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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

'■/ 



REPORT 



OP THE 



FORTY- NINTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



SHEFFIELD IN AUGUST 1879. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MUKEAY, ALBEMARLE STEEET. 

1879. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 



LONDON : PRINTED BY 

SP0TTI8W00DE AND CO., NEW-STREET 8QUABB 

AND PARLIAMENT 8TBEET 




CONTENTS. 



• i > * 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxi 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxviii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement » xxxv 

Evening Lectures xlviii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes 1 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Sheffield Meeting li 

Treasurer's Account liii 

Tahle showing the Attendance and Eeceipts at Annual Meetings liv 

Officers and Council, 1879-80 Ivi 

Report of the Council to the General Committee lvii 

Appendix I. — Correspondence with the Treasury about the Natural History 

Collections hx 

Appendix II. — Report of the Patent Law Committee lxiii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports and 
Researches in Science lxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixxv 

Places of Meeting in 1880 and 1881 lxxvi 

•General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes lxxvii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lxxxvi 



Address by the President, Professor G. J. Allman, M.D., LL.D., F.R.SS. 
L. and E., M.R.I.A., Pres. L.S 1 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, Pro- 
fessor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. _ F. J. 
Bramwell, and Mi-. J. T. Bottomlet, for commencing Secular Experiments 

upon the Elasticity of Wires. Drawn up by J. T. Bottomlet 33 

A 2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page' 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir Wil- 
liam Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor 
J. Clerk Maxwell, appointed for the purpose of effecting the Determina- 
tion of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 36 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of endeavouring to pro- 
cure Reports on the Progress of the Chief Branches of Mathematics and 
Physics ; the Committee consisting of Professor G. Caret Foster (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. G. Adams, Professor R. B. Clifton, Professor Cayley, 
Professor J. D. Everett, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, 
Professor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Spottiswoode, 
and Professor P. G. Tait 37 

Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Professor Ramsat, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gal- 
loway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, and Mr. G. F. Deacon, appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature 
downwards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up 
by Professor Everett (Secretary) 40" 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S., Professor 
G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., Professor Sir 
William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. 
L. Glaisher, F.R.S. (Secretary), on Mathematical Tables. Drawn up by 
Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher 46 

Sixth Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Herschel, M.A., 
F.R.A.S., Professor G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., and Mr. T. J. Dunn, B.Sc, 
on Experiments to determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, 
showing especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation 58 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, and Professor Everett, appointed to obtain Observa- 
tions on Atmospheric Electricity at Madeira. Drawn up by Dr. Grabham, 
Madeira 63 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, F.R.S. , and 
Professor Cayley, F.R.S., appointed for the purpose of calculating Tables of 
the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms 66 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Samuel Haughton. M.D., 
and Benjamin Williamson, M.A., appointed for the Calculation of Sun- 
Heat Coefficients. Drawn up by Dr. Haughton 66 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, Dr. Merrifield, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas 
Galton, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of obtaining information respecting the Phenomena of the Stationary Tides 
in the English Channel and in the North Sea ; and of representing to the 
Government of Portugal and the Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion 
of the British Association, Tidal Observations at Madeira or other islands 
in the North Atlantic Ocean -vould be very valuable, with the view to the 
advancement of our knowledge of the Tides in the Atlantic Ocean 71 

Report of Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1878-79, by a 
Committee consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., &c, R. P. Greg, F.G.S., 
F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Professor G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter 
Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., and Professor A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S. 
(Reporter) 76 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. David Gill, Professor G. Forbes, 
Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. 0. PL Gimingham (with power to add to 
their number), appointed to consider the question of Pmprovements in 
Astronomical Clocks 13P 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor W. G. Adams, and Mr. W. E. Ayrton, appointed for the purpose of 
improving an Pnstrument for detecting the presence of Fire-damp in Mines . 13P 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. 
(Secretary), Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, and Mr. A. P. Luff, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Chemistry of some of the lesser-known 
Alkaloids, especially Veratria and Beheerine 133 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, 
Professor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor L. C. Miall, 
Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. W. Pengelly, W. Molyneux, D. 
Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, and J. Plant, and Dr. Deane, 
appointed for the purpose of recording the position, height above the sea, 
lithological characters, size and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the 
same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. 
H. W. Crosskey (Secretary) 135 

Fifteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of John Evans, F.R.S., Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George Busk, 
F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshford Sanford, 
F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William Pengelly, F.R.S. 
(Reporter), appointed for the purpose of exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire 140 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Evans, Sir John Lubbock, 
Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. George Busk, Professor W. Boyd Daw- 
kins, Mr. Pengelly, and Mr. A. AV. Franks, appointed for exploring cer- 
tain Caves in Borneo 149 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Hull, Rev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, Mi-. Glaisher, Mr. H. H. Howell, Profes- 
sor G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. Morton, Mr. 1. Roberts, Mr. 
Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. James Plant, Mr. Mellard Reade, 
Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. De Rance (Reporter), appointed for investiga- 
ting the Circulation of the Underground Waters in the Jurassic, New Red 
Sandstone, and Permian Formations of England, and the Quantity and 
Character of the Waters supplied to various Towns and Districts from these 
Formations 155 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Maxwell Close, Professor 
W. C. Williamson, and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed for the purpose of 
collecting and reporting on the Tertiary (Miocene) Flora, &c, of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland. Drawn up by Wu. Helller Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
(Secretary) 162 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. T. Barnes-Lawrence, Mr. 
Spence Bate, Mr. H. E. Dresser (Secretary), Mr. J. E. Harting, Dr. 
Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. J. G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Professor Newton, and 
the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed by the Council for the purpose of 
inquiring into the possibility of establishing a Close Time for the Protection 
of Indigenous Animals 165 



*c v 



Report of Committee, consisting of Mi-. 0. Spence Bate, and Mr. J. Brooking 
Rowe, appointed for the purpose of Exploring the Marine Zoology of Devon 
and Cornwall , 165 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occu- 
pation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples, consisting of Dr. M. 
Foster, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Dew-Smith (Secretary), Professor Hux- 
ley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, 
Sir C. Wyville Thomson, and Professor Ray Lankester 165 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. Wil- 
liam James Knowles, Dr. A. Leith Adams, and the Rev. Dr. Grainger, 
for the purpose of conducting Excavations at Port9tewart, and elsewhere in 
the North of Ireland. Drawn up by Mr. Knowles (Secretary) 171 

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Farr, Dr. Beddoe, 
Mr. Brabrook (Secretary), Sir George Campbell, Mr. F. P. Fellows, 
Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Park Harrison, Mr. 
James Heywood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Sir Rawson 
Rawson, Professor Rolleston, and Mr. Charles Roberts 175 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir 
Joseph Hooker, Capt. F. M. Hunter, and Professor Flower, appointed to 
take steps for the Investigation of the Natural History of Socotra 210' 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. 
Fletcher, Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, Mr. C. W. Mer- 
rifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunel, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred 
(Secretary), Professor James Thomson, and Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, on Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships 210 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Major-General Strachey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of considering the Datum-level of the 
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, with a view to its establishment on a 
surer foundation than hitherto, and for the tabulation and comparison of 
other Datum-marks 219 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. W. Williamson, Pro- 
fessor Sir William Thomson, Mr. Bramwell (Secretary), Mr. St. John 
Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifleld, Dr. Neilson 
Hancock, Professor Abel, Mr. J. R. Napier, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, and Mr. H. Trueman 
Wood, appointed for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council 
on Patent Legislation 223 

On Self-acting Intermittent Siphons and the Conditions which Determine the 
Commencement of their Action. By Rogers Field, B.A., M. Inst. C.E 223 

On some further Evidence as to the Range of the Palaeozoic Rocks beneath the 
South-East of England. By R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S 227 

Hydrography, Past and Present. By Lieutenant G. T. Temple, R.N., 
F.R.G.S 229 



TKANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

Page 

Address by G. Johnstone Stonet, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A 243 

1. Report of the Committee for commenciDg Secular Experiments upon the 
Elasticity of Wires 248 

2. Report of the Committee for making more Accurate Determinations of the 
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat , 248 

3. On Etherspheres as a Vera Causa of Natural Philosophy. By Rev. S. 

Earnshaw, M.A 248 

4. On some New Instruments recently constructed for the continuation of 
researches on Specific Inductive Capacity. By J. E. H. Gordon, B.A., 
Assistant Secretary of the British Association 249 

5. On Secular Changes in the Specific Inductive Capacity of Glass. By 

J. E. H. Gordon, B.A., Assistant Secretary of the British Association.... 250 

6. On the Cause of Bright Lines in the Spectra of Comets. By G. John- 
stone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A 251 

7. Sur le Maximum d'lntensite 1 du Spectre Photographique Solaire. Par le 
Dr. J. Janssen, de l'lnstitut de France, Directeur de l'Ohservatoire de 
Meudon 252 

8. On the Changes of Volume in Iron when passing from the Liquid to the 

Solid State, and on an Instrument for observing the same. By T. 
Wrightson, Memb. Inst. C.E., F.G.S 253 

9. On the Isophotal Binocular Microscope. By Samuel Holmes 253 

10. Some Observations on Generic Images. By W. Cave Thomas, F.S.S 253 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

1. Report of the Committee for Procuring Reports on the Progress of Mathe- 
matics and Physics 254 

2. Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature 254 

3. Report of the Committee on Atmospheric Electricity at Madeira 254 

4. On the Retardation of Phase of Vibrations transmitted by the Telephone. 

By Professor Silvantjs P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc 254 

5. The Pseudophone. By Professor Sllvantts P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc 255 

6. On the Tension of Vapours near Curved Surfaces of their Liquids. By 

G. F. Fitzgerald 255 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. On the Curve of Polarisation Stress, as determined by Mr. Orookes's Mea- 

sures with the Radiometer. By G. Johnstone Stoney, MA., F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A 256 

8. On Complete Expansions for the Conduction of Heat and the Polarisation 
Stress in Gases. By G. Johnstone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. ... 256 

9. On the Action of Magnets on Liquid Jets. By Professor Sllvanus P. 
Thompson, B.A., D.Sc 257 

10. On a Hypothesis concerning the Ether in connection with Maxwell's 

Theory of Electricity. By Dr. 0. J. Lodge 258 

11. On a New Electrometer Key. By Dr. 0. J. Lodge 258 

12. On Improvements in Dynamo-Electric Machines. By W. Ladd, F.R.A.S. 258 

13. On Lightning Protectors for Telegraphic Apparatus. By William 
Heney Pbeece, Electrician, General Post-Office 259 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 23, 1879. 

1. Report of the Committee for Calculating Tables of the Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 261 

2. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables 261 

3. On some Problems in the Conduction of Electricity. By A. J. C. Allen, 
B.A., Scholar of Peterhouse * 261 

4. On the Fundamental Principles of the Algebra of Logic. By Alexandeb 
Macfaelane, M.A., D.Sc, F.RS.E 262 

5. Note on a Theorem in Linear Differential Equations. By W. H. L. 

Russell, F.R.S 263 

6. On the Repulsion of Wires influenced by Electric Currents. By W. H. L. 
Rttssell, F.R.S 263 

7. On Plane Class-Cubics with three Single Foci. By Heney M. Jeffeey, 
M.A 263 

8. On a Modification of the Law of Facility. By Donald M'Alistee, B.A., 
B.Sc 267 

9. Note on the Enumerations of Primes of the Forms 4n + 1 and 4w + 3. By 

J. W. L. Glaishee, M.A., F.R.S 268 

10. Forrnuhe in Elliptic Functions. By J. W. L. Glaishee, M.A., F.R.S.... 269 

11. Summation of a class of Trigonometrical series. By J. W. L. Glaishee, 
M.A., F.R.S 269 

12. Note on a Method of Checking Calculations. By W. H. Walenn 271 

MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

1. Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel... 272 

2. Report of the Committee on Calculations of Sun-heat Coefficients 272 

3. Report of the Committee on Luminous Meteors 272 

4. On the Direct Motion of Periodic Comets of Short Period. By Professor 

H. A. Newton 272 

5. On Self-acting Intermittent Siphons and the Conditions which determine 
the Commenc ement of their Action. By Rogees Field, B. A 275 

6. A short Account of some Experiments made to determine the Friction of 
Water upon Water at low Velocities. By the Rev. Samuel Haughton, 
M.D., D.C.L 275 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

7. On an Instrument for Determining the Sensible Warmth of Air. By 
Professor G. Foebes, F.R.S.E 277 

8. On Synchronism of Mean Temperature and Rainfall in the Climate of 
London. By H. Courtenat Fox, M.R.O.S 277 

9. Experiments on the Influence of the Angle of the Lip of Rain Gauges on 
the Quantity of Water Collected. By Baldwin Latham, C.E., M. Inst. 
C.E., F.G.S., F.M.S., &c 278 

10. An Anemometer for Measuring the speed of Smoke or Corrosive Vapour. 

By Alfred E. Fletcher, F.C.S 279 

11. On an improved Rain Gauge. By N. Lowenthal Lonsdale 280 

12. On a Galvanometer for demonstrating the Internal Current transmitted 
through the Liquid within a Voltaic Cell. By Conrad W. Cooke, C.E., 
M.S.T.E 280 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 26, 1879. 

1. Report of the Committee on Astronomical Clocks 282 

2. Report of the Committee on Rock-conductivities 282 

3. Report of the Committee on Instruments for detecting Fire-damp in 
Mines 282 

4. Suite des Recherches sur la Photographic Solaire. Par Dr. J. Janssen, 

de rinstitut de France 282 

5. Sur l'Application du Revolver Photographique a, l'Etude des Eclipses Par- 
tielles et a celle des Mouvements des Animaux. Par Dr. J. Janssen, de 
l'lnstitut 283 

6. Further Results of Experiments on Friction at High Velocities. By 

Captain Galton 283 

7. On the Bursting of Firearms when the Muzzle is closed with Snow, Earth, 

&c. By Professor George Forbes, F.R.S.E 283 

8. Note on the Constancy of Capacity of certain Accumulators. By Dr. 
Alexander Muirhead, F.C.S 283 

9. Note on the Capacity of a certain Condenser, and on the value of V. By 

C. Hockin, M.A 285 

10. On an Electrical Gyrostat. By Professor G. Forbes, F.R.S.E 290 

11. On the Condition which must he fulfilled by any number of Forces 
directed towards Fixed, or Movable, Centres, in order that any given 
curve should be described freely by a particle acted on by these Forces 
simultaneously ; and an analogous Problem. By Arthur Hill Curtis, 
LL.D 290 

12. On a Theorem relating to the Transformation of Series. By the Rev. S. 
Earnshaw, M.A 291 

13. Improved Photographic Screens. By J. H. Starling, F.C.S., A.I.C. ... 291 

14. On a Binocular Spectroscope. By G. Johnstone Stonet, M.A., F.R.S. . 292 

15. On a Simple two-prism Automatic Motion. By G. Johnstone Stonet, 
M.A., F.R.S 292 

16. On Scales of Variable Length for the eye-pieces of Spectroscopes. By G. 
Johnstone Stonet, M.A., F.R.S 292 

17. On Flight and its Imitations, By F. W. Breart „. 292 



X CONTENTS. 

Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

Page 
Address by Professor J. Dewar, M.A., F.E.S. L. & E. 293 

1. Eeport of the Committee on the Chemistry of some of the lesser-known 
Alkaloids 293 

2. On some Eelations between the Numbers expressing the Atomic Weights 

of the Elements. By Walter Weldon, F.R.S.E 293 

3. On the Synthesis of Diphenyl Propyl. By M. R. D. Silva 293 

4. Recent Researches in Explosive Agents. By F. A. Abel, F.R.S 293 

5. On Vapour Densities. By Professor Dewar, F.R.S 293 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

1. On Large Crystals of Mercury Sulphate. By Philip Braham, F.C.S. ... 293 

2. On the Manufacture of Crucible Steel. By Henry S. Bell, F.C.S., &c. 293 

3. On the Separation of Iron and Phosphorus, specially with reference to the 

Manufacture of Steel. By Thomas Blair 296 

4. A New Process in Metallurgy. By John Hollwat 298 

5. A Lecture Experiment in Illustration of the Hollway Process of Smelting 

Sulphide Ores. By Alfred H. Allen, F.C.S 300 

6. Lead Fume, with a Description of a New Process of Fume Condensing. 

By A. French 301 

MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

1. On the Constitution of Aluminic Compounds. By Professor Odllng, 

F.R.S f. \ 302 

2. On the Presence of Nitrogen in Steel. By A. H. Allen, F.C.S 302 

3. Colour Tests for the Estimation of Sulphur and Phosphorus in Iron or 
Steel. By A. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S., Lee's Reader in 
Chemistry at Christ Church, Oxford '. 303 

4. Some Experiments with the Voltaic Induction Balance. By W. Chandler 
Roberts, F.R.S., Chemist of the Mint 303 

5. A Historical Sketch of the various Vapour Density Methods. By James 

T. Brown, F.C.S 304 

6. Note on the Vapour Densities of Ferrous Chloride and Iodide of Potassium. 

By J. Alfred Wankltn 308 

7. Note on the. Constitution of Isocyanopropionic Acid. By J. Alfred 
Wanextn 308 

8. Physical Constants of Liquid Acetylene and Hydrochloric Acid. By G. 
Ansdell 309 

9. The Action of Ammoniacal Salts on Metallic Sulphides. By M. De 
Clermont 309 

10. On the Chemical Composition of a Nodule o/ Ozokerite found at King- 
norn-ness. By W. Ivison Macadam, F.C.S., &c, Lecturer on Chemistry, 
Edinburgh 309 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
11. On some curious Concretion Balls derived from a Colliery Mineral Water. 
By Thomas Andrews, F.O.S 312 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 26, 1879. 

1. On some points in connection with Agricultural Chemistry. By Dr. J. 

H. Gilbert, F.R.S 315 

2. The Rare Metals of the Yttrium Group. By T. S. Humpldge, Ph.D., ■ 
B.Sc. (Lond.) 316 

3. On the Synthesis of Hydrocyauic Acid. By Professor Dewar, F.R.S. ... 317 

4. On the amount of Nitrous Acid produced in Electric Illumination. By 
Professor Dewar, F.R.S 317 

5. On the Kinoline Bases. By Professor Dewar, F.R.S 317 

6. An account of some recent Experiments on Supersaturated Solutions. By 

John M. Thomson 317 

7. Notes on recent Spectral Observations. By J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. 317 

8. Notes on Petroleum Spirit or 'Benzoline.' By Alfred H. Allen 318 

9. On the Illuminative Value of a Mixture of Hydrogen with some Hydro- 
carbons. By A. Vernon Harcotjrt, M.A., F.R.S., Lee's Reader in 
Chemistry at Christ Church, Oxford 319 

10. The New Condenser. By George S. Hazlehtjrst 320 

WEBNESDA Y, A UG UST 27, 1 879. 

1. Notes on a Sample of Fuller's Earth, found in a Fullonica recently exca- 
vated at Pompeii. By William Thomson, F.R.S.E 321 

2. On the Detection of Milk Adulteration. By William H. Watson, F.C.S. 322 

3. Chemical Researches on Palmella Omenta. By Dr. T. L. Phipson, 
F.C.S. London, formerly of the University of Brussels, Cor. Memb. of the 
Chemical Society of Paris, and of the Royal Society of Med. and Nat. 
Sciences of Brussels 322 

4. Description of a Glass Burette for Collecting, Measuring, and Discharging 

Gas over Mercury. By Philip Braham, F.C.S 325 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

» 

Address by Professor P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S., Vice-President of the 

Geological Society 326 

1. Seventh Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of recording 
the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin 
of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other 
matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for their 
preservation 332 

2. Notice of the occurrence of a Fish allied to the Coccosteus in a bed of 

Devonian Limestone near Chudleigh. By John Edward Lee, F.G.S., 
F.S.A 7 : 332 



Xli CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. Notice of Fossils found in a bed of Devonian Rocks at Saltern Cove, in 

Torbay, and in a quarry of tbe Old Red Sandstone, near Oaerleon, in 
Monmouthshire. By John Edward Lee, F.G.S., F.S.A 332 

4. On tbe Nomenclature of tbe Plates of tbe Crinoidal Calyx. By P. Her- 

bert Carpenter, M.A 333 

5. On tbe Coal Fields and Coal Production of India. By V. Ball, M.A., 
F.G.S., of tbe Geological Survey of India 334 

6. On Geological Episodes. By J. F. Blake, M.A., F.G.S 335 

7. On tbe Keuper Beds between Retford and Gainsborough. By F. M. 
Burton, F.G.S 336 

8. On a Northerly Extension of the Rhaetic Beds at Gainsborough. By F. 

M. Burton, F.G.S 337 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

1. Fifteenth Report on the Exploration of Kent's Cavern, Devonshire 337 

2* Report on the Bone Caves of Borneo 337 

3. On the Bone Caves of Derbysbn-e. By Professor W. Botd Dawkins, 
M.A.,F.R.S 337 

4. Discovery of a Bone Cave near Cappagb, Co. Waterford. By R. J. Ussher, 
and Professor A. Leith Adams, M.A., F.R.S 338 

5. On some remarkable Pebbles in tbe Boulder-clay of Cheshire and Lanca- 
shire. By Charles Ricketts, M.D., F.G.S 339 

6. On the Volcanic Products of the Deep Sea of tbe Central Pacific with 
reference to the ' Challenger ' Expedition. By the Abb6 A. Renard and 

T. Murray 340 

7. On Ammonites and Aptychi. By Charles Moore, F.G.S 341 

8. Notes on a Fossil Tree from tbe Upper Silurian of Ohio. By E. W. Clay- 
pole 343 

9. On Ostracocanthus dilatatus, gen. et spec. nov. A fossil fish from the 
Coal-measures S.E. of Halifax, in Yorkshire. By James W. Davis, F.G.S. 343 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 23, 1879. 

1. Tbe Age of the Penine Chain. By E. Wilson, F.G.S 343 

2." On the Foundation of the Town Hall, Paisley, with Notes on the Rocks 
* of Renfrewshire. By Matthew Blair 344 

3, On the Deposit of Carbonate of Lime at Hierapolis, in Anatolia, and tbe 
Efflorescence of tbe Limestone at Les Baux, in Provence. By Dr. Phene, 
F.G.S., F.S.A 344 

4, Report on the Miocene Plants of the North of Ireland 345 



MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

1. Sixth Report on tbe Conductivities of certain Rocks 345 

2. On some Broad Features of Underground Temperature. By Professor 

J. D. Everett, F.R.S 345 

3. On the Botanical Affinities of the Carboniferous Sigillarise. By W. C. 

Williamson, F.R.S., Professor of Botany in Owens College 346 

4. Evidence of the Existence of PalaeoUthic Man during the Glacial Period 

in East Anglia. By S. B. J. Skertchly, F.G.S 347 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 
5 The Geological Age of the Rocks of West Cornwall. By J. H. Collets, 
F.G.S 347 

6. The Surface Rocks of Syria (suggested by the Quarries at Baalbek). By 

James Perky, B.E., County Surveyor, Roscommon 348 

7. On certain Geological Facts observed in Natal and the Border Countries, 
during Nineteen Years' Residence. By the Rev. George Blencowe 349 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 26, 1879. 

1. Fifth Report on the Underground Waters in the Permian, New Red Sand- 
stone, and Jurassic Formations 350 

2. Report on the Progress of the ' Geological Record' 350 

3 On the Replacement of Siliceous Skeletons by Carbonate of Lime. By 
W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.G.S 350 

4. On Carboniferous Polyzoa and Palseocorynse. By G. R. Vine 350 

5 On the Classification of the British Pre-Cambrian Rocks. By Henry 
Hicks, M.D., F.G.S 351 

6. On some further Evidence relating to the Range of the Palaeozoic Rocks 

beneath the South-East of England. By R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S., F.G.S 352 

7. On 'Culm' and 'Kulm.' By G. A. Lebottr, M.A., F.G.S., Professor of 

Geology in the University of Durham College of Physical Science, New- 
castle-on-Tyne 352 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 

Department of Zoology and Botany. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

Address by Professor St. George Mivart, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., President 

of the Section 354 

1. On the Occurrence of Leptodora hyalina in England. By Sir John Lub- 

bock, Bart, V.P.R.S., M.P 369 

2. Report of the 'Close Time 'Committee 369 

3. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of exploring the Marine 

Zoology of South Devon 369 

4. Report on the Progress of the Zoological Record 369 

5. Report of the Committee on the Zoological Station at Naples 370 

6. Report of the Committee for investigating the Natural History of Socotra . 370 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

1. On Fruits and Seeds. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., V.P.R.S., M.P., 
D.C.L.,LL.D 370 

2. On the Insects which injure Books. By Professor Westwood, M.A 371 

3. A Case of Disputed Identity, Haliphysema. By Professor Ray Lan- 

kester, F.R.S 372 

4 On Budding in the Syllidian Annelids, chiefly with reference to a branched 
form procured by H.M.S. < Challenger.' By W. 0. McIntosh 372 



XIV CONTENTS. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

Page 

1. Recent Additions to the Moss-Flora of the West Riding. By Charles P. 
Hobkirk, F.L.S 375 

2. On the Embryology of Gymnadina conopsea. By H. Marshall Ward... 375 

3. On the Homologies of the Cephalopoda. By J. F. Blake 376 

4. On Cyclops. By Marcus M. Hartog, M. A., B.Sc 376 

5. On Mimusopese, a Section of the Order Sapotacese. By Marcus M. 
Hartog, M.A., B.Sc 376 

6. On Solid-mounted Preparations. ByL. C. Miall 376 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 26, 1879. 

1. On a Spore-producing Gleeocapsa, from the great Conservatory at Chats- 
worth. By Professor M. A. Lawson 377 

2. On the Capreolus (of Lister) or the Spermatophore of some of the Indian 
species of the Helicidse. By Col. H. H. Godwin- Austen, F.Z.S 377 

3. On a Sponge from the Norwegian Coast, simulating a Hydroid Polyp. By 
W. J. Sollas, M.A 377 

4. Comparison of the Effects of the Frosts of 1860-1 and of 1878-9. By 

E. J. Lowe, F.R.S 377 

£. The rarer Birds occurring in South and West Yorkshire. By T. Lister... 378 



Department of Anthropology. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

1. On the Cagots. By D. Hack Tuke, M.D., F.R.C.P 379 

2. Evidence of the Existence of Palaeolithic Man during the Glacial Period 
in East Anglia. By Sydney B. J. Skertchly, F.G.S., H.M. Geological 
Survey 379 

3. On a New Estimate of the Date of the Neolithic Age. By Sydney B. J. 
Skertchly, F.G.S., H.M. Geological Survey 380 

4. A Classification of the Physical Conditions of Life. By C. Roberts, 
F.R.C.S 381 

6. On the Yarra and the Languages of Australia in connection with those of 
the Mozambique and Portuguese Africa. By Hyde Clarke, V.P.A.1 381 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

Address by E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., Chairman of the Department 381 

1. Report of the Committee for conducting Excavations at Portstewart and 
elsewhere in the North of Ireland 389 

2. On Flint Implements from the A^alley of the Bann. By W. J. Enowles... 389 

3. Notes on the Polynesian Race. By C. Staniland Wake 390 

4. On the Relations of the Indo-Chinese and Inter-Oceanic Races and Lan- 
guages. By A. H. Keane, M.A.I 391 

5. On a Classification of Languages on the Basis of Ethnology. By Dr. 
Gustav Oppert 392 



CONTENTS. XV 



SA1URDAY, AUGUST 23, 1879. 

Page 

1, On the Manners and Customs of the People of Urua, Central Africa. By 

Commander Cameron, R.N 392 

2. On the Native Races of the Head-Waters of the Zamhesi. By Major 
Serpa Pinto 393 

3 On the Native Races of Gahoon and Ogowe". By the Comte Savoegnan 
De Beazza 394 

4. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 394 



MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

1. On the Forms and Geographical Distribution of Ancient Stone Imple- 
ments in India. By V. Ball, M.A., of the Geological Survey of India 394 

• 

2. On the Discovery of certain Pockets of Chipped Flints beneath the Peat 
on the Yorkshire Moors, near Halifax. By James W. Davis, F.S.A., 
F.G.S 395 

3. On an elaborately finished Celt found on the Moors near Marsden. By 

James W. Davis, F.S.A., F.G.S 395 

4. On some curious Leathern and Wooden Objects from Tullyreagh Bog, 
County Antrim. By W. J. Knowles 395 

5. On Savage and Civilised Warfare. By J. A. Farrer 396 

6. On the Origin of Fetishism. By Andrew Lang 396 

7. On certain Inventions illustrating the Working of the Human Mind, and 

on the Importance of the Selection of Types. By A. Ttlor, F.G.S 396 

8. On the Discovery of Animal Mounds in the Pyrenees. By Dr. Pkene, 
F.S.A., F.G.S 396 

9. Evidence of Early Historic Events and Pre-Historic Customs by per- 
petuation of design in art and manufactures in later, and even in present, 
times. By Dr. Phene, F.S.A., F.G.S 397 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 26, 1879. 

1. The Profile of the Ancient Greeks. By J. Park Harrison, M.A 399 

2. On the Geological Evidence as to the Antiquity of Man. By Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S 399 

3. On the Survival of the Neolithic Period at Brandon, Suffolk. By Sydney 

B. J. Skertchly, F.G.S., H.M. Geological Survey 400 

4. On the Stone Age in Japan. By Professor John Milne, F.G.S 401 

6. On a collection of Organic Remains from the Kitchen-middens of Hissarlik. 
By Staff-Surgeon Edward L. Moss, R.N 401 

6. On High Africa as the Centre of a White Race. By Hyde Clarke, 
V.P.A.I '. ". 402 

7. On the Turcomans between the Caspian and Merv. By Professor 
Armtnius Vambery 402 



XVI CONTENTS. 



Department of Anatomy and Physiology. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

Page 

1. Observations on the Automatic Mechanism of the Batrachian Heart. By 

Professor J. Bttrdon Sanderson, M.D., F.K.S 404 

2. The Influence of Domestication on Brain-growth. By W. F. Crichton 
Browne 404 

3. On a Law of Retinal Activity. By Professor Silvantts P. Thompson, 
B.A., D.Sc., &c 404 

4. On the Comparative Osteology of the Arm. By Dr. T. P. Durand 405 

MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

Address by P. H. Pye-Smith, B.A., M.D., Chairman of the Department 406 

1, Experiments on Septic Organisms in living Tissues. By Staff-Surgeon 
Edward L. Moss, R.N 416 

2, On the Stroma of Mammalian Bed Blood Corpuscles. By L. O. Wool- 

dredge, B.Sc. Lond 418 

3, Note on Crystallisation of Urea in presence of a Colloid. By Dr. W. M. 
Ord 418 

4, The Nervous System of Comatula. By P. Herbert Carpenter, M.A.... 418 

5, On a Visual Phenomenon and its Explanation. By William Ackroyd, 
F.I.C 419 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

Address by Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., Sec. R.G.S., 

F.S.A., President of the Section 420 

1. The Trade Routes from Bengal to Tibet. By Lieut.-Col. T. H. Lewtn, 
late Deputy Commissioner of Darjiling 432 

2. The Upper Course of the Brahmaputra River. By C. E. D. Black 433 

3. The Dutch Expedition to Central Sumatra. By Professor P. J. Veth, 
President of the Dutch Geographical Society 434 

4. Discovery of the Sources of the Chico in Southern Patagonia. By Don 

Ramon Lista , 436 

5. On Present Dalian Geographical Explorations. By G. Dalla Vedova, 
Professor of Geography at the University of Rome, Secretary of the 
Dalian Geographical Society 436 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 22, 1879. 

1. Journey across Africa from Benguela to Natal. By Major Serpa Pinto 437 

2. The Basin of the Ogowe. By M. Savorgnan de Brazza 439 

3. The Southern Galla Country. By Rev. J. Wakefield 440 

4. German Explorations in Africa. By Professor Erman 440 



CONTENTS. XVli 

Page 

5. The Euphrates Valley Railway. By Commander V. L. Cameron, R.N. 440 

6. On proposed Indo-Mediterranean Railways, with an Account of a Journey 

by Land from Bagdad to Bushire. By Wilfrid Scawen Blunt 440 

7. The Physical Aspects of Zululand and Natal. By Beauchamp Towee.... 442 

MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

1. Afghan War. — The Jellalahad Region. By William Simpson (Special 
Artist of 'The Illustrated London News') 443 

2. Afghan War. — The Kuram Valley. By Captain Gerald Martin 445 

3. Afghan War. — Country between Kandahar and Girishk. By Captain R. 
Beavan, F.R.G.S 445 

4. Afghan War. — The Pishin Valley. By Lieutenant St. George C. Gore, 
R.E 446 

5. Afghan War. — Shorawak Valley and Toba Plateau. By Major Campbell, 
R.E 447 

6. New Routes to Candahar. By Captain T. H. Holdich, R.E 447 

7. Afghan War. — Surveys round Kandahar. By Major Rogers, R.E 448 

8. On the Orography of the North- Western Frontier of India. By Tre- 
lawny Saunders 449 

9. Imperial Survey of India. By J. 0. N. James, Deputy-Superintendent 

of the Surveys of India 449 

10. Three Months in Cyprus. By Samuel Brown, M.I.C.E 450 

TUESDAY, AUGUS'l 26,1879. 

1. Hydrography, Past and Present. By Lieutenant G. Temple, R.N 451 

2. Arctic Research. By Commander L. A. Beaumont, R.N 451 

3. On the Interior of Greenland : the principal points of Geographical Interest 
connected with it, and the recent Expeditions for its Exploration. By 
Dr. H. Rink 452 

4. Indian Marine Surveys. By Clements R. S. Markham, C.B., F.R.S., 
President of the Section 453 

5. The Exploration of the American Isthmus and the Interoceanic Canal of 
Panama. By Lucien N. B. Wtse, Lieut.-Commr., French Navy 454 

6. On Geographical Studies and Works in Italy. By Professor G. Dalla 
Vedova 45G 

7. Italian Explorers in New Guinea. By Professor Giglioli 457 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

1. The Scientific Societies in relation to the Advancement of Science in the 
United Kingdom. By Professor Leone Levi, F.S. A, F.S.S., F.R.G.S., 
Doctor of Economic Science, and of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law 458 

2. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 469 

3. Apprenticeship Schools in France. By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, 
B.A.,D.Sc, &c 469 

4. On Credit as an Asset of a State. By Hyde Clarke, V.P.S.S 469 

1879. a 



XVlil CONTENTS. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

Page 

1. On the Decay in the Export Trade of the United Kingdom. By S. Bourne, 
F.S.S 470 

2. Agricultural Statistics, Tenure, and Depression. By William Botlt ... 472 

3. The ' German ' Speech and Lip Beading System of Teaching the Deaf. By 

David Buxton, Ph.D 474 

MONDAY, AUGUST 25, 1879. 

1. Elementary Natural Science in the Board Schools of London. By Dr. J. 

H. Gladstone, F.R.S., Member of the London School Board 475 

2. On Science Teaching in connection with Elementary Schools. By J. F. 
Moss, Clerk of the Sheffield School Board 476 

3. Some Account of the System of Instruction in Elementary Science intro- 
duced by the Liverpool School Board into their Schools. By Edward 

M. Hance, LL.B., Clerk to the Liverpool School Board 477 

4. Reformatory Punishment. By F. T. Mott, F.R.G.S 478 

5. On the Feasibility and Importance of extending to Scotland the proposed 

Criminal Code for England and Ireland. By W. Neilson Hancock, 
LL.D., M.R.I.A 479 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 26, 1879. 

Address by G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. Statistical Society, President of 
the Section 479 

1. On the Vital Statistics of Sheffield. By Thomas Whiteside Hime, B.A., 
M.B., &c, Medical Officer of Health, Sheffield 488 

2. On tbe Savings of the People as evidenced by the Returns of the Trustees 
and Post Office Savings Banks. By Professor Leone Levi 492 

3. On the Assimilation of the Law in England, Scotland, and Ireland as to 
the care of Lunatics and their Property. By W. Neilson Hancock, 
LL.D., M.R.I.A 493 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

Address by J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. Eng., President of the Section.... 495 

1. Temperature of Town Water Supplies. By Baldwin Latham, C.E., 

M. Inst.C.E., F.G.S., F.M.S., &c 499 

2. On the Quantitative Elements of Hydrogeology. By Joseph Lucas, 
F.G.S., Hydrogeologist, late of H.M. Geological Survey 499 

3. On Leon Francq's Fireless Locomotive. By Mons. Charles Bergeron, 
C.E 501 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 

1. On Self-acting Intermittent Siphons and the Conditions which determine 
the commencement of their Action. By Rogers Field 503 



CONTENTS. Xix 

Page 

2. On recent Advances in Electric Lighting. Bv James N. Shoolbred, 

B.A., Mem. Inst. O.E 503 

3. On the Changes of Volume in Iron when passing from the Liquid to the 

Solid State, and an Instrument for observing the same. By T. 
Wrightson, Memb. Inst. C.E., F.G.3 506 

MONDA Y, A UGUST 25, 1879. 

1. Report of Committee on Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships ... 508 

2. Report of Committee on the Ordnance Datum 508 

3. Report of Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel, &C...-508 

4. Report of Committee on the Patent Laws 508 

5. General Results of Experiments on Friction at High Velocities made in 
order to ascertain the Effect of Brakes on Railway Trains. By Douglas 
Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S 508 

6. Cowper's Writing Telegraph. By E. A. Cowper 520 



TUESDAY, A UGUST 26, 1879. 

1. On the proposed Canal across the Isthmus of Panama. By Captain 
Bedford Pim, R.N., M.P 521 

2. Cowper's Hot Blast Stoves. By E. A. Cowper 522 

3. On the Details of an Experiment made to ascertain the Causes of the Dif- 

ference between the Quantity of Heat in Fuel, and the Quantity which 
is utilised in the Work done by a Steam Engine. By Emerson Bain- 
bridge, Assoc. M.C.E 523 

4. On the Law of the Power required for different speeds of the same steam 

vessel, illustrated, within the limits of experience, by a linear scale of 
their relation. By Robert Mansel 526 



a2 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 

Illustrative of the Report of tlie Committee on Mathematical Tables. 

PLATES II.— VIII. 

Illustrative of the Second Report of the Committee on the Phenomena of Stationary 

Tides in the English Channel. 

PLATES IX.— XII. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Anthropometric Committee. 

PLATE XIII. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the Datum-level of the Ordnance 

Survey of Great Britain. 

PLATE XIV. 

Illustrative of Mr. Robert A. 0. Godwin- Austen's Paper on some further Evidence 
as to the Range of the Palaeozoic Rocks beneath the South-East of England. 

PLATE XV. 

Illustrative of Lieutenant G. T. Temple's Paper on Hydrography, Past and Present. 



ERRATA IN REPORT FOR 1878. 

Page 477, line 25 from foot of page : for ' equally high-waters ' read ' equally high 

high-waters.' 
., „ „ 24 „ „ „ for 'equally low-waters'rmcZ ' equally low low- 

waters.' 
„ 480, „ 16 „ „ „ after ' 1853 ' insert ' previously analysed.' 

„ 481, line 1 from top of page: after ' degrees ' insert ' through. ' 
„ „ „ 2 „ „ „ for 'run through ' read 'turn.' 

„ „ „ 12 „ „ „ for '270' read '270°.' 

„ 497, „ 18 „ » „ for ' on the north and ' read ' on the north or.' 

In Table of pp. 478-479, col. 1, Constituent L : for ' 29°-528 ' read ' 29°-533.' 
„ „ „ „ Q : for ' 13°399 ' read ' 13°-394.' 

„ „ „ small type headings of cols. 4-11 : for ( l = 'read' I = .' 

„ „ „ col. 7, line 16 from top : for ' 165°-3 ' read ' 185°-3.' 

„ „ „ small type heading of col. 10: for M=21°-7; v= + 12°-4' 

read ' I=20°'l ; v= 10°-2.' 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



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more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
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XX11 RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

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And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
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RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XX111 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

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The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

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1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
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Class B. Temporary Members. 

1. The President for the time being of any Scientific Society publish- 
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Secretary of such Society. 1 Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
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4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees. 2 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
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thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 

1 Kevised by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

3 Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 



XXIV RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The 1 Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
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11 A.M., to settle the terms of their Report, after which their functions as 
an Organizing Committee shall cease. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees. 2 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
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by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
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tional Committees thns constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus .formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
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with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 a.m., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 

Committees. 3 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 

and that lie should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 
before .addressed thus— " General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section " If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. a full three weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant 
Secretary, before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

1 Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

3 These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV 

printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee. 1 The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed, At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers, 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 A.M. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxiii), and will receive, 
on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 

1 This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



XXVI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The ! Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report 
has been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been 
received. 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting : nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto can be used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV11 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S. 
Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I. A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart,, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

b2 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof . Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



XXX VI 



REPORT 1879. 



Date and Place 



1859 
1860 
1861, 
1862. 
1863, 
1864, 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Presidents 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877, 
1878. 
1879. 



Brighton . . 
Bradford .. 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow .. 

Plymouth.. 

Dublin 

Sheffield .. 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. P.. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L, 

F.R.S. 
Prof . Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. . 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof .G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pies. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



S. 



s. 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof . A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV11 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



.Secretaries 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.K.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 



1838. Newcastle Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 



1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

! Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

1841. Plymouth... j Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

1842. Manchester John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1843. Cork Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

1844. York ! Prof . T. Graham, F.R.S 

1845. Cambridge ' Rev. Prof . Cumming 



1846. Southamp- Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

ton F.R.S. 

1847. Oxford Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

1848. Swansea ..., Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

1849. Birmingham .John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

1850. Edinburgh Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 

1851. Ipswich ... Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 

1852. Belfast (Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

1853. Hull [Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

1854. Liverpool Prof. W. A.Miller,M.D.,F.R.S. 

1855. Glasgow ... 'Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 

1856. Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

1857. Dublin Prof . Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 

1858. Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 

1859. Aberdeen... Dr. Lyon Playf air, C.B.,F.R.S. 

1860. Oxford Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

1861. Manchester 1 Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D..F.R.S. 

1862. Cambridge Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D..F.R.S. 

i 

1863. Newcastle Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

i F.R.S. 

1864. Bath W.Odling, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 

1865. Birmingham Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 

1866. Nottingham !H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

i 

1807. Dundee ... Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

1868. Norwich ... Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

F.C.S. 

1869. Exeter Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L.Playfair, E.Solly,T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson, 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone,Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D, 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C 
Stevenson. 

A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 



XXXV111 



REPORT 1879. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878, 
1871). 



Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford .., 

Belfast , 

Bristol 

Glasgow .. 
Plymouth.. 

Dublin 

Sheffield .. 



Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... . 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crnm Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford |R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 

1833. Cambridge. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

1 834. Edinburgh . Prof. Jameson , 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol , 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 
ton 



R. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geoqraphy, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G. B .Greenough, 

F R S 
C. Lyel'l, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhope. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. DelaBeche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 

Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 
Geol. Soc. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. 
J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geoqraphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Scoular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R, 

Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 
Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 

l and. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. dimming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norten, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geoqraphy, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI X 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1847. Oxford .,.. 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh 1 


Very Eev.Dr.Buckland,F.E.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 


Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Buskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Bainsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Bamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



section c (continued). — geology 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.B.S. 
E.E., 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Bev. P. B. Brodie, Bev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Bobert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harimess, Eev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Bupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Bupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Bev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Bev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
B. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Eev. 0. Fisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Bev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Bev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Bev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
E. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

1 At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850. it was resolved "That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the 'Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,' " for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xliii. 



Lieut. -Col. Portlock 
F.E.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL. D., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.B.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., 

F R S 
Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
E. A. C. Godwin- Austen, 

F.B.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. E. Harkness, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



xl 



REPORT — 1879. 



Date 


: and Place 
Brighton . . . 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1 872. 


R. A. C. Godwin- Austen, 


L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 






F.R.S. 


Topley, Henry Woodward. 


1 873. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 


L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 






F.R.S., F.G.S. 


Topley. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Prof. Hull. M.A., F.R.S., 


F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 






F.G.S. 


R. H. Tiddeman. 


1875. 


Bristol 


Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 


L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 






F.G.S. 


ley. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Prof. John Young, M.D 


J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 

Topley. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


W. Pengelly, F.R.S 


Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 


1878. 


Dublin 


John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 


E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 






F.S.A., F.G.S. 


R. H. Tiddeman. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


Prof. P. Martin Duncar, M.B., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 


W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 1 

1834. Edinburgh. 



1835. Dublin, 
183(3. Bristol, 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... | Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. | C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION D. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridg'e. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



section d {continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 



[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xlii.] 

Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 



1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmina-ham 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S.... 
William Spence, F.R.S. 



Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 



1 At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xlii. 



PRESIDENTS! AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Xli 



Date and Place 



1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 



Presidents 



JOOZ. 


| 


1853. 
1 864. 
1855. 
1856. 


Hull 

Liverpool... ' 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 




1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 
1863. 


Cambridge 

Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


3 865. Birmingham 



Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.E.8. 
W. Ogilby 



Secretaries 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, FR.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 

kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H, 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



section d (continued). — biology. 



1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee . . . 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Dep., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Dep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Dot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., FL.S. 
— Dep. of Dot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. — 
Dep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S.— Dep. of 
Anat. and Ph ysiol., Prof. M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Dep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Dot. and 
Zool, Prof. WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of AnthropoL, 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 



1 At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved: — " That the title 
of Section D be changed to Biology ; : ' and " That for the word ' Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the businessof the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted." 



xlii 



EEPORT — 1879. 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford .., 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield .. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anat. it n d Ph i/siol.,Pmi. Ru- 
therford, M.D.— Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.D.— Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
G.B.,Pres.R.S.— Bep.ofA<n- 
throp., Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anat. and Phi/siol.,~Pro£.Cle- 
land, M.D., F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Zool. and 
Bat., Prof. A.' Newton, M.A., 
F.B.S.— Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M. D. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Francis Gait on, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S. 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W.T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hin^ston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab. 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge jDr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (UNTIL 1847.) — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glassrow ... 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1841. Plymouth... P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. E.S. 



1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844 York 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 1 .. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
Prof. Owen, M.D., P.R.S. 



| Dr. R. 8. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 

Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. Edinburgh Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
1855. Glasgow ... Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

1857. Dublin Prof . R. Harrison, M.D 

1858. Leeds Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 

1859. Aberdeen... Prof. Sbarpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

1860. Oxford Prof. G. Rolleston, M.D., 

F.L.S. 

1861. Manchester Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

1862. Cambridge C. E. Paget, M.D 

1863. Newcastle Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 

1864. Bath Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

1865. Birminghm. 2 Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 

Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. xxxviii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION 1). 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich . 

1852. Belfast.... 

1853. Hull. 

1854. Liverpool. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Pres. R.G.S. Norton Shaw. 



Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 



R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.,' Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
F.R.S. ' Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



1 By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of " Section D— Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology" (see p. xl). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

* Vide note on page xli. 



xliv 



REPORT 1879. 



Date and Place 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 



Presidents 



1863 
1864. 
1865 
1866 



Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ... 



Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.E.S. 

Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 



Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Baw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
|r. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Calla- 

ghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
'Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
i Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 

Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
, C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
!H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements E. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 
1 Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Stur- 
I rock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. E. Mark- 
| ham, T. Wright. 



section E (continued). — geography. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.E.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bt., 

E.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.E.S., FG.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 

Clements R. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 



Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. | 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S |H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 

F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 



Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E. 
Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
• F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Eye. 



H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 
Rye. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.E.S |J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart |Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. 
1836 


Dublin .... 
Bristol 


1837. 


Liverpool... 


1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 


1840. 


Glasgow ... 


1841. 


Plymouth... 


1842. 


Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 
1846. 

1847. 


Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 
Oxford 


1848. 
1849. 


Swansea ... 
Birmingham 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


1851. 
1852. 


Ipswich . . . 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. K. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
Ett.Hon. the Earl 1 "itzwilliam J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 

J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee,!Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

V.P.R.S.E. Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ...{J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. . . . 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 
F.L.S. 



G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian. M.P., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
MacAdam, jun. 

Edward Cheshire, Wm. Newmarch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



section p (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

185!>. Aberdeen... 
I860. Oxford 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch. 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1879. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1861. 


Manchester 


William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 


David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 


1862. 


Camhridge 


Edwin Chadwick, C.B 


H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 


1863. 


Newcastle . 


William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 


T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 


1864. 




William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 


E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 






F.R.S. 




1865. Birmingham 


Pit. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 


G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 






M.P. 


E. Macrory. 


1866. 


Nottingham 


Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 


R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 
Macrory. 






1867. 




M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 


Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 
Warden. 


1868. 


Norwich .... 


Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 


Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 


1869. 




Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 


Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 






cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 


Charles T. D. Acland. 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 


Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 
J. Miles Moss. 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 


J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 


J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


Rt. Hon. W. E. Forester, M.P. 


J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 


1874. 


Belfast , 




Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 






Hans MacMordie. 


1875. 


Bristol , , 


James Hevwood, M.A.,F.R.S., 


F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 






Pres.S.S. 


Macrory. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 


A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, 






M.P. 


Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 
Jack. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 


W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 


1878. 


Dublin , 


Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 
M.R.I.A. 


W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 


Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 






S.S. 


Molloy. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A ... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chat held, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, 11. A. Le Mesurier. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin... 

1858. Leeds ... 

1859. Aberdeen 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1 866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 



Presidents 



Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., 

E\R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, P.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Fronde, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres Inst. Mech. 
Eng. 



R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J, 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, E. 

H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. 

N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomlev, jun., W. J. Millar, J. 

N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 



xlviii 



report — 1879. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.E.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles LyeU, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.E.S 



Rev. Prof. P.. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S. E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.B.S.,Astron. Eoyal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 

Col. Sir H. Rawliuson 



1857. Dublin. 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the iEgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Sehonbein; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Didiu: ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the pre- 
sent time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth . 

1879. 



Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. .. 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.... 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. W.J. Macquom Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D., 

Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sim. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Useof the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The Challenger Expedition. 

The Physical Phenomena connected 
with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 

The new Element, Gallium. 



REPORT 1879. 



Date and Place 



1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 



Lecturer 



G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.K.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, 
F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. . 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool . 

1872. Brighton . 

1873. Bradford . 

1874. Belfast.... 

1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 
1879. Sheffield . 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayr ton 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 
Electricity as a Motive Power. 



li 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

SHEFFIELD MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — George Johnstone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., Secretary 
to the Queen's University, Ireland. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Samuel Earnshaw, M.A. ; W. Spottiswoode, D.C.L., 
LL.D., Pres. R.S. ; C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S., ; Dr. J. Janssen; the 
Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ; Professor H. A. Newton. 

Secretaries.— A. H. Allen, F.C.S. ; J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. 
R.A.S. ; Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc ; Donald McAlister, B.A., B.Sc. 
(Recorder). 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Professor Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. L. & E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Abel, F.R.S., Dr. Longstaff; I. Lowthian 
Bell, M.P., F.R.S. ; W. Crookes, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; 
Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S.; A. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor 
Odling, M.B., F.R.S. ; Dr. Ronalds, F.R.S.E. ; H. Clifton Sorby, 
LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries— W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. ; J. Millar Thomson, F.C.S., 
(Recorder) ; H. S. Bell, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President— Professor P. Martin Duncan, M.B., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.G.S. ; W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S. ; Professor A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor W. C. 
Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries— W. Topley, F.G.S. (Recorder) ; G. Blake Walker, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President— Professor St. George Mivart, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Lawson, 
M.A., F.L.S. ; Dr. Pye-Smith ; E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor J. 0. Westwood; Professor A. Newton, F.R.S. ; Dr. De Bar- 
tolome. 

Secretaries. — Arthur Jackson, F.R.C.S.; Professor W. R. M'Nab, M.D. 
(Recorder); J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S. ; F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
(Recorder) ; Professor Schafer, F.R.S. (Recorder). 

c 2 



Hi report — 1879. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., Sec. R.G.S., 
F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Canon Rawlinson, M.A. ; Sir Rawson W. Rawson, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. ; Lient.- General Sir Henry Thaillier, C.S.I., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; Captain Verney, R.K, F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries.— H. W. Bates, F.L.S., Assist. Sec. R.G.S. ; C. E. D. Black ; 
E. C. Rye, F.Z.S., Librarian R.G.S. (Recorder). 

SECTION P. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. Statistical Soc. 

Vice-Presidents. — Frederick Brittain; A. J. Mundella, M.P., F.S.S. ; Pro- 
fessor Leone Levi; J. Hey wood, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Adamson, M.A. ; R. E. Leader, B.A. ; Constantine 
Molloy (Recorder). 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Meek. Eng. 

Vice-Presidents. — W. H. Barlow, F.R.S. ; Sir John Brown ; E. A. Cowper ; 
Alderman Mark Firth ; R. B. Grantham, C.E., F.G.S. ; Professor Os- 
borne Reynolds, M.A., F.R.S. ; Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — A. T. Atchison, M.A. (Recorder) ; Emerson Bainbridge ; 
H. Traeman Wood, B.A 



r^ 00 CO O O O 




3e 



liv 



KEPOKT — 1879. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 




Old Life New 
Members Merr. 


Life 
Lbers 


1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept, 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept, 4 ... 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept, 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 

1875, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept, 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart, 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Th e Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch.K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 


169 6 
303 16 
109 2 

226 15 

313 3 
241 1 

314 1 
149- 

227 1 
235 

172 

164 1 

141 1 

238 2 
194 S 
182 1 
236 1 
222 4 
184 i 

286 5 
321 1] 

239 1 

203 i 

287 4 
292 4 
207 ; 
167 i 
196 1 

204 i 
314 \ 
246 i 
245 \ 
212 1 
162 1 
239 : 
221 : 

173 : 
201 : 

184 


5 

9 
8 

6 

8 
3 
2 
9 
8 

3 
3 
3 
4 
5 
2 
7 

I 

5 

.6 

to 

t4 
51 
!5 
L8 
!1 
59 
28 
56 
27 
L3 
56 
55 
L9 
L8 

16 








Dublin 






Newcastle-on-Tyne 








Cork 


York 














Belfast 


Hull 








Dublin 












Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bath 




Nottingham 








Edinburgh 














Dublin 


Sheffield 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



lv 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 



Old 

Annual 

Members 



46 

75 

71 

45 

94- 

65 

197 

54 

93 

128 

61 

63 

56 

121 

142 

104 

156 

111 

125 

177 

184 

150 

154 

182 

215 

218 

193 

226 

229 

303 

311 

280 

237 

232 

307 

331 

238 

290 

239 



New- 
Annual 
Members 



317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 



Asso- 
ciates 



33f 

"V 

407 

270 

495 

376 

447 

610 

244 

510 

367 

765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 



Ladies 



1100* 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 



For- 
eigners 



34 
40 

28 



35 
36 
53 

15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45+ 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 



Total 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£ s. d. 



707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 



Sums paid on 




Account of 




Grants for 


Year 


Scientific 




Purposes 




£ s. 


d. 









1831 
1832 
1833 

1834 






20 


167 





1835 


435 





1836 


922 12 


6 


1837 


932 2 


2 


1838 


1595 11 





1839 


1546 16 


4 


1840 


1235 10 


11 


1841 


1449 17 


8 


1842 


1565 10 


2 


1843 


981 12 


8 


1844 


831 9 


9 


1845 


685 16 





1846 


208 5 


4 


1847 


275 1 


8 


1848 


159 19 


6 


1849 


345 18 





1850 


391 9 


7 


1851 


304 6 


7 


1852 


205 





1853 


380 19 


7 


1854 


480 16 


4 


1855 


734 13 


9 


1856 


507 15 


4 


1857 


618 18 


2 


1858 


684 11 


1 


1859 


766 19 


6 


1860 


1111 5 


10 


1861 


1293 16 


6 


1862 


1608 3 


10 


1863 


1289 15 


8 


1864 


1591 7 


10 


1865 


1750 13 


4 


1866 


1739 4 





1867 


1940 





1868 


1622 





1869 


1572 





1870 


1472 2 


6 


1871 


1285 





1872 


1685 





1873 


1151 16 





1874 


960 





1875 


1092 4 


2 


1876 


1128 9 


7 


1877 


725 16 


6 


1878 


1080 11 


11 


1879 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 
t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. X Including Ladies. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1879-80. 



PRESIDENT. 
PROFESSOR G. J. ALLMAN, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E., M.R.I.A., Pres. L.S. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G., M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, E.G., 

F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Wharncliffe.F.R.G.S. 



W. H. Brittain, Esq. (Master Cutler). 
Professor T. H. Huxley, Ph.D., LL.D., Sec. R.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Professor W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

ANDREW CROMBIE RAMSAY, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., Director-General of the Geological 

Survey of the United Kingdom. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT 

C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., Lord 

Lieutenant of Glamorganshire. 
The Mayor of Swansea. 
The Hon. Sir W. R. Grove, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 



H. Hussey Vivian, Esq., M.P., F.G.S. 
L. LI. Dillwyn, Esq., M.P., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Treas. G.S., F.R.G.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT SWANSEA. 
W. Morgan, Esq., Ph.D., F.C.S. James Strick, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT SWANSEA. 

R. J. Letcher, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abel, F. A., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 
Easton, E., Esq., C.E. 
Evans, Captain, C.B., F.R.S. 
Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
HuoGrNS, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK., M.A. 
Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 



Lefevre, George Shaw, Esq., M.P. 
Maskelyne, Professor N. S., F.R.S. 
Newmarch, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Rolleston, Professor G., F.R.S. 
Roscoe, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Prof. J. S. Burdon, F.R.S. 
Smyth, Warington W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W, 
Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 11 Hanover Square, London, W. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. "Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the 
ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K..C.B. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 



Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, E.G. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Prof. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, D.C.L. 



Dr. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Gen. Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B., F.R.S. I Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 



W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



Warren De La Rue, Esq., F.R.S. | 



AUDITORS. 
Professor W. H. Flower, F.R.S. 



George Griffith, Esq., MA. 



| Arthur Grote, Esq., F.L.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. lvii 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Heport of the Council for the year 1878-9, presented to the General 
Committee at Sheffield, on Wednesday, August 20, 1879. 

The Council have received Reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

The Council have been compelled, in consequence of the limited space 
at their disposal at the office in London, to consider how far it would be 
possible to reduce the number of the old Annual Volumes of the Reports 
of the Association in stock, and have resolved : — 

1. — ' To reduce the stock of volumes in each year to 200 in number, 
by throwing into waste or otherwise disposing of (as the General 
Officers may think best) all those exceeding 200 up to the year 
1848 inclusive, and by throwing into waste all those exceeding 
200 in subsequent years, except the Index 1831-61.' 

2. — ' To offer to one or more publishers single volumes 1831^48, at 
one-third publication price ; those 1849-71 at one-half publication 
price, for which purpose, if necessary, to reprint the volume for 
1850 ; and those 1872-77 at two-thirds publication price ; also 
sets 1871-77 at one-third publication price.' 

3. — ' To offer the Reports to members at the same rates as before, 
with the additional offer of sets 1849-71 at one-half publication 
price.' 

The Council have also had under consideration the question of their 
Library, for which there is no adequate space in their present London 
office. They have therefore decided to recommend that in future a 
library shall not be maintained at the office of the Association, and in 
order to afford facilities to the members of the Association for consulting 
works of reference as fully as they have hitherto enjoyed, they have made 
An arrangement with the University of London, whereby the books 
belonging to the Association will be deposited in the Library of the 
University at Burlington House, upon the following conditions : — 

1. One copy of every book transferred by the Association to be kept 
in the Library of the University. 

2. Members of the Association, on presenting an introduction from 
one of the General Officers or the Assistant Secretary, to be permitted to 
•consult the Library of the University. 

The Council recommend to the General Committee : — 

' That in each Section, and in each Department of a Section, one of 
the Secretaries be appointed " Recorder." ' 

* That such Recorder shall be requested to furnish the Assistant 
Secretary, before the conclusion of the Meeting, with a copy or 
abstract of every Paper read in his Section or Department.' 



lviii repoet — 1879. 

In order to increase the facilities for issuing the Annual Reports at 
an early date the Council propose, in case the General Committee should 
concur in this recommendation, that in future it shall be an instruction 
to the General Officers to issue a notice to the Reporters of all Com- 
mittees, and to all other persons who are likely to read Papers at any 
Meeting of the Association, requesting that all Reports, and Abstracts 
of all Papers intended to be read in the Sections, may be sent to the 
Assistant Secretary not later than four weeks before the Meeting, in order 
that, if approved of by the Organising Committees, they may be put in 
type before the Meeting, and that authors who comply with this request, 
and whose Papers are accepted, shall be furnished, before the Meeting, 
with printed copies of their Reports or Abstracts ; also that no Report, 
Paper, or Abstract be inserted in the volume unless it is in the hands of 
the Assistant Secretary or Recorder, before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

The invitation from York for 1881, received last year, will be re- 
newed on the present occasion, and the Council have also to announce 
that an invitation from Leicester for 1882 or 1883 will be likewise pre- 
sented. 

The following Resolutions were referred by the General Committee at 
Dublin to the Council for consideration and action if it should seem 
desirable : — 

1. — 'That the question of the reappointment of the Committee, con- 
sisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes-Lawrence, Mr. Spence Bate, Mr. 
H. E. Dresser (Secretary), Mr. J. E. Harting, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
Professor Newton, the Rev. Canon Tristram, and Mr. G. Shaw 
Lefevre, for the purpose of inquiring into the possibility of estab- 
lishing a " close time," for the protection of indigenous animals, be 
referred to the Council for consideration ; and that the Council be 
empowered to take such steps in the matter as they shall think 
most desirable in the interests of science.' 

The Council decided that the Committee should be reappointed, and 
that in case of any action being required before the next meeting of the 
Association, the Committee should be instructed to report to the Council 
thereon. 

2. — ' That the attention of the Council of the Association be called 
to the fact that the recommendations of the Royal Commission on 
Science have been altogether disregarded in the Act lately passed 
to enable the Trustees of the British Museum to remove the 
Natural History Collection to South Kensington, and that the 
Council be requested to take such steps in the matter as they shall 
think most desirable in the interests of science.' 

The Council drew up a memorial to the First Lord of the Treasury, 
calling the attention of H.M. Government to this question, and requesting 
Lord Beaconsfield to receive a deputation from the Council to present 
the Memorial. Lord Beaconsfield having been obliged to decline to re- 
ceive the deputation on account of the press of public business, the 
memorial was forwarded to him at his request, and a reply has been 
received, which, together with the memorial, is given in the Appendix (I.) 
to this Report. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. lix 

3. ' That the question of the appointment of a Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. James Dillon, Mr. Edward Easton, Mr. P. Le Neve 
Foster, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. T. Hawksley, Sir John 
Hawkshaw, Professor Hull, Mr. Robert Manning, Professor Prest- 
wich, Professor Ramsay, Mr. C. E. De Ranee, the Earl of Rosse, 
Mr. W. Shelford, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred, Mr. John Smyth, jun., 
Mr. G. J. Symons, and Mr. A. T. Atchison (Secretary), for the 
purpose of conferring with the Council as to the advisability of 
urging Government to take immediate action to procure unity of 
control of each of our principal river basins, be referred to the 
Council for consideration and action if it seem desirable.' 

The Council resolved that it did not seem to them desirable to take 
any action in this matter at present. 

The Committee which was appointed last year for the purpose of 
watching and reporting to the Council on Patent Legislation made a 
report to the Council, which is given in Appendix II. 

A deputation of the Council and certain other members of the Asso- 
ciation waited on the Attorney- General on May 27 with the Report, and 
urged the passing of the Patent Law Amendment Bill, with certain 
modifications. The Bill was subsequently withdrawn. 

The Council announce with great regret the loss that they have sus- 
tained during the past year by the death of Mr. William Proude, P.R.S. 
One vacancy having been thus caused in their body, there remain only 
four names which it is necessary to remove from the list. 

The Council propose that, in accordance with the regulations, the 
four retiring members shall be the following : — 

F. J. Bramwell, Esq., C.E., F.R.S. W. Pengelly, Esq., F.R.S 



Dr. W. Farr, F.R.S 



Professor J. Prestwich, F.R.S. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary mem- 
bers of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are 
distinguished by an asterisk in the following list. 

Ordinary Members of the Council. 



Abel, F. A, Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 

* Easton, E., Esq., C.E. 
Evans, Captain, C.B., F.R.S. 
Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

* Hughes, Professor T. McK., M.A. 

* Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 
Lefevre, George Shaw, Esq., M.P. 



Maskelyne, Professor N. S., F.R.S. 

* Newmarch, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Rolleston, Professor G., F.R.S. 
Roscoe, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Professor J. S. Burdoc, 

F.R.S. 
Smyth, WarringtonW., Esq., F.R.S. 

* Sorby, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 



lx 



APPENDIX I. 

COEEESPONDENCE WITH THE TEEASUEY ABOUT THE NATUEAL 
HISTOEY COLLECTIONS. 

(No. 1.) 

British Association for the Advancement op Science, 
22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

March 25, 1879. 

To the Might Hon. the First Lord of the Treasury. 

My Lord, — In accordance with a resolution adopted by the General Committee 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at their last meeting, 
the Council of the Association beg leave to call your attention to the following 
circumstances. 

1. In their fourth Report, presented to Parliament in 1874, the Royal Commis- 
sion on Scientific Instruction and the Advancement of Science, having fully con- 
sidered the present state of the Natural History Departments in the British 
Museum, and taken evidence thereon from the principal scientific authorities of the 
country, state that they have come to the conclusion ' that the objections to the 
present system of government of the British Museum by a Board of Trustees as 
at present constituted, so far as relates to the Natural Histoiy Collections, are well 
founded, and that they have been unable to discover that the system is attended by 
any compensating advantages.' They, therefore, recommend : — ' (1) That the 
occasion of the removal of these collections to the new buildings now being 
erected a,t South Kensington for their reception be taken advantage of to effect a 
change in the governing authority and official administration of that division of the 
Museum. (2) That a Director of the National Collections should be appointed by 
the Crown, and should have the entire administration of the establishment, under 
the control of a Minister of State, to whom he should be immediately responsible, 
and that the keepers of collections should be responsible to the Director. That the 
appointments of keepers and other scientific officers should be made by the 
Minister, after communication with the Director and with the Board of Visitors 
(hereinafter referred to). And that the Director should prepare the estimates, to be 
submitted, after consultation with the Board of Visitors, for the approval of the 
Minister. (3) That the present Superintendent be the first Director. (4) That a 
Board of Visitors be constituted. That the Board be nominated in part by the 
Crown, in part by the Royal and certain other scientific Societies of the metropolis, 
and, in the first instance, in part also by the Board of Trustees ; the members to be 
appointed for a limited period, but to be re-eligible ; and that the Board of Visitors 
should make annual reports to the Minister, to be laid before Parliament, on the 
condition, management, and requirements of the Museum, and should be empowered 
to give him advice on any points affecting its administration.' 

2. Exactly the same view as to the desirability of effecting a change in the 
government of the Natural History Collections was taken in a memorial presented 
to the then Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1866, and signed by the Presidents 
and other well-known members of the Royal, Linnean, and Zoological Societies, a 
copy of which is appended hereto. 

3. Notwithstanding these expressions of opinion, in which nearly all the leading 
naturalists of the day fully concur, an Act was passed at the close of the last 
session of Parliament by which the Trustees of the British Museum have been 
authorised to transfer the Natural History Collections into the new building at 
South Kensington without making any change whatever in the present mode of 
their administration. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. APPENDIX I. 



lxi 



4. The Council of the British Association feel that it is not necessary for them 
to press upon the Government the arguments for the changes in the administration 
of the Natural History Collections which have been so amply stated by the Com- 
missioners in the Report above mentioned. The Council think it sufficient to call 
the attention of the Government to the fact that the provisions of the Act are 
directly at variance with the recommendations of the Royal Commissioners. 

5. As, however, a fresh application to Parliament will be necessary in order to 
defray the expense of the removal of the Natural History Collections from their 
present situation to South Kensington, the Council of the British Association beg 
leave to point out to H.M. Government that the question of the administration of 
the Natural History Collections is one of the utmost importance as regards the 
future progress of Natural History in this country, and to urge upon them to take 
the opportunity which will thus present itself of effecting the alterations in the 
mode of administration of the Collections recommended by the Royal Com- 
mission. 

We have the honour to be, 

Your Lordship's most obedient servants, 
The Council of the British Association foe the Advancement 

of Science. 



Signed, far the Council, 



W. SPOTTISWOODE, President. 
DOUGLAS GALTON, 1 e , . 
P. L. SCLATER, \ Secretaries. 



COPY OF A MEMOEIAL PRESENTED TO THE RIGHT HON. THE 
CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. 

London, May 14, 1866. 
To the Right Hon. the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Sir, — It having been stated that the scientific men of the metropolis are, as a 
body, entirely opposed to the removal of the Natural History Collections from their 

? resent situation in the British Museum, we, the undersigned Fellows of the Royal, 
jinnean, Geological, and Zoological Societies of London, beg leave to offer to you 
the following expression of our opinion upon the subject. 

We are of opinion that it is of fundamental importance to the progress of the 
Natural Sciences in this country that the administration of the National Natural 
History Collections should be separated from that of the Library and Art Collec- 
tions, and placed under one Officer, who should be immediately responsible to one of 
the Queeris Ministers. 

We regard the exact locality of the National Museum of Natural History as a 
question of comparatively minor importance, provided that it be conveniently 
accessible and within the metropolitan district. 

W. Kitchen Parker, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 
Andrew Ramsat, F.R.S., V.P.G.S. 
Arthur Russell, M.P., F.R.G.S.. 

F.Z.S. 
Osbert Salvin, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

G. SCLATER-BOOTH, M.P., F.Z.S. 

S. James A. Salter, M.B., F.R.S., 

F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
W. H. Simpson, M.A., F.Z.S. 
J. Emerson Tennent, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 
Thomas Thomson, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
H. B. Tristram, M.A., F.L S. 
Walden, F.Z.S., F.L.S. 
Alfred R. Wallace, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S. 



George Bentham,F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
William B. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. 
Charles Darwin,F.R.S.,F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
F. Ducane Godman, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
J. H. Gurney, F.Z.S. 
Edward Hamilton, M.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Joseph D. Hooker, M.D., F.R.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Thomas H. Huxley, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
John Kirk, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. 
Lilford, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 



lxii report — 1879. 



(No. 2.) 

Treasury Chambers, 

July 22, 1879. 

To the President and General Secretaries of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, 22 Albemarle Street, W. 

Gentlemen, — 1 am directed by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's 
Treasury to inform you that the First Lord of the Treasury has submitted to this 
Board the letter of 25th March last, wherein, on behalf of the Council of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, you call his Lordship's atten- 
tion to certain recommendations made in the Fourth Report of the Koyal Com- 
mission on Scientific Instruction, which was presented to Parliament in 1874, 
relative to the Natural History Department of the British Museum ; and wherein, 
further, you refer to the British Museum Act, 1878, as ignoring the said 
recommendations, and go on to urge that the occasion of proposing to Parliament 
a vote towards the expense of the removal of the same collections from their 
present situation to South Kensington should be taken for effecting the alterations 
in the mode of administering them recommended by the Royal Commission. 

My Lords have, in the first place, to point out that the British Museum Act, 
1878, nowise prejudges the question which you raise as to changes in the adminis- 
tration of the collections, but is confined to authorising the removal of them to the 
new Museum. 

In the next place, it is to be remembered that the recommendations to which 
you advert require further legislation, and that the vote in supply, of which a part 
only is necessaiy to be taken this session, for completing the new Museum is 
equally required whether the collections are to remain under the management of 
the Trustees of the British Museum or are to be assigned to some other authority, 
and therefore that this vote, like the Act of 1878, in no degree pledged either 
Parliament or Her Majesty's Government upon the question of the best way to 
administer these collections in the future. 

A third point of some importance is that both the Royal Commission and the 
Council which you represent propose to continue in office the present Superintendent 
of the collections. 

Under these circumstances, my Lords, while fully agreeing with you that the 
question of the administration of these collections is one of the utmost importance 
as regards the future progress of Natural History, in this country, are also of 
opinion that there is nothing which, on a point requiring so much consideration, 
calls for instant decision. 

They think that the reasons which led them in 1877 to constitute the present 
Meteorological Council, rather than to create a new Government department, are 
not without weight in regard to displacing the Trustees of the British Museum. 

The Chairman of the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction is himself a 
member of the sub-committee of the Trustees of the British Museum for the 
management of these collections. The same sub-committee contains other names 
of high rank and of scientific eminence ; nor have my Lords any reason to think 
that the standing committee of the Trustees, nor the Trustees generally, of the 
British Museum are insensible to the importance of having modern science strongly 
represented on the sub-committee of Natural History. 

The general question whether public aid to science should, in a case like the 
present, not be allowed to be administered by a body with a certain real indepen- 
dence of its own is a very wide and a very important one ; nor is the present the 
only case which raises it. 

My Lords do not intend to propose to Parliament any immediate change in the 
management of these collections, and they would be glad to find that the reasons 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. APPENDIX II. Mii 

•which had led to the recommendations of the Royal Commission had heen found to 
he capable of being met without any serious departure from the principles of a 
more or less independent trust. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. R. W. LINGEN. 



APPENDIX II. 

EEPOET OF THE PATENT-LAW COMMITTEE. 



N.B. — All the Scottish Members of the Committee, and several others who were 
not able to attend the meetings which took place in London, wish it to be 
noted that while concurring in all the other resolutions of the Committee, they 
do not agree in the propriety of suggesting the reduction of the term of twenty- 
one years, proposed in the Bill, to seventeen years, as the duration of a patent. 



March 25, 1879. 

The Committee* of the British Association, appointed for watching and re- 
porting to the Council on Patent_ Legislation, beg leave to report that "there are 
now two Bills before Parliament in respect to Patent-law. The first Bill, brouo-ht 
in by private members (Mr. Anderson, Mr. Mundella. and others), and the second, 
a Government Bill, prepared and brought in by the Attorney-General, Mr. Secretary 
Cross, and the Solicitor-General. 

The first Bill is very short, consisting of only five clauses. It has for its objects 
the extension of the term of Patent-right, both for new patents and for those 
existing at the time the Bill might become law, from fourteen years to twenty-one 
years, on payment of certain sums, and a very considerable reduction in the amount 
of the stamp duties payable in respect of the patent. 

As regards this Bill, the Committee have to report their opinion, that it should 
not be proceeded with, looking at the comprehensive Government measure now 
before the House of Commons. 

With respect to the second Bill, the Government measure, the Committee have 
to report that it proposes to repeal the various Acts (seven in number) relating to 
Patent Legislation, and to substitute for them this one Act of fifty-nine clauses. 

The principal novel provisions of this Bill may be summarised as follows : 

(1.) Clause 5.— In addition to the eight legal officials now acting as the Com- 
missioners of Patents, all of whom, with the exception of the Master of the Rolls, 
change with the Ministry, two persons recommended by the Lord Chancellor, and 
three recommended by the Board of Trade, are to be appointed by her Majesty. 

(2.) Clauses 7 and 8.— The provisional protection is extended for twelve months, 
but a_ complete specification must be filed, and rendered public, along with the 
provisional specification, at least three months before the expiration of the provi- 
sional protection. 

(3.) Clause 13.— The applicant for a patent is to have an appeal to the Lord 

* The Committee appointed by the British Association consisted of Dr. A. W. 
Williamson, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, 
Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Professor Abel, Mr. 
J. R. Napier, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. 
Macrory, and Mr. H. Trueman Wood, who, at their first meeting, passed a resolution 
to add to their numbers Mr. W. H. Barlow and Mr. A. T. Atchison. 



lxiv REPORT — 1879. 

Chancellor from an adverse decision by the Law Officer. At present, the appeal is 
only by an opponent in case of a favourable opinion by the Law Officer. 

(4.) Clause 16. — On payment of certain fees from time to time, the patents to 
be hereafter granted are to before a term of twenty-one years, without power of 
prolongation. 

Note. — This extended time is not to apply to patents existing at the date of the 
Bill becoming law. 

(5.) Clause 17. — A patentee is to have liberty to amend his specification, not 
only by way of correcting error, as at present, but also by way of explanation, sup- 
plement, or otherwise, provided that the supplemental matter could properly have 
been included within the patent had it been in the mind of the inventor at the time 
the patent was taken out. 

(6.) Clause 18. — The Crown is to pay royalties in the same way as a subject 
pays them, with this qualification, however — that the patentee shall be compelled 
to allow the Crown to use the invention, upon terms to be agreed, or, failing 
agreement, to be settled by the Treasury, with the advice and assistance of the 
Commissioners of Patents. 

(7.) Clause 19. — The patent shall be revocable after three years, if the patentee 
cannot show that he has put the invention into practice by himself or his licensees, or 
made reasonable efforts to do so, or if he fail to grant licenses to proper persons 
requesting the same on terms which the Lord Chancellor may deem reasonable. 

(8.) Clause 47. — The stamp duties on obtaining a patent are to be 121. 10s. 
instead of 251. as at present ; the three years' stamp of 50/., and the seven years' 
stamp of 100/., remaining as at present, with a farther payment of 100/., to be 
made in the twelfth year, for the purpose of preventing the patent lapsing at the 
end of the fourteenth year, and of continuing it until the twenty-one years. 

The Committee will now give the resolutions they passed upon certain details 
in the Bill, and they will state the reasons which have led them to pass the 
resolutions. They believed that the Bill if altered as they suggest would be a 
better Bill than it is now, but they look upon the general scope of this Bill with 
so much favour that they desire to refrain from any insistance of their views in 
respect of detail, if such insistance would be at all likely to impede the passing 
of the Bill this session, and they therefore beg leave to give here at the commence- 
ment of this record of their proceedings the resolution in which they affirmed 
their approval of the principle of the Government Bill. 

It was moved by Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., &c, the Chairman of the 
Committee, and seconded by Mr. F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., the Secretary of the 
Committee, that — 

"The Government Bill, subject to certain modifications, meets with the entire 
approval of this Committee." 

The following paragraphs give not only the views of the Committee in respect 
of the modifications of those clauses which, in the judgment of the Committee, 
can be beneficially altered, but also the expression of the approval of the Com- 
mittee of certain new clauses in the Bill, which appear to be entirely satisfactory 
as they now stand :— 

Clause 5. — The Committee observe with regret that, while providing for 
extra Commissioners, no suggestion is made that these should be paid ; and, 
indeed, in the " Memorandum " printed with the Bill, the new Commissioners are 
described as " unpaid." If the additional Commissioners are to be of real use, 
they must devote themselves continuously to the conduct of the business of the 
Patent Office, and this cannot be expected without adequate payment. On this 
point the Committee came to the following resolution : — 

Resolved unanimously, — "That this Committee is of opinion that the five 
Commissioners to be appointed should be paid Commissioners." 

Clauses 7, 8, and 9. — The Committee consider the extension of the provisional 
protection to twelve months to be desirable, but they observe that, as the patent 
may be opposed at any time within the " prescribed time," and as " ' prescribed r 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. — APPENDIX II. llV 

means prescribed by general orders or general rules under this Act," there is 
nothing to render it certain that the " prescribed time " may not be so extended 
ss to enable opposition to be made after the complete specification is published, as 
it must be at the end of nine months, at the latest, from the date of the patent. 
If the " prescribed time " were thus extended, all opponents would wait until the 
complete specifications were public, and then would have an opportunity of con- 
ducting their opposition with the same elaboration and expense that would be 
bestowed in impugning novelty by a defendant in a Patent action. The applicant 
also would be put to similar cost, and thus the benefit conferred upon a poor 
inventor by the reduction in the fees to be paid on obtaining a patent would be 
much more than neutralised, and in lieu of the average of nine patent causes per 
annum, which prevails under the present law, there would in effect be as many 
causes as there were oppositions to the sealing of patents. And while considering 
this subject, the very serious demand upon the time of the law officers which 
would ensue upon oppositions thus conducted must not be lost sight of. On these 
considerations, notwithstanding the apparent logic of the argument that at present 
an opponent is opposing he knows not exactly what, while under the suggested 
prescribed time he will be left in no doubt, the Committee are of opinion that, as 
a matter of practical working, opposition on open documents is not expedient. 

The Committee have embodied their views on this subject in the following 
resolution : — 

Kesolved unanimously, — " That this Committee, fearing that if oppositions 
are conducted on open documents, the expenses of these oppositions, and 
the time occupied, will be equal to that of an action upon a patent, deem it 
desirable that the prescribed time should not extend beyond nine months 
from the date of application, and that these oppositions should be conducted 
as at present without open documents." 

Clause 13. — The Committee entirely approve of giving the applicant for a 
patent the same power of appeal as is possessed by his opponent. 

Clause 15. — Clause 15 has not been referred to among the principal novel 
features, because it is a repetition of the Clauses 18, 19, and 23 of the Act of 
1852, but the Committee believe an alteration might be beneficially made. Under 
the existing law, and under this Bill if it becomes law, an applicant for a patent 
whose provisional protection bears a later date than the provisional protection of 
another applicant may make earUer application for the seal, and if he does so it is 
within the power of the Lord Chancellor (and the Committee know that that 
power has been exercised) to date the patent of the first applicant later than that 
of the second, and thus the first applicant is put to a great disadvantage. Under 
these circumstances there is a temptation for applicants to obtain the seal as early 
as possible, whereas it appears to the Committee that an inventor should be 
encouraged, if he is in the least doubt, to use the whole of the time allowed 
him before he need apply for the seal to ascertain whether his supposed invention 
is new, and also whether it can be practically carried into operation, and that a 
person thus prudently acting should be, as the Committee have said, encouraged, 
whereas the operation of the clause would be to urge the inventor to obtain the 
seal as early as possible, lest, by delaying to do so, he should lose his priority ae a 
patentee. 

The Committee embodied their opinion on this point in the following reso- 
lution: — 

Resolved unanimously, — " That the Committee are of opinion that it is un- 
desirable there should be any doubt as to priority of patent protection, 
arising from the rapidity with which certain formal acts may be carried out 
by the applicant, and they, therefore, recommend that for all purposes, and 
under all circumstances, the priority of patents should be reckoned as from 
the day of the application for provisional protection." 

Clause 16. — With respect to the proposed doing away with the power of the 
1879. d 



lxvi REPORT — 1879. 

Privy Council to prolong a patent after fourteen years, and to the substitution for 
this of an extension of twenty-one years, as of right to all patentees, who, at the 
end of twelve years, pay a further stamp duty of 100/., the Committee think it 
probable that so long a term as a matter of right may be objected to, and may 
imperil the Bill. It is true that the Privy Council now recommend prolongation 
to the extent, in some cases, of as much as seven years (indeed longer extensions 
have been recommended), but they only do so on strict proof (however useful the 
invention may be) that the patentee has not been sufficiently remunerated, while 
the twenty-one years as of right, proposed by the Bill, would obviously be accepted 
by every prosperous patentee, and thus a more than sufficient payment might be 
made by the public for the disclosure and bringing into operation of the invention. 
Influenced by these considerations, the Committee are inclined to suggest that the 
seventeen years' duration of patents in the United States might well be adopted 
here. If the Bill were thus modified, it would become necessary to alter the times 
of payment of the various stamp duties, and as the Committee are of opinion that 
three years from the date of the patent (which is but two years from the cessa- 
tion of the provisional protection) is so short a time as in many instances not to 
suffice for such development of the patent as to enable the patentee to come to a 
right decision on the question whether he will allow his patent to lapse or to pay 
the stamp duty of 501., they recommend that the time for this first payment should 
be four years from the date of the patent. 

The following is the resolution in which the Committee have embodied their 
opinion on this subject : — 

Resolved unanimously, — " That this Committee would have thought an ex- 
tension from fourteen to seventeen years sufficient compensation for the loss 
of the power to apply for a prolongation, but whether the seventeen or 
twenty-one years be adopted as the term of the patent, the Committee are 
of opinion that the times of cesser and the dates of payment to carry on 
the patent for a certain term should be at the end of four, eight, and 
fourteen years from the date of the patent." 

Clause 17. — The liberty to amend, by way of supplement, is, in the judgment 
of the Committee, a most important improvement. 

Clause 18. — The Committee hold the same opinion with respect to the pro- 
vision that the Crown shall pay royalties for the use of a patent. They would be 
glad if some better machinery could be devised for settling (failing agreement) 
what the royalty should be, but they have no suggestion to make on the subject. 

Clause 19. — This clause, it will be seen, makes a patent voidable after three 
years on either of two grounds, failure to use or to properly endeavour to do so, 
proof of which shall be on the patentee ; and refusing to grant licenses to proper 
persons, on terms to be imposed by the Chancellor. 

It appears to the Committee that if the second of these conditions be enacted, the 
first is unnecessary, as it is clear that a patent cannot be regarded as an obstruction 
to manufacture, when any responsible manufacturer wishing to use it can do so by 
paying a reasonable royalty, and the Committee believe that the first condition 
might readily be abused, for instance, in those cases where an invention relates to 
subjects which from their nature cannot be, with certain classes of inventors, put 
into operation by the patentees themselves, such as where a scientific man uncon- 
nected with trade or commerce has made an improvement in blast furnaces or in 
steam navigation. In these cases the inventor is at the mercy of those who own 
blast furnaces, or who own ocean steamers, and it is quite conceivable that such 
persons might band themselves together to prevent the use of the patent during 
the first three years of its existence. Bearing this danger in mind of the abuse of 
the first condition, and looking at the fact that the existence of a patent subject to 
compulsory licenses would not be an impediment to the manufacture, the Com- 
mittee desire to see the first condition expunged, and, as regards the second 
condition, they trust that the words which were in the Government Bill of 1877, 
may be inserted, and that thereby the proof of the need of licenses may be imposed, 
as in their judgment it should be upon the person seeking them. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. APPENDIX II. lxvil 

The following is the resolution in which the Committee have emhodied their 
■opinion upon this point : — 

Resolved unanimously, — "That Sub-Section a should be struck out, and 
that Clause 19 should be altered accordingly, so as to read thus : — ' The 
patent shall be liable at any time at the end of three years from its date to 

be revoked on the following ground ': — And that the words 

which appear in Clause 22, Sub-Section 2, of the Bill of 1877 should be 
inserted on this Bill, viz., ' that it is made to appear to the Lord Chancellor 
that 

Clause 24. — The Committee now desire to call attention to Section 24 of the 
Bill headed " Imported Inventions." With one exception, namely, Clause b of 
Sub-Section 5, which restricts the time within which an imported invention can 
be patented in England to six months after the date of the earliest foreign patent, 
a restriction which appears to the Committee to be veiy undesirable, this section 
is practically the same as that of Section 25 of the Patent Law Amendment Act, 
1852, and thus it is that the Committee have omitted all mention of it in the sum- 
mary of principal changes given at the outset of this report. The Committee, 
however, feel so strongly that the Section 25 of the Act of 1852 was based upon 
the old erroneous notion of the object of a Patent-law, and is a relic of an anti- 
quated state of things — now entirely uncalled for and mischievous — that they trust 
Clause 24, which practically re-enacts Clause 25 of the Act of 1852, may be ex- 
punged altogether from the Bill. The Committee desire to be allowed to explain 
their views on this subject. The old notion of a Patent-law was that the inventor 
was a person seeking to obtain a protection for himself at the expense of the public, 
who, it was assumed, should regard the inventor as an antagonist, and should do 
all they could to procure a disclosure of the invention upon the shortest possible 
term of payment by patent right ; or, better still, by no such payment at all. It 
is to be feared that these erroneous notions still prevail amongst those who have 
not studied the subject, but those who have studied it know that a Patent-law can 
only be desirable so long as it is for the benefit of the community as a whole. 
Those also who are acquainted with the introducing of inventions know that 
nothing short of a person having a strong interest in developing the invention will 
cause it to be taken up, the more important the invention is the greater being the 
indisposition to adopt it, since its introduction may involve the disuse of existing 
plant and machinery, the expenditure of fresh capital upon plant, and the teaching 
of workmen to follow new processes. One who knows the subject from its very 
foundation has truly said, that if an invention ' were found lying in the street it 
would be for the benefit of the community that a father should be assigned to it, 
so that there might be some one having a substantial interest in urging its 
development.' 

Clause 24 of the present Bill (25 of the Act of 1852) is based altogetheron 
the assumption that it is to the interest of the community to be in possession 
of what the Committee may perhaps be pardoned for styling 'orphan inven- 
tions.' 

Further, with respect to section 24 (25 of 1852) being a relic of an antiquated 
state of things — when the means of communication between countries were limited, 
and international travellers were rare, when the technical literature of one country 
did not circulate in other lands where a different language was spoken, it might be 
that if an inventor did not patent his invention in a foreign country the foreigners 
would remain ignorant of it, while if he did so patent it, he would afford the 
information to the foreigners, and that so, if after a time his foreign patent came to 
an end, the foreigners would be in a better position than any British subject if a 
patent for the invention continued to prevail here. But under the existing condi- 
tion of extended travelling, and of the interchange of technical literature, the idea 
that the foreigner will only know of an invention from its having been patented 
in his country is manifestly untenable, and thus there is no reason why a man who 
has taken out patents in foreign countries for an invention should be on a different 
footing, as regards the English patent, from that on which he would have been had 

d 2 



lxviii eepobt — 1879. 

he refrained from taking out those patents. Many cases of great hardship have- 
heen inflicted by virtue of this Section 25 of the Act of 1852, and harm to the 
public has resulted therefrom. The Committee trust that the framers of the 
present Bill, who are obviously desirous of introducing a measure conceived in the 
interest of the community at large, will not hesitate to get rid of this Section 24. 
The Committee have embodied their views on this subject in the following re- 
solution : — 

Kesolved unanimously, — " That the Committee advise that Clause 24 should 
be struck out, as they are of opinion that it would be desirable to deal with 
foreign inventions upon the same terms as English inventions ; and they are 
further of opinion that the duration of an- English patent should not be 
affected by the determination of any foreign patent." 

Another detail in the Bill to which the Committee desire to call attention, is 
a provision in Clause 46 by which one Commissioner may be empowered to act for 
the whole body. This appears to the Committee to be very inexpedient, and they 
would be glad to see this clause altered to the form which it has as Clause 55 in 
the Government Bill of 1877. The resolution of the Committee on this point was 
as follows : — 

Resolved unanimously — " That the Committee are of opinion that paragraph 
46 ought to be left the same as 55 of the Bill of 1877." 

Clause 47. — With regard to the proposed reduction of the first cost of the 
patent from 25/. to 12/. 10s., the Committee entirely concur with it, and they be- 
lieve that the payment of 50/. at the expiration, not of three years, but as has 
already been mentioned, of four years, is a useful provision for getting rid of value- 
less patents. The other payments they also concur in, but with the modification in 
point of date which has been already mentioned. 

Finally, the Committee respectfully suggest to the Council of the British Asso- 
ciation that they should appoint a deputation from the Council, with such other 
members of the Association as the Council may select, to wait upon the Govern- 
ment to urge the passing of the Bill this session, with such amendments in detail 
as, on consideration of the report of your Committee, the ' preparers ' may see fit 
to adopt. 

For the Committee— 

WILLIAM SIEMENS, Chairman. 
F. J. BRAMWELL, Secretary. 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxix 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Sheffield Meeting in August 1879. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. 0. J. Lodge (Secretary), Mr. W. 
E. Ayrton, and Professor J. Perry, be appointed for the purpose of de- 
vising and constructing an improved form of High Insulation Key for 
Electrometer Work, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor W. G. Adams, and Professor G. C. Foster, be reappointed to carry 
out an investigation for the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light ; 
and that the sum of 20?. be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett (Secretary), 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pen- 
gelly, Professor Edward Hull, Professor Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Neve 
Poster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, and Mr. G. F. Deacon, on Under- 
ground Temperature, be reappointed ; and that the sum of 101. be placed 
at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule (Secretary), Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and 
Professor J . Clerk Maxwell, for effecting the Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of Heat be reappointed ; and that the sum of 52Z. 4s. 6d., 
being the amount remaining unexpended of a sum of 651., granted last 
year, be regranted. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson 
(Secretary), Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, 
Mr. F. J. Bramwell, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, for continuing secular ex- 
periments upon the Elasticity of Wires be reappointed ; and that the sum 
•of 50L be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. James 
Glaisher (Secretary), Dr. Flight, Professor R. S. Ball, Mr. E. J. Lowe, 
and Professor A. S. Herschel, be reappointed ; and that the sum of 30Z. 
be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Professor Purser, Professor 
G. Forbes, Mr. Horace Darwin, and Mr. G. H. Darwin (Secretary), for 
the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity, be reappointed ; 
and that the grant of SOI., which has lapsed, be renewed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester (Secretary), 
Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon, for the purpose of calculating 
Tables of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms, be reappointed ; 
and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



1XX REPORT — 1879. 

That Mr. John Perry (Secretary), Professor Unwin, Professor James 
Thomson, and Mr. W. E. Ayrton be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the Laws of Water Friction ; and that the sum of 201. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. E. Ayrton (Secretary), Dr. 
0. J. Lodge, Mr. J. E. H. Gordon, and Mr. J. Perry, for the purpose of 
accurately measuring the specific inductive capacity of a good Sprengel 
Vacuum, and the specific resistance of gases at different pressures, be re- 
appointed ; and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Haughton and Mr. B. 
Williamson, for the calculation of Tables of Sun-heat Coefficients, be 
reappointed ; that Mr. B. Williamson be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 501. be placed at their disposal for the completion of the work. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), 
Professor W. G. Adams, and Mr. W. E. Ayrton, be reappointed for the- 
purpose of improving an instrument for detecting the presence of Fire-damp 
in Mines ; and that the sum of 10Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. J. M. Thomson (Secretary), and Mr. J. E. H. Gordon be 
appointed a Committee to continue Researches on the Specific Inductive- 
Capacity of certain Crystals and Paraffines ; and that the sum of 251. be 
placed at their disposal for the purchase and preparation of materials. 

That Professor Dewar, Dr. Williamson, Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain 
Abney, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Mr. W. N. Hartley, Professor McLeod, Pro- 
fessor Carey Foster, Mr. A. K. Huntington, Professor Emerson Reynolds, 
Professor Remold, Professor Liveing, and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts be a 
Committee for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of our 
knowledge of Spectrum Analysis ; that Mr. W. Chandler Roberts be the- 
Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Wallace, Professor Dittmar, and Mr. Pattinson be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reporting on the best means for the development 
of Light from Coal-gas of different qualities ; that Dr. Wallace be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 10Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor P. M. Duncan and Mr. G. R. Vine be a Committee for 
the purpose of reporting on the Carboniferous Polyzoa ; that Mr. Vine be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor A. Leith Adams, the Rev. Professor Haughton, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, and Dr. J. Evans, be a Committee for the purpose of 
exploring the Caves of the South of Ireland ; that Professor A. Leith 
Adams be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor H. G. Seeley, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. C. 
Moore be a Committee for the purpose of reporting upon the viviparous 
nature of the Ichthyosauria ; that Professor Seeley be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. John Evans, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. Edward Vivian, 
Mr. George Busk, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. William Ayshford 
Sanford, Mr. John Edward Lee, and Mr. William Pengelly be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of finishing the Exploration of Kent's Cavern 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BT THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxxi 

Devonshire ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, the Rev. T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Carruthers, Mr. F. 
Drew, Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor L. C. 
Miall,' Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. E. B. Tawney, 
Mr. W. Topley, and Mr. W. Whitaker be a Committee for the purpose of 
carrying on the Geological Record ; that Mr. Whitaker be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 1001. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor W. C. "Williamson, and Mr. W. H. Baily be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of collecting and reporting on the Tertiary (i.e., 
Miocene) Flora, &c, of the Basalt of the North of Ireland ; that Mr. 
Baily be the Secretary, and that the sum of 15Z. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose, on the understanding that a collection of represen- 
tative Fossils obtained be sent to the British Museum. 

That Professor Hull, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. Morton, Mr. 
Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. Plant, Mr. Mellard Reade, Mr. 
Roberts, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. De Ranee be a Committee for the 
purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Underground Waters in 
the Permian New Red Sandstone, and Jurassic Formations of England, 
and the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied to towns and 
districts from those formations ; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of hi. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor M. Fo«ter, and Professor Burdon 
Sanderson be appointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen (the experi- 
ments to be conducted by Mr. North) ; that Dr. Burdon Sanderson be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of hOl. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Major-General Lane Fox and Mr. A. W. Franks be a Committee 
for the purpose of issuing a revised edition of the Anthropological Notes 
and Queries for the Use of Travellers ; that Major-General Lane Fox be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 20Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. E. C.Rye be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100?. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. M. Foster, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Dew-Smith, Professor 
Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Bal- 
four, Sir C. Wyville Thomson, Professor Ray Lankester, and Mr. Sladen 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of arranging for the occupa- 
tion of a table at the Zoological Station at Naples ; that Mr. Sladen be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 7hl. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Arthur Gamgee, Professor Schafer, Professor Allman, and 
Mr. Geddes be a Committee for the purpose of conducting Palseonto- 
logical and Zoological Researches in Mexico ; that Mr. Geddes be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of hOl. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Major-General Lane Fox, Professor Leith 
Adams, Mr. W. James Knowles, and the Rev. Dr. Grainger be a Committee 
for the purpose of continuing Excavations at Portstewart and elsewhere in 



lxxii keport — 1879. 

the North of Ireland ; that Mr. W. James Knowles be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 152. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Farr, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Sir George Campbell, Mr. 
F. P. Fellows, Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. J. Park 
Harrison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. 
F. A. Mahomed, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. Charles Roberts, and Professor 
Rolleston be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the collection of 
observations on the Systematic Examination of Heights, Weights, &c, of 
Human Beings in the British Empire, and the publication of photographs 
of the typical Races of the Empire ; that Mr. Brabrook be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Bramwell, Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. 
Neilson Hancock, Professor Abel, Mr. J. R. Napier, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, Mr. H. Trueman 
Wood, Mr. W. H. Barlow, and Mr. A. T. Atchison be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on 
Patent Legislation ; that Mr. F. J. Bramwell be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 5/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



Not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G. C. Foster (Secretary), 
Professor W. G. Adams, Professor R. B. Clifton, Professor Cayley, Pro- 
fessor J. D. Everett, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Professor 
G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Spottiswoode, and Professor 
P. G. Tait, be reappointed for the purpose of endeavouring to procure 
Reports on the progress of the chief branches of Mathematics and Physics. 

That Mr. C. W. Merrifield be requested to report on the present state 
of knowledge of the Application of Quadratures and Interpolation to 
Actual Data. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. Huggins (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor J. Emerson Reynolds, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Mr. W. Spottiswoode, Dr. 
De La Rue, Dr. W. M. Watts, Professor J. Dewar, and Captain Abney, 
for the purpose of preparing and printing Tables of Oscillation-frequencies 
be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), 
Professor Sir William Thomson, and Professor J. D. Everett, for the pur- 
pose of making certain observations in India, and observations on Atmo- 
spheric Electricity at Madeira, be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. David Gill, Professor G. Forbes, 
Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. C. H. Gimingham, be reappointed to consider 
the question of improvements in Astronomical Clocks. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor F. Fuller, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, the 
Rev. R. Harley, Mr. R. B. Hay ward, Professor Henrici, Dr. T. A. Hirst, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Professor Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. 
Smith, Mr. W. Spottiswoode, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Towns- 
end, Mr. J. M. Wilson, and Dr. Wormell be appointed a Committee to 
consider and report upon the subject of Geometrical Teaching, and parti- 
cularly upon the Syllabuses prepared under the authority of the Associa- 
tion for the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching ; and that Mr. Mem- 
field be the Secretary. 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxxiii 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
•on Mathematical Notation and Printing be reappointed ; and that Mr. J. 
W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. 
James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, on Mathematical Tables be 
reappointed ; and that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Muirhead (Secretary), Mr. C. 
Hockin, Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor Clerk Maxwell, 
Mr. W. B. Ayrton, and Mr. J. Perry, be appointed to consider the best 
methods of making and issuing an Authoritative Standard of Electrical 
Capacity. 

That Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. John M. Thomson, Mr. W. N. 
Hartley, and Mr. James T. Bottomley be reappointed a Committee for the 
purpose of investigating the law of the " Electrolysis of Mixed Metallic 
Solutions and Solutions of Compound Salts;" and that Mr. John M. 
Thomson be the Secretary. 

That Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor W. E. Ayrton, Professor P. 
M. Duncan, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. J. T. Dunn, and Professor J. 
Perry be a Committee for the purpose of preparing a final Report on 
experiments to determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, 
showing especially the geological aspects of the investigation ; and that 
Professor Herschel be the Secretary. 

That Professor Prestwich, Professor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Professor L. C. Miall, Messrs. G. H. 
Morton, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, W. Pen- 
gelly, Dr. Deane, Mr. Molyneux, and Professor Bonney be a Committee 
for the purpose of recording the position, height above the sea, litho- 
logical characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the 
same, and taking measures for their preservation ; and that the Rev. H. 
W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That Mr. R. J. Moss, Professor W. B. Dawkins, Professor E. Hull, Dr. 
Moss, R.N., Mr. Pengelly, Dr. A. Leith Adams, Professor O'Reilly, and 
Dr. J, Evans be a Committee for the purpose of obtaining information 
with regard to the mode of occurrence of the remains of Cervus Megaceros 
in Ireland ; and that Mr. R. J. Moss be the Secretary. 

That Mr. C. Spence Bate and Mr. J. Brooking Rowe be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of exploring the Marine Zoology of South 
Devon ; and that Mr. Spence Bate be the Secretary. 

That the Rev. H. F. Barnes-Lawrence, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. H. E. 
Dresser, Mr. J. E. Harting, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. J. G. Shaw Lefevre, 
Professor Newton, and the Rev. Canon Tristram be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of inquiring into the advisability of establishing a 
" close time " for the protection of indigenous animals, and that it be an 
instruction to the Committee to report to the Council in case of any action 
being required ; and that Mr. H. E. Dresser be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Sclater, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir Joseph Hooker, Captain F. M. 
Hunter, and Lieut.-Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of Socotra ; 
and that Mr. Sclater be the Secretary. 



lxxiv REPORT— 1879. 

That Sir George Campbell, M.P., Lord O'Hagan, Mr. Morley, M.P., 
Mr. Heywood, Mr. Chadwick, M.P., Mr. Shaw Lefevre, M.P.,Mr. Hallett, 
Professor Jevons, Dr. Farr, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Hammick, Professor 
Leone Levi, Professor J. K. Ingram, Dr. Hancock, Mr. J. T. Pirn, and 
Professor Adamson (with power to add to their number) be a Committee 
for the purpose of continuing the researches into the Incidence of Direct 
Taxation, with special reference to Probate, Legacy, and Succession Duty, 
and the Assessed Taxes ; and that Professor Adamson be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Mundella, M.P., Mr. James Heywood, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. 
Charles Doncaster, the Rev. A. Bourne, Mr. Taiso Masaki, Mr. Constantine 
Molloy, Mr. R. J. Pye-Smith, Dr. Hancock, and Mr. Robert Wilkinson 
(with power to add to their number) be a Committee for the purpose of 
considering and reporting on the German and other Systems of teaching 
the Deaf to speak ; and that Mr. Robert Wilkinson be the Secretary. 

That Professor Leone Levi, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Brittain, Dr. 
Neilson Hancock, Professor Jevons, and Mr. Fellows (with power to add to 
the number) be a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into the present 
appropriation of wages and sources of income, and considering how far it 
ia consonant with the economic progress of the people of the United 
Kingdom ; and that Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Mundella, M.P., Mr. Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. James 
Heywood, Mr. Wilkinson, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone (with power to add 
to their number) be a Committee for the purpose of reporting whether 
it is important that H.M. Inspectors of Elementary Schools should be 
appointed with reference to their ability for examining the scientific 
specific subjects of the code in addition to other matters ; and that Dr. 
J. H. Gladstone be the Secretary. 

That the Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel and 
in the North Sea, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Dr. J. Merrifield, 
Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas Galton, and Mr. James N. 
Shoolbred, be reappointed, with power to add to their number, and to 
communicate, if necessary, with the Government ; that Mr. J. F. Deacon 
and Mr. Rogers Field be added to the Committee ; and that Mr. James N. 
Shoolbred be the Secretary. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That the paper by Mr. Godwin- Austen, ' On some further evidence 
relating to the Range of the Palaeozoic Rocks beneath the South-East of 
England,' be printed in extenso among the Reports. 

