 
of the Brachyura, Anomura, and some Macrura. But in each there is a 
persistent feature that distinguishes one form from that of the others, and 
as far as my own observations have led me precludes their being con- 
founded one with the other. 

The brephalus of the brachyura is a zocea (PI. VI., figs. 3 and 4), and the 
most constant as to its general type of all the families of the class. With 
the exception Gecarcinus, which quits the ovum in the Megalopa stage, I 
am not aware of any other of the short-tailed crabs that is not hatched 
in the zoaea condition. 

That of Carcinus mcenas, as our most common European species, may 



200 report — 1878. 

be taken as the type of zoasa. When it quits the ovum, and throws 
off the enclosing membrane, and swims first as a free animal, it has a dis- 
tinct and well-developed carapace. It is dorsally arched and laterally 
compressed and rounded off at the infero-posterior angles. It is, moreover, 
armed with long characteristic spines on the dorsal and lateral surfaces, 
and anteriorly with a great rostrum, but these features vary in different 
genera, as shown in PL VI., where the two extremes are seen. In Tra- 
pezia, fig. 3, the spines are all very long, in Gelassimus, fig. 4, they are very 
short. The pereion is in a compressed or immature condition, and the 
pleon has six well-developed somites, the terminal one ending invariably 
in a fork-like extremity that varies in degree, and is armed with a greater 
or less number of strong stiff ciliated spines that differ in a constant degree 
so as to enable one almost to define the generic limits of species. It has 
invariably two pairs of antennas, represented by the early budding con- 
dition of the permanent organ in the first pair, and by deciduous represen- 
tatives in the second in the form of two long teeth or spines ; the 
mandibles and two succeeding pairs of oral appendages ; the third pair, 
or tetartognathus, being absent ; while the gnathopoda are developed into 
large characteristic swimming appendages. Of these, which are invariably 
biramose, one represents the permanent and the other the secondary branch 
of the adult organ : in this early condition the primary or permanent branch 
is five-jointed, and the second three. The number of these joints repre- 
sents the more or less advanced condition of the zoaea, and corresponds 
with the progressive development of the animal. The pereiopoda are 
represented by two or three small sac-like lobes, within which the several 
pairs may afterwards be seen to be developed. 

The brephalus of the Anomurais also a zoasa (PL VI., figs. 1 and 2), and 
differs from that of the Brachyura more in general appearance than in its 
degree of advanced development. The anterior portion corresponds, ex- 
cept in the armature of the carapace, very closely with the same part 
in the zoasa of the Brachyura, while the posterior portion of the animal 
assimilates more nearly with that of the zoasa of the Macrura. 

If we take the zoaea of Pagurus as the type, we find that the carapace 
is dorsally more depressed than in that of the Brachyura, and extends 
nearly horizontally from the rostrum to the posterior margin of the cara- 
pace, the lateral margins are not so deep, and are produced posteriorly, so 
as to form a prominent process or tooth on each side. This projection is 
very constant, but varies in degree with separate families. The rostrum 
also is generally prominent, and projects horizontally forwards. 

The pereion is not appreciably developed. The pleon has six somites, 
the posterior one being long, and terminating in a broad fan-like telson, 
the posterior margin of which is divided into two halves by an excavation 
that varies in extent in different genera. Each division is furnished 
with fine strong ciliated spines, which stand on their own well-defined 
lobes, and the outer angle is armed with a short sharp tooth. 

The eyes are large and ovate. The first pair of antennas resemble 
those of the Brachyura, they are single jointed, and support several auditory 
cilia, and two ciliated hairs, one apical, and the other (the longer) sub- 
apical. The second pair of antennas consist of a basal joint and two appen- 
dages: one is cylindrical, and tipped with two or three long ciliated hairs; 
the other is formed into a broad flat squamose plate, straight on the outer 
side, where it terminates in a strong tooth, and arched on the inner side, 
and fringed with numerous long spinous hairs richly furnished with cilia. 



48th Report Brit. Asscc. /S7i: 



PI. V. 




■Id. nat C. S. B. 



J 1 . Ha-wkins. <Ut. 






2^ H^ 



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PI VI 




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PI VII 



ilk 



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ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 201 

.The mandibles are without an appendage. The oral limbs are assum- 
ing much of their permanent form, except the tetartognatbus, -which is 
not visible. The gnathopoda are developed very similarly to those in the 
Brachyura zoaea, but exhibit a joint more in the development of the 
primary branch of the second pair. One solitary hair, differing in length, 
structure, and position from the others, appears to be constant in all forms 
of the Anomura zoaea. In some species it is nearer the base of the apical 
joint than in others ; but it is invariably constant, extremely long, and 
furnished with very long and delicate cilia, that are inserted at right angles 
with the main stalk of the hair. I do not remember having observed it 
on any zoaea but those of the Anomurous Crustacea. 

The zosea of the Porcellanidae (PI. VI., fig. 2) may readily be distin- 
guished from those of Pagurus by the length of the rostrum and postero- 
lateral processes of the carapace, which sometimes equal the length of the 
animal, and sometimes half; by having unarmed spinal processes to 
represent the second antenna?, instead of a ciliated squamose branch, and 
by having the last somite of the pleon terminating in a broad flat plate, 
the posterior margin of which is posteriorly produced to a point, instead 
of being hollowed, while it carries five ciliated hairs on each side of the 
median line. In one species, Claus figures the termination as produced 
to a long spine. 

The zoaea of Galathea(P\.V., fig. 6)may be distinguished by the posterior 
margin of the carapace being definitely serrated ; by two dorsal teeth on the 
posterior margin of the somites of the pleon ; by the extremely long ovate 
eye occupying about one half the length of the carapace ; by the presence of 
a sharp serrated tooth at the distal extremity of the basal joint of the 
second antennae ; by the shortness of the cylindrical branch that ter- 
minates in a small tooth and one ciliated hair ; and the sharply pointed 
distal angle of the squamose branch of the same antennae. 

The zoaea of Dromia (PI. VI., fig. 1), much resembles that of Pagurus, 
except that it appears to have no posterior processes at the infero-distal 
angles of the carapace ; but more especially by the form of the telson, which 
is extremely deeply cleft in the median line of the posterior margin. 

The brephalus of the Mafiroura differs veiy much in the character in 
which it quits the ovum in separate genera. Those that leave it in the 
zoaea (PI. V., fig. 5) condition are very distinguishable from those of the 
Brachyura and Anomura. 

The zoaea of the common Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris) may be taken 
as the type of the form. It differs from the zoaea of the common Prawn 
(Palcemon squilla) in very small details, one of which is in having a pointed 
rostrum that it loses with the second moult. 

The carapace, long, narrow and moderately compressed, furnished with 
a slender rostrum projecting horizontally forwards, having no projection 
or tooth along the posterior and lateral margins. 

The pleon consists of six somites, of which the last is expanded into a 
flat membranous plate, slightly indented in the median line of the pos- 
terior margin, and fringed with six ciliated hairs, and one, the external, 
small spine-like point. 

The eyes, a, a, are large, and obliquely ovate. 

The first antennae, b, b, are two-jointed ; the basal joint is long and cylin- 
drical ; it supports at the outer distal angle a stiff ciliated spine, and at the 
extremity the second branch, which appears in the form of a small uni- 
articulate joint, out of which near the extremity another seems ready to 



202 eeport— 1878. 

bud, supporting at its apex a crown of auditory cilia, and one short ciliated 
hair. 

The second antenna?, c, c, consist of a peduncular basal joint, supporting 
two branches ; the internal gradually narrows from the base, and termi- 
nates in a long spine-like hair fringed with cilia ; the external is in the 
form of a squamose plate, the external margin of which is straight, and 
the internal becoming broader from the base, and then rapidly running 
to an apex ; the inner oblique distal margin being fringed with ciliated 
hairs. The mandible and oral appendages are well formed, each assuming 
an approximation to the adult condition, except the posterior, or tetarto- 
gnathus, which assimilates to that of the gnathopoda, the character of 
which it partakes. In each, the number of joints in the primary ramus 
has increased to six, and the pereiopoda exhibit evidence of rapid develop- 
ment, in the form of cylindrical pendulous sacs, which decrease in length 
posteriorly. 

There are slight variations from this form in different genera. 

In Palccmon the primary branch of the gnathopoda have but four 
joints, and terminate in stiff short spine-like hairs ; while in Crangon the 
hairs are long, flexible, and ciliated. This latter is the case with the 
zosea of Alpheus and Stenopus; while in that of Hymenocera the character 
is more in accordance with Palcemou. 

The zosea in these orders respectively, Brachyura, Anomura, and 
Macrura, while they differ from each other, yet possess characters that 
are generally common to two. The form of the carapace in the zosea of 
the Brachyura, with its great dorsal spine, which although in some genera, 
as Gelassimus, Libinea, and Mencetheus, it is much reduced, so that in the 
last it is a mere prominence, is still a feature peculiarly chai'acteristic of 
the zosea of the order. Next to which are the great sjnnes on the lateral 
walls of the carapace. The presence of these is not so constant, but they are 
never seen on the carapace of any zosea in either of the other two orders. 

In the Anomura great lateral spines, and sometimes smaller spines, 
project from the posterior margin of the carapace ; these, together with 
the rostrum, more or less important, is a feature peculiar to this order, 
and from my own knowledge I am not aware of any exception to this 
rule. But Claus, in his work so frequently quoted, has given the figure 
of one that has all the characters of the zoaea of the Anomura ; but he calls 
it an " Erichthina larva" (PI. IV., fig. 1), but adds, " Nach Willemoes- 
Suhm die Larva von Leucifer ; " but certainly it bears no resemblance to 
the young Erichthina as it quits the ovum of the adult Squilla. Another 
feature that especially belongs to the zoaea is that of the terminal somite 
of the pleon, or telson. It is always forked in the Brachyura, and the 
few cases in which the terminal spines are short, still retain a distinct 
and characteristic feature of the group. 

In the zosea of the Macrura the carapace is free from spines or processes, 
and the terminal somite is flattened out into a broad thin fan-like plate, 
divided in the median line by a more or less defined emargination. 

Now, if we compare the zosea of the Anomoura with these two 
groups, we shall find that the tendency is to class them from their general 
form with the zoaea of the Macrura. And this, without exception, includes 
the Porcellanidae, Dromidse, and other depressed forms, as well as the 
Paguridae. And the stage in development of the antennae exhibits an ap- 
proximation to the Brachyura zoaea only in the first pair, while in all 
the other appendages the Macrura features prevail. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 203 

It would therefore necessitate, if the Anomura be excluded from its 
place in the classification of the Crustacea as a sub-order, as suggested by 
Claus, that it should go over to the Macrura as a whole, including the 
genera Dromia and Galathea. But it appears to me that if Claus' figures 
be those of Albunea (Crustacean Systems, PI. IX., figs. 1-10), as he thinks 
probable, the evidence is strongly in favour of the retention of the sub- 
order, for the broad fan-like telson is suggestive of an internal Anomurus 
structure. 

It would appear, therefore, the evidence is much in favour of the argu- 
ment that the development of Crustacea shows there is a group of zoaea 
between the two well-defined orders that exhibit features that belong to 
it, and are not common to the others ; and these features show an advance 
in the development of the crustacean embryo before it quits the ovum. 

The nearest form of crustacean life to the zoaea when it quits the ovum, 
appears in the young of Squilla, which has long been known by the name 
of Alima. The advancement in development is shown in the distinctly 
pedunculated character of the eyes ; in the articulated condition of the 
peduncle and the two distinct branches of the first pair of antennae ; in the 
character of the gnathopoda, which assumes a resemblance more dis- 
tinctly typical of the adult feature ; and in the advanced development 
of the four posterior pairs of pereiopoda. 

Alima is more advanced in development when it quits the egg than 
zoaea, but not so much so as the young of the genus Homarus, which is 
developed in what Claus and Fritz Miiller have named the Mysis stage ; 
that is, the appendages of the cephalon are well advanced towards their 
adult form, and those of the pereion carry a secondary branch, or ecphysis, 
attached to the third joint or ischium of each pair of pereiopoda. 

But in this last-named genus we find that some of the pleopoda are 
present ; and the curious phenomenon exists, that, while an enormous 
amount of development has gradually proceeded to such an extent that 
all the appendages are rapidly assuming the permanent type, those of 
the pleon, which in some genera are in advance of those of the pereion, 
in Homarus remains in abeyance, and appear not to have progressed 
beyond the zoasa stage. 

This curious fact is exemplified more decidedly in the genus Palinurus, 
where the pleon appears to be in a still more embryonic condition, while 
the cephalon and pereion are distinctly pronounced, in a parallel con- 
dition with that of Homarus, from which it differs most apparently in the 
length of the pereiopoda in Palinurus, and in the absence of the chelate 
character of the first pair of pereiopoda. 

In the young of Crangon boreas (Pbipps) — which naturalists have 
been divided in opinion as to whether it should be embraced in the same 
genus with Crangon vulgaris or not — the young is advanced in development 
beyond the condition of the zoaea as it is in Crangon vulgaris. It 
quits the ovum with all its appendages conspicuously advanced, whether 
they belong to the cephalon, pereion, or pleon. This we find to be also 
the case in the genus Thalascaris, an undescribed deep-sea genus belong- 
ing to the Challenger collection of Crangonidas. 

A still further advance is found in a form closely allied to Alphceus, 
that I believe has been recorded as a species, but which I described in 
the ' Transactions of the Royal Society' under the generic name of Homaral- 
phmus, on account of its resemblance in the adult form to Alphwus, and 
in its young to that of Homarus. 



204 report — 1878. 

A deep-sea genus, closely allied to that of Axius, that I have named 
Eiconaxius, taken during the Challenger cruise in the Eastern seas, 
has the same advanced condition of the embryo, and shows that the 
Megalopa stage exists not unfreqnently in marine Macrura, although we 
have previously had no evidence of it. 

The fresh- water genus Asia ens (PI. VI., fig. 5) and the land crab Gecar- 
cinus, long since made known to us, the former by Rathke, and the latter by 
Westwood, leave the ovum in the last stage, which is that of an approxi- 
mation of form to the adult animal, while it yet retains many features that 
exhibit incompleteness of development. This is most apparent in those 
parts which show a tendency to depart from the characteristics of the order 
to adapt themselves to constitutional requirements ; as, for instance, the 
adult Atyheus mostly lives in dark places under stones, groping in mud 
and in such like spots at the bottom of the sea at a few fathoms deep. 
To suit this condition of things, it is highly convenient to the animal that 
the eyes should be protected ; and since the peculiar habitat of the animal 
is that of dark holes, those in which the eyes are least improved by use 
are as suitable to its existence as others ; those which are protected and 
least liable to injury become the kind most adapted to survive. 

Thus it follows, that while the rest of the animal advances in growth 
the eyes remain in abeyance, and the anterior margin of the carapace 
extends beyond and overlaps them, thus affording protection, and by its 
tenuity admitting a sufficient amount of light for the purposes of the 
animal's requirements. Thus it appears that the development of Alphceus 
shows a relative retrograde character in the progress of the eyes to that 
of other parts. So again, in the comparison of the pleopoda in the 
Brachyura in the adult with those of the megalopa stage of the same 
animal, we find that of the younger framed upon a simple type adapted 
for swimming, while in the adult it is altered to suit other purposes — in 
the female to snpport the gravid ovum, and in the male those of the 
anterior to assist in copulation, while those of the posterior are more or 
less rendered obsolete in consequence of the absence of any duty to fulfil. 

The study of the several forms in which the embryo quits the ovum in 
Crustacea is, I believe, very instructive, as bearing on the tendency of 
variation of forms in adult animals. 

From the earliest forms to that of the most perfect, in which the 
brephalus quits the ovum, there is a series of stages in which the embryo 
appears ready to take upon itself the conditions of a free and independent 
animal. This capability does not appear to be connected with any par- 
ticular adult type, or conditions of existence, but exists in closely allied 
species and genera as well as in those that are extremely distinct : neither 
does it appear to bear any relation to the more or less advanced character 
of the several genera. 

The following list is the order of the various stages of development, 
when the brephalus quits the ovum, together with the adult form from 
which it is derived. 

1. Nauplius Euphausia (Metschuikoff), Penasus ? (F. Miiller.) 

2. Meta-naupliu9 None. 

3. Proto-zosea None. 

4. Zosea Brachyura, Anomura, and some Macrura. 

5. Phyllosoma Palinurus. 

6. Megalopa Astacus (Rathke), Gecarcinus (Westwood). 



ON OUK PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 205 

In this list the earliest or nauplius form belongs to Euphausia, or the 
lowest stage in the classification of the adult animal ; while the next 
stage, or zoaea condition, belongs to all the higher forms with the exception 
of one genus only among the Brachyura, and some of the Macrura. 
To these belong the phyllosoma and megalopa stages. 

Before we can conclude our report on the development of Crustacea, it is 
desirable that we should examine the earlier stages of the embryo, as well 
as the character of the various ova in relation to the adult forms. 

The eggs of Crustacea vary in size in different genera and sometimes in 
form, but not very much in this latter feature, never more than from 
round to oval and egg-shaped. But in size the vai'iation is greater, and 
this not in relation to the proportion of the animal ; for Palinurus, which 
is two feet long, has the ovum only one-quarter the size of that of Astacus, 
which is only three inches long. 

Some idea may be gathered by the following list of the diameter of the 
eggs of the animals that have been examined ; that are from the ovum 
of the fresh-taken animal and from specimens preserved in spirits. 



Crangon ^ 

Cr. boreas ...£ 
Homarus. 
Carcinus , 



V 



20 



Thalasscaris .. 




PaUernon 


i 






j_ 




r 


Willemsesia . 


JL_ 






1 i 



The ova are attached to the pleopoda of the mother in all forms of De- 
capod Crustacea by means of a membranous filament that varies in separate 
genera. In Palcemon, it is very thin and transparent, and differs from 
that of the Brachyura and other forms. It is not easy to determine its 
origin, but there are connected with it, as if incorporated in the structure, 
certain epithelial- like cells, that in form and appearance resemble those 
that Mr. Alfred Sanders has figured as living zoosperms belonging to 
Palcemon Squilla ; they are much larger and appear as if flattened, and 
absorbed into the surrounding structure, which spreads out to an ex- 
treme tenuity, and encompasses the entire ovum, which it holds and 
suspends. In some genera it is exceedingly slender and delicate, and 
easily ruptured ; in others it is strong, fibrous, and not easily broken. 

The observations that I have made have generally been on the most 
common forms that I could procure alive, such as Crangon, Palcemon, 
Homarus, Astacus, Palinurus, Portunus, Garcinus, and Cancer. The two 
first of these are very suitable for examination from the beautifully trans- 
parent nature of the vitellus ; while those of Homarus and Astacus afford 
advantages from their large size. 

The ovum is generally round, but in some species, as in Palcemon, they 
afterwards become somewhat oval. (PI. VII., fig. 1.) 

The yolk in most instances fills, or nearly fills, the egg : but in some 
cases, as described by Metschnikoff, there is a tolerable space between the 
membrane that encloses the vitellus and the chorion. This he states to 
be the case in the ova of Euphausia and Penceus, and I have observed 
that the same condition exists in the ovum of the genus Nika. This space 
is filled by a clear and slightly viscid fluid. At first the yolk consists of 
numerous minute cells, very uniform in size, that appear to have little or 
no cohesive property to each other. Taken separately, they appear to 
be tolerably transparent, but in the aggregate they assume a colour that 
is peculiar to each genus. In some the colour of the vitellus is grey, in 
others yellow, orange, brown, green, and purple. Shortly the mass of 



206 repobt — 1878. 

the vitellus appears to divide into larger masses, each mass being the con- 
gregation of a number of cells adhering together by compression, as if 
the cells had increased in size and with the increase enforced a correspond- 
ing pressure against each other ; each cell, moreover, contained within 
itself a number of smaller ones. 

The vitellus at a not very distant period becomes transparent, accord- 
ing to our observation, at one spot (PI. VII., fig. 2a) on the margin. 
When viewed laterally, it appears like a line of clear fluid near the chorion, 
while the cells of the vitellus that are in contact with it have become 
large and transparent, but tolerably even along its margin. This line 
extends along the surface and deepens towards the centre. Later and 
closer inspection shows that this transparent region extends to some 
depth below the surface, and continued examination demonstrates that 
it is progressive, so that the vitellus, while united at one point, is so 
deeply divided at the opposite, that it appears to cover the embryo on 
each side. Soon the cells appear to congregate together into lobes and 
film over with a skin of extreme tenuity ; but these lobes, a, b, c, upon 
inspection are repeated on each side, while a central one occupies a space 
between them, while another, more important, is also apparent in the 
same line ; all these are, at this stage, nearly equal in progressive de- 
velopment, the two central being perhaps the largest, certainly the longest. 
(PI. VII., fig. 3.) 

Soon after, three or four smaller lobes are seen to be formed in a con- 
tinuous line with the preceding marginal ones, at this early stage the last- 
named central lobe may be observed to divide into two equally prominent 
ones at its extremity. A little later and all the several lobes become 
clearly defined. The four latest pairs that appeared are less massive than 
the three previously existing pairs, and the whole, even at this early 
embryonic stage, may from their relative position and arrangement be 
detected in their connexion in the advanced embryo. (PI. VII., fig. 4.) 
The three pairs of lobes that were first brought into existence are more 
massive and globular in their appearance. They are marked a, b, c, in 
the figures, and very soon may be observed to assume definite forms. 
The first (a) is rather long and compressed. The second (b) globular 
at one extremity but apparently extended at the other ; while the third 
(c) is extended and bilobed at its extremity. Under a slight compres- 
sion these distinctions of form become readily appreciable to observation. 
It is within our power to determine with confidence at this early 
stage that these three pairs or sets of lobes occupy the position of the 
future organs (a) of vision and antennge (b and c). The great central lobes 
that separate them, and which in the decapoda approach each other, cor- 
respond, the one to the labrum, the other to the terminal extremity of the 
animal ; and the three or four smaller lateral lobes (d, e, f, g) that appear 
a little later correspond with the oral appendages of the future animal. 

Having ascertained in this incipient condition the relation of the first 
croup of three anterior pairs of lobes to the appendages of the adult 
animal, and observed how closely these lobes correspond with each other 
at first, and how they vary and become distinct from the succeeding, — 
a distinction that is suggestive of their being a separate group of append- 
age^ — leads to the conviction that they correspond with the three an- 
terior pairs of appendages in the earliest or nauplius form of Crustacea, as 
they exist in the brephahis of the Cirripedia. 

To strengthen this idea and give it demonstration, take the small dark 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 207 

spot that is considered to be an imperfect organ of vision. The oph- 
thalmic spot is visible at this period in the embryo. (PI. VII., fig. 5.) 

If we follow this examination throngh succeeding periods, we find the 
progression of the development of the embryo to be distinct and con- 
tinuous, and the changes important and reliable.- The small ophthalmic 
spot is present and the two central lobes are still in apposition, but have 
become more elongated. The first (a) of the lateral lobes has enlarged and 
become more massive and consolidated in structure. The second and 
third (b, c) have increased very considerably in length and lost the lobe- 
like appearance, putting on that of more extended appendages ; whereas 
those of the three succeeding pairs of lobes still retain their simple 
lobe-like character. (PI. VII., fig. 5.) 

The several parts are now becoming very distinguishable in their 
relation to the rest of the animal, and it is interesting as well as 
instructive to examine the nature of the structure in detail. 

The first or most anterior pair of lobes, a, meet together at the anterior 
extremity, at the union of which the ocular spot is visible, while they 
are separated at the opposite by the intervening central lobe which we 
have already determined to be the labrum (lb.) The entire mass differs from 
the other portions of the embryo by being of an opaline and less trans- 
parent appearance. It is formed by an aggregation of exceedingly minute 
cells that appear to cohere closely together ; these lobes appear to be con- 
tinuous with a great central mass that extends from one extremity of the 
animal to the other. Soon we perceive some pigment cells forming a small, 
dark, irregular stripe deep within the anterior lobes, a, and by its arrange- 
ment apparently separating off a portion of the great opaline mass. 
(PI. VII., fig. 5.) 

This stripe of pigment is the early or incipient condition of the great 
black cornea that is so conspicuous an object in all young Crustacea. 
At the same period, near the opposite extremity of the ovum a small 
and irregular pulsation may be observed. This is the position of the 
future heart. At first the pulsation is very slow, feeble, and irregular ; 
a small corpuscular body may be seen jerked forward and backward within 
a small sacular space or hollow, after unequal intervals of rest. After a 
time a solitary corpuscle is seen to burst through an opening in the walls 
of the sac. This at distant intervals is repeated, and after a time more 
frequently, until in a day or two the throb of the sac becomes more con- 
stant, the presence of the corpuscles more numerous, and the flow of 
them increasingly more regular and continuous. 

The vitellns has now decreased in size, but not to any very considerable 
extent externally, but is gradually decreasing internally. At the opposite 
extremity to the anterior lobes of the embryo, the margin of the vitellus 
may be observed as having broken into a series of very even cells 
(PI. VII., fig. 6), transparent in colour and regular in position, forming 
two or three very decided rows, until they gradually disappear in the 
undeveloped structure of the vitellus. 

The external surface of these several rows of transparent cells appears 
(PL VII., fig. 6) to be enclosed by a membrane of extreme tenuity, that 
is evidently connected with and forms the outer walls of the alimentary 
canal, al. The marginal cells appear to build up the fibrous structure of 
the walls, while certain small particles of granular waste (gw) matter fall 
into the central passage. Here they exist as foreign bodies of not any 
large amount, and lie enclosed within a cavity of their own makinc ; 



208 report — !878. 

within this cavity the small particles of opaque irregular granulose matter 
move forwards and backwards with an uneven movement corresponding 
to an irregular contraction of the walls of the alimentary canal. 

When this organism is so far advanced as to extend to the region beneath 
the heart, it exists continuously to the terminal extremity of the pleon, 
and the great dorsal artery, da, may be distinguished leading directly from 
the heart to the terminal extremity of the animal, just beneath the dermal 
surface of the embryo as it lies in close contact with the chorion of the 
egg. The heart lies just beneath the dorsal posterior extremity of the 
carapace, the posterior and lateral margin of which, mc, traverses the animal 
just behind the heart in a slightly waved line to the eye. The antennae 
have a distinctly appendicular appearance, and reach beyond the three 
or four succeeding pairs of lobes, and terminate, one, b, in a single pointed 
branch, the other, c, in two branches terminating in a serrated extremity. 

The oral appendages have not much departed from the lobular condi- 
tion, but three other pairs, which appeared behind them, have enlarged 
and are rapidly increasing and become double-branched. At the base of 
these appendages the great opaline mass, ng, may be seen extending, being 
apparently' doubled on itself, just behind the last pair exhibited, but in 
reality following the inflection of the ventral surface of the folded embryo. 
This continuous opaline mass may now readily be determined to be the 
embryonic condition of the nervous ganglia. m 

The several parts from this time rapidly and regularly progress in the 
development of their structure. The ophthalmic lobes gradually appear 
to increase in condensation, every cell exhibiting a distinct but not very 
opaque nucleus. The larger and rounder cells are nearer the periphery, 
those that are deeper become compressed into angular shapes, while 
those that are nearest the cornea arrange themselves in columnar 
masses, most distinct towards their base. 

The antennae lie folded backwards along the margin of the carapace. 
The mandible is directed inwards, and is invariably a single lobe, while 
the two succeeding oral appendages are bilobed, with a tendency to 
break up into more divisions. (PI. VII., fig. 7.) 

The development of the pleon is completed, as far as its external and 
internal parts are apparent, at the period when the development of the 
heart is advanced so that it is enabled to pulsate. The remainder of the 
period necessary for incubation appears to be devoted to the completion of 
the anterior appendages, and that of the internal viscera. (PI. VII., fig. 8). 

The vitellus is continuous with the development of the animal, and 
exists in an inverse ratio with that of the growth of the embryo. When 
it is entirely converted, the growing form has progressed as far as it is 
capable through internal forces. To add to its further development, it is 
necessary that it should obtain a fresh stimulus from agencies beyond its 
own organization. Its vitality has advanced as far as it is capable, and 
i f forces its way by the rupture of the egg-case into other conditions. 

As a free animal, the brephalus exists, as I have shown before, in 
various forms, which are probably dependent upon the length of time 
that the embryo remains in the ovum. For extended observation appears 
to demonstrate that it quits the ovum of various genera in almost every 
stage of its embryonic growth. 



ON THE EXAMINATION OF TWO CAVES NEAIt TENBY. 209 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate V. 

FlQ. 1. Nauplius (BrepTuilus) of Penaeus. (After Fritz Miiller.) 
„ 2. Metanauplius of Penaeus. (After Fritz Miiller.) 
„ 3. Protozoaea of same. (After Fritz Miiller.) 
„ 4. Nauplius (Brephalus) of Euphausia. (After Metschnikoff.) 
„ 5. Zoaea (Brephalus) of Macrura (Crangon rulgarit). 
„ 6. Zoaea (Brephalus) of Anomura (Galathea). 

