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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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^ 



EEPOET 



OF THE 



FIFTIETH MEETING- 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADYMCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELB AT 



SWANSEA IN AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1880. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MUKKAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1880. 

Office of tie Association : 22 Albemaele Street, London, "W. 



LONBOy ! FEINTED BY 

aPOTTIBWOODB ASD CO., NEW-STREET SQUABS 

AHO FAmilAUEKT STBEET 




CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxi 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxviii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement rt XXXV 

Evening Lectures xlviii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes 1 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Swansea Meeting li 

Treasurer's Account liii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings liv 

Officers and Coimcil, 1880-81 hi 

Report of the Coimcil to the General Committee Ivii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports and 
Researches in Science Ix 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixvi 

Places of Meeting in 1881 and 1882 Lxvii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 
Purposes Ixviii 

An-angement of the General Meetings Ixxvii 



Address by the President, Andrew CROMBrE Ramsat, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.G.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey of the United King- 
dom, and of the Museum of Practical Geology 1 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Heport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir Whliam Thomson, Pro- 
fessor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Professor Ptjrseb, Professor G. 
Forbes, Mr. Horace Darwin, and Mr. G. H. Darwin (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 25 

Thirteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Pro- 
fessor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Ramsat, Pro- 
fessor Geieie, Mr. J. Glaisheb, Mr. Pensellt, Professor Edward Hull, 
Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Hebschel, Professor G, A. 

A 2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page; 
Lebotik, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gailoway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. 
G. F. Deacon, and Mr. E. Wetheked, appointed for the purpose of in- 
vestigating tha Kate of Increase of Underground Temperatui-e downwai-ds 
in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Pro- 
fessor Evebett (Secretary) 2& 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 0. J. Lodge (Secretary), Professor 
W. E, Akyton, and Professor J. Perry, appointed for the purpose of de- 
vising and constructing an improved form of High Insulation Key for 
Electrometer Work 29 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayiey, F.R.S., Professor- 
G. G. Stokes, F.RS., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., Professor Sir 
WrLiiAM Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. 
L. Glaisher, F.R.S. (Secretarj^), on Mathematical Tables. Drawn up by 
Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher Sa 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester (Chairman), 
Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon, appointed for the purpose of 
calculating Tables of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms 38. 

Report of Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1879-80, by a 
Committee consisting of Jamais Glaisher, F.R.S., &c., E. J. Lowe, F.R.S.,. 
&c., Professor R. S. Ball, F.R.S., &c., Professor G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., 
Walter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., and Professor A. S. Hersohel, M.A., 
F.R.A.S 39 

First and Second Reports of the Committee, consisting of Mr. David Gill, 
Professor G. Forbes, Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. C. H. Gimingham, 
appointed to consider the question of Improvements in Astronomical Clocks 5S 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sii" William Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bkamwell, and Mi-. J. T. 
Bottomley (Secretary), for commencing Secular E.^periments on the 
Elasticity of Wires 61 

Sixteenth and concluding Report of the Committee, consisting of John Evans, 
F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George 
Bitsk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshfobd. 
Sanfoed, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and AVilliam Pengelly, 
F.R.S. (Reporter), appointed for the purpose of exploring Kent's Cavern, 
Devonshire 62 

Report on the mode of reproduction of certain species of Ichthyosaurus from 
the Lias of England and Wiirtemberg, by a Committee consisting of Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., and Mr. 
C. Moobe, F.G.S. Drawn up by Professor H. G. Seeley 68 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. M. Duncan and Mr. G. R. 
Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Carboniferous Polyzoa. 
Drawn up by Mr. Vine (Secretary) 76 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Evans, Professor T. G. Bonney, 
Mr. W. Careuthers, Mr. F. Drew, Mr. R. Etheridge, Jim., Professor G. 
A. Lebouk, Professor L. C. Miall, Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. F. W. 
Rttdlee, Mr. E. B. Tawney, Mi-. W. Topley, and Mr. W. Whitakek 
(Secretary), for carrying on the 'Geological Record.' 87" 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Hull, the Rev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, Mr. Glaisher, Professor G. A. Leboue, Mr. 
W. MoLYNEUx, Mr. Morton, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Peestwich, Mr. 
Plant, Mr. Mellard Reade, Mr. Roberts, Mr. W. Whitakee, and Mr. 
De Bawce (Reporter), appointed for investigating the Circulation of the 



CONTENTS. y 

Pago 
Underground Waters in the Permian, New Red Sandstone, and Jurassic 
Formations of England, and the Quantity and Character of the Water sup- 
plied to towns and districts from those formations 87 

.•Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson 
and Mr. W. H. Bailt, appointed for the purpose of collecting and reporting 
on the Tertiary (Miocene) Flora, &c., of the Basalt of the North of Ireland. 
Drawn up by William Hellier Bailt, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A, 
(Secretary) 107 

Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, Professor 
Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawktns, the Rev. H. W. Crossket, Professor 
L. 0. MiALL, Messi-s. D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tibdeman, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, 
W. Pengellt, Dr. Deane, W. Moltnetjx, and Professor Bonnet, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of recording the position, height ahove the sea, 
lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the 
same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. 
H. W. Ckossket, Secretary 110 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abnet, Professor W. G. 
Adams, and Professor G. Caret Foster, appointed to carry out an Investi- 
gation for the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light. Drawn up by 
Captain Abnet (Secretary) 119 

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Faer, Dr. Beddoe, 
Mr. Brabrook (Secretary), Sir George Campbell, IMr. F. P. Fellows, 
Major-Genei-al A. L. F. Pitt-Rivers, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. J. Park 
Harrison, ]Mr. James Hetwood, ]\lr. P. Halleit, Professor Leone Levi, 
Dr. F. A. Mahomed, Dr. Mtjirhead, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. Charles 
Roberts, and Professor Rolleston 120 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pte-Smith, Professor M. Foster, 
and Professor Bitrdon Sanderson (Secretary), appointed for the pui'pose of 
investigating the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of Nitro- 
gen (the experiments conducted by Mr. North) 159 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. C. Spence Bate and Mr. 
J. Brooking Rowe, appointed for the purpose of exploring the Marine 
Zoology of South Devon 160 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, Professor Rolleston, 
^Ir. Dew-Smith, Professor Huxlet, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwtn Jeferets, 
Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir C. Wyville Thomson, Professor 
Rat Lankester, and Mr. Perot Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 161 

Report on accessions to our knowledge of the Chiroptera during the past two 
years (1878-80). By G. E. Dobson, M.A., M.B., &c 169 

Preliminaiy Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor AV. E. Artton 
(Secretary), Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Mr. J. E. H. Gordon, and Mr. J. Perrt, 
appointed for the purpose of accurately measuring the specific inductive 
capacity of a good Sprengel Vacuum, and the specific resistance of gases 
at dififerent pressiu-es 197 

Comparison of Cui-ves of the Declination Magnetographs at Kew, Stonyhurst, 
Coimbra, Lisbon, Vienna, and St. Petersbm-g. By Professor W. Grtlls 
Adams, F.R.S 201 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Leith Adams, the 
Rev. Professor Haughton, Professor W. Botd Dawkins, and Dr. John 
Evans, appointed for the purpose of exploring the Caves of the South of 
Ireland 200 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committee, consistinpf of ]\Ir. Sclater, Dr. G. Ha^tlaub, Sir 
Joseph Hooker,- Captain F. M. Hunter, and Lieut. -Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Attsten, appointed to take steps for the Im'estigation of the Natui'al History 
of Socotra 212 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Right Hon. A. J, Mundella, 
M.P., James Hetwood, Esq., F.R.S., Stephen Bourne, Esq., Chas. 
DoNCAsiER, Esq., Rev. A. Bourne, Taiso Masaki, Esq., Constantine 
MoLLOx, Esq., R. J. Pte-Smith, Esq., Dr. Hancock, and Robert AViekin- 
80N, Esq. (Secretary), appointed to consider and report on the German 
and other systems of teaching the Deaf to speak 216 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Hetwood, Mr. Shaen, 
Mr. Stephen Boxtrnd, Mr. Wilkinson, the Rev. W. Delant, and Dr. J. 
H. Gladstone (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting whether 
it is important that H.M. Inspectors of Elementary Schools should be ap- 
pointed with reference to their ability for examining in the scientific specific 
subjects of the Code in addition to other matters 219 

On the Anthracite Coal and Coal-field of South Wales. By 0. H. Perkins 220 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. By C. 
Spence Bate, F.R.S., &c. Part V. — On Fecundation, Respiration, and the 
Green Gland 230 

Report on the best means for the Development of Light from Coal-Gas of 
different qualities, by a Committee consisting of Dr. Williajh Wallace 
(Secretary), Professor Dittmar, and Mr. John Pattinson, F.C.S., F.I.O. 
Part n. Drawn up by Ml-. Pattinson 241 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Gamgee, Professor Schafer, 
Professor Allman, and IMr. Geddes, for conducting Palseontologieal and 
Zoological Researches in Mexico. Drawn up by ]\Ir. Geddes (Secretary)... 254 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Baknes-Lawrence, Mr. 
Spence Bate, Mr. Henry E. Dresser (Secretary), Mr. J. E. Harting, 
Dr. J. GwTN Jefereys, Mr. J. G. Shaw Lefevre, Professor Newton, and 
the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into 
the possibility of establishing a Close time for Indigenous Animals 257 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Dewab, Dr. Williamson, 
Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain Abney', Mr. Stoney, Professor Hartley, 
Professor McLeod, Professor Carey Foster, Professor A. K. Huntington, 
Professor Emerson Reynolds, Professor Reinold, Professor Liveing, 
Lord Rayleigh, Dr. Schuster, and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of om* Know- 
ledge of Spectrum Analysis 258 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Dr. A. W. 
Williamson, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. 
0. W. Siemens, Mr. 0. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Professor 
Abel, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. 
Maorory, Ma-. H. Trueman Wood, Mr. W. H. Baelow, and Mr. A. T. 
Atchison, appointed for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Coimcil 
on Patent Legislation 318 

Preliminary Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Leone Levi 
(Secretary), Mr. Stephen Bourne, ]\Ir. Brittaln, Dr. Neilson Hancock, 
Professor Jevonb, and Mr. FELLO^ivs, appointed for the piu-pose of inquiring 
into the present appropriation of wages and sources of income, and consider- 
ing how far it is consonant -with the economic progress of the people of the 
United Kingdom 318; 



CONTENTS. Vii 

Page 
Keport on the present state of knowledge of the application of Quadratures 
and Interpolation to Actual Data. By 0. W. Mekkifield, F.R.S 321 

The French Deep-sea Exploration in the Bay of Biscay. By J. Gwts 
Jeffbeys, LL.D,, F.R.S 378 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, Dr. J. MERRrFiELD, Professor Osborne Retnolds, Captain Douglas 
Galton, ]yir. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), Mr. J. F. Deacon, and Rlr. 
Rogers Field, appointed for the purpose of obtaining information respect- 
ing the Phenomena of the Stationary Tides in the English Channel and in 
the North Sea ; and of representing to the Government of Portugal and the 
Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion of the Bntish Association, Tidal 
Observations at Madeira or other islands in the North Atlantic Ocean would 
be very valuable, with the view to the advancement of our knowledge of 
Tides in the Atlantic Ocean 390 

List of "Works on the Geology, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology of Wales (to 
the end of 1873). By William Whitaker, B.A., F.G.S., of the Geo- 
logical Siu'vey of England 397 

On the recent Revival in Trade. By Stephen Bouene, F.S.S 436 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSBA Y, A VG UST 26. 

Page 
Address by Professor W. Gbtlls Adams, M.A., F.K.S., F.G.S., F.C.P.S., 

President of the Section 447 

1. Eeport of the Committee for the Measiu-ement of the Lunar Distui'bance 

of Gravity 458 

2. Eeport of the Committee upon the present state of our Knowledge of 
Spectrum Analysis. (Influence of Temperatm-e and Pressure on the 
Spectra of Gases) 458 

3. On deteradning the Heights and Distances of Clouds by then- reflexions in 
a low pool of water, and in a mercurial hoiizon. By Fkancis Galtoit, 
MA., F.R.S 459 

4. Improved Heliograph or Sim Signal. By Tempesi Audekson, M.D., 
B.Sc 461 

5. Improved Apparatus for the Objective Estimation of Astigmatism. By 

Tempest Anderson, M.D., B.Sc 463 

6. On the Length of the Sun-spot Period. By Henry Mtttrhead, M.D. ... 465 

7. Siir la Calculation des Ph^nomenes periodiques. Par le Professeur 
Ragona 466 

8. On the Laws of tlie Change of Speed and Direction of the Wind. By 
Professor Ragona 467 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. Report of the Committee on Undergroimd Temperature 467 

2. Report of the Committee appointed to devise and construct an improved 
form of High Insulation Key for Electrometer Work 467 

3. Comparison of Curves of the Declination Magnetographs at Kew, Stony- 
hurst, Coimbra, Lisbon, Vienna, and St. Petersburg. By Professor W. 
Grylls Adams, M.A., F.R.S 467 

4. On the best form of Magnet for Magneto-electric Machines. By W. Ladd, 
PPA.S 467 

6. An Account of some Experiments in Photo-electricity. By G. M. Minchin, 
M.A 468 

6. Electric Convection-Currents. By Silvantjs P. Thompson, D.Sc, B.A,, 

Professor of Experimental Physics in University College, Bristol^ 470 

7. On a peculiar behavioui- of Copper. By William Henbt Preeoe 470 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
8. On the proper form of Lightning Conductors. By William Hexrt 
Pbeecb ^'^ 

•9. On the necessity for a regular Inspection of Lightning Conductors. By 
KicHARD Anderson, F.C.S., A. Inst. C.E 471 

10. Note on the Theory of the Induction Balance. By Lord Katleigh, 

F.R.S., Professor of Experimental Physics in the University of Cambridge 472 

SATURDAY, AUGUSTS. 

1. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables 473 

2. Report of the Committee appointed to calculate Tables of the Fundamental 

Invariants of Algebraic Forms 473 

3. Report on the present state of knowledge of the application of Quadratures 

and Literpolation to actual data 473 

4. On Maximum and Miuimimi Energy in Vortex Motion. By Professor Sir 

William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 473 

5. On Inverse Figures in Geometry. By Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., 

F.R.S • '^76 

6. On a Mathematical Solution of a Logical Problem. By Professor H. J. S. 
Smith, M.A., F.R.S ^''6 

7. On the Distribution of Circles on a Sphere. By Professor H. J. S. Smith, 

M.A., F.R.S 476 

8. Notes on Non-Euclidian Geometry. By Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S. 476 
9 On the deduction of Trigonometrical from Elliptic Function Formulae. By 

J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 477 

10. On Plane and Spherical Curves of the Fourth Class with Quadruple Foci. 

By Henry M, Jeffery, F.R.S 478 

11. On the equations to the real and to the imaginary directrices and latera 
recta of the general conic {a,b,c,e,f,g,h) (.r,yl)'^ = o ; with a note on a 
property of the director circle. By Professor R. W. Gbnese, M.A 480 

12 Note on the Skew Surface of the Third Order. By Professor H. J. S. 

Smith, M.A., F.R.S 482 

13 On a kind of Periodicity presented by some Elliptic Functions. By 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 482 

14. On Algebraical Expansions, of which the fractional series for the cotangent 

and cosecant are the limiting forms. By J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., 
F.R.S 482 

15. Note on a Trigonometrical Identity involving products of Four Sines. By 
J.W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 484 

16. On the Periods of the First Class of Hyper-eUiptic Integrals. By 
William R. Roberts, M.A 485 

17. On the Integral of Laplace's Equation in Finite Terms. By the Rev. S. 
Earnshaw, M.A 486 



MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

a. Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel, 

&c 488 

2. Report of the Committee on Luminous Meteors 488 

•3. Report of the Committee on the question of Improvements in Astronomical 
Clocks 488 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
4. On a Septum permeable to Water and impermeable to Au", with practical 
applications to a Navigational Deptli-gauge. By Professor Sir William 
Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 488 

6. On the Eifect of Oil in destroying Waves on the Surface of Water. By 
Professor Osboene Reynolds, MA., F.R.S 489 

6. Experiments on tbin Films of AVater, with regard to their absorption of 
Radiant Heat. By the Hon. F. A. R. Russell 490 

7, On an Experimental lUustratiou of Minimum Energy in Vortex Motion. 

By Professor Sir Wllliam Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 491 

8. On a Disturbing Infinity in Lord Rayleigh's Solution for Waves in a 
Plane Vortex Stratum. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., 
F.R.S 492 

9, Supplement to a Paper on the Synchronism of Mean Temperature and 
Rainfall in the Climate of London. By H. Cottetenat Fox, M.R.G.S.... 493 

TUESBA Y, A UG UST 31. 

1. Report of the Committee for commencing Secular Experiments on the 
Elasticity of Wh-es 494 

2. On the Elasticity of Wires. By J. T. Bottomley, M.A., F.R.S.E 494 

3. Report of the Committee on the Specific Liductive Capacity of a good 
Sprengel Vacuum 494 

4. On a method of measui-ing Contact Electicity. By Professor Sir William 
Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 494 

5. On a method of determining without mechanism the limiting Steam- 
Liquid Temperature of a Fluid. By Professor Sir William Thomson, 
M.A., F.R.S 496 

6. On the possibihty of originating Wave-disturbances in the Ether by Electro- 

magnetic Forces. By G. F. FiTZGEKALD 497 

7. On the number of Electrostatic Units in the Electro-magnetic Unit. By 

R. Shlda, M.E., Imperial College of Engineering, Tokio, Japan 497 

8. On an Electro-magnetic Gyroscope. By W. de Fonvielle 500 

9. Sur les Transformations successives des Images photographiques, et les 
Applications a lAstronomie. Par M. J. Janssen, de I'lnstitut, Directeur 

de r Observatoire de Meudon 500 

10. On Improvements in Electro-Motors. By Theodor Wiesendanger 501 

11. On a New Mode of Illuminating Microscopic Objects. By Philip Beaham, 
F.C.S 502 

12. On an Instrtmient for the Detection of Polarised Light. By Philip 
Beaham, F.C.S 502 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Best Means for the Development of Light 

from Coal-Gas of dififerent qualities. Part H 503 

2. On some Relations between the Atomic Volumes of Certain Elements and 
the Heats of Formation of some of their Compounds. By Walter 
Weldon, F.R.S.E :. 503 



CONTENTS. XK 

Page 

3. On the Influence of Water on the Union of Carbonic Oxide -with Oxygen 

at High Temperatures. By Haeold B. Dixon, M.A., F.O.S 503 

4. On Metallic Compounds containing Divalent Organic Radicals. Part I. 

By J. Sakubai 504 

5. On the Application of Organic Acids to the Examination of Minerals. By 

Professor H. Oaekington Boiton, Ph.D 505 



FRIBA T, A UG UST 27. 

Address by Joseph Heney Gubeet, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., F.L.S., President of 
the Section 507 

1. Report of the Committee upon the present state of our Knowledge of 

Spectrum Analysis (Spectra of Metalloids) 534. 

2. Report of the Committee upon the present state of our Knowledge of 

Spectrum Analysis (Ultra-violet Spectra) 534 

3. Exhibition of an Improved Volumetric Apparatus. By J. W. Starling... 534 

4. On the Coal Seams of the Eastern Portion of the South "Wales Basin and 
their Chemical Composition. By J. W. Thomas 534 

5. On a New Mode for the Purification of Sewage. By P. Spence 534 



MONBAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. On the Refraction-equivalent of Diamond and the Carbon Compounds. By 

J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S 535- 

2. The Position of Agricultural Education and Research in this Country and 

on the Continent of Europe briefly compared and considered. By J. 
Macbonalb Cameron, F.C.S., &c ^37 

3. On the Specific Rotatory Power of Cane and Invert Sugar. By Aleeed 

H. Allen, F.C.S 541 

4. On the Identification of the Coal-tar Colom-s. By John Spillek, F.C.S. 542 

5. On the Density of Fluid Bismuth. By W. Chandlee Robekts, F.R.S., 
and Thomas Weightson, C.E 543 

6. On Crystals of Mercury. By Philip Beaham, F.O.S 544 

7. On a New Process for the Metallurgic Treatment of Complex Ores con- 

taining Zinc. By Edwaed A. Paenell, F.O.S 544 

8. On a New Process for the Production, from Aluminous Minerals contain- 

ing Iron, of Sulphate of Alumina free from Iron. By J. W. Ktnaston, 
F.C.S., F.I.C 545- 

9. On a New Process for separating Silver from Copper contained in Copper 
Ores and Reguluses. By William Hendeeson 546-' 

TUESBA T, A UG UST 31. 

1. Further Notes on Petroleum Spirit and analogous Liquids. By Alfeed 

H. Allen, F.C.S 547 

2. On the so-called * Normal ' Solutions of Volumetric Analysis. By Alfeed 

H. Allen, F.C.S 549 

3. On the Determination of the Loss of Heat in Steam-Boilers arising from 
Incrustation. By William Thomson, F.R.S.E 54a' 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. On the Identification of the Ink used in writing Lettera^ and Documents 
as Evidence in Gases of Libel, Fore-ery, &c. By William Thomsou-, 
RRS.E :, ; 549 

5. Note on Silver Sulphate. By Philip Bkaham, F.O.S 650 

6. The Efiects of Magnesia on Vegetation. By Maior-General Scoxx, C.B., 

F.R.S 550 

7. On the Action of Oils on Metals. By William H. Waxson, F.C.S 560 

■8. On Bleaching Powder Residue. By Fkederick W. Hodges, F.I.O., 
F.O.S. Berlin 560 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 26, 

Address by H. Clifton Sorbt, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 

Section 565 

1. Sixth Report on the Circulation of the Underground Waters in the Per- 
mian, New Red Sandstone, and Jurassic Formations of England, and 
the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied to tovms and dis- 
tricts from those Formations 573 

2. Notes on the Submarine Geology of the English Channel off the Coast of 
South Devon. By Arthtje Roope Hunt, M.A., F.G.S 673 

a. On the Action of Carbonic Acid on Limestone. By Professor W, Boyd 
Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S 573 

4. On the site of a Palaeolithic Implement Manufactory, at Crayford, Kent. 
ByF. C. J. Spurkell, F.G.S 574 

-5. On the Hiatus said to have been foimd in the rocks of West Cork. By 
G. H. KiNAHAN, M.R.I.A., Pres. Royal Geological Society, Ii-eland 574 

■6, Note on the Range of the Lower Tertiaries of East Suffolk. By W. H. 
Dalton, F.G.S., of the Geological Survey of England 575 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. Sixteenth and concluding Report on the Exploration of Kent's Cavern, 
Devonshire 575 

2. Report on the Exploration of Caves in the South of Ireland 675 

■3. Report on the Viviparous Nature of the Ichthyosam-ia 575 

4. Report on the Carboniferous Polyzoa 576 

5. Report on the ' Geological Record ' 576 

<3. On the relation to be established between Coast-line Directions represented 
by Great Cii'cles on the Globe, and the Localities marked by Earthquakes 
in Europe. By Jos. P. O'Reilly, O.E., Professor of Mining and Minera- 
logy, Royal College of Science, Dublin 576 

7. On the Island of Torghatten. By Professor W. J. Sollas,M.A.,F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S 576 

8, On a Fragment of Mica Schist. By Professor W. J, Sollas, M.A., 
F.R.S.E., F.G.S 577 

.9. On the Geological Age and Relations of the Siwahk and Pikermi Ver- 
tebrate and Invertebrate Faunas. By W. T. Blantord, F.R.S., F.G.S... 677 

10. On the Sandstones and Grits of the Lower and Middle Series of the 
Bristol Coalfield. By Edward Wexhered, F.G.S., F.C.S 679 



CONTENTS. Xiii 

MONBA F, A UG UST 30. 

Page- 

1. On a Raised Beach in Rhos Sili Bay, Gower. By Professor Pkestwich, 
M.A., r.RS 581 

2. On tlie Geological Evidence of the temporary Submergence of the 

South-west of Europe during the early Human Period. By Professor 
Pbestwich, M.A., r.R.S 581 

3. Proofs of the Organic Nature of JEozoon Canadense. By Charles Moore, 
F.G.S 682 

4. On some Pre-Cambrian Rocks in the Harlech Mountains, Merionethshire. 

By Henry Hicks, M.D., F.G.S 584 

6. On the Fault Systems of Central and West Cornwall. By J. H. Collins, 
F.G.S 584 

6. On the Geology of the Balearic Islands. By Dr. Phen£, F.S.A., F.G.S... 585 

7. On a Striated Stone from the Trias of Portishead. By Professor W. J. 
SoLLAs, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.G.S 58^ 

8. On the Action of a Lichen on Limestone. By Professor W. J. Sollas, 

M.A., F.R.S.E., F.G.S 58& 

9. On Sponge-spicules from the Chalk of Trimmingham, Norfolk. By 
Professor W. J, Sollas, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.G.S 58(> 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. Report on the Tertiary (Miocene) Flora, &c., of the Basalt of the North 

of Ireland 5QT 

2. Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 587 

3. List of Works on the Geology, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology of Wales 

(to the end of 1873). By W. Whitaker, F.G.S 588 

4. Sketch of the Geology of British Columbia. By George M. Dawson, 
D.Sc, A.R.S.M., F.G.S., Assistant Director Geol. Survey of Canada 588 

6. On the Post-Tertiary and more recent Deposits of Kashmir and the Upper 
Indus Valley. By Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Axjsten, F.KS., F.G.S., &c.... 589 

6. Notes on the occm-rence of Stone Implements in the Coast Laterite, south 

of Madras, and in high-level gravels and other formations in the South 
Mahratta Coimtry. By R. Bruce Foote, F.G.S., of the Geological 
Survey of India 589^ 

7. On the Pre-Glacial Contours and Post-Glacial Denudation of the North- 

West of England. By C. E. De Range, F.G.S 590 

Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
Department of Zoology and Botany. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by A. C. L. Gunther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., President 

of the Section 591 

1. Report on the present state of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. Part V. 

By C. Spence Bate, F.R.S 598 

2. Report of a Committee for conducting Palaeontological and Zoological 
Researches in Mexico 59& 



:xiv CONTENTS. 