That Lieutenant Temple's paper, entitled ' Hydrography past and 
present,' be printed in extenso among the Reports, with an outline map 
to a scale to be settled by the editor. 

That the paper by Mr. Rogers Field, ' On Self-acting Intermittent 
Siphons,' be printed in extenso among the Reports, with the necessary 
diagrams. 

Resolution referred to the Council for consideration, and action if it seem 

desirable. 

That the Council be requested to take such further action as regards 
the correspondence with the Treasury about the Natural History Collec- 
tions as they shall think desirable in the interests of Science. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONET. lxxV 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes 
by the General Committee at the Sheffield Meeting in August 
1879. The Names of the Members who are entitled to call on 
the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

A. — Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

Lodge, Dr. — New Form of High Insulation Key 10 

Adams, Prof .—Standard of White Light 20 

Everett, Prof. — Underground Temperature 10 

Joule, Dr. — Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

Thomson, Sir W.— Elasticity of Wires 50 

Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors 30 

Darwin, Mr. G. H. — Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Sylvester, Prof. — Fundamental Invariants 50 

Perry, Mr. J.— Laws of Water Friction 20 O 

Ayrton, Mr. W. E. — Specific Inductive Capacity of Sprengel 

Vacuum 20 

Haughton, Rev. Prof.— Completion of Tables of Sun-heat 

Coefficients 50 

Forbes, Prof. G— Instrument for Detection of Fire-damp in 

Mines 10 ° ° 

Thomson, Mr. J. M. — Inductive Capacity of Crystals and 

Paraffines 25 ° °' 



B. — Chemistry. 

Dewar, Prof . — Spectrum Analysis 10 

Wallace, Dr. — Development of Light from Coal-gas 10 

C. — Geology. 

Duncan, Prof. P. M— Report on Carboniferous Polyzoa 10 

Adam, Prof. A. L.— Caves of South Ireland 10 

Seeley, Prof. — Viviparous Nature of Ichthyosaurus 10 

Evans, Mr. John. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 50 

Evans, Mr. John. — Geological Record 100 

Williamson, Prof. W. C— Miocene Flora of the Basalt of 

North Ireland 15 

Hull, Prof .—Underground Waters of Permian Formations 5 







Carried forward 595 



lxxvi REPORT — 1879. 

D. — Biology. 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 595 

Pye-Smith, Dr. — Elimination of Nitrogen by Bodily Exercise. 50 

Fox, Major- General Lane. — Anthropological Notes 20 

Stainton, Mr. — Record of Zoological Literature 100 

Foster, Dr. M. — Table at Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Gamgee, Dr. A. — Investigation of the Geology and Zoology of 

Mexico 50 

Lubbock, Sir J. — Excavations at Portstewart 15 

F. — Statistics and Economic Science. 

Farr, Dr. — Anthropometry... 50 

G. — Mechanics. 

Bramwell, Mr. — Patent Laws 5 

^960 



The Annual Meeting in 1880. 
The Meeting at Swansea will commence on Wednesday, August 25, 1880. 

Place of Meeting im, 1881. 
Tbe Annual Meeting of the Association in 1881 will be held at York. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxvii 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of ) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of)... 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 60 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille \\ 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 60 

Atmospheric Air \q 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles us 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 



s. d. 

2 O 

18 6 

11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 






7 8 

2 9 

_0_0 

11 0. 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 

Subterranean Temperature ... 

Heart Experiments 

Lungs Experiments ..'. 

Tide Discussions 

Land and Sea Level 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 

Stars (Lacaille) 

Stars (Catalogue) 

Atmospheric Air 

Water on Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Meteorological Observations . 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 

Working Population 

School Statistics 

Forms of Vessels 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 

Magnetical Observations 



100 

13 13 6 

18 19 

8 13 

50 

6 11 1 
242 10 0' 

4 15 

264 

15 15 O 

10 

7 
52 17 6 

112 1 6 

100 

50 

184 7 

40 

80 

185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subtend 

neanTemperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 



30 O 



8 











7 
























Ixxviii 



REPORT — 1879. 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments... 113 11 2 

Anoplura BritanniEe 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 



Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 

Inverness 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 

Whewell's Meteorological 
Anemometer at Plymouth . 
Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 

Magnetic Co-operation 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 

Action of Gases on Light 

Establishment at Kew Obser- 
vatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries . . . 
Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 

Oxidation of the Rails of Rail- 
ways 

Publication of Report on Fos- 
sil Reptiles 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 
Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 

Marine Zoology 

Marine Zoology 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 

Vital Statistics 

Additional Experiments 

the Forms of Vessels . 

Additional Experiments 

the Forms of Vessels 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 

Experiments on the Strength 
of Materials 



£ t. d. 

25 

120 

77 12 8 

55 
10 

20 

30 

39 6 

56 12 2 
10 8 10 

50 

18 16 1 

133 4 7 

81 8 

20 

40 

147 18 3 

30 

10 

4 4 6 

5 3 8 
10 
10 

2 14 11 

100 

20 

36 5 8 

70 

100 

100 

69 14 10 

60 

"£1565 10 2 



on 



on 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxix 



£ s. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

•Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

Bast Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

.ffigean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

•Inquiries into Asphyxia ...„. 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publications of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
atlnverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ t. d. 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£831 9 9 



15 






































7 


















14 8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1 829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1 844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























!> 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



lxxx 



BEPORT 1879. 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants •■ 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations ... ... 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 16 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

' £345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



£ t. d. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 0" 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 0- 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 O 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 33015 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 0' 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 
Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 















8 


5 


7 


11 




















16 


4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0J 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 0' 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 0' 

Propagation of Salmon 10 0' 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 O 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 0> 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 a 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxi 






£ s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 0- 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida ! 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats „ 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 50 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land ._ 10 

£618 18~2 

1859. ~ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of Soiith and 

West of Ireland 10 

Pliot ographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

_ £68~4 TT 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam- vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 
Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 

1870. 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766HT~6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 






O 




































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 









6 





















































9 


6 


11 






























lxxxii 



REPORT — 1879 



£ 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 



ii; 



d. 

o 
o 





_0 

6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and Distri- 
bution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608_ 3 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



10 


















_o 

id 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

1eT289~i5 8 

1865. ~~^ ~*^ i 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida.... 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterns 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

" " ^T5"91~7"10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxiii 



£ s. 

Kigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund J:1 _100 

^T750~13" 
1867. «=== 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Kainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c, Leaf- Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds. 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-B.eds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 
1869. ■== 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf- Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcon Quarries Fossils ... 20 



s. d. 














1) 
































































































































































(I 









































































































e2 



lxxsiv 



REPORT — 1879. 



£ s. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat - 50 

£1572 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
. ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations . . . 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf- Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 











































2 


6 

























































2 6 






















































































































... 25 












£1285 









£ 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 
Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Light ning Conduct ors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures -^ 7_ 

£1151 

1875. 

Eliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



s. d. 

















































































































































10 





























5 











6 


u 



15 



16 






(1 


<l 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxv 



£ 8. 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate or Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam Vessels .... 

1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 11 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern- 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipt erocarpaj, Report on 20 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 q 



d. 












5 












£1092 


4 


2 



£ s. d. 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 
and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 O 

Settle Cave Explanation 100 

Underground Waters in New- 
Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 
acetate .* 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 
Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 
Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 

Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 1 5 

£1128 9 7 

1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo , 50 

Kent's Cavern Kxploration ... 100 



lxxxvi 



EEPOKT — 1879. 



£ S. d. 

Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra .. . 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting- 
Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the. 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 20, at 8 p.m., in the Albert Hall, William 
Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres. R.S., President, resigned 
the office of President to Professor G. J. Allman, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 
L. & E., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see 
page 1. 

On Thursday, August 21, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Cutlers' 
Hall. 

On Friday, August 22, at 8.30 p.m., in the Albert Hall, W. Crookes, 
Esq., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Radiant Matter.' 

On Monday, August 25, at 8.30 p.m., in the Albert Hall, Professor 
E. Ray Lankester, E.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Degeneration.' 

On Tuesday, August 26, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Cutlers' 
Hall. 

On Wednesday, August 27, at 2.30 P.M., the concluding General Meet- 
ing took place in the Albert Hall, when the Proceedings of the General 
Committee, and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were ex- 
plained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Swansea. 1 



The Meeting is appointed to commence on Wednesday, August 25, 1880. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



ADDBESS 



BY 



PEOFESSOE G. J. ALLMAN, 

M.D., LL.D., F.R.SS. L. and B., M.R.I.A., Pres. L.S., 
PRESIDENT. 



It is no easy thing to find material suited to an occasion like the present. 
For on the one hand there is risk that a presidential address may be too 
special for an audience necessarily large and general, while on the other 
hand it may treat too much of generalities to take hold of the sympathies 
and command the attention of the hearers. 

It may be supposed that my subject should have been suggested by 
the great manufacturing industries of the town which has brought us to- 
gether ; but I felt convinced that a worker in only the biological sciences 
could not do justice to the workers in so very different a field. 

I am not therefore going to discourse to you of any of those great 
industries which make civilised society what it is, — of those practical 
applications of scientific truth which within the last half-century have 
become developed with such marvellous rapidity, and which have already 
become interwoven with our everyday life, as the warp of the weaver is 
interwoven with the woof. Such subjects must be left to other occupiers 
of this chair, from whom they may receive that justice which I could not 
pretend to give them ; and I believe I shall act most wisely by keeping to 
a field with which my own studies have been more directly connected. 

I know that there are many here present from whom I have no right 
to expect that previous knowledge which would justify me in dispensing 
with such an amount of elementary treatment as can alone bring my 
subject intelligibly before them, and my fellow-members of the British 
Association who have the advantage of being no novices in that depart- 
ment of biology with which I propose to occupy you, will pardon me if I 
address myself mainly to those for whom the field of research on which 
we are about to enter has now been opened for the first time. 

I have chosen, then, as the matter of my address to you to-night, a 
subject in whose study there has during the last few years prevailed an 
unwonted amount of activity, resulting in the discovery of many remark- 
1879. b 



2 BEPOET — 1879. 

able facts, and the justification of many significant generalisations. I 
propose, in short, to give you in as untechnical a form as possible some 
account of the most generalised expression of living matter, and of the 
results of the more recent researches into its nature and phenomena. 

More than forty years have now passed away since the French natu- 
ralist Dujardin drew attention to the fact that the bodies of some of the 
lowest members of the animal kingdom consist of a structureless, semi- 
fluid, contractile substance, to which he gave the name of Sarcode. A 
similar substance occurring in the cells of plants was afterwards studied 
by Hugo von Mohl, and named by him Protoplasm. It remained for 
Max Schultze to demonstrate that the sarcode of animals and the proto- 
plasm of plants were identical. 

The conclusions of Max Schultze have been in all respects confirmed 
by subsequent research, and it has further been rendered certain that this 
same protoplasm lies at the base of all the phenomena of life, whether in 
the animal or the vegetable kingdom. Thus has arisen the most important 
and significant generalisation in the whole domain of biological science. 

Within the last few years protoplasm has again been made a subject 
of special study, unexpected and often startling facts have been brought 
to light, and a voluminous literature has gathered round this new centre 
of research. I believe, therefore, that I cannot do better than call your 
attention to some of the more important results of these inquiries, and 
endeavour to give you some knowledge of the properties of protoplasm, 
and of the part it plays in the two great kingdoms of organic nature. 

As has just been said, protoplasm lies at the base of every vital pheno- 
menon. It is, as Huxley has well expressed it, ' the physical basis of life.' 
Wherever there is life, from its lowest to its highest manifestations, there 
is protoplasm ; wherever there is protoplasm, there too is life. Thus co- 
extensive with the whole of organic nature — every vital act being referable 
to some mode or property of protoplasm — it becomes to the biologist what 
the ether is to the physicist ; only that instead of being a hypothetical 
conception, accepted as a reality from its adequacy in the explanation of 
phenomena, it is a tangible and visible reality, which the chemist may 
analyse in his laboratory, the biologist scrutinise beneath his microscope 
and his dissecting needle. 

The chemical composition of protoplasm is very complex, and has not 
been exactly determined. It may, however, be stated that protoplasm is 
essentially a combination of albuminoid bodies, and that its principal 
elements are, therefore, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. In its 
typical state it presents the condition of a semi-fluid substance — a tena- 
cious, glairy liquid, with a consistence somewhat like that of the white- 
of an unboiled egg. 1 While we watch it beneath the microscope move- 

1 In speaking of protoplasm as a liquid, it must be borne in mind that this 
expression refers only to its physical consistence — a condition depending mainly 
on the amount of water with which it is combined, and subject to considerable 



ADDRESS. 3 

ments are set up in it ; waves traverse its surface, or it may be seen to 
flow away in streams, either broad and attaining but a slight distance 
from the main mass, or else stretching away far from their source, as 
narrow liquid threads, which may continue simple, or may divide into 
branches, each following its own independent course ; or the streams may 
flow one into the other, as streamlets would flow into rivulets and rivulets 
into rivers, and this not only where gravity would carry them, but in a 
direction diametrically opposed to gravitation ; now we see it spreading 
itself out on all sides into a thin liquid stratum, and again drawing itself 
together within the narrow limits which had at first confined it, and 
all this without any obvious impulse from without which would send the 
ripples over its surface or set the streams flowing from its margin. 
Though it is certain that all these phenomena are in response to some 
stimulus exerted on it by the outer world, they are such as we never 
meet with in a simply physical fluid — they are spontaneous movements 
resulting from its proper irritability, from its essential constitution as 
living matter. 

Examine it closer, bring to bear on it the highest powers of your 
microscope — you will probably find disseminated through it countless 
multitudes of exceedingly minute granules ; but you may also find it 
absolutely homogeneous, and, whether containing granules or not, it is 
certain that you will find nothing to which the term organisation can be 
applied. You have before you a glairy, tenacious fluid, which, if not abso- 
lutely homogeneous, is yet totally destitute of structure. 

And yet no one who contemplates this spontaneously moving matter 
can deny that it is alive. Liquid as it is, it is a living liquid ; organless 
and structureless as it is, it manifests the essential phenomena of life. 

The picture which I have thus endeavoured to trace for you in a few 
leading outlines is that of protoplasm in its most generalised aspect. 
Such generalisations, however, are in themselves unable to satisfy the 
conditions demanded by an exact scientific inquiry, and I propose now, 
before passing to the further consideration of the place and purport of 
protoplasm in nature, to bring before you some definite examples of proto- 
plasm, such as are actually met with in the organic world. 

A quantity of a peculiar slimy matter was dredged in the North 
Atlantic by the naturalists of the exploring ship ' Porcupine ' from a depth 
of from 5,000 to 25,000 feet. It is described as exhibiting, when examined 
on the spot, spontaneous movements, and as being obviously endowed 
with life. Specimens of this, preserved in spirits, were examined by Prof. 
Huxley, and declared by him to consist of protoplasm, vast masses of 
which must thus in a living state extend over wide areas of sea bottom. 
To this wonderful slime Huxley gave the name of Bathybius Haeckelii. 

variation, from the solid form in which we find it in the dormant embryo of seeds, to 
the thin watery state in which it occurs in the leaves of Valisneria. Its distin- 
guishing properties are totally different from those of a purely physical liquid, and 
are subject to an entirely different set of laws. 

b2 



4 BEPORT — 1879. 

Bathybius has since been subjected to an exhaustive examination by 
Prof. Haeckel, who believes that he is able to confirm in all points the 
conclusions of Huxley, and arrives at the conviction that the bottom of the 
open ocean, at depths below 5,000 feet, is covered with an enormous mass 
of living protoplasm, which lingers there in the simplest and most primi- 
tive condition, having as yet acquired no definite form. He suggests that 
it may have originated by spontaneous generation, but leaves this question 
for future investigators to decide. 

The reality of Bathybius, however, has not been universally accepted. 
In the more recent investigations of the ' Challenger ' the explorers have 
failed in their attempts to bring further evidence of the existence of 
masses of amorphous protoplasm spreading over the bed of the ocean. 
They have met with no trace of Bathybius in any of the regions explored 
by them, and they believe that they are justified in the conclusion that 
the matter found in the dredgings of the ' Porcupine ' and preserved in 
spirits for further examination was only an inorganic precipitate due to 
the action of the alcohol. 

It is not easy to believe, however, that the very elaborate investigations 
of Huxley and Haeckel can be thus disposed of. These, moreover, have 
received strong confirmation from the still more recent observations of 
the Arctic voyager, Bessels, who was one of the explorers of the ill-fated 
' Polaris,' and who states that he dredged from the Greenland seas 
masses of living undifferentiated protoplasm. Bessels assigns to these 
the name of Protobathybius, but they are apparently indistinguishable 
from the Bathybius of the ' Porcupine.' Further arguments against the 
reality of Bathybius will therefore be needed before a doctrine founded 
on observations so carefully conducted shall be relegated to the region 
of confuted hypotheses. 

Assuming, then, that Bathybius, however much its supposed wide 
distribution may have been limited by more recent researches, has a real 
existence, it presents us with a condition of living matter the most 
rudimental it is possible to conceive. No law of morphology has as yet 
exerted itself in this formless slime. Even the simplest individualisation 
is absent. We have a living mass, but we know not where to draw its 
boundary lines ; it is living matter, but we can scarcely call it a living 
being. 

"We are not, however, confined to Bathybius for examples of proto- 
plasm in a condition of extreme simplicity. Haeckel has found, inhabiting 
the fresh waters in the neighbourhood of Jena, minute lumps of proto- 
plasm, which when placed under the microscope were seen to have no 
constant shape, their outline being in a state of perpetual change, caused 
by the protrusion from various parts of their surface of broad lobes and 
thick finger-like projections, which, after remaining visible for a time, 
would be withdrawn, to make their appearance again on some other part 
of the surface. 

These changeable protrusions of its substance, without fixed position 



ADDRESS. 5 

or definite form, are eminently characteristic of protoplasm in some of 
its simplest conditions. They have been termed ' Pseudopodia,' and will 
frequently come before you in what I have yet to say. 

To the little protoplasmic lumps thus constituted, Haeckel has given 
the name of Protamoeba primitiva. They may be compared to minute 
detached pieces of Bathybius. He has seen them multiplying themselves 
by spontaneous division into two pieces, which, on becoming independent, 
increase in size and acquire all the characters of the parent. 

Several other beings as simple as Protamoeba have been described by 
various observers, and especially by Haeckel, who brings the whole 
together into a group to which he gives the name of Monera, suggested by 
the extreme simplicity of the beings included in it. 

But we must now pass to a stage a little higher in the development 
of protoplasmic beings. Widely distributed in the fresh and salt waters of 
Britain, and probably of almost all parts of the world, are small particles 
of protoplasm closely resembling the Protamoeba just described. Like it, 
they have no definite shape, and are perpetually changing their form, throw- 
ing out and drawing in thick lobes and finger-like pseudopodia, in which 
their body seems to flow away over the field of the microscope. They 
are no longer, however, the homogeneous particle of protoplasm which 
forms the body of Protamoeba. Towards the centre a small globular mass 
of firmer protoplasm has become differentiated off from the remainder, and 
forms what is known as a nucleus, while the protoplasm forming the extreme 
outer boundary differs slightly from the rest, being more transparent, 
destitute of granules, and apparently somewhat firmer than the interior. 
We may also notice that at one spot a clear spherical space has made its 
appearance, but that while we watch it has suddenly contracted and 
vanished, and after a few seconds has begun to dilate so as again to come 
into view, once more to disappear, then again to return, and all this in 
regular rhythmical sequence. This little rhythmically pulsating cavity is 
called the ' contractile vacuole.' It is of very frequent occurrence among 
those beings which lie low down in the scale of life. 

We have now before us a being which has arrested the attention of 
naturalists almost from the commencement of microscopical observation. 
It is the famous Amoeba, for which ponds and pools and gutters on the 
house-roof have for the last 200 years been ransacked by the micro- 
scopist, who has many a time stood in amazement at the undefinable form 
and Protean changes of this particle of living matter. It is only the 
science of our own days, however, which has revealed its biological im- 
portance, and shown that in this little soft nucleated particle we have 
a body whose significance for the morphology and physiology of living 
beings cannot be overestimated, for in Amoeba we have the essential 
characters of a cell, the morphological unit of organisation, the physio- 
logical source of specialised function. 

The term ' cell ' has been so long in use that it cannot now be displaced 
from our terminology ; and yet it tends to convey an incorrect notion, 



6 REPORT — 1879. 

suggesting, as it does, the idea of a hollow body or vesicle, this having 
been the form under which it was first studied. The cell, however, is 
essentially a definite mass of protoplasm having a nucleus imbedded in it. 
It may, or may not, assume the form of a vesicle ; it may, or may not, 
be protected by an enveloping membrane ; it may, or may not, contain 
a contractile vacuole ; and the nucleus may, or may not, contain within 
it one or more minute secondary nuclei or 'nucleoli.' 

Haeckel has done good service to biology in insisting on the necessity 
of distinguishing such non-nucleated forms as are presented by Protamoeba 
and the other Monera from the nucleated forms as seen in Amoeba. To 
the latter he would restrict the word cell, while he would assign that 
of ' cytode ' to the former. 2 

2 In every typical cell three parts may be distinguished. There is first the more 
or less liquid granular protoplasm ; secondly the nucleus ; and thirdly an external 
more firm zone of protoplasm, known as the ' cortical layer ' — the Hautschicht of the 
German histologists. All these parts may be regarded as portions differentiated 
out of the original simple protoplasm. Cells do not, however, always remain on a 
stage of such simplicity as that presented by Ainceba. The nucleus is always at its 
origin quite homogeneous, but as it increases in size it usually manifests a differen- 
tiation resulting in a constitution which recent research has shown to be more 
complex than had been previously supposed ; for we often find it to present 
an external firmer layer, or nuclear membrane, including within it the softer nuclear 
protoplasm, in which again a network of filaments has been in many instances 
described. 

The structure of the nucleus has been quite recently studied by Flemming ( Arch, 
f. Mikr. Anat. Band xvi. Heft 2. 1878), who has given particular attention to this 
intranuclear network. He maintains that in its completed state the nucleus consists 
of a parietal firm layer, which encloses, besides specially differentiated nucleoli, a 
framework (Geriist) of filaments with a more fluid intervening substance. He 
further insists on the fact that, with the differentiation of a nucleus, there is intro- 
duced a chemical difference between its substance and that of the surrounding 
cell-substance, as shown not only by a different behaviour of the nucleus towards 
re-agents, but by an actually determined difference of chemical composition. 

Klein (Quarterly Joiirn. Mier. Sei. vol. xviii. p. 316) has shown that in the cells 
of the stomach of Triton cristatus there is a delicate intranuclear network of fila- 
ments in all respects resembling that described by Flemming ; and he further 
maintains that the network of the nucleus is here continuous, through minute 
apertures near the poles of the nuclear membrane, with a similar network in the 
surrounding cell-substance. In this cell-substance he distinguishes two parts— the 
homogeneous ground -substance and the intracellular network of filaments. 

Flemming, however, will not admit this connection between intra-nuclear and 
intra-cellular filaments, and Schleicher, as the result of his very recent researches on 
the division of cartilage-cells (Die Enwjielzelltheihmg, Arch, f . Mikr. Anat. Band 
xvi. Heft 2, 1878), concludes that in these there is no true intra-cellular network, 
the nucleus being here composed of a multitude of separate rodlets, filaments, and 
granules surrounded by the nuclear membrane. 

The minute granules which are generally seen in the soft protoplasm of the cell 
do not seem to be essential constituents. They are probably nutritive matter intro- 
duced from without, and in process of assimilation and conversion into proper 
protoplasm. Hanstein has distinguished by the term Metaplasm these granules 
from the proper homogeneous protoplasm in which they are suspended. The 
external cortical layer is quite destitute of them : on this devolves the property of 
protecting the contents from the unfavourable action of outer influences, and to it 
alone in plants is allocated the property of secreting the cellulose boundary wall. 

Several recent observers, but more especially Strasburger (Studien iiber das 
Protoplasnia Jenaisehe Zeitschr. 1876), have described in the cortical layer of 
various cells a radial striation, as if formed by excessively delicate rodlets (Stab- 
chen), placed vertically to the surface and in close proximity to one another. He 



ADDRESS. 7 

Let us observe our Amoeba a little closer. Lite all living beings, it 
must be nourished. It cannot grow as a crystal would grow by accumu- 
lating on its surface molecule after molecule of matter. It must feed. It 
must take into its substance the necessary nutriment ; it must assimilate 
this nutriment, and convert it into the material of which it is itself 
composed. 

If we seek, however, for a mouth by which the nutriment can 
enter into its body, or a stomach by which this nutriment can be digested, 
we seek in vain. Yet watch it for a moment as it lies in a drop of water 
beneath our microscope. Some living denizen of the same drop is in its 
neighbourhood, and its presence exerts on the protoplasm of the Amoeba 
a special stimulus which gives rise to the movements necessary for the 
prehension of nutriment. A stream of protoplasm instantly runs away 
from the body of the Amoeba towards the destined prey, envelopes it in 
its current, and then flows back with it to the central protoplasm, where 
it sinks deeper and deeper into the soft yielding mass, and becomes 
dissolved, digested, and assimilated in order that it may increase the size 
and restore the energy of its captor. 

But again, like all living things, Amoeba must multiply itself, and so 
after attaining a certain size its nucleus divides into two halves, and then 
the surrounding protoplasm becomes similarly cleft, each half retaining 
one half of the original nucleus. The two new nucleated masses which 
thus arise now lead an independent life, assimilate nutriment, and attain 
the size and characters of the parent. 

"We have just seen that in the body of an Amoeba we have the type of 
a cell. Now both the fresh waters and the sea contain many living beings 
besides Amoeba which never pass beyond the condition of a simple cell. 
Many of these, instead of emitting the broad lobe-like pseudopodia of 
Amoeba, have the faculty of sending out long thin threads of protoplasm, 
which they can again retract, and by the aid of which they capture their 
prey or move from place to place. Simple structureless protoplasm as 
they are, many of them fashion for themselves an outer membranous or 
calcareous case, often of symmetrical form and elaborate ornamentation, 
or construct a silicious skeleton of radiating spicula, or crystal clear 
concentric spheres of exquisite symmetry and beauty. 

Some move about by the aid of a flagellum, or long whip-like pro- 
jection of their bodies, by which they lash the surrounding waters, and 
which, unlike the pseudopodia of Amoeba, cannot, during active life, be 
withdrawn into the general protoplasm of the body ; while among many 

has seen a relation between these and the cilia on the swarm spores of Vaucheria, 
where each cilium seems to be supported by a rodlet. That this condition of the 
cortical layer, however, is not a general feature of cell protoplasm, is certain ; it 
is but a special case of structural differentiation. Indeed, the complex structure 
which has been detected in the nucleus and in the surrounding cell-protoplasm 
■can scarcely be otherwise regarded than as an expression of an early differentiation 
in the structure of the cell, and not, as has been maintained, an ultimate or 
' plastidular ' condition of protoplasm. 



8 REPORT — 1879. 

others locomotion is effected by means of cilia — microscopic vibratible* 
hairs, which are distributed in various ways over the surface, and which,, 
like the pseudopodia and flagella, are simple prolongations of their pro- 
toplasm. 

In every one of these cases the entire body has the morphological 
value of a cell, and in this simple cell reside the whole of the properties 
which manifest themselves in the vital phenomena of the organism. 

The part fulfilled by these simple unicellular beings in the economy 
of nature has at all times been very great, and many geological forma- 
tions, largely built up of their calcareous or silicious skeletons, bear 
testimony to the multitudes in which they must have swarmed in the 
waters of the ancient earth. 

Those which have thus come down to us from ancient times owe their 
preservation to the presence of the hard persistent structures secreted by 
their protoplasm, and must, after all, have formed but a very small propor- 
tion of the unicellular organisms which peopled the ancient world, and 
there fulfilled the duties allotted to them in nature, but whose soft, perish- 
able bodies have left no trace behind. 

In our own days similar unicellular organisms are at work, taking 
their part silently and unobtrusively in the great scheme of creation, and 
mostly destined, like their predecessors, to leave behind them no record 
of their existence. The Red Snow Plant, to which is mainly due the 
beautiful phenomenon by which tracts of Arctic and Alpine snow become 
tinged of a delicate crimson, is a microscopic organism whose whole body 
consists of a simple spherical cell. In the protoplasm of this little cell 
must reside all the essential attributes of life ; it must grow by the 
reception of nutriment ; it must repeat by multiplication that form 
which it has itself inherited from its parent ; it must be able to respond 
to the stimulus of the physical conditions by which it is surrounded. 
And there it is, with its structure almost on the bounds of extremest 
simplification, taking its allotted part in the economy of nature, com- 
bining into living matter the lifeless elements which lie around it,, 
redeeming from sterility the regions of never- thawing ice, and peopling 
with its countless millions the wastes of the snow land. 3 

But organisation does not long rest on this low stage of unicellular 
simplicity, for as we pass from these lowest forms into higher, we find 
cell added to cell, until many millions of such units become associated 
in a single organism, where each cell, or each group of cells, has its 
own special work, while all combine for the welfare and unity of the 
whole. 

In the most complex animals, however, even in man himself, the com- 
ponent cells, notwithstanding their frequent modification and the usual 

3 The Red Snow Plant (Protocoecus nivalis) acts on the atmosphere through 
the agency of chlorophyll, like the ordinary green plants. As in these, chlorophyll 
is developed in it, and is only withdrawn from view by the predominant red pig- 
ment to which the Protocoecus owes one of its most striking characteristics. 



ADDRESS. 9 

intimacy of their union, are far from losing their individuality. Examine- 
under the microscope a drop of blood freshly taken from the human 
subject, or from any of the higher animals. It is seen to be composed of 
a multitude of red corpuscles, swimming in a nearly colourless liquid, and 
along with these, but in much smaller numbers, somewhat larger colour- 
less corpuscles. The red corpuscles are modified cells, while the colour- 
less corpuscles are cells still retaining their typical form and properties. 
These last are little masses of protoplasm, each enveloping a central 
nucleus. Watch them. They will be seen to change their shape ; they 
will project and withdraw pseudopodia, and creep about like an Amoeba. 
But, more than this, like an Amoeba, they will take in solid matter as 
nutriment. They may be fed with coloured food, which will then be 
seen to have accumulated in the interior of their soft transparent proto- 
plasm ; and in some cases the colourless blood-corpuscles have actually 
been seen to devour their more diminutive companions, the red ones. 

Again, there are certain cells filled with peculiar coloured matters, and 
called pigment-cells, which are especially abundant, as constituents of 
the skin in fishes, frogs, and other low vertebrate, as well as many inver- 
tebrate animals. Under certain stimuli, such as that of light, or of 
emotion, these pigment cells change their form, protrude or retract 
pseudopodial prolongations of their protoplasm, and assume the form of 
stars or of irregularly lobed figures, or again draw themselves together 
into little globular masses. To this change of form in the pigment-cell 
the rapid change of colour so frequently noticed in the animals provided 
with them is to be attributed. 

The animal egg, which in its young state forms an element in the 
structure of the parent organism, possesses in the relations now under 
consideration a peculiar interest. The egg is a true cell, consisting essen- 
tially of a lump of protoplasm enclosing a nucleus, and having a nucleolus 
included in the interior of the nucleus. While still very young it has no 
constant form, and is perpetually changing its shape. Indeed, it is often 
impossible to distinguish it from an Amoeba ; and it may, like an Amoeba, 
wander from place to place by the aid of its pseudopodial projections. 
I have shown elsewhere 4 that the primitive egg of the remarkable hy- 
droid Myriothela manifests amoeboid motions ; while Haeckel has shown 5 
that in the sponges certain amoeba-like organisms, which are seen 
wandering about in the various canals and cavities of their bodies, and 
had been until lately regarded as parasites which had gained access from 
without, are really the eggs of the sponge ; and a similar amoeboid con- 
dition is presented by the very young eggs of even the highest animals. 

Again, Reichenbach has proved 6 that during the development of the 

* On the Structure and Development of Myriothela. Phil. Trans, vol. 165, 1875, 
p. 552. 

s Jenaische Zeitschr. 1871. 

6 Die Embryonanloge und erste Entwickelung des Flusskrebse. Zeitschr./. wistent. 
Zoologie, 1877. 



10 REPORT— 1879. 

crayfish the cells of the embryo throw out pseudopodia by which, exactly 
as in an Amceba, the yolk- spheres which serve as nutriment for the 
embryo are surrounded and engulphed in the protoplasm of the cells. 

I had shown some years ago 7 that in Myriothela pseudopodial pro- 
cesses are being constantly projected from the walls of the alimentary 
canal into its cavity. They appear as direct extensions of a layer of 
clear, soft homogeneous protoplasm which lies over the surface of the 
naked cells lining the cavity, and which I now regard as the ' Haut- 
schicht ' or cortical layer of these cells. I then suggested that the func- 
tion of these pseudopodia lay in seizing, in the manner of an amceba, 
such alimentary matter as may be found in the contents of the canal, 
and applying it to the nutrition of the hydroid. 

What I had thus suggested with regard to Myriothela has been 
since proved in certain planarian worms by Metschnikoff, 8 who has seen 
the cells which line the alimentary canal in these animals act like inde- 
pendent Amoeba?, and engulph in their protoplasm such solid nutriment 
as may be contained in the canal. When the Planaria was fed with 
colouring matter these amoeboid cells became gorged with the coloured 
particles just as would have happened in an amceba when similax*ly fed. 

But it is not alone in such loosely aggregated cells as those of the 
blood, or in the amoeboid cells of the alimentary canal, or in such scat- 
tered constituents of the tissues as the pigment cells, or in cells des- 
tined for an ultimate state of freedom, as the egg, that there exists an 
independence. The whole complex organism is a society of cells, in 
which every individual cell possesses an independence, an autonomy, not 
at once so obvious as in the blood-cells, but not the less real. With 
this autonomy of each element there is at the same time a subordination 
of each to the whole, thus establishing a unity in the entire organism, 
and a concert and harmony between all the phenomena of its life. 

In this society of cells each has its own work to perform, and the life 
of the organism is made up of the lives of its component cells. Here it 
is that we find most distinctly expressed the great law of the physiolo- 
gical division of labour. In the lowest organisms, where the whole being 
consists of a single cell, the performance of all the processes which con- 
stitute its life must devolve on the protoplasm of this one cell ; but as 
we pass to more highly organised beings, the work becomes distributed 
among a multitude of workers. These workers are the cells which now 
make up the complex organism. The distribution of labour, however, is 
not a uniform one, and we are not to suppose that the work performed 
by each cell is but a repetition of that of every other. For the life pro- 
cesses, which are accumulated in the single cell of the unicellular or- 
ganism become in the more complex organism differentiated, some being 
intensified and otherwise modified and allocated to special cells, or to 

' Loc. cit. 

8 Ueber die Verdaxmngsorgane einiger Suss /raster- Tiwbellarien. Zoologisehcr 
Anzeiger, December 1878. 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

special groups of cells, which we call organs, and whose proper duty is 
now to take charge of the special processes which have been assigned to 
them. In all this we have a true division of labour, — a division of 
labour, however, by no means absolute ; for the processes which are 
essential to the life of the cell must still continue common to all the cells 
of the organism. No cell, however great may be the differentiation of 
function in the organism, can dispense with its irritability, the one con- 
stant and essential property of every living cell. There thus devolves on 
each cell or group of cells some special work which contributes to the 
well-being of all, and their combined labours secure the necessary con- 
ditions of life for every cell in the community, and result in those com- 
plex and wonderful phenomena which constitute the life of the higher 
organisms. 

We have hitherto considered the cell only as a mass of active 
nucleated protoplasm, either absolutely naked, or partially enclosed in a 
protective case, which still permits free contact of the protoplasm with 
the surrounding medium. In very many instances, however, the proto- 
plasm becomes confined within resisting walls, which entirely shut it in 
from all direct contact with the medium which surrounds it. With the 
plant this is almost always so after the earliest stages of its life. Here 
the protoplasm of the cells is endowed with the faculty of secreting over 
its surface a firm, resisting membrane, composed of cellulose, a substance 
destitute of nitrogen, thus totally different from the contained protoplasm, 
and incapable of manifesting any of the phenomena of life. 

Within the walls of cellulose the protoplasm is now closely imprisoned, 
but we are not on that account to suppose that it has lost its activity, or 
has abandoned its work as a living being. Though it is now no longer 
in direct contact with the surrounding medium, it is not the less dependent 
on it, and the reaction between the imprisoned protoplasm and the outer 
world is still permitted by the permeability of the surrounding wall of 
cellulose. 

When the protoplasm thus becomes surrounded by a cellulose wall it 
seldom retains the uniform arrangement of its parts which is often found 
in the naked cells. Minute cavities or vacuoles make their appearance in 
it ; these increase in size and run one into the other, and may finally form 
one large cavity in the centre, which becomes filled with a watery fluid, 
known as the Cell Sap. This condition of the cell was the first observed, 
and it was it which suggested the often inapplicable term ' cell.' By the 
formation of this central sap cavity the surrounding protoplasm is pushed 
aside, and pressed against the cellulose wall, over which it now extends 
as a continuous layer. The nucleus either continues near the centre, 
enveloped by a layer of protoplasm, which is connected by radiating 
bands of protoplasm with that of the walls, or it accompanies the dis- 
placed protoplasm, and lies embedded in this on the walls of the cell. 

We have abundant evidence to show that the imprisoned protoplasm 
loses none of its activity. The Gharacce constitute an exceedingly in- 



12 REPORT— 1879. 

teresting group of simple plants, common in the clear water of ponds and 
of slowly running streams. The cells of which they are built up are 
comparatively large, and, like almost all vegetable cells, are each enclosed 
in a wall of cellulose. The cellulose is perfectly transparent, and if the 
microscope, even with a low power, be brought to bear on one of these 
cells, a portion of its protoplasm may be seen in active rotation, flowing 
up one side of the long tubular cell and down the other, and sweeping on 
with it such more solid particles as may become enveloped in its current. 
In another water plant, the Valisneria spiralis, a similar active rotation 
of the protoplasm may be seen in the cells of the leaf, where the con- 
tinuous stream of liquid protoplasm sweeping along the green granules of 
chlorophyll, and even carrying the globular nucleus with it in its current, 
presents one of the most beautiful of the many beautiful phenomena 
which the microscope has revealed to us. 

In many other cells with large sap-cavities, such as those which form 
the stinging hairs of nettles and other kinds of vegetable hairs, the pro- 
toplasmic lining of the wall may send off into the sap-cavity projecting 
ridges and strings, forming an irregular network, along which, under a 
high power of the microscope, a slow streaming of granules may be 
witnessed. The form and position of this protoplasmic network undergo 
constant changes, and the analogy with the changes of form in an Amoeba 
becomes obvious. The external wall of cellulose renders it impossible for 
the confined protoplasm to emit, like a naked Amoeba, pseudopodia from its 
outer side ; but on the inner side there is no obstacle to the extension of 
the protoplasm, and here the cavity of the cell becomes more or less com- 
pletely traversed by protoplasmic projections from the wall. These often 
stretch themselves out in the form of thin filaments, which, meeting with 
a neighbouring one, become fused into it ; they show currents of granules 
streaming along their length, and after a time become withdrawn and 
disappear. The vegetable cell, in short, with its surrounding wall of 
cellulose, is in all essential points a closely imprisoned Rhizopod. 

Further proof that the imprisoned protoplasm has lost by its im- 
prisonment none of its essential irritability, is afforded by the fact that if 
the transparent cell of a Nitella, one of the simple water-plants just 
referred to, be touched under the microscope with the point of a blunt 
needle, its green protoplasm will be seen to recede, under the irritation 
of the needle, from the cellulose wall. If the cellulose wall of the com- 
paratively large cell which forms the entire plant in a Vaucheria, a 
unicellular alga, very common in shallow ditches, be ruptured under the 
microscope, its protoplasm will escape, and may then be often seen to 
throw out pseudopodial projections and exhibit amoeboid movements. 

Even in the higher plants, without adducing such obvious and well- 
known instances as those of the Sensitive Plant and Venus's Flytrap, the 
irritability of the protoplasm may be easily rendered manifest. There- 
are many herbaceous plants in which if the young succulent stem of a 
vigorously growing specimen receive a sharp blow, of such a nature how.* 



ADDRESS. 1 3 

ever as not to bruise its tissues, or in any way wound it, the blow will 
sometimes be immediately followed by a drooping of the stem com- 
mencing at some distance above the point to which the stroke had been 
applied : its strength appears to have here suddenly left it, it is no longer 
-able to bear its own weight, and seems to be dying. The protoplasm, 
however, of its cells, is in this instance not killed, it is only stunned 
by the violence of the blow, and needs time for its restoration. After 
remaining, it may be for some hours, in this drooping and flaccid state, 
the stem begins to raise itself, and soon regains its original vigour. 
This experiment will generally succeed well in plants with a rather large 
terminal spike or raceme when the stroke is applied some little distance 
below the inflorescence shortly before the expansion of the flower. 

In the several instances now adduced the protoplasm is in the mature 
state of the plant entirely included within a wall of cellulose. Some re- 
cent beautiful observations, however, of Mr. Francis Darwin, have shown 
that even in the higher plants truly naked protoplasm may occur. From 
the cells of certain glandular hairs contained within the cup-like recep- 
tacles formed by the united bases of two opposite leaves in the Teazel 
(Dipsacus) he has seen emitted long pseudopodia-like projections of the 
protoplasm. What may be the significance of this very exceptional 
phenomenon is still undetermined. It is probably, as Mr. Darwin sup- 
poses, connected with the absorption of nitrogenous matter. 

That there is no essential difference between the protoplasm of plants 
and that of animals is rendered further evident by other motor phe- 
nomena, which we are in the habit of regarding as the exclusive attribute 
of animals. Many of the more simply organised plants give origin to 
peculiar cells called 'spores,' which separate from the parent, and, like the 
seeds of the higher plants, are destined to repeat its form. In many cases 
these spores are eminently locomotive. They are then termed ' swarm- 
spores,' and their movements are brought about, sometimes by changes 
of shape, when they move about in the manner of an Amoeba, but more 
frequently by minute vibratile cilia, or by more strongly developed 
flagella or whip-like projections of their protoplasm. These cilia and 
flagella are absolutely indistinguishable from similar structures widely 
distributed among animals, and by their vibratory or lashing strokes 
upon the surrounding water the swarm-spores are rapidly carried from 
place to place. In these motions they often present a curious sem- 
blance of volition, for if the swarm-spore meet with an obstacle in its 
course, it will, as if to avoid it, change the direction of its motion, and 
retreat by a reversion of the stroke of its cilia. They are usually 
attracted by light, and congregate at the light side of the vessel which 
contains them, though in some cases light has the opposite effect on them 
and they recede from it. 

Another fact may here be adduced to show the uniform character of 
protoplasm and how very different are its properties from those of lifeless 
matter, namely, the faculty which all living protoplasm possesses of 



14 REPORT 1879. 

resisting the entrance of colouring matter into its substance. As many 
here present are aware, microscopists are in the habit of using in their 
investigations various colouring matters, such as solutions of carmine^ 
These act differently on the different tissues, staining some, for example, 
more deeply than others, and thus enabling the histologist to detect 
certain elements of structure, which would otherwise remain unknown. 
Now if a solution of carmine be brought into contact with living proto- 
plasm, this will remain, so long as it continues alive, unaffected by the 
colouring matter. But if the protoplasm be killed the carmine will at 
once pervade its whole substance, and stain it throughout with a colour 
more intense than even that of the colouring solution itself. 

But no more illustrative example can be offered of the properties of 
protoplasm as living matter, independently of any part it may take in 
organisation, than that presented by the Myxomycetae. 

The Myxomycetaa constitute a group of remarkable organisms, which, 
from their comparatively large size and their consisting, during a great 
part of their lives, of naked protoplasm, have afforded a fine field for 
research, and have become one of the chief sources from which our know- 
ledge of the nature and phenomena of protoplasm has been derived. 

They have generally been associated by botanists with the Fungi, but 
though their affinities with these are perhaps closer than with any other 
plants, they differ from them in so many points, especially in their deve- 
lopment, as to render this association untenable. They are found in 
moist situations, growing on old tan or on moss, or decaying leaves or 
rotten wood, over which they spread in the form of a network of naked 
protoplasmic filaments, of a soft creamy consistence, and usually of a 
yellowish colour. 

Under the microscope, the filaments of the network exhibit active 
spontaneous movements, which, in the larger branches, are visible under 
an ordinary lens, or even by the naked eye. A succession of undulations 
may then be noticed passing along the course of the threads. Under 
higher magnifying powers, a constant movement of granules may be seen 
flowing along the threads, and streaming from branch to branch of this 
wonderful network. Here and there offshoots of the protoplasm are 
projected, and again withdrawn in the manner of the pseudopodia of an 
Amoeba, while the whole organism may be occasionally seen to abandon 
the support over which it had grown, and to creep over neighbouring 
surfaces, thus far resembling in all respects a colossal ramified Amoeba. 
It is also curiously sensitive to light, and may be sometimes found to have 
retreated during the day to the dark side of the leaves, or into the recesses 
of the tan over which it had been growing, and again to creep out on the 
approach of night. 

After a time there arise from the surface of this protoplasmic net oval 
capsules or spore-cases, in which are contained the spores or reproduc- 
tive bodies of the Myxomycetse. When the spore-case has arrived at ma- 
turity, it bursts and allows the spores to escape. These are in the form. 



ADDRESS. 1 5 

of spherical cells, each included in a delicate membranous wall, and 
•when they fall into water the wall becomes ruptured, and the little cell 
creeps out. This consists of a little mass of protoplasm with a round 
central nucleus, enclosing a nucleolus, and with a clear vacuole, which 
exhibits a rhythmically pulsating movement. The little naked spore thus 
set at liberty is soon seen to be drawn out atone point into a long vibratile 
whip-like flagellum, which by its lashing action carries the spore from 
place to place. After a time the flagellum disappears, and the spore may 
now be seen emitting and withdrawing finger-like pseudopodia, by means 
of which it creeps about like an Amoeba, and like an Amoeba devours 
solid particles by engulfing them in its soft protoplasm. 

So far these young amoeba- like Myxomycetas have enjoyed each an 
independent existence. Now, however, a singular and significant pheno- 
menon is presented. Two or more of these Myxamcebse, as they have been 
called, approach one another, come into contact, and finally become com- 
pletely fused together into a single mass of protoplasm, in which the 
components are no longer to be distinguished. To the body thus formed 
by the fusion of the Myxamcebas the name of ' plasmodium ' has been 
given. 

The plasmodium continues, like the simple amcebiform bodies of 
which it is composed, to grow by the ingestion and assimilation of solid 
nutriment, which it envelopes in its substance ; it throws out ramifying 
and inosculating processes, and finally becomes converted into a proto- 
plasmic network, which in its turn gives rise to spore-cases with their 
contained spores and thus completes the cycle of its development. 

Under certain external conditions the Myxomycetas have been observed 
to pass from an active mobile state into a resting state, and this may 
occur both in the amcebiform spores and in the plasmodium. When the 
plasmodium is about to pass into a resting state, it usually withdraws its 
finer branches and expels such solid ingesta as may be included in it. Its 
motions then gradually cease, it breaks up into a multitude of polyhedral 
cells, which, however, remain connected, and the whole body dries into a 
horny brittle mass, known by the name of ' sclerotium.' 

In this condition, without giving the slightest sign of life, the sclero- 
tium may remain for many months. Life, however, is nob destroyed, its 
manifestations are only suspended, and if after an indefinite time the 
apparently dead sclerotium be placed in water, it immediately begins to 
swell up, the membranous covering of its component cells becomes dis- 
solved and disappears, and the cells themselves flow together into an active 
amoeboid plasmodium. 

We have already seen that every cell possesses an autonomy or inde- 
pendent individuality, and from this we should expect that, like all living 
beings, it had the faculty of multiplying itself, and of becoming the parent 
of other cells. This is truly the case, and the process of cell-multiplication 
has of late years been studied, with the result of adding largely to our 
knowledge of the phenomena of life. 



16 REPORT 1879. 

The labours of Sfcrasburger, of Auerbach, of Oscar Hertwig, of Eduard 
van Beneden, Butschli, Fol, and others, here come prominently before us, 
but neither the time at my disposal nor the purport of this address will 
allow me to do more than call your attention to some of the more strik- 
ing results of their investigations. 

By far the most frequent mode of multiplication among cells shows 
itself in a spontaneous division of the protoplasm into two separate por- 
tions which then become independent of one another, so that instead of 
the single parent cell two new ones have made their appearance. In this 
process the nucleus usually takes an important part. Strasburger has 
studied it with great care in certain plant-cells, such as the so-called 
'corpuscula ' or ' secondary embryo-sacs ' of the Coniferse and the cells of 
Spirogyra ; and has further shown a close correspondence between cell- 
division in animals and that in plants. 

It may be generally stated as the results of his observations on the 
corpuscula of the Coniferse, that the nucleus of the cell about to divide 
assumes a spindle shape, and at the same time presents a peculiar striated 
differentiation, as if it were composed of parallel filaments reaching from 
end to end of the spindle. These filaments become thickened in the middle, 
and there form by the approximation of the thickened portions a transverse 
plate of protoplasm (the 'nucleus-plate'). This soon splits into two 
halves which recede from one another towards the poles of the spindle, 
travelling in this course along the filaments, which remain continuous 
from end to end. When arrived near the poles they form there two new 
nuclei, still connected with one another by the intervening portion of the 

spindle. 

In the equator of this intervening portion there is now formed in a 
similar way a second plate of protoplasm (the ' cell-plate '), which, ex- 
tending to the walls of the dividing cell, cuts the whole protoplasm into 
two halves, each half containing one of the newly-formed nuclei. This 
partition plate is at first single, but it soon splits into two laminae, which 
become the apposed bounding surfaces of the two protoplasm masses into 
which the mother cell has been divided. A wall of cellulose is then all at 
once secreted between them, and the two daughter cells are complete. 

It sometimes happens in the generation of cells that a young brood of 
• cells arises from the parent cell by what is called 'free cell- formation.' 
In this only a part of the protoplasm of the mother cell is used up in the 
production of the offspring. It is seen chiefly in the formation of the spores of 
the lower plants, in the first foundation of the embryo in the higher, and in 
the formation of the endosperm— a cellular mass which serves as the first 
nutriment for the embryo — in the seeds of most Phanerogams. The for- 
mation of the endosperm has been carefully studied by Strasburger in the 
embryo-sac of the kidney bean, and may serve as an example of the pro- 
cess of free cell-formation. The embryo-sac is morphologically a large 
cell with its protoplasm, nucleus, and cellulose wall, while the endosperm 
which arises within it is composed of a multitude of minute cells united 



ADDRESS. 17 

into a tissue. The formation of the endosperm is preceded by the disso- 
lution and disappearance of the nucleus of the embryo-sac, and then in the 
midst of the protoplasm of the sac several new nuclei make their appear- 
ance. Around each of these as a centre the protoplasm of the mother 
cell is seen to have become differentiated in the form of a clear spherule, 
and we have thus corresponding to each of the new nuclei a young naked 
cell, which soon secretes over its surface a membrane of cellulose. The 
new cells, when once formed, multiply by division, press one on the other, 
and so combining into a cellular mass, constitute the completed endo- 
sperm. 

Related to the formation of new cells, whether by division or by free 
cell-formation, is another very interesting phenomenon of living proto- 
plasm known as 'rejuvenescence.' In this the whole protoplasm of a 
cell, by a new arrangement of its parts, assumes a new shape and acquires 
new properties. It then abandons its cellulose chamber, and enters on a 
new and independent life in the surrounding medium. 

A good example of this is afforded by the formation of swarm-spores 
in Oedogonium, one of the fresh- water Algae. Here the whole of the 
protoplasm of an adult cell contracts, and by the expulsion of its cell- 
sap changes from a cylindrical to a globular shape. Then one spot be- 
comes clear, and a pencil of vibratile cilia here shows itself. The cellu- 
lose wall which had hitherto confined it now becomes ruptured, and the 
protoplasmic sphere, endowed with new faculties of development and 
with powers of active locomotion, escapes as a swarm spore, which, after 
enjoying for a time the free life of an animal, comes to rest, and de- 
velopes itself into a new plant. 

The beautiful researches which have within the last few years been 
made by the observers already mentioned, on the division of animal cells, 
show how close is the agreement between plants and animals in all the 
leading phenomena of cell-division, and afford one more proof of the 
essential unity of the two great organic kingdoms. 

There is one form of cell which, in its relation to the organic world, 
possesses a significance beyond that of every other, namely, the egg. As 
already stated, the egg is, wherever it occurs, a typical cell, consisting 
essentially of a globule of protoplasm enveloping a nucleus (the ' germinal 
vesicle'), and with one or more nucleoli (the 'germinal spots') in the 
interior of the nucleus. This cell, distinguishable by no tangible cha- 
racters from thousands of other cells, is nevertheless destined to run 
through a definite series of developmental changes, which have as their 
end the building up of an organism like that to which the egg owes its 
origin. 

It is obvious that such complex organisms as thus result — composed, it 
may be, of countless millions of cells — can be derived from the simple 
egg cell only by a process of cell-multiplication. The birth of new cells 
derived from the primary cell or egg thus lies at the basis of embryonic 
development. It is here that the phenomena of cell-multiplication in the 
1879. c 



18 REPORT— 1879. 

animal kingdom can in general be most satisfactorily observed, and the 
greater number of recent researches into the nature of these phenomena 
have found their most fertile field in the early periods of the development 
of the egg. 

A discussion of the still earlier changes which the egg undergoes in 
order to bring it into the condition in which cell-multiplication may be 
possible, would, however full of interest, be here out of place ; and I shall 
therefore confine myself to the first moments of actaal development — to 
what is called ' the cleavage of the egg ' — which is nothing more than a 
multiplication of the egg cell by repeated division. I shall farther confine 
myself to an account of this phenomenon as presented in typical cases, 
leaving out of consideration certain modifications which would only 
complicate and obscure our picture. 

The egg, notwithstanding the preliminary changes to which I have 
alluded, is still, at the commencement of development, a true cell. It 
has its protoplasm and its nucleus, and it is, as a rule, enveloped in a 
delicate membrane. The protoplasm forms what is known as the vitellus, 
or yolk, and the surrounding membrane is called the ' vitellary mem- 
brane.' The division which is now about to take place in it is introduced 
by a change of form in the nucleus. This becomes elongated, and assumes 
the shape of a spindle, similar to what we have already seen in the cell- 
division of plants. On each pole of the spindle transparent protoplasm 
collects, forming here a clear spherical area. 

At this time a very striking and characteristic phenomenon is 
witnessed in the egg. Bach pole of the spindle has become the centre of 
a system of rays which stream out in all directions into the surrounding 
protoplasm. The protoplasm thus shows, enveloped in its mass, two 
sun-like figures, whose centres are connected to one another by the 
spindle-shaped nucleus. To this, with the sun-like rays streaming from 
its poles, Auerbach gives the name of ' Karyolitic figure,' suggested by 
its connection with the breaking up of the original nucleus, to which our 
attention must next be directed. 

A phenomenon similar to one we have already seen in cell-division 
among plants now shows itself. The nucleus becomes broken up into 
a number of filaments, which lie together in a bundle, each filament 
stretching from pole to pole of the spindle. Exactly in its central point 
every filament shows a knot-like enlargement, and from the close approxi- 
mation of the knots there results a thick zone of protoplasm in the 
equator of the spindle. Each knot soon divides into two halves, and 
t.'ach half recedes from the equator and travels along the filament towards 
its extremity. When arrived at the poles of the spindle each set of half- 
knots becomes fused together into a globular body, while the intervening 
portion of the spindle, becoming torn up, and gradually drawn into the 
substance of the two globular masses, finally disappears. And now, 
instead of the single fusiform nucleus whose changes we have been 
tracing, we have two new globular nuclei, each occupying the place of 



ADDRESS. 19 

one of its poles, and formed at its expense. 9 The egg now begins to 
divide along a plane at right angles to a line connecting the two nuclei. 
The division takes place without the formation of a cell-plate such as we 
saw in the division of the plant cell, and is introduced by a constriction 
of its protoplasm, which commences at the circumference just within the 
vitelline membrane, and, extending towards the centre, divides the whole 
mass of protoplasm into two halves, each including within it one of the 
new nuclei. Thus the simple cell which constituted the condition of the 
egg at the commencement of development becomes divided into two 
similar cells. This forms the first stage of cleavage. Bach of these two 
young cells divides in its turn in a direction at right angles to the first 
division-plane, while by continued repetition of the same act the whole 
of the protoplasm or yolk becomes broken up into a vast multitude of 
cells, and the unicellular organism — the egg, with which we began our 
history — has become converted into an organism composed of many 
thousands of cells. This is one of the most widely distributed phenomena 
of the organic world. It is called ' the cleavage of the egg,' and con- 
sists essentially in the production, by division, of successive broods of 
cells from a single ancestral cell — the egg. 

It is no part of my purpose to carry on the phenomena of develop- 
ment further than this. Such of my hearers as may desire to become 
acquainted with the further history of the embryo, I would refer to the 
excellent address delivered two years ago at the Plymouth meeting of 
the Association by one of my predecessors in this chair — Prof. Allen 
Thompson. 

That protoplasm, however, may present a phenomenon the reverse of 
that in which a simple cell becomes multiplied into many, is shown by 
a phenomenon already referred to — the production of plasmodia in the 
Myxomycetse by the fusion into one another of cells originally distinct. 

The genus Myriothela will afford another example in which the for- 
mation of plasmodia becomes introduced into the cycle of development. 

9 Though none of the above-mentioned observers to whom we owe our knowledge 
of the phenomena here described seem to have thought of connecting the fibrous 
condition assumed by the spindle with any special structure of the quiescent nucleus, 
it is highly probable that it consists in a rearrangement of fibres already present. 
That this is really the case is borne out by the observations of Schleicher on the 
division of cartilage cells. (Die KnorpelaelltJieihmg. Arch, fur Mikr. Anat. Band 
xvi. Heft 2. 1878.) From these it would appear that in the division of cartilage 
cells the investing membrane of the nucleus first becomes torn up, and then the 
filaments, rodlets, and granules, which, according to him, form its body, enter into 
a state of intense motor activity, and may be seen arranging themselves into star- 
like, or wreath-like, or irregular figures, while the whole nucleus, now deprived of 
its membrane, may wander about the cell, travelling towards one of its poles, and 
then towards the other ; or it may at one time contract, and then again dilate, to 
such an extent as nearly to fill the entire cell. To this nuclear activity Streicher 
applies the term ' Karyokinesis.' It results in a nearly parallel arrangement of the 
nuclear filaments. Then these converge at their extremities and become more 
widely separated in the middle, so as to give to the nucleus the form of a spindle. 
The filaments then become fused together at each pole of the spindle, so as to form 
the two new nuclei, which are at first nearly homogeneous, but which afterwards 
become broken up into their component filaments, rods, and granules. 

C2 



20 report— 1879. 

The primitive eggs are here, as elsewhere, true cells with nucleo- 
lated nuclei, but without any boundary membrane. They are formed in 
considerable numbers, but remain only for a short time separate and 
distinct. After this they begin to exhibit amoeboid changes of shape, 
project pseudopodial prolongations which coalesce with those of others in 
their vicinity, and finally a multitude of these primitive ova become fused 
together into a common plasmodium, in which, as in the simple egg cell 
of other animals, the phenomena of development take place. 

In many of the lower plants a very similar coalescence is known to 
take place between the protoplasmic bodies of separate cells, and con- 
stitutes the phenomenon of conjugation. Spirogyra is a genus of Algae, 
consisting of long green threads common in ponds. Every thread is 
composed of a series of cylindrical cb ambers of transparent cellulose 
placed end to end, each containing a sac of protoplasm with a large 
quantity of cell-sap, and with a green band of chlorophyll wound spirally 
on its walls. When the threads have attained their full growth they 
approach one another in pairs, and lie in close proximity, parallel one to 
the other. A communication is then established by means of short con- 
necting tubes between the chambers of adjacent filaments, and across 
the channel thus formed the whole of the protoplasm of one of the con- 
jugating chambers passes into the cavity of the other, and then imme- 
diately fuses with the protoplasm it finds there. The single mass thus 
formed shapes itself into a solid oval body, known as a ' zygospore.' 
This now frees itself from the filament, secretes over its naked surface 
a new wall of cellulose, and, when placed in the conditions necessary for 
its development, attaches itself by one end, and then, by repeated acts of 
cell-division, grows into a many-celled filament like those in which it 
originated. 

The formation of plasmodia, regarded as a coalescence and absolute 
fusion into one another of separate naked masses of protoplasm, is a 
phenomenon of great significance. It is highly probable that, notwith- 
standing the complete loss of individuality in the combining elements, 
such difference as may have been present in these will always find itself 
expressed in the properties of the resulting plasmodia — a fact of great 
importance in its bearing on the phenomena of inheritance. Recent 
researches, indeed, render it almost certain that fertilisation, whether in 
the animal or the vegetable kingdom, consists essentially in the coales- 
cence and consequent loss of individuality of the protoplasmic contents 
of two cells. 

In by far the greater number of plants the protoplasm of most of the 
cells which are exposed to the sunlight undergoes a curious and important 
differentiation, part of it becoming separated from the remainder in the 
form usually of green granules, known as chlorophyll granules. The 
chlorophyll granules thus consist of true protoplasm, their colour being 
due to the presence of a green colouring matter, which may be extracted, 
leaving behind the colourless protoplasmic base. 



ADDRESS. 21 

The colouring matter of chlorophyll presents under the spectroscope 
a very characteristic spectrum. For our knowledge of its optical pro- 
perties, on which time will not now permit me to dwell, we are mainly 
indebted to the researches of your townsman, Dr. Sorby, who has made 
these the subject of a series of elaborate investigations, which have con- 
tributed largely to the advancement of an important department of 
physical science. 

That the chlorophyll is a living substance, like the uncoloured proto- 
plasm of the cell, is sufficiently obvious. When once formed, the chloro- 
phyll granule may grow by intussusception of nutriment to many times 
its original size, and may multiply itself by division. 

To the presence of chlorophyll is due one of the most striking aspects 
of external nature — the green colour of the vegetation which clothes the 
surface of the earth ; and with its formation is introduced a function of 
fundamental importance in the economy of plants, for it is on the cells 
which contain this substance that devolves the faculty of decomposing 
carbonic acid. On this depends the assimilation of plants, a process 
which becomes manifest externally by the exhalation of oxygen. Now it 
is under the influence of light on the chlorophyll-containing cells that 
this evolution of oxygen is brought about. The recent observations of 
Draper and of Pfeffer have shown that in this action the solar spectrum is 
not equally effective in all its parts ; that the yellow and least refrangible 
rays are those which act with most intensity ; that the violet and other 
highly refrangible rays of the visible spectrum take but a very subordi- 
nate part in assimilation ; and that the invisible rays which lie beyond the 
violet are totally inoperative. 

In almost every grain of chlorophyll one or more starch granules may 
be seen. This starch is chemically isomeric with the cellulose cell-wall, 
with woody fibre, and other hard parts of plants, and is one of the most 
important products of assimilation. When plants whose chlorophyll 
contains starch are left for a sufficient time in darkness, the starch is 
absorbed and completely disappears ; but when they are restored to the 
light the starch reappears in the chlorophyll of the cells. 

With this dependence of assimilation on the presence of chlorophyll 
a new physiological division of labour is introduced into the life of 
plants. In the higher plants, while the work of assimilation is allocated 
to the chlorophyll- containing cells, that of cell division and growth 
devolves on another set of cells, which, lying deeper in the plant, are 
removed from the direct action of light, and in which chlorophyll is 
therefore never produced. In certain lower plants, in consequence of their 
simplicity of structure and the fact that all the cells are equally exposed 
to the influence of light, this physiological division of labour shows 
itself in a somewhat different fashion. Thus in some of the simple 
green algas, such as Sjnrogyra and Hydrodictyon, assimilation takes place 
as in other cases during the day, while their cell division and growth 
takes place chiefly, if not exclusively, at night. Strasburger, in his re- 



22 REPORT— 1879. 

markable observations on cell divisions in Spirogyra, was obliged to adopt 
an artificial device in order to compel tbe Spirogyra to postpone the 
division of its cells to tbe morning. 

Here tbe functions of assimilation and growtb devolve on one and tbe 
same cell, but wbile one of tbese functions is exercised only during tbe 
day, tbe time for tbe otber is tbe nigbt. It seems impossible for tbe 
same cell at tbe same time to exercise botb functions, and tbese are bere 
accordingly divided between different periods of tbe twenty-four bours. 

Tbe action of chloropbyll in bringing about tbe decomposition of 
carbonic acid is not, as was recently believed, absolutely confined to plants. 
In some of tbe lower animals, sucb as Stentor and otber infusoria, tbe 
Green Hydra, and certain green planarias and otber worms, cbloropbyll is 
differentiated in their protoplasm, and probably always acts bere under 
tbe influence of ligbt exactly as in plants. 

Indeed, it bas been proved 10 by some recent researches of Mr. Geddes, 
tbat the green planarias when placed in water and exposed to the sun- 
light give out bubbles of gas which contain from 44 to 55 per cent, of 
oxygen. Mr. Geddes has further shown tbat these animals contain 
granules of starch in their tissues, and in this fact we have another 
striking point of resemblance between them and plants. 

A similar approximation of the two organic kingdoms has been shown 
by tbe beautiful researches of Mr. Darwin — confirmed and extended by 
bis son, Mr. Francis Darwin — on Drosera and other so-called carnivorous 
plants. These researches, as is now well known, have shown that in all 
carnivorous plants there is a mechanism fitted for the capture of living 
prey, and that the animal matter of the prey is absorbed by the plant 
after having been digested by a secretion which acts like the gastric 
juice of animals. 

Again, Nageli bas recently shown 11 that the cell of tbe yeast fungus 
contains about 2 per cent, of peptine, a substance hitherto known only as 
a product of tbe digestion of azotised matter by animals. 

Indeed, all recent research has been bringing out in a more and more 
decisive manner the fact that there is no dualism in life, — that the life of 
the animal and the life of the plant are, like their protoplasm, in all 
essential points identical. 

But there is, perhaps, nothing which shows more strikingly the 
identity of the protoplasm in plants and animals, and the absence of any 
deep-pervading difference between the life of the animal and that of the 
plant, than the fact that plants may be placed, just like animals, under 
the influence of anesthetics. 

"When tbe vapour of chloroform or of ether is inhaled by the human 
subject, it passes into the lungs, where it is absorbed by the blood, and 

10 ' Sur la fonction de la chlorophyll dans les planaires vertes.' Comities Eendm, 
December 1878. 

11 Ufiber die ehemische Zvsamrnengetzwng der Hefe. Sitzungsbericht der Math. Phys. 
Classe der k.k. Ahad. der Wissens. zu Munchen. 1878. 



ADDRESS. 23 

thence carried by the circulation to all the tissues of the body. The 
first to be affected by it is the delicate nervous element of the brain, and 
loss of consciousness is the result. If the action of the anaesthetic be 
continued, all the other tissues are in their turn attacked by it and their 
irritability arrested. A set of phenomena entirely parallel to these may 
be presented by plants. 

We owe to Claude Bernard a series of interesting and most instructive 
experiments on the action of ether and chloroform on plants. He exposed 
to the vapour of ether a healthy and vigorous sensitive plant, by confining 
it under a bell-glass into which he introduced a sponge filled with ether. 
At the end of half an hour the plant was in a state of anaesthesia, all its 
leaflets remained fully extended, but they showed no tendency to shrink 
when touched. It was then withdrawn from the influence of the ether, 
when it gradually recovered its irritability, and finally responded, as be- 
fore, to the touch. 

It is obvious that the irritability of the protoplasm was here arrested 
by the anaesthetic, so that the plant became unable to give a response to 
the action of an external stimulus. 

It is not, however, the irritability of the protoplasm of only the motor 
elements of plants that anaesthetics are capable of arresting. These may 
act also on the protoplasm of those cells whose function lies in chemical 
synthesis, such as is manifested in the phenomena of the germination of 
the seed and in nutrition generally, and Claude Bernard has shown that 
germination is suspended by the action of ether or chloroform. 

Seeds of cress, a plant whose germination is very rapid, were placed 
in conditions favourable to a speedy germination, and while thus placed 
were exposed to the vapour of ether. The germination, which would 
otherwise have shown itself by the next day, was arrested. For five or 
six days the seeds were kept under the influence of the ether, and showed 
during this time no disposition to germinate. They were not killed, 
however, they only slept, for on the substitution of common air for the 
etherised air with which they had been surrounded, germination at once 
set in and proceeded with activity. 

Experiments were also made on that function of plants by which they 
absorb carbonic acid and exhale oxygen, and which, as we have already 
seen, is carried on through the agency of the green protoplasm or 
chlorophyll, under the influence of light — a function which is commonly, 
but erroneously, called the respiration of plants. 

Aquatic plants afford the most convenient subjects for such experi- 
ments. If one of these be placed in a jar of water holding ether or 
chloroform in solution, and a bell-glass be placed over the submerged 
plant, we shall find that the plant no longer absorbs carbonic acid or 
emits oxygen. It remains, however, quite green and healthy. In order 
to awaken the plant, it is only necessary to place it in non-etherised water, 
when it will begin once more to absorb carbonic acid, and exhale oxygen 
under the influence of sunlight. 



24 report — 1879. 

The same great physiologist has also investigated the action of anaes- 
thetics on fermentation. It is well known that alcoholic fermentation is 
due to the presence of a minute fungus, the yeast fungus, the living 
protoplasm of whose cells has the property of separating solutions of 
sugar into alcohol, which remains in the liquid, and carbonic acid, which 
escapes into the air. 

Now, if the yeast plant be placed along with sugar in etherised water 
it will no longer act as a ferment. It is anaesthesiated, and cannot re- 
spond to the stimulus which, under ordinary circumstances, it would 
find in the presence of the sugar. If, now, it be placed on a filter, and 
the ether washed completely away, it will, on restoration to a saccharine 
liquid, soon resume its duty of separating the sugar into alcohol and 
carbonic acid. 

Claude Bernard has further called attention to a very significant fact 
which is observable in this experiment. While the proper alcoholic 
fermentation is entirely arrested by the etherisation of the yeast plant, 
there still goes on in the saccharine solution a curious chemical change, 
the cane sugar of the solution being converted into grape sugar, a 
substance identical in its chemical composition with the cane sugar, but 
different in its molecular constitution. Now it is well known from the 
researches of Bertholet that this conversion of cane sugar into grape 
sugar is due to a peculiar inversive ferment, which, while it accompanies 
the living yeast plant, is itself soluble and destitute of life. Indeed it 
has been shown that in its natural conditions the yeast fungus is unable 
of itself to assimilate cane sugar, and that in order that this may be 
brought into a state fitted for the nutrition of the fungus, it must be 
first digested and converted into grape sugar, exactly as happens in our 
own digestive organs. To quote Claude Bernard's graphic account : — 

' The fungus ferment has thus beside it in the same yeast a sort of 
servant given by nature to effect this digestion. The servant is the 
unorganised inversive ferment. This ferment is soluble, and as it is not a 
plant, but an unorganised body destitute of sensibility, it has not gone to 
sleep under the action of the ether, and thus continues to fulfil its task.' 

In the experiment already recorded on the germination of seeds the 
interest is by no means confined to that which attaches itself to the arrest 
of the organising functions of the seed, those namely which manifest 
themselves in the development of the radicle and plumule and other organs 
of the young plant. Another phenomenon of great significance becomes 
at the same time apparent — the anaesthetic exerts no action on the concom- 
itant chemical phenomena which in germinating seeds show themselves 
in the transformation of starch into sugar under the influence of diastase 
(a soluble and non-living ferment which also exists in the seed), and the 
absorption of oxygen with the exhalation of carbonic acid. These go on 
as usual, the anaesthesiated seed continuing to respire, as proved by the 
accumulation of carbonic acid in the surrounding air. The presence of 
the carbonic acid was rendered evident by placing in the same vessel 



ADDRESS. 25 

-with the seeds which were the object of the experiment a solution of 
barytes, when the carbonate became precipitated from the solution in 
quantity equal to that produced in a similar experiment with seeds ger- 
minating in unetherised air. 

So, also, in the experiment which proves that the faculty possessed by 
the chlorophyllian cells of absorbing carbonic acid and exhaling oxygen 
under the influence of light may be arrested by anaesthetics, it could be 
seen that the plant, while in a state of anaesthesia, continued to respire in 
the manner of animals : that is, it continued to absorb oxygen and exhale 
carbonic acid. This is the true respiratory function which was previously 
masked by the predominant function of assimilation, which devolves on 
the green cells of plants, and which manifests itself under the influence 
of light in the absorption of carbonic acid and the exhalation of oxygen. 

It must not, however, be supposed that the respiration of plants is 
entirely independent of life. The conditions which bring the oxygen of 
the air and the combustible matter of the respiring plant into such rela- 
tions as may allow them to act on one another are still under its control, 
and we must conclude that in Claude Bernard's experiment the anaes- 
thesia had not been carried so far as to arrest such properties of the 
living tissues as are needed for this. 

The quite recent researches of Schiitzenberger, who has investigated 
the process of respiration as it takes place in the cell of the yeast fungus, 
have shown that vitality is a factor in this process. He has shown that 
fresh yeast, placed in water, breathes like an aquatic animal, disengaging 
carbonic acid, and causing the oxygen contained in the water to dis- 
appear. That this phenomenon is a function of the living cell is proved 
by the fact that, if the yeast be first heated to 60° C. and then placed 
in the oxygenated water, the quantity of oxygen in the water remains 
unchanged ; in other words, the yeast ceases to breathe. 

Schiitzenberger has further shown that light exerts no influence on 
the respiration of the yeast cell — that the absorption of oxygen by the 
cell takes place in the dark exactly as in sunlight. On the other hand, 
the influence of temperature is well marked. Respiration is almost 
entirely arrested at temperatures below 10° C, it reaches its maximum at 
about 40° C, while at 60° C. it again ceases. 

All this proves that the respiration of living beings is identical, 
whether manifested in the plant or in the animal. It is essentially a 
destructive phenomenon — as much so as the burning of a piece of 
charcoal in the open air, and, like it, is characterised by the disappear- 
ance of oxygen and the formation of carbonic acid. 

One of the most valuable results of the recent careful application of 
the experimental method of research to the life phenomena of plants 
is thus the complete demolition of the supposed antagonism between 
respiration in plants and that in animals. 

I have thus endeavoured to give you in a few broad outlines a sketch 



26 report— 1879. 

of the nature and properties of one special modification of matter, which 
will yield to none other in the interest which attaches to its study, and in 
the importance of the part allocated to it in the economy of nature. Did 
the occasion permit I might have entered into many details which I have 
left untouched ; but enough has been said to convince you that in proto- 
plasm we find the only form of matter in which life can manifest itself ; 
and that, though the outer conditions of life — heat, air, water, food — 
may all be present, protoplasm would still be needed, in order that these 
conditions may be utilised, in order that the energy of lifeless nature may 
be converted into that of the countless multitudes of animal and vege- 
table forms which dwell upon the surface of the earth or people the 
great depths of its seas. 

We are thus led to the conception of an essential unity in the two 
great kingdoms of organic Nature — a structural unity, in the fact that 
every living being has protoplasm as the essential matter of every living 
element of its structure ; and a physiological unity, in the universal 
attribute of irritability which has its seat in this same protoplasm, and is 
the prime mover of every phenomenon of life. 

We have seen how little mere form has to do with the essential 
properties of protoplasm. This may shape itself into cells, and the cells 
may combine into organs in ever-increasing complexity, and protoplasm 
force may be thus intensified, and, by the mechanism of organisation, 
turned to the best possible account ; but we must still go back to pro- 
toplasm as a naked formless plasma if we would find — freed from all 
non-essential complications — the agent to which has been assigned the 
duty of building up structure and of transforming the energy of lifeless 
matter into that of living. 

To suppose, however, that all protoplasm is identical where no 
difference cognisable by any means at our disposal can be detected would 
be an error. Of two particles of protoplasm, between which we may 
defy all the power of the microscope, all the resources of the laboratory, 
to detect a difference, one can develope only to a jelly-fish, the other only 
to a man, and one conclusion alone is here possible- — that deep within 
them there must be a fundamental difference which thus determines their 
inevitable destiny, but of which we know nothing, and can assert nothing 
beyond the statement that it must depend on their hidden molecular 
constitution. 

In the molecular condition of protoplasm there is probably as much 
complexity as in the disposition of organs in the most highly differentiated 
organisms ; and between two masses of protoplasm indistinguishable from 
one another there may be as much molecular difference as there is between 
the form and arrangement of organs in the most widely separated animals 
or plants. 

Herein lies the many-sidedness of protoplasm ; herein lies its sig- 
nificance as the basis of all morphological expression, as the agent of 



ADDRESS. 



27 



all physiological work, while in all this there must be an adaptiveness 
to purpose as great as any claimed for the most complicated organism. 

From the facts which have been now brought to your notice there is 
but one legitimate conclusion — that life is a property of protoplasm. In 
this assertion there is nothing that need startle us. The essential pheno- 
mena of living beiugs are not so widely separated from the phenomena of 
lifeless matter as to render it impossible to recognise an analogy between 
them : for even irritability, the one grand character of all living beings, 
is not more difficult to be conceived of as a property of matter than the 
physical phenomena of radial energy. 

It is quite true that between lifeless and living matter there is a vast 
difference, a difference greater far than any which can be found between 
the most diverse manifestations of lifeless matter. Though the refined 
synthesis of modern chemistry may have succeeded in forming a few 
principles which until lately had been deemed the proper product of 
vitality, the fact still remains that no one has ever yet built up one par- 
ticle of living matter out of lifeless elements— that every living creature, 
from the simplest dweller on the confines of organisation up to the 
highest and most complex organism, has its origin in pre-existent living 
matter — that the protoplasm of to-day is but the continuation of the 
protoplasm of other ages, handed down to us through periods of inde- 
finable and indeterminable time. 

Yet with all this, vast as the differences may be, there is nothing 
which precludes a comparison of the properties of living matter with 
those of lifeless. 

When, however, we say that life is a property of protoplasm, we 
assert as much as we are justified in doing. Here we stand upon the 
boundary between life in its proper conception, as a group of phenomena 
having irritability as their common bond, and that other and higher 
group of phenomena which we designate as consciousness or thought, 
and which, however intimately connected with those of life, are yet 
essentially distinct from them. 

"When the heart of a recently killed frog is separated from its body 
and touched with the point of a needle, it begins to beat under the exci- 
tation of the stimulus, and we believe ourselves justified in referring the 
contraction of the cardiac fibres to the irritability of their protoplasm as 
its proper cause. We see in it a remarkable phenomenon, but one never- 
theless in which we can see unmistakable analogies with phenomena 
purely physical. There is no greater difficulty in conceiving of contrac- 
tility as a property of protoplasm than there is in conceiving of attraction 
as a property of the magnet. 

When a thought passes through the mind, it is associated, as we have 
now abundant reason for believing, with some change in the protoplasm 
of the cerebral cells. Are we, therefore, justified in regarding thought 
as a property of the protoplasm of these cells, in the sense in which we 



28 report— 1879. 

regard muscular contraction as a property of the protoplasm of muscle ? 
or is it really a property residing in something far different, but which 
may yet need for its manifestation the activity of cerebral protoplasm ? 

If we could see any analogy between thought and any one of the 
admitted phenomena of matter, we should "be bound to accept the first 
of these conclusions as the simplest, and as affording a hypothesis most 
in accordance with the comprehensiveness of natural laws ; but between 
thought and the physical phenomena of matter there is not only no 
analogy, but there is no conceivable analogy ; and the obvious and con- 
tinuous path which we have hitherto followed up in our reasonings from 
the phenomena of lifeless matter through those of living matter here 
comes suddenly to an end. The chasm between unconscious life and 
thought is deep and impassable, and no transitional phenomena can be 
found by which as by a bridge we may span it over ; for even from 
irritability, to which, on a superficial view, consciousness may seem 
related, it is as absolutely distinct as it is from any of the ordinary 
phenomena of matter. 

It has been argued that because physiological activity must be a pro- 
perty of every living cell, psychical activity must be equally so, and the 
language of the metaphysician has been carried into biology, and the ' cell 
soul ' spoken of as a conception inseparable from that of life. 

That psychical phenomena however, characterised as they essentially 
are by consciousness, are not necessarily coextensive with those of life, 
there cannot be a doubt. How far back in the scale of life consciousness 
may exist we have as yet no means of determining, nor is it necessary for 
our argument that we should. Certain it is that many things, to all ap- 
pearance the result of volition, are capable of being explained as abso- 
lutely unconscious acts ; and when the swimming swarm-spore of an alga 
avoids collision, and by a reversal of the stroke of its cilia backs from 
an obstacle lying in its course, there is almost certainly in all this nothing 
but a purely unconscious act. It is but a case in which we find expressed 
the great law of the adaptation of living beings to the conditions which 
surround them. The irritability of the protoplasm of the ciliated spore 
responding to an external stimulus sets in motion a mechanism derived 
by inheritance from its ancestors, and whose parts are correlated to a 
common end — the preservation of the individual. 

But even admitting that every living cell were a conscious and think- 
ing being, are we therefore justified in asserting that its consciousness like 
its irritability is a property of the matter of which it is composed ? The 
sole argument on which this view is made to rest is that from analogy. 
It is argued that because the life phenomena, which are invariably found 
in the cell, must be regarded as a property of the cell, the phenomena of 
consciousness by which they are accompanied must be also so regarded. 
The weak point in the argument is the absence of all analogy between the 
things compared, and as the conclusion rests solely on the argument from 
analogy, the two must fall to the ground together. 



ADDRESS. 29 

In a lecture 12 to which I once had the pleasure of listening — a lecture 
characterised no less by lncid exposition than by the fascinating form in 
which its facts were presented to the hearers, Professor Huxley argues 
that no difference, however great, between the phenomena of living 
matter and those of the lifeless elements of which this matter is composed 
should militate against our attributing to protoplasm the phenomena of 
life as properties essentially inherent in it ; since we know that the result 
of a chemical combination of physical elements may exhibit physical 
properties totally different from those of the elements combined ; the 
physical phenomena presented by water, for example, having no resem- 
blance to those of its combining elements oxygen and hydrogen. 

I believe that Professor Huxley intended to apply this argument only 
to the phenomena of life in the stricter sense of the word. As such it is 
conclusive. But if it be pushed further, and extended to the phenomena 
of consciousness, it loses all its force. The analogy, perfectly valid in the 
former case, here fails. The properties of the chemical compound are 
like those of its components, still physical properties. They come within 
the wide category of the universally accepted properties of matter, while 
those of consciousness belong to a category absolutely distinct — one 
which presents not a trace of a connection with any of those which 
physicists have agreed in assigning to matter as its proper characteristics. 
The argument thus breaks down, for its force depends on analogy alone, 
and here all analogy vanishes. 

That consciousness is never manifested except in the presence of 
cerebral matter or of something like it, there cannot be a question ; but 
this is a very different thing from its being a property of such matter in 
the sense in which polarity is a property of the magnet, or irritability of 
protoplasm. The generation of the rays which lie invisible beyond the 
violet in the spectrum of the sun cannot be regarded as a property of the 
medium which by changing their refrangibility can alone render them 
apparent. 

I know that there is a special charm in those broad generalisations 
which would refer many very different phenomena to a common source. 
But in this very charm there is undoubtedly a danger, and we must be all 
the more careful lest it should exert an influence in arresting the progress 
of truth, just as at an earlier period traditional beliefs exerted an authority 
from which the mind but slowly and with difficulty succeeded in emanci- 
pating itself. 

But have we, it may be asked, made in all this one step forward 
towards an explanation of the phenomena of consciousness or the discovery 
of its source ? Assuredly not. The power of conceiving of a substance 
different from that of matter is still beyond the limits of human intelli- 
gence, and the physical or objective conditions which are the concomi- 
tants of thought are the only ones of which it is possible to know 
anything, and the only ones whose study is of value. 

' 2 ' The Physical Basis of Life.' See Essays and Reviews, by T. H. Huxley. 



30 KEPOET— 1879. 

We are not, however, on that account forced to the conclusion that 
there is nothing in the universe but matter and force. The simplest 
physical law is absolutely inconceivable by the highest of the brutes, and 
no one would be justified in assuming that man had already attained the 
limit of his powers. Whatever may be that mysterious bond which 
connects organisation with psychical endowments, the one grand fact — a 
fact of inestimable importance — stands out clear and freed from all 
obscurity and doubt, that from the first dawn of intelligence there is 
with every advance in organisation a corresponding advance in mind. 
Mind as well as body is thus travelling onwards through higher and still 
higher phases ; the great law of Evolution is shaping the destiny of our 
race ; and though now we may at most but indicate some weak point in 
the generalisation which would refer consciousness as well as life to a 
common material source, who can say that in the far off future there 
may not yet be evolved other and higher faculties from which light may 
stream in upon the darkness, and reveal to man the great mystery of 
Thought ? 



EEPOKTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



KEPOBTS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. 
Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, for com- 
mencing Secular Experiments upon the Elasticity of Wires. 
Drawn up by J. T. Bottomley. 

At the last meeting of the British Association, the arrangements for sus- 
pending wires for secular experiments in the tube which has been erected 
in the tower of the Glasgow University Buildings, and for observing these 
wires, were described and reported as complete. Some improvements 
have since been found necessary ; but, so far as these are concerned, there 
is not much to add to the report then given. 

The long iron tube has been closed at the top and bottom so as to keep 
out currents of air and dust, and the joints of the tube have been carefully 
caulked. J 

Some improvements in the cathetometer used for observing the marks 
on the wires were also found to be required, but the instrument is now 
satisfactory. 

Six wires have now been suspended in the tube; their stretching 
weights have been attached to them, and they have been carefully marked 
and measured. These wires are suspended in pairs— two of gold, two of 
platinum, and two of palladium. One of each of the pairs is loaded with 
a weight equal to one-twentieth of its breaking weight, and the other of 
each pair with a weight equal to one-half of its breaking weight. The 
points of suspension for each pair are very close together, so that any 
yielding of the place of support affects both wires equally. 

Each wire is marked with paint marks, and there are other marks on 
the wires and on the weights attached to them where positions have been 
determined. These marks are described in a laboratory book which is at 
present kept in the room of the Professor of Natural Philosophy in the 
University of Glasgow. The measurements that have been made, and 
the experiments that have been undertaken in connection with the work 
assigned to the Committee, are all being entered in this book. This, 



34 report — 1879. 

however, can only be regarded as a temporary mode of keeping these 
records. 

It is intended that the record in this book shall contain — 

1. Description of the tube and arrangements for suspending the wires, 
and for suspending additional wires at future times, and description of the 
mode of attachment of the stretching weights. 

2. Description of the cathetometer and method of measuring the 
changes, should there be any, in the lengths of the wires. 

3. Description of the wires themselves, and record of experiments that 
have already been made on them as to breaking weight and Young's 
Modulus of Elasticity. 

4. Description of the marks put on the wires, and record of the mea- 
surements that have been made as to the lengths of the wires and as to 
the relative positions of the marks at the time of suspending the wires. 

The stretching weights and the clamps attached to the wires are en- 
graved each with the amount of its weight in grammes. The measure- 
ments are all made in grammes and centimetres. 

It seems desirable, considering the nature of the experiments that are 
just now commencing, that information regarding them should be pre- 
served to the British Association in some appropriate way ; and that pro- 
vision should be made for recording every change that may take place, 
and for communicating from time to time to the Association such infor- 
mation as may be obtained. 

In the report presented to the Association by this Committee last year, 
it was mentioned that experiments had been commenced in the laboratory 
of the University of Glasgow in connection with the present investigation 
on the effects of stress maintained for a considerable time in altering the 
elastic properties of various wires. These experiments are still being 
carried on, and results of interest and importance have been already 
arrived at. 

The most important of these experiments form a series that have been 
made on the elastic properties of very soft iron wire. The wire used was 
drawn for the purpose, and is extremely soft and very uniform. It is 
about No. 20 B.W.G., and its breaking weight, tested in the ordinary way, 
is about 45 lbs. This wire has been hung up in lengths of about 20 feet, 
and broken by weights applied, the breaking being performed more or less 
slowly. 

In the first place, some experiments have been tried as to the smallest 
weight which, applied very cautiously and with precautions against letting 
the weight run down with sensible velocity, will break the wire. These 
experiments have not yet been very satisfactorily carried out, but it is 
intended to complete them. 

The other experiments have been carried out in the following way : — 
It was found that a weight of 28 lbs. does not give permanent elongation 
to the wire taken as it was supplied by the wire-drawer. Each length of 
the wire, therefore, as soon as it was hung up for experiment, was weighted 
with 28 lbs., and this weight was left hanging on the wire for 24 hours. 
Weights were then added till the wire broke, measurements as to 
elongation being taken at the same time. A large number of wires were 
broken with equal additions of weight, a pound at a time, at intervals of 
from three to five minutes — care being taken in all cases, however, not to 
add fresh weight if the wire could be seen to be running down under the 
effect of the weight last added. Some were broken with weights added at 



ON SECULAR EXPERIMENTS UPON THE ELASTICITY OF WIRES. 



35 



the rate of one pound per day, some with three quarters of a pound per 
day, and some with half a pound per day. One experiment was com- 
menced in which it was intended to break the wire at a very much slower 
rate than any of these. It was carried on for some months, but the wire 
unfortunately rusted, and broke at a place which was seen to be very 
much eaten away by rust, and with a very low breaking weight. A fresh 
wire has been suspended, and is now being tested. It has been painted 
with oil, and has now been under experiment for several months. 

The following tables will show the general results of these experi- 
ments. It will be seen, in the first place, that the prolonged application 
of stress has a very remarkable effect in increasing the strength of soft 
iron wire. Comparing the breaking weights for the wire quickly broken 
with those for the same wire slowly broken, it will be seen that in the 
latter case the strength of the wire is from two to ten per cent, higher 
than in the former, and is on the average about five or six per cent, 
higher. The result as to elongation is even more remarkable, and was 
certainly more unexpected. It will seen from the tables that, in the 
case of the wire quickly drawn out, the elongation is on the average more 
than three times as great as in the case of the wire drawn out slowly. 
There are two wires for which the breaking weights and elongations are 
given in the tables, both of them ' bright ' wires, which showed this 
difference very remarkably. They broke without showing any special 
peculiarity as to breaking weight, and without known difference as to 
treatment, except in the time during which the application of the break- 
ing weight was made. One of them broke with 44£ lbs., the experiment 
lasting one hour and a-half; the other with 47 lbs., the time occupied 
in applying the weight being thirty-nine days. The former was drawn 
out by 28 - 5 per cent, on its original length, the latter by only 479 per 
cent. 



Tables showing the Breaking of Soft Iron Wires 1 at Different Speeds. 
I.— Wire Quickly Broken. 



Rate of Adding Weight 



-J lb. per minute . 

1 lb. „ 5 minutes 

»» 5 ,, 

>» 4 >> 

» •* » 

>> •-* » 

ni 5 », 



1 lb. per 5 minutes 
>> >> 5 » 



Breaking 

Weight in 

Pounds 



*Dakk Wire. 



*Bright Wiee. 



45 
451 



44| 
45| 
44J 



Per cent, of 

Elongation 

on Original 

Length 



25-4 
25-9 
24-9 

24-58 
24-88 
29-58 
27-78 



**t 


28-5 


«I 


27-0 


44i 


271 



1 The wire used was all of the same quality and gauge, but the ' dark ' and ' bright ' wire 
had gone through slightly different processes for the purpose of annealing. 

d2 



36 



EEPOET 1879. 



II. — Wire Slowly Broken. 



Weight added and No. of Experiment 


Breaking 
Weight 
in Pounds 


Per cent, of Elongation on 
Original Length 


1 lb. per day. 


I 


48 


7-58 


>> 


II 


46 


8-13 


j» 


in 


47 


7-05 


» 


IV 


47 


6-51 


» 


V 


47 


8-62 


» 


VI 


47 


5-17 


>> 


VII 


46 


5-50 


;» 


VIII 


47 


6-92 Bright Wire. 


| lb. per day. 


I 


49 


8-50 


» 


II 


m 


8-81 


» 


in 


Broken by accident. 


>> 


IV 


46 


7-55 


>> 


v 


46 


6-41 


)> 


VI 


45| 


6-62 


£ lb. per day 


i 


48 


8-26 


j> 


n 


50 


8-42 


>» 


in 


40 


7-18 




IV 

V 


47 
46i 


600 } Bri ° ht Wires. 



It is found daring the breaking of these wires that the wire becomes 
alternately more yielding and less yielding to stress applied. Thus, from 
weights applied gradually between 28 lbs. and 31 or 32 lbs., there is 
very little yielding and very little elongation of the wire. For equal 
additions of weight between 33 lbs. and about 37 lbs. the elongation is 
very great. After 37 lbs. have been put on, the wire seems to get stiff 
again, till a weight of about 40 lbs. has been applied. Then there is 
rapid running down till 45 lbs. has been reached. The wire then becomes 
stiff again, and often remains so till it breaks. 

It is evident that this subject requires careful investigation. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Jotjle, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, 
and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, appointed for the purpose of 
effecting the Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of 
Heat. 

There is little to be reported by the Committee this year, the work at 
present in progress being the protracted one for supplying the means of 
correcting errors in the determination of temperature arising from tem- 
porary changes of the fixed points of thermometers constructed of glass. 
The Committee have learned with pleasure that an extensive series of 
experiments has recently been made by Professor Henry A. Rowland, of 
Baltimore, who, being unaware of what had been done by the Committee, 
has arrived at an equivalent almost identical with that determined by 
Dr. Joule. 



ON THE PROGRESS OF MATHEMATICS AND THYSICS. 37 



Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of endeavour 
ing to procure Reports on the Progress of the Chief Branches of 
Mathematics and Physics ; the Committee consisting of Professor 
Gr. Caret Foster (Secretary), Professor W. Gr. Adams, Professor E. 
B. Clifton, Professor Caylet, Professor J. D. Everett, Professor 
Clerk Maxwell, Lord Eayleigh, Professor Gr. Gr. Stokes, Professor 
Balfour Stewart, Mr. Spottiswoode, and Professor P. Gr. Tait. 

Owing to unforeseen circumstances only one meeting of this Committee 
has taken place during the past year. It seems desirable, nevertheless, in 
order that the question of the reappointment of the Committee may be 
fully considered, and that there may be a fall expression of opinions on 
the subject referred to it, that a statement should be made to the Section 
of the proceedings of the Committee, the more so since, in the hope that 
greater progress would have been made by this time, no report was 
presented at the last meeting of the Association. 

The first matter discussed by the Committee was the character and 
general plan of the reports which they should endeavour to procure ; the 
next was to what extent or in what manner the production of such reports 
could be aided by the Committee. Important contributions to the dis- 
cussion of these questions are contained in written communications to the 
Committee from two of its members — Professors Clerk Maxwell and 
Stokes. Professor Clerk Maxwell writes as follows : — 

' Reports on special branches of science may be of several different 
types, corresponding to every stage of organisation, from the catalogue 
up to the treatise. 

' When a person is engaged in scientific research, it is desirable that 
he should be able to ascertain, with as little labour as possible, what has 
been written on the subject and who are the best authorities. The ordinary 
method is to get hold of the most recent German paper on the subject, 
to look up the references there given, and by following up the trail of 
each to find out who are the most influential authors on the subject. 
German papers have the most complete references because the machinery 
for docketing and arranging scientific papers is more developed in Ger- 
many than elsewhere. 

' The " Fortschritte der Physik " gave an annual list of all papers, 
good and bad, arranged in subjects, with abstracts of the more important 
ones. Wiedemann's " Beiblatter " is a more select assortment, given 
more in full. 

' I think it doubtful whether a publication of this kind, if undertaken 
by the British Association, would succeed. Lists of the titles of the pro- 
ceedings of Societies and of the contents of periodicals are given in 
" Nature." These are useful for strictly contemporary science, and I do 
not think that a more elaborate system of collection could be kept up 
for long. 

' The intending publisher of a discovery has to examine the whole mass 
of science to see whether he has been anticipated, but the student wishes 
to read only what is worth reading. What he requires is the names of 
the best authors. The selection or election of these is constantly done 
by skimming individual authors, who indicate by the names they quote 
the men whose opinions have had most influence. But a report on the 



38 REPORT— 1879. 

history and present state of a science lias for its main aim to enumerate 
the various authors and to point out their relative weight, and this has 
been very well done in several British Association Reports, some of which 
are nearly as old as the British Association. 

' There are some branches of science whose position with respect to 
the public, or else to the educational interest, is such that treatises or 
text-books can be published on commercial principles, either as books to 
be read by the free public, or to be got up by the school public. 

' There is little encouragement, however, for a scientific man to write 
a treatise so long as he can, with much less trouble, produce an original 
memoir, which will be much more readily received by a learned society 
than the treatise would have been by a publisher. 

' The systematisation of science is therefore carried on under difficulties 
when left to itself ; and I think that the experience of the British Asso- 
ciation warrants the belief that its action in asking men of science to 
furnish reports has conferred benefits on science which would not other- 
wise have accrued to it. 

' There are so many valuable reports in the published volumes that I 
shall indicate only a few, the selection being founded on the direction of 
my own work rather than on any less arbitrary principle. 

' First, when a branch of science contains abstruse calculations as well 
as interesting experiments, it is desirable that those who cultivate the 
experimental side should be conscious that certain things have been done 
by the mathematicians. The matter to be reported on in this case is not 
voluminous, but it is hard reading, and those who are not experts require 
a guide. 

' Thus, Professor Challis in 1834 gave a most useful report on the 
mathematical investigations by Young, Laplace, Poisson, and Gauss on 
Capillary Attraction, and Professor Stokes in 1862 reports on Theories- 
of Double Refraction. This report may, indeed, be accepted as an instal- 
ment of the treatises which, if the desire of the scientific world were law, 
Professor Stokes would long ago have written. It is meant, no doubt, as 
a guide to other men's writings, but it is intelligible in itself without 
reference to those writings. Such a report is a full justification of the 
existence of the British Association, if it had done nothing else. 

' Another type of report is that of Professor Cayley on Dynamics 
(1857 and 1862). This seems intended rather as a guide in reading the 
original authors than as a self-interpreting document, though, of course, 
besides the criticism and the methodical arrangement, there is much 
original light thrown on the mass of memoirs discussed in it. It will be 
many years before the value of this report will be superseded by treatises. 

' The Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables deals with a 
subject which, though not so abstruse, is larger and drier than any of the 
preceding. It is, however, a most interesting as well as valuable report, 
and supplies information which would never have been printed unless the 
British Association had asked for the report, and which never would 
have been obtained if the author of the report had not been available. 

' There are several other reports which are not mere reports, but 
rather original papers preceded by a historical sketch of the subject. No 
special encouragement is needed to get people to write reports of this 
kind.' 

Professor Stokes thus expresses himself on the subject : — 

' It seems to me that reports on the progress of science may be of 



ON THE PROGRESS OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 39 

two kinds, with somewhat different objects in view ; and in considering 
the best mode of meeting these objects it may be well to keep the 
distinction in view. 

' First, there is a report, the object of which is to prepare a sort ot 
repertorium of what has been done in a particular branch of science since 
the date of the last report of similar character in the same branch of 

1 A report of this kind should present the reader with a brief account 
of the leading aim and chief results of the various memoirs which have 
been published within the time on the branch of science to which it 
relates ; the writer should not be expected to criticise the memoirs, except 
in plain instances of errors or imperfections, but the responsibility of 
sifting the wheat from the chaff should in the main be left to the 
reader. 

' Secondly, there are reports of a more comprehensive and far more 
critical character. These should be made at wider intervals, should take 
a more comprehensive view of the subject, and should be highly critical, 
sifting out the substantial acquisitions that had been made to the branch 
of science to which they refer. 

' Each kind of reports are of value, though in somewhat different 
ways. The first aids the individual in keeping himself up to the progress 
of science around him,— a progress in which from his position he may be 
expected to take part and to exercise influence. They lighten to him the 
labour of search, but teach him to exercise his own discrimination. 

' The second should be a material aid to the student in making himself 
master of what was really of value, and help him to avoid wasting his 
time on what was of little importance, and aid him in judging of the 
relative importance of different lines of research. 

1 Reports of the first kind may be much promoted by the work of 
committees. The division of labour lightens the task, and the feeling of 
co-operation carries a man through labour which otherwise, as the man is 
likely to have a good deal else to do, he might hesitate to undertake. 

' Reports of the second kind eminently demand the hand of a master, 
and the hand of a master is not always free. I doubt much if the 
appointment of committees would aid much in the preparation of good 
reports of this class, and unless reports are thoroughly good they are 
better, perhaps, not attempted. I do not see what is to be done except 
to work a good man when you can get him.' 

It is evident that the distinction here pointed out by Professor Stokes 
has an important bearing on the question of the reappointment of the 
Committee. The work required for the production of reports intended 
simply as systematic records ' of the leading aim and chief results ' of 
published investigations, would be merely that of careful compilation. It 
would not only be possible to divide work of this kind among a con- 
siderable number of contributors, but to get it done at all such division 
of labour would be necessary, and accordingly reports of this class could 
only be furnished by committees. On the other hand, a report which is 
of the nature of a critical survey of the condition of knowledge in any 
branch of science, and is intended to indicate the relative value of different 
investigations, requires to possess a unity of plan and thought which can 
only result from its being the work of an individual author possessing 
a complete mastery of his subject. In such a case the function of the 
committee would be confined to the suggestion of the subject and to 



40 REPORT — 1879. 

requesting some qualified person to report upon it — a function which 
hitherto has been discharged by the Sectional Committees of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Considering all the difficulties of the undertaking and the extent to 
which it is rendered unnecessary by existing (chiefly German) publica- 
tions, the present Committee came to the conclusion that it is not at 
present desirable for the Association to attempt to obtain reports in the 
nature of compilations of abstracts of the papers published upon 
mathematics or physics. 

With regard to the other more critical class of reports, many have 
already been obtained which are recognised as among the most valuable 
results of the existence of the British Association ; and the Committee 
hope for a continuance of these valuable contributions. They are happy 
to state that two such reports have already been promised. Professor 
Stokes has undertaken to draw up the plan of a report on physical 
optics, especially in reference to the theory of reflection, the theory of 
dispersion, and the theory of phosphorescence and fluorescence. Pro- 
fessor Balfour Stewart has also undertaken, in conjunction with Mr. J. 
Allan Brown, to draw up the heads of a report on terrestrial magnetism. 



Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Kamsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. 
G-laisher, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, 
Mr. G, A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. 
Joseph Dickinson, and Mr. G. F. Deacon, appointed for the pur- 
pose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Tem- 
perature downwards in various Localities of Dry Land and 
under Water. Draivn up by Professor Everett (Secretary). 

Dr. Stapfp has forwarded to the Secretary a summary of his observa- 
tions of temperature made in the St. Gothard Tunnel in 1878, in con- 
tinuation of those of previous years, the places of observation being 
always those which have been newly opened up. At the Swiss end the 
portion reported on begins at 5000 and ends at 6400 metres from the 
north portal ; and at the Italian end the limits are 4600 and 5900 metres 
from the south portal. In the former the temperatures (Centigrade) 

25-5 26-6 27-8 27-9 28-8 

were observed in the rock, at the distances from north portal (in 
metres) 

5157 5456 5593 5725 6297 

and at the depths below the surface vertically overhead (in metres) 

945 971 983 1012 1250 

The temperature of water was found to be higher than that of rock ; 
whence Dr. Stapff infers the existence of hot springs in the Serpentine 
and the rocks immediately to the south of it. 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 41 

At the Italian end, the temperatures 

28-2 287 29-5 

were found in the rock, at the distances from south portal 

4830 5101 5721 

and at the depths below surface vertically overhead 

1407 1513 ' 1252 

In English measures, these data are as follows : — 
Temperatures (Fahrenheit) at Swiss end 

77°-9 79°-9 82°-0 82°-2 83°-8 

Distances from north portal (in miles) 

3-21 339 348 356 391 

Distances below surface (in feet) 

3100 3186 3225 3320 4101 

Temperatures (Fahrenheit) at Italian end 

82°-8 83°7 85°-l 

Distances from south portal (in miles) 

3-00 3-17 3-56 

Distances below surface (in feet) 

4615 4965 4108 

The mean rate of increase downwards in the whole length of the 
tunnel is '02068 of a degree Centigrade per metre of depth, measured 
from the surface directly over. This is 1°F. for 88 feet. Where the sur- 
face is a steep ridge, the increase is less rapid than this average ; where 
the surface is a valley or plain, the increase is more rapid. 