Plate VI. 

Fiu. 1. Zoaea (Brephalus) of Anomura (Dromiafalax). 
„ 2. Zoaea (B)-epluilus) of Anomura (Porcellana longicornii). 
„ 3. Zoaea (Brcphalus) of Brachyura {Trapezia). 
„ 4. Zoaea (Brephalus) of Brachyura (Gelassimus). 
„ 5. Megalopa (Brephalus) of Macrura (Astacus JluviatiKs). 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Ovum of Palaemon recently excluded. 
„ 2. Ovum showing incipient stage of embryonic existence. 
„ 3. Ovum showing the presence of the three pairs of lobes that represent,'*, 

the eyes and, b, first and c, second, antennae : as well as the labium and 

caudal extremity. 
„ 4. Same still further advanced, with four pairs of lobes, d, e, f, g, added that 

represent the future oral appendages. 
„ 5. The same still further advanced, showing those which represent the 

future Gnathopoda, h and i. 
„ 6. Section showing the forming of the embryonic heart, ht, alimentary 

canal, al, and ventral nervous cord, ng. 
„ 7. Embryo approaching completion. 
,, 8. Embryo previous to quitting the ovum. 



Report of a Committee consisting of Professor Eolleston, Major- 
Greneral Lane Fox, Professor Busk, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Dr. 
John Evans, and Mr. F. Gr. Hilton Pbice, appointed for the pur- 
pose of examining Tivo Caves containing human remains, in the 
neighbourhood of Tenby. 

Operations were commenced in the way of the exploration of the " Little 
Hoyle " Cave, Longbury Bank, parish of Penally, near Tenby, on Monday, 
July 22, 1878, and were continued during that week and upon the 
ensuing Monday. 

It will be well to begin our report by a summary of the results which 
we have attained, and in the second place to give in detail the facts upon 
which our general conclusions have been based. 

The two caves which we here examined are contained in a peninsula of 
mountain-limestone known as " Longbury Bank," bounded on either side 
by a valley which unites with its fellow at the bluffly-ending N.E. ex- 
tremity of the " bank." If we compare the levels hereinafter given with 
the facts spoken to by the raised beaches along this coast, and by other 
observations we cannot doubt that Longbury Bank was once, and that 
in no very remote geological period, washed on either side by the sea, 
and presented much the same general appearance as some of the still so- 
1878. p 



210 ; ' REPORT— 1878. 

conditioned banks in the neighbourhood of Pembroke. Of the two caves 
examined by us, one contained no objects of special interest, and the other 
had been previously investigated by other explorers, viz., the Rev. H. H. 
Win wood, of Bath (see ' Cave Hunting,' by Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
E.R.S., p. 133, and ' British Mammalia,' Memoirs Pakeont. Society, 1878, 
p. xxii.), and Mr. Edward Laws, of Tenby (see ' Journal of Anthropo- 
logical Institute,' August 1877). A very considerable segment, however, of 
this latter cave had been left unexamined, and it has been by the ex- 
amination of this undisturbed portion of the cave, and by the clearing 
out and investigation of the contents of all the rest of the cave, and 
comparison of them with the specimens previously obtained and most 
liberally put at our disposal for this purpose by Mr. Edward Laws, that 
we have been able to come to the following results. 

The cave in question, known in the neighbourhood as " Little Hoyle," 
in contradistinction to a much larger cavern close by, known as " Hoyle's 
Mouth," may be divided roughly into two main segments, one beginning 
with a large mouth opening northwards, and extending from that mouth in 
a direction S. and with a sharp slope upwards up to a point distant 25 feet 
from the mouth ; the other of about 16 feet in length, dipping downwards 
from that point in a S.E. direction, to communicate by a narrow hole with 
a wide cave rnouth on the S.E. side of the bank in which bones of man, 
bear, and ox had been previously found by Mr. Laws. This second 
segment of the cave had underlaid one of those " initiatory areas of 
depression," to use the phraseology of the late Professor Phillips (see 
' Report of British Association,' Bath Meeting, 1864, p. 63-64), which 
ultimately lead, and here had led, to the breaking-in of the cave's roof, 
and which might here be spoken of in the phraseology of the county as a 
" sink " or " soaker." It was filled up to a depth of nearly 10 feet with 
fragments of limestone, and made earth containing bones of men, domestic 
animals, foxes, rabbits, and oyster and limpet shells. "We may speak of 
it hereafter as the " segment of depression." 

This " segment of depression " had been scarcely touched by any ex- 
plorers previously to ourselves. The longer segment of the cave, opening 
northwards, may be spoken of as the " north cave ; " and a comparatively 
low diverticulum 16 feet long, branching off from it to the east, and 
widening from 3 feet to 10 feet for about 9 feet of its length, we may 
speak of as the " east chamber." This last we found by means of smoke 
to communicate through a narrow flue, with a small flat surface near the 
top of bank, which was potentially an "area of depression," but had 
actually been a fox-earth. Having in mind the levels and communications 
of the several parts of this cave, and considering in connection with them 
the relative proportions and conditions in which the contents of the 
cave, viz., (1) breccia and stalagmite, (2) red cave-earth, (3) black earth 
mixed with angular stones, (4) worked flint and other implements, 
(5) fragments of pottery, (6) ashes, and (7) bones of men and of beasts, 
pleistocene and other, found in the different segments of the cave, we are, 
on the whole, of opinion that though the main or north portion of the 
cave was used by man for purposes of habitation in times at least as 
early as those in which the brown bear (Ursus Arctos) was still living in 
this country, the part of the cave in which the greater part of human 
remains were found, viz., the "segment of depression," has come to con- 
tain those remains simply by the falling in of its roof, and of a burial- 
place which had existed over it whilst it was yet only an " initiatory area 



ON THE EXAMINATION OF TWO CAVES NEAR TENBY. '211 

of depression." We are farther of opinion that at no geologically recent 
time previous to that of onr clearing out of the cave can any very free 
intercommunication have existed between these two portions of it, at least 
at times when they were above the level of the sea ; for the traces, at least 
those which are unmistakeable and unambiguous, of its habitation at one 
time by man and at another by pleistocene animals, are confined to its north- 
ern portion, which it is difficult to think they would have been if its two 
portions had been in open communication with each other ; though the 
north cave is intrinsically as at present, and must have been always, better 
suited for the purpose in question. We have not found any evidence in 
this cave of man's having been a contemporary of the extinct pleistocene 
animals. The remains indeed of these animals themselves consist mainly 
of comparatively small fragments, and are representative merely of much 
larger quantities which were washed out of it by the sea in some later 
occupancies of its interior, or may have been otherwise removed. 

There can be little doubt that, though man used the " north cave " for 
purposes of habitation, the area above the south part of it was not used 
•except for purposes of interment. Otherwise, more relics of the articles 
for daily use in life would have been found in that segment. But we have 
no evidence to show that the first use of the " north cave " for habitation 
may not have been even long anterior in date to the first use of the other 
area for interment. 

Nearly all the human bones, whether of the skull, limbs, or trunk, 
which were found by us in this cave, came from the previously undisturbed 
space in the " segment of depression ; " some few, however, were found 
externally to the north entrance of the cave, and must, ex hypothesi above 
stated, have been passed down the whole length of the slope constituted 
by the " north cave." Nearly all, again, of the human skull-bones found 
by Mr. Edward Laws (' Journal Anth. Institute,' Aug. 1877) were lying 
close together, near the southern extremity of the north cave, where its 
upward sloping floor reaches its summit and becomes continuous with 
that of the "segment of depression." In other words, nearly all the human 
bones found in this cave were in positions into which they might, as the 
sections show, have been thrown or rolled if they had been lying on the 
roof of the " segment of depression/' when that roof fell in, and, as the depth 
from the present natural surface round the "segment of depression" down 
to the red cave-earth at the bottom of it may be taken as being from 
12 to 14 feet, we have here a fall sufficient to account at once for the frag- 
mentary condition of the human and other bones found in this space, and 
for the space over and within which they were distributed or dispersed. 
Ex hypothesi, these bones would be showered down upon a watershed-like 
line of demarcation between the "north cave" and the "segment of 
depression," and scattered in either direction much as is the sand in an 
inverted hour-glass. In some cases a few bones such as the upper cervical 
vertebras and some of the cranial bones would retain their natural rela- 
tions of apposition, especially at the circumference under the cave walls ; 
in others they would be widely separated ; and the long bones would 
in almost every case be broken into longer or shorter segments. This 
was actually the state of the case ; a state not explicable on the hypothesis 
of their having been introduced, as bones must so often be held to have 
been, by water-carriage, to say nothing of the impossibility of the feeding- 
ground, represented by the upper surface of the bank having been large 
enough to furnish sufficient water for such flotation. 

p2 



212 report— 1878. 

We are not aware that this explanation of the presence of human bones 
mixed with those of domesticated animals in a cave by the gradual or 
sudden descent into it of such bones from a superimposed interment is 
necessitated by the phenomena of any other cave ; it is obvious enough, 
however, that the concave surface presented by an " initiatory area of 
depression " would be very likely to suggest itself as a convenient site 
for such a purpose to any race of men who might be sufficiently free at 
once from the conventionalities of civilised life, and from the superstitions 
of savage life, and might be glad to take an easy way of burying their 
dead out of their sight. It must also be plain that no mode of burial, 
whether practised by civilised or by savage men, would by itself account 
for the scattering through so many (12-13) feet in depth of so many 
human bones, of so many (9-11) individuals, and this in the absence of 
any undisturbed burial of an entire skeleton or of a burnt body. 

If the hypothesis of a number of interments having been let down into 
the "depression segment" will account for the presence of human bones in 
that portion of the Longbury Bank Cave, the great abundance of certain 
domesticated animals, viz., of the goat and cow, and the presence of 
the pig and horse, as also of edible shell- fish — limpets, oysters, and 
winkles — in smaller quantities, in the northern or larger portion of the 
cave, as also the discovery in it and upon its natural floor of the ashes of 
a fire-place, must be taken to prove that the main portion of the cave 
was used as a human habitation. Some little weight, but not very much, 
may also be given to the fact that of the few fragments of pottery and 
bone implements found inside the cave, all were found either in this part 
of the cave or on the surface elsewhere ; and that of the worked stone im- 
plements, all but the single specimen found in the " depression segment " 
came also from the north cave. It would have been strange if this cave had 
not been employed for purposes of habitation by some one or more of the 
tribes of the neighbourhood, who must have become acquainted with it in 
some one or more of the periods in which it was, owing to one of the up- 
heavals which have taken place along this coast, left as comparatively dry 
and commodious as it is at present. The easily available upward sloping 
entrance, admitting of refuse being got rid of without much trouble, 
and the height of the roof of this portion of the cave as well as the very 
considerable " floor space " free from stalagmitic drip which it must 
always since the glacial period have possessed in seras of upheaval, put 
this portion of the cave at great advantage for dwelling purposes as com- 
pared with the " segment of depression." And this advantage appears 
to have made itself evident to the pleistocene lower animals, as well as to 
neolithic and later man. For though some not inconsiderable amount of 
pleistocene remains, notably bones gnawed by hyaenas, fragments of 
teeth of rhinoceros, and large if not always identifiable fragments from 
the large bones of that or other animals of similar bulk, were found in 
the north cave ; these animals were not represented elsewhere in the 
cave. Further, it is highly probable that the north cave and the segment 
of depression may at all previous periods have been connected by but a 
small passage, the fragments from the roof broken off by the glacial cold 
or by the shocks of earthquakes having been accumulated in a great mass 
on the water-shed-like line of demarcation between them, and so having 
rendered access from the one to the other difficult. The opening of the 
north cave into the segment of depression is, from the top of the arch of the 
cave down to the natural bottom, five feet in height; and on the east side of 



ON THE EXAMINATION OF TTYO CAVES NEAR TENBY. 213 

the opening there stands a mass of stalagmitic breccia three feet in height, 
And debris may very probably have been piled up in this place to a still 
higher level than this. A fissure in the junction of the two parts of the 
cave which still exists may have furnished an easy route for their descent. 
It is of importance to note that the two portions of the cave appear to 
have differed in function both in earlier and later times. The bones of 
the pleistocene animals found in this cave were limited strictly to the 
northern portion of it ; the same may be said of the ashes, and, with the 
exception constituted by a single worked flint, of the implements of man's 
manufacture ; and in this portion of the cave, whilst a very large quantity 
of the bones of domesticated animals was found, only a few human bones 
were discovered, the number of which is not greater than what the 
scattering northwards and downwards which the falling in of the roof 
of the depression segment, subsequently eked out by occasional causes 
such as the interference of men or of burrowing animals, foxes, 
rabbits, and badgers would adequately account for. On the other hand, 
whilst the majority of all the human bones were discovered within or imme- 
diately adjacent to the periphery of the segment of depression, the bones 
of domesticated animals found within it were not more in number than 
might be accounted for by the hypothesis of their having been th^ relics 
of funeral feasts, a view which their being intermingled with the human 
remains, as they would be if accumulated at successive interments, tends 
to confirm. 

It may, indeed, be considered a matter for surprise that any pleistocene 
bones or teeth were left in the cave when we consider its level and the 
slopes of its floor ; but the few that were left, and its possible exposure 
to the denuding influences of a pluvial period, it may be seen, might be 
preserved from being washed out by lodgment in the pockets and an- 
fractuosities along the sinuous walls of the cave. 

With reference to the period at which the owners of the human re- 
mains may be supposed to have lived, whether in the Stone, the Bronze, 
or the Iron age, the existence of the sunken forest at Westward Ho, on 
the opposite side of the Bristol Channel, forbids us to forget that it may 
have very well been some time later than the commencement of the 
neolithic period when the sea last encroached upon and overwhelmed 
areas in this district tenanted by stone-using men. And as such an 
invasion would have left the contents of this cave in a very different 
state from that in which we found them, even though no traces of 
raetal of any kind were found inside any part of this cave, we must 
not suppose that we are justified in placing the date either of the men 
buried above or of the men who inhabited this cave far back in that 
period. But further. Two of the pieces of pottery found, either inside or 
in the talus just outside the north cave, appeared to be of the same style 
as one which was found in a round barrow, containing a cremation urn 
and burnt bones and flint chips, on the Ridgeway Hill, immediately 
above the Longbury Bank ; and this may be supposed to suggest, though 
it by no means proves, that the Longbury Bank cave-inhabitants were, 
like the Ridgeway tumulus builders, of the Bronze age. Thirdly, in the 
talus outside the north entrance, a spindle whorl made out of the bottom 
of a jar of Samian ware, like two found in Dowker Bottom cave, in 
Yorkshire (see Professor Boyd Dawkins's ' Cave Hunting,' p. 113), was 
found ; and half of a saucer-shaped vessel of the same material showing 
signs of ornamentation was found on the surface of the area of depres- 



214 repokt— 1878. 

sion by Mr. Laws, lying by a piece of iron slag, the only piece of metal- 
work found in or near this cave. Now these specimens would bring the 
date of the inhabitation of the cave, if they had been found in situ within 
it, down to a period as late as that in which the inhabitants had oppor- 
tunities at least of procuring articles of Roman manufacture. There is 
other evidence to show that the date of the burials on the roof of this 
cave may have been no earlier than such a date ; but the finding of this 
piece of pottery in the externally placed talus does not absolutely prove 
the date of its being inhabited to have been so. But as regards the rela- 
tive age of the human interments and of the human habitation of this 
cave, it is of cardinal importance to note that two thin, flattish, fine- 
grained red fragments of apparently Romano-British pottery were found, 
in company with the human bones, deep down in the " depression seg- 
ment." No other articles of human manufacture, however, except one 
worked flint, though many remains of domestic animals, were found with 
them. Still, it is difficult to think that these fragments were not of the 
same date as the human bones found with them. On the other hand, in 
the north cave and on the natural bottom, known locally as " Rabb," 
were found the ashes and fire-place already spoken of; and in the red 
cave-earth, just inside the mouth of the north cave and beneath the black 
mould, were found a flint chip, a horn-stone scraper, and a bone needle, 
the juxtaposition of which is not without significance. 

The finding of the remains of several dogs, one old and several young 
ones, so closely mixed up with the human remains at the line of commu- 
nication between the north cave and the segment of depression as to 
suggest that the two sets of remains had been buried and had fallen down 
together, and also the finding of a worked flint, and the absence of metal 
in that segment, are phenomena usual or universal in neolithic interments. 
But they have been all observed in interments even of the iron age. 

On the other hand, the finding of the bones of the brown bear (JJrsus 
Arctos) in the black mould of the north cave, and notably also in the east 
chamber, in company with, and similarly conditioned as to colour and 
preservation to, the bones of man and of domestic animals, appears to 
show with some probability that these latter remains should not take date 
later than at least the time, about 900 years back, when this bear ceased 
to infest Wales. 

We have, then, in the stone and bone implements found in the north 
portions of this cave some tolerable evidence to the effect that it was 
inhabited by man in probably late neolithic times. And whilst the 
pottery found in the "depression segment," in company with the human 
bones, appears to show that they, or, at any rate, the immense majority 
of them, cannot be referred to an earlier than the Romano-British period, 
the remains of the bear give us a certain datum line of at least 900 years 
distance away from us as the latest period to which they can with any 
probability be referred. 

We append a short summary of the results obtained from examina- 
tion of all the bones obtained from this cave, whether obtained by Mr. 
Edward Laws or ourselves, after they had been washed, cleaned, and 
otherwise prepared. 

Some 160 or so fragments of bones and teeth referable either to 
rhinoceros or elephant were found scattered throughout the northern 
segments of the cave. We have not been able to find that they were in 
positions apart from the other bones of more recent date, and usually of 



ON THE EXAMINATION OF TWO CAVES NEAR TENBY. 215 

different textural condition, belonging to domestic animals, to man, and 
to certain ferce naturae still existing either in Great Britain or in Conti- 
nental Europe which will be next specified. The steep slope of the part 
of the cave in which they were found would render the disturbance of 
them, and the interminglement of them with subsequent importations an 
easy matter, whether the disturbing agent was the sea in a period of 
subsidence, or rain in a pluvial period, or, finally, man himself in his 
successive occupations of the cave. 

No remains of hyaenas were found by us amongst these palaeolithic 
bones ; but the marks of gnawing, which are conspicuous enough npon 
many of these bones, are so closely similar to those produced by the 
teeth of this carnivore elsewhere, that it is difficult to think they are 
not to be ascribed to it ; and the more so as in other caves in this dis- 
trict the hyaena is very abundantly represented both by bones and by 
album grcecum. 

Most of the bones referable to the mammoth or rhinoceros are spongy 
and waterworn ; some combining the traces of gnawings with those of 
waterwear. Some, on the other hand, have received much accession to 
their weight and solidity, and have also become curiously polished on 
their exterior by exposure to calcareous drip. 

In the north cave and in its eastern diverticulum the remains of bear,, 
roe, red deer, eagle, and black grouse were found, all being animals 
which, without being extinct in Europe, or being foreign in strictness of 
language to this part of it, would yet not be very likely to find their way 
into this care in the present day. Of the bear species, Ursus Arctos, three 
individuals are represented by the bones and teeth found here. 

Throughout the length and breadth of the cave, from its communica- 
tion with the south cave to its northern opening, and in the talus lying 
outside this opening, were found bones of domesticated animals, goat, 
small ox, dog, pig. In the talus outside the north entrance some pelvic 
bones were found, which I think are sheep and not goat bones. In the 
same locality a nearly perfect skull of a goat was found. Some of the 
domesticated animal bones appear to have been but of recent date, but a 
great number bear marks in the way of weathering and of staining of a 
very considerable antiquity. They represent breeds of small size. 

The horse is, though but scantily, represented in the collection from 
Longbury Cave ; and the wild boar we have failed to recognise here. 

The badger's, the fox's, and the rabbit's abound among the bones col- 
lected here. The fox's represent a small variety. 

As regards the human remains, the great majority of them were found in 
the segment of depression or in the southward termination of the north cave 
immediately adjoining and continuous with it. Most of the human bones 
found by Mr. Laws were in the latter locality ; most of those found by 
us were found in the former ; but, either by Mr. Laws' or by us, human 
bones or teeth were, though but in very small numbers, found in every 
part of the cave, not excluding even the south cave. The numbers of 
the several sets of fragmentary human bones may be given with some 
approach to accuracy as follows : — In the entire cave, exclusive of the 
depression segment, about 150 fragments of more or less perfect human 
bones were found ; from the depression segment alone about 350 frag- 
ments were collected ; into the talus outside the north entrance some 
6 to 10 fragments of a child and of an adult had found their way ; a human 
tooth was found in the east cave ; and a piece of a skull and of a lower 



216 heport— 1878. 

jaw were found in the mouth of the south cave. ' These numbers of 
course very strongly support the view that these bones fell in from a 
burial place corresponding to the segment of depression ; and that the 
accident inseparable from such a tumbling down, and the subsequent 
scattering inseparable from the presence of the burrowings of badgers and 
foxes, account for the scattering of the comparatively insignificant num- 
ber of bones found at any great distance from that area. It is instructive 
also to put on record the fact that whilst a larger number of calvarial 
bones was found in the depression segment, which we suppose to have 
underlaid the place of interment of the human remains, than in all the 
rest of the entire cave, only three more or less fragmentary lower jaws 
were found in company with them ; whilst by Mr. Laws five mQre or less 
nearly complete lower jaws were found in the north, and a large frag- 
ment of a sixth in the south cave. The palaeontologist will find the fre- 
quency of the separation of the lower jaw from the rest of the cranium, 
with which he is so familiar, illustrated by this fact. 

We have absolute proof in the nine lower jaws just spoken of that 
no less than nine human beings have their skeletons represented in the 
collection made from this cave. Two fragmentary representatives of 
lower jaws found — one in the talus outside the north entrance, the other 
in the middle of the north cave— correspond probably to two other 
skeletons, but it is just possible that they may be parts of some one or 
other of the nine demonstrably distinct mandibles. Of these nine indi- 
viduals, no less than five were males in or beyond the middle period of 
life, one belonged to a woman in late life, one to a person about the age of 
puberty, with the wisdom tooth as yet uncut, one to a child with the first 
two molars just cut, one to a child with none but the milk teeth in 
place. 

Three more or less perfect calvaria have been reconstructed out of 
the remains collected by Mr. Laws and ourselves ; one from the cranial 
bones found in the north cave, two from those found in the depression 
segment. All of the crania are dolichocephalic ; and one, a male skull, 
that which came from the north cave, " mecistocephalic," in Professor 
Huxley's language, with a cephalic index of 69, and with the pear-shaped 
contour when viewed from above, due to rapid tapering from the level of 
the parietal tubera forwards, which has so often been spoken of since 
the writings of Professor Daniel Wilson as characteristic of many skulls 
from the earliest sepultures of Great Britain. There is no doubt that 
this is a very ancient form of skull, but the well-known tenacity and per- 
sistence of such ancient forms forbids us to use it as an evidence as to 
date. Of the other two, one belonged undoubtedly to a man, the other 
to a woman ; and neither, though dolichocephalic, are exaggeratedly 60, 
as is the case with the first-named of the three. 

The long bones are all more or less fragmentary ; they do not pre- 
sent any peculiarities specially worthy of notice ; the femora have not their 
linece asperce greatly developed, though in one or two the upper portion of 
the shaft is somewhat flattened from before backwards in the origin of 
the insertion of the glutaeus maximus ; the tibia? are not platycnemic ; and 
neither these nor any other of the bones give the notion of their owners 
being much above or below the average size and height. In a word, 
they have not the peculiarities of prehistoric bones. The human bones 
present much the same appearance as to staining, wear and tear, and 
weathering as the bones of bear and of domesticated animals found with 



ON THE PHENOMENA OF STATIONARY TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 217 

them. All three sets of bones alike differ from those belonging to the 
palaeolithic period found here in being, except in a few instances, free 
from interstitial calcareous deposit, and from marks of gnawing except by- 
recent rodents. 

In one instance, some human bones were found imbedded in reddish- 
white breccia. This breccia had been formed in several places along the 
east wall of the north into masses about 3 feet to 3| feet in height, which 
stood out against the wall like brackets. One of these, just 15 feet from 
the north entrance, had embedded on its upper surface, which was about 
3 feet 10 inches above the natural floor of the cave, the lower ends of 
two human femora, which thus came to occupy just such a position as 
they would be likely to do if picked up from the floor by some human 
inhabitant who was incommoded by their presence and placed on the top 
of the shelf-like bracket which was in the process of being added to by 
drip. With these two human bones are concreted some bones of frogs 
or toads, and at a depth of one foot a humerus of a roe, Cervus capreolus, was 
found similarly embedded. It is of importance to note that these brackets 
of breccia do not seem to be remnants of a floor which has disappeared from 
between the side- walls of the cave ; no corresponding deposits at least ai-e 
observable along the opposite wall on the west side, and, as is well known, 
the stalagmite-forming drip, being regulated by the conformation of the 
limestone, is very often anything but symmetrically arranged. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Mr. W. Froude, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain 
Douglas G-alton, and Mr. James N. Shoolbred {Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the 
Phenomena of the Stationary Tides in the English Channel and 
in the North Sea ; and of representing to the Government of 
Portugal and the Governor of Madeira, that, in the opinion of 
the British Association, Tidal Observations at Madeira or other 
islands in the North Atlantic Ocean would be very valuable, 
ruith the vieiv to the advancement of our knowledge of the tides 
in the Atlantic Ocean. 

The Committee beg to report that last year the French Association 
for the Advancement of Science, at their Meeting at Havre, which took 
place subsequently to that at Plymouth, having had the subject of these 
simultaneous tidal observations in the English Channel and in the North 
Sea brought before them by the Secretary of the Committee, cordially 
approved of the intended action of this Committee, and resolved to urge 
upon the French Government that any observations required upon the 
French coast should be undertaken by its engineers. 

At the commencement of the present year, the French Government 
undertook to do this, in accordance with a programme of simultaneous 
observations, approved of by the Chairman of the Committee. 

The Belgian Government likewise offered its co-operation at Ostend ; 
and in Holland the observations were kindly undertaken by the authorities 



218 kepokt— 1878. 

at the month of the North Sea Canal and at Flushing ; while on this side 
of the Channel, extending from Portland to Yarmouth, the port and other 
authorities at the points selected also undertook the duties of making 
the necessary observations. 

The results have not yet been all received, and they are not in a suffi- 
ciently forward state to be presented at this meeting. 

In consequence of the great importance of accurate permanent tidal 
records at Dover being available, the Chairman of the Committee urged 
upon the Warden of the Cinque Ports, Lord Granville, that a self- 
registering tide gauge should be erected at Dover ; a proposal which met 
with his Lordship's cordial approval and support. 

The Board of Trade have further consented to grant a suitable site for 
the erection of a self-registering gauge on the Admiralty Pier, and have 
undertaken to defray the cost thereof. 

The exact form best adapted to the place is at present under considera- 
tion, but it is confidently hoped that before long a self-registering tide 
gauge will be permanently at work at this very important locality. 

The subject of tidal observations at Madeira was brought under the 
notice of H.M. Government by the Chairman of the Committee. 

A communication has lately been received from the Foreign Office, 
saying that H.M. Minister at Lisbon, having urged the matter upon the 
Portuguese Government, " has received the assurance that it will gladly 
adopt the suggestion of the British Association and establish a tidal gauge 
at Funchal." 

In consequence of the results of the tidal observations already under- 
taken not being iu a sufficiently advanced state for presentation at this 
meeting, the Committee request to be reappointed, and also that .£10 be 
placed at their disposal. 

Appendix. 

Board of Trade, (Harbour Department), 
Whitehall Gardens, S.W., July 11th, 1878. 

Sir, — With reference to a letter, dated the 31st May last, addressed 
to this department by Sir William Thomson, LL.D., in his capacity of 
Chairman of the Committee of the British Association, " on Tidal Observa- 
tions in the English Channel, &c," calling attention to the want of a 
tide gauge at Dover, and enquiring whether the Board of Trade would be 
disposed to undertake the expense of placing a continuous self-recording 
instrument at the Government pier, where there is already a tide- well, I 
am directed to acquaint you that this Board have received the sanc- 
tion of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury to the 
expenditure for this purpose of a sum not exceeding one hundred and five 
pounds (£105) (the estimated cost as given by Sir W. Thomson), and I 
am to state that your Committee are at liberty to take the necessary 
steps for fixing the gauge. 

I am to add that Mr. Druce, the Resident Engineer and Officer of 
this Board at Dover, has been instructed to give such facilities in the 
matter as he is able to afford. 

I am, Sir, . 