Page 

^3. Eeport of the 'Close Time' Committee 598 

4. Report of tlie Committee on the Zoological Station at Naples 598 

-5. On the Development of Lepidosteus. By F. M. Balfouk, F.R.S., and 

W. N. Pakker 599 

'6. On the Classification of Cryptogams. By Alfred W. Bennetx, M.A., 

F.L. S,, Lecturer on Botany at St. Thomas's Hospital 699 

7. A Reformed System of Terminology of the Reproductive Organs of Thal- 
lophytes. By Alfred W. Bennett, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., Lecturer on 
Botany at St. Thomas's Hospital, and George Murray, F.L.S., Assistant, 
Botanical Department, British Museum 600 

FRIDA Y, A UG VST 27. 

1. Report of the Committee for the investigation of the Natural History of 

the Island of Socotra 601 

2. On the French Deep-sea Exploration in the Bay of Biscay. By J. Gwtn 
Jeffreys, LL.D., F.RS 601 

•3. Further Remarks on the MoUusca of the Mediterranean. By J. Gwtn 
Jeffreys, LL.D., F.R.S 601 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. Report on Accessions to our Knowledge of the Chiroptera during the past 
two years (1878-1880). By G. E. Dobson, M.A., M.B., &c 603 

2. The Cruise of the 'Knight Errant.' By Professor Sir C. Wyville 
Thomson, F.R.S 603 

a. Ou the Relation of the Lepidoptera of Great Britain to those of other 
Countries. By Captain H. J. Elwes 604 

4. On the Double Malar Bone. By Professor G. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S... . 604 

6. On the Classification of Rodents. By Professor G. Rolleston, M.D., 
F.RS W4: 

6. On the ' Drumming ' of the Snipe. By Captain W. V. Legse, R.A., 

F.L.S., F.Z.S 604 

7. On the Migration of Birds, and Messrs. Brown and Cordeaux's Method of 

obtaining Systematic Observations of the same at Lighthouses and Light- 
ships. By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.RS 605 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. Exhibition of some of the Zoological Reports of the ' Challenger ' Expedi- 
tion. By P. L. ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 606 

2. On the Classification of Birds. By P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.... 606 

3. Notes on the French Deep-sea Exploration in the Bay of Biscay. By the 
Rev. A. M. Norman, F.L.S 609 

4. Report on the Marine Zoology of South Devon 609 

Department op Anthropology. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 
Address by F. W. Rttbler, F.G.S., Chaii-man of the Department 609 

1. Notes on the Origin of the Malagasy. By C. Staniland Wake 620 

2. On the Antiquities of Loughor Castle. By B. Jones 620 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



Page 

3. On Australian Autochthony. By W. Foester 620 

4. On Drum-signalling in Africa. By Hyde Clarke 620 

5. On a Manuscript, perhaps Khita, discovered by Captain Gill in Western 
China. By Hyde Clarke 621 

6. Recent Doubts on Monosyllabism in Philological Classification. By Hyde 
Clarke 621 



FRIDA Y, A UG UST 27. 

1. On the Stone Age in South Africa, By W. D, Gooch, O.E 622 

2. On an Ancient Settlement found about 21 feet beneath the surface of 
the peat, in the coal-bog near Boho, county Fermanagh. By Thomas 
Plunkett, M.R.I.A. 623 

3. On the Structure of Round Barrows. By Professor G. Rollbston, M.D,, 
^•I^S .' 623 

4. On the Structure of Long Barrows. By Professor G. Rolleston, M.D., 
^•I^S ,',' 623 

6. On Prehistoric Times in the Valley of the Rhine. By Professor Schaaff- 

HAT78EN 624 

6. On the Original Neanderthal Skull. By Professor Schaapfeatjsen 624 

7. On a PalEeolithic Stone Implement from Egypt. By H. Sxopes, F.G.S.... 624 

8. On a Palaeolithic Flint Instrument from Palestine. By H, Stopes, F.G.S, 624 

MONBA Y, A TIG UST 30. 

1. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 625 

2. On a Pocket Registrator for Anthropological Purposes. Bv Feancis 

Galton, M.A., F.R.S ;....:. 625 

3. Additional Remarks on the Greek Profile (incorrectly so called). By J. 
Park Harrison, M.A _' 625 

4. On the British Flint-workers at Brandon. By J. Park Harrison, M.A. 626 

5. On the Retention of Ancient and Prehistoric Customs in the Pyrenees 

By Dr. PnENfi, F.S.A., F.R.G.S ,' 627 

6. On Anthropological Colour Phenomena in Belgium and elsewhere. Bv J 
Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S _,' 629 

7. On the Pre-Cymric Epoch in Wales. By Hyde Clarke, V.P. A.I 629 

8. On the Antiquity of Gestm-e and Sign Language, and the Orioin of 

Characters and Speech. By Hyde Clarke, V.P.A.I ° 630 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. Surgery and Superstition in Neolithic Times. By Miss A. W. BucKLAin) 630 

2. On Bushmen Crania. By Professor G. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S 631 

3. On the Salting Mounds of Essex. By H. Stopes, F.G.S 631 

4. The Mountain Lapps. By Lieutenant G. T. Temple, R.N. 631 

5. The Hittites. By W. St. 0. Boscawen 632 

6. On the Discovery of a Bi-lingual Seal in Cuneiform and Khita. By Hyde 

Clarke, V.P.A.I 633 



XVi CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. Further Researches on the Prehistoric Relations of. the Babylonian, 
Chinese, and Egyptian Characters, Language, and Culture, and their 
Connection with Sign and Gesture Language. By Hyde Clakke, 
V.P.A.1 63& 

8. On the ' Vei Syllabary ' of Liberia, West Africa. By Hyde Clakke, 
V.P.A.1 635 

9. Note on a Chilian Tumulus. By John^ PIailaju: INIadge 636 

10. India the Home of GunpoAvder, on Philological Evidence. By Dr. 

Gtjstat Opperx 63& 



Depaetment of Anatomy and Physiology. 

FBIBA r, A UG UST 27. 

Address by F. M. BALTOtrE, M.A., E.R.S., Chairman of the Department 636" 

1. On the Alkaline Fermentation of Urine. By A. S. Lea 644 

2. On the Origin of the Head-Kidney. By A. Sedgwick, B.A 644. 

TUESDAY, ATIGTJSl 31. 

Report of the Committee for investigating the Influence of Bodily Exercise 

on the Elimination of Nitrogen 645. 



Section B.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 26. 

Address by Lieut.-General Sb J. H. Lefeoy, O.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S., President of the Section 646: 

1. Latest News of the Royal Geographical Society's East African Expedition 

under Mr. J. ThomSon 656 

2. Through Siberia, vid the Amur and the Ussuii. By the Rev. Henut 
Landseix, F.R.G.S 656 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. The High Road from the Indus to Candahar. By Sir Richard Temple, 
Bart., G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S 658 

2. Six Years' Exploration in New Britain and neighbouring islands. By 
WiLFEED Powell 658 

3. Three Years in South-East New Guinea. By the Rev. W. G. Lawes, 
r.R.G.S ; 658 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. Results of the Portuguese Expedition in West Central Africa. By Capt. 

H. Capello and Lieut. R. Ivens 659 

2. Recent Travels in Trans-Jordanic Palestine. By Laiteence Oliphant... 659 

3. On Pictorial Aid to Geographical Teaching. By G. G. Butleb, M.A. ... 660 



CONTENTS. XVU 

Page 

4. Notes on a Journey from Canton to Kwei-Yang-Fu up the Canton River. 

By W, Mesny 660 

5. The Dutch Indian Government Exploring Expedition in Borneo. By 
Gael Bock 661 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. On the North-East Passage. By Lieutenant George T. Temple, R.N 663 

2. On an Examination of the Balearic Islands. By Dr. Phen£, F.S.A., 
F.R.G.S 663 

3. On a recent Examination of the Topography of the Troad. By Dr. Phen^, 
F.S.A., F.R.G.S 664 

4. A Visit to the Galapagos Islands in H.M.S. 'Triumph,' 1880. By 
Captain Maekham 605 

5. On a visit to Skyring Water, Straits of Magellan. By R. W. Coppinger 665 

6. Notes on the Dara Nur, Northern Afghanistan, and its Inhabitants. By 
Lieut.-Col. H. C. B. Tanner .'. 665 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

1. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of reporting whether 
it is important that II. M. Inspectors of Elementary Schools should be 
appointed with reference to their ability for examining in the Scientific 
Specific Subjects of the Code in addition to other matters 666 

2. Report of the Committee for inquii-ing into the present appropriation of 

Wages and Sources of Income, and considering how far it is consonant 
with the Economic Progress of the People of the United Kingdom 666 

3. Vital and other Statistics applicable to Musicians. By P. M. Tait, F.S.S., 
F.R.G.S., &c 666 

4. .Agricultural Statistics and the Land Question. By Wm. Botlt, 
M.R.A.S 668 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. Report of the Committee on the German and other Systems of Teachuig 

the Deaf to speak 668 

2. On the recent Revival in Trade. By Stephen Bourne, F.S.S 668 

3. On Admiralty Monies and Accounts. By Frank P. Fellows, F.S.S., 

F.S.A 668 

4. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 670 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 30. 

Address by George Woodtatt Hastings, M.P., President of the Section ... 671 

1. Protection in the United States and its Lessons. By George Baden- 

Powell, M.A., F.R.A.S., F.S.S 671 

2. On the Preservation of Fish and preventing the Pollution of Rivers. By 

Lieut.-General Sir James E. Alexander, K.O.B., K.C.L.S., F.R.S.E. ... 672 

1880. a 



XVlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
8. On the required Amendment in the Marriage Laws of tlie United King- 
dom. By the Rev. Daniel Ace, D.D., F.R.A.S 672 

4. On Diminishing Annuities — a Neo-Philosophy in Lending Funds. By 
Frederick N. Newcome 675 

TUESDA Y, A UG UST 31. 

1 . "What is Capital ? The Contradictory Responses of Economists to this 
question examined from the ground of Actual Fact and Life. By W, 
Westgarth 679 

2. Remarks and Statistics relating to Swansea Usages and Customs as they 

aflect the Sellers of Foreign or Colonial Copper Ores. By Wm. Hen- 
derson 681 

3. Progress of the EngUsh Stations in the Hill Regions of India. By HroE 

Clarke, V.P.S.S 686 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
FRIBA T, A UG UST 27. 

Address by James Abernetht, V.P.Inst. C.E., F.R.S.E., President of the 

Section 688 

1. On the Bute Docks, Cardiff. By J. McConnochie, M.Inst.C.E 692 

2. On the Temperature of Town Water-supplies. By Baldwin Latham, 
C.E., M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S., F.M.S., &c 696 

5. On Spontaneous Comhustion of Coals in Ships. By James Bamfield ... 696 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel... 696 

2. Report of the Committee on Patent Legislation 696 

3. On the Anthracite Coal and Coal-field of South Wales. By C. H. Perkins 697 

4. On the Expansion of Steam in Non-Rotative Pumping Engines. By 

Henry Davet, M.Inst. C.E., F.G.S 697 

5. Project for a Channel Railway. By Bradford Leslie, M.InstC.E., 

Agent and Chief Engineer, East Indian Railway 698 

6. On Combined Elliptical, Parallel, and Angular Motion. By George 
Fawcus 699 

7. On the Shakespear Safety Lamp. By Colonel Shakespear 699 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 3L 

1. On the Loading of Ships. By W. E. Hall 699 

2. On the Steering of Ships. By Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S 699 

3. On an improved Sounding Machine. By Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
M.A., F.R.S 703 

4. On the Incrustation of Steam Boilers. Bv W. Thomson 70S 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



llliisti-ative of the Eeport of the Committee on the Viviparous Nature of the 

Ichthyosauria. 



PLATES IL AND III. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the Tertiary (Miocene) Floi-a, &c., 
of the Basalt of the North of Ireland. 



PLATES IV., v., AND VI. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Anthropometric Committee. 

PLATES VII., Vm., AND IX. 

Illustrative of Professor W. Gktils Adams's Communication, ' Comparison of 
Curves of the Declination Magnetogi-aphs at Kew, Stonyhurst, Coimbra, 
Ijisbon, Vienna, and St. Petersburg.' 

PLATES X. AND XI. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the present state of our knowledge 

of Spectrum Analysis. 

PLATES Xn. AND xin. 

Illustrative of Mr. H. Davey'b Paper on the Expansion of Steam in Non-rotativd, 

Pumping Engines. 



a2 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



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more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
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RULES. 

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All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to 
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XXll RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

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The Association consists of the following classes : — 

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following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
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And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
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1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a com- 

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Application to be made at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
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Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can. 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 
' A few complete sets, 1831 to 187-t, are on sale, £10 the set. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. Xxiii 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
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mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they inuat 
be sent to the Assistant Secretary at least one month before the Meetiny 
of the Association. The decision of ike Goimcil on the claims of any 
Member of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee, 
to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. 

1. The President for the time being of any Scientific Society publish- 
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Secretary of such Society.' Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
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3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
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4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees.'^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 

■ Kevised by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

- Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contributes of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, imder an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoi] , 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 



XXIV RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The ' Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
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An Organizing Committee may also liold such preliminary meetings as 
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11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
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report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease. ^ 

Coiistitvbtion of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Yice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
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by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
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tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
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with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 

and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 
before , addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. a full three weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Aimual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant 
Secretary, 'before the convlimon of the Electing. 

^ Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

* Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

^ Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV 

-of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
Tead the Report of the Organizing Committee.' The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessaiy that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee ai'e to be entered daily 
in the Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hy Authors, are to be forwa.rded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the General Committee (jvide p. xxiii), and will receive, 
on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
■Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The reconunendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this he done, the 
Hecommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 

• This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



XXVI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The ' Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report 
bas been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations in every case where no such Report has beea 
received. 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to eacb following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress whicb has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance whicli remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting : nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in. 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Booms and app-oaches thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

• Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXVU 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author, 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except tbose Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi,cers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries^ 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I.- 



1832. Oxford 

.1833. Cambridge 
1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 

Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856 . Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 



Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F R S 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Veiy Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. WheweU, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 

b2 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, AV. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbiUl. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith. Prof. 

Tyndall. 



XXXVl 



EEPORT 1880. 



Date and Place 



1859 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863, 
1864, 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Presidents 



1871. Edinburgh 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.K.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Pi-of. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



Secretaries 



1872. 


Brighton . . . 


W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


1873. 


Bradford... 


Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 


1875. 


Bristol 


Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 
Pres. Physical Soc. 


1878. 


Dublin 


Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


George Johnstone Stoney, 
M.A., F.R.S. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



J. p. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, "Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
iRev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin,. 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. .lenkin. Rev. G. 
I Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith,. 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster,. 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. ^\^ G. Adams, W. K. Clifford,, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glai.sher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F, 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L, Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 
W. E. Ayrt^on, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTKT, MINERALOGT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope , 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP THE SECTIONS. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



xxxvn 



Date and Place 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840, 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 



1841. Plymouth. 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
184.5. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Manchester 

Cork 

York 



Presidents 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell.F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Cambridge Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Southamp- 
ton 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

18G2. 



Liverpool 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen.. 
Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 



1863. Newcastle 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869, 

1870, 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

Jolin Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart,, 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

W.Odiing, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S. E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Dr. H.' Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 
F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
RejTiolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B, Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideairx, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T, J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone,Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. RusseU. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 



XXXVlll 



REPORT — 1880. 



Date and Place 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 



Presidents 



Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... . 
Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T.. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler- 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 

H. B. Dixon, Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodg- 
kinson, P. Phillips Bedson, J. M. 
Thomson. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 



. . I John Taylor. 

. . j W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Jameson iProf. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 

Rev. J. Yates. 



G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 
R. J. Griffith ; Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 



William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. 
J. Torrie. 



Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 

(reograph]/,F\.. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— Captain Portlock, R. Himter.—<7<'o- 

Geoffraphy, G.B.Gieenonghfl graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 

F.R.S. j R.N. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— ,W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 

Geography, ljOTdi'PrwAho]ye. Geography, Capt. Washington. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland,. F.R.S.— George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 



Geoqraphy, G.B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, Y.'K.^.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 



land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D.,. 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R.. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 



Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

F.R.S. j Rev. W. Thorp. 

LeonardHomer,F.R.S.— <?e<>- Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

graphy, G. B. Greenough, I Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. Gw 

F.K.S. ■ T. r.eke. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF TIIH SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 
1850. Edinbvirgh' 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.K.S. Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

F.R.S. ! Prof. Ramsay. 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S.,' J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

F.G.S. ' A. C. Ramsay. 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

F.R.S. 1 Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



SECTION C (continued). — GEOLOGY 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 



Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M. A .,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington "W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart,, 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay. LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

P.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep. 

worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. bawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. 0. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T, McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 



• At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved < That 
the subiect of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
S consSte a separLe'^Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section," ' for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xliu. 



xl 



REPORT — 1880. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


1872. 


Brighton... 


E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S. 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 


1875. 


Bristol 


Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.B., 
F.G.S. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Prof. John Young, M.D 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


W. Pengelly, F.R.S 


1878. 


Dublin 


John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., F.G.S. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.K.S., 
F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, \V. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symos, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844, York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. 
Dr. Allman 



-ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



Rev. Prof. Henslow .. 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xlii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xlii. 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. .. 
William Spence, F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Xli 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



1853. Hull 

185-t. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenliam 



3 857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, P.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
0. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir "W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof . Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D,, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 

kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Chiu-ch, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. M^right. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D {continued). — biology.' 



1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



I 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

■ — Physwlogical Dvp., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Antlivopological Bcp., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bep. of Zuol. and Bat., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. Rolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.R.S., V.'L.^. — Bip. of 
Anat. and Pkyswl.,Pioi.'M.. 
Foster, M.D., F.Jj.H.— Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i)p/;. of Bot. and 
^«oZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S.— Z>(?^A of Antliropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved : — 'That the title 
■of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word " Department" besubstituted.' 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



xlii 



KEPORT — 1880. 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol .... 



1876. Glasgow .., 



1877. Plymouth.., 



1878. Dublin . 



1879. Sheffield .. 



1880. Swansea 



Presidents 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burden Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— 2>e^. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman.F.R.S.— 2>fj?. of 
Anat .and Physiol^Viof. Ru- 
therford, W.t).—Di-p. ofAn- 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.B.—Bep. of 
Zool. and Hot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— 2><^.o/^M- 
throp., Sir W.R. Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, Y.^.^.— Dep. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,'Prot.G\e 
land, M.D., F.R.S.— iJe^/A of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
¥.!,.■&.— Dtp. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffi-eys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
¥.L.S.—Dej>. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Dep. of Anthropol, 
Francis Galton, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. U.^.—Dep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Dej). of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 
. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol, F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Z>r/;. of Anthropol, 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F, W. Rudler, J.. 
H. Lamprey. 

W.T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunnina:ham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden,. 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 

Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge j Dr. Haviland | Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Tliomson. 



SECTION E. (until 1847.) — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D. 

T. E. Headlam, M.D. 



1839. Birmingham John Yellolj', M.D., F.R.S.... Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 



PBESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 

1840. Glasgow ... 
18il. riymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844 York 



Presidents 



1 James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Koget, M.D., Sec. K.S. 
1 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Keid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Poiaham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford' ... 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. 
1 Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 



Dr. E. S, Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D ., F.R.S jDr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 

Ormerod. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 

1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Aberdeen. 
Oxford.... 



Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



1865. Birminghm.2 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUB.SECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. 
Prof. G. EoUeston, M.D., 

F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S.L.& E. 

C. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 
1 F.E.S. 
I Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers^ 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 

Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith.. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turneri 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Tuiner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop,. 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C;. 
p. xxxviii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION T). 

Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool... 



SECTION E. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

r.R.s. 



GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Nortor^ 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Dme, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



I 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were- 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology' (see p. xl). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 tc> 
Geography. 

* Vide note on page xli. 



xliv 



REPORT 1880. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 

1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 



Glasgow ... 
Cheltenliam 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 



1867. Dundee ... 
-1868. Norwich ... 



Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.E.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Eev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S., 

F.E.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 



Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Eaw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, E.N., 
F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



R. 



Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, "VV. H. 
Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. 
Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Calla- 
ghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wriglit. 

Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 
Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. E. Markham, E. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. Markham, Capt. 

E. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, 8. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, E, 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Stur- 
rock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 



Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.E.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C. B. 

Major Wilson, E.E., F.E.S., 
j F.E.G.S. 

'Lieut. - General Strachey, 
I E.E.,C.S.L,F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 
F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.E.S 

Adm. SirE. Ommanney, C.B., 

j F.E.S., F.E.G.S., F.E.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.E.S. L. & E. 

Clements E. Markliam, C.B., 

I F.E.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

,Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B.,K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S., 

I F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
Clements R. Slarkham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, B. C. Rye, E. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W, Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E, D. Black, E. C. 

Eye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS. 

Cambridge [ Prof. Babbage, F.K.S J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



Dublin , 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool.. 
N'ewcastle 



1838 
1839, 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848, 
1849 



Birmingham 



Glasgow ... 
Plymouth.., 
Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool.., 



1855. Glasgow .. 



SECTION F. STATISTICS, 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 



Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S 
Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 



'W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 
Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 
I Tayler. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 
F.R.S. I Rawson. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S IRev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
G. W, Wood, M.P„ F.L.S. ... Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod Dr 

W. C. Tayler. 
Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 

F.L.S. I cock. 

Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tavler 

G. R. Porter, F.R.S jj. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison.Dr. W. 

I C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Travers Twiss, D.C.L.. F.R.S. I Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. H. Vivian. M.P., F.R.S. J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr J 

V.P.R.S.E. stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Dublin. [ MacAdam, jun. 

James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. Edward Cheshire, Wm. Newmarch 

Thomas Tooke, F.R.S E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

j Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
R. Monckton Milnes, M.P, ... J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics 
Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P, 



Dublin.... 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . 
Oxford.... 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. 
Nassau W. Senior, M.A. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr> 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A^ M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmimd Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1880. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1861. Manchester William Newmarch, F.K.S.... 



Secretaries 



1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
187.3. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1S80. 



Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath I 

Birmingham 

i 
Nottingham 

Dundee ' 

Norwich ....' 

i 
Exeter 

Liverpool...' 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford . . . i 
Belfast.... 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 



Plymouth. 
Dublin.... 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M. A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



James Hey wood, M.A., F.R.S. , 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 
j M.R.LA. 
|G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 
Ig. W. Hastings, M.P 



David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 

H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 

T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrorj-, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, 
Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 
Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. MoUoy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, G. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1S36. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1S45. Cambridge 

1 8 16.Southampton 
1817. Oxford 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F,R.S., and Robt, 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

Jolin Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., P.R.S. 
Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webstci-. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 



Presidents 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen.. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 



Secretaries 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. PljTnouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 



Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., 

F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 



R. A. Le M«surier, W. P. Struv§. 

Charles Manby, W. P, Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsaj', J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

JeflEery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wriglit. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P, Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M . 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, .John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J> 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brvmel, P.* Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, E. 

H. Carbutt, J. C, Hawkshaw, J. 

N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun,, W. J. Millar, J. 

N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridgc, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 



xlviii 



BEPORT — 1880. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull. 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



Charles Vignoles, F.E.S 

Sir M. L Brimel 

R. L Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.E.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. E. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G.B.Airj',F.E.S.,Astron. Eoyal 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 1 

Colonel Portlook, E.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. PliiUips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. E. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinomis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life ia 
the JEgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi, 

Properties of the Explosive s ubst ance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat, 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus inejytus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851, 

Recent discoveries in the jiroperties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

Tlie present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cimeiform research up to the pre- 
sent time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent Discoveries in Africa, 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 

1880. 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. K. Owen, M.D., P.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof.W. A. Miller, M.A.,F.R.«. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Roval 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, P.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S... 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, P.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.... 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, P.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Dimcan, M.D., 

F R S 
Prof. W.' K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, P.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,P.R.S. 

P. J. Bramwell, P.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, P.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measiures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archfeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modem 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ClxaUengcr Expedition. 

The Physical Phenomena connected 
with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 

The new Element, Gallium. 



KEPOBT — 1880. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 


G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 

F.R.S. 
Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .., 



1870. Liverpool . 

1872. Brighton . 

1873. Bradford . 

1874. Belfast.... 

1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 

1879. Sheffield . 

1880. Swansea . 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P. 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D., 
C. W. Siemens, D.G.L 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S... 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F 

' Commander Cameron, 

R.N. 
W. H. Preece 

'W. E. Ayrton 

!h. Seebohm, F.Z.S 



F.R.S. 
F.R.S. 

i'.R.S. " 
C.B., 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly- 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen, 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 
Electricity as a Motive Power. 
The North- East Passage. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

SWANSEA MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President— Froiessor W. Grylls Adams, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.C.P.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. ; C. W. Merrifield, 
F.R.S. ; C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., M.I.C.E. ; 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Sir Wm. Thomson, 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— W. E. Ayrton ; J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S. ; Oliver J. 
Lodge, D.Sc. ; Donald McAlister, M.A., B.Sc. (Recorder). 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— J osejph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — I. Lowthian Bell, F.R.S. ; William Crookes, F.R.S. ; 
W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S.; Professor Abel, F.R.S.; Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone, F.R.S. ; A. G. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. 
Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Harold B. Dixon, M.A. ; Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson ; 
P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. ; J. M. Thomson, F.R.S.E. (Recorder). 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— B.. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— W. T. Blanford, F.R.S. ; Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. ; J. Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; W. Pengelly, F.R.S. ; J. A. 
Phillips, F.G.S. ; W. W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— W. Topley, F.G.S. (Recorder) ; W. Whitaker, B.A., F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY, 

President.— A. C. L. Giinther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— ¥. M. Balfour, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor G. RoUeston, 
M.D., F.R.S. ; F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 

■Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A., F.L.S. (Recorder) ; John Priestley 
(Recorder) ; Howard Saunders, F.L.S. , F.Z.S. (Recorder) ; Adam 



Sedgwick, B.A. 



c 2 



Hi REPORT — 1 880. 