The boring in connection with the Liverpool "Waterworks at Bootle, 
which was described in last year's Report as having attained a depth of. 
1004 feet with a temperature of 58T, was completed in December, the 
depth being 1302 feet, and the temperature at the bottom 59 - 0. The 
boring ceased for six weeks at the depth of 1004 feet, and the temperature 
fell during this interval from 58T to 57'0. The slowness of the increase 
downwards, and the lowness of the temperature at the bottom, are very 
remarkable. Mr. Symons found a temperature of 70 at the depth of 
only 1100 feet in the Kentish Town Well, near London ; and Mr. Atkinson 
found a temperature of 70 at 1366 feet in the boring at South Hetton 
Colliery, Durham. A comparison of the temperature 59"0 at 1302 feet 
at Bootle with the temperature 52 - at 226 feet gives an increase of only 
7° in 1076 feet, or 1° for 154 feet. 

Mr. E. Wethered, F.G.S., F.C.S., has taken during the past year a 
valuable series of observations at the Kingswood Collieries, near Bristol. 
The instrument employed was one of the Committee's slow-acting 
thermometers, which was inserted in holes two feet deep, bored in newly 
exposed coal or rock, special care being taken to avoid currents of air. 
As there is no explosive gas in these collieries, powerful ventilation is not 
necessary ; and the headings in which the observations were made were 
ventilated by means of a square wooden pipe (called a trunk) lying on 
the floor, and serving for the exit of the air, while the entering air flows 
above and beside it. This trunk was always drawn some distance back 
from the end of the heading where the thermometer was inserted. 

As soon as the hole for the thermometer had been bored, it was closed 
with clay rolled in the form of a plug, 6 inches long with a head, and the 
thermometer was inserted about an hour afterwards, the mouth being 
again closed as before. The holes were in most cases dry. 

The strata in which the observations were taken belong to the lowest 



42 kepoet — 1879. 

of the three divisions of the Bristol coal-field, and their dip, where not 
faulted or disturbed, is about one in six. 

The depths of the places of observation were determined by Mr. 
Munro, teacher of mining and surveying in the Bristol Mining School, 
and the surface-temperature is assumed to be identical with the mean 
temperature of the air for the last fifteen years at Clifton (3 miles distant), 
according to the observations of Dr. Burden, which is 48*7. The surface 
of the ground at the centre of the collieries is 24 feet higher than Dr. 
Burden's observatory, and is 216 feet above sea level. 

The first place of observation was in an exploring drift driven at a 
high angle. The thermometer was placed in a hole in hard ' duns ' for 
one week, and showed a temperature of 55 - 7. The depth was 441 feet, 
and the hole partially filled with water from natural causes. The ther- 
mometer was replaced, and after the lapse of another week the same 
temperature was again found. 

The thermometer was next placed in a hard arenaceous stone yielding 
a considerable quantity of water, at practically the same depth as the 
last observation, and in the same drift. It gave a temperature 55*4. 

Under the stone, and resting upon the duns, was a seam of coal 
averaging about 1 foot 6 inches thick, into which the thermometer was 
next inserted, and 57'2 was read at the end of another week. Illness 
prevented Mr. Wethered from making a re- examination to ascertain the 
causes of the discrepancies here exhibited, and he therefore proposes to 
reject these first observations. 

On the abandonment of the drift just referred to, the thermometer 
was removed to a cross-measure branch, driven almost on a level. A 
week or two before, a seam of coal about 2 feet thick had been cut in 
this branch, and a level was now being driven on it. On Saturday, 
June 15, a hole was bored, at the head of the level, in the coal, and the 
thermometer inserted at 2 p.m., just as the men w£re leaving work. On 
Monday the temperature 54" 7 was read. As the pit was idle on this day, 
the thermometer was replaced, and after 12 hours gave the same reading. 
The hole was perfectly dry, with the exception of what miners call 
' sweating.' 

On Saturday, June 23, the thermometer was placed in a hard blue 
duns at the head of the cross-measure branch, 10 feet away from the last 
hole ; and on Monday the temperature 54" 7 was taken, the same as in 
the coal. The pit being again idle, the observation was repeated, with a 
confirmatory result. The depth in each case was 402 feet. 

The next observation was in the deepest workings of the collieries, 
in what is known as the Deep Pit colliery. A branch was being driven 
for the purpose of cutting off an extent of road in the Great Seam workings ; 
accordingly on Saturday, June 29, the thermometer was placed, in the 
usual way, at the head of the branch in a blue duns ; depth 1767 feet. 
On the Monday, 74' 7 was read, and this temperature was confirmed by an 
observation from the following Saturday to Monday. 

The next observation was made at a higher level in the same pit, in 
the Great Vein workings, depth 1367 feet. On Saturday, July 13, a hole 
was bored in the same bed of duns as in the last observation, and on 
the following Monday, 68"5 was read. 

On Saturday, July 20, the thermometer was placed in the Great Seam 
coal, which rests upon the duns, and after the lapse of the usual time 67 - 5 
was read. 



ON THE KATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 43 

On Saturday, July 27, by a mistake, the hole was bored in the duns 
20 feet behind the coal. This point had been exposed for a week or two, 
and the temperature indicated, 69'2, is therefore rejected by Mr. Wethered. 

On Saturday, August 3, another hole was bored in the coal, and gave 
on Monday the same temperature, 68 - 5, which had been observed in the 
first hole in the duns. Another hole in the duns gave, a week later, the 
same temperature, 68 - 5. Mr. Wethered adopts this as the true tempera- 
ture at the depth in question (1367 feet). 

The thermometer was now removed to the Speedwell pit, the shaft of 
which is distant about half a mile from the Deep pit, and observations 
were commenced in a cross-measure branch, which shortly afterwards 
cut the Two-feet seam of coal. 

On Saturday, August 17, the thermometer was inserted in a hard 
arenaceous stone, and on Monday the temperature 69 • 7 was read, depth 
1439 feet. This reading was confirmed from the following Saturday to 
Monday. 

On Saturday, October 12, the Two-feet seam of coal having been cut, 
the thermometer was inserted in it, and on Monday gave a temperature 
of 69 - 7, the same as in the stone further back in the branch in August. 
The depth was the same within 2 feet. 

On Saturday, October 26, a hole was bored in the duns under the 
Two-feet coal, which again gave 69'7. 

The next observation was made in the Great Seam coal of the Speed- 
well pit, in an advanced level head, opening out new ground, depth 1232 
feet. The thermometer was placed in a hole bored in the coal on Saturday, 
November 2, and on Monday the temperature was 667. The same 
reading was obtained the following week in the duns under the coal. 

This was the last of the observations deemed reliable. Two other 
observations were made, the first in ground from under which coal had 
been worked, and the second in strata disturbed by faults, but in neither 
case could reliable results be obtained. 

The following is a summary of the temperatures, arranged in order of 
depth, omitting those which are doubtful. 

Temperature. Fahrenheit 
48-7 
54-7 
66-7 
68-5 
69-7 
74-7 

with the next, we have the following 

1° for 67 feet 
1° » 69 „ 

1° „ 75 „ 
1° „ 60 „ 
1° „ 66 „ 

a remarkably regular progression, especially for observations taken in 
different parts of a colliery. Comparing the surface with the lowest 
depth, we have an increase of 26 o- in 1769 feet, which is at the rate of 
1° in 68 feet ; and comparing the depth of 402 feet with the lowest depth, 
we have an increase of 20 o- in 1367 feet, which is at the rate of l o- for 
68-35 feet. 





Surface 




402 




1232 




1367 




1439 




1769 


Comparing each dej 
ilt« — 




First 402 feet 




Next 830 „ 




Next 135 „ 




Next 72 „ 




Next 330 „ 



44 report — 1879. 

The observations appear to have been taken in very favourable circum- 
stances, and with much care and judgment. Being the only observations 
yet furnished to the Committee from the West of England, they form a 
very valuable contribution to our knowledge. 

Mr. Symons has continued his observations at the depth of 1000 feet 
in the Kentish Town Well (see Report for 1876, p. 209). During 1877 
little was done except to continue the record of the temperature of the 
well-room, have the roof repaired, and make experiments with respect to 
the elongation of wires of various kinds. In accordance with a suggestion 
of Sir William Thomson, a new copper wire, No. 22, was purchased, 
and the Phillips's maximum thermometer, No. 14,608, of which each 
degree Fahr. is 0"4 inch in length, was lowered to 1000 feet on January 10, 
1878. The first noticeable feature, and a very unsatisfactory one, was, that 
on March 5, 1878, a little mud was found in the protecting case. It will 
be remembered that the tube was originally 1302 feet deep, but that on 
the first attempt to lower the thermometer to 1100 feet in May, 1868, the 
cord was found to become slack at depths varying from 1070 to 1085 
feet. It seems probable that the mud has now risen to 1000 feet. Its 
extreme softness has been illustrated more than once by the fall of 
thermometers into it, sometimes from a great height. They have never 
been broken, nor even had their indices displaced. The new wire stretched 
more than the old one, but after the first two months the elongation was 
remarkably uniform. The thermometer having been many years in use, 
it was thought desirable to reverify it, and on September 20, 1878, it was 
sent to Kew Observatory for this purpose. Another thermometer was 
temporarily substituted for it, which was only divided to whole degrees 
and was read by estimation to tenths. With this thermometer the 
following observations were taken : — 

Date of lowering Depth indicated Date of raising Depth indicated Temperature 
Feet Feet Fahr. 

1878, Oct. 10 1000 Nov. 2 1009 67-8 

Nov. 2 1000 Dec. 2 1008 67"8 

Dec. 2 1000 1879, Jan. 2 wire broke 

The wire broke on January 2, 1879, and up to the present time no 
serious attempt has been made to recover the thermometer, but this has 
arisen rather from want of leisure than from any difficulty in the 
operation. 

The results given in the following table (which goes back to the 
beginning of the observations), have all been obtained with one and the 
same thermometer. 

The index error of the thermometer has been determined several times, 
.as follows : — 

1872, August, by Mr. Symons, error under + -0 1 

1873, November, by Professor E. J. Mills error + -34 
1876, February, by Mr. Oasella „ + -5 
1878, December, by Kew Observers „ + -5 

The gradual rise of zero here indicated is in accordance with usual 
experience ; and the index errors at intermediate dates have been derived 
from these by graphical interpolation, that is by drawing a curve in which 
horizontal distance represents time and vertical distance amount of index 
error, the curve being drawn so as to pass through the four points 
determined by the above observations, and being made as smooth as 
possible. The stretching of the wire is determined by the readings of the 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



45 



recording apparatus described in the 1869 Report, and the correction to 
reduce from the actual depth to the depth of 1000 feet is made by- 
allowing -018 of a degree per foot, this being the mean rate of increase 
found by observation (see Report for 1871). The above table shows that 
the entire range of the corrected temperatures at 1000 feet is less than 
half a degree, and that the departure from the mean exceeds a tenth of 
a degree on only seven occasions out of twenty-nine. Mr. Symons has 
directed close attention to those readings which differ most from the 



Date of Raising 


•a 

-S-S 

£-.2 


eading of 
ermometer 
o. 14,608 


■8 ° 
a X 

O CD 


mperature 

rrected for 
dex Error 

•rection for 


Oh 

Q 

c3 


True 

mperature 
1000 feet 


•ifference 
n Mean of 
Corrected 
Values 




w 


M^Z 


S a 


v o a o 


X 


r° I* 


wpa 






H 


O- 1 


HO- r_> 


w 


H « 


<J3 * 




Feet 





O 


o 


3 


o 


o 


1872, December 23 . 


1014 


67-71 


-•18 


67-53 - 


25 


67-28 


+ -22 


1873, April 5 . 


1007 


67-66 


•25 


67-41 


13 


67-28 


+ -22 


July 5 . 


1009 


67-58 


■29 


67-29 


16 


67-13 


+ -07 


September 5 . 


1008 


67-50 


•32 


67-18 


14 


67.04 


- -02 


1874, May 8 . 


1007 


66-82? 


— 


— . 




— 




July 28 . 


1005 


67-40 


•42 


66-98 


09 


66-89 


- -17 


September 8 . 


1004 


67-51 


•43 


67-08 


07 


67-01 


- -05 


29 


1004 


67-43 


•43 


67-00 


07 


66-93 


- -13 


October 30 . 


1006 


67-68 


•44 


67-24 


11 


67-13 


+ -07 


December 3 . 


1006 


67-52 


•45 


67-07 


11 


66-96 


- -10 


1875, January 7 


1009 


67-63 


•46 


67-17 


16 


6701 


- -05 


February 1 


1006 


67-56 


•46 


67-10 


11 


66-99 


- -07 


March 3 . 


1005 


67-58 


•46 


67-12 


09 


67-03 


- -03 


May 3 . 


1006 


67-62 


•47 


67-15 


11 


67-04 


- -02 


June 1 . 


1005 


67-49 


•47 


6702 


09 


66-93 


- -13 


July 7 . 


1005 


67-53 


•48 


67-05 


09 


66-96 


- -10 


August 3 


1004 


67-58 


•48 


67-10 


•07 


67-03 


- 03 


September 10 


1004 


67-58 


•49 


67-09 


07 


67-02 


- -04 


October 2 


1003 


67-58 


•49 


76-09 


05 


67-04 


- -02 


19 . 


1004 


67-62 


•5 


67-12 


07 


67-05 


-•01 


November 1 . 


1005 


67-62 


•5 


67-12 


09 


67-03 


- 03 


1878, February 1 . 


1017 


67-88 


•5 


67-38 


31 


67-07 


+ -01 


March 5 . 


1012 


67-77 


•5 


67-27 


22 


67-05 


- 01 


April 2 . 


1011 


67-80 


•5 


67-30 


20 


67-10 


+ -04 


May 2 . 


1010 


67-70 


•5 


67-20 


■18 


67-02 


- -04 


June 1 . 


1008 


67-63 


•5 


67-13 


•14 


66-99 


- -07 


July 1 . 


1008 


67-91 


•5 


67-41 


•14 


67-27 


+ -21 


August 1 


1008 


67-97 


•5 


67-47 


•14 


67-33 


+ -27 


September 5 . 


1007 


67-69 


•5 


67-19 


•13 


67-06 


•00 -00 


17 


1008 


67-68 


•5 


67-18 


■14 


67-04 


- -02 


Mean .... 


67-06 





mean, but has not yet been able to explain the circumstances on which 
they depend. The maximum elongation of the wire has been 17 feet, and 
this gives a correction of '31 of a degree. The gradual accumulation of 
mud at the bottom would account for a gradual change of temperature 
always in the same direction, if such had occurred (which is not the case), 
but will not account for alternations of rise and fall such as the table 
exhibits. 



One of the Committee's slow-acting thermometers has been supplied 
(at his own expense) to Professor John A. Church, of the Ohio State 



46 report— 1879. 

University, Columbus, Ohio, to be used for observing the temperature at 
every 100 feet of depth during the sinking of a shaft, probably to the 
depth of about 4500 feet, in one of the mines of the Comstock lode in 
Nevada. Two others have been supplied on similar terms to the 
Meteorological Office. 

With the view of carrying out the resolution, expressed in last year's 
Report, to commence thermo-electric observations in filled bores, the 
Secretary has procured from Messrs. Siemens 500 feet of No. 20 copper 
wire, and the same length of No. 19 soft charcoal iron wire, both of them 
well insulated with gutta-percha, and has conducted some thermo-electric 
experiments with them in the Laboratory ; but the apparatus is not yet 
ready for actual use. 

Mr. Lebour has improved the form of plug devised by him (on the 
umbrella principle) mentioned in previous Reports (1876, p. 209, and 
1877, p. 199). The apparatus now requires only one wire, and remains 
collapsed so long as the wire is taut, but opens out and plugs the hole 
when it becomes slack. 

The following corrections are to be made in last year's Report. 

In the acount of Dr. Stapff's thermometers, ' steel cap ' and ' steel 
jacket,' should be ' brass cap ' and ' brass jacket.' 

At a later place in the extract from Dr. Stapff's paper, • wet bore- 
holes with standing water,' should be ' wet bore-holes with running 
water.' 

In the references to papers, in foot-note, ' 1878, 1876, and 1877,' 
should be ' 1875, 1876, and 1877.' 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Catlet, F.R.S., 
Professor G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., 
Professor Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, 
F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S. (Secretary), on Ma- 
thematical Tables. Drawn up by Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher. 

[Plate I.] 

The present report consists of two parts : I. An account of the state of 
the calculation of the factor tables for the fourth, fifth, and sixth millions, 
with some results of the enumeration of the primes in the fourth million ; 
and II. Tables of the Legendrian functions, with an introduction. 

I. — State of the Calculation of the Factor Tables for the Fourth, Fifth, 

and Sixth Millions. 

During the year the calculation has been carried on without inter- 
mission under the direction of Mr. James Glaisher. At present the 
factor table for the fourth million is printed and stereotyped, and will be 
published immediately ; the manuscript of the fifth million is complete 
and ready for the printer. In the sixth million all the entries by sieves 



■li> A Report Bra. .-Issc, 



Plaie 1. 




Sboltiswoodi, St Clztn ZojicUm. 

Illustrating the Report of the 
Committee on MaXkerwatLcal Tables. 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



47 



have been made, and the factors obtained by the multiple method are in 
course of being entered. 

The mode of construction was described in last year's repoi't (Dublin, 
1878, pp. 172-178), and a more complete account will appear in the 
introduction to the factor table for the fourth million. 

Results of an Enumeration of the Primes in the Fourth Million. 

Two independent enumerations of the primes in the fourth million 
were made, one from the manuscript before it was sent to the printer, and 
the other by a different computer from the proof sheets. The results are 
shown in the following table : — 











3,000,000 to 


4,000,000. 










n 


Number of centuries each of which contains n primes 


o o 

© o 
© o 
cf_g ©* 

© ■" © 
© 1-^ 

CO* CO* 


o o 
© o 
© o 
o"£o" 
o ** o 
^ gn^ 

CO CO 


o o 

© o 
o ©_ 

©" o © 
© -^ o 

CN CO 
CO CO* 


© © 

o © 
© ©_ 
cTgo 

© *■ © 

CO ■* 

CO CO* 


© © 

© © 
© ©__ 

© o ©* 

© ■" © 

CO co* 


© o 

© © 
© © 

©* o©" 
© -" © 

CO CO 


© o 

© © 
o o 

©" C © 

© ** © 

CO* CO* 


© © 
© © 
©. ©_ 

©* ° ©* 

© ~ © 

t> 00 

TO CO* 


© o 

© © 
© © 
©* o o* 

© ** © 

00 o^ 
CO* CO 


© © 
© © 
o ©_ 

©* o ©* 
o *• o 
°i °- 

CO* Tl* 


© o 
© © 
© © 

©* Oo 

© ■" © 
o ©__ 

CO* -* 








1 























1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1 


4 


3 


4 


2 


3 


4 


4 


30 


2 


11 


13 


16 


13 


14 


12 


13 


17 


12 


15 


136 


3 


37 


31 


33 


50 


48 


42 


31 


43 


43 


42 


400 


4 


81 


87 


91 


85 


89 


89 


75 


77 


99 


89 


862 


5 


140 


146 


139 


133 


140 


156 


180 


146 


144 


156 


1480 


6 


206 


173 


199 


194 


172 


188 


190 


209 


189 


209 


1929 


7 


183 


198 


193 


171 


216 


192 


178 


170 


169 


179 


1849 


8 


168 


169 


140 


169 


143 


149 


150 


176 


157 


140 


1561 


9 


94 


96 


97 


102 


100 


102 


94 


83 


102 


80 


950 


10 


54 


52 


50 


51 


43 


35 


55 


52 


45 


60 


497 


11 


19 


19 


31 


23 


24 


24 


21 


21 


25 


14 


221 


12 


4 


9 


9 


5 


6 


3 


6 


3 


8 


7 


60 


13 


1 


2 


1 





2 


3 


5 





3 


2 


19 


14 





1 











1 











2 


4 


No. of *l 
primes J 


6676 


6717 


6691 


6639 


6611 


6575 


6671 


6590 


6624 


6535 


66,329 



The explanation of this table is as follows : — Calling, for convenience 
of expression, the hundred numbers between lOOn -1 and 100 (n + 1) a 
century (so that, e.g., the hundred numbers between 2,999,999 and 
3,000,100 form a century), then the table shows the number of centuries 
in each group of 100,000 which contain no prime, the number of 
centuries each of which contains one prime, the number of centuries 
each of which contains two primes, &c. Thus of the thousand centuries 
3,000,000-3,100,000 no century is composed wholly of composite num- 
bers, two centuries contain each one prime, eleven centuries contain each 
two primes, thirty- seven centuries contain each three primes, and so 
on. Of the thousand centuries 3,100,000-3,200,000, one consists wholly 
of composite numbers, three contain each one prime, &c. 

The numbers at the foot of each column give the total number of 
primes in the group of numbers to which tbe column has reference ; 
thus between 3,000,000 and 3,100,000 there are 6676 primes; between 
3,100,000 and 3,200,000 there are 6717 primes, &c. Similar tables to the 
above for the first, second, third, seventh, eighth, and ninth millions have 



48 



REPOET 1879. 



been published in the ' Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society,' vol. iii. pp. 20-23, 54-56 (1877). 

It may be remarked that in the first million there is no century con- 
sisting wholly of composite numbers, in the second there is one, in the 
third one, in the fourth two, in the seventh six, in the eighth four, and in 
the ninth four. 

It will be seen from the above table that no century in the fourth 
million contains more than fourteen primes, and that only four contain 
this number. In the third million, however, there is one century con- 
taining as many as seventeen primes, one containing fifteen, and no less 
than six containing fourteen ; in the seventh million there are three con- 
taining fourteen primes, in the eighth million two containing fourteen, as 
well as two containing fifteen, and in the ninth million two containing 
fourteen. 

The next table shows the number of primes in each successive group 
of ten thousand between 3,000,000 and 4,000,000. Thus, for example, 
between 3,000,000 and 3,010,000 there are 670 primes; between 3,010,000 
and 3,020,000 there are 659, . . . ; between 3,100,000 and 3,110,000 there 
are 676, and so on. The numbers in the lowest line of the table are ob- 
tained by adding the numbers in each column, and agree, of course, with 
the numbers at the foot of the columns in the previous table. 

3,000,000 to 4,000,000. 





© o 
o o 
© © 


000 
000 


o o 
o o 

© o 


© © 

© © 

© © 


000 
000 


© © 
© © 

© © 


© © 

© © 
o © 


000 
000 


© © 

© © 

© © 


© © 

© © 
© © 




© ° ©" 
o *^o 

© H 
Cft Cft 


o o o 
o -^ o 

Cft* Cft" 


© O© 

o -" o 

<N Cft 
Cft" Cft" 


© o o 

© *» c 
Cft^ -^ 

cft" co" 


© <3 © 
© -"© 

Cft Cft 


2 2° 
© ^ © 

>o k © 

Cft" Cft" 


©" Oo 

© -*• © 
©^ t- 

Cft" Cft" 


© O © 

© -^ © 

t^ CO 
Cft" Cft" 


©* o ©" 

© •" © 

Cft" Cft" 


© Oo 

© *» © 
a^ © 
co" -^jT 


I. 


670 


676 


686 


673 


677 


651 


692 


655 


656 


651 


H. 


659 


677 


674 


660 


666 


663 


670 


671 


682 


658 


ni. 


663 


666 


672 


677 


672 


630 


686 


687 


674 


675 


IV. 


657 


666 


687 


645 


685 


663 


652 


658 


646 


648 


v. 


671 


658 


649 


675 


670 


654 


638 


649 


677 


678 


VI. 


657 


677 


662 


623 


646 


668 


650 


667 


650 


643 


VII. 


664 


668 


677 


688 


654 


670 


662 


632 


646 


638 


VIII. 


695 


663 


666 


667 


637 


640 


702 


655 


651 


668 


IX. 


686 


691 


670 


669 


636 


667 


638 


659 


661 


634 


X. 


654 


675 


648 


662 


668 


669 


681 


657 


681 


642 




6676 


6717 


6691 


6639 


6611 


6575 


6671 


6590 


6624 


6535 



The numbers of primes in each of the seven millions are :- 



First million 
Second „ 
Third „ 
Fourth „ 

Seventh „ 
Eighth „ 
Ninth „ 



Number of 
Primes 



78,499' 
70,433 
67,885 
66,329 

63,799 
63,158 

62,760 



Difference 



8066 
2548 
1556 



641 

398 



1 1 and 2 are'eounted as primes. 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



49 



The numbers of primes in each quarter million in the first four mil- 
lions are : — 





First 
Million 


Second 
Million 


Third 

Million 


Fourth 
Million 


First quarter 
Second „ 
Third „ 
Fourth „ 


22,045 
19,494 
18,700 
18,260 


17,971 
17,682 
17,455 
17,325 


17,150 
16,991 
16,922 
16,822 


16,761 
16,573 
16,566 
16,429 


Total 


78,499 


70,433 


67,885 


66,329 



The following is a list of successions of composite numbers of ninety - 
nine and upwards occurring in the fourth million : — 



Sequences of 99 and Upwards. 



Lower Limit 


Upper Limit 


Sequence 


3,064,751 


3,064,861 


109 


3,117,299 


3,117,421 


121 


3,225,539 


3,225,647 


107 


3,240,983 


3,241,093 


109 


3,254,959 


3.255,059 


99 


3,279,841 


3,279,949 


107 


3,359,113 


3,359,221 


107 


3,392,341 


3,392,443 


101 


3,422,813 


3,422,917 


103 


3,453,833 


3,453,943 


109 


3,583,417 


3,583,529 


111 


3,592,109 


3,592,213 


103 


3,593,203 


3,593,311 


107 


3,595,489 


3,595,589 


99 


3,826,019 


3,826,157 


137 


3,828,973 


3,829,079 


105 


3,851,459 


3,851,-587 


127 


3,933,599 


3,933,731 


131 



The meaning of this table is that the 109 numbers between 3,064,751 
and 3,064,861 are composite, and so on — viz., the numbers in the 
first two columns are primes, and the numbers intermediate to the lower 
limit and the upper limit are all composite. The above list is not given 
as being necessarily complete, although it probably includes all, or 
very nearly all, the sequences of ninety-nine and upwards. 

Similar lists of sequences for the other millions are given in the 
'Messenger of Mathematics,' vol. vii. pp. 102-106; 171-176 (1877 and 
1878). 

It may be mentioned that the longest sequence met with in the first 
million was 113, in the second 131, in the third 147, in the fourth 137, 
in the seventh 145, in the eighth 147, and in the ninth 151. 

II. — Tables of the Legendrian Functions. 

The tables contain the values of P"(aj) for n=l, 2, 3,... 7 from x = 
to x = 1, at intervals of 0*01. The functions tabulated are 

P°0)=1, 
P 1 (x)=x, 

1879. E 



50 



REPOET 1879. 



P 2 C*0 = K3.-« 2 -i), 

F\x)=±(5x 3 -3x), 
P*(as) = |(35a5 4 -30a; 2 + 3), 
V 5 (x) = ^(6Sx 5 -70x 3 + 15x), 

v 6 (x) =TV(' 231a!6 - 315a!4 +i 05a!2 - 5 ). 

P7(aj) = T V(429z 7 -693;e 5 + 315:e 3 -35a;). 

The functions present themselves extensively in the higher parts of 
mathematics (in reference to the attraction of spheroids and other physical 
theories l ) ; but they first occur in the theory of interpolation : see Gauss, 
1 Methodus nova integralium valores per approximationem inveniendi ' 
('Comment. Gott. recent,' t. iii. pp. 39-76 (1816), or ' Werke,' t. iii. pp. 
165-196), from which the numerical results given in the present intro- 
duction are taken. 2 

Suppose that y, a function of x, has to be approximately determined 
for the range x = to x = 1, by means of the values of y corresponding 

to n given values of x over this range ; or say that the integral / ydx 

has to be thus determined. In the original theory, as developed by Cotes 
in the 'Harmonia Mensurarum ' (1722), the given values of x are taken 
to be at equal intervals, viz., for n = 2, they are 0, 1 ; for n = 3, they are 



o, 


1 1 • 

2> x ) 


for n 


= 4, they are 


u ) 3' 5' 


1, and so on. 








a 


To 


Y a 


Y 2a 


YSa 


Y 4 « 


Y 5a 


Y 6a 


Y 7 « 


Y8a 


Y 9a 


YlOa 


l 


1 
2 


1 

2 




















l 

2 


1 
6 


2 
3 


1 

6 


















l 

3 


1 

8 


3 

8 


3 

8 


1 

8 
















1 


7 


16 


2 


16 


7 














4 


90 


45 


15 


45 


90 














1 
5 


19 

288 


25 
96 


25 

144 


25 
144 


25 
96 


19 

288 












1 


41 


9 


9 


34 


9 


9 


41 










i; 


840 


35 


280 


105 


280 


35 


840 










l 

7 


751 
172S0 


3577 
17280 


49 

640 


2989 


2989 

17280 


49 

640 


3577 

17280 


751 
17280 








17280 


1 
8 


989 
28350 


2944 
14175 


464 
14175 


5248 


454 

2835 


5248 
14175 


464 
14175 


2944 

14175 


989 
28350 






14175 


1 
9 


2857 
89600 


15741 

89600 


27 
2240 


1209 
5600 


2889 
44800 


2889 


1209 
5600 


27 
2240 


15741 
89600 


2857 
89600 




44800 


1 


16067 


26575 


16175 
199584 


5675 


4825 


17807 


4825 


5675 


16175 
199584 


26575 


16067 


10 598752 


149688 


12474 


11088 


24948 


11088 


12474 


149688 


598752 



Representing y as a function of x of the order n — 1, and determining 

1 See Todhunter's Treatise on Laplace's Functions (1875), Ferrers's Treatise on 
Splwrieal Harmonics (1877), or Heine's Handbuch der KugelfwncUorwn (1878). 

2 A short notice of Gauss's method is given in Boole's Finite Differences, second 
edition, edited by Moulton (1872), ch. iii., art, 12, pp. 50-53. 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 51 

the coefficients in this manner, we have an expression for y from which 
the integral / ydx may be calculated. Denoting the interval by a, that 

is, writing a = ^Z\> tbe resulting formulas, corresponding to the values 
n = 2, 3,... 11 respectively, are as follows : — 
Thus, for example, 

or =iY + |Y+iT 1 , 

or =iY + fT 4 +tT J + iT 1> 
&c, &c. 

In the new theory of Gauss, it is shown that it is advantageous to take 
the given values of x not at equal intervals, but to be the values which 
are the roots of the equation 

P»(2aj-1) = 0; 

thus f or n = 1 the value is x = i for n = 2 the values are i ± o-7o> 
and so on. 

The resulting formulas are as follows : — 

/ ydx = Ay a if n = 1, 

= Ay a + A'y af ]£n = 2, 

= Ay a +A>y a ,+A"y a ,,i? n = 3, 

= &c, 

where the values of a, a'... and the coefficients A, A'... for the different 

values of n are 

n = 1, 

A = l. 

Approximate correction = ^ L". 1 
to = 2. 

1 Suppose in general the true value of y is 

V = L + L'(^-i) + L"(«-i) 2 + &c, 

then the correction to be applied to / ydx in the general case is 

where Z« denotes the correction to be applied to / {x-±)™dx; so that Z (2nl L (2n1 

t/ o 

may be regarded as the approximate correction to / ydx. Thus, for example, y 
being as above, 

f\dx= L + i L" + il/v + 4 _i_l- + to. j 
if » = 1, the formula gives L, and the approximate correction = v 9 L"; if n = 2, 
the formula gives L + ^ L" + j|j L iv + &c, and the approximate correction 



E 2 



52 report — 1879. 

a, a' = 0-5 =F 0-28867 51345 94812 9, 
A = A = g ; 

Approximate correction = — - JJ-y, 

180 

to = 3. 

a, a" = 0-5 =p 0-38729 83346 20741 7, 
a' = 0-5, 

T5> 



A = A" = ' 



A' — * - 

Approximate correction = - L™. 

<2800 

»i-= 4. 

a, a'" = 0-5 =F 0-43056 81557 97024 6, 

a', a" = 0-5 + 0-16999 05217 92432 3, 
A = A" = 0-17392 74225 68728 4 ; log = 9-24036 80612. 
A' = A" = 0-32607 25774 31271 6 ; log = 9-51331 42764. 

35 17 

Coefficients 1 given by - j^« 2 + ^ ; 

Approximate correction = , ,,^ L^- 

« = 5. 

a, a iv = 0-5 + 0-45308 99229 69332 0, 

a', a'" = 0-5 + 0-26923 46550 52841 5, 

a" = 0-5, 

A = A iv = 0-11846 34425 28094 5 ; log = 9-07358 43490, 

A' = A'" = 0-23931 43352 49683 2 ; log = 9-37896 87142, 

64 
A" = 225 = 0-28444 44444 44444 4 ; log = 9-45399 74559. 

91 1099 

Coefficients, except A", given by — Tnr)^ + 3600 ' 

Approximate correction = cqQKAA ^ x * 
n = 6. 

a, a7 = 0-5 + 0-46623 47571 01576 0, 

a', a" = 0-5 + 0-33060 46932 33132 2, 

a", a'" = 0-5 =F 0-11930 95930 41598 5, 

A =A V =0-08566 22461 89585 2 ; log = 8-93278 94580, 

A' = A iT = 0-18038 07865 24069 3 ; log = 9-25619 02763, 

A" = A" = 0-23395 69672 86345 5 ; log = 9-36913 59831. 

77 7 23 

Coefficients given by — qqq « 4 — sr u 2 + gg ; 

1 

Approximate correction = -. -. aqqaqq l jXU » 

n = 7. 

.so ~ is) Uv = m^ v > if n = 3 ' the formu]a S ives L+ l2 L " + 4 ]yY+ 

3 • / 1 3 \ 1 

jgOQ L vl + &c., and the approximate correction = f jrg — Jqqq ) L Tl = orq?)^' 

1 That is to say, the coefficients A, A',... are obtained by substituting respectively 
the values of a, a',... for u in this formula; a similar explanation applies to the 
cases of n = 5, 6, 7. 



( 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



53 



a Tl = 0-5 + 0-47455 39561 71379 
a', a v = 0-5 =F 0-37076 55927 99697 
a", a" = 0-5 + 0-20292 25756 88698 



a, 



8, 
2, 
5, 



84434 
44638 
52559 



= 0-5, 

A = A« =0-06474 24830 

A' = A v = 0-13985 26957 

A" = A" = 0-19091 50252 
256 

A "' = 1225 = °- 20897 
Coefficients, except A'", given by — 



95918 36734 



8 ; log = 8-81118 93529, 

4 ; log = 9-14567 08421, 

5 ; log = 9-28084 0J093, 

7 ; log = 9-32010 38766. 



1859 
16800 '' 



1573 i 7947 
29400 U + 39200 



1 . 

Approximate correction = -.75579359 h xlv . 

It is obvious tbat tbe foregoing formulae give at once tbe roots of the 
equations P"(a;) = 0, viz., 

For n = 2, tbe roots are ± 0-57735 02691 89626 ; 

n = 3, „ „ 



» 



n = 4, 
n = 5. 



n 



n 



= 6, 



= 7, 



and 

± 0-77459 66692 41483 ; 

± 0-33998 10435 84865, 

± 0-86113 63115 94049 ; 

and 

± 0-53846 93101 05683, 

±0-90617 98459 38664; 

± 0-23861 91860 83197, 

± 0-66120 93864 66264, 

± 0-93246 95142 03152 ; 

and 

± 0-40584 51513 77397, 

± 0-74153 11855 99394, 

-1- 0-94910 79123 42760. 



As tbe functions ~P n (x) contain only powers of 2 in tbe denominators 
tbe decimal values terminate, and in tbe following tables tbe complete 
values are given. Two independent calculations were made, one by Mr. 
Barrett Davis, and tbe other under tbe supervision of the reporter, by 
whom they were compared, corrected, and differenced. As the values 
in the tables are complete, the second, third,... seventh differences in the 
respective functions were absolutely constant, and thus afforded an exact 
verification. The calculations were performed seven years ago, and are 
referred to in tbe Report for 1873, p. 170 ; the tables were not published, 
however, as about that time the issue of a separate volume containing 
these and some other tables which it was proposed to calculate was con- 
templated by tbe Committee. 

The plate (Plate I.) contains drawings of the curves y = P l (%), 
y = V 2 (x),...y = P 7 (a;) from x = to x = 1, made from the tables. 
The positions of the roots of the functions are readily identified with tbe 
numerical values given above. 



54 



KEPORT — 1879. 



X 


P'(*) 


P 2 0O 


P3(*) 


P 4 0) 








-05 





+ 0-375 


0-01 


o-oi 


-0-49985 


-0-0149975 


+ 037462504375 


0-02 


0-02 


-04994 


-0-02998 


+ 0-3735007 


0-03 


0-03 


-049865 


-00449325 


+ 0-37162854375 


004 


0-04 


-0-4976 


-0-05984 


+ 0-3690112 


0-05 


0-05 


-0-49625 


-0-0746875 


+ 0-36565234375 


0-06 


0-06 


-0-4946 


-008946 


+ 0-3615567 


0-07 


0-07 


-0-49265 


-0-1041425 


+ 0-35673004375 


0-08 


0-08 


-0-4904 


-0-11872 


+ 0-3511792 


0-09 


009 


-0-48785 


-0-1331775 


+ 0-34491204375 


0-10 


0.10 


-0-485 


-0-1475 


+ 0-3379375 


Oil 


Oil 


-048185 


-01616725 


+ 0-33026554375 


0-12 


0-12 


-0-4784 


-0-17568 


+ 0-3219072 


0-13 


013 


-0-47465 


-0-1895075 


+ 0-31287454375 


0-14 


0-14 


-0-4706 


-0-20314 


+ 0-3031807 


0-15 


015 


-0-46625 


-0-2165625 


+ 029283984375 


0-16 


016 


-0-4616 


-0-22976 


+ 0-2818672 


0-17 


0-17 


-0-45665 


-0-2427175 


+ 0-27027904375 


0-18 


0-18 


-0-4514 


-0-25542 


+ 0-2580927 


019 


0-19 


-0-44585 


-0-2678525 


+ 0-24532654375 . 


0-20 


0-20 


-0-44 


-0-28 


+ 0232 


0-21 


0-21 


-0-43385 


-0-2918475 


+ 0-21813354375 


022 


0-22 


-0-4274 


-0-30338 


+ 0-2037487 


0-23 


0-23 


-0-42065 


-0-3145825 


+ 0-18886804375 


0-24 


024 


-0-4136 


-0-32544 


+ 0-1735152 


0-25 


0-25 


-0-40625 


-0-3359375 


+ 0-15771484375 


0-26 


026 


-0-3986 


-0-34606 


+ 0-1414927 


0-27 


0-27 


-0-39065 


-0-3557925 


+ 012487554375 


0-28 


0-28 


-0-3824 


-0-36512 


+ 0-1078912 


029 


029 


-0-37385 


-0-3740275 


+ 009056854375 


030 


0-30 


-0-365 


-0-3825 


+ 0-0729375 


031 


031 


-0-35585 


-0-3905225 


+ 005502904375 


0-32 


0-32 


-0-3464 


-0-39808 


+ 00368752 


0-33 


033 


-0-33665 


-0-4051575 


+ 0-01850904375 


0-34 


0-34 


-0-3266 


-0-41174 


-0-0000353 


035 


0-35 


-0-31625 


-0-4178125 


-0-01872265625 


0-36 


036 


-0-3056 


-0-42336 


-0-0375168 


0-37 


0-37 


-0-29465 


-0-4283675 


-005638045625 


0-38 


0-38 


-0-2834 


-0-43282 


-0-0752753 


0-39 


0-39 


-0-27185 


-0-4367025 


-0-09416195625 


0-40 


0-40 


-0-26 


-0-44 


-0113 


0-41 


0-41 


-0-24785 


-0-4426975 


-0-13174795625 


0-42 


0-42 


-0-2354 


-0-44478 


-0-1503633 


0-43 


0-43 


-0-22265 


-0-4462325 


-016880245625 


0-44 


0-44 


-0-2096 


-0-44704 


-0-1870208 


045 


0-45 


-0-19625 


-0-4471875 


-0-20497265625 


46 


0-46 


-0-1826 


-0-44666 


-0-2226113 


047 


0-47 


-0-16865 


-0-4454425 


-0-23988895625 


0-48 


0-48 


-0-1544 


-0-44352 


-0-2567568 


0-49 


0-49 


-0-13985 


-0-4408775 


-0-27316495625 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



55 



.T 


p>00 


p2 (*) . 


P3(s) 


P*(» 


0-50 


0-50 


-0-125 


-0-4375 


-0-2890625 


0-51 


0-51 


-0-10985 


-0-4333725 


-0-30439745625 


0-52 


0-52 


-0-0944 


-0-42848 


-0-3191168 


0-53 


0-53 


-0-07865 


-0-4228075 


-0-33316645625 


0-54 


0-54 


-0-0626 


-0-41634 


-0-3464913 


0-55 


0-55 


-004625 


-0-4090625 


-0-35903515625 


056 


0-56 


-0-0296 


-040096 


-0-3707408 


0-57 


0-57 


-0-01265 


-0-3920175 


-0-38154995625 


0-58 


0-58 


+ 0-0046 


-0-38222 


-0-3914033 


059 


0-59 


+ 0-02215 


-0-3715525 


-0-40024045625 


0-60 


0-60 


+ 0-04 


-0-36 


-0-408 


0-61 


0-61 


+ 0-05815 


-0-3475475 


-041461945625 


0-62 


0-62 


+ 0-0766 


-0-33418 


-0-4200353 


063 


0-63 


+ 009535 


-03198825 


-042418295625 


0-64 


0-64 


+ 0-1144 


-0-30464 


-0-4269968 


0-65 


0-65 


+ 0-13375 


-0-2884375 


-0-42841015625 


0-66 


0-66 


+ 0-1534 


-0-27126 


-0-4283553 


0-67 


0-67 


+ 0-17335 


-0-2530925 


-042676345625 


0-68 


0-68 


+ 0-1936 


-0-23392 


-0-4235648 


. 0-69 


0-69 


+ 0-21415 


-0-2137275 


-0-41868845625 


0-70 


0-70 


+ 0-235 


-01925 


-0-4120625 


0-71 


0-71 


+ 0-25615 


-0-1702225 


-0-40361395625 


0-72 


0-72 


+ 0-2776 


-0-14688 


-0-3932688 


0-73 


0-73 


+ 0-29935 


-01224575 


-0-38095195625 


0-74 


0-74 


+ 0-3214 


-0-09694 


-0-3665873 


0-75 


0-75 


+ 0-34375 


-0-0703125 


-0-35009765625 


0-76 


0-76 


+ 0-3664 


-0-04256 


-0-3314048 


0-77 


0-77 


+ 0-38935 


-0-0136675 


-0-31042945625 


0-78 


078 


+ 0-4126 


+ 0-01638 


-0-2870913 


0-79 


0-79 


+ 0-43615 


+ 0-0475975 


-0-26130895625 


0-80 


0-80 


+ 0-46 


+ 0-08 


-0233 


0-81 


0-81 


+ 0-48415 


+ 0-1136025 


-0-20208095625 


0-82 


0-82 


+ 0-5086 


+ 0-14842 


-0-1684673 


0-83 


0-83 


+ 0-53335 


+ 0-1844675 


-0-13207345625 


0-84 


0-84 


+ 0-5584 


+ 0-22176 


-0-0928128 


0-85 


0-85 


+ 0-58375 


+ 0-2603125 


-0-05059765625 


0-86 


0-86 


+ 0-6094 


+ 0-30014 


-00053393 


0-87 


0-87 


+ 063535 


+ 0-3412575 


+ 0-04305204375 


0-88 


0-88 


+ 0-6616 


+ 0-38368 


+ 0-0946672 


0-89 


0-89 


+ 0-68815 


+ 0-4274225 


+ 0-14959804375 


0-90 


0-90 


+ 0-715 


+ 0-4725 


+ 0-2079375 


0-91 


0-91 


+ 0-74215 


+ 0-5189275 


+ 0-26977954375 


0-92 


0-92 


+ 0-7696 


+ 0-56672 


+ 0-3352192 


0-93 


0-93 


+ 0-79735 


+ 0-6158925 


+ 0-40435254375 


0-94 


0-94 


+ 0-8254 


+ 0-66646 


+ 0-4772767 


0-95 


0-95 


+ 0-85375 


+ 0-7184375 


+ 0-55408984375 


0-96 


0-96 


+ 0-8824 


+ 0-77184 


+ 06348912 


0-97 


0-97 


+ 0-91135 


+ 0-8266825 


+ 0-71978104375 


0-98 


0-98 


+ 0-9406 


+ 0-88298 


+ 0-8088607 


0-99 


0-99 


+ 0-97015 


+ 0-9407475 


+ 0-90223254375 


1 


1 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 1 



56 



REPORT 1879. 



X 


P5(.r) 


P6(x) 


p y w 








-0-3125 





0-01 


+ 0-0187412507875 


-0-3118439468605625 


-0-021855316830981875 


0-02 


+ 0-0374300252 


-0-309878149076 


-0-04359263856568 


0-03 


+ 0-0560139413625 


-0-3066096863500625 


- 0-065094489407360625 


0-04 


+ 0-0744408064 


-0-302050340864 


-0-08624443080704 


0-05 


+ 0-0926587109375 


-0-2962165712890625 


- 0-106927576708984375 


0-06 


+ 0-1106161236 


-0-289129476404 


-0-12703110474216 


0-07 


+ 0-1282619855125 


-0-2808147483175625 


-0-146444762006283125 


008 


+ 0-1455458048 


-0-271302615296 


-0-16506136410112 


0-09 


+ 0-1624177510875 


-0-2606277741955625 


-O-182777286047686875 


0-10 


+ 0-17882875 


-0-2488293125 


-0-19949294375 


0-11 


+ 0-1947305776625 


-0-2359506199630625 


-0-215113264646025625 


0-12 


+ 0-210Q759552 


-0-222039289856 


-0-22954814619648 


013 


+ 0-2248186432375 


-0-2071470098200625 


-0-242712900860129375 


0-14 


+ 0-2389135364 


-0191329442324 


-0-25452868620424 


0-15 


+ 0-2523167578125 


-0-1746460947265625 


-0-26492291879S828125 


0-16 


+ 02649857536 


-0-157160178944 


-0-27382967054336 


0-17 


+ 0-2768793873875 


-01389384607225625 


-0-281190046074551875 


0-18 


+ 0-2879580348 


-0-120051098516 


-028695253990392 


0-19 


+ 0-2981836779625 


-0-1005714719680625 


-0-291073371933730625 


0-20 


• +0-30752 


-0080576 


-0-2935168 


0-21 


+ 0-3159324795375 


-0-0601439485030625 


-0-294255408091194375 


0-22 


+ 0-3233884852 


-0039357227636 


-0-29327036889128 


0-23 


+ 0-3298573701125 


-00183001787275625 


-0-290551679295773125 


024 


+ 0-3353105664 


+ 0-002940649216 


-0-28609836754944 


0-25 


+ 0-3397216796875 


+ 0-0242767333984375 


- 0-279918670654296875 


0-26 


+ 0-3430665836 


+ 0-045617821516 


-0-27203018069656 


0-27 


+ 0-3453235142625 


+ 0-0668721864349375 


-0-262459958741195625 


028 


+ 0-3464731648 


+ 0-087946891264 


-0-25124461494272 


0-29 


+ 0-3464987798375 


+ 0-1087480648219375 


- 0-238430353520899375 


0-30 


+ 0-34538625 


+ 0-1291811875 


-0-22407298125 


0-31 


+ 0-3431242064125 


+ 0-1491513875194375 


- 0-208237878110238125 


0-32 


+ 0-3397041152 


+ 0-168563747584 


-0-19099992875008 


033 


+ 0-3351203719875 


+ 0-1873236219274375 


-0-172443413408041875 


034 


+ 03293703964 


+ 0-205336963756 


-0-15266185694264 


035 


+ 0-3224547265625 


+ 0-2225106630859375 


-0131757834619140625 


0-36 


+ 0-3143771136 


+ 0-238752894976 


-0-10984273330176 


0-37 


+ 0-3051446161375 


+ 0-2539734781549375 


- 0087036466699964375 


038 


+ 0-2947676948 


+ 0-268084244044 


-006346714331752 


0-39 


+ 0-2832603067125 


+ 0-2809994161744375 


- 0039270685752943125 


040 


+ 0-27064 


+ 0-292636 


-0-0145904 


0-41 


+ 0-2569280082875 


+ 0-3029141831044375 


+ 0-010423506603093125 


0-42 


+ 0-2421493452 


+ 0-311757745804 


+ 0-03561446012712 


0.43 


+ 0-2263328988625 


+ 0-3190944821449375 


+ 0-060820108859314375 


0-44 


+ 0-2095115264 


+ 0-324856631296 


+ 0-08587296751616 


0-45 


+ 0-1917221484375 


+ 0-3289813193359375 


+ 0-110601118212890625 


0-46 


+ 0-1730058436 


+ 0-331411011436 


+ 0-13482896954104 


0-47 


+ 0-1534079430125 


+ 0-3320939744374375 


+ 0-158378075105391875 


0-48 


+ 0-1329781248 


+ 0-330984749824 


+ 0-18106801287168 


0-49 


+ 0-1117705085875 


+ 0-3280446370894375 


+ 0-202717326676388125 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



57 



X 


P*0) 


P60) 


P 7 O0 


0-50 


+ 0-08984375 


+ 0-3232421875 


+ 0-22314453125 


0-51 


+ 00672611351625 


+ 03165537082519375 


+ 0-242169182105049375 


0-52 


+ 0-0440906752 


+ 0-307963777024 


+ 0-25961301164032 


0-53 


+ 0-0204052007375 


+ 0-2974657669249375 


+ 0-275301132812545625 


0-54 


-00037175436 


+ 0-285062381836 


+ 0-28906331172696 


0-55 


-0-0281948046875 


+ 0-2707662021484375 


+ 0-300735310498046875 


0-56 


-0-0529387264 


+ 0-254600240896 


+ 0-31016030173184 


0-57 


-0-0778562551125 


+ 0-2365985102824375 


+ 0-317190355981123125 


0-58 


-0-1028490452 


+ 0-216806598604 


+ 0-32168800352488 


0-59 


-0-1278133645375 


+ 0-1952822575669375 


+ 0-323527871823344375 


0-60 


-0-15264 


+ 0172096 


+ 0-3225984 


0-61 


-0-1772141629625 


+ 0-1473317079619375 


+ 0-318803631701880625 


0-62 


-0-2014153948 


+ 0-121087251244 


+ 0-31206508768952 


0-63 


-0-2251174723875 


+ 00934751162674375 


+ 0-302323719507901875 


0-64 


-0-2481883136 


+ 0-064623045376 


+ 0-28954194558976 


0-65 


-0-2704898828125 


+ 0-0346746865234375 


+ 0-273705771142578125 


0-66 


-0-2918780964 


+ 0-003790253356 


+ 0-25482699317064 


0-67 


-0-3122027282375 


-0-0278528043100625 


+ 0-232945491983479375 


0-68 


-0-3313073152 


-0-060059119616 


+ 0-20813161054208 


0-69 


-0-3490290626625 


-0-0926147173930625 


+ 0-180488622994175625 


0-70 


-0-36519875 


-0-1252863125 


+ 0-15015529375 


071 


-0-3796406360875 


-0-1578205977655625 


+ 0-117308528449836875 


0-72 


-0-3921723648 


-0-189943521536 


+ 0-08216611817472 


0-73 


-0-4026048705125 


-0-2213595548275625 


+ 0-044989578251633125 


0-74 


-0-4107422836 


-0-251750948084 


+ 0-00608708300456 


0-75 


-0-4163818359375 


-0-2807769775390625 


-0-034183502197265625 


0-76 


-0-4193137664 


-0-308073181184 


-0-07541149024256 


0-77 


-0-4193212263625 


-0-3332505843400625 


-0-117130141581289375 


0-78 


-0-4161801852 


-0-355894914836 


-0-15881333217672 


0-79 


-0-4096593357875 


-0-3755658077905625 


-0-199872118754868125 


0-80 


-0-39952 


-0-391796 


-0-2396512 


0-81 


-0-3855160342125 


-0-4040905139305625 


- 0-277425272344831875 


0-82 


-0-3673937348 


-0-411925831316 


-0-31239527900408 


0-83 


-0-3448917436375 


-0-4147490563600625 


- 0-343684550900010625 


0-84 


-0-3177409536 


-0-411977068544 


-0-37033483812864 


0-85 


-0-2856644140625 


-0-4029956650390625 


- 0-391302230615234375 


0-86 


-02483772364 


-0-387158692724 


-0-40545296660776 


0-87 


-0-2055864994875 


-0-3637871698075625 


-0-411559127656933125 


0-88 


-0-1569911552 


-0-332168397056 


-0-40829421873152 


0-89 


-0-1022819339125 


-0-2915550586255625 


-0-394228632117536875 


090 


-0-04114125 


-0-2411643125 


-0-36782499375 


0-91 


+ 0-0267568926625 


-0-1801768705330625 


- 0-327433390625875625 


0-92 


+ 0-1017469952 


-0-107736068096 


-0-27128647794688 


0-93 


+ 0-1841721582375 


-0-0229469233300625 


-0-197494464640779375 


0-94 


+ 0-2743841764 


+ 0-075124813996 


-0-10403997590984 


0-95 


+ 0-3727436328125 


+ 0-1874536240234375 


+ 0-011227208544921875 


0-96 


+ 0-4796199936 


+ 0-315055188736 


+ 0-15059554197504 


0-97 


+ 05953917023875 


+ 0-4589873742874375 


+ 0-316497225062798125 


0-98 


+ 0-7204462748 


+ 0-620351223724 


+ 051151384877768 


0-99 


+ 0-8551803929625 


+ 0-8002919601019375 


+ 0-738382166962419375 


1-00 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 1 



58 eepobt — 1879. 



Sixth Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Hebschel, 
Jf.il., F.R.A.S., Professor G. A. Leboue, F.Q.8., and Mr. J. T. 
Dunn, B.Sc, on Experiments to determine the Thermal Con- 
ductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geological 
Aspects of the Investigation. 

The research and correspondence necessary for the completion of an 
historical sketch of the attempts hitherto made to determine experimentally 
the Thermal Conductivities of various Rocks occurring widely over the 
earth's surface, which the Committee proposed to prepare during the past 
year, are not so far advanced at present as to allow them to be compre- 
hended in this year's Report. The Committee hopes, by continuing its 
enquiries for another year, with the addition to its numbers of Professors 
W. E. Ayrton and J. Perry, of the Imperial College of Engineering in Japan, 
who have pursued the subject practically with the greatest attention and 
success, to carry out the object of their undertaking, so as to exhibit the 
present state of our knowledge of the data of Thermal Conductivity, 
needful for discussions of the conditions of the earth's temperature, which 
have been determined by observations and experiments. 

In a paper of great practical interest in this respect, 1 published at the 
end of the year 1876, by Professor Stefan, of Vienna, a series of experi- 
ments is described, by which he determined very accurately the absolute 
thermal conductivity of ordinary Ebonite. The process used being the 
same in principle (although differing from it a little in its details) , as that 
adopted by Professors Ayrton and Perry for determining the thermal 
conductivity of some specimens of a kind of Japanese building-stone, 
employs for its application Fourier's formulas, and therefore gives the 
absolute conductivity, in the first instance, indirectly, or only in terms of 
the heat-capacity of a cubic centimetre of the trial-substance as the unit 
of heat- quantity, instead of in absolute heat-units. The value in absolute 
heat-units of this thermal capacity of the substance has then to be deter- 
mined by a subsidiary experiment. As the very trustworthy value found 
by this otherwise convenient method affords a useful standard for com- 
parison with other methods, that adopted by the Committee was checked, 
during the past year, by applying it to determine directly the thermal 
conductivity of a plate of ordinary ebonite, together with that of some 
plates of vulcanised indiarubber, with which, by the courtesy of their 
agent in Newcastle, Mr. W. Beer, the Committee was furnished from the 
Silvertown Works of the Indiarubber and Guttapercha Company in 
London. 

Some omitted measurements of rock conductivities were also made at 
the close of the past year, with the Committee's apparatus. But owing 
to some deterioration which it has in the meantime undergone in its con- 
dition, they are insufficiently high, as proved by the values found for red 
serpentine and white Sicilian marble. As the results, however, possess a 
relative value among themselves, and also in relation to these two speci- 
mens of which the conductivities have before been very well determined, 
they are added to the last- mentioned observations, in the accompanying 

1 ' Sitzungsberichte ' of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna, vol. for 
1876, part ii. ; November, 1876. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 59 

Table, with the probable values which they may be conjectured to indicate 
very nearly as concluded from comparisons of the known with the defec- 
tively observed conductivities of the twb rock-plates of reference. 

The uncertainty which attached, in last year's Report, to the obser- 
vations of the specific heats of some porous rocks, has now been removed 
by repeating the experiment of boiling them in water, and immediately 
weighing them to determine the quantity of boiling-hot water which they 
absorbed. The result is that the assumption made in last year's Report 
that the quantity of water so imbibed is in general half the weight which 
they are found to have gained by an immediate immersion, after boiling, 
in cold water, is fully verified. The fraction of the total water-gain which, 
for example, entered the six specimens of Craigleith sandstone during the 
first process of boiling them, had the real values 0'41-0"49 (average 0"45). 
The corrections which the specific heats of these porous sandstones given 
in the Table of last year's Report require for this little imperfection of the 
adopted allowance is so small as only to affect by a single significant unit 

(and in the ratio - by one or two units), a few of the thirty numbers 
c 

given for these sandstones in the Table. The same substantiation of the 
figures in the Table has been found for all the sandstones (water-absorp- 
tion 6 - l-8 - 4 per cent.), and other rocks (including Mansfeld limestone, 
absorption 8"1 per cent.), not exceeding them in porosity. Newcastle 
firebrick (absorption 14 - 3 per cent.) is an extreme case in which the 

allowance adopted, and the values of the specific heats, and of the ratio, - 

given in the Table require no sensible correction. In rocks which, like 
the last, exceed the pure sandstones in porosity, the rule for correcting 
the Table illustrated by examples in the last Report, to regard the allow- 
ance adopted in the Table as too little by a half, is now proved to be sub- 
stantially correct, the ratios for Caenstone, Great Pyramid, and Castle 
Eden limestones, Godstone chalk, 1 firestone, and sandstone, magnesite, 
and plaster-of-Paris, all lying between 074 and 0*85, the last of which 
ratios is an exceptionally high proportion, for Castle Eden limestone. 

On correcting the tabular specific heats of these very porous rocks (as 
has been done in the short recapitulation of them given below, in the 
manner described by some examples in last year's Report), by the actual 
fractions of total water-gain now found to have been introduced into the 
plates by boiling them, a close agreement of the corrected values (with 
only one exception) is produced with the common value, about 0"20, of 
the heat- capacities of nearly all the other rocks recorded in the Table. 
The real specific heat, by weight of plaster-of-Paris alone, agrees (as was 
surmised correctly in last year's Report) with that of English alabaster, 
or gypsum, and nearly also with red and green serpentine from Cornwall, 
in being exceptionally high (026-028). If the metallic ores, galena and 
iron pyrites, are excluded from the list, the only other examples of rocks 
in the Table, whose specific heats differ by more than one or two significant 
units from the common value, - 20, are the specimens of Newcastle black 
shale (0"29), and coal of two varieties, cannel coal, and ordinary pit-coal, 

1 The specimen of pure white chalk, whose thermal properties, as partly tested, 
have been previously described in these Keports, having yielded and crumbled last 
year in the experiment on its specific heat, could not be submitted this year to a 
repetition of the same experiment. 



60 REPORT — 1879. 

which have the extreme specific heats by weight, 029 and 037. The 
present well-measured specific heat of pnmice stone (024, unless the plate 
contained a considerable quantity of hygroscopic moisture) , is also appre- 
ciably above the common value to which the heat-capacities of nearly all 
the different descriptions of rocks tested approximate very closely in the 
Table. 

To the above-proved rule of partial water-absorption by boiling, among 
the very porous rocks, the plate of pumice stone presented an exception. 
While absorbing a fifth of a pound (75 - 6 per cent, of its weight) of water 
by boiling and immediate immersion in cold water, which far surpasses 
the observed porosity of any other porous kind of rock examined, only 
three-quarters of an ounce, or 021 of the former quantity, enters the 
plate, and occupies its pores during the process of boiling only. 1 The 
fraction of half the total water gain, provisionally assumed in the Table to 
be introduced into the porous rocks by boiling, is therefore here too great, 
instead of too little, by about a half of its amount. The large uncertainty, 
until this plate's water-absorption could be re-observed, led to the omis- 
sion, in the Table of last year's Report, of the data found for pumice stone, 
the real values of which are now given in the subjoined list of verified 
determinations. 

In the hope of discovering an explanation of the wide difference which 
exists between the various conductivities hitherto recorded in these 
Reports, and a list of similar conductivities published in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1873 (vol. viii., p. 66), by Professor 
G. Forbes (the values in which are not more than a fourth or a fifth of those 
described in these Reports), the Committee requested Professor Forbes to 
search for possible errors among the numbers used as constant factors in 
his calculations, while it submitted its own reductions to a similar ex- 
amination. The result of Professor Forbes's re-examination is not yet 
received ; but the Committee has had the annoyance to find that one such 
small error has unsuspectedly been committed in its own determinations. 

Among the factors used, since the outset of its experiments, to convert 

into terms of absolute conductivity the rate of heat- flow measured directly 

in the 5-inch plates, a number, 196, was used inadvertently in place of 

the correct multiplier, 220, to effect a portion of the transformation. All 

the observed values that have hitherto been described in these Reports as 

obtained from year to year of the absolute conductivities (k), and of the 

• & 
ratio - of the various rock-specimens which have been tested are there- 



1 Equally irregular departures from perfect conformity to a common rule occur 
in some examples of the less porous kinds of rocks, where the yery moderate absorp- 
tion of water, however, renders the deviations of their properties of little sensible 
influence, as affecting the provisionally assigned values of their specific heats so as 
to make them needful of any appreciable corrections. The hot-water absorption by 
gas coke is like that of pumice stone, but a quarter, instead of a half or three- 
quarters of its total water gain, which in this slightly porous substance is only 2-9 
per cent, by weight. The small correction which this entails on the specific heat 
by weight (0193), as given in the Table, is the additional quantity 00073, making 
the real specific heat from the experiments, 02003. This is even more nearly iden- 
tical with the value, - 201, for coke of anthracite, given by Eegnault, than the 
former provisional value was, the near agreement of which with Kegnault's deter- 
mination was pointed out in the comparative Table of such observations in last 
year's Report. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 61 

fore deficient in their recorded values by an eighth part of their assigned 
magnitudes. While requiring this addition of an eighth part to their 
magnitudes, the absolute resistances given as the practical results of the 
experiments, require, to correct them for the same source of error, to be 
diminished by a ninth part of their stated values. Examples of the 
needful corrections which will suffice to remove the misconstructions 
introduced by this entirely unsuspected error of reduction, are given in 
the last three columns of the accompanying short Table of amended data. 

The values of the measures h and - in the three preceding adjoining 

c 

columns are increased, for correctness, in these new columns by an eighth 
part ; while in the same columns the absolute resistances given in the former 
columns are diminished by a ninth part of their values. The Committee 
desires to submit this easy process of correction as an immediately neces- 
sary treatment of all the experimental results of absolute thermal conduc- 
tivities and resistances at which it has arrived, and which have hitherto 
been published in the pages and Tables of these Reports, before the present 
year, for their proper emendation. It will then be found by comparisons, 
to which the Committee hopes to revert particularly in another year, that 
a somewhat closer agreement than was exhibited in last year's Report does 
actually exist between its corrected determinations and those sure, indu- 
bitable data of rates of thermal conductivity in certain terrestrial rocks 
which able and elaborate reductions of several extensive series of obser- 
vations of underground thermometers have made known. A valuable 
store of new materials, it may be noticed, for these last investigations was 
furnished by the publication last year, in the volume of ' Greenwich Meteoro- 
logical Reductions, chiefly for the years 1847-73,' of the continuous records 
during this interval of twenty-seven years, of the deep-sunk underground 
thermometers in the grounds of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich ; 
only the first half of which valuable results have yet been utilised (by 
Professor Everett) for deducing the constant of thermal conductivity of 
the great eminence of gravel strata upon which the Observatory is 
placed. 



62 



REPORT 1879. 



corrected data of thermal properties of certain vert porous 

Rocks, 1879. 



Rock-specimen ; or sub- 
stance tested 



!{ 



Sandstone (Godstone ; f 
greensand) . . . \ 

Firestone (Godstone 
greensand) . . 

Building Limestone f 
(Caen, Normandy) . \ 

Building Limestone f 
(Gt. Pyr., Casing- < 
stone) L 

Magnesite,' white [" 
amorphous (Pi 
nerol, Genoa) 

Magnesian Limestone 
(porous ; much mag- 
nesia ; Castle Eden, 
Durham) .... 

Chalk (Godstone, Sur- 
rey) 

Pumice stone. . . . < 

Fine Plaster-of- Paris / 
(a light plate) . . \_ 






{ 



Specific heat. 
Dry (wet) 



By 
weight 

C 
(1879) 



By 
volume 

c 
(1879) 



0-22 
(0-36) 

0-22 
(0-36) 

0-21 
(0-30) 

0-20 
(0-30) 

•24 
(35) 

0-19 

(0-31) 

0-21 
(0-35) 

0-24 
(0-57) 

0-26 
(0-51) 



033 \ 

(0-66)/ 

0-35 \ 

(0-66)/ 
0-43 \ 

(0-66)/ 

0-43 1 
(0-67) f 




0-36 
(0-70). 

0-14 
(0-61) 

0-27 
(0-79) 



Values obtained by 



Earlier and erroneous 
reduction-factor 
(196), 1874-78 



Absolute dry 
_ (wet) 



Conduc- 
tivity 
k 



•0021 
•0043 

•0040 



•0053 



•0020 

•0005 
(■0010) 

•0012 
(•0016) 



Resis- 
tance 



Ratio 

k 

c 

(1879) 



New and correct reduc- 
tion-factor (220), 
1879 



Absolute dry 
(wet) 



Conduc- 
tivity 



(2) 



474 
231 

250 



188 



500 

1818 

(971) 

833 

(625) 



0*; 



•0059 
•0102 

•0092 



•0155 



■0056 

•0038 
(•0017) 

•0045 
(-0020) 



(4) 



•0024 
•0049 

•0045 
•0044 

•0060 

•0022 

•0006 
(•0012) 

•0013 
(•0018) 



Resis- 
tance 



v ; 



421 
205 

222 



167 



445 

1616 

(863) 

740 

(555) 



Ratio 
k 



(6) 



•0066 
•0115 

•0104 
•0098 

•0174 

•0063 

•0043 

•0019 

•0051 

(0023) 



1 New observations of the specific heats of Magnesite, and of Frost erley and Dent 
marbles, have shown that the numbers found for them last year are fallacious. The 
specific heats by weight and volume of the last two rocks are really ; Frosterley, -21, -57 ; 
Dent, -22, -60, which agree very nearly with those which have been observed in the other 
limestone and marble specimens of the list. When corrected for the known weight of 
water which it absorbed in boiling, the specific heat by weight of Magnesite observed last 
year becomes 0-175 ; lower than that of limestone, instead of higher as should be expected 
from this rock's lighter molecular weight. The real value now found of its specific heat is the 
exceptionally high one 0-245 ; a specimen of hard crystalline magnesite from Trieste also 
giving 0-244. Compared with Regnault's specific heats of some earthy carbonates, and 
with their molecular weights, this high specific heat of magnesite appears to be quite in 
accordance with the low place which it occupies among those carbonates in its combining 
weight, thus : — 



Substance 


Specific Heat 

(Regnault) 

C 


Specific Heat 

in these Reports 

C 


Molecular 
Weight, in. 


Molecular 

Specific Heat, 

m x C 


Baric Carbonate . 
Strontic Carbonate 
Calcic Carbonate 
Magnesic Carbonate . 


•11038 
•14483 
•21150 


Avrge 0-210 
„ 0-2445 


197 

147-6 

100 

84 


21-74 
21-38 
21-15 
20-54 



ON ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY AT MADEIRA. 



63 



Absolute Thermal Conductivities obtained in a Defective and Underrating 

Condition op the Apparatus, 1879. 



f 


Water ab- \ 


(1) 




(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


White Chalk(Alum Bay, J 


sorbed in I 


•0012 


Obs. 1879 


■0014 


357 J 




I. of Wight) ... I 


exper. 10 | 




prob. value 


•0028 




\ 


p. c.bywt. J 












Magnesite (White, 
Amorphous ; Pigne- ■ 
rol, Genoa) 


" } 


■0019 


Obs. 1879. 
prob. value 


•0022 
•0044 


327 


•0107} 


Red Serpentine (Corn- ) 
wall) > 




f -0020 
I -0040 


Obs. 1879 


■0023 . 








Obs. 1875 


■0045 f 






White Sicilian Marble 




f -0027 
t -0054 


Obs. 1879 
Obs. 74-78 


•0031 1 
•0060 > 






Sandstone (Valley of ] 
Rocks, Linton) . 1 




•0027 


Obs. 1879 


■0030 




•0115} 






prob. value 


■0060 


167 






•0028 


Obs. 1879 
prob. value 


•0032 
•0063 


159 


•0127} 



Measures (in 1879), compared with Stefan's Determination (1876), to test 
the Action of the Apparatus. 



Black Ebonite ; two J 
experiments . . .1 

Soft, red vulcanised 1 
caoutchouc .... 1 


Mean. tern. 

of plate, 

120° F. 

120° F. j. 


•00032 
•00034 

•00030 


(Obs. 1879) 

(Stefan, 1876) 
(Obs. 1879) 


•00036 
•00038 
•00026 

•00034 


2778 

2632 

Temp. 

2941 


35° F.j 


Soft, grey vulcanised 1 
(nearly pure caout- \ 

Hard, grey vulcanised / 


115° F. \ 
110° F. | 












•00039 


» » 


•00044 


2273 




(containing much ■ 
litharge) .... 


•00049 


>' » 


•00055 


1802 








Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor Gh Forbes, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, and Professor Everett, appointed to 
obtain Observations on Atmospheric Electricity at Madeira. 
Drawn up by Dr. G-rabham, Madeira. 

One of the latest of Sir William Thomson's portable electrometers was 
entrusted to me two years ago for taking electrical observations in 
Madeira. I received no intimation as to any particular set of observations 
which were thought desirable to take, and I have hence considered myself 
"unfettered to seek out that which seemed most inviting and most likely 
to yield new facts. 

The daily observations I discarded, finding them extremely monotonous 
and irksome, and I think they are not likely to prove instructive at all, 
unless a continuous record is made by automatic means. But it is ob- 
vious that in so uniform a climate as tbat of Madeira, where calm fine 
weather often lasts steadily for several weeks without a break, a station 
for observing the diurnal and seasonal electric variations would be ex- 
tremely valuable. 

_ I have, however, devoted whatever time I have been able to give to 
this subject to the observation of the regular breezes and prevailing 
winds. Early in the morning, in ordinary fine weather, there is no wind 



64 eepoet — 1879. 

at all, and there is then shown positive electricity of very moderate 
intensity. 

The electricity, however, rises very rapidly, and comes to a maximum 
at about half-past eleven o'clock, and seems to correspond very much 
with the flow of the sea breeze — which the sun shining on the land causes 
with great regularity — and also with the accumulation of masses of cloud 
or watery vapour, which rise and coalesce to form a thin screen daring 
the hottest part of the day over the basin of Funchal. 

It is curious that the index of the electrometer, which is extremely 
unsteady and oscillating whilst the electricity is rising — probably from 
the influence of masses of variously electrified vapour or air in motion — 
becomes steady, and remains fairly steady for two hours or more — during 
which time the maximum is maintained. The electricity then subsides, 
as the cloud-screen breaks up early in the afternoon, at first suddenly, and 
then very gradually until evening, when it faintly begins to rise again. 

The formation of the thin above cloud-layer over Funchal is very 
regular, and occupies a vertical space of about 200 feet, at an altitude of 
2,500 feet, varying slightly with temperature and atmospheric pressure, 
and appearing, from a distance at sea, as a thin white sheet, beyond which 
the black rocky peaks of the island shoot up for several thousand feet. 

The electricity below this cloud is always positive and moderately 
intense ; in the cloud itself it is still positive, though feeble ; and above 
the cloud, in a sheltered situation where these observations were taken, it 
is still positive, though still more feeble, and very irregular. 

In warmer weather, as regards this cloud, the same conditions exist 
exactly, although the moisture forming the cloud does not condense, but 
appears from above as a dense blue transparent haze, liable, however, to 
become opaque on any accidental puff of colder air. 

In my own garden I found that every observation was mitigated or 
quite vitiated by the numbers of lofty trees closely planted together. 

The currents of air constituting the daily sea-breeze of Madeira are of 
no great depth, perhaps 70 or 80 feet, and above the true wind blows in 
the contrary direction. 

I have often succeeded in flying a kite through the sea-breeze into 
the upper wind, and have made some attempts, abortive for want of proper 
insulation, to bring down the electricity of the upper current. 

The electricity, however, of this upper current, which in fine settled 
weather is the north-east trade wind, can easily be observed on exposed 
mountain ridges, and always gives a steadily moderate indication of a 
positive quality. Indeed, the only observations of the north-east trade 
ever thought to have given a negative result were taken on a lesser peak 
of Teneriffe with inferior instruments by Mr. Smyth, who, however, 
attaches little value to them. 

For my own part I have not had a single observation of negative 
electricity in the atmosphere at any time, if I may exclude faint oscilla- 
tions of the needle, when there has been no ponderable quantity either way. 

In Madeira, at the termination of a long period of fine weather, on 
the approach of rain clouds I have noticed a high electricity of a positive 
character, very transient and irregular in character, and falling very low 
when it actually rained. Rising electricity on the cessation of rain is 
here, as in all other places, an important factor in forecasting weather. 

But Madeira is occasionally subject, especially in summer weather, to 
another wind of very peculiar character. This is a kind of Sirocco, called 



ON ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY AT MADEIRA. 65 

in Portuguese ' l'Este,' which blows with great force, striking in its in- 
tegrity in a curious manner certain districts alone. 

The wind appears to be generated in the sandy tract of the Great 
Sahara, and also perhaps beyond in districts extending far into Asia. 
The heated air of those burning plains ascends tumultuously and pursues 
a course more or less easterly across the Atlantic. Far above the surface 
of the water it can imbibe no moisture, and after its descent has become 
possible by a partial loss of heat it strikes upon the surface of Madeira, 
depositing sand, locusts, birds, and other evidence of its distant origin, and 
for a while the mid-day climate of the Great Desert is felt 400 miles away 
from Africa, in the middle of the Atlantic. The dryness of this wind is 
wonderful ; it will, in its greedy power of evaporation, separate the dry 
and wet bulbs of Mason's hygrometer 25° or more, and in a temperature 
of 80 F. the dew-point is below the freezing point. All clouds disappear, 
and the sun shines hazily in a sky which exchanges its ordinary deep blue 
for a semi-transparent colour of light grey. 

The electrical quality of this wind is simply a blank. I have been 
unable during four favourable opportunities for observing it to detect any 
registerable amount, either positive or negative ; but I can see under a 
high magnifying power an irregular swaying to and fro of the needle 
similar in chai-acter to those given by a broken submerged cable. Pro- 
bably at its origin, and especially if it takes up much sand, the wind is 
resinously charged ; but it will be interesting to determine whether an 
intensely dry wind can be strongly electrified or electrified at all. 

In the neighbourhood of strong l'Este winds I have also made a few 
observations on some curiously rounded clouds which hang with singular 
immobility over deep mountain gorges, although tossed and tumbled by 
strong wind on their upper surfaces. 

I have some evidence to show that both their power and quietness 
relate to their somewhat high electrical charge, and it is probable that we 
shall find by-and-by in a more general way that the form of clouds de- 
pends very much on the influence of neighbouring electrified masses, in a 
manner nearly related to the experiments of Lord Rayleigh on fountain- 
jets. But these cloud observations are both difficult and somewhat 
dangerous. If any one should be tempted to fly a kite with a wet cord 
and a metallic conductor in its tail down into one of these mountain 
clouds, he should place his electrometer upon the ground or else have a 
long trailing copper chain attached to the brasswork. The umbrella, too, 
must be kept low. If these precautions are neglected a very painful 
shock will probably be felt, which may cause the observer to drop the 
instrument. 

The very meagreness of this Report is enough to show the necessity 
for multiplying electrometric observations. I would only ask, Has the 
electrometer yet any share in determining our weather forecasts, or is elec- 
tricity thought of in the relations of meteorology to the public health ? 
I fear not. 

The fascinating little instrument is my constant companion and the 
solace of many a leisure moment. It has been taken to the north and 
south of this country, and has twice crossed the Atlantic with me. In- 
deed, it never failed to answer every question certainly and sensitively 
until I attempted last Sunday to take it to St. Paul's in London to take 
an observation under the dome. Then the pumice-stone broke, and poured 
its corrosive fluid upon the brasswork. 
1879. F 



66 kepobt— 1879. 

I can only regret that so little help is to be got from the text-books 
on electricity in these observations. They appear to devote most of their 
space given to atmospheric electricity to a picture of Franklin holding a 
kite under a shed, and another picture of a waterspout. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, F.R.S., 
and Professor Caylet, F.R.S., appointed for the purpose of 
calculating Tables of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic 
Forms. 

With a portion of the grant made last year, the valuable services of 
Mr. F. Franklin, of the Johns Hopkins University, have been obtained 
to aid in computing, under Professor Sylvester's inspection, the ground 
forms (otherwise called the fundamental invariants and covai'iants) of 
binary quantics of the 7th, 8th, and 10th orders respectively, thus ren- 
dering the list of tables of such forms complete for quantics of all 
orders up to the 10th inclusive. 

The sbeets containing the calculations referred to are deposited pro- 
visionally in the Library of the Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore, 
where they remain subject to the direction of the Council of the British 
Association as to their future disposal. 

The tables of the ground forms of the seventhic are published in the 
Comptes Bendus of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, 1878 ; the table of the 
ground forms of the ninethic in the ' American Journal of Mathematics, ' 
March, 1879, and in a future number of that Journal will shortly also 
appear the intermediary tables of the Generating Functions from which 
such ground forms are deduced, as also the ground forms and generating 
functions connected with the tenthic. 

These tables, in addition to those previously constructed, will, it is 
believed, form a valuable, and (for the present) a sufficient basis for the 
prosecution of this kind of research in what regards the theory of single 
binary quantics, leaving a wide field still open for computations of a 
similar nature connected with systems of binary quantics and ternary and 
quaternary quantics, single or in systems. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Eev. Samuel Haughton,. 
M.D., and Benjamin Williamson, M. A., appointed for the Cal- 
culation of Sun-Heat Coefficients. Drawn up by Dr. Haughton. 

The calculation of the quantity of sun-heat received at a given place, 
and in a given time, on the earth's surface, neglecting the heat absorbed 
by the atmosphere, was solved by Lambert in the middle of the last 
century, and the researches of Poisson, Meech, and others have added 
very little to the work done by Lambert. 

I have myself published a simple solution of Lambert's problem, 
depending on trigonometrical series, well known and readily applied, 1 
copies of which are now offered to Section A. 

1 Proceedings, Koyal Dublin Society, 1878. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF SUN-HEAT COEFFICIENTS. 67 

When the absorption of heat by the atmosphere is neglected we have 
merely to integrate 

A/cos z dh (1) 

from suurise to snnset, where 

A = the solar constant of radiation, 
z = sun's zenith distance, 
h = sun's hour angle ; 

an integration readily performed ; and then sum the results from day to 
day, from the summer to the winter solstice ; a summation which presents 
no serious difficulty. 

But when we attempt to compute the sun-heat received in a given 
time and at a given latitude, allowing for the absorption of sun-heat by 
the atmosphere, we are met by formidable mathematical difficulties 
which have never yet been seriously acknowledged and attacked. 

It is, in fact, easy to see that we must now attempt the integration, 
daily, from sunrise to sunset, of 



instead of 
where 



A.jp u cos z dh, (2) 

A /cos z dh, 



p = the atmospheric constant of absorption ; 
u = «y 2rh + h 2 -f r 2 cos 2 z — r cos z ; 
h = height of homogeneous atmosphere ; 
r = radius of earth. 

It is evident at sight that equation (2) is not integrable ; and if we 
attempt to integrate it by series we fail completely, for the following 
reason :— 

It will be seen, on trial, that the expansion of 

p u cos z 
must be of the form 

A + A[ cos z + A, cos 2 z + &c. ; (3) 

+ Bj sec z + B 2 sec 2 z + &c. 

This series is to be multiplied by dh, and each term integrated from 
sunrise to sunset. This is easily done for the cosine terms, but the secant 
terms become infinite at the limits, because z = 90° at sunrise and sunset. 
Hence any attempt to obtain the value of integral (2) by approximation 
must be illusory, no matter how rapidly the coefficients 

B 1? B 2 , B 3 , &c, 
may diminish. 

Under these circumstances it was proposed at the Dublin meeting of 
the British Association (1878), to apply a small grant (30Z.) to a pre- 
liminary quadrature of equation (2), at a few well-defined latitudes, 
such as 0°, 30°, and 60°. 

The method used was the following : — 

1°. The values of p u cos z, for every value of z from 0° to 90°, were 
first calculated, from which the values of p" cos z, for every zone of zenith 
distance, one degree in width, were readily found. 

f2 



68 



EEPOKT 1879. 



These results are exhibited in the following table :- 



90° 


12-6480 


89° 


11-3296 


88° 


101600 


87° 


91368 


86° 


8-2448 


85° 


7-4712 


84° 


6-8008 


83° 


62208 


82° 


5-7168 


81° 


52784 


80° 


4-8952 


79° 


4-5592 


78° 


4-2632 


77° 


4-0000 


76° 


37664 


75° 


3-5576 


74° 


3-3704 


73° 


32008 


72° 


30480 


71° 


2-9088 


70° 


2-7816 


69° 


2-6664 


68° 


2-5600 


67° 


2-4616 


66° 


2-3720 


65° 


2-2880 


64° 


2-2112 


63° 


2-1392 


62° 


2-0728 


61° 


20104 


60° 


1-9536 


59° 


1-8976 


58° 


1-8464 


57° 


1-7984 


56° 


1-7536 


55° 


1-7112 


54° 


1-6712 


53° 


1-6336 


52° 


1-5976 


51° 


1-5640 


50° 


1-5328 


49° 


1-5024 


48° 


1-4736 


47° 


1-4464 


46° 


1-4208 


45° 


1-3968 


44° 


1-3736 


43° 


1-3512 


42° 


1-3304 


41° 


1-3104 


40° 


1-2912 


39° 


1-2736 


38° 


1-2560 


37° 


1-2400 


36° 


1-2240 


35° 


1-2096 


34° 


1-1952 


33° 


1-1816 



pit 



0-0312 
0-0448 
00617 
0-0817 
01044 
01290 
01551 
0-1818 
0-2087 
0-2354 
0-2615 
0-2867 
03109 
0-3341 
0-3562 
0-3772 
0-3970 
0-4160 
0-4337 
0-4506 
0-4666 
0-4816 
0-4958 
05094 
0-5220 
0-5342 
0-5455 
0-5564 
05666 
0-5764 
0-5855 
05945 
06029 
06109 
0-6184 
0-6256 
0-6325 
10-6391 
0-6454 
06514 
06570 
0-6625 
0-6678 
06727 
0-6775 
0-6820 
06863 
0-6905 
06945 
0-6983 
0-7020 
0-7054 
0-7088 
0-7119 
0-7150 
0-7178 
0-7207 
0-7234 



p" COS 2 



00000 
0-0007 
00021 
00042 
00072 
0-0112 
00161 
0221 
0-0290 
00368 
00454 
00547 
00646 
0-0751 
00861 
00976 
0-1094 
01216 
01340 
0-1467 
0-1596 
01725 
0-1857 
01990 
0-2123 
0-2257 
0-2391 
0-2526 
0-2660 
0-2794 
0-2927 
0-3062 
0-3195 
0-3327 
03458 
0-3588 
0-3718 
0-3846 
0-3973 
0-4099 
0-4223 
0-4346 
0-4468 
0-4588 
0-4706 
0-4822 
0-4937 
05050 
0-5161 
0-5270 
05377 
0-5481 
0-5585 
0-5686 
0-5784 
0-5880 
0-5975 
0-6066 



p w cos z 



0-0004 
00014 
00032 
0-0057 
00092 
00137 
00191 
00256 
00329 
00411 
0-0500 
0-05(96 
0-0699 
0-0806 
0-0919 
01035 
01155 
01278 
01403 
0-1531 
01660 
0-1791 
01923 
0-2056 
0-2190 
02324 
0-2458 
0-2593 
0-2727 
0-2861 
0-2994 
03128 
0-3261 
0-3392 
0-3523 
0-3653 
0-3782 
0-3910 
0-4036 
0-4161 
0-4284 
0-4407 
0-4528 
0-4647 
0-4764 
0-4879 
0-4993 
0-5105 
0-5215 
0-5323 
0-5429 
0-5533 
0-5635 
0-5735 
0-5832 
0-5927 
06020 
0-6111 



89° 
88° 
87° 
86° 
85° 



30' 
30' 
30' 
30' 
30' 



84° 30' 
83° 30' 
82° 30' 
81° 30' 
80° 30' 
79° 30' 
78° 30' 
77° 30' 
76° 30' 
75° 30' 
74° 3tf 
73° 30' 
72° 30' 
71° 30' 
70° 30' 
69° 30' 
68° 30' 
67° 30' 
66° 30' 
65° 30' 
64° 30' 
63° 30' 
62° 30' 
61° 30' 
60° 30' 
59° 30' 
58° 30' 
57° 30' 
56° 30' 
55° 30' 
54° 30' 
53° 30' 
52° 30' 
51° 30' 
50° 30' 
49° 30' 
48° 30' 
47° 30' 
46° 30' 
45° 30' 
44° 30' 
43° 30' 
42° 30' 
41° 30' 
40° 30' 
39° 30' 
38° 30' 
37° 30' 
36° 30' 
35° 30' 
34° 30' 
33° 33' 
32° 30' 



ON THE CALCULATION OF SUN-HEAT COEFFICIENTS. 



69 



z 


u 


| P" 


p u cos z 


p u cos z 


z 


32° 


1-1688 


0-7259 


0-6156 






31° 


1-1568 


0-7283 


0-6243 


0-6199 


31° 30' 


30° 


1-1448 


0-7307 


0-6328 


0-6285 


30° 30' 


29° 


1-1336 


0-7330 


0-6410 


0-6369 


29° 30' 


28° 


11232 


0-7350 


0-6490 


0-6450 


28° 30' 


27° 


1-1136 


0-7370 


0-6566 


0-6528 


27° 30' 


26° 


1-1040 


0-7389 


0-6641 


0-6604 


26° 30' 


25° 


1-0944 


07409 


0-6714 


0-6678 


25° 30' 


24° 


1-0864 


0-7425 


0-6783 


0-6748 


24° 30' 


23° 


1-0784 


0-7441 


0-6849 


0-6816 


23° 30' 


22° 


10704 


07458 


0-6915 


0-6882 


22° 30' 


21° 


1-0632 


0-7472 


0-6976 


0-6945 


21° 30' 


20° 


1-0568 


0-7485 


0-7033 


0-7004 


20° 3(t 


19° 


1-0496 


0-7500 


0-7091 


0-7062 


19° 30' 


18° 


1-0440 


0-7512 


07144 


0-7118 


18° 30' 


17° 


1-0384 


07523 


0-7195 


0-7169 


17° 30' 


16° 


1-0328 


0-7535 


0-7243 


0-7219 


16° 30' 


15° 


1-0280 


0-7545 


0-7287 


0-7265 


15° 30' 


14° 


1-0230 


0-7555 


0-7330 


0-7309 


14° 3C 


13° 


10192 


0-7563 


0-7369 


0-7349 


13° 30' 


12° 


1-0152 


0-7571 


0-7406 


0-7387 


12° 30' 


11° 


1-0120 


0-7578 


07439 


0-7422 


11° 30' 


10° 


1-0088 


0-7584 


0-7469 


0-7454 


10° 30' 


9° 


1-0056 


0-7591 


0-7498 


0-7483 


9° 30' 


8° 


1-0032 


07596 


0-7522 


0-7510 


8° 30' 


7° 


1-0008 


07601 


0-7544 


0-7533 


7° 30' 


6° 


0-9992 


0-7605 


0-7563 


0-7553 


6° 30' 


5° 


0-9968 


0-7610 


0-7581 


0-7572 


5° 30' 


4° 


0-9960 


0-7611 


0-7593 


0-7587 


4° 30' 


3° 


0-9952 


0-7613 


0-7602 


0-7597 


3° 30' 


2° 


0-9944 


0-7615 


0-7610 


0-7606 


2° 30' 


1° 


0-9936 


0-7616 


0-7615 


0-7612 


1° 30' 


0° 


0-9920 


0-7620 


0-7620 


07617 


0°30' 



Sun-heat Forrnulce. 
Heat received per sq. unit, in unit of time is represented by 

Ap u cos z. 
A = the solar constant ; 
p = atmospheric absorption constant ; 
u = */2rh + 7t 2 + r 2 cos 2 z —r cos z ; 
z = sun's zenith distance ; 
h = height of atmosphere ; 
r = radius of earth ; 
p = 0-76 (Pouillet). 

(I.) To calculate u. — 



u = r 



2h h* 
cos 2 z + — + - 2 



— r cos 2. 



If h = 50 miles, - = 57:. 
' r 80 



Therefore, 



u 



= 80 a / cos 2 z + jq — 80 cos z ; 
u = 80 Vcos 2 2 + 0-025000 - 80 cos z. (4) 



70 REPORT— 1879. 

(II.) To calcu^e te p u .— 



(leu) (kuy (kuy 

p « = l + -j- + f7Y+ XT2T3 + &c - ; 

p = 0-76. 
Therefore, since Jo == log e (p) = — - 274 ; 

, (0-274w) (0-274w) 2 (0-274 ? 3 . 
r =l- 1 + ! . 2 ~ 1 . 2 . 3 + &c - 

Since u ranges from 1 to 12 - 65, this series does not converge rapidly- 
enough, and it is usually better to obtain p u directly, as follows : — 

log (p u ) = u log p ; 

log (p«) = - u x 0-119. (5) 

2°. The next step was to determine how long the sun remains in any 
zone of zenith distance, one degree in width, in the course of a year. 

This was done, for the latitudes 0°, 30°, 60°, in the following manner ; 
and although the calculations are not yet completed, involving as they do 
300 folio sheets, enough has been accomplished to induce the Association 
to proceed with the calculations for other latitudes. 

We here append the form of the tables used in computing the time 
spent by the sun in each zone, of one degree of width in zenith distance, 
and, as it would be a useless expenditure of money to print in full the 
details of the calculations, we propose to have two fair copies of the 
calculations prepared and bound together; one to be deposited in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin, and the other placed at the disposal 
of the British Association. 

A complete summary of the entire results will, of course, be printed 
in the Proceedings of the Association. 

It will require an additional grant of 25Z. to complete the calculations 
for the latitudes 0°, 30°, and 60°, and a grant of 501. would enable us to 
complete the whole calculations for the latitudes 0°, 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60°. 

The mean annual temperatures (as given by observations) between 
0° and 30° are disturbed by the distribution of land and water, and the 
temperatures of latitudes above 60° rest upon insufficient data of obser- 
vation ; for which reasons we propose to limit our calculations to the 
latitudes above indicated. 



III. — Sun-heat Formulce. 

Let h = sun's hour angle, 

X = latitude of place, 
b = sun's declination, 
z = sun's zenith distance ; 

cos z H 1 sin X sin b 



cos h = 



cos X cos o ' 
cos z' hP sin X sin 2 



UUS It, = T 5 , 

cos A cos b 

h — h' = time of passing through the zone (z — z'), 

degrees of arc being converted into minutes of time, as follows, 1° = 4™ : 
sin b = sin A sin I, 



ON THE PHENOMENA OF STATIONARY TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 71 

where I = sun's longitude, 1 

l=±n X 59'T37, 
n = number of days from Equinox. 
A = 23° 28'. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Dr. Merrifield, Professor Osboene Eetnolds, 
Captain Douglas Gtalton, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred {Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of obtaining information respecting 
the Phenomena of the Stationary Tides in the English Channel 
and, in the North Sea ; and of representing to the Government of 
Portugal and the Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion of 
the British Association, Tided Observations at Madeira or other 
islands in the North Atlantic Ocean would be very valuable, 
with the view to the advancement of our knowledge of the Tides 
in the Atlantic Ocean. 

[Plates II.— VIII.] 

This Committee was appointed at the Plymouth meeting in 1877, to 
endeavour to arrange for, and to collect the results of a series of 
simultaneous tidal observations in the English Channel and in the North 
Sea : and also to impress upon the Portuguese Government the advan- 
tage which would accrue from the establishment of a station at Madeira 
for systematic and continuous tidal observations. 

The Portuguese Government, having had this latter subject brought 
under their notice by Her Majesty's Foreign Office, readily fell in with 
the suggestion of the British Association ; and a self-registering tide- 
gauge on Sir William Thomson's principle has been made by Messrs. 
White, of Glasgow. This instrument has been sent out to Madeira, for 
erection on the Loo Rock, in the Bay of Funchal, where it is hoped that 
it will soon be working satisfactorily. The entire cost of construction 
and of erection has been borne by the Portuguese Government, and the 
instrument remains, of course, in their hands. 

The importance of an accurate knowledge of the tides at Dover in 
particular, in connection with those of the entire English Channel, being 
soon made evident to the Committee, as well as the great advantage 
which would ensue from the establishment of a self-registering tide-gauge 
at that place, the matter was brought by the Chairman under the notice 
of the Board of Trade ; the request being further supported by the Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports, Earl Granville. The Board of Trade 
received the request most favourably, and consented to establish at their 
own expense a self-registering gauge, at a site some distance down the 
Admiralty Pier, where a tide-well had been made during the original 
construction of the pier ; its connection with the water outside being at 
a level of twelve feet below the low water of ordinary spring tides. The 
gauge, embracing Sir William Thomson's latest improvements, has been 
-constructed and erected by Messrs. A. Lege & Co., of London, under the 

1 It was found better, in practice, to take the sun's declination from day to day 
from the ' Nautical Almanac,' by which means the eccentricity of the earth's orbit 
was introduced. 



72 report— 1879. 

direction of Mr. Edward Druce, C.E., the resident engineer in charge of 
the Admiralty Works at Dover. It will remain, of course, in the hands 
of, and under the control of the Board of Trade. 

The Committee having secured for the simultaneous tidal observa- 
tions in the English Channel and in the Irish Sea, their main duty, the 
hearty co-operation of the Admiralty, of the Board of Trade, of the 
French Minister of Public Works, as well as of the Minister of the same 
department in Belgium, and also of a number of private observers, both 
in this country and on the Continent, a programme of observations at 
different times during the spring and summer of 1878 was arranged, in 
accord with the different observers, a copy of which will be found in 
Appendix I. These simultaneous observations extended on the English 
side of the Channel from Portland to Yarmouth, while on the Continent 
they embraced the coast from Havre to the mouth of the North Sea 
Canal, leading up to Amsterdam. 

Comparative tables are given in Appendix II., which show the 
times and the levels of the high waters and of the low waters at the 
different places, during the equinoctial tides observed in the month of 
March ; which may be taken as typical of the two other months. They 
are all reduced to Greenwich time and to the level of twenty feet below 
the Ordnance datum of Great Britain. This is in accordance with the 
suggestion of the Committee on the Ordnance datum of Great Britain. 1 
The level proposed as a datum of comparison for tidal observations of 
an international character, viz., ' 20 feet below the Ordnance datum of 
Great Britain,' is a point which practically coincides with ' 5'50 metres 
below the French Zero du Nivellement ' (Bourdaloue), and with ' 12 
feet 6 inches below the Ordnance datum of Ireland.' Some of the tidal 
curves from different points of observation are also appended ; several 
distinctive peculiarities, such as double tides, &c, are exhibited in them. 
See Plates. 

A careful consideration of the observations shows that on one point 
alone, that of tidal constants, much valuable information might be added 
to that already available, if a series of simultaneous observations, of a 
somewhat similar character to those just obtained, were carried out 
uninterruptedly, over a considerable period, of not less than twelve 
months, and over a large extent of coast. The Committee, however, 
feel that such a duty hardly falls within their province. They beg to 
suggest that, possibly at some future time, this subject might be 
entrusted to some suitable body; the more so, that the basis of the 
means of obtaining the necessary observations is already furnished by 
the labours of this Committee, with a considerable extension, however, in 
the number of points of observation. 

Before concluding their labours, the Committee request that the 
thanks of the British Association be conveyed to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, the President of the Board of Trade, the French Minister of 
Public Works, the Belgian Minister of Public Works, and to the several 
other authorities and private individuals, both in this country and on the 
Continent, who have kindly and gratuitously had the various observations 
carried out and communicated to this Committee ; and more especially 
would they beg to thank the French Association for the Advancement of 
Science for its cordial assistance in supporting the proposal of the British 

1 See p. 219 of the present volume. 



03 



a; 






t 






3 1 




I 



ifl"' H, 







itrs 

ic English Ch/mnel 

SW3t>lUiiC°L 



1 



_P M 'J' 3L J-i i N f 33 

MAHCH 13™ 1878, 




MAKl H 20™ 





Vertiail ' 



I huh i Hours 



Scaim 

l ;,„■(, tJM Hm-wmlal ■ 

I fl O'Wtr- 1. ««!■<■ it:,; 1 " ,;;;,„,,, 

lUii«lraluui the V"' //./.*■/ of the CommUUt m Uie Phenomena ofStutumuj r,.i. . in m, Enptinli Oi/timei 



I 



4.9' 



MCE 

duijfht 




An 



Plate IV 



Midnight 




ales 



Vertical '4e \ ] Inch = ^ Feet ' 
[0-0209V-1 Metre 

Hnrvxontail ]Irtch = iHmm 
[0076™= VI Hours 




u- ErwlieTi Chantui. 



«., .,....„ AM 3 fl iil) A 21 

NORTH SEA CANAL ENTRANCE 

MARCH 13™ 1II7H 

N..,„i Mi. In i-l.l 




MAHCH 20? 

Ni.i... 



Midnight 




V,;l„„l ',„ I ' ''"'' J '»•'' 

MJW- lATetw 

I'lVl,-™ ■ H'ffiiur. 



Z,,r ,i„ Nweljrmad Bpurdaloue^ 

Wii*lratuig the V" J //.y*w oftheOmmHUe <■" tile F'lii 



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t 



ON THE PHENOMENA OF STATIONARY TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 73 

Association, and in urging it upon the French Minister of Public Works. 
The Committee beg to report that the 101. granted to it for expenses in 
connection ■with the collection and the reduction of the tidal observations 
has been expended. 



>J 


19 


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5.12 


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1.35 


» 


5.39 


» 



Appendix I.— PROGRAMME OF OBSERVATIONS. 

Tides in the English Channel and in the North Sea. 
Observations to be taken in 1878. 

1. Observations every quarter of an hour, from Low Water to Low Water. 

Tide. Time of H.w. (at Dover). 
Feb. 12 5.46 afternoon. 1 The observations to commence one hour be- 

fore the first L.w. and to finish one hour 
after the last L.w. of each tide. 

The exact time of H.w. and of L.w. to be 
noted; the other observations to be at 
each exact quarter of an hour (by the 
clock). 

Greenwich mean time to be kept through- 
out. 

2. Observations as to the times and heights of h.w. and l.w. only. 

In Tune /On the morning tides, from 10th to 16th inclusive. 
\ „ „ afternoon „ , 

In August / " » corning „ , 
\_ ,, „ afternoon „ , 

N.B. — At each place the zero of the tide gauge must be connected with the 
Datum of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. The condition of the barometer, 
of the direction and force of the wind, to be observed from time to time. 

Points for Tidal Observations. 

Yarmouth. Dungeness. North Sea Canal Boulogne. 

Lowestoft. Hastings. Entrance. Treport. 

Harwich. Brighton. Flushing. Dieppe. 

Sheerness. Shoreham. Ostend. St. Valery en Caux. 

Ramsgate. Ventnor. Dunkerque. Fecamp. 

Dover. Portland. Calais. Havre. 



17 


„ 24 


8 


„ 14 


15 


„ 23 



74 



REPORT 1879. 



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ON THE PHENOMENA OF STATION AEY TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 75 









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76 eepoet— 1879. 



Report of Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 
1878-79, by a Committee consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., 
&c., E. P. Greg, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Professor G. 
Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter Flight, D.Sc., F.G.S., and Professor 
A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S. (Reporter). 

The Committee regrets to record the loss during the past year, by Mr. 
Greg's retirement from active work with the Committee and by Mr. 
Brooke's death, of two most active supporters among its members. By 
adding to its list the names of two observers, Mr. B. J. Lowe and 
Professor R. S. Ball, who have distinguished themselves very greatly by 
their contributions to this branch of astronomy, and who have consented 
to take part in the Committee's further operations, it is hoped to repair 
the present loss of excellent counsel and assistance which the limited 
numbers of the Committee have unexpectedly sustained. 

From the loss of Mr. Greg's assistance, and also to limit the extent 
of this year's Report to an ordinary and reasonable length, it has been 
resolved to defer for discussion until a later Report the particulars of 
observations of meteor showers, annual and occasional, which have 
been received during the past year, and the papers and discourses on the 
connections of cometary with meteor-hypotheses that have been published 
and circulated during the same time. The expected return of Biela's comet 
to its perihelion in the present year, leading a shower of shooting-stars to be 
looked for on November 27 next, with much confidence among astro- 
nomers, will afford an occasion next year to return to this subject and to 
review together the parallel results obtained in the two successive years 
of observations on meteor showers of ordinary and extraordinary oc- 
currence ; of the Andromedes in November last, however, nothing was 
visible, and very unfavourable weather has generally caused only very 
meagre views of the annual star showers of October, December, January, 
and April last (and also of the major showers of August in this year and 
last) from being seen. 

The main Appendices of this Report, following a table of occurrences 
of occasional phenomena of fireballs, review the discussions by different 
authors of a great number of doubly observed fireballs recorded for a few 
years past, describing the results and the views regarding them to which 
the authors have been led by their reductions. Of these fireballs con- 
spicuous detonating ones occurred in the United States on August 11 
and December 30, 1878, and on January 28 (a.m.), 1879 ; in Bohemia and 
Saxony on January 12, 1879 ; and in England on February 22 and 24 
(a.m.), 1879, the real paths of all of which have, to a greater or less 
degree of certainty and closeness, been approximately ascertained. 

The pages of a few lists of meteor shower observations and reductions 
furnished by Mr. Greg and Mr. Denning are also given in an Appendix. 
The rest of the Report consists of the review of recent aerolitic oc- 
currences and investigations by Dr. W. Flight. The falls of two aerolites 
during the past twelve or fifteen months are described in this review ; at 
Tieschitz, Moravia, on July 15, 1878 (a single stone), and at Esterville, 
Iowa, U.S., on May 10, 1879. The last of these stonefalls was 
of unexampled magnitude, one stone which fell weighing 500 lbs., 
and the other fragments which have been found, together amounting also 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



77 



to a considerable weight. The historical review of researches on meteorites 
during the past year, which this last appendix of the Reports contains, is 
also throughout of very particular and valuable interest. 