Your obedient servant, 

C. Cecil Teevoe. 

J. N. Shoolbred, Esq., 

3 Westminster Chambers, S.W. 



ON INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SPEED OF SHIPS. 219 

Foreign Office, August 9th, 1878. 
g IK> — "With reference to my letter of the 7th inst., I am directed 
by the Marquis of Salisbury to transmit to you herewith a copy of a 
telegram which has been received from Her Majesty's Minister at 
Lisbon on the subject of the establishment of a tidal gauge at 
Funchal. 

I am, Sir, 
Tour most obedient, humble servant, 

Julian Pauncefote. 

J. N. Shoolbred, Esq., 

3 Westminster Chambers. 

(Mr. Morier to Lord Salisbury.') 

Lisbon, August 9th, 1878, 1.18 p.m. 
I have received the assurance that the Portuguese Government 
will gladly adopt the suggestion of the British Association and establish 
a tidal gauge at Funchal. The official note on the subject cannot be 
sent for some days, as Senhor Corro is absent. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir 
William Thompson, Major-General Strachet, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, 
and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of considering the Datum-level of the Ordnance Survey of Great 
Britain, with a view to its establishment on a surer foundation 
than hitherto, and for the tabulation and comparison of other 
Datum-marks. 

The Committee, in their Report of last year, dealt with the question 
of some uncertainties which existed as to the position of the 
Ordnance datum-level, and of its relative position to other local datum- 
marks in Liverpool. On the present occasion the Committee beg to report 
that a list of local datum-marks, and the connexion of each with the 
Ordnance datum, is in course of preparation. They beg to be reappointed, 
with the grant of £10 (not drawn) to enable them to complete the list 
of local datum-marks. 



Report of the Committee on Instruments for Measuring the Speed 
of Ships, consisting of Mr. W. Froude, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, 
Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunel, 
Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), Professor James Thomson, and 
Professor Sir William Thomson. 

The Committee regret to say, that the Chairman has been unable 
to complete the second series of experiments with the several instru- 
ments for measuring the speed of ships. 

The Committee therefore beg to be reappointed, and that the grant 
of £50 (which has not been drawn) be renewed. 



220 report— 1878. 



Report of a Committee appointed for the purpose of further de- 
veloping the investigations into a Common Measure of Value in 
Direct Taxation, the Committee consisting of the Right Hon. J. Gr. 
Hubbard, M.P., Mr. Chadwick, M.P.* Mr. Morlet, M.P., Dr. 
Farr, Sir George Campbell, M.P., Mr. Hallett, Prof. Jevons, 
Mr. Newmarch, Mr. Shaen, Mr. Macneel Caibd, Mr. Stephen 
Bourne, Prof. Leone Levi, Mr. Hetwood, and Mr. Hallett (Sec.) 

I. Your Committee presented to the British Association a first Report 
of the results of their inquiry on this subject in 1876. In this inquiry, 
following ordinary usage, they took income as the basis of their examina- 
tion. They found, however, that in sundry jiroposed systems of common 
valuation and assessment on this basis, incomes were sometimes considered 
in themselves independently, sometimes in relation also to their owners. 
The first consideration was directed to the real nature and constitution of 
income, as the annual value, product, profits, or receipts of, or from, 
some given source, whether land, labour, or capital. The other considera- 
tion was directed to the income's relation to personal circumstances, or 
in other words, to the owner's position in the scale of riches and poverty 
.as determined by his possession. Assessment on the former principle 
would vary with the positive value of the income, on the latter it would 
vary with the value of the income qualified by the individual condition of 
the owner — his individual tenure for example or his individual necessities. 
£1,000 a year from land held on a short tenure or subject to large family 
claims, would on the latter view be differently assessable to the same 
income held on a long tenure or not subject to these claims, whilst on 
the former and sounder view the two assessments would be the same. 
The Committee in dealing with the subject referred to them, confine their 
attention to the income's positive value. Positive value is the professed 
Tjasis of the present Income Tax, and were it possible to adjust an Income 
Tax to differences of individual tenure and necessities, as well as to 
differences of positive value, some uniform method of comparing and 
measuring the positive values of incomes would still be essential. It is 
impossible to estimate the relative effect of incomes upon different in- 
dividuals without first knowing their values considered in themselves. 

II. But the equal assessment of incomes according to positive value 
demands a common measure of value, and legislation, in the absence of 
such common measure, must act on a mere nominal equality which often 
involves it in a real and gross injustice. £1,000 a year from perishing 
labour, — that for instance of a barrister or physician, — is taxed equally 
with £1,000 a year from permanent land. The question then presented 
itself, " how does the difference between nominal equality and true equality, 
or as it might be called, the difference between nominal income and true 
income arise, and how is it expressible ? " The Committee considered 
that this difference was universally resolvable into the extent to which 
the production of an income involved the expenditure of its source's 
value. Labour, land, houses, and other great sources of income, are 
more or less consumed, impaired, or diminished — some more, some less, — 
in producing income, and this varying diminution in the source's value 
appears as a more or less enlarged income and makes it of more or less 
nominal worth. Such nominal income is in fact a mere mixture of true 



ON A COMMON MEASURE OF VALUE IN DIRECT TAXATION. 221 

income and source's outgoings, and the more the source is impaired in 
value, the larger is the proportion of these outgoings in its composition, 
whilst the greater also will be its nominal excess above true income. 
From these considerations the Committee arrived at the following simple 
rule of general application : — " Deduct from the income as at present 
returned the outgoings that belong to its production, and the remainder 
will be its taxable amount." 

III. Under such a rule, taxable income would not as at present be 
land-rent, house-rent, labour-wages, &c, but land-rent minus land- 
outgoings, house-rent minus house-outgoings, labour-wages minus 
labour-outgoings, &c. These outgoings are for the most part the 
sequels of productive wear, tear, and depreciation, involving cost of 
repairs, maintenance, or replacement either of the source itself or of its 
value. By their deduction the source's value considered as a capital or 
principal, is maintained unimpaired, and the income left which would 
always bear the same relation to source that interest bears to principal, 
was called the source's "interest value," and was adopted as the common 
measure of assessment. The plan of the Committee might indeed be 
shortly summed up as the conversion of sources and incomes generally 
to the form of principal and interest by uniform deduction of source's 
outgoings, and might be indifferently denned as, " Taxation of the 
Interest value," "Non-taxation of the Principal value as Income," 
"Exemption of Essential Outgoings," three equivalent expressions, each 
one absolutely involving the other. 

IV. Incomes in their positive or source aspect as the object of direct 
assessment and interest value as the assessment's common measure — 
such are then the chief conclusions of the last Report. In the present 
inquiry, keeping this object and this measure distinctly in mind, and keep- 
ing clear of all purely personal aspects, whether those of personal tenure 
or of personal necessities, the Committee propose to determine more fully 
the method and practicability of applying this measure to the chief cases 
of actual Income and to append an approximate schedule of results. 

V. The rule of procedure in general is evidently that already given 
for finding interest value, viz., " Deduct from the income as at present 
returned all the outgoings that belong to its production," or speaking 
independently of the Income Tax and its returns : " Deduct from the 
total receipts of any given source, the total cost of producing them, and 
the difference will be its interest value on taxable income." This being 
the rule, all that will be necessary for its particular application will be a 
knowledge of the receipts, and a knowledge of the outgoings or costs in 
each case in question. What are the costs to which land, houses, and 
mines are naturally subject in producing rents and royalties ? What 
are the costs to which ships, machinery, horses, cattle, vehicles, trade 
fixtures and furniture, railways, mills, and manufactories, in a word 
capital whether fixed or circulating, are subject in producing profits ? 
What are the costs to which labour, whether of offices, of professions, or 
of trades is subject in producing salaries, fees, or wages ? These costs 
consist as before stated of the source's outgoings through work, wear, 
and tear, and through depreciation in value by age and exhaustibility, 
and equally with that of the source's receipts a knowledge of them is 
implied in every comparison of values and is indeed the indispensable 
condition of all rational accounts. 

VI. Fortunately, however, the practicability of finding and deducting 



222 eeport — 1878. 

these outgoings, or costs, does not merely rest on the reason of the thing, 
but in many cases is proved by actual precedent. The Income Tax Act 
itself allows them in some cases, though it ignores them in others, both 
recognition and non-recognition being equally haphazard and arbitrary. 
It was recently stated by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, that deduction 
for depreciation in ships and railways, though not expressly recognised 
in law, were practically recognised in the assessment offices. Deprecia- 
tion in machinery is now added by special enactment, whilst the Law 
Courts have recently discovered that allowance for depreciation in mines 
has always been the real though the hitherto hidden meaning of the Act 
itself. Special clauses of the Act expressly allow cost of repairs and 
renewals. The immemorial usage of calculating the profits of capital in 
business, viz., that of valuation of stock at the beginning and end of the 
business year, and the inclusion of the difference in the profit and loss 
account, involves a distinct deduction of source's outgoings, and the 
Act in so far as it recognises this usage, recognises and allows this de- 
duction. Moreover in other instances to which the Act is partially or 
wholly blind, precedents of practicability are not wanting. Deductions 
from gross annual value, in order to obtain rateable value, have ever been 
recognised in local taxation, though in the absence of a common measure 
of value, in a variable and uncertain manner. The Metropolis Valuation 
Act of 1869, " an Act to provide for uniformity in the assessment of rate- 
able property in the Metropolis," and the various Valuation Bills proceed- 
ing from it, are founded upon these deductions, to which they attempt to 
give a uniform and common basis, and their appended schedules, if not 
wholly accurate, are valuable precedents for direct taxation generally. In 
these, lands Avithout buildings are allowed a deduction of ^V; w . itu 
buildings not houses of ^; houses are allowed a deduction varying 
according to their class from £ to £, mills and manufactories a deduction 
of £, &c. : all these deductions representing the expenses to which the 
several properties are liable, as necessary to " maintain the hereditament 
in a state to command its rent." 

VII. In the case of labour, however, no deductions are allowed either 
in practice or in legislation, and yet the income from the labour of men 
is as subject to essential outgoings, costs of maintenance, depreciation, 
exhaustibility, as the income from houses or from horses. A man's 
labour, it is popularly said, is his capital, but if so, it is both a con- 
sumable and perishable capital. Like the labour of a horse, to take the 
previous example, it undergoes a daily exhaustion of power that has to 
be supplied by food. As the horse has to be clothed and stabled, so the 
productive labourer has to be clothed and housed. As the horse by 
age undergoes a depreciation of its value, so by age the productive 
labourer undergoes a similar depreciation, and as the work and value 
of the horse finally disappears, so does the labour and value of the 
labourer disappear also. As questions of economic valuation, the cases 
of the working horse and working man, be his work mental or manual, 
are precisely analogous, and the outgoings of the labour's value that are 
capable of calculation and allowance in one case, are capable of calculation 
and allowance in the other. The calculation in the case of horses, is the 
necessary condition of maintaining a business in horses. A job-master, 
for example, may receive from the hire of a pair of horses worth £200, 
which he supplies with food, stabling, and attendance, full £200 a year. 
The Income Tax assessment even, would scarcely venture to charge such 



ON A COMMON MEASURE OF VALUE IN DIRECT TAXATION. 



223 



a capitalist with an income of £200 a year for each pair of horses thus 
let ; he would he allowed a deduction for the food, stabling, and hired 
attendance. But the horses in the course of half a dozen years are worn 
out, and have to be replaced, and he is allowed a deduction for this 
expense also, if not in the shape of a fund annually put by for deprecia- 
tion, at any rate in the shape of cost for resupply of diminished stock. 
The Income Tax assessment, however, does charge in this manner the 
labour of the capitalist himself, and thus not only is the man of industry 
assessed on powers in his possession on which the man of idleness is not 
assessed at all, but he is assessed on the gross receipts of these powers, 
whilst their necessary expenditure, with the exception of the small in- 
surance allowance, is absolutely ignored. 

VIII. As an individual's labour is thus a possession of limited and 
uncertain duration, and subject to an annual expenditure for maintenance, 
the true mode of valuing its income would be to regard it as a terminable 
annuity, subject to an annual cost. In this aspect the amount of this 
annuity would be that of the labour income at present returned, its term 
the average labour period, and the annual cost that of the labour's main- 
tenance. This annual cost, which would in general be expressible as 
some proportion or percentage of the income, added to the annual fund 
necessary to replace the capital of the annuity, would be the deduction 
required for finding the labour's interest value, or taxable income. With 
the requisite statistics, the calculation of this deduction is a question of 
arithmetic. By a witness in the Hume Committee, it was stated as ^ of 
the present assessable labour income, just as the deduction in mills and 
manufactories is given as ^, and that of certain classes of houses as ^ of 
their respective rents, and this, if not the exaot truth, must be a close ap- 
proximation to it. A summary of these deductions is presented in the 
following schedule, and the general adoption of the single principle they 
illustrate would secure the immense advantage of a uniform plan of 
assessment throughout both local and imperial direct taxation. 

Schedule of an Assessment of Incomes according to their Interest-value, the 
Principal-value of each Source being maintained by deduction of all 
Essential Outgoings. 

SOURCES OF INCOME. 



PROPERTY. 



1. Land, according to presence or absence of buildings 

2. Houses and buildings, according to class 

3. Mines and quarries, according to class 

4. Mills and manufactories, including blast and 

smelting furnaces and kilns 

5. Moneys invested in Exchequer Bills and Bonds, 

Perpetual Annuities, or Loans 

6. Moneys invested in Terminable Annuities 

7. Railways, Canals, Docks, Tolls, Waterworks, and 

Gasworks 

8. Ships, vehicles, machinery, trade fixtures, horses, 

stock, and other forms of capital, whether 
fixed or circulating 



Deduction per cent. 

or proportion 

From 5 to 10 or i to ^ 

Prom 16f to 25 or £ to £ 

■ to \ 



From 10 to 20 or ^ 



331 or i 

Nil 

Sufficient to restore capital 

To be determined in each case 
_ according to the ordinary rules of 
valuation for stock taking and 
balance sheets. 



224 



REPORT — 1878. 



LABOUR. 

9. "Professions, Trades, and Offices," including 
salaried, agricultural, manufacturing, and 
commercial employments 



50 or £ 



IX. Where the nominal or gross income is the joint result of property 
and personal labour, as in all trades, and in many professions, we have 
first to consider the property income and labour income separately. If 
the property be valued by the foregoing rules as a principal or capital, it 
is a truism to say that the interest of the principal will be the interest- 
value of the property, and that this subtracted from the joint income 
will give the labour's nominal income. Deducting the labour's out- 
goings from the latter, we have the labour's interest- value, which added 
to the property's interest- value, makes the total assessable return re- 
quired. Examples of the rule are given in the first Report. Being merely 
a rule of valuation it is as legitimately capable of application by the owner 
of a business, or by his recognised accountant, as any of the rules now in 
use, and being thus applied it involves no exposure of his capital or other 
detail of his business. The following are forms of ordinary account^ 
illustrative of the application of the rule to particular cases. 



LAND WITHOUT BUILDINGS. 



Cr. £ 

Nominal or gross rent 1000 



£1000 



Dr. £ 

Deduction for land-outgoings 

at£ 60 

Land interest-value or taxable 

income 950 



£1000 



HOUSES BETWEEN £20 AND £40 OF GROSS ANNUAL VALUE. 



Cr. £ 

Nominal or gross rent 1000 



£1000 



Dr. £ 

Deduction for house-outgoings 

at 200- 

House interest-value or taxable 

income 800 



£1000 



LABOUR. 



Cr. 

Nominal or gross labour income 



£ 
1000 



£1000 



Dr. £ 

Deduction for labour-outgoings 

at£ 500 

Labour's interest- value or taxable 

income 500 



£1000 



Cr. 



LABOUR AND PROPERTY COMBINED IN BUSINESS. 
£ Dr. 



Nominal income from business of 
£1000 consisting of : — 

1. Interest of £10,000 of capital, say 

at 4 per cent 400 

2. Nominal labour-income €00 

£1000 



Deduction for labour-outgoings 

at* 

Business' interest- value or tax- 
able income 



£ 
300 
700 

£1000^ 



ON COMMON MEASURE OF VALUE IN DIRECT TAXATION. 225 

X. To the question of the mode and practicability of applying the 
"Common measure of interest-value to cases of property and labour in- 
come, the above is perhaps a sufficiently detailed answer. In all these 
-cases the measure is applied to the positive, or source aspect of the in- 
come, and not to the personal. In all, the deductions are intended to 
represent the source's average essential outgoings. In all, the interest- 
value is the excess of receipts over these outgoings, or the principal- value 
of each source is, by means of the deduction, maintained unimpaired, and 
hence in a condition to command its future income. The Dr. and Cr. 
forms appended are exemplars of the modes of making the deductions. 
They show that the process of making them is merely that of keeping a 
strictly uniform and just system of accounts, and that any system of 
accounts that omits them is neither uniform nor just. Moreover, the 
balance of each account exhibiting the true taxable income, is that alone 
needful for the return. It is not affirmed that the amount of deduction 
given in each case is exact, but exactitude — at least insurable exactitude 
— is purely a question of fact. From the facts obtained in a Government 
office, for example, it might appear that as in the case of houses the pro- 
portion of outgoings diminishes as the receipts increase, so would they also 
in the case of labour. But if so the remedy already applied to one in 
local assessment would be the remedy for both in imperial assessment, 
viz., a scale of outgoings relative to such increase of receipts. 



Comparison of the Measures of Interest-value and Capital-value. 

XI. Such is the system of assessment which your Committee recom- 
mend for adoption. In discussions however on the question of direct 
assessment, another common measure has often been proposed. It has 
been proposed to assess incomes, not according to their real annual or 
interest value, but according to their total or capital value, or in other 
words according to the present money value to which they are equivalent, 
■and from which they might be supposed to be derived. Valuation by 
capital value, capitalisation as it is called, finds a common measure and 
expression in the numbers defining what is called the years' purchase of 
the income. Thus an income valued at 25 years' purchase, ceteris 
paribus, is worth twice as much as one valued at 12^ years' purchase, and 
in the system of capital- value would be taxed twice as much. The figure 
defining the years' purchase of an income, is thus at once an index or 
measure of an income's value and of its assessability. As this system is 
a simple, popular, and well understood mode of valuation, it will be useful 
to consider and compare the results it gives with those of interest-value, 
and this comparison can be made by means of the annexed table (p. 226). 
The first column expresses the series of incomes equal in present value, 
but varying in annual amount, from £4 per cent, up to J20, a variation 
that might evidently be extended either way, and this column alone is 
•sufficient to show the lack of consciousness, if not of conscience, in taxing 
incomes according to abstract annual amount. The second column 
expresses the capital value of each of these incomes in years' purchase of 
its annual amount. Under the supposition of a £4 per cent, normal rate 
of interest, the third column shows the percentage amount of source's 
■outgoings in, and of the consequent deduction from each income, and the 
fourth shows the percentage amount of interest- value in each. A com- 
1878. q 



226 



REPORT — 1878. 



A series of Nominal Incomes of the same real present worth, ivith their com- 
parative estimation by the two measures of Years' purchase and Interest- 
value. Each income is formed at the same rate, viz., £4: per cent, of 
real profit, every apparent excess representing the amount of undeducted 
outgoings that the income exhibiting it contains. 



Nominal Incomes 
from £100 


Their Capital-value 
in years' purchase 


Their Outgoings 
in percentage of 


Their Interest-value 
in percentage of 


of their amounts 


their amounts 


their amounts 


£4 


25 


per cent. 


100 per cent. 


5 


20 


20 „ „ 


80 „ „ 


6 


16-6 


««> » » 


66 „ „ 


7 


14-3 


4o ,i ,, 


57 „ „ 


8 


12-5 


50 „ „ 


50 „ „ 


10 


10 


60 „ „ 


40 „ „ 


15 


6-6 


72 „ „ 


27 „ „ 


20 


5 


80 „ „ 


20 „ „ 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



parison of the figures of the second and fourth columns, representing the 
respective valuations of the same series of incomes by the two measured 
shows that these valuations are in exact proportion, and shows therefore 
that at a given rate per cent., the taxation of an income on its interest- 
value is the same as its taxation on the number of years' purchase 
expressing its capital-value. Thus for example in the above table an 
income of 4 per cent, is worth 25 years' purchase, and all of it, or 100 per 
cent., is true interest-value. An income of 8 per cent, is worth 12 5 
years' purchase, and its interest- value is only 50 per cent, of its amount, 
the other 50 per cent, being outgoings of principal. The figures express- 
ing the number of years' purchase of the two incomes, viz., 25 12"5, and 
the figures expressing their interest-value, viz., 100 and 50, are propor- 
tionals. So with any other corresponding numbers of the two columns, 
and generally the two lines of figures, while proportional to each other, 
have a measurable relation to the line of figures expressing the outgoings. 
These relations, which strictly follow from the nature of capital and 
interest, or principal and interest, are important, because though, for 
reasons stated in the first Report, an interest-value measure as represent- 
ing the annual increment or actual increase of value, is a better measure 
of annual taxation than that of capital, yet a knowledge of the capital- 
value of an income is often a rapid and useful mode of getting at its 
interest- value. By means of such a table as is here shown, the value in 
years' purchase of any income from property or labour being given, the 
amount of outgoings to be deducted in order to maintain the source's 
principal unimpaired, or the amount of the interest- value, can be at once 
exhibited. As an outcome of this comparison it may be said that to the 
three equivalent sides or illustrations of the assessment doctrine of in- 
comes already given, viz., " Taxation of Interest-value," " Non-taxation of 
Principal as Income," " Exemption of Essential Outgoings," we may add 
what is practically a fourth, viz., " Taxation according to their Years' 
Purchase," always provided that a uniformity of basis and application be 
preserved. 



ON COMMON MEASURE OF VALUE IN DIRECT TAXATION. 227 

XII. It appears to be sometimes thought that the capitalisation of in- 
comes is equivalent to the conversion of an Income Tax into a Property 
Tax. This however is not so. An Income Tax, whatever the measure 
used, always demands an income. A Property Tax, however, would take 
effect if there were no income. It is indeed the necessary condition of 
property, having value, to produce income sooner or later, and equal 
properties in the long run produce equal incomes ; but the advantage of 
an Income Tax over a Property Tax, is that it falls on the property only 
when it does produce an income, and in proportion to the amount pro- 
duced. One of the advantages of a Property Tax over an Income Tax is 
said to be that of its incidence on certain forms of value not reached by 
the Income Tax, as for example, lands annually increasing in value in the 
neighbourhood of growing towns, but yielding no corresponding rent, 
and also the furniture, &c, of private houses. If true income be in- 
crement or increase of value it may be fairly questioned whether the 
annual increase of value in these lands is not true income, and truly liable 
to Income Tax. Under the present system, a capital invested in such 
property year by year increases in value, but pays no Income Tax on the 
increase, whilst the same capital invested in funds or farms would be 
annually assessed on its increase. It may be also questioned whether pro- 
perty in furniture, rightly considered,is not as much property yielding an in- 
come to its owner as the house which he owns and at the same time inhabits. 
It has an annual utility, and its value invested in other forms would yield 
income. Moreover, in this same form, if hired instead of owned, it yields 
an annual income annually taxable, and it is difficult to see how the fact 
of the same property being owned by one and used by another, and being 
owned and used by the same person, can make a difference in the nature 
of its annual use, value, or product. Questions of this kind, however, 
belong rather to the province and extension of a direct tax than to its just 
valuation. 

XIII. Many of the objections which have been urged against capital- 
value are probably grounded, not so much on a repugnance to the measure 
itself, as to the mode in which it has been used, as for example, in re- 
ference to the subject of tenures pointed out in the last Report. Uni- 
formity of basis and application, whatever the measure may be, is of the 
last importance, and the confusion that may attend the use of a true 
measure was well exemplified in the arguments on the Knowles case, a 
colliery Income Tax appeal, recently decided in the Court of Exchequer. 
In this important case for Income Tax reform, the plaintiffs, maintaining the 
principle that real income or profit is the difference between expenditure 
and receipts, claimed at law a deduction from the taxable receipts of coal 
mines for the exhaustion of the coal. Among the replies made by the Inland 
Revenue Office as defendants, was " that if real income be the difference 
between expenditure and receipts, why should not a person who buys a 
lease in lands or consols be assessed to the Income Tax on the difference 
between what he gives for his lease and what he receives from it" — a 
difference that would practically amount not to the interest-value of the 
consols or land, but .to the interest-value of his purchase money. The 
answer is, " real income is the difference between expenditure and re- 
ceipts, but the analogy of a lease is a fallacious one. In expending 
money on a lease, you are not, as such, producing an income, nor are you 
buying that which produces it ; you are simply buying incomes already 
made or to be made independently of your purchase. You are in fact a 

Q2 



228 report— 1878. 

dealer in incomes, just as you might be a dealer in sugars or teas, or in 
any other commodity, taxable antecedently to your purchase, and you buy 
them subject to all their burdens. Your receipts are in this case them- 
selves incomes, themselves the difference between expenditure and pro- 
duct, and the tax on them, though charged to the full amount, is a charge 
on the money that buys them only in the same manner that the tithe is a 
charge on the purchase money of lands." 

The fallacy of refusing a deduction to the products of perishable 
sources, and the fallacy of claiming a deduction for the terminable tenure 
of permanent products, are the obverse forms of a financial illusion. Both 
fallacies arise from the phenomena of transfer. In the former, true 
capital by transfer appears as income, and is taxed as income ; in the 
latter, true income by transfer appears as capital, and as capital would 
be exempted. It is this double illusion, ever manifesting itself in investi- 
gations on the Income Tax, that has probably confused the vision of 
economists and statesmen, and hitherto rendered abortive all attempts at 
reform. Whether direct taxation be incident on property or on its pro- 
ducts — on capital or on income — for a series of years matters little ; but 
it is monstrous that a tax which professes to be either a Property or an 
Income Tax, should treat capital as if it were income, or income as if it 
were capital. 

XIV. It sometimes appears to be thought that after all there is little 
practical difference whether taxation be levied on gross income or on net, 
on the higher or lower level as it is called. " A certain sum has to be 
raised, and what matters it whether it be raised as a smaller percentage 
of a larger sum or as a larger percentage of a smaller one." Doubtless 
if gross income bore the same relation to net in each case such an argu- 
ment would be valid, but no such relation exists. The " grossness " of 
an income stands for the amount of undeducted expenditure the income 
contains, and gross incomes are of every degree of "grossness." The 
true net pound — the interest-value pound — is in all cases 20s., but the 
gross pound is as variable as the nature of sources and the customs of 
free contract. In land rent the gross pound is legally defined in the 
Metropolis Valuation Act as 19s., in house rent as varying according to 
the class of house from 15s. to 17s. Sd., in the rent of mills and manu- 
factories as 13s. 4>d., in the wages of labour, though -not yet legally 
defined, it is probably only 10s. All however are pounds gross, and in an 
assessment proportioned to gross value like that of the existing Income 
Tax, are equally assessable. By this mode of reckoning, an Income Tax 
nominally bd. in the pound, is indeed for ordinary principal moneys 
really bd., but for houses it is in some cases between 6d. and 7d., for 
mills and manufactoi-ies it is 7\d., and for labour it probably amounts to 
lOcZ. Gross value is thus not a single measure, but is a loose expression 
including a number of measures, it may be a multitude of measures, pre- 
senting a conspicuous absence of uniformity of relation both to true value, 
and to each other. Perhaps the one positive point of community these 
measurements by " gross' " value do possess is their inordinate pressure 
on labour and the products of labour as compared with their pressure on 
the permanent sources of income. Human labour and the works of 
human labour have as their distinguishing marks waste and perishability. 
They essentially constitute the great category of things, quce ipso usu con- 
sumuntur, but it is " consumability by use " that " gross " value utterly 
ignores. Between the permanent and the perishable it distinguishes 



ON COMMON MEASURE OF VALUE IN DIRECT TAXATION. 229 

nothing, and human labour in itself, and in its works, in its houses, its 
mills, its manufactories, are the special victims of this ignorance. 