SECTION E. — GEOGKAPHT. 

President— Lient.-General Sir John Henry Lefroy, C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A.,. 
F.R.S., F.KG.S. 

Yice-Presidents. —8ir Henry Barkly, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S.; 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; Admii-al Sii- Erasmus Om- 
manney, C.B., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S.; Lieut.-General SirH. B. L. 
Thaillier, C.S.I., R.A., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries.— B.. W. Bates, Assistant- Sec. R.G.S., F.L.S. ; B. C. Rye, 
Librarian R.G.S., F.Z.S. (Recorder). 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — George Woodyatt Hastings, M.P. 

Vice-Presidents.— James Heywood, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., 
F.S.S. ; William Newmarch, F.R.S., F.S.S. ; Sir Antonio Brady, 
F.G.S. 

Secretaries. — Noel A. Humphreys, F.S.S. ; Constantine Molloy (Re- 
corder). 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — James Abemethy, V.P.Inst.C.B., F.R.S.B. 

Vice-Presidents.— CaY>^ain Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S. ; R. B. Grantham, 
C.B., F.G.S. ; Baldwin Latham, C.B., F.G.S. ; Professor Osborne 
Reynolds, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — A. T. Atchison, M.A. (Recorder) ; H. Trueman Wood, B.A„ 



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KEPOET — 1880. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



'i 
Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


i 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 


1831;, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 
184.3, Aug. 17 ... 
1844, Sept. 26 ... 

.1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 
1"850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 
18.57, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 

1875, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept. 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Avig. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 ... 


York ; 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Biwlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison.Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart.,'M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch.K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 




65 

169 

28 

150 

36 

10 

18 

3 

12 

9 

8 

10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 


Oxford 


169 




Edinburgh 


Dublin 


Bristol 




Newcastle-on-Tyne 


(rlaae'ow 




Manchester 


303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
2.36 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 


Cork 


York 


Cambridge 


Southampton 

Oxford 


Swansea 


Birmingham 


Edinburgh 


Ipswich 


Belfast 


Hull 


Liverpool 


Glasgow 


Cheltenham 


Dublin 


Leeds 


Aberdeen 


Oxford 


Manchester 


Cambridge 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bath 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 


Dundee 


Norwich 


Exeter 


Liverpool 

Edinburgh 


Brighton 


Bradford 


Belfast 


Bristol 


Glasgow 


Plymouth 


Dublin 

Sheffield 


Swansea 


144 



ATTENDANCE AND KECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Iv 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 







Attended by 








Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid on 


















Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 


! 


Old 

Annual 

Members 


New 

Annual 

Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


For- 
eigners 


Total 
















£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 
















353 






1831 




... 


... 


•• 




1100* 


... 


900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 






1832 
1833 
1834 
18.35 
1836 
1837 
1838 












"2o"o"o 
167 
435 
922 12 6 
932 2 2 


\ 


















46 
75 
71 
45 
94 
65 
197 


317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 


•• 




60* 


34 
40 


1438 

1353 

891 




1595 11 
1546 16 4 
1235 10 11 


1839 
1840 
1841 












"33t 


331* 


28 


1315 




1449 17 8 


1842 




160 








1565 10 2 


1843 




""9t 
407 


260 








981 12 8 


1844 




172 


35 


1079 




831 9 9 


1845 




270 


196 


36 


857 




685 16 


1846 




^ 1 V 

495 


203 


53 


1320 




208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


loio'o 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1856 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3044 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


4.5+ 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 
t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. % Including Ladies. 



OFFICEKS AND COUNCIL, 1880-81. 



PRESIDENT. 

ANDREW CROMBIE RAMSAY, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., Director-General of the aeological 

Survey of the Uuited Kingdom, and of the Museum of Practical Geology. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 
The Right Hon. the Eahl of Jersey. 
The Mayor of Swansea. 

The Hon. Sir W. R. Grove, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
H. HussEY Vr'Ian, Esq., M.P., F.G.S. 



L. Li,. Dillwyn, Esq., M.P., P.L.S., F.G.S. 
J. GwTN Jeffreys, Esq., LL.D., F.B.S., F.L.S., 
Treas.G.S., P.R.G.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
SIR JOHN LUBBOCK, Bai-t., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
His Grace the Archbishop of York, D.D., F.R.S. i W. B. Carpenter, Esq., C.B., M.D., LIi.D., 
The Hon. Sir W. R. Grove, M.A.,D.C.L.,F.R.S. F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Professor G. G. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Sir John Hawkshaw.C.E., F.R.S., F.G.S., P.R.G.S. 
Sec. R.S. I Allen Thomson, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. & B. 

Professor Allman, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. & B., P.L.S. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT YORK. 
Rev. Thomas Adams, M.A. Tempest Anderson, Esq., M.D., B.Sc 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT YORK. 
W. W. WU.BERFORCE, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abel, F. A., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Bateman, J. P., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 
Caylet, Professor, F.R.S. 
Easton, E., Esq., C.E. 
Evans, Captain, C.B., F.R.S. 
Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Heytvood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
HuGOms, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Professor T. MoK., M.A. 
Jeffreys, J. G^vyn, Esq., F.R.S. 



Newmarch, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Perkix, W. H., Esq., F.RS. 
Prrr-RivERs, General A,, F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
ROLLESTON, Professor G., F.R.S. 
RoscoE, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Prof. J. S. Burdon, F.R.S. 
Smyth, Warrington W., Esq., F.R.S. 
SORBY, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 
THniLLiER, Gen. Sir H. E. L., C.S.I., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.\V. 
Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 11 Hanover Square, London, W. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., TTniversity College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for "the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for t]ie present and foi-mer years, and the Local Treasm-er and Secretaries for the 
ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
General Sir Edward Sabdje, K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Su: John Lubbock, Bart., JI.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 



Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir WUUam R. Grove, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Prof. Stakes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Pi-of. Huxley, LL.D., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. Sur Wm. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S. 



Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyudall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Allen Thomson, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., P.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Gen. Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B., F.R.S. I Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
I W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres.R.S. | George Griffith, Esq., MA» 



KEPOKT OF THE COUNCIL. Ivii 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

^ejport of the Council for the year 1879-80, presented to the General 
Committee at Swansea, on Wednesday, August 25, 1880. 

The Council have received Repoi-ts dxiring the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
Oeneral Committee this day. 

The Council having been requested by the General Committee at 
Sheffield to take such further action as regards the correspondence with 
the Treasury about the Natural History Collections as they should think 
desirable in the interests of science, have prepared and sent to the 
Secretary of the Treasury, in reply to his letter of July 22, 1879, the 
following letter : — 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 
June 8, 1880. 

Sir, — The letter of the Council of this Association, of March 25, 1879, 
respecting the administration of the Natural History Collections, and 
your reply thereto of July 22, have been laid before the British Asso- 
ciation, at the meeting held at Sheffield in August last, when the subject 
was again referred to the Council. 

On the part of the Council I am now requested to inform you that 
they learn with satisfaction that the action of Her Majesty's Government, 
in passing the British Museum Act of 1878, does not prejudice the ques- 
tion of the future administration of the Natural History Collections at 
South Kensington, but that the subject is still under the consideration of 
the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury. 

Under these circumstances, the Council of the Association must again 
-express their hope that, when the period arrives, as it must shortly do, 
for the settlement of the question, the recommendations of the Royal 
Commission on Science will have their full weight and importance 
accorded to them. 

If, however, the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury are 
prepared, as they would seem to indicate, to constitute a Special Standing 
Committee, or Sub-Committee, of the Trustees of the British Museum, 
for the management of the Natural History Collections, the Council of 
the Association are of opinion that such a form of governinent, though 
not the form suggested by the Royal Commission on Science, might 
.possibly be so organised as to be satisfactory both to the public and to 
-men of science. 

Trusting that the Lords Commissioners will do the Council the favour 



Iviii REPORT — 1880. 

of considering these observations on a subject which keenly interests 
many members of the British Association, 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

G. J. Allman, 
President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 
Sir R. R. W. LiNGEN. K.C.B., &c. &c. 

The receipt of this letter has been acknowledged. 

A letter having been received from the Secretary of the Anthropo- 
metric Committee, requesting that the Council would address a Memorial 
to the Education Department, requesting the Department to assist 
the Committee in obtaining certain statistics as to the development of 
children in Board Schools, it was resolved that a Committee, consisting 
of Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Heywood, and the General 
OflBcers, should be appointed to consider the subject and to report to the 
Council thereon. Owing to the unavoidable absence of several of the 
members, the Committee have as yet been unable to make any report tO' 
the Council upon the subject. 

The Council have resolved, on the request of the Tidal Observation, 
Committee, that the best thanks of the Association be given to the First 
Lord of the Admiralty, the President of the Board of Trade, the French 
Minister of Public "Works, the Belgian Minister of Public Works, and to- 
the several other authorities and private individuals, both in this country 
and on the Continent, who have kindly and gratuitously had the various 
observations carried out and communicated to this Committee ; and more 
especially to the French Association for the Advancement of Science for 
its cordial assistance in supporting the proposal of the British Association, 
and in urging it upon the French Minister of Public Works. 

The Council have to announce that they have elected Professor Cornu, 
of Paris, and Professor Boltzmann, of Vienna, Corresponding Members^ 
since the Sheffield meeting. 

Applications for free or ' exchange ' copies of the Reports of the 
Association being from time to time received, the Assistant Secretary has 
been directed to reply to such applications : 1 . That a few remaining sets 
from 1831 to 1874 can be siipplied at lOL per set, and all other volumes 
between 1831 and 1874 which are in stock at 2s. 6d. per volume net. 
2. That all volumes after 1874 can be supplied at the publication price of 
24s, per volume. 3. That the Reports for 1839 and 1840 are out of prints 
and that only a very few copies remain of those for 1833, 1838, and 1850. 

As the Committee are aware, the Association have already determined 
to hold the Meeting for 1881 at York, and thus to commence the second 
half-century of their existence in the same city as that in which the 
Association was founded in 1831. 

For 1882 and the following years invitations are expected to be pre- 
sented at the present meeting from Soathport, Southampton, Nottingham 
and Leicester. 

The Council propose that, in accordance with the regulations, the five 
retiring members shall be the following : — 



Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Lefevre, G. Shaw, Esq., M.P., 
■ P.R.G.S. 
Maskelyne, Prof. N. S., M.P., F.R.S. 



Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B.^ 

F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



lix 



The Council recommetid the re-election of the other ordinary members, 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Abel, F. A., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 



Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
*Bateman, J. P., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 
Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 
Easton, E., Esq., C.E. 
Evans, Captain, C.B., F.R.S, 
Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK., M.A. 
Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 
Newmarch, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 
*Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Perkin, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Pitt-Rivers, General A., F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Rolleston, Professor, F.R.S. 
Roscoe, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Professor J. S. Burdon, 

F.R.S. 
Smyth, WarringtonW., Esq., F.R.S. 
Sorby, H. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
*Thmllier, General Sir H. B. L.» 

C.S.I., F.R.S. 



Jx REPORT — 1880. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Swansea Meeting in August and September, 1880. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. H. Darwin, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Pro- 
fessor Purser, Professor G. Forbes, and Mr. Horace Darwin, be re- 
appointed for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity; 
that Mr, G. H. Darwin be the Secretary, and that the sum of 30Z. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Pi-ofessor Everett, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor 
Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Dr. 
Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, and Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, on Underground Temperature be reappointed, with the addition 
of the name of Mr. A. Strahan ; that Professor Everett be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 20Z. be placed at their disposal. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Mr. C. Hockin, Professor Sir Wil- 
liam Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Mr. J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, 
Lord Rayleigh, Professor F. Jenkin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkin- 
son, Dr. Muirhead, and Mr. W. H. Preece be a Committee for the 
purpose of constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in Elec- 
trical Measurements ; that Dr. Muirhead be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, Dr. Flight, 
Professor R. S. Ball, Mr. E. J. Lowe, and Professor A. S. Herschel, on 
Luminous Meteors be reappointed ; that Professor A. S. Herschel be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 15L be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Tait, and Professor Balfour Stewart, for effecting 
the Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat be reappointed ; 
that Dr. Joule be the Secretary, and that the sum of 40L be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Professor Ayrton, 
and Mr. Perry, be reappointed for the purpose of devising and construct- 
ing an improved form of High Insulation Key for Electrometer Work ; that 
Dr. O. J. Lodge be the Secretary, and that the sum of 51. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, Professor 
Cayley, and Professor Salmon, for the Calculation of Tables of the 



EECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 1x1 

I'andamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms be reappointed ; that Pro- 
fessor Sylvester be the Secretary, and that the sum of 40Z. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir William Thomson, Mr. Robert Boag Watson, and Professor 
John Young be a Committee for the purpose of making Seismic Experi- 
ments in connexion with the great Gunpowder Blasts on Loch Pyne ; 
that Professor Young be the Secretary, and that the sum of 30^. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Channel and 
in the North Sea, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Dr. J. Merrifield, 
Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. J. N. Shool- 
bred, Mr. J. F. Deacon, and Mr. Rogers Field, be reappointed for the 
purpose of making a final report ; that Mr. J. N. Shoolbred be the Secre- 
tary, and that the sum of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. M. Thomson and Mr. J. B. H. Gordon be appointed a 
Committee to continue Researches on the Specific Inductive Capacity of 
certain Crystals and Paraf&nes ; that Mr. J. E. H. Gordon be the Secre- 
tary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Dr. W. R. E. Hodgkinson, Mr. W. Carleton 
Williams, and Dr. P. P. Bedson be a Committee for the purpose of in- 
vestigating the Method of Determining the Specific Refraction of Solids- 
from their Solutions ; that Dr. P. P. Bedson be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Dewar, Dr. Williamson, Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain 
Abney, Mr. Stoney, Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor McLeod, Pro- 
fessor Carey Foster, Professor A. K. Huntington, Professor Emerson 
Reynolds, Professor Reinold, Professor Liveing, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 
Arthur Schuster, and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of our know- 
ledge of Spectrum Analysis; that Mr. W. Chandler Roberts be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor P. M. Duncan and Mr. G. R. Vine be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of reporting on the British Fossil Polyzoa ; 
that Mr. Vine be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, the Rev. J. F. Blake, Professor T. G. Bonney, 
Mr. W. Carruthers. Mr. F. Drew, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor L. 
C. Miall, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. E. B. Tawney, Mr. W. Topley, and ]\Ir. 
W. Whitaker be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of carrying on 
the Geological Record ; that Mr, Whitaker be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Mr. James Glaisher, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, 
Mr. G. H. Morton, Mr. W. Pengelly, Professor J. Prestwich, Mr. James^ 
Plant, Mr. James Parker, Mr. I. Roberts, Mr. S. Stooke, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. C. E. De Ranee be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Jurassic, New Red Sandstone, and Permian For- 
mations of England, and the Quality and Quantity of the Water supplied 
-to various towns and districts from these formations ; that Mr. C. E. De 
Ranee be the Secretary, and that the sum of lOZ. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 



Ixii KEPOBT — 1880. 

That Professor A. C. Ramsay and Professor John Milne be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan ; that Professor Milne be the Secretary, and that the sum of 251. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. C. Sorby, Professor W. J. SoUas, and Professor Williara 
Ramsay be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Conditions 
under which ordinary Sedimentary Materials may be converted into 
Metamorphic Rocks ; that Professor SoUas be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the pnrpose. 

That Professor W. C. Williamson, and Mr. W. H. Baily be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of Collecting and Reporting upon the Ter- 
tiary Flora, &c., of the Basalt of the North of Ireland ; that Mr. Baily 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose, on the understanding that a collection of representative 
Fossils obtained be sent to the British Museum. 

That Dr. M. Foster, Professor Rolleston, Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor 
Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir Wyville 
Thomson, Professor Ray Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. P. Sladen 
be a Committee for the purpose of aiding in the maintenance of the 
Scottish Zoological Station ; that Mr. P. Sladen be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 50^. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. M. Foster, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Dew Smith, Professor 
Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Bal- 
four, Sir Wyville Thomson, Professor Ray Lankester, Professor Allman, 
«.nd Mr. P. Sladen be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of ar- 
ranging for the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at 
Naples ; that Mr. P. Sladen be the Secretary, and that the sum of 751. 
he placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Lieut.-Colonel H. H. God win- Austen, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir J. 
Hooker, Dr. Giinther, Mr. Seebohm, and Mr. Sclater be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Natural History of Socotra ; that Mr. 
Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sum of 601. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Professor Sir Wyville Thomson, and Mr. 
Percy Sladen be a Committee for the purpose of a Zoological Exploration 
■of the Seabed lying north of the Hebrides ; that Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Major-General Pitt-Rivers and Mr. A. W. Franks be a Com-' 
mittee for the purpose of issuing a revised edition of the Anthropological 
.Notes and Queries for the .Use of Travellers ; that Major-General Pitt- 
Rivers be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor M. Foster, and Professor Burdon 
Sanderson be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen (the 
•experiments to be conducted by Mr. North) ; that Professor Burdon 
■Sanderson be the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their 
'disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Rolleston, Professor Allman, General Pitt- Rivers, Mr. 
J. Evans, and Mr. E. Cannington be a Committee for the Investigation 
of Prehistoric Remains in. Dorsetshire ; that Professor Rolleston be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 



BECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixiii 

That Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard Saunders, aud Mr. Thiselton-Dyer be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of 
Timor-lant ; that Mr. Thiselton-Dyer be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of bOl. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. E. C.Rye be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100^. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. F. Galton, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Bi-abrook, Sir George Campbell, 
Dr. Farr, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Major-General A. Pitt-Rivers, Mr. J. Park 
Harrison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. 
F. A. Mahomed, Dr. Muirhead, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. Charles Roberts, 
and Pi-ofessor RoUeston be a Committee for the purpose of continuing 
the collection of observations on the Systematic Examination of Heights, 
Weights, &c., of Human Beings in the British Empire, and the publi- 
cation of photographs of the Typical Races of the Empire ; that Mr. 
Brabrook be the Secretary, and that the sum of 30^. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Bramwell, Dr. A. "W. Williamson, Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. 
Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. Abel, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, Mr. H. Trueman 
Wood, Mr. W. H. Barlow, and Mr. A. T. Atchison be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on 
Patent Legislation ; that Mr. Bramwell be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 5^. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Professor O. Reynolds, Pro- 
fessor W. Cawthorne Unwin, Mr. Rogers Field, and Mr. A. T. Atchison,, 
to consider and report upon the best means of ascertaining the efiective 
Wind Pressures to which buildings and structures are exposed ; that 
Mr. A. T. Atchison be the Secretary, and that the sum of 5Z. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Osborne Reynolds, Sir William Thomson, Mr. C. W. 
Merrifield, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley be a Committee for the purpose of 
continuing the investigation on the Effect of Propellers on the Steering 
of Steamships ; that Professor Osborne Reynolds be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 51. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, and Mr. J. T. 
Bottomley, for continuing secular experiments upon th.e Elasticity of 
Wires be reappointed ; and that Mr. J. T. Bottomley be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. David Gill, Professor G. Forbes, 
Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. C. H. Gimingham,be reappointed to consider 
the question of improvements in Astronomical Clocks; and that Mr. 
David Gill be the Secretary. 

•That the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Haughton and Mr. B. 
Williamson, for the calculation of Tables of Sun- heat CoeflBcients be 
i-cappointed for the purpose of completing their report ; and that Dr. 
Haughton be the Secretary. . . 



Ixiv REPORT — 1 880. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor 
"W". B. Ayrton, Professor P. M. Duncan, Professor G. A. Labour, Mr. J» 
T. Dunn, and Professor J. Perry, be reappointed for the purpose of pre- 
paring a final report on experiments to determine the Thermal Con- 
ductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the geological aspects of 
the investigation ; and that Professor A. S. Herschel be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. 
Lodge, Mr. J. B. H. Gordon, and Mr. J. Perry, be reappointed for the 
purpose of accurately measuring the specific inductive capacity of a good 
Sprengel Vacuum, and the specific resistance of gases at different pres- 
sures ; and that Professor "W. E. Ayrton be the Secretary. 

That Sir William Thomson, Professor Roscoe, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
and Dr. Schuster be a Committee for the purpose of collecting informa- 
tion -with regard to Meteoric Dust, and to consider the question of 
undertaking regular observations in various localities ; and that Dr. 
Schuster be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes, Professor 
W. G. Adams, and Professor W. B. Ayrton, be reappointed for the pur- 
pose of improving an instrument for detecting the presence of Fire-damp 
in Mines ; and that Professor G. Forbes be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney, Professor W. G. 
Adams, and Professor G. C. Foster, be reappointed to carry out an in- 
vestigation for the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light; and 
that Captain Abney be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
on Mathematical Notation and Printing be reappointed ; and that Mr. J» 
W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor F. 
Fuller, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, the Rev. R. Harley, Mr. R. B. Hayward, 
Professor Henrici, Dr. T. A. Hirst, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Professor Bar- 
tholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Mr. W. Spottiswoode, Mr. 
G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Townsend, Mr. J. M. Wilson, and 
Dr. Wormell, be reappointed to consider and report upon the subject of 
Geometrical Teaching, and particularly upon the Syllabuses prepared 
under the authority of the Association for the Improvement of Geome- 
trical Teaching ; and that Mr. C. W. Men-ifield be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir WilHam Thomson, Mr. 
James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, on Mathematical Tables be 
reappointed ; and that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That Mr. W. M. Hicks be requested to prepare a report upon recent 
Progress in Hydrodynamics. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G. C. Foster, Professor 
W. G. Adams, Professor R. B. Clifton, Professor Cayley, Professor J. D. 
Everett, Lord Rayleigh, Professor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour 
Stewart, Mr. Spottiswoode, and Professor P. G. Tait, be reappointed for 
the purpose of endeavouring to procure Reports on the progress of the 
chief branches of Mathematics and Physics ; and that Professor G. C. 
Foster be the Secretary. 

That Professors J. Prestwich, T. M'K. Hughes, W. Boyd Dawkins, and 
T. G. Bonney, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. J)& 



KKCOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixv 

Ranee, G. H. Morton, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, Janaes 
Plant, W. Pengelly, W. Molyneux, H. G. Fordham, and W. Terrill be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of recording the position, height 
above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic 
Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of in- 
terest connected with the same, and taking measures for their preser- 
vation ; and that the Rev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, Mr. J. Cordeaux, and Professor New- 
ton be a Committee for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of 
the Master and Brethren of the Trinity House and of the Commissioners 
of Northern Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Light- 
houses and Lightships, and of reporting upon the same at York in 1881 ; 
and that Mr. Cordeaux be the Secretary. 

That Mr. C. Spence Bate and Mr. J. Brooking Rowe be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of completing the Exploration of the Marine 
Zooloo-y of South Devon ; and that Mr. Spence Bate be the Secretary. 

That Professor Leone Levi, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Brittain, Dr. 
Hancock, Professor Jevons, and Mr. F. P. Fellows be a Committee for 
the purpose of inquiring into and reporting on the present appropriation of 
wages and other sources of income, and considering how far it is con- 
sonant with the economic progress of the people of the United Kingdom ; 
and that Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary. 

That Mr. James Heywood, Mr. Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. 
Robert Wilkinson, the Rev. W. Delany, Mr. Maskelyne, M.P., Dr. 
Sylvanus Thompson, Miss Lydia E. Becker, Mr. E. M. Hance, and Dr. 
Gladstone, with power to add to their number, be a Committee for the 
purpose of reporting on the manner in which Rudimentary Science 
bhould be taught, and how examinations should be held therein, in Ele- 
mentary Schools; and that Dr. J. H. Gladstone be the Secretary. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Associaiian. 

That Professor W. G. Adams's paper, ' On the Comparison of De- 
clination Magnetographs at various places,' be printed in extenso in 
the Report. 

That Mr. Whitaker's ' List of Works on the Geology, Mineralogy, 
and Paleontology of Wales ' be printed in extenso in the Report. 

That Dr. Dobson's paper, on ' Additions to our Knowledge of the 
Chiroptera,' be printed in extenso in the Report. 

That the paper by Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, ' On the French Deep-sea 
Exploration in the Bay of Biscay,' be printed in extenso in the Report. 

That the paper by Mr. Stephen Bourne, on ' Recent Revival in Trade,' 
be printed in- extenso in the Report. 

That the paper by Mr. C. H. Perkins, on ' Anthracite Coal,' be 
printed in extenso in the Report. 



1880. 



Ixvi KEPORT 1880. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes 
by the General Committee at the Swansea Meeting in August 
and September 1880. The Names of the Members who are en- 
titled to call on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants 
are prefixed. 

A. — Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 
Darwin, Mr. G. H. — Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Everett, Prof. — Underground Temperature 20 

Foster, Prof. G. Carey.— Electrical Standards 100 

Glaisher, Mr. James — Luminous Meteors 15 

Joule, Dr. — Mechanical Equivalent of Heat , 40 

Lodge, Dr. O. — High Insulation Key 5 

Sylvester, Prof. — Fundamental Invariants 40 

Thomson, Sir William. — Seismic Experiments 30 

Thomson, Sir "William. — Tidal Observations 10 

Thomson, Mr. J. M. — Inductive Capacity of Crystals and 

Paraffines 10 



B. — Chemistry. 

Dewar, Prof. — Spectrum Analysis 10 

Gladstone, Dr. — Specific Refractions 10 

C. — Geology. 

Duncan, Prof. P. M.— Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Evans, Mr. J. — Geological Record 100 

Hull, Prof. E.— Underground Waters 10 

Ramsay, Prof. A. C. — Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Sorby, Dr. — Metamorphic Rocks 10 

WiUiamson, Prof. W. C— Tertiary Flora 20 

D. — Biology. 

Foster, Dr. M. — Scottish Zoological Station 50 

Foster, Dr. M. — Naples Zoological Station 75 

Godwin- Austen, Lieut.- Col. — Natural History of Socotra 50 

Carried forward 670 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixvii 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 670 

■Jeffreys, Mr. J. Gwyn. — Exploration of Sea-bed North of the 

Hebrides 50 

Pitt-Rivers, General. — Anthropological Notes 20 

Pye- Smith, Dr. — Elimination of Nitrogen during Bodily 

Exercise 50 

RoUeston, Prof. — Prehistoric Remains in Dorsetshire 25 

Sclater, Mr. — Natural History of Timor-Lant 50 

Sfcainton, Mr. — Zoological Record 100 



F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

Galton, Mr. F. — Estimation of Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 



G. — Mechanics. 

Bramwell, Mr. — Patent Laws 5 

Glaisher, Mr. James. — Wind Pressure on Buildings 5 

Reynolds, Prof. Osborne. — Steering of Steamships 5 

£1010 



The Annual Meeting in 1881. 
The Meeting at York will commence on Wednesday, August 31, 1881. 

Place of Meeting in 1882. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1882 will be held at 

Southampton. 



d2 



Ixviii 



REPOET — 1880. 



General Statement of Sums tvhich have been paid on Account of 
Grants for ScientifiG Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions 20 







1835. 
Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossillclithyology ... 10.5 



£167 

1836. 

Tide Discussions ..;...,... 163 

British Fossillchtliyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers «.. 15 6 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 

Liuiar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification ExiDeriments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (constnic- 

tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of )... 19 

Eailway Constants 41 

Bristol'Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

31 



Meteorological Committee 







1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 



£435 



£922 12 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and AVrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectriun 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

FossirReptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature... 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations. 52 
Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 



«. 


d. 


2 





18 


6 


11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 








11 











13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 


a 








15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 














7 











13 



1841. 
Observations on Waves ... 
Meteorology and Subterra- 

neanTemperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 



£1546 16 4 



30 a 



8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixix 



£ s. d. 

marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of ) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

^Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

JFossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

iRailway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Tislies of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .. . 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

JRadiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments... 113 

Anoplura Britannia 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers .... 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

-Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

'Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


6 



































10 
























8 6 







mometr ic Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 







1 
9 






Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 
Vital Statistics 50 






Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 
Questions on Human Race ... 7 


11 




£1449 


17 


8 


1843. 
Hevision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 









£ 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 
Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Obser- 
vatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Simdries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of Rail- 
ways 20 

Publication of Report on Fos- 
sil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthqiiake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


d. 














12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 



1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 









5 



8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



Ixx 



REPORT 1 880. 



£ $. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 35 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Eevision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory ..., 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Dravrings of Kail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Eegistering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Eadiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds _ 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia ...„. 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument • 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publications of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinbiu-gh 18 11 9 

Eeduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces. . . 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anopltira 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1 843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York... 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 

£831 9 9 



15 


a 























a 











T 























a 


14 


8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 0- 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 0' 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds .1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 
"^08" 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxi 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores ■ ■.. 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Eadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries.' 12 

Eesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Eesearches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



£ s. d. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Eadiation 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperatui-e on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

~£480'16^~4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory:— 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West' Coast 
of Scotland 10 



Ixxii 



REPOBT— 1880. 



£. s. d. 
Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Keseaxches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 

Life-Boats -50 

£507 15 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the "West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on. the Natviral Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land - 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidas 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 
Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



£ t. d. 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle .7 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 











































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws ....• 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



GBNEEAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxiii 



£ 

Dredgins; the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

■Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo- Electric Currents .^^ 5_ 

£1293 



i. 


d. 














LO 


















16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

■Coal Fossils 20 

Herrmgs 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

. Construction and Distri- 
bution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 

1864, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

CoalFossUs 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham'sGift .50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ «. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 Q 

£1289 15 8 
1865. *=== 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 a 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus., 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 60 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exisloration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 20 



Ixxiv 



RBPOKT — 1880. 



£ s. d. 

Kigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogiie of Orania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 1 00 

"£T750T3"~4 
1867. ■«=== 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound imder Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds. 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

:ei739 4 O" 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory,. 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperatme... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. '^^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record. 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

c&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitirtion and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of- Digestion 10 

£1622 

1870. ^~^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &:c 20 

British Fossil Coral s 50 

Kent's Hole Exi^lorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 60 
Kiltorcon Quarries Fossils ... 20 



s. d. 




































































































































































































































0' 















































0' 



GENEKAL STATEMENT. 



lxx\- 



Mountain Limestone Fossils 26 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat ■•• 50 

£1572 

1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progi-ess 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Limar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants .-• 40 

£1472 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 60 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



s. d. 



































2 6 

0- 



















2 6 






























































































































£ g. (L 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 150 0- 

Carboniferous Corals 25 (> 

Fossil Elephants 25 

"Wave-Lengtbs 150 O 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 O 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. ' 

Zoological Record ... 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 0- 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 0- 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 0- 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. — — ^— 

Eliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



Ixxvi 



BEPORT — 1 880. 



£ s. d. 

Specific Volume of Liquids,.. 25 
Estimation of Potasli and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

■Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate or Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

TJndergroimd Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

^Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels .... 



5 












£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 
I-iquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

'Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

^Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpae, Report on 20 















11 


7 







































£ s. d. 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 
and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New- 
Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 
acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 
Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 

Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by 'means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£72 5 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxvii 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Kecord of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers. . . 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacmim 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instriunents for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



£ .V. d. 
1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... lu 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Distm-bance of Gravity 30 

Fimdamental Invariants ....... 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Co-efficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Keport on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 0^ 

£731 7 7 



General Meetings. 



On Wednesday, August 25, at 8 p.m., in the Music Hall, Pi-ofessor 
G. J. Allman, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E., Pres. L.S., resigned the 
office of President to Andrew Crombie Ramsay, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.G.S., Director-General of the Geological Siirvey of the United 
Kingdom, and of the Museum of Practical Geology, who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, August 26, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Pavilion, 
Burrows Square. 

On Friday, August 27, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, Professor W. 
Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Primeval Man.' 



Ixxviii EEPORT — 1880. 

On Monday, August 30, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, Francis 
Galton, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Mental Imagery.' 

On Tuesday, August 31, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Pavilion, 
Burrows Square. 

On Wednesday, September 1, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting took place in the Music Hall, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee, and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to York. [The Meeting is ap- 
pointed to commence on Wednesday, August 31, 1881.] 



PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

ANDEEW CROI^IBIE RAMSAY, Esq, 

LL.D., F R.S., V.P.G.S., Director- General of the Geological Survey of 
the United Kingdom, and of the Museum of Practical Geologj, 

PRESIDENT. 



On the Recukrence of Certain Phenomena in Geological Time. 

In this address I propose to consider the recurrence of the same kind of 
incidents throughout all geological time, as exhibited in the various for- 
mations and groups of formations that now form the known parts of the 
external crust of the earth. This kind of investigation has for many 
years forced itself on my attention, and the method I adopt has not here- 
tofore been attempted in all its branches. In older times, Hutton and 
Playfair, in a broad and general manner, clearly pointed the way to the 
doctrine of uniformity of action and results, throughout all known geo- 
logical epochs down to the present day ; but after a time, like the prophets 
of old, they obtained but slight attention, and were almost forgotten, and 
the wilder cosmical theories of Werner more generally ruled the opinions 
of the geologists of the time. Later still, Lyell followed in the steps of 
Playfair, with all the advantages that the discoveries of William Smith 
afforded, and aided by the labours of that band of distinguished geologists, 
Sedgwick, Buckland, Mantel!, De la Beche, Murchison, and others, all 
of whom some of us knew. Notwithstanding this new light, even now 
there still lingers the relics of the belief (which some of these geologists 
also maintained), that the physical phenomena which produced the older 
strata were not only different in kind, bat also in degree from those which 
now rule the external world. Oceans, the waters of which attained a high 
temperature, attended the formation of the immitive crystalline rocks. 
Volcanic eruptions, with which those of modei'n times are comparatively 
insignificant, the sudden upheaval of great mountain chains, the far more 
rapid decomposition and degradation of rocks, and, as a consequence, the 
more rapid deposition of strata formed from their waste — all these were 
assumed as certainties, and still linger in some parts of the world among 
living geologists of deservedly high reputation. The chief object of this 
1880. B 



2 REPORT — 1880. 

address is, therefore, to attempt to sLow, that whatever may have been 
the state of the world long before geological history began, as now written 
in the rocks, all known formations are comparatively so recent in geologi- 
cal time, that there is no reason to believe that they were produced under 
physical circumstances differing either in kind or degree from those with 
which we are now more or less familiar. 

It is unnecessary for my present purpose to enter into details con- 
nected with the recurrence of marine foi'mations, since all geologists 
know that the greater part of the stratified rocks were deposited in the 
sea, as proved by the molluscs and other fossils which they contain, and 
the order of their deposition and the occasional stratigraphical breaks in 
succession are also famihar subjects. What I have partly to deal with 
now, are exceptions to true marine stratified formations, and after some 
other important questions have been considered, I shall proceed to discuss 
the origin of various non-marine deposits from nearly the earliest 
known time down to what by comparison may almost be termed the 
present day. 

Meiamorphism, 

All, or nearly all, stratified formations have been in a sense meta- 
morphosed, since, excepting certain limestones, the fact of loose incoherent 
sediments having been by pressure and other agencies turned into solid 
rocks constitutes a kind of metamorphism. This, however, is only a first 
step toward the kind of metamorphism the frequent recu.rreuce of which 
in geological time I have now to insist upon, and which implies that con- 
solidated strata have undergone subsequent changes of a kind much more 
remarkable. 

Common stratified rocks chiefly consist of marls, shales, slates, sand- 
stones, conglomerates, and limestones, generally distinct and definite ; but 
not infrequently a stratum, or strata, may partake of the characters in 
varied proportions of two or more of the above-named species. It is 
from such strata that metamorphic rocks have been produced, exclusive of 
the metamorphism of igneous rocks, on which I will not enter. These 
may be looked for in manuals of geology, and sometimes they may be 
found in them. 

As a general rule, metamorphic rocks are apt to be much contorted, 
not only on a large scale, but also that the individual layers of mica 
quartz and felspar in gneiss are bent and folded in a great number of 
minute convolutions, so small that they may be counted by the hundred 
in a foot or two of rock. Such metamorphic rocks are often associated 
with masses of granite both in bosses and in interstratified beds or layers, 
and where the metamorphism becomes extreme it is often impossible to 
draw a boundary line between the gneiss and the granite ; while, on the 
other hand, it is often impossible to draw any true boundary between 
gneiss (or other metamorphic rocks) and the ordinary strata that have 



ADDRESS. 6 

partly undergone metamorpliism. Under these circumstances, it is not 
surprising that when chemically analysed, there is often little difference in 
the constituents of the unmetamorphosed and the metamorphosed rock. 
This is a point of some importance in relation to the origin and non- 
primitive character of gneiss and other varieties of foliated strata, and 
also of some quartzites and crystalline limestones. 

I am aware that in North America formations consisting of meta- 
morphic rocks have been stated to exist of older date than the Laurentian 
gneiss, and under any circumstances it is obvious that vast tracts of pre- 
Laurentian land must have existed in all regions, by the degradation of 
which, sediments were derived wherewith to provide materials for the de- 
position of the originally unaltered Laurentian strata. In England, Wales, 
and Scotland attempts have also been made to prove the presence of more 
ancient formations, but I do not consider the data provided sufficient to 
warrant any such conclusion. In the Highlands of Scotland, and in 
some of the Western Isles, there are gneissic rocks of pre-Cambrian age, 
which, since they were first described by Sir Roderick Murchison in the 
North-west Highlands, have been, I think justly, considered to belong to 
the Laurentian series, unconformably underlying Cambrian and Lower 
Silurian rocks, and as yet there are no sufficient grounds for dissenting 
from his conclusion that they form the oldest known rocks in the British. 
Islands. 

It is unnecessary here to discuss the theory of the causes that produced 
the metamorphism of stratified rocks, and it may be sufficient to say, that 
under the influence of deep underground heat, aided by moisture, sand- 
stones have been converted into quartzites, limestones have become 
crystalline, and in shaley, slaty, and schistose rocks, under like circum- 
stances, there is little or no development of new material, but rather, in 
the main, a re-arrangement of constituents according to their chemical 
affinities in rudely crystalline layers, which have very often been more or 
less developed in pre-existing planes of bedding. The materials of the 
whole are approximately the same as those of the unaltered rock, but 
liave been re-arranged in layers, for example, of quartz, felspar, and mica, 
or of hornblende, &c., while other minerals, such as schorl and garnets, 
are of not infrequent occurrence. 

It has for years been an established fact that nearly the whole of the 
mountain masses of the Highlands of Scotland (exclusive of the Laurentian, 
Cambrian, and Old Red Sandstone formations), mostly consist of gneissic 
rocks of many varieties, and of quartzites and a few bands of crystalline 
limestone, which, from the north shore to the edge of the Old Red Sand- 
stone, are repeated again and again in stratigraphical convolutions great 
and small. Many large bosses, veins, and dykes of granite are asso- 
ciated with these rocks, and, as already stated, it sometimes happens that 
it is hard to draw a geological line between granite and gneiss and vice 
versa. These rocks, once called Primary or Primitive, were first proved 
by Sir Roderick Murchison to be of Lower Silurian age, thus revolu- 



4 REPORT 1880. 

tionisiug the geology of nearly one-half of Scotland. To the same age 
belongs by far the greater part of the broad hilly region of the south of 
Scotland that lies between St. Abb's Head on the east and the coast of 
Ayrshire and Wigtonshire on the west. In the south-west part of this 
district, several great masses of granite rise amid the Lower Silurian 
rocks, which in their neighbourhood pass into mica-schist and even into 
fine-grained gneiss. 

In Cornwall tbe occurrence of Silurian rocks is now well known. 
They are of metamorphic character, and partly associated with granite ;, 
and at Start Point, in South Devonshire, the Silurian strata have been 
metamorphosed into quartzites. 

In parts of the Cambrian areas, Silurian rocks in contact with granite 
have been changed into crystalline hornblendic gneiss, and in Anglesey 
there are large tracts of presumed Cambrian strata, great part of which 
have been metamorphosed into chlorite and mica-schist and gneiss, and 
the same is partly the case with the Lower Silurian rocks of the centre 
of the island, where it is almost impossible to disentangle them from the 
associated granite. 

In Ireland similar metamorphic rocks are common, and, on the 
authority of Prof. Hull, who knows them well, the following statements 
are founded :— ' Metamorphism in Ireland has been geographical and not 
stratigraphical, and seems to have ceased before the Upper Silurian 
period. 

' The epoch of greatest metamorphism appears to have been that which 
intervened between the close of the Lower Silurian period and the 
commencement of the Upper Silurian, taking the formations in ascending 
order. 

' It is as yet undecided whether Lauren tian rocks occur in Ireland. 
There are rocks in north-west Mayo very like those in Sutherlandshire, 
but if they are of Laurentian age they come directly iinder the meta- 
morphosed Lower Silurian rocks, and it may be very difficult to separate 
them. 

' Cambrian purple and green grits are not metamorphosed in the coun- 
ties of Wicklow and Dublin, but the same beds at the southern extremity 
of County "Wexford, near Carnsore Point, have been metamorphosed into 
mica-schist and gneiss. 

' In the east of Ireland the Lower Silurian grits and slates have not 
been metamorphosed, except where in proximity to granite, into which 
they insensibly pass in the counties of "Wicklow, Dublin, "Westmeath, 
Cavan, Longford, and Down ; but in the west and north-west of Ireland 
they have been metamorphosed into several varieties of schists, horn- 
blende-rock, and gniess, or foliated granite.' 

It would be easy to multiply cases of the metamorphism of Silurian 
rocks on the continent of Europe, as, for example, in Scandinavia, and in 
the Ural Mountains, where, according to Murchison, 'by following its 
masses upon their strike, we are assured that the same zone which in one 



ADDRESS. 5 

tract has a mechanical aspect and is fossiliferous, graduates in another 
parallel of latitude into a metamorphic crystalline condition, whereby not 
only the organic remains, but even the original impress of sedimentary 
origin are to a great degree obliterated.' The same kind of phenomena 
are common in Canada and the United States ; and Medlicott and Blan- 
ford, in ' The Geology of India,' have described the thorough metamor- 
phism of Lower Silurian strata into gneiss and syenitic and hornblende 
schists. 

In Britain, none of the Upper Silurian rocks have undergone any 
serious change beyond that of ordinary consolidation, but in the Eastern 
Alps at Gratz, Sir Roderick Murchison has described both Upper 
Silurian and Devonian strata interstratified with separate courses of 
metamorphic chloritic schist. 

Enough has now been said to prove the frequent occurrence of 
metamorphic action among Cambrian and Lower and Upper Silurian 
strata. 

If we now turn to the Devonian and Old Red Sandstone strata of 
England and Scotland, we find that metamorphic action has also been at 
work, but in a much smaller degree. In Cornwall and Devon, five great 
bosses of granite stand out amid the stratified Silurian, Devonian, and 
•Carboniferous formations. Adjoining or near these bosses the late Sir 
Henry De la Beche remarks, that ' in numerous localities we find the 
coarser slates converted into rocks resembling mica-slate and gneiss, a 
fact particularly well exhibited in the neighbourhood of Meavy, on the 
south-east of Tavistock,' and ' near Camelford we observed a fine arena- 
ceous and micaceous grauwacke turned into a rock resembling mica-slate 
near the granite.' Other cases are given by the same author, of slaty 
strata turned into mica-schist and gneiss in rocks now generally con- 
sidered to be of Devonian age. 

The Devonian rocks and Old Red Sandstone are of the same geological 
age, though they were deposited under different conditions, the first being 
of marine, and the latter of fresh- water, origin. The Old Red Sandstone 
of "Wales, England, and Scotland has not, as far as I know, suffered any 
metamorphism, excepting in one case in the north-east of Ayrshire, near 
the sources of the Avon Water, where a large boss of granite rises 
through the sandstone, which all round has been rendered crystalline 
■with well-developed crystals of felspar. 

On the continent of Europe, a broad area of Devonian strata lies on 
both banks of the Rhine and the Moselle. Forty years ago, Sedgwick 
and Murchison described the crystalline quartzites, chlorite, and micaceous 
slates of the Hundsruck and the Taunus, and from personal observation 
I know that the rocks in the country on either side of the Moselle are, in 
places, of a foliated or semi-foliated metamorphic character. In the Alps 
also, as already noticed, metamorphic Devonian strata occur interstratified 
with beds of metamorphic schists, and. Sir Rodei'ick adds, ' we have 
ample data to afi&rm, that large portions of the Eastern Alps . , . are 



6 EEPORT — 1880. 

occupied by rocks of true palasozoic age, whicli in many parts have passed 
into a crystalline state.' 

I know of no case in Britain where the Carboniferous strata have 
been thoroughly metamorphosed, excepting that in South Wales, beds 
of coal, in the west of Caermarthenshire and in South Pembrokeshire, 
gradually pass from so-called bituminous coal into anthracite. The same 
is the case in the United States, in both instances the Carboniferous strata 
being exceedingly disturbed and contorted. In the Alps, however, Sir 
Roderick Murchison seems to have believed that Carboniferous rocks may 
have been metamorphosed : a circumstance since undoubtedly proved by 
the occurrence of a coal-measure calamite, well preserved, but otherwise 
partaking of the thoroughly crystalline character of the gneiss in which 
it is imbedded, and which was shown to me by the late Prof. Gastaldi, at 
Turin, 

I am well acquainted with all the Permian strata of the British Islands 
and of various parts of continental Europe, and nowhere, that I have 
seen, have they suffered from metamorphic action, and strata of this age 
are, I believe, as yet unknown in the Alps. This closes the list of 
metamorphism of pateozoic strata. 

I will not attempt (they are so numerous) to mention all the regions 
of the world in which Mesozoic or Secondary formations have undergone 
metamorphic action. In Britain and the non-mountainous parts of 
France, they are generally quite unaltered, but in the Alps it is different. 
There, as everyone knows who is familiar with that region, the crystalline 
rocks in the middle of the chain have the same general strike as the 
various flanking stratified formations. As expressed by Murchison, ' as 
we follow the chain from N.E. to S.W. we pass from the clearest types of 
sedimentary rocks, and, at length, in the Savoy Alps, are immersed in 
the highly altered mountains of Secondary limestone,' while 'the meta- 
morphism of the rocks is greatest as we approach the centre of the chain,' 
and, indeed, any one familiar with the Alps of Switzerland and Savoy 
knows that a process of metamorphism has been undergone hj all the 
Jurassic roclcs (Lias and Oolites) of the great mountain chain. Whether 
or not any strata of Neocomian and Cretaceous age have been well meta- 
morphosed in this region I am unable to say ; but it seems to be certain 
that the Eocene or Lower Tertiary Alpine formation, known as the Flysch, 
contains beds of black schists which pass into Lydian stone, and also that 
in the Grisons it has been converted into gneiss and mica-schist, a fact 
mentioned by Studer and Murchison. I also have seen in the country 
north of the Oldenhorn, nummulitic rocks so far foliated that they formed 
an imperfect gneiss. 

In Tierra del Fuego, as described by Darwin, clay slates of early cre- 
taceous date pass into gneiss and mica-slate with garnets, and in Chonos 
Islands, and all along the great Cordillera of the Andes of Chili, rocks of 
Cretaceous or Cretaceo-oolitic age have been metamorphosed into foliated 
mica-slate and gneiss, accompanied by the presence of granite, syenite, and 
greenstone. 



ADDRESS. 7 

This ends my list, for I have never seen, or heard, of metamorphic 
rocks of later date than those that belong to the Eocene series. Enough, 
however, has been said to prove, that from the Laurentian epoch onward, 
the phenomenon of extreme metamorphism of strata has been of frequent 
recurrence all through Paleozoic and Mesozoic times, and extends even 
to a part of the Eocene series equivalent to the soft unaltered strata of 
the formations of the London and Paris basins, which excepting for their 
fossil contents, and sometimes highly inclined positions, look as if they 
had only been recently deposited. 

Volcanoes. 

The oldest volcanic products of which I have personal knowledge are of 
Lower Silurian age. These in North Wales consist of two distinct series, 
the oldest of which, chiefly formed of felspathic lavas and volcanic ashes, 
lie in and near the base of the Llandeilo beds, and the second, after a long 
interval of repose, were ejected and intermingled with the strata forming 
the middle part of the Bala beds. The Lower Silurian rocks of Mont- 
gomeryshire, Shropshire, Radnorshire, Pembrokeshire, Cumberland and 
Westmoreland are to a great extent also the result of volcanic eruptions, 
and the same kinds of volcanic rocks occur in the Lower Silurian strata of 
Ireland. I know of no true volcanic rocks in the Upper Silurian series. 

In the old Red Sandstone of Scotland lavas and volcanic ashes are of 
frequent occurrence, interstratified with the ordinary lacustrine sedimen- 
tary strata. Volcanic rocks are also intercalated among the Devonian 
strata of Devonshire. I know of none in America or on the Continent of 
Europe. 

In Scotland volcanic products are common throughout nearly the 
whole of the Carboniferous sub- formations, and they are found also asso- 
ciated with Permian strata. 

I now come to the Mesozoic or Secondary epochs. Of Jurassic age 
(Lias and Oolites), it is stated by Lyell with some doubt, that true 
volcanic products occur in the Morea and also in the Apennines, and it 
seems probable, as stated by Medlicott and Blanford, that the Rajmahal 
traps may also be of Jurassic age. 

In the Cordillera of South America, Darwin has described a great 
series of volcanic rocks intercalated among the Cretaceo-oolitic strata 
that forms go much of the chain ; and the same author in his ' Geological 
Observations in South America,' states that the Cordillera has been, 
probably with some quiescent periods, a source of volcanic matter from 
an epoch anterior to his Cretaceo-oolitic formation to the present day. 
In the Deccan volcanic traps rest on Cretaceous beds, and are overlaid 
by Nummulitic strata, and according to Medlicott and Blanford, these 
were poured out in the interval between Middle Cretaceous and Lower 
Eocene times. 

In Europe the only instance I know of a volcano of Eocene age is 



8 EEPORT— 1880. 

that of Monte Bolca near Verona, where the volcanic products are asso- 
ciated with the fissile limestone of that area. 

The well-preserved relics of Miocene volcanoes are prevalent over many- 
parts of Europe, such as Auvergne and The Velay, where the volcanic 
action began in Lower Miocene times, and was continued into the Pliocene 
epoch. The volcanoes of the Eifel are also of the same general age, 
together with the ancient Miocene volcanoes of Hungary. 