Appendix I. 

Notes of Meteors and Fireballs doubly observed. 

The following double observations of shooting-stars were obtained by 
Mr. Denning and Mr. Corder, during nights of simultaneous watch at 
Bristol and Writtle, near Chelmsford, in October and November last. 



Date, 

1878 



Oct. 24 
Oct. 24 
Nov. 18 



Hour, 
Approx. 
G.M.T. 



h. m. .- 

12 25 a.m. J. 

12 45 a.m. | 

9 50 p.m 



Place of 
Observa- 
tion 



Bristol 

Writtle 

Bristol 
Writtle 
Bristol 
and 

Writtle 



Appar. 
Size as 
per Stars 



Apparent Path 



from 
o 5 



to 



Radiant Point of the 
projected Paths 



5th mag. 

2nd maa*. 



o o 

107 + 13 

54 + 23 

133 + 23 

131+48 



110 + 20 
32 + 35 

144 + 25 

141 + 52 



J98-12 



J86 + 6 



By nearest 
Stars 



fNear 6 
■I Canis 
L Majoris 
/Near a 
\ Orionis 



2nd mag 
2nd mag 

See descriptions of the meteor in the accom 
panying general fireball list. 



Only the resulting radiant-points of the first two of these meteors, 
obtained from projections of their apparent paths, have yet been deter- 
mined. The real path of the last meteor, which was a small fireball, 
vertical over Brittany, in the western part of France, will be found 
described in the accompanying table which exhibits a list of such results, 
continued from similar lists in the last three years' Reports, of meteor 
heights, &c, which have been recently determined. The following notes 
include remarks and some further observations of these fireballs in 
addition to those accounts of them which are given in detail in the 
general fireball list of this report. 

Path of the meteor of 1868, September 5, 8 h 35 m p.m. Berne time 
<8 h 5 m p.m., G.M.T.), by Gr. von Niessl. 1 This large fireball (see these 
Reports, vol. for 1869, p. 226) was widely and well observed at many 
places in France and Switzerland, and in Germany and Italy ; and some 
accounts of it have already been submitted to calculation by M. Tissot, 2 
who places the end-point 192 miles over Mettray, near Tours, in France. 
The point of first visibility and nearest approach to the earth of M. 
Tissot's track, is 70 miles over Belgrade, in Servia, and the meteor's 
geocentric velocity was 55 miles per second, corresponding to a helio- 
centric velocity of 95 miles per second. While horizontal at Belgrade, 
this is an ascending course, inclined upwards at an angle of 14° to the 
horizon of Mettray, where the meteor disappeared, and these are 
results which appear to require more complete demonstration before they 
-can be finally adopted. Professor Weilermann 3 also obtained from a 

1 Verhandluiujcn des Naturforselienden Vereiiis in Brunn, vol. xvii. Excerpt of 
16 pp. from the author. 

2 Comptes Rendus, vol. lxix. p. 326. See these Reports, vol. for 1869, p. 272. 

3 Heis' Wochenschrift fur Astronomic, vol. for 1869, p. 153. 



78 report— 1879. 

rough apparent end-point of the meteor's path at Clermont Ferrand, in 
France, combined with observations of its course at Zurich, and at 
several other Swiss places, a terminal height of its flight, 102 miles 
over Chatillon sur Loire, a position which is to the east of Tours, but 
perhaps nearly the real height at which the meteor's disappearance 
actually took place. 

Professor voh. Niessl has discussed a collection of well-recorded 
accounts of the meteor, including those used by Tissot and "Weilermann 
and two described in these Reports (sup. cit.) at Puy de Sancy and 
Geneva, and newspaper accounts, with less precise descriptions, preserved 
in Continental journals. 

As seen at the Zurich Observatory, and also at a neighbouring place 
in Switzerland, the fireball shot overhead, or a little south of the zenith, 
from close to Jupiter near the east horizon, to near Arcturus in the west. 
At Geneva and Morges, on the Lake of Geneva, it shot on a similar 
course close past the star ?/ Ursee Majoris, half-way thence to the W.N.W. 
horizon. French accounts state that at places in Cote d'Or, and near 
Tours, it passed overhead in the latter part of its flight ; and that it 
was first seen at Tremont (Saone et Loire) rising upwards in the same 
field of view with the planet Jupiter, in a telescope. At Puy de Sancy 
the end of its course was exactly at /3 Ursa? Majoris. At Mayence, in 
Germany, it traversed the head of Capricornus, the Milky Way, and 
Ophiuchus to near the S.W. horizon under a Serpentis. Its course as 
seen at Bergamo, in Italy, by Zezioli, was from 17° + 3° (5° or 6° left of 
Jupiter) to a point between Coma and Arcturus at 202° + 27°, the 
duration of its flight, as there observed, along this long path, being 17 
seconds. These were all the positions noted by the stars exactly 
enough to be available for calculation. 

The observations of the end-point give a height of 115 miles (imper- 
fectly defined between 70 and 140 miles) over a point very clearly 
indicated near Vendome, about 30 miles N.N.E. from Tours. Using the 
point so found to complete the Mayence observation, and projecting that 
and the other apparent paths by their most carefully recorded points, 
Professor von Niessl found as a well-defined place of the radiant-point a 
position at 13°'9— 2°, about 6° south of Jupiter's apparent place. 

The fact that several views of the meteor's first visibility in France, 
Switzerland, and Italy all describe it as having first made its appearance 
very close to the planet Jupiter, plainly indicates a very long course of 
the meteor's flight before it approached the region of the Alps. Upon a 
map the course passes backwards about 20 miles north of Belgrade 
towards the south coast of the Black Sea, and at a point 460 miles above 
a point near this latter coast, a little west of Sinope, the lines of sight of 
the meteor's first appearance at Zurich, Morges, and Bergamo intersect 
each other. But the parallax which even the base-line of Zurich and 
Bergamo (two places 130 English miles apart) offer of this point, is 
scarcely more than 5°. To assume it to be truly the exact place of the 
meteor's first appearance, would, it might certainly be contended, be 
reposing too much confidence in observers' first impressions of the earliest 
point of this long-flighted and rarely splendid meteor's apparition, in a 
part of its course too, where their descriptions, if accurate, should 
necessai'ily have represented the meteor as appearing to them to remain 
nearly stationary for several seconds. 

If, with M. Tissot, we suppose the meteor to have first made its 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOES. 79 

appearance over the neighbourhood of Belgrade, its height at that point, 
on the course assigned to it by Professor von Niessl, would be 260 miles, 
and the total length of its nearly horizontal course was close upon 1200 
miles ! From the above point of geometrical intersection of the lines of 
sight, however, the entire length of course is about 1780 miles. 

Professor von Niessl observes that a more southern track, with the 
same radiant-point, but with a lower termination, 104 miles over Ozaine, 
near Tours, passing backwards over Belgrade, and thus within 8 or 10 
miles of the long course assigned to it by M. Tissot, agrees rather better 
than the calculated one with the general descriptions. The observer's 
view (Mr. B. F. Smith's) at Puy de Sancy, of the end of the meteor's 
course, 'exactly at /3 Ursa? Majoris,' 1 gives an end-height, it should be 
noticed, over Tours, of only 70 miles. But even with this minimum 
elevation, and with heights over the neighbourhood of Zurich, 400 miles 
from the place of extinction, variously given by observations as between 
105 and 150 miles, the height over Belgrade, if we assume the meteor's 
course to have been rectilinear, and to have begun so soon, cannot have 
been less than 220 miles. 

Performed in 17 seconds (the time of flight observed at Bergamo by 
Zezioli), the course of 1200 miles from Belgrade implied a velocity of 70 
miles per second. Four other observed durations varied from 12 seconds 
at Clermont Ferrand to two minutes at Zurich, and the average dura- 
tion from the five accounts, of 42 seconds, gives with the same course a 
velocity of 29 miles per second. Some 30 or 80 miles of the course 
(' 20° or 30° ') were again described by Mr. E. Jones as the meteor's rate- 
of motion ' per second ' at Geneva ; and about 120 miles of the terminal 
part were observed at Puy de Sancy to be traversed in 4 or 5 seconds, 
giving a velocity of 25 or 30 miles per second. The parabolic speed of 
a meteor having the same radiant-point as that which Professor von 
Niessl has obtained of this large fireball would be 26 miles per second. 
But the evidence relating to the meteor's real velocity is scarcely certain 
enough to allow it to be made a subject of useful speculation in compari- 
son with any theoretical parabolic or other orbital velocity. 

_ It seems probable from this discussion that the fireball passed in the 
brightest part of its course from about 130 miles over the Lake of Zurich 
to not much less than 100 miles over the neighbourhood of Tours, 
crossing the Jura range, and the Swiss and French plains near it at a 
great height for a distance of 400 miles. An equal distance at least, if 
not a still larger one, was traversed by the meteor along the valley of the 
Drave, from a height of little less than 250 miles, near, or in the direction 
of Belgrade, before crossing the range of Tyrolese Alps about that river's 
source, and entering Switzerland near the Brenner pass. Professor von 
Niessl confines himself to presenting the much more startling results 
obtained directly from exact comparisons of the most precise descriptions ; 
and by clearly deducing the radiant- point, and fully establishing the 
meteor's great height, he, in the main, confirms M. Tissot's track, while 
yet showing that it was almost exactly horizontal at Tours, where the 
meteor disappeared, instead of at its first origin at Belgrade, as M. Tissot 
had supposed. 

1873, December 24, 7 h 39 m p.m. (Washington Mean Time). Deto- 
nating fireball. — A Committee of the Philosophical Society of Washington 

_ ' This star is supposed by Professor von Niessl to have perhaps been accidentally 
mistaken for the upper one, a of the two ' pointers ' in Ursa Major. 



80 REPORT — 1879. 

was appointed immediately after the occurrence of this unusually large 
fireball to collect accounts of its appearance, and to submit them to a 
scientific discussion. Professor Cleveland Abbe, the Secretary of the 
Committee, describes in this Report l the delay which arose in its publi- 
cation from the conflicting nature of the particulars furnished by observers 
of the meteor in tbe different accounts, together with a hope that a search 
conducted near the point of disruption of the meteor which these accounts 
had fairly established by the enquiries during the year 1874, might be 
rewarded by the discovery of some fragments of its substance. But this 
hope not having during the following three years been realised, the 
Report containing the observations and some results of their comparison 
together has no longer been withheld. 

The fireball passed from about N.E. to SW. nearly over "Washington, 
with an intense illumination of the streets and houses of the town 
to a point so near the horizon (not more than 5° altitude), as in general 
to have been lost sight of behind buildings while still continuing its 
course. Professor Holden observed the terminal point at the U.S. Naval 
Observatory at altitude 4°45', 22° S. from W. Accounts of its first 
appearance at Washington are much less certain and precise. Professors 
Newton, Hilgard, and Baird heard the explosion indoors at an interval 
after the light-flash which they noted variously as 1^—3 minutes, 
corresponding to a distance of the meteor's track, at its nearest point, of 
18 to 36 miles from Washington. The explosion was a ' bang ' or loud 
report, shaking doors, windows, and the earth, followed for 20 s or 30 s by 
a roar or rustling sound which died gradually away. Professor Abbe 
explains (in the manner theoretically investigated by Eotvos, Pog- 
gendorff's 'Annals,' 1874, clii., p. 513) that the sudden clap of a 
meteoric detonation is probably not caused by the final disruption, but 
by the combined impulse of all the sound-waves reaching an observer's 
station from the long tract of the meteor's roaring passage through the 
air which is nearest to him, and from which all the sound reaches him 
almost simultaneously, while a prolonged roll, like echoes of the first 
sound, is afterwards heard from more distant portions of the meteor's 
track. 

Accounts at Centreville and other places in Fairfax County, 30 or 40 
miles W. a little S. from Washington, that the final explosion there was 
nearly overhead, approximately fix the meteor's end-point, which must, 
if not more distant from Washington, have been at the low height of not 
more than two or three miles above the earth to satisfy the observed 
altitude at Washington of its final disappearance. It seems more probable, 
as Professor Chickering has endeavoured to show from more distant observa- 
tions, that the meteor's flight was continued considerably beyond Fairfax 
County, and that its final height (estimated at 20 miles by Professor 
Chickering) was not less than 10 miles over a point some 60 or 70 miles 
from Washington. The height and position of the remainder of the course 
are somewhat variously defined by a great number of distant observations 
at Danbury, Conn. (250 miles N.E. from Washington), at Newark, 
Delaware, where its commencement was nearly overhead, at Westminster, 
Mercersburgh, Baltimore, and other towns in Maryland, and at Richmond 
and Appomatox Court House in Virginia. The slope of its path in the 

1 By a Committee consisting of Hon. Peter Parker, W. L. Nicholson, and Cleveland 
Abbe, ' Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington,' vol. ii. p. 139 ; April 7, 
1877. -Excerpt of 22 pp., with a map by W. L. Nicholson ; from the authors. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 81 

northern sky at the two last, southern stations, and observations in 
northern stations at a distance from its track, combined with the localities 
over which its course seems to have passed nearly vertically, determine 
approximately the initial height along this course, and the direction and 
slope of the real path by which the fireball approached the earth. This is 
regarded in the Report as descending from about alt. 25^°, 30° N. from E. 
(as measured from the map of the American States, and of the meteor's 
projected path, appended to it), from a height of about 90 miles over the 
northern point of Delaware State, in Newcastle County, to the low point 
of disappearance which it reached near Fairfax County. The celestial 
position of the corresponding radiant-point is at 115° + 38°. 

The observation most at variance with this deduction is that at 
Richmond, where the apparent downward slope of the meteor's path at 
disappearance was but 11° from horizontal, corresponding to a much 
slighter real gradient of the meteor's path than 25^°, and to a height of 
only 42 instead of 90 miles above Newcastle County at its first appearance. 
A fair compromise between this and the Washington and other observa- 
tions of the early part of the meteor's course would be effected if its 
downward flight to the extinction point is regarded as having reached it 
from a slightly modified direction at alt. 16°, 18° N. from B. instead 
of alt. 25^°, 30° N. from B. ; and of this new provisional direction the 
corresponding celestial radiant-point is 116° + 24°, instead of 115° + 38°. 
A certain range denoted by the position 113°(±3°), + 32°( = ! = 6°) may 
perhaps be indicated as the bounding limits within which a direction of 
the meteor's flight may be considered to satisfy fairly the majority of the 
observations. This is not so far distant from Mr. Denning's observed 
position of a ' Geminid ' radiant-point on December 31, 1872 (D. 1872- 
76, 27 ; at 108° + 36°), as to make it improbable that this grand detonating 
fireball was a surpassingly large member of an already well-recognised 
and established system of December shooting- stars. 

1878, April 2, 7 h 53 m p.m. Detonating fireball, Blackheath, Birming- 
ham, and Leicester. — The real path assigned to this meteor in last year's 
Report l admits of some small corrections by comparison with an addi- 
tional observation of the meteor (described in the present fireball list) by 
Mr. Christie at Blackheath, which was last year communicated to the 
Committee by Major Tupman. No very material alteration of the real 
course is, however, so produced, as Mr. Christie's observation is in 
extremely close agreement with those of the observers at Birmingham 
and Leicester. The radiant-point is given by approximate intersections 
of the three recorded tracks only three degrees from its former place ; but 
a rather later commencement was observed at Blackheath than at 
Birmingham and Leicester, and the time of flight, though not noted 
carefully at Blackheath, was thought to be about one or two seconds only, 
instead of five or six seconds for its slow passage at Birmingham. The 
point of first appearance is lowered by the new observation, and lies 
somewhat nearer to Leicester. 2 The length of path corresponding to 

1 These Eeports, vol. for 1878, p. 303. 

2 An erratum, caused by typographical indistinctness in a map, was corrected on 
the first page of the last year's Volume of these Reports, by a slight removal of the 
meteor's calculated place of first appearance, and a mistaken alteration of the 
town's name to Buckingham. The town really intended was Rockingham, on the 
borders of Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, about 20 miles E.S.E.from Leicester, 
over which the point of first appearance was supposed to lie. The adopted place of 

1879. G 



82 eepoet — 1879. 

it is therefore shortened, but the average time of flight observed at 
Birmingham and Blackheath, being at the same time less than that 
observed at Birmingham alone, the calculated real velocity still remains 
about 12 or 15 miles per second, which very nearly agrees with the 
parabolic speed, about 13 miles per second, of a meteor from the actual 
radiant-point. The position of this point is at 177° + 49°, and Heis' 
shower-apex, M 7 for April 1-15 is at 180° + 49°, so close to the observed 
position that another example is afforded by this double observation, of a 
detonating fireball proceeding from a known centre of divergence of 
ordinary shooting-stars. 

1878, August 11, 10 h 10 m p.m. (Indianapolis time) ; West Virginia 
and Pennsylvania, U.S. — Descriptions of this meteor at three points in 
the centrarpart of the United States, collected by Professor Kirkwood, 
enabled him to deduce approximately its real course. At Bloomington, 
Ind., it shot northwards some 20° in the east with a track slightly 
declining downwards from alt. 10° at first appearance in the east. 
By a rough estimate the time of flight scarcely exceeded two seconds. At 
Titusville, Pa., in that direction, near the point of concourse of the 
three States of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Ohio, the meteors shot 
northwards in the west, lighting up the country more strongly than the 
full moon, with a greenish light, bursting at last into one large, and 
two red fragments, and giving rise to a report like thunder heard at an 
interval after the fireball's disruption corresponding to a distance from 
Titusville of 25 miles. The meteor also moved from south to north over 
Oil city, Venango County, Pa., a meridian through the western boundary 
of which county must have been the projected direction of its course upon 
a map. This real course is 348 miles east from Bloomington, so that the 
meteor's probable elevation at first appearance was about 77 miles over 
the northern part of West Virginia, and 160 or 175 miles from the place 
of final disruption of the fireball into fragments west of Titusville. The 
duration there of its illumination was 'momentary,' so that the only 
recorded estimates of its time of flight seem to denote a real velocity 
much greater than would correspond to original motion of the fireball in 
a parabolic orbit. The radiant point of the adopted real path is about at 
292°-31° ; but if (as is quite possible) the real path's geographical pro- 
jection was considerably inclined to the meridian, its radiant was then 
at some point of a great circle of the heavens passing through this 
adopted place and through a point on the equator at about R.A. 10°. 

1878, November 18, 9 h 50 m p.m. — Besides the determination of this 
small fireball's real course (seen by Mr. Corder and Mr. Denning at 
Writtle and at Bristol) by Professor Herschel, in the ' Observatory,' * 
where the original observations of its appearance are given as described 
in the accompanying fireball list by Mr. Denning, the real height and 
position of its course were independently calculated by Major Tupman 
with results which were not at very great variance with those already 
published. The height, position, and extent of the fireball's real path 
have now been reinvestigated by Major Tupman and Professor Herschel 
on the assumption that the short arc which it appeared at Bristol to 
describe, was but the end-part of a much longer flight, the whole visible 
extent of which was equally well seen and mapped at j Writtle by 

origin of the meteor's course is now 15 miles west from Eockingham, and nearer 
Coventry, over a point about 10 miles due south from Leicester, 
i Vol. ii. (1878-79), p. 306. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 83 

Mr. Coi'der. No observation of the time of flight was recorded from 
which the real velocity might have been determined ; but the real 
direction of the meteor's course is fonnd to be so exactly conformable to a 
centre of divergence of a meteor shower detected by Mr. Denning on 
the nights of December 1 — 2, 1877 (including a bright fireball from 
334° — 11° to 322° -181°), that a connection of the fireball with this 
newly discovered November-December meteor system may be pretty 
certainly concluded. 

1877, December 9, 8 h 12 m p.m. Meteor as bright as Jupiter observed 
in Kent and Essex, and at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. — The path 
of this bright meteor has been computed from the data of its appearance 
at Writtle and Bromley given in last year's report, with the addition 
to them of observations of the meteor in London, and at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, now added in the present fireball list. Mr. 
Corder's opinion that the meteor belonged to a system of bright streak- 
leaving, long-pathed meteors diverging on the same night from the 
direction of a companion radiant of the ' Geminid ' shower, near i 
Geminorum, is exactly confirmed by the combined projection of all the 
observations ; and a satisfactory agreement is at the same time found 
among them for determining the height and locality, and the real velocity 
of the meteor's flight. These results Major Tupman has deduced with 
the new materials of the Greenwich and London observations which he 
supplied, among other reductions of double observations of large meteors 
which he obtained last year, and he obligingly communicated them to the 
Committee as they are briefly represented in the present Table. 

1878, December 30, 6 h 55 m p.m. (Indianapolis Time) ; Ohio, Indiana, 
and Pennsylvania, U.S. — This is another bright fireball of which Pro- 
fessor Kirkwood has collected and discussed some observations (see the 
accompanying general meteor list, and the fireball of August ll, 1878, 
above), in the Paper on Large Fireballs of the years 1878-79, which he 
communicated in May last to the American Philosophical Society. By a 
description at Washington, Pa., the attention of an observer walking 
eastwards was arrested by a sudden light like that of an additional street 
lamp lighted close behind him. Turning after a little time to that direction, 
he saw a meteor about half the full moon's apparent diameter (which was 
then shining brightly, but behind houses) falling in the W.N.W., large 
and brilliant, and of a slight greenish colour. After coursing about 24° 
(from near a Cygni to near a Lyra?, by a later visit with Professor 
M'Adam, of Washington and Jefferson College, to the same place) it 
changed its colour to a reddish tint and disappeared. It was seen at 
Anderson, Indiana, about 270 miles due west from Washington, Pa., 
com m encing due east, at an altitude of between 15° and 17°, and imme- 
diately disappearing behind houses. 

The description at Wooster, Ohio (which is given in the accom- 
panying meteor-list) assigned very exact positions of both the points of 
appearance and disappearance of the course. Combined with the account 
at Washington, Pa., it gives the end-height and position of the meteor 
over a point (in Tuscarawas County, Ohio) 70 miles distant W. by N. from 
the latter station, while the point of commencement is found, by com- 
bining the account at Anderson, Ind., with that at Wooster, Ohio, to 
have been 72 miles over Columbiana County, Ohio, lat. 40° 50' N, long. 
3° 40' W. from Washington. The whole length of the track seen at 
Washington, Pa., was about 85 miles, descending with a slope of 45° from 

G 2 



84 report — 1879. 

a direction nearly due N.E. towards SW. This corresponds at the time- 
and place of the meteor's disappearance to a celestial position of the- 
radiant point at 174° + 56°, near y Ursae Majoris. Of its real speed of 
motion exact enough observations of the fireball's time of flight were not 
obtained to afford a satisfactory determination. From the nearest point 
of view at Wooster, Ohio, a disruption of the nucleus was seen about 20° 
along its course before its point of disappearance, of which no mention 
is made in the account at Washington (much further from the real 
track), so that the fragments into which the meteor then broke appear 
to have been unseen (as was also the case in distant observations of the 
large fireball of August 11, 1878) at the more distant station. The final 
height determined is that of the disruption seen at Wooster, and it seems 
probable that the fragments pursued their course and penetrated while 
in sight to a still closer proximity than that deduced above of 17 or 18 
miles, to the surface of the earth. 

1879, January 12, 7 h 25 m and 7 h 32 m p.m., Berlin time ; large fire- 
balls, the first detonating, seen in Bohemia and Saxony. — Of these two 
fireballs, which appeared within a few minutes of each other, Professor von 
Niessl collected a large number of accounts sufficiently exact and definite- 
in their descriptions, in spite of cloudy skies on the date of their appearance, 
to enable him to assign their real courses with precision. 1 The two 
meteors pursued real courses over the middle of Bohemia, nearly at right 
angles to each other, the first extremely large and detonating, the second 
a much smaller meteor, but also casting a strong light. It was hence 
simply observed in some of the locally described accounts that the par- 
ticulars furnished by various observers were too contradictory and op- 
posed to each other to be worth recording in detail ; the detonation of 
the first meteor seems also to have been sometimes ascribed to the second 
one, with whose appearance, at some places, it must have occurred almost 
simultaneously. But both meteors were well seen and described by at 
least one single observer (the railway station-master at Neucunnersdorf ) , 
and exact descriptions, at other places, of the two meteors present no 
confusion, and could in general be easily distinguished and separated 
from each other. 

The nucleus of the first meteor, as seen from a distance, was globular, 
resembling the moon's disc in apparent size (and perhaps also in colour, 
which was not noted), followed by a thin tail, and bursting at last into 
sparks, while a portion pursued its career and was visible for a short 
distance further. It cast a light as strong as that of a moonlight night 
over the greater part of Bohemia, and as bright as daylight in the streets- 
of Prague. The sound of its explosion in that city was like a sudden 
thunderclap, of 3-20 seconds duration, heard in a minute and a half after 
the meteor's disappearance, shaking doors and windows, and rattling 
together objects placed on shelves and tables, and even according to one 
description at Rostock, near Prague, breaking window-panes. The time- 
interval of the sound probably corresponds to a distance (about 18 miles) 
of the nearest point of the meteor's track from Prague, rather than to- 
that (about 27 miles) of its end-point from the town. 

The fireball ended its course at a height of only 9 miles, nearly over 
Rakonitz, due west of Prague, where it seems to have arrived by a flight 
of somewhat uncertainly determined length from the direction of a 

' Sitziingsberichte of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna, vol. 79, May 8,. 
1879. Excerpt of 22 pages, from the author. 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 85 

radiant-point whose celestial position was at 133° + 19°, and whose ap- 
parent place for the horizon of Rakonitz at the time of the meteor's 
apparition was about E.N.E. alt. 14 . 1 Mr. Denning's January shower 
of ' Cancrids' (December 21-January 5, 130° + 20°), and the comet of 
1680 (December 26, 132° + 21- 5°), 2 together with the fireball of January 
19, 1877, seen in England, Wales, and Ireland, 3 all present radiant- 
points with which this new detonating fireball's real point of departure 
was thus found to be nearly concentric in position. 

Although doubtless visible (as some of the descriptions show) at a 
much earlier period of its flight, the first point at which the fireball's 
course was well observed, and for which the time of flight was also noted, 
was at a height of 41 miles above the earth's surface, 125 miles from the 
end-point of its track. This distance it traversed in 5 seconds ; and 
shorter lengths of the latter part of its flight were seen to be traversed, 
by five other observers, in times varying from 2\ to 5 seconds. The 
meteor's mean velocity at last, from all these estimates, was 17 miles per 
second; while that of the fireball of January 19, 1877 (scarcely so 
well determined) was not less than 35 miles per second. The parabolic 
speed of meteors from this radiant-point is 23 miles per second, which is 
intermediate between these two observed velocities. 

The near approach of this fireball's luminous track to the earth's 
surface is a rare and remarkable feature of the above described results of 
its appearance, and it is very certainly determined. The depth to which the 
igneous mass of the meteor penetrated the atmosphere accounts at once, 
as Professor von Niessl conjectures, for the violence of the explosion, and 
for the moderate velocity with which it appears at last to have been tra- 
versing the air. The same condition of unusually deep penetration he con- 
siders may also have occasioned the remarkably slow'relative velocity of the 
fireball of November .27, 1877, whose end-height Major Tupman found to 
be only 14 miles, and" whose velocity relative to the earth he showed not 
to have exceeded 5 miles per second, answering in the visible part of that 
fireball's flight to a very short elliptic, and nearly circular orbit round 
the sun. 

It may be noticed here that a remarkable resemblance of the latter 
fireball's real orbit to that of Biela's comet was pointed out by Mr. Hind, 
of which the following particulars, here transcribed in full, appeared in 
* Nature,' vol. xix. p. 484, March 27, 1879. 

' Captain Tupman thinks the radiant-point was pretty accurately 
determined in R.A. 285°, Decl. + 64°, or in longitude 340°, and lati- 
tude + 83°. The elements of the real orbit which, with the aid of the 
other corresponding data depending upon the earth's position in her 

1 With the omission of one discordant estimate, at Prague, of the meteor's appa- 
rent slope of path, a better defined position of the radiant-point, at 132° + 21°, would 
be obtained, Professor von Niessl shows, presenting an even closer agreement than 
the adopted place with the above-quoted radiant-points. 

2 See a note of this accordance of the comet with Denning's meteor shower in 
these Eeports, vol. for 1877, p. 167. 

3 These Reports, vol. for 1877, pp. 118, 153 ; and vol. for 1878, p. 267 (where the 
shower D8, 1877, is erroneously indicated as the < Cancrid ' system, with which the 
fireballs radiant-point appears to have been concentric). Professor von Niessl has 
also re-computed the real path of the fireball of January 19, 1877, from its descrip- 
tions ; and has obtained a position of its radiant -point at 135°-5 + 22°, instead of at 
135° + 27° ( ± 6°), the place assigned to it in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, vol. xxxviii. p. 228, and xxxix. p. 281, and in the place here quoted, 
where its real path was first investigated, in these Reports. 



86 



REPORT 1879. 



orbit are thence deduced, are as follows, taking the real duration as 
fifteen seconds. (The elements of the orbit of Biela's comet at its last 
appearance in 1852 are added in a contiguous column for comparison.) 



Fireball of Nov 


27, 1877. 




Biela's comet (orbit in 1852) 


Perihelion distance . 




0-9858 


0-8606 


Longitude of perihelion 




70° 6' 


109° 8' 


„ of ascending node . 


245 50 


245 52 


Semiaxis major . 




1-1691 




Eccentricity 




0-1568 


0-75625 


Inclination 




15° 0' 


12° 33' 


Anomaly . 




-4 16 




Periodic time . 




462 days 




Motion 




direct 


direct 



' The precise Greenwich time of the occurrence of the meteor was 
10 b 26 m . 

' If the duration of visibility is diminished to 7^ seconds, the elements 
are still very similar to the above, the semiaxis major becomes 1'3785, 
and the period 591 days. Captain Tupman remarking that such favour- 
able conditions for inferring the orbit of a meteor very rarely happen, 
adds, it is sufficient for the establishment of a short periodic time (such 
as 500 days) that " the meteor moved slowly from a fairly well-deter- 
mined radiant distant about 90° from the point of the heavens towards 
which the earth's motion was directed." 

' We may mention that there is one singular circumstance not alluded 
to in Captain Tupman's note : the elements defining the position of the 
orbit of the meteor have a striking general resemblance to those of the 
orbit of Biela's comet, in the descending node of which body the earth 
was precisely situated at the time.' 

With sufficient allowances for possible perturbations and retardations 
of its course by earlier encounters with the earth, it seems extremely 
probable that the calculated real orbit of this remarkable and unusual 
fireball may not be irreconcilable with its original derivation from the 
Biela meteor stream. 

The observations of the second fireball of January 12 last, in Bohemia, 
all described a meteor moving nearly from S. to N., with a large disc of 
bluish- white light casting a strong illumination like that of moonlight 
on all objects. Exact particulars of its direction were obtained from eight 
stations near Salzburg, in the south, to Zittau, on the Bohemian frontier 
of Saxony in the north, showing that its real path instead of crossing the 
middle of Bohemia, as that of the first did, almost horizontally from east 
to west, traversed the western part of Bohemia with a rather steeper descent 
from south to north, crossing the northern frontier of the country at last 
into Saxony. It terminated here at a probable height of about 23 miles 
over Grossenhain, a point at a little distance N.N.W. from Dresden, where 
it arrived by a flight of 130 miles, descending from alt. 28°, 9° E. from 
S. at a height of about 78 miles over the neighbourhood of Pibram in 
the south-western part of Bohemia. At a height of about 40 miles, near 
its passage across the Saxon and Bohemian frontier, the nucleus divided 
or was partly extinguished at its maximum, a much smaller luminous 
body only pursuing the same course farther to the point of disappearance. 
No sound of this explosion or of any other disruptions along its course 
appear to have reached observers who were most favourably situated by 
their closeness to the lowest and most brilliant portions of its flight for 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 87 

hearing them ; but several notes of rumbling sounds heard simulta- 
neously with the meteor's passage appear to be referable to the distant 
detonation of the earlier meteor. The real velocity, as far as it can be 
gathered, from only two observed durations of limited portions of the 
track near its termination was (from each of these) about 12^ miles per 
second. This is exactly the parabolic speed of meteors from the same 
radiant-point, the celestial position of which, as obtained from the fore- 
going discussion of the meteor's real course, was at 52° — 10° (±5°). 

Professor von Niessl points out the coincidence of the resulting radiant 
with that of the fireball of January 7, 1877, observed at Birmingham 
and in London, of which he finds the radiant-point from the observations 
to have been about 48° — 11°, instead of the place assigned to it by 
similar projections in these Reports (vol. for 1877, p. 135), at about 
58°(±8°) — 14°. But the position of both of these fireballs appears yet 
to be in very close agreement with the centre of the January ' Eridanid ' 
shower which Mr. Denning found on January 4-20, 1877 (D. 2, 1877) 
to be situated very close to y Eridani, at 57° — 12°. 

1879, January 28, 2 h 28 m a.m. (local time) ; Michigan and Wis- 
consin, U.S. A detonating fireball. — Local newspapers in these States 
teemed with eloquent descriptions of the fiery scene and crashing ex- 
plosion which attended this fireball's appearance in the middle of the 
night. But among them Professor Kirkwood was able to collect only a 
few accurate and detailed descriptions of its apparent course. A night 
watchman in Traverse City, Michigan, furnished Mr. T. Bates, the editor 
of the ' Herald ' of that city, with the following statement : — 

' Was on watch, passing from due west to east ; saw a great light ; 
turned quickly, and saw a ball of fire over my right shoulder ; turned to 
left and watched it until it disappeared; when first seen it appeared 
about as high as ordinary rain-clouds ; appeared to me larger than full 
moon ; full moon looks to me to be 18 or 20 inches in diameter ; meteor 
appeared to pass me, and move out of sight at about the rate of speed a 
descending rocket has after its explosion ; had a good chance to see it 
plainly ; just after passing me a singular thing occurred ; a ring of fire 
seemed to peel off the meteor itself, and this followed the ball of fire out 
of sight, but dropped a little behind it ; it was perfectly distinct, and 
appeared to be hollow, for I could see a dark centre. Everything was as 
light as day. I looked at my watch as it disappeared ; it was just 28 
minutes after 2 o'clock. I passed on my beat, and shortly the terrific 
explosion came. It shook and jarred everything around. I immediately 
looked at my watch, and it was 32 minutes after 2.' 

Seeing it, when facing east, appear over his right shoulder at no ex- 
treme altitude, and pass before him to his left-hand side, this observer 
must have watched the fireball travel before and east of him at some 
considerable altitude on a course directed nearly from SW. to N.E. At 
Charlevoix, Michigan, about 35 miles KE. by E. from Traverse City, 
the fireball, in fact, burst overhead. It appeared four times as large 
as the full moon, with an intensity of brightness surpassing that of sun- 
shine, and its explosion, which followed at a very brief interval, resembled 
that of musketry. Its direction was nearly from S. W. to N.E. About as 
much further in the same direction, at Cheboygan, Michigan, the light 
was seen within doors, casting shadows as it approached from S.W. until 
it disappeared. Its greatest (and apparently first) altitude (?), estimated 
by the positions of the shadows, was found to be about 45°. No sound of 



88 report — 1879. 

an explosion was audible at this place (near, but in advance of tbe meteor's 
termination), which seems to be confirmatory of the view, elsewhere ex- 
pounded, that the sudden concussion of a meteor-clap is not the conse- 
quence of a disruption, but a cumulative sound, or combined acoustic 
effect, at places near to and on one side of the meteor's course, of the 
sound produced, and reaching an observer simultaneously from long tracts 
of its fiery passage through the air. 1 Regarding the meteor's course 
(apparently, from Mr. Walton's description, indoors, of the moving light 
and shadows, at Cheboygan) as a steeply descending one, Professor 
Kirkwood is led, roughly, to the following general conclusions : — The 
fireball first came in sight nearly 100 miles over a point about 30 miles 
S.W. of Great Traverse City (at lat. 44° 25', long. 9° W.), and it disap- 
peared about 26 miles above a point about 42 miles N.E. by eastwards 
from that town. The whole visible track was 124 miles, and its projection 
on the earth's surface 66 miles in length from a direction S.W. by S. 
towards N.E. by N. Of the time of flight, which was described as several 
seconds, and of the real velocity, except that the observations indicate a 
rather slow motion, nothing very definite can be affirmed. 

The altitude of the radiant-point appears from this description to have 
been about 55°, and from the course, 33^° W. of S., from which it was 
directed, the meteor's radiant-point may be assigned provisionally at about 
142° + 14° ; but this cannot evidently be regarded as an exact determina- 
tion. It is close to the border-line dividing Leo from the constellation 
Cancer, and a suspicion may perhaps be entertained that, like the fireballs 
above described, of January 12, 1879, and January 19, 1877, this imposing 
aerolitic meteor of January 27-8, 1879, may have been a conspicuous 
member of one of the ' Cancrid ' meteor systems which have been recog- 
nised as discernible in December, January, and February, and as apparently 
concentric in the first and last of those months with the hypothetical 
radiant-points of the comets of 1680 and 1833. 

1879, February 22, 12 h 20 m a.m. Detonating meteor ; Essex. — Ac- 
cording to the descriptions at Haverhill and Saffron Walden, two towns 
scarcely ten miles apart east and west of each other, on the northern con- 
fines of Essex, that the meteor passed from south to north between them 
with a prodigious light and a report like thunder, audible in 20-45 seconds, 
going east of the zenith to an end-point in N.E. at Saffron Walden, and 
going overhead and down to N.W. at Haverhill, as the height above these 
towns corresponding to the sound interval is only six or eight miles, the 
meteor's track, at its close near them, cannot have extended many miles 
northward of their position into Cambridgeshire. A height of five or six 
miles nearly vertically over Newmarket, about eight or ten miles north of 
Haverhill, must be the utmost height and distance northward from that 
town at which the final disappearance of the fireball can be supposed to 
have occurred, if the time interval at the former place and at Saffron 

1 The example of the detonating fireball of April 2, 1878, seems to be a parallel 
one to the case of the present meteor. The sound of its extinction and nearest 
approach to the earth, about 25 miles from Birmingham, towards which town its 
course was nearly directed, was not perceived there, although at the greater distance 
(about 30-35 miles) at which the meteor passed, when nearest, by the town of 
Leicester, a sound like thunder, attributed to the meteor, was heard at that place by 
Mr. F. T. Mott. The observer at Galashiels on May 12, 1878, also heard a peal of 
thunder, apparently proceeding from the fireball of that date, no sound of which was 
heard in Edinburgh or Bathgate, nearly over which towns the meteor disappeared. 
See the last volume of these Keports, for 1878, pp. 305, 306. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 89 

Walden can be regarded as carefully observed. 1 Bat the statement at 
Bury St. Edmonds, 15 miles due east of Newmarket, that the meteor 
1 was seen in the west moving slowly downwards like a ball of fire falling 
to the earth,' while it cannot be strictly interpreted as a vertical descent, 
since the meteor reached that neighbourhood from vertically over Brent- 
wood, in the south, yet points to Newmarket, 15 miles due west of Bury, 
as about the extreme point which the meteor perhaps reached, northwards, 
in its descending route. It ' passed overhead ' at Brentwood, ' from S.S.W. 
to N.N.E.,' a place of observation which is about 40 miles due south from 
Newmarket, and 20 miles E.N.E. from London ; and at Godalming, 30 
miles S.W. from London, it lighted the interior of a room facing south so 
strongly, that a real path of the meteor towards Newmarket passing nearly 
over or but little east of London, and descending with a sensible inclina- 
tion, appears necessary to satisfy these several observations, and it accounts 
perfectly for the description given of its course at Bury, that it appeared 
' descending slowly like a fireball falling to the earth.' The line of flight in 
this course probably extended from about 75 miles over the neighbourhood 
of Redhill to five miles over a point two or three miles south or east from 
Newmarket, passing over Greenwich, and at a height of 40 miles over a 
point 10 miles west from Brentwood. Its slope is from alt. 45°, 20° W. 
from south ; and its length (for which no exact limits can be stated) was 
about 110 miles. It yet seems possible that the Bury and Brentwood 
observations may be satisfied by a rather lower line of flight than this, if 
the disappearance was only five or six miles high five or six miles north of 
Haverhill, which is not at all impossible. With such small admissible 
adjustments of the end-point, a great variety of initial points and of slopes 
and directions of the real course might be selected which would not at all 
conflict with the exceedingly distinct but yet not accurate and precise 
descriptions of the apparent track at Bury and at Brentwood. Heights 
of 50-75 miles at commencement over any point between Godstone or 
Reigate and Dorking or Guildford in Surrey, combined with a proper 
end-point, would thus answer the imposed conditions, presenting various 
slopes of path from altitudes of 35°-45°, and from directions between 15° 
and 30° W. of south. These paths pass at heights of 30 to 40 miles over 
points not more than 10-15 miles west from Brentwood, and might all 
there be perfectly described as passing ' overhead.' They would all 
occupy the south-western sky at Bury, ending due west, or but little south 
of west, and might there be described as ' in the west ; ' and lastly, their 
apparent slope in the sky, towards disappearance, would never be less 
than 45° or 50°, so as to admit fairly of the description there, that the 
meteor appeared ' falling towards the earth.' That the meteor's slope of 
path was much greater than 45° appears scarcely probable, as the long 
extent and duration of the full splendour of its flight, generally attested 
by the observations, would not be very easily accounted for by a real path 
whose slope was much greater than this, or whose grade at the utmost 
materially exceeded 50°. The limits above adopted as extreme possible 
positions of the radiant-point were at the time of the meteor's appearance 
between the head of Hydra and Sextans at R.A. 135° to 145°, and N. decl. 
0° to 10°, immediately adjoining the equator, between those constellations, 

1 The interval noted by a policeman at Saffron Walden was ' 20 seconds, or the 
same as the duration of the meteor's light. ' At Haverhill, an observer states, < I should 
think that the meteor lasted five seconds or more ; and half a minute or three quarters 
of a minute after there was a sound like thunder.' 



90 BEPOET — 1879. 

on its northern side. There appears to be a long-stationary radiant near 
this place, Greg, 1876, No. 15, January 1-March 16, 141°-2°, which 
includes Mr. Greg's earlier radiant centres, S t SG 1( and some more recent 
determinations. Thus in Tupman's catalogue, No. 3, January 4, is at 
142° + 5° ; and the radiant-point of the fireball of March 17, 1877, which 
he derived from the observations (these Reports, vol. for 1877, p. 135), 
was fairly well determined at 145°-5°. In Mr. Denning' s new list of 
stationary meteors, one of fourth magnitude, observed by Mr. B. F. Sawyer 
on February 24, 1878, is recorded at 145°+ 8°, which is very close to the 
presumed place of the radiant-point of the great detonating meteor seen 
this year on the morning of February 22. 

1879, February 24, 2 h 53 m a.m. ; Yorkshire. Large detonating fire- 
ball. — The surprising and alarming nature of this meteor's apparition in 
York and its neighbourhood was described in the ' York Herald ' and in 
the ' Middlesborough Gazette.' A pear-shaped ball of fire travelled at 
York across the sky, casting a light upon the town as strong as that of 
day. After a moment's interval following the fireball's disappearance, a 
peal of thunder burst upon the town, wakening sleepers who had not yet 
been aroused by the blaze of light, and shaking doors, windows, and the 
houses. The same occurred at Stockton, but a snowstorm, which only 
began immediately after the sight appeared at York, was there raging, 
and also at Newcastle at the time ; and the intensity of the light at these 
places, ' as bright as a summer day,' which the invisible body shed upon 
the scene, ' changing in about a dozen seconds from white to a beautiful 
blue before it disappeared,' was all the more surprising (though perhaps 
exalted by the whiteness of the snow) from the thickness of the storm. 
The shock of the explosion was even more incomprehensible on this 
account at Stockton than at York, and it seems to have more universally 
inspired alarm, and to have passed for an earthquake shock, in the northern 
part of the county than at York, where the fireball was well seen. At Liver- 
pool the sky was clear, and the meteor, like a powerful rocket, but without 
a tail of sparks, illuminated the town vividly, and was watched for some 
seconds, even in streets from which little of the sky was visible, travelling 
rapidly away in a south-easterly direction. It was distinctly seen at 
Stockport, near Manchester, an observer walking N.N.B. perceiving, when 
half dazzled by the light, up in the air on his right, a whitish globe of 
light with a mist of pale colour round it that lighted up the landscape for 
a second and made every object visible in the distance. At Birmingham, 
officials leaving the chief post-office turned about at the light, which was 
like that of an electric lamp, and called each other's attention to a large 
pear-shaped object falling slowly down over the houses in a E.N.E. or N. 
by E. direction, leaving a bright tail of some considerable length behind 
it, and soon disappearing, when the sky then became intensely black. 
The harbour-master of Shoreham (six miles west of Brighton, and 213 
miles south from York) saw it pass in about 30 seconds between two hills 
north of him, beginning at an altitude of 11° ' N. by W.,' and going 
thence ' to N.W. by W., in a considerable curve,' with a long tail like a 
kite, of a magenta colour, making everything around as bright as day. 
At Dundee (185 miles N.N.W. from York), it ' fell in a westerly direction 
from a dark cloud hanging apparently over the rising ground west of 
Newport. When first seen it gave forth a clear silvery light, which 
quickly changed into purple, and afterwards the meteor assumed a bar- 
like form, one end of which was brightly red. The morning was clear and 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 91 

frosty, but notwithstanding this the temporary illumination was almost 
startling in its brilliancy.' (' Dundee Advertiser,' March 25, 1879.) 

The vague descriptions contained in nearly all the newspaper para- 
graphs not allowing of any accurate deductions, Mr. J. E. Clark, of York, 
applied himself, by correspondence with persons at a distance, and by many 
actual measurements at York, to collect materials for determining the 
meteor's real path. At York the meteor disappeared, as well as could be 
ascertained, 41° W. of S., altitude 10°, observed by a point above the 
Minster roof, near one of its towers. The point of first appearance was 
less certain, but whether to the north or to the south side of the zenith, 
the apparent path of the meteor certainly passed very nearly overhead. 
The time interval of arrival of the sound was practically obtained in several 
cases by repeating actions during the interval from recollection, and it was 
very nearly 1^— If minute, while one observer estimated it at half a minute, 
and another as ' fully two or three minutes,' or twice the longest time 
taken for a clap of thunder to arrive. The former of these exceptional 
cases is probably below, and the latter, though confidently stated, probably 
above the truth, and a lapse of one and a half or two minutes, it seems 
probable, must have really intervened, corresponding to a distance or real 
height of the meteor's flight over York, of 18-25 miles. For determining 
the height and position of the point of disappearance but one useful obser- 
vation, that of Mr. S. Walliker, at Hull, can be satisfactorily combined 
with the York line of sight, although the very distant description at 
Dundee confirms in a general way the position which was so obtained. 
By a careful plan of his position, which was at his own front door, Mr. 
Walliker found the apparent path at Hull to have been from 4° W. of N.,. 
alt. (estimated) 60°, beginning perhaps before caught sight of about 10° 
E. of N., to W. by N., alt. 20° (estimated altitude). The intersection of 
the latter line with thai; of the disappearance seen at York is midway 
between Selby and Leeds, only 16 miles S.W. from York. The corre- 
sponding height of the meteor above the earth's surface at this point, on 
the York line of sight, is only three miles ; another observer's estimated 
altitude of 30° would give ten miles, but with allowance for unconscious 
exaggeration near the horizon, cannot increase the final height certainly 
to more than six or seven ! 

To find the point of first appearance, from equally scanty data, a 
valuable account at Whitby, by Captain E. Heselton, of the ' Margery,' 
passing two miles N.W. of Whitby on the voyage from Seaham to 
Scarborough, when the meteor was observed, states that it passed directly 
overhead, from alt. 45°, 20° E. of N. to alt. 45°, 20° W. of S., a course 
which, prolonged, passes through York and Selby, and substantiates the 
other observations. On this track the direction and distant altitude at 
Hull, as well as those obtained at York, make the meteor's height over 
Whitby 65 or 80 miles ; but regarding them, from their character as 
estimates, as overrated, the probable height of the fireball over Whitby, 
40 miles N.N.W. from York, can scarcely have been more than 40 or 50 
miles. This estimate, making the meteor's height as it does, over York, 
about 17 or 18 miles, agrees with the time interval of the sound there, 
and leads it to be regarded as probably a near approximation to a point 
of early appearance in the meteor's real path. That it began at a much 
earlier point is shown by Captain Hesel ton's first view of it 45° before 
reaching the zenith at Whitby, and by the brightness of its light behind 

[Continued at page 120.] 



92 



EEPORT — 1879. 



A LIST OP LARGE METEORS OCCASIONALLY 





Hour 








Position or 


Date 


Approx. 
G.M.T. (or 
Local Time) 


Place of 
Observation 


Apparent Size 


Colour 


Duration 


Apparent Path 

From to 
a S a 5 




h m 












1862 


"Probably 


Colchester, 






Rather slow 


. . . • 


Nov.27 


5 47 p.m. 
See Eep. 
1863, p. 
324.] 

No time 
stated. 


Essex. 






motion. 




1876 


9 48 p.m. 


Tedstone Dela- 


As bright as 






From due S., alt. 


Sept. 1 




mere, near 
Worcester. 


Venus. 






23°,toS.,8°W., 
alt. 17° (alti- 
tudes measured; 
azimuths, by 
known bear- 
ings, ' true '). 


1877 


8 30 p.m. 


Scarborough, 


Twice as bright 


White, then 


4 seconds ; 


Travelled in a S.E. 


Nov.19 




Yorkshire. 


as Venus. 


red. 


moved 
slowly. 


direction, and 
disappeared be- 
hind hills. 


Dec.29 


6 2 p.m. 


Blackheath, 
near London. 


As bright as Ju- 
piter, and less 
bright than 
Venus. 


... 


0*3 seconds . 


Passed just above 
a Andromedse, 
§ of the way to 
77 Pegasi. 


1878 


11 20 p.m. 


Ibid. 


Brighter than 


Bluish white. 


2| seconds ; 


From 167° + 10° 


Jan. 31 






Venus. 




very swift. 


to 110° -10°. 


Mar. 9 


(6 42 p.m. 


Boston, U.S.A. 


Much more bril- 


• . • 


About 3 


Commenced at 




Washing- 




liant than Mars. 




seconds. 


48° + 27°. 




ton, M.T.) 












April 2 


7 54 p.m. 


Blackheath, 


Thrice as bright 


... 


Between 


From near 8 Cas- 






near London. 


as Venus. 




land 2 
seconds ; 
not exactly 
noted. 


siopeia to 11° + 
32° (5° s.p. jS 
Andromedas). 


24 


8 12 p.m. 


Wimbledon 


Large disc, 5' x 3'; 
its light not in- 
tense, but total 
brightness 


Yellowish 


• • • 


First seen abou 
2° N. of Pro 
cyon ; disap-j 
IDeared about/ 
57° W. of SJ 
alt. 22°. 


June 3 


(2 59 a.m.) 


Chicago, U.S.A. 


As bright as the 
moon when four 
days old. 






From near the] 
zenith to about! 
4° above Cas- 
siopeia. 


July 1 


10 45 p.m. 


h mile E. of the 
Koyal Obser- 
vatory, 
Greenwich. 


Very brilliant 


White . 




Began due E., alt., 
45°; lost behind! 
trees 39° W. o| 
N., alt. 3|°. 


July2E 


(9 7 p.mO 


Boston, U.S.A. 


As bright as Mars 
a fireball. 


Deep red 


3 seconds. 


From 332° + 56° 
to 6° + 51°. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



93 



OBSERVED, CHIEFLY IN THE TEARS 1878-1879. 



Length of 
Path 






ibout 15° 



Direction or Radiant-point 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Burst like a firework, with a 
dull report; but no other 
fireworks were seen. 



10° or 15° 



1° 



Course rather concave to the 
horizon. 

Directed towards S.S.W. 




Descending a little north- 
wards ' at a very ' steep 
angle. 



A diagram gives the apparent 
path from 5° + 31° to 347° + 
28°. 

A diagram gives the apparent 
path from 171° + 11° to 110° 
— 12°. 

Did not explode or break ; left 
a beautiful train, much the 
colour of Mars. 

After a sort of explosion, the 
nucleus, becoming suddenly 
faint and nebulous (perhaps 
behind floating clouds), pro 
ceeded nearly 5° further; 
left no distinct streak. [Seen 
also at Birmingham and 
Leicester. See Report for 
1878, p. 292.] 

Nucleus pear-shaped ; left be- 
hind it, after travelling 
about 10°, three or four very 
bright blue stars, and then 
vanished in clear sky. No 
sound heard, though waited 
for 3 minutes. 

Burst into seven or eight frag 
ments near o Cassiopeia?. 



Observer or Reference 



F. Rut ley. 



Left no streak. Azimuths (true) 
and altitudes determined by 
G. L. Tupman. 

Left a red streak , , 



F. S. Lea. (Communi 
cated by G. L. Tup 
man.) 



G. E. Mass. Do. 



W.H.M. Christie. Do. 



Id. Do. 



Berlin H. Wright. 
Boston ' Science Ob- 
server,' vol. i. p. 60. 

W. H M. Christie. 
(Communicated by 
G. L. Tupman.) 
[For a calculation 
of the real path, see 
Appendix I.] 



F. C. Penrose. 
Times.' 



; The 



E Colbert. (D. Kirk- 
wood, 'Am. Phil. Soc, 
Proceedings,' May 2, 
1879.) 

Rev. Lloyd Jones. 
(Communicated by 
G. L. Tupman.) 



E. F. Sawyer. 
Jour, of Sc.,' 
1878. 



'Am 
Nov., 



94 



REPORT 1879. 



A List op Large Meteors occasionally 



Date 



.fuly30 



Aug. 11 



11 



7 
7 

1C 

20 

21 
22 



::i 



Sept. 1 



Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 



h m 
11 52 p.m 



3 31 a.m, 



(10 10 p.m 

Indianapo- 
lis time) 



10 27 p.m. 



10 29 p.m. 

About 
10 30 p.m. 

About 
7 15 p.m. 



8 57 p.m. 

l h a.m. 
(10 2 p.m.) 

9 32 p.m. 
11 p.m 



About 

10 20 p.m. 

8 35 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation 



16 9 p.m. 



Brighton 



Sunderland 



Bloomington, 
Ind., U.S.A. 



Debenham, 
Norfolk. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Holdsworthy, 
Devon. 



Between Yar- 
mouth and 
Lowestoft. 

Debenham, 
Norfolk. 
Boston, U.S.A. 



Debenham, 
Norfolk 



Ibid. 

Bristol 
Ibid. 



Henryville, 
Clark Co. Ind., 

U.S.A. • 



Apparent Size 



A bright meteor 



As bright as Ve 
nus. 



About J of the 
moon's diameter 



As bright as Jupi- 
ter. 



Twice as bright as 
Jupiter. 

As bright as Jupi- 
ter. 

Two bright me- 
teors. 



As bright as Jupi 
ter. 



Colour 



Bluish white 



Yellow 



Bright meteor 



Fireball as bright 
as Mars. 

A fine meteor 



5 diameter of the 
moon. 



Nearly as bright 

as Venus. 
Brighter than Ve 

nus. 



About | or i diam. 
of the moon. 



Duration 



1 second ; 
very swift. 



Very quick 



Not more 
than 2 
seconds ; 
very rapid. 



Moved with 
great speed 



Deep orange 



3 seconds 



Position or 
Apparent Path 

From to 

a S a S 



Very swift 
Very swift . 



From | (0 y) Ai 
dromedae to 
(S e) Piscium 
path careful] 
noted . 

Passed £° left of 
Aquihe, 1° or 2 
before its di 
appearance. 

Began due B., c 
E. 2° or 3° S 
alt. 10°, an 
shot northward 
to 20° N. of E 
very near th 
horizon. 

12 + 60 to 10 + 46 



335 + 26 to 
335 + 12 
320£- 5 to 

328J- 1 

Disappeared be 
hind stornl 
clouds, near thi 
horizon. 

279-4£to 

275-24 



Began due S., all 
45°. 
248 +63 to I 
230 +77 

339 +18 to 
338£ + 14 

From a little W. 
of S. to S.E. rffll 
E., alt. about 
' 26°. 

161 +70 to II 
155 +56 
246 +21 to! 
244^+ 5 



Began nean y, and 
passed across 8 
Ursa? majoris, 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
observed, chiefly in the Yeaes 1878-187&— continued. 



95 



Length of 
Path 



Bather long 
course. 

20° or 25° 



Direction or Radiant-point 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Directed from 
8 Cygni. 



2° left of 



At first nearly horizontal, at 
last sloping downwards 
considerably. 



No explosion ; streak visible 2 
seconds, broadened and dis- 
appeared. 3 or 4 seconds 
later a small meteor shot 2° 
or 3° in the same direction 
below € Piscium. 

Left a streak. A Perseid. 



Observer or Reference 



>° 



Towards S.W. 



No final disruption of the nu- 
cleus seen, nor sound of an 
explosion heard. (Seen also 
at Titusville, Pa. ; exploding 
with loud detonation in the 
west). 

Left a streak . . . . 



Appeared about two minutes 

after the last meteor. 
Seen by another observer about 

the same time as the last 

two meteors. 
One bright meteor following 

another at a little distance. 



H. Pratt. (Communi 
cated by G. L. Tup. 
man.) 



T. W. Backhouse. 



Shot westwards . 



Nucleus 
train. 



with orange-coloured 



J. A. Bower. (D. Kirk- 
wood/Am. Phil. Soc. 
Proceedings,' May 2, 
1879.) [For real 
path of meteor see 
Appendix i.] 

V. Cornish. ' The Ob- 
servatory,' vol. ii. p. 
205. 

Id. (Ibid.) 

(Ibid.) 



Lit up the landscape. Followed 
at IP 20 m by a smaller me- 
teor, taking the same direc- 
tion. 
Radiant of this and the next Left a short streak at 156° + 



meteor at 295 + 83. 



58° for 10 seconds 
Left a streak of 4° for 25 se- 
conds. Resembled the last 
meteor very closely. 



Mr. Bassett. ' The 
Observatory,' vol. ii. 
p. 203. 

Communicated by W. 
F. Denning. « The 
Observatory,' vol. ii. 
p. 205. 

Ibid. 

E. F. Sawyer. ' Am. 

Jour, of Sc.,' Nov 

1878. 
Communicated by W. 

F. Denning. 'The 

Observatory,' vol. ii. 

p. 205. 
Id.; Ibid.; (and p. 243. 

foot of the page.) 



W. F. Denning. 
Id. 



Benj. Vail, D. Kirk 
wood, ' Am. Phil 
Soc. Proceedings, 
May 2, 1879. 



96 



REPORT — 1879. 









A 


List of Large Meteors 


OCCASIONALLY 




Hour 










Position or 


Date 


Approx. 
G.M.T. (or 
Local Time) 


Place of 
Observation 


Apparent Size 


Colour 


Duration 


Apparent Path 

From to 
a 8 a S 


1878. 


h m 












Sep. 21 


9 3 p.m. 


Newcastle-on- 


About | diam. of 


. 


• 


From between tj 


(?) 




Tyne. 


the moon. 






Ursse majoris 
and Arcturus to 
5° below 7 Ursse 
majoris. 


22 


(8 33 p.m.) 


Boston, U.S.A. 


Brighter than 
Jupiter. 


Deep orange 


2 sees. ; very 
slow. 


From 2J - 17M 
to 5° -22°. 


27 


3 5 a.m. 


Bristol 


As bright as 
Jupiter. 


. 


Very swift . 


From 66° + 8° to 
frl£°-3. 


30 


(8 43J 


Boston, U.S.A. 


Nearly as bright 


Orange 


Bather slow 


From 29° + 42° 




p.m.) 




as Jupiter. 




speed. 


to 41° +36. 


Oct. 4 


11 p.m. 


Debenham, 


As bright as 


• 


Not very 


From 353f° + 2^ 






Norfolk. 


Jupiter. 




rapid. 


to4£ + 12i°. 


7 


9 15 p.m. 


Ibid. 


Very fine meteor . 






From 33 8° -3° to 
13°-6£°. 


8 


7 49 p.m. 


Sunderland 


As bright as 


Deep yellow, 


4 or 5 sees. ; 


Disappeared at 








Jupiter or 


but variable 


very slow. 


108° + 45£. 








Venus. 


in colour. 






8 


10 10 p.m. 


Leicester . 


As bright as Venus 


Bluish white 


2 sees. ; very 
swift. 


From §° E. of o, 
passed over y 
and j8 to 4° or 
5° W. of 
Cygni. 


15 


(7 57i 

p.m.) 


Boston, U.S.A. 


As bright as 
Jupiter. 


. . 


Kapid . 


From 316° - 3'-° 
to 325° -8° near 
/8 Aquarii. 


21 


(9 19J 

p.m.) 


Ibid. 


As bright as Venus 


Green . 


1*5 sec. in 
sight; very 
slow. 


From 5° - 15° to 
343° -32°. 


22 


7 40 p.m. 


Sunderland 


At first = 2nd 


At first 


3 sees. ; very 


Shot 2° past a 








mag.* expanded 


orange, 


slow. 


point at i° (o 








to>$. 


then 

changed to 
yellow, 
green, and 
pale purple. 




Tauri, o Ceti) 
from a point (ill 
seen) about £° 
(0 Trianguli, 41 
Arietis). 


22 


(6 59f 


Boston, U.S.A. 


As bright as 


Orange 


3*5 sec. ; ra- 


From 16° -1° to 




p.m.) 




Jupiter. 




ther slow. 


34° + 7°. 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
observed, chiefly in the Years 1878-1879— continued. 



97 



Length of 
Path 



Direction or Radiant-point 



10° 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer or Reference 



Nucleus pear-shaped, thus, 



About 
its 
seen, 



25° of 
course 



Fell vertically ; near Ceti 



An Aurigid ; radiant on this 
night at 87° + 42°, near 
Auriga;. 

Directed from y Andromeda? 




J. Hopper. 



throwing off 

above it. 
Left no streak 



several sparks 



Left streak 7° long on 
latter part of its course. 



the 



Directed from 2 (8, y) Ursa? 
majoris. 



10° . 

7 o 



The meteor at starting was not 
much brighter than Saturn, 
but when bursting at last 
into several sparks (which 
fell downwards about 1°), it 
threw shadows in spite of the 
moon, then 1 1 days' old. 

Nucleus with only a very short, 
if any, train. No meteor 
seen before to last so long. 

Beginning not seen ; diminished 
to a mere point at last ; left 
no streak. 



E. F. Sawyer. Boston 

' Science Observer,' 

vol. ii. p. 26. 
W. F .Denning. ' The 

Observatory,' vol. ii. 

p. 243. 
E. F. Sawyer. Boston 

' Science Observer,' 

vol. ii. p. 27. 
Communicated by W. 

F. Denning. ' Thr 

Observatory,' vol. ii 

p. 243. 
Id. Ibid. 



T. W. Backhouse. 



T. Brewin. (Communi- 
cated by G. L. Tuj 
man.) 



9° 



From i (£ i) Ceti to near Fo- 
malhaut. 

Vivid green, with a faint train 
when brightest, casting a 
glow all round. Faded 2° 
before extinction to bright- 
ness of Sirius, and disap- 
peared rather suddenly. A 
splendid meteor. 

Seen through haze . 



1870. 



!. F. Sawyer. Boston 
' Science Observer, 
vol. ii. p. 27. 



Id. 



T. W. Backhouse. 



E. F. Sawyer. Boston 
' Science Observer,' 
vol. ii. p. 27. 



98 



REPORT — 1879. 



A List of Large Meteors occasionally 



Date 



Sep. 22 

24 
Nov. 2 



12 



L2 



13 

14 

18 

18 
Dec. 6 

11 



Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 



h m 
(9 7J p.m.) 

(Evening) 
6 43 p.m, 



12 57 a.m. 



(7 p.m.) 



(7 15 p.m.) 



(6 40 p.m.) 

(3 30 p.m.) 

9 50 p.m. 

9 50 p.m. 
12 13 a.m. 

(6 a.m.) 



Place of 
Observation 



Boston, U.S.A. 



Stanislas, 
Austria. 
York 



Greenwich 



Washington, 
Davies's Co. 
Ind. U.S. 



Boston, U.S.A. 



Newhaven, 
Mass. U.S. 



Hillside Farm, 
Mass. U.S.A. 



Bristol 



Writtle, near 
Chelmsford, 
Essex. 

London, or 
Greenwich (?) 



Miilhausen, and 
Colmar, &c. 
Alsatia. 



Apparent Size 



As bright as 
Jupiter. 

Thrice as bright 
as Jupiter. 

Disc larger than 
Venus'. Daz- 
zlingly bright 



Brilliant meteor. 
Lighted the Park 
up brightly. 



About § apparent 
diam. of the 



moon. 



= Sirius 



1st mag. *. 



Fine meteor 



As bright as Ju. 
piter. 



As bright as 
Venus. 

A fine meteor 



Large fireball 



Colour 



Violet colour 



Yellow 



Bluish white 



Duration 



Slow . 



3 seconds at 
least ; slow, 
sailing mo- 
tion. 



About 10 se- 
conds ; very 
slow. 



1 or 1£ se- 
conds. 



Very slow 



Position or 
Apparent Path 

From to 

a 5 a S 



From 3° -10° to 
346° -28°. 

In Ursa Major 

From 28° W. of N. 
alt. 18° to 60° 
W.ofN.alt.l3° 
Positions mea- 
sured (Azth.'s 
magnetic). 

Part of path in 
sight 310° + 61° 
to 266° + 42° 
probable begin- 
ning at 0° + 58° 
about 7 Andro- 
medse. 



From close to Vega 
across the Milky 
Way to about 
20° N.W. of Ju 
piter. 

From N.E., alt. 

30° to N.W. alt. 

30°; highest 

point of appa 

rent path due N. 



From a little N. 
of Vega to a 
little S. of x 
Ophiuchi. 



47-26£to50-27£ 
low down in 

S.S.E. 

11-22 to 17 — 30] 

low down in S. 

Shot under, and a 
little past, Si 
rius, § of that 
star's alt. from 
the horizon. 

From N.W. to S. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
OBSERVED, chiefly IN THE YEARS 1878-1879— continued. 



99 



Length of 
Path 



5°; longpath 



.bout 30° 



Direction or Radiant-point 



Moving in a northerly direc- 
tion. 

Moved almost horizontally 
southwards. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



From i Ceti to Fomalhaut 
train visible for 1 sec. 

Meteor with a reddish train . 

Like a rocket or Roman candle, 
ball close at hand. End of 
path apparently depressed ; 
left no streak. 



Observer or Reference 



ery short 

only the 

end seen 1 



Radiant of the two projected 
paths, near A. Piscium, 
354 + 1. 

The same radiant observed 
by Denning (350° +2°) on 
Dec. 1-2, 1877. 

Nearly parallel to, but more 
horizontally than, a line 
drawn from Rigel to Sirius 



From 7 Andromedfe, across o, 
7j Cephei to under and 4° left 
of 7 Draconis, half that star's 
altitude from the horizon. A 
flash all round (before reach- 
ing a Cephei ?) made the ob- 
server look up to it, after 
which it was = Sirius, leaving 
a streak for 2 seconds. 

Nucleus with sharply defined 
disc up to the moment of its 
disappearance. Seen while 
watching with students for 
November meteors. 

A smaller meteor broke off 
from it, just before its cross 
ing the square of Ursa Minor, 
and continued parallel to and 
|° above it till both disap- 
peared together as suddenly 
as the meteor first appeared. 



E. F. Sawyer. Boston 
' Science Observer,' 
vol. ii. p. 27. 

' Nature,' vol. xix. p. 17. 

. C. Morland and 
J. E. Clark. 'Nat. 
Hist. Jour.' vol. 
p. 145. 



ii. 



A. W. Downing. (Com- 
municated by G. L 
Tupman.) 



D. E. Hunter ; D. Kirk- 
wood. 'Am.Phil.Soc, 
Proceedings,' May 2, 
1879. 

H. E. Stevens. Boston 
' Science Observer,' 
vol. ii. p. 30. 



The sky was very clear, and the 
meteor was seen in bright 
sunshine. 

Left no streak. [Identical with 
the next meteor; see cal- 
culated real path in Appen- 
dix I.] 



. J. Skinner. (Com 
municated by H. A. 
Newton.) 

Thomas Whitaker ; D. 
Kirkwood. ' Am. 
Phil. Soc. Proceed- 
ings,' May 2, 1879. 

W. F. Denning. ' The 
Observatory,' vol. ii. 
p. 306. 

H. Corder. Ibid. 



[Seen also by Dr. Rae (in Lon- 
don ?) : < Nature,' Dec. 12, 
1878.] 



Burst, exhibiting a display of 
natural fireworks. No sound 
of an explosion heard. 

H 2 



W. Airy. (Communi- 
cated by G. L. Tup- 
man.) 



' Nature,' vol. xix. 
160. 



P- 



100 



REPORT 1879. 



A List of Laege Meteors occasionally 



Date 



Dec. 11 



18 



19 



21 



30 



1879 
Jan. 12 



13 



15 



28 



Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 



h m 
9 36J p.m. 



8 57 p.m. 



(9 29 J p.m.) 
(8 p.m.) 



9 33 p.m. 



(8 p.m.) 



Just before 
7 p.m., 
Indiana- 
polis 
time.) 



(9 56 p.m.) 



(6 5 p.m.) 



10 57 p.m 



(2 28 a.m.) 



Place of 
Observation 



Sunderland 



Thames Em- 
bankment, 
London. 

New Haven, 
Mass., U.S.A. 



Bristol 



Boston, U.S.A. 



Wooster, Wayne 
Co., Ohio. 
[Widely seen; 
and also well 
observed at 
Anderson 
(Ind.), and 
Washington 
(Pa.).] 

The Observa- 
tory, Monca- 
lieri, near 
Turin. 



Boston, U.S.A. 



Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



Traverse City, 
and other 
places in Wis- 
consin and 
Michigan, 



Apparent Size 



About as bright as White, then 
Jupiter. green, and 

variable at 
last. 
About thrice as 
bright as Ju- 
piter. 

Brighter than a 
1st ma°'. * 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



As bright as 
Jupiter. 



Transverse diam. [Slightly 



Colour 



Duration 



2 - 5 seconds 



3 seconds 



Position or 
Apparent Path 



From 
a 5 



to 
a S 



Disappeared 
about ± (53, y r 
Eridani. 



of disc = ^ diam. 
of the moon. 



Large disc about 
7' diam., giving 
stronger illu- 
mination than 
the moonlight. 



Much brighter 
than Venus. 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



Larger than (3 or 
4 times as large 
as) the full 
moon. 



greenish ; 
reddish 
when 
bursting.] 



Nucleus gold 
yellow ; 
vapour- 
envelope, 
and train 
greenish 
and bluish 
white. 

Deep yellow. 



A ball of fire 
(white, 
then red- 
dish illu- 
mination 



3 or 4 seconds; 
moved very 
slowly. 

[About 2 
seconds, or 
a fraction 
less.] 



About 3 
seconds. 



Shot very 
slowly. 



Speed of a 
descending 
rocket. 
(About 8 or 
10 seconds 



Started exactly at 
7, and passed 2 C 
or 3° E. of 
Orionis. 

From close to the 
' crab ' nebula 
to just above 
and left of 
Ursas majoris. 

13-5 to 11-19. 



Appeared in the 
S.W., alt. 23°; 
altitude at dis- 
appearance 18°. 

From E., alt, 50°, 
to S. 13° E., alt, 
13°, exploding 
S. 33° E. (mea- 
sured positions; 
the first very 
accurate). 



Skirted the line 
of stars a, p, x, 
and disappeai - ed 
near a Leonis. 



First appearance 
a little E. of N., 
alt. about 60°. 
Disappeared 
behind a cloud 
bank. 

From about 2° E 
of & Urs* ma- 
joris to the Prse- 
sepe in Cancer. 

Observer facing 
due E. first sa 1 
it as high as 
ordinary rai: 
cloud over h 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
observed, chiefly in the Years 1878-1879 — continued. 



101 



Length of 

Tath 



About 25° . 
About 30° . 



35° 



Shot towards E. 



30° 



Direction or Radiant- Point 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Course a little curved down- 
wards (?), directed from i 
(7 Orionis, a Arietis). 

Full almost vertically (in- 
clined 3° towards the left, 
by a diagram). 



Shot almost vertically down- 
wards. 



[Probable radiant near a 6 
Draconis; Denning.] 



It was moving on a descend 
ing grade when first seen. 



Faded gradually at last ; 
slight train. 



left a 



Left a few detached pieces in 
its track ; it seemed to hesi- 
tate, and then die out. 

A very bright meteor 



Nucleus became faint, before 
the maximum, then suddenly 
increased to a vivid flash, 
leaving a streak there, 1° 
long, for 7 seconds, at the 
end of its course. 



Nucleus very elongated. First 
part of course very accurately 
noted through large tree- tops. 
[See description of its real 
path in Appendix I.] 



A bright blue streak marked 
the meteor's path after the 
disappearance of the nucleus 
for a second or two. 



T. W. Backhouse. 



W. Wickham. (Com- 
municated by G. L, 
Tupman.) 

J. J. Skinner. Boston 
' Science Observer,' 
vol. ii. p. 35. 



W. P. Denning. ' The 
Observatory,' vol. ii. 
p. 346. 



Observer or Inference 



N. M. Lowe. 
43. 



Ibid, p, 



Left a thin vapour-like streak 
for 2 or 3 seconds stretched 
along a line from above the 
stars of Leo. 

Just after passing the east, a 
perfectly distinct ring of fire 
with a dark centre peeled off 
it, and dropping a little be- 
hind it, followed the nucleus 



S. J. Kirkwood ; D 
Kirkwood,'Am. Phil. 
Soc. Proceedings,' 
May 2, 1879. 



P. Denza, and other 
observers. ' Astro- 
nomical Register,' 
vol. xvii. p. 150. 



James E. Stone. Bos- 
ton ' Science Obser- 
ver,' vol. ii. p. 43. 



'The Observatory, 'vol 
ii. p. 383. (Meteor 
notes by W. F. Den 
ning.) 

Report of a night 
watchman, commu- 
nicated by T. T. 
Bates; D. Kirkwood, 
'Am. Phil. Soc. Pro- 



102 



BEPORT 1879. 



A List of Large Meteors occasionally 



Date 



Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 



Feb. 3 



h m 



(11 30 p.m. 
Ind. time.) 



6 59 p.m. 



20 6 43 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation 



22 



23 



24 



About 
12 20 a.m 



About 
6 45 p.m. 



2 53 a.m 
(York 

Minster 
time.) 



U.S. [For a 
description of 
its real path 
see Appendix 

I-] 

Raysville, 
Henry Co., 
Ind., U.S. 



Birkdale 
Observatory, 
Southport. 

Putney Hill, 
London. 

Bury St. Ed 
munds (and 
elsewhere in 
Surrey, Es- 
sex, and Suf- 
folk). [See 
description of 
the real path 
in Appendix 
I-] 



Apparent Size 



Larger than the 
fireball of Dec, 
21, 1876. 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



Kersal, near 
Manchester 



York (four or 
five good ob- 
servations 
among nume- 
rous descrip- 
tions). [The 
next observa- 
tion to this 
refers to the 
same 
meteor.] 



As bright as Rigel 



Large fireball 
(Lit up a room 
facing south 
at Godalming, 
Surrey.) 



Colour 



Princeton). 



Duration 



Brilliant meteor 



*to 



. the moon's 
diameter, with a 
haze or 'glory 
round it 4 x 
the moon's dia> 
meter. 



Red 



White, or 
yellowish. 

(Brilliant 
white, then 
pink, then 
green ; 
Brentwood, 
Essex.) 



White, 
changing 
to blue, or 
bluish 
green. 



Princeton, 
Wisconsin) 



Brief dura- 
tion ; only 
a few 
seconds. 



Quick 
motion. 



Position or 
Apparent Path 

From to 

a 8 a 8 



right shoulde 
in S.W., and i 
passed by bin 
to N.E. on hi 
left. 

Rose from thi 
eastern horizon 
and burst jus 
before reaching 
the zenith, thi 
fragments no 
proceeding ver] 
far. 

From 7±° + 32 t< 
342£° +62°. 



2-3 seconds . From 25° + 40° tc 
32° + 35°. 



(20 seconds 
Saffron 
Walden. 5 
or 6 se- 
conds, Go- 
dalming 
and Haver- 
hill. Seve- 
ral seconds 
Brent- 
wood.) 



Moved 
slowly ; 
time to call 
another 
person's 
attention 
to it. 
2 seconds.' 
'3 or 4 se 
eonds, &c.' 
Perhaps 
about 6 
seconds, at 
full bright- 
ness, from 
general ac- 
counts. 



In the west, fall- 
ing downwards 
to the earth. 
(The glare in the 
cloudy sky was 
strongest in the 
S.E., at Haver^ 
hill, and at 
Saffron Walden, 
a little S.E. oi 
the zenith. At 
Brentwood the 
track passed 
overhead.) 

' At a small angle ' 
just below the 
new moon. 



i), 



Passed from N 
(probably a lift 
S. of the zenith), 
nearly over- 
head, to a point 
(measured by 
the towers of 
the Minster) at 
41° W. for S, 
(true). Alt. 10° 
(Other notes 
were 53° and 
48° W. for S.J 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
OBSERVED, CHIEFLY IN THE YEARS 1878-1879 — continued. 



103 



Length of 
Path 



Direction or Radiant-point 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Rose upwards ; E. to W. 



Fell downwards. (Course at 
Saffron Walden, from S.W 
to N.E. ; at Brentwood 
from S.S.W. toN.N.E.) 



' Descending at a small an 
gle ; ' course about from 
north to south. 



About N.E. to S.W., pass- 
ing (?) a little southward 
from the zenith. 



out of sight. The report fol- 
lowed the meteor's disap- 
pearance in just 4 minutes 
by a watch. 

Extremely large, followed by a 
stream of flame, and bursting 
at last into fragments which 
shot earthwards in various 
directions, with a dull but 
distinctly audible report. 



A fine meteor. First seen ap- 
pearing from above the house 
burst at last into numerous 
brilliant fragments. 

Projected a smaller body some 
5' or 6' in front of its nucleus, 
near the end of its flight. 

Lit up the sky vividly. (Burst 
into a shower of sparks ; 
Brentwood. The glare in- 
creased gradually, ending 
with a sudden blaze ; Go- 
dalming.) Report like that 
of an explosion (heard like 
thunder at Haverhill in 30 
sees, or 45 sees., rumbling 
down to N.W. from alt. 45°. 
A rumbling sound in 20 
sees, heard at Saffron Wal 
den.) 

Had the night been dark it 
would have been a grand 
fireball. 



Observer or Reference 



ceedings, May 2, 
1879. 



Indianopolis • Dail v 
News,' Feb. 7; D 
Kiikwood, ibid. 



Communicated by Jos. 
Baxendell. 



J. L. McCance. 'The 
Observatory,' vol. ii. 
p. 417. 

The Observatory, 
vol. iii. p. 22. ' Nat 
Hist. Journal,' vol. 
iii. p. 68. (V. Cor- 
nish, W. F. Denning, 
J. E. Clark.) 



Pear-shaped, followed by a tail 
two or three times the length 
of the head, leaving no 
streak upon its track. Burst 
when over-head with fre- 
quent sparks and scintilla- 
tions; but at the end of its 
course the ball 'disappeared 
in mid-air.' Light like day- 
light, effacing street lamps, 
and stronger than the electric 
light. Report like a sudden 
'bang' in 1^ or l^ m , like 



A writer in the ' Man 
Chester Guardian,' 
Feb. 27 (or 26?) 1879, 



Accounts of several 
observers, collected 
by J. E. Clark. 
Notes in the ' Ob- 
servatory,' vol. ii. p. 
417 ; and ' Nat. Hist. 
Journal,' vol. iii. pp. 
69-70. 





104 




REPORT — 1879. 






A List op Large Meteors occasionally 




Hour 










Position or 


Date 


Approx. 
G.M.T. (or 
Local Time) 


Place of 
Observation 


Apparent Size 


Colour 


Duration 


Apparent Path 

Prom to 
a 8 a 5 




h m 










Beginning 
doubtful ; ap- 
parently about 
14° N. of E. 
Alt. 58° (?) 


Feb.24 


About 


At sea, 2 miles 


(Nucleus not more 


(Primrose 


Light 1 se- 


From 20° E. of 




3 a.m. 


N.W. from 


than -J- diameter 


yellow. Nu- 


cond be- 


N.; alt. 45° 






Whitby (and 


of moon. Tail 


cleus with 


fore, and 


to 20° W. of S. ; 






at Hull). 


not more than 


prismatic 


nucleus 


alt. 45° (first 






[Seen also at 


4 x the length 


tail. Hull.) 


seen 10 se- 


and last ap- 






Brighton, 


of the head. 




conds after 


pearance among 






Birmingham, 


Hull.) 




its first 


snow-clouds.) 






Manchester, 






clear ap- 


(At Hull, seen 






Liverpool, 






pearance. 


from 4° W. of 






and Dundee. 








N. ; alt. 60° (?) 






For real path 








to 4°N. ofW.; 






see Appendix 








alt. 20° (?) (di- 






I-] 








rections by a 


Mar. 2 


6 15 or 20 


Winchester 


About ^ of full 


Yellowish, 




map.) 
From 70° - 20° 




p.m. 




moon's size 


surrounded 
by red 
light 




„ 85° - 25° 
(end point hidden 
by trees). 


2 


8 45 p.m. 


Sidcot 


Bright ; = Regu- 
lus. 


• • 


. 


Began at J (o Leo- 
nis, o Hydra.) 


2 


9 40 p.m. 


Debenham, 
Norfolk. 


Bright'; = 1st 
mag. # 






From 184° + 63° 
to 18^° + 58° 


3 




Sunderland 


Bright; = Sinus. 


Deep yellow ; 
tail reddish 


4 or 5 seconds; 
very slow. 
No l before 
seen with 
such a long 
duration. 


From 140° - 7° 
to 160° - 7° 


8 


7 20-25 
p.m. 


Bristol . 


As bright as Jupi- 
ter. 


• 


Rapid . 


Centre of course 
at alt. 18°, 

S.S.E. 


9 


(Evening) 


Newhaven, 
Mass., U.S.A. 


Bright meteor 






From 55° W. of S.; 
alt. 30° to 25° 
E. of S.; alt. 
about 15°. 


12 


7 37 p.m. 


Greenwich 


Brighter than 
Venus. 


Green . 


Very swift ; 
not more 
than (?) 1 
second. 


From 205° + 35° 
to 196° + 6°. 


12 

1 


7 35 p.m. 








Motion slow . 


From 210° + 40° 
to 197° + 7°. 
Apparent path 
as described to 
Mr. Denning. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
OBSERVED, CHIEFLY in THE YEAKS 1878-1879 — continued. 



105 



Length of 
Path 



6° or 6° 



Direction or liadiant-poiut 



Towards S.E. 



25° 



Rather long 
path. 



Descending obliquely to- 
wards S.E. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



an earthquake shock, which 
died away slowly. 



Began like moonlight in N.E. 
Dense luminous train, with 
dropping sparks. Faint re- 
port like distant thunder, 
(Report at Gunby, near Filey, 
intense ; not quite so strong 
as loudest thunder. At Hull, 
fainter, heard in 2 m .) 



Observer or Reference 



I. Heselton (of ship 
' Margery ; Seaham 
to Scarborough.) 
Communicated by 
J. E. Clark. 



Nucleus quite round 



Two minutes later a rather 
brighter meteor appeared at 
the same place, with a course 
of 2° towards S.S.E. 

The meteor burst £° np. 5 Ursa? 
majoris. 

Increased in brightness con- 
stantly, with some fluctua- 
tions, till it disappeared, 
The sparkling tapering tail, 
2° or 3° long, was brightest 
near the nucleus. A fine 
meteor. 

Train 



Communicated by J. 

L. McCance, in ' The 

Observatory,' vol. ii. 

p. 417. 
C. E. B. 'Nat. Hist 

Journal,' vol, iii. p 

50. 

V. Cornish, ' The Ob- 
servatory,' vol. iii. p, 
22. 

J. W. Backhouse. 



A fine meteor ; 
clouds and haze. 



seen through 



Seen by two gentlemen, who 
immediately described its 
course to Mr. Denning. 



Communicated by W, 

F. Denning. ' The 
Observatory,' vol. 
iii. p. 417. 

Communicated by H. 

A. Newton. Boston 

' Science Observer,' 

vol. ii. p. 51. 
W. H. M. Christie 

Communicated by 

G. L. Tupman. 

Communicated by 
W. F. Denning. 



106 



REPORT 1879. 



A List op Large Meteoes occasionally 



Date 



Mar. 15 



Apr. 18 



19 

[?18] 

19 



21 



21 



June 7 



18 



18 



July27 



27 



Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 



h m 
(3 53 a.m.) 



8 52 p.m, 



About 
9 p.m. 

12 50 a.m. 



8 43£ p.m. 



8 43 p.m 



About 
10 p.m. 



10 38 p.m. 



10 57 



(12 45 a.m.) 



1 36 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation 



Washington, 
Davies's Co., 
Ind., U.S.A. 



Sandymount, 
Dublin. 



Birmingham 



Bristol 



Bath 



Bristol 



Geneva (Neu 
chatel, Zug, 
Milan, &c). 



Bath 



Bristol (seen by 
several ob 
servers). 



Droeda, Saxony. 
(Similar ac 
counts from 
Leipzig,Dres 
den, Zwic 
kau, Wieders- 
berg, &c.) 

Bristol 



Apparent Size 



Bright shooting- 
star. 



Bright meteor 



Brighter than 1st 
mag. *. 



Fireball 



As bright as 
Venus. 



As large as full 
moon. 



Like a ' fireball ' 
of a firework. 



Large disc . 



Large fireball 



As bright as 
Mars. 



Colour 



Pale bluish 
colour. 



Nucleus with 
train of 
yellow 
sparks. 



Greenish, 
with iri- 
descent 
colours. 



Colours 
decidedly 
bluish 



green. 



Bright blue . 



Yellow 



Duration 



About 5 
seconds ; 
rather slow 
speed. 



6 seconds ; 
extremely 
slow 
motion. 



2-3 seconds. 



3 seconds ; 
moved 
slowly. 



Very slow 
motion. 



Position or 
Apparent Path 



From 
a S 



to 

a S 



First seen at a 
point 10° W. of 
S., alt. 25°. 



From Arctums 
towards, and to 
within 10° or 
12° of Procyon 

Shot from near ij 
Ursas majoris to 
a point about 
E.S.E., alt. 40°, 

From 310° + 51° 
to 263° + 48°. 



Disappeared 3° or 
4° S.E. of Pro- 
cyon. 



Began at a con 
siderable alti 
tude in the 
southern sky. 



First appeared 
about 10° S. of 
Arcturus. 



Across the 
^ heavens. 



From 180° + 751 
to 152° + 73°. 







OBSERVATIONS 


OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


107 


OBSERVED, 


chiefly in the Years 1878-1879 — continued. 




Length of 
Path 


Direction or Radiant-point 


Appearance, Remarks, &c. 


Observer or Reference 




20° . 


Moved westwards 


Burst at last into fragments, 
and lighted up everything 
almost like daylight. Left 
a smoke-cloud visible for 
several minutes. 


Several observers. 
Communicated by 
D. E. Hunter; D. 
Kirkwood/Am.Phil. 
Soc. Proceedings,' 
May 2, 1879. 




Nearly 65° . 


Almost due E. to W. . 


Disappeared without explosion, 
or any other peculiarities of 
appearance in its course. No 
meteor before seen with such 
an extended course. 


J. O'Reilly. Commu- 
nicated by R. S. 
Ball. 




Long course 




Noted while viewing the stars; 
as remarkable, apparent^, for 
its long course. [? if iden- 
tical with the last meteor.] 


'Aster.' Birmingham 
'Daily Post,' Apr. 
22, 1879. 




About 30° 




A fine meteor, with bright 
train of sparks. 


W. F. Denning, 'The 
Observatory,' vol. 
iii. p. 56. 






Directed from o Leonis 


Attention drawn to the meteor 
from a direction facing east, 
by a sudden brightness of 
the sky. Explosion like that 
of a fine rocket. 


J. L. Stothert, ibid. 




• • 


Descended obliquely towards 


Unusually large and brilliant ; 


Bristol Newspaper, 






tbe west. 


seen by many persons in 
Bristol. 


April 22. Commu- 
nicated by W. F. 
Denning. 




■ • 


Its entire course was sinuous, 


A report heard in the Valaisan 


'Nature,' vol. xx. p. 






presenting a strange zig- 


Alps, and at Vittore Olona, 


183. 






zag form. From N.E. to 


Lombardy ; a report like 








S.W. (?). 


artillery followed its disap- 
pearance in about 4 minutes 
(' The Times '). An aerolite 
(?) fell at the same time in 
Lake Lugano. 






About 25° . 


Very nearly N.E. to S.W. . 


Left a faint trail. The decided 
colour of its nucleus was re- 
markable. 


C: Armbruster, 

'Nature,' vol. xx. p. 
197. 






Course 'almost a straight 


A beautiful meteor, with im- 


Bristol Newspaper ; 






line ' from S. to N. 


mensely large nucleus, leav- 
ing very little tail behind 
it. Attracted attention by 
its light illuminating the 
ground. 


W. F. Denning's 
notes in 'The Ob- 
servatory,' vol. iii. 
p. 117. 






Moving from S. to N. . 


Illumination of the whole fir- 
mament ; nearly as intense 
as daylight. 


'Nature,' August 14, 
1879. 




- 


Radiant near r; Draconis . 


Left a train of sparks 


W. F. Denning. 



108 



EEPOET 1879. 



A List op Large Meteors occasioxally 



Date 


Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 


Place of 
Observation 


Apparent Size 


Colour 


Duration 


Position or 
Apparent Path 

From to 
a S a S 


July 30 
Aug. 9 

11 

11 


12 16 a.m. 
11 53 p.m. 

11 30 p.m. 

11 55 p.m. 


Bristol . 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid 


As bright as 
Jupiter. 

As bright as 
Jupiter. 

As bright as 
Jupiter. 

As bright as 
Mars. 


. 


Rapid . 
Rapid . 

Rapid . 

Slow . 


From 140° + 66° 
to 158° + 54°. 

From 34° + 78° to 
254° + 85J°. 

From 6° + 47° to 
351° + 37°. 

From .30° + 64° to 
50° + 54°. 



SUPPLEMENTAL ACCOUNTS OF LARGE METEORS 



Date 



1858. 
Aug. 13 



1877. 
Oct. 9 



Hour 

Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 

Local Time) 



h m 
Not noted, 
but about 
6p.m.(?). 
[True 
time 6 39 
p.m.] 



12 12 a.m. 
(Paris time; 

■ 12 3 a.m. 

G.M.T.) 



Place of 
Observation 



1 or 2 miles E 
of Ryde, I. of 

Wight, 



Charleville, 
near Mezieres, 
Ardennes, 
France (and 
Antwerp). 
[See calcula- 
tion of the 
real path ; 
Appendix I., 
Supplement.] 



Apparent Size 



At first £ of the 
moon's diameter 
but increased 
as it advanced 
Eclipsed the 
light of the stars 
and of the moon 
(which was un 
usually bright). 



Very bright fire 
ball. 



Colour 



At first ruddy, 
then pure 
white ; tail 
bluer, with 
faint pris- 
matic co- 
lours. 
[Streak 
white ?] 



Nearer 5 than 
3 seconds ; 
speed very 
moderate, 
smooth and 
uniform. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path 



From near E.S.E., 
alt. about 15°, 
to near S.S.E., 
alt. about 20°; 
centre of course 
due S.E. 



Rather long 
duration 
3-5 sees. 




CS.£) 



Made its appear- 
ance in the 
north. (In the 
north.) 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



109 



OBSERVED, 


chiefly IN THE YEARS 1878-1879 — continued. 




Length of 
Path 


Direction or Radiant-Point 


Appearance, Remarks, &c. 


Observer or Reference 




A Perseid II. 


Left a streak . . . . 


W. F. Denning. 


. 


A Perse'id I 


Left a streak. In 2 h , 45 meteors 
seen, nearly a half of them 


Id. 




Perseids I., radiant, exact at 








46° + 58°. 






A Perseid I 


Left a streak. Perseids more 
numerous (3 : 1) than other 
meteors ; rate of all meteors 
at 10 p.m., 72 per hour. 


Id. 


" 


Radiant in Cepheus or Lyra 


Left a bright train. Perseids 
and other meteors about 
equally frequent on Aug. 12, 
p.m. A good radiant, Aug. 
y-12, at 46° + 58°. 


Id. 



OMITTED IN THE ABOVE GENERAL LIST. 



45° or 50° 



Length of 
Path 



Direction or Radiant-point 



At first nearly stationary, 
then slightly ascending for 
\ and descending for \ of 
its track. 




General form and breadth of 

the head and streak. 
(Descending towards N.W.) 



Appearance and Remarks 



Nucleus a ' ball ' throughout, 
with a short tail almost as 
bright, and a long, somewhat 
wavy and inflated-looking 
streak following it on f (or 
at last on only \ or \~) of its 
track. The whole, short tail 
and nucleus together, va- 
nished suddenly at last. A 
magnificent meteor. [Seen 
also in London by Mr. Pope 
Hennessy ; these Reports, vol. 
for 1858. p. 152.— Radiant 
about 335° + 5° ( ± 4°).] 

Left behind it a long streak, 
which remained visible for 
six seconds. [Seen also at 
Bristol ; these Reports, vol. 
for 1878, p. 282. Mr. Den- 
ning*s radiant is confirmed 
by the Antwerp track, at 
77° + 34°.] 



Observer or Reference 



F. Caws. Communi- 
cated byH. R. Proc 
ter. 



Mons. Thibout ; ' Bul- 
letin hebd. de 
l'Assoc. Scientifique 
de France,' xxi. 
(1877-78), p. 63.— 
(Mons. de Boe' ; ibid.) 



110 



REPORT 1879. 



Supplemental Accounts of Large Meteors 





Hour 










Position or 


Date 


Approx. 
G.M.T. (or 
Local Time) 


Place of 
Observation 


Apparent Size 


Colour 


Duration 


Apparent Path 

From to 
a S a 5 


Oct. 14 


About 


Neuilly En- 


A fine bolide 


(White; the 




In the West. 




6 15-20 


thelle, Oise 


rather than a 


fragments 




[' Shot from 




(Paris 


(and d'Oissel 


shooting-star. 


red.) 




near Ursa major 




time). 


Station, 
Rouen to El- 
bceuf), 
France. 


Large size ; 
light like a 
lightning flash. 






towards the 
left ; ' descrip- j 
tion in Paris \ 

giving no time.] j 


14 


About 


Clermont Fer- 


Between the 


Colour de- 


Scarcely 2 


From 1° prec. a t 




6 55 p.m. 


rand (and 


brightness of 


cidedly 


seconds. 


Ursa? majoris to 




(Paris 


Dijon, Vin- 


Jupiter and 


green. 


(4-6 sees., 


the horizon. 




time). 


cennes, Paris, 


Venus (^ of the 


(Bright 


slow ; Yve- 


(' Across ' the 






Arras, Tvetot, 


moon's diame- 


pale-green, 


tot, and 


sky, Yvetot. 






Autheuil in 


ter at last, in 


Dijon ; 


Paris.) 


'Perpendicularly 






Eure ; Cour- 


Paris ; light 


blue, Vin- 




to Corona,' Au- 






ville, Eure 


stronger than 


cennes. 




theuil. Ended 






and Loire ; St. 


moonlight). 


White with 




at 22° + 12°, be- 






Honorin du 




red and 




ginning less cer- 






Fe, Manche). 




blue tail 
and frag- 
ments ; Ar- 
ras, Yvetot, 
Paris.) 




tain, at 14° +45°, 
St. Honorin du 
F6. Began at i\ 
Ursaj majoris 
and fell verti- 
cally, Dijon. Be- 1 
gan a little west 
of, and shot away 1 
from, Ursa ma- 
jor, Courville.) 


14 


About 


Rubernpre, near 


Size of a shooting- 


Colour of an 


. . 


Seen from a north 




8 p.m. 


Amiens, 


star. 


ordinary 




door ; shot quite 




(Paris 


France. 




shooting- 




across the con- 




time). 






star. 




stellation Ursa 


1878. 












major. 


Jan. 12 


9 25 p.m. 


Damblain, 


i diam. of the 


Bluish at last, 


Time of flight, 


Began in Lyra, 




(Paris 


Vosges, 


moon. 


and green 


some 80 


and shot towards 




time). 


France. 




at bursting. 


sees. [?] 


Saturn, disap- 
pearing just 
above Aquila. 


Feb. 4 


10 15 p.m. 


Ibid. 


T 7 of the moon's 


... 


Rather slow 


' Appeared in the 




(Paris 




diameter. 




speed. 


N.N.E. and shot 




time). 










towards the 
S.S.W. Altitude 
of its course 
about 25°.' 


20 


10 40 p.m. 


Between No- 


£th of the moon's 


Vivid green 


Long dura- 


Began near S, e 




(Paris 


gent and 


diameter. 


at bursting. 


tion; about 


Cassiopeiae, 




time). 


Chaumont, 
France. 






60 sees. (?) 


passed near 8 
and a, and across 
and v Persei, 
but to the right 
of x Persei, 
bursting near 














the Pleiades. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
OMITTED IN ABOVE GENERAL LIST — continued. 



Ill 



Length of 
Path 



Very long 
course. 



Direction or Radiant-point 



Directed exactly from Po- 
laris. (Going towards W., 
with a slight inclination 
from S.E., Arras. — Shot 
from near Ursa major 
' towards the left ; ' fell 
' almost vertically,' a little 
inclined 'from left to 
right ' (?), and « from N.W. 
to S.E.' (!), Paris ; ' in di 
rection of Boul. Sevastopol, 
beginning over the Theatre 
de Kenaissance,' Boul. de 
St. Martin, Paris. Fell 
vertically at Dijon.) 



From E. to W. 



The track and final deport- 
ment (even to the tracks 
taken by the three frag- 
ments at last) of the bolide 
of Dec. 20, 1871, at Nancy 
(' C.R.' lxxxiv. p. 202), were 
identical with this. 



Appearance and Remarks 



Burst like a bomb-shell. (Broke 
into pieces at last ; lit up the 
railway carriage in spite of 
strong moonlight.) [Perhaps 
identical with the next me 
teor (?)] 



Increased rather than dimin 
ished constantly in size as it 
neared the horizon. (Nucleus 
a kite- shaped body, with blue 
and red vapour round it, and 
a very broken flickering tail 
expanded gradually until it 
burst into many fireballs or 
fragments, leaving a blue 
streak for a few seconds only 
Yvetot, Autheuil and Paris. 
Moved, as it fell, by jerks, 
Dijon ; or like a drop of gum 
in water, Paris.) 



Three minutes later another 
meteor near Algol shot to- 
wards Auriga, and disap- 
peared quickly. 

Left no streak ; no sound of an 
explosion audible. 



Left a reddish streak ; and dis- 
appeared without bursting. 
But about two minutes after 
its first appearance, a distant 
sound was heard like that of 
waggons rumbling on a pave- 
ment. 

Left no streak. At bursting, 
one fragment shot towards 5 
Tauri, another towards, and 
disappeared near, 6 Aurigae ; 
and a third moved westwards 
and disappeared in Aries. 
The bolide of Dec. 20, 1871, 
was also green at bursting, 
and it left no streak. 



Observer or Reference 



See the next meteor. 



Accounts collected by 
the Paris Observa 
tory and by the 
' Association Sci en 
tifique de France.' 
(< Bulletin hebdo- 
madaire ' of the ' As- 
sociation, ' tome xxi 
p. 205.) 



Ibid. 



Mons. Guyot ; 
' Comptes Rendus,' 
vol. 86, p. 729. 



Id. ; ibid. 



Id. Ibid. [For fire- 
balls of Dec. 20, 1871, 
Nancy, and Dec. 20, 
1870, Hawkhurst, 
see these ' Reports,' 
vol. for 1872, p. 112, 
and vol. for 1871, p. 
32.) 



112 



REPOBT — 1879. 



Supplemental Accounts of Lakge Meteors 



Date 



July! 2 
26 



Hour 
Approx. 

G.M.T. (or 
Local Time) 



Place of 
Observation 



8 30 p.m.lPrivat.Ardeche 



(Paris 
time). 
10 38 p.m 
(Paris 
time). 



Sep. 



15 



Oct.l' 



France. 

Montrouge, 
Paris (?). 



9 35 p.m. Wonersh,Guild 
ford, Surrey. 



Apparent Size 



Large 



About 9 10 
p.m.(Ber 
lin time.) 



Between 6 
and 7p.m. 
(Local 
times). 



(About 
5 50 p.m.) 



Hanau (and 
many other 
places in) 
Germany. 



Tenez(andCon 
stantine, and 
many other 
places in) Al- 
geria. And 
the same me- 
teor (?) also 
at Montpel 
lier, France. 

Harlton, Cam 
bridge. 



Twice or thrice as 
large as Jupiter. 



Colour 



Light vivid 
blue. 



Duration 



Position or 
Apparent Path 

From to 

a 8 a 8 



Green, like 
burning sil- 
ver,changed 
to red in 
bursting. 



Very brilliant 
fireball. 



Bright green, 



About 3 sees.; 
moved 
slowly. 



Whole dura- 
tion of the 
phenome- 
non about 
30 sees. 



Very long du- 
ration. 



The streak lay 
little E. of th< 
zenith, extend 
ingfromN.E. tc 
N.W. (? S.W.) 



From 272i° -10' 
to 255° -16° 
(disappearance 
close to t) Ophi- 
uchi). 

Appeared in the 
S.B. ; a solid- 
looking nucleus 
and long tail 
stretching to 
N.W. 



About 2 sees, 
motion 
rapid. 



Fell quite close to 
the moon. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOES. 
OMITTED IN ABOVE GENERAL LlST—00?ltimied. 



113 



Length of 
Path 



Direction or Radiant-point 



Length of the 
streak 10° 
or 12°. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. Observer or Reference 



Fell towards the S.W. hori- 
zon. 



Long path 



Nature,' vol. xviii. p. 
318. 

Th. Moureaux. ' Bulle- 
tin Hebdomadaire 
de l'Assoc. Scienti- 
fique de France," 
vol. xxii. p. 272. 



Sydney Evershed, 
'Nature,' vol. x 
p. 519. 

Ibid. p. 575. 



Descending almost perpen- 
dicularly, but inclined a 
little from N. to S. as it 
fell. 



A magnificent fireball; broke 
into several pieces. 

Shortly after a brilliant flash, 
which lighted up everything, 
the streak which it left was 
seen, and remained visible 
for 6 or 7 sees. Cloud and 
haze hid the stars. No sound 
heard. 

Large meteor ; broke up, or fell 
to pieces at the end of its 
course. Attention drawn to 
it by its light while looking 
for Jupiter in a telescope. 

Appeared with a flash like 
lightning ; the comet-like 
tail remaining when the 
nucleus had disappeared, and 
little stars being visible 
through it with the naked 
eye. 

Whether all the accounts refer Ibid, 
to the same fireball is not 
certain. A sound accom- 
panied it at Constantine. 



Most brilliant, even in strong O. P. Fisher, 
moonlight and daylight, 643. 
shortly after sunset. 



Ibid, p 



1879. 



114 



EEPOET — 1879. 



LARGE METEORS IN 1878-9, OBSERVED 



Date 



1878. 
March 
2 



Nov. 18 
Dec. 18 



Hour 



h m 

About 
9 45 p.m. 



Near Chelms- 
ford. 



9 50 p.m 

About 
9 p.m. 



Writtle . 
Chelmsford 



18 
21 



6 5 p.m. 



About 
3 30 p.m 
1879 
Aug. 4 11 5 p.m. 



6 

11 
11 



10 20 p.m. 
10 50 p.m. 
12 25 p.m 



Place of 

Observation 



Ibid, 
aid. 

Writtle . 

Broomfield,near 

Chelmsford 
Writtle . 

Ibid. 