XV. To contemplate modes of valuation such as these now employed, 
as not the mere dicta of individual opinion, but as the accepted conclu- 
sions of the State and the expression of its established law, would be to 
despair of truth and justice in direct taxation. If, however, instead of 
confining our attention to the present position of the valuation question, 
we regard it in its successive changes and in relation to the progress in 
the branch of science of which it is a part, reason for hope will appear. 
Measures of value, like other measures, have their movement. The 
history of measurement in general is in a high degree the history of 
exact science, and whether the subject matter be lines or angles, forces or 
values, this history presents an early state of " grossness " and disorder 
that only by the slow march of intelligence developes into definiteness 
and uniformity. And the history of the measurement of values in par- 
ticular, low down in the scale of accuracy as it now is, yet presents an 
undoubted ascent from a still lower condition. Sceptics indeed, both 
without, and also, we regret to add, within the limits of this " Association 
for the Advancement of Science," have doubted the possibility of a science 
of values — of the science, that is to say, which forms the peculiar charge 
of this Section — but the ebb of doubt has ever attended the wave^of pro- 
gress, and the best antidote to such doubt, as well as the best stimulus to 
further progress, is the consideration of the onward course of statistical 
facts themselves. In the particular subject under discussion, the two 
great parliamentary commissions of 1851-52 and of 1860, in which 
many of the leading members of this Economic Section took a leading 
part, evidenced the awakening of the public mind to the necessity of a 
change. The Union Assessment Act of 1862 ; the Metropolis Valuation 
Act of 1869 ; the Local Valuation Bills grounded on these Acts annually 
introduced into Parliament ; the recent decision of the Court of Exchequer 
in the appeal case of Knowles v. McAdam ; the deduction allowed in 
this year's Inland Revenue Bill for depreciation of machinery, are all 
incidents of a progress towards a better measurement of values ; and in 
these incidents collectively considered, your Committee recognise a system 
of lines of reform converging to the principle which they have attempted 
in their Reports to define and illustrate. It need scarcely be added, that 
the indirect results of true valuation, for example, its effect on the truth 
of returns, are not less important than those which are direct. A false 
system of valuation must of necessity encourage false returns. To 
deceive or to be plundered are its only alternatives, nor is it wonderful 
that popular casuistry often prefers the former. A true method of valua- 
tion on the other hand encourages true returns ; it may not absolutely 
secure them, but it secures the removal of all that can obstruct them, and 
cancels the invitation to fraud, afforded by the present law. A true 
valuation alone can justify the exact and vigorous administration which 
must be the characteristic of an equitable tax on income. 



230 report — 1878. 



Report on Sunspots and Rainfall. By Charles Meldrum, F.R.S. 

[A communication ordered by the Council to be printed in extenso among the 

Reports.] 

1. In 1873 and 1874 (see British Association Reports for those 
years) I submitted tables of the rainfalls of various parts of the world, 
and expressed the opinion that there was strong evidence of a connection 
between rainfall and sunspots. 

2. Having received additional observations, I now beg to submit the 
principal results obtained by comparing the rainfalls of different countries, 
and the levels of some of the rivers of Central Europe with Wolf's rela- 
tive sunspot numbers. 

3. Probably the best method of comparing the sunspots with the 
rainfall is that of the harmonical analysis. In a paper which was com- 
municated to the Royal Society in January, 1876, I applied that method 
to the annual mean rainfalls of the greatest possible number of stations 
scattered over the globe, and to the mean annual depths of some of the 
rivers of Central Europe, and found not only that there was a rainfall 
cycle of nearly the same length as the sunspot cycle, but also that the 
two cycles had the same characteristics with respect to the intervals 
between the epochs of minimum and maximum and maximum and mini- 
mum, a circumstance which strongly pointed to a causal connection. 
But, as the method is laborious, I have not yet had time to apply it to 
the rainfalls of single stations, or even to the mean rainfalls of different 
countries. I hope to be able to do so soon, and to communicate the 
results on another occasion. 

4. In the meantime the probability or otherwise of a connection 
between sunspots and rainfall may be shown by the old method of arith- 
metical means. 

5. Although the mean length of 'the sunspot cycle is about eleven 
years, yet, in employing the method of arithmetical means, it would be 
objectionable to commence with any year whatever in a long series of 
observations, and taking the greatest possible number of periods of eleven 
years each, compare the annual mean rainfalls with the annual mean sun- 
spots ; for by doing so the maximum and minimum years might be so 
much dispersed over the common eleven-year period thus formed as to 
conceal any periodic variation that might exist. It is essential to refer 
the comparisons to the epochs of maximum and minimum, and this can- 
not well be done by commencing with any year whatever. 

6. With a view of avoiding that objection as far as possible, and at the 
same time of obtaining a simpler and more expeditious method than that 
of the harmonical analysis, I make two comparisons, in one of which the 
maximum years of sunspots are taken for the point of reference, and in 
the other the minimum years. 

7. As the epoch of maximum sunspots occurs on an average 3" 7 years 
after the epoch of minimum, and the epoch of minimum 7"4 years after 
the epoch of maximum, the maximum years in the first comparison are 
all placed in the sixth of thirteen terms or series of years, while in the 
second comparison all the minimum years are placed in the eighth or 
ninth of other thirteen terms or series. Then, with the object of dimi- 
nishing the effects of so-called accidental irregularities in the rainfall, the 



ON SUNSPOTS AND BAINFALL. 



231 



thirteen terms are reduced to eleven, and these, for convenience, are 
called the ' mean cycle.' 

I. — Sunspots. 

8. Applied to Wolf's relative numbers of sunspots (latest edition), 
the above method gives the following results for the years 1811-77 : — 

Table 1. — Sunspot numbers. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



u 

a 
s 


1811-23 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 1865-77 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Varia- 
tion 


Years 

of 
Cycle 


1 


1-6 


8-1 


26-3 


*13-1 


7-7 


31-4 


14-7 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


4-9 


16-2 


*9-4 


19-3 


*5-l 


14-7 


11-6 


14-9 


-33-9 


1 


3 


12-6 


35-0 


13-3 


38-3 


22-9 


*8-8 


21-8 


25-4 


-23-4 


2 


4 


16-2 


51-2 


59-0 


59-6 


56-2 


36-8 


46-5 


48-8 


o-o 


3 


5 


35-2 


62-1 


119-3 


97-4 


90-3 


78-6 


80-5 


77-0 


+ 28-2 


4 


6 


46-9 


67-2 


136-3 


7.24-9 


94-8 


131-8 


100-4 


91-9 


+ 43'1 


5 


7 


39-9 


67-0 


104-1 


95-4 


77-7 


113-8 


83-0 


83-0 


+ 34-2 


6 


8 


29-7 


59-4 


83-4 


69-8 


610 


99-7 


65-7 


65-6 


+ 16-8 


7 


9 


23-5 


26-3 


61-8 


63-2 


45-4 


67-7 


48-0 


49-0 


+ 0-2 


8 


10 


16-2 


*9-4 


38-5 


52-7 


46-2 


43-1 


'34-2 


34-6 


-14-2 


9 


11 


61 


13-3 


23-0 


38-5 


31-4 


18-9 


21-9 


24-6 


-24-2 


10 


12 


3-9 


59-0 


*13-1 


21-0 


14-7 


11-3 


20-5 


22-5 


-26-3 


11 


13 


*2-6 


119-3 


19-3 


7-7 


*8-8 


7-0 


27-5 


— 


— 


— 



■9. In the above table all the sunspot numbers for the maximum 
years 1816, 1829, 1837, 1848, 1860, and 1870, are in the sixth, horizontal 
line, and the places and the numbers for the minimum years are denoted 
by asterisks. The " means " for the thirteen terms or series of years are 
given in the eighth column, and they show that the sunspots increase 
from ll - 6 in the second term to 100 - 4 in the sixth, and then decrease to 
20 - 5 in the twelfth. The " mean cycle " in the next column is formed as 
follows : — a, b, c, &c, being the first, second, third, &c, terms of the 

+ 2Z> + c 



"means" 



the numerical value of 



is made the first term of 



the " mean cycle," the numerical value of ^ its second term, 

and so on. The " variation " in the last column but one is the deviation 
from the mean value of the " mean cycle." 

10. "With the exception of 1833 and 1867, which are respectively in 
the third and tenth horizontal lines, the years of minimum sunspots are 
all in the first, second, twelfth, and thirteenth lines (or terms), and all 
the minimum sunspot numbers, except those for 1833, contribute to the 
formation of the first and eleventh terms of the " mean cycle." It would 
be better not to have the sunspot numbers for 1836 in the thirteenth 
line ; but their position cannot be altered without altering the position of 
the maximum year 1829, and the main object of this table is to obtain 
approximate values of the sunspots for the mean maximum year, and for 
one or two years on either side of it. 

11. Some of the years are necessarily repeated in the succeeding 
series, but this does not materially affect the " means " or the " mean 
cycle," the average of the latter being 48 - 8, while the average value of 
the sunspots for the whole period (1811-67) is 46*9. 



232 



REPORT — 1878. 



12. It will be seen that the " mean cycle " exhibits a well-marked sun- 
spot variation. Now if the sunspots are numerically related to the rain- 
fall, an exactly similar treatment of the rainfall should give a rainfall 
variation, corresponding, either directly or inversely, with the sunspot 
variation. 

13. In the next table the sunspot numbers for the minimum years' 
1823, 1833, 1843, 1856, and 1867, are all in the eighth line, and the 
places and numbers for the maximum years are marked with astei'isks. 

Table II. — Sunspot numbers. — Minimum years in 8th line. 



Years 


1816-28 


1826-38 


1836-48 


1849-61 


1860-72 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Varia- 
tion 


Years of 
Cycle 


1 


*46-9 


350 


119-3 


95-4 


*94-8 


78-3 








2 


39-9 


51-2 


*136-9 


69-8 


77-7 


75-1 


73-1 


+ 23-3 


1 


3 


29-7 


62-1 


104-1 


63-2 


61-0 


64-0 


64-3 


+ 14-5 


2 


4 


235 


*67-2 


83-4 


52-7 


45-4 


54-4 


54-6 


+ 4-8 


3 


5 


16-2 


670 


61-8 


38-5 


45-2 


45-7 


44-2 


- 5-6 


4 


6 


6-1 


59-4 


38-5 


21-0 


31-4 


31-3 


30-8 


-19-0 


5 


7 


39 


26-3 


23-0 


7-7 


14-7 


151 


17-3 


-32-5 


6 


8 


2-6 


9-4 


13-1 


5-1 


8-8 


7-8 


12-7 


-37-1 


7 


9 


8-1 


133 


19-3 


22-9 


36-8 


20-1 


24-4 


-25-4 


8 


10 


16-2 


590 


38-3 


56-2 


78-6 


49-7 


51-6 


+ 1-8 


9 


11 


350 


119-3 


59-6 


903 


*131-8 


87-2 


80-7 


+ 30-9 


10 


12 


51-2 


*136-9 


97-4 


*94-8 


113-8 


98-8 


94-6 


+ 44-8 


11 


13 


62-1 


104-1 


*124-9 


77-7 


99-7 


93-7 


— 


— ■ 


— 



The table has been formed in the way in which Table I. has been 
formed. 

All the maximum years except 1829 contribute to the formation of 
the first and eleventh terms of the mean cycle. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 49"8, and the mean for the whole 
period (1816-72) is 51-3. 

As in Table I., the mean cycle exhibits a well-marked variation, the 
sunspots decreasing to the seventh year, and then increasing to the 
eleventh. 

If, then, the sunspots and the rainfall are numerically related, a 
corresponding variation should be found for the rainfall, when similarly 
treated. 



II. — Rainfall of Great Britain compared with the Sunspots. 

14. The rainfall of Great Britain, as represented by returns from 
fifty-four stations in different parts of the country, is given in Table III. 

The following table has been prepared in the same way as Table I. 
(Sunspots), and it will be seen from the last two columns but one that 
the rainfall and sunspot variations are remarkably similar, the rainfall 
increasing from the first to the sixth year of the cycle, and then de- 
creasing to the eleventh. 

The same stations have been used in finding the annual mean rainfalls 
for each series of thirteen years. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 31 '4 inches, and the mean rainfall 
from 1824 to 1867 is 312 inches. 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



233 



The range of variation is about 3"7 inches. 

The epoch of maximum rainfall occurs about one year after th& 
epoch of maximum sunspots. 

The spot variation has been derived from Table I. 

15. An important advantage of the above arrangement is that th& 
columns of " means " enable us to compare directly the mean of the sun- 
spot numbers for the maximum years with the mean rainfall for the same 

Table III. — Great Britain. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



No. of 
Stations 


10 


18 


31 


30 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years 
of 


Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 




Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


30-9 


264 


31-8 


271 


29-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


26-6 


29-4 


26-9 


35-0 


29-5 


29-2 


- 2-2 


- 372 


1 


3 


23-7 


25-8 


33-3 


32-5 


28-8 


29-7 


- 17 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


. 29-5 


29-0 


351 


341 


31-9 


31-4 


00 


•*- 4-4 


3 


5 


33-0 


34-2 


28-6 


37-0 


33-2 


32-6 


+ 1-2 


+ 33 


4 


6 


28-7 


26-2 


37"3 


36-1 


32-1 


32-5 


+ 1-1 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


30-8 


28-4 


30-6 


40-7 


32-6 


32-9 


+ 1-5 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


323 


32-1 


29-9 


42-7 


34-2 


32-7 


+ 1-3 


+ 143 


7 


9 


26-2 


25-3 


29-3 


38-2 


29-7 


32-1 


+ 0-7 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


29-7 


341 


39-1 


36-1 


34-8 


31-8 


+ 0-4 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


24-5 


24-9 


30-9 


32-5 


28-2 


30-7 


- 0-7 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


28-6 


29-7 


28-4 


40-0 


31-6 


303 


- 1-1 


- 240 


11 


13 


335 


243 


25-5 


37-1 


301 


— 


— 


— 


— 



years, and also the sunspots with the rainfall for two years on either side 
of the maximum years, with very little risk of distortion from the mini- 
mum years not being all in the same horizontal line. 

16. With regard to the way in which the " mean cycle " is formed, it 



may be remarked that b in the expression 



a +2 b + c 



(see par. 8) gets 



double weight, and that the quotient is put down as the rainfall of the 
first year of the " mean cycle," which year corresponds with the^second of 
the thirteen terms or series of years, that is, with b. This is somewhat 
similar to the common practice of tracing with the hand an approximate 
average curve through the peaks and hollows of a jagged or serrated 
curve. 

17. An example of the converse process, namely, that of placing the 
minimum years in the eighth line or term, is given in the following 
Table, which has been constructed from the annual mean rainfalls of ten 
stations, " widely separated," as given by Mr. Symons, in the ' Report of 
the British Association for 1865.' 

Table IV. has been constructed in the same way as Table II. (Sun- 
spots). 

Now it would appear that on the whole the rainfall attained its mini- 
mum a year or two after the epoch of minimum sunspots. 

In fact, both this table and Table III. show that the rainfall lags 
behind the sunspots in respect of time. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 28 - l inches, and the mean for the- 
whole period (1816-61) is 283 inches. 

From the column of " means " we see that although the rainfall was 



234 



BEPORT — 1878. 



above the average in the mean minimum year, yet it was below the 
average in the previous and two following years, thus forming, on the 
whole, around the minimum year, as shown in the " mean cycle," a group 
of four or five years in which the rainfall was below the average ; and 
the mean rainfall for these years is scarcely affected by the positions 





Table IV. — Great Britain.— 


•Minimum years in 8th line. 




Years 


1816-28 


1826-38 


1836-48 


1849-61 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Eain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


29-3 


23-7 


33-5 


28-5 


28.7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


29-7 


29-5 


24-5 


26-3 


27-5 


28-2 


+ 01 


+ 24-3 


1 


3 


30-3 


33-0 


27-1 


26-7 


29-3 


29-4 


+ 1-3 


+ 17-5 


2 


4 


30-4 


28-7 


31-3 


35-5 


31-5 


29-7 


+ 1-6 


+ 8-4 


3 


5 


24-5 


30-8 


24-7 


27-4 


26-8 


28-6 


+ 05 


— 2-7 


4 


6 


29-9 


323 


335 


22-4 


29-5 


27-8 


- 03 


— 16-8 


6 


7 


26-6 


26-2 


25-5 


23-4 


25-4 


27-4 


- 0-7 


— 30-4 


6 


8 


31-1 


29-7 


30<4 


25*9 


29-3 


27-5 


- 0-6 


— 36-1 


7 


9 


30-9 


24-5 


23-7 


25-7 


26-2 


27-0 


- 11 


— 27-2 


8 


10 


26-6 


28-5 


27-9 


22-8 


26-4 


26-9 


— 1-2 


— 35 


9 


11 


23 7 


33-5 


29-6 


28-5 


28-8 


28-0 


— 01 


+ 24-7 


10 


12 ■ 


29-5 


24-5 


25-8 


333 


28-3 


29-0 


+ 0-9 


+ 42-0 


11 


13 


33-0 


27-1 


36-0 


27-0 


30-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 



occupied in the table by the maximum years. It is to be remarked, also, 
that if a greater number of stations were taken, as in Table III., it would 
be found that the rainfall in the mean minimum year is below the 
average ; but it was desirable to adopt Mr. Symons's figures alone, 
because they furnish independent evidence of a rainfall cycle, even for a 
small number of stations. 

On the other hand we have, around the mean maximum year in 
Table III., a group of five or six years in which the rainfall is above the 
average. 

From these two tables (III. and IV.) it is concluded that there is 
strong evidence of a rainfall cycle for Great Britain. 

18. I will now compare with the sunspots the rainfall of Edinburgh, 
as given in the f Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society.' 





Table V— 


Edinburgh. — Maximum years in 6th line. 




Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Year of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


24-8 


23'2 


23-8 


20-3 


230 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


22-1 


209 


209 


28-5 


23-1 


22-8 


- 2-8 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


15-3 


21-0 


26-6 


24-9 


22-0 


23-8 


- 1-8 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


32-6 


25-2 


31-5 


24-3 


28-4 


26-3 


+ 0-7 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


25-2 


330 


22-8 


25-9 


26-7 


28-0 


+ 2-4 


+ 33-0 


4 


e 


30-0 


26-8 


30-6 


33-S 


30-2 


28-9 


+ 3-3 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


332 


310 


22 - 2 


28-6 


28-8 


28-4 


+ 2-8 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


24-5 


234 


21-3 


33-9 


25-8 


26-1 


+ 0-5 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


23-2 


25-5 


22-8 


25-6 


24-3 


25-2 


- 0-4 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


20-9 


26-2 


31-5 


28-1 


26-7 


24-6 


- 1-0 


- 166 


9 


11 


21-0 


16-9 


21-8 


236 


20-8 


231 


- 2-5 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


25-2 


23-8 


20-9 


27-2 


24-3 


23-9 


- 17 


- 240 


11 


13 


33-0 


20-9 


203 


310 


26-3 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



235 



Here we have a remarkable parallelism, both the sunspots and the 
rainfall attaining their maximum and minimum in the same years, and 
rising and falling together with considerable regularity. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 25*6 inches, and the mean rainfall is 
257 inches. 

19. The next table gives the results of the converse arrangement for 
the rainfall of Edinburgh. 





Table VI. — Edinburgh. — Minimum years 


in 8th line. 




Years 


1826-38 


1836-48 


1849-61 


1860-72 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


15-3 


33-0 


22-2 


33-4 


26-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


32-6 


26-8 


213 


28-6 


27-3 


27-2 


+ 1-2 


+ 24-7 


1 


3 


25-2 


31-0 


22-8 


33-9 


28-2 


27-8 


+ 1-8 


+ 15-9 


2 


4 


30-0 


23-4 . 


31-5 


25-6 


27-6 


27-6 


+ 1-6 


+ 5-6 


3 


5 


33-2 


25-5 


21-8 


28-1 


27-2 


26-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 5-4 


4 


6 


24-5 


26-2 


20-9 


23-6 


23-8 


241 


- 1-9 


- 204 


5 


7 


23-2 


169 


20-3 


27-2 


21-9 


23-4 


- 2-6 


- 36-3 


6 


8 


20.-9 


23-8 


28*5 


31-0 


26-0 


24- 4 


- 1-6 


-42-1 


7 


9 


210 


20-9 


24-9 


28-6 


23-8 


24-6 


- 1-4 


- 28-6 


8 , 


10 


25-2 


26-6 


24-3 


22-2 


24-6 


25-2 


-0-8 


+ 2-9 


9 


11 


33-0 


31-5 


25-9 


22-1 


28-1 


26-8 


+ 0-8 


+ 35-3 


10 


12 


26-8 


22-8 


33-4 


23-2 


26-4 


28-2 


+ 2-2 


+ 48-9 


11 


13 


31-0 


30-6 


28-6 


38-2 


32-1 


— 


— 


— 






"We have here also a remarkable parallelism, but not quite so much so 
as in Table V. 

The rainfall reaches its minimum in the year before that of minimum 
sunspots. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 26'0 inches, and the mean rainfall is 
also 26*0 inches. 

The variation range is about 6 inches, the rainfall being 33 inches 
above the mean in Table V., and 2 - 6 inches below it in Table VI. 

20. Similar results might be given for the rainfalls of other individual 
stations in Great Britain, but it is unnecessary to do so. For the present 
it is sufficient to know that the annual mean falls at fifty-four stations, 
virtually obtained at haphazard, as well as the mean annual falls at 
Mr. Symons's ten stations, which were selected by him for a different 
purpose, show, on the whole, a well-marked rainfall cycle corresponding 
with the sunspot cycle. 

21. The rainfall of Greenwich, although greater in the maximum than 
in the minimum years of sunspots, is not nearly so favourable as the 
rainfalls of Edinburgh and other stations. 

III. — Rainfall of the Continent of Europe corn-pared toith the Sunspots. 

22. Through the kindness of Mr. Estourgies and the Directors' of 
various Observatories, I obtained some time ago returns of the rainfalls 
at forty-five stations dispersed over the Continent of Europe. The re- 
sults, according to the method adopted on this occasion, are given in the 
next two tables. 

As at Edinburgh, the year of maximum rainfall coincides with the 
year of maximum sunspots. 



236 



REPORT — 1878. 



The mean rainfall for the mean cycle is 26*6 inches, and for the whole 
period (1824-67) 26'8 inches. 

Owing to some heavy floods in 1844, 1855, and 1867, the rainfall for 
the eleventh year of the mean cycle is somewhat above the average. 



Table VII. 


— Continent of Europe. — Maximum years 


in 6th line. 


No. of 
Stations 


4 


19 


20 


30 


Means 


Mean 


Kain 


Spot 


Years of 












Cycle 


Var. 


Var. 


Cycle 












Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 














in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 






1 


27-7 


22-5 


291 


27-2 


266 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


22-8 


28-8 


300 


25-1 


26-6 


25-8 


- 0-8 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


21-4 


22-0 


313 


197 


23-6 


24-8 


- 1-8 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


27-0 


24-1 


29-8 


22-1 


25-7 


253 


- 1-3 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


25-6 


27-6 


267 


26-1 


265 


27-0 


+ 0-4 


+ 330 


4 


6 


29-3 


28-7 


30-5 


29-4 


29-5 


27-8. 


+ 1-2 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


23-0 


27-8 


27-2 


25-1 


25-8 


27-6 


+ 1-0 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


29-4 


30-7 


312 


262 


294 


27-7 


+ 1-1 


+ 14-3 


7 i 


9 


221 


27-9 


306 


24-5 


263 


27-2 


+ 06 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


27-7 


28-5 


28-2 


23-4 


269 


261 


- 0-5 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


19-9 


26-1 


29-6 


22-5 


24-5 


25-8 


- 0-8 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


253 


30-3 


27-0 


27-1 


27-4 


27-2 


+ 06 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


276 


305 


307 


293 


295 


— 


— 


— 


— 



28. The converse arrangement of the yearly rainfall at eleven stations 
gives the following results. 



Table VIII.— 


Continen 


t of Europe. — Minimum years in 8th line. 


Years 


1836-48 


1849-61 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 






1 


660 


668 


664 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


717 


817 


767 


726 


+ 40 


+ 44-7 


1 


3 


676 


736 


706 


718 


+ 32 


+ 30-0- 


2 


4 


739 


648 


693 


694 


+ 8 


+ 12 8 


3 


5 


685 


681 


683 


677 


- 9 


- 52 


4 


6 


647 


656 


651 


665 


- 21 


-23-4 


5 


7 


611 


744 


677 


677 


- 9 


- 37-3 


6 


8 


7S6 


650 


703 


676 


- io 


- 41-0 


7 


9 


743 


499 


621 


653 


- 33 


+ 30-0 


8 


10 


735 


603 


669 


665 


- 21 


+ 7-0 


9 


11 


714 


692 


703 


698 


+ 12 


+ 18-6 


10 


12 


704 


735 


719 


700 


+ 14 


+ 37-5 


11 


13 


687 


636 


661 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The above table has been derived from a paper by the late Dr. Carl 
Ielinek, of Vienna, published in the 'Zeitschrift der Oesterreichischen fur 
Meteorologie,' for March, 1873, in which the rainfalls at fourteen stations 
are given. Three of these stations, the returns for which are not com- 
plete, have not been used in forming the table. 

The mean rainfall for the meaa cycle and also for the whole period 
(1836-61) is 686 m.m. 

The rainfall was at its minimum (33 m.m. below the mean) in the 
year after the year of minimum sunspots, and at its maximum when the 
sunspots were at their maximum. 



ON SUNSPOTS AND BAINFALL. 



237 



Considering that there are only two sunspot periods, the results may- 
be regarded as favourable. The rainfall and sunspots were both above 
( + ) or below ( — ) their respective means in the same years. 

I have used Dr. Ielinek's table in preference to a more extensive one, 
becanse, like Mr. Symons's table, it furnishes independent evidence. 

24. In the next two tables the rainfall of Paris is compared with the 
sunspots. The series of observations at thi3 station is so long that eight 
complete sunspot cycles might be taken, but, as objection has been made 
to going back much farther than the time when Schawbe commenced his 
observations, only four cycles are taken in one of these tables, and five 
in the other. 





Table IX. 


— Paris 


. — Mas 


imum years in 


Gth line. 
















Mean 


Rain 


Spot 
Var. 


Fears of 


Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Cycle 


Var. 


Cycle 




m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 






1 


572 


456 


542 


344 


478 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


469 


503 


571 


565 


527 


502 


- 11 


- 372 


1 


3 


410 


421 


581 


492 


476 


493 


- 20 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


501 


438 


564 


466 


492 


501 


- 12 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


585 


611 


430 


545 


543 


541 


+ 28 


+ 330 


4 


6 


560 


548 


575 


655 


584 


563 


+ 50 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


573 


542 


597 


458 


543 


554 


+ 41 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


529 


580 


563 


516 


547 


522 


+ 9 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


456 


455 


469 


426 


452 


487 


- 26 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


503 


527 


597 


366 


498 


472 


- 41 


- 166 


9 


11 


421 


342 


454 


542 


440 


484 


- 29 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


438 


542 


614 


644 


559 


520 


+ 7 


-24-0 


11 


13 


611 


571 


344 


565 


523 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 



The maximum rainfall' coincides with the maximum sunspots. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 513 m.m., and the mean rainfall for the 
whole period (1824-67) is 517 m.m. 

As in the case of the annual means for forty-five stations (Table 
VII.), the rainfall is somewhat above the mean in the eleventh year of 
the cycle. 

25. The converse process is given in the following table. 







Table X. — Paris. — Minimum years in 8th line 








1816-28 


1826-38 


1836-48 


1849-61 


1860-72 Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years 

of 
Cycle 




m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 


m.m. 






1 


546 


410 


611 


597 


655 


564 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


565 


501 


548 


563 


458 


527 


531 


+ 20 


+ 23-3 


1 


3 


432 


585 


542 


469 


516 


509 


525 


+ 14 


+ 14-5 


2 


4 


615 


560 


580 


597 


426 


556 


516 


+ 5 


+ 4-8 


3 


5 


378 


573 


455 


454 


366 


445 


501 


- 10 


- 5-6 


4 


6 


584 


529 


527 


614 


542 


559 


501 


- 10 


- 190 


5 


7 


424 


456 


342 


344 


644 


442 


492 


- 19 


- 32-5 


6 


8 


457 


503 


542 


565 


565 


526 


502 


- 9 


-37-1 


7 


9 


572 


421 


571 


492 


512 


514 


510* 


- 1 


- 25-4 


8 


10 


469 


438 


581 


466 


477 


486 


499 


- 2 


+ 1-8 


9 


11 


410 


611 


564 


545 


418 


510 


510 


- 1 


+ 30-9 


10 


12 


501 


548 


430 


655 


527 


532 


535 


+ 24 


+ 44-8 


11 


|,3 


585 


542 


575 


458 


671 


566 


— 


— 


— 


— 



238 



REPORT — 1878. 



The rainfall decreases till the sixth year of the mean cycle, that is, 
the year before that of minimum sunspots, and then increases to the 
eleventh year. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 511 m.m., and the mean rainfall from 
1816 to 1872 is 515 m.m. 

26. As another example of the rainfall variation at a single station on 
the Continent of Europe, I will take Prague from 1832 to 1867. 





Table XI. — Prague.- 


—Maximum year 


s in 6th line. 