The volcanic rocks of the Azores, Canaries, and Madeira are of 
Miocene age, while in Tuscany there are extinct volcanoes that began in 
late Miocene, and lasted into times contemporaneous with the English 
Coralline Crag. In the north of Spain also, at Olot in Catalonia, there are 
perfect craters and cones remaining of volcanoes that began to act in 
newer Pliocene times and continued in action to a later geological date. 
To these I must add the great coulees of Miocene lava, so well known in 
the Inner Hebrides, on the mainland near Oban, &c., in Antrim in the 
north of Ireland, in the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Franz-Joseph 
Land. It is needless, and would be tiresome, farther to multiply instances, 
for enough has been said to show that in nearly all geological ages 
volcanoes have played an important part, now in one region, now in another, 
from very early Palaeozoic times down to the present day ; and, as far as 
my knowledge extends, at no period of geological history is there any sign 
of their having played a more important part than they do in the epoch 
in which we live. 



Mountain Chains. 

The mountain- chains of the world are of different geological ages, 
some of them of great antiquity, and some of them comparatively 
modern. 

It is well known that in North America the Lower Silurian rocks lie 
uncomformably on the Laurentian strata, and also that the latter had 
undergone a thorough metamorphism and been thrown into great anti- 
clinal and synclinal folds, accompanied by intense minor convolutions, 
before the deposition of the oldest Silurian formation, that of the Potsdam 
Sandstone. Disturbances of the nature alluded to imply beyond a doubt 
that the Laurentian rocks formed a mountain chain of pre- Silurian date, 
which has since constantly been worn away and degraded by sub-aerial 
denudation. 

In Shropshire, and in parts of North Wales, and in Cumberland and 
"Westmoreland, the Lower Silurian rocks by upheaval formed hilly land 
before the beginnmg of the Upper Silurian epoch ; and it is probable that 
the Lower Silurian gneiss of Scotland formed mountains at the same 
time, probably very much higher than now. However that may be, it is 
certain, that these mountains formed high land before and during the 
deposition of the Old Red Sandstone, and the upheaval of the great 
Scandinavian chain (of which the Highlands may be said to form an out- 



ADDRESS. 9 

lying portion) also preceded the deposition of the Old Red Strata. In 
both of these mountain regions the rocks have since undergone consider- 
able movements, which in the main seem to have been movements of 
elevation, accompanied undoubtedly by that constant atmospheric degra- 
dation to which all high land is especially subject. 

The next great European chain in point of age is that of the Ural, 
which according to Murchison is of pre-Permian age, a fact proved by 
the Permian conglomerates which were formed from the waste of the 
older strata. On these they lie quite unconforraably and nearly undis- 
turbed on the western flank of the mountains. 

In North America the great chain of the Alleghany Mountains under- 
went several disturbances, the last (a great one) having taken place after 
the deposition of the Carboniferous rocks, and before that of the New 
Red Sandstone. The vast mountainous region included under the name 
of the Rocky Mountains, after several successive disturbances of upheaval, 
did not attain its present development till after the Miocene or Middle 
Tertiary epoch. 

In South America, notwithstanding many oscillations of level recorded 
by Darwin, the main great disturbance of the strata that form the chain 
of the Andes took place apparently in post- cretaceous times. 

The Alps, the rudiments of which began in more ancient times, 
received their gi-eatest disturbance and upheaval in post-Eocene days, 
and were again raised at least 5,000 feet (I believe much more) at the 
close of the Miocene epoch. The Apennines, the Pyrenees, the Carpa- 
thians, and the great mountain region on the east of the Adriatic and 
southward into Greece, are of the same general age, and this is also the 
case in regard to the Atlas in North Africa, and the Caucasus on the 
borders of Europe and Asia. In the north of India the history of the 
Great Himalayan range closely coincides with that of the Aljjs, for 
while the most powerful known disturbance and elevation of the range 
took place after the close of the Eocene epoch, a subsequent elevation 
occurred in post-Miocene times closely resembling and at least equal to 
that sustained by the Alps at the same period. 

It would probably not be difficult by help of extra research to add 
other cases to this notice of recurrences of the upheaval and origin of 
special mountain chains, some of which I have spoken of from personal 
knowledge ; but enough has been given to show the bearing of this question 
on the argument I have in view, namely, that of repetition of the same 
kind of events throughout all known geological time. 

Salt and Salt Lal-es. 

I now come to the discussion of the circumstances that produced 
numerous recurrences of the development of beds of various salts (chiefly 
common rock-salt) in many fonnations, which it will be seen are to a 
great extent connected with continental or inland conditions. In com- 



10 REPORT— 1880. 

paratively rainless countries salts are often deposited on the surface of the 
ground by the effect of solar evaporation of moisture from the soil. "Water 
dissolves certain salts in combination with the ingredients of the under- 
lying rocks and soils, and brings it to the surface, and when solar evaporation 
ensues the salt or salts are deposited on the ground. This is well known 
to be the case in and near the region of the Great Salt Lake in North 
America, and in South America in some of the nearly rainless districts of 
the Cordillera, extensive surface- deposits of salts of various kinds are 
common. The surface of the ground around the Dead Sea is also in extra 
dry seasons covered with salt, the result of evaporation, and in the upper 
provinces of India (mentioned by Medlicott and Blanford) ' many tracts 
of land in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain are rendered worthless for cul- 
tivation by an efflorescence of salt known in the North-West Provinces as 
Reh,^ while every geographer knows that in Central Asia, from the western 
shore of the Caspian Sea to the Kinshan Mountains of Mongolia, with 
rare exceptions nearly every lake is salt in an area at least 3,500 miles in 
length. This circumstance is due to the fact that all so-called fresh-water 
springs, and therefore all rivers, contain small quantities of salts in solu- 
tion only appreciable to the chemist, and by the constant evaporation of 
pure water from the lakes, in the course of time, it necessarily happens 
that these salts get concentrated in the water by the effect of solar heat, 
and, if not already begun, precipitation of solid salts must ensue. 

The earliest deposits of rock-salt that I know about have been described 
by Mr. A. B. Wynne of the Geological Survey of India, in his Memoir ' On 
the Geology of the Salt Range in the Punjab.' ' The beds of salt are of great 
thickness, and along with gypsum and dolomitic layers occur in marl of a 
red colour like our Keuper Marl. This colour I have for many years con- 
sidered to be, in certain cases, apt to indicate deposition of sediments in 
inland lakes, salt or fresh, as the case may be, and with respect to these 
strata in the Punjab Salt Range, authors seem to be in doubt whether 
they were formed in inland lakes or in lagoons near the seaboard, which 
at intervals were liable to be flooded by the sea, and in which in the hot 
seasons salts were deposited by evaporation caused by solar heat. For my 
argument, it matters but little which of these was^the true physical con- 
dition of the land of the time, though I incline to think the inland lake 
theory most probable. The age of the strata associated with this salt is 
not yet certainly ascertained. In ' The Geology of India ' MedHcott 
and Blanford incline to consider them of Lower Silurian age, and Mr. 
Wynne, in his ' Geology of the Salt Range,' places the salt and gypsum 
beds doubtfully on the same geological horizon. 

The next salt-bearing formation that I shall notice is the Salina or 
Onondaga Salt Group of North America, which forms part of the Upper 
Silurian rocks, and hes immediately above the Niagara Limestone. It is 
rich in gypsum and in salt-brine, often of a very concentrated character, 

* Many earlier notices and descriptions of the Salt Range might be quoted, but 
Mr. Wynne's is enough for my purpose. 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

* which can only be derived from original depositions of salt,' and it is 
also supposed by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt to contain solid rock-salt 115 feet in 
thickness at the depth of 2,085 feet, near Saginaw Bay in Michigan. 

In the Lower Devonian strata of Russia near Lake Ilmen, Sir R. 
Murchison describes salt springs at Starai Russa. Sinkings ' made in 
the hope of penetrating to the source of these salt springs,' reached a 
depth of 600 feet without the discovery of rock salt, ' and we are left in 
doubt whether the real source of the salt is in the lowest beds of the 
Devonian rocks or even in the Silurian system.' 

In the United States brine springs also occur in Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
and Virginia, in Devonian rocks. 

In Michigan salts are found from the Carboniferous down to the 
Devonian series; and in other parts of the United States, Western 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Illinois, and Kentucky, from the lower 
Coal-measures salts are derived which must have been deposited in inland 
areas, since even in the depths of inland seas that communicate with the 
great ocean, such as the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, no great beds 
of salt can be deposited. Before such strata of salt can be formed, super- 
saturation must have taken place. 

In the North of England at and near Middlesbrough two deep bore- 
holes were made some years ago in the hope of reaching the Coal-measures 
of the Durham coal-field. One of them at Salthome was sunk to a depth 
of 1,355 feet. First they passed through 74 feet of superficial clay and 
gravel, next through about 1,175 feet of red sandstones and marls, with 
beds of rock-salt and gypsum. The whole of these strata (excepting the 
clay and gravel) evidently belong to the Keuper marls and sandstones of 
the upper part of our New Red series. Beneath these they passed through 
67 feet of dolomitic limestone, which in this neighbourhood forms the 
upper part of the Permian series, and beneath the limestone the strata 
consist of 27 feet of gypsum and rock-salt and marls, one of the beds of 
rock-salt having a thickness of 14 feet. This bed of Permian salt is 
of some importance, since I have been convinced for long that the 
British Permian strata were deposited, not in the sea, but in salt lakes 
comparable in some respects to the great salt lake of Utah, and in its 
restricted fauna to the far greater salt lake of the Caspian Sea. The 
gypsum, the dolomite or magnesian limestone, the red marls covered with 
rain-pittings, the sun-cracks, and the impressions of footprints of reptiles 
made in the soft sandy marls when the water was temporarily lowered by 
the solar evaporation of successive summers, all point to the fact that our 
Permian strata were not deposited in the sea, but in a salt lake or lakes 
once for a time connected with the sea. The same may be said of other 
Permian areas in the central parts of the Continent of Europe, such as 
Stassfurt and Anhalt, Halle and Altern in Thuringia, and Sperenberg, 
near Berlin, and also in India. ^ 

» See 'Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain,' 5th editidn, where th'^ 
question is treated in more detail. 



12 KEPORT— 1880. 

Neither do I tliink that the Permian strata of Russia, as de- 
scribed by Sir Roderick Murchison, were necessarily, as he implies, 
deposited in a wide ocean. According to his view all marine life 
universally declined to a minimum after the close of the Carboniferous 
period, that decline beginning with the Permian and ending with the 
Triassic epoch. Those who believe in the doctrine of evolution will find 
it hard to accept the idea which this implies, namely, that all the prolific 
forms of the Jurassic series sprang from the scanty faunas of the Permian 
and Triassic epochs. On the contrary, it seems to me more rational to 
attribute the poverty of the faunas of these epochs to accidental abnormal 
conditions in certain areas, that for a time partially disappeared during 
the deposition of the continental Muschelkalk which is absent in the 
British Triassic series. 

In the whole of the Russian Permian strata only fifty-three species 
were known at the time of the publication of ' Russia and the Ural 
Mountains,' and I have not heard that this scanty list has been subse- 
quently increased. I am therefore inclined to believe that these red marls, 
grits, sandstones, conglomerates, and great masses of gypsum and rock- 
salt were all formed in a flat inland area which was occasionally liable to 
be invaded by the sea during intermittent intervals of minor depression, 
sonaetimes in one area, sometimes in another, and the fauna small in size 
and poor in numbers is one of the results, while the deposition of beds of 
salt and gypsum is another. If so, then in the area now called Russia, in 
sheets of inland Permian water, deposits were formed strictly analogous 
to those of Central Europe and of Britain, but on a larger scale. 

Other deposits of salt deep beneath overlying younger strata are stated 
to occur at Bromberg in Prussia, and many more might be named as 
lying in the same formation in northern Germany. 

If we now turn to the Triassic series it is known that it consists of 
only two chief members in Britain, the Bunter Sandstones and the Keuper 
or New Red Marls, the Muschelkalk of the Continent being absent in our 
islands. No salt is found in the Bunter sandstones of England, but it 
occurs in these strata at Schoningeu in Brunswick and also near Hanover. 
In the lower part of the Keuper series deposits of rock-salt are common in 
England and Ireland. At Almersleben, near Calbe, rock-salt is found in 
the Muschelkalk, and also at Erfurt and Slottenheim in Thuringia and at 
Wilhelmsgliick in Wurtemburg. In other Triassic areas it is known 
at Honigsen, in Hanover, in middle Keuper beds. In the red shales at 
Sperenberg and Lieth on the Lower Elbe, salt was found at the depth of 
3,000 feet, and at Stassfnrth the salt is said to be ' several hundred yards 
thick.' 

In Central Spain rock-salt is known, and at Tarragona, Taen, and also 
at Santander in the north of Spain, all in Triassic strata. Other locali- 
ties may be named in the Upper Trias, such as the Salzkammergut, 
Aussee, Hallstatt, Ischl, Hallein in Salzburg, Halle in the Tyrol, and 
Berchesgaden in Bavaria. 



ADDRESS. 13 

In the Salt Range of mountains in Northern India saliferous strata 
are referred with some doubt by Medlicott and Blanford to the Triassic 
strata. 

In the Jurassic series (Lias and Oolites) salt and gypsum are not 
uncommon. One well-known instance occurs at Berg in the valley of the 
Rhone in Switzerland, where salt is derived from the Lias. Salt and 
gypsum are also found in Jurassic rocks at Burgos in Spain. At Gap in 
France there is gypsum, and salt is found in the Austrian Alps in Oolitic 
limestone. 

In the Cretaceous rocks salt occurs, according to Lartet, at Jebel 
Usdom by the Dead Sea, and other authorities state that it occurs in the 
Pyrenees and at Biskra in Africa, where ' mountains of salt ' are mentioned 
as of Cretaceous age. The two last-named localities are possibly uncertain : 
but whether or not this is the case, it is not the less certain that salt has 
been deposited in Cretaceous rocks, and, judging by analogy, pi'obably in 
inland areas of that epoch. 

In the Eocene or Older Tertiary formations, rock-salt is found at 
Cardona in Spain, and at Kohat in the Punjab it occurs at the base of 
Nummulitic beds. It is also known at Mandi in India in strata supposed 
to be of Nummulitic Eocene age. 

The record does not end hei'e, for a zone of rock- salt lies in Sicily at 
the top of the Salina clays in Lower Miocene beds, and in Miocene 
strata gypsum is found at several places in Spain, while salt also occurs 
in beds that are doubtfully of Miocene age (but may be later) at Wie- 
litzka in Poland, Kalusz in Galicia, Bukowina, and also in Transylvania. 

In Pliocene or Later Tertiary formations, thick beds of gypsum are 
known in Zante, and strata of salt occur in Roumania and Galicia, whil© 
in Pliocene rocks, according to Dana, or in Post-Tertiary beds, according 
to others, a thick bed of pui'e salt was penetrated to a depth of 38 feet at 
Petit Anse in Louisiana. This ends my list, though I have no doubt 
that, by further research, many more localities might be given. Enough, 
however, has been done to show that rock-salt (and other salts) are of 
frequent recurrence throughout all geological time, and as in my opinion 
it is impossible that common salt can be deposited in the open ocean, it 
follows that this and other salts must have been precipitated from solu- 
tions, which, by the effect of solar evaporation became at length super- 
saturated, like those of the Dead Sea, the great salt lake of Utah, and in 
other places which it is superfluous to name. 

Fresh-water. LaJces and Estuaries. 

I now come to the subject of recurrences of fresh-water conditions both 
in lakes and estuaries. In the introduction to the ' Geology of India ' by 
Messrs. Medlicott and Blanford, mention is made of the Blaini and Ki'ol 
rocks as probably occupying ' hollows formed by denudation in the old 
gneissic rocks,' and the inference is drawn that 'if this be a correct view, 



14 KEPORT— 1880. 

it is probable that the cis-Himalayan palaeozoic rocks are in great part of 
fresb- water origin, and that the present crystalline axis of the Western 
Himalayas approximately coincides with the shore of the ancient palseozoic 
continent, of which the Indian peninsula formed a portion.' The Ea-ol 
rocks are classed broadly with ' Permian and Carboniferous ' deposits, 
but the Blaini beds are doubtfully considered to belong to Upper Silurian 
strata. If this point be by-and-by established, this is the earliest known 
occurrence of fresh-water strata in any of the more ancient palseozoic 
formations. 

It is a fact worthy of notice that the colour of the strata formed in old 
lakes (whether fresh or salt) of pateozoic and mesozoic ago is apt to be 
red : a circumstance due to the fact that each little grain of sand or mud 
is usually coated with a very thin pellicle of peroxide of iron. Whether 
or not the red and purple Cambrian rocks ' may not be partly of fresh- 
water origin, is a question that I think no one but myself has raised.^ 

There is, however, in my opinion, no doubt with regard to the fresh- 
water origin of the Old Red Sandstone, as distinct from the contem- 
poraneous marine deposits of the Devonian strata. This idea was first 
started by that distinguished geologist. Doctor Fleming, of Edinburgh, 
followed by Mr. Godwin-Austen, who, from the absence of marine shells 
and the nature of the fossil fishes in these strata, inferred that they 
were deposited, not in the sea, as had always been asserted, but in a great 
f resh-water lake or in a series of lakes. In this opinion I have for many 
years agreed, for the nearest analogies of the fish are, according to Huxley, 
the Polypterus of African rivers, the Ceratodus of Australia, and in less 
degTce the Lepidosteus of North America. The truth of the supposition 
that the Old Red Sandstone was deposited in fresh water, is further borne 
out by the occurrence of a fresh-water shell, Anodonta JuJcesii, and of ferns 
in the Upper Old Red Sandstone in Ireland ; and the same shell is found 
at Dura Den in Scotland, while in Caithness, along with numerous fishes, 
there occurs the small bivalve crustacean Estheria Murchisonise. 

I think it more than probable that the red series of rocks that form the 
Catskill Mountains of North America, (and with which I am personally 
acquainted) were formed in the same manner as the Old Red Sandstones 
of Britain ; for excepting in one or two minor interstratifications, they 
contain no relics of marine life, while 'the fossil fishes of the Catskill 
beds, according to Dr. Newberry, appear to represent closely those of the 
British Old Red Sandstone.' (Dana.) 

The Devonian rocks of Russia, according to the late Sir Roderick 
Murchison, consist of two distinct types, viz, Devonian strata identical in 
general character with those in Devonshire and in various parts of the 

^ By Cambrian, I mean only the 7'ed and purple rocks of Wales, England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, older than the Menevian beds, or any later division of the Silurian 
strata, that may chance to rest upon them. 

" ' On the Red Eocks of England of older date than the Trias.' Jour. Geol. Soc. 
1871, vol. 28. 



ADDRESS. 15 

continent of Europe. These are exclusively of a marine character, wliile 
the remainder corresponds to the Old Red Sandstone of Wales, England, 
and Scotland. 

At Tchudora, about 105 miles S.E. of St. Petersburg, the lowest 
members of the series consist of flag-like compact limestones accumulated 
in a tranquil sea and containing fucoids and encrinites, together mth 
shells of Devonian age, such as Spirifers, Terebratulce, Orthis, Lepteenas, 
Avicula, Modiola, Natica, Bellerophon, &c., while the upper division 
gi'aduates into the Carboniferous series as it often does in Britain, and, like 
the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, contains only fish-remains, and in 
both countries they are of the same species. ' Proceeding from the 
Valdai Hills on the north,' the geologist ' quits a Devonian Zone with a 
true " Old Bed" type dipping under the Carboniferous rocks of Moscow, 
and having passed through the latter, he finds himself suddenly in a 
yellow-coloured region, entirely dissimilar in structure to what he had 
seen in any of the northern governments, which, of a different type as 
regards fossils, is the true stratigraphical equivalent of the Old Bed system.' 
This seems to me, as regards the Russian strata, to mean, that just as the 
Devonian strata of Devonshire are the true equivalents of the Old Red 
Sandstone of Wales and Scotland, they were deposited under very different 
conditions, the first in the sea and the others in inland fresh-water lakes. 
At the time Sir Roderick Murchison's work was completed, the 'almost 
universal opinion was that the Old Red Sandstone was a marine forma- 
tion. In the year 1830, the Rev. Dr. Fleming, of Edinburgh, read a 
paper before the Wernerian Society in which he boldly stated that the 
' Old Bed Sandstone is a fresh-water formation ' of older date than the 
Carboniferous Limestone. This statement, however, seems to have made 
no impression on geologists till it was revived by Godwin-Austen in 
a memoir ' On the Extension of the Coal-measures,' &c., in the Journal 
of the Geological Society, 1856. Even this made no converts to what 
was then considered a heretical opinion. I have long held Dr, Fleming's 
view, and unfortunately published it in the third edition of ' The Physical 
Geology and Geography of Great Britain,' without at the time being 
aware that I had been forestalled by Dr. Fleming and Mr. Godwin- 
Austen. 

To give anything like a detailed account of all the fresh- water forma- 
tions deposited in estuaries and lakes from the close of the Old Red 
Sandstone times down to late Tertiary epochs, is only fitted for a manual 
of geology, and would too much expand this address ; and I will therefore 
give little more than a catalogue of these deposits in ascending order. 

In the Coal-measure parts of the Carboniferous series, a great propor- 
tion of the shales and sandstones are of fresh-water origin. This is proved 
all over the British Islands by the shells they contain, while here and there 
marine interstratifi cations occur, generally of no great thickness. There 
is no doubt among geologists that these Coal-measure strata were chiefly 



16 EEPOKT — 1880. 

deposited under estnarine conditions, and sometimes in lagoons or in lakes ; 
while nnmerous beds of coal formed by the life and death of land plants, 
each underlaid by the soil on which the plants grew, evince the constant 
recurrence of terrestrial conditions. The same kind of phenomena are 
characteristic of the Coal-measures all through ISTorth America, and in 
every country on the continent of Europe, from France and Spain on the 
west, to Russia in the east, and the same is the case in China and in other 
areas. 

In Scotland, according to Prof. Judd, fresh- water conditions occur 
more or less all through the Jurassic series, from the Lias to the Upper 
Oolites. In England, fresh-water strata, with thin beds of coal, are found 
in the Inferior Oolite of Yorkshire, and in the middle of England and 
elsewhere in the Great Oolite. The Purbeck and Wealden strata, which, 
in a sense, fill the interval between the Jurassic and Cretaceous series, are 
almost entirely formed of fresh-water strata, with occasional thin marine 
interstratifications. By some the Wealden beds are considered to have 
been formed in and near the estuary of a great river, while others, with 
as good a show of reason, believe them to have been deposited in a large 
lake subject to the occasional influx of the sea. 

In the eastern part of South Eussia the Lias consists chiefly of fresh, 
water strata, as stated by Neumayr. 

The Godwana rocks of Central India range from Upper Palasozoic 
times well into the Jurassic strata, and there all these formations are of 
fresh- water origin. Fresh- water beds with shells are also interstratified 
with the Deccan traps of Cretaceous and Tertiary (Eocene) age, while 
2,000 feet of fresh-water sands overlie them. 

In South-western Sweden, as stated by Mr. Bauerman, 'the three 
coal-fields of Hoganas, Stabbarp, and Rodinge, lie in the uppermost 
Triassic or Rhsetic series.' In Africa, the Karoo beds, which it is surmised 
may be of the age of the New Red Sandstone, contain beds of coal. In 
North America, certain fresh-water strata, with beds of lignite, apparently 
belong to the Cretaceous and Eocene epochs, and in the north of Spain 
and south of France, there are fresh-water lacustrine formations in the 
highest Cretaceous strata. 

In England the lower and upper Eocene strata are chiefly of fi-esh- 
water origin, and the same is the case in France and other parts of the 
Contiuent. Certain fresh-water formations in Central Spain extend from 
the Eocene to the upper Miocene strata. 

There is only one small patch of Miocene beds in England, at Bovey 
Tracey, near Dartmoor, formed of fresh- water deposits with interstratified 
beds of lignite or Miocene coal. On the continent of Europe, Miocene 
strata occupy immense independent areas, extending from France and 
Spain to the Black Sea. In places too numerous to name, they contain 
beds of ' brown coal,' as lignite is sometimes called. These coal-beds 
are often of great thickness and solidity. In one of the pits which I 
descended near Teplitz, in Bohemia, the coal, which lies in a true basin, 



ADDRESS. 17 

is 40 feet thick, and underneatli it there is a bed of clay, with rootlets, 
quite comparable to the underclay which is found beneath almost every 
bed of coal in the British and other coal-fields of the Carboniferous epoch. 
The Miocene rocks of Switzerland are familiar to all geologists, who have 
traversed the country between the Jura and the Alps. Sometimes they 
are soft and incoherent, sometimes formed of sandstones, and some- 
times of conglomerates, as on the Righi. They chiefly consist of fresh- 
water lacustrine strata, with some minor marine interstratifications which 
mark the influx of the sea during occasional partial submergences of 
portions of the area. These fresh- water strata, of great extent and thick- 
ness, contain beds of lignite, and are remarkable for the relics of numerous 
trees and other plants which have been described by Prof. Heer of 
Zui'ich, with his accustomed skill. The Miocene fresh-water strata, of the 
Sewalik Hills in India are well known to most students of geology, and I 
have already stated that they bear the same relation to the more ancient 
Himalayan mountains that the Miocene strata of Switzerland and the 
North of Italy do to the pre-existing range of the Alps. In fact, it may be 
safely inferred that something far more than the rudiments of our present 
continents existed long before Miocene times, and this accounts for the 
large areas on those continents which are frequently occupied by Miocene 
fresh-water strata. With the marine formations of Miocene age this 
address is in no way concerned, nor is it essential to my argument to deal 
with those later tertiary phenomena, which in their upper stages so 
easily merge into the existing state of the world. 