Apparent size 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



1st . 
Fireball 

= V- ■ 
= % . 
= Sirius 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



Colour 



Orange 



Green 



Emerald 
green. 

Emerald 
green. 

Orange 

Green (?) 



Not very slow 



2 sees. (?) . 
Not very slow 



Duration 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth 



In S. (E. of and 
under Orion). 



Moderate 



2 or 3 sees. . 
2 or 3 sees. . 
1 sec. . 
0-2 sec. (?) . 



From 11° -22° to 
17° -30°. 

From a little W, 
of Rigel to near 
the horizon. 



From 311° + 27° 
to 313 + 20°. 

Fell downwards 
in N. (?) 

From 245° + G2° 

to 207° + 52°. 
From 114° + 46° 

to 115° + 38°. 
From 194° + 70° 

to 203° + 58°. 
From 50° + 14° to 

51° + 7°, very 

doubtful. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOES. 



115 



NEAR CHELMSFORD. By H. Corder. 



Appearance ; Train or 


Length 


Radiant-point ; 






Sparks ; Streak, if an)' left, 


of 


Direction ; 


Remarks 


Observer 


and its Duration 


Path 


Slope of Path. 






Disappeared with bright 




Somewhat in this 




Mrs.J.C. Smith. 


flash behind clouds. 




position probably : — 

* 

\ V** ORION 






Short spark train ; began 


8° . 


X 


[See the above general 


H. Corder. 


with flash. 






list.] 




Left a long streak: and 


. 


Probable path : — 


Not seen by a regular 


J. King. 


bright enough to light 






observer, so descrip- 




up sky and road. 




. •: ••' 

f 

a* 


tion vague. A bright 
1st mag. streak- 
leaving meteor at 
about 6.5 the same 
evening. (See the 








next observation.) 








-^/sgUhdf 






Left a streak 






Possibly same radiant 
as the last meteor. 


H. Corder. 


Bright in daylight 






No stars out to map . 


E. H. Christy. 


it train . 


10° or 12° . 


1 From Cygnus, about 
295° + 55°. 


1 Exactly similar in I 


H. Corder. 


i) ... 


» 


» 


1 every respect. | 


Id. 


Pine streak . 


. 


Perseid 


Two others 1st mag. 
almost simultaneous 


Id. 


Brilliant flash and streak 


. 


Perseid 


Very low down ; 4- not 
seen, only flash and 


Id. 








streak. 








I 2 







116 



REPORT — 1879. 



REAL PATHS OF LARGE METEORS DOUBLY OBSERVED 



Date and Hour, G.M.T. (or Local 
Time). Size and General Appear- 
ance 



Principal Places of 
Observation 



1858, Aug. 13, 6 h 39 m p.m., £ moon's 
diameter. White, globular, 
with short bluish tail, and long 
white comet-like train pursuing 
it, but not persistent. 

1868, Sept. 5, 8 h 35 m p.m 
(Berne time.) 



1873, Dec. 24 (7" 39 m p.m.W.M.T.) 
Conical nucleus, brighter than 
full moon ; yellow, with short 
tail of red and blue sparks. 
Burst (?) with loud detonation ; 
left no streak. 



1877, Oct. 8, 12" p.m. midnight. 
Bright fireball with long streak. 

1877, Dec. 9, 8" 12 m p.m. A fine 
meteor = Jupiter, with long 
course and streak, ' mauve 
purple and green colours. 



1878, April 2, 7" 54 ra p.m. De- 
tonating fireball ; ^ moon's dia- 
meter; red; slow, halting mo- 
tion ; burst into fragments. 



1878, Aug. 11 (about 10 h 10 m p.m.) 
^ diameter of, and outshone 
full moon ; greenish ; burst into 
three red fragments, and deto 
nated. 



London, and Ryde, I. of 

Wight. 



Tours, Clermont Fer- 
rand,Picde Sancy, &c, 
France ; Mayence ; 
Zurich, Morges, Gene- 
va ; Bergamo ; Ger- 
many, Italy, and 
Switzerland. 

Washington, and neigh- 
bouring towns in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland ; 
and at Richmond, 
Newark, Danbury, &c, 
in the United States. 



Bristol, Antwerp, and 
near Mezieres, France. 

Royal Observatory, 

Greenwich, London, 
Bromley, and Writtle 
(Chelmsford). Three 
or four good observa- 
tions, compared to- 
gether by Major Tup- 
man. 

Blackheath, Birming- 
ham, and Leicester. 
Calculated path by 
Major Tupman and 
Professor Herschel. 



Bloomington, Indiana ; 
Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania. Notice and 
calculation of the 
meteor's path by Pro- 
fessor Kirkwood. 



Meteor's Real Course 



Height and Locality of 
Beginning End 



28 m. (?) over a 
point 20 m. sea 
ward from the 
French coast at 
Dieppe (?) 

460 m. over a point 
a little W. of Si- 
nope, Asia Minor. 
[Or (?) 250 m. 
over Belgrade.] 



About 90 m. over a 
point near New- 
castle in the 
northern part of 
Delaware State, 
30 m. S.W. from 
Philadelphia. 



80 m. over a point 
15 m. W. of Alle- 
maar, Holland. 

55 m. over Stoke 
Ferry, Norfolk. 



60 m. over a point 
10 m. S. from 
Leicester. 



About 77 m. over 
the northern part 
of Western Vir- 
ginia (300 m. due 
E. from Blooming- 
ton ; alt. 10°.) 



12 m. (?) over a 
point midway be 
tween Brighton 
and Cherbourg. 

115[or(?)70,or 100] 
m. over Ozaine, 
nearTours,France. 



10 or 20 (?) m. over 
point near Fairfax 
Co., Virg., 30 or 
60 (?) m. W.S.W. 
from Washington. 
Distance of the 
track from Wash 
ington by the 
sound-interval 
there, 31 m. 

35 m. over a point 
60 m. W. of the 
same town. 

36 m. over Stratford - 
on-Avon. 



15 m. (end-height 
very well deter 
mined) over a 
point 5 m. W. 
from Coventry, 
35 m. (agreeing 
with the time- 
interval of the 
sound) from Lei- 
cester. 

15 or 20 m. (?) over 
Crawford County, 
Pa. ; distance (by 
interval of the 
sound) W. of Ti- 
tusville in that 
county, 25 m. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



117 



PRINCIPALLY IN THE YEARS 1878-1879. 



Distances in British Statute Miles 'm.' 



Length of Path 
and Velocity 



Observed Radiant 
Point 
S 



75 m. (?) in 2, or 4£ sees 
Velocity, 23 miles p. 
sec. ; not very certain. 
Parabolic speed 25 m. p. 

SGC 

1780 [or (?) 1200] m. in 17 
or (average) 42 sees. 
Average velocity 43 [or 
(?) 28±] m. p. sec. Para- 
bolic speed 26 m. p. sec. 



Not definitely assignable ; 
but probably about 120 
m. in 3 to 5 sees. [The 
parabolic speed is 35 
and the observed speed 
probably about 30 m. p, 
sec] 



63m. in 4 sees.; 16m. p. 
sec. Parabolic speed 40^ 
m. p. sec. 

100 m. in 3 sees., by two 
estimates of the dura- 
tion; velocity 33 m. p 
sec. (Parabolic speed 
35 m. p. sec.) 



80 m. (beginning and 
length of path not very 
certain) in 3 or 4 sees 
(Agrees with the para- 
bolic speed of 13 m. p. 
sec.) 



About 170 or 180 m. in 
' two seconds.' (An ' un- 
certain ' estimation ; mo- 
tion swift and apparent- 
ly hyperbolic.) 



335° + 5° ( ± 5°) ; near 
6 Pegasi. A rough 
approximation. 



14° -2°; 
Ceti. 



near m (Bode) 



30° N. of E. ; alt. 25° 
by the mapped track 
[Or at 115° + 38°, 
near ir, a Geminorum 
but about 113° ( ± 3°) ; 
+ 32° (±6°) is ad 
missible from the ob- 
servations]. 



77° + 34° ; at 16 Aurigae. 



112 + 27; between 
and t Geminorum. All 
the observed paths 
conform to it very 
nearly. 



117° + 49° (±3°); near 
X Ursae Majoris.] 



Nearest known Radiant Point, and Remarks 
o 8 



337° -6°, July 5-Oct. 31; Greg, 109, 137 
' Aquariads.' Many observed radiants near 
this place in August. 



No previously observed radiant in September 
near this place. 



[108° + 36°, Dec. 31, 1872, Dec. 27, 1876(a); 
a radiant, near Castor]. Account of the 
meteor (by a Committee of the Society) in 
the ' Bulletins of the Philosophical Society 
of Washington,' vol. ii. pp. 139-161, with a 
map of the fireball's track. 



Radiant-point of five other meteors on the 
same evening, W. F. Denning, at 77° + 31°. 

108° + 28°, Dec. 9, 1877; Corder. A sharply 
marked radiant of streak-leaving meteors 
(of which this was one) apparently not 
' Geminids,' with long courses ; not visible 
with the true Geminids, at 107° + 35°, on the 
10th. 



180° + 49°, April 1-15, Heis M 7 . A principal 
radiant of the April ' Ursids; ' whose streams 
are all nearly antiapical. 



292° - 31°, about (or 
from altitude about 
17°, due south ?) 



The ' Analyst,' U.S. Journal of Mathematics, 
vol. v. p. 178 ; Iowa, 1878. The observations 
are scanty, but difficult to reconcile with a 
parabolic speed of 20 («>ca) m. p. sec. 



118 



REPORT 1879. 



Real Paths of Large Meteors doubly observed, 



Date and Hour, G.M.T. (or Local 
Time). Size and General Appear- 



1878, Nov. 18, 9 h 50 m p.m. 
fine slow-moving meteor, 
bright as Jupiter or Venus. 



A 

as 



1878, Dec. 30 (about 6 h 57 m p.m.) 
As wide as moon's diameter, 
and several times as long 
(Wooster) ; greenish, and red 
at bursting, which it did into 
pieces, some distance before 
disappearing. No detonation 
heard. 

1879, Jan. 12, 7 L 25° p.m. (Berlin 
time). Diameter of, and out- 
shone the moon (Prague) ; glo- 
bular with thin tail ; disap- 
peared suddenly. Violent shock 
and detonation heard in 
Prague, in 1£ min. after disap- 
pearance. 

1879, Jan. 12, 7 h 32™ p.m. (Berlin 
time). Similar appearance to 
the last meteor, but smaller, 
and not detonating. 



1879, Jan. 28, 2 h 28 m a.m. Im- 
mense fireball 4 x moon's dia- 
meter (Charlevoix, Michigan, 
where it burst overhead into 
fragments) ; fiery ring of sparks 
thrown off it, with earthquake 
like explosion, Traverse City, 
Mich. 

1879, Feb. 22, ]2 h 20- a.m. Great 
fireball | moon's diameter ; 
white and green, then red 
burst into fragments; cast an 
intense light ; thunder-like re- 
port at Haverhill and Saffron 
Walden. 

1879, Feb. 24, 12" 45 m a.m. Great 
fireball = full moon (York), 
white ; long red or yellow tail 
seen at Brighton (at a dis 
tance) ; light like ' a summer 
day ; ' broke up or went out 
suddenly; violent report like 
an earthquake at York (and 
Stockton) in 1^ min. 



Principal Places of 

Observation 



Bristol and Writtle 
(Chelmsford). Eeal 
path calculated by 
Major Tupman and 
Professor Herschel. 

Wooster, Ohio, and at 
Anderson, Ind., and 
Washington, Pennsyl- 
vania. (Notes and 
calculation of its path 
by Professor Kirk- 
wood.) 

Prague, Rakonitz, Peters- 
dorf, Neucunnersdorf, 
and many other places 
in Bohemia. (Calcu- 
lation, and accounts of 
the fireball's course, by 
Prof, von Niessl.) 

Rakonitz, Neucunners- 
dorf, &c, in Bohemia ; 
and Salzburg, Zittau, 
&c, in Tyrol and 
Saxony. 

Traverse City, Cheboy 
gan, Sea., Michigan ; 
and Princeton, Wis- 
consin. Real path and 
notes of the meteor 
by Prof. Kirkwood. 



Haverhill, Saffron Wal- 
den, Bury St. Edmunds, 
Brentwood, and Go- 
dalming. (Real path 
by J. E. Clark and A. 
S. Herschel.) 

York, Whitby, Hull, and 
at distant places ; Man 
Chester, Liverpool, Bir- 
mingham, Brighton, 
Dundee, &c. 



Meteor's Real Course 



Height and Locality of 
Beginning End 



70 or 80 m. over a 
point midway be- 
tween Nantes and 
Angers. 



72 m. over Colum- 
biana County, 
Ohio. 



40 m. over the Sud- 
etengebirge (N.E. 
of Bohemia); but 
real beginning 
perhaps higher 
and earlier. 



78 m. over a point 
near Pibram, Bo 
hernia. 



Nearly 100 m. over 
a point in N. lat 
44° 25', long. 9 C 
W. 



50 m., or 75 m. over 
a point between 
Godstone and 

Guildford, Surrey 



About 60 m. over a 
point 28 m. N.E. 
from Whitby (be 
ginning, unob 
served, still 
earlier). 



45 or 50 m. over a 
point midway be- 
tween Le Mans 
and Laval, France. 



17 or 1 8m. above Tus- 
carawas County, 
Ohio (the explo- 
sion) ; height at 
final disappear 
ance about 12 or 
13 miles. 

9 m. over Rakonitz ; 
25 m. W. from 
Prague (where 
distance by sound 
interval was about 
18 m.). 



23 m. over Grosshain, 
near Dresden. 



2G m. over Charle- 
voix, Michigan 
(probably lower, 
or continuing its 
flight somewhat 
further 1) 



5 or 6 m. over a 
point between 
Haverhill and 
Newmarket, Cam 
bridsreshire. 



6 or 7 m. over a 
point midway be- 
tween Leeds and 
Selby. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



119 



principally in the years 1878-1879 — continued. 



Distances in British Statute Miles ' ra.' 



Length of Path 
and Velocity 



About 70 m. (The duration 
of the meteor's flight was 
not recorded.) 



About 85 m. in about 2 
sees, (first part of the 
flight). Velocity uncer- 
tain. 



124 m. in 3-5 sees. ; 6 esti- 133° + 19° ( ± 3°) ; near 



Observed Radiant 
Point 
8 



354° + 1°; at APisciurn. 
[The radiant-point of 
Clausen's / is in this 
constellation from 
mid - November to 
February. 

90° +55° ( ± 10°) ; near 
S Aurigaj. (Direction 
not very well deter 
mined.) 



Nearest known Radiant Point, and Remarks 
a 8 



350° + 2° Dec. 12, 1877 ; Denning. A radiant 
of very slow meteors, one of them a fireball. 
4+4 December, Schmidt. 



American ' Philosophical Society's Proceedings. 
May 2, 1879 ; p. 241. 



mates ; average velocity 
18 m. p. sec. (Parabolic 
speed 23 m. p. sec.) 



124 m. in ' 10 sees. ' (and 
60 m. in ' 5 sees. ') ; two 
estimates of duration ; 
velocity about 12£ m. 
p. sec. (Parabolic speed 
11 m. p. sec.) 

About 124 m. Duration i From 
not certainly estimated. 



S Cancri. 



52° - 10° ( ± 5°) : 

7 Eridani. 



About 85 m. in 2-5 sees. 
Length of path and 
duration not exactly de 
termined. 



alt. about 47° 
S.W. by S. (corre- 
sponding to 142° + 14°; 
between Leo and 
Cancer). 



130° + 20°, Dec. 21-Jan. 5, 1876-7, Denning; 
g 1680, Dec. 26, 132° + 21-5°; fireball, Jan. 
19, 1877 (Ireland) 135-5° + 22° (von Niessl). 
The ' Cancrids ' of January. — Vienna Acad. 
'Sitzungsberichte,' vol. lxxix., May 8, 1879. 



57°_12°, Jan. 4-20, 1877; Dec. 2, 1877. And 
fireball of Jan. 7, 1877, England; 48° -11° 
(von Niessl). — Ibid. 



Apparently a Jan.-Feb. 'Cancrid;' 133° + 26°, 
Feb. 13, S.Z. 32; and # 1833 ?j, Jan. 27, 
135° + 25° (?). American ' Philosoph. Soc. 
Proceedings,' May 2, 1879, p. 243. 



Between 135° and 145° 
= a, and 0° and + 10° 
= 8 ; near the head of 
Hydra. 



141° _ 2°, Jan. 1-March 16, Greg 15, 1876; 
145° + 8°, Feb. 24, 1878; stationary, 4th 
mag. meteor ; E. F. Sawyer. 



About 87 m. in (?) 6 or 8 310° ( ± 15°), + 55° 



sees. Velocity about 14± 
m. p. sec. (Parabolic 
speed about 18 m. p. 
sec.) 



(±10°) (alt. 32° N 
39° E.) ; provisionally 
given by the adopted 
real path ; near x Ce- 
phei. 



No previously observed radiant at this place in 
February-March. 



120 KEPOET— 1879. 

[Continued from page 91.] 
the snow-clouds in the north-east for some seconds before the nucleus 
could be distinguished, exactly resembling the light of the moon rising 
behind the clouds in that direction. 

It may therefore be concluded that the meteor passed about 40 miles 
over a point just south of Whitby and about 20 miles nearly over, but one 
or two miles north of York, to a point not more than six or eight miles 
above the earth, about midway between Leeds and Selby. The direction 
of this path is from 39° E. of N., alt. 32°, which at the time of the 
meteor's appearance corresponds to a celestial place of the computed 
radiant-point at 310° + 55°, near x Cephei, a position, in February or 
March, of which no morning observations hitherto appear to have been 
obtained. The radiants of the comets 1854 IV. (Weiss, Feb. 13, 
304° + 37°-5), and 1845 I. (Feb. 25, 309° + 30°-5), appear also to be too 
distant from this place to be compatible with the fireball observations. 



Remarks on Double Observations of Large Meteors recorded in the 
Supplementary List. 

1858, August 13, 6 h 39 m p.m. Fireball over the English Channel- 
According to the observation of Mr. Pope Hennessey in London (these 
Reports, vol. for 1858, p. 152), a fireball exactly similar to that described 
near Ryde passed in two seconds from S.S.E., alt. 25°, to S.S.W., alt. 12°. 
At Ryde it travelled in 3-5 seconds from about E.S.E., alt. 15°, to S.S.E., 
alt. 20°. The lines of bearing intersect for the commencement about 20 
miles off the French coast at Dieppe, 95 miles from both Ryde and Lon- 
don ; and for the end point about half-way between Cherbourg and 
Brighton, 95 miles from London and 35 miles from Ryde. Comparing 
together the altitudes and distances at which the first and last points 
respectively of the meteor's course were observed from the two places, it 
will be seen that there is no exact agreement, the altitudes at the com- 
mencement being 25° and 15° at the same distance, 95 miles, from London 
and Ryde, while those of the end point are 12° and 20°, instead of about 
8° and 20°, corresponding to the distances of 95 and 35 miles from Lon- 
don and from Ryde. In order to remove the discrepancy, the altitudes at 
first appearance cannot be retained without an enormous rotation north- 
wards of both of the lines of sight of the meteor's starting point. It is 
true that very small departures of the two end point bearings from their 
assigned directions, by removing the end point southwards, would bring 
the final altitudes into good agreement. But it seems more probable that 
both the altitudes (12° and 25°) at London are as usual a little overrated, 
and if they are diminished by a third part, to 8° and 17°, their agreement 
with the altitudes observed at Ryde is then extremely close. The con- 
cluded heights are then 28 miles over the first and 12 miles over the last 
of the two points of intersection, and the length of path is 75 miles directed 
from an altitude of about 12° nearly due east. The correction which this 
provisional path seems to require most urgently is increase of height, 
especially at the end point. It would, in this case, be more nearly hori- 
zontal, and at the same time directed somewhat towards the south of 
west, or from somewhat north of east. The provisional radiant point on 
this supposition was about 5° north of east, alt. 5° ; and of this origin of 
its flight, as a fairly probable direction, the corresponding celestial place 



OBSEEVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOBS. 121 

has been adopted in the table. The uncertainty of the meteor's real height 
and distance scarcely allows its real velocity ( 75 miles in 2 or 41 seconds) 
to be very confidently derived from the observed durations. The para- 
bolic speed for the adopted radiant-point is 25 miles per second. 

1877, October 8-9, midnight. Fireball in Holland. — Two observations 
of this fireball besides that mapped by Mr. Denning (these Reports, vol. 
for 1878, p. 282) were obtained, at Antwerp, and near Mezieres, on the 
French frontier of Belgium. Although of the vaguest description, they 
yet confirm each other and support Mr. Denning's conjecture of the 
meteor's radiant point. Adopting this as quite certainly established, the 
meteor's real path may be pretty surely determined from the rough account 
of its apparent course at Antwerp. It appears to have been from 80 miles 
above a point of the German Ocean 15 miles due west of Allemaar to 35 
miles above the sea 60 miles due west of the same town in Holland. The 
real length of path, 63 miles, performed in four seconds, gives a velocity 
relative to the earth of nearly 16 miles per second. The parabolic speed 
for the meteor's adopted radiant-points at 77° + 34° is 40 - 5 miles per 
second. 

1877, October 14, 6 h 15-20 m and 6 h 55 m p.m. (Paris time). A very 
brilliant fireball (? two distinct ones) over Rouen and the mouth of the 
Seine, France. — No time of appearance was recorded by one observer, 
Mons. Martin, in Paris, who described the fireball as proceeding 'from 
near Ursa Major towards the left,' and as this is opposed to another de- 
scription in Paris, that it fell almost vertically, a little inclined from left 
to right, and is only imperfectly corroborated by a third statement there, 
that the nearly vertical descent (in the west) was ' a little inclined from 
N.W. towards S.E.' (? S.W.), it is just possible that two other observa- 
tions near Rouen, and at Neuilly Enthelle, in Oise, which give the time 
of appearance 6 h 20 m and 6 h 15 m , instead of 6 h 55 m , may relate to another 
perfectly similar and very similarly situated meteor to the later one, of 
which this discordant account in Paris may have been an additional 
description. But the celestial positions of the later meteor's path at ' 7 
p.m.,' given by the observer in the Department of La Manche (which were 
indeed only gathered from descriptions), are also quite irreconcileable 
with the delineation of the meteor's course by the stars at Clermont 
Ferrand, although in conjunction with all the other statements they also 
agree in defining the radiant point's position as very near the zenith. 
The whole of the very conflicting particulars of the recorded paths and 
times of appearance of the meteor may therefore perhaps relate really to 
the descent of only a single great fireball near the mouth of the Seine a 
few minutes before 7 o'clock (Paris time) on the evening of October 8. 
The stars between Cygnus and Cepheus were in the zenith at that hour, 
and the meteor was without doubt directed from one of the northernmost 
of the Lacertid group of radiants in Lacerta and Cepheus, which are 
thickly clustered in and about the latter constellation in October. No 
sound of a detonation appears to have been distinguished, although the 
fireball burst ' like a bombshell ' at the end of its course into many 
brilliant pieces ; and it left a streak visible for a few seconds only on its 
course. 



122 



EEPORT 1879. 



a 



o 

o 

DQ 
D 
O 

M 

13 

5 
c 

s 
d 




o 


Leonids. Comet I. 1866. 

(I) Double radiant seen by Gruber in 1871. 

This centre is precisely at a Leonis. 

Taurids I. Gruber's position is too far N. 
and very probably confused with showers 
near e Persei 62° + 37°, e Arietis 43° + 22°, 
and v Tauri 56° + 23°. 


rom Zezioli's observations. 

en |s at A Persei. 

orty-nine is observed and deduced from 

various catalogues, 
ruber 75° + 24°, October 20-21. Distinct 

shower from Taurids I. 


ve and well-defined shower in 1869, 
eg (153) 107° + 7°, Oct. 8-Nov. 15. 

■six 4-s = Greg (141). Seen also by 
t. 15-16, 1877. 


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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



123 



Meteor Showers observed by W. F. Denning, July 21 — August 10, 1878. 
Total number of meteors seen, 621, in 34 hours' watching. 



Duration 



July 31 — August 1 
July 27-31 

July 21 — August 1 

July 31 — August 1 
July 31 — August 1 
August 1-2 

July 25-31 

August 10 

July 29— August 2 

July 21 — August 1 

July 25 
July 26 
July 26 
August 
August 
July 31 
July 29 
July 26 
July 27- 
July 26 
July 28 
July 31 
July 30 
July 27- 
August 
July 20 
July 21 
July 31 
July 21 

July 27 
July 28 



26 

— August 1 

-31 

7-10 . 

7-10 . 

— August 1 
-August 1 
31 ' . 

-31 

-27 



— August 7 

-31 

-31 

1-10 . 

-28 

— August 1 
-31 

C Slightlyseenbut 
< both probably 

l_ good radiants 



July 31 . 
July 30-31 
July 31— August 2 
July 30-31 



Radiant 


4,s 


332 + 50 


14 


341-13 


54 


32 + 53 


63 


12 + 70 


16 


321 + 31 


10 


291 + 70 


14 


6 + 37 


18 


6 + 37 


5 


333 + 9 


10 


/ll+47\ 
112 + 52/ 


26 1 


332 + 37 


11 


28 + 36 


12 


43 + 58 


8 


42* + 54\ 
44 + 59 J 


106 1 


6 + 11 


9 


23 + 41 


7 


333 + 18 


8 


332 + 27 


8 


354 + 42 


7 


305-15 


5 


3 + 27 


7 


96 + 72 


5 


28 + 28 


7 


47 + 25 


6 


18 + 59 


8 


234 + 48 


3 


65 + 60 


7 


50 + 75 


5 


1284 + 44 


2 


|' 33-20 


2 


22 + 13 


4 


31 + 18 


4 


331 + 62 


5 


49 + 31 


3 



Lacertids. Short swift meteors. 
Slowish long meteors. No streaks. 

Max. 
Swift short meteors. Streaks. 

Max. July 31. 
Not swift, faint. No streaks. 
Very slow. Max. August 1. 
Swift short meteors. No streaks. 

Draconid*. 
Swift streak-leaving"! 

meteors. >Andromedes. 

Swift meteors. J 

Very slow meteors. 
Very swift meteors. "1 Two showers 
Swift. Streaks. J close together? 
Bright slow meteors. Long paths. 
Very swift meteors. Streaks. 
Swift meteors. Streaks. Perseids. 
Meteors very swift with streaks. 
Perseids. A double radiant. 
Very swift meteors. Streaks. 
Swift meteors. Streaks. 
Swift faint meteors. 
Very swift and faint. 
Slowish faint meteors. 
Very slow meteors. 
Bright slow meteors. 
Slow meteors. CamelAds. 
Swift, not quite certain. 
Very swift long meteors. Streaks. 
Swift meteors. Streaks. 
Very bright slow meteors. 
Small slow meteors. 
Short swift meteors. No streaks. 

Bright slow meteors. 

Very bright, swift, long-pathed 

meteors with streaks. Seen just 

before daylight. 
Swift streaky meteors. 
Swift meteors with streaks. 
Slowish faint meteors. 
Swift meteors leaving streaks. 



Shower centres also strongly suspected at 33° + 21°, 134° + 78°, 76° + 54°, 20° + 8°, 
58° + 47°, 316° + 50°, and 41° + 31°. 

The above radiants may nearly all be relied on as exactly determined. 



124 



REPORT — 1879. 



A List of observed Radiants of the ' Geminids.' By R. P. Greg. 



No. 


Ra. Dec. 


Observers and Mems. — ' Geminids,' December 9-14 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 


o O 

104 + 37 
108 + 28 
107 + 33 

95 + 33 

105 + 32 

110 + 40 
115 + 33 
112 + 34 
112 + 39 

111 + 27 
100 + 33 


R. P. Greg, Dec. 10-11, 1877. Paths short, quick, not trained. 

Corder, Dec. 9-12, 1877. Paths long, slower, trained. 

Denning and Corder, Dec. 10-14, 1876 and 1877. (Three dif- 
ferent results, almost identical.) 

Dr. Heis, Dec. 8-11. (New Catalogue of 1876.) 

R. P. Greg. General Catalogue (average) 1876. 

Major Tupman, Dec. 12, 1870. 

Tisserand. Toulouse Observatory, Dec. 11, 1876. 

Mr. Wood, 1860. 

Dr. Heis, Dec. 1-15. (M 9 , Old Catalogue of 1867. Incorrect 
position ?) 

Dr. Schmidt, Dec. 10-21. (Catalogue.) 

Greg and Herschel, 1867. British Association Catalogue and 
Atlas. (Schiaparelli and Zezioli's Caret.') 




107 + 33| 


General average position of Geminicl Radiant. N.B. — Gruey 
thinks it a multiple radiant, so does Mr. Denning. 



Radiants of Geminids. 



IIS 




*5 



90 



Two different showers, one prohably at 107° + 37°, and the second at 110° + 30°, with 
slower meteors and longer paths, and with more distinct streaks than the first one. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 125 



Appendix by Dr. Flight. 

The Butcher Meteoric Irons of Oohakuila} 

Dr. L. Smith publishes a further paper on the new mineral occurring 
in the irons, to which mineral he has given the name of Daubreelite. It 
possesses the following composition : — 

Calculated. Found. 

Sulphur 44-29 43-26 

Chromium 36-33 36-38 

Iron 19-38 20-36 



10000 100-00 

It is a sulphide corresponding in atomic constituents to the well-known 
oxide, chromite (FeO,-Gr0 3 ), daubreelite being FeS,-CrS 3 , sulphur re- 
placing the oxygen. The calculation of the composition is based upon 
the sulphur found in the analyses. The finer powder obtained by cutting 
sections of the irons are treated with a magnet to remove the nickel-iron ; 
that remaining consists of torilite and daubreelite. This is then digested 
with strong hydrochloric acid several times ; all the troilite dissolves 
readily, and the residue consists of the new sulphide. ' It consists of 
shining black fragments, more or less scaly in structure, not altogether 
unlike fine particles of molybdenite. ' The fracture is uneven, except in 
one direction, where there appears to be a cleavage. It is brittle and easily 
pulverised, the fine particles retaining their brilliancy. It is not magnetic, 
and but slightly altered before the blow-pipe. It is not acted upon in 
the slightest degree by hydrochloric acid, either cold or hot, but dissolves 
slowly and completely in nitric acid when warmed with it. The specific 
gravity is 5*01 . 

Other meteoric irons, such as those from Toluco, Mexico, and Sevier 
Co., Tennessee, contain this mineral. 

The Ovifah Irons.— Found 1870. 2 

The Academy of Sciences of Paris appointed a commission to report 
on a paper by Dr. Lawrence Smith on the supposed native iron of 
Greenland, and their report has recently been presented by M. Daubree. 
It is pointed out that the bodies which come from beyond our atmo- 
sphere, and which are called meteorites, present, as regards their minera- 
logical constitution, a most striking resemblance to certain terrestrial 
rocks. The important fact that masses derived from most widely sepa- 
rated regions of space should present such resemblances was pointed out 
by Nordenskjold in 1870, when he discovered large masses of native iron 
at Ovifak, on the island of Disco, Greenland. The first thought which 
suggested itself to him was that they were of meteoric origin. In order 
to explain the fact that these masses were fused into the basalt, he 
assumed that they had fallen into it while it was still liquid. Many 
adopted this view, and, among others, Nauckhoffand Tschermak. Steen- 
strup, on the other hand, after visiting the locality twice, came to the 
conclusion that they were masses of native iron, and that they had the 

1 Amer. Jour. Sc, 1878, vol. xvi., p. 270. 

2 Corrupt. Rend., vol. Ixxxvii., p. 911. 



126 report — 1879. 

same terrestrial origin as the basalt itself. Not far from Ovifak, in the 
Waigatstrasse, Steenstrap found evidence -which supported this theory : 
in the basalt of Igdlokungoak he hit upon a mass of metalliferous mag- 
netic pyrites weighing about 28,000 kilog., and again, in the basalt of 
Aussuk, small grains of native iron. The graphite associated with this 
iron pointed to the probability that carbonaceous substances had reduced 
this metal ; moreover, the rock enclosing the native iron contained the 
silicate of ferric hydrate which has received the name of Hisingerite. 
With these opposing views so plainly set forth, Dr. L. Smith has gone 
over the whole question, and comes to the same conclusion as Steenstrup, 
that the masses of metal are of terrestrial origin. He finds that in the 
dolerite of Aussuk, as well as that of Ovifak, which it closely resembles, 
metallic iron is found enclosed in labradorite ; anorthite is likewise 
found in certain parts of the mass of the rock, and oligoclase also. 

Iron has been obtained from seven localities in Greenland : from 
Sowallicke, Fiskenas, Niakornak, Gliick's Bay, Jacobstown, Ovifak, and 
Aussuk. The iron of Sowallicke and Niakornak is found by Dr. L. 
Smith to contain combined carbon, just as the Ovifak iron does : in fact, 
he states that all specimens of iron obtained from Greenland are similar 
in this respect, and differ from meteoric iron, which contains no com- 
bined carbon ; moreover, these masses all contain cobalt in considerable 
quantity in relation to nickel. Dr. Smith next refers to the similar 
geological character of the area where the iron has been found, it being 
found only in the basalt region, which extends from 69° to 76°, where it 
disappears under a huge glacier. We shall probably never know how 
wide the extent is of this volcanic area which stretches far away 
north ; that, however, which has been seen represents an area equal 
to one extending from Gibraltar to Brest. We know that the terrestrial 
rocks which present the closest resemblance to the meteoric rocks belong 
to the lowest beds of the earth. Some are eruptive rocks of a basic 
character, consisting of anorthite and augite, like certain lavas from 
Iceland ; others are olivinous rocks, like lherzolite, to which the meteorites 
containing magnesia — those, in fact, of the ordinary type — belong. The 
gangne of olivinous rocks accompanying the platinum of the Urals, and 
the presence of nickel in the native iron combined with the platinum, 
have confirmed these relations, which are of interest alike for the geologist 
and the astronomer. It was expected that among the aluminous and 
magnesian rocks some might be found in which iron should begin to 
make its appearance, and this gap has now been filled. In the Greenland 
beds layers of lignite are found associated with the basalt, and this may 
have furnished the material which has reduced the iron to the metallic 
state. 

The Siderolite of Bittersgriin. — Found 1833. ' 

The examination by Dr. Clemens Winkler of the siderolite of Ritters- 
grun, Saxony, shows it to accord closely in composition with the siderolite 
of Breitenbach in Bohemia, examined some years since (1871) in the 
Laboratory of the Mineral Department of the British Museum ; and to 
strengthen the view expressed at the time that these bodies, as well as 
the meteorite of Steinbach im Erzgebirge were probably members of 

1 IVbm Acta der K. Leqp. Carol., Deut. Altad. der Naturforselwr, xl. Nr. 8, 333. 
Halle, 1878. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 127 

the same fall, possibly of the ' Eisenregen ' reported on by Sarctorius 
(died 1609) as having fallen ' im Meissnischen' at Whitsuntide, 1164. 

The Rittersgriin meteorite was found in 1833 by a workman employed 
in clearing the forest, and offered for sale as old iron to the smith, but 
without success ; but in 1861 it came to the notice of the lamented 
Professor Breithaupt, and was secured for the mineral collection of the 
Berg-Akademie, of Freiburg. Its mean diameter is - 43 metre, and its 
weight 86'5 kilogrammes. It has recently been sawn through in Vienna, 
a troublesome and costly labour extending over two months. An excel- 
lent chromo-lithograph of the surface thus exposed was prepared by 
Professor Weisbach, in 1876, and published with a few notes. 

The meshwork of nickel-iron of the siderolite encloses the following 
minerals : troilite, asmanite, bronzite, and chromite ; the metallic portion 
constitutes about 5P06 per cent., and the non-metallic ingredients about 
48 - 94 per cent, of the stone. The nickel-iron contains : — 

Fe Ni Co Ca P S Si C Asmanite. 

89-990 9-740 0230 0-035 0-150 0-0] 1 0066 Trace 0056 = 100-278 

which constituents may be arranged as follows : — 

Nickel-iron Fe 9 Ni 98-995 

Iron-nickel phosphide (FeNi) 4 P .... 0-293 

Iron phosphide Fe 2 P 0-539 

Iron silicide Fe 2 Si 0-330 

Iron sulphide FeS 0-030 

Iron carbide Trace 

Copper 0-035 

Asmanite 0-056 

100-278 
The iron sulphide, regarded as troilite, when in the form of pieces is 
not acted upon by the magnet, and when in the form of powder but 
feebly so. The ratios of iron to sulphur in troilite or iron monosulphite, 
and in magnetic pyrites, differ in so small a degree that the analytical 
results do not always put the question at rest. It is moreover a question 
whether the meteoric sulphide, associated as it is with nickel-iron, does 
not actually contain some of the metal as an ingredient. The numbers 
obtained in these analyses are as follows : — 

Calculated Found 

I. II. III. 

Iron .... 63-63 65-87 63-58 63-00 

Nickel ... — 1-40 — 1-02 

Sulphur . . . 36-37 34-27 36-42 35-27 

Silicic acid . . — — — 0-67 

100-00 101-54 100-00 99-96 

The asmanite appears to have the density of 2-274-2-278, and the 
following composition : — 

SiO 2 Fe 2 3 CaO and MgO. Loss on ignition. 
95-77' 3-16 Trace 1-07 = 100-00 

97-84 1-65 „ 1-01 = 100-50 

As regards the crystalline form of this mineral, Weisbach considers 
that the recent researches of Schuster and of Von Lasaulx, have placed 
almost beyond any doubt the identity of tridymite and asmanite. It oc- 
curred to the author that the relative solubility of tridymite and asmanite 

1 By difference. 



128 eepobt — 1879. 

in potash solution should be determined, and in as nearly parallel ex- 
periments as it was possible to devise, it was found that of tridymite from 
Siebenbiirgen 49"63 parts, and of asmanite from Rittersgriin 43 - 88 parts 
were dissolved. 

The bronzite, the most prominent of the non-metallic minerals, has 
been obtained in a pure form with comparative ease. It is but slightly 
affected by the blowpipe, and is not acted upon by acids with the excep- 
tion of hydrogen fluoride. Its specific gravity is 3 - 310. It possesses the 
following composition 





I. 


II. 


III. 


Silicic acid 


57-27 


56-56 


56-56 


Alumina 


2-28 


2-05 


2-04 


Iron protoxide . 


10-99 


10-74 


10-09 


Manganese protoxide 


0-41 


0-42 


0-55 


Magnesia . 


24-78 


25-13 


25-59 


Lime 


1-77 


2-52 


1-66 


Soda .... not determined 


1-43 


1-43 


Chromite . 


0-94 


0-98 


0-98 



98-44 99-83 98-90 

No trace of olivine was met with in this material. 

Heated in vacuo the substance of the meteorite lost 0'23 per cent, of 
the weight, and the gas evolved took fire, but was so small in quantity 
that it could not be further examined. The meteorite possesses tbe 
' crust of fusion ' in a fully developed form ; it is of about the same 
thickness as a sheet of paper, and close under it are found the mixture of 
the minerals troilite, asmanite, and bronzite, of an unaltered light brown 
colour, although they turn deep black when raised to a temperature 
slightly above that at which lead melts. The author's pages conclude 
with some considerations on the probable temperatures of meteorites in 
their passage through our atmosphere. 

Meteorite from TiescMtz, in Moldavia, July 15, 1878. 1.45 p.m. 1 

A stone fell at this date with the usual accompanying noise within 100 
paces of some people whose attention was directed by a child four years 
of age to a small dark cloud, from which a peculiar and increasing noise 
proceeded. This cloud was suddenly seen to become incandescent, but in 
no very high degree, and the noise became still more intense when a body 
was seen to fall from the cloud. The stone was warm when found. The 
noise was heard about the neighbourhood 2 miles around. The stone was 
secured and sent on the 19th to the Museum of the Technical High 
School, of Briinn. The meteor appears to have passed over Daubrawic 
and Sloup, and the path to have been directed from azimuth 108, alti- 
tude 40°, or from an apparent radiant in R.A. 68°, N. declination 40°. 

One stone only was found, and all search for other specimens of the 
fall were in vain. The stone weighs 27'5 kilogrammes, and has the form 
of an irregular pyramid with an almost square base. 

The entire surface is covered with a black crust, in places of about 
the thickness of that covering the stones which fell at Pultusk ; on the 
large convex side, which is called the ' breast-side,' it is much thinner, 
and exhibits a radiated character. On the back it is thicker and rougher, 

1 Denkschnfte der math. Naturn-issenschaft.en-Classe, Ahad. der WissenscJiaften. 
Wien. xxxix. November 21, 1878. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 129 

and without a trace of the radiated structure. The ' breast-side ' is free 
from all great depressions, while the others show them, due probably in 
part to the original form of the stone, partly to the action of currents of 
air on the melting surface. The freshly broken surface of the stone is 
dull ash-grey in hue, darker than the Pultnsk stones, the texture finer 
and more sharply marked than in the case of most of the chondrites. 
We see many small dull grey or dark-coloured chondra, and splinters 
and fragments of the same kind, many larger dull grey chondra, also 
white small chondra and white fragments, the latter far fewer than the 
former. Between them an ash-grey earthy matrix, and very few yellow 
metallic lustrous particles. Most of the dark chondra are less than 
1 mm. in diameter, those which have a diameter of 1 mm. are fewer, and 
there are occasional chondra which exceed 1 mm. in size ; the largest one 
had a diameter of 5 mm. 

The microscopic examination of the action of this material displayed 
many curious features, and appears to confirm the views already expressed 
by Professor Tschermak regarding the probable influences which have 
taken part in the form which the chondra and other enclosures take. 

Some chondra presented an appearance which has not hitherto been 
observed. They have round depressions, which point to a plasticity of 
the chondra during contact, as if the spherules which form the splintered 
fragments had acquired their form during the act of rubbing. Others 
again have projections of a rounded form, or an almost pointed end. 
These chondra are the result of volcanic eruptions or explosions. 

Olivine. — Both in the matrix, and in many chondra, well- developed 
crystals of olivine were met with. They have the same crystalline form 
as the olivine in basalt. Many of the chondra consist of individual 
crystals. Many crystals have cavities enclosing black angular grains, or 
a black impregnation of the crust, or black slightly translucent spherules 
or enclosures of ' glass ' ; some exhibit a most distinct surface of the 
enclosed material. 

Bronzite. — Barred and fibrous individuals of a brown colour are re- 
garded as bronzite. Some of the barred chondra shown in the plate 
accompanying the paper of Makowsky and Tschermak are very perfectly 
developed and very curious. Some have a darker border, others a lighter 
rim. In these chondra also the enclosed material already referred to is 
met with. 

Enstatite. — Many of the chondra of this mineral are distinguished by 
their marked foliated structure, and specimens of such are shown in the 
plates. The enclosed ' glass ' is also found in them. Many spherules, 
and fragments of spherules, of a crystallised mixture of bronzite and 
olivine or of enstatite and olivine were noticed, none however of a 
crystallised mixture of bronzite and enstatite, and it appears therefore 
as if this meteoric tuff originated from two sorts of stony mixtures. 

Augite. — A few small chondra with a compact pale-coloured crust have 
a texture and colour which differs from all the foregoing. The entire 
spherule is shown by polarised light to be one individual ; the crust is 
almost colourless, the interior has a brownish-green hue. Their reaction 
with light points to their being augite. 

Magnetic Pyrites and Nickel-iron. — Magnetic pyrites occur as grains 

enclosed in the other chondra and splinters of chondra, as well as free in 

the matrix. The nickel-iron is for the most part in the form of irregular 

particles with a hackly surface in the matrix. In some of the spherules 

1879. k 



130 



REPORT 1879. 



both magnetic pyrites and nickel-iron have a distinct concentric arrange- 
ment. 

The stone of Tieschitz belongs to that division of the chondritic 
meteorites which Tschermak some years since classified as remarkable for 
' many brown finely fibrous chondra.' The specific gravity of the stone 
is 3'59. It contains about 85 - per cent, of non-metallic minerals. No 
trace of any mineral resembling a felspar could be detected. The 
percentage composition of the stone was as follows : — 





Olivine 


Bronzite 
and 

Enstatite 


Augite 


Magnetic 
Pyrites 


Nickel- 
iron 


Totals 
Calculated 


Totals 

Analysis 


Si0 2 
Se 2 3 
Fe,0 
MgO 
CaO 
Na 2 
Fe . 
Ni . 
S . 




13-99 

13-86 
10-94 


18-84 

5-47 
953 


7-90 
2-09 
0-73 
0-61 
1-42 
1-26 


2-46 
1-62 


7-97 
1-31 


40-73 
2-09 

20-06 

21-08 
1-42 
1-26 

10-43 
1-31 
1-62 


4023 
1-93 

19-80 

20-55 
1-54 
1-53 

10-26 
1-31 
1-65 




38-79 


33-84 


1401 


4-08 


9-28 


100-00 


• 



or. 



Olivine . 

Bronzite and enstatite 

Augite . 

Magnetic pyrites . 

Nickel-iron 



38-79 

33-84 

1401 

4-08 

9-28 

10000 



Meteorite-fall at Esterville, Emmet County, Iowa, May 10, 1879, 5 p.m. 1 

A meteor exploded over this spot and was seen to fall in full daylight. 
One fragment weighing 500 lbs. fell on railroad land and was dug up 
from a depth of 14£ feet in a stiff clay soil. Another portion weighing 
170 lbs. fell at a distance two miles from the first. Many smaller 
pieces, of a few ounces or pounds weight, were scattered in the vicinity. 
The smaller mass fell upon a dry knoll and penetrated the earth verti- 
cally to a depth of 4^ feet. The fall was accompanied by a noise 
described as a continuous roll of thunder accompanied by a crackling 
sound. The stone has been placed in the hands of Professor C. W. Hall, 
of the Minneapolis University, for complete examination. The pre- 
liminaiy examination points to the metallic portion consisting of an 
alloy of iron, nickel, and tin. Full half the mass consists of stony 
matter, which appears in dark-green crystalline masses imbedded in a 
light-grey matrix. When the whole" is powdered a violent reaction 
ensues on the addition of hydrochloric acid, which is increased on boiling. 
The boiling acid appears to dissolve all but the grey matrix. Some of 
the crystalline masses are two inches in thickness and exhibit distinct 
monoclinic cleavage. Under the microscope, in thin sections, olivine 
and a triclinic felspar appear to be imbedded in a matrix of pyroxene. A 

1 Amer. Jour. Sc, vol. xviii., p. 77. 



ON AN INSTRUMENT FOR DETECTING FIRE-DAMP IN MINES. 131 

polished specimen of the iron exhibits the Wiedmanstiittian figures very 
finely. 

A paper by Professor Giimbel, of Munich, entitled ' Die in Bayern 
gefundenen Steinmeteoriten ' (' Sitzber. der K. Bayer. Akad. d. Wissen- 
schaften, math.-phys. CI., 1878, 1) treats of the meteorites of Mauerkirchen, 
Eichstadt, Massing, Schonenberg, and Krahenberg. He gives their 
history, their earlier analyses, and includes some new analyses, and a 
plate showing the microscopic sections as seen by the microscope. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. David Gill, Professor 
G-. Forbes, Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. C. H. Gimingham, 
(with potuer to add to their number), appointed to consider the 
question of Improvements in Astronomical Clocks. 

This was only a preliminary Report, and at Mr. Gimingham's request 
its publication is delayed until next year. — [Ed.] 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. G. Adams, and Mr. W. E. Atrton, appointed 
for the purpose of improving an Instrument for detecting the 
presence of Fire-damp in Mines. 

This instrument is intended to measure the quantity of fire-damp in a 
coal mine. From the rough model shown by Professor George Forbes 
last year, the Committee have constructed two new instruments, which 
appear to them to answer their purpose quite well. The one is of a large 
size, and is worked by an electric battery, and is rather expensive. The 
other is small, portable, easily worked, and answers all the purposes for 
which it is required. Both instruments are founded upon the facts, that 
sound travels quicker in light gases than in dense ones, and that air which 
is contaminated with fire-damp is lighter than pure air. The velocity of 
sound in different qualities of air is compared by noting the lengths which 
must be given to a brass tube to cause it to resound to a tuning-fork. 
The length of tube is proportional to the velocity of sound. The instru- 
ment consists essentially of a tube with a tuning-fork at one end of it, 
and closed at the other end by a piston which can be moved in and out so 
as to lengthen or shorten the tube. The tuning-fork is caused to sound, 
and on moving the piston in and out the sound is heard to augment and 
diminish according to the position of the piston in the tube. The piston 
must be left in tbat position which gives the loudest sound. The length 
of the tube under these conditions measures the velocity of sound, and 
thence the percentage of fire-damp in the air. 

In the large-sized instrument the tuning-fork is kept in vibration by 
an electric current which is made and broken in each vibration acting on 
an electromagnet so as to maintain the vibrations. The Committee 
have been unable to arrange the contacts in such a manner as to prevent 
the occurrence of a false note of considerable loudness. But in spite of 
this the ear can detect the true note and regulate the position of the 

k2 



132 REPORT— 1879. 

piston with even greater accuracy than when the tuning-fork is otherwise 
set in vibration. The reason is, that in other cases there is an irregularity 
in the loudness of the sound which alters slightly the velocity of the 
sound. 

In the small-sized instrument the tuning-fork is set in vibration by 
means of a striker or rod, which is drawn by the hand between the prongs 
of the tuning-fork (which approach each other at their extremities). A 
little practice enables anyone to obtain in all cases the same loudness of 
sound. The Committee have added to this instrument a circular scale 
along which an index travels, being moved by a rack on the piston so 
arranged that it cannot give a false indication. By this means the length 
of tube can be read off easily, even in a bad light. In its present form 
the instrument is easy of use and convenient, and cannot easily get out 
of order. A thermometer is attached by means of which the small 
temperature correction can be applied. The percentage of fire-damp is 
read off directly upon the scale. 

The accuracy of the instrument is such that the percentage of fire- 
damp can be determined with an error of considerably less than one per 
cent. The Committee would draw attention to experiments described in 
the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for April 1879, which show that a difference 
of one part in 300 is not found between different observations of the 
length of tube which resounds to a given tuning-fork. 

On August 25, 1879, the Committee were enabled to descend the 
Wharncliffe Silkstone Colliery by the kindness of the manager, Mr. George 
Walker, who accompanied them, with a few other gentlemen interested in 
the experiments. This pit is at a depth of 200 yards. Mr. Walker had 
kindly arranged to stop the ventilation of the pit at the end of the 
workings, so after proceeding a mile through the galleries they came to 
this spot, where they hoped to find a large amount of fire-damp. But 
only a slight quantity was to be found ; the Davy lamp generally showing 
but a feeble blue cap, and the Forbes' indicator registering only small 
percentages. Disappointed here, they were taken by Mr. Walker to 
another working, where it was thought possible that there might be some 
gas. Here in a crevice in the roof a flow of gas was found forming a 
stratum of light gas. Here the instrument indicated quantities gradually 
increasing from 14 per cent, as the tube got filled with the air in the 
crevice, up to 28 per cent. But the small quantity of gas rendered this 
experiment unsatisfactory, and the Committee were then taken to a 
disused part of the mine where it was known that there was a blower. 
Here sufficient quantities were found, and the instrument registered gas 
with more readiness than the Davy lamp. But the greatest quantity 
registered was 6 per cent., or twelve times the smallest quantity which 
the indicator detects. The fact is that there is in the present form of the 
instrument a difficulty in filling the tube with the air of the place under 
examination. The Committee consider that it would be well to alter the 
instrument so as to obviate this difficulty ; and they also recommend that 
experiments should be made to test whether the calculated percentages of 
fire-damp agree with actual experiment. They have also to report that 
the instrument was of a convenient form so as to be portable, and was 
very consistent in its indications, and they can assert that this instru- 
ment is capable of detecting and measuring fire-damp even in small 
quantities. 



ON THE CHEMISTRY OF SOME OF THE LESSEE-KNOWN ALKALOIDS. 133 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Chandler Roberts, 
F.R.S. (Secretary), Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, and Mr. A. P. Luff, 
appointed for the purpose'of investigating the Chemistry of 
some of the lesser-knoivn Alkaloids, especially Ver atria and 
Bebeerine. 

Since last year investigations have been made on the alkaloids contained 
in Veratrum album, and V. viride, with the following general results. As 
the details of the experiments have already been communicated to the 
Chemical Society in two papers (' Journal of the Chemical Society,' 
1879, i. pp. 405 and 421), it is unnecessary to quote them here. 

Each kind of root was treated by the process described in last year's 
Report, viz., percolating with alcohol acidulated with tartaric acid, 
evaporating to a small bulk, treating with water to precipitate resin, 
filtering, alkalising with soda, and repeatedly shaking with a large bulk 
of ether, the ethereal solutions of alkaloids, &c, thus obtained being 
agitated with aqueous tartaric acid to remove the bases and then used 
over again. In each case a certain amount of flocculent alkaloidal mat- 
ter was left undissolved by the ether, consisting mainly of an alkaloid 
analogous to jervine, but differing therefrom in certain respects, to which 
accordingly the name Pseudojervine is applied. The solutions of tartrates 
of alkaloids obtained were treated with soda and about an equal bulk of 
ether, whereby a large portion of the bases was dissolved in each case, 
but some left undissolved, especially with the V. album product ; this 
insoluble matter contained pseudojervine, together with a little jervine, 
and in the case of the V. album product, a large quantity of an 
uncrystallisable base sparingly soluble in ether, to which the term 
Veratralbine is applied, as this body does not seem to be present in 
V. viride roots in any considerable proportion. The second ethereal 
solutions thus obtained deposited in each case crystals of jervine and a 
little of a new base to which the term Rubijervine is applied ; the mother 
liquors of these crystals dried up to varnish-like masses, which were not 
identical in the two cases ; the product from V. album roots consisted 
essentially of veratralbine, with a minute quantity of an alkaloid forming 
veratric acid on saponification with alcoholic potash ; this base was the 
only alkaloid of the saponifiable class present in the roots ; presumably it 
was the veratrine obtainable from V. sabadilla seeds, as described in last 
year's Report, inasmuch as the mixture of this base and veratralbine 
obtained was powerfully sternutatory, whilst the peculiar tendency to 
provoke sneezing was lost on treatment with alcoholic potash (neither 
jervine, pseudojervine, rubijervine, nor veratralbine produces sneezing). 
The product from the V. viride roots was even more powerfully sternu- 
tatory than that from the V. album roots ; it consisted, however, almost 
wholly of Cevadine (the second crystallisable alkaloid obtainable from 
V. sabadilla seeds, as described in last year's Report), not more than 
traces of either veratralbine or veratrine being contained ; on saponifica- 
tion it yielded about the theoretical quantity of cevadic acid (the 
methyl-crotonic acid of Frankland and Duppa, identical with the tiglic acid 
of Geuther). 



134 report — 1879. 

The following table shows the approximate quantities of the different 
alkaloids contained in a kilogramme of each root examined : — 





V. album 


V. viride 


Jervine 


1-3 grammes 


0*2 grammes 


Pseudojervine 


0-4 


015 


Eubi jervine . 


0-25 „ 


0-02 


Veratralbine. 


2-2 


Not more than traces 


Veratrine 


0-05 


Trace ; less than 0-004 


Cevadine 


Apparently absent 


0-43 



Total . . . 4-20 .... 0-80 

The V. album roots were consequently about five times as rich in 
total alkaloids as the V. viride roots. 

The following are the chief characteristics and properties of the new 
alkaloids examined ; in many respects the statements of former observers 
concerning the alkaloids of these two kinds of roots appear to be 
erroneous, probably owing to the complete separation of jervine, &c, 
from the other substances now shown to be also present never having 
been previously effected. 

Jervine. — When crystallised, C 26 H 37 N0 3 , 2H 2 : if the crystals sepa- 
rate from too hot or concentrated alcoholic liquors, somewhat less water 
is frequently present ; readily becomes anhydrous at 100° ; melts at 237°- 
239° (purest specimens— corrected) . Forms an almost insoluble sulphate, 
and a very sparingly soluble hydrochloride and nitrate. The gold salt is 
C 26 H 37 N0 3 , HC1, AuCl 3 , H 2 0, the water of crystallisation being lost 
only slowly at 100°. With strong sulphuric acid dissolves to a yellow 
fluid, quickly darkening to a greenish brown, which soon becomes a fine 
green by absorption of a little water from the air if in an open dish ; if in 
a test tube, becomes green by cautiously adding minute quantities of 
water. Not sternutatory: not saponifiable. The formula assigned in 
1837 by Will to jervine (isolated by Simon), C 60 H 45 N 2 5 (C=6, 0=8), 
modified by Gernardt and his followers to C 30 H 46 N 2 3 , is considerably 
incorrect, the error being apparently due to an imperfect nitrogen 
determination (by volume), and to the presence of pseudojervine in the 
substance examined. 

Pseudojervine. — Crystallises anhydrous, C 29 H 43 N0 7 . Externally 
resembles jervine closely : melts at 299° (corrected) : forms a sulphate 
crystallisable and soluble in water, especially when hot. Hydrochloride 
very sparingly soluble in water even when hot, provided no free hydro- 
chloric acid is present. Gives with sulphuric acid exactly the same 
colour reaction as jervine. Not saponifiable : not sternutatory. 

Bubijervine. — Crystallises anhydrous, C 26 H 43 N0 2 : resembles jervine 
in appearance, and melts at nearly the same temperature (236° purest 
specimen — corrected). Sulphate and hydrochloride crystallisable and 
readily soluble in water, especially if warm. With strong sulphuric acid 
forms a yellow solution, becoming brownish yellow, brownish orange, 
brownish blood-red, and ultimately brownish purple by absorption of 
moisture : by cautious dilution with water the brownish blood-red fluid 
becomes successively crimson, purple, dark lavender, dark violet, light 
indigo. Not saponifiable ; not sternutatory. 

Veratralbine. — Amorphous, approximately C 2S) H 43 N0 5 . No crystal- 
lisable salts obtained as yet. With sulphuric acid dissolves to a yellow 
fluid, becoming brownish orange and brownish blood-red, with a strong 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 135 

green fluorescence ; in this respect it closely resembles cevadine, which 
only differs in giving somewhat clearer tints, a crimson-magenta coloured 
fluid of a peculiarly beautiful and permanent shade being developed on 
absorption of a trace of moisture ; veratrine (of Couerbe) gives precisely 
the same colours as cevadine, but the dark red solution formed before the 
crimson tint is developed by absorption of moisture does not exhibit any 
fluorescence. Veratralbine is not saponifiable, and is not sternutatory. 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, 
Professor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor L. C. 
Miall, Eev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. W. Pengelly, W. Moly- 
neux, D. Mackintosh, E. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, and J. Plant, 
and Dr. Deane, appointed for the purpose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size and 
origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected ivith the same, and 
taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. 
H. W. Crosskey, Secretary. 

During the past year several contributions of interest and importance 
have been received respecting the position and distribution of Erratic 
Blocks. 

Mr. Townshend M. Hall, E.G.S., reports the finding of a boulder (May 
1879) in cutting a drain in the village of Bickington, parish of Frem- 
ington, beneath the turnpike-road leading from Barnstaple to Bideford, 
at a point two miles W. by S. of Barnstaple. Its dimensions are 3 X 2'5 X 2 
feet. It is rounded and smooth on the sides and under surfaces. The 
upper face is rough, having apparently been broken away in making the 
road. It is doubtful whether there are any ruts, groovings, or striations, 
the under surface having been only felt and not seen. It is composed of 
fine-grained granite, and there is no similar rock nearer than Lundy 
Island, 25 miles W.N.W. from the boulder, and Dartmoor, 25 miles S. 
by E. Its height above the sea is about 80 feet. It is not indicated on 
any map. The larger portion still lies buried under the road, one end 
having been broken away to make room for the drain. It is situated in 
a bed of high-level gravels, with red sand and clay, resting upon car- 
boniferous grits and shales. 

The occurrence of this boulder (Mr. Hall remarks) is of special im- 
portance in connection with the still larger one at Santon (described in 
the first Report of this Committee, British Association Reports, 1873, 
p. 193), from which it is distant 6^ miles S.E. by E. 

The Bickington drain was cut in places to a depth of 1\ feet without 
reaching the bottom of the gravel bed. Amongst the larger pebbles 
associated with it, two of similar granite were found, well smoothed, and 
measuring 7x5 inches. 

Worcestershire. — Erratic blocks have been found at remarkably high 
levels for the Midland district, of 750 feet, upon Frankley Hill. The 
writer of this Report examined them in company with Professor Bonney 
and Mr. W. Matthews. 



136 report— 1879. 

In a cutting of the new Hales Owen Railway, passing through Frankley 
Hill, the following section has been exposed : — 
Permian clay. 
Sand of clay texture. 
Yellowish sand. 

Greyish sandy clay, with Biinter pebbles. 
Clay, somewhat sandy. 

The heights of these various beds are very irregular throughout the 
section, which is in itself about 60 feet in depth. 

The Permian sandstone is exposed at one point in the section, and 
fragments of it are scattered through the sands and clays. 

Erratic blocks are rare in the sands and clays of the cutting itself; 
one only, indeed, a greenstone, was noticed at the time of our visit, 
although doubtless they occasionally occur. 

No part of this section can be called a boulder clay, if by boulder 
clay be meant either a clay formed beneath land ice, or a clay carried 
away by an iceberg and deposited over the sea-bottom as the berg melted 
or stranded. 

The various sands and gravels present all the appearances of a ' wash ' 
from older beds, effected during the depression and subsequent upheaval 
of the present land surface. They are neither compactly crowded with 
erratics, nor are any grooved and striated fragments of local rock heaped 
irregularly together. The way in which the pieces of native rock are 
scattered through the beds does not indicate any other force than that 
which would be exerted by the ordinary wash of the waters during the 
movements just mentioned. The presence of a few erratics shows that the 
wash must have taken place beneath the waters of a glacial sea over which 
icebergs floated. 

These beds appear to have been formed in the earlier rather than the 
later part of the glacial epoch. In a field on the summit of the section a 
large number of erratics are to be seen which have been taken from a 
recent surface drain. These erratics constitute a group of allied rocks 
evidently from one district. Among those observed (undoubtedly, how- 
ever, a large number must still be concealed beneath the soil) twenty were 
felsites, two were basalts, one was a piece of varied quartz, and another a 
Welsh diabase. 

Professor T. G. Bonney makes the following remarks upon these 
boulders : — 

' The basalts are very little if at all decomposed, such as might have 
come from one of the basalts of post-carboniferous but pre-triassic age 
at Rowley, Pouk Hill, or the Clee Hill. There is no reason, however, for 
assigning them to the first or second of these localities ; with the third I 
am not familiar. The " greenstone " is remarkably like several that I have 
seen in Wales as, for example, in the vicinity of the northern end of Llyn 
Padarn, from which locality, however, it is not likely to have come. If 
examined microscopically it would doubtless be found to be composed of 
a triclinic felspar augite and possibly olivine with some chlorite. Thus 
it may be called a diabase. The felsites have a considerable semblance 
one to another. They are of a greyish colour, weathering to a paler tint. 
They present occasionally indications of fluidal structure and flow 
brecciation, some looking rather slaggy as if from the outer part of a 
flow, and I think they have been derived from this and not from an 
intrusive boss. I feel certain they are from Wales, and are of Lower 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 137 

Silurian age, but whether from the interbedded volcanic rocks of the 
Llandeilo or the Bala series I am not sure. One would expect them to 
come from the Arenig district. I have seen nothing like them in the 
Lake District.' 

Two of the felsites are of considerable size, the larger being 
4x4x2 feet. 

Similar blocks may be traced almost to the summit of the hill. One 
felsitic block opposite the Yew Trees is 4 - 5 x 3 X 2 feet. 

The height of these boulders above the sea is remarkable for the dis- 
trict, their highest level being about 750 feet. This fact indicates a 
corresponding depi'ession of the land, since no Welsh glacier could have 
travelled over hill and down dale to this summit level. To render any- 
such glacier work conceivable, the Welsh mountains must have stood at 
a height beyond any point for which there is the slightest evidence. 

This group of boulders on the summit of Frankley Hill appears to 
have been dropped by an iceberg travelling from Wales, upon the top of 
the clays and sands exposed in the railway cutting, at a time when the 
land was depressed at least to the extent of at least 800 to 1,000 feet. 
In the clays and sands upon which the summit group of erratics rest, we 
must have beds belonging to an earlier date than the close of the glacial 
epoch, and the erratics in the cutting must be discriminated from those 
left at the higher level. 

Staffordshire. — The following among the innumerable erratic blocks 
scattered over the central part of the midland district deserve a special 
record in addition to those described in previous Reports. 

1. A boulder of felsite in the brickyard at the bottom of Oak Street, 
Wolverhampton. 

This boulder is of an oblong form, and measures 11x3x3 feet for a 
considerable portion of its length, although tapering in a somewhat 
irregular manner towards its ends. On the upper surface are rude and 
rough groovings running in all directions, and doubtless produced by 
the plough ; but one of the sides exposed is flat and smooth, and is 
covered with parallel stria?, affording an extremely fine example of glacial 
action. 

The clay by which it is surrounded contains many more or less 
rounded pieces of granite, as well as of felsite, flints, together with 
quartzite and other pebbles from the Biinter beds. 

The large felsite ice-marked boulder described was probably dropped 
upon the clay in which it rests, this clay itself being composed of the 
material brought by one of the earlier icebergs and intermixed with 
material of more local origin by the currents prevalent during the move- 
ments of the sea-bottom at a later period. 

In the immediate neighbourhood is a surface boulder of granite 
measuring 3 x 35 X 2 feet. The grouping of these surface boulders needs 
to be carefully observed, as distinguished from the accumulation of blocks 
of all kinds, in the sands and clays upon which they rest, or into the 
heart of which they have fallen. 

2. An erratic block of slate, situated in a field near the Fox Inn, on 
the road to Trescott. 

This block has split into two pieces, the larger piece measuring 
11-25 x 3-25x3-5 feet, and the smaller 9-25x3x3 feet. It originally 
rested upon the surface, but some years ago it was buried, in order to 
utilize the land for agricultural purposes. An excavation was recently 



138 eeport— 1879. 

made (at the instance of the Dudley and Midland Geological Society) 
that it might be examined. 

This is the largest erratic block of slate that has yet been seen in the 
district, and it is associated with very numerous boulders of granite and 
felsite. 

3. Mr. E. B. Marten has called attention to a boulder recently dis- 
covered by Mr. Beale in a watercourse running nearly due N. and S. 
near Moseley Hole, and the Wolverhampton, Willenhall, and Walsall 
turnpike-road, and an accommodation road across the collieries from the 
Osier Bed Furnaces and Slow Lane, to Bilston. It is in the line of the 
third ' h,' in the words ' Stow Heath Furnace,' and the letter ' P,' of 
' The Plough ' on the one-inch Ordnance Map, No. 62, S. W. Lichfield. 

The boulder is composed of granite, and measures about 4' 75 feet 
every way. Its weight is probably about three tons. Its shape is sub- 
angular, the angles being, with one exception, slightly rounded, but this 
exception is as sharp and clean as though the block had just been detached 
from its parent rock. The soil in which the boulder occurs is of a 
gravelly and sandy nature, containing some pebbles bearing the well- 
known indentations peculiar to, and characteristic of, the pebble beds of 
Biinter. Its height is 420 feet above the sea-level. 

4. At Manor Green, half-a-mile S. of Walsall, in a field near the Old 
West Bromwich road, a block of felsite stands erect, like a pillar. It 
measures 4 - 5 x 4'5 x 2 feet. 

Mr. L\ Mackintosh reports on the origin of the so-called 'green- 
stone M boulders around the estuaries of the Mersey and the Dee (the 
occurrence of which has previously been recorded in these Reports by 
Mr. G. Morton, F.G.S.), to the following effect : 

While tracing Criffel boulders southwards, he has observed 'green- 
stone' (or as they are locally called, ' whinstone') boulders and pebbles 
apparently on their way south, along with the granite on the west coast 
of Cumberland, N. of Whitehaven. Between the Scottish and Cum- 
brian coasts and the peninsula of Wirral (between the estuaries of the 
Mersey and the Dee) the course of these boulders is lost under the Irish 
Sea. The area around the Mersey estuaries in which the boulders are 
very much concentrated is intensely striated, and nearly all the striae 
point divergently to the S. of Scotland, i.e. between N. 15° W. and N. 
45° W. 

On the most extensively glaciated rock surface (successively exposed 
and demolished by quarrying operations near St. James' Church, 
Birkenhead), the larger grooves point to between 25° and 30° W. of N. 

A large ' greenstone ' boulder has been found at Crosby, near Liver- 
pool, resting on a perfectly flat glaciated rock-surface with strias pointing 
N. 40° W. 

Additional presumptions in favour of the Scottish derivation of these 
boulders may be found (1) in the fact that nearly all of these boulders 
consist of basic rocks similar to some at least found in the S. of Scotland ; 
and (2) in the extent to which they are concentrated and almost entirely 
locally limited to the peninsula of Wirral and the neighbouring part of 
Lancashire. This last circumstance shows that they could not have come 
from widely different points of the compass, while it is as probable as the 

1 The word ' greenstone ' is retained in the text because the boulders have fre- 
quently been described under this name. It is, however, inaccurate. Most of the 
boulders in question are dolorites or diorites. 



ON THE EBBATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IBELAND. 139 

nature of the subject will admit that there is no single locality from which 
they could have been derived excepting the S. of Scotland. 

Many fresh ' greenstone ' boulders have been lately exposed in the 
newest Bootle Dock excavation. The largest is 6 X 45 X 3 feet, and was 
found on the surface of the upper boulder clay. A very large proportion 
of the boulders are excessively flattened and regularly grooved. One 
has been removed to the inner end of the passage between the Liverpool 
Free Library and the Picton reading-room. Three feet in diameter of its 
surface are perfectly flattened and indented with deep parallel grooves 
like a work of art. 

It is a remarkable fact that in the Bootle Dock excavations the ' green- 
stone ' boulders are accompanied by very little Scotch granite ; while on 
the shore of the Dee estuary between West Kirby and Parkgate similar 
boulders are associated with much Scotch granite. It is also remarkable 
(and equally difficult to explain) that whilst at Bootle the boulders are 
intensely glaciated on the shore of the Dee estuary, scarcely any of them 
show signs of ice- action. 

The largest boulder on the shore of the Dee estuary is 6x4x3 feet, 
and is apparently a diorite. 

Mr. J. R. Dakyns favours the Committee with the following Report 
on the Shap Granite Boulders on the Yorkshire Coast : — 
Shap Granite Boulders on the Yorkshire Coast. 

I have examined this coast from Cloughton Wyke, 4 miles north of 
Scarborough, to the Talbot Hotel, 6 miles south of Hornsea, a distance 
of about 46 miles. 

The boulders of Shap granite are not found indifferently on any part 
of the coast, but they occur plentifully at certain parts, and are entirely 
wanting along the rest of the coast. 

Within the space examined they occur principally in four localities, as 
follows, beginning from the north : there are several, four at least, at 
Long Nab, on the north side of the Nab ; one of these measm-es 8 cubic 
feet ; there are also several, six or seven at least, at Cromer Point, also on 
the north side of the point. 

South of Cromer Point there are none till you come nearly to Filey. 
There is one large one, measuring nearly 3 x 2J X 2 feet, on the top of the 
cliff about a mile from Filey ; this is at the third fence north of the notice 
' No Road' near the Spa ; it bears N. 15° E. from Filey Station. It is 
probably practically undisturbed, for the ground slopes inland from the 
cliff, and therefore if it has been turned up in ploughing and moved, it 
cannot have been moved far, for no one would take the trouble to cart a 
huge boulder far uphill. This is the only undisturbed boulder of Shap 
granite that I have seen on the land ; all the others are on the shore, and 
have fallen out of the cliff above them. There are several on the shore 
along the north part of Filey Bay, but none along the south, nor are any 
more to be met with going south till one reaches Flamborough Head. 

There are several on the shore between Flamborough Head and Flam- 
borough South Landing. Some of these are large, one measuring 36 cubic 
feet. 

South of this locality, the only one I have seen on the shore, is a 
small one rather more than a mile south of Bridlington Quay. But I do 
not doubt that they do occur farther south occasionally, because there is 
one built into a wall at Hornsea. 



140 REPORT — 1879. 

Note. — In the British Association Report for 1874, p. 196, the 
Hitching stone (Yorkshire) is described as an erratic block. Mr. Dakyns 
cannot think that this is correct, and writes the following note 
upon it : 

' The stone is a block of millstone grit, standing on the escarpment of 
a bed of grit not dissimilar in character. I believe this stone to be a 
portion of this bed remaining in place, the immediately surrounding part 
having been denuded. The stone is standing, as it might have stood 
originally in its bed. It is angular, and bounded by joint surfaces just as 
it would be on the removal of the surrounding block. 

' In brief, it has no single characteristic of a boulder about it. It is not 
rounded nor scratched, nor is it standing on end, nor in any such a way as 
to raise a suspicion of its having been moved. Nor is it of a different 
character from the rock on which it stands, and there are no other 
boulders connected with it ; nor are there anywhere in that country any 
boulders that are not mere pigmies beside it ; nor do I know of any 
boulders in the country saving such as are actually embedded in drift, and 
none of these are lai'ge.' 



Fifteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of John Evans, 
F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., 
George Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William 
Ayshford Sanford, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and 
William Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter), appointed for the pur- 
pose of exploring Kent's Cavern, Devonshire. 

Your Committee, in this their Fifteenth Annual Report, on taking up 
the narrative of their researches at the point at which it was dropped in 
their Fourteenth Report, read during the meeting in Dublin in August, 
1878 (see Report, British Association, 1878, pp. 124-129), beg to state 
that, during the twelve months which have since elapsed, the work has 
been continuously carried on in the same manner and under the same 
daily superintendence as heretofore, and that the workmen named last 
year — George Smerdon (foreman) and William Matthews — have con- 
tinued to perform the manual labour throughout the year to the full 
satisfaction of the Superintendents. 

Visitors. — The Superintendents have had the pleasure, as in previous 
years, of admitting and conducting numerous ladies and gentlemen into 
the Cavern, and have availed themselves of such opportunities of stating 
and explaining the principal discoveries made from time to time, as well 
as their palasontological and anthropological bearings. The following 
may be mentioned as amongst the visitors thus admitted : — The Princes 
Edward and George of Wales, with their tutor, the Rev. J. N. Dalton ; 
the Revs. Canon Greenwell, Dr. Baron, P. Douglas, W. Downes, Dr. 
S. Haughton, E. Mansfield, Dr. Punshon, and W. S. Symonds ; Captain 
Thomson, Dr. T. Barlow, Prof. A. H. Church, and Messrs. J. R. Barlow, 
A. Baron, W. H. Baron, J. S. Bartlett, C. Biggs, E. F. Boyd, F. C. Bury, 
W. Bracken, R. A. Clark, T. E. Cobb, H. Cooper, W. Cotterell, R. E. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 141 

Cunliffe, M. R. Currie, W. Curtis, G. Doe, G. Ferrand, B. Fox, F.W. Fox, 
S Hauo-'hton (Ceylon), G. J. Hinde (Canada), B. C.Hobbs (Indiana, U.S.), 
C S. Hockin, W. Jones, T. G. B. Lennard, W. Medlicotfc, W. Parker, 
A. C. Pass, A. Pengelly (Punjab), R. Perks, W. Perks, H. W. Reynolds, 
T. W. U. Robinson, E. W. Sraithson, H. Rowe, W. Russell, J. W. Wilson, 
W. Wilson, and J. E. Wolfe. 

In addition to visitors accompanied by a Superintendent, a large 
number bave been admitted by the autborised guide, under clearly- 
defined and well-observed regulations. 

Financial. — During tbe year the following contributions towards the 
funds for carrying on the work were handed to the Secretary : — Mr. 
Gerard Ferrand, 5/.; Rev. Canon Greenwell, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., 1Z. ; 
Mr. T. W. U. Robinson, F.G.S., 11. 

Living Animals still frequenting the Cavern. — As in previous years, the 
workmen have frequently seen rats in the innermost recesses of the 
Cavern, and during the twelve months eleven were taken in a gin placed 
on a rock at the remotest point of the ' Cave of Inscriptions,' fully 380 
feet from open day. It may probably be presumed that they were at- 
tracted by the droppings of the workmen's candles. 

The High Chamber. — When the Fourteenth Report was closed (July 
31, 1878), the workmen were engaged in excavating the deposits in a 
branch of the Cavern termed the ' High Chamber,' into which they had 
then penetrated about thirty feet from its entrance, that is, its junction 
with the Cave of Inscriptions, out of which it opens (see Report, British 
Association, 1878, p. 128). This work was continued without intermission 
until its completion on January 9, 1879, when the High Chamber was 
found to extend in a north-westerly direction for a distance of about 
53 feet, to vary in width from 5 to 10 feet, and in height from 14 feet 
at the outer to 8 feet at the inner end, the measurements being made for 
the width at the top of the mechanical deposit, and for the height from 
the roof to the bottom of the excavation, which, however, did not reach a 
limestone bottom. 

At its inner or north-western end the High Chamber sends off two 
branches, one towards the north and the other towards the south. The 
northern branch was excavated for a distance of 12 feet, where, though 
the end was not reached, the work was abandoned, for the deposit — 
breccia, blocks of limestone, and crystalline stalagmite — reached the 
roof, and was so compact as to bar all further progress, except by the 
expenditure of a very large amount of time and money. This branch, 
which varied from 5 to 7 feet wide, may be regarded as a portion of the 
High Chamber. How far it extends, and whither it leads, are questions 
for speculation merely. 

The exploration of the southern branch presented fewer difficulties, 
and was much more successful. This branch will be subsequently de- 
scribed under the name of the ' Swallow Gallery.' 

The roof of the High Chamber throughout the outermost half of its 
length shows distinct traces of the long-continued action of running 
water, but beyond that distance it has an angular and less ancient aspect, 
due, no doubt, to the comparatively recent fall of the masses of limestone 
which occupied the floor, whilst at the inner end it was much shivered. 



142 report — 1879. 

Indeed, the workmen had to dislodge one large mass of rock which 
appeared very insecure and threatened to fall. 

The mechanical deposit found in the High Chamber was exclusively 
Breccia, the oldest the Cavern has yielded. It was covered with the 
crystalline, or most ancient, Stalagmite over a considerable area (see 
Report, British Association, 1878, p. 128), but elsewhere it lay immedi- 
ately beneath the large masses of limestone already mentioned or was 
without covering of any kind. Its upper surface, ascending continuously 
from the entrance of the Chamber, reached near the inner end a level 
about 7 feet above that of the Breccia in the adjacent Cave of Inscrip- 
tions. From this point it rose at a comparatively steep gradient over a 
series of limestone terraces or steps, and beneath a well-defined sheet of 
Stalagmite, until it reached the roof, where the two deposits occupied 
and completely filled a ' swallow hole ' in the north-western corner of the 
Chamber. 

After the Fourteenth Report was drawn the High Chamber yielded 
forty-one ' finds,' of which sixteen were either lying on the surface 
without any covering or were within a foot of it ; four were in the second 
foot-level below the surface ; eight in the third foot-level ; and thirteen in 
the fourth, the lowest excavated. Eight of the ' finds ' consisted of arti- 
ficial objects only, whilst the remaining thirty- three were almost exclu- 
sively relics of mammals, and included thirty teeth of bear and one of 
fox, together with a considerable number of bones and pieces of bone. 

At least some of the objects lying on the surface had no claim what- 
ever to antiquity. Thus, on September 23, 1878, there were found 
(' find ' No. 7,214) on the exposed surface of the Breccia, where it con- 
tained an unusual amount of very fine sand, a large number of quill-like 
tubes of stalactite, and with them a portion of the stem of a clay tobacco- 
pipe. The whole, including the sand on which they lay, had the appear- 
ance of having been washed to the spot they occupied, probably during a 
period of protracted and heavy rains, when the drip from the roof would 
be unusually copious. 

Again, on October 22, 1878, a one-bladed penknife ('find' 7,222) 
was met with on the unprotected surface of the Breccia, without any 
object of interest near it. 

The presence of these recent articles is in no way surprising, and 
presents no chronological difficulty, as there was nothing to prevent an 
adventurous visitor from reaching the spots where they were found ; and 
it cannot be doubted that some such person lost the penknife, and that a 
smoker threw away a portion of the tobacco-pipe he had unfortunately 
broken. 

Many of the teeth of bear occupied jaws or portions of jaws. They 
were most prevalent in the lowest level ; there being four specimens in 
the uppermost or first foot-level ; five in the second ; four in the third ; 
and seventeen in the fourth or lowest. Though many of them were fine 
specimens, none call for detailed description or special remark. It may 
suffice to direct attention to the ' find ' No. 7,245, met with on Novem- 
ber 13, 1878, in the first foot-level, and consisting of an almost entire 
right lower jaw of Bear, a portion of a left lower jaw, also of Bear, and 
one bone. The right jaw contained the canine tooth only, and appears 
to have been crushed after its deposition. The fragment of left jaw was 
that of an immature animal, and contained one molar. 

The artificial objects met with, in addition to the stem of tobacco-pipe 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 143 

aud the penknife, mentioned already, were flakes and chips of flint and 
chert, of which there were nine : — 

No. 7,207, found, with one tooth of Bear, in the fourth foot-level, 
August 8, 1878. 

No. 7,211, found, with one tooth of Bear and one bone, in the fourth 
foot-level, September 18, 1878. 

No. 7,219, found, with one piece of bone, in the fourth foot-level, 
October 5, 1878. 

No. 7,220, found alone, in the fourth foot-level, October 9, 1878. 

No. 7,224, found alone, in the fourth foot-level, October 25, 1878. 

No. 7,225, found alone, in the third foot-level, October 29, 1878. 

No. 7,226, fonnd alone, in the fourth foot-level, October 30, 1878. 

No. 7,232, found alone, in the third foot-level, November 9, 1878. 

No. 7,256, found alone, in the fourth foot-level, January 9, 1879. 

Compared with the numerous fine implements found, from time to 
time, in other parts of the Cavern, none of the specimens in the foregoing 
list are in themselves of much importance or interest. They are all 
more or less porous, and adhere to the tongue when applied to it. 

No. 7,211 measures l - 8 inch long and broad, and 0"4 inch in greatest 
thickness. Its inner face is slightly concave : whilst the outer, produced 
by the dislodgment of five flakes, is convex. Its margin, elsewhere 
rudely curvilineal, is on one side almost a chisel-like edge, but somewhat 
broken. 

No. 7,224 is a leaf-shaped flake, bluntly pointed at one end, and 
obliquely truncated at the other. The inner face is saved by the ' bulb 
of percussion ' from being quite flat ; whilst the outer has a strong, nearly 
central, curvilineal ridge. There appear some indications on its edges of 
its having been used as a tool, and it has perhaps undergone a slight 
amount of rolling. It measures 3*1 inches long, l - 8 inch in greatest 
breadth, and 07 inch in greatest thickness. 

No. 7,232 is rudely rhombohedral in form. The inner face is slightly 
concave, and has a ' bulb of percussion ; ' the outer is convex, and formed 
by the dislodgment of three flakes, leaving as many parallel longitudinal 
areas, the central one being broad compared with those on each side of it. 
This specimen may also perhaps have been slightly rolled. 

Including those reported last year (Report, British Association, 1878, 
pp. 128-9) the ' finds ' met with in the High Chamber amounted to 
ninety-four in number, and contained 119 teeth of Bear, one tooth of 
Horse, one of Fox, numerous bones and bone-fragments, one flint nodule 
tool, eleven flakes and chips of chert and flint, and one quartzite pebble. 

Tour Committee remarked last year that the flint specimens occurred 
in the third and fourth foot-levels only (op. cit., p. 129). It will be seen 
from the list given above that this was also the fact with regard to the 
similar specimens found since. In short, of the twelve specimens of flint 
and chert found from first to last in the High Chamber, none occurred in 
the first or second foot-levels, four were met with in the third level, and 
eight in the fourth, or lowest foot-level, to which the excavation was 
carried. 

The Sivallmv Gallery. — The branch thrown off towards the south from 
the inner end of the High Chamber, as stated above, has a total length 
of about 50 feet, and consists of two Reaches, the first extending south- 
wards about 26 feet, where the Gallery turns sharply eastward, and 



144 REPORT — 1879. 

extends in that direction about 24 feet. The width varies from 10 to 2-6 
feet ; and the height, from 6 feet, at the entrance, to 8 feet at the inner 
end. 

Judging from its roof, this Gallery was, during a long period, a-tunnel 
completely filled with running water ; and this is confirmed by the cha- 
racter of the walls, on which, however, indications of corrosion, subsequent 
to the erosion, are numerous and well-marked. 

About 18 feet from the entrance of the first Reach, a considerable 
irregularly-cylindrical ' Swallow Hole ' extends obliquely upwards into 
the roof, and is quite empty for a height of about 7 feet, above which it 
is completely filled with typical Breccia and Stalagmite. The Gallery 
takes its name from this hale. 

The deposit occupying this gallery was everywhere the Breccia, having 
no continuous stalagmitic covering until within the innermost 10 feet, 
and even there its thickness was inconsiderable. The upper surface of 
the Breccia had a uniform fall, amounting to a total of 38 inches, from 
the outer to the inner end of the Gallery, where it plnnged rapidly into, 
and completely filled, a tunnel ; and, being mixed with large masses of 
limestone, the work in that direction was abandoned on May 24, 1879, 
the exploration of the Swallow Gallery having occupied about nineteen 
weeks. 

This branch of the Cavern, the two Reaches included, presented fifty- 
eight ' finds,' of which thirty- three were on the surface of the Breccia or 
not more than a foot below it ; fourteen were in the second foot-level ; 
seven in the third ; and four in the fourth. In the innermost six feet of 
the second Reach the sections were cut to a depth of 5 feet, instead of the 
customary 4 feet, but nothing was met with in any of the fifth foot-levels. 
The 'finds ' included ninety- four teeth of Bear (many of them in pieces of 
jaw), four of Fox (in two pieces of jaw), one of Horse, one of Sheep, a very 
lai-ge quantity of bones (many of them much broken), one chert nodule, 
and three chips and flakes of chert and flint. The ' finds ' were almost 
equally numerous in the two Reaches, but those in the second or inner 
Reach were comparatively very rich in specimens : thus, whilst the 
twenty-eight ' finds ' in the first Reach contained in all no more than 
twenty teeth of bear, a single 'find' (No. 7,304) in the second Reach, 
contained also twenty teeth of bear and bones enough to fill a wheelbarrow, 
and the thirty ' finds ' of this Reach yielded a total of seventy-four teeth 
of Bear. 

The ' find ' No. 7,297, consisting of bones and pieces of bone, met with 
in the second foot-level, on April 14, 1879, contained the proximal end of 
a left tibia, having on it at least five grooves or scores of different depths, 
and some of them having within them finer scores, parallel to their sides. 
When inspected with a lens, the surface of the bone showed several finer 
lines in various directions. As it may be doubted whether the scores 
were the teeth-marks of any animal, their origin is problematical. 

Here again it may be remarked that several specimens lying on tho 
surface of the Breccia, without covering of any kind, do not certainly or 
probably all belong to the era of that deposit. Indeed, the tooth of 
Sheep already mentioned, and a few bones belonging to the same ' find ' 
(No. 7,261) are not only open to this cautionary remark, but from their 
aspect and mineral condition, belong, without doubt, to very recent times. 
The same may perhaps be said of the tooth of the Horse (No. 7,298), 
which lay also on the unprotected surface. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 145 

The specimens of flint and chert found in the Swallow Gallery are 
not entitled to more than a mere enumeration. 

No. 7,260, a chert nodule, apparently never utilised in any way, was 
found alone in the third foot-level, January 29, 1879. 

No. 7,273, a small chip or fragment of flint, was found alone, in the 
third foot-level, February 22, 1879. 

No. 7,275, a small flake of flint, probably a fragment of a flake imple- 
ment, was found on the surface, near a tooth of Bear and pieces of bone, 
February 24, 1879. 

No. 7,301, a small chip of chert, was found in the first foofc-level, with 
three teeth of Bear and numerous bones, April 22, 1879. 

Your Committee, when treating last year of the flint implements which 
had then been found in the High Chamber, remarked, ' It is difficult to 
understand how the tools found their way to a branch of the Cavern so 
remote from the known entrances, and occupying so high a level. The 
problem is apparently insoluble except on the hypothesis that the work- 
men are approaching an entrance hitherto unknown ; and as this sup- 
position has been forced on the minds of the Superintendents by other and 
independent facts, they believe it to be most desirable to settle this question, 
if possible, as they do not doubt that it would give a definiteness to the 
explication of some of the Cavern phenomena.' — (Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1878, 
p. 129.) 

The Superintendents have no doubt that the researches of the last 
twelve months have converted their ' hypothesis ' of 'an entrance,' or, 
more correctly, of entrances, ' hitherto unknown,' into an established fact. 
They believe also that the facts prove that the said entrances — the 
Swallow holes in the High Chamber and the Swallow Gallery — were com- 
pbtoly closed before the beginning of the ' Cave-earth ' era, and have 
jmained so to the present day. 

The entrance in the Swallow Gallery was probably never available as 
a passage for any living animal ; but there can be little doubt that any 
tolerably agile creature could readily have used that in the north-west 
corner of the High Chamber. That the roof dividing this branch of the 
Caveru from the open day is of very inconsiderable thickness is plainly 
indicated by the levels, as well as by the distinctness with which all 
external sounds are heard in that Chamber ; and the ' series of limestone 
terraces,' mentioned already as leading up to the Swallow Hole, would 
form convenient steps for a man or any infra-human animal desirous of 
entering or leaving the Cavern. 

Qliv ■ IcJc's Gallery. — Your Committee, in their Eleventh Report (1875), 
the following statement : — ' The comparative paucity of specimens 
in Clinnick's Gallery induced the Superintendents, on December 1, 1874, 
to suspend operations in that direction for at least a time. The labour of 
seven months had been expended on it, during which the exploration had 
reached 75 feet from the entrance, where the Great Chamber discovered 
by John Clinnick may be said to begin.' — (Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1875, 
pp. 5-6.) 

On May 24, 1879, when, as stated above, they left the Swallow 
Gallery, the workmen returned to Clinnick's Gallery, the only known 
branch of the Cavern the exploration of which has not been completed, 
that is to the depth of four feet below the base of the Stalagmitic Floor. 

In wet weather this Gallery surpasses all other branches of the Cavern 
in the amount of drip from the roof; and this, on June 16, was so very 
1879. l 



146 report— 1879. 

copious, on account of the unusually heavy rainfall the preceding day, as 
well as the previous saturated condition of the ground, 1 that the workmen 
were wet to the skin within two hours after beginning their work. 

Since its resumption, the excavation in Clinnick's Gallery has been 
steadily carried on, and is still in progress ; and at the end of July it had 
advanced 27 feet beyond the seventy-five mentioned in the Eleventh 
Report (1875). The deposit found there after the work was resumed 
was exclusively the Breccia, the upper surface of which dipped steadily in 
the direction in which the workmen advanced, and was 25 inches lower 
at the point reached on July 31, than at that at which the work was 
resumed in May. It was covered uniformly with Stalagmite, varying from 
12 to 30 inches thick. 

The paucity of specimens mentioned in the Eleventh Report still 
characterises this branch of the Cavern, for though upwards of tw 
months have elapsed since the workmen returned thither, no more than 
three ' finds ' have been met with in that time — a small fragment of a 
Bear's jaw, with a few splinters of teeth (No. 7,314), found in the second 
foot-level, on May 31, 1879, and two chert nodule tools (Nos. 7,316 and 
7,317). 

The chert tools, however, are of sufficient interest to repay the time 
and labour spent in exhuming them. No. 7,316 is of a light drab- 
coloured, granular chert, covered almost everywhere with a manganic (?) 
smut, but having a considerable patch of Breccia cemented to it with 
carbonate of lime. The outline of the tool is that of a trapezium with the 
angles rounded. It is 5'8 inches long, 31 inches in greatest width, and 
2 - 3 inches in greatest thickness. The butt-end is almost square, and 
measures 1"4 inch by 1*3 inch. The tool attains its greatest thickness 
about 2 inches from this end, whence it tapers on each face to an oblique 
chisel-edge. The condition of the various edges is not inconsistent witl. 
the supposition that the tool had been slightly rolled. It was found alont 
on July 15, 1878, in the third foot-level of the Breccia. 

No. 7,317 was unfortunately broken by the workman by whom it was 
found and dug out, and who, before he saw it, to use his own language, 
' throw'd the pick into'n.' The surface of the fracture has a very white 
chalk-like aspect, but the application of hydrochloric acid causes no 
effervescence. Like the preceding tool, its surface is largely covered with 
a manganic (?) smut. In form the tool may be said to be somewhat 
pear-shaped. It measures 5 - 6 inches in length, 3'5 inches in greatest 
width, and 2" 6 inches in greatest thickness, It was found alone on 
July 25, 1879, in the second foot-level of the Breccia, within 2 f e ' - p 
No. 7,316. 

It is perhaps noteworthy that the only other chert tool having, like 
Nos. 7,316 and 7,317, a blackened surface, which the Cavern has yielded, 
was the fine specimen, No. ( , 4 \ r , met with also in Clinnick's Gallery, and 
described in the Committee's Tenth Report (Report, British Association, 
1874, pp. 15-16). It was found, April 23, 1874, in the fourth foot-level 
of the Breccia, and was also a nodule tool, but not quite so large as the 
specimens described above. 

Clinnick's Gallery, so far as it has been explored, varies from 12 to 4 
feet wide and from 7 - 5 to 11 feet high. It consists of three Reaches, of 

1 Rain fell every day during the ten preceding days ; the total fall amounted to 
3-01 inches, of which -97 inch fell on the 15th. 



ON THE EXPLORATIONS OF KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 147 

which the first or outermost extends in a northerly direction ab out 30 feet 
The Gallery then turns at right angles and extends westward about 25 
feet, where it again, though with some irregularity, takes a northerly 
direction for 30 feet. 

About 16 feet up the third or innermost Reach the explorer, by crawl- 
ing up a steep sheet of stalagmite, formed on limestone rocks in situ on 
the western side, and, having reached the top, by wriggling vermicularly 
through a very small aperture, finds himself in a chamber from 10 to 12 
feet long and broad, but not quite so high, where he soon comes to the 
conclusion that there is little or no chance of finding anything of interest 
to the palaeontologist or the anthropologist. The walls and roof, how- 
ever, are hung with a profusion of beautifully white stalactites, many of 
them in the form of long, thin, quill-like tubes, whilst others of larger 
volume assume various forms, but all of great beauty. From the floor 
there rises a forest of stalagmitic ' paps,' some of them nearly 2 feet high 
and 10 or 12 inches in circumference, and all promising, were time 
allowed, to become pillars reaching the roof. By letting himself down 
over a rocky ledge, about 4 feet high, at the inner or northern end of this 
chamber, the explorer enters a second chamber, about 25 feet long from 
south to north nearly, and 12 feet wide ; where, though stalactites and 
stalagmites are almost as plentiful and as beautiful as in the ante-room 
he has just left, his attention is rather rivetted on the walls, and especi- 
ally the roof, which are rugged, and angular, and shivered. That blocks 
of limestone have in great plenty fallen from them, and in times geologi- 
cally recent, there cannot be a doubt, and their aspect is anything but 
calculated to inspire confidence in their present stability. Nevertheless, 
judging from the stalactites depending from the roof and the ' paps ' 
rising from the floor, there can have been no very recent fall. The floor, 
telling much the same story as the roof and walls, is made up of masses 
of limestone, generally of no great size, with numerous pitfalls between 
them. 

On its eastern side, the third or innermost Reach of Clinnick's Gallery 
opens into a large chamber, which the workmen have just begun to 
explore. 

Palceontographical Society. — In 1878 your Committee had the pleasure 
of receiving from Professor A. Leith Adams, F.R.S., an application for 
permission to have drawings taken of any relics of mammoth they had 
found in the Cavern, for the purpose of illustrating the monograph on 
the ' British Fossil Elephants ' which he is preparing for the Pateon to- 
graphical Society of Great Britain. It must be unnecessary to add that 
the permission was at once granted, and that such specimens as he wished 
were forwarded to him without delay. 

Professor Leith Adams has accordingly, in Part II. of his monograph 
(1879), directed attention (pp. 84, 85, 86, 91, 92, 94) to fifteen milk- 
molars found by the Committee in the deposit known as the Cave-earth, 
and has given natural-size figures of three of them (Nos. 1,063, 5,489, 
5,774 ; see pi. ix., figs. 3 and 4, and pi. xii., fig. 2). 

The principal facts connected with these specimens are set forth iu 
the following Table : 



l 2 



148 



REPORT— 1879. 





When and where found 


Found with 
relics of 






Nos. 


Dates 


Parts of the cavern 


Foot- 
levels 


Characters 


315 


June 23, 1865 


Great Chamber 


4th 


— 


Upper third milk-molar 


L059 


Dec. 20, „ 


)» 


j» 


— 


Lower „ 




L063 


„ 21, „ 


» 


jj 


— 


Upper second 




1248 


Feb. 10, 1866 


» 




— 


Lower third 




2135 


„ 13, 1867 


Vestibule 




— 






2677 


July 4, „ 


Great Chamber 


2nd 


— 






2902 


Oct. 18, „ 


Lecture Hall 


3rd 

4th- 


Hysena, horse,] 
megaceros, - 
rhinoceros j 


Upper fourth 


>» 


343B 


„ 6, 1870 


Srnerdon"s Passage 
















2 

3489 


» 21, „ 


» 


11 

f 


Ox 

Hya;na, horse, ] 


Lower third 


>» 


1G 

4H17 


Dec. 24, 1869 


North Sallyport 


■1 

f 


rhinoceros, I 

lion J 

Hvsena, horse,] 


Upper „ 


« 


11 

5379 


Sept. 8, 1870 


Smerdon's Passage 


lstj 


rhinoceros, I 
badger,deerj 


») » 


i> 


5489 June 24, 1871 


Sloping Chamber 


4th 


Hyasna 


Upper fourth 


■ 


^ Dec. 2,1874 


Cave of Eodentia 


JJ 




Lower first 




5968 July 30, 1872; Long Arcade 


3rd 


Bear 


Upper third 


>« 


6066 Jan. 16, 1873 „ . 


2nd 


— 


Lower „ 





Speaking of the enamel of the molars of the mammoth, Professor 
Leith Adams says, ' It is remarkably attenuated in teeth from the Arctic 
regions' (p. 79), and that 'all the teeth [of mammoth] from Kent'3 
Cavern, Devonshire, show the Arctic type and have thin enamel ' (p. 80). 

Again, he remarks, ' The Arctic or typical crown represented by the 
North- Asiatic and North-American specimens on the one hand, and Kent's 
Cavern on the other, presents a decided contrast to the molars from Iii< 
on the Thames, where not only is the enamel thicker, but the teeth them- 
selves are all much smaller. The same character [as to size] obtained in 
other parts of the skeleton ' (p. 81). 

The author describes the specimen belonging to the ' find ' No. 1.063, 
figured in his pi. ix., figs. 3, '3a, 36, 3c, as ' an excellent representative ' 
of the antepenultimate or second milk-molar ' of the upper jaw, and pro- 
bably of the right side.' ' The tips of the digitations of the four antnior 
plates being slightly detrited show,' he says, ' the owner to have been, at 
all events, not uterine ' (p. 85). 

Attention was directed in the Eighth Report (1872) to the specimen 
No. 37-74 in the foregoing Table. Mr. G. Busk, F.R.S., a member of the 
Committee, said then, ' I consider that it represents the very rare occur- 
rence of a true mm. 1. . . . This is a very curious specimen, and, as 
regards the elephant, of remarkable interest ' (Report, British Associa- 
tion, 1872, p. 37). Professor L. Adams adopts Mr. Busk's determim- 
tion, and adds, ' This tooth is one of the smallest milk-molars of any 
elephant with which I am acquainted, and is even more diminutive th-.m 
the first milk-teeth of the Maltese pigmy elephants. . . . The tips of one 
of the digitations show signs of detrition, and the well-formed and con- 
solidated fangs give evidence, at all events, that the aoimal did not die in 
the womb. The probability is, therefore, that this very small tooth may 
be a rare instance of the ^jre-antepenultimate appearing in the lower jaw 
of the mammoth, its long divergent fangs leading to the belief that it 
belonged to the mandible ' (p. 84). 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE BOENEAN CAVES. 149 

Report of the Committee consisting of Mr. John Evans, Sir John 
Lubbock, Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. George Busk, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Pengellt, and Mr. A. W. Franks, ap- 
pointed for exploring certain Caves in Borneo. 

Your Committee have to report that with the grant of 50Z. from the Asso- 
ciation, a similar grant from the Royal Society, and a further sum of 
about 2001. from private sources, they have been able to prosecute an 
examination of various caves in Borneo, under the superintendence of 
Mr. A. Hart Everett, who has devoted himself to the task for a period of 
nearly nine months. 

His final report upon his work has not yet been received, but it appears 
from his letters, and from the specimens which have been transmitted to 
this country, that nothing of special interest, either from an anthropo- 
logical or a geological point of view, has resulted from his explorations. 
The animal remains discovered have all been of recent species ; the human 
bones are probably of no very great antiquity, and none of the few objects 
of human manufacture which have been found can be regarded as of 
palasolithic age. Pending the arrival of Mr. Everett's final report it 
appears needless to enter into details, but it may be mentioned that up- 
wards of twenty caves appear to have been explored in a more or less 
complete manner, and the principal objects found, after examination by 
some of the members of the committee, have been forwarded to the British 
Museum. 

Although the examination of these caves has not, as was hoped, thrown 
any light upon the early history of man in that part of the world, it is 
still satisfactory that the examination should have been made, and the 
character of the cave-deposits ascertained by so competent an observer as 
Mr. Everett. The evidence obtained, though negative, is not without 
value, and those who are specially interested in cave explorations, and who 
have so liberally assisted in tbe present instance, cannot now be re- 
proached with not having availed themselves of the opportunity afforded 
by Mr. Everett's presence of obtaining further information as to the con- 
tents of the Borneo caves. 

It may be added that though for the most part the objects secured 
were unimportant, there were among the cave deposits a number of shells 
of land and fresh water mollusca, which have been examined by Colonel 
Godwin- Austen and have proved to belong to at least twenty-five genera 
and forty species, some of which are apparently new. Mr. Everett has 
been requested to devote some attention to collecting a larger series of 
these shells, but owing to the difficulties of postal communication it is 
possible that the request may arrive too late. Tour Committee propose 
to communicate Mr. Everett's final report, together with any observations 
which seem called for on the specimens which are still to arrive, to the 
Royal Society. 

After the reading of the above the following letter was received from 
Mr. Everett : — 

Second Quarterly Report on the Bornean Cave Exploration. 

To J. Evans, Esq. 

dear Sir, — I beg to submit the following Rejiort of my work during 
. past three months : — 



150 REPORT — 1879. 

Cave No. V. — As mentioned in my first Report, I was still occupied at 
the date of its despatch in the examination of this cave. Excavation B 
was continued across the low-level chamber to its left-hand wall, where 
the earth attained a thickness of about 5 feet. The contents preserved 
the character already noted throughout, and they yielded no sign of 
organic remains of any kind whatever. Excavation G, situated half-way 
up the steep entrance talus was carried to a depth of 4 feet only. The 
contents were washed, when their condition admitted of the employment 
of this process, with the result that a few bones of bats and small rodents, 
together with abundance of the usual land and fresh- water shells were 
met with ; but nothing to warrant an extended working until the remains 
sent from the D excavation shall have been examined and reported upon. 
The earth in C working became concreted just below the surface to such 
a degree of hardness as to necessitate frequent blasting ; but this stony 
concrete was irregularly distributed, the earth being in parts quite friable 
down to the bottom of the excavation. Excavation F was cut into a bank 
of pure guano, capped by a deposit of rotten stalagmite, about 1 foot thick. 
This bank is a small local deposit of only a few yards' extent. Neither 
bones nor shells occurred here. Excavation D. — I blasted out a small 
portion of the hard reddish-yellow concrete lying immediately below the 
ossiferous river-mud in this excavation ; but seeing no sign of bones, and 
the hole filling with water, I did not work down to the limestone floor. I 
finally abandoned Cave No. V. on January 4, and transferred the work- 
men the next day to No. XIII. 