Years 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


10-8 


17-5 


17-7 


15-3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


19-3 


23-6 


14-9 


19-3 


17-0 


+ 0-5 


- 42-1 


1 


3 


101 


17-5 


14-9 


14-2 


15-6 


-0-9 


- 27-5 


2 


4 


10-4 


18-5 


15-5 


14-8 


15-8 


- 0-7 


+ 3-5 


3 


5 


16-6 


23-3 


19-1 


19-7 


18-2 


+ 1-7 


+ 38-2 


4 


6 


18-6 


16*9 


206 


18-7 


18-2 


+ 1-7 


50-9 


5 


7 


15-9 


157 


165 


16-0 


17-5 


+ 1-0 


+ 36-5 


6 


8 


18-6 


20-5 


18-9 


19-3 


176 


+ 1-1 


+ 16-3 


7 


9 


14-6 


18-4 


14-7 


15-9 


16-3 


- 02 


+ 0-5 


8 


10 


18-8 


14-5 


9-4 


14-2 


14-4 


- 2-1 


- 12-5 


9 


11 


9-4 


18-6 


12-1 


13-4 


14-5 


- 2-0 


- 26-3 


10 


12 


17-5 


16-4 


17-5 


17-1 


16-6 


+ 0-1 


- 38-4 


11 


13 


23-6 


17-7 


15-5 


18-9 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The maximum rainfall coincides with the maximum sunspots. 

The mean rainfall for the mean cycle is 16'5 inches, and 16'6 inches, 
for the period 1832-67. 

The variation is less regular than at Edinburgh and Paris, but we 
have only three periods. 

27. The next table shows the converse rainfall variation for Prague. 





Table XII— 


Prague. 


— Minimum years in 


8th line. 




Years 


1836-48 


1849-61 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain Var. 


Spot Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


16-6 


15-7 


161 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


18-6 


26-5 


22-5 


19-5 


+ 2-0 


+ 48-8 


1 


3 


15-9 


18-4 


17-1 


180 


+ 0-5 


+ 29-6 


2 


4 


18-6 


14-5 


16-5 


16-6 


- 0-9 


+ 12-4 


3 


5 


14-6 


18-6 


16'6 


16-8 


- 0-7 


- 06 


4 


6 


18-8 


16-4 


17-6 


16-3 


- 1-2 


- 23-8 


5 


7 


9-4 


17-7 


13-5 


15-2 


- 2-3 


- 37-7 


6 


8 


17-5 


14-9 


16-2 


16-2 


-1-3 


-41-4 


7 


9 


23-6 


14-9 


19-2 


17-7 


+ 0-2 


- 30-5 


8 


10 


17-5 


15-5 


16-5 


17-7 


+ 0-2 


- 7-5 


9 


11 


18-5 


19-1 


18-8 


19-0 


+ 1-5 


£l8-2 


10 


12 


23-3 


20-6 


21-9 


19-8 


+ 2-3 


+ 37-1 


11 


13 


169 


16-5 


16-7 


— 


— 


•t * — 





On the whole the rainfall decreases to the sixth year of the cycle, and 
then increases to the eleventh. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 17*5 inches, and the mean rainfall 
from 1836 to 1861 is 17-4 inches. 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



239 



TV. — The Levels of Rivers of Central Europe compared with the Sunspots. 

28. A paper by Herr Gustav Wex, ' On the Decrease of Water in the 
Wells, Streams, and Rivers,' published in 1873, contains a number of 
Tables, giving the yearly mean heights (or depths) of water in the Elbe, 
Rhine, Oder, Vistula, and Danube, for various periods from 1728 to 
1871. 

Having been favoured with a copy of that important paper, I have 
compared the annual mean levels of the rivers with the sunspots, in the 
same manner as the rainfall has been compared, and the results are given 
in the next five tables. 





Table XIII.— Depths 


of Eivers. — Maximum years in 6th line. 




en 

u 

s 


1799 

to 
1811 


co 
1 

»— 1 
OD 


to 

CO 

J. 

CO 


■* 

^* 

i 

<n 

CO 

oo 


1 
co 

CO 


1 

to 
ta 

CO 


a 




CD U 




o 

u O 

►2 u 






i—l 


f—f 


<" 


I—l 


i— i 












ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. iii. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 






1 


8 0-2 


4 10-8 


6 8-7 


4 11-0 


6 1-3 


7 2-5 


6 3-7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5 0-7 


6 5-1 


6 4-3 


6 0-2 


7 3-0 


4 11-1 


6 0-1 


6 0-9 


o-o 


- 26-2 


1 


3 


7 7-6 


6 8-3 


5 9-4 


5 6-4 


6 6-2 


3 8-2 


5 11-7 


5 10-7 


-0 2-2 


- 14-1 


2 


4 


6 6-4 


6 2-8 


6 6-3 


4 0-7 


6 4-2 


4 0-9 


5 7-6 


5 9-3 


- 3-6 


+ 5-4 


3 


5 


6 8-4 


6 4-8 


7 0-2 


4 9-0 


6 0-3 


4 3-8 


5 10-4 


6 2-0 


+ 1-1 


+ 26-1 


4 


6 


8 7-2 


8 6-5 


8 8.8 


7 2-1 


4 6-6 


6 2-3 


7 3-7 


6 9-3 


+ 8-4 


+ 34-7 


5 


7 


8 3-9 


7 6-9 


7 5-5 


6 6-6 


5 0-5 


4 7-1 


6 7-1 


6 9-2 


+ 8-3 


+ 25-9 


6 


8 


8 1-7 


6 0-9 


7 4-5 


7 3-6 


6 9-9 


3 7-6 


6 6-7 


6 4-4 


+ 3-5 


+ 9-9 


7 


9 


7 1-2 


5 10-2 


4 11-0 


7 4-7 


6 8-5 


2 6-1 


5 9-0 


5 10-6 


- 2-3 


- 3-7 


8 


10 


6 7-5 


6 0-8 


6 0-2 


6 2-0 


5 7-5 


4 4-8 


5 9-8 


5 9-6 


- 3-3 


- 14-1 


9 


11 


7 10-1 


7 8-1 


5 6-4 


3 8-2 


6 8-7 


3 5-8 


5 9-9 


5 7-9 


- 5-0 


- 21-2 


10 


12 


6 3-9 


5 5'3 


4 0-7 


6. 5-0 


5 100 


2 11-3 


5 2-0 


5 7-7 


- 5-2 


- 22-9 


11 


13 


5 8-1 


5 7-7 


4 9-0 


8 7-6 


7 2-5 


6 4-6 


6 4-6 


— 


• — 


— 


— 



From 1799 to 1811 we have (in Austrian feet and inches) the levels 
of the Rhine, Elbe, and Oder ; from 1811 to 1823 those of the Rhine, 
Elbe, Oder, and Vistula; from 1824 to 1844 those of the Elbe and 
Vistula ; and from 1843 to 1867 those of the Elbe, Vistula, and Danube. 

As might have been expected from the results for the rainfall of 
Europe (Table VII.), the maximum height or level was attained in the 
mean year of maximum sunspots, and, as a rule, the rivers fluctuated 
with the sunspots. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 6 ft. 0*9 inches, and for the whole 
period (1799 to 1867) the mean is 6 ft. l - 8 inches. 

If we omit the years 1799 to 1811, as being in the opinion of some 
too early, we still get similar results, and likewise similar results for the 
still later periods 1824-67. 

29. The converse process gives the following results : — 

In the next table we have the Rhine, Elbe, and Oder from 1804 to 
1816 ; the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, and Vistula from 1817 to 1829 ; the Elbe 
and Vistula from 1827 to 1839; the Elbe, Vistula, and Danube from 
1850 to 1862; and the Vistula and Danube from 1861 to 1871. 

The levels in the years of minimum sunspots are placed in the seventh 
line, because the river variation was found to overlap the sunspot varia- 
tion to a considerable extent. 



-240 



REPORT — 1878. 



Table XIV. — Depths of Rivers.— Minimum years in 7th line. 



i 


p-l 
1 
-*< 
O 
00 


1 
t- 

.— < 
00 

T— 1 


C5 

en 

1 

t~ 

<N 

00 

1— 1 


OS 

l 

00 


pi 

o 

l 
o 

lO 

00 

.—1 


i— i 

t- 

1 

i— i 
to 

00 

.— < 


in 
a 


so 






o a, 
So 
a> O 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft 


in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 






1 


8 7-2 


7 6-9 


6 6-3 


7 2-1 


8 


8-0 


4 2-2 


7 1-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


8 3-9 


6 0-9 


7 0-2 


6 6-6 


8 


4-6 


3 1-5 


6 6-9 


6 8-2 


+ 5-6 


+ 16-4 


1 


3 


8 1-7 


5 10-2 


8 8-8 


7 3-6 


7 


1-6 


1 9-0 


6. 5-8 


6 7-5 


+ 4-9 


+ 5-3 


2 


4 


7 1-2 


6 0-8 


7 5-5 


7 4-7 


9 


6-1 


4 4-8 


6 11-8 


6 8-6 


+ 6-0 


- 5-4 


3 


5 


6 7-5 


7 8-1 


7 4-5 


6 2-0 


7 


6-3 


3 3-4 


6 5-3 


6 4-2 


+ 1-6 


- 17-7 


4 


6 


6 10-5 


5 5-3 


4 11-0 


3 8-2 


9 


95 


2 6-7 


5 6-5 


5 10-7 


- 3-9 


- 27-6 


5 


7 


5 7-8 


5 7-7 


6 0-2 


6 5-0 


6 


5-5 


6 2-5 


6 0-8 


5 11-4 


-03-2 


-31-0 


6 


8 


5 3-6 


6 10-7 


5 6-4 


8 7-6 


5 


6-7 


4 10-7 


6 1-6 


5 11-3 


- 3-3 


- 21-8 


7 


9 


6 5-3 


5 11-5 


4 0-7 


7 1-2 


5 


5-1 


3 8-6 


5 5-4 


5 8-1 


- 6-5 


+ 0-4 


8 


10 


6 2-9 


5 2-7 


4 9-0 


7 5-3 


5 


9-1 


5 8-2 


5 10-2 


5 11-4 


- 3-2 


+ 23-8 


9 


11 


5 11-3 


6 7-8 


7 2-1 


5 11-6 


8 


6-3 


5 8-9 


6 8-0 


6 3-4 


+ 0-8 


+ 33-2 


10 


12 


5 10-0 


6 8-4 


6 6-6 


4 7-8 


6 


0-2 


— 


5 11-4 


6 3-6 


+ 1-0 


+ 30-0 


11 


13 


8 1-7 


8 00 


7 3-6 


5 4-5 


4 


5-1 


— 


6 7-8 


— ■ 





— 


— 



The lowest level is attained two years after the mean year of mini- 
mum sunspots. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 6 ft. 2'6 inches, and for the years 1804 
to 1871 the mean level is 6 ft. 36 inches. 

30. Taking the Elbe alone, we get the following results : — 

Table XV. — Depths of the Elbe. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



Years 


1824-3G 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


River 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 






1 


6 


110 


5 


00 


7 2-0 


7 7-0 


6 8-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


6 


3-2 


6 


4-0 


7 9-0 


6 0-0 


6 7-0 


6 4-1 


+ 3-1 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


5 


7-3 


5 


8-7 


6 4-0 


4 7-0 


5 G-7 


5 10-0 


-0 3-0 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


7 


1-4 


4 


1-5 


6 4-0 


5 0-0 


5 7-7 


5 8-6 


-0 4-4 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


7 


8-2 


4 


9-0 


6 9-0 


5 0-0 


6 0-6 


6 1-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 33-0 


4 


6 


7 


11-4 


7 


2-0 


5 3-0 


6 7-0 


6 a-9 


6 6*3 


+ 5-3 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


7 


8-0 


7 


00 


5 10-0 


5 100 


6 7-0 


6 8-7 


+ 7-7 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


8 


0-0 


7 


6-0 


7 5-0 


5 2-0 


7 02 


6 7-2 


+ 6-2 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


5 


0-0 


5 


11-0 


7 7-0 


4 9-0 


5 97 


6 1-5 


+ 0-5 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


6 


4-0 


6 


5-0 


6 -5-0 


4 5-0 


5 10-7 


5 8-4 


-0 4-6 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


5 


8-7 


4 


5-0 


6 8-0 


4 1-0 


5 2-7 


5 5-8 


-0 7-2 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


4 


1-5 


7 


2-0 


7 0-0 


4 1-0 


5 7-1 


5 9-4 


-0 3-6 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


4 


9-0 7 


9-0 


7 7-0 


6 11-0 


6 9-0 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 



The mean maximum level (6 ft. 8 - 7 inches) is attained soon after the 
maximum sunspots. 

The mean depth for the mean cycle is 6 ft. 1*0 inches, and for the 
whole period 6 ft. 2'2 inches. 

31. The converse arrangement gives the following results for the 
Elbe :— 

The lowest mean level occurs about two years after the epoch of 
minimum sunspots (as in Table XIV.), and there is a considerable 
amount of overlapping, the river lagging behind the sunspots. 



ON SUNSPOTS AND EAINFALL. 



241 



The mean for the mean cycle is 6 ft. 47 inches, and also 6 ft. 47 
inches for the years 1816 to 1861. 

Table XVI. — Depths of the Elbe. — Minimum years in 8th line. 



Years 


1816-28 1826-38 1836-48 


1849-61 


Means 


Mean 


River 


Spot 


Years of 




1 












Cycle 


Var. 


Var. 


Cycle 




ft. in. 


ft 


in. 


ft, in. 


ft 


in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 






1 


7 35 


5 


7-3 


4 9-0 


5 


100 


5 10-4 


— 


— . 








2 


6. 7-6 


7 


1-4 


7 2-0 


7 


5-0 


7 10 


6 8-7 


+ 4-0 


+ 24-3 


1 


3 


5 2-8 


7 


8-2 


7 0-017 


7-0 


6 10-5 


7 0-2 


+ 7-5 


+ 17-5 


2 


4 


7 0-7 


7 


11-4 


7 6-0 


6 


5-0 


7 2-8 


6 11-1 


+ 6-4 


+ 8-4 


3 


5 


5 3-2 


7 


8-0 


5 11-0 


6 


8-0 


6 4-5 


6 9-5 


+ 4-8 


- 2-7 


4 


6 


7 4-9 


8 


00 


6 5-0 


7 


00 


7 2-5 


6 7-5 


+ 2-8 


- 16-8 


5 


7 


5 10-6 


5 


0-0 


4 5-0 


7 


70 


5 8-6 


6 2-6 


-0 21 


- 30-4 


6 


8 


5 5*4 


6 


4-0 


7 2-0 


6 


O-O 


6 2-8 


6 1-3 


-0 3-4 


- 36-1 


7 


9 


6 11-0 


5 


8-7 


7 90 


4 


7-4 


6 3-0 


6 0-5 


-0 4-2 


- 272 


8 


10 


6 3-2 


4 


1-5 


6 4-0 


5 


oo 


5 5-2 


5 7-6 


-0 9-1 


- 3-5 


9 


11 


5 7-3 


4 


9-0 


6 4-0 


5 


0-0 


5 51 


5 9-5 


-0 7-2 


+ 24-7 


10 


12 


7 1-4 7 


2-0 


6 9-0 


6 


7-0 


6 10-8 


6 5-0 


+ 0-3 


+ 42-0 


11 


13 


7 8-2 7 


o-o 


5 30 


5 


10-0 


6 5-3 


— 


— 


— 


— 



32. The next table gives the fluctuations of the Rhine from 1799 to 
1835. 



Table XVII. — Depths of Rhine. — Maximum years in 6th line. 


Years 


1799 to 
1811 


1811-23 


1824-36 


Means 


Mean 


River 


Spot 


Years of 










Cycle 


Var. 


Var. 


Cycle 




ft. in. 


ft, in. 


ft. in. 


ft, in. 


ft. in. 


ft, in. 






1 


10 7-0 


8 1-5 


11 3-4 


10 o-o 


— 










2 


6 10-0 


9 0-2 


8 4-2 


8 0-8 


8 7-6 


- 2-8 


- 13-6 


1 


3 


11 0-0 


8 1-4 


6 1-4 


8 4-9 


8 5-8 


- 4-6 


- 2-0 


2 


4 


8 10-5 


8 6-0 


9 9-3 


9 06 


8 8-1 


- 23 


+ 10-3 


3 


5 


8 50 


7 11-4 


8 3-4 


8 2-6 


9 05 


+ 2-1 


+ 20-9 


4 


6 


lO 8-5 


12 4-2 


9 O-l 


lO 8*3 


lO O-l 


+ 1 1-7 


+ 25-6 


5 


7 


10 5-0 


11 4-1 


9 7-4 


10 5-5 


10 5-0 


+ 1 6-6 


+ 19-3 


6 


8 


11 11-5 


8 3-4 


10 11-3 


10 0-7 


9 5-3 


+ 6-9 


+ 5-2 


7 


9 


9 2-0 


6 7-0 


5 10-5 


7 2-5 


8 2-6 


- 7-8 


- 8-7 


8 


10 


9 3-0 


7 6-1 


8 3-2 


8 4-1 


8 2-6 


-0 7-8 


- 18-3 


9 


11 


10 30 


10 0-6 


6 7-8 


8 11-8 


8 50 


- 5-4 


- 19-6 


10 


12 


8 6-0 


6 11-7 


6 7-5 


7 4-4 


7 11-8 


-0 10-6 


- 18-9 


11 


13 


8 1-5 


8 4-0 


— 


8 2-7 


— 


— 




— 



The Rhine attained its mean maximum level about one year after the 
year of maximum sunspots. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 8 ft. 10*4 inches, and the mean for 
1799 to 1836 is 8 ft. 8-2 inches. 



V. — Rainfall of America compared with the Sunspots. 

33. The rainfall returns for America, thirty-four in number, have 
been obtained from ' Tables and Results of the Precipitation in Rain and 
Snow,' published by the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1872). 

1878. R 



242 



REPORT — 1878. 



Table XVIII. — Rainfall of America. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



No. of 
Stations 


2 


10 


28 


10 


Means 


Mean 


Eain 


Spot 


Years of 












Cycle 


Var. 


Var. 


Cycle 












Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 














in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


39-0 


40-9 


42-9 


42-4 


41-3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


331 


39-6 


37-4 


35-6 


36-5 


38-8 


- 2-8 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


45-2 


35-3 


38-2 


46-0 


41-2 


40-6 


- 1-0 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


50-1 


36-7 


41-5 


460 


43-6 


42-5 


+ 0-9 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


34-3 


39-1 


455 


47-7 


41-6 


42-1 


+ 0-5 


+ 33-0 


4 


6 


53-1 


35-4 


40-0 


37-8 


41-6 


41-8 


+ 0-2 


+ 43*8 


S 


7 


51-0 


37-3 


39-0 


42-4 


42-4 


42-9 


+ 1-3 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


52-6 


37-2 


465 


44-4 


45-2 


43-6 


+ 2-0 


+ 143 


7 


9 


45-2 


40-2 


36-7 


44-3 


41-6 


42-4 


+ 0-8 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


38-8 


43-8 


431 


39-2 


412 


41-3 


-0-3 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


391 


41-5 


39-9 


44-0 


411 


40-9 


-0-7 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


38-7 


42-5 


38-9 


40-7 


40-2 


40-2 


- 1-4 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


38-1 


36-2 


41-1 


42-8 


39-5 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 



The maximum rainfall occurs about two years after the maximum 
sunspots. 

The mean rainfall for the cycle is 41*6 inches, and for the forty-four 
years 41.3 inches. 

34. From the converse process we get the following table : — 



Table XIX. — Rainfall at ten stations in America, from 1849 to 1861.- 
Minimum year in 8th line. 



Years 


Mean 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


380 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


48-8 


43-2 


+ 1-4 


+ 26-9 


1 


3 


375 


41-2 


- 06 


+ 14-6 


2 


4 


41-3 


400 


- 18 


+ 41 


3 


5 


40-0 


40-0 


- 1-8 


- 100 


4 


6 


39-0 


401 


- 1-7 


- 25-6 


5 


7 


42-4 


39-8 


- 2-0 


- 373 


6 


8 


35-7 


39-9 


- 1-9 


- 37-4 


7 


9 


46-0 


43-4 


+ 1-6 


- 20-9 


8 


10 


460 


46-4 


+ 4-6 


+ 8-8 


9 


11 


47-7 


44-8 


+ 3-0 


+ 35-4 


10 


12 


37-8 


41-4 


- 0-4 


+ 41-8 


11 


13 


42-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The minimum rainfall took place at the time of minimum sunspots. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 41'8 inches, and the mean from 1849 
to 1861 is 41 - 7 inches. 

35. The longest series of observations was made at New Bedford. 
Taking the period 1824-67, we get the following results for that 
station : — 



ON SUNSPOT8 AND BAINFALL. 



243 



Table XX — 


Rainfall at New Bedford. — Maximum years in 6th line. 


Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


421 


43-8 


45-0 


36-4 


41-8 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


2 


33-9 


37-9 


362 


330 


35-2 


38-7 


-3-2 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


48-7 


40-1 


427 


38-6 


42-5 


40-7 


- 1-2 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


55-9 


420 


30-7 


42-4 


42-7 


42-1 


+ 0-2 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


34-7 


38-1 


40-8 


48-9 


40-6 


41-5 


-0-4 


+ 330 


4 


6 


58-1 


34-7 


362 


38-3 


41-9 


ftl'6 


- 0-3 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


57-5 


340 


31-9 


44-7 


420 


432 


+ 1-3 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


54-4 


39-4 


51-8 


41-4 


46-7 


45-2 


+ 3-3 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


438 


44-1 


49-8 


44-4 


45'5 


446 


+ 2-7 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


37-9 


450 


41-0 


39-5 


40-8 


415 


-0-4 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


401 


34-7 


35-1 


44-6 


38-6 


40-4 


- 1-5 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


420 


45-0 


47-8 


38-5* 


43-3 


41-1 


- 0-8 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


38-1 


362 


364 


456 


39-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 



* Interpolated. 

The maximum rainfall occurs about two years after the maximum of 
sunspots, and the minimum rainfall near the time of minimum sunspots. 

The mean of the cycle, and also for the period 1824-36, is 41*9 inches. 

36. By the converse arrangement, the rainfall of New Bedford is least 
near the epoch of minimum sunspots, but generally the variation is 
irregular. 

VI. — Rainfall at Stations in India compared with the Sunspots. 
As yet the rainfalls of only a few stations in India have been examined. 

Table XXI. — Rainfalls of India. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



No. of 
Stations 


2 


3 


3 


4 


Means 


Mean 


Rain 


Spot 


Years of 












Cycle 


Var. 


Var. 


Cycle 












Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 














in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


33-8 


47-7 


57-6 


420 


45-3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


641 


56-4 


68-2 


55-4 


61-0 


56-3 


- 40 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


69-6 


59-3 


51-2 


51-7 


57-9 


61-4 


+ 1-1 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


84-7 


63-2 


76-7 


50-6 


68:8 


65-9 


+ 5-6 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


79-9 


59-4 


76-5 


57-6 


68-4 


64-7 


+ 4-4 


+ 33-0 


4 


6 


51-2 


52-5 


63-1 


46-7 


53-4 


58-8 


-1-5 


+ 43-8 


S 


7 


52-1 


52-0 


75-1 


61-0 


60-0 


58-8 


- 1-5 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


73 


63-9 


54-5 


571 


621 


60-9 


+ 0-6 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


46-2 


604 


73-2 


57-7 


594 


60-4 


+ 0-1 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


54-2 


63-3 


74-5 


51-5 


60-9 


59-6 


-0-7 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


54-7 


693 


50-2 


54-8 


57-2 


58-3 


- 2-0 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


520 


57-6 


63-9 


59-1 


58-1 


58-0 


- 2-3 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


66-4 


68-2 


47-9 


533 


58-9 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The mean rainfalls of Bombay and Madras are taken from 1824 to 
1836 ; of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta from 1832 to 1855 ; and of 
Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, and Nagpur from 1855 to 1867. 

37. In the year of maximum sunspots the rainfall is somewhat below 
the average, and there seems to be a tendency to a double oscillation of the 
rainfall during the sunspot period, the principal maximum occurring a 

E 2 



244 



REPORT — 1878. 



year or so before the epoch of maximum sunspots, with a small minimum 
and maximum between the principal maximum and the principal minimum. 
But this apparent irregularity may be owing to the fewness of the 
observations. 

The mean of the mean cycle is 60 - 3 inches, and of the rainfall for 
the whole period 59"3 inches. 

38. In the next table the rainfall of Madras is omitted, but the 
general results are still the same. 

Table XXII. — Rainfall of India. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



No. of 
Stations 


1 


2 


2 


3 


Means 


Mean 


Rain 


Spot 


Years of 












Cycle 


Var. 


Var. 


Cycle 


Y 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 






in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


34-0 


62-4 


61-3 


45-2 


50-7 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


2 


72-2 


660 


69-5 


58-2 


66-5 


620 


- 6-3 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


78-5 


69-6 


57-9 


51-2 


64-3 


66-4 


- 1-9 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


81-0 


740 


75-2 


51-4 


70-4 


71-3 


+ 3-0 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


122-0 


66-7 


74-2 


58-4 


80-3 


72-7 


+ 4-4 


+ 33-0 


4 


6 


65-6 


54-1 


67-3 


531 


60-0 


67-9 


- o-a 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


71-9 


51-9 


92-7 


690 


71-4 


69-3 


+ 1-0 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


101-8 


69-3 


63-3 


63-4 


74-4 


72-0 


+ 3-7 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


74-1 


61-2 


77-6 


58-7 


67-9 


69-2 


+ 0-9 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


71-4 


65-8 


75-3 


52-9 


66-4 


67-2 


- 1-1 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


70-5 


85-6 


57-3 


59-2 


68-2 


66-9 


- 1-4 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


62-6 


61-3 


74-3 


61-7 


65-0 


66-8 


- 1-5 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


88-0 


69-6 


55-8 


62-9 


69-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 



39. The next table gives the rainfall of Bombay and Madras from 
1816 to 1838 ; of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta from 1836 to 1861 ; and 
of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta from 1860 to 1872. 



Table XXIII. — Rainfall of India. — Minimum years in 8th line. 




No. of 

Stations 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


° o 














Years 


1816-28 


1826-38 


1836-48 


1849-61 


1860-72 










>H 




in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


1U. 


in. 






1 


55-6 


69-6 


59-3 


75-1 


46-7 


61-3 


— 


— 


— 





2 


83-6 


84-7 


52-5 


54-5 


610 


67-3 


66-0 


+ 4-9 


+ 23-3 


1 


3 


78-6 


79-9 


520 


73-2 


57-1 


68-2 


66-1 


+ 5-0 


+ 14-5 


2 


4 


57-0 


51-2 


63-9 


74-5 


57-7 


60-8 


61-8 


+ 0-7- 


+ 4-8 


3 


5 


73-6 


52-1 


604 


50-2 


51-5 


57-6 


59-9 


- 1-2 


- 5-6 


4 


6 


64-8 


730 


63-3 


63-9 


54-8 


63-9 


61-7 


+ 0-6 


-19-0 


5 


7 


85-9 


46-2 


69-3 


47-9 


59-1 


61-7 


60-2 


- 0-9 


-32-5 


6 


8 


44-1 


54-2 


57-6 


59-0 


53-3 


53-6 


55-6 


- 5-5 


-37-1 


7 


9 


33-8 


54-7 


67-9 


57-7 


53-6 


53-5 


53-8 


- 7-3 


-25-4 


8 


10 


64-1 


520 


51-2 


56-9 


49-5 


54-7 


57-7 


,- 3-4 


+ 1-8 


9 


11 


69-6 


66-4 


76-7 


63-2 


63-4 


67-9 


63-9 


+ 2-8 


+ 30-9 


10 


12 


84-7 


56-9 


76-5 


50-3 


57-8 


65-2 


65-6 


+ 4-5 


+ 44-8 


11 


13 


79-9 


51-5 


631 


63-7 


63-9 


64-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The minimum rainfall occurs very nearly at the epoch of minimum 
sunspots, bat there are still indications of a double oscillation. 

The mean for the cycle is 61 1 inches, and of the rainfall for the whole 
period 61 '5 inches. 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



245 



40. For Bombay alone we have the following results : — 

Table XXIV. — Rainfall of Bombay. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



Years 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Yearsof 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


34-0 


74-1 


59-3 


41-2 


52 1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


72-2 


71-4 


65-4 


65-9 


68-7 


63-3 


- 9-0 


- 37-2 


1 


3 


78-5 


70-5 


54-7 


51-3 


63-7 


66-5 


- 5-8 


- 22-8 


o 


4 


81-0 


62-6 


73-9 


62-4 


700 


73-6 


+ 1-3 


+ 4-4 


3 


5 


122-0 


88-0 


76-0 


77-2 


90-8 


79-6 


+ 7-3 


+ 33-0 


4 


6 


65-6 


64-6 


75-9 


62-1 


67-0 


75-8 


+ 3-5 


+ 43-8 


5 


7 


71-9 


50-8 


114-9 


76-9 


78-6 


74-7 


+ 2-4 


+ 32-9 


6 


8 


101-8 


73-6 


50-2 


73-6 


74-8 


76-1 


+ 3-8 


+ 14-3 


7 


9 


74-1 


63-1 


91-1 


77-7 


76-5 


730 


+ 0-7 


- 2-9 


8 


10 


71-4 


71-5 


69-3 


45-6 


64-4 


70-4 


- 1-9 


- 16-6 


9 


11 


70-5 


95-2 


62-6 


77-8 


76-5 


72-0 


- 0-3 


- 24-7 


10 


12 


62-6 


59-3 


82-1 


78-4 


70-6 


70-4 


- 1-9 


- 24-0 


11 


13 


88-0 


65-4 


41-2 


62-3 


64-2 


— 


— 


— 


■ — 



The rainfall is at its maximum about a year before the time of 
maximum sunspots. 