Olacial Phenomena. 

I now come to the last special subject for discussion in this address, 
viz., the Recurrence of Glacial Epochs, a subject still considered by some 
to be heretical, and which was generally looked upon as an absurd crotchet 
when, in 1855, I first described to the Geological Society, boulder-beds, 
containing ice-scratched stones, and en-atic blocks in the Permian strata 
of England. The same idea I afterwards applied to some of the Old 
Red Sandstone conglomerates, and of late years it has become so familiar, 
that the effects of glaciers have at length been noted by geologists from 
older Palaezoic epochs down to the present day. 

In the middle of last July I received a letter from Prof. Geikie, in 
which he informed me that he had discovered mammilated moutonnee 
surfaces of Laurentian rocks, passing underneath the Cambrian sand- 
stones of the north-west of Scotland at intervals, all the way from Cape 
Wrath to Loch Torridon, for a distance of about 90 miles. The mammi- 
lated rocks are, says Prof Geikie, ' as well rounded off as any recent roclie 
moutonnee,' and, ' in one place these bosses are covered by'a huge angular 
breccia of this old gneiss (Laurentian) with blocks sometimes five or six 
feet long.' This breccia, where it occurs, forms the base of the Cambrian 
strata of Sutherland, Ross, and Cromarty, and while the higher strata are 
1880. c 



18 EEPOET— 1880. 

always well stratified, where they approach the underlying Laurentian 
gneiss ' they become pebbly, passing into coarse unstratified agglomerates 
or bonlder-beds.' In the Gairloch district ' it is utterly nnstratified, the 
angular fragments standing on end and at all angles,' just as they do in 
many modern moraine mounds wherever large glaciers are found. The 
general subject of Paleozoic glaciers has long been familiar to me, and this 
account of more ancient glaciers of Cambrian age is peculiarly acceptable. 

The next sisn of ice in Britain is found in the lower Silurian rocks of 
Wigtonshire and Ayrshire. In the year 1865 Mr. John CaiTick Moore 
took me to see the Lower Silurian graptolitic rocks at Corswall Point in 
Wigtonshire, in which great blocks of gneiss, granite, &c., are imbedded, 
and in the same year many similar erratic blocks were pointed out to me 
by Mr. James Geikie in the Silurian strata of Carrick in Ayrshire. One of 
the blocks at Corswall, as measured by myself, is nine feet in length, and 
the rest are of all sizes, from an inch or two up to several feet in diameter. 
There is no gneiss or granite in this region nearer than those of Kirkcud- 
brightshire and Arran, and these are of later geological date than the strata 
amid which the erratic hlocJcs are ivibedded. It is therefore not improbable 
that they may have been derived from some high land formed of Lauren- 
tian rocks of which the outer Hebrides and parts of the mainland of 
Scotland form surviving portions. If so, then I can conceive of no agent 
capable of transporting large boulders and dropping them into the Lower 
Silurian mud of the seas of the time save that of icebergs or other float- 
ing ice, and the same view with regard to the neighbouring boulder-beds 
of Ayrshire is held by Mr. James Geikie. If, however, any one will point 
out any other natural cause still in action by which such results are at 
present brought about, I should be very glad to hear of it. 

I must now turn to India for further evidence of the action of palaeo- 
zoic ice. In the Himalayas of Pangi, S.E. of Kashmir, according to 
Medlicott and Blanford, ' old slates, supposed to be Silurian, contain 
boulders in great numbers,' which they believe to be of glacial origin. 
Another case is mentioned as occurring in ' transition beds of unknown 
relations,' but in another passage they are stated to be ' very ancient, but 
no idea can be formed of their geological position.' The underlying rocJcs 
are marlced hy distinct glacial striations. 

The next case of glacial boulder-beds with which I am acquainted is 
found in Old Red Sandstone in Scotland, and in some places in the north 
of England, where they contain what seem to be indistinctly ice-scratched 
stones. I first observed these rocks on the Lammermuir Hills, south of 
Dunbar, lying unconformably on Lower Silurian strata, and soon inferred 
them to be of glacial origin, a circumstance that was subsequently con- 
firmed by my colleagues. Prof, and Mr. James Geikie, and is now familiar 
to other officers of the Geological Survey of Scotland. 

I know of no boulder formations in the Carboniferous series, but they 
are well known as occurring on a large scale in the Permian brecciated 
conglomerates, where they consist ' of pebbles and large blocks of stone, 



ADDRESS. 19 

generally angular, imbedded in a marly paste. . , . tbe fragments 
have mostly travelled from a distance, apparently from the borders of 
Wales, and some of them are three feet in diameter.' Some of the stones 
are aa well scratched as those found in modern moraines or in the ordinary 
boulder-clay of what is commonly called the Glacial Epoch. In 1865 
the old idea was still not unprevalent that daring the Permian Epoch, 
and for long after, the globe had not yet cooled sufficiently to allow of the 
climates of the external world being universally affected by the constant 
radiation of heat from its interior. For a long time, however, this idea 
has almost entirely vanished, and now, in Britain at all events, it is. 
little if at all attended to, and other glacial episodes in the history of 
the world have continued to be brought forward and are no longer looked 
upon as mere ill-judged conjectures. 

The same kind of brecciated boulder-beds that are found in our Per- 
mian strata occur in the Eotheliegende of Germany, which I have visited 
in several places, and I believe them to have had a like glacial origin. 

Ml'. G. W. Stow, of the Orange Free State, has of late years given 
most elaborate accounts of similar Permian boulder-beds in South Africa. 
There, great masses of moraine matter not only contain ice-scratched 
stones, but on the banks of rivers where the Permian rock has been re- 
moved by aqueous denudation, the underlying rocks, well rounded and 
mammillated, are covered hj deeply incised glacier grooves pointing in a 
direction which at length leads the observer to the pre-Permian mountains 
from whence the stones were derived that formed these ancient moraines, i 
Messrs. Blanford and MedUcott have also given in ' The Geology of 
India ' an account of boulder-beds in what they believe to be Permian 
strata, and which they compare with those described by me in England 
many years before. There the Godwana group of the Talchir strata con- 
tains numerous boulders, many of them six feet in diameter, and 'in one 
mstance some of the hlocTcs were found to he polished and striated, and the 
underlying Vindhyan rocks were similarly marhed. The authors also cor- 
relate these glacial phenomena with those found in similar deposits in 
South Africa, discovered and described by Mr. Stow. 

lu the Obve group of the Salt range, described by the same authors, 
there is a curious resemblance between a certain conglomerate 'and that 
of the Talchir group of the Godwana system.' This ' Olive conglomerate ' 
belongs to the Cretaceous series, and contains ice-transported erratic 
boulders derived from unknown rocks, one of which of red granite ' is 
polished and striated on three faces in so characteristic a manner that 
very little doubt can exist of its having been transported by ice.' One 
block of red granite at the Mayo Salt Mines of Khewra 'is 7 feet high 
and 19 feet m circumference.' In the ' Transition beds ' of the same 

inelvYo J^nSi^f °'^/?°''' °.? *^'^ ^''^j^^* ^' ^*i^^ ^ manuscript. It is so exceed- 
GpoIoS'c; w^ 'Ti'°°' *^^* accompany it are of such unusual size, that the 
?en tTf ;L Orf/.'°^^* ""t f °''^ '^^^ publication. It was thought that the Govern! 
wl fi ■ ,5 ^^ ^^^^ ^*'''*^ "^S^^ undertake this duty, but the late troubles in 
South Africa have probably hindered this work-it is to be hoped only for a t"me 

C2 



20 EEPOET— 1880. 

authors, wliicli are supposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age, there also are 
boulder beds with erratic blocks of great size. 

I know of no evidence of glacial phenomena in Eocene strata except- 
ing the occurrence of huge masses of included gneiss in the strata known 
as Flysch in Switzerland. On this question, however, Swiss geologists 
are by no means agreed, and I attach little or no importance to it as 
affording evidence of glacier ice. 

Neither do I know of any Miocene glacier-deposits excepting those in 
the north of Italy near Turin, described by the late eminent geologist, 
Gastaldi, and which I saw under his guidance. These contain many large 
erratic boulders derived from the distant Alps, which, in my opinion, 
were then at least as lofty or even higher than they are now, especially if 
we consider the immense amount of denudation which they underwent 
during Miocene, later Tertiary, and post-tertiary times. 

At a still later date there took place in the north of Europe and 
America what is usually misnamed ' The Glacial Epoch,' when a vast 
glacial mass covered all Scandinavia, and distributed its boulders across 
the north of Germany, as far south as the country around Leipzig, when 
Ireland also was shrouded in glacier ice, and when a great glacier covered 
the larger part of Britain, and stretched southward, perhaps nearly as 
far as the Thames on the one side, and certainly covered the whole of 
Anglesey, and probably the whole, or nearly the whole, of South Wales. 
This was after the advent of man. 

Lastly, there is still a minor Glacial Epoch in progress on the large 
•and almost unknown Antarctic continent, from the high land of which in 
latitudes which partly lie as far north as 60° and 62°, a vast sheet of 
glacier-ice of great thickness extends far out to sea and sends fleets of 
icebergs to the north, there to melt in warmer latitudes. If in accordance 
with the theory of Mr. Croll, founded on astronomical data, a similar 
climate were transferred to the northern hemisphere, the whole of Scan- 
dinavia and the Baltic would apparently be covered with glacier-ice, and 
the same would probably be the case with the Faroe Islands and great 
part of Siberia, while even the mountain tracts of Britain might again 
maintain their minor systems of glaciers. 

Conclusions. 

In opening this address, I began with the subject of the oldest meta- 
morphic rocks that I have seen — the Laurentian strata. It is evident to 
every person who thinks on the subject that their deposition took place 
far from the beginning of recognised geological time. For there must have 
been older rocks by the degradation of which they were formed. And if, 
as some American geologists afiirm, there are on that continent meta- 
morphic rocks of more ancient dates than the Laurentian strata, there 
must have been rocks more ancient still to afford materials for the de- 
position of these pre-Laurentian strata. 



I 



I 



ADDRESS. 2 1 

Starting witli tlie Laurentian rocks, I liave shown tliat the phe- 
nomena of metamorphism of strata have been continued from that date 
all through the later formations, or groups of formations, down to and 
including part of the Eocene strata in some parts of the world. 

In like manner I have shown that ordinary volcanic rocks have been 
ejected in Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, Cretaceo-oolitic, 
Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene times, and from all that I 
have seen or read of these ancient volcanoes, I have no reason to believe 
that volcanic forces played a more important part in any period of geo- 
logical time than they do in this our modern epoch. 

So, also, mountain chains existed before the deposition of the Silurian 
rocks, others of later date before the Old Red Sandstone strata were 
formed, and the chain of the Ural before the deposition of the Permian 
beds. The last great upheaval of the Alleghany Mountains took place 
between the close of the formation of the Carboniferous strata of that 
region and the deposition of the New Red Sandstone. 

According to Darwin, after various oscillations of level, the Cordillera 
underwent its chief upheaval after the Cretaceous epoch, and all geologists 
know that the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Himalayas, and 
other mountain-chains (which I have named) underwent what seems to 
have been their chief gi'eat upheaval after the deposition of the Eocene 
strata, while some of them were again lifted up several thousands of 
feet after the close of the Miocene epoch. 

The deposition of salts from aqueous solutions in inland lakes and 
lagoons appears to have taken place through all time — through Silurian, 
Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, 
Miocene, and Pliocene epochs — and it is going on now. 

In like manner fresh- water and estuarine conditions are found now in 
one region, now in another, throughout all the formations or groups of 
formations possibly from Silurian times onward ; and glacial phenomena, 
so far from being confined to what was and is generally still termed the 
Glacial Epoch, are now boldly declared, by independent witnesses of 
known high reputation, to begin with the Cambrian epoch, and to have 
occurred somewhere, at intervals, in various formations, from almost the 
earliest Pateozoic times down to our last post-Pliocene ' Glacial Epoch.' 

If the nebalar hypothesis of astronomers be true (and I know of no 
reason why it should be doubted), the earth was at one time in a purely 
gaseous state, and afterwards in a fluid condition, attended by intense 
heat. By-and-by consolidatioD, due to partial cooling, took place on the 
surface, and as radiation of heat went on, the outer shell thickened. 
Radiation still going on, the interior fluid matter decreased in bulk, and, 
by force of gravitation, the outer shell being drawn towards the interior, 
gave way, and, in parts, got crinkled up, and this, according to cos- 
mogonists, was the origin of the earliest mountain-chains. I make no 
objection to the hypothesis, which, to say the least, seems to be the best 
that can be offered and looks highly probable. But, assuming that 



22 EEPORT— 1880. 

it is true, these hypothetical events took place so long before authentic 
geological history began, as written in the rocks, that the earliest of the 
physical events to which I have drawn your attention in this address 
was, to all human apprehension of time, so enormously removed from these 
early assumed cosmical phenomena, that they appear to tne to have been 
of comparatively quite modern occurrence, and to indicate that from the 
Laurentian epoch down to the present day, all the physical events in the 
history of the earth have vaned neither in kind nor in intensity from those of 
which we now have experience. Perhaps many of our British geologists 
hold similar opinions, but, if it be so, it may not be altogether useless 
to have considered the various subjects separately on which I depend 
to prove the point I had in view. 



•I 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report of the Comtnittee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Pro- 
fessor Purser, Professor G. Forbes, Mr. Horace Darwin, and 
Mr. Gr. H. Darwin {Secretary'), appointed for the Measureonent 
of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity. 

The Committee beg leave to report as follows : — 

The sum of £30 granted in 1879 for the purposes of the Committee 
has been paid to Mr. G. H. Darwin. 

Before the meeting of 1879 Mr. G. H. Darwin and Mr. Horace Darwin 
were making prepo-rations for carrying out experiments with a view of 
detecting sm.all variations in the directions of the force of gravity. With 
the aid of the above grant some preliminary experiments have been made 
during the past year by Mr. G. H. and Mr. H. Darwin in the Cavendish 
Laboratory of the University of Cambridge by means of an instrument of 
which the jjrinciple was suggested to the experimenters by Sir William 
Thomson. 

The experiments have not as yet been carried sufi&ciently far to make 
it desirable to present a detailed report to the British Association. It 
may nevertheless be mentioned that results of some interest have been 
attained with regard to the warping of stone columns under the influence 
of minute changes of temperature or of small stresses. 

The chief conclusion, however, to which the experimenters have been 
led is that it is now necessary to entirely re-design the apparatus. It seems 
probable that the experiments will occupy a considerable time, and may 
possibly prove expensive. 

Under these circumstances the Committee think it expedient to defer 
the presentation of their Report and of the accounts until the meeting of 
the Association in 1881. 

Supplementary Report. 

The Secretary of this Committee having got in and paid an outstanding 
account since the Report was sent in, finds that nearly the whole sum 
granted for the purposes of the Committee in 1879 has been expended. 



26 heport— 1880. 

As, however, the experiments are still only in an incipient stage, it is 
necessary to defer the report of the results attained. 

Under these circumstances the Secretary sus^gests the advisability of 
the continuation of the Committee on the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity for 
another year. 

As the plan which the experimenters intend to pursue will involve some 
masonry work and the use of a good deal of copper for apparatus — an 
expensive material and difficult to work — it seems likely that future 
operations may prove expensive. The Secretary, therefore, ventures to 
suggest that the Association should grant a further sum of 30/. for the 
purposes of this Committee. 



Thirteenth Report of the GomxiinUtee, consisting o/ Professor Everett, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Professor 
Eamsay, Professor GtEIKIE, Mr. J. GtLAISHER, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Professor Gr. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. Gtalloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. Gr. F. Deacon, and 
Mr. E. Wethered, appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature dowmvards 
in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn 
up by Professor Everett {^Secretary). 

Observations have been taken in the Talargoch Lead Mine, Flintshire 
(between Rhyl and Prestatyn), under the direction of Mr. A. Strahan, of 
the Geological Survey, and Mr. Walker, Chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the mine. 

The top of the shaft is 190 feet above the level of the sea, and is at the 
foot of a hill 500 feet above the sea. The lowest workings are 900 feet 
below sea-level. The veins run across an angle of Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, bounded on both sides by faults which throw down coal-measure 
shale ; and as the faults have a considerable inclination, the lowest work- 
ings run beneath the shale for a considerable distance. The limestone 
dips at angles varying from 45° to 55°, and is of two kinds, one white and 
massive, the other thin bedded black with thin shale partings. 

There are levels at intervals of about 20 yards vertically, in the vein, 
most of which have been driven for some years ; but all the observations 
have been taken in newly opened ground. 

They have been taken by boring a hole 24 inches deep at a distance of 
from 1^ to 5 yards fi'om the fore breast, and either on the same day or 
the next day inserting one of the Committee's slow-action thermometers, 
with a foot of plugging consisting of dry rag and clay behind it. After 
an interval generally of four days the thermometer was taken out and 
read, then reinserted, and read again about a week later, the difference 
between the two readings never amounting to so much as half a degree. 

The observations were taken at six different places in the mine, which 
are designated by the observers Stations I. to VI. ; but in one instance, 
that of Station II., owing to the swelling of newly exposed shale, the hole 



ON THE BATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



27 



became distorted, so that after extracting the dry rag and clay, an hour 
was expended in working out the thermometer, the reading of which has 
therefore been rejected. The following is a list of the five remaining 
stations, arranged in order of depth : — 



No. of 
Station 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

ni. 
I. 



Depth 

from Surface 

in feet 

465 

555 

636 

660 
1041 



Temperature 
Fahr. 

53-4° 
52-9° 
58-8° 
540° 
60-8° 



Distance and 
Direction from 

Mostyn Shaft 
190 yds. S.W. 
170 yds. S.E. 
840 yds. S.W. 
120 yds. S. 
190 yds. N.E. 



It will be observed that the order of the temperatures is not the same 
as the order of the depths ; it therefore becomes important to describe the 
positions with some particularity. 

Stations IV., V., and III. are near together in ground plan, IV. and V. 
being about 250 yards apart, and III. nearly midway between them, and 
they have all the same rock overhead between them and the surface, 
namely, black and white limestone. 

At Station I. the rock overhead consists almost entirely of sandstones 
and shales, with thin coal-seams. At Station VI. it consists of white 
limestone and shale. 

It may be mentioned that the temperature at VI. was observed on three 
several occasions, namely, January 14, January 21, and February 19, and 
was in each case found to be the same. Mr. Strahan further states that 
this station is near a large fault, which contains iron pyrites and gives off 
water charged with sulphuretted hydrogen ; the temperature of the water 
as pumped up "Walker's shaft from a depth of 770 feet, being 63° at the 
top of the lift. It seems probable that the decomposition of this pyrites 
may be the cause of the exceptionally high temperature at this station. 

The comparison of the temperatures will be most clearly brought out 
by tabulating the rate of increase from the surface down to each station, as 
calculated from an assumed surface temperature, which may be fairly 
taken as 48°. As all the depths are considerable, an error of a degree in 
the surface temperature will not have much influence on the comparison, 
which stands thus : — 

Station 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

in. 
I. 

Stations V. and III., which give the slowest rate of increase, are both 
of them in a vein called the ' South Joint ; ' and Stations IV. and I., which 
agree well with each other, though differing from the rest, are both of 
them in another vein called the ' Talargoch vein ; ' while Station VI. 
is in the rock. The horizontal distance between IV. and III. is only 
120 yards : but if we attempt to deduce the rate of increase from com- 
paring these two, we have an increase of only 0'6° in 195 feet. It thus 
appears that, notwithstanding the proximity of the two veins, their con- 
ditions as to temperature are very different. 

Widely as the results differ among themselves, they agree upon the 
whole in showing that the average rate of increase is slow; and this 



Depth 


Excess above 


Feet per 


in feet 


Surface 


Degree 


465 


5-4° 


86 


555 


4-9" 


. 113 


636 


10-8° 


59 


660 


60° 


. 110 


1041 


12-8° 


81 



28 BEPORT— 1880. 

general result is in harmony with what has been found at the nearest 
localities mentioned in our previous reports, namely, Dukinfield and Liver- 
pool. Here, as at Dukinfield, all the strata are highly inclined. 

Some additional observations at Dukinfield have recently been made 
for the Committee, by Mr. Edward Garside, student of engineering in 
Queen's College, Belfast. The Astley Pit, in which they were taken, has 
now been carried to a much greater depth than it had extended at the 
time of Sir Wm. Fairbairn's observations, to which allusion was made in 
our Report for 1870. The two deepest seams of coal in it are called the 
' Cannel Mine ' and the ' Black Mine,' the former being the deeper of 
the two ; they both slope downwards at about 15°, the deepest point being 
the far end of the Cannel Mine. The following is Mr. Garside's summary 
of the observations ; the ' surface-depth ' being distinguished fi-om the 
' shaft-depth ' because the surface is not level, but slopes slightly in the 
same general direction as the seams. The shaft-depth gives the difference 
of levels, but the surface-depth, which is practically the same as the 
distance of the nearest point of the surface, is what we must use in com- 
puting the rate of increase of temperature. 















Distance 


Date 
in 1880 


Spf)T)i nf 


Surface 


Shaft 


Temperature 


Temperature 


from main 


Coal 


Depth. 
Feet 


Depth. 
Feet 


of Strata. 
Fahr. 


in Air Road. 
Fahr. 


Air Column. 
Yards 


June 17 


Cannel 


2,700 


2,754 


86J 


75i 


160 


„ 19 


Black 


2,407' 


2,6.31 


80 


78| 


630 


., 21 


Cannel 


2,416* 


2,482i 


81 


79 


600 


July 2 


Black 


l,i)87| 


2,047* 


74 


71| 


460 



The pit is described as being entirely free from water. 

All the observations were taken with one of the Committee's slow- 
acting thermometers, in holes drilled in the floors at ihe far ends of newly 
opened horse-road levels ; the holes being 4 feet deep and 2 inches in 
diameter. All the holes were free from cracks, and were in the same kind 
of rock — an argillaceous earth called ' warren earth.' They were allowed 
to stand for a short time, to allow the heat caused by drilling to escape. 
The thermometer was then inserted, and the portion of the hole between 
it and the mouth plugged with cotton waste and the dust which came 
out of the hole in drilling. After being left for forty-eight hours, it 
was taken out and read. 

Arranging the observations in the order of the surface-depths, we have 
the following data : — 



-■o 



Senm Surface Temiieratiirp Feet per Degree 

^°"™ Depth lemperature from Surface 

Black .... 1,987* >. .74 . . 79-5 

, 2,407| . . 80 . . 77-7 

Cannel .... 2,416i . . 81 . . 75-5 

„ .... 2,700 . . 86| . . 72 

The numbers in the last column are calculated from an assumed 
surface-temperature of 49°, and show that the increase of temperature 
becomes more rapid as the depth increases. If, without making any 
assumption as to surface-temperature, we compare the observations among 
themselves, the two shallower give an increase of 6° in 420 feet, which is 
at the rate of 1° in 70 feet, and the two deeper give an increase of 5^° in 
283^ feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 51-| feet, a result which confirms 
the increase of rapidity with depth. 

The greatest depth in Sir Wm. Fairbairn's observations was 685 yards 



ON AN IMPBOYED FORM OF HIGH INSULATION KEY. 29 

or 2055 feet, and tlie temperature which he found at this depth (75-°) is 
within less than a degree of the temperature which would be calculated 
from the observations now reported. 

The Committee have to express their regret at the loss of two of their 
colleagues — ProP. Clerk Maxwell, and Prof. Ansted — by death, during 
the past yeai'. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 0. J. Lodge (Secretary), 
Professor W. E. Ayrton, and Professor J. Perry, apfjointed for the 
■purpose of devising and constructing an improved form of High 
Insulation Key for Electrometer Work. 

In the construction of the key it was considered desirable to secure as 
fiar as possible the following conditions : — 

1. That the insulation should be nearly perfect. 

2. That the conductors should have a very small electrostatic capacity. 

3. That they should be entirely protected from all external induction 

by a metal case. 

4. That the hand of the operator should work the moving parts from 

the outside of the case, so as neither to act inductively on the 
conductors, nor to electrify insulators by friction. 

5. That there should be no friction whatever between insulators and 

conductors in the moving pai'ts. 

6. That all the insulating parts should be easily removable occasionally 

for cleaning purposes. 

7. That the commercial price of the key should not be unreasonably 

high. 

In the original form of the key the conductors were platinum wires 
suspended inside a metal case by silk threads, the leading wires being 
brought to them through large holes in the case. It was found, however, 
that this arrangement was rather too delicate and troublesome for general 
use, and it was impossible to artificially dry the air in the case because of 
the large holes in it. 

It was determined, therefore, to abandon silk strings and to use rigid 
supports for the conductors, and to allow the conductors to protrude 
through small holes in the case, so that the leading wires might not have 
to enter the case to reach them. 

For the supports it was ultimately decided to use, not ebonite, but glass, 
as the latter is more easily cleaned, and in a dry atmosphere has probably 
the better insulating power ; moreover it is not liable to contract a coat 
of acid, which acting on the metal conductors gives rise to a feeble E.M.F. 
causing some keys to act as extremely weak batteries. 

The insulators are four thin pillars of carefully selected glass, mounted 
in the case in such a way that they can be easily taken out and cleaned 
occasionally. Brass caps are cemented to the top of each of the pillars, 
which are so arranged that each cap is near a small hole in the side of the 
case, and a short thin rod ending in a binding screw is passed through this 
hole and screwed into each brass cap after they are in position. 