Cave XIII. — This cavern consists of a simple large tunnel piercing 
the Jambusan hill from side to side (or rather that spur of it known 
among the Dyaks as Gunong Bak), about a quarter mile to the eastward 
of Cave No. V. The entrance is about 45 feet above the level of the 
plain ; and the real floor, where the limestone rock has been exposed by 
the drip about the centre of the cave, is some 10 feet lower. I enclose a 
plan of the entrance hall, with one transverse and one longitudinal section 
of the deposits worked through. I have already consigned you to a sample 
of the ossiferous contents of the cave, together with specimens of the 
various deposits it afforded. These latter, I should mention, are all much 
wetter, and therefore harder and stifler, when freshly exposed than will 
be apparent from their appearance when they reach you. I made no 
excavations in the interior part of the cave, where I found a great thick- 
ness of the usual tenacious yellow clay ; but I cut one trench just within 
the entrance, and a second one somewhat in advance in it. The series of 
deposits met with were as follows : — 

Excavation A. 

Stratum 1. — A narrow band (1 to 4 inches thick) of black earth full 
of fragments of charcoal, broken cooking utensils, bones, &c, being the 
debris left in recent years by the Dyaks, when camping in the cave for 
the purpose of taking the nest-harvest. This layer was thrown aside 
after very superficial scrutiny. It is noteworthy that it contains sparingly 
the shells of a marine bivalve — a Cardium, I think (lot 108). 

Stratum 2. — A hard stalagmitic layer (about 4 inches thick) , coloured 
reddish by intermixture of clay, and containing a few land shells and 
remains of bats, which, however, appear to die out in the next succeeding 
stratum. 



ON TIIE EXPLORATION OF THE BORNEAN CAVES. 151 

Stratum 3. — Concreted yellow clay (8 inches to 12 inches thick), with- 
out apparent stratification, and without organic remains. This stratum 
is sharply defined from the preceding one ; but not so from Stratum 4, of 
which it is, in fact, an integral part. Both this stratum and the preced- 
ing required steady blasting throughout the excavation, and any remains 
they might have contained would have been likely to escape notice unless 
of large size or occurring in some abundance. 

Stratum 4.— Unstratified reddish-yellow clay, with small water-worn 
gravel, and without any kind of organic remains. This stratum rested 
immediately on the limestone floor, which was worn into deep longitudinal 

furrows. 

The dimensions of this excavation were 23' X 6' to /', and the depth 
varied to 6' in the deepest part. It was completed in six days, as it was 
not necessary to follow the tedious process of washing the contents. 
Section 1 coincides with the longer axis of the excavation, and it is in- 
correct in one particular, i.e. it shows the black band as subjacent to the 
deposit of clay marked 5, which is really below it. 

Excavation B. 

Stratum 1. — The black band, as in Excavation A. 

Stratum 2. — A bed of river mud, indistinctly stratified, mixed with 
guano, and crowded with the remains of bats and of land and fresh-water 
mollusca, together with bones and teeth of a variety of mammalia, fish, 
and reptiles, the majority of which are much broken and waterworn. 
Greatest depth 4 feet. This bed corresponds to the ossiferous stratum of 
Cave V. Excavation D, with which it is essentially identical. _ The re- 
mains, however, obtained from XIII., B, are more varied and in better 
condition than those from Cave V. 

Stratum 3.— Unstratified yellow clay, concreted, except in its upper- 
most part, into a hard stalagmitic rock. This deposit corresponds to the 
strata 3 and 4 of Excavation A. It contains shells and a few bones. 
Owing to the scarcity of these latter, and also to the influx of water by 
underground drainage, I did not continue this trench down to the lime- 
stone floor. 

In this excavation it was needful to wash the whole of the river-mud 
in sieves, which caused the work to be excessively slow. During the 
process a small V-shaped fragment of stone, seemingly artificial, was 
found. It is that marked 110 in the Catalogue. If this fragment is 
considered to be undoubtedly of human workmanship, it forms the first 
evidence of the co-existence of man in the district with the fauna of the 
river-mud horizon, and as such is not without interest. A more impor- 
tant result of the exploration of No. XIII. is the proof obtained— meagre 
though it is— of the presence of the remains of mammals in the yellow 
clay lying below the river-mud deposit. 

During the quarter, I have visited fourteen additional caves m the 
Paku and Bidi districts. One of these, known as the Guah Kokan in 
the Kapoh hill at Bidi, is of great size, has seemingly a considerable 
thickness of deposits, and is situated at a height of upwards of 100 feet, 
in the face of a perpendicular cliff. It is very large for the few men at 
my command to make an adequate impression on, but I will attempt it if 
no better offers within the next few days. Before the completion of the 
ensuing quarter I hope to be able to report having visited the ossiferous 



152 report — 1879. 

cavern discovered by Mr. Coulson, to the locality of which I believe I have 
at length a clue. I am, dear Sir, 

Tours faithfully, 
(Signed) A. Hart Everett. 
Sarawak, March 8, 1879. 

List of Remains, fyc, found in Sarawak Caves, Borneo. 

NO. 

1. Remains of raptorial bird (recent). Obtained from Cave No. V. at Jambusan. 

Found on the surface of the earth, at the bottom of the deep pit at the 
farther end. 

2. Molar tooth and fragment of bone. Purchased from Chinese gold-washer. 

Found in the swampy flat of alluvium, debris of limestone, stalagmite, 
and veinstones, &c, which skirts the south-east base of the Busan hills 
between them and the village of Paku. 
3, 4, 5. Teeth procured at different times by Chinese washing for gold in the same 
situations as No. 2. All purchased. 

6. Portion of jaw with teeth, apparently of wild hog, procured from the silt at 

the mouth of Cave No. VI. Originally brought from the interior when 
the cave was examined for gold. 

7. Fragments of bone found in same locality as Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5. Purchased from 

Chinese gold-washer. 

8. Seven teeth of a large deer (?), with fragment of bone. Purchased from 

Chinese gold- washer, and found in the same locality as No. 7. 

9. Human remains. Procured from Cave No. II. at Paku. Collected by 

myself. (See Report.) 
10. Remains of wild hog, apparently. Purchased from a Dyak, who stated that 
they were found far within a cavern too contracted to allow of the passage 
of a living pig, if it could have climbed the precipitous hill half-way up 
which the cave opened, which he thought impossible. Being dissatisfied 
with the price paid, he refused to show this cave. 

11. Bones and teeth purchased from a Malay gold-washer. Found in the pan in 

washing the earth in Cave No. III. Cave visited by myself. (See Report.) 

12. Human remains purchased from another Malay gold- washer. Found in Cave 

No. VIII. close to Paku, in the Busan hills, and near the mouth of the 
cave. Only slightly covered with earth. 

13. Bones and teeth purchased from Dyaks. Found within a narrow cave high 

up on one of the hills near the Tagora road — Cave No. IX. The bones 
were either on the surface of the cave earth or but slightly buried. 

14. Remains of a large Chelonian, purchased from Dyaks. Found in Cave No. 

VII. Jambusian hill, tightly wedged in a fissure of the rocky floor which 
had been laid bare of a thick bed of very tenacious clay at this spot. The 
bones seen in situ by myself. 

15. Remains of bats, &c. Collected from the surface of the inner talus, at the 

entrance of the Jambusian cave (No. V.). 

16. Remains found close to the surface in Excavation B, Cave V. 

17. Remains found at depth of 1 inch to 18 inches in Excavation D, Cave V. 

18. Teeth, &c. Cave V. Excavation D. Found about 18 inches below the 

surface. 

19. Ramus of lower jaw of small rodent. Cave V. Excavation D. 

20. Remains of bats, &c, from surface of inner talus. Cave V. 

21. From the same situation as the preceding. 

22. Bones. Cave V. Excavation D. Found about 2 feet below the surface. 

23. From the same situation as the preceding. 

24. Bones and land shells. Cave V. Excavation D. From uppermost foot-level 

of the deposit. 

25. Land shells from the inner talus. Cave V. 

26. Land and fresh-water shells from cave-earth of Excavation B, Cave V. 

27. Bones with rotamideg. From upper part of deposit in Excavation D, Cave V. 



i 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE BORNEAN CAVES. 153 

28. Bones and land shells. Excavation D, Cave V. About 2 feet below the 
surface. 

29. Purchased from Chinese washing gold in the Faku flat. 
•30. Miscellaneous bones, jaw of rodent, &c. Excavation D, Cave V. Nearly 

3 feet below the surface. 

31. Remains from Cave No. II. Found in a little calcareous earth on a ledge 
just without the mouth. 

32. Bones from a deep fissure cavern at Paku. Found in gold-washer's refuse. 
The whole contents of this cave had been disturbed by the Chinese. 
Purchased from Dyaks. 

33. Fragment picked up on the Busan hills. 

34. Bones and teeth purchased from Malays. Found in a cave at Paku. 

35. Single rib-bone. Found by a Dyak partly buried in cave earth at Jambusan. 
The finder made a search for more, but without success. 

36. Remains of a young Macacus (?). Found on the surface within a cave near 
Paku. 

37. Teeth, land shells, &c. Excavation D, Cave V. 

38. Teeth of Hi/stria.; &c, &c. Excavation D, Cave V. About 3 feet below the 
surface. 

39. Purchased from gold-washers. Obtained from the Paku flat. 

40. Purchased from Dyaks. Obtained from a cave in the Jambusan Hill. 

41. Remains of Hystrix. Found on the surface. Cave at Jambusan. 

42. Carapace of tortoise. Found on tbe surface. Cave at Jambusan. 

43. Teeth and bone3 purchased of gold- washers. From the Paku flat. 

44. Teeth and bones purchased from Dyaks. Found in a cave in the Jambusan 

hill. 

45. Human remains, &c. Partly purchased, partly collected by myself in Cave 

No. XIV. Cf. Report. 
48. Remains of bats. Excavation E, Cave V. 

47. Reptilian remains. Surface of a cave in Jambusan hill. 

48. Teeth and bone. From the surface of a cave in the Jambusan hill. 

49. Pottery, teeth, marine shell (Cyp?-cea), &c, found associated with the human 

remains in Cave No. XIV., at the second milestone on the Tagora road. 
Cf. Report. 

50. Chelonian remains. Surface of a cave half-way up the southern face of the 

Busan hills. 
51. Bone. Purchased from Chinese. Found in a cave at Paku. 

52. Chelonian remains. Purchased from Chinese gold-workers, and found at a 

spot in the Paku flat where the contents of a cave were washed in former 
years. 

53. Skull of Helarctos. Found at about 3 feet depth in a cave in Gunong Jawang. 

Bears marks of a cutting instrument. 

54. Chelonian remains. Obtained in the Paku flat at a spot where the contents 

of adjacent caves were formerly washed for gold. Purchased. 

55. Skull of Simia satyr us $. Obtained from same situation as the preceding. 

The gash cutting through the parietal and other bones on the right side 
of the cranium was probably caused by the tools of the gold-seekers when 
the skull was first exhumed. It has since been again covered with earth 
for some years. The occipital foramen bears marks of a sharp cutting 
instrument. The skull has evidently been exposed to smoke, and it might 
stand for one which has hung griming for years in the smoke of the head 
house of the Dyaks on Siranbu. 
66. Cervine, molar, and other remains. Cave No. III. 

57. Teeth of Simia, fragments of chelonian, &c. The Paku plat. Purchased. 

58. Skull and portion of skeleton of a small monkey, purchased from Dyaks. 

They stated that the remains occurred in a cave near the summit of one 
of the Jibong group of hills, at a long distance within the cave (' distant 
from the entrance the burning of one torch '), and from their description 
they appeared to have been laid bare by the washing of water. 



154 kepoet— 1879. 

59. Quadrumanous remains from the same locality as the preceding, but from 8 

distinct cave situated only half-way up the hill. 

60. Remains of Cei-vus and chelonian from the swamp at the base of the fore- 

going hill. 

61. Cervine remains. Purchased from Dyaks, who said the bones were found in 

one of the Jambusan caves about half-way up the hill. From the Dyaks' 
description I understood that these bones had been laid bare by the drip 
over the spot where they rested. 

62. Portion of skull with two molar teeth. From a cave on the water-level in 

the Jambusan hill (No. XVI.). 

63. Bone found on the surface in the interior of Cave XIV. 

64. Two lower jaws of a carnivora in same Cave XIV., at about 18 inches' depth 

from the surface. 

65. Two lower jaws (two halves) of Cervus. Obtained by myself in the same 

cave as No. 62, partly embedded in calcareous earth. 

66. Teeth, apparently of wild pig. From a cave in the Jambusan hill. 

67. Skull, &c. Obtained from Dyaks, who affirmed that these remains were 

lying in a narrow oblique fissure, connecting one of the Jambusan caves 
with the top of the hill, and that the reason why some of the bones are 
stained with smoke is that the fissure opened immediately above a flat 
ledge of rock on which the Dyaks were accustomed to light their fires for 
cooking, so that the smoke escaped habitually up the fissure. I suspect 
that the smoke-coloured remains may have belonged to recent animals 
eaten by the Dyaks in the cave when taking the nest-harvest. 

68. Purchased from Chinaman. Found on a heap of gold-washers' refuse, the 

produce of a fissure at Paku, the mouth of which is situated about 50 feet 
above the water-level. Only bones found. Cave No. XVIII. 
68. Teeth. Cave at Jambusan. Obtained from Dyaks. (The number inad- 
vertently repeated.) 
. 69. Human remains brought from a cave at Ahup. Said to be about 3 fathoms 
from the entrance, the cave being situated in the upper half of the hill. 
These bones lay on the surface, but the finder did not dig to see if any 
were below. 

70. Remains purchased from a Malay. They occurred in a cave on the hills 

abutting on the Tagora Road. The cave is situated in the upper part 
of the hill. The fragment of jaw with teeth was found near the entrance ; 
the other teeth occurred at some distance within, and together ; and the 
bones in the innermost recess of the cave, which is extensive, only one rib 
showing on the surface, and the remaining bones at depths varying up to 
12 inches. 

71. Teeth of Simia. Found by myself in the refuse on the surface of which the 

large bones No. 68. were procured by the Chinaman. Cave No. XVIII. 

72. Teeth of Simia. Purchased from a Malay, who met with them in a fissure 

close to Cave No. III., the floor of which is 8 fathoms below the entrance 
— the latter being situated some 50 or 60 feet above the water-level. 

73. Mollusca from Cave V. Excavation D. 

74. Various Teeth. Cave V. Excavation D. 

75. Lower jaws of rodents, &c. Cave V. Excavation D. 

76. Vertebrae, chelse of Crustacea, fish scales, &c. Cave V. Excavation D. 

77. Human remains, potteiy, &c, brought from a cave in the Ahup hill. 

78. Remains, apparently of wild pig. Found by Dyaks in one of the higher 

caves at Jambusan. 

79. Remains of carnivore. Found by Dyaks in a cave at Jambusan. 

80. Simian remains. Said to have been procured from Cave XVIII. 

81. Bones. Said to have been obtained in an old gold cave at Piat. 

82. Miscellaneous remains. Cave V. Excavation D. 

84. Two Cervine teeth. Found by Malay gold-washer in a deep fissure at Paku. 

85. Molar of pig. The Paku Flat. Found by gold-washers. 

86. Land and fresh-water Mollusca. Cave V. Excavation G. 



1 


87 




88, 




89 


u- 




s 


90 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 155 

Bones of bats, rodents, &c. Cave V. Excavation G. 

Teeth of pig and of a carnivore. The Paku flat. Found hy gold-washers. 

Two fragments of bone. Grows. Said to have been obtained from same fitxu. 

situation as No. 88. 
Fragments of bone. Crows. Found by Malay gold-washer in a fissure at 

Paku. (Radius of Bos)- 

91. Bones obtained from the Kawa Cave near Bidi. Thi3 cave is considerably 

above the present water-level, and the bones are said to have lain on the 
bare floor, there being no earth. Bones of a young pig, apparently roasted. 
The cave is a deep fissure descended by means of ropes. Purchased from 
Malays. 

92. Cervine molar. The Paku flat. 

93. Ditto and pig. Ditto, fragment of bird humera. 

94. Molar of pig with fragment of bone. The Paku flat. 

95. Teeth of pig. From a cave in the Eusunah gorge, near Paku. 

96. Bones and teeth. The Paku flat. Young deer, &c. 

97. Three teeth. Large deer. Ditto pig. 

98. Various remains. Cave V. Excavation G. Bats and small rodent. 

99. Bats and small rodents. 

100. Lower jaw of Simia satyrus. Purchased from Chinese gold-worker. Doubt- 
fully from a cave. 
102. Fragments of bone. From heap of gold-workers' refuse in Cave No. I. 

104. Molar of pig, incrusted with crystalline stalagmite. Foimd by Malay gold- 

washer at Paku. 

105. Sample of remains (three boxes) washed from the river-mud in Cave No. 

XIII. Excavation B. Stratum 2. 

106. Fragments of bone and teeth of pig (?), &c. Cave XIII. Excavation B. 

Stratum 3. 

107. Chips of quartz, artificial ? Cave XIII. Excavation B. Stratum 2. 

108. Cardium. Cave XLTI. Excavation B. Stratum 1. 

109. Various teeth. Cave XLTI. Excavation B. Stratum 2. Chiefly pigs. 

110. Portion of worked stone. Cave XIII. Excavation B. Stratum 3. 

111. Skull of Simia satyrus. Said to have been found in a cave at Paku. Doubt- 

fully genuine, as regards its alleged situation. 



Fifth Report of the Committee consisting of Professor Hull, Eev. 
H. W. Crosskey, Captain D. Gtalton, Mr. G-laisher, Mr. H. H. 
Howell, Professor Gr. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Moltneux, Mr. Mor- 
ton, Mr. J. Eoberts, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. 
James Plant, Mr. Mellard Eeade, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. 
De Eance [Reporter), appointed for investigating the Circulation 
of the Underground Waters in the Jurassic, Neiv Red Sandstone, 
and Permian Formations of England, and the Quantity and 
Character of the Waters supplied to various Towns and Districts 
from these Formations. 

Your Committee bad this year hoped to submit a general report of the 
capabilities of the Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic formations, and to 
close the inqniry which you entrusted to them. This has been found 
impracticable from several causes, especially from the fact that important 
sinkings for water are being carried out in the Staffordshire and Midland 
district taken charge of by Mr. Molyneux and Mr. Plant, who cannot re- 
port until they are completed. Secondly, your Committee find the more 



156 



REPORT 1879. 



their labours become known, the greater inclination is shown by engineers 
and contractors to furnish information, and the greater tendency is 
exhibited to make available our underground water for the purposes of 
consumption. And they are of opinion, that until it becomes the duty of 
a Government Department to collect the various information accruing 
from day to day, it is important that the Committee should be reap- 
pointed, and further that their inquiry should not be limited to certain 
formations, but should extend to the whole of the permeable formations 
of England. 

The attention of your Reporter has been specially given since the last 
meeting to the estimation of the areas of water-bearing formations in the 
various river-basins, and to the extent to which they may be expected to 
underlie the more impermeable clays and marls ; towards this object he 
has personally examined a large area of the country, and endeavoured to 
ascertain how far the rain falling in certain river-basins is carried by the 
dip into other hydrographic areas. These results he is prevented laying 
before you in detail through illness, brought on by a railway accident; 
but the following totals may be found useful, giving the Permian and 
Triassic formations in fourteen groups of the 215 river-basins of the 
Ordnance Survey Catchment Basin Map : — 



River Basin Groups 


New Red 
Sandstone 


New Red 
Marls 


Total 


Tyne and Tees . 
Ouse and Trent . 
Witham and Ouse 
Exe and Dart . 
Cornwall and Devon 
Severn, &c. 
Neath to Clywd 
Dee to Duddon . 
Esk to Eden 






Square Miles 

100 

1171 

315 

10 
438 

52 
1070 

37 


Square Miles 

70 

1870 

6 

49 

1393 

850 


Square Miles 

170 

3041 

6 

364 

10 

1831 

52 

1920 

37 




311)3 


4238 


7431 



Of the 3041 square miles of Trias in the Ouse and Trent basins, 200 
of Red marls probably rest directly on the non-water-bearing Palaeozoic 
rocks of Cbarnwood Forest age. The 11 71 square miles of sandstone, 
at 5 inches absorption, would give a daily average of 234 million gallons, 
or a supply for four-and-a-half million persons ; the population is probably 
not less than six millions ; the demand is here in excess of the supply, the 
deficiency is made up by moorland surface waters from the elevated table 
lands of the Penine chain. The underground supply is, however, only 
pumped to a fraction of its yielding capacity. 

In the Severn and (Bristol) Avon basins 438 square miles of sand- 
stone, with 10 inches' percolation, would yield a supply for three-and-a- 
half million persons, at fifty gallons per head ; but part drains away 
underground into the Trent basin, between the north and south Stafford- 
shire coal-fields in its northern area, and into the Thames basin in its 
southern area. The Triassic sandstones in the south-east area towards the 
Thames basin are thinning rapidly, and much of the 1393 square miles red 
marls is not supra-pervious, and rests on Palaeozoic impermeable rocks. 

South of the Mendips 315 square miles of Triassic sandstone crop to 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 157 

the surface, which, on 10 inches' absorption, would yield a daily average 
of 126 million gallons, or a supply for two-and-a-half million persons ; 
and is available for the supply of Exeter. In this district further infor- 
mation has been collected by Mr. Stooke, C.E. 

In the Lancashire and Cheshire plains New Red sandstones crop over 
1070 square miles, which, at 10 inches' absorption, would give a daily 
average yield of 428 million gallons, or a supply for eight-and-a-half mil- 
lion persons at fifty gallons per head. The new boring at Bootle, carried 
to a depth of 1300 feet, by Messrs. Mather and Piatt, for the Corporation 
water-supply of Liverpool, reported on last year, is now completed, but 
further details are deferred until pumping has determined how far the 
underground yield of Liverpool is increased by this sinking. Some 
doubts having been thrown on the determination of the age of the hard 
coarse-grained rock, met with under the Pebble Beds at Bootle, which 
your Reporter considers to be a compact variety of the Lower Mottled 
sandstone, he is glad to be able to state the correctness of this opinion 
is proved by a boring made for the Warrington Waterworks Company, at 
Winwick, by Mr. E. Timmins, of Runcorn, which, after passing through 
the base of the Pebble Beds, and a compact ' millet seed '-grained rock, 
identical with that of Bootle, again entered soft, loose, red and white 
sand, of the Lower Mottled sandstone type, which in its turn again rested 
on the Upper Coal Measures, including a limestone probably referable to 
the age of the Ardwick limestone of Manchester. 

Appendix A. 

Triassic Wells, Sfc, South Devon. 
By Thos. S. Stooke, C.E., Kingskerswell, Newton Abbot. 

Lyons Holt Spring, situate near Exeter, on the New Red sandstone 
formation at a height of about 126 feet above sea level. 

The water yielded in the twenty-four hours being about 47,000 
gallons, and which is conveyed through pipes to various parts of the city 
of Exeter, being distributed by means of drinking fountains. 

The water is much valued, and Mr. Perkins of that city supplies the 

following analyses, viz. : — 

100,000 parts contain free ammonia .... ^004 

Albuminoid ammonia ...... '0074 

Nitrogen as nitrates and nitrites .... *236 

Chlorine ....... 5*7 

Name of Individual or Company applied to — 

W. Shepherd & Son. 

1. Lunatic Asylum, Exminster. 2. 100 ft. 3. Depth of shaft 117 ft., diameter 
9 ft. ; from surface to bottom of bore-hole 473 ft. 6 in. 4. Before pumping 30 ft. 
above bottom of shaft ; after pumping 12 hours 25 ft. ; restored in 6 hours after 
pumping. 5. 200,000. 6. N.B. — This bore-hole has only very recently been com- 
pleted. 7. The new pumping machinery not yet reported at work. 8. The water 
is very good, and is highly valued by the authorities. 9. Conglomerate, chiefly red 
sandstone. lO. Yes. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

J. M. Drew. 

1. Bridge Mills, Silverton. 2. About 80 ft. 3. 20 ft. ; 4 ft. ; 237 ft. 6 in. 
4. 20 ft. and 34A ft. from surface. 5. 180,000. 6. No. No. 7. No. 8. Not 

analyzed further than to prove it to be free from iron. 



158 



REPORT 1879. 



9. 



Feet. 
1 



Sand 


94 


Rock 


27 


Marl 


23 


Clay and greensand 


30 


Gravel, water 


5 


Hard clay . 


16 


Red rock 


16 



Bore-hole, strata. 



217 
10. Very little. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

C. R. Collins. 
1. Hele Paper Works. 2. About 90 ft. 3. 20 ft., 10 ft. diameter, 120 ft. 6 in. 

4. Pumps always at work, Sundays excepted, suction pipes 30 ft. below surface. 

5. 259,000 gallons. 6. Yes, a few feet in very dry weather. 7. Yes, but plenty 
of water always available ; variation 15 to 20 feet in dry weather. 8. None ; no 
very pure. 9. New Red sandstone. (No wells were sunk before I came here)' 
10. Yes. 11. No. 



12. Not known. 13, 



wells were sunk before 
No. 14. No. 15. No. 



Norman & Pring. 
1. City Brewery, Exeter. 2. 25 ft. 3. 70 ft. ; 4 ft. diameter ; 270 ft. ; 4 in. 
diameter. 4. Cannot tell, as the adits hold several thousand gallons. 5. About 
4000. 6. No. 7. No ; no variation. 

8. Organic and volatile matter, including -112of oxidisable 

organic matter 

"Oxide of iron and alumina, with traces of phosphoric 

acid 

Sulphate of lime 

* i „ of magnesia 

j Nitrate of ,, 

Chloride of sodium . . ■ . 

Carbonate of soda ........ 

Soluble silica . 



Grains 
1-15 

•15 

6-24 

•48 

•99 

4-79 

9-75 

•10 



2365 
* Total solid matter per gallon, dried at 270° F. 

Feet 

Gravel 15 

Shellet 85 

Alternate layers of trap and red shellet . . 54 

Blue shale or clay DO 

Water, sand 3 

Blue shale or clay 15 

)> » ........ 8 



lO. No. 11. Yes. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 



270 



Gillman & Co. 
1. At Treus Weir, near Exeter. 2. About 20 ft. 3. 20 ft. well ; 240 ft. bore ; 
7 in. 4. Pumping continually going on ; lowers about 5 ft. 5. 250,000 from high 
level. 6. Never diminished for 10 years ; more water in the autumn and spring. 
7. Never affected by rain. 8. Considerable quantity of carbonate of lime and 
chloride of sodium. 9. Entirely in red rock ; the bore is not through the rock, but 
ends in it. 10. Gravel and springs. 11. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

J. M. Drew. 
1. Kensham Mills, Hele. 2. About 100 feet. 3. 40 ft.; 5 ft.; 200 ft.; 7 in. 

4. Pumps always at work except Sundays; suction pipe 30 ft. under surface. 

5. 170,000 gallons. 6. Yes ; not diminished. 7. Yes, but no register of water 
levels has been kept. 8. None ; no. 9. Bore-hole pierces the New Red sandstone. 
10. Yes. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 159 



Appendix B. 

Report on the Water in the Triassic Sandstones at West Kirby, Cheshire. 

By Isaac Roberts. 

Tn the year 1877 I was requested by the Hoylake Waterworks Com- 
pany (then just formed) to report upon the advisability of sinking a well 
on Grange Hill at West Kirby, which is distant about 1^ miles to the 
south of Hoylake, with the object of obtaining a supply of water for the 
inhabitants of Hoylake and West Kirby. 

On making a- careful survey of the private wells in the neighbourhood 
of the proposed well, I determined the surface of the water plane in the 
rock to be 30 feet above the Ordnance datum at the highest part of 
Grange Hill, and 22 feet above the datum near the plain, at the foot of 
the hill, and I reported that if a well were sunk at the point indicated by 
the company's engineer, a point 219 feet above Ordnance datum, the 
surface of the water plane would be reached about 195 feet below the 
summit of Grange Hill. 

The sinking of the well was commenced about twelve months ago, and 
on visiting the site on the 11th of this month (July 1879), I found the 
well sunk 205 feet in depth, and the surface of the water plane 186 feet 
5 inches below the point on the Grange Hill which I have already re- 
ferred to, thus agreeing very closely with my calculations made in the 
year 1877. 

The well on Grange Hill is distant about a mile from the river Dee, 
which is the nearest outlet for the discharge of the rainfall upon the hill and 
which passes through its mass into the sea. Itis therefore demonstrated that 
the inclination of the water plane within the Triassic rocks of this district 
does not in any case exceed 30 feet in altitude to one mile in horizontal 
distance, and as the natural water level in the rocks of this district has 
not hitherto been materially disturbed by pumping, the inclination of the 
water plane given above will probably be, within narrow limits, the normal 
in all similar rocks. 

The rock which forms Grange Hill is marked ' Pebble Beds ' of the 
Bunter on the maps of the Geological Survey, but in examining the well 
which is now being sunk it appears probable that an error has been made 
in so naming them, for the lithological characteristics of the rocks agree 
better with the base of the Keuper forming the surface of the hill, and 
' upper soft red ' or ' mottled ' sandstone beneath, than with ' pebble 
beds ' as marked on the maps. 1 

Appendix C. — Jurassic Wells, 8fc. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, W. Whitaker. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Messrs. S. F. Baker & Sons. 

1. Farringdon, Berks, la. 1871. No. 3. From surface to bottom of boring, 
114 ft. 6 in. ; upper portion, 5i ft. ; and lower portion, 4i ft. diameter. 5. Should 
say about 70 gallons per minute. 

1 The error Mr. Eoberts refers to is rectified in the new edition of the Geological 
Survey Map of the district.— C. E. De R. 



160 



REPORT L879. 



9. Cla}', with sand and limestone . 

,, very sandy .... 

Blue and grey clay and calcareous grit 

Fine sand 

Grey sand and clay, with water . 



Messrs. Baker & Sons. 



Ft. 


In 


6 


6 


4 





59 





23 





22 






114 6 



1. Gillingham, Dorset, la. Unaware of date of sinking. DeejDened by boring 
1878. 3. To bottom of shaft, 60 ft. from surface ; to bottom of boring, 86 ft. 8 in. 
from surface. 4. Before pumping, about 50 ft. from surface ; after pumping, about 
70 ft. from surface. 5. Pump only equal to about 20 gallons per minute. Could 
not exhaust at this. 9. Well sunk through clay and rock. Boring through clay, 
hard sand, and rock. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, James Plant. 

1. Hinckley, Leicestershire, la. 1875. Deepened 30 ft. since. 2. About 350 ft. 
O.D. 1 3. 30 ft.; diameter 6 ft. Bore various, 11 in. to 7 in.; 520 ft. deep. 3a. 
None. 4. 450 ft. 6. Not known. 8. Sulphate and carbonate of lime was first 
found ; this was due to the water from the red marl and gypsum beds above the 
waterstone ; it is now partially stopped out, and will be entirely so when shaft is 
sunk. 

9. Section of Shaft and Bore at Hinckley, Leicestershire. 550 feet. 



Depth 


Shaft and 
Bore 


Bocks penetrated 


Glacial clays and sand. 


Feet 
50 




Brown clay, with pebbles (a few seams of sand). 




50 




Sand, ni> pebbles (a few seams of clay). 




50 






Brown clay, no pebbles. At base, 3 feet red clay, 
with stones. 


3 


30 






f. 6'. 
Upper Keuper sandstones. 




217 


f. 6. 

Red marl, with gypsum in bands (thin) and nodules. 
(Water at base of each band of gypsum). 






150 
550 






f. 5. 

' Waterstones,' thin bands of red and white sandstones, 
with thin ' wayboards ' of red clay ; thicker red and 
white sandstones at base of formation. ' Water- 
stones ' not penetrated, but estimated to be alto- 
gether 320 feet. Bore-hole to be carried to 650 feet. 



Thick line represents permanent level of water for four years, standing 300 feet 
above ' waterstones.' 

lO. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. An upthrow fault, distant two miles east; amount of 
throw from 600 to 700 ft. 



13. None now. 14. None known. 15. None. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



161 



1. One mile west of Oakham, Rutlandshire, la. About five years, and deepened 
several times. 2. About 350 ft. O.D. 3. Shaft 80 ft., diameter 7 ft. 3a. None. 
4. 40 ft. ; level not perceptibly reduced. 4a. Same height. 5. Not estimated. 
6. Not observed to vary. Is fed from hills 2 miles each ; 755 ft. O.D. 8. Very 
sweet and pleasant water ; used solely for brewing. 

Depth in 
Rocks Feet 

9. Drift 4* 

G 3, upper lias clay .... 30 
G 2, marlstone rock . . . . 18 
G 2', „ sands .... 28 

80. 
Shaft is about to be carried deeper, as a larger supply of water is wanted. 

lO. None seen. 12. Fault 5 miles S.W. ; several faults about 6 miles S.E. This 
faidt is 6 miles long, running E. and W. 13. None. 14. None. 15. No. 



■ Lias formation. 



Appendix D. — Form of Inquiry now circulated. 



1 . — Position of well or wells with which 
you are acquainted. 

la. — Date at which the well was sunk. 
Has it been deepened since 1 

2. — Approximate height .of the same 
above the mean sea level. 

3. — Depth from surface to bottom of 
shaft or well, with diameter. 
Depth from surface to bottom of 
bore-hole, with diameter. 

3a. — What is the extent and number 
of the horizontal drift-ways, if 
any? 

4. — Height at which water stands he- 
fore and after pumping. Number 
of hours elapsing before ordinary 
level is restored after pumping. 

4a. — Height at which the water stood 
when the well was first sunk, 
and height at which it stands 
now. 

5. — Quantity capable of being pumped 
in gallons per day. 

G. — Does the water level vary at differ- 
ent seasons of the year, and 
how ? Has it diminished during 
the last ten years ? 

7. — Is the ordinary water level ever 



effected by local rains, and if so, 
in how short a time ? And how 
does it stand in regard to the 
level of the water in the neigh- 
bouring streams, or sea ? 
8. — Analysis of the water, if any. 
Does the water possess any 
marked peculiarity 1 
9. — Nature of the rock passed through, 
including cover of drift, with 
thicknesses. 

10. — Does the cover of drift over the 
rock contain surface springs 1 

11 If so, are they entirely kept out of 

the well ? 

12. — Are any large faults known to exist 
close to the well ? 

13. — Were any salt springs or brine wells 
passed through in making the 
well? 

14. — Are there any salt springs in the 
neighbourhood ? 

15. Have any wells or borings been dis- 
continued in your neighbourhood 
in consequence of the water 
being more or less brackish ? If 
so, if possible, please give section 
in reply to query No. 9. 



1879. 



M 



162 



REPORT — 1879. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Maxwell Close, 
Professor W. C. Williamson, and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed 
for the purpose of collecting and reporting on the Tertiary 
{Miocene) Flora, &c, of the Basalt of the North of Ireland. 
Drawn up by Wm. Hellier Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S. (Secretary). 

The discovery of plant-remains in a deposit of brown and red bole under 
a thin bed of lignite, and immediately over a thick bed of conglomeritic 
or pisolitic iron ore, interstratified with the basalt of County Antrim, was 
facilitated by the excavations made for extracting this valuable iron ore, 
which has been found to extend over a considerable district of the North 
of Ireland, having been largely worked at various places. 

The locality which has yielded the largest number of specimens is at 
and close to a cutting through basalt on the Belfast and Northern Coun- 
ties Railway at Ballypalady, about seven miles east of Antrim. The 
section observed at that place, and supplied to me by the late G. V. 
Du Noyer, District Surveyor of the Geological Survey of Ireland, was the 
following, that gentleman also having sent me the first consignment of 
these interesting fossils for examination : — 




4. 



C <£> O » o o O eu n 






i rt c' o o c- © 



1. Basalt, 15 feet. 



Layer of brown earth, 3 inches thick. 
Layer of impure earthy lignite, 8 to 
12 inches. 

4. Bed of brown earth or bole, passing 

into red at the lower part, and gra- 
duating into the plant bed, No. 5. 

5. Plant layer, 4 to 8 inches thick. 



6. Bed of pisolitic iron ore in ferruginous 
earth, 3 feet exposed. 



7. Rails resting on basalt. 



7. Basalt overlying chalk, thickness vari- 
able. 

A notice of these plants, as well as some accompanying insect remains, 
was communicated by me in 1869 to the Geological Society of London. 1 

Since then I have visited the locality several times, always obtaining 
fresh materials and increasing the list of species. In addition to these, 
and to the use of the specimens in the collection of the Geological Survey, 
I am indebted to William Gray, Esq., F.G.S. , and William Swanston, 
Esq., F.G.S., of Belfast; the Rev. Dr. Grainger, of Broughshane, near 
Ballymena ; to the Belfast Natural History Society ; and to the Director 
of the Natural History Museum of Science and Art, Dublin, for permission 
to draw and describe the specimens in their several collections. 

1 Quarterly Journal Geol. Sue. of London, vol. xxv. p. 357, plates xiv. xv. 



ON THE MIOCENE FLORA, ETC. 163 

In working the iron ores of this district there are other localities where 
beds of lignite and plant-remains have been observed, but none of them 
up to the present have been found to be anything like so rich in the 
remains of a fossil flora of so decided a character as the place just de- 
scribed, although it would be highly desirable to investigate occasionally 
places where similar excavations are being carried on. 

The existence of another very interesting fossil plant locality, evidently 
of the same age, near Glenarm, was kindly communicated to me by Mr. 
William Gray, who was good enough to accompany me from Belfast to 
Glenarm, where, notwithstanding the severity of the weather (and it was 
snowing hard at the time), we succeeded in obtaining a good number of 
specimens ; the material in which they are embedded, a light grey, 
laminated marl, being lithologically quite different from that of Bally- 
palady, although identical species occur at both localities. 

On the east shore of Lough Neagh, at Sandy Bay, and in the bed of 
Glenavy l'iver, near the same place, in drift deposits and in loose water- 
worn masses, the celebrated silicified wood is found ; it is for the most 
part coniferous, 1 the structure being beautifully preserved, exhibiting the 
typical characters of the Cupressinse, or cypress group. The silicifi cation 
in all probability was caused by water holding silica in solution, although 
not by the water of Lough Neagh. The popular idea that the waters of 
this lake possessed petrifying properties has been satisfactorily shown to 
be fabulous, and that the lake itself in all probability did not exist at the 
period when this silicification took place. 

Accompanying the silicified wood on the shores of Lough Neagh are 
also water- worn pebbles of fine granulated iron, which, on being broken, 
disclose the impressions of plants, amongst them a fern, Hemitelites, twigs 
of Sequoia Couttsice, and leaves of dicotyledonous trees in beautiful preser- 
vation. Where a fresh fracture has been made, the finely reticulated 
structure of the leaf is shown, and in the Sequoia the woody character of 
the twig, apparently unchanged, is preserved in the cavities made by its 
impression in the ironstone. 

Up to the present time I have been enabled to enumerate at least 
twenty- five species from these Miocene deposits of the North of Ireland. 
They are as a group most closely allied to the fossil flora of North Green- 
land (described by Professor Heer in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
1869). Some of them are certainly identical, such as Sequoia Gouttsim, 
(Heer), occurring at Bovey Tracey, shores of the Baltic, and North 
Greenland ; Pliragmites OEningensis (Ad. Brong) , the well-marked leaves 
doubtfully referred by Heer to the family Menispermacese, and named by 
him McGlintockia Lyalli ; and M. trinervis, the fruits or seeds of Nyssa 
ornithobroma and Viburnum Whymperi, together with a leaf of the latter 
species ; also leaves of Alnus, closely allied if not identical with A. Kefer- 
steini ; Platanus Guillehnce, and Juglans acuminata. It is also interesting 
to be able to identify a fern which I believe belongs to Heer's genus 
Hemitelites, species of which occurs at Bovey Tracey and North Green- 

1 Dr. Scouler, in the first volume of the Journ. Gaol. Soc. of Dublin, shows, from 
the evidence of Dr. Lindley, that these masses of wood were coniferous. The Rev. 
Dr. Macloskie, in a paper read at the Belfast Natural History Society, February 14, 
1872, stated that they belong to the Cupressacese, and probably to the genus Sequoia, 
a coniferous tree (of which the great Wellingtonia of California is a living example, 
there being but two existing species, Sequoia sempervirens and S. gigantea, both 
natives of California) frequent in the Miocene of the Antrim basalt, and also in the 
accompanying ironstone nodules. 

M 2 



164 



EEPORT 1879. 



land, and to show that in all probability the fern named by Edward Forbes. 
Filicites Hebridicus also belongs to the same genus. 

LIST OF SPECIES.— NORTH OP IRELAND. 
Cryptogamje. Fungi. 



Sphaeria concentrica (Massalonga Flor. Senegalliese) 

Filices. 
Hemitelites Frazeri, n. s. (Baily) .... 

Coniferje. Order Cuprrssiiw. 
Cupressites McHenrici (Baily), 'Journal Geol. Soc. ~| 

Lond.' vol. xxv. pi. 15 / 

Order Abietiiue. 
Sequoia Du Noyeri (Baily), ' Journal Geol. Soc. Lond.") 
vol. xxv. pi. 15, f. 4 . . . . . . ./ 



Sandy Bay, Lough Neagh. 



Ballypalady, co. Antrim. 



Sequoia Conttsise (Heer) 



Ballypalady and Glenarm. 

("Sandy Bay, Lough Neagh, 
< Bovey Tracey, N. Green- 
ly land, Baltic shores. 



Pinus Plutoni (Baily), ' Journal Geol. Soc. Lond.' vol."\ „ ,, . , 

xxv. pi. 15, f. 1 / aall ypalacly. 

Pinus sp „ 

Fam. Taxince. 
Torellia sp „ 

MONOCOTYLEDONES. 
Fam. Gramincce. 

Phragmites CEningensis (Ad. Brong.). 

„ sp 

Poacites sp. 

Iridce. 
Iris latifolia ? (Heer) 

DICOTYLEDONES. 
Fam. Salicinre. 



Populus sp. . . . ' . 

Betulacere. 
Alnus Kef erst eini ? Goepp . 

GwpxCliferce. 
Corylus sp. . 

? Fagus sp 

Quercus sp. . 

Morea. 

Platanus Guillelmse, Goepp . 

Aceracece. 
Acer sp 

Ericacece. 
Andromeda sp. . 

Cajmfoliaeeat. 

Viburnum Whymperi (Heer) 

Aralmcea. 

Nyssa ornithobroma (Heer) 

Menispermacem 1 
McClintockia Lyalli (Heer) 

„ trinerva (Heer) 

Bliamnew. 
Rhamnus sp. 

Jwjlandeee. 

Juglans acuminata ? (A. Braun) 



/Ballypalady (CEningen, N. 
l_ Greenland, Spitzbergen). 
Ballypalady. 



Spitz. Baltic. 



Ballypalady. 

„ and Baltic. 

Lough Neagh and Glenarm. 

Ballypalady. 

Glenarm. 

f Glenarm, CEningen, N. 
\_ Greenland. 

Glenarm. 

Ballypalady. 

f Ballypalady, Spitz, and N. 
\ Greenland. 

/Glenalvy river, near Lough 
\^ Neagh, N. Greenland. 

Glenarm, N. Greenland. 

{Glenarm and Ballypalady, 
N. Greenland. 

Ballypalady and Glenarm. 

{Ballypalady, CEningen, and 
N. Greenland. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 165 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. T. Barnes- 
Lawrence, Mr. Spence Bate, Mr. H. E. Dresser {Secretary), Mr. 
J. E. Harting, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. J. Gr. Shaw Lefevre, 
M.P., Professor Newton, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed 
by the Council, for the purpose of inquiring into the possibility 
of establishing a Close Time for the Protection of Indigenous 
Animals. 

Your Committee has gratefully to acknowledge the resolution of the 
Council of the Association, whereby your Committee has been not only 
reappointed but also instructed to report to the Council in case of any 
action being required. Tour Committee begs leave to state that no such 
emergency as was provided for by this instruction has arisen since the 
presentation of its last Report. Notwithstanding complaints that are 
occasionally heard, your Committee believes that public opinion continues 
strongly in favour of the close time principle, as applied to indigenous 
animals ; and on the part of Her Majesty's Government no steps have been 
taken to carry out the recommendations of the Scottish Herring Fishery 
Commissioners, upon which your Committee deemed it its duty to anim- 
advert last year. The Bird Preservation Acts, though doubtless evaded 
in some places, in general appear to work well, and to be enforced without 
difficulty when occasion requires. Having regard to future contingencies, 
your Committee ventures to solicit its reappointment with the instructions 
as to reporting to the Council in case of emergency. 



Report of Committee, consisting of Mr. C. Spence Bate and Mr. J. 
Brooking Rowe, appointed for the purpose of Exploring the 
Marine Zoology of Devon and Cornivall. 

The exceptionally severe weather during the past winter and spring has 
prevented the Committee carrying on the intended investigations, and, 
although some facts of interest have been noted, it is not prepared to 
report this year. 

It therefore asks that it may be re-appointed, and that the grant may 
be continued. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, Professor 
Rolleston, Mr. Dew-Smith (Secretary), Professor Huxley, Dr. 
Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, 
Sir C. Wyville Thomson, and Professor Ray Lankester, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a 
Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. 

Since we submitted our last Report to the Association, the Zoological 
Station at Naples has continued to be successful in providing opportunity 
and appliances for naturalists studying the various forms of marine 
animals and plants. Prom September 1, 1878, to the end of July, 1879, 



166 report— 1879. 

twenty-six naturalists have occupied the tahles at the Institution. A list 
of their names and the time of stay will be found appended. During the- 
same period, packages of specimens have been forwarded to fifty-one 
different naturalists and institutions. A list of these is also appended. 

Recently a new department has been added to the Station. Through 
this naturalists will be enabled to obtain mounted specimens of microscopic 
animals, viz., sections of embryos of all kinds of fishes, &c, preparations 
of larvae or other animals too small for being sent in alcohol or other 
preservative solutions. Next year a catalogue of these specimens will be 
published, and the Station will be prepared to send the specimens to any 
naturalist requiring them. 

Trials of diving by means of the new Scaphander apparatus have alsa 
recently been made with very satisfactory results. 

The aquarium of the Station is being in part reconstructed, with some 
important new features, viz., moveable rockwork, for saving and examin- 
ing the different animals which thrive by themselves on these rocks. This 
will enable statistical notes to be established on the growth of these ani- 
mals, and on such changes as may occur by changing their habitat, inas- 
much as these rocks may be replaced in the sea at different depths. 

The following monographs are in preparation by workers in the Sta- 
tion : — Ctenophoraa, Fierafer, Balanoglossus, Sipunculoida?, Capitellidse, 
Planariae, Nernertineae, Pycnogonidaa, Caprillidaa, and on sevex'al families of 
Algae. 

Three parts of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu 
Neapel, zugleich ein Repertorinm fur Mittelmeerkunde ' have been pub- 
lished, containing sixteen papers illustrated with many very carefully 
executed plates. Further parts are in active preparation. 

It is, moreover, intended to publish the following works : — 

' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden 
Meeresgebiete.' Folio. Yearly, 1 volume with 10-20 plates. The first 
volume is already in the press. 

' Prodromus Fauna? Mediterraneae.' A selection from the whole 
Zoological Literature of short Latin Diagnoses of the Animals found in the 
Mediterranean, with their habitats and local names. 

' Zoologischer Jahresbericht.' This will contain short notices on the 
various memoirs and papers published in various countries on the subjects 
of Zoology, Development, and Comparative Anatomy. It is under the 
editorship of Professor Carus, with the assistance of four collaborateurs in 
different countries. One volume will appear yearly. 

Two naturalists have occupied the table hired by the Association, viz., 
Mr. Walter Percy Sladen and Mr. Patrick Geddes. Mr. Sladen has sent 
in a report on his stay and his work, which is appended. In this report 
he proposes ' a means by which the table might be even more fre- 
quently occupied than it has been, and its sphere of utility thus extended, 
by suggesting to the consideration of the Committee that a further addi- 
tional grant might be made by the Association, which would serve as a 
travelling fund. This might be apportioned in moieties say of 251. to 
naturalists who desired to avail themselves of such assistance, and it is not 
improbable that many a student would by this means be enabled to par- 
ticipate in the advantages of the table at Naples, who might otherwise be 
j j. erred by the expense of the journey. The plan, extended or modified 
ording to circumstances, is one adopted by several of the foreign bodies, 
ha * n & tables at the Zoological Station.' 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 167 

Mr. Patrick Geddes worked at the Station from February 26 to April 4. 
He ' repeated and extended certain observations on Echinoderm histology, 
and made experiments on Bunellia viridis and Idotea viridis, with a view 
of ascertaining the functions of their (supposed) chlorophyll.' The results 
of these studies are at present beiug published in the ' Archives de Zoo- 
logie Experimental ' of M. de Lacaze Duthiers, viz., ' Etudes sur le 
Chlorophylle Animal ; ' ' Observations sur le Fluide Perivisceral des 
Oursins.' 

Mr. Geddes also gained information on the working of the Station, in 
the hope (now realised) of helping to found a Zoological Station in Scot- 
land. This station is now in working order at Stonehaven. 

Mr. Arthur Wm. Waters, who worked at the Association table last 
year, intends again to apply for the appointment to occupy it, with a view 
of extending his researches on the Bryozoa of the Bay of Naples, already 
published in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' 1879. 

Your Committee think that the above particulars are sufficiently en- 
couraging to induce the Association to renew the grant of 751. for the 
ensuing year. 

Report on the Occupation of the Table, by Mr. W. Percy Sladen. 

In conformity with the requirements of the Committee of the British 
Association appointed in connection with the Zoological Station at Naples, 
I beg to submit the following report concerning my occupancy of the 
table which I had the privilege of using. 

In availing myself of the opportunity of working at Naples, the main 
object which I had in view was that of studying the pre-mature stages of 
the Echinodermata, and more especially the growth-phases which inter- 
vene between the period when the pluteus is resorbed and that at which 
the adult characters are developed — the range and significance of these 
changes being very important and remarkable throughout the group. In 
addition to this chief object, it is scarcely necessary to add that there were 
numerous points in the morphology of Echinoderms upon which, as a 
specialist, I was anxious to direct my attention, should time and oppor- 
tunity permit. 

I arrived in Naples on December 3, 1878, and remained there until 
February 17, 1879. During the greater portion of the time the weather 
was very inclement and stormy ; in consequence of which the pelagic 
larval forms that I had hoped to have met with, by use of the surface- net, 
were driven to too great a depth, and owing to their microscopic propor- 
tions became thus altogether inaccessible. For this reason I was greatly 
disappointed in my expectations, and the material which I was able to 
obtain, in any way available for my projected investigations, was unfortu- 
nately very scanty ; nevertheless several pre-mature forms of considerable 
interest were procured, and these I am hoping still further to elucidate, 
before the end of the year, by finding if possible the corresponding and 
intermediate stages on our own coasts, and which will then enable me to 
work out the development of at least one or two forms completely. I also 
endeavoured to contribute somewhat to this subject by means of the arti- 
ficial fertilization of ova in several different families, but was always un- 
successful in keeping the plutei alive beyond a certain stage ; whilst the 
fact that those thus raised in confinement were subject to very consider- 
able abnormality m their development and present unnatural modifications 
which require much care and skill in elimination, in order to avoid error 



168 eeport— 1879. 

in subsequent deductions, greatly diminishes the utility of such observa- 
tions as a direct method of embryological study, although they are not 
without value as furnishing some indication of the plasticity inherent in a 
given form. 

Better success rewarded what I may speak of as desultory investiga- 
tions upon the general structure of Bchinoderms. I may mention that I 
have in hand a contribution to the knowledge of Pedicellarice, which I 
consider will throw light (if not entirely, at least in part) upon the 
functions of these obscure appendages. It was also my good fortune to 
discover in certain Asteroids an hitherto undescribed organ, most pro- 
bably performing sensorial functions ; an account of which I hope to 
publish shortly, as soon as time permits me to work up the material which 
I collected more exhaustively than I was able to do whilst staying at 
Naples. In addition to the above I am also hopeful of furnishing a com- 
munication upon the pre-mature anatomy of certain young Echinoderms, 
for which purpose I was able to preserve and bring back with me several 
very good series of specimens. 

The general success and continually increasing prosperity of the 
Zoological Station at Naples are now so fully known from the reports and 
various publications emanating from the Institution itself, that it would 
be presumption on my part to offer any remarks in such a direction. I 
consider, however, that it is a duty for me to bear my individual testi- 
mony to the admirable arrangements which characterise the working of 
the Station, and which conduce so greatly to the comfort of naturalists 
engaged in studying there. The daily supply of fresh material, the tank 
and aquarium accommodation for keeping the same alive, are highly satis- 
factory, and leave little to be desired ; whilst in the way of ordinary 
laboratory appai'atus and re-agents no reasonable requirement is un- 
provided for. 

I also desire to record my indebtedness for the genial kindness and the 
ever-ready assistance which I met with not only from Dr. Dohrn and the 
acting director Dr. Eisig, but the same friendly spirit of courtesy and 
help w r as accorded me without exception by every gentleman connected 
with the staff. 

The utility of the Zoological Station being now so thoroughly estab- 
lished, and its reputation world-wide, it is unnecessary for me to allude to 
the fact, except to point out that the maintenance of such an undertaking 
is very costly, and that of necessity the results can only be continued by 
keeping up the funds. So much good work has already emanated from 
the Station at Naples that the Institution has a fair claim not only upon 
biological specialists, but on every one interested in the advancement of 
science. Upon such an argument, therefore, the Zoological Station is 
particularly worthy of the support of the British Association, even if its 
members were not (as many of them have already been), individual par- 
ticipants in the advantages which the Station provides ; and on this 
ground I would strongly urge the continuance of the grant usually made 
by the Association. 

I would further beg to propose a means by which the table might be 
even more frequently occupied than it has been, and its sphere of utility 
be thus extended, by suggesting to the consideration of the Committee 
that a further additional grant might be made by the Association, which 
would serve as a travelling fund. This might be apportioned in moieties 
say of 251. to naturalists who desired to avail themselves of such assist- 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



169 



axice, and it is not improbable that many a student would by this means 
be enabled to participate in the advantages of the table at Naples, who 
might otherwise be deterred by the expense of the journey. The plan, 
extended or modified according to circumstancss, is one adopted by 
several of the foreign bodies having tables at the Zoological Station. 

In conclusion I desire to express my cordial thanks to the Committee 
of the British Association for the privilege of using the table at their 
disposal. 

The following tables are extracted from the ' Annual Report ' issued 
by Dr. Dohrn :— 

List op Naturalists to whom Specimens have been sent from 
August 1, 1878, to June 30, 1879. 











Lire 


1878, August ! 


Dr. K. Heider, Graz . 


Coelenteraten . 


10 


>j 


1 


L. C. Miall, Leeds 


Fische, Mollusk., Wurmer, 
Coelent. 


80 


» 


4 


Dr. Balfour, Cambridge 


Selachier .... 


20 


», 


5 


Dr. Pieper, Olfen 


Alle Classen 


52 


»j 


12 


Prof. Mecznikoff, Odessa . 


,, ... 


340 




12 


Prof. v. Siebold, Miinchen . 


Muraeniden 


65 


Oct. 


4 


Prof. Kay Lankester, London . 


Moll., Crust., Wurmer. Coel. 


215 


)S 


4 


Progymnasium, Schlettstadt i. E. 


Alle Classen 


55 


)> 


22 


Prof. E. van Beneden, Liitticli . 


Coelenteraten . 


113 


)J 


25 


Museum, Oxford 


Moll., Wiir., Coel. . 


68 


Nov. 


5 


Prof. Semper, Wiirzburg . 


Mollusken 


40 


» 


5 


Prof. Todaro, Rom 


Salpen .... 


50 


j, 


6 


Dr. Nagel, Tilsit 


Alle Classen 


59 


» 


21 


T. Bier, Paris .... 


Ampbioxus 


20 


Dez. 


6 


Dr. H. Ludwig, Bremen 


Echiniden 


16 


jj 


12 


Prof. Schwalbe, Jena 


KSpfevonHaienundRochen 32 


)> 


20 


F. Balfour, Cambridge 


Coelent., Wurmer, Mollusk. 
Summa 


60 

1,295 


1879, Jan. 


9 


Prof. Elders, Gottingen 


Mollusk., Wiirmer., Coelent. 


137 


j. 


18 


Prof. E. K. Hoffmann, Leiden . 


Selachier, Wiir., Tunikaten 


130 


5* 


30 


Realschule, Zweibrucken . 


Alle Classen . . . 


128 


Feb. 


3 


Prof. Kiihne, Heidelberg . 


Torpedo .... 


28 


,, 


10 


Prof. Hoffmann, Leiden 


Selachier, Embryonen 


13 


»> 


21 


Realgymnasium, Gebweiler i. E. 


Alle Classen 


95 


Miirz 


2 


Zoolog. Museum, Palermo . 


Fische .... 


41 


» 


17 


Prof. Maly, Graz 


Dolium .... 


25 


j> 


17 


Prof. G. du Plessis, Lausanne 


Hydromedusen 


34 


» 


24 


Prof. Ed. Brandt, St. Petersburg 


Fische, Moll., Coelent. 


112 


,, 


17 


Zoolog. Mus., Wien. . 


Fische .... 


113 


;> 


17 


Zoolog. Inst., Graz 


Spongien, Badiolarien, 
Foramf. 


40 


jj 


31 


Prof. Benecke, Strassburg . 


Alle Classen 


98 


>> 


31 


Naturwiss. Samml., Bremen 


Moll., Wurmer, Crust,, 
Coelent. 


153 


>> 


31 


Zool. Institut, Strassburg . 


Alle Classen . 


131 


April 


4 


Prof. Cossar Ewart, Aberdeen . 


,, ... 


233 


,, 


7 


Prof. Kossmann, Heidelberg 


Moll./Wurm., Echin., Coelent. 87 


,» 


7 


H. Zebrfeld, Dresden 


Alle Classen 


80 


») 


10 


Dr. H. Ludwig, Bremen 


Echinodermen und Ce- 
phalopoden . 


94 


jj 


15 


Prof: Elders, Gottingen 


Alle CJassen 


224 


)> 


21 


Grossh. Gymnasium, Constanz . 


,, ... 


21 






Carried forward . 


2,017 



170 



EEPOET 1879. 



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ON EXCAVATIONS AT PORTSTEWART, ETC. 



171 



List of Naturalists, &c. — continued. 



April 
Mai 



Juni 



21 Dr. Keller, Zurich 

29 Prof. Kossmann, Heidelberg 

1 K. Pills, Gent . 

6 Prof, van Beneden, Liittich 

11 Prof. Todaro, Kom 

20 Dr. Hubrecht, Leiden 

21 Anatom. Institut, Halle 

21 S. Brogi, Siena . 

24 Prof. Keitimeyer, Basel 

20 Prof. Puiy Lankester, London 

20 Prof. Berlin, Amsterdam . 

20 Prof. Harting, Utrecht 

23 W. Kitchin Parker, London 



Brought forward 
. Coelenteraten 
. Physalia . 
. Spong., Anthoz 
. Alle Classen 
. Salpen 
. Fische 
. Mollusk., Wiirm., Crust 

Coelent. 
. Alle Classen 
. Fische, Coelent 
. Eier von Cephalop. 
. Fische, Mollusk., Wiirm 

Coelent. 
. Alle Classen 



Lire 

2,017 

110 

30 
196 
278 

23 
135 

47 
33 

147 



125 
916 



Embryonen von Hippocampus 17 



Summa 



4,079 









Lire 


inn ah m 


en im Jahre 


1876 .... 


3,194 


» 


)» 


1877 . . . . 


2,459 




)9 


1878 . . . . 


3,175 




y> 


1879 (Jan. 1— Juni 30) . 


4,079 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Major-General Lane Fox, Mr. 
William James Knowles, Dr. A. Leith Adams, and the Rev. Dr. 
Grainger, for the purpose of conducting Excavations at Port- 
stewart, and elsewhere in the North of Ireland. Drawn up by 
Mr. Knowles (Secretary). 

The present report records a continuation of work hitherto carried on by 
the Secretary of this Committee, on the subject of which several papers 
have been read by him at previous meetings of the British Association. 
Up till the meeting of last year the work was chiefly confined to surface 
exploration. Several large pits had been found among the sand hills at 
Portstewart, and other places along the northern coast of Ireland, to 
contain large quantities of flint implements, hammer-stones, cores, and 
flakes, mixed up with numerous broken and split bones and teeth, 
which were supposed to be the remains of animals which had been used 
as food by the flint workers. It required very little attention and study 
to perceive that the pits had been excavated within a comparatively recent 
period, that the wind had but lately removed the sand which had previously 
filled the hollows, and left the flints and other objects in the bottom, 
because they were too heavy to be blown away. These objects had 
evidently been previously imbedded in a layer of dark colour, remains of 
which were visible all around the sides of the pits, but on which there 
remains in places undisturbed a covering of sand varying in thickness 
from 10 to 50 feet. This layer has been generally cut through where 
pits are formed, and the remains found in the bottom have gradually 
reached a somewhat lower level than the place formerly occupied by 



172 report— 1879. 

them, but in some cases the layer has resisted denudation and forms a 
sort of platform. In other places, where the layer dips, it may appear at 
the surface as an outcrop, or form a diminutive escarpment. 

The space over which this layer spreads has not been accurately made 
out. It is not, however, co-extensive with the sandhills, which can be 
explained by supposing that other hills of sand have been heaped up 
since the time the manufacturers of flint implements lived there. At 
Portstewart and the opposite side of the river Bann this layer may be 
■estimated with safety to spread over two square miles, all of which, 
with the pits already mentioned, has a covering of sand, not of a shifting 
nature, but of a permanent kind, because covered and protected by a close 
crop of vegetation. Although the sandhills now reach to the very mouth 
of the Bann, the black layer does not extend so far. It has been observed 
that from 1^ to 2 miles from the river's mouth, though we have the same 
kind of sandhills and pits as we have farther inland, there are no such black 
layers or flint objects to be found on either side of the river, which would 
lead to the conclusion that at the time this black layer was an exposed 
surface the river Bann emptied into the sea about two miles farther inland 
than it does at present. 

The operations of the past year at Portstewart have been chiefly 
confined to digging over the exposed portions of the black layer, though 
a small amount of excavation has been made into the black layer which 
is still beneath the sandy covering. 

In one spot of exposed layer, measuring three square yards, one scraper, 
one core, and several flakes were obtained, but no animal remains. Another 
small piece of layer, of similar extent in a different pit, yielded several 
flakes and a great many fragments of pottery. Two small pieces were 
ornamented. These were parts of the rim of a vessel, and the orna- 
mentation was longitudinal lines with cross striation, resembling what 
would be produced if the milled edge of a shilling were rolled along soft 
clay. No animal remains were found. Another small piece of exposed 
layer in a third pit yielded a little nest of eleven small scrapers, but no 
other remains. 

In one of the largest pits, at a place where the edge of the dark layer 
is seen cropping out under 50 feet of sand, and where bones, both cut and 
split, and also teeth had been found in abundance lying exposed, a portion 
of the covering was removed, laying bare about 20 square yards of the 
dark layer, which was carefully dug over. A considerable quantity of 
broken and split bones and teeth were obtained, chiefly those of ox and 
deer, two flint flakes, two hammer-stones, one of which, in addition to 
the hammered ends, had its sides also hammered, as if an attempt had 
been made to form an oval tool-stone. The depression seems to have 
been formed by repeated blows with another stone being struck on the 
same spot. Also a small stone, four inches long, rather square in section, 
having one end sloped away by rubbing. Mixed up with these in the 
layer were small pieces of charred wood and many broken and rounded 
stones, and also a few shells, chiefly Patella. It was near this place that 
some bone implements, a small ornament, and cut bones were found on 
the surface, and which have been described in previous papers. One of 
the persons employed, in the absence of your secretary, dug out of the layer 
at this place a portion of the antler of a red deer having several tines 
sawn off. It is the upper half of the antler, and one long tine remains 
projecting at the upper extremity in such a way that a sort of pick is 



ON EXCAVATIONS AT PORTSTEWART, ETC. 173 

formed. In the centre of this pit, and only a few yards from the place 
where the bones have been found so plentifully, a very large quantity of 
flint scrapers, several arrowheads, knives, hammer-stones, and cores 
were obtained, all mixed up with an immense quantity of flint flakes and 
chips. 

OastlerocJc. — The Bann separates this place from Portstewart. Sand- 
hills containing similar implements are found here. On a recent visit of 
the Ballymena Naturalists' Field Club, accompanied by the Rev. Dr. 
Grainger, M.R.I.A., Vice-President, and also a member of this Committee, 
as many as 200 flint implements of various kinds were obtained, but the 
layer where experimented on yielded rather poor results. 

Whitepark Say, Ballintoy. — There are sandhills at this place some- 
what similar to those at Portstewart, and there is also the dark-coloured 
implement-bearing layer, but the portion richest in remains lies along the 
top of a bank quite close to the sea and about 30 feet above sea level. The 
sand has been removed from above the layer on the top of this bank for 
about a quarter of a mile in length by a few yards in breadth, leaving 
the comparatively solid floor of blackish matter undisturbed in many 
spots. About 30 square yards of the richest part of this floor was dug 
over, and it yielded a great quantity of flakes, fifty-three scrapers, two 
large triangular-shaped flints, one of which is dressed at the pointed 
end after the manner of a scraper, a bored stone or whorl, the thick end 
of an antler of a red deer, having a hole bored through near its base, the 
half of an oval tool-stone, cores, several hammer-stones, one showing 
work on the sides as well as at the ends, a bone pin, a bone needle, several 
pieces of pottery, showing handsome ornamentation, an ochreous stone, 
which has been much rubbed and scraped, and a small portion of a 
similar stone. There were also a few shells and a great quantity of teeth 
and bones mixed up with the implements. The long bones were all 
broken and split. The bones and teeth corresponded very closely with 
those previously found lying exposed on the surface, and which Professor 
A. Leith Adams found to contain those of man, horse, ox, wolf or dog, 
fox, deer, and hog. 

The hole in the antler is oval, and gets narrower towards the centre, 
like the holes in many stone hammers. At the surface it is \\ inches in 
diameter longitudinally and 1^ inches across. In the centre of the hole 
the diameters are nearly 1 inch and | inch respectively. 

The hole in the whorl is comparatively wide at both surfaces of the 
stone, about ^ inches in diameter, and gets narrower towards the centre. 
The outer and wider portions have a battered appearance, as if those 
parts had been formed by hammering, but the central portion has a 
ringed appearance, some parts being wider than others. This central 
part may have been bored by means of a rotating stick and sharp sand 
and water. The wider portions would be formed when the end of the 
stick had become slightly broader by wear, and the narrower portions at 
the times when it was newly trimmed. 

JDundrum, County Down. — There are extensive sandhills at this place, 
which were lately examined by the secretary of this committee. Fre- 
quent visits have been made to this place by the Belfast Naturalists' Field 
Club and by Mr. Gray, who is president of the society for the present 
year, and it has been described as one of several places where flint flakes 
and scrapers are to be found. It was not, therefore, expected that any 
quantity of remains would be obtained, and the chief object in going 



174 kepokt— 1879. 

was to ascertain if there were the same implement-bearing layers here 
as at Portstewart and Ballintoy. Mr. Knowles visited Dnndrum on two 
occasions alone in July, and once in August, accompanied by the Rev. 
Dr. Grainger. On these three occasions 1122 manufactured objects were 
obtained, viz. 1013 scrapers, forty-one arrow heads, forty-six scrapers 
with concave scraping edge, eighteen dressed flakes and borers, one stone, 
somewhat of the nature of an oval tool-stone, one of those oval stones 
with a small track on each side, described in the Catalogue of the Royal 
Irish Academy as sling- stones, one stone like a tool-stone, but having only 
one side indented, and also a small serpentine bead of similar form, but 
slightly larger than those found at Portstewart, which have been described 
in previous papers. Here, as at Portstewart and Ballintoy, there are some- 
times several black layers to be seen, and it has been remarked that 
generally only one of those layers contains flints. Sometimes a large pit 
has a pillar of sand standing up capped by a black layer, or perhaps there 
may be a large table-like mass, capped in a similar way. The majority of 
the objects described were found exposed, many showing evidence of 
having only recently dropped from the layer, but in places where exca- 
vation was tried as an experiment, scrapers were found, as at the places 
previously mentioned. In one place the flint objects were found close to 
the edge of a layer, where they had been set free by denudation ; while in 
another layer, higher up on the side of the same pit, there was no trace 
of implements, though full of rounded and broken stones, and at first 
sight presenting a very similar appearance to the layer below. 

The scrapers are mostly all of very small size. Hundreds of them 
are not larger than the finger-nail, and in almost every case, no matter 
how small, there is found remaining a portion of the original crust of the 
pebble from which the scraper has been formed. Some of them are very 
neatly dressed, and are beautiful objects. 

About one-third of the arrowheads are perfect and of great beauty. 
In one case a broken one has had the broken edge dressed and formed 
into a scraper. 

The scrapers with concave scraping edge were no doubt used for 
scraping cylindrical objects. They are nearly all perfect, and it was re- 
marked about them, as about the arrowheads, that where one was found 
several more might be expected. These hollow scrapers were found 
chiefly in three spots, and about a dozen were obtained in each place. The 
other objects are chiefly flakes, dressed over the back or along the edges, 
and having a flat side undressed. The contrast between this place and 
Ballintoy is very marked. Here everything points to a scarcity of 
material, and comparatively few flakes are left undressed. Even other 
rocks are found split up into flakes, and two beautiful flakes of a rock 
crystal were picked up. At Ballintoy and some other places, on the 
other hand, there seems to have been a perfect waste of material, and 
every object is of large size. 

The stone which bears some resemblance to a tool-stone is rather 
irregular in form, and the hollows are not equal in size nor exactly 
opposite each other, but the hollows communicate by a very narrow 
opening. 

The so-called sling-stone was picked up by Dr. Grainger. He was 
walking slowly along near the edge of a large pit and found it lying 
among a few other pebbles, but it cannot be said that any flint objects 
were in association with it. At the distance of a few yards, however, 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 175 

towards the centre of the same pit, ten or twelve scrapers with concave 
edge, several other scrapers, and a beautiful stemmed arrowhead, were 
found. 

The bead was also found by Dr. Grainger, and some scrapers were 
found quite near to it. It is rounded on one side and flat on the other, 
and similar in every respect, except size, to those found at Portstewart. 

Several hammer-stones were found having their sides as well as 
ends hammered, sometimes hollows being formed, bearing a resemblance 
to those on the sides of the oval tool-stones. 

Animal remains were very scarce, only a few teeth were picked up, 
and these chiefly belonged to the horse, ox, and deer. 



Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Farr, 
Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook (See.), Sir George Campbell, Mr. F. P. 
Fellows, Major-Gen. Lane Fox, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Park 
Harrison, Mr. James Hetwood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone 
Levi, Sir Rawson Eawson, Professor Bolleston, and Mr. Charles 

EOBERTS. 

[Plates IX.— XIX] 

The Committee was appointed for the purpose of continuing the collection 
of observations on the systematic examination of heights, weights, &c, of 
human beings in the British Empire, and the publication of photographs 
of the typical races of the Empire. That any conclusions drawn from 
statistics thus collected may be trustworthy, it is obviously essential that 
as large an average of facts as possible should be obtained, and that the 
services of a large number of independent investigators should be enlisted. 
Having, in previous years, laid down the lines upon which observers 
should proceed, and prepared a circular of instructions, the attention of the 
Committee has been directed this year not so much towards any attempt 
to draw conclusions from the facts before them, as towards completing the 
collection of data, and obtaining the services of fresh observers in various 
quarters. They have endeavoured, wherever practicable, to induce per- 
sons in a position to collect anthropometric statistics, particularly those 
tending to establish a law of growth and development, to establish a 
system of periodical record, which from year to year will increase in value 
and interest. By this means, many difficult problems in relation to race, 
occupation, climate, culture, &c, may in due course be solved. 

Considerable progress has been made by the Committee during the 
year in the collection of observations and in reducing the results to a 
tabular shape. No alteration has been made in the forms and instru- 
ments used, except that the capacity of the spirometer-bag has been in- 
creased, it being found that many persons in selected occupations exceeded 
the maximum capable of registry by the original instrument. The types 
for colour of hah- have been seriously reconsidered, and the ' stenochromic ' 
process approved — but as the process turned out not to be commercially 
available, no alteration in the existing book of types has been adopted. 

Returns have been received from the following sources, containing 
the particulars undermentioned in respect of the number of individuals 
stated in each case : — 



176 



REPORT 1879. 



Sources 


Birth- 
place, 
Origin, 
and Sex 


Age, 
Height, 

and 
Weight 


Colour 

of Hair 

and 

Eyes 


Girth 

of 
Chest 


Strength 

of 

Ann 


Eye- 
sight 


1. Cadets Royal Military Col-1 
lege, Sandhurst 


300 


300 


300 


t 300 


300 


500 


2. Boys at Westminster Schoo 


I 200 


200 


200 


— 


200 


— 


3. Students at Aberystwith 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


4. Boys at Christ's Hospital . 


— 


1936 


— 


846 


— 


— 


5. Medical Students 


46 


46 


46 


t 46 


46 


41 


6. Felstead Grammar School . 


62 


62 


62 


f 62 


62 


— 


7. Men in Mr. Whiteley's em- " 
ploy J 


• *242 


242 


— 


— 


242 


— 


8. Letter Sorters 


— 


1980 


— . 


1180 


— 


— 


9. Metropolitan Police 


205 


205 


205 


t 205 


205 


205 


10. City Police (first instalment^ 


60 


60 


60 


t 60 


60 


60 


11. Metropolitan Fire Brigade . 


80 


80 


80 


t 80 


80 


80 


12. Jews 


*140 


140 


140 


140 


— 


— 


13. „ (another source) 


20 


20 


20 


20 


— 


— 


14. Industrial Classes 


82 


82 


42 


42 


— 


6 


15. Workmen of Messrs. Howard 


67 


67 


66 


t 65 


62 


19 


16. Workmen (Dr. Bain) . 


28 


28 


28 


28 


28 


— 


17. Scotland, various occupation 


* 20 


20 


20 


20 


— 


— 


18. Weavers . . . . 


*120 


120 


— 


t 120 


120 


— 


Rifle Volunteers. 














19. Northumberland 


200 


200 


200 


200 


— 


— 


20. Cumberland 


40 


40 


40 


40 


— 


— 


21. Cornwall . . . . 


110 


110 


110 


110 


— 


— 


22. Somerset . 


155 


155 


155 


155 


— 


— 


23. Essex . . . . 


89 


89 


89 


89 


13 


14 


24. Suffolk . 


135 


135 


135 


135 


— 


— 


25. Kent 


* 90 


90 





t 


90 


— 


26. Royal Surrey Militia . 


459 


459 


459 


t 459 


459 


459 


27. Volunteers and Militia," 
Surrey 


> 124 


124 


124 


f 124 


124 


124 


28. Recruits 


*100 


100 


100 


100 


— 


— 


29. 


. 


32 


32 


— 


32 


— 


— 


30. 


. 


* 79 


79 


62 


79 


— 


— 


31. „ 


. 


*190 


190 


— 


190 


— 


— 


32. „ 


. 


*100 


100 


— 


100 


— 


— ■ 


33. 


. 


*218 


218 


88 


218 


— 


— 


34. 


. 


128 


128 


108 


128 


— 


20 


35. 


. 


*260 


356 


— 


96 


— 


— 


36. „ 


. 


200 


200 


200 


200 


— 


— 


37. 


, . 


199 


199 


199 


199 


— 


— 


38. Soldiers 


• . 


20 


20 


20 


20 


— 


— 


39. H.M.S. Msguard . 


* 59 


59 


59 


59 


— 


— 


Industrial Schools. 














40. Newcastle 


*150 


150 


150 


150 


— 


— 


41. Birmingham 


84 


84 


84 


84 


— 


— 


42. Greenock . 


*100 


100 


100 


100 


— 


— 


43. Park Row (Bristol) . 


* 70 


70 


70 


— 


— 


— 


44. St. James (Bristol) . 


70 


70 


70 


— 


— ■ 


— 


45. Sale, near Manchester, 
Girls' .... 


| * SO 


80 


80 


— 


— 


— 


46. Criminals . 


— 


2480 


— 


— 


~~ 


~~ 




5254 


11745 


4011 


6321 


2131 


1368 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



177 



To which are to be added the very extensive observations collected by 
Mr. Roberts, which will be referred to at length in a subsequent part of 
this Report. In those marked * particulars of race and origin have not 
been in all cases given; on the other hand, in those marked f the im- 
portant particular of breathing capacity has also been observed. 

_ The Committee are thus already in possession of nearly 12,000 
original observations on the main question of weight and height in 
relation to age, in addition to the 50,000 collected by Mr. Roberts, and 
they have information of returns being in preparation from many other 
sources. 

The following tables exhibit the general result of the returns of height 
and weight, and the relations between them : — 













Avei 


tAGE 


Height. 
















Militia 


Recruits 


Metropoli- 


Metropoli- 
tan Fire 


Mr. 

Wlnteley's 


Letter 

Sorters, &c., 

General 
Post Office 


Messrs. 
Howard's 


Age 








Brigade 


Shopmen 


Workmen 




-4-3 

,3 




43 




-*3 
A 




43 




43 




+3 

si 




+3 




w 








m 


tie 




to 




% 




M 




to 




S.J 

Si 
Us 

J50 


s 

" to 

ap-s 

- — 

3.9 


l! 


to 

" to 

03 O 

1-4 M 

4Jrl 

5.9 




3 
^ to 

60 J3 
~ ~ 

5.9 


a 

~ -_ 

is 


S — 

5.9 


« 9 
0.2 

, 43 
2 m 


33 

W 

^ ta 

6S.3 
5 s 2 
> _ 




0> 

5.9 


•s! 

ft 

2 *> 


"S 

** to 

0J <D 

be ^3 

* 2 

■~ - 

5.9 


12- 
13- 


— 




2 


54-0 














36 


55-9 




14- 


1 


55-0 


6 


55-7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





503 


60-3 


— 





15- 



















2 


65-5 


670 


61-7 








16- 


4 


64-5 


1 


60-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


65-1 


275 


63-9 


1 


645 


17- 


13 


64-0 


3 


65-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


63-5 


124 


65-4 


2 


61-5 


18- 


30 


64-7 


37 


65-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


66-8 


98 


65-4 


3 


69-2 


19- 


36 


65-4 


44 


663 


— 


— 


2 


69-5 


10 


66-1 


86 


66-4 


3 


67-2 


20- 


34 


65-3 


29 


66-5 


1 


71-5 


1 


69-5 


21 


67-3 


30 


66-4 


4 


66-3 


21- 


43 


66-5 


19 


668 


5 


69-5 


4 


68-3 


23 


65-9 


43 


65-8 


6 


67-7 


22- 


3b! 


65-5 


15 


67-4 


7 


69-2 


4 


67-8 


21 


67-3 


19 


67-1 


6 


68-2 


23- 


31 


65-6 


13 


66-8 


15 


70-4 


4 


68-0 


22 


66-6 


15 


66-8 


1 


70-5 


24- 


22 


66-3 


21 


67-7 


18 


69-8 


3 


66-5 


21 


66-6 


17 


66-fi 


1 


64-5 


25- 


93 


65-8 


8 


67-9 


75 


70-2 


25 


67-5 


54 


66-0 


61 


66-2 


12 


66-7 


30- 


48 


66-1 


2 


69-5 


4>l 


71-0 


16 


68-2 


22 


67-0 


2 


65-0 


12 


66-1 


35- 


30 


65-9 


— 


— 


33 


69-6 


10 


68-4 


18 


66-4 


1 


640 


9 


66'8 


40- 


15 


66-9 


— 


— 


7 


69-6 


9 


67-3 


1 


66-5 








3 


65-2 


45- 


12 


67-1 


— 


— 


3 


698 


2 


660 


1 


64-5 







3 


66-2 


50- 


3 


69-0 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


. 


1 


705 







1 


68-5 


55-60 


2 


69-5 














1 


72-5 


— | — 




66-7 


All ages 


439 


65-8 


200 


66-1 


205 


70-2 


80 


67-9 242 


664 


198o\ 62-6 


67 


Average 
age 


\ 259 


20-9 


30-0 


30-8 


25-4 


16-6 28-9 



Note.— If the comparison is limited to the ages between 20 and 35, the averages 
range as follows : — 



1879. 



Letter Sorters . 

Militia 

Mr. Whiteley's Men 

Messrs. Howard's Men 

Eecruits 

Fire Brigade . 

Police 



64 to 67-1 

65-3 „ 66-5 

65-9 „ 67-3 

66-1 „ 70-5 (one case only) 

66-5 „ 69-5 

66 - 5 „ 69*5 (one case only) 

69-2 „ 71 - 5 (one case only) 



178 



EEPOET 1879. 



Aveeage Weight. 





Militia 


Recruits 


Metropoli- 
tan Police 


Metropoli- 
tan Fire 
Brigade 


Mr. 

Whiteley's 
Shopmen 


Letter 

Sorters, &c. 

General 
Post Office 


Messrs. 
Howard's 
Workmen 




43 








1- 








■** 














■a 




S3 








i .a 




■° 








A 


Age 


CO 

H.2 


.5P 


co 
O ° 


Ml 

i 

p- in 


CO 

o.I 


50 

s. 


CO 

o.2 




CO 

•si 


to 


CO 

0.2 


■jj 

^ m 


CO 

Hi 


bo 

"3 






•a 

II 

S3 CM 


3 a> 


8 o 






a! 




II 

3 CD 


8 ° 


si 

at 


11 

8 


11 

3 9Z 


as 


































So 


<!.y 


So 


<J.3 


Zo 


o.y 


so 


-1.!d 


So 


-j.y 


So 
36 


■4.53 


So 


<S.S 


12- 
13- 


2 


77-5 






74-7 




14- 


1 


72-0 


6 


85-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


503 


93-3 


— 


— 


15- 


— 


— 














2 


127-5 


670 


100-5 


— 


— 


16- 


4 


122-5 


1 


107-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


126-3 


275 


111-5 


1 


132-5 


17- 


13 


119-4 


3 


110-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


s 


113-1 


124 


120-5 


2 


122-7 


18- 


35 


126-2 


37 


129-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


135-0 


98 


123-3 


3 


144-2 


19- 


33 


136-3 


44 


135-8 


— 


— 


2 


1550 


10 


137-5 


86 


128-7 


3 


129-2 


20- 


34 


134-1 


2g 


137-3 


1 


162-5 


1 


162-5 


21 


146-3 


30 


130-0 


4 


138-8 


21- 


43 


137-6 


19 


141-4 


5 


163-5 


4 


155-0 


23 


1 39-5 


43 


127-6 


6 


141-7 


22- 


38 


138-0 


15 


148-8 


7 


161-6 


4 


148-8 


21 


145-8 


19 


132-0 


6 


147-5 


23- 


31 


133-8 


13 


142-5 


15 


172-2 


4 


156-3 


22 


146-4 


15 


1 36-5 


1 


157-5 


24- 


22 


128-4 


21 


146-5 


18 


169-7 


3 


140-8 


21 


144-9 


17 


139-9 


1 


132-5 


25- 


93 


140-5 


8 


145-0 


75 ' 


173-6 


25 


155-1 




146-0 


61 


137-7 


12 


147-5 


30- 


48 


144-6 


2 


132-5 


41 


182-7 


16 


166-3 


22 


163-2 


2 


122-5 


12 


155-0 


35- 


30 


138-2 


— 


— 


33 183-6 


10 


169-0 


18 


158-3 


1 


117-0 


9 


161-4 


40- 


15 


152-2 


— 


— 


7 208-9 


9 ' 


170-3 


1 


172-5 


— 


— 


3 


147-5 


45- 


12 


145-0 




— 


3 209-2 


2 ' 


167-5 


1 


157-5 


— 


— 


3 


140-8 


50- 


3 


154-0 












.._ 


1 


217-5 


— 


— 


1 


162-5 


55-60 
All ages 


2 
4S9 


142-5 
L37-6 


— 


— 


205 


177-6 


— 


— 


1 


207-5 


— 


- 


67 


147-6 


200 


135-6 


80 


160-4 


242 


145-9 


1980 


106-4 


Average 


X 25-9 


20-9 


30-0 


30-8 


25-4 


16-6 


28-9 


age 


J 




1 











Note. — Taking, as before, the ages between 20 and 35, which affords means of 
comparison between all the columns, the diversity of weights in the various classes 
appears to be much greater than that of height, as follows : — 

Letter Sorters . 

Militia 

Recruits 

Messrs. Howard's Men 

Mr. Whiteley's Men . 

Fire Brigade 

Police . 



122-5 to 


139-9 


128-4 „ 


144-6 


132-5 „ 


148-8 


132-5 „ 


157-5 


139-5 „ 


163-2 


140-8 „ 


166-3 


162-5 „ 


182-7 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



179 



Ratio of Weight to Height. 



Age 


Militia 


Recruits 


Metropoli- 
tan Police 


Metropoli- 
tan Fire 
Brigade 


Mr. 
Whiteley's 
Shopmen 


Letter 
Sorters, &c, 

General 
Post Office 


Messrs. 
Howard's 
Workmen 


CO 

II 

a <d 

■2-° 


* 
Its 

1 g 

si 

ca a; 
P3W 


m 

a 

«M O 

a i) 

fc5 


% 

fi 

«■ 
% 

CO f— 

js'S 

o-? 

ca oj 
P3M 


■sj 

l! 

S w 


* 

& 

"S 
fife 

i-g 

■S d 
fill 

•I.SP 

MM 


to 

= | 

JjS 


* 

.5? 
"5 

11 

S.SP 


a 

II 

as 
£8 


* 

% 

- - 

.82 

.2 to 
P5W 


9} 

■sl 

M'S 

I! 

2 to 

IS 


* 

1 

■g d 

la 


bo 

a 

II 
11 

S » 


-"® 
^ fer 

» _ 

^ c 

§.» 

2-1 
2-0 
2-1 
1-9 
2-1 
2-1 
2-2 
2-2 
2-1 
2-2 
2-3 
2-4 
2-3 
2-1 
2-4 


12- 
13- 
14- 
15- 
16- 
17- 
18- 
19- 
20- 
21- 
22- 
23- 
24- 
25- 
30- 
35- 
40- 
45- 
50- 
55-60 


1 

4 
13 
35 
35 
34 
43 
38 
31 
22 
93 

4$ 
30 

15 

12 

3 

2 


1-3 

1-9 

1-9 
2-0 
2-1 
2-1 
2-1 
2-1 
2-0 
1-9 
21 
2-2 
2-1 
2-3 
2-2 
2-2 
2-1 


2 
6 

1 

3 

37 

44 

29 

19 

15 

13 

21 

8 

2 


1-4 
1-5 

1-8 
1-7 
2-0 
2-0 
2-1 
2-1 
2-2 
2-1 
2-2 
2-1 
1-9 


1 

5 

7 

15 
18 
75 

41 
33 

7 
3 


2-3 
2-4 
23 
2-4 
2-3 
2-5 
2-6 
2-6 
30 
3-0 


2 
1 

4 

4 

4 

3 

25 

16 

10 

9 

2 


2-2 
2-3 
2-3 

2-2 
2-3 
2-1 
2-3 
2-4 
2-5 
2-5 
2-5 


2 

8 

8 

8 

10 

21 

23 

21 

22 

21 

54 

22 

18 

1 

1 

1 

1 


1-9 
1-9 
1-8 
2-0 
2-1 
2-2 
2-1 
2-2 
22 
2-2 
2-2 
2-4 
2-4 
2-6 
2-4 
31 
2-7 


36 

50.3 

670 

275 

124 

98 

86 

30 

43 

19 

15 

17 

61 

2 

1 


1-3 

1-5 
1-6 
1-7 
2-0 
1-9 
1-9 
2-0 
1-9 
20 
2-0 
2-1 
2-1 
1-9 
1-8 


1 
2 
3 
3 

4 
6 
6 
1 
1 
12 
12 
9 
3 
3 
1 


All ages 


459 


2-1 


WO 


21 


205 


2-5 


so 


2-4 


242 


2-2 


1980 


1-7 


67 


2-2 


Average "1 
age / 


25-9 


20-9 


300 


30-8 


25-4 


166 


289 



* Viz., number of pounds in weight to an inch in height. 

Note. — Taking, as before, the ages between 20 and 35, the average ratios are as 
follows : — 

Letter Sorters 1-9 to 2-1 



Eecruits and Militia .... 
Messrs. Howard's Men .... 
Mr. "Whiteley's Men and the Fire Brigade 
Police 



1-9 „ 2-2 

2-1 „ 2-3 

2-1 „ 2-4 

23 „ 26 



180 



REPORT 1879. 



Height. 











Industrial Schools 








Westminster 

School, 
Dean's Yard 














Newcastle 


Shustoke, 
Birmingham 


Greenock 


Sale 
(Females) 


Age last 
Birthday 
















Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 




of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Height 




serva- 


in 


serva- 


in 


serva- 


in 


serva- 


in 


serva- 


in 




tions 


Inches 


tions 


Inches 


tions 


Inches 


tions 


Inches 


tions 


Inches 


5 







1 


41-5 








— 


— 





— 


6 





— 


2 


43-5 














7 








3 


43-8 


— 


— 


2 


435 


1 


44-5 


8 








10 


45-7 


3 


45-5 


2 


46-0 


— 


— 


9 








11 


47-5 


5 


49-1 


6 


48-5 


5 


477 


10 


o 


53-0 


27 


47-8 


18 


49-0 


7 


49-2 


6 


49-7 


11 


7 


55-4 


22 


49-7 


13 


490 


11 


51-5 


17 


50-9 


12 


15 


57-8 


26 


51-4 


15 


51-6 


24 


52-1 


10 


52-7 


13 


20 


59-7 


17 


51-8 


11 


52-6 


29 


535 


17 


54-7 


14 


4& 


61-3 


18 


539 


5 


54-5 


16 


557 


U 


57-4 


15 


39 


64-8 


12 


57-8 


11 


55-0 


2 


56-5 


9 


58-5 


16 


43 


66-5 


1 


56-5 


3 


55-5 


1 


595 


1 


59-5 


17 


18 


67-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


18 


8 


675 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


52-5 






All ages 


200 


63 


150 


50-4 


84 


51-2 


100 


80 


537 


Average age 


15-2 


■11-9 


12-4 


12-6 


128 



Note. — It will be observed, upon comparison of the columns relating to Industrial 
Schools, that the Sale school, which consists of girls, has the advantage in height, 
nearly throughout, over the three schools which consist of boys. 

Weight. 











Industrial Schools 






Westminster . 

School, 
Dean's Yard 












Newcastle 


Shustoke, 
Birmingham 


Greenock 


Sale 
(Females) 


Age last 
Birthday 














Number 


Average 


Number, Average 


Number'Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 




of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 1 Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 




serva- 


in 


serva- 


in 


serva- 1 in 


serva- 


in 


serva- 


111 




tions 


Pounds 


tions 


Pounds 


tions Pounds 


tions 


Pounds 


tions 


Pounds 


5 








1 


42-5 


- - 










6 


— 





2 


42-5 


— — 


















3 


47-5 


— — 


2 


50-0 


1 


37-5 


8 








10 


51-5 


3 


54-2 


2 


575 


— 


— 


9 


— 


— 


11 


53-4 


5 


61-5 


6 


64-2 


5 


50-5 


10 


2 


69-0 


25 


55-3 


18 


60-0 


7 


66-8 


6 


56-7 


11 


7 


68-4 


22 


620 


13 


64-8 


11 


71-6 


17 


59-6 


12 


15 


78-1 


26 


64-8 


15 i 69-8 


24 


77-5 


10 


660 


13 


20 


86-2 


17 


69-6 


11 67-8 


29 


80-3 


17 


76-6 


14 


48 j 953 


18 


74-2 


5 j 79-5 


16 


900 


14 


88-6 


15 


39 Hl-5 


12 


92-5 


11 I 95-7 


2 


900 


9 


95-8 


16 


43 ! 124-2 


1 


82-5 


3 97-5 


1 


112-5 


1 


87-5 


17 


18 129-6 


















18 


8 


138-1 


















All ages 


200 


106 


448 


64-3 


84 


706 


100 


77-8 


80 


72-4 


Average age 


15-2 


1 


1-9 


12-4 


12-6 


12-8 



Note. The Girls' Industrial School seems to have an advantage in weight over 

the Boys' Schools (Greenock excepted), but not equal to the advantage in height. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



181 



Ratio of Weight to Height. 



Age 








Industrial Schools. 




School, Dean's 
Yard 


Newcastle 


Shustoke, 
Birmingham 


Greenock 


Saio 
(Females) 


Number 
of obser- 
vations 


Ratio 
between 

height 

and 
weight* 


Number 
of obser- 
vations 


Ratio 
between 

height 

and 
weight* 


Number 
of obser- 
vations 


Ratio 

between 
height 

and 
weight 9 


Number 
of obser- 
vations 


Ratio 
between 

height 

and 
weight* 


Number 
of obser- 
vations 


Ratio 

between i 

height | 

and ' 

weight* 


5 








-/ 


1-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





6 


— . 


— 


2 


10 


— 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


7 


— 


— 


3 


1-1 


— 


— 


2 


11 


1 


0-8 


8 


— 


— 


10 


11 


3 


1-2 


2 


1-3 


— 




9 








11 


1-1 


5 


1-3 


6 


1-3 


5 M 


10 


2 


1-3 


27 


1-2 


1$ 


1-2 


7 


1-4 


6 


1-1 


11 


7 


1-2 


22 


1-2 


13 


1-3 


11 


1-4 


17 


1-2 


12 


15 


1-4 


26 


1-3 


15 


1-4 


24 


1-5 


10 


1-3 1 


13 


20 


1-4 


17 


1-3 


11 


1-3 


29 


1-5 


.in 


1-4 


14 


4$ 


1-6 


18 


1-4 


5 


1-5 


16 


1-6 


U 


1-5 


15 


39 


1-7 


12 


1-6 


11 


1-7 


2 


1-6 


9 


1-6 


16 


43 


1-9 


1 


1-5 


3 


1-8 


1 


1-9 


1 


1-5 


17 


18 


1-9 


















18 


8 


20 


















All ages . 


200 


1-7 


150 


1-3 


84 


1-4 


100 


1-5 


80 


1-3 


Average age 


15-2 years 


11-9 


pears 


12-4 years 


12-6 years 


12*8 years 



* Number of pounds in weight to an inch in height. 

Note. — Taking the ages 12 and 13 as those which afford the largest number for 
comparison, it would seem that the ratio between height and weight does not 
differ largely among these very diverse classes. 



The returns relating to Christ's Hospital Lave been abstracted for the 
Committee by Sir Rawson W. Rawson, for each month of age as shown 
by the subjoined tables : — 



182 



REPORT — 1879. 



Table I. — Statement of the Height, without shoes, of boys in the School 
of Christ's Hospital, showing the average, maximum, and minimum 
at each month, quarter, and year of age, between 9 and 16. 



Age in 
Years 


No. of 
Obser- 




height in 


nches and Decimals 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 


and 
Months 


vations 








No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 


Average 


Obser- 


Average 












vations 




vations 




9 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


1 


47-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


1 


49-1 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


50-1 


52-4 


48-4 


1 








7 


3 


51-2 


52-5 


50 


\ 9 


51-2 


" 




8 


3 


52-3 


57 


49 


J 








9 


2 


50-7 


51 


50-4 


1 




" 22 


50'8 


10 


1 


51-2 


— 


— . 


L 13 


506 






11 


10 


50-5 


52-3 


49-2 


J 

I 27 










Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 53 


49-4 


10 


10 


51-9 


54-5 


484 


1 


8 


51-6 


54-5 


49-6 


51-7 


* 




2 


9 


51-4 


55-2 


49 








3 


17 


51-3 


54-6 


47-6 


I 44 

"1 








4 


14 


51-3 


56 


48'4 


51-5 






! 


13 
21 


52-2 
52-2 


54-1 
54-4 


49 

494 




. 210 


52-2 


7 


13 


52-4 


55-2 


47-6 


y 64 


52-5 






8 


30 


52-9 


56-6 


49-4 


J 








9 


24 


52-3 


57 


48-5 


1 








10 


27 


52-8 


56-2 


47-4 


I 75 


52-5 






11 

11 


24 


52-3 


55-7 


49-4 


J 
1 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 55-3 


49-1 

49 


24 


52-6 


57 


1 


24 


52-9 


56 


50-3 


]■ 83 


52-6 


■■ 




2 


35 


525 


56 


491 


J 








3 


36 


52-9 


60-4 


47-6 


I 102 
1 








4 


29 


54 


59-4 


49-1 


53-2 






5 
6 


37 
33 


53-1 
531 


60-2 
57 


49 
50-3 




► 392 


53-7 


7 


38 


53-4 


58-7 


47-6 


y 102 


53-6 






8 


31 


54-3 


59 


48-2 


J 








9 


24 


54-2 


59-4 


50-3 


"1 








10 


37 


54-4 


602 


47-4 


I 105 


54-2 






11 


44 


54-2 


59 


506 


J 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


j 58-4 


491 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



183 



Table I. — Statement of the Height, &c. — continued. 



Age in 

Years 

and 

Months 


No. of 


Height in Inches and Decimals 


Monthly 




Quarterly 


Yearly 


Obser- 
vations 
















No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


12 


33 


542 


58-5 


48-4 


"I 








1 


37 


54 


601 


51-4 


y 105 


54-2 






2 


35 


54-5 


58 


51 


J 








3 


31 


54-6 


58-6 


51 


1 








4 


51 


546 


59-4 


49 


]> 115 


54-6 






5 


33 


54-9 


59 


50 


J 




■ 410 


54-7 


6 


47 


54-9 


58-5 


51-5 


] 






7 


38 


547 


58-4 


49-2 


y ii8 


54-6 






8 


33 


54-2 


59-4 


503 


J 








9 


22 


55-1 


57-5 


52 


L 72 

}- 








10 


19 


54-9 


59-7 


49-4 


55-6 






11 
13 


31 


559 


61 


50-6 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 59- 1 


50-3 


21 


57 


62 


51-7 


1 


39 


56-2 


61-5 


49 


56-2 






2 


31 


55-9 


62-4 


51-4 








3 


29 


56-9 


61 


51-4 


1 








4 


34 


565 


65-7 


52 


y 98 


56-4 






5 


35 


56 


61-5 


51 


1 




► 353 


56-7 


6 


34 


56-6 


61-4 


50-1 


1 








7 


35 


56-7 


62-2 


51-4 


y 95 


56-9 






8 


26 


57-8 


63 


54-2 


J 








9 


20 


56-5 


59-4 


52-3 


1 








10 


17 


57-5 


60-4 


53-4 


y 69 


57-3 






11 


32 


57-7 


64-4 


48 


J 








Average of 


I 621 


51-3 


14 


Monthly Averages 




I 83 








26 


57-8 


62-4 


53 


1 


28 


58-3 


64-4 


50-1 


58-2 






2 


29 


58-6 


65-5 


53-1 








3 


22 


59-2 


64-2 


53-7 


1 








4 


27 


57-2 


63 


53-2 


y so 


58-4 






5 


31 


58-9 


63-4 


52-6 


J 




■ 291 


58-6 


6 


22 


58-5 


65-3 


52 


1 






7 


25 


58-6 


62-4 


532 


y 68 


592 






8 


21 


604 


65-7 


55 


J 








9 


18 


58-7 


63-4 


53 


1 








10 


13 


59-3 


64 


56 


y 60 


58-6 






11 


29 


58-3 


66-4 


54 


J 








Average of 


, 64*2 


53-2 




Monthly Averages 


J 













184 



REPORT — 1879. 



Table I.— Statement of the Height, &c— continued. 



Age in 

Years 

and 

Months 


No. of 
Obser- 
vations 


Height in Inches and Decimals 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 








No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


15 


29 


60-1 


66 


51-2 


1 








1 


33 


60-4 


65-2 


53-4 


I 91 


60-4 






2 


29 


60-6 


67-4 


54-1 


J 








3 


17 


61-4 


66-3 


54-6 


1 








4 


25 


61-8 


66-2 


57-2 


\ 54 


61-6 






5 


12 


61-3 


664 


57-4 


1 




\ 236 


61-3 


6 


14 


619 


66 


55 


1 








7 


13 


60-2 


65 


57-1 


\ 42 


61-3 






8 


15 


61-6 


67 


57 


J 








9 


22 


62-6 


67-4 


55-7 


I 49 
\ 








10 


16 


62-8 


68-2 


56-4 


62-8 


i 




11 

i 
16 


11 


63-1 


69-4 


57-4 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 66-7 


55-6 


8 


63-4 


67-4 


56-6 


1 


4 


62-9 


68-2 


60 






* 




3 


2 


64-2 


66-2 


62-2 


17 


63-4 






4 


1 


63-6 


— 


— . 










5 


2 


63-7 


67-1 


63-4 


) 








6 

7 
8 


— 


— 










\ 22 


62-8 


2 


59 


59-5 


56-8 


-j 








9 


1 


61-2 
















10 


1 


62-4 








f 5 


61-3 






11 


1 


65 


— 


— 










Average, of 
Monthly Averages 


\ 65-7 


601 



REPORT OF TnE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



185 



Table II. — Statement of the Weight of boys in the School of Christ's Hos- 
pital, showing the average, maximum, and minimum at each month, 
quarter, and year of age, between 9 and 16 : — 



Age in 
Years 


No. of 
Obser- 


Weight in lbs. and Decimals 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 


and 
Months 


vations 








No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


9 
1 

3 
4 
5 
6 


1 


48 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


1 
3 


59 
58 


64 


52 


1 





— 


— 


7 


3 


63 


65 


61 


> 9 


60-7 


1 




8 
9 


3 

2 


61 

57-5 


62 

58 


59 

57 


J 

) 13 




u 


58-7 


10 


1 


61 


— 





58-7 


J 




11 
10 


10 


58-7 


67 


56 


J 
1 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 63-2 


57 


10 


63 


75 


52 


1 


8 


60 


66 


52 


)■ 27 


61 


"■ 




2 


9 


60 


70 


54 


J 








3 


17 


62-9 


73 


56 


1 








4 


14 


64 


81 


50 


L 44 


63-4 






5 
6 


13 

21 


64-8 
62-8 


76 
72 


57 
54 


J 
[ 64 




210 


64-1 


7 


13 


64 


75 


52 


64-2 






8 


30 


65-3 


78 


54 . 


J 








9 


24 


64-5 


80 


53 


1 








10 


27 


66-3 


79 


56 


L 75 


65-6 






11 
11 


24 


63-9 


77 


53 


J 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 75-1 


53-6 


24 


64-4 


77 


56 


1 


24 


65-8 


77 


55 


V 83 


64-8 


~\ 




2 


35 


64-9 


76 


51 


J 








3 


36 


65-8 


98 


51 


-102 








4 


29 


68-5 


93 


56 


66-9 






5 
6 


37 
33 


66-6 
661 


83 
79 


52 
52 


J 
1 102 




-392 


67-4 


7 


38 


67-5 


81 


57 


67-7 






8 


31 


69-7 


88 


54 








9 


24 


67-8 


81 


58 


1 105 








10 


37 


70-6 


84 


54 


69-7 






11 


44 


70 


90 


46 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 1 


| 83-9 


53-5 



Note. — Weight is taken without coats, waistcoats, and shoes. The average 
weight of clothes worn when weighed is ascertained to be 24, lbs. 



186 



REPORT — 1879. 



Table II. — Statement op the Weight, &c. — continued. 