The mean of the cycle is 72 - 3 inches, and of the rainfall for the 
forty- four years 71 - 4 inches. 

If the minimum years be placed in the eighth line, it will be found 
that the minimum rainfall occurs a little after the minimum of sunspots, 
and that it is eleven inches below the mean, but, generally, the variation 
is rather irregular. 

41. The Madras rainfall gives the following results : — 





Table XXV— 


Madras 


— Maximum years in 6th line. 






1811-23 


1824-36 


1832-44 


1843-55 


1855-67 


1865-77 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 

in. 


Varia- 
tion 


Years 

of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




l 


— 


33-7 


18-4 


50-3 


32-3 


41-6 


35-3 


— 


— 





2 


— 


56-0 


37-1 


65-4 


47-0 


51-4 


51-4 


45-3 


-3-2 


1 


3 


45-1 


60-7 


39-0 


38-1 


52-9 


24-4 


43-4 


48-3 


-0-2 


2 


4 


32-4 


88-4 


41-5 


79-8 


48-5 


41-4 


55-3 


51-3 


+ 2-8 


3 


5 


56-0 


37-9 


44-8 


81-0 


55-1 


32-3 


51.2 


51-2 


+ 2-7 


4 


6 


41-2 


36-9 


49-3 


54-8 


27*6 


74-1 


47-3 


■iS-l 


- Ol 


5 


7 


63-6 


32-4 


52-3 


39-8 


37-2 


56-3 


46-9 


48-7 


+ 0-2 


6 


8 


76-2 


44-3 


53-1 


36-9 


38-2 


73-7 


53-7 


50-4 


+ 1-9 


7 


9 


36-3 


18-4 


58-6 


64-3 


54-6 


51-8 


47-3 


51-5 


+ 3-0 


8 


10 


70-0 


37-1 


58-3 


72-7 


47-2 


62-9 


58-0 


50-7 


+ 2-2 


9 


11 


47-1 


39-0 


36-5 


35-8 


41-6 


37-1 


39-5 


45-4 


-3-1 


10 


12 


59-6 


41-5 


50-3 


43-2 


514 


21-5 


44-6 


42-1 


-6-4 


11 


13 


26-6 


44-8 


65-4 


32-3 


24-4 


45-0 


39-7 


— 


— 


— 



Here we have evidence of a double oscillation in the rainfall. 

The mean of the rainfall from 1813 to 1877, and also for the cycle is 
48 '5 inches. 

As a matter of fact, the Madras rainfall is below its mean when the 
sunspots are at their maximum. 

42. The following results are obtained for Madras by the converse 
arrangement. 



246 



BEPOBT — 1878. 





Table XXVI.— 


Madras 


. — Minimum years in 8th line. 




u 

US 
0) 


1816-28 


1826-38 


1836-48 


1849-61 


1860-72 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years 

of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


41-2 


60-7 


44-7 


39-8 


27-6 


42-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


63-6 


88-4 


49-3 


36-9 


37-2 


55-1 


51-7 


+ 2-7 


+ 23-3 


1 


3 


76-2 


37-9 


52-3 


64-3 


38-2 


53-8 


52-3 


+ 3-3 


+ 14-5 


2 


4 


36-3 


36-9 


53-1 


72-7 


54-6 


50-7 


51-0 


+ 2-0 


+ 4-8 


3 


5 


70-0 


32-4 


58-6 


35-8 


47-2 


48-8 


48-8 


-0-2 


- 5-6 


4 


6 


47-1 


44-3 


58-3 


43-2 


41-6 


46-9 


45-5 


-3-5 


- 19-0 


5 


7 


59-6 


18-4 


36-5 


32-3 


51-4 


396 


40-8 


-8-2 


-32-5 


6 


8 


26-6 


37-1 


50-3 


47-0 


24-4 


37-1 


40-0 


- 9-0 


- 37-1 


7 


9 


33-7 


39-0 


65-4 


52-9 


41-4 


46-5 


43-3 


-5-7 


- 25-4 


8 


10 


56-0 


41-5 


38-0 


48-5 


32-3 


43-4 


49-0 


o-o 


+ 1-8 


9 


11 


60-7 


44-8 


79-8 


55-1 


74-1 


62-9 


57-4 


+ 8-4 


+ 30-9 


10 


12 


88-4 


49-5 


81-0 


27-6 


56-3 


60-5 


58-8 


+ 9-8 


+ 44-8 


11 


13 


37-9 


52-3 


54-8 


37-2 


73-7 


51-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The rainfall is least when the sunspots are fewest, and (apparently) 
greatest when the spots are most numerous, but this last result probably 
arises from the maximum years not being all in the same series. 

The mean rainfall of the cycle is 49 - inches, and the mean rainfall 
from 1816 to 1872 is 49-1 inches. 

43. The rainfall of Calcutta, as far as is known, is greater in the years 
of minimum tban in those of maximum sunspofs. 

VII. — Rainfall at Stations in the Southern Hemisphere compared with the 

Sunspots. 

44. The observations obtained from this part of the world are few in 
number, and the periods also few, but the results, when compared with 
those of the northern hemisphere, are interesting. 

Table XXVII. — Rainfall at five stations in the Southern Hemisphere, 
from 1855 to 1867. — Maximum year in 6th line. 



0) 


GO 

'u 

a 


o 

S 1 

a 


'3 

F— 1 

< 


o 
d 
u 

o 

x> 

1— * 


>> 

ID 

a 




Mean Cycle 


> 

"S 


eg 

> 

o 

a, 


O 03 
to c? 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1855 


42-7 


24-6 


23-1 


28-2 


52-8 


34-3 


— 


— 


— 





1856 


46-2 


21-9 


24-9 


29-7 


43-3 


33-2 


33-5 


-0-1 


-39-2 


1 


1857 


43-4 


22-7 


21-2 


28-9 


50-9 


33-4 


32-3 


- 1-3 


-22-7 


2 


1858 


35-3 


24-1 


21-5 


260 


39-6 


29-3 


32-3 


- 1-3 


+ 7-0 


3 


1859 


72-1 


36-7 


14-8 


21-8 


42-0 


37-5 


36-8 


+ 3-2 


+ 33-5 


4 


1860 


57-3 


29-1 


19-7 


25-4 


82-8 


42-9 


42-0 


+ 8-4 


+ 40-0 


5 


1861 


87-1 


25-4 


25-1 


29-1 


58-4 


45-0 


40-0 


+ 6-4 


+ 28-4 


6 


1862 


36-0 


32-0 


22-9 


22-1 


24-0 


27-4 


33-6 


o-o 


+ 11-8 


7 


1863 


42-4 


25-6 


22-8 


36-4 


47-1 


34-9 


32-5 


- 1-1 


- 0-2 


8 


1864 


30-6 


18-9 


18-8 


27-4 


69-1 


33-0 


31-7 


- 1-9 


- 7-6 


9 


1865 


56-7 


18-7 


14-7 


15-9 


36-3 


28-5 


26-6 


- 7-0 


- 17-8 


10 


1866 


25-1 


19-2 


19-8 


22-4 


36-8 


24-7 


27-9 


- 5-7 


- 32-0 


11 


1867 


420 


23-0 


19-2 


25-8 


59-7 


33-9 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The rainfall and sunspots are at their maximum about the same time- 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



247 



The mean rainfall of the cycle is 33'6 inches, and for the years 1855 
to 1867 it is 33-7 inches. 

45. The next table gives the resnlts obtained by the contrary arrange- 
ment. From 1848 to 1860 we have the rainfalls of the Cape, Adelaide, 
and Sydney ; and from 1859 to 1871 the rainfalls of the same three 
stations, and of Mauritius, Brisbane, and Melbourne. 

Table XXVIII. — Rainfall at three and six stations in Southern Hemi- 
sphere. — Minimum years in 9th line. 



Years 


1848-60 


1859-71 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain Var. 


Spot Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


31-3 


34-5 


32-9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


238 


42-8 


33-3 


34-7 


+ 2-0 


+ 40-5 


1 


3 


32-6 


46-1 


39-3 


34-8 


+ 2-1 


+ 23-8 


2 


4 


28-7 


263 


27-5 


32-3 


- 0-4 


+ 9-4 


3 


5 


31-4 


39-0 


35-2 


32-6 


- 0-1 


- 1-9 


4 


6 


31-4 


34-2 


32-8 


31-1 


- 1-6 


- 12-6 


5 


7 


21-5 


257 


23-6 


27-4 


- 5-3 


- 26-0 


6 


8 


33-5 


260 


29-8 


29-2 


- 3-5 


- 38-5 


7 


9 


300 


37-4 


33-7 


32*4 


- 0-3 


- 38-6 


8 


10 


31-6 


33-8 


32-7 


33-0 


+ 0-3 


- 18-9 


9 


11 


28-4 


37-9 


33-1 


34-4 


+ 1-7 


+ 16-6 


10 


12 


312 


45-8 


38-5 


37-4 


+ 4-7 


+ 46-1 


11 


13 


439 


35-5 


39-7 


— 


~ 




~ 



The minimum rainfall occurs about a year before the epoch of 
minimum sunspots, and (apparently) the maximum rainfall about the 
time of maximum sunspots. 

The mean for the cycle is 327 inches, and for the period 1848 to 1871 
it is 32 - 9 inches. 

46. The next two tables are formed by taking Australia alone for 
single sunspot periods. 

Table XXIX. — Rainfall at four stations in Australia, from 1865 to 
1877. — Maximum year in 6th line. 



Years 


Brisbane 


Melbourne 


Adelaide 


Sydney 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1865 


24-1 


15-9 


14-7 


36-3 


22-7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1866 


51-2 


22-4 


19-8 


368 


32-5 


32-0 


- 5-7 


-39-7 


1 


1867 


61-0 


25-8 


19-2 


59-7 


41-4 


36-0 


- 1-7 


- 39-9 


2 


1868 


36-0 


18-3 


18-0 


431 


28-8 


33-5 


- 4-2 


- 16-9 


3 


1869 


54-4 


24-6 


13-6 


48-2 


35-2 


37-3 


- 0-4 


+ 24-3 


4 


1870 


79*1 


33>8 


23-9 


64-2 


50-2 


43-3 


+ 5-6 


+ 56-9 


5 


1871 


45-4 


302 


23-5 


52-3 


37-8 


40-3 


+ 2-6 


+ 57-6 


6 


1872 


49-2 


32-5 


23-2 


37-1 


35-5 


38-6 


+ 0-9 


+ 38-1 


7 


1873 


62-0 


25-6 


21-6 


73-4 


45-6 


41-0 


+ 3-3 


+ 12-4 


8 


1874 


38-7 


28-1 


19-1 


63-6 


37-4 


41-2 


+ 3-5 


- 13-9 


9 


1875 


67-0 


32-9 


31-4 


46-2 


44-4 


39-1 


+ 1-4 


-34-1 


10 


1876 


53-4 


23-9 


13-9 


— 


30-4 


33-0 


- 4-7 


-45-0 


11 


1877 


31-2 


24-1 


24-3 


— 


26-5 


— 


— 


— 


"" ~" 



Considering the fewness of the observations, and the shortness of the 
period of observation, the results are rather remarkable. The variation 
is irregular ; yet the maximum and minimum rainfalls occur at or near 
the epochs of maximum and minimum sunspots. 



248 



KEPORT 1878. 



The mean rainfall for the cycle is 377 inches, and for the period 36 - 
inches. 

47. From the rainfalls at the same stations we get the following 
results for 1859 to 1871 :— 

Table XXX. — Rainfall at four stations in Australia, from 1859 to 
1871. — Minimum year in 9th line. 



Years 


Brisbane 


Melbourne 


Adelaide 


Sydney 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1859 


35-0* 


21-8 


14-8 


42-0 


28-4 


— 


— 








1860 


54-6 


25-4 


19-7 


82-8 


45-6 


41-2 


+ 4-9 


+ 33-0 


1 


1861 


69-4 


29-1 


25-1 


58-4 


45-5 


40-2 


+ 3-9 


+ 21-4 


2 


1862 


28-4 


22-1 


22-9 


24-0 


24-3 


34-5 


- 1-8 


+ 4-8 


3 


1863 


68-8 


36-4 


22-8 


47-1 


43-8 


38-1 


+ 1-8 


- 7-2 


4 


1864 


47-0 


27-4 


18-8 


69-1 


40-6 


36-9 


+ 0-6 


- 14-6 


5 


1865 


24-1 


15-9 


14-7 


36-3 


22-7 


28-7 


- 7-6 


- 25-8 


6 


1866 


37-2 


22-4 


19-8 


36-8 


29-0 


30-5 


- 5-8 


- 39-0 


7 


1867 


61-0 


25*8 


19-2 


59-7 


41-4 


35-1 


-1-2 


- 39-2 


8 


1868 


36-0 


18-3 


17-9 


43-6 


28-9 


33-6 


- 2-7 


- 16-2 


9 


1869 


54-4 


24-6 


13-6 


48-2 


35-2 


37-4 


+ 1-1 


+ 25-0 


10 


1870 


79-1 


33-8 


23-9 


64-5 


50-3 


43-4 


+ 7-1 


+ 57-6 


11 


1871 


45-4 


30-2 


23-5 


52-1 


37-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Interpolated. 

The minimum rainfall took place about a year before the minimum 
sunspots, and the maximum rainfall about the time of maximum 
sunspots. 

The rainfall for the mean cycle is 36*3 inches, and 36'4 inches for the 
years 1859 to 1871. 

48. As an example of the rainfall variation at a single station in the 
southern hemisphere, we may take the Cape observations. There are 
only two periods, but the results, as given in the next two tables, are 
significant. 



Table XXXI. 



-Cape of Good Hope (Observatory) .- 
in 6 th line. 



-Maximum years 



Years 


1843-55 


1855-67 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Rain Var. 


Spot Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 






i 


24-8 


24-6 


24-7 


— 


— 


_ 





2 


18-8 


21-9 


20-3 


21-7 


- 2-3 


- 39-0 


1 


3 


20-9 


22-7 


21-8 


21-8 


- 2-2 


- 22-5 


2 


4 


22-5 


24-1 


23-3 


24-4 


+ 04 


+ 4-7 


3 


5 


22-4 


36-7 


29-5 


27-1 


+ 3-1 


+ 33-5 


4 


6 


23-2 


29-1 


26-1 


26-6 


+ 2-6 


+ 44-5 


5 


7 


24-6 


25 4 


25-0 


27-2 


+ 3-2 


+ 310 


6 


8 


33-5 


32-0 


32-7 


28-3 


+ 4-3 


+ 12-4 


7 


9 


20-3 


25-6 


22-9 


24-8 


+ 0-8 


+ 0-4 


8 


10 


23-2 


18-9 


21-0 


21-2 


- 2-8 


— 8-6 


9 


11 


21-2 


18-6 


19-9 


201 


- 3-9 


— 20-7 


10 


12 


20-0 


19-2 


19-6 


20-7 


- 3-3 


— 35-7 


11 


13 


24-6 


22-9 


23-7 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The mean of the mean cycle is 24*0 inches, and 23-9 inches for the 
years 1843 to 1867. 

49. Tbe converse arrangement gives the following results : — 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



249 



Table XXXII, 



-Cape of Good Hope (Observatory). — Minimum years 
in 8th line. 



Years 


1849-61 


1860-72 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Eain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


24-6 


29-1 


26-8 


— 


— 





. — 


2 


33-5 


25-4 


29-4 


27-9 


+ 3-3 


+ 23-0 


1 


3 


20-3 


32-0 


26-1 


26-5 


+ 1-9 


+ 8-6 


2 


■ 4 


23-2 


25-6 


24-4 


23-7 


- 0-9 


- 2-7 


3 


5 


21-2 


18-9 


20-0 


20-9 


- 3-7 


- 13-4 


4 


6 


20-0 


18-7 


19-3 


20-1 


- 4-5 


- 26-8 


5 


7 


24-6 


19-2 


21-9 


21-3 


- 3-3 


- 39-3 


6 


8 


21-9 


2.3-0 


22-4 


22-3 


- 2-3 


-39-4 


7 


9 


22-7 


22-9 


22-8 


24-0 


- 0-6 


- 19-7 


8 


10 


24-1 


32-3 


28-2 


27-9 


+ 3-3 


+ 15-8 


9 


11 


36-7 


28-1 


32-4 


29-4 


+ 4-8 


+ 45-3 


10 


12 


29-1 


20-1 


24-6 


27-0 


+ 2-4 


+ 48-9 


11 


13 


25-4 


29-3 


27-3 


— 


— 


— 


■ — ■ 



The mean of the mean cycle is 24 - 6 inches, and the mean rainfall, 
from 1849 to 1872, is 24-9 inches. 

In both tables the rainfall and the sunspots are respectively below or 
above their means in the same years. 

VIII. — Combinations of the preceding Results. 

50. Combining some of the results now obtained, we get the following 
table, from which it will be seen that the maximum and minimum 
rainfalls apparently coincide with the maximum and minimum sunspots 
respectively. 

Table XXXIII.— Combination of Tables III., VII., XVIII., XXI., and 
XXVII. — Maximum years in 6th line. 



M 

u 
C3 
CO 


Great 
Britain 


Contnt. 

of 
Europe 


America 


India 


Southern 
Hemi- 
sphere 


Means 


Mean 
Cycle 


Eain 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 


Years 

of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1 


29-1 


26-6 


41-3 


45-3 


34-3 


35-3 


— 











2 


29-5 


26-6 


36-5 


61-0 


33-2 


37-4 


36-7 


-2-0 


- 38-7 


1 


3 


28-8 


23-6 


41-2 


57-9 


33-4 


37-0 


37-8 


- 0-9 


- 22-8 


2 


4 


31-9 


25-7 


43-6 


68-8 


29-3 


399 


39-5 


+ 0-8 


+ 5-7 


3 


5 


33-2 


26-5 


41-6 


68-4 


37-5 


41-4 


40-6 


+ 1-9 


+ 33-2 


4 


6 


32-1 


29-5 


41-6 


53-4 


42-9 


39-9 


40-6 


+ 1-9 


+ 41-9 


5 


7 


32-6 


25-8 


42-4 


60-0 


45-0 


41-2 


40-5 


+ 1-8 


+ 30-5 


6 


8 


34-2 


29-4 


45-2 


62-1 


27-4 


39-7 


39-2 


+ 1-1 


+ 13-0 


7 


9 


29-7 


26-3 


41-6 


59-4 


34-9 


38-4 


38-9 


+ 0-2 


+ 1-5 


8 


10 


34-8 


26-9 


41-2 


60-9 


33-0 


39-4 


38-2 


- 0-5 


- 12-1 


9 


11 


28-2 


'24-5 


41-1 


57-2 


28-5 


35-9 


36-9 


- 1-8 


- 21-2 


10 


12 


31-6 


27-4 


40-2 


58-1 


24-7 


36-4 


36-7 


- 2-0 


- 28-0 


11 


J3 


30-1 


29-5 


39-5 


58-9 


33-9 


38-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 



51. All the preceding tables have been formed in the manner described 
in paragraphs 4, 5, and 7. 

52. If it should be said that in the first half of the method the 
sunspots and the rainfall for the minimum years are too much dispersed, 
and that in the second half the sunspots and the rainfall for the maximum 
years are also too much dispersed, the reply would be that the method 



250 



REPORT — 1878. 



gives well-marked sunspot cycles, and that in all the comparisons both 
the snnspots and the rainfall have been subjected to exactly the same 
treatment ; and it might be added that the amonnt of dispersion is much 
less than it would be in a method in which both the maximum and the 
minimum years were dispersed over more than one half of the common 
cycle. 

58. In order, however, to remove such a possible objection, I will, as, 
far as possible, compare the rainfall with the sunspots, cycle by cycle, 
from 1823 to 1867. 

Table XXXIV. — Comparison of rainfall with sunspots, from 1823 to 
1834. — Maximum year (1829) in 7th line. 





CO 

a 


■^ or co 


SO 


CO 




CB 








GO 

u 

OJ 


Great 
Britain, 
10 Statio 


Continen 
of Europ 
4 Station 


cG o 
<! CN 


a 
o 

^•'•^ 

fl CN 


CO 

1 




u 
g3 

> 

'c3 


3 
> 

o 
ft 

OS 


O 

8.2 
c4 o 
<a !>> 




in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1823 


31-1 


26-4 


49-8 


44-1 


37-8 


— 


— 


—j 





1824 


30.9 


27-7 


39-0 


33-8 


32-8 


35-0 


- 5-0 


- 31-4 


, 1 


1825 


266 


22-8 


33-1 


64-1 


36-6 


36-5 


- 3-5 


- 213 


2 


1826 


23-7 


214 


45-2 


69-6 


40-0 


410 


+ 1-0 


- 58 


3 


1827 


29-5 


27-0 


50-1 


84-7 


47-8 


44-7 


+ 4-7 


+ 9-7 


4 


1828 


330 


25-6 


34-3 


79-9 


43-2 


43-7 


+ 3-7 


+ 20-5 


5 


1829 


28-7 


29-3 


53-1 


51-2 


40-6 


40-9 


+ 0-9 


+ 25-7 


6 


1830 


30-8 


230 


51-0 


52-1 


39-2 


41-4 


+ 1-4 


+ 25-0 


7 


1831 


32-3 


29-4 


52-6 


73-0 


46-8 


41-9 


+ 1-9 


+ 12-9 


8 


1832 


26-2 


22-1 


45-2 


46-2 


34-9 


38-5 


- 1-5 


- 9-8 


9 


1833 


29-7 


27-7 


38-8 


54-2 


37-6 


36-1 


- 3-9 


- 25-5 


10 


1834 


24-5 


19-9 


39-1 


54-7 


34-5 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 



The mean for the cycle is 40-0 inches, and for the whole period (1823 
to 1834), the mean is 39 - 3 inches. 

The rainfall reaches its maximum about two years before the year 
of maximum sunspots, and its minimum at the time of minimum sun- 
spots. 

There is, apparently, a tendency to a double oscillation in the 
rainfall. 

The mean cycle corresponds with the years 1824 to 1833. 

54. The variation for each country is given in the following table. 

Table XXXV.— Rainfall variations from 1824 to 1833. 



Years of 
Cycle 


Great 
Britain 


Continent 
of Europe 


America 


India 


Mean Var. 


Spot Var. 


1 


+ 0-8 


+ 08 


- 4-3 


- 17-1 


- 5-0 


- 31-4 


2 


- 21 


- 1-7 


- 6-9 


- 31 


- 3-5 


- 21-3 


3 


- 3-2 


- 2-2 


- 1-1 


+ 11-0 


+ 11 


- 5-8 


4 


- 01 


- o-i 


+ 04 


+ 18-7 


+ 4-7 


+ 9-7 


5 


+ 2-0 


+ 1-5 


- 1-6 


+ 12-9 


+ 3-7 


+ 20-5 


6 


+ 1-3 


+ 1-5 


+ 3-3 


- 2-4 


+ 0-9 


+ 25-7 


7 


+ 1-6 


+ 0-8 


+ 7-4 


- 3-9 


+ 1-5 


+ 25-0 


8 


+ 1-4 


+ 0-6 


+ 5-8 


00 


+ 1-9 


+ 12-9 


9 


-0-4 


o-o 


+ 0-9 


- 7-1 


- 1-6 


- 9-8 


10 


- 1-5 


- 1-0 


- 4-1 


- 8-7 


- 3-8 


- 255 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



251 



It will be seen that the variations for Great Britain and the Continent 
are nearly alike, and that those for America and India show a tendency 
to a double oscillation. 

55. Taking now the sunspot period 1833 to 1844, we get the follow- 
ing table : — 



Table XXXVI. — Comparison of rainfall with sunspots from 1833 to 
1844.— Maximum year (1837) in fifth line. 



w 

3 


Great 
Britain, 
18 Stations 


Continent 
of Europe, 
19 Stations 


a 

TO .,-< 

"2 to 


a 
_o 

-gig 


a 

g3 


a 

O 

a 
S 


f-4 

> 

g 


a 
> 

O 

02 


O 

C3 u 
(HO 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1833 


29-4 


28-8 


39-6 


56-4 


38-5 


— 


— 








1834 


25-8 


22-0 


353 


59-3 


35-6 


36-9 


- 1-9 


- 35-6 


1 


1835 


29-0 


241 


36-7 


632 


382 


38-0 


-0-8 


+ 3-3 


2 


1836 


34-2 


27-6 


39-1 


59-4 


401 


38-5 


- 0-3 


+ 49-1 


3 


1S37 


26*2 


28-7 


35-4 


52-5 


35-7 


36-9 


- 1-9 


+ 64'7 


4 


1838 


28-4 


27-8 


37-3 


52-0 


36-4 


373 


- 1-5 


+ 47-6 


5 


1839 


321 


30-7 


372 


63-9 


41-0 


392 


+ 0-4 


+ 23-8 


6 


1840 


25-3 


27-9 


40-2 


60-4 


•38-4 


40-0 


+ 1-2 


+ 2-0 


7 


1841 


341 


28-5 


43-8 


63-3 


42-4 


409 


+ 2-1 


- 18-9 


8 


1842 


24-9 


26-1 


41-5 


69-3 


40-4 


40-8 


+ 2-0 


- 34-9 


9 


1843 


29-7 


303 


42-5 


57-6 


40-0 


40-0 


+ 1-2 


- 42-2 


10 


1844 


24-3 


30-5 


362 


68-2 


39-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 



The years of the mean cycle are 1834 to 1843. 

The mean rainfall for the cycle is 38'8 inches, and for the years 1833 
to 1844 it is 38-9 inches. 

The rain increases from the first to the third year of the cycle, 
but in the fourth decreases, rising again till the eighth year, and then 
falling to the tenth. This indicates a double oscillation, as in Table 
XXXIV. 

The general results of the comparison, however, are unfavourable, the 
maximum rainfall coinciding nearly with the minimnm sunspots in the 
ninth year, and the minimum rainfall with the maximum sunspots in the 
fourth year of the cycle. 

It will be seen by inspecting the columns for the mean rainfalls of the 
several countries that these unsatisfactory results are mainly due to the 
rainfalls of America and India, which are represented by ten and three 
stations respectively. 

56. Taking Great Britain and the Continent of Europe alone, the 
results as given in next table are obtained. 

The mean for the cycle and also for the years 1833 to 1844 is 
28-2 inches. 

The maximum rainfall occurs two years after the year of maximum 
sunspot. 

The minimum rainfall occurs, first, in the year of minimum sunspot 
at the commencement of the cycle, and, again, nearly in the year of 
minimum sunspot at the end of the cycle. 

There is a tendency to a small second minimum about the time of 
maximum sunspot. 



252 



REPORT — 1878. 



Table XXXVII. — Comparison of the Rainfall of Europe with the sun- 
spots from 1833 to 1844. — Maximum year (1837) in 5th line. 



Years 


Mean 
Rainfall 


Mean Cycle 


Rain Var. 


Spot Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 






1833 


29-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1834 


23-9 


25-8 


- 2-4 


- 35-6 


1 


1835 


26-5 


26-9 


- 1-3 


+ 33 


2 


1836 


30-9 


28-9 


+ 0-7 


+ 49-1 


3 


1837 


27'ft 


28-4 


+ 0-2 


+ 64-7 


4 


1838 


28-1 


28-7 


+ 0-5 


+ 47-6 


5 


1839 


31-4 


29-3 


+ 1-1 


+ 23-8 


6 


1840 


26-6 


28-9 


+ 0-7 


+ 2-0 


7 


1841 


31-3 


28-6 


+ 0-4 


- 18-9 


8 


1842 


25-5 


28-0 


- 0-2 


- 34-9 


9 


1843 


30-0 


28-2 


o-o 


- 42-2 


10 


1844 


27-4 


— 


> 


— 


— 



As these results, derived from the rainfalls at thirty-seven stations are 
decidedly favourable, the results in Table XXXVI. must be regarded as 
only partially unfavourable. 

57. For the next sunspot cycle we get the following results : — 



Table XXXVIII. — Comparison of rainfall with sunspots from 1843 to 
1857. — Maximum year (1848) in 6th line. 



s 


Great 
Britain, 
31 Stations 


Continent of 
Europe, 
20 Stations 


CO 

TO -r-1 

5 °° 

«3 <M 


m 

c 
o 

Id m 
fl CO 


Southern 
Hemisphere, 
2 Stations 


CO 

5 

03 


Mean Cycle 


Rain Var. 


3 

> 

o 
a. 