Small ebonite plugs slide on these rods and ordinarily close the holes 
through which the rods pass, except when pulled out. When very good 



30 EEPORT 1880. 

insulation is required they are pulled out so as to leave the conductors free 
of the holes, touching nothing. 

To each of one pair of brass caps a short brass pin is attached, the 
two projecting horizontally one above the other. To the other pair two 
brass or bronze flat springs are screwed, which project between the two 
pins attached to the other pair of caps. Except when depressed the 
springs both press upon the upper of the two pins and make contact with 
it. AH the contact surfaces are gilt. Either spring can be depressed 
separately without bringing the hand near it, by means of a thin g-lass 
rod, which works through a hole in the top of the case, and which is 
shod with metal above and below, so that it may not be subject to any 
friction which might electrify it. 

The piece of metal at the top is a brass cap sliding over a tube fixed in 
the top of the case in such a way as to exclude dust ; it can be pressed 
down with the fingers, and is sent up again by a spiral spring. A pin 
and double bayonet-slot is also arranged so as to fix the piece perma- 
nently in either of three positions, viz., completely up and in contact 
with the top pin, completely down and in contact with the bottom pin, 
half-way or insulated. 

In its present form the key is in principle simply an ordinary double 
reversing key turned upside down and shut up in a box. 

The glass pillars are fixed to the lid instead of to the floor of the case 
for several reasons, one of which is that it economises space and reduces 
the height of the key. The lid can be unscrewed and taken out of the 
case with all the working parts in situ, which is very convenient. The 
floor of the case is quite free and can be removed at pleasure. A dish 
stands on it to contain pumice soaked with sulphuric acid whenever 
extra insulation is required. Without any artificial drying, however, the 
insulation is very good. The dish is made either of lead, or of glass pro- 
tected from the working parts by a covering of wire gauze. 

The key has been made by Elliott Bros, in two forms — one square, the 
other round. The round form of case is distinctly the cheaper ; it 
necessitates a slight modification in the arrangement of the working 
parts, but it appears to be nearly as convenient as the other. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S.y 
Professor Gr. Gr. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J, S. Smith, F.R.S.^ 
Professor Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, 
F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. L. GtLAISHER, F.R.S. (Secretary), on Ma- 
thematical Tables. Drawn up by Mr. J. W. L. GtLAIsher. 

The present Report relates to the factor tables for the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
millions, and to some results of the enumeration of the primes in the 
fifth million and the first five millions. In Section I. an account is given 
of the state of the work, two volumes of which have been pubUshed, 
while a portion of the third and concluding volume is already in type. 
Section II. contains in a condensed form results relating to the distribu- 
tion of primes in the fifth million, obtained by enumerating the primes in 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 31 

eacli hundred, or century, in that million : it is similar to Part I. of last 
year's Report, -which related to the fourth million. 

As the factor tables for the first five millions ai'e now published, so 
that it is for the first time possible to extend the enumerations continuously 
from to 5,000,000, it was thought desii'able to give here in a tabular 
form the main facts relating to the distribution of primes over this range : 
these tables form Section III. The results are given very briefly, because 
it is hoped that by next year the series of tables will be complete as far 
as 9,000,000, and a more detailed examination is deferred till it can be 
rendered as complete as possible. 

One of the objects to which enumerations of primes are most directly 
applicable is the examination of the degree of accuracy with which the 
numbers of pi-imes in any given intervals are represented by certain 
formute which have been proposed for the purpose. A formula of this 
kind was proposed by Legendre, and another was independently obtained 
by Gauss, TcbebychefF, and Hargreave. Certain comparisons between 
the numbers of primes counted and the numbers given by these two 
formulfe for intervals between and 5,000,000 are contained in Sec- 
tion IV. 

I. State of the Factor Tahles for the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Millions. 

During the year the calculation for the three millions has been com- 
pleted, and the printing of the tables has been steadily continued under 
the direction of Mr. James Glaisher. The volumes containing the factor 
tables for the fourth and fifth millions have been published, and twenty 
pages of the volume containing the sixth million are now printed and 
stereotyped. 

The fourth million was published in December, 1879, by Messrs. 
Taylor and Francis. The table itself occupies 112 pages, and is uniform 
with those of Biirckhardt and Dase. There is an introduction of fifty- 
two pages, consisting of eight sections and an appendix. The titles of 
the sections are (1) Manner of using the Table; (2) The Tables of 
Burckhardt, Dase, and Chernac ; (3) Mode of Construction of the 
Table ; (4) On Factor Tables ; (5) On the Distribution of Prime 
Numbers ; (6) List of Writings on the Distribution of Prime Num- 
bers ; (7) Results of the Enumeration of the Prime Numbers in the 
Fourth Million ; (8) Application of the Table to the Calculation of 
Logarithms. The appendix contains a list of prime numbers from 1 to 
30,o41 with differences : this list was used in the determination of least 
factors by the multiple method. There is also a specimen of one of the 
lithographed sheets used in the calculation of the table, and from which 
the sieves w^ere formed by stamping out certain of the squares. An 
abstract of the third section, which relates to the mode of construction 
of the table, appeared in the Report for 1878, and an abstract of the 
seventh section, which contains the tables derived from the enumeration 
of the primes in the fourth million, formed Part I. of last year's Report. 

The introduction to this million is intended to apply to the whole 
three millions. 

The fifth million was published in July of this year. The introduction, 
which contains eleven pages, consists of only two sections, the first of 
which relates to the manner of using the table, and the second to the 
results of the enumeration of the primes in the fifth million. An abstract 
of the latter forms Section II. of this Report. 



32 



REPORT — 1880. 



The sixth million is still in tie press, and the pi'inbing and stereotyping 
of the table will be completed early next year. It is intended to prefix 
to this volume an introduction containing the results of the enumerations 
for the whole nine millions over which the printed tables will then extend, 
with comparisons of the numbers found by counting with those given by 
Legendre's formula and the li x formula. A table of the values of li x 
from fB = to a; = 9,000,000 at intervals of 60,000 is now in course of 
calculation, as also is a table of the values given by Legendre's formula 
for the same arguments. The results of these comparisons for intervals 
of 250,000 up to 5,000,000 are given in Section IV. 

II. Results of the Enumeration of the Primes in the Fifth Million. 

The following table, which is similar to that given on p. 47 of last 
year's Report, contains the chief results of the enumeration of the primes 
in the fifth million, arranged according to the numbers of primes in 
the centuries. 

4,000,000 to 5,000,000. 



n 




Number of centuries each of which contains 


n primes 




o o 
o o 


o o 

o o 
o o 
o- = o' 


o o 
o o 

o o 

'M « 


§ § 

o o 

o o 

".- -^, 


o o 

o o 
o o 
o ° o 
o "^ o 


o o 

o c 

§ g 


o o 
o o 

o o 
to l~ 


o o 

o o 

1- 00 


o o 


o o 
o o 
c; <^ 







00 
■* 10" 























2 











2 


1 


.". 


3 


3 





3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


26 


2 


15 


17 


17 


16 


13 


18 


14 


20 


10 


21 


161 


3 


29 


39 


31 


35 


37 


55 


48 


49 


41 


39 


403 


4 


92 


90 


110 


100 


75 


96 


83 


105 


109 


83 


943 


.5 


142 


156 


151 


143 


153 


132 


162 


140 


149 


160 


1488 


6 


201 


195 


206 


212 


207 


193 


193 


188 


199 


200 


1994 


7 


215 


200 


161 


205 


190 


192 


187 


191 


194 


194 


1929 


8 


133 


137 


166 


133 


163 


155 


141 


138 


130 


137 


1433 


9 


93 


89 


93 


94 


96 


97 


97 


97 


80 


86 


922 


10 


45 


48 


37 


44 


37 


35 


42 


47 


45 


46 


426 


11 


21 


16 


17 


15 


18 


19 


20 


12 


29 


22 


189 


12 


7 


7 


5 


2 


5 


6 


6 


9 


9 


7 


63 


13 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 





2 


1 


3 


1 


18 


14 


1 
6628 





1 





1 

















3 


No. of T 
primes / 


6540 


6510 


6511 


6613 


6493 


6523 


6475 


6554 


6522 


65,369 



This table shows the number of centuries in each group of 100,000, 
each of which contains no prime, each of which contains one prime, 
two primes, &c. For example, between 4,000,000 and 100,000 there is 
no century containing no prime {i.e. consisting wholly of composite 
numbers), there are three centuries which contain each one prime, fifteen 
which contain two primes, and so on, there being only one which contains 
fourteen primes. The number at the foot of each column is the total 
number of primes iu the group of nnmbers to which the column relates ; 
thus, for example, there are 6,628 primes between 4,000,000 and 
4,100,000. 

The next table shows the numbers of primes in each successive group 
of 10,000 between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000. Thus, for example, between 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



33 



4,000,000 and 4,010,000 there are 660 primes, between 4,010,000 and 
4,020,000 there are 658 primes, and so on. 









4,000,000 to 5,000,000. 












4,000,000 

to 
4,100,000 


4,100,000 

to 
4,200,000 


4,200,000 

to 
4,300,000 


4,300,000 

to 
4,400,000 


4,400,000 

to 
4,500,000 


4,500,000 

to 
4,600,000 


4,600,000 

to 
4,700,000 


4,700,000 

to 
4,800,000 


4,800,000 

to 
4,900,000 


4,900,000 

to 
5,000,000 


I. 


660 


663 


670 


662 


641 


653 


662 


652 


658 


651 


II. 


658 


628 


644 


666 


679 


638 


656 


6.53 


655 


634 


m. 


668 


652 


663 


C41 


683 


646 


645 


643 


631 


653 


IV. 


677 


632 


628 


656 


656 


631 


651 


663 


678 


655 


V. 


681 


661 


664 


635 


672 


648 


651 


644 


634 


650 


VI. 


643 


662 


660 


640 


655 


659 


616 


642 


645 


640 


VII. 


653 


671 


644 


653 


660 


673 


665 


655 


669 


683 


VIII. 


670 


651 


656 


661 


646 


650 


666 


628 


636 


661 


IX. 


653 


673 


632 


662 


683 


640 


667 


657 


669 


654 


X. 


665 


647 


649 


635 


638 


655 


644 


638 


679 


641 


No. of ^ 
primes/ 


6628 


6540 


6510 


6511 


6613 


6493 


6523 


6475 


6554 


6522 



The following is a list of successions of composite numbers of ninety- 
nine and upwards occurring in the fifth million. 

I ■ Sequences of 99 and upward?. 



I 



Lower Limit 


tapper Limit 


Sequence 


4,044,077 


4,044,179 


101 


4,047,157 


4,047,257 


99 


4,131,109 


4,131,223 


113 


4,166,898 


4,166,999 


105 


4,234,537 


4,234,651 


113 


4,297,093 


4,297,199 


105 


4,315,607 


■ 4,315,709 ' 


101 


4,359,403 


4,359,503 


99 


4,447,321 


4,447,423 


101 


4,478,423 


4,478,527 


103 


4,535,717 


4,535,819 


101 


4,536,179 


4,536,283 


103 


4,571,107 


4,571,207 


99 


4,596,731 


4,596,833 


101 


4,640,599 


4,640,717 


117 


- - 4,652,353 


4,652,507 


153 


4,665,553 


4,665,653 


99 


. 4,"686i709 . 


4,686,811 


101 


4,738,651 


4,738,777 


125 


4,783,873 


4,783,973 


99 


4,958,021 


4,958,131 


109 



This table shows that the 101 numbers between 4,044,077 and 
4,044,179 are composite, and so on; the numbers in the first two columns 
being the primes which bound the sequences of composite numbers. 

The introductions to the Fourth Million and Fifth Million contain 
similar tables giving the sequences of 79 and upwards. 
1880. D 



34 



EEPOBT — 1880. 



III. Results of the Enumeration of the Primes in the first Five Millions. 

The following table is similar in form to the first table of Section II. ; 
each colnmn relates to a million numbers, and the last column to the 
■whole five millions. The last column but one, which refers to the fifth 
million, is of course identical with the last column in the table in 
Section II. 

to 5,000,000. 



n 


Xumber of centuries each of which contains n primes 





1,000,000 


2,000,000 


3,000,000 


4,000,000 







to 


to 


to 


to 


■ to 


to 




1,000,000 


2,000,000 


3,000,000 


4,000,000 


5,000,000 


5,000,000 








1 


1 


2 


2 


6 


1 


3 


16 


25 


30 


26 


100 


2 


29 


72 


97 


136 


161 


495 


3 


140 


257 


338 


400 


403 


1538 


4 


372 


667 


775 


862 


943 


3619 


6 


801 


1253 


1408 


1480 


1488 


6430 


6 


1362 


1743 


1878 


1929 


1994 


8906 


7 


1765 


2032 


1997 


1849 


1929 


9572 


8 


1821 


1612 


1526 


1561 


1433 


7953 


9 


1554 


1182 


1036 


950 


922 


5644 


10 


1058 


691 


558 


497 


426 


3230 


11 


592 


311 


227 


221 


189 


1540 


12 


316 


113 


98 


60 


63 


650 


13 


122 


39 


28 


19 


18 


226 


14 


32 


7 


6 


4 


3 


52 


15 


20 


3 


1 








24 


16 


8 


1 











9 


17 


3 





1 








4 


21 


1 














1 


26 


1 














1 


Number of "\ 
primes J 


78,499 


70,433 


67,885 


66,329 


65,369 


348,515 



It will be seen from this table that the centuries with eight primes are 
the most numerous in the first million, the centuries with seven primes 
in the second and third millions, and the centuries with six primes in the 
fourth and fifth millions. It may be mentioned that the centuries with six 
primes are also the most numerous in the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
millions. 

•The 26-prime century is of course the first, namely, from to 99, and 
the 21-prime century the second. In the first century 1 is counted as a 
prime. 

The next table shows the number of primes in each group of 10,000 
from to 5,000,000, with differences. For example, the number of primes 
between and 10,000 is 9,593, between 10,000 and 20,000 is 8,392 ; 
between 1,000,000 and 1,010,000 is 7,216 ; and so on. 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



35 



to 5,000,000. 
TSTuMBEE OF Primes in each Group of 10,000. 








1,000,OCO 


2,000,000 


3,000,000 


4,000,000 




to 


to 


to 


to 


to 




1,000,000 


2,000,000 


3,000,000 


4,000,000 


5,000,000 


No. of 


Differ- 


No. of 


Differ- 


No. of 


Differ- 


No. of 


Differ- 


No. of 


Differ- 




primes 


ence 


pnmes 


ence 


pnmes 


ence 


primes 


ence 


primes 


ence 


I. 


9593 




7216 


8 


6874 


29 


6676 


32 


6628 


7 


II. 


8392 


1201 


7225 


-9 


6857 


17 


6717 


59 


6540 


-12 


III. 


8013 


279 


7081 


164 


6849 


8 


6691 


26 


6510 


30 


IV. 


7863 


150 


7103 


-22 


6791 


58 


6639 


52 


6511 


-1 


V. 


7678 


185 


7028 


75 


6770 


21 


6611 


28 


6613 


-102 


VI. 


7560 


118 


6973 


55 


6809 


-39 


6575 


36 


6493 


120 


VII. 


7445 


115 


7015 


-42 


6765 


44 


6671 


-96 


6523 


-30 


VIII. 


7408 


37 


6932 


83 


6716 


49 


6590 


81 


6475 


48 


IX. 


7323 


85 


6957 


-25 


6746 


-30 


6624 


-34 


6554 


-79 


X. 


7224 


99 


6903 


54 


6708 


38 


6535 


89 


6522 


32 


No. of 1 


78,499 


70,433 


67,885 


66,329 


65,369 


primes J 













The nvimbers of primes in each quarter million in the first five 
millions, with differences, are : 





Number of Primes 


Difference 


- 250,000 


22,045 




250,000 - 500,000 


19,494 


2,551 


500,000 - 750,000 


18,700 


794 


750,000 - 1,000,000 


18,260 


440 


1,000,000 - 1,250,000 


17,971 


289 


1,250,000 - 1,500,000 


17,682 


289 


1,500,000 - 1,750,000 


17,455 


227 


1,750,000 - 2,000,000 


17,325 


130 


2,000,000 - 2,250,000 


17,150 


175 


2 250,000 - 2,500,000 


16,991 


159 


2,500,000 - 2,750,000 


16,922 


69 


2,750,000 - 3,000,000 


16,822 


100 


3,000,000 - 3,250,000 


16,761 


61 


3,250,000 - 3,500,000 


16,573 


188 


3,500,000 - 3,750,000 


16,566 


7 


3,750,000 - 4,000,000 


16,429 


137 


4,000,000 - 4,250,000 


16,437 


-8 


4,250,000 - 4,500,000 


16,365 


72 


4,500,000 - 4,750,000 


16,271 


94 


4,750,000 - 5,000,000 


16,296 


- 25 



and the numbers for the complete millions are : 





Number of Primes 


Difference 


First million .... 

Second 

Third , 

Fourth „ . . . . 
Fifth „ . . . . 


78,499 
70,433 
67,885 
66,329 
65,369 


8,065 

2,548 

1,556 

960 



D 2 



36 



EEPOKT — 1880. 



The following table contains the two longest successions of composite 
numbers met with in each of the five millions : 



Lower Limit 


Upper Limit 


Sequence 




First Million. 




370,261 
492,113 


370,373 
492,227 


111 
113 


1,357,201 
1,561,919 


Second Million. ' 
1,357,333 
1,562,051 

Third Million. 


131 
131 


2.010,733 
2,898,239 


2,010,881 
2,898,359 

Fourth Million. 


147 . 
119 


3,826,019 
3,933,599 


3,826,157 
3,933,731 

Fifth MiUion. 


137 
131 

i 


4,652,353 
4,738,651 


4,652,507 
, , 4,738,777 


153 

125 



In the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for August, 1854, the late Mr. 
C. J. Hargreave determined the number of primes inferior to 5,000,000 
at 348,527. His method, which is there described, consisted in calculating 
the number of numbers which are the products of two prime factors, of 
three prime factors, &c., and thus determining the total number of com- 
posite numbers between the limits in question. The number of primes 
in the five millions obtained by enumeration from the tables is 348,515. 
This includes unity as a prime, and it appears that Hargreave excluded 
unity, so that if it be included, his number would become 348,628, which 
differs by 13 from the number obtained from the tables. 

IV. Comparison of the immhers of Primes counted with the Values given by 
Legendre's and Gauss's Formula;. 

Legendre's formula for the number of primes inferior to a given 
number x is 



! log aj- 1-08366 

This expression Legendre published in the second edition of his ' Theorie 
des Nombres ' (Part iv. 1808), and he there gave a table containing com- 
parisons between the numbers obtained from it and the numbers obtained 
by counting up to 400,000. This table Legendre subsequently extended 
in 1816, after the publication of Chernac's ' Cribrum Arithmeticum,' to 
1,000,000. It does not appear why Legendre assigned the value 1-08366 
to the constant which occurs in his formula, but it is probable that this 
value was originally determined so as to render very close the agreement 
with the numbers counted in the earlier enumerations, and as the formula 
still continued to yield good results as far as the later enumerations ex- 
tended, no attempt was made to improve the value at first assigned to it. 
The logarithm-integral li x, -where li x denotes the integral, 

/'*x dx 

^ d log* 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



37 



was employed by Gauss early in the century to represent approximately 
the number of primes inferior to x ; but his researches were not published 
till 1863.' This integral was also used for the same purpose by 
Tchebycheff ^ in 1848 and Hargreave ^ in 1849. 

The following table exhibits the amount of deviation between the 
numbers of primes counted and the values given by Legendre's formula. 





Number of primes 


•r 


Difference 




counted 


log a:- 1-08366 


250,000 


22,045 


22,035 


• - 10 


500,000 


41,539 


41,533 


- 6 


750,000 


60,239 


60,269 


+ 30 


1,000,000 


78,499 


78,543 


+ 44 


1,250,000 


96,470 


96,488 


+ 18 


1,500,000 


114,152 


114,179 


+ 27 


1,750,000 


131,607 


131,663 


+ 56 


2,000,000 


148,932 


148,976 


+ 44 


2,250,000 


166,082 


166,140 


+ 58 


2,500,000 


183,073 


183,175 


+ 102 


2,750,000 


199,995 


200,095 


+ 100 


3,000,000 


216,817 


216,913 


+ 96 


3,250,000 


233,578 


233,636 


+ 58 


3,500,000 


250,151 


250,275 


+ 124 


3,750,000 


266,717 


266,835 


+ 118 


4,000,000 


283,146 


283,323 


+ 177 


4,250,000 


299,583 


299,744 


+ 161 


4,500,000 


315,948 


316,102 


+ 154 


4,750,000 


332,219 


332,400 


+ 181 


5,000,000 


348,515 


348,644 


+ 129 



The next table exhibits the deviations between the numbers of primes 
counted and the values of li x. 



X 


Number of primes 
counted 


li.r 


Difference 


250,000 


22,045 


22,094 


+ 49 


500,000 


41,539 


41,606 


+ 67 


750,000 


60,239 


60,350 


+ 111 


1,000,000 


78,499 ■■ 


78,628 


+ 129 


1,250,000 


96,470 


96,573 


+ 103 


1,500,000 


114,152 


114,263 


+ 111 


: 1,750,000 


131,607 


131,746 


+ 139 


2,000,000 


148,932 


149,055 


+ 123 


2,250,000 


166,082 


166,215 


■ 133 


2,500,000 


183,073 


' 183,245 


^ 172 


2,750,000 


199,995 


200,160 


+ 165 


3,000,000 


216,817 


216,971 


+ 154 


3,250,000 


233,578 


233,688 • 


+ 110 


3,500,000 


250,151 


250,319 


+ 168 


3,750,000 


266,717 


266,872 


+ 155 


4,000,000 


283,146 


283,352 


+ 206 


4,250,000 


299,583 


299,765 


+ 182 


4,600,000 


315,948 


316,114 


+ 166 


4,750,000 


332,219 


332,404 


+ 185 


5,000.000 


348,515 


348,638 


+ 123 



• Gauss, Werhe, t. ii. 

2 Mem de VAcad. de St. Pctcrsbonrg (Sav. Etr.) t. vi. or Lionville, t. xvii. 

• Phil. Mag. July 1849. More detailed references to those papers will be found 
in Section V. of the Introduction to the FouHh Million, pp. 36, 37. 



38 BEPOBT— 1880. 

From these tables it appears that although the deviations are less for 
Legendre's formula than for the li x formula, the former increase in a 
more rapid ratio than the latter. As Legendre's formula contains a 
disposable constant, chosen so that the values given by the formula might 
represent well the results of the enumerations for comparatively small 
values of x, it is to be expected the deviations would for some time be less 
than in the case of the logarithm integral formula, in obtaining which x is 
is supposed to be very large. 

The portion of the former of these two tables up to 4,000,000 has 
appeared in a paper ' On the value of the constant in Legendre's formula 
for the number of primes inferior to a given number,' ^ but the extension 
to 5,000,000 is new. This paper also contains comparisons between the 
numbers of primes counted and those given by the formulas : 



log 33—1 
and X 



log x—1- 



log X 

up to 4,000,000. These have also been extended to 5,000,000 ; but it 
seems scarcely worth while to give the tables here, as the extension 
amounts to only one million. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvestek {Chair- 
man), Professor Cayley, a7id Professor Salmon, appointed for 
the purpose of calculating Tables of the Fxindaraental Invariants 
of Algebraic Forms. 

In consequence of the academical engagements of Mr. (now Dr.) F. 
Franklin, the trained and skilled assistant in the computation of the 
tables, only a small portion (81. 5s.) of the SOL granted by the Associa- 
tion has been expended. 

With this sum the tables for the generating functions and ground- 
forms of all single quantics, up to the lOfch order inclusive, have been 
corrected and completed, and the tables relating to binary systems of 
quantics for all combinations of orders up to the 4th inclusive, re- 
calculated. The results have been published in extenso in the ' American 
Journal of Mathematics.' 

This revision has led to the discovery that two of the forms included 
in the table of ground-forms for a pair of cubics previously accepted as 
correct arc composite forms, and should be omitted from the catalogue. 

The table affected with this error had been calculated by the German 
mathematicians after Gordan's, and by Mr. Sylvester after an entirely 
different method, and the results were in perfect but fallacious accord. 

The German method, it may be stated, never offers a complete 
guarantee against the occurrence of an error of this nature ; its per- 

' Proceedings of the Camhridge PMlosojMcal Society, vol. iii. pt. vii, pp. 295-308 
December 8, 1879). 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 39 

petuation in the table as calculated by Mr. Sylvester was due to an 
arithmetical oversight on his part. 

The detection of this grave error is due to the fortunate oircum- 
stance of the co-operation of Dr. Franklin, whose skill, fidelity, and 
accuracy as a computer it is impossible to praise too highly. 

His time being now again available for undertaking this kind of 
work, for which he possesses unrivalled aptitude, the Committee request 
a renewal of the grant of bOl. for carrying it on. 



Report of Observations of Lumi'iious Meteors during the year 
1879-80, by a Committee consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S.y 
&c., E. J. Lowe, F.R.S., &c., Professor E. S. Ball, F.R.S., &c.. 
Professor G-. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S.y 
and Professor A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

Twenty annual reports having been already presented by this Committee- 
since its first appointment in the year 185i», it is proposed in this, its 
twenty-first report, to review the result of the records and researches upon 
which (independently of the twelve preceding annual reports presented 
by Professor Baden-Powell) the Committee has during that long period 
been engaged. 