Age in 

Years 

and 

Months 


No. of 
Obser- 
vations 


Weight in lbs. and Decimals 


Months- 


Quarterly 


Yearly 








No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


12 


33 


68-4 


83 


56 


-^ 








1 

2 


37 
35 


69-7 
70-2 


81 
86 


58 
58 


1 105 


69-5 " 






3 


31 


701 


92 


58 


J 
lll5 








4 
5 


51 
33 


70 
70-2 


114 
90 


51 
48 


70-8 






6 


47 


70 


86 


61 




► 410 


71-3 


7 
8 


38 
33 


71-3 
73 


91 
93 


48 
61 


lll8 


71-5 






9 


22 


74 


84 


64 


J 








10 
11 

13 


19 
31 


735 

75-9 


90 
92 


56 
62 

56-7 


L 72 
J 


74-7 






Average of 
Monthly Averages 


X 90-1 


21 


75-5 


90 


60 


1 
2 


39 
31 


77-1 
75-7 


100 
113 


57 
55 


}« 


76-2 ' 






3 


29 


78-3 


102 


58 


J 
L 98 

I 95 

I 69 








4 


34 


77-6 


131 


57 


77-3 






5 


35 


76-2 


106 


56 






6 


34 


76-8 


93 


62 




y 353 


78-3 


7 
8 


35 
26 


79-5 
82 


100 
114 


56 
65 


79-3 






9 


20 


78-6 


91 


62 








10 


17 


82-5 


100 


66 


81-2 






11 


32 


82 


120 


66 






Average of 


X 105 




14 


Monthly Averages 


60 


L 83 

'so 

I 68 
I 60 








26 


80 


104 


61 


1 


28 


86-6 


108 


62 


84-9 






2 


29 


87-4 


133 


60 






3 


22 


88-1 


117 


64 








4 


27 


83-2 


110 


64 


86-7 






5 


31 


86-8 


125 


66 






6 


22 


85-2 


112 


69 




► 291 


86-7 


7 
8 


25 
21 


86 
94-1 


105 
131 


57 
70 


88-3 






9 


18 


89 


112 


67 








10 


13 


90-3 


112 


70 


88*7 






11 


29 


87-7 


129 


69 










Average of 
Monthly Averages 


X 116-5 


64-9 



Note. — Weight is taken without coats, waistcoats, and shoes, 
weight of clothes worn when weighed is ascertained to be 2£ lbs. 



The average 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



187 



Table II. — Statement of the Weight, &c. — continued. 



Age in 

Years 

and 

Months 


No. of 
Obser- 
vations 


Weight in lbs. and Decimals 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 








No. of 




No. of 






Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


obser- 


Average 


obser- 


Average 












vations 




vations 




15 


29 


91-9 


126 


66 


1 








1 


33 


93 


113 


70 


f 91 


93-9 ' 






2 


29 


96-1 


145 


70 


i 








3 


17 


100-7 


140 


71 


"1 








4 


25 


96-8 


130 


71 


V 54 


98-1 






5 


12 


96-9 


122 


77 


J 




• 236 


98 


6 


14 


102-7 


122 


80 


I 42 








7 


13 


95-2 


120 


70 


99 






8 


15 


98-6 


116 


81 








9 


22 


102-5 


124 


83 


I 








10 


16 


1040 


129 


72 


y 49 


104-8 






11 


11 


110 


137 


85 


J 








Average of 


1. 127 


74-6 


16 


Monthly Averages 


J 




.. 








8 


101-1 


122 


71 


1 


4 


96-7 


116 


86 










2 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


■ 17 


103-6 






3 


2 


113 


120 


106 










4 


1 


113 


— 


— 










5 


2 


113 


139 


88 










6 


— 




— 


— 






► 22 


104 


7 
8 


2 


98 98 


98 


-j 








9 


1 


108 — 


— 


- 5 


105-2 






10 


1 


107 — 


— 










11 


1 


105 — 


— 












Average of \ 119 
Monthly Averages/ 


90 















Note. — Weight is taken without coats, waistcoats, and shoes, 
weight of clothes worn when weighed is ascertained to be 2£ lbs. 



The average- 



188 



REPORT 1879. 



Table III. — Statement of the empty chest-girth of boys in the School of 
Christ's Hospital, showing the average, maximum, and minimum at 
each month, quarter, and year of age, between 9 and 16 : — 



Age in 

years 

and 

months 


No. of 
observa- 
tions 




Chest-girth ii 


Inches and Decimals 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 










No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


obser- 


Average 


obser- 


Average 














vations 




vations 




9 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


1 


25 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





1 


29-3 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


25-6 




26 


24-2 


]'o 








7 


4 


26-5 




27-2 


25-4 


26 


- 




8 
9 


3 

2 


26 

26-2 




266 
26-4 


24-6 
26 


J 
1 




- 23 


25-5 


10 


1 


24 




— 


— 


I 13 


25-3 






11 
10 


10 


25 




27-1 


24 


I 

1 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


}_ 


27 


24-9 


10 


25-6 




27 


23-4 


1 


8 


24-9 




26-6 


24 


V 28 


25-2 


- 




2 


10 


25 




25-6 


24-4 


J 








3 


15 


25-5 




28 


22-5 


\ 








4 


13 


25-8 




28 


24 


y 39 


25 






5 


11 


26-1 




28-1 


24 


j 








6 


20 


25-5 




28-2 


22-4 


J 

]> 58 




► 194 


25-8 


7 


11 


26-1 




28 


24 


25-8 






8 


27 


26 




28 


23-4 


J 








9 


23 


25-7 




28-4 


24 


1 








10 


24 


26-5 




29-6 


25 


I 69 


26-2 






11 


22 


26-3 




28-6 


22 


1 




- 




Average of 


} 






11 


Monthly Averages 


27-9 


236 


1 








20 


25-7 




28-2 


23-4 


1 


18 


25-7 




28 


23 


)> 68 


25-7 


- 




2 


30 


25-7 




28 


23-4 


J 








3 


27 


26 




29-4 


23 


1 








4 


24 


26-3 




28-2 


24 


I 74 


26-3 






5 


23 


26-5 




28-6 


24 


f 








6 


24 


25-9 




28-4 


23-4 


"1 




>279 


26 


7 


28 


26-1 




29-2 


23-2 


I 72 


26 






8 


20 


26 




28-4 


23 


J 








9 


12 


26-4 




283 


24 


\ 








10 


26 


26-6 




29 


23 


I 65 


26-3 






11 


27 


25-9 




30 


22-7 


J 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


} 


28-7 


23-4 



Note.— The chest is measured over nipple and under bladebones, over the shirt. 
The allowance for shirt would be one inch. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



189 



Table III.— Statement op the Empty Chest-Girth, &c— continued. 



Age in 

years 

and 

months 


Xo. of 
observa- 


Chest-girth in Inches and Decimals. 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 


tions 








Xo. of 


1 


Xo. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


12 


21 


26-6 


29 


24-4 


1 








1 


19 


26-2 


28-6 


21 


> 55 


26-4 


-. 




2 


15 


26-5 


30 


22-4 


J 








3 


15 


26-6 


29'6 


24 


L 60 
) 42 








4 


30 


26-1 


28-2 


22-4 


26-5 






5 
6 


15 
23 


27 
26-4 


29-4 
29-4 


25-4 
24 




-159 


265 


7 


11 


26-1 


29-4 


23 


26-4 






8 


8 


26-6 


27-4 


25 


J 








9 
10 


1 
1 


29 
25 


— 


— 


\ 2 
J 


27 


„ 




11 

13 
1 


— 


— 


— 


— 










Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 28-1 


23-2 


1 


25-6 


— 


— 


2 
3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4 
5 
6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






7 
8 
9 




= 


— 


— 


— 


— 






10 
11 







— 


— 


— 


— 






i 







— 










Average of 


1 




14 


Monthly Averages 


./ 




1 


1 






_ 


_ 


__ 




1 


1 


29-4 


— 


— 


1 3 


31-1 






2 
3 


2 


32 


32 


31-9 








4 














} 1 


30-4 






5 


1 


30-4 








J 








6 













1 




[ 20 


30 


7 
8 


4 


28-1 


31 


26 


} « 


28-1 






9 


1 


35 5 








J 

"1 








10 


4 


31-2 


36 


27-4 


L 12 


303 






11 


7 


29-1 


311 


26-9 


J 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 32-5 


28-1 



Note. — The chest is measured over nipple and under bladebones, over 
The allowance for shirt would be one inch. 



the shirt, 



190 



REPOHT — 1879. 



Table III. — Statement of the Empty Chest-Girth, &c. — continued. 



Age in 

years 

and 

months 


No. of 
observa- 
tions 


Chest-girth in Inches and Decimals 


Monthly 


Quarterly 


Yearly 








No. of 




No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


obser- 
vations 


Average 


15 


13 


30-1 


34-4 


26-4 


I 








1 


22 


29-5 


33 


25-2 


> 55 


29-7 






2 


20 


29-7 


344 


27 


J 








3 


11 


30-2 


35 


26 


1 








4 


17 


30-8 


32 


26 


\ 34 


30-3 






5 
6 


6 

8 


31-3 
31-4 


34 
34 


28-4 
28 


1 
1 




•153 


303 


7 


6 


28-9 


34 


26 


\ 26 


30-3 






8 


12 


30-3 


33-4 


28 


1 








9 


14 


30-1 


34 


27-4 


L 38 








10 


14 


31-0 


34-4 


28 


31-1 






11 
16 


10 


32-2 


35 


29 








Average of 
Monthly Averages 


} « 


27-1 


6 


312 


33 


28-4 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


5 


29-8 


31 


26-4 


— 


— 






1 


32-4 


— 


— 










1 


29 


— 


— 






- 17 


30-8 


7 
8 


2 


30-7 


32 


29-4 


_ 


_ 






9 

10 
11 


1 


31-4 


— 


— 










1 


33 


— 


— 










Average of 
Monthly Averages 


| 32 


28-1 



Note. — The chest is measured over nipple and under bladebones, over the shirt. 
The allowance for shirt would be one inch. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



191 



Table IV. — Abstract of the height, weight, and chest-girth of the boys, 
observed at each year of age, with the actual and proportionate rate 
of increase: — 







Height in Inches and Decimals 


















Per- 


Age 


Number 

of 
Observa- 


Average 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mini- 
mum 


Average 

of 
Monthly 


Average 
of 

Monthly 


Annual 
Increase 


centage 
Propor- 
tion of 
Increase 
at each 




tions 








Maxima 


Minima 




















Age 














Inches 




From 9 to 10 . 


22 


50-8 


57 


48-4 


53 


49-4 








„ 10 „ 11 . 


210 


522 


57 


47-4 


553 


49-1 


1-4 


2-75 


„ 11 „ 12. 


392 


53-7 


60-4 


47-4 


58-4 


49-1 


1-5 


2-87 


„ 12 „ 13 . 


410 


54-7 


61 


48-4 


59-1 


50-3 


1 


1-86 


„ 13 „ 14 . 


353 


56-7 


65 - 7 


48 


62-1 


51-3 


2 


365 


„ 14 „ 15 . 


291 


586 


66-4 


501 


64-2 53-2 


1-9 


3-35 


„ 15 „ 16. 


236 


613 


694 


55-6 


66-7 55-6 


2-7 


4-60 


., 16 „ 17. 


22 


62-8 


68-2 


56-6 


65-7 60-1 


1-5 


2-44 


Total . . . 


1936 








Weight in lbs. and Decimals 


















lbs. 




From 9 to 10 . 


22 


58-7 


67 


52 


632 


57 


— 


— 


„ 10 „ 11 . 


210 


64-1 


81 


50 


75-1 


53-6 


5-4 


9-20 


» 11 „ 12 . 


392 


67-4 


98 


46 


83-9 


53-5 


3-3 


514 


„ 12 „ 13 . 


410 


71-3 


114 


48 


90-1 


567 


3-9 


5-78 


» 13 „ 14. 


353 


78-3 


131 


55 


105 


60 


7 


9-95 


„ 14 „ 15 . 


291 


86-7 


133 


57 


116-5 


649 


8-4 


10-72 


» 15„16. 


236 


98 


145 


66 


127 


74-6 


11-3 


1303 


„ 16 „ 17 . 


22 


104 


139 


71 


119 


90 


6 


612 


Total . . . 


1936 




Chest-girth in Inches and Decimals 














Inches 




From 9 to 10 . 


23 


25'5 


27-2 


24 


27 


24-9 


— 





„ 10 „ 11 . 


194 


25-8 


296 


22 


27-9 


236 


03 


117 




, 11 „ 12. 


279 


26 


30 


227 


28-7 


23-4 


02 


0-79 




, 12 „ 13 . 


159 


265 


30 


21 


28-1 


232 


0-5 


1-92 




, 13 „ 14. 


1 


25-6 
















, 14 „ 15. 


20 


30 


36 


26 


325 


28-1 


3-5 


13-20 




, 15 „ 16 . 


153 


303 


35 


25-2 


34 


27-1 


03 


100 




, 16 „ 17. 


17 


30-8 


33 


26-4 


32 


28-1 


05 


1-62 


Total . . . 


846 





192 



REPORT — 1879. 



Table V. — Abstract of the average height, weight, and chest-girth of boys 
in the School of Christ's Hospital, at each year of age, and the increase 
and percentage proportion of increase at each age : — 









Number of 
Observa- 
tions 


Average at each 


Increase at each 


Percentage 
Proportion of 


Age 






Age 






Age 


Increase 
at each Age 


■a Ji 






A 






J3 






ja 






§3 £ 


-13 


43 




43 


43 




43 


43 








33 


XI 




ja 


•d 




j3 


J 








4J bj-j &J0 


bo 


b£ 


SO 


SE 


SO 


bD 


so 


biO 


bfi 






eigh 
Wei 

lest- 


w 


s 


43 

00 






43 

33 






m 
XS 






W o 






O 






o 






O 








In. 


lbs. 


In. 


In. 


lbs. 


In. 


In. 


lbs. 


In. 


From 9 to 


10 


22 23 


50-8 


58-7 


25-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» io „ 


11 


210 194 


522 


64-1 


25-8 


1-4 


5-4 


0-3 


2-75 


9-20 


1-17 




, 11 „ 


12 


392 279 


53-7 


67-4 


26 


1-5 


3-3 


0-2 


2-87 


5-14 


0-79 




, 12 „ 


13 


410 159 


54-7 


71-3 


265 


1 


3-9 


0-5 


1-86 


5-78 


1-92 




, 13 „ 


14 


353 1 


56-7 


78-3 


256 


2 


7 


— 


2-65 


9-95 


— 




, 14 „ 


15 


291 20 


58-6 


86-7 


30 


1-9 


8-4 


3-5 


3-35 


10-72 


13-20 




, 15 „ 


16 


236 


153 


61-3 


98 


30-3 


2-7 


11-3 


0-3 


4-60 


13-03 


1-00 




, 16 „ 


17 


22 
1936 


17 


62-8 


104 


30-8 


1-5 


6 


05 


2-44 


6-12 


1-62 


Total . 




846 















Table VI. — Statement of the weight and chest-girth in relation to 
height of boys in the School of Christ's Hospital, between the ages 
of 9 and 16 : — 



Height 


Wei 


ght 


Chest-girth 












Number of 


Average 


Number of 


Average 




Observations 


in lbs. 


Observations 


in inches 


ft. in. 










5 9 


1 


135 


1 


33-4 


5 8 


2 


116 


I 


31 


5 7 


8 


124 


5 


33 


5 6 


15 


122 


10 


32-6 


5 5 


22 


118 


10 


321 


5 4 


34 


108 


14 


31-8 


5 3 


46 


103 


20 


30-3 


5 2 


53 


100 


23 


31-2 


5 1 


73 


96 


26 


30-5 


5 


100 


91 


27 


29-7 


4 11 


109 


86 


17 


28-7 


4 10 


135 


84 


29 


28-7 


4 9 


148 


79 


28 


27-8 


4 8 


189 


75 


56 


27 


4 7 


201 


73 


73 


26-9 


4 6 


211 


70 


96 


26-3 


4 5 


181 


67 


105 


26 


4 4 


166 


64 


94 


26 


4 3 


106 


61 


66 


25-5 


4 2 


87 


59 


75 


25-5 


4 1 


50 


58 


40 


25-5 


4 


12 


54 


11 


24-6 


3 11 


5 


52 


5 


24-8 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



193 



Table VII. — Statement of the percentage proportion which the averages 
of maxima and minima bear to the general averages of height, weight, 
and chest-girth among boys in the School of Christ's Hospital, be- 
tween the ages of 9 and 16 : — 



Years of 
Age 


Height 


Weight 


Chest-girth 
















Maxima 


Minima 


Maxima 


Minima 


Maxima 


Minima 




+ 


— 


+ 


— 


+ 





9 


3-9 


2-7 


7-6 


2-9 


6 


2-3 


10 


5-9 


5-9 


17-1 


163 


8-1 


8-1 


11 


8-7 


8-5 


24-4 


20-6 


10-4 


10 


12 


8 


8 


26-3 


20-4 


6 


12'4 


13 


9-5 


9-5 


341 


23-3 








14 


9-5 


9-2 


34-3 


25-1 


8 


7 


15 


8-8 


9-3 


29-8 


23-8 


12-2 


10-5 


16 


4-6 


4-3 


14-4 


13-4 


3-9 


8-8 



Table VIII. — Abstract of the mean height, weight, and chest girth of boys 
in the School of Christ's Hospital, between the ages of 9 and 16 : — 







Quarterly 




Yearly 


Age 












Height 
Inches 


Weight 


Chest-girth 


Height 


Weight 


Chest-girth 


Y^ars Months 


Lbs. 


Inches 


Inches 


Lbs. 


Inches 


— 


— 


— 


— 


621 


101 


31 


16 


— . 


— 


— 


— 






15 9 


63-1 


102-5 


31 


] 






15 6 
15 3 


62-2 
61 


98 
95 


30-4 
30-4 


y 6i-7 


95-5 


304 


15 


60-7 


92-5 


29-4 


1 






14 9 


592 


86 


29-2 


] 






14 6 
14 3 


59-4 

58-5 


87 
85-5 


— 


I 591 


85-5 


29-4 


14 


58 


83-5 


— 


1 






13 9 


57-2 


80 


— 


■ 






13 6 


565 


77 


— 


- 56 


78 




13 3 


562 


755 


— 




13 


562 


75 


— 








12 9 


562 


74-5 


— 








12 6 
12 3 


54-5 
54 


72 
69-5 


26-4 
26-4 


• 54 p 5 


705 


26-4 


12 


53-7 


685 


27 








11 9 


— 


69 


26 








11 6 
11 3 


— 


665 
65 


26 
26 


- 532 


655 


26 


11 


— 


63 


25-6 1 








10 9 


— 


64 


26-2 ' 








10 6 
10 3 


— 


65 
625 


25-6 
25-6 


■ 51-8 


63 


26 


10 


— 


595 


25 








9 


— 


— 


— 


498 


58-5 


25-4 



1879. 



194 



itEroirr — 1879. 



Table IX. — Statement of the mean height of boys in the School of 
Christ's Hospital, between the ages of 9 and 16 : — 



Height in 








Number of Boys at each Age 




Inches and 
Half-Inches 












9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 15 


16 


Total 9 to 16 


68 


_ 


_ 







_ 


_ 


1 


1 




67-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 




67 














5 


2 




66-5 














1 


— 




66 












1 


13 


1 




65-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


6 


— 




65 

64-5 
64 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


8 

3 

16 


— 3— 










_ 





3 


9 







63-5 
63 








1 


2 


9 


4 


1 
2 




27 


62-5 












3 


8 


— 




62 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


13 


22 


— 3— 




61-5 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


4 


8 


— 6 — 


1 




61 
60-5 








3 
1 


7 
3 


22 


21 
2 


1 

1 




10 


60-0 


— 


— 


3 


4 


20 


28 


24 


— 3— 




59-5 


— 


— 


— 


1 


6 


8 


3 


1 




59 


— 


— 


5 


6 


27 


—33— 


—16— 


— 




58-5 
58 






2 
6 


5 
21 


11 


8 
28 


3 

15 


1 




29 


57-5 


— 


— 


3 


11 


9 


4 


1 


— 




57 


1 


1 


10 


31 


43 


20 


9 


— 




56-5 
56 




3 

8 


3 
24 


9 
—56— 


10 


8 


1 
4 






35 


25 


55-5 


— 


3 


14 


16 


12 


1 


2 







55 
54-5 




12 

7 


—43— 
15 


41 


38 


17 
6 


5 

1 


1 




12 


16 


54 

53-5 

53 


— 


18 


53 
17 


46 

17 

—43- 


24 

4 

15 


9 
3 

7 


3 
4 


— 




6 
24 


41 


52-5 


1 


13 


16 


19 


3 


1 


— 


— 




52 
51-5 


3 


—23— 

7 


45 


30 
6 


12 
3 


1 
1 








12 


51 


— 4— 


22 


28 


16 


6 


1 










505 


1 


8 


11 


4 


1 













50 


— 6^~ 


—30— 


16 


4 


1 


1 










49-5 
49 


2 


6 
9 


8 
12 


3 
3 


4 


1 




— 




4 


48-5 


— 


6 
















48 


1 


4 


1 


1 
















47-5 








3 


— 















47 
Total 


I 




1 














24 


210 


932 


410 


353 


291 1 236 


22 


1938 



The middle bar in each column indicates the actual mean : the upper bar the 
mean of excess, and the lower bar the mean of defect. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



195 



Table X. — Statement of the mean weight of boys in the School of Christ's 
Hospital, between the ages of 9 and 16 : — 



Weight in lbs. 


Number of Boys at each 


Age 
























9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


145 















1 


— 


140 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


139 
















1 


137 














1 


— 


136 














1 


— 


135 


— 












1 


— 


133 


— 


— 














132 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1 


— 


131 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


3 


— 


130 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


129 














1 


— 


128 


— 


— 














125 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1 


— 


124 


— 


— 














122 














5 


1 


121 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


3 


— 


120 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


4 


1 


119 














2 


— 


8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


5 


— 


7 












2 


4 


— 


6 








— 


— 


— 


1 


4 


1 


5 














4 




4 





— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


3 


— 


3 





— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


3 


1 


2 












3 


7 


— 


1 


— 












3 


1 


110 












2 




— 




109 














2 


— 


8 





— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


4 


1 


7 












— 


3 


1 


6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


4 


3 


1 


5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


2 


9 


— 


4 
3 












4 
4 


5 
2 


— 


2 





— 


— 


— 


1 


7 


4 


— 


1 

100 










3 


7 


3 
4 




2 


7 


99 





— 


— 


— 


1 


5 


2 


— 


8 





— 


1 


— 


5 


6 


11 


2 


7 





— 


— 


— 


3 


7 


3 


1 


6 





— 


— 


— 


3 


7 


— S— 


1 


5 





— 


— 


— 


2 


7 


7 






4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


5 


10 


1 


3 








1 


1 


3 


6 


5 


— 


•/ 





— 


— 


4 


1 


5 


5 


— 


1 





— 


— 


1 


6 


5 


7 


— 


90 


— 


— 


2 


3 


15 


8 


10 


— 


89 





— 


— 


2 


4 


8 


4 


— 


8 


— 


— 


1 


5 


8 


11 


8 


1 





The middle bar in each column indicates the actual mean ; ilic upper bar the 
mean of excess, and the lower bar the mean of defect. 

02 



196 



REPORT — 1879. 



Table X. — Statement 


OF THE 


Mean Weight 


, &C — continued 








Number of Boys at each Age 




Weight in lbs. 
























9 


10 


11 


12 


13 14 


15 


16 


7 


— 








2 


7 


7 


3 


— 


6 


— 


— 


1 


7 


11 


— 11— 


7 


1 


5 
4 






6 


3 

8 


4 


5 
10 


6 

2 




13 


3 


— 


— 


2 


5 


6 


5 


2 


1 


2 


— 


— 


3 


5 


16 


9 


2 


— 


1 


— 


2 


7 


16 


10 


11 


7 


— 


80 


— 


1 


8 


11 


12 


13 


2 


— 


79 
8 




1 
3 


5 

4 


12 

10 


10 


5 

8 


1 
2 




13 


7 
6 




5 
2 


10 

11 


6 


13 
16 


— 11— 
12 


4 
3 




22 


5 


— 


4 


8 


17 


21 


8 


1 


— 


4 


— 


6 


20 


20 


14 


5 


2 


— 


3 


— 


6 


10 


22 


14 


14 


— 


— 


2 





6 


19 


16 


15 


7 


6 




1 


— 


4 


10 


— 18— 


— il- 


2 


1 


1 


70 


— 


12 


19 


22 


ls 


10 


4 


— 


69 





10 


12 


14 


9 


5 


2 


— 


8 


— 


4 


18 


21 


8 


1 


— 


— 


7 


1 


6 


12 


11 


10 


1 


— 


— 


6 


— 


21 


— 32— 


1.3 


10 


3 


1 


— 


5 


1 


7 


17 


— 21— 


8 


— 


— 


— 


4 
3 


1 

2 


4 


16 
25 


20 
11 


2 

4 


2 

1 






8 


2 


— 2 — 


13 


— 19— 


17 


5 


2 


— 


— 


1 


3 


9 


17 


18 


2 


1 


— 


— 


60 


— 


8 


21 


9 


1 


9 


— 


— 


59 


— ."> — 


13 


15 


— 


1 





— 


— 


8 


3 


- 12— 


6 


6 


1 





— 


— 


7 


1 


7 


6 


1 


2 


1 


— 


— 


6 


— 5 — 


23 


14 


5 


2 





— 


— 


5 


— 


2 


1 


— 


1 





— 


— 


4 


— 


4 


2 












3 


— 


2 














2 
1 
50 
49 
8 
7 
6 


1 


4 


4 
4 
1 


1 
2 










1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


2 




— 




— 


— 


Total . . . 


24 


210 


392 


410 


353 




291 


236 


22 



The middle bar in each column indicates the actual mean ; the upper bar the 
mean of excess, and the lower bar the mean of defect. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



19^ 



Table XI. — Statement of the mean chest-girth of boys in the School of 
Christ's Hospital, between the ages of 9 and 16 : — 



Chest-girth in 

Inches and 

Eighths 






Number of Boys at each Age 






9 


10 


11 ] 12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


35 4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


35 














2 


— 


34 6 


















4 


— 












3 


— 


2 


















34 














6 


— 


33 6 


















4 














4 


— 


2 


















33 












1 


8 


2 


32 6 


















4 














3 


1 


2 


— 
















32 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


— 16— 


— 3— 


31 6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


4 














6 


1 


2 


















31 












o 


16 


— 3— 


30 6 
















1 


4 












1 


— 13— 


1 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


30 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


19 


— 


29 6 


— 


1 


— 


3 


— 


— 


1 


— 


4 


— 


— 


2 


1 


— 


— :;— 


7 


2 


2 


1 


— 


3 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


29 


— 


— 


1 


5 


— 


— 


— 12— 


1 


28 6 





2 


5 


7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


— 


2 


7 


3 


— 


— 


3 


1 


2 





2 


8 


3 


— 


— 


2 


— 


28 





11 


12 


5 


— 


1 


15 


— 


27 6 


— 


5 


4 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


— 


6 


9 


— 11— 


— 


2 


3 


— 


2 


2 


4 


3 


10 


— 




3 


— 




27 

26 6 
4 


1 

2 


13 


- 26— 

10 

18 


18 
9 


— 


2 
1 


3 

1 
3 


1 


11 
19 


2 


10 


2 


1 


6 


15 


3 


— 


— 


3 


— 


26 
35 6 


2 
1 


15 


— 30— 
23 


19 
1 


1 


2 







13 


4 


— 1' — 


11 


21 


— 13— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1 


4 


— 13— 


2 


— 


— 


1 


— 


25 


2 


— 24— 


21 


12 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 6 


1 


4 


6 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


2 


14 


13 


7 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


2 


1 


5 


4 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


4 


14 


9 


5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


23 6 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


4 


— 


4 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


23 


— 


— 


6 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


22 6 


— 


1 


2 












4 


— 


1 


1 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


22 


— 


1 


1 












21 


• — 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total . . . 


25 


194 


279 


159 


1 


20 


153 


17 



The middle bar in each column indicates the actual mean ; the upper bar the 
mean of excess, and the lower bar the mean of defect. 



198 



REPORT — 1879. 



TABLE I.— SHOWING THE STATURE (WITHOUT SHOES) 





British-born 






American-born 






(Roberts's ' Manual of Anthropometry,' pp. 7 


2 and 80) 


(Bowditeh ' On the 












Growth of Children,' p. 

41. Baxter, ' Statist. 

Med. and Anthrop.' 

vol. i. p. 19) 




Age 
last 
Birth- 
day 


Professional Class 
Town and Country 


Labouring and Arti- 
san Classes in Towns 
only 


Average English 




Males 


Males 


Males 


Males 




No. 


Inches 


Metres 


No. 


Inches 


Metres 


No. 


Inches 


Metres 


No. 


Inches 


Metres 




Birth 








100 


19-34 


0-491 


100 





0-491 













1 




















8 


29-13 


0-740 




2 


— 


















8 


32-85 


0-834 




3 




















8 


36-37 


0-921 




4 


— 


— 


— 


21 


38-45 


0-977 


21 


38-45 


0-977 


9 


39-50 


1003 




5 


— 


— 


— 


175 


41-16 


1046 


175 


41-16 


1046 


848 


41-57 


1056 




6 


■ — 


— 


— 


327 


43-18 


1-097 


327 


43-18 


1-096 


1258 


43-75 


1111 




7 


3 


4616 


1173 


781 


4501 


1-144 


784 


45-58 


1-158 


1419 


45-74 


1-162 




8 


16 


47-31 


1-202 


1036 


46-99 


1194 


1052 


47-15 


1-198 


1481 


4776 


1-213 




9 


59 


50-18 


1-275 


1182 


49-22 


1-251 


1241 


49-70 


1-263 


1437 


49-69 


1-262 




10 


74 


53-40 


1-357 


111!) 


50-52 


1-284 


1193 


51-79 


1-320 


1363 


51-68 


1-313 




11 


150 


54-91 


1-396 


1080 


51-52 


1-309 


1230 


53-21 


1-352 


1293 


53-33 


1-354 




12 


248 


56-97 


1-448 


620 


52-99 


1-347 


868 


54-98 


1-397 


1253 


5511 


1-400 




13 


473 


58-79 


1-495 


991 


55-93 


1-422 


1464 


57-36 


1-458 


1160 


57-21 


1-453 




14 


477 


61-11 


1-553 


2247 


57-76 


1-468 


2424 


59-43 


1-511 


908 


59-88 


1-521 




15 


541 


63-47 


1-613 


754 


60-58 


1-539 


1297 


6202 


1-575 


636 


62-30 


1-582 




16 


686 


66-40 


1-687 


1018 


62-93 


1-599 


1704 


64-66 


1-643 


827 


64-55 


1-651 




17 


1602 


67-86 


1-724 


453 


64-45 


1-638 


2055 


66-15 


1-681 


1129 


65-90 


1-673 




18 


1522 


68-29 


1-735 


153 


65-47 


1-663 


1675 


66-88 


1-699 


30,540 


66-52 


1-689 




19 


794 


68-72 


1-747 


97 


6602 


1-678 


891 


67-37 


1-711 


14,994 


67-07 


1-703 




20 


391 


69-13 


1-757 


69 


66-31 


1-685 


460 


67-72 


1-721 


11,526 


67-51 


1-714 




21 


340 


6916 


1-758 


55 


66-84 


1-699 


395 


68-00 


1-728 


14,146 


67-78 


1-721 




22 


205 


68-93 


1-752 


36 


66-25 


1-684 


241 


67-59 


1-718 


10,479 


67-92 


1-725 




23 


91 


68-52 


1-741 


29 


66-23 


1-683 


120 


67-37 


1-712 


8907 


6801 


1-725 




24 


45 


68-95 


1-752 


34 


66-62 


1-693 


79 


67-78 


1-723 


7335 


6802 


1-727 




25 


" 


















7940 


6805 


1-728 




26 




















6986 


68-09 


1-729 




27 
28 


. 70 


69-06 


1-755 


72 


66-95 


1-702 


142 


68-00 


1-728 


6351 
6033 


68-11 
68-13 


1-730 
1-730 




29 




















4447 


68-17 


1-731 




30 




















6256 


68-18 


1-731 




31 




















5562 


68-20 


1-732 




32 




















4635 


68-20 


1-732 




33 




















3939 


68-29 


1-734 




34 




















2782 


68-35 


1-736 




35 


















— 


4966 


68-47 


1-739 




36 




















4138 


68-28 


1-734 




37 




















4172 


68-26 


1-734 




38 




















4014 


68-24 


1-733 




39 




















3402 


68-23 


1-733 




40 




















15,750 


68-23 


1-733 




50 




























60 




























70 




























80 




. 





















— 




90 




1 








1 















REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



199 



OF THE BRITISH RACE IN ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 





Anglo- American 


American-born 










(Roberts, 


Bowditch, and 


(Boi 


rditch ' On the 




Belgian 






I 


laxter) 




Growth of Children,' 


(Quetelet, ' Anthropome'trie,' p. 177) 


Age 
last 




All Classes 






P- 51) 




















Birth- 
day 


. 


Males 


Females 


Males. 


Females 




No. 


Inches 


Metres 


No. 


Inches 


Metres 


No. 


Inches 


Metres 


No. 


Inches 


Metres 




100 


1934 


0491 


100 


18-98 


0-482 




19-68 


0-500 





19-45 


0-494 


Birth 


8 


29-13 


0740 


7 


27-86 


0-708 




27-48 


0-698 


— 


27-16 


0-690 


1 


8 


32-85 


0-834 


8 


31-60 


0-796 




31-14 


0791 


— 


30-75 


0-781 


2 


8 


36-37 


0-921 


8 


35-65 


0-906 




3401 


0864 


— 


33-63 


0-852 


3 


30 


38-97 


0-989 


10 


38-36 


0-974 


6 


36-49 


0-927 


— 


36-02 


0-915 


4 




1023 


41-36 


1051 


605 


41-29 


1-049 




38-85 


0-987 


— 


38-35 


0-974 


5 


1585 


43-46 


1-104 


987 


43-35 


1-101 


J 


41-18 


1046 


— • 


4058 


1-031 


6 




2203 


45-66 


1-161 


1199 


45-52 


1156 




43-46 


1-104 


— 


42-81 


1-087 


7 




2533 


47-45 


1-206 


1299 


47-58 


1-209 


a 


45-74 


1-162 


— 


44-97 


1-142 


8 




2678 


49-46 


1-263 


1149 


49-37 


1-254 


o 


47-95 


1-218 


— 


47-10 


1-196 


9 




2556 


51-73 


1-317 


1089 


51-34 


1-304 


a 


50-11 


1-273 


— 


49-17 


1-249 


10 




2523 


53-27 


1-354 


936 


53-42 


1-357 




52-16 


1-325 


— 


51-21 


1-301 


11 




2121 


55-04 


1-398 


935 


55-88 


1-419 


E>> 


54-13 


1-375 


— 


53-23 


1-352 


12 




2624 


57-28 


1-455 


830 


58-16 


1-477 


1 


56-02 


1-423 


— 


55-11 


1-400 


13 




3632 


59-65 


1-516 


675 


59-94 


1-523 


^2 
O 


57-83 


1-469 


— 


56-94 


1-446 


14 




1931 


62-16 


1-579 


459 


61-10 


1-552 




59-56 


1-513 


— 


58-60 


1-488 


15 




2063 


64-61 


1-647 


353 


61-59 


1-564 


<d ■* 


61-18 


1-554 


— 


59-90 


1-521 


16 




6602 


1-677 


233 


61-92 


1-572 


S3 " 


62-75 


1-594 


— 


6087 


1-546 


17 




32,215 


66-70 


1-695 


155 


61-95 


1-573 


64-17 


1-630 


— 


61-53 


1-563 


18 




15,885 


67-22 


1-708 


— 





— 




6515 


1-655 


— 


61-82 


1-570 


19 




11,986 


67-61 


1-718 








— 


65-75 


1-670 


— 


61-98 


1-574 


20 




14,541 


67-89 


1-728 


— 





— 


S 8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


21 




10,720 


67-75 


1-722 


— 


— 


— 


■° o 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


22 




9027 


67-69 


1-720 













— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


23 




7414 


67-90 


1-725 





— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 




" 












,rt CO 


66-22 


1-682 


— 


62-13 


1-578 


25 


























26 




. 38,155 


68-12 


1-728 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


27 

28 
















a 

O 












29 
















+5 


66-38 


1-686 


— , 


62-21 


1-580 


30 




1 












> 

S-l 

n> 

v\ 

& 

O 












31 

32 
33 
34 




• 37,610 


68-28 


1-735 








o 
u 

g 

a 

01 












35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
















£ 

H 


66-38 


1-686 


— 


62-21 


1-580 


40 




— 














6638 


1-686 


— 


62-21 


1-580 


50 




— 














65-98 


1-676 


— 


61-78 


1-571 


60 




— 














65-35 


1-660 


— 


61-27 


1-556 


70 




— 














64-41 


1-636 


— 


60-40 


1-534 


80 




- 












63-38 


1-610 


— 


59-54 


1-510 


90 



200 



KEPOKT 1879. 



TABLE II.— SHOWING THE WEIGHT (INCLUDING CLOTHES) 



Age 
last 
Birth- 
day 


British-born 
(Roberts's 'Manual of Anthropometry 


,' pp. 7 


4 and 8: 


9 


American-born 
(Bowditch, ' On the 




Professional Class 
Town and Country 


Labouring and Arti- 
san Classes in Towns 
only 


Average En 


glish 


Growth of Children,' 
p. 43. Baxter, ' Sta- 
tistics, Medical and 
Anthropological,' 
p. 53) 




Males 


Males 


Males 




No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 


No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 


No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 


No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 




Birth 
1 
2 
3 
4 


— 


— 


— 


100 


7-55 


3-4 


100 


7-55 


3-4 


— 


— 


— 










21 


41-16 


18-6 


21 


41-16 


18-6 










5 


— 


— 


— 


176 


49-99 


22-7 


176 


49-99 


22-7 


848 


41-09 


18-6 




6 


— 


— 


— 


327 


54-19 


24-6 


327 


54-19 


24-6 


125S 


45-17 


20-5 




7 


— 


— 


— 


631 


56-89 


25-9 


631 


59-89 


25-9 


1419 


49-07 


22-3 




8 


16 


6000 


27-3 


1038 


59-00 


26-8 


1038 


59-50 


27-0 


1481 


53-92 


24-5 




9 


59 


62-02 


28-1 


1203 


62-56 


28-4 


1262 


62-29 


28-3 


1437 


59-23 


26-9 




10 


74 


67-44 


30-6 


1126 


66-31 


30-1 


1200 


66-87 


30-4 


1363 


65-30 


29-6 




11 


150 


72-94 


331 


979 


69-46 


31-5 


1129 


71-20 


32-3 


1293 


70-18 


31-8 




12 


248 


80-33 


36-5 


615 


73-68 


33-4 


863 


77-00 


35-0 


1253 


76-92 


34-9 




13 


473 


88-60 


40-2 


1054 


78-27 


35-6 


1527 


83-43 


37-9 


1160 


84-84 


38-5 




14 


477 


99-21 


45-1 


2094 


84-61 


38-4 


2571 


91-91 


41-7 


908 


94-91 


43-1 




15 


541 


110-42 


50-2 


910 


96-79 


44-0 


1451 


103-60 


47-1 


636 


107-10 


48-6 




1G 


686 


128-34 


58-3 


1038 


108-70 


49-4 


1724 


118-52 


53-8 


359 


121-01 


55-0 




17 


1602 


141-03 


641 


504 


121-53 


55-2 


2106 


131-28 


59-6 


192 


127-49 


57-8 




18 


1522 


146-00 


66-3 


147 


128-14 


58-2 


1669 


137-57 


62-5 


84 


132-55 


60-1 




19 


794 


148-20 


67-4 


105 


133-39 


60-6 


899 


141-79 


64-4 


— 


— 


— 




20 


391 


152-07 


691 


68 


142-61 


64-8 


459 


146-34 


66-5 


29 


146-41 


66-5 




21 


340 


152-34 


69-2 


54 142-83 


64-9 


394 


147-58 


67-1 


38 


151-50 


68-9 




22 


205 


154-78 


70-3 


39 


141-13 


64-1 


244 


147-95 


67-2 


34 


153-53 


69-8 




23 


91 


151-70 


69-0 


26 


141-00 


64-1 


117 


146-35 


66-5 


30 


154-23 


70-1 




24 


45 


149-20 


68-0 


35 


142-37 


64-7 


80 


145-78 


66-2 


42 


148-09 


67-3 




25 


- 


























26 




























27 




























28 


► 70 


155-20 


70-54 


60 


146-05 


66-4 


130 


150-62 


68-4 


247 


149-20 


67-8 




29 




























30 
40 


- 


















578 


151-71 


68-9 

































REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



201 



OF THE BRITISH RACE IN ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 





Anglo- A meriean 

(Roberts, Bowditch, 

and Baxter) 

All Classes 


American-born 

(Bowditch ' On the 

Growth of Children,' 

p. 47) 


Belgian 
(Quetelet's ' Anthropometric,' p. 346) 


Age 
last 
Birth- 
day 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 




No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 


No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 


No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 


No. 


Lbs. 


Kilos. 




100 


7-55 


3-4 


100 


7-23 


— 




6-83 


3-1 




6-61 


30 


Birth 




— 














19-84 


90 




18-96 


8-6 


1 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




24-25 
27-55 


11.0 
12-5 




24-25 
2733 


11-0 
12-4 


2 
3 




21 


41-16 


18-6 


— 


— 


— 




30-87 


14-0 




30-65 


13-9 


4 




1024 


45-54 


20-7 


605 


39-66 


18-0 




3506 


15-9 




33-73 


15-3 


5 




1585 


49-68 


22-6 


987 


43-28 


19-6 




39-24 


17-8 




36-82 


16-7 


6 




2050 


52-98 


24-1 


1199 


47-46 


27-1 




43-43 


19-7 




39-25 


17-8 


7 




2519 


56-46 


25-6 


1299 


5204 


23-4 




47-62 


21-6 




41-89 


190 


8 




2699 


60-76 


27-5 


1149 


57-07 


25-9 




51-81 


23-5 




46-30 


21-0 


9 




2563 


66-08 


30-0 


1089 


62-35 


28-3 




55-56 


25-2 




50-93 


231 


10 




2 4l' 2 


70-69 


32-1 


936 


68-84 


31-2 


is 

> 


59-53 


27-0 


3 
> 


56-22 


25-5 


11 




2116 


76-96 


35-0 


935 


78-31 


35-5 


bfl 


63-94 


29-0 


bo 


63-93 


29-0 


12 




2687 


84-13 


38-3 


830 


88-65 


40-2 


o 


72-98 


33-1 


o 


71-66 


32-5 


13 




3479 


93-41 


42-4 


675 


98-43 


44-6 


o 


81-80 


37-1 


o 


80-04 


36-3 


14 




2087 


105-35 


47-9 


459 


106-08 


48-1 




90-84 


41-2 


ci 
i- 


88-20 


400 


15 




2083 


119-76 


54-4 


353 


112-03 


50-8 


u 


100-10 


45-4 


a> 

DQ 


95-91 


43-5 


16 




2298 


129-38 


58-8 


233 


115-53 


52-4 


o 


109-58 


49-7 


o 


103-20 


46-8 


17 




1753 


134-81 


61-2 


155 


115-16 


52-2 


o 


118-84 


53-9 


o 

S-l 


109-80 


49-8 


18 




899 


141-79 


64-4 


— 


— 


— 




127-00 


57-6 


3 


114-88 


52-1 


19 




488 


146-87 


66-7 


— 


— 


— 


131-19 


59-5 


117-30 


53-2 


20 




432 


149-54 


68-0 


— 


— 


— 




134-94 


61-2 




119-73 


54-3 


21 




278 


150-74 


68-5 


— 


— 


— 




138-69 


62-9 




120-82 


54-8 


22 




147 


150-29 


68-3 


— 


— 


— 




142-22 


64-5 




121-71 


55-2 


23 




122 


146-93 


66-8 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 




— 


— 


24 


• 


■::: 


149-91 


68-1 








< 


145-97 
145-75 


66-2 
66-1 




12304 
121-93 


55-8 
55-3 


25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 




578 151-71 


68-9 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 






— 


40 



202 report— 1879. 

By the kindness of the authorities, a circular from the Committee was 
distributed with the annual official return forms to every industrial and 
reformatory school in the Kingdom, and returns have been obtained 
from several such schools ; some of the results of which are shown in the 
foregoing tables. 

The Committee have also addressed insurance companies with the view 
of inducing their medical officers to keep accurate records of the physical 
measurements of persons whose lives are proposed for insurance, and 
in some instances have been informed that attention will be given to the 
matter. 

They have also addressed the following circular to the head-masters 
of Public Schools : — 

' The Anthropometric Committee of the British Association have 
directed me to forward you the enclosed papers, with the view of calling 
your attention to the great service which the Public Schools might render 
to Anthropometric Science by establishing a system of statistical record 
of height, weight, strength, &c, for the purpose of ascertaining the laws 
of growth and development in youth and adolescence. 

' Some schools have already furnished the Committee with valuable 
information of the kind desired. Marlborough School, for example, has, 
for the last seven years, published in the Reports of the School Natural 
History Society details of height, weight, chest and other measurements of 
the boys ; and these statistics have been abstracted under the direction 
of the Committee. The "Warden of Christ's Hospital, Major Brackenbury, 
has for several years recorded the same details. 

' The Committee hope that you may be induced to attempt a similar 
record in your own school, and I am directed to say that they will gladly 
render any assistance they can in setting it on foot. They are confident 
that, when once established, you will find the materials collected so full of 
interest and usefulness in many ways, that you will not regret any little 
trouble it may give you at the outset, and they therefore do not refrain 
from asking at your hands this service to Science, however unwilling 
they may be to trespass upon time already fully occupied. 

' The Medical Officer and the Drill Master of the School would, no 
doubt, do whatever may be necessary towards preparing a complete and 
accurate record.' 

Several replies to this circular have already been received from public 
schools ; among them, the Head-master of Eton (the Rev. J. J. Hornby, 
D.D.), who writes that he will be happy to do what he can to establish a 
system of statistical record of height, weight, strength, &c, at Eton, for 
the purpose of the Committee, at the termination of the present vacation. 

Mr. Roberts, a member of the Committee, whose ' Manual of Anthro- 
pometry ' is of the utmost value to inquirers, has furnished the Committee 
with a series of observations, illustrated by diagrams, and accompanied 
by the following remarks on the establishment of a standard of stature and 
weight. These are given as a specimen of the manner in which the infor- 
mation the Committee is collecting may be made available. 

' The accompanying tables and charts show that the average height 
and weight varies with the social position and occupation of the people, 
and to obtain the typical proportio us of the British race it would be neces- 
sary to measure a proportionate number of individuals of each class, or a 
community which comprised all the classes in the proportions in which 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



203 



they exist in the whole nation. If we take the census of 1871 we shall 
find that such a model community would consist of 14 - 82 per cent, of the 
non-labouring class, 47"46 per cent, of the labouring class, and 37*72 per 
cent, of the artisan and operative classes. Bat as many trades are con- 
fined to certain districts it would be very difficult to find such a repre- 
sentative population in a limited space in this country. The nearest 
approach to one would be found in some of our larger county towns, such 
as York, Derby, or Exeter, with a large portion of the surrounding agri- 
cultural districts. 

' As the statistics which I have collected in England represent various 
classes rather than the general population, I have arranged them in a 
double series — a most favoured class and a least favoured class — and I 
have adopted the average of the two extremes as typical of the English 
nation. The American statistics, with which 1 have compared my own, 
are very valuable, as they represent the general population of the United 
States. Dr. Bowditch's data were collected " in nearly all the public 
(common) schools of the city of Boston, in several schools in South Bos- 
ton, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Jamaica Plain; in the Institute of Tech- 
nology, in two Latin schools, a school for young ladies, and in several 
public (common) schools in Brookline," (" On the Growth of Children," 
8th An. Rep. State Board of Health of Mass., 1877), and Dr. J. H. Bax- 
ter thus vouches for the representative character of the statistics published 
by the United States Government : — " It should be borne in mind that 
this statistical matter does not relate to soldiers already in the service — 
picked men in no wise representing the masses — but to the people, the 
men engaged in every occupation ; the professional man and the man of 
letters, the trader, the merchant, the clerk, the artisan and the unskilled 
labourer." (" Statist. Med. and Anthrop.," vol. i. p. 19.) 

' The accompanying tables and charts show the relation which exists 
between the height and weight (1) of the most favoured and the least 
favoured classes of the English population ; (2) between the English and 
Americans of British origin ; (8) between the two sexes of the British 
race ; and (4) between the British and Belgian populations of both 
sexes. 

' 1. The height and weight of the English male population. (Chart 
tracings No. 1 ; tables I. and II., columns 1, 2, and 3.) From birth 
to the age of 6 or 7 years the statistical data are imperfect, but it 
is probable from the directions of the curves of growth that all classes 
of the English population are about the same in height and weight at 
this period. After the age of 8 years the curves diverge very rapidly, 
the divergence being due to a slower development of the labouring and 
artisan class. 

' After 8 years the professional class exceeds the labouring and artisan 
class, thus : — 



At 8 years the Professional Class exceeds the Labouring 

and Artisan Class by 
„ 10 years 
» 12 „ 
» 14 „ 

„ 16 and 17 years 
» 18 » 19 » 
» 20 „ 21 „ 
„ 25 to 30 „ 



>J 


» 


J> 


» 


)> 


J9 


» 


)> 


)> 









Height. 


Weight. 


Inches. 


lbs. 


0-32 


1-0 


2-88 


113 


3-98 


6-65 


3-35 


1460 


3-44 


19-55 


2-76 


16-33 


2-50 


9-50 


211 


915 



204 keport— 1879. 

'The greatest difference in height is at 12 years, when it amounts to 
about 4 inches ; the greatest difference in weight is at 17-18 years, when 
it amounts to nearly 20 lbs. The full stature is attained earlier in the 
professional than the artisan class ; in the former about the age of 21 
years, and in the latter between 25 and 30 years. The American statis- 
tics show that a slight increase in height takes place up to the 35th year. 
The growth in weight does not cease with that of the stature, but con- 
tinues slowly to increase in both classes up to about the 30th year. 

' 2. The relation between the height and weight of English-born and 
American-born subjects. (Chart tracings No. 2 ; tables I. and II., columns 
3, 4, and 5.) 

' A comparison of the average stature of the English and American 
branches of the British race shows that they are nearly identical from 
the age of 4 years to the period of full growth, but the weights differ at 
the two ends of the curves. 

' In stature, between the ages of 4 and 8 years, the American exceed 
the English by rather less than half an inch ; but this is, no doubt, to be 
attributed to the fact that the English statistics during this period are 
derived entirely from our town population. From 9 to 15 years the sta- 
ture of the two branches of our race is the same, and from 16 to 22 it is 
slightly in favour of the English. At adult life the Americans are a little 
taller than the English, but the number of the English observations after 
the age of 22 is not sufficient to determine this point accurately. 

' In weight, from the age of 5 to 10 years, the English exceed the 
Americans, but this is probably to be attributed to the greater weight of 
the clothes worn by the poorer classes in this country. At 12 the weight 
is equal ; from 13 to 16 it is in favour of the Americans, from 17 to 19 of 
the EngUsh, and after 20 years of the Americans. The number of obser- 
vations for each age after 16 years of the Americans are too few to be 
relied on. 

' Mr. Gould and Dr. Baxter have shown that, of the recruits for the 
American Army those born of American parents are taller than those born 
of English parents, and it has been inferred that a change has taken place 
in the physical proportions of our race in that country. Dr. Baxter found 
the average stature of the American-born recruits, between the ages of 
30 and 35 years, to be 6822, the English-born 66-92, and the Irish-born 
66-91 inches. But the difference in height is to be explained by the dif- 
ference in the class from which the recruits were drawn. The English 
and Irish being emigrants from this country consisted almost entirely of 
the labouring and artisan class, which we find in this country has an 
average stature of 66'95 inches ; while the American recruits were drawn 
from all classes of the community by conscription. The average height 
of all classes in England between the ages of 25 and 30 years is 68 - 00 
inches, and of the corresponding ages in America 68T2 inches, and the 
slight advantage which the Americans possess is probably due to the 
very large number of observations (38,055) from which the average is 
drawn, compared with the very small number of the English (142). 

' The averages of the stature and weight of the two great branches of 
the British race being so nearly alike, I have deduced from tbem a typical 
standard of height and weight for the whole British (Anglo-Saxon or 
Anglo-American) race, which will be found in the 5th column of Tables 
I. and II. This standard does not consist of any one of the nationalities 
— English (and Welsh), Scotch, and Irish— of which our race is com- 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



205 



Table III. — Showing the Height (without shoes) of Recruits for 
British and American Armies. (All born in Great Britain) : — 



the 



Age last Birthday 


Recruits for the British Army 


Difference 


England 


Scotland 


Ireland 


England 


Scotland 


Ireland 


17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
" 24 
25-30 


No. 

560 

2923 

2122 

1532 

1112 

1000 

804 

831 

451 


Ins. 

65-61 

6669 

67-04 

67-08 

67-36 

67'55 

67-18 

67-80 

68-15 


No. 
134 

1000 
538 
400 
295 
263 
188 
300 
98 


Ins, 

66-58 

6701 

67-51 

67-76 

67-84 

67-77 

68-06 

67-95 

68-09 


No. 
176 

1323 
725 
534 
303 
305 
200 
246 
138 


Ins. 

66-36 

66-82 

67-42 

67-14 

67-87 

67-76 

67-70 

68-02 

68-39 


Ins. 

£ ° 

H t 

3 &£ 

a c« eu 

0) <D 

0-06 


Ins. 
0-97 
0-32 
0-47 
0-68 
0-48 
0-22 
0-88 
0-15 


Ins. 
0-75 
0-13 
0-38 
006 
0-51 
0-21 
0-52 
0-22 
0-24 


Total for 1862-3, 

Minimum standard 

66-0 inches 


1 11,335 


67-16 


2316 


67-62 


3950 


67-50 


— 


0-46 1 0-34 


Total for 1864-5, "| 
Minimum standard [ > 2068 
65-0 inches j J 


66-99 


559 


67-41 


1517 


67-25 


— 


0-42 


0-26 


American recruits \ lfi , 0( , 
of British birth / ib ' lat> 


66-57 


3476 


67-06 


50,537 


66-74 


— 


0-49 1 0-17 


British recruits are ' ' 
taller than American 
of the same nation- 
ality by ! 


— 


0-50 


— 


0-46 


— 


0-63 


— 


— 


— 



Table IV. — Showing the Weight of Recruits for the British Army (with- 
out clothes) : — 



Age last Birthday 


Recruits for the British Army 


Difference 


England 


Scotland 


Ireland 


England 


Scotland 


Ireland 


17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25-30 


No. 

560 

2923 

2122 

1532 

1112 

1000 

804 

831 

451 


Lbs. 
124-5 
130-3 
133-5 
136-5 
138-5 
1399 
142-2 
1415 
142-5 


No. 
134 

1000 
538 
400 
295 
263 
188 
300 
98 


Lbs. 
122-5 
126-4 
131-7 
133-6 
133-4 
134-2 
135-1 
135-9 
137-1 


No. 
176 

1323 
725 
534 
303 
305 
200 
246 
138 


Lbs. 

123-6 

1297 

134-8 

138-5 

1400 

141-1 

1400 

143-2 

143-9 


Lbs. 
20 
3-9 
1-8 
2-9 
51 
5-7 
7-1 
5-6 
5-4 


Lbs. 

£ bp 

<u '53 

u * 

o ° 
Jj 


Lbs. 
1-1 
33 
31 
4-9 
6-6 
6-9 
4-9 
7-3 
6-8 


Total for 1862-3 . 


11,335 


136-6 


3216 


132-2 


3950 


137 2 


4-4 


— 


50 


Total for 1864-5 , 


2068 


137-9 


559 


138-9 


1517 


138-0 


— 


1-1 1-0-9 
















3-3 j 41 



206 report— 1879. 

posed, but of all three in various proportions. In my statistics the 
English predominate ; in the American, Irish blood must be very laro-ely 
represented, and there is a large admixture of the Scotch element in both. 
In order to distinguish the relative stature and weight of the three na- 
tionalities I have had recourse to the army returns of both countries, and 
the results are given in detail in Tables III. and IV. (as shown on pre- 
ceding page). 

' These tables show that the English (and Welsh) recruits are shorter 
in stature than the Irish by O30 of an inch, and the Scotch by 044 of an 
inch ; and the American recruits bom in Great Britain are about half an 
inch shorter in stature than those of corresponding nationality in the 
English army. 

' The Scotch recruits in Great Britain though possessing the greatest 
stature, are lighter in weight than the English (and Welsh) by 3 - 3 lbs., 
and the Irish by 4 - l lbs., and the Irish are nearly 1 lb. heavier than the 
English. 

'Lowering the standard of height from 66 inches in 1862-3 to 65 
inches in 1864-5 lowered the average stature of the English by 017 inch, 
of the Scotch by 021 inch, and of the Irish by 025 inch ; but there was 
an increase of weight in all three nationalities. In the Scotch it amounted 
to 67 lbs. 

' It is probable that the stature of the English recruits is lowered by a 
large admixture of Welsh, and by the young musicians, who are almost 
entirely of English birth and often under the standard height. 

1 3. The relation between the height and weight of the two sexes of the 
British or Anglo-Saxon race. (Chart tracings No. 3 ; tables I. and II., 
columns 5 and 6.) 

' My statistics of the height and weight of females in England are 
very limited in extent (from 8 to 14 years of age), and refer only to the 
labouring and artisan class. As the average male population of England 
and America are so nearly identical, we may accept the measurements of 
American girls published by Dr. Bowditch as applicable to this country 
also. These were collected in the common schools in Boston and sur- 
rounding neighbourhood, under the same circumstances and at the same 
time as the males, and fairly represent the general population. They are 
given in column 6 of tables I. .and II., and the tracings are shown in 
diagrams 3 and 4. The observations at the time of birth are English, 
collected by myself, but all the remainder are American. 

' At birth girls are about ^ of an inch shorter tban boys, and from 1 to 
4 there is a much wider difference, but the statistics are too few to deter- 
mine the amount. From 5^ to 10^ the stature of the two sexes is nearly 
the same, the advantage being slightly in favour of the boys ; but after 
the age of 11^ and up to 14^ years the girls are the taller ; at 12^ the 
difference is 0'84, and at 13^ 088 of an inch. From 15^ to 18^ the growth 
of the boys is much greater than that of the girls. At 15 the difference 
in favour of the boys is T06 inches; at 16, 3 - 02 inches; at 17, 4"10; and 
at 18, 4 - 85 inches, at which age the females probably attain their full 
stature. (Chart tracings No. 4; tables I. and II., columns 5, 6, 7, and 8.) 

' In considering the weight of the two sexes, we find that at birth girls 
are ^ lb. lighter in weight than boys ; at 5 and 6 the difference amounts 
to about 6 lbs., but after the latter age the weights gradually approximate, 
and at 12 they are identical. From 12^ to 15^ the girls are heavier than 
the boys, the difference at 13J being 452 lbs., and at 14^, 5'02 lbs. At 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 207 

15-| the weight of the two sexes is again identical, and after this period 
the excess is largely on the side of the boys ; at 16^ it is 7"73 lbs., at 17^, 
13-85 lbs., and at 18£, 19-27 lbs. 

' As M. Quetelet's tables are the only complete series of observations on 
the height and weight of both sexes, and at all ages, we possess, and as 
they have been generally accepted by anthropologists and physiologists 
as reliable standards, especially at ages below the adult period of life, I 
have added his figures to my tables, and traced their relation to the British 
statistics on the diagrams 3 and 4, for the purpose of comparison. M. 
Quetelet does not state the number of observations on which his tables 
were based, but they were few (" peu considerable." " Anthrop." p. 182); 
and probably did not exceed ten individuals for each age (" Anthrop." p. 
24); moreover, the measurements were made on persons "regularly formed," 
and therefore to a certain extent selected. It is necessary to bear these 
facts in mind in estimating the value of M. Quetelet's tables as standards 
of reference, and when comparing them with the English and American 
tables based on many hundreds of observations for each age. M. Quetelet 
does not state whether the values for each age are for the birthday or for 
the interval between two birthdays, and I have therefore arranged them 
like the British, as representing the age between two birthdays. This is 
important, as bearing on the absolute height and weight, but not on the 
curves of growth. In the tracings on diagrams 3 and 4 the lines repre- 
senting the Belgians would be one division of the scale nearer to the lines 
representing the English if the figures represent the birthdays, but the 
relative position of the various curves would remain the same. If M. 
Quetelet's figures represent the heights and weights of the birthdays 
exactly, there is a diff erence of half a year in favour of the British at all 
ages after that of birth. 

' The curves show that growth in height is greater in the British from 
birth to 5 years than in the Belgians. From 6 to 12 years the curves 
approximate, and the difference is two-thirds less than it was at 5 years of 
age. From 13 to 17 years the growth of the British is much more rapid 
than that of the Belgians, the difference in stature at the latter age 
being about four times greater than it is at 12 years. At adult life the 
difference in height of the males of the two countries is nearly 2 inches, 
while the height of the females is the same in both. The most marked 
differences of the height of the two peoples, is in the relation of the two 
sexes, the British girls being taller than boys from 11 to 14 years, while 
the Belgian females are shorter than the males throughout their lives. 

' The curves of the weight of the body in the two countries are very 
similar, except that the weight of the British girls from 12 to 15 is 
greater than that of the boys of the same ages, whereas the weights of the 
Belgians of both sexes are the same at 12, but at all other ages the 
females are lighter than the males. 

' The differences between British and Belgian statistics cannot be attri- 
buted to differences in race, as they are not uniform throughout, and we 
must consider M. Quetelet's tables, based as they are on so small a number 
of observations, rather as approximations or estimates of the stature and 
weight of his countrymen. The difference in the height and weight of the 
sexes, which was first pointed out by Dr. Bowditch (" Boston Med. and 
Surg. Journal," 1872), has quite escaped the notice of M. Quetelet, 
although he has published some British statistics, which demonstrate its 
existence, and it has been confirmed by all the statistics which have been 



208 report— 1879. 

collected since. The difference is due to the more rapid growth, and the 
attainment of maturity at an earlier age, of females than males, for we 
find that the curve representing females between the ages of 11^ to 18^ 
is almost identical with the curve representing males between the ages of 
14^ and 21^ years, these two periods corresponding with each other in 
the physical development of the two sexes. It is probable that the curve 
representing males from 11 to 14 years is depressed a little by school life 
and the earlier occupation of boys than girls, but the chief difference is 
obviously attributable to the quicker development of girls, as it is found 
to exist in all classes of the community. The large number of observations 
included in my tables show that the difference is constant, and it must there- 
fore be accepted as a fact essential to the proper study of the growth of 
civilised races, no matter from what cause it may arise.' 

The attention of the Committee has been directed to the progress of 
anthropometric research in other countries. The ' Annals of Statistics ' 
for 1878, published by the Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Com- 
merce of Italy, has two anthropometric papers of considerable interest 
directly bearing on the subject of this Committee's inquiry. The first is 
by Dr. L. Pagliani on the development of the human body. Referring 
to his own work 'Sopra alcuni fattori dello sviluppo umano,' to Dr. 
Bowditch's investigations as to the growth of children, and to ' Die 
Entwickelung des Menschen in den der Geschlechtsreife vorangehenden 
spateren Kindesjahren und im Jiinglingsalter (von 7 bis 20 Jahren) in 
Verhaltniss zum Geschlecht, zur Ethnographie und zu den Nahrungs- und 
Lebens-Bedingungen in Moleschott's Untersuchungen zur Naturlehre des 
Menschen und der Thiere,' Dr. Pagliani confirms the observation of Dr. 
Bowditch that up to 10 years of age the stature and weight of children 
of both sexes present but little difference, though they are always in 
favour of boys ; that from 10 to 15 years of age the difference becomes 
greater, and is always in favour of girls ; and that after 15 the boys 
reassert their superiority, and are found to be taller and heavier. Dr. 
Pagliani also confirms Mr. Roberts's observation that the economic 
condition of the child has much influence on his, or her, weight and 
stature. In weight and stature alike the children of the labouring 
classes stand lower than the children of the well-to-do classes. This 
is the result of a considerable number of observations in Tui-in, and 
is fully borne out by the diagram which accompanies the memoir. 
Signor Cesare Lombroso in his paper ' On the Anthropometry of the 
Lucchesia and Garfagnana ' endeavours to prove from the high stature, 
black hair, formation of the head, tending to the dolichocephalic, or 
head of the African type, i.e. one with its diameter from side to side 
notably shorter than the diameter from front to back, the opposite 
to brachycephalic, and from other distinctive characteristics, that the 
people of those States come from the old Etruscan race. Both memoirs 
illustrate in a conspicuous manner the utility and importance of the in- 
quiry which our Committee has undertaken to institute. M. Quetelet's 
work upon 'Man (Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses facultes),' is well 
known. But at this moment extensive inquiries in the same direction are 
being made in Germany, the United States, and other countries. Recent 
political events, moreover, have imparted a fresh interest on questions of 
races, and if we are able to extend our researches over all the portions of 
the British Empire, the home of so many races, we may contribute largely 



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REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 209 

to the amount of general knowledge on the physical and intellectual 
powers of man. 1 

Professor Bowditch, of Harvard, Mass., has published a supplementary 
investigation of the growth of children, with suggestions in regard to 
methods of research, in the 10th Annual Report of the State Board of 
Health (Boston, 1879). His object was to ascertain whether differences of 
race or differences in the mode of life affect the rate of growth the more 
profoundly. The general conclusion he arrives at is that mode of life, as 
indicated by the occnpation of the parents, is equally important with race 
in determining the rate of growth of children. In his remarks on An- 
thropometrical methods, Dr. Bowditch reprints, with approval, the forms 
and instructions which have been issued by this Committee, and recom- 
mends the manual and chart prepared by Mr. Roberts. He also advises 
the use of the card system, extensively adopted in Germany, in which the 
facts relating to every single person are collected upon a card, which can 
be combined with other cards in any number of ways, according to the 
nature of the facts desired to be grouped together. This plan the Com- 
mittee have resolved to adopt wherever it can conveniently be applied, 
and a form of card has been drawn up for use by the head-masters of" 
public schools. 

A special inquiry has recently been instituted in almost every primary 
school throughout Switzerland, at the instance of a Committee of the 
Societe des Sciences Naturelles, for the purpose of ascertaining the dis- 
tribution of the different colours of the iris, hair, and skin, as connected 
with the settlement of the aboriginal races in that country. 

The coincidence of these several inquiries with that undertaken by 
this Committee is exceedingly interesting, and leads to the hope that, 
from all these various sources, information of great value may in due 
course be elicited. 

The Committee have made progress during the year in the collection 
of typical photographs of the inhabitants of the British Islands, and have 
compiled an album which is exhibited to this section. A sub- Committee 
has been appointed for Bradford, but has not yet furnished a report. 
Mr. Soi-by, LL.D,, F.R.S., has kindly undertaken to assist the Committee 
m Sheffield with the results of his experience and observation. The 
Committee hope to continue this branch of their operations during the 
coming year. 

_ In addition to the collections referred to in the last Report, the Com- 
mittee have been favoured with several other gifts and loans, and in par- 
ticular with the loan of a fine collection, comprising 102 Maori and 4 
Fijian photographs belonging to Mr. Alfred Eccles, of Torquay, with per- 
mission to select from them such as may be suitable for reproduction in a 
collection of photographic types of the races of the Empire. 

The Committee owe thanks to the numerous emplovers of labour 

head-masters of public schools, medical officers of volunteer regiments' 

public officers, and other persons who have furnished them with statistics! 

s well as to those who are now engaged in the collection of observations 

tor their use next vear. 

1 Communicated by Professor Leone Levi. 
1879. 



210 report— 1879. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Dr. G. Haet- 
ladb, Sir Joseph Hooker, Capt. F. M. Hunter, and Professor 
Flower, appointed to take steps for the Investigation of the 
Natural History of Socotra. 

The Committee have not held any formal meetings, but have been in fre- 
quent communication with each other on the subject. ' 

The best time for the exploration of Socotra being from November to 
March, the Committee were not able to make the necessary arrangements 
last autumn. Next winter, however, they believe that Colonel H. H. 
Godwin-Austen, than whom no more competent naturalist could be found, 
will be able to undertake an expedition to Socotra, and to make a thorough 
investigation of its natural history. Colonel Godwin-Austen has applied 
to the Surveyor- General of India for the use of some of the assistants on 
his staff, and proposes to make a complete topographical survey of the 
island during the expedition. 

It is estimated that the total cost of the expedition will be about £300. 
Of this £100, granted by the Association last year, has been received by 
the Committee and deposited in the London and County Bank at interest. 
The sum of £175, having been devoted to this same purpose out of the 
Government Fund of £4,000 administered by the Royal Society, has been 
paid to Colonel Godwin- Austen, and has been added to the account at the 
London and County Bank. 

There remains, therefore, only £25 requisite to complete the sum of 
£300, which the Committee consider will be required for the expedition. 

The Committee request that the Committee for the investigation of 
the Natural History of Socotra may be reappointed, with the additional 
name of Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, and that the balance of £25 
necessary to complete the estimate of expenditure may be placed at their 
disposal. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. J. Bramwell, 
Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, 
Mr. C. W. Meruifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunel, 
Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), Professor James Thomson, and 
Professor Sir William Thomson, on Instruments for Measuring 
the Speed of Shij^s. 

It is with feelings of gTeat regret that the Committee have to advert to 
the death of their chairman, the late Mr. Wm. Froude, M.A., F.R.S. 
His somewhat sudden demise was a great loss to science, and especially 
to that branch of investigation — the action of waves upon ships — to 
which he had devoted himself. His loss must be greatly regretted by 
the British Association generally, but more particularly by this Com- 
mittee, since by his death was left incomplete that series of experiments 
upon those instruments for measuring the speed of ships, which had been 
referred to this Committee to report upon, and which, at the instance of 



ON INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SPEED OF SHIPS. 211 

the Committee, he most kindly undertook to carry out at the experi- 
menting tank at his house at Torquay. 

The result of the first portion of those experiments be presented, 
through this Committee, to the Association at its meeting at Belfast in 
1874. The second and concluding part he did not live to complete. 

His son, Mr. R. Edmund Fronde, who assisted his father throughout 
the entire of his first set of experiments, has, however, communicated to 
the Committee the result of some experiments carried out by Mr. Wm. 
Froude last year with H.M.S. Iris, upon a pressure log, the form of 
which was in accordance with the conclusions drawn from the first set of 
experiments, detailed in the Report of 1874. 

The results are, it is understood, confirmatory of the views held by 
the late Mr. Froude. 

The Committee deem themselves fortunate to be able to terminate 
their labours by the presentation of this document as an appendix to this 
report. They have only to add that having ascertained that the first 
series of experiments for the Report of 1874 had entailed upon the late 
Mr. Wm. Froude expenses amounting to 171. Is. 8d., they have refunded 
that amount to his executors (out of the 501. originally granted to the 
Committee). 



Appendix. 

To the Secretary of the British Association Committee on Instruments for 
Measuring the Speed of Ships. 

Chelston Cross, Torquay, 27th July, 1879. 

Dear Sir, — In compliance with your request I proceed to give a 
description of the character and behaviour of the pressure log used in the 
M.M. trials of H.M.S. Iris last summer, in so far as it throws light upon 
the points suggested for further inquiry in ray father's Report to the 
Committee at the Belfast meeting of the Association in 1874. 

In the Iris two pressure tubes were used which I will call A and B. 
Both were 1^ inches external diameter. Tube A finished at the outer 
end in a gunmetal disc 8 inches diameter, and T 2 „ inch thick, turned in 
a lathe on both faces nicely flat and square to the axis of the tube. The 
disc extended completely across the tube end, so as to close it. Tube B 
was simply plugged up, the plug being turned off square and true to the 
axis, forming a plain flat end to the cylindrical tube. In each tube was 
fitted a central tube of smaller diameter. A nice clean hole about 
^th inch diameter was drilled in the centre of the closed end of each 
tube, communicating with the central tube, and a similar hole in the side 
of each tube communicating with the annular chamber round the central 
tube. In tube A the side hole was distant 2 inches from the outer 
surface of the disc, in tube B it was distant 3 inches from the outer 
surface of the closed end. A cross section of each tube is given above. 
Each of the two chambers in each of the two tubes communicated with 
a gauge glass, the level of the water surface in which indicated the 
pressure in the chamber. There were thus four gauge glasses in all, 
two communicating with the side holes of the two tubes, two with the 
end holes. 

p2 



212 



REPORT — 1879. 



Both tubes were fixed in the upright side of the ship (of course nicely 
square to the plating) between 2 and 3 feet below the water level, and a 
little way abaft the midships. [The Iris, it should perhaps be stated, is 
300 feet long, 46 feet beam, 18 feet mean draught (on trial). She has 



Dl RECTI on of] 

MOTION OF 

TUBE 




ZERO .HOLE 

Fig. 1.— Tube A. 





PRESSURE 
HOLE 



DIRECTION OF 
MOTION OF 
TUBE 



ZERO HOLE 

Fig. 2.- Tube B. 

Cross-sections of tubes A and B, half size. 

exceptionally fine lines for her length, the ratio of displacement to circum- 
scribing cylinder being only -54.] Tube A was 9 inches further forward, 
and also 9 inches nearer the water surface, than tube B. Both tubes 
worked in stuffing boxes, and could be set so as to project any desired 
distance from the side up to about 23 inches. 



ON INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SPEED OF SHIPS. 213 

The object of the application of a pressure log to the ship was to aid 
in the determination of the speed during the steam trials ; the special 
object of the use of two tubes and other principal peculiarities of the 
arrangement just described was to investigate, if opportunity should 
serve : (1) the effect of distance of pressure hole from the ship's side (in 
virtue of difference of position in regard to the frictional wake) ; (2) the 
extent to which, if at all, the indication given by a pressure hole not far 
from the end of a plain tube such as tube B, falls short of that given by 
one in the side of a tube fitted with an end plate or disc, such as tube A ; 
(3) the relative goodness of the measures of general pressure of water 
(to wive the zero of the scale of pressure due to speed) respectively 
afforded by the hole in the end of the disc-tube A when projected far from 
the ship's side, and that in the end of the plain tube B when drawn in 
flush with the ship's side. (That some such arrangement as either of 
these might fulfil the desideratum of a ' working zero ' was suggested in 
Mr. Froude's Report.) The general method in which the two tubes were 
to be utilised for the above objects, was to retain one of the two unaltered, 
as a check on variations of speed or trim of ship, while the desired 
variations of condition were successively introduced into the other, and 
the effect noted. 

Experiments of this kind could not however be carried on during the 
runs on the mile, and as a fact circumstances did not admit of the 
investigation of the points above described except in a- very hasty and 
cursory manner during a preliminary run. During the runs on the mile 
the disc tube alone was used, retained unaltered, at a projection of 15 
inches (to the outer surface of the disc), the side hole being of course used 
for the pressure, the end hole for the zero. The trials of the ship in 
which the log was used were made on two different days, there being on 
each day 8 runs on the mile, namely, 4 at 16 knots, 2 at 12 knots, and 2 
at 8 knots. 1 During each run over the mile, the zero of the scale by 
which the height of column was read off, was held level with the surface 
of water in the glass communicating with the ' zero ' hole, the height of 
column in the pressure tube being noted by the scale every 12 seconds; 

The speed of the ship through the wa.ter in any series of measured 
mile runs in tidal water has of course- to be inferred from the recorded 
times occupied in running the mile, by the aid (explicit or implicit) of 
some assumptions in respect to the character of the variations of tide that 
may have been occurring throughout the series of runs. The method of 
eliminating tidal errors adopted by Mr. Froude in analysing the results of 
the measured mile runs of the Iris would take too long to explain here ; 
suffice it to say that it is clearly as accurate a method as can be found, 
since it utilises to the full all the obtainable facts. 

The information yielded by the experiments generally may be stated 
as follows. 

1 . Comparison of speed theoretically appropriate to height of column 
indicated by log, with speed of ship through water estimated from time 
running the mile, in the manner above referred to, assigns about "925 
to 1, as the average ' rate ' of the log (or ratio of speed of ship to 
apparent speed bv log). The results are not inconsistent with the 
supposition that the ' rate ' was uniformly -925 at all speeds ; but are 

1 Four runs were also taken on each day at full speed (about I8i knots), but the 
log could not be used in these. 



214 BEPOET— 1879. 

more consistent with the supposition of a variation of rate at different 
speeds from about - 91 to "93. The impossibility of making a more definite 
statement than this is an example of the impossibility of ' rating ' a log 
very correctly for different speeds, by runs on the measured mile in a 
tideway, except by means of a great number of runs. 

2. The instrument did not appear very sensitive to the effect of varia- 
tions in distance of pressure aperture from the ship's side, at any rate 
wben such distance exceeded one foot. 

3. The pressure hole in the side of the plain tube B gave little if at 
all less height of column than that in the disc tube A. (This agrees 
with proposition (3), page 257, in the 1874 Report.) 

4. The ' zero ' holes in the ends of tubes A and B both gave the same 
height of column when tube B was, not flash with the ship's side, but 
projecting about 2 inches ; the column given by tube B when flush with 
the side being the greater of the two by perhaps 2 per cent, of the whole 
head due to the speed of the ship at the time. There was no means of 
testing which of these two ' zero ' holes (or whether either) gave the 
correct zero of pressure. As speed increased both sank somewhat, rela- 
tively to a fixed point in the ship, but whether more or less than the 
water outside the ship was not ascertained. I am myself doubtful whether 
the excess of pressure given by the zero hole in tube B, when flush with 
the ship's side, relatively to that given by the zero hole of the disc-tube 
A, is a genuine excess of pressure on the former due to some action of 
the frictional eddies, or a genuine defect of pressure on the latter due to 
the tube being possibly not dead square to the side (the disc consequently 
moving somewhat obliquely through the water). An error of squareness 
of the tube to the ship's side of 1° (pointing sternward) would, perhaps, 
have been competent to produce the observed effect. 

Now, as to the information afforded by these results on the points 
suggested by the 1874 Report, as needing solution. 

The treatment of the subject in that Report suggests a division of the 
question into two, namely (1), the operation of the pressure log regarded 
simply as a measure of its own speed in reference to the water it passes 
through (the foremost difficulty here involved being that of establishing 
a 'working zero ' for the instrument) ; (2), in what way its operation as 
an independent measure of the ship's speed through the water is affected 
by the motions impressed by the passage of the ship on the fluid she dis- 
places ; in other words, by the difference between the speed of the in- 
strument through the water it meets with and the speed of the ship in 
reference to the surrounding ocean. 

The Report described a series of experiments which dealt only with 
question No. (1), and stated that the investigation of question No. (2) 
might perhaps be introduced as a part of the methodical series of expe- 
riments on resistance of ships which Mr. Froude was conducting at 
Torquay. The investigation would certainly be of great value in refer- 
ence to the general question of resistance of ships ; but the pressure of 
other work has, I regret to say, prevented its being undertaken. 

Of the results obtained in the Iris, and which I have above enume- 
rated, Nos. (3) and (4) are pertinent only to question No. (1), namely, 
the performance of the instrument regarded as a measure of its own 
speed through the water it meets with. I think they show that a hole 
iu the side of a tube, as much as two diameters distant from its end, will 
burnish as good a measure of pressure due to the speed of flow past it 



ON INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SPEED OF SHIPS. 215 

-as can be wished ; and that a small hole in the closed end of another 
tube, flush with the ship's side, will furnish at any rate a very tolerable 
working zero. 

The results I have numbered (1) and (2) are, so far as they go, per- 
tinent to question No. (2), namely, the effect on the indications of the 
log, produced by the motions caused by the ship in the surrounding 
water. The information they afford is, however, very slight, as I will 
proceed to show. 

The motions caused by the ship in the surrounding' water are two- 
fold, namely, the frictional wake, and the stream line (or quasi- stream 
line) motions. On the frictional wake part of the ques ion, the experi- 
ments which were intended to be made in the Iris (as stated in paragraph 4, 
above), on the effect on the pressure column of distance of the pressure 
hole from the ship's side, would have given most important information, 
had the trials of the ship permitted of their being properly carried out. The 
hasty observations actually made, though sufficient to show that the pres- 
sure hole, at a distance of a foot from the side, is clear of the extreme 
ardency of the frictional wake, do not inform us how far it is necessary 
that the pressure hole should be from the ship's side (at any given dis- 
tance from the bow of the ship), in order for it to be altogether clear of 
the wake. Yet if it is not altogether clear of it, the instrument cannot 
be a permanently satisfactory measure of the speed of a ship which has 
to remain long afloat, because any fouling of the ship and conseqnent in- 
crease in skin friction, must increase the speed of frictional wake at given 
speeds and given distance from the ship's side, and consequently diminish 
the pressure indicated by the log at given speed. 

With reference to the more complicated question of the effect of the 
stream line or quasi-stream line motions upon the ' rate ' of a pressure 
Jog, the measurement of the ' rate ' (as by these experiments) in the 
special case of the Iris, with the log in the single position in which it was 
tried, is of small general value. The experiments which Mr. Froude 
contemplated making in reference to this point, referred to in the 1874 
Report, were to be of the nature of the application of a pressure log 
to a great variety of models of ships in a great variety of positions. I 
do not think that Mr. Froude expected that the information so ob- 
tained would do more than enable us to so place the log in any given 
ship, that its 'rate' should be approximately predeterminable and so far 
uniform for all speeds, that it could be ' rated ' with sufficient accuracy 
for ordinary sea-going purposes by a few runs at one speed on the mea- 
sured mile. 

In the absence of these special experiments, our present knowledge of 
the phenomena attendant on the passage of a ship through water may be 
brought to bear advantageously on the question of the right place in the 
ship for a pressure log ; and as I have had the advantage of frequently 
discussing the subject with Mr. Froude, and had other opportunities for 
its special study, in connection with our experiments on Resistance, I may 
be permitted perhaps to add a few words in reference to it. 

At low speeds in smooth water, when the surface of the water sur- 
rounding a ship is visibly quite undisturbed by waves cansed by her 
movement, it cannot be doubted that the motions taking place at various 
points in the surrounding water are simply those which would take place 
in the same positions relatively to a symmetrical submerged body the 
lower half of which was similar to the immersed hull of the ship. 



216 REPORT— 1879. 

It is an accepted proposition of the stream line theory that the stream 
lines surronnding a submerged body are similar in character at all speeds, 
the speed of stream at any one point in tbe system bearing at all speeds 
the same proportion to the speed of the submerged body. We may as- 
sume then that as with a submerged body so also with a ship moving at 
the surface of water, the speed of stream at any given point with refer- 
ence to the ship (except in the purely frictional wake perhaps) will be 
proportional to the ship's speed, at all speeds up to that at which sensible 
waves commence to be formed. This would, moreover, continue to be 
the case at higher speeds could the water surface be forcibly kept level 
by a water deck (for instance) surrounding the ship in all directions, at 
the level of her water-line. 

Put then a pressure log where you will, its ' rate ' will under the sup- 
posed conditions be constant for all speeds. 

In the actual case of a ship without the imaginary water deck, the 
' rate' will be in the same manner constant at all low speeds, and will at 
higher speeds vary with varying speed only in virtue of the introduction 
of the new set of fluid motions appropriate to the wave system which 
begins to accompany the ship at higher speeds, and which essentially varies 
in its character with varying speed. 

The predominant characteristics of the wave system which thus comes 
into play at the higher speeds may be roughly noted, so far as pertinent 
to the pressure log question, as- follows : — ■ 

(1) The wave system may be divided into two distinct series, the 
transverse and the diverging, in the former of which the line of crest is 
nearly square to the line of motion, in the latter trailing backwards at an 
angle of forty or fifty degrees. 

(2) The waves (of the diverging series particularly) are comparatively 
short along the line of crest, and die away gently into the level water a& 
the ends. 

(3) Each series of waves is a continuous series, which, though it has 
an abrupt commencement at the bow of the ship, 1, has no definite termi- 
nation, but extends away backwards wave behind wave, the waves only 
very gradually diminishing in height as they lengthen along the crest. 

(4) In the transverse series the waves are placed directly one behind 
the other, or nearly so, so that in a ship with very long parallel sides the 
crests of the waves may be seen in cross section against the side repeated 
one after the other. In the diverging series, on the contrary, a line drawn 
from the highest point of each wave crest to the highest point of the next, 
and from that to the next, and so on, intersects the lines of the crests at 
an angle much sharper than the angle contained between the lines of the 
crests and the line of motion of the vessel. The consequence of this 
arrangement is that none of the diverging series of waves touch the side 
of the ship at all, with the exception of the first member of the series^ 
which has its highest point near the stem of the ship (and in some cases 
the second member also in a very small degree). 

(5) The system of proper local motions of the water composing the 
waves probably resembles that recognised as appropriate to ocean waves, 

1 I am speaking here only of waves originating at the entrance of the ship, and 
which are the only ones very important in reference to the pressure log question ; but 
it is worth noting that a very similar set of waves, of both transverse and diverging 
character, originate at the run of the ship also, the two sets of transverse waves (i.e. 
the bow set and the stern set) becoming fused into one joint series. 



ON INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING THE SrEED OF SHIPS. 217 

namely, a forward motion under the crest and a backward motion under 
the trough, tbough these local motions clearly cannot be supposed in the 
leading members of the system to penetrate the water so deeply as in 
properly formed ocean waves. 

(G) The transverse waves are necessarily much longer (measured 
normally to the line of crest) than the diverging waves, and their proper- 
motions therefore probably penetrate much the more deeply of the two. 
(In ocean waves the wave motion at a depth equal to about one-ninth the 
wave depth is held to be about half that at the surface.) 

(7) The diverging wave system is well marked at moderate speeds, at 
which the transverse system scarcely appears. When, however, the speed 
of the ship becomes high in comparison with her length of entrance, the 
transverse system comes rapidly into promiuence. 

(8) The lengths of the waves (that is, their distance apart measured 
normally to the ci'est line) vary as the square of the speed, and as the 
leading wave crest remains always at the bow of the ship, change of speed 
changes considerably the fore and aft positions of the subsequent members 
of the transverse series relatively to fixed points in the side of the ship, 
this rate of change of position increasing with distance sternwards. 

The general effect of the wave system upon the 'rate ' of a pressure 
log fixed, near the water surface, amidships in a ship with long parallel 
side will, then, be somewhat as follows. At moderate speeds at which 
the transverse wave series does not come into play, the effect of the wave 
system on the log will be nil, and the : rate ' will be the constant ' rate ' 
due to the stream line motion at its position. As the speed increases and 
the transverse waves appear, and lengthen out with increasing speed, the 
log indication will be alternately increased and diminished relatively to 
the true speed, according as the speed reached brings trough or crest 
over it. This kind of result would clearly be almost the most inconvenient 
imaginable, 1 and though I have supposed an extreme case, the evil would 
in most cases partake of the character I have sketched. 

The most objectionable feature in this supposed result is clearly due 
to the change of position of the wave features relatively to the logs which 
accompanies change of speed, and the magnitude of this evil is clearly 
lessened generally speaking by putting the log as far forward as possible, 
and therefore closer to the bow wave, the stationary or datum point of the 
system, but by so doing it will be rendered more subject to irregularities 
in its action due to pitching of the vessel. T am inclined to think that 
underneath the position of the first wave-trough at a little under the full 
speed of the ship would generally give about the best result, and I con- 
sider this position (independently of the pitching question) preferable to 
the back slope of the bow wave, for although the absolute effect of the 
wave on the indication of the log would be more in the former position 
than in the latter (in fact on the midslope it would be nil), the change of 
wave position due to change of speed would produce a more changing 
effect (and cause a more rapidly changing ' rate ') in the latter position 
than the former. 

It is of course advisable to put the log as deep as possible, and indeed 

1 It did not indeed appear noticeably in the Iris, although the log was, as has 
been stated, amidships and quite close to the water surface; but she is a ship with 
nothing resembling parallel sides, and makes no transverse waves of importance 
until she comes to making a single wave from end to end, with the trough amid- 
ships. 



218 report— 1879. 

a log near the keel of the ship would be altogether out of the depth of the 
effect of the divergiug waves, though not of the transverse waves, except 
perhaps in deep slow ships. 

To rehearse briefly the statements and line of argument of this com- 
munication. 

(1) The behaviour of the pressure log in H.M.S. Iris showed that a 
pressure hole in the side of a 1^ inch tube, and 3 inches from the end, 
gave substantially the same pressure reading as one in the side of a similar 
tube fitted with a disc at the end, such as that above described as 
tube A.. 

(2) The Iris pressure log results further show that either a small 
hole in the end of a tube with a disc such as tube A, when projecting 
from a ship's side ; or again a small hole in the end of a plain tube, such 
as tube B, set with the end flush with the ship's side, will furnish a very 
serviceable ' working zero ' for the pressure column. 

(3) Though the Iris results show that at a distance of 150 feet or so 
from the bow of a ship a pressure hole more than one foot distant from 
the ship's side may be accounted as clear from the extreme ardency of 
the frictional wake, it remains to be tested how far distant from the side 
a pressure hole need be (at any given distance from the bow) in order to 
be so far clear from the frictional wake that the instrument may be ac- 
counted as unaffected in ' rate ' by the degree of cleanness of the skin of 
the ship. 

(4) There is an absence of direct experimental data generally appli- 
cable to all cases, as to the effect on the ' rate ' of a pressure log, of the 
' stream line' (or quasi-stream line) motions of the water surrounding 
the ship. Variability of such ' rate ' with vai'yiug speed is clearly a 
much greater evil than absolute greatness of such ' rate,' as involving 
great additional difficulty in correctly ascertaining its value for a given 
ship at all speeds by means of M.M. ' Trials.' Our general knowledge of the 
fluid conditions essential to a ship's progress through the water are so far 
of assistance to us, in the absence of proper experimental data, in that 
it shows pretty clearly (a) that ' stream line ' motions proper, i.e. those due 
to motion of a submerged body (or a ship at the surface at low speeds) 
would cause a ' rate ' of log constant for all speeds ; and that varying 
speed will produce varying ' rate ' only in virtue of the formation of sur- 
face waves ; (b) that to avoid the variability of ' rate ' with varying speed, 
introduced by the wave system, the best plan appears to be to fix the log 
as deep below the surface as possible ; and, in fore and after position, 
vertically under the position of the first wave-trough at rather less than 
the full speed of the ship. — I remain, dear sir, yours faithfully, 

R. Edmund Froude. 



ON THE DATUM-LEVEL, ETC., OF GREAT BRITAIN. 219 

Th ird Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Major-General Strachey, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Kogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, and 
Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
considering the Datum-level of the Ordna,nce Survey of Great 
Britain, with a view to its establishment on a surer foundation 
than hitherto, and for the tabulation and comparison of other 

Datum-marks. 

[Plate XIII.] 

Appointed in 1875 at the Bristol meeting, to inquire into some uncer- 
tainties as to the exact position of the Datum-level of the Ordnance 
Survey of Great Britain, the Committee presented in 1877, at the 
Plymouth meeting of the Association, a Report upon the subject. 

At the conclusion of that report, the Committee requested to be re- 
appointed ' in order to obtain information as to some of the various local 
datum-marks in use in the British Isles, and to endeavour to ascertain 
the difference of each relatively to the Ordnance datum ; which would 
thus become a means of comparison between them.' 

The Committee beg to present, as an appendix to this Report, a list 
of about fifty local datum -marks in Great Britain ; the connection of each 
of which has been obtained on reliable authority. In Ireland the position 
of some datum-marks there relatively to the datum of the Ordnance 
survey of that country has also been ascertained. 

On the assumption that the mean sea-level, as given in the book of 
Ordnance levels of the respective countries, is uniform across the Irish 
Sea, the difference between the systems of levels in use in the two coun- 
tries has been computed. In a similar way also has the difference been 
ascertained between the Ordnance datum of Great Britain and the official 
datum in nse in France (Zero du Nivellement general de la France — 
ligne de Bourdaloue) ; and, through it, with the official levelling in 
Belgium and in Holland. Several local datum-marks in these countries 
hp.ve been obtained, each with the connection with the Government 
levelling of its own country. 

The Committee trust that this list may serve as a basis, which maybe 
further extended, and become a means of obtaining accurate comparative 
levels, not merely for engineering and other levelling operations, but also 
for the connection of tidal observations round our coasts. On the 
assumption already mentioned, of an uniform sea-level, tidal observations 
on the adjoining coasts of Ireland and of the Continent may also be 
included. 

The question of a suitable datum-level as a basis for these international 
tidal observations, has been considered by the Committee. A level which, 
while sufficiently low, so as to exclude negative readings, shall bear an 
easily found relation to the respective datum-marks of the different 
countries, is requisite for the purpose. 

It is found that, with the differences given in the list appended, a 
level of • 20 ft. below the Ordnance datum of Great Britain ' coincides 
(to within O'OT metre, or § in.) with ' 5-50 metres below the French 
Zero du Nivellement;' and also to '12 ft. 6 in. below the Ordnance 
datum of Ireland ' (to within 0-04 ft., or \ in.). This level has, more- 
over, the advantage of being below the range of almost all the tides 



220 



REPORT — 1879. 



round our coasts, excepting the low water of a few equinoctial springs at 
two or three points, such as in the River Severn near to the mouth of the 
Avon, and in the Bay of St. Malo on the coast of France. 

In conclusion, the Committee beg to add, that the 10?. granted to it 
has been expended ; in expenses, in connection with levelling to ascertain 
the exact relative position of the Ordnance datum of Great Britain, and 
in correspondence and in other matters in the preparation of the list of 
local datum-marks appended hereto. 



Appendix. — List of various Local Datum Marks in use in the British 
Isles, with difference of each from the Ordnance Survey Datum Level. 





England. 




Ordnance Datum of 
Great Britain 


Mean Sea Level at Liverpool, from 

Observations taken in 1844 by Ordnance 

Survey Department 


Ordnance Datum 
of Great Britain 


Authi rity 






Feet 








Above 


Below 




Trinity H.W. 


H.w. mark on east side of Hermitage 


1250 


— 


J. N. Douglass. 


Standard 


entrance of London Docks. 








(River Thames) 


- 








Avonmouth 


Inner sill of lock, Bristol Port and 
Channel Dock. 


— 


7-5 


J. Brunlees. 


Barrow . 


Outer sill of Rarnsden Dock . 


— 


17-25 


F. C. Stileman. 


Birkenhead 


Outer entrance to Alfred Dock (12 
ft. below O.D.S.). 


— 


16-07 


G. F. Lyster. 


Boston . 


Black sluice sill (91-30 ft. above, 
100 ft. below Ordnance). 


— 


8-7 


W. H.Wheeler. 


Bristol . 


Sill of Cumberland Basin 


— 


10-68 


T. Howard. 


Cardiff . 


Sill of sea gates of Bute Dock . 


— 


10-72 


J.licConnochie 


Dee 


Zero of tide-gauge, Chester. (Dee 
standard is 15 ft. above zero of 
this tide-gauge). 


1-38 




G. A. Bell. 


Devonport 


Sill of New Long Dock . 


— 


— 


S. L. Church- 
ward. 


Dover 


Zero of tide-gauge at Admiralty Pier 


— 


8-70 


E. Druce. 


Ellesmere Port 


.Sill of Entrance Dock (6 ft. above 
O.D.S.) 


113 


— 


Captain G. H. 
Hills, R.N. 


Fleetwood 


Datum of New Docks 


— 


12-00 


Sir J. Hawk- 

shaw. 


Garston . 


Sill of Old Dock .... 


— 


9-58 


J. N. Shool- 
bred. 


Goole 


Lower sill of Outer Ship Lock. 


— 


3-82 


W. H. Bartho- 
lomew. 


Goole 


Datum of Admiralty Chart (2 ft. 
8 in. on sill of Ship Lock). 


— 


1-66 


Captain E. K. 
Calver, R.N. 


Grimsby . 


Datum of Admiralty Chart 


— 


9-55 


Captain E. K 
Calver, R.N. 


Hartlepool 


Old Dock sill 


— 


13-36 


J. Howkins. 


Harwich . 


Zero of tide-gauge .... 


— 


70 


A. A. Langley. 


Holyhead 


Zero of tide-gauge (tidal observa- 
tions, 1875). 


— 


10-45 


Sir J. Hawk- 
shaw. 


Hull 


Humber Dock sill . ..... 


— 


14-33 


R. A. Marillier 


Hull 


Datum of Admiralty Chart 


— 


9-45 


Captain E. K. 
Calver, R.N. 


King's Lynn . 


Free Bridge datum, zero of gauge 
(mean of Ordnance B.M.'s). 


— 


4-95 


Rogers Field. 



ON THE DATUM-LEVEL, ETC., Or GREAT BRITAIN. 



221 



List of various Local Datum Marks, &c. — continued. 



England — continued. 


Ordnance Datum of 
Great Britain 


Mean Sea Level at Liverpool, from 

Observations taken in 1844 by Ordnance 

Survey Department 


Ordnance Datum 
of Great Britain 


Authority 






Feet 








Above 


Below 




Liverpool 


Level of Old Dock sill datum (Can- 
ning Island gauge). 


— 


4-67 


Ordnance 
Survey. 


Lowestoft 


Zero of tide gauge .... 


— 


13-5 


A. A. Langley. 


Nene Valley . 


Ordnance B.M. cut into quoin- 
stone of cellar near Peterborough 
Bridge. 




25-83 


Sir J. Coode. 


Newhaven 


Zero of tide-gauge (Tidal Observa- 
tions, 1878) 




8 03 


F. D. Banister. 


Newport 


Outer sill of Alexandra Dock (44 ft. 
below coping). 


~ 


" 


J. Abernethy. 


Piel 


Zero of tide-gauge .... 


— 


14-0 


F. C. Stileman. 


Portishead 


Outer sill of Portishead Docks. 


— 


11-86 


F. C. Stileman. 


Portland 


Admiralty datum (l.W.S.t.) 


— 


1-57 


J. O. Andrews. 


Portsmouth . 


Sill of No. 6 Dock of H.M. Dockyard 

(L.W.O.S.T.) 


~~ 


666 


H. Wood. 


Ramsgate 


Zero of tide-gauge .... 


— 


11-72 


R. Braine. 


Runcorn . 


Sill of Duke's Dock .... 


— 


3-46 


J. F. Bateman. 


Sheerness 


Zero of tide-gauge (mean water 
level). 


1-44 




Col. Lloyd and 
Ordnance 
Survey. 


Silloth . 


Sill of dock entrance 


— 


— 


J. Abernethy. 


Shoreharn 


Zero of tide-gauge (tidal observa- 
tions, 1878). 


~~ 


7-75 


W. Swales. 


Southampton . 


Top of coping at N.W. corner of 
outer dock. 


12-5 




A. Giles. 


Sutton Bridge 


Zero of gauge at (94- 18 ft. above, 
100 ft. below Ordnance). 




5-82 


W.H.Wheeler. 


Swansea . 


Sill of lock, East Docks . 





1446 


J. Abernethy. 


Tees 


177-7 ft. below top of stone sill of 
Fardenside House, High Worsall. 




83-5 


J. Fowler. 


Tyne, river 


H.W. of a spring tide (observed by 
George Rennie, May 31, 1813), 
marked on the Low Lighthouse, 
N. Shields. 


8-94 




P. J. Messent. 


Wear . 


(Rennie's standard) H.W.O.S.T. 


7-60 


— - 


H. H. Wake. 


Welland . 


Zero of gauge at Fosdyke Bridge 
is set to Ordnance datum. 


O'O 


~~ 


W. H.Wheeler. 


Whitehaven . 


Zero of tide-gauge .... 


— 


4-75 


J. Brunlees. 


Widnes . 


Sill of Old Dock 


1-83 


— 


J. F. Bateman. 


Wisbeach 


Town datum 50 ft. below B.M. cut 
in church tower (being 6375 ft. 
lower tban Nene Valley datum). 




32-21 


W. H.Wheeler. 


Yarmouth 


l.w.o.s.t (tidal observations, 1878) 





3-89 


W. Teasdel. 


Scotland. 


Aberdeen 


(Harbour Works) sill of south, or 
single entrance of the Victoria 
Dock. 





14-62 


W. Dyce Cay. 


Dundee . 


Sill of Bang William IV. Dock 

(L.W.O.S.T.) 





7-18 


D. Cunning- 
ham. 


Glasgow . 


Clyde datum, 6£ in. above the 
springing of the arches of Glas- 
gow Bridge. 


1381 




J. Deas. 


Leith 


Sill of Old Dock .... 


— 


9-03 


G. Robertson. 



222 



REPORT — 1879. 



List of various Local Datum Marks, &.C. — continued. 



Ireland. 



Ordnance Datum 
of Ireland 



Belfast . 

Dublin . 

Hawlbowline 
Island, near 
Queenstown 



i,.\v. of Spring Tides in Dublin Bay, 
being 20-90 below a mark on the base 
course under the south window of 
Poolbeg Lighthouse. Supposing mean 
sea level on English Coast to be the 
same, the above datum is 8094 ft. 
below mean level of sea round Ire- 
land, which is 0-623 ft. above Ordnance 
datum of Great Britain. The Irish 
Ordnance datum is, therefore, 7'46 ft. 
below that of Great Britain 



Harbour datum, level of No. 2 Old 

Graving Dock sill. 
Port of Dublin, north wall, standard 
Floor of New Graving Dock . 



Ordnance Datum 
of Ireland 



Feet 



Above 
2-92 

1-43 



Below 



22-30 



Authority 



T. R. Salmon. 

P.. B. Stoney. 
C. Andrews. 



Europe. 




Ze'ro du Nivellement (Bourdaloue). This 










is mean tide level at Marseilles, and it 










is found to be 0-80 m . below the mean 










tide level of the Atlantic and English 








French Datum 


Channel Ports of France 


French Zero du 


De'pot de la 


(De'pot de la 


On the assumption that this last mean 


Nivellement, 


Guerre, 


Guerre) 


sea level coincides with the mean sea 


Bourdaloue 


Ponts etChausse'es 




level of the Ordnance of Great Britain, 






(Baudot) 




the French Ze'ro du Nivellement is 










0-61™. (200 ft.) below the Datum of 










the Ordnance of Great Britain 












Metres 








Above 


Below 




France — 










Boulogne 


Zero des Cartes Marines (Chazallon) 


— 


4-13 


Ponts et Chaus- 
sees (France) 


Calais 


>, )> » 


— 


3-17 


5, 


Dieppe . 


!> >> J> 


— 


4-21 


>» 


Dunkerque 


») »» i> 


— 


2-42 


>> 


Havre 


,, >> j> • 
(Zero of self-registering tide-gauge 
0T0 m lower). 




4-29 


>> 


Treport . 


Zero des Cartes Marines (Chazallon) 


— 


4-21 




Belgium 


Zero du depot de la Guerre 


— 


1-37 


Ponts et Chaus- 
sees Belgium) 


Ostende . 


Zero du busc de l'ecluse des bassins 
de Commerce (zero of self-regis- 
tering gauge). 




3-01 


(Maus) 


Holland 


Piel d'Amsterdam (Standard level) 


0-91 




Dutch Water- 
staat (Maus) 






■)»' h Report Brit: Assoc, )879. 



Plate Xm 






Feet Metres 
3 



Amsterdam Pie7 



l/f (tn ' S'fci L eiv Z 

English (>r-dii< nice Datum 




v 



t^ 






Depot de lev 



3 4- 

4 

5 

64- 



i Ordnance Patient 



8 
9 

]() 

Jl-H 



Zero d Pstende 



(Belaian Datum) 



t> 

cc 



TZ 

18 H 
11 

15+ 

16 ; 

17 -F 
18 
Feet 19+ 



-SO 



— 5 



1 (Jhitch Datum ) 



Ni veau rn oyeti d e Ju^Emgr Atlutifique 



i<C 



g« 



French NiveUement qeheral" 

■©-- if — -* ^ 






1 



Guerre (Belgium) 






(Ireland) 









o JBi«sf d? h'ectuse eke* hcussins de commerce, 

S — % a ^ 



.Zen? <i*j/ Mare.graphe 



-5 



--5 



£ . 
i 



5 Metres 



Datum fin- International Tidal Observations 



JUusUxOmg the 8Tf Report of the Committee on the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 



Stotttiweodt ieCLith London 



ON SELF-ACTING INTERMITTENT SirHOSS, ETC. 223 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. W.William- 
son, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. Beamwell (Secretary), 
Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merbi- 
field, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Professor Abel, Mr. J. R. Napier, 
Captain Douglas G-alton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, 
Mr. Macrory, and Mr. H. Trdeman Wood, appointed for the 
purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on Patent 
Legislation. 