02 


O 

c3 O 
>-(0 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1843 


31-8 


29-1 


42-9 


57-6 


21-0 


36-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1844 


26-9 


30-0 


37-4 


68-2 


17-8 


36-1 


35-8 


- 1-8 


- 310 


1 


1845 


333 


31-3 


38-2 


51-2 


19-9 


34-8 


36-8 


-0-8 


- 14-7 


2 


1846 


35 1 


29-8 


41-5 


76-7 


24-7 


41-6 


39-6 


+ 2-0 


+ 102 


3 


1847 


28-6 


26-7 


45-5 


76-5 


25-0 


40-5 


40-2 


+ 2-6 


+ 41-3 


4 


1848 


37-3 


30-5 


400 


63-1 


21-5 


38-5 


39-2 


+ 16 


+ 57-1 


5 


1849 


30-6 


27-2 


390 


75-1 


250 


39-4 


38-7 


+ 1-1 


+ 42-8 


6 


1850 


29-9 


312 


46-5 


54-5 


264 


37-7 


38-4 


+ 0-8 


+ 210 


7 


1851 


29-3 


30-6 


36-7 


73-2 


25-5 


391 


39-4 


+ 1-8 


+ 8-7 


8 


1852 


390 


28-2 


43-1 


74-5 


253 


420 


39-5 


+ 1-9 


- 1-8 


9 


1853 


30-9 


29-6 


39-9 


50-2 


24-1 


34-9 


36-7 


- 0-9 


- 159 


10 


1854 


28-4 


27-0 


38-9 


63-9 


17-7 


35-2 


34-7 


- 2-9 


- 31-5 


11 


1855 


25-5 


30-7 


411 


47-9 


23-9 


338 


34-6 


- 30 


- 432 


12 


1856 


31-4 


29-0 


35-4 


59-0 


23-4 


35-6 


34-9 


- 2-7 


- 43-3 


13 


1857 


29-3 


22-5 


423 


57-7 


21-9 


34-7 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For the above period (1843-57) we have two stations in the southern 
hemisphere, namely, the Cape and Adelaide. The Melbourne and Sydney 
observations cannot be used, because in the former there is a blank for 
the years 1851 to 1854, and because the latter were not commenced till 
1856, the observations previously to that year having been made at South 
Head. 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



253 



The mean for the cycle is 376 inches, and 37 - 4 inches for the years 
1843 to 1857. 

The maximum rainfall occurs about one year before the year of 
maximum sunspots, and the minimum rainfall in the years of minimum 
sunspots at the beginning and end of the cycle. 

There is apparently a tendency to a double oscillation, the rainfall 
diminishing a little from the fourth to the seventh year of the cycle, and 
then increasing a little to the ninth year. 

58. The following table shows the variation for each country or 
district. 

Table XXXIX.— Rainfall variations from 1844 to 1856. 



Years of 
Cycle 


Great 
Britain 


Continent 

of 

Europe 


America 


India 


Southern 
Hemi- 
sphere. 


Mean 
Var. 


Spot 
Var. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




1 


- 1-6 


+ 0-9 


- 1-5 


- 2-6 


- 40 


- 1-8 


- 31-0 


2 


+ 0-8 


+ 1-4 


- 1-6 


- 2-1 


- 2-6 


- 0-8 


- 14-7 


3 


+ 1-7 


+ 0-2 


+ 1-2 


+ 6-3 


+ 0-4 


+ 2-0 


+ 10-2 


4 


+ 1-1 


- 0-8 


+ 2-7 


+ 9-3 


+ 0-9 


+ 2-6 


+ 41-3 


5 


+ 2-1 


- 0-5 


+ 0-7 


+ 5-5 


+ 0-1 


+ 1-6 


+ 57-1 


6 


+ 0-8 


-0-2 


+ 0-7 


+ 3-0 


+ 1-3 


+ 1-1 


+ 42-8 


7 


- 1-4 


+ 0-8 


+ 1-7 


+ 0-4 


+ 2-7 


+ 0-8 


+ 21-0 


8 


+ 0-5 


+ 09 


+ 0-3 


+ 4-9 


+ 2-5 


+ 1-8 


+ 8-7 


9 


+ 3-2 


-0-1 


+ 0-3 


+ 4-2 


+ 1-9 


+ 1-9 


- 1-8 


10 


+ 1-0 


-0-6 


0-0 


- 4 2 


- 0-3 


- 0-8 


- 15-9 


11 


- 30 


- 0-7 


-0-7 


- 7-5 


-2-3 


- 2-8 


- 31-5 


12 


- 3-6 


+ 0-1 


- 1-3 


- 9-3 


- 0-9 


- 3-0 


- 43-2 


13 


- 1-9 


- 1-4 


- 2-9 


- 8-0 


o-o 


- 2-7 


- 43-3 



In Great Britain the maximum and minimum rainfalls are respectively 
in or very near the years of maximum and minimum sunspots, but there 
seems to be a tendency to a double oscillation. 

The variation for the Continent of Europe is, on the whole, unfavour- 
able. This arises from heavy rains having occurred at a good many 
stations in 1844 and 1845. 

Both in America and in India the maximum rainfall occurs one year 
before the year of maximum sunspots, and the minimum rainfall in 
the years of minimum sunspots, with, however, a tendency to a second 
minimum and maximum between the principal maximum and mini- 
mum. 

The variation of the mean rainfall of the two stations in the southern 
hemisphere is similar to the variations of the rainfalls of Great Britain, 
America, and India. 

59. Coming now to the next sunspot cycle, 1856 to 1867, we get the 
results as given in Table XL. 

Not having the rainfalls of the ten American stations for 1868, I have 
taken the thirteen years 1855-67 instead of the years 1856-68. 

The mean rainfall for the cycle is 38 - 4 inches, and 38 - 5 inches for the 
years 1855-67. 

The years of maximum and minimum rainfall coincide with the years 
of maximum and minimum sunspots, except in the eleventh year of the 
cycle, and there is little or no appearance of a double oscillation. 



254 



REPORT — 1878. 



Table XL. — Comparison of Rainfall with Snnspots from 1855 to 1867. 

Maximum year in 6 th line. 





a 


<4H 

~ a 


a 


w 


S3 to 




a) 
75 








to 
3 

1* 


Great 
Britain, 
30 Statio 


Continen 
Europe, 
30 Statio 


• ■-< CO 

2 CO 

1° 

<3 ,-1 


a 


Southern 
Hemisph 
5 Station 


DD 

a 


a 
3 
a> 


3 
i> 

a 
°3 
M 


3 

o 

a, 

02 


Years of 
Cycle 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






1855 


27-1 


27-2 


42-4 


42-0 


34-3 


34-6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1856 


350 


25-1 


35-6 


55-4 


33-2 


36-9 


36-2 


- 2-2 


- 39-7 


1 


1857 


32-5 


19-7 


46-0 


51-7 


33-4 


36-7 


36-6 


- 1-8 


- 39-9 


2 


1858 


34-1 


22-1 


46-0 


50-6 


29-3 


36-4 


376 


- 0-8 


- 16-9 


3 


1859 


37-0 


26-1 


47-7 


57-6 


375 


41-2 


39-3 


+ 0-9 


+ 24-3 


4 


1860 


36-1 


29-4 


37-8 


46-7 


42-9 


38-6 


40-3 


+ 1-9 


+ 56-9 


5 


1861 


40-7 


251 


42-4 


61-0 


45-0 


42-8 


40-9 


+ 2-5 


+ 57-6 


6 


1862 


42-7 


263 


44-4 


57-1 


27-4 


39-6 


40-4 


+ 2-0 


+ 38-1 


7 


1863 


38-2 


245 


44-3 


57-7 


34-9 


39-9 


390 


+ 0-6 


+ 12-4 


8 


1864 


36-1 


23-4 


392 


51-5 


330 


36-6 


37-4 


- 1-0 


- 13-9 


9 


1865 


325 


22-5 


44-0 


54-8 


28-5 


365 


36-9 


- 1-5 


- 341 


10 


1866 


40-0 


27-1 


40-7 


59-1 


24-7 


38-3 


38-1 


-03 


- 450 


11 


1867 


371 


29-2 


42-8 


533 


33-9 


39-3 


— 


— 


— 


— 



60. The variations for the several countries are as follows :■ 
Table XLL— Rainfall Variations from 1855 to 1867. 



Years of 


Great 


Cont. of 


America 


India 


Southern 


Mean 


Spot 


Cycle 


Britain 


Europe 


Hemisphere 


Variation 


Variation 




in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




1 


- 4-1 


-0-5 


-2-8 


- 3-3 


- 0-3 


-2-2 


- 39-7 


2 


- 30 


- 3-1 


+ 0-7 


- 2-1 


- 1-5 


- 1-8 


- 39-9 


3 


- 2-1 


- 2-2 


+ 3-7 


- 1-8 


- 1-5 


- 0-8 


- 16-9 


4 


- 0-5 


+ 1-2 


+ 2-1 


- 1-3 


+ 3-0 


+ 0-9 


+ 24-3 


5 


+ 0-9 


+ 2-8 


- 13 


- 1-4 


+ 8-2 


+ 1-9 


+ 56-9 


6 


+ 3-5 


+ 1-7 


- 1-0 


+ 20 


+ 6-2 


+ 2-5 


+ 57-6 


7 


+ 4-5 


+ 0-8 


+ 11 


+ 3-8 


- 0-2 


+ 2-0 


+ 38-1 


8 


+ 2-3 


- 0-1 


+ 0-3 


+ 1-6 


- 1-3 


+ 06 


+ 12-4 


9 


-0-8 


- 1-2 


- 1-1 


- 0-6 


- 1-5 


+ 1-0 


- 13-9 


10 


- 1-3 


- 0-9 


-0-8 


+ 0-6 


- 5-2 


- 15 


- 341 


11 


+ 0-9 


+ 1-7 


- 0-7 


+ 2-1 


- 5-9 


- 0-4 


- 45-0 



In Great Britain the rainfall increases to the seventh year of the cycle 
and on the Continent to the fifth year, after which it decreases to the 
tenth and ninth years, and then increases in the eleventh. 

The rainfall at the American stations has, apparently, a tendency to a 
double oscillation. 

At the Indian stations the rainfall increases to the seventh year as in 
Great Britain. It then decreases to the ninth year, but increases in the 
tenth and eleventh years. 

The mean rainfall of the five stations in the southern hemisphere 
increases from the second to the fifth year, and then decreases to the 
eleventh, and the maximum and minimum rainfall occur in or very near 
the years of maximum and minimum sunspots. 

61. Omitting the stations in the southern hemisphere, the mean 
variation for Europe, America, and India is given in column one of the 



ON SUNSPOTS AND RAINFALL. 



255 



following table ; 
America is given 
given. 



in column two the mean variation for Europe and 
; and in column three the variation for Europe alone is 



1 


2 


3 


Spot Var. 


Years of 


Eain Var. 


Rain Var. 


Eain Var. 


Cycle 


in. 


in. 


in. 






- 2-7 


- 2-5 


- 2-3 


- 39-7 


1 


- 1-3 


- 1-8 


- 30 


- 39-9 


2 


- 0-6 


- 0-1 


- 2-1 


- 16-9 


3 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-9 


+ 0-3 


+ 24-3 


4 


+ 0-2 


+ 0-8 


+ 1-8 


+ 56-9 


5 


+ 1-5 


+ 1-4 


+ 2-6 


+ 57-6 


6 


+ 2-5 


+ 2-1 


+ 2-6 


+ 38-1 


7 


+ 1-0 


+ 0-8 


+ 1-1 


+ 12-4 


8 


- 0-9 


- 10 


- 1-0 


- 13-9 


9 


- 0-6 


- 1-0 


- 1-1 


- 34-1 


10 


+ 1-0 


+ 0-6 


+ 1-3 


- 45-0 


11 



Each of these variations shows that the sunspots and rainfall were 
below or above their means in the same years, except the eleventh. This 
exception is owing to heavy rains at some stations in Great Britain in 
1866, on the Continent in 1867, and at Bombay in 1865 and 1866. 

On the other hand, the rainfall at the stations in the southern hemis- 
phere was greatly below the average in 1865-66-67. Hence the mean 
rainfall variation for all the stations (Table XL.) is a closer approximation 
to the sunspot variation than the variations in the above table. 

62. The seventy-nine stations in Table XL. include almost all the 
principal observatories in the world. If we take the latter alone, we get 
the following results : — 



Table XLIL— Rainfall at forty 


Observatories from 1855 to 1867. 


Years. 


Mean 
Rainfall 


Mean Cycle 


Rain Var. 


Spot Var. 


Years of 
Cycle 




in, 


in. 


in. 






1855 


29-2 


■ — 


— 


— 





1856 


29-2 


28-3 


-0-5 


- 39-7 


1 


1857 


25-7 


26-7 


- 2-1 


- 39-9 


2 


1858 


26-2 


27-2 


- 1-6 


- 16-9 


3 


1859 


30-7 


29-9 


+ 1-1 


+ 24-3 


4 


1860 


32-0 


31-4 


+ 2-6 


+ 56-9 


5 


1861 


31-1 


30-9 


+ 2-1 


+ 57-6 


6 


1862 


29-7 


29-9 


+ 1-1 


+ 38-1 


7 


1863 


29-4 


28-8 


0-0 


+ 12-4 


8 


1864 


26-9 


27-5 


- 1-3 


- 13-9 


9 


1865 


26-8 


27-3 


- 1-5 


-34-1 


10 


1866 


29-0 


28-7 


-0-1 


- 45-0 


11 


1867 


30-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 



63. Taking only ten observatories, as widely separated as possible, the 
results as given in next table are obtained. 

64. The comparisons which have now been made between the rainfall 
and the sunspots for each of the four cycles from 1824 to 1867 are not 
liable to any objection that may be founded on the plea of a dispersion of 



256 



REPORT — 1878. 



the years of maximum and minimum in the previous comparisons, and yet 
the results are similar. It may be urged, however, that the " mean 
cycle" is formed by "bloxaming" the "means." But this objection, 

Table XLIII. — Rainfall at ten Observatories from 1855 to 1867. 



Years 


bo 
3 

QQ 

<D 

o 
ft 
-p 


bo 

9 

.a 

Ej 


'§ 

ft 


o 

a 

H 
CD 

i — 1 

o3 
ft 


o 

CD 

pq 


bo „ 

9 <-< 


1 

o 
W 


B 
1 

03 


O 


a 

3 

O 
1 — 1 


1 

CD 


oj 

>> 
o 

a 

0) 


'i 

a 


i— i 
O 

t-l 

o 

1 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. • 


in. 


in. 


m. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 




1855 


15-2 


20-3 


13-5 


25-4 


36-4 


47-6 


41-2 


42-6 


24-6 


28-2 


29-5 


— 


— 





1856 


12-2 


28-5 


22-3 


27-2 


33-0 


53-8 


65-9 


46-2 


21-9 


29-7 


34-1 


32-5 


-2.0 


1 


1857 


12-6 


24-9 


19-4 


26-6 


38-6 


57-9 


51-3 


43-4 


22-7 


28-9 


32-6 


32-7 


- 1-8 


2 


1858 


11-8 


24-3 


18-3 


24-8 


42-4 


45-4 


62-4 


353 


24-1 


26-0 


31-5 


34-0 


-0-5 


3 


1859 


15-8 


25-9 


21-5 


28-3 


48-9 


59-3 


77-2 


72-1 


36-7 


21-8 


40-7 


37-0 


+ 2-5 


4 


1860 


153 


33-4 


25-8 


19-4 


38-3 


45-1 


62-1 


57-2 


29-1 


25-4 


35-1 


37-7 


+ 3-2 


5 


1861 


18-0 


28-6 


18-0 


22-5 


44-7 


50-3 


76-9 


87-1 


25-4 


29-1 


40-1 


37-6 


+ 31 


6 


1862 


13-5 


339 


20-3 


21-6 


41-4 


57-2 


73-6 


36-0 


320 


22-1 


35-2 


36-7 


+ 2-2 


7 


1863 


16-6 


25-6 


16-8 


23-4 


44-4 


56-4 


77-7 


42-4 


25-6 


36-4 


365 


34-2 


-0-3 


8 


1864 


20-7 


28-1 


14-4 


24-1 


39-5 


39-4 


45-6 


30-6 


18-9 


27-4 


28-9 


32-2 


- 2-3 


9 


1865 


18-3 


236 


21-4 


26-1 


44-6 


43-6 


77-8 


56-7 


18-6 


15-9 


34-7 


32-3 


- 2-2 


10 


1866 


26-4 


27-2 


25-4 


12-2 


38-5* 


35-5* 


78-4 


25-1 


19-2 


22-4 


31-0 


32-5 


- 2-0 


11 


1867 


25-2 


31-0 


22-2 


17-0 


45-6 


41-7 


62-3 


42-0 


22-9 


25-8 


33-6 


— 


— 


— 



Interpolations. 



also, if it is one, may be removed by making a direct comparison. Taking 
the thirteen " means " given in Tables III., VII., XVIII., XXI., and 
XXVII., we get the following results : — 



Table XLIV. — Direct Comparison of the Rainfall with the Sunspots. 

Maximum years in 6th line. 







D 




t- 










CD 




'3 


ft 
o 




4. 


h 

CD 








"3 
>> 




-m 


p 






ft 




. 




o 


Years 


r-t 


■ 1 1 t~- 


.2 «o 


CO 


0Q 

a<5 


«j 


C5 

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48"1. Now, the rainfall and the sunspots are below or above their respective 



ON SUNSPOTS AND BAINFALL. 257 

means almost In the same years of the common period, and the epochs of 
maximum and minimum sunspots coincide nearly with the epochs of 
minimum and maximum rainfall. 

IX. — Summary of Results. 

65. If we knew exactly the annual rainfall for the whole globe during 
the four sunspot periods 1824-67, and found that it varied as the sun's 
spotted area varied, we should conclude that there was very strong 
evidence of a causal connection between the two phenomena, especially 
when it was considered that the comparative frequence or absence of solar 
spots, faculas. and prominences indicated a variation in the sun's radiant 
energy, upon which the variations in terrestrial meteorology mainly 
depend. But as we do not know the total annual rainfall over the whole 
sui'face of the earth, and have only approximate values of the annual 
amounts of solar maculation, all that can be done is to compare the rain- 
fall at the greatest possible number of stations in different parts of the 
world with the available values of the sunspot areas, and see whether 
there is anything approaching to a correspondence. This has been done 
in the preceding pages, chiefly for the years 1824-67, and th« principal 
results may be summarised as follows : — 

(1.) The mean rainfalls of Great Britain, the Continent of Europe, 
America, and India, as represented by all the returns that have been re- 
ceived, have, notwithstanding some anomalies, varied as Wolf's sunspot 
numbers have varied, and the epochs of minimum and maximum rainfall 
have nearly coincided with those of the sunspots. 

(2.) The rainfall at five stations in the southern hemisphere for 
shorter periods give similar results. 

(3.) The levels of the principal rivers of Central Europe have also 
varied with the sunspots, although, as in the case of the rainfall, there 
are discrepancies. 

(4.) The rainfalls at individual stations, such as Edinburgh, Paris, 
New Bedford, Bombay, &c, afford unmistakable evidence of a connection 
between sunspots and rainfall. 

(5.) The variations in the levels of individual rivers of Central 
Europe, such as the Rhine and Elbe, give similar evidence. 

(6.) The results obtained by taking each sunspot cycle separately are 
all favourable, with the exception of those for the cycle 1 834-43, which 
are unfavourable for ten stations in America and three stations in India, 
but favourable for thirty-seven stations in Europe. 

(7.) When the final results for each country are combined, by taking 
means of all of them (Table XXXIIL), it is found that the rainfall and 
the sunspots are below or above their respective means in the same years, 
and that the epochs of maximum and minimum rainfall apparently coin- 
cide with the epochs of maximum and minimum sunspots. 

(8.) The mean range of rainfall variation for the four cycles from 
1824 to 1867, taking all the stations, is about 4 inches, and the annual 
mean rainfall 38- 5 inches. 

(9.) There is a tendency to a double oscillation in the rainfall, a small 
second maximum and minimum occurring after the principal maximum. 
This is especially the case in India. 

(10.) The principal maximum and minimum epochs of the rainfall do 
not occur at the same time in different countries, but oscillate to the 

1878. s 



258 report — 1878. 

extent of a year or two on either side of the sunspot epochs. On an 
average, however, the rainfall epochs occur somewhat later than the sun- 
spot epochs. 

66. The rainfall and sunspot observations being themselves probably 
but rough approximations, the evidence of 'a connection between them is 
necessarily qualitative rather than quantitative. But, considering how 
apparently capricious an element the rainfall is, it is difficult to account 
for the results which have been obtained for widely distant countries and 
under all conditions of climate, except upon the supposition that they 
are the manifestations of a general law. The number of rainfall returns 
is no doubt small, but it is to be remembered that they are all that are 
available, that they are not a selection, and that virtually they have been 
obtained by haphazard. Moreover, the experience of seven years has 
shown that as the number of rainfall returns increased, so did the evidence 
of a connection between sunspots and rainfall. 

67. The present discussion has been almost exclusively confined to the 
four cycles from 1824 to 1867, because it is supposed that the sunspot 
observations for those years are superior to earlier observations. But it 
must be remarked that exactly similar results have been obtained for 
previous cycles. The rainfall variations for the cycle 1811-23 show a 
most marked coincidence with the sunspot variations, and similar rainfall 
results have been obtained for still earlier cycles. Further, the variations 
in the levels of the Elbe from 1728 to 1868, and in those of the Rhine from 
1770 to 1835 were as favourable in the last century as they have been in 
the present. The cycle 1868-78 is not yet complete, but judging from the 
rainfalls in 1870-73, and from the droughts which have occurred since 
1875, it is not improbable that the general results will be the same as for 
previous cycles. We know already that the mean rainfall at six stations 
in the southern hemisphere from 1865 to 1877 is favourable. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the Year 1877- 
78, by a Committee consisting of James Glaisheu, F.R.S., <&c, 
R. P. Greg, F.Q.S., F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Prof. 
G-. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter Flight, D.Sc., F.O.S., and Prof. 
A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S., (Reporter). 

The meteoric events of the greatest interest during the past year, of which, 
as far as space will permit, the principal characters are described in this 
Report, consist in part of the successive appearances of a rather unusual 
number of very grand and remarkable fireballs which have been seen in 
different parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and which have been 
very satisfactorily recorded in those countries ; and in part also of some 
new observations of meteor showers, and of some falls of aerolites, which 
have added to the increasing store of knowledge of the nature and dis- 
tribution of those astronomical phenomena which we possess. 

A stonefall of considerable abundance and importance took place on 
the 13th of October, 1877, at Soko-Banja, N.E. of Alexinatz, the circum- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 259 

stances of which, as far as they are yet known and investigated, will be 
found described in the Appendix treating of Aerolites and of the pro- 
gress of recent researches on them, at the end of the Report. Of similar 
events and of large fireballs observed in foreign countries, the Committee 
has also to record some other announcements which it has received. A 
detonating meteor of unusual magnitude made its appearance in the 
United States on the afternoon of November 20th, 1877, and was one of 
unusual grandeur. As it was visible at Richmond and at towns of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, where it exploded, all of them near the capital, 
and was also seen by many persons in Washington itself, the inquiry 
undertaken by Professor J. L. Campbell, of the Washington and Lee 
University, regarding all the special characters of the great Virginia 
meteor already in part successfully accomplished will, without doubt, con- 
tribute some important additions to this department of our meteoric 
knowledge. 

A fireball of the same description, scarcely less imposing, appeared (a 
few days after the former one) in England on the evening of the 23rd of 
November last, and was carefully described by a multitude of accounts of 
it which were preserved, and which were communicated to Captain 
Tupman. It appears to have been a member of a very well-known 
meteor shower, whose shooting stars have often afforded plentiful and 
pretty striking exhibitions in November, with a definite centre of 
divergence in the head of Taurus. The " Taurids I.," as they have been 
called, were very abundant in November, 1876, amounting to bright 
showers, especially on the morning of November 20th in that year ; but 
they were remarkable by a nearly total cessation of the stream last year 
m the month when this great fireball appeared to compensate, apparently, 
for the absence of the lesser meteors of the shower. It is premature, until 
future cases of a similar kind corroborate such a conclusion, to infer that 
aerolitic meteors are sometimes furnished by ordinary star-showers, since 
radiant points of very different and independent meteor systems are' some- 
times found to be closely adjacent to each other ; but the evidence thus 
presented of such a connection existing between a meteor shower and an 
aerolitic fireball certainly demands close attention and investigation, by 
the certain determination which was made last year of an almost exact 
resemblance between two such foreign visitants in the positions of their 
radiant points. 

The orbit of a certain comet, it may be noticed (that of 1702), coincides, 
as far as the rough observations of it that were obtained will perhaps 
allow us to conclude, with the date and position of this double meteor 
radiant-point ; and not less likelihood exists that the comet and the two 
kinds of meteor-bodies formed members together of a common system 
coursing round the sun, than that the aerolitic meteor itself was only a 
very large individual of the meteor shower. Captain Tupman has com- 
puted, on the other hand, the orbit of a smaller fireball which he saw on 
the night of the 27th of November, 1877 ; and this meteor, he discovered, 
had a nearly circular orbit, slightly inclined to the earth's, which it was 
overtaking with a periodic time of revolution round the sun of only about 
462 days. A large fireball was seen in full sunlight on the forenoon of 
March 25th, 1878, travelling over the North Sea from the neighbourhood 
of Berwick to that of Aberdeen. Its height and real path were very well 
determined, and this large fireball appears to have been directed in its 
real orbit very nearly straight from the sun towards the earth. The next 

s 2 



260 report— 1878. 

large meteor seen shot from over the north of Yorkshire to the Firth of 
Forth, where it disappeared at a height of 15 or 20 miles very nearly over 
Edinburgh, on the evening of May 12th, 1878. A report like thunder 
heard at Galashiels, seems to have resulted from a division of the fireball, 
seen at Scarborough, by a fragment falling from it some time before 
the end of its course, when it must have been passing over Galashiels at a 
distance of about 35 or 40 miles. It belonged to a radiant point in Virgo, 
very probably identical with that of a new and rich shower of April and 
May shooting stars, seen by Mr. Denning (and perhaps also, on April 18, 
1841, by Professer Forshey, in America) at about 205°-10°, in 1877. 

A fireball descended with a detonation to a low height over a point 
near Market Harborongh, on April 2nd, 1878. It was well observed at 
two places, and its radiant-point in Ursa Major was very well determined. 
A large fireball which passed slowly over Devonshire on the 7th of j June, 
from the English to the Bristol Channel, probably had the same radiant 
point, with one or two companion fireballs on the same evening, as the 
detonating meteor (investigated by Professors Galle and Von Niessl) of 
June 17th, 1873, in Austria and Bohemia. Of this fireball and of one seen 
on the night of July 29th over the neighbourhood of Manchester, however, 
the heights, real courses, and velocities have only been very partially 
established from the observations. 

Among the chief annual meteor showers observed during the past 
year, all but the April Lyrids were pretty notable displays, denoting well- 
marked returns of the several special star- showers of the year. The 
August display of Perseids, in the year 1877, was as bright as, or perhaps 
a little brighter than the average ; but not much more so (if even quite 
so bright as usual) in August, 1878, the state of the sky at some places 
being, on August 10th, in both years, very fairly favourable for the 
observations. The Orionids were well seen, and reached a maximum of 
22 meteors per hour on the morning of October 18th, 1877 ; the 
meteors were bright, leaving very characteristic streaks, and radiated 
very exactly from the point near v Orionis, which is the usual centre of the 
shower. The Leonids were re-observed in England and in America, whei'e 
two observers counted thirty of them per hour on the morning of 
November 14th. The Andromedes were seen both on November 25th and 
27th, about as numerous as the unconformable meteors on those nights. 
The Geminids appeared in greater numbers than usual, reaching a 
maximum on December 11th, 1877, which was well seen, and the 
characters and radiant point of the shower were last year very well ob- 
served. The meteors of January 2nd also made their appearance in a 
pretty bright stream, seen in England to be very active on the morning of 
that day, and affording a pretty good new determination of its radiant- 
point. Among these regular returns of special showers, the display of 
the Lyrids of April 19th-21st, in the year 1878, was, on the other hand, 
somewhat scanty, and inferior to those of the other showers ; only a few 
of its meteors being noticed, and those on the nights of the 21st and 22nd 
of April, principally, when the meteor shower of the Lyrids ordinarily is 
well-nigh extinguished. 

Throughout the autumn months, in the spring, and again on the ap- 
proach of the August meteors, Mr. W. F. Denning recorded appearances 
of meteor showers in watchful observations of the sky whenever the ab- 
sence of the moon and freedom from clouds offered opportunities for their 
detection. Of such showers, many were new, and presented other features 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 261 

of especial interest. A selection of the brightest and most important 
examples of these new views of meteor systems obtained by Mr. Denning 
dnring the past year is included in the third Appendix, following the 
above notices of the greater annual showers, with extracts from his list of 
the almost innumerable shower centres of which he succeeded in tracing 
and recording the existence. From the meteor lists of foreign observers, 
also, Mr. Denning deduced a vast number of meteor showers, and he has 
published a list of them in conjunction with that of his own observations. 
In these two parallel lists the agreements are often very satisfactory and 
•close. Mr. Greg has prepared a valuable abstract of them, showing the 
many points in which these new results confirm and verify the results of 
older observations. A similar abstract by Mr. Greg of the extensive 
shower-catalogue contained in the late Professor Heis' forty-three-year 
summary of his meteor observations, which was published last year, 
accompanies the former abstract ; and to these lists is added, in the same 
part of this Report, the well-known catalogue of meteor showers deduced 
by Professor Schiaparelli from Zezioli's observations of shooting- stars 
at Bergamo in the years 1867-69, of which no perfect transcript has 
hitherto appeared in these Reports. 

The fourth and last Appendix of the Report describes, as in former 
years, the occurrences of stone-falls which have taken place, and the 
results of researches on aerolites and meteoric irons which have been pub- 
lished during the past year ; and it will be seen from its perusal that the 
study of the nature of the substances, and of the circumstances of the falls 
of aerolites, is being pursued with the same activity and success as has 
oharacterised during the past year the observation of shooting-stars and 
fireballs. 

It now begins to appear extremely probable, especially from the results 
of Mr. Denning's recent observations and reductions, that the highest 
attainable accuracy in mapping the observed directions of the apparent 
paths of shooting-stars is the real key to the solution of the problem pre- 
sented by their nightly flights. Numbers of co-existing radiant-points, 
which would have escaped detection by less careful observations, are thus 
shown to be capable of recognition, and of being disentangled from each 
other with precision. The question of the possible connection of large 
fireballs, and among them of aerolites, or large stony masses, with such 
showers, and accordingly, it may be, in certain cases with comets, depends 
also for its solution upon accurate observations of these meteors. In all 
the aspects which they present in appearance or position, whether on a 
large scale of grandeur, or as the smallest scintillations, these singular 
bodies are certainly attractive objects for accurate investigation and de- 
scription from the profound obscurity in which at present the whole of 
the history of their origin appears to be involved. The Committee has 
thought it desirable, from these considerations, to offer some suggestions 
to observers, taking the form of general directions for recording exactly 
any particulars of the occurrences of shooting-stars, fireballs, and 
aerolites, of which circumstances may enable them to furnish perfectly 
definite and reliable accounts. The different heads and paragraphs of 
these directions are added in a convenient series of sections at the end of 
the Report. 



262 



REPORT 1878. 



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264 report— 1878. 

APPENDIX. 

I. Meteors doubly observed. 

Among the lists of occasional observations of shooting-stars received by 
the Committee during the past year, a few examples occur of simultaneous 
observations by observers at distant stations of meteors which agree 
together in every particular of their description, and which, on account of 
the regularity of the watches kept, the few meteors noted on the same 
dates, and the good accordance also of the apparent paths when allowance 
is made for the observers' positions as regards length and direction of 
the base-line between their stations, were undoubtedly independent 
views of the same meteoric bodies, and will, therefore, afford approximate 
data of the distances and positions, and of the lengths and directions of 
their real paths. One additional observation of each of two meteors re- 
corded in last year's Fireball List has been received, and the descriptions 
of those meteors, at 10 h 44 m p.m., June 10th, 1876, and 10 h 25 m p.m., 
August 10th, 1877, already given, are here repeated for compainson with 
the new descriptions of them which have since been received. 

The radiant-points concluded from the recorded paths by their direct 
projections are added in the last column but one of the list. But to 
these positions, when the tracks nearly overlie each other, and therefore 
give results very largely and doubtfully affected by the errors of observa- 
tion, too much importance must not be attached in respect of the varia- 
tions which they sometimes show from the independent estimates of their 
probable radiant-points which were originally attached to them by the 
observers. Radiant positions thus found are yet data of the first and 
greatest interest to be extracted from such observations. A complete 
discussion of the heights, velocities, and other particulars of these 
meteors' real paths, and of those of a similar list of doubly observed 
shooting- stars presented in last year's Report, is postponed at present, 
until materials for a more general communication on the results of such 
comparisons present themselves in the course of future observations. 

II. Large Meteors. 

Many of the desci'iptions of fireballs seen during the past year have 
furnished reliable materials for determining their real courses and the 
probable astronomical relationships of their orbits. A condensed account 
of these occurrences is given in this Appendix, as most of the following 
notes were collected from very scattered sources, and are not the results 
of preparation and of systematic watches, like those of the foregoing 
Appendix. The two lists which are included in this Appendix contain 
the final determinations of the real paths of the most brilliant and widely 
observed of the past year's bolides and detonating meteors, and such 
accounts of others, not so widely observed, as private and published 
descriptions of them have enabled the Committee to collect. 

On June 14th, 1877, 8 h 52 m p.m., Paris Time. The large fireball 
of this date seen in the south of France by M. Gruey at Clermont Ferrand 
(Puy-de-D6me) was also observed at Bordeaux and at Angouleme with 
accurate positions by the stars. The agreement of the recorded paths with 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 265 

•each other and with a radiant point near 4 Bootis is very close, and this 
star was culminating at the time on the south meridian. The initial 
points of all the tracks begin so near it, probably by an extension to which 
there is a natural tendency in observations, that the initial height of the 
fireball thence obtained is without doubt much overrated, while its dura- 
tion in seconds was very well determined by the independent estimations. 
There appears no reason (from the greatly overrated length of path) to 
accept M. Gruey's calculation that the real orbit of this fireball was a 
hyperbola of very great eccentricity, as the measure of its real length of 
path and velocity is based upon very questionable data ? A loud detona- 
tion followed the meteor's disappearance at Bordeaux, 55 miles from its 
end point, in five minutes ; the distance which sound would travel in 
that time is about 62 miles. 

On October 19th, 1877, 6 h 13 m p.m., Ireland, and the West of 
England. A very magnificent fireball made its appearance westwards of 
the English coast, over Ireland and St. George's Channel, during full 
twilight, and before any stars were yet plainly visible, on the above 
evening ; and many accounts of its unusual appearance were presented in 
the daily journals. The strength of the daylight hindered all definite 
measures of its position, and a solitary description by the stars at Mon- 
mouth, together with a careful sketch of its course forwarded to the Com- 
mittee from an observer near Dublin by Professor Ball, of the Dunsink 
Observatory, are the only available accounts among a score or two, for 
determining the real direction of its course ! Its flash was like lightning at 
Swansea, amid the glow in the west lingering after the departed sun. 
By the few who saw the meteor itself, it is described (at Weston-super- 
Mare) as a balloon of whitish light, falling slowly ; at Stoke Prior, 
Wolverhampton, as a glowing poker rushing through the air ; and a 
strange spectacle seems to have been presented by it (as described in the 
' Times ' of October 24th) near Templemore, in the south-west part of 
Ireland. " We had one of the most brilliant meteors here last evening 
that I ever saw ; indeed, it was rather startling, as the whole heavens 
seemed open, or rather divided. It was a quarter to six o'clock (Irish 
time), and I was on the terrace when I suddenly heard a crackling noise, 
or rather the intense light and noise came together. I looked up and saw 
a great light. The meteor went from east to west. I did not see it fall 
to earth, as it seemed to vanish away into space. It began small, then 
grew alarmingly large, and gradually disappeared, although the light re- 
mained visible for over seven minutes. I called M. from the piano, and 
A, ran down from my room wondering what had come to pass. I went 
down (100 yards off) to call K. and his family to look at the light, which 
was still very bright, though not so intense as it had been, and which had 
then assumed a semicircular shape, and gradually grew paler. It was 
quite seven or eight minutes visible. I shall never forget the sight, it was 
so grand and awful." Templemore is in the direction from Monmouth 
which the meteor took, as it descended vertically, in the position there 
noted near Arcturus ; and the alarming nature of the spectacle seems to 
indicate that its nearest approach to the earth must have been not very 
far from Templemore. 

The observer (Mr. John Parker) near Dublin, also gives a singular 
description of its appearance. " First indication : — A momentary brilliant 
illumination of all surrounding objects, casting a well defined shadow, as 
in sunlight, and not such as is caused by lightning. 



266 



REPORT — 1878. 



RESULTS OF DOUBLE OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE FIREBALLS 

VELOCITIES, ANDi 



Date and Hour (Local Time, or) 
G. M. T. Size and General 
Appearance. 



1876, July 8 (8" 45 m p.m.) . 

1877, Jan. 19, 6" 27 m p.m. . 
„ April 6, 9" 26 m p.m. ., 
„ April 16, 10" 50 ra p.m. 



„ June 14 (8 h 52 m p.m.) ; = 
full moon at last ; white, with 
tail of red and blue. Detona- 
tion in 5 min. at Bordeaux. 

1877, Oct. 19, 6" 13™ p.m. Glo- 
bular, white nucleus. Left a 
bright white streak, becoming 
serpentine, for 8 or 10 minutes. 

1877, Nov. 20 (afternoon). Splen- 
did fireball, with flame-track, 
and long-enduring cloud-streak. 
Violent explosion over Dan- 
ville, Halifax, &c, N. Carolina. 

1877, Nov. 23, 8 1 ' 24™ p.m. Great 
detonating meteor ; £ diam. of 
moon ; of extreme brilliancy ; 
streak 40 miles long, 2,000 ft. 
diam. ; explosion very loud in I. 
of Man, N. Wales, and Cheshire. 

1877, Nov. 27, 10" 26 m p.m. Blue, 
globular with sparks ; i diam. 
of moon in middle of its course ; 
small in first and last parts. 
Motion curved, extraordinarily 
slow ; about 22 seconds. 

1878, March 25, 10 b 22 m a.m. Large 
meteor, in sunlight. Conical ; 
white or red ball, with long 
taper tail of fire ; burst at last ; 
smoke wreath remained visible 
10 minutes. 

1878, May 12, 8" 53 m p.m. Very 
brilliant head ; white, with not 
much tail ; dropped a red frag- 
ment near disappearance ; re- 
port heard in 2 minutes, like 
thunder, at Galashiels. 

1878, June 7, 9" 53"' p.m. J- diam 
of moon ; bluish ; pear-shaped, 
with flickering tail ; long, slow 
course, with uniform size and 
brightness ; no streak or sparks. 

1878, July 29, 9 h 25™ or 30 m p.m. 
\ 1) . Two flashes, the first 
vivid, white ; burst into red 
fragments leaving a long mo- 
mentary red-starred track ; 
motion pretty swift. 



Ind. and Ohio, U.S 

Wales, and S. of Ireland 
Wales, and S. of Ireland 
Leicester; I. of Man ... 

Clermont Ferrand, An- 
gouleme, and Bor- 
deaux, France. 



Erincipal Places of 
Observation 



88m. Ottohee, Ohio 
75m. Milford Haven 

80m. Kildare 

60m. Yorkshire 



Monmouth, Swansea, 
Bath ; and Dublin, 
Waterford, and Tem- 
plemore, Ireland. 

Richmond, Washington, 
Bristol, Halifax, &c, 
in Virginia, and N. 
Carolina, U.S. 

England, Wales, Scot- 
land, and Ireland. 



Greenwich, Writ-tie near 
Chelmsford, and Bris- 
tol. 



Coupar, Callander, New 
castle, Hawick, Wig 
ton ; Scotland and the 
North of England. 



Edinburgh, Bathgate, 
Galashiels, Stonykirk ; 
York,Scarborough,and 
the middle of England 



Bristol and Shrewsbury ; 
Knole and Hawk- 
hurst, Kent ; West and 
South of England. 

Manchester, Lancaster, 
Cumberland and N, 
Wales. 



Meteor's Real Course. 



Beginning ; Height 
and Locality. 



175m. (?) ; 20m. S.W. 
of Nerac, Gers. 



60m. over Milford 
Haven. 



70m. ; 15m. N. of 
Danville, Virginia 



34m. L. Michigan 
45m. St. G. Channelh 
20m. Cape Clear.. J 
30m. Yorksh. Coast!) 

27m. 10m. W. of Bi-i 
berac, Dordognel 
55m. from Bor- 
deaux. 

40m. over Cape 
Clear. 



10m. ; 25m. a Httti 
S. of E. from 
Danville, Virg. ;j 



96m.; 15m. N. of 
Derby. 40m. over 
Liverpool ; first out- 
burst ; the meteor 
suddenly became 
very luminous. 

56m.; Urn. N. of 
Margate, Kent. 



50m. ; 30m. E.S.E 
from Berwick. 



78m. over Northaller- 
ton, Yorkshire. 



65m.; 20m. W.N.W. 
from Guernsey, 
Channel Islands. 



82m.; 8m. W. from 
Manchester. 



End ; Height and 
Locality. 



14m. ; 17m. N.N.W 
of the Great! 
Orme's Head. 



13m.; 12m. W. 0* 
St. Omer, France 



22m. ; 45m. E.N.E 
from Aberdeen 



17m. ; over Bonessi 
near Edinburgh' 



37m. ; 15m. E.N.H 
from Lundy Islf I 
Bristol Channel 



20m. ; midway bd 
tween Prestol 
and Blackpoo 
coast of Lanes] 
shire. 



OBSEEVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



267 



BEN IN THE YEARS 1876-78; SHOWING THEIR REAL PATHS, 
ADIANT POINTS. 



Mstances ('in.', or 'miles') in British Statute Miles, 



Length of Path and 
"Velocity. 



Observed Radiant Point 
8 



.45 miles 

{30 miles, 35 miles p. sec. 
65 miles, 31 miles p. sec. 
70 miles (?) 



305 
135 



170 miles (?) in 4 sees. (three 
estimations) ; vel. 42 J 
miles (?) p. sec. (parabolic 
speed 11 miles per sec). 

7ery uncertain path ; ac- 
curately described at 
Monmouth only, and 
roughly in Dublin. 

Vhout 70 miles (as deduced 
I from this position). 



133 miles. Velocity (from 25 
estimations of duration), 
17| miles per second 

i (parabolic speed 19 miles 
per second.) 

«8 ( ± 5) miles in not less 
than 15 seconds. Ve 

' locity not greater than 5 
miles per second). 



130 miles. Duration of the 

whole flight about 7 sec. ; 
velocity 1 Similes per sec, 



155 miles in about 10 se- 
conds for the whole 
course; 15£ miles per sec. 
(parabolic speed 15.5 
miles per sec). 

160 miles in 8 or 9 seconds ; 
about 19 miles per se 
cond. (Parabolic speed 
20 miles per second.) 



212 + 12 (± 3°), near f 
Bootis. 



20 + 15 (?) near r/ Pis- 
cium (assuming the 
course to have been 
nearly horizontal). 

\bout alt. 60°, 35° N. fr. 
W. (by this descrip 
tion). 



G2 + 21 (± 3°) near « 
Tauri. 



70 miles in about 3 sees., 290 + 42 ; near 8 Cygni ; 



+ 7 . 
+ 27. 
+ 50. 



140 + 50 (?) 



T. 35. Streak visible 45 m . 
D. 8(1877); =i ]) ; no streak. 
Draconids I. (G.'47). Detonated. 
G. 45 (?) ; 3 x ? . 



285 (± 1)+ 64 (± 5), at 
i (8, o) Draconis. [ = G 
166; Schmidt, Heis, 
Nov. 1-15 ; Clark, and 
DG 3 , Nov. 23— Dec. 9.] 

332 - 20 ( ± 5°) 



214-7 (± 4°) near t 
Virsnnis. 



247 -25(± 5°); close to 
Antares. 



Nearest known Radiant Point ; and Remarks. 



For full ac- 
counts, see 
vol. of these 
Reports for 
1877,pp.l49, 
156. 
202° + 9°, May, Heis. 210° + 20°, July 4-11, G, 
89. (No known radiant near this place in 
June.) Calculation of the meteor's real path 
by M. Gruey, ' Comptes Rendus,' 1877, Oct. 1 ; 
vol. lxxxv. p. 632. 
Piscids II. 20° + 14° Oct. 13-29, 1876, Denning. 
Slow meteors. (No dependence can be placed 
on tJteassumed position of the fireball radiant.) 
A very splendid meteor ; the streak perhaps 
sunlit. 

Description of the meteor's real course by Prof, 
H. A. Newton. (Letter in the ' Richmond 
(U.S.) Daily Dispatch,' Dec. 13, 1877.) 



A slight alteration of the radiant (diminishin 
its longitude) brings the orbit nearly into 
coincidence with that of Athe comet of 
1702. A well-known radiant, Taurids I. 
(Calculation of the course by G. L. Tupman, 
' The Observatory,' vol. i. pp. 316 and 351.) 

The real orbit of the meteor cannot have been 
far from circular. Period 549 days about 
motion direct, with inclination about 30 c 
(See the calculation of its path, p. 270, by 
G. L. Tupman). 

Radiant a little S. of the Ecliptic. Directed in 
its real orbit very nearly from the sun's 
place (R.A. 4°|, N. Decl. 2°). 



23 miles per sec. (Para 
bolic speed 21 m. per 
sec). 



(or between 285° + 45° 
and 300° + 35°). 



D 46 (1877), 210°- 10° ; rich and probably new 
shower; Corder, Apr. — May, 1877, 208-6 
Forshey, Apr. 18, 1841, 198°-8°. 



Radiant of fireball, 1873, June 17th, Aus- 
tria and Bohemia (Galle, and von Niessl), 
248°-20°. 



Denning, end of July, 1878, 284° + 44°; a 
radiant of bright slow-moving meteors. 



268 



REPORT, 1878. 



The meteor appeared as a distinct well-defined silver-coloured streak, 
W.S.W. of Dublin, forming a spiral curve, with a distinct head or nucleus of 
white light, which after being visible for nearly two seconds, burst into frag- 
ments with a loud noise [?] The spiral streak continued visible for seven 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 




masses 



Fig. 3. 



minutes, during which time the spiral form became more and more developed, 
until the circles became lost by evaporation. The sky was clear and the atmo- 
sphere calm." At Newtown the meteor fell from near the zenith to S.W., 
leaving a streak for nearly a quarter of an hour which curled on itself 

"thus -< and afterwards acquired this form C r_") • Its cloud- 
must have been lighted up by the sun's rays, and were more striking, 
even, it would seem in England than they have been described in Ireland. 
The appearance which it exhibited at Monmouth is noted in Mr. Watkins 
Old's observation of its course in the accompanying Fireball List. Mr. 

A. W. Batson, of the South Wales 
Institution at Swansea, who is a 
good artist, made two sketches of 
it, which are thus referred to in the 
' Standard ' of October 23rd :—" The 
meteor fell perpendicularly, almost 
due west, over the light of the sun. 
After its disappearance there re- 
mained an immensely bright, jagged 
trail of light, which gradually as- 
sumed a spiral form, and floated in 
a southerly direction. In its last 
form it looked like a letter C with 
flourishes. This phenomenon was 
visible for fully ten minutes, at the 
end of which time it dissolved into 
a cloud of phosphorescent light." 

1877, November 23rd, 8 h 24 m 
p.m., Lancashire, and most parts of 
England, Wales, Scotland and Ire- 
land. Accounts of this detonating 
fireball, which appeared as large as 
the full moon at Manchester and 
Liverpool, and was at least as brilliant, appeared in a great many con- 
temporary journals, local and leading newspapers, and scientific periodi- 
cals, very quickly after its occurrence. A letter from Captain Tupman, 
of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in the ' Times ' of November 30th, 
soliciting particular accounts of its appearance from observers in Wales, 




OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 269* 

Lancashire and Cheshire, was responded to by frilly 120 communications, 
the substance of which Captain Tupman has discussed and presented in 
three papers, which are contained in the first yearly volume of the newly 
edited and published journal of Astronomy, ' The Observatory ' (at pp. 
282, 316, and 351). The general features of the fireball, and of two 
others seen on the same evening, are discussed, with a plate of several 
phases of its appearance seen by Mr. Plant at Manchester, in the first ; 
and the materials furnished for comparison, with particulars of the in- 
dividual accounts, and with the final results to which their examination 
led him, are presented in the remaining two of Captain Tupman's papers. 
The same letter in the ' Times ' which invited these communications also 
described a meteor of singular interest and brightness, seen by Captain 
Tupman at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, on the night of Novem- 
ber 27th, which will be the subject of the following paragraph of thi& 
Appendix. A striking statement of an observer at Queenstown, Cork 
Harbour, followed in a few lines after the impression of the same letter, 
that at the hour of the fireball's appearance a meteor of extreme bril- 
liancy was observed travelling, in bright moonlight, across the northern 
sky, showing the vast extent of country over which this large meteor, 
which burst forth directly over Liverpool, was satisfactorily observed. 
A fireball only slightly less conspicuous was, it appears, noticed at 
several places at 7 h 25 m , an hour before the appearance of the lai'ge one,, 
and sufficient accounts of its course and apparent path were forwarded 
to Captain Tupman from observers who were fortunate enough to witness 
both meteors, to show that it was probably a member of the same meteor 
stream and diverged from the same radiant-point as the larger one. A 
detonating fireball of great brilliancy was also seen at Strassburg, on the 
same evening, at 6 o'clock p.m.* 

The position of this fireball focus, or centre of emanation of at least 
one detonating or aerolitic fireball of the 23rd of last November is 
sufficiently remarkable to become the source of a new series of conjectures 
and researches regarding any aerolitic or detonating meteors that may in 
future times be observed ; for it was discovered that in the real direction 
of its flight this unusually striking fireball's radiant-point agrees in 
position with that of a very notable and important star-shower diverging 
from near the Pleiades and Hyades in the middle and early part of No- 
vember. The star-shower thus indicated, known, since Mr. Denning's 
and Mr. Corder's successful investigations of it in November, 1876, as 
" Taurids I.," was found by Mr. Denning, among frequent rich displays of 
its meteors in that year, to reach a conspicuous maximum on the morning 
of November 20th, 1876, with a radiant-point marked with the greatest 
certainty at 62° + 22°. It is exactly at this place that by a complete dis- 
cussion of all the observations furnished to him, Captain Tupman found 
that the great detonating meteor's radiant-point of the 23rd of November 
last was situated. It is thus a very plain and obvious inference that the 
shooting stars forming the body of the stream which the earth encounters 
striking it from Taurus about the middle, and on a few later nights of 
November, are of the same hard, compact materials, in smaller fragments, 
as that of which the fireball must have been composed to produce the 
loud and violent concussion of the air with which its explosion was marked 
by a thunder-like report in Wales, Lancashire, and the Isle of Man. 

* ' Strassburg Gazette ; ' and 'Nature,' vol. xvii. p. 1 14. 



270 eepokt— 1878. 

The " Taurids I." are apparently small aerolites ; and it may be added that 
the comet of 1702, whose fragments, if they strike the earth at all, must 
do so from a radiant point at about 56° + 20° on the 27th of November, 
appears to be so closely associated with the new-found maximum of the 
" Taui'ids I." on November 20th, that if the aerolitic character of that 
meteor shower is certainly established, a fair presumption then suggests 
itself that the material of the comet itself is a firm and solid substance, 
and that the " Taurid " shooting stars, and even detonating fireballs which 
sometimes accompany them, are but small fragments compared with 
much larger stony masses which may be pictured as congregated to- 
gether in the nucleus of the comet ! 

Besides the many scattered accounts, and the general review of their 
contents given, with an engraving, by Captain Tupman, in his first Paper, 
a full and varied collection of descriptions of the meteor's appearance by 
different observers was published in ' Nature' (vol. xvii., pp. 94 and 113). 
Particulars of these various descriptions, including some original accounts, 
will be found in the list of observations of large meteors accompanying 
this Appendix ; and the real height and description of its course, from 96 
miles above the neighbourhood of Derby to a point 14 miles above the 
Irish Channel, about 20 miles north of the Welsh coast near Llandudno, are 
detailed at length in the list of such determinations (pp. 266-7) of several 
large meteors during the past year which is here appended. The meteor's 
apparent path was noted pretty exactly at ten, and less perfectly at five 
or six other places in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, by the 
stars or planets ; by estimated bearings and altitudes at some twenty-five 
places, and by exact measurements of the same data at four or five. From 
two observations of the latter kind by Mr. T. S. Petty, at Llandudno, 
and by Captain Watson on board of the Algeria, in the Irish Channel, 
very near the meteor's place of disappearance, Captain Tupman regards 
the final height as having been only 14, instead of 26 miles, and the 
radiant-point at 62° + 21° instead of at 63° + 15°, which were the first 
deductions of its real course arrived at from the other observations. 
Whatever discrepancies in the end-height and radiant-point are thus 
exhibited, the adopted corrections thus finally introduced appear to be 
absolutely necessary ones to satisfy some of the nearest well-observed 
positions, and especially the two last-named very important observations. 
Of the two explosions, or first outburst and final disruption, between 
which the meteor was a most vivid bluish pear-shaped fireball, with a 
long tail of red stars or sparks following it, the first took place at a height 
of about 40 miles exactly over Liverpool, and in a considerable part of its 
track before this point the meteor was described as resembling an ordinary 
shooting-star. It left no long persistent streak, and burst at last into a 
shower of highly-colom*ed fragments with an explosion, the report of 
which was loudly heard in two or three minutes like artillery and thunder 
on the Lancashire and Welsh coasts, and in the Isle of Man. 

The following is the calculation by Captain Tupman of the real course 
of the bright fireball which he observed on the evening of November 27th, 
1877 :— 

A Meteor of Short Periodic Time. By Captain G. L. Tupman. 

On the 27th of November, 1877, at 10 h 26 m G.M.T. precisely, the 
sky being clear, I observed a fine fireball, of normal type, descend from 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



271 



about 6° above tbe star Castor to a point about 5° or 6° to the left of 
Sirius. The terminal point was exactly the same altitude as Sirius, and 
about the same distance to the left. The meteor began as a first or 
second magitude star ; and, after traversing one-fourth or one-third of its 
path, it suddenly increased in brilliancy and apparent size to a fine 
bluish-white fireball, and emitted a train, coloured blue, red, and green, 
many degrees long. At this time the pear-shaped ball was 10 or 12 
minutes in diameter. At about two-thirds of its course it began to dimi- 
nish in lustre, and, turning a dull red colour, moved very slowly towards 
the end, so slowly, that it seemed to come almost to a standstill. It was 
then seen through a thin cloudy haze, and was about equal to Sirius in 
lustre. I counted 22 seconds duration, making a mental allowance for 
the time that had elapsed before I commenced to count ; but immediately 
afterwards, by imagining the course to be described again, I thought the 
duration was 15 or 16 seconds. It could not have been less than 15, and 
may have been 20 seconds. The path was gently curved towards Orion. 
The place of observation was half a mile Bast of the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich. 

Tbe meteor was also seen by Mr. Henry Corder, at Writtle, near 
Chelmsford, who thus describes it : — 

Nov. 27, 10 h 25 m — At the commencement it was of the 3rd or 4th 
magnitude, rapidly increasing to first magnitude, of deep red colour and 
red train. Then equal to Venus, greenish blue. It began 83°+ 31°, 
ended 91° — 1° in a cloud. Path 38° long, traced on the chart among 
the stars of Taurus and Orion ; parallel to /3 Tauri and a Orionis, and 
when produced the path coincided with 5 Monocerotis. Mr. Corder sup- 
posed that the meteor ended at the extinction of the bright light, all 
further view being cut off by the clouds. The duration was not noted, 
as he endeavoured to call the attention of a friend ; but he was struck by 
the great length of time it remained visible — estimated at about 5 or 6 
seconds. 

The real ending was seen by Mrs. Ursula Ware, at Clifton Down, 
Bristol, at an altitude equal to that of Sirius, and about 1° to the left of 
the vertical of Procyon [by a diagram]. It moved very little during the 
3 seconds it was visible. Time 10 h 40 m . 

These descriptions afford the following coordinates as basis of calcu- 
lations : — 





Began 


Became Bright 


Became Dull 


Ended. 


Azimuth Alt. 


Azimuth 


Alt. 


Azimuth. 


Alt. 


Azimuth. 


Alt. 


Greenwich 
Writtle ... 


N. 85° E. 
8. 67 E. 


44° 
50 


S. 81° E.... 


34°. .. 


S. 69° E.... 
S. 51 E.... 


20° 
23 


S. 59° E.... 


6^° 


Bristol 






S. 79J b.... 


41 

*5 















These positions are in remarkable agreement, and the following true 
path satisfies them all, both azimuths and altitudes, within 1°. 

When the meteor first became visible, it was at the real height of 50 
statute miles vertically over a point off the mouth of the Thames, 11 
miles north of Margate, or in lat. 51° 33' N. ; long. 1° 21' E. It moved 
in the direction