The Committee have to report that they have held several meetings, at 
which they prepared a memorial upon the Bill for the Amendment of the 
Patent Laws, brought in by the Home Secretary and the Attorney- 
General. 

This memorial is printed as an appendix to the Report of the Council, 

p. lxiii. 

The memorial was presented to the Attorney-General by a deputation 
from the Council of the Association on the 17th of May last. 

The bill became a lapsed order ; but the Committee have every reason 
to hope that their recommendations will be duly considered if a similar 
measure should be introduced in the next or any future session. 



On Self-acting Intermittent Siphons and the Conditions which 
Determine the Commencement of their Action. By Rogers 
Field, B.A., M. Inst. C.E. 

I A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in externa 

among the Reports.] 

In the discussion on Mr. Barlow's paper on the upward jets of Niagara, 
read at the Plymouth meeting of the Association, I made a few remarks 
with reference to an improved form of self-acting siphon I had invented, 
the action of which depends on the power of falling water to drag air 
alono- with it, and I now, by request, will give a description of the action 
of this siphon illustrated by a working model. 

Before proceeding to describe the peculiarities of this siphon, it will 
be well to say a few words generally as to self-acting siphons employed 
for the intermittent discharge of fluids from vessels. The idea of em- 
ploying siphons in this way is by no means new, and I may instance the 
philosophical toy, called ' Tantalus's cup,' which many of us have seen 
in our youth. In this cup there is a concealed siphon, which is brought 
into action when the cup is raised to the mouth to drink, so that the 
water sinks away from the lips and cannot be drunk. A self-acting 
siphon has also been employed for emptying vessels used for measuring 
water, as in Osier's and Bickley's self-recording rain gauges, as well as 
on a large scale for reservoirs. 

The chief difficulty to be overcome in applying siphons in this way 
is to start them or pnt them in action. In an ordinary siphon, such 
as that shown in fig. 1, the siphon will not be put in action unless the 



224 



REPORT — 1879. 



Fie. I, 



I 



Wm 






' 



! 



Mil 



m 



Fie. 2 




Fig. 3. 




ON SELF-ACTING INTERMITTENT SIPHONS, ETC. 225 

water in the vessel rises above the top of the bend of the siphon, and it 
will be readily seen that if the siphon is of any size, this will require a 
large accession of water in the tank, so that the siphon will not work 
except in cases where there is a large flow of water. 

This difficulty can, to a considerable extent, be overcome by dipping 
the outer leg of the siphon in water, as shown in fig. 2. The water 
which runs over the bend of the siphon will then drag a certain quantity 
of air with it, and drive this air out at the lower mouth of the siphon, 
and as the air cannot return in consequence of this mouth being sealed, 
the air in the outer leg: is gradually reduced in tension below the 
atmospheric pressure. Whether this partial exhaustion of the air in the 
outer leg is sufficient to start the siphon, depends on the quantity of water 
that runs over the siphon, but the quantity required will be much less 
than if the outer end were open, and it will not be necessary for the water 
in the vessel to rise above the top of the bend of the siphon. 

Although the expedient of dipping the outer leg of the siphon in 
water greatly induces the quantity necessary to start the siphon, the re- 
quired quantity is still very considerable if the siphon is of any size, and 
further expedients have therefore been adopted to reduce this quantity. 
One of the simplest of these expedients is to have two siphons of different 
sizes connected together by a tube at the crown, and so arranged that the 
water runs through the smaller siphon first. The outer ends of both 
siphons are dipped in water, the smaller siphon then starts with a com- 
paratively small quantity, and afterwards by means of the connecting 
tube exhausts the air from the larger siphon, and brings it also into 
action. This method was adopted by Professor James Thomson, F.R.S., 
in 1860, for his jet pump, and it was also carried out on a large scale in 
France in 1867, at the Reservoir de Mettersheim. In this latter case, 
there are two siphons of about 28 inches in diameter, each of which is 
put in action by a smaller siphon of 6 inches in diameter. 

This expedient, however, and several others which have been adopted, 
leave much to be desired, as they are to a certain extent complicated, 
and yet do not sufficiently reduce the quantity required for starting the 
siphon to enable it to be used in many cases. The method which I am 
now about to describe is both simpler and much more effective. 

In an extensive series of experiments which I tried some years ago 
on siphons, with their outer legs dipped in water, I was much puzzled by 
finding that the quantity of water necessary to put a siphon of given size 
in action varied in the most unaccountable way at different times. The 
only difference that could be perceived between the cases in which the 
siphon started and those in which it did not start was, that in the former 
case air-bubbles escaped freely at the mouth of the siphon, whereas in 
the latter case, under apparently the same conditions, very few bubbles 
came out. At last the idea suggested itself to me of making a portion of 
the siphon in glass, so as to see what was going on inside the pipe, when 
the cause of the irregularity was at once discovered. Sometimes the 
water which ran over the bend adhered closely to the sides of the pipe; at 
other times a portion of it would fall more or less clear of the sides. When 
the water adhered to the sides it produced very little effect in displacing 
the air, so that only a small quantity of air was driven through the water 
at the mouth of the siphon. When, on the other hand, the water fell clear 
of the sides, it produced a great effect iu displacing the air, and large 
bubbles of air at once escaped from the mouth of the siphon. 
1879. Q * 



226 beport— 1879. 

I pursued the investigation further by producing artificial irregularities 
in the pipe, and I then found the more completely I could throw the 
water clear of the sides of the pipe, the greater effect it produced in ex- 
pelling the air and starting the siphon. The form of siphon which I 
have finally adopted as most effective is shown in fig. 3, and in the 
working model. 

The siphon consists of two concentric tubes, A and B, the outer one, A, 
being closed at the top, and steadied and supported by three radial ribs 
projecting from the inner tube, B. The annular space between A and B 
constitutes the ascending or shorter leg of the siphon, and the inner tube, 
B, the descending or longer leg. At the upper mouth of B is fixed a conical 
shell, c, projecting inwards clear from the inner surface of the tube, B. 
The lower mouth of B dips into a discharging trough, d, which has a weir, 
E, level with this lower mouth. The action is as follows : — When the 
vessel is full, the water begins to trickle over the edge of the conical shell, 
c, and is so directed by the shell as to fall towards the centre of the tube, 
B, quite clear of the sides, thus producing the maximum effect in displacing 
the air. The action of the siphon soon commences, and continues till the 
water in the tank is lowered to the level of the lower mouth of A, after 
which air is admitted by that mouth to the siphon, and the action ceases. 

In some cases, the quantity of air admitted at the end of the discharge, 
though sufficient to stop the siphon, is not sufficient to fully charge it with 
air, so that the next discharge will commence before the water in the 
vessel has risen to its full height. To obviate this, the best expedient is 
a secondary siphon, f, fixed in the trough, d, and put into action by the 
discharge from the larger siphon, A B. "When this discharge has stopped, 
the siphon f continues in operation, so that the water in the trough, D, is 
drawn off, the lower mouth of the pipe, B, unsealed, and the larger siphon 
fully charged with air. Presently, also, the action of the secondary siphon, 
f, is also stopped by the admission of air. When the vessel is filled, and 
water trickles over the shell, c, the trough d is again filled up to the level 
of the weir, and the siphon A B becomes sealed. 

There are other minor conditions which affect the commencement of 
the automatic action of the siphon, such as the roughness of the top of the 
conical shell c, the ratio of the area of the tank to the area of the siphon, 
the length of the siphon, &c, but these I will not go into. 

In conclusion, it is evident that the above form of self-acting siphon 
will be of great practical use for a number of purposes. I will merely 
mention one, namely, that of flushing sewers, by means of small quantities 
of water which ordinarily run to waste. Take, for instance, a drinking 
fountain, the water which escapes from it is, under ordinary circumstances, 
absolutely useless for flushing purposes. Collect this water, however, in 
a tank with a large self-acting siphon, and as soon as the tank is full, be 
it in one day or in several days, the siphon will be brought into action, and 
the contents of the tank discharged with great rapidity. The trickle from 
a drinking fountain would start a siphon of as much as 10 or 12 inches' 
diameter of the improved form, and would, therefore, flush a sewer of 
considerable size, say nearly 3 feet in diameter. 



ON PALAEOZOIC BOCKS IN SOUTH-EAST OP ENGLAND. 227 

X)n some further Evidence as to the Range of the Palceozoic Rocks 
beneath the South-East of England. By Eobeet A. C. 
Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed 
in extenso among the Reports.] 

[Plate XIV.] 

In a communication to the Geological Section of the meeting of the British 
Association at Plymouth in 1878 I called attention to the significance 
of the result of the deep boring at Messrs. Meux's, as to the Upper 
Devonian beds there met with, next beneath the cretaceous strata, also as 
to the importance of some further knowledge as to the direction of the 
-dip of the said Upper Devonian beds. An accurate acquaintance with this 
point is essentially needed with reference to its immediate bearing on a 
question which may possibly become one of national importance, namely, 
the place of the true Coal-measure series, beneath our south-east area, and 
which must serve as an excuse for another short communication on the 
.same subject. 

The question involved has attracted the attention of sundry foreign 
geologists during the past year ; and upon our own area facts have been 
ascertained which now enable us to arrive inferentially at what, but a 
year since, was mere speculation. 

M. Dewalque, at a meeting of the Belgian Geological Society, 1 remarked 
first on the absence of Jurassic and Triassic deposits, as along the Palaeozoic 
ridge extending from the Ardennes by the north of France ; being just 
what the borings at St. Trond, Laeken, Menin, and Ostende, would 
indicate. Secondly, that inasmuch as the Belgian and north of France 
primary formations are extended into England, it is an important point, 
with reference to the prolongation of the Belgian coal-basin, that London 
should be known to be situated immediately above a formation which is 
itself so close to the Coal-measures. ' The supposition that the dip of 
these Upper Devonian beds ' is to the south, and that they belong to the 
extension of our northern basin, is that which is the most probable. The 
coal formation may therefore occur at a short distance (quelques kilo- 
metres) south of London, and at a workable depth.' 

With a southern dip it maybe that these beds (Upper Devonian) belong 
to the extension of our southern basin. In this case coal may occur in the 
north as well as on the south, and nearer on this side (K) than on the 
south. Should there be such a coal basin, it might be as useless as ours 
(Belgian) of the ' Condros and the Entre Sambre and Meuse.' 2 

In answer to some observations of M. J. Van Scherpenzeel Thim, 

1 Societe Geologique de Belgiques, Bulletin LXV. 

2 The exact significance of this latter alternative of the Belgian geologist may 
not perhaps be understood by English geologists generally, as it has reference to a 
feature in the physical structure of Belgium, but the which is very properly referred 
to by M. Dewalque now that the Paheozoic band of the Continent is known to reach 
our south-east district. The band of Belgian and North of France coal-measures 
may be truly represented as trough-shaped, however produced. 

The northern border of the coal basin of Namur is formed of strata each older 
than the other in a northerly direction. The carboniferous series occurs at the sur- 
face at Soignies and Journay ; the Devonian at Rhines ; the Silurian at Gembloux. 
To the north the Silurian strata sink— at Bruxelles they are at 200, and at 300 at. 
Ostende. The primary formation of the North of Belgium undulates, and the like 
may be supposed to be the arrangement here. 

Q2 



228 report — 1879. 

M. Dewalque added : ' Starting from the supposition that our (Belgian)' 
old strata are prolonged westward into England, and from the fact that 
Upper Devonian strata occur under London, we are led to admit that the 
band of Silurian slates of the Ostende boring must pass north of London. 
These slates, which are referable to those of Tubise, must be separated 
from Upper Devonian by other beds, such as the black slates of the Menin 
shaft, which are Silurian. Considering the geographical position of 
these three places, together with the east and west direction of our older 
formations, it would not seem that their prolongation into England would 
carry them sufficiently north of London, so that the Devonian beds there 
should represent our Oondros basin, and not that of Namur. 

' If then at that place (London) we are in a prolongation of the Namur 
basin, the strata at Meux's must dip south ; consequently, it is most 
probable that the Coal-measures are to be found at a short distance 
south.' 

Such were the inferences drawn by M. Dewalque in 1878 from the 
result of boring at Messrs. Meux's. 

It may be stated that at the several places named, the Palaeozoic strata 
reached were, at Ostende, Silurian ; at Menin, Silurian, like the strata at 
Gambloux ; at Laeken, also Silurian. 

The supposition that the Silurian strata met with at Ostende would, 
in their course westward, pass north of London has been proved by the 
occurrence of beds of "Wenlock age at Ware, near Hertford, twenty miles 
north of London. This discovery has come most opportunely to supply 
the information which, only a year since, was needed as to the dip of the 
Upper Devonian strata at Messrs. Meux's. 

The succession of the Palaeozoic strata, on this the English side of the 
Channel, even into the far west, is just what it is in Belgium and the 
north of France. From Brussels and Ostende, from north to south, the 
successive members of the series mostly rise to the surface, and are 
exposed in all the valleys of denudation extending north from the line of 
the Coal-measures, as long since laid down by Dumont. 

With this guidance, and in spite of little as yet known with respect to 
our own underground structure on the south-east, it can be safely put in 
relation with what obtains on the European continent for an extent of 
400 miles. The order in which the successive members of the Palaeozoic 
series rise to the surface from beneath one another there, may be taken as 
our guide as to the order and relation of the Upper Devonian at the end 
of Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street, and the section at Ware. 

The question of the strike and direction of the dip of the beds at 
Meux's is now determined as forming part of the northern base of the 
trough, containing first the mountain limestone series, and next, above, 
the true Coal-measures. 

For practical guidance one point alone remains to be considered: from 
the place of the Upper Devonian strata in the heart of London, what must 
be allowed for the breadth of the outcrop of the mountain limestone 
series, next in sequence ? 

In parts of Belgium the mountain limestone has been estimated as 
600 feet thick ; it is less than that in easterly and westerly directions. 

The nearest place to London at which this is exposed is on the north 
of the Boulonnais denudation, where, with its associated beds, it may be 
put at 600 feet. The breadth of such a mass at its outcrop, and with an 
angle of 30 to 35 degrees, such as the Devonian beds at Meux's had, would 



4,9* Report En 






Plate XIV. 



JiH/ord Tfavtn.' 




MAP . . , 

evidence irv support of the, conlimaX. r ol 

ive Coal measures beneaOvthe, 

S.E. Counties of 

N G L A N D. 

onwiN-AuSTBN fR S. G 5 ji. 




'.oliuvaodii-jyLilh-.loTvlon. 




s 



HYDROGRAPHY, PAST AND PRESENT. 229 

be nearly doubled, or about 1200 feet ; in other words, tbe lower members 
of tbe true Coal-measure formation may be fairly expected to occur at 
about that distance south from the corner of Tottenham Court Road and 
Oxford Street, the upper, or productive Coal measure, still farther to the 
south. 

What has been ascertained beyond all doubt as to the line of section 
underlying a part of our English area from London to Ware, may be 
safely taken as holding good for a great extent of country on the east as 
on the west. The ages of more modern overlying formations do not affect 
this question, as is shown by the borings here in England, but more 
abundantly on the European continent. In our attempts to trace accu- 
rately hidden physical arrangements of the earth's crust, the restrictions 
to be observed are the positive data of the ascertained thicknesses of the 
several formations, and their positions, and which enable us to replace, 
without much chance of error, the line of each band and of its direc- 
tion of dip. 



Hydrography, Past and Present 
By Lieutenant Gr. T. Temple, R.K, F.R.G.S. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed 
in externa among the Keports.] 

[Plate XV.] 

The immediate aim of this paper is to bring to the notice of the section 
the present state of hydrographical science, which forms an essential part 
of the machinery by which our enormous commerce is carried on in time 
of peace, and defended during war. The subject is therefore of great 
national importance, and I sincerely trust that it will meet with your 
favourable consideration. 

In the annual address to the Royal Geographical Society, the unsatis- 
factory state of the Admiralty charts for South Africa was pointed out by 
our President, Mr. Clements Markham, whose unremitting devotion to the 
advancement of geographical science is well known to most of those 
present. He observed that the war in Zulu-Land had called public 
attention to the unsurveyed state of parts of the coast of South Africa, 
H.M. Ships Active and Tenedos having been placed in great danger 
through grounding on some unknown reefs between the Tugela River 
and Point Durnford. He told us also that both the east and west coasts 
of South Africa (northwards from Bashee River on one side, and 
St. Helena Bay on the other) have not been sounded since the days of 
Captain Owen, half a century ago. This must have been a startling 
announcement to those who fancy that we already know the world 
perfectly, and who are not aware that the outlines given on the beautiful 
maps of Keith Johnston and others are, to a great extent, mere guess- 
work. It was, however, well known to the few who for some years past 
have been steadfastly working to restore the surveying branch of the 
Uavy to the high position it formerly held. 

The story of this essential branch of the public service, which has 
been characterised as ' not only useful in peace, but terrible in war,' is 
•a curious illustration of the difficulties attending the construction and 



•e 



230 eeport— 1879. 

maintenance of any thoroughly good institution. ' Inch by inch,' we are 
told, did the surveying service ' fight its way into life,' until under the 
bold and skilful rule of Sir Francis Beaufort, it achieved the success 
prepared for it by the struggles and death of Dalrymple, and the earnest 
efforts of Hurd, Michael Walker, and Parry. 

Although many unsurveyed coasts were charted during the last 
century by Cook, Vancouver, Flinders, and others, yet it was not until 
1795 that the Hydrographical Department of the Admiralty was 
established by Order in Council. It consisted of the hydrographer 
(Mr. Dalrymple), one assistant, and a draughtsman. Mr. Dalrymple's 
orders were 'to take charge and custody of such plans and charts as then 
were, or should thereafter, be deposited at the Admiralty, and to select 
and compile such information as might appear to be requisite for the 
purpose of improving navigation.' From this small beginning, the 
important department that may now be fairly regarded as the main 
source of hydrographical information to the civilised world was developed. 
It is impossible, in the limited time at my disposal, to trace the progress 
of the department step by step ; it is also unnecessary, as full information 
on the subject may be found in the Geographical Magazines for April and 
July, 1874, and in the United Service Gazettes for the 12th and 26th of 
July, and the 16th of August, 1879. It will be sufficient to say that after 
many struggles and reverses it advanced slowly but surely, until the year 
1849 found no less than twelve surveying ships in commission, under the 
late eminent hydrographer Sir Francis Beaufort, while twenty-three 
officers were borne on ships' books for detached surveying service. After 
presiding over the Hydrographical Department for nearly a quarter of a 
century, Sir Francis retired in 1854, leaving a surveying force of nineteen 
captains and ten commanders, with sixteen lieutenants in training, and 
eight ships in commission, notwithstanding the fact that we were then at 
war with Russia, and that three surveying captains and two commanders 
were employed in Arctic service. The views of a nation are supposed to 
extend with its opulence and prosperity, but in the middle of 1873, the 
surveying service had fallen so low that only one of Her Majesty's ships 
(the Shearwater, under Commander "Wharton) was engaged in actual 
surveying duties. It is true that the Challenger was also in commission 
under Sir George Nares, but she was an exploring rather than a surveying 
vessel. Since then matters have somewhat improved, but we still find a 
decrease of ships and men where there should have been increase. 

In January 1873 the sad falling-off in the surveying service was. 
noticed in the press, a leader in the Daily News showing that, although 
the annual naval expenditure had increased from about four and a half 
to seven and a half millions, and the tonnage of the mercantile navy from 
less than four and a half to upwards of seven million tons, yet the 
surveying service had been allowed to decline. In December of the same 
year. Sir Bartle Frere wrote to Mr. Gladstone, earnestly protesting against 
the insinuation that voyages of survey and discovery were not ' strictly 
professional naval services ; ' at the same time expressing his belief that 
there are few better naval schools than a surveying or discovery ship, 
and that if such ships were multiplied, not only would commerce benefit,, 
but men-of-war would be better supplied with practical seamen than is 
possible at present. In April 1874, Mr. Markham pointed out, in the 
Geographical^ Magazine, the great need that our rulers should more 
fully appreciate the importance of an efficient administration of the 



HYDROGRAPHY, PAST AND PRESENT. 231 

surveying service ; and expressed an earnest hope that the days of false 
economy and lamentable neglect of enterprises of discovery and survey 
were numbered. In the following July he showed that although one 
of the most obvious duties of a country with an extensive seaboard and 
a great sea-borne trade is to provide for the safety of vessels frequenting 
her ports, by the provision of lighthouses and buoys, and, above all, by 
the preparation of reliable charts and sailing directions, yet nothing had 
been done for a space of twelve years for the coasts of our Indian Empire. 
In February 1875, Captain Hull read an able paper at the Royal United 
Service Institution, in which he especially drew attention to the un- 
surveyed parts of the world. The Army and Navy Gazette has also taken 
the matter up, and on the 22nd of last March published a letter from 
« An Old Officer,' headed ' The One Man Needful.' This letter pointed out 
that when a competent successor to the late Admiral Bedford was 
required at the Board of Trade, it appeared that such a man was not to 
be found in England. The only man said to be fit was Sir George Nares, 
who was then in command of the Alert surveying the Straits of Magellan. 
Sir George, who is apparently a sort of hydrographic Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, was accordingly taken out of the Alert, just as in 1874 he was 
taken out of the Challenger to command the Arctic Expedition, in both 
cases leaving his work to be carried on by his executors, or the men he 
left behind him. The reason for this is obvious ; in place of the nine and 
twenty captains and commanders, from whom, in 1854, competent men 
might have been selected either to command Arctic expeditions, to fill the 
place of Admiral Bedford at the Board of Trade, or that of Sir George 
Nares in the Straits of Magellan, we have now only two. One great evil 
arising from the want of trained men of the required rank is that the 
surveying service continually suffers demoralisation from the appointment 
of inexperienced chiefs, who are obliged to learn their duties from their 
juniors, a proceeding curiously at variance with the general tone of this 
age of competition. 

At the present time the Hydrographical Department of the Admiralty 
consists of twenty-four individuals, including the hydrographer and four 
messengers and packers. The expenses of the department are provided 
for under Vote V, whieh includes several other branches of the scientific 
service. The total grant for the scientific branch was 120,35 71. in 
1861-62, and 106,04R in 1878-79, a deplorable redaction of more than 
14,000Z., which represents a proportionate decrease in the amount of 
useful work done. And yet, as I shall presently show, the Hydrographic 
Office is in a great measure self-supporting, and might be made still more 
so by the ordinary mercantile expedient of increasing the size of an 
establishment to meet the requirements of customers. 

It is beyond the scope of this paper to enter fully into the manifold 
duties of the department, but amongst the most important are the follow- 
ing: — To execute accurate surveys of all parts of the world that are 
visited by British ships ; to prepare and publish these surveys in the form 
of charts ; to write and publish sailing directions to accompany the charts ; 
to collect, compile, and promptly publish all hydrographic information ; 
and to keep the charts and other nautical documents corrected up to the 
latest dates. It is also the duty of the department not only to supply 
Her Majesty's ships, but also to see that there are always sufficient 
charts and nautical works to meet the public demand. It will give some 
idea of the extent of this demand to state that on an average upwards of 



232 report— 1879. 

106,000 copies of Admiralty charts, and nearly 19,000 copies of the 
Nautical Almanac, besides sailing directions and other books, are sold 
annually to the general public and to foreign governments, exclusive of 
the supply to the Royal Navy. Four hundred and fifty chart boxes, each 
containing from 300 to 400 charts, are required for the Navy, and 1000 
chronometers are in constant circulation between the Royal Observatory 
and Her Majesty's ships. Foreign navies navigate by our charts, and all 
our sailing directions are immediately translated, especially by the French 
authorities. Another important function of the department is its respon- 
sibility for all matters connected with the compasses of Her Majesty's 
ships. 

The preparation of charts is under a superintendent, whose duties are 
of a very important and responsible character. They are ably performed 
by Commander Thomas A. Hull, who received his early education in the 
school of Sir Francis Beaufort, and whose abilities as sailor, surveyor, 
and draughtsman are well known. I have here a few Admiralty charts 
selected to give a general idea of the different styles. They may be 
divided into five classes : ocean charts, general charts of any particular 
country or coast, coast charts, plans of harbours, and physical charts. 
The latter have given a greater impetus to our knowledge of the causes 
and effects of winds, currents, and temperatures than any publications that 
have preceded them, and they have already been reproduced in France 
and other countries. In the course of a voyage the sailor uses four 
classes of charts. Fixing his position by astronomical observations, he 
marks the ship's place and her track from day to day upon the ocean 
chart, which is drawn on a very small scale. The curved lines on these 
charts represent the lines of equal magnetic variation, and the small 
figures show the deep-sea soundings ; these are of the greatest value to 
our merchants, and to those interested in the laying of submarine cables. 
They are also the result of great care and experience, as the ship must 
be kept for hours in the same position to obtain them, telegraph engi- 
neers requiring not only accurate position and depth of water, but also 
samples of the bottom at great depths. They want to know what kind 
of bed their cables are to lie upon. As the land is neared, larger scales 
are required, and the next chart used is the general chart of the country 
the vessel is bound to. When in sight of land, a coast sheet is prepared ; 
and last of all comes the plan of the haven in which the weather-beaten 
ship is to rest. 

When a coast has only been partially surveyed, the charts for it are 
drawn in a light and unfinished style, which is a sufficient warning to 
the initiated that the land must be approached with caution. As the great 
aim of the Hydrographic Department is correctness, all charts are sub- 
jected to the searching criticism of the naval assistants before publica- 
tion, and it is to this measure that their extreme accuracy is to a great 
extent due. The charts are not by any means done with when issued ; 
they have then to be kept up to date. In fact, every chart published may 
be regarded as a sort of official child, requiring the paternal vigilance of 
the office to insure its doing good instead of evil. Correcting the charts 
is a very delicate and responsible duty. All changes of lights, buoys, and 
beacons have to be inserted, and as there are in round numbers 4000 
lights and 10,000 buoys to be watched over, it is no trifling task. The 
change of a single light or buoy sometimes necessitates the correction of 
no less than five charts. These corrections, though small, must be made 



HYDROGRAPHY, PAST AND PRESENT. 233 

with the greatest care, for if such important simplicities are neglected, and 
the chart be incorrect in these essentials, no finish or cunning engraving 
can save its credit ; it is beauty without discretion, a danger instead of a 
safeguard. A very slight error in the position, colour, or character, of a 
light or buoy, or in the insertion of a simple dot, cross, or figure, may 
lead to the gravest disasters. Charts, like books, require study to be 
properly understood, and familiarity with the abbreviations and conven- 
tional signs is essential. A good chart, to those who study it with the 
attention it deserves, is ' a thing of beauty and a joy for ever.' My life 
has been saved more than once by Admiralty charts, and therefore I 
speak of them with affection. From six to twelve copies of each chart 
are kept in the office for correction, and as there are about 2700 charts in 
circulation, the number collected at one time on the shelves may exceed 
30,000. The assertion of the Daily News that ' space is wanted to spread 
out a chart, without having first to remove books or papers that are at 
the same time under consideration,' is literally true. At the Depot des 
Cartes et Plans de la Marine, in Paris, a greater amount of space is 
allotted to the British charts alone than the English Admiralty affords 
for those of the whole world. Prom the sale of charts the Treasury re- 
ceives about 6000L a year ; but though the number of charts increases 
yearly, though the work required is more finished and elaborate, and 
though the demand and sale have also increased, there is no cor- 
responding addition to the staff employed. The Hydrographer's Report 
for 1878-79 tells us that during the year sixty-one new charts and 
plans were published, 1950 charts were corrected, and 202,800 charts 
were printed for Her Majesty's service and for the use of the general 
public. Although the maximum of work which this branch of the office 
manages to perform with a minimum of hands is truly surprising, yet 
the present staff, which consists of a chief draughtsman and five assist- 
ants, is unequal to the demands upon it, and the unpublished informa- 
tion is steadily accumulating. The result is that insurance is high, 
and that valuable cargoes, and still more valuable lives, are thrown 
away in order that the already narrow limits of the scientific vote may 
be still further contracted. It is true that this vote has been reduced by 
a few thousands ; but how much did it cost to repair the Lord Clyde and 
the Agincourt, and how many vessels are annually lost on partially sur- 
veyed or little-known coasts ? 

Having now sketched the constitution and working of the Hydro- 
graphical Department, I shall endeavour to show what it is now doing, 
and what remains to be done. On the outline chart of the world which 
accompanies this paper, an attempt has been made to depict, faithfully, 
the present state of hydrography, and I fear it will be only too easy to 
show that a surveying Alexander need not weep. The surveyed coasts 
are marked by a heavy coast line ; those only partially surveyed, by 
shading; while coasts that have merely been explored ai'e drawn in 
fine outline. The ships show the stations of the four regular surveying 
vessels and three schooners at present in commission ; and the crosses 
show the head-quarters of officers doing their best with small craft, or 
with hired boats and crews, the latter method being adopted, where 
practicable, with a view to economy. In some cases the expenses are 
shared by Colonial Governments. 

Owing to the vastness of the subject, I fear that errors will be de- 
tected in the chart by sailors knowing the respective coasts ; I shall be 



234 report— 1879. 

only too glad to find that the heavy coast line should be extended, but I 
trust that no one will be able to remove any of that line or the shading. 

The large cross in the Bay of Bengal represents the Department 
recently established in India for Marine Surveys, and which will be men- 
tioned hereafter. 

On the home coast there is one small surveying vessel, the Porcupine, 
under Staff- Captain Parsons, as well as the hired steamer, Knight Errant,. 
under Staff- Commander Stanley. It should be borne in mind that owing 
to their shifting nature the sands surrounding our shores require constant 
examination, while the mouths of rivers are often as changeable as the 
fashions. The continuous attention of a strong surveying staff is there- 
fore indispensable, if the charts of our own coasts are to be kept in good 
working order. It is not enough to make a road and then leave it, or to 
lay down rails and then neglect the permanent way. The same principle 
applies to our ocean highways, and charts, like roads, require constant 
attention and repair to prevent them from falling into decay. 

The Alert left England in September last under the command of Sir 
George Nares, and reached the scene of her first year's labours — Magellan 
Strait and the adjacent waters — early in January. Sir George, as already 
observed, has since accepted an appointment at the Board of Trade. 

The Fawn, under Commander Wharton, after determining the position 
of the Cosmoledo group, and other islands to the north-west of Mada- 
gascar, has been transferred, at the request of Admiral Sir Geoffrey 
Hornby, to the unsurveyed waters of the Sea of Marmora. 

The Magpie has been employed on the sea-board of China, between 
Hong-Kong and Shanghai, and is now in the Gulf of Tong-King, while 
the Sylvia, under Commander Pelham Aldrich, is steadily working on 
the western shores of Japan. 

It is much to be regretted that a very important part of the comple- 
ment of officers in these vessels is generally overlooked. The well-known 
labours of Sir Wyville Thomson and his staff lead us to hope that the 
surveying ships of the future will carry a skilled naturalist, as in the 
days of Sir Francis Beaufort. The opportunities offered by a surveying 
vessel for observing and collecting on distant and little-known coasts, 
such as those of East Africa and Japan, are so exceptional that we can 
only wonder at their being neglected. In other respects, also, an amount 
of economy is now enforced which impairs efficiency. 

Staff- Commander Maxwell, in the hired steamer Gulnare, is working 
in Newfoundland, and the shores of Jamaica are being surveyed by 
Lieutenant Pullen, in the schooner Sparroivhawh. 

Lieutenant Moore, in the Alacrity schooner, is following up the 
examination of the Fiji Islands ; and Lieutenant Richards, in the schooner 
Renard, is under the orders of the commodore of the Australian station. 
The Hydrographer observes that the useful surveying work performed 
among dangerous reefs, in these two small sailing vessels, deserves warm 
commendation. 

The Queensland coast survey, under Staff-Commander Bedwell, is 
now being pressed forward in a hired steamer. Staff-Commander 
Howard is working on the mainland in the neighbourhood of Nuyts 
Archipelago and Fowler Bay ; and we are also told by the Hydrographer 
that Staff- Commander Archdeacon, with one naval assistant, has been 
working hard for six years in Western Australia, with ' limited nautical 
resources.'' Now this phrase is worthy of special notice. It means that 



HYDROGRAPHY, PAST AND PRESENT. 235 

the surveyors cannot always get small craft wherein to obtain soundings, 
and however truly a coast may be delineated, the charts are almost 
useless unless the soundings are correct. In fact, soundings, which 
represent the depth and bottom of the sea, constitute the great point of 
difference between a chart and a map, and it is upon their accuracy that 
the character of the nautical surveyor mainly depends. The land work 
may be done by the soldier or civil engineer, but the sounding is the 
sailor's portion, requiring all the ready wit and tact of his profession. 
Well-sounded localities may be safely navigated by means of the lead, a 
simple but very important instrument, which is only too frequently 
neglected. In thick weather the lead and line are to the sailor as 
antennae to a beetle — though blinded by 'any vile congregation of 
vapours,' he may still feel his way. Another great disadvantage of 
detached surveying parties is that we lose that grand school for practical 
nautical surveying, a ship, and the disciplined life of a man-of-war. 'No 
man,' says Captain Hull, in his useful treatise on surveying, 'can be 
expected to attain a trusted position as a nautical surveyor who is not 
essentially a good officer and sailor, or, to speak more exactly, a good 
pilot, knowing how to handle a body of men, the requirements of a ship, 
and the room she wants to wear, stay, or anchor in. This knowledge 
cannot be acquired under the ' one-man- and-a-boy ' system. It is in 
ships only that men can discover 'the secrets of the sea,' or, to quote 
Longfellow, 

Only those who brave its dangers 
Comprehend its mystery. 

Now Mr. Laughton observes, in his work on nautical surveying, that 
' acquaintance with both the practice and theory of surveying is a 
necessary part of the training of every naval officer, without which he 
cannot have an intelligent understanding of the charts, the methods of 
using them, and the confidence to be placed in them.' It is also a 
favourite dictum of Admiral Ryder's that a fair surveyor must be a good 
navigator. The battle of the Nile could never have been fought at the 
hour it was if Nelson had not been a pilot as well as an Admiral. At 
Copenhagen, also, he made a rough survey of the approaches, and waa 
thus able to take his squadron close to the batteries. 

In the ' Navy List ' for August we find that only fifty-three officers 
are now employed on surveying service, and if we exclude those working 
under the Indian Department the total is reduced to forty-nine, or but 
little more than half the number left by Sir Francis Beaufort a quarter 
of a century ago. 

While the surveying service has thus been steadily retrograding, the 
energy of the British merchant and shipowner has almost annihilated 
distance. With your permission, therefore, we will just run round the 
world, noting the surveyed and unsurveyed coasts as we pass them, and 
I will try to make our voyage at least one of the shortest on record. 

Although the dark line naturally prevails over European coasts, yet 
before we are out of the Bay of Biscay we come to the shading that 
necessitates caution, the shores of the Peninsula being still only partially 
surveyed. Madeira and the Canaries may be considered as done ; the 
Cape de Verd Islands, however, require further examination. 

Passing the West Indies, where the greater portion of San Domingo 
and Porto Rico require surveying, we first anchor at Bahia, a surveyed 



236 report— 1879. 

port, with, however, some unexamined shoal ground on the western side 
of the entrance. 

Pushing onward to Rio, we are still on the dark line, but on leaving 
that beautiful harbour we enter a partially surveyed region until we 
come to the River Plate, of which a survey is much required. 

During the voyage to Cape Virgins we have time to pay a respectful 
tribute to the memory of Admiral Robert FitzRoy, who with limited 
means, and in a marvellously short time, mapped the coast of South 
America from the River Plate in the Atlantic to the Guayaquil in the 
Pacific. Sir Francis Beaufort reported to the House of Commons, in 
1848, that ' all that is immediately wanted of these shores has been 
already achieved by the splendid survey of Captain Robert FitzRoy.' 
That, however, was before the days of steamships 375 feet long, and 
before the Strait of Magellan was the high road to the Pacific Ocean. 

Entering the Strait of Magellan, our charts carry us safely on for 
110 miles, when we again come to partially surveyed ground. 

We should like to continue our voyage by the inner channels leading 
northward from Magellan, but as there are orders from the owners 
against using these partially surveyed waters, we are reluctantly forced 
into the Pacific (an ocean by no means worthy of its name in the vicinity 
of Cape Pillar) with a loss of fuel and comfort, and much wear and tear 
of ship and engines. The rapidly increasing traffic of large and powerful 
steamers between Europe and the western coasts of America, points to the 
urgent necessity for a thorough survey of Magellan Strait, and the 
channels leading northward to the Gulf of Pefias. 

Pursuing our way along the coast of Chili, whose increasing trade 
with this country would be much benefited by better charts, we touch at 
Valparaiso, Callao, and Payta ; but we cannot place reliance on our charts 
until we reach the River Guayaquil. The sight of this coast reminds us 
how the Independencia, pounding along with vicious intent to ram and 
utterly annihilate the Covadonga, suddenly found herself on the reef which 
her clever opponent avoided, and so lost the day and herself too. It was 
pilotage and cool nerve, not gunnery, that enabled the little wooden ship 
to cause the destruction of Peru's finest and most powerful ironclad, and 
the moral is that though ships and guns may be brought to perfection, 
yet they will avail nothing without skilled pilots and trustworthy 
charts. 

From Guayaquil to Panama we are on the dark line, therefore, venturing 
nearer to the shore, we can coast along one of the most beautiful and 
interesting parts of the globe, passing La Plata island, where Drake 
divided the spoils of the Cacafuego. ' In sea-divinity,' it has been 
quaintly said, ' the case was clear, the King of Spain's subjects had 
undone Mr. Drake, and therefore Mr. Drake was entitled to take the best 
satisfaction he could on the subjects of the King of Spain.' We also pass 
Gallo island, where Pizarro drew the famous line on the sand, over which 
(as we are told by Mr. Markham in his ' Reports on the Discovery of 
Peru ') sixteen of his followers crossed. 

Entering the Bay of Panama, we pass the beautiful Pearl Islands, 
which have been well described as a perfumed archipelago, lying like 
baskets of flowers on the tranquil surface of the ocean. To the eastward 
lies the Gulf of San Miguel, where Balboa, after a journey of twenty-five 
days across swamps, rivers, and woods, took possession of the Pacific 
Ocean in the name of the King of Spain and the Indies. A branch of 



HYDROGRAPHT, PAST AND PRESENT. 237 

the cold Peruvian current renders the temperature pleasanter here than it 
is at a distance from the coast, but during the wet season ' it pours,' says 
old Dampier, ' as out of a sieve.' 

Before leaving Panama, let us reflect upon the advantage to English 
commerce of continuing the survey, begun by Sir Henry Kellett, from 
Guayaquil to Cape Pillar. The trade of this part of South America has 
enormously increased since the introduction of steam. The enterprise of 
the Pacific Steam Navigation Company has diverted the trade from the 
Isthmus of Panama towards the Strait of Magellan, and this new stream 
of travel and commerce has been so successful that the Company's fleet of 
magnificent steamships is barely sufficient to meet the demands upon it. 
In 1874, 524 voyages on the coast and 124 to Europe, were made by the 
various steamers of six different companies. 

Looking northward from Panama, there is much work to be done. 
The rising trade of the Central American ports calls for more attention to 
coasts of which we have little information since the days of Malaspina in 
1794. A partial survey of the coast and Gulf of California has been made 
by officers of the United States Navy, who are, I believe, about to extend 
their operations to the southward. 

In the North Pacific our chart of that important group, the Sandwich 
Islands, is said to be ' from various but imperfect authorities,' and some- 
thing better than this is required in 1879. We may also notice that Queen 
Charlotte Island is only explored. 

Leaving Panama, we pass the Galapagos, where nothing is imme- 
diately required, and come next to the Low Archipelago, where the three 
symbols are blended. Here we find that the ocean roads followed by 
vessels from Panama and Valparaiso, through dangerous patches of coral, 
are sadly in need of repair. 

After touching at the beautiful and famous Tahiti, we pass through 
the Friendly Islands and our new colony of Fiji, rejoicing to see Lieutenant 
Moore hard at work with his smart little schooner, for reliable charts are 
much wanted here to clear away doubtful dangers. 

Readers of Dickens will remember how Quilp, when despatching 
Sampson Brass home one night in what sailors call a pea-soup fog, con- 
ducts his guest to the door, and tells him the way lies through a lane in 
which there is a savage dog, who generally lives on the right-hand side, 
but at times conceals himself on the left ready for a spring. He cautions 
Brass to take great care of himself, blows out the light, slams the door, 
and leaves him. "What a splendid hydrographic official Daniel Quilp 
would have made ! To tell a man there is a rock in a certain passage, 
and not to tell him where it is, is virtually to block up that passage, and 
the caution is of little use except to some comfortable official, who, if 
anything happens, is able to look wise and say ' I told you so.' 

After calling at Sydney, where we hear that the coasts of New 
Zealand are still unfinished, we find that the islands and dangers in the 
much-used routes between Australia and China are a constant source of 
anxiety, and it is not until we are northward of the Caroline Islands that 
our captain is able to go below and take off his boots, in which for some 
time past he has been obliged to sleep. 

After visiting Hong Kong and Singapore, we pass through the 
Malacca Strait to the Indian Ocean, impressed with the idea that the 
Magpie and Sylvia have got their work cut out for them in those great 
seats of industry China and Japan. 



238 report — 1879. 

Thanks to the unflagging energy of Mr. Clements Markham, we leave 
the Indian coasts to the able treatment of Captain Taylor and his well- 
organised staff; bat as the Indian Marine Survey forms the subject of a 
separate paper in this section I shall not further allude to it. 

We have no time to visit the east coast of Africa ; and the state of 
the charts, as illustrated by the Active and Tenedos, would render it 
imprudent to do so under any circumstances. When reading of the 
important services lately rendered by Captain Campbell and his Active 
brigade, it is humiliating to reflect that they might have been lost to us, 
and gained by the submarine fleet, in order to save the expense of 
executing a much-needed survey. 

The Red Sea being unfortunately shaded, we are unable to use the 
inshore passages, except in the Mussawa Channel, and consequently 
suffer much discomfort from the violence of the winds. The trade through 
the Suez Canal points to the necessity for connecting the surveys of the 
Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb and the Gulf of Suez. 

In the Mediterranean, we notice with regret, mingled with surprise, 
that the coast of Karamania is only partially surveyed, and that the 
shading also extends from Alexandria to Sphax in Tunis, the black spot 
representing the harbour of Tripoli. 

Being by this time hardy travellers, we decide on a trip across the 
North Sea before the end of the season, and therefore land at Brindisi and 
make the best of our way to Hull, marvelling much at the immense tracts 
of coast that are still unsurveyed. 

I need hardly remind you that amongst other things we are indebted 
to Scandinavia for large quantities of timber and iron, or that the iron 
from the Dannemora mines supplies us with our finest steel. The people 
also, and especially those of Norway, are peculiarly interesting to the 
British nation. They have, morally and politically, a claim upon us ; and 
among them we may trace the germ of perhaps nearly all the free institu- 
tions which distinguish the British Constitution at the present day. 

We leave Hull with a fair wind, but meet with a heavy north- westerly 
gale off the coast of Norway ; and after an anxious night, daylight finds 
us, partially disabled, driving rapidly towards a formidable iron-bound 
shore, fronted by rocks above and below water. Our case seems desperate ; 
we cannot get out to sea, and pilots cannot get out to us ; the Admiralty 
charts are practically useless, for they are on a very small scale, and we 
are now dashing before sea and wind towards a terrible line of breakers. 
The captain is out on the bowsprit, however, and fortunately discovers an 
opening just when destruction appears inevitable. We escape the outer 
rocks, by a miracle as it seems, and at last a pilot boat sheers cautiously 
alongside. A rope is thrown to her, the pilot ties it round his body, 
plunges into the sea, and is hoisted on board. The danger is now past, 
and in half an hour more we are safely at anchor, deeply thankful for our 
narrow escape from the horrors of shipwreck. 

Now this incident has actually occurred more than once, and has only 
too frequently ended in the loss of ship and crew. Excellent charts for 
this coast are published by the Norwegian Government, but as far as 
English seamen are concerned it is but little better than explored. The 
Norwegian charts, with a book of sailing directions in manuscript and 
slip, are at this moment lying unused on the shelves of the Hydrographical 
Office. Why are they not published ? Because, for ' departmental 
reasons ' — mark the phrase — it has been decided that they are ' to stand 



HYDROGRAPHY, PAST AND PRESENT. 239 



over.' Of these, and similar documents, we may say, in the words of the 
old Scotch song, that 

Wives and mithers maist despairin' 
GV them lives o' men. 

Apart from humane considerations, the new branch of commerce that 
has been opened in Siberia, and our increasing trade with Norway, which 
is already worth nearly five millions a year, would appear to justify the 
small additional outlay that would be required to publish work that has 
already been done, and paid for. I am quite sure that neither the 
Government nor the public have realised the state of things that I have 
endeavoured to set before you, and that if it could only be made clear to 
them, fewer ships would be wrecked on the dangerous shoals called ' de- 
partmental reasons.' 

I hope I have succeeded in proving that hydrographical information 
is urgently needed by our merchants, and by their fleets, while the fate of 
the Independencia, and the narrow escape of the Active and Tenedos, clearly 
show that it is required by our Navy. Both duty and interest call upon 
us to provide this information to the utmost extent of our power, for 
hardly a ship floats that does not in some way carry British interests, and, 
as the First Lord of the Admiralty publicly said only a few weeks ago, 
* our national greatness is principally due to the fact that we have a larger 
mercantile marine than any other nation.' 

In the words of a great English Minister, ' I refer it alike to the 
hearts and understandings of those who hear me, and of those out of 
doors who will consider our discussions, whether we should not shrink 
from our duty, and disgrace the memory of those who have gone before 
ns, if we were to hesitate to say that we would provide for the wants of 
the day in which we live ? I am not addressing you in unconsciousness 
of the increase made to the Army and Navy Estimates, which unforeseen 
circumstances have rendered of immediate necessity, but in considering 
the amount of estimates voted, I would say, it is not the amount to be 
considered, but the national exigencies imperatively required for the 
country's safety.' 

This is essentially a humane and industrial, and in no way a party 
question, and I would earnestly appeal to you to use your influence for the 
restoration of the Surveying Service to the prominent position it ought 
to hold among the forces of civilisation, and to protect it in some measure 
from those blasts of ruinous economy which occasionally sweep over our 
country. By increasing the number of surveying ships, and extending to 
navigation and nautical surveying a fair share of the encouragement so 
freely bestowed on ship-building and great-gun-founding, you would 
establish a first-rate finishing school, which would produce not only 
nautical surveyors, but superior officers for the general service ; and, in 
giving your naval officers the opportunity of practising afloat what they 
learn at Greenwich, you would enable them more efficiently to protect the 
trade they would be helping to extend. 

I trust that the country will take this matter up ; that before long the 
commander-in-chief of every station will have a properly equipped sur- 
veying ship at his disposal ; and that the Hydrographical Department 
may be extended to enable it to keep pace with the wants of the times, 
and to publish and circulate the stores of valuable — or rather invaluable — 
information, that are now shelved for ' departmental reasons.' While 



240 REPORT— 1879. 

occupied in exploration and discovery, our officers and men would escape 
the idleness engendered by a long interval of peace ; that idleness which, 
like a slow poison, little by little wears away the strength and valour of a 
nation. They would be advancing civilisation, extending knowledge, and 
exciting friendly interest and sympathy throughout the world, thus help- 
ing to consummate the high aspiration — 

That England may still be respected and free, 
The envied of nations, the Queen of the Sea. 



4.1 th Report' Brib. Asso 



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Surveying parties, workmif in hired vessels 




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TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



1879. R 



TRANSACTIONS OF TEE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 
President of the Section.— G. Johnstone Stoney, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 21, 1879. 

The President delivered tlie following Address : — 

In order that we may understand the present position of Natural Science upon 
the Earth, we must remember that the universe is in itself one great whole, which 
includes minds no less than bodies, for thought is as much a phenomenon of what 
really exists as motion. But though the universe be but one, man with his limited 
powers is unable to treat it as such, but has to push his investigation of Nature 
when and where he can. Thus have arisen many sciences which were at first quite 
isolated. Their separate condition is a mark of the feebleness of our powers of 
investigation. Their gradual convergence, and especially where any complete con- 
tact can be established between them, is the mark that our advancing knowledge is 
penetrating deeper. 

That there are many sciences of Nature, instead of one science of Nature, has its 
relation, then, to human imperfection. But the coalescence of sciences has com- 
menced, and is steadily taking place ; magnetism is no longer isolated from electri- 
city, nor light from heat, nor the power of thinking from the condition of the brain. 
In all such cases we have got nearer to understanding what is really going on in 
Nature. There are already many such achievements of science ; but, nevertheless, 
it remains true that human powers of investigation are so narrow, and the use we 
have made of them up to the present is so short of what we may reasonably look 
for in the future, that the sciences of Nature are still many, and most of them stand 
lamentably aloof from one another. 

We find, then, in the present passing condition of our knowledge, one group 
of sciences which investigate the phenomena of consciousness; another distinct 
group of the biological sciences ; and a third, the group of the physical sciences. 
These are all but parts of the one great investigation of Nature, but for the present 
they exist almost disconnected, as separate provinces of human inquiry. 

When we endeavour to investigate mental phenomena, we are encountered by 
the complexity and remoteness of the effects which present themselves for exami- 
nation, and by a deep and impenetrated obscurity hanging over the interval 
between them and their causes. In order to make any progress even in the sub- 
ordinate task of tracing out the relations of these effects to one another, the inquirer 
finds it necessary to venture upon hypothesis, and in all metaphysical speculation 
we sadly miss that healthy discipline with which Nature in other branches of 
science relentlessly refutes our hypotheses if they are wrong. Here, then, is a 
region in which the plausible may be mistaken for the true ; and it is unfor- 
tunately certain that it has sometimes been so mistaken by the ablest human 
minds. 

R2 



244 report — 1879. 

The biological sciences treat of all the phenomena of living beings, except 
their mental phenomena, which are those which lie most remote from their causes. 
Here the complication is less, but it is still too great for the human mind to have 
yet penetrated behind it. We are still occupied with phenomena which lie at a 
treat distance from their real causes. We are accordingly still far beyond the 
rano-e of the exact sciences. Most of the great discoveries of biological science 
have been made by estimating the general drift of what is taught by a vast num- 
ber of particular facts. This, it will be observed, is a kind of reasoning that 
is necessarily more or less inexact, 1 and, as a consequence, it is one which requires 
wide intellectual training and great experience and tact to handle it with safety. 
When the investigator has brought these qualifications to his task, astonishing 
progress has been made in these sciences : without them the reasoning may degrade 
into being either trivial or loose. 

In the rest of the study of Nature we are not embarrassed by the phenomena of 
life, and many mysteries therefore stand aside out of our path. Here lies the 
domain of the physical sciences. It is here that the mind of man has best been 
able to cope with the realities of the universe, and in which its greatest achieve- 
ments have been effected. It is here that exact reasoning finds a predominant 

place. 

The study of the physical sciences has been remitted by the British Association 
to its first two sections, chemistry being assigned to Section B, and the rest of the 
physical sciences to Section A. Accordingly, Section A includes the whole range 
of mathematics, along with the study of the conditions of rest and motion in that 
part of matter which is endowed with mass, and of the phenomena of sound, heat, 
lio-ht, and electricity, with the applications of these abstract sciences in molecular 
physics and to astronomy, crystallography and meteorology. 

In meteorology, owing to the complication of the materials that have to be 
dealt with, we must have frequent recourse to the same kind of reasoning as has 
been found so effectual in the biological sciences ; but in the other physical sciences 
which I have enumerated exact reasoning prevails, and on this account they are 
frequently classed together as the exact sciences. 

The process of investigation in the exact sciences is fundamentally one in all 
cases. It has been well described by Mill in the third book of his ' Logic' Never- 
theless, it is notorious that minds which are well fitted for some branches of 
physical inquiry find difficulty — sometimes insuperable difficulty — in pursuing 
others. It is not every eminent mathematician who would have made an equally 
good chemist, or vice versa. This is because there exists a practical distinction 
separating the investigations of exact science into two well-marked classes when 
they are viewed, not as they are in themselves, but in their relation to the powers 
of us human beings. I refer to the distinction between the experimental method 
or the method of observation, on the one hand ; and the deductive method, or the 
method of reasoning, on the other. All valid investigations in exact science appeal 
to what can be directly perceived, and all lead to a conclusion which can be 
reasoned out from it ; but there are some of these investigations in which the main 
difficulty consists in making the appeal to the senses, and there are others in which 
the main difficulty lies in the process of reasoning. 

To contend with these difficulties successfully requires very different qualities 
of mind and body. In experimental science the powers, principally called into 
requisition are readiness and closeness of observation, dexterity in manipulation, 
skill in contriving expedients, accuracy in making adjustments, and great patience. 
It also requires that the investigator should have an accurate memory of what else 
he has witnessed resembling the phenomenon under observation, that he should be 
quick to detect every point of agreement and difference that can be perceived, and 
be skilful to select those which are significant, and to employ them as materials 
for prevision to guide his further proceedings. But the strain on the reasoning 

1 Except when the reasoning takes a form in which its strength can be gauged 
by the doctrine of probabilities. The most satisfactory instance of this is that 
' statistical method ' which has proved our most searching tool in molecular physics. 



TBANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 245 

powers is generally less, often of trifling amount. The question is put to Nature, 
and it is Nature usually that gives the bulk of the answer. The most striking 
monument of splendid achievements by the experimental method of investigation 
unaided by the deductive method is to be found in the science of chemistry. 

An equally typical instance of the power of the deductive method is the science 
of mechanics. This science, which has sunk deeper into the secrets of Nature than 
any other science, and which is the science towards whom all other physical 
sciences are at present more or less gravitating, is essentially deductive. There is 
little or no difficulty about its fundamental data. They are facts of Nature so 
patent to all men, and so indelibly implanted in human conception, that some 
persons have supposed that we have an intuitive perception of them. But, while 
the materials from which the mind is to work are thus easily obtained, it has taxed 
to the utmost the reasoning powers of understandings like Newton's to evolve the 
few consequences of them which are already known, and the investigator has to 
call to his assistance every aid to prolonged consecutive thought which mathe- 
maticians can devise. 

In grappling with the problems of Nature we are seldom allowed the choice of 
the method of investigation we shall employ. This is commonly settled for us and 
not by us. Where we cannot advance without further information, we must make 
further observations, i.e., we must employ the experimental method, the appeal ad 
experientiam : where we cannot advance without understanding better what the 
information we possess really amounts to, we must employ the deductive method. 

No reach of intellect applied to the materials in existence before 1860 could 
have elicited the fact that iron exists upon the sun. This great discovery was 
made by Professor Kirchhoff, a scientific man who was equally versed in both 
methods of investigation. On the present occasion it was the experimental method 
he employed. He applied to the scrutiny of the sun's spectrum four prisms of the 
most homogeneous glass that could be procured, figured with the greatest accuracy 
that the eminent artist Steinheil could attain. He expended far more pains 
on their adjustment for each successive part of the spectrum than any of his 
predecessors had done, and he was rewarded by a more perfect vision of the sun's 
glorious spectrum than had met the human eye before. In a collateral inquiry, 
suggested by an observation made by Foucault, he and Bunsen placed a metallic 
vapour emitting bright rays in front of a still brighter incandescent body, so that 
the light from the brighter background had to pass through this vapour, and they 
found that the vapour now caused dark lines in the spectrum occupying the 
positions which its own bright lines had before filled. Professor Kirchhoff there- 
upon added an appliance to his spectroscope which enabled him to bring a metallic 
spectrum and the solar spectrum together into the field of view, alongside of one 
another. On accomplishing this he saw sixty of the brightest of the iron rays as 
continuations of sixty of the strongest of the dark lines in the sun's spectrum ; 
and, by an elaborate scrutiny, he satisfied himself that the observations had been 
pushed to a sufficient degree of exactness to make sure that a deviation would have 
been detected in any one of these sixty cases if it had amounted to as much as one- 
fourth of the average interval between consecutive lines of the solar spectrum. 
From this it was obvious that the sixty coincidences are not due to chance, but 
indicate that there is really iron vapour in the path of the rays. It will be observed 
that Kirchhoff's great merit and the real difficulty of his work lay in the scientific 
foresight and the industry which were required to frame hypotheses that were 
worth testing, to guide the investigation by these hypotheses, to contrive, construct, 
and adjust adequate apparatus, and to make with it the elaborate observations and 
the exact observations and maps which were necessary. But when by these means 
the new facts had been brought to light, the inference from them that there is 
iron in the atmosphere of the sun was an easy one. This example will better 
convey than a definition what are the characteristic features of an experimental 
inquiry. 

On the other hand, no series of observations or experiments, however skilfully 
arranged, could have enabled anyone to understand the cause of that familiar but 
truly surprising phenomenon that a top stands upon its peg while it is spinning. 



246 report— 1879. 

But a full explanation of it is within the reach of any student who will train his 
mind to reason consecutively, and avail himself of the aids to prolonged con- 
secutive thought which mathematicians have contrived. He will then see that the 
most ohvious and familiar mechanical facts involve as necessary consequences all 
the phenomena which he finds in the schoolboy's top, in the physicist's gyroscope, 
and in the precession and nutation of the heavens. This then is a problem of Nature 
which falls within the province of the deductive method. 

Wherever data are known exactly, there inferences from these data however 
remote may be depended upon as corresponding with what actually occurs in Nature. 
And if in such cases the mind of man has proved equal to the task of drawing 
inferences which can effectually grapple with the problems he finds around him in 
the Universe — which is, alas ! as yet but too seldom — then will the deductive 
method, our plummet, explore depths in the great ocean of existence which our 
anchors of experiment could not have reached. 

The distinction which is here made between deductive and experimental inves- 
tigations would have no place in a logical system. But it has direct reference to 
human convenience, and derives its importance from this circumstance. It is 
obvious, too, that an investigation may partake of both characters— that it may 
require all the powers of the scientific observer to get at the facts, or even to ap- 
preciate them, and all the resources of the mathematician to elicit the consequences 
of them. For instance, on beginning his electrical studies, the student of Nature 
must master a mixed experimental and deductive inquiry to get at the elementary 
fact that free electricity resides either at or outside the surfaces of conductors ; 
and he must engage in a further inquiry, and one only within the reach of a trained 
mind, to deduce from this the law of the inverse square. And, again, no full 
appreciation or even intelligent use of the common electrostatic and electrodynamic 
measures which he meets at the threshold of his electrical studies is within the 
reach of the mere experimentalist or of the mere theorist. And if this treacherous 
ground lies before the immature student at his entrance, what shall we say of the 
bogs he struggles into as he advances. We are perpetually meeting with inquiries 
of this mixed character in electricity and some of the other physical sciences, but 
they are comparatively rare in either mechanics or chemistry, and none that is 
difficult lies in the path of the beginner. How many students are there who are 
made to slur over the above and a multitude of similar difficulties, and who are 
told that they are learning science, when in fact what they are really learning is 
the pernicious habit of being content to see Nature through a fog or through other 
men's mental eyes. 

In mechanics valuable progress can be made by the mere mathematician, the 
student of deductive science ; and in chemistry similar progress can be made by the 
mere experimentalist. Of all the physical sciences these are the most purely 
deductive, and the most purely experimental. What I desire particularly to invite 
attention to is that the two great methods of investigation may best be acquired in 
these two sciences, and that for a really sound grasp of the remaining physical 
sciences, and especially with a view to further advance in physical science, a com- 
mand of both methods of investigation is essential. I ought to add, however, that 
to confer this inestimable boon on the investigator of Nature, the great science of 
mechanics must be studied by him in its own best form, and not degraded by the 
vile expedient of evading the legitimate use of the infinitesimal calculus, to 
comply, perhaps, with the ill-judged requirements of some examining body ; and 
his practical chemistry must be the study of a science, and not a mere accumula- 
tion of exercises in a lucrative art. 

We must bear in mind, too, that either method of investigation may be mis- 
applied, and that this is a risk carefully to be guarded against. The deductive 
method when misapplied lands us in speculation, the experimental method becomes 
empiricism ; and it so happens that the sciences of mechanics and chemistry are not 
pnly monuments of the power of the two great methods of investigation, but 
instructive examples of their weakness also. For in chemistry, scarce any attempt 
at prolonged reasoning, carrying us by any lengthened flight to a distance from 
the experiments, can be relied on. The result has seldom risen to anything better 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 247 

rfhan speculation. And on the other hand, in mechanics, conclusions which depend 
on experiments only are empirical ; that is, they are deficient in accuracy, and 
^their relation to the other phenomena of the science is left in darkness. Here, then, 
we find in these two sciences not only how strong these two methods of investiga- 
tion are, but how weak they may become if misapplied. _ 

I do not know whether any of my predecessors in this chair have experienced so 
much difficulty, or have hesitated so long and so much as I have hesitated in select- 
ing the topic to which he would ask your attention. My first effort was an attempt 
to delineate the great recent progress of the mathematical and physical sciences, but 
it was unsatisfactory, partly from my own too scanty powers, and also because the 
variety and even disparity of the numerous sciences somewhat arbitrarily grouped 
together in Section A gave to the outline too sketchy a character. My next 
attempt was to make a selection among them, confining myself to those with which 
I am best acquainted, and endeavouring to direct attention to the problems which 
at the present time seem most to stand in need of solution. But here I felt 
unwilling either to bring forward or to withhold views which might be disputed. I 
then applied myself to the single consideration of what I hoped might prove useful and 
not inopportune at a time when one university, which I trust will prove a great uni- 
versity, is rising in the north of England, and when another university which has 
carefully and successfully fostered a high standard of education for thirty years, and 
which has thereby deserved and won the respect of educated men, has just been sacn- 
ficedto ecclesiasticism in the sister isle. In this university I have held the most central 
office for twenty-two years, and in the discharge of my duty had largely to influence 
its destiny in respect to almost every educational problem. Parliament in its 
wisdom has now seen fit to destroy this work, and I have not been without hope 
that from the experience which has been gained some effect which shall last may 
yet arise, and that the Queen's University may perhaps at its extinction bequeath a 
useful legacy to the University of Victoria. The advancement of science in the 
north of England will largely depend for many years on the wisdom of the regu- 
lations for scientific training which are adopted at first by the new university ; and 
I have therefore ventured, at this peculiar juncture, to submit to the judgment 
of my scientific brethren the principles which much thought and many trials 
extending over several years have led me to believe should guide them in selecting 
this part of a curriculum. # . 

I have sought to show that it is in the study of mechanics and m the practice 
of chemistry that the two great methods of investigation may best be acquired. In 
them they may be studied separately, by steps of graduated difficulty, and with a 
superabundance of materials ; and each of them supplies the necessary cautions 
with respect to the method which is all powerful in the other. No scientific man 
is really equipped for the pursuits in which both methods have to be employed till 
he has separately acquired a grasp of each. For it is only then that he will be 
armed against the errors which lead so many to mistake empiricism on the one 
hand and speculation on the other for solid science, or to underrate solid science 
mistaking it for speculation. Nor is it only in his scientific occupationsthat he 
will derive benefit from this training. All exact reasoning, whether in science or 
in common life, belongs to these great divisions ; and in the numberless instances 
in which we must be satisfied with reasoning which falls short of being exact, our 
only safety lies in having by the practice of exact reasoning, both deductive and 
experimental, attained to that intellectual tact and caution which alone will enable 
us to handle with safety the sharp and slippery tool. It is thus that a sound 
judgment with regard to truth may best be acquired by man or woman ; and 
soundness of judgment is the noblest endowment of man's understanding, just as 
veracity stands first among his virtues. 



248 report— 1879. 



The following Reports and Papers were read : — 

1. Report of the Committee for commencing Secular Experiments upon the- 
Elasticity of Wires. — See Reports, p. 33. 



2. Report of the Committee for making more Accurate Determinations of the 
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. — See Reports, p. 36. 



3. On Etherspheres as a Vera Causa of Natural Philosophy. 
By Rev. S. Eaknshaw, M.A. 

The author of this communication, assuming an admitted parallelism between the 
phenomena of light and heat, proceeds by means of three hitherto overlooked 
propositions in natural philosophy to establish the universal existence of what he 
has denominated etherspheres, the third of his propositions being — ' Every atom of 
matter in the universe is surrounded by an ethersphere of its own.' The follow- 
ing is the system of nature which he finds sufficient for his purpose : — 

1. In nature there are two distinct substances, matter and ether, neither of 
which has any power to attract or repel the other. 

2. Matter consists of atoms which attract each other with forces varying 
according to the Newtonian law (distance) -3 . 

3. The atoms of bodies of the same kind are alike in all respects ; atoms or 
bodies of different kinds differ from each other in size, and possibly also in other 
respects, such as shape, &c. 

4. Atoms, whether of matter or of ether, are incapable of experiencing any 
change of figure or dimensions ; and they are all assumed to be of such geometrical 
forms as cannot fill space. 

5. From the phenomena of light it has been inferred that atoms of ether repel 
each other with a force varying as (distance) -4 . 

6. Every atom of matter is impervious to ether, and acts on ether in no other 
way than by pressure of contact. 

7. A portion of space filled with matter is necessarily void of ether; and all 
space void of matter is pervaded by ether. 

8. The enormous velocity of light in free space has led to the opinion that 
very great must be the repulsive power of ether on ether ; and it seems to follow 
from this that an ether atom will experience great difficulty in moving from one 
part of the ethereal medium to another. Except as waves and currents ether 
motion will be under great restraints, and especially shall we see this when we 
also remember the high power ( 4 ) of its inverse law of force. 

9. In free space light is believed to be transmitted with the same velocity in 
every direction, and from this we infer that the atoms of ether are all spherical 
in form. 

The following is the author's definition of an ethersphere :— 
All space not filled by matter is pervaded by ether, so that every atom of mat- 
ter is surrounded by ether, but this is not what is included in the word ' ethersphere.' 
The author shows that if any portion of space be rendered void of ether from any 
cause whatever, that space has become void of the repulsive forces which were 
centred within it, and that, consequently, when these forces are taken away the 
medium outside the space will draw closer towards that space ; and if the space 
be occupied by an atom of matter, the density of the surrounding ether will be- 
greater than before, and the ether, being in contact with the atom at its surface, 
will press upon it. This excess of ether about the vacant space above its original 
quantity constitutes the ethersphere ; and though this gathering together of ether 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 249 

about the space now occupied by the atom is a consequence of tbe presence of 
the atom, it is in no way owing to its action on tbe etbereal medium. 

Tbe author then argues that if every material atom, so must every compound 
system of atoms, i.e., every material body, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, have 
an ethersphere, which not only surrounds the whole body, but also penetrates the 
interstitial spaces of the body which lie between its atoms. 

By means of these etherspheres the author believes the phenomena of heat 
may be satisfactorily accounted for, on the supposition that the ethereal medium is 
the medium of heat as well as of light. They are shown in the original memoir 
itself to have a remarkable bearing also on the phenomena of magnetism, electricity, 
galvanism, and the various sciences connected with the agency of imponderables. 
He therefore concludes that etherspheres constitute a vera causa the existence of 
which in nature is as certain as is that of the ethereal medium itself, about which 
no philosopher expresses doubt in the present day. 



4. On some New Instruments recently constructed for the continuation of 
researches on Specific Inductive Capacity. By J. E. H. Gordon, B.A., 
Assistant Secretary of the British Association. 

Mr. Gordon exhibited and explained the following new instruments which he 
has arranged during the last year : — 

(1) A minature five-plate induction balance, similar in principle to the large- 
balance exhibited at the Dublin meeting, but intended for the examination of crystals 
and other precious substances which cannot be obtained in sufficiently large quan- 
tities for the large balance. 

The large balance requires the dielectric plates to be 7 inches square and £ to 
f inch thick. For the small balance it is sufficient to make them 2 inches square 
and £ inch thick. 

(2) A gauge for measuring the thickness of the dielectric plates to 10 q 00 inch. 

(3) A new form of quadrant electrometer for use with the small induction 
balance. 

The capacity of the smaller plates of the little induction balance is so minute 
that when they are attached to the quadrants of the electrometer of ordinary con- 
struction (Elliott pattern) disturbances in them produce hardly any effect on the 
needle, on account of the much greater capacity of the quadrants of the electrometer. 

In order to construct an electrometer whose quadrants should have very small 
capacity, and which should yet be very sensitive, the author has arranged the 
quadrants as pieces of a flat disc, only one inch in diameter, and tbe needle has been 
bent round them so as to be acted on by both their upper and lower surfaces and 
their outside edge. 

(4) A new rapid commutator. 

This was invented by Professor Cornu, of the Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, who 
had the great kindness to devise it for the author of this paper, who, when M. 
Cornu took up the matter, had just constructed three different instruments for the 
experiments for which this one is intended, all of which had proved unsuccessful. 

Some preliminary experiments with M. Oornu's instrument have shown that it 
promises to be entirely satisfactory. It can be used with either the large or small 
induction balance on the one hand, and with a Holtz machine or battery of 500 or 
more cells on the other. It reverses the electrification of the plates of the balance 
eighteen times per second, and between each reversal, short circuits, and puts 
to earth both poles of the induction balance and both poles of the battery. By 
altering two screws it can be arranged to short circuit and put to earth the poles 
of the induction balance only, and to insulate the battery poles. 

(5) Driving-wheel for the Cornu commutator. 

All the instruments have been constructed by Mr. Kieser of the firm of 
Elliott Brothers. 



250 



REPORT 1879. 



5. On Secular Changes in the Specific Inductive Capacity of Glass. By 
J. E. H. Gordon, B.A., Assistant Secretary of the British Association. 

At Christmas 1877 I made some determinations of the specific inductive capacity 
of optical glass by a method which has already been fully described both before 
this section and elsewhere. 1 

At the end of July 1879 I commenced a repetition of the experiments, using 
the same slabs of glass, and was surprised to find a large increase in the specific 
inductive capacity in every case. In some cases the increase was as much as 
twenty per cent. 

The following is a table of the results : — 

Specific Inductive Capacity of Optical Glass. 



Double extra dense flint. . . . 


Christmas, 1877 


July and August, 1879 


3164 


3-838 




3-053 


3-621 




3013 


3-443 




3-108 


3310 



The arrangement of the apparatus, including the coil and rapid break, was 
precisely the same as in my earlier experiments. The electromotive force was as 
nearly as possible the same, and experiment has shown that moderate variations 
in it do not affect the results. 

The differences observed might have been caused by any one of three things : — 

(1) By error in the 1879 experiments ; 

(2) By error in the 1877 experiments ; 

(3) By a change in the specific inductive capacity of the glass between 
Christmas 1877 and July 1879. 

Careful repetition of the 1879 experiments has convinced me that there is no 
error in them. 

If the difference is caused by error in the 1877 experiments, then in 1877 I 
must have obtained too low a result. With my induction balance the effect of 
covering the dielectric with a well-conducting film is to prevent observation ; the 
effect of covering it with a badly-conducting film is to give too low a result. 

Before rejecting the second explanation of the difference, based on the hypothesis 
of error in the 1877 experiments, it is therefore necessary to prove that in 1877 
there was no film on the surface of the glass of sufficient conducting power to 
cause a large error in the results. 

In 1877 the glasses were not washed by immersion in water, but were 
thoroughly cleaned with a glass-cloth and wash-leather. To the best of my recol- 
lection they were first rubbed with a damp cloth, then with a dry one, and then 
polished with the leather, being frequently breathed on during the process, and 
then usually warmed at the fire. This process was so far efficacious in removing 
any conducting film of moisture from the glasses, that at the end of it they were 
usually found to be electrified by the friction of the leather. When this occurred 
they were passed rapidly a few times over the flame of a spirit-lamp to discharge 
them. They were always so warm that any visible moisture deposited by the 
spirit-lamp disappeared instantly. 

In the 1879 experiments, which are quoted in the preceding table, the glasses 

1 Report Brit. Assoc, 1878; Proc. Roy. Soc, 191, 1878; Phil. Trans., 1879; 
Four Lectures on Electric Induction, delivered at the Royal Institution (Sampson 
Low & Co.), 1879. 



TEANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 251 

•were washed in hot water, wiped and polished, and passed over the spirit-lamp 
while still hot. After observing a difference in the first two specimens examined, 1 
made preliminary experiments on the other two before cleaning them. The follow- 
ing are the results obtained : 

Hard Crown Glass. 

S.I.C. 

Christmas 1877 3108 

August 7, 1879. — Not wiped for more than a year ; placed in balance covered 

with dust exactly as taken from box, which does not shut airtight . . 3-236 
•August 8.— Cleaned in hot water, as described above 3-310 

Light Flint Class. 

S.I.C. 

Christmas 1877 3-01 

August 4, 1879. — Dusted lightly with duster, not rubbed 2-90 

August 4. — Cleaned in hot water, experimented on while hot .... 3-44 

August 4. — Cooled under tap, wiped with glass cloth 3-44 

August 5. — Had stood twenty-four hours uncovered on table, not wiped . . 3-39 

August 5. — Smeared all over with oil 3-48 

August 5. — Smoked on oily surface over paraffin lamp, so as to make glass 

semi-opaque 3-46 

August 5. — Glass made very wet with solution of sal-ammoniac . Experiment 

impossible 
August 5. — Eoughly dried with duster ; surface appeared opaque, like ground 

glass .............. 1-64 

August 5. — Wiped over with glass-cloth, but not rubbed 2-36 

August 5. — Einsed under cold tap, and wiped with glass-cloth, but not polished 3-46 
August 5. — While still cold, passed over spirit-lamp till much more clouded 

than ever would be the case in actual work ; placed in balance, and 

experiment made as quickly as possible . . . . . . 3-48 

My conclusion from the above numbers is, that although it is possible by 
sufficiently wetting the surface of the plate to produce any apparent reduction of 
the specific inductive capacity, yet that even if very much less care had been taken 
to clean the plates than was taken in 1877, the greatest quantity of moisture that 
could accidentally have been left on them would have been totally incapable of 
producing anything bike the difference now under examination. 

I am therefore led to the conclusion that in the course of a year and a half an 
actual change has taken place in the glasses, which is shown by a considerable real 
increase in their specific inductive capacities. To complete our knowledge of this 
new phenomenon we require a series of monthly observations, extended over 
perhaps a period of several years. I shall hope to be able to give the results of 
another year's experiments at the next meeting of the Association. 

These experiments have some importance as regards Professor Clerk Maxwell's 
electro-magnetic theory of light. In a recent lecture 1 I ventured to suggest ' that 
it is quite possible that the relation between electric induction and light exists — 
namely, that they are disturbances of the same ether, but that there is some un- 
known disturbing cause affecting the electric induction.' 

Possibly a clue to the nature of this disturbing cause may be found in the fact, 
that the specific inductive capacities are affected by some of the changes which 
chemists tell us are constantly going on in glasses, but that these changes do not 
affect the refractive indices. 



6. On the Cause of Bright Lines in the Spectra of Comets. 
By G. Johnstone Stoney, M.A., F.B.S., H.B.I.A. 

Dr. Huggins and other observers have seen the bright lines of some compound 
of carbon in the spectra of several comets. This establishes the fact that a com- 
pound of carbon is present in the comets. It is always assumed in what has been 

1 Royal Institution, February 6, 1879. 



252 report— 1879. 

hitherto -written on this subject that the vapour which has thus been detected is 
incandescent because it emits these bright lines. 

The author of the present communication wishes to put forward an alternative 
hypothesis, which he believes to be entitled to much weight. It is that these lines 
are due to the sun's light falling upon the compound of carbon, and rendering it visible 
in the same way that light renders other opaque objects visible, the vapour being' 
opaque in reference to the particular rays which appear as bright lines in its spectrum. 

An opaque body is visible in the presence of a luminary from three causes — ■ 
because of such a scattering of the incident light as takes place when a transparent 
body is reduced to powder; because of the reflection of light from its surface if of 
sufficient extent and sufficiently smooth ; and because of phosphorescence. Bequerel 
has shown that phosphorescence contributes to render objects visible in a vast 
number of instances, and it is this which seems to produce the effect in the case 
now under consideration. 

Phosphorescence consists in the exaltation of such molecular motions by radiant 
heat as are unable readily to communicate their superfluous energy to the other 
kinds of motion which are going on in or among the molecules. The motions- 
within the molecules of gases stand in this predicament if the intervals between 
the encounters of the molecules are sufficiently long. Now in comets, on account 
of their small mass, the vapour must be excessively attenuated, and these intervals 
must be proportionately long. Hence the conditions are such as will eminently 
promote phosphorescence, and therefore visibility, in the presence of a luminary. 



7. Sur le Maximum d'Intensite du Spectre Photographique Solaire. Par 
le Dr. J. Janssen, de Vlnstltut de France, Directeur de V Ohservatoire- 
de Meudon. 

Gette communication est la suite des recherches sur ce sujet, et qui remontent a 
1874. Des cette epoque j'avais reconnu que le spectre solaire presentait un 
maximum d'intensite situe au dela de F vers le violet. 

Depuis a diverses reprises j'ai communique le r^sultat de ces recherches, qui ont 
6te frequemment interrompues. (Voir les notices de ' L'Annuaire du Bureau des 
Longitudes,' 1878, 1879, et le ' Report of British Association,' 1878.) 

Les parties nouvelles de ce travail concernent l'examen des diverses substances 
photographiques et des divers milieux optiques, et surtout l'emploi d'une nouvelle 
methode d'6tude du spectre par la variation du temps de pose et que je propose de 
nommer analyse chronometrique du spectre. 

Methode d' Analyse CJironometrique du Spectre. — Cette methode consiste a faire 
passer devant la fente d'un appareil a photographier le spectre, et pendant la pose un 
Icran en forme de triangle, qui, par le progres de son mouvement, vient masquer 
successivement les diverses parties du spectre dans le sens de sa hauteur ; en sorte 
que si l'on considere deux lignes ou bandes brillantes du spectre ces lignes prendront 
dans la photographie des longueurs en rapport avec leurs intensites lumineuses. 

En effet si l'on considere le spectre dans un sens perpendiculaire a celui de ses 
lignes spectrales ou de la fente, on reconnaitra que les points dans cette direction 
recoivent une pose egale, que cette pose est au contraire de plus en plus grande a. 
mesure qu'on marche dans le sens perpendiculaire dans la direction des raies et 
vers les parties que l'ecran triangulaire couvrira les dernieres. 

Le mouvement de l'ecran triangidaire est donne par un rouage d'horlogerie et 
doit pouvoir prendre des vitesses variables. 

L'ecran triangulaire rectiligne peut etre remplace" par im triangle dont l'hypo- 
thenuse est une courbe de forme dtSterminee pour produire une pose variant suivant 
une loi determine^. 1 

1 Cette methode permet de mettre en evidence et de mesurer les intensity 
photographiques des divers points des spectres par la consideration des longueurs 
des lignes ou bandes dans leurs images photographiques. Elle pourra etre 
specialement employe a la question de la presence des lignes brillantes de l'oxygene 
dans le spectre solaire. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 253 

Maximum du Spectre. Experiences. — Les etudes qui ont mis en Evidence ce 
maximum sont les suivantes : — 

On a employe" des spectrographes forme's avec prismes et lentilles de quartz, de 
fipath d'Islande, de crown, de flint, et aussi des re"seaux pour produire le spectre. 

Les substances photographiques employes sont les collodions aux iodures et 
bromures de potassium, sodium, ammonium, zinc, cadmium. Ces substances ont 
6t6 essayt5es soit isolt5ment soit associges. 

Pour la pose : on s'est procure" relativement a cbaque disposition d'experience 
une st5rie de spectres depuis cinq minutes de pose jusqu'a une fraction de seconde. 

On a aussi employe la ine"thode des e"crans a, marches et la niethode chronomgtrique 
decrite plus haut. 

Resultats. — Ces etudes ont conduit a reconnaitre qu'il existe un maximum 
d'action dans le spectre solaire. 

Ce maximmn est situe pres de G. 

H est im peu variable d'etendue avec les substances photographiques ; les 
bromures lui donnent plus d'etendue que les iodures. 

II est toujours tres liinite, et pour des poses courtes et bien d^termine'es il se 
traduit par une e"troite bande pres de G. 

Certains flints le r^duisent encore, et il devient presque une ligne. 

Ces conclusions ne visent que les conditions experirnentales decrites. 

Consequences. — L'existence d'un maximum tres-limite dans le spectre photo- 
graphique du soleil ccnduit a des consequences dont on enumere ici quelques-unes. 

1. Elle montre qu'on peut obtenir de bonnes photographies du soleil avec des 
lentilles simples, si elle3 ont un long foyer et si elles sont fornixes avec un flint 
donnant le maximum tres-limite dont nous avons parle - . 

2. Elle explique comment il a 6t6 possible d'obtenir par la photographie des 
images de la surface solaires donnant des details et revelant des plnmomenes que les 
lunettes ne peuvent montrer, car l'achromatisme photographique peut etre 
beaucoup plus parfait que l'achromatisme oculaire. II y a aussi a tenir compte du 
temps de pose de ces images, qui est d'environ ^^ de seconde, ce qui empeche 
Taction des perturbations atmospheriques. 

On comprend en outre l'importance de la decouverte de ce maximivm pour la 
construction des objectifs et appareils optiques de la photographie. On devra y 
avoir egard dans la recherche de l'achromatisme des objectifs si Ton veut avoir une 
tres grande perfection. 

8. On the Changes of Volume in Iron when passing from the Liquid to the 
Solid State, and on an Instrument for observing the same. By 
T. Wrightson, Memb. Inst. C.E., F.G.S.—See Section G., p. 506. 



9. On the Isophotal Binocular Microscope. By Samuel Holmes. 



10. Some Observations on Generic Images. By W. Cave Thomas, F.S.S. 

At the first Art Congress held in Antwerp many years since, in propounding 
the theory, that the average or mean form, was, according to probability and expe- 
rience, the fittest form of the species, and in man the form of beauty, I attempted 
to demonstrate the truth of the theory by experiment, though with very imperfect 
appliances. I again alluded to the matter in one of my earliest published works, 
' The Science of Moderation,' and expressed my conviction that the demonstration 
would be more completely effected at some future time, as appears to have been 
done by Mr. Francis Galton in his ' Composite Photography.' 

The rationale of such experiments is simply this, that we perform a mechanical 
averaging. Instead of any one object being presented to our graze, we have a mean 
image, in which proportions of excess and defect have mutually neutralised each 
other. It is true that in photography the process is very limited ; it can deal but 



254 report — 1879. 

with a few individuals, but on that sensitive surface, the retina, a vast range of 
individual images of the same species may be impressed, but as excesses and defects 
neutralise each other, the mean or average image is most forcibly impressed on the 
mind, and that image constitutes our ideal. We arrive at the idea of beauty in 
precisely the same way that we arrive by a series of observations at the true place 
of a star. But it is not necessary, in order to illustrate the mental process by a 
mechanical process, that we should photograph human beings. W« may take 
geometrical forms, such for instance, as the genus ellipse, whose transverse and 
conjugate axes may vary between the limits of 1 : 1 and 1 : 0. The diameters of 
the mean ellipse, parallelogram rhombus, and oviform are as 1 : 2, a proportion in 
these figures which has been a favourite one through the ages. The genus ellipse 
may be divided into species, any one of which may be experimented with, for 
instance the species lying within the limits of 1 : 1^ to 1 : H, or of 1 : 1£ to 1 : 2, &c. 
I propose to photograph the impression which such figures would make through 
an aperture in a revolving disc. 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 22, 1879. 



The following Eeports and Papers were read : — 

1. Report of the Committee fur Procuring Reports on the Progress of 
Mathematics and Physics. — See Reports, p. 37. 



2. Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature. 
See Reports, p. 40. 



Report of the Committee on Atmospheric Electricity at Madeira. 
See Reports, p. 63. 



4. On the Retardation of Phase of Vibrations transmitted by the Telephone. 
By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc. 

It was predicted from theoretical considerations by Dubois-Raymond that a dif- 
ference of phase, amounting to a quarter of a complete vibration, would be found 
to exist between the diaphragms of two associated Bell telephones, the receiving 
telephone being a quarter of a vibration behind the transmitter. A more complete 
theory, worked out independently by Helmholtz and Weber, gave a somewhat 
contradictory result, and required only a small difference of phase. Recently Konig, 
in a series of delicate experiments, effected an optical comparison by the method of 
Lissajons of the vibrations of a pair of telephones, replacing the vibrating discs by 
tuning-forks armed with mirrors. The experiment is a delicate one, and is per- 
formed under conditions not free from objection. The author has proposed the 
following method of observing. A pair of Bell telephones are suspended by wires 
of about a metre in length, so as to oscillate as pendulums, to frames so disposed 
as to avoid the possibility of any mechanical transmission of the vibrations. Below 
the point of rest of each telephone, and at some little distance from it in the plane 
of its swinging, is placed a steel magnet. After the lengths of the wires have been 
so adjusted that the telephones will swing in identical periods, one telephone is set 
swinging. As it alternately approaches and recedes from the magnet, the induced 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 255 

currents traversing the second telephone set it swinging. In every case the differ- 
ence of phase observed amounted to one quarter. 

In the case of those telephones which transmit vibrations by varying the resist- 
ance of the circuit, instead of varying the electromotive force, there is no such 
retardation of phase produced in the ordinary electromagnetic receiver. If, how- 
ever, the current so transmitted is first passed through an induction coil, a re- 
tardation of phase of one quarter is produced, and in the case of several successive 
inductions the retardation amounts to an additional quarter for every additional 
induction. This remark applies only to vibrations of harmonic and quasi-harmonic 
type. Vowel sounds, which consist of compound harmonic vibrations, are un- 
changed to the perception of the single ear, which is unable to distinguish differ- 
ences of phase, or between compound sounds which differ from one another only 
in the difference of phase of their components. The vibrations of consonantal 
sounds, on the contrary, depart more and more widely from their original type at 
each successive induction. 

In the case of Edison's niotographic or electro-chemical receiver, the velocities, 
not the displacement of the disc, are proportional to the strength of the currents 
received. Hence vibrations already retarded one quarter in transmission, as is the 
case with those of the carbon transmitter in conjunction with its induction coil, 
always used with this instrument, are restored to their primitive phase. The 
vibrations of this receiver therefore agree in type, not with the vibrations of the 
induction current (which correspond to the derived function of those of the original 
vibration), but with those corresponding to the function of which the vibrations 
of the induction current are the derivate ; that is to say, they agree in type with 
the primitive vibrations of whatever form. Hence in the receiving telephone of 
Edison consonantal sounds which depart widely from the purely harmonic type 
are better rendered than in a telephone which like that of Bell both retards the 
vibrations in phase and alters them in type. 






5. The Pseudophone. By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc. 

The pseudophone is an instrument whose object is to illustrate the laws of the 
acoustic perception of space by the illusions it produces, just as the pseudoscope 
of Wheatstone illustrates the laws of the optical perception of space by the ocular 
illusions it produces. 

The pseudophone consists of certain adjustable reflectors which can be at- 
tached to the head, and which perform the functions of the natural pinnae in 
ordinary hearing. According to Steinhauser's theory of Binaural Hearing, the 
acoustic perception of space depends upon the relative intensity with which a 
sound-wave is received into the two ears, this again depending on the conforma- 
tion and position of the head. Though in general true for many sounds, this 
theory fails to account for certain observed facts in the perception of sound, and 
fails in so far as it neglects differences of phase and of pitch. 

Experiments made with the pseudophone indicate the direction in which Stein- 
hauser's theory requires modification. 



6. On the Tension of Vapours near Curved Surfaces of their Liquids. 

By G. F. Fitzgerald. 

The paper is intended to give a physical explanation of the fact that the tension 
of a vapour in contact with the surface of its liquid when that surface is convex or 
concave is greater or less respectively than when flat. It rests upon the assumption 
that evaporation is not merely superficial, but that molecules are emitted from a 
certain depth beneath the surface of a liquid. From this it follows that the 
chances of escape of a molecule from a given depth below a convex surface are 
greater, and from below a concave one less, than from a flat one. Taking the depth 



256 report— 1879. 

from which emission takes place as very small compared with the radii of curvature 
of the surface, I have deduced the same formula for the increase or diminution of 
tension as Sir W. Thomson deduced from capillary phenomena. 



7. On the Curve of Polarisation Stress, as determined by Mr. Crookes's 
Measures with the Radiometer. By G. Johnstone Stonet, M.A., 
F.B.S., M.B.I.A. 

Mr. Orookes has published in hisBakerian lecture (' Philosophical Transactions,' 
1878, pp. 300 and 301) a table and curve representing v, the number of revolutions 
per minute of a radiometer at different tensions of the residual gas when influenced 
by a candle three inches off. And at pp. 313 to 316 he gives similar values and the 
curve for p, the coefficient of viscosity of the residual gas at low tensions. From 
these observations we may obtain information with regard to the polarisation stress 
which caused the motion. 

The observations of v were made when the radiometer had attained a constant 
velocity, from which it follows that the retarding forces then balanced the impelling 
force, and were therefore a measure of it. Now the retarding forces were three : 
the friction on the peg, an approximately constant force which may be represented 
by a ; the resistance from viscosity, which may be represented by bfiv (b being 
another constant), and the force required to drive the residual air out of the path of 
the advancing vanes, which may be represented approximately by cVv 2 , c being 
another constant and P the tension. Hence the polarisation stress 

= a + bfiv + cPy 2 , 

the second and third terms of which can be deduced from Mr. Crookes's curves, and 
separately plotted down, fiv will then furnish a curve resembling Mr. Crookes's 
curve of velocity in its general shape, but with its maximum at a higher tension. 
Pd 2 gives a somewhat similar curve, also with a maximum at a higher tension than 
Mr. Crookes's curve. The friction of the peg will obviously furnish a horizontal 
line. We do not know the coefficients a, b, and e, but can perceive that the curve 
representing the impelling force, i.e., the polarisation stress (whose ordinates will be 
the sum of the ordinates of the foregoing curves, multiplied respectively by the coeffi- 
cients a, b, c), must have a form somewhat resembling Mr. Crookes's velocity curve, 
the chief difference to be noted being that the maximum stress occurs at a higher 
tension than the maximum velocity. 

The form of the curve thus deduced from the observations is in harmony with 
the approximate curve which results from the theory of polarisation stress put 
forward by the author of the present communication (see ' Scientific Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Dublin,' New Series, vol. i. ; or ' Philosophical Magazine,' for 
December, 1878). It is also consistent with the complete expansions for the polari- 
sation stress given in the next communication. 



8. On Complete Expansions for the Conduction of Heat and the Polarisation 
Stress in Gases. By G. Johnstone Stonet, M.A., F.B.S., M.B.I.A. 

Clausius obtained for the flow or conduction of heat across a layer of gas, the 
expression, 

and by the extension of Clausius's investigation, which Mr. George F. Fitzgerald 
suggested in a letter to ' Nature', the present author obtained for the accompany- 
ing polarisation stress, the expression, 

K = \ mn I 1^(3^ - Y)d,x. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 257 

These expressions cannot be integrated, since we are ignorant of the laws 
according to which V 3 , V 2 , and I are distributed round the origin. But the form 
of the series which will express them can be obtained on the hypotheses that the 
gas is perfect, and that CI and K are capable of being expanded in integer powers 

of — . The expressions which result are 

- p ^-=AU + BU 3 + &c (1) 

p = A'U 2 + B'U 4 + &c (2) 

p = A"W 2 + B"W 4 + &c . . . . (3) 

. TT , , . P e„ldT, ^, ^ r , . VaM.Q, , 

where U stands for -^- p -^ and W stands for p ,~ the coefficients A, B, 

&c, being numerical quantities, the same in all ' perfect ' gases, which remain to be 
determined by experiment. In these equations G is the flow of heat, K the polari- 

sation stress, P the tension of the residual gas, T its temperature, -j- the rate at 

which the temperature decreases across the layer, T and P standard temperature 
and pressure, e„ the mean free path of the molecules at standard temperature and 
pressure, cr the specific gravity of the gas compared with a standard gas (say 
hydrogen), and M a standard mass (say one gramme). 

The method by which the foregoing expansions were obtained is believed to be 
new. The expressions for G and K must be compatible with any change in the 
gas which is consistent with its continuing a ' perfect ' gas. Accordingly a succes- 
sion of such changes was conceived as happening, and the forms under which 
P, o-, T, e, must enter were thereby successively determined, the final determina- 
tion being made by the condition of homogeneity. 

The first term of expansion (1) is the approximate expression which Clausius 
found for the flow of heat ; and the first term of expansion (3) is the approximate 
expression which the author of the present communication found for the polarisa- 
tion stress. Acccordingly the approximate expressions which had before been 
known prove to be the first terms of the complete expansions. 



9. On the Action of Magnets on Liquid Jets. 
By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc. 

In studying the phenomena of the voltaic arc, the author has been led to inquire 
into the actions produced by magnets upon movable conductors, such as jointed 
wires, flexible metallic leaves, liquid conductors, gases in high rarefaction, flames, 
and liquid jets, traversed by currents. 

Nearly all the phenomena of rotations and translations due to electrodynamic 
and electromagnetic attraction or repulsion have been demonstrated to hold good 
for liquid conductors, both those which possess metallic conductivity and those 
which possess only electrolytic conductivity. Davy, Oasselmann, and Walker have 
shown the electric arc to behave as a mobile conductor. Pliicker and De la Pave, 
and more recently Grookes, have observed the existence of these electro-dynamic 
actions on the luminous discharges in highly rarefied media, and which appear to 
be electric convection currents rather than electric currents proper. 

The author has examined the case of liquid veins, both of dilute acid and of 
mercury traversed by currents, and finds that these, when subjected to the action of 
powerful magnets, exhibit analogous motions of translation, rotation, &c. Thus a 
liquid vein carrying a current between the poles of a horizontal horseshoe electro- 
magnet no lunger falls straight but is thrust aside and falls down an inverted curve. 
A vein falling in front of the pole of a vertical magnet is likewise drawn aside, 
1879. s 



258 report — 1879. 

tending to become parallel to the hypothetical Amperian currents, and to rotate in 
an opposed sense around the pole. Further, a liquid vein carrying a current falling 
upon the pointed pole of a vertical magnet is twisted, the sense of the torsion depend- 
ing on the direction of the current and the polarity of the magnet. The author has 
also essayed to extend his observations to the case of liquid jets which break in the 
air, and which, therefore, cannot carry electric currents proper, but only electric 
convection currents, and the results obtained, though not yet completed, dispose 
him to include in this set of phenomena the so-called diamagnetism of flames and 
of jets of smoke and steam. 

10. On a Hypothesis concerning the Ether in connection ivith Maxwell's 
Theory of Electricity. By Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 



11. On a Neiv Electrometer Key. 1 Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 



12. On Improvements in Dynamo-Electric Machines. 
By W. Ladd, F.R.A.S. 

My object in this communication is to describe in a few words the peculiarities 
and improvements in the construction of Weston's dynamo-electric machine. 

The field magnets are composed of iron plates placed side by side in a mould, 
but separated a uniform distance from each other. The iron magnets on which 
the wire is to be wound are cast on to •' lugs' or projections on the ends of the 
plates. The two cast-iron ends and uniting plates form one magnet. The upper 
and lower magnets are alike, and when joined together by the perforated vertical 
supports, the inner curved edges of the field plates embrace about two-thirds of 
the circle in which the armature is made to revolve. The armature is built up 
of plates which are somewhat like a cogged-wheel in shape. These are stamped 
out of sheet iron, and when mounted on the shaft are separated from each other at a 
uniform distance. The radial projections are then arranged in lines, so that the 
whole forms a very broad cogged-wheel or cylindrical structure, having longitudinal 
grooves with transverse spaces at regular distances. The longitudinal grooves are 
for carrying the wire, and it will be observed from the nature of the structure that 
the wire lies in channels three sides of which are iron, so that the mutual effect 
upon each other is increased as much as possible. 

The ends of the wires are connected to the field magnets and commutator in 
much the usual way, the currents travelling in one direction only. The commu- 
tator is fitted on a portion of the shaft which projects beyond the bearings ; this 
admits of its easy removal and a new one being replaced in three minutes. 

Another important feature in the construction is the arrangement for ventila- 
tion. The separation between the pole plates of the field magnets, the perforations 
in the vertical supports of the magnets, and the light framework of the armature, 
are all for this purpose. The air enters the centre of the armature and is driven 
out between the layers of wire through the spaces formed by the separated plates 
of the armature and the field magnets, and thus prevents any part from becoming 
unduly heated. 

Machines of this description are made of various sizes and strengths, and give 
from one to sixteen lights in single circuit. 



1 The instrument was exhibited. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 



259 



13. On Lightning Protectors for Telegraphic Apparatus. 
By William Henry Preece, Electrician, General Post-Office. 

For many years it was not the practice in England to protect telegraphic 
apparatus from the injurious effects of atmospheric electricity, because the damage 
done was so insignificant, and because the remedy was found to be worse than the 
disease. 

But as telegraph systems increased, as the country became enveloped in one vast 
network of wires, it was found that the damage done became considerable, until, in 
fact, about 10 per cent, of the apparatus in use was in one year damaged. 




Lightning protectors then became essential. Many forms were tried, based on 
the fact that when a discharge takes place through a non-conductor, such as dry 
air, at the moment of discharge the resistance along the line of discharge is 
practically nothing, and therefore all the charge is conducted away. According to 




Faraday, ' the ultimate effect is exactly as if a metallic wire had been put into the 
place of the discharging particles' {Researches, Series xii., 1406). Most of those 
tried failed. 

The survival of the fittest has been exemplified in the ' plate' protector. In this 

? lm— one °f ^ e eai 'liest introduced — one thick plate of brass is in connection with 

the earth, and another similar plate in connection with the line is placed above it, 

but separated from it by paper, or by insulating washers. The lightning, entering 

s2 



•260 report— 1879. 

the wire, bursts across the paper or air space in preference to passing through the 
apparatus, and thus escapes to earth. 

An important modification of this plate-discharger has been made by Dr. Werner 
Siemens, who, by serrating or grooving with a pointed tool the opposing faces of 
the two plates at right angles to each other, converted them into a conductor, which 
was supposed to be one composed of an infinite number of opposing points. The 
remarkable action of points in facilitating discharge is well known, and their intro- 
duction into lightning protectors occurred very early in the annals of telegraphy, 
by Mr. 0. V. Walker, F.R.S. 

Messrs. Siemens' arrangement, very pretty in theory, never carried conviction of 
its value in the mind of the author, because protectors so prepared never singled 
themselves out as evidently superior to others that were not so prepared ; and while 
the intersection of the grooves certainly formed mathematical points, they did not 
form physical or mechanical points, and it is upon the action of this latter kind of 
point that such remarkable electrical effects are produced. 

Dr. Warren De La Rue having very kindly placed his well-known battery of 
11,000 cells at the disposal of the writer, he prepared four plate protectors, identical 
in dimensions, excepting that two were serrated and two were not. The two plates 
were separated from each other by narrow ebonite washers, - 01 inch thick. The 
upper plate was placed in connection with the positive pole, and the lower plate 
with the negative pole. The number of cells was increased until a continuous 
current of electricity flowed. 

1. Plain Plates. 

No. of Cells. Effect Produced. 

1,000 . . Slight sparks just commencing on completing circuit. 

1,080 . . Sparks evident. 

1,200 . . Sparks frequent and abundant. 

1,500 . . Continuous arc. 

2. Serrated Plates. 
No. of Cells. Effect Produced. 

1,000 . . Sparks just commencing on making contact. 

1,080 . . Sparks evident. 

1,200 . . Sparks frequent. 

1,500 . . Continuous arc, but fitful. 

2,000 cells in each produced a continuous stream of electricity. The effect with 
1,500 cells was decidedly more marked with the plain plates than with those 
serrated. The experiments were extremely pretty, and very decided in their 
character. 

Hence it appears that grooving is not only of no use, but that it rather deteri- 
orates the value of the protector. 

These experiments confirm very decidedly the accuracy of the figures obtained 
by Dr. Warren De La Rue and Mr. Miiller on the striking distance between two flat 
discs given by them in their paper read before the Royal Society {Phil. Tram., vol. 
169, 1877), where it was shown that 1,200 cells struck across -012 inch. Here 1,000 
cells struck across - 01 inch, which agrees perfectly with the curve produced by 
those observers. 

It is the practice in the Post-Office Telegraph Department to keep these plates 
apart by thin paraffined paper, - 002 inch thick, so that the air-space is really much 
thinner than that experimented upon, and the striking difference of potential only 
250 volts. 

Messrs. De La Rue and Miiller have shown that for points and various kinds of 
surfaces opposed to each other plain surfaces act the best for potentials less than 
1,500 volts, and that points are only efficient for high potentials. Now, as it is 
doubtful whether atmospheric electricity causes much higher potential in telegraph 
wires than 1,000 volts, it is clear that plain surfaces are the most effective for 
protecting apparatus. It is quite certain that such plates, plain and smooth, 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 261 

separated by an air-space -002 inch thick, will form very efficient lightning pro- 
tectors. 

The author is very much indebted to Dr. Warren De La Rue for the performance 
of the experiments in his laboratory. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 23,1879. 



The following Reports and Papers were read : — 

1. Report of the Committee for calculating Tables of the Fundamental 
Invariants of Algebraic Forms. — See Reports, p. 66. 



2. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables. 
See Reports, p. 46. 



3. On some Problems in the Conduction of Electricity. 
By A. J. C. Allen, B.A., Scholar of Peterhouse. 

The principal object of this paper is to solve the problem of the conduction of 
electricity in a spherical current sheet, the electricity being introduced and carried 
off from the sheet at any number of points, called electrodes ; and also to do the 
same for certain finite portions of a spherical sheet, bounded either by current or 
equipotential lines, the motion being in all cases steady. 

The method of doing this is summed up in the following theories : — 
Let v = •>//■ (?•' 8') be the potential at any point (>•' 6') of a plane conducting 
sheet of any conducting isotropic material and any infinitely small thickness, the 
sheet being bounded by the curve 

f{r'6')=C, 
the boundary being either a current or equipotential line, or partly the one and 
partly the other, and there being electrodes of strengths JS 1 .Z? 2 ...at points r\ & x , 
^ 6' 2 ... subject only to the condition 2 U = o: then if we take a portion of a 
spherical sheet of radius a of the same material and thickness, bounded by the 
curve 

/ (a tan $) = C 

a 

(6 (f> being the ordinary polar currents on the sphere), and place electrodes of strengths 
E t i? 2 ...at points 6 t <t> 1} 8. z 2 ... where 4> l = 6\, a tan -^=r', &c, the potential at 

a 

a 
any point will be v = \jr (a tan — , <£), the boundary on the sphere being a current 

or equipotential line, according to the nature of that in the plane. 

This theorem is then applied to deducing solutions for a number of finite 
areas on the sphere. The case of one source and an equal sink on a complete sphere 
is discussed in detail, and the current and equipotential lines shown to be two sys- 
tems of small circles. 

A similar theorem, though not quite so universal in its application, is shown 
to hold for a sheet in the shape of a circular cylinder. 

The paper concludes with a solution in singly infinite series of the problem of the 
conduction of electricity in a plane area, bounded by two concentric circles, and also 
in that bounded by two concentric circles and two radii, meeting at an angle 

^(n integer). 



262 bepoet— 1879. 

4. On tlie Fundamental Principles of the Algebra of Logic. 
By Alexander Macfarlane, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

In a work recently published, entitled ' The Algebra of Logic,' I have investigated 
anew the foundations of that branch of mathematical analysis which was originated 
by Boole in hi3 celebrated treatise on ' The Laws of Thought.' In making this 
inquiry I have studied the contributions to the subject made by Harley, Venn, 
Jevons, and other philosophers. 

The difficulty and apparent irrationality of Boole's cal