In a treatise on ' Atmospheric Phenomena,' published by Mr. B. J, 
Lowe (one of the present, as well as an original member of this Com- 
mittee,) in the year 1846, a copious collection of accounts of halos, 
auroras, and other unusual meteorological appearances, omitting, however, 
notes of fireballs and shooting stars, served, for the first time probably to 
many English readers, an important purpose in separating entirely the' 
latter class of phenomena from those equally conspicuous and notable 
appearances which are of a purely meteorological origin and signification. 
The example of orderly arrangement of such descriptions which this work 
supplied was followed up and soon afterwards supplemented by the records 
of ordinary and extraordinary observations of luminous meteors begun by 
Professor Baden-Powell in the year 1855, and continued in subsequent 
annual reports of the Bx'itish Association until the present time. 

Immensely as the theory of meteor-systems has progressed during the 
long season of attention which has thus been directly bestowed upon them, 
the apparitions of fireballs and falling stai'sare still as striking and remark- 
able phenomena as they used formerly to be, and in some important respects 
also they remain just as truly problematical ' exhalations of the skies ' as 
they were in former days. For although they are now known to be as- 
tronomical bodies, instead of objects depending on the winds and other 
uncertain meteorological conditions for their vai'ious aspects and produc- 
tion, yet no astronomical theoiy has yet been discovered or constructed 
sufiiciently far-reaching and adapted to account at the same time satis- 
factorily both for the well-known occui'rences of meteor-showers, and also 
for sporadic meteors, including the rarer phenomena of fireballs and 
aerolites. 

References and allusions are abundantly made in the later years of 
these Reports both to the well-known discovery of tie clustering together 



40 KEPORT— 1880. -> 

of meteoric showers and certain periodic comets in the same circum- 
solar orbits, and also to the general theory of gatherings of star-dust in 
nebular bodies, applied to explain the origin of all classes of meteoric 
phenomena by Schiaparelli. 

In recent years' appendices to the Reports the additions to our know- 
ledge of the mineralogical structure and probable past history of aerolites 
is also amply reviewed ; and the real paths of aerolitic and detonating 
meteors have in several instances been found from observations. A 
recapitulation of these leading views, and of the observations chronicled 
in aerolitic and meteoric parts of the Reports during the latter and 
larger part of the long period of their continuation, leads to the conclu- 
sion that little (if any) similarity of character can yet be confidently 
recognised to exist between aerolites, or detonating fireballs and the 
equally rare and magnificent meteoric phenomena of cometary star- 
showers. 

The intermediate class of sporadic fireballs and shooting stars has been 
largely and closely examined and discussed, with consequences of the 
greatest importance to their scientific discrimination and description. 
The number of meteor-showers or radiant-points proved to be productive 
of ordinary displays of shooting stars has been greatly multiplied by 
observations and reductions ; some few of them, in particular, being 
shown to be limited and confined to one or two days only of duration, in 
the annual dates of their appearance. 

Fireballs of various magnitudes, of whose real paths simultaneous 
observations furnished good determinations, have not unfrequently been 
shown to be conformable to well-established radiant-points of shooting 
stars ; and among the many hundreds of meteor radiant-points that have 
now been recorded, there is also suificient evidence to show that many of 
the ordinary meteor-systems which they denote may very probably be 
following in the trains or orbits of certain formerly recorded comets. 

Although presumptive views of a naturally wide distinction between 
aerolites and cometary shower-meteors are far from being yet refuted and 
trplajned away by recent theories and observations ; yet the real paths of 
more than one detonating meteor have now been retraced to recognised 
ordinary radiant-points of shooting stars. The course of the large 
detonating fireball of Nov. 23, 1878, moreover, while it was strictly con- 
formable to the well-marked radiant-point of the a-Taurids of November, 
presented also a very close accordance with the somewhat uncertainly 
determined orbit (because founded on rather scanty observations) of the 
periodic comet of 1702. 

Much aid, it will be seen from this short outline of the Committee's 
labours during twenty years, has been afforded by its annual compilations 
to advance the present astronomical theory of shooting stars with 
materials of observation and by reviews of contemporary speculations. 

The opportunities of which the Committee has hitherto been able to 
avail itself for correspondence and reductions of the observations annually 
received have not been adequate during the last two years for producing 
a complete category of their yearly undertaking. A detention like that 
required last year of some of the meteor contributions, and a deferment 
for a season of some reviews of printed memoirs on meteoric subjects, 
must accordingly be granted for the present, until the occasion may occur 
when a more convenient opportunity may offer itself for their presenta- 
tion. ' 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 41 

In the following appendix of this interim Report some errors are cor- 
rected of which the occurrence in the last two years' Reports passed 
undetected until after the publication of the volumes in which they were 
accidentally recorded. The earliest opportunity within its reach is now 
taken by the Committee to rectify these errors and to point out some 
errors in earlier Reports, to the appearance of which the brief survey of 
those Reports required for preparing the above short outline of the whole 
series ofthem has been the immediate occasion of drawing the Committee's 
attention. In another appendix, by Dr. Walter Flight, the occurrences 
of stonefalls, and abstracts of the analyses and discussions relating to 
them, vrhich have taken place during the past year, are recorded. 

Appendix I. 

Revisions and Corrections of real paths of Meteors, and of other results of 
ohservations contained in the Reports of the last two and of some prs- 
ceding years. \ 

During the first years following the appointment of the Committee in 
the year 1860 for the collection of meteor observations, the importance of 
noting the radiant-points of observed meteors' tracks was not yet recog- 
nised, and was far from being generally practised and regarded. The 
real directions of flight of many shooting-stars and fireballs, the positions 
of whose real courses were found from simultaneous observations during 
several years previous to 1866, were accordingly only indicated, if at all, 
by the altitude and azimuth of the point from which the meteor proceeded 
or was directed in its line of flight towards the earth. Many of the 
meteors of which the real paths were investigated from more or less 
plentiful accounts of their appearance, in the appendices of these reports 
for the years 1860-66, were brilliant and sometimes detonating fireballs, 
besides some smaller shooting-stars. Among the adjustments needed to 
accommodate the rough observations to each other the choice and deduc- 
tion of the radiant-point had at that period of the Committee's first 
proceedings not yet acquired the significancy with which on astronomical 
grounds it has more recently been invested, the principal objects of those 
earlier determinations having simply been to obtain the real heights and 
the lengths of path and velocities of the meteors' flights. Fair weight for 
determining the radiant-point was accordingly not always allowed to the 
best recorded observations for this purpose ; and some obvious radiant- 
points like those of the ' Leonids,' &c., not being then established," con- 
siderable errors from this cause, and occasionally also from mistaken 
calculations, have been detected in a review of the many real paths de- 
scribed in the above-named part of these reports as regards the directions, 
or as concerning the astronomical positions in right-ascension and declina- 
tion of the radiant-points from which those fine meteors were directed. 
The radiant-point positions given in the subjoined list sometimes differ 
slightly, from fresh projections and comparisons of the best observations, 
from those of the real paths adopted in the earlier reports. In cases 
•where the errors discovered are, from various causes, of much larger 
magnitude, however, than these small emendations of the original re- 
ductions, the nature of the hitherto unnoticed misconstructions is stated 
and explained in notes which are appended to the list. 



42 



REPORT 1880. 







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o 







r-N 











5 


W 


t-H 








O 


l-H 


CO 






^ 


(M 


00 







iO 




"O 
iO 




g 


R 


P5 
< 

w 








O 

+ 

O 

»—* 
-ft 


-H + 

CO CO 






1 

o 

CO 
3 

o 

< 


+ 
O 

o 

•H 


-H 


01 

1 
10 

CO 

IN ■ 




-H 
>o 

CO 

+ 

•-H 


-H 

lO 

1 



CO 




4- ^^ 
jj 

+ 56 

CO ^ 
CO 






►J 

S 
P3 
1— 1 

O 






% 

w 

II 


l-H 


« 
be 

a 

O 

•^ 




P 

cd 
> •- 

SCH- 




■fa 

n 


^3 

g 

fl 

!di-l 
go. 


u 



C 
c3 


0.2 

rX be Q 

«o 




p|" 
.a'i 






p. 






ft 






p 


II 


A 




H^i 


A 




II P 




p 






/— ^ 
































!2i 

o 
1— 1 






51 






a 






a 


a 


a 

d, 




a 

a. 


a 




a a 

da 




1 


Eh 






6-3 

o O 






o 

CO 






CO 

CO 


o 

CO 


10 




IM 

CO 


T-H 

0-1 




CS 00 
Tt< CO 




1 


O 










« 






t- 


00 







f-H 

T-H 


f-H 




10 CS 






Pi 






c 










































































IC 










o 


l-H 


CO 
















EH 

12; 






o 


O 




in 
1— ) 






bb 


o 


t-H 




CO 


CO 




l-H r-t 




eo- 


1— < 

O 

P^ 

■ 

Eh 








O 

CO 




> 
o 






<1 

«£! 
CO 




.— t 

CO 
CO 




>> 
*-5 


bfl 




1° 




P 


(—1 










































(H flj QJ 

^ *J ^ P 
































5 




OJ 

h 

^ 

OJ 


i T-H 




CI 








CO 


-* 




10 


CO 




t- 33 







P^ 




a: 


c S 

































OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOES. 43 









d 

CO 


1 








Oi 


O 


-« 




'd 


o 


<-l 








t-H 


I-t 








s 








fH 


(M 


fl 




a 




IM 










N 


© 




03 




<-) 


o 


CC 


CO 


m 




« 




CO 










CO 


00 




t^ 


cd" 




OJ 


■CO 


CO 


oT 


o 




O 
IM 




IM _- 

!M ^ 








cT 


■sjT 


o 




<M 


•rH 


OJ 


n 


CO 


-f 


^H 


IM 




CO 




r>-) 


CO 










-* 


•* 




Cf5 




^ 


n 


-tl 


>o 


cq 


(M 


t- 








IM 










C) 


& 




ft 


ft 




a; 


§: 


ft 
ft 


ft 


a 


ft 


ft 

CO 


ft 


ftft 








ft 
ft 


ft 
ft 






^ 


^ 




^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


rv 


CO 


^ 


CO 


„ 






^ 


•i. 


n 


<M 




<M 


iM 


rO 




M 


IM 


CO 


CO 


Cvj 


a) 


IM 


CO 


CO 




^ 


'C 




CO 


CO 




to 


CO 






CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


i-H 


CO 


CO 


CO 










00 

I— 1 




CO 

»— ( 


OO 






CO 

1-1 


00 


CO 


CO 

7—i 


cc 




00 

.— 1 


rM 


00 

T-i 








I—l 


t— I 








. 


0) 


^-^ 




































o 




VI 




































^ 


























/-\ 
















ri 
























v-^ 














4-1 


!-i. 




































-4L3 

o 


O 


-*J 
























'd 






1 




• 


t» 




a 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 




1 




1 


a 


1 


1 


1 






'3 


.2 
o 


























1 

a 










d 


>iai 




































,=« 


n 


■f-j 




































H 


^ 






































r^ 
























v> 






g 






u 




5^ 


m 








m 




3^ 


r/1 




1 




1 

CQ.' 




rn 




03 


S3 
2 




+ 
CO 

1 








H 


o 

:0 
w 


D 


< 
a. 


ft 




m 

ft 
» 
b 

Cj 
01 

!zi 




o 




o 

'a 




i 

w 


1 




S3 








!zi 


o 
"A 


C8 
(D 








Iz; 


a 


a; 

Iz; 






S3 


















^-^ 
























a o 


o 

o 

1—1 


o 
■H 






O 

o 

I— 1 
-H 


o 

.—1 
-H 


o 

CO 

-H 


IM 

+ 


o 
-H 




O 

lO 

I— 1 

-4H 




o 

CO 

+1 




o 

CO 

-H 


o 

+1 


O 

r— t 


O 

O 

I— 1 

+1 


5 


«.*• 


^^ 


'^ 










+ 


CO 


1-1 




^-^ 




^^ 




fC 


CO 


V— ' 


■^•^ 


en 


cc 

r-l 

+ 


+ 






+ 


CO 

+ 


o" 

CO 

-H 


O -Hio 




(M 

+ 




CO 

+ 
o 




4- 


IM 
+ 
IM 


OO 
I-H 

1 


CO 

+ 


o 


H 


cs 


o 

0-1 








<M 
IM 


o 

CO 


CO CO 




1— 1 




f— 1 




O 


O 

I— * 


CO 
.— 1 


o 

IM 



9. 4^ >- '^ t; S ?^ "t:^ 4,0 ^5 .^5P., -hR 








O 


CO 


11 


II 


11 


II 


II 


11 


<M 


II 


II 


11 


II 


a • 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


r\ 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 




CO 


-* 


o 


lO 




iM 


lO 


o 


^ 


o 


t- 


o 


O 




I—l 




IM 


IM 


'"■' 


I—l 


CO 


-* 


-*i 


CO 


eo 


^ 


00 


1—1 
I—l 


00 


C! 


o 


O 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


lO 


la 


CO 


CS 
































CO 




















t- 








IM 




















IM 




-* 

IM 


00 


c3 


IM 


CO 
iM 


C5 
1-H 


IM 
iM 


C-1 


<M 


CO 

I-H 


CO 
IM 


1^ 

IM 


c3 


t- 


2 




H3 

IM 

CO 
00 

r— I 


1 




ft 

m 


ft 
(U 

02 


cc 


ft 


> 
o 


> 

o 


> 
O 
|Zi 


1-5 

co" 

CO 

CO 


^ 
a 
^ 


o 




^1 


CO 


-ifi 


lO 


O 


t^ 


CO 




o 




<M 


CO 


1— 1 


1-H 




1-H 




1-H 


1-H 


I-H 


I-H 


I-H 


IM 


CI 


0-t 


C-1 



44 



REPORT — 1880. 



'S 



8 



I 

»o 

CO 

( 

05 
lO 

00 



OS 

H 

W 
C5 

« 

O 

ft 
H 
> 

oq 
O 

n 
tj 
o 

CO 

P5 
<1 
H 
OQ 

I 

CJ 

iz; 

>-H 

H 
O 
O 

w 
u 

jzi 

IS 

<i 

PS 

>H 

1^ 

o 

m 
!zi 

o 



o 
o 

Ph 
!zi 

P 
< 



■73 

§ «^ 

°* t-, v: 

, CO O) <!' ■ 

, >^ « o ^* 



Sop 

(-< ^ o 



M 



CO 



00 



C3 



lO o ^ 

CO o S 

CO =<5 



C2 rj 



O O nT ^-^ 
l^ ^ l"^ ^ ^^ 

CO CO CO P CO 
to .-H to c3 '-0 
OO OO CO 



o 

05 



CO 
CO 



^ 23 



IM 



(U ■ 



#, a> y * 

-* M 'o ^ 
to •^■^<o 

00 00 



CO 



p. 






o 

CO 






o 

GO 



to 



P-, 






5iS 



/-^ tw >-! n. 

U-l '3 I ii-H O 



OJ ' 



a 



Ah Pk 



I-; + 

Is 



CI o ^ 
<U 03 

O H 



.S3 
±5 t«- 



c3 

o 



2 fl 
-22 -g <- 



a. 
o 



cn 


c 




-2 

tB 

2 


o 
o 

u 


Piscium 
ected pa 
r 4 Pars 


a 






>> 


a> 


W 




iz; 



Id -2" 
s a o <u 

2 tj Ai 

a i-r? b 1 



a o 
o 



o 
d 

'a 



'A 



H 

;zi 



o 



§ d 

o 



0) '^ 



-H 



C3 




-H 



+ 

OO 



to 

■H 



■ O 

o 



I—) 

■« 

+ 

CO 



c3 rt 



-H 



O 



o 



■§ 


B 




tiH 






(/J 


o. 




St 


2 


"S 


a 


<1> 


0) 




O 


rt 



A .^ 



"3 ••-< rrj •!-* 
q" (U o3 tn 

- "^r- a a 

"P S o es 

- i ^-d • 

U II 



fao 



*=>§ 



o 






^"3 



c3 C! 



^ a-s i 

" - C H O 



beg 






a 

o 



go ^ 

.25;3dg rrj'^cam " 

K^ O O .=3 V n Si t; • ^ 

O to (^ CO 



.25 "^S d g ^c ■ • ca to 

=^' , II c^ 



O O t^ o o 



:c 



-P Bis 

O 1) JH 

tu o 

£* C3 ^ 
■-'i „ , 

O .'Tl 

o 
II to P t* 



rt 



• a 

d-3 



a© 



a 

00 



CO 

; CO 



o 

CO 



CO 



d, 
in 



S Cl r^ 



a 


a ■ 


a 


a 


(2< 


!^ 


ft 


p< 


CO 




to . 

CO 


o 
o 












to 

B 



bp 



bo 



ft 

02 



ft 



P 



a 



to 
CO 






(Cm ?, 

«J *" ^> 2 
d a> 5^ d OT 

"2 I o S" g 

« 3 ■" 3 



-♦< lO 



to 

<M 






00 
CI 



05 



o ^ 

CO CO 



CO 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS UETEOES. 



45 






<M 



a, 



to 
00 



IN r, 

- » , 

to 

- M 

^'^ 

-*i 02 
to s^ 

00 



«o 



CO 



00 



0) 

-a 



M ■ 



00 






00 
00 



a* 



to 
00 



<= --I " '^rH 

S "-I 00 C5 a) o o 

- to ►. t^ o y •* 

■* 00 -^ 00 M 'o "2 

to 1-1 to ■-! v^.^ijto 

OO 00 CO 



o 

a> 

p< 

»o 
to 
00 






OD 
Oi 

d, 

p, 

to 

00 



M O 

o 

to r^ 

• -m g 

III 



P4 



13" 



<u 



f— ! C^ 

tc S 



Ph' 



fc« 



fl CD 

C o 

CL ^-1 



P4 




-4^ 




01 


rt 




,c! 


(-l< 


X 


■«-» 


TS 
U 




(>> 


r. 



0) ^ 



14 



60 






en 

1-1 






O 

!2; 



n 
o 
o 

c3 



c3 



t« 

o 

CIS 

<» 




-H 



00 



00 



in 

f-H 






CO 
CO 
IM 



CO 

CO ; 



2'—' 

00 + 

CO 

CO 



4. ® 
r-l ^^ 

•«C?So 



^ ft 

^ 0) 






o 

IM 



lO 



00 

-H 



O 

U5 



o 



^•g ^-s 



e8 

1-1 11 



-a 



r* o to 

►^ te Ci 

1^ 



o u 
<u o 

ID be 



o 



3 
o 

CO 



»(=* 



3 
. o 



Ol 



>>« .T.C-T.^ 



t>c; 






^H^fl «"^«'-^ 



II 



Hte 



<D >a 

W5 

C^ 

• > 

_ * 
■—I M 

9 -° 



P 



n! 60 



m rj .- _ 

fl =« "^ Ph 



C5 1—1 

G 2 

o ya 
n rrt .!- 'pl 

j2 _. " O 






m > 






a 

p< 

o 



a 

C3 

(M 

U3 



a 

CO 



°a; 

lO ft 



a 
ft 
© 



a 
ft 

o 
CO 



CO 



o 



a 
ft 

lO 
IM 



a 

C« 
lO 

■* 



bo 





bo 



bo 

O 

to 

OO 



bo 



to —I 

<M CO 

bb bi) 

3 p 



> 

o 



o 

IM 

> 

O 



fR 



to 

■1 OO 



ft 



CO 



to 
CO 



CO 



00 

CO 



C3 

CO 






i.; a Ui. 



46 EEPORT— 1880. 

KOTES. — Bectification of some Meteor- trachs referred to in the present list. 

No. 6.- — The real path of this meteor given at p. 78 of the volume for 
18G2 of these Reports is entirely erroneous from an accidental perversion 
in the calculation of one of the simultaneous observations. The computed 
path rests upon a supposed foreshortened view of the meteor at Manchester 
near e Pegasi ; but the star named in Mr. Baxendell's observation of the 
meteor there was e Capricorni. The real flight of the meteor was therefore 
much lower than was supposed ; and so far as the correction which it 
requires affects the position of the radiant-point, the original observations 
have again been projected and compared together. The most probable 
place of the radiant-point obtained from the new comparison of the re- 
corded tracks is that near \p Capricorni which is assigned to the meteor 
in the present list. The August shooting-stars (A,B,C,D,E,) of which 
approximate real paths are given on the same page of the volume of 
Reports for 1862 (all of them apparently scattered Perseids) were too 
roughly observed to allow any dependence for useful comparisons to be 
placed on their astronomical radiant-points. The positions of those points 
were only guessed or indicated loosely from the observations to assist the 
remainder of the calculations. 

No. 12. — The direction and position of the real path of this meteor 
given at page 80, in the above volume of these Reports, are, by some 
mistake made in the graphical projections, greatly at variance with the 
precise and accordant observations from which they are derived. The 
meteor's horizontal flight was directed almost exactly from east to west 
instead of (as it is described) from about thirty degrees south of east. 
The correction, corresponding to this needful emendation of the real path, 
is introduced in the present list in the observed astronomical position of 
the meteor's I'adiant-point. 

The radiant here adopted of the meteor No. 14, is also, to accord more 
perfectly with the best accounts, placed fifteen or twenty degrees nearer 
to the true east point than the position at the same altitude in due N.E., 
which it is assumed to have occupied in the description given at the same 
page of the above year's Report, of that fireball's real path. 

In the account of the real path of the fireball of February 7, 1863 (at 
page 321 of the volume for that year), the Mull of Galway is accidentally 
misstated as the locality of its end-point, instead of the Mull of Cantire. 

No. 29. — The two shooting stars described as simultaneously observed 
on the morning of November 14, 1863, at page 91 of the volume of these 
Reports for the year 1864, were unquestionably ' Leonids ' ; but no 
experience of the meteors of that shower having at that time been yet 
obtained, their real character was not suspected. The provisional radiant- 
points adopted to accommodate the somewhat discordant observations to 
each other for calculating their heights, are consequently quite erroneous ; 
and some mistakes of deduction of the real paths seem also to have been 
committed in the process of the graphical projections. Although they 
emanated from the direction of Leo's Sickle, leaving the well-known 
luminous streaks upon their tracks, the simultaneous views recorded of 
their flights are not sufficiently distant from each other on a map to afford, 
by the backward prolongations and intersections of the tracks, astro- 
nomical positions of their respective radiant-points which would be accurate 
enough for insertion in the present list. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOBS. 47 

The teeming multitude of accounts preserved of the great fireball of 
December 5, 1863, again, as noticed in the paragraph just following those 
relating to the above two shooting-stars, are unavailable (although stre- 
nuous attempts to interpret them were made in contemporary reviews) 
to furnish anything of sufficient certainty regarding the real direction of 
that splendid fireball's flashing, perhaps abruptly deviating and deflected 
course, to form a record worth placing and including for preservation in 
the present list. 

The provisional radiant-point adopted in the paragraph of the same 
Report-Appendix next following those just noticed, on the real path of 
the shooting-star (No. 29) of Dec. 6, 1863, is placed, without much 
departure from the observations, due east, and nearly horizontal. But the 
backward point of intersection of the two nearly adjacent tracks is yet 
about S.E., altitude 40°. As there appears no reason to assume a low 
radiant-altitude, and a nearly horizontal motion of this slow-moving short- 
pathed meteor through the air, from its observed appearance, it seems a 
more correct procedure to comply with tlie evidently exact and careful 
directions of the two recorded paths in fixing the radiant-point position at 
their actual point of intersection. This is accordingly the point given as 
a very well- determined radiant-point of the shooting-star in the present 
reconstructed list. 

Nos. 35, 35a. — The real earthward course of the fine bolide of August 
9th (a.m.), 1864, desciibed (on page 92 of the volume for that year of 
these Reports) as concluded from the simultaneous iews of the meteor 
obtained at the Luxembourg Observatory in Paris, and at Hawkhurst, 
in Kent, must, it appears, be rejected and renounced as quite wrongly laid 
down and represented. According to the note by M. Chapelas Coulvier- 
Gravier of its appearance in Paris, given without doubt correctly (at p. 
56) in the general catalogue of that year's Report, the meteor passed at 
Paris from an altitude of eighteen degrees, ten degrees west of north to 
the north point of the horizon. But the recorded real path proceeds from 
the assumption that the meteor's course at Paris was from 10° east of 
north towards the true north point. 

Small as the difierence is (shown in the accompanying figures, 1 and 
2), between the supposed and really recorded appearances of the meteor's 
path as seen in Paris, the effect upon the radiant-point, from the meteor's 
position in the northern sky, at both the stations of the double observation 
is prodigious. Instead of being between Perseus and Cassiopeia (E.N.E., 
altitude 60°), as it was represented, the meteor's real radiant-point was 



FIC. 



io°j\r 



considerably south of the equator, in Aquarius or Capricornus, where the 
two recorded apparent paths prolonged backwards, then intersect each 
other in the sky. The whole account of the fireball's appearance itself 
afibrds the strongest evidence of its being an ' Aquariad,' travelling, as 
this comparison shows it to have been, with moderate speed, and with a 



48 . .;. - REPORT — 1880. • 

slightly sloping path towards true north, at the not unusual height of fifty- 
five to forty-five miles above the sea, midway between Harwich and 
Ostend. It is, on the other hand, just as signally inconsistent with the 
usual character of the swift, streak-leaiving August Perse'ids and Cassio- 
peiads, as well as with the great height of expansion and disappearance 
over a point of the North Sea in the neighbourhood of Holland. Accord- 
ingly, although the meteor's course Avas mapped at both of the observers' 
stations so far from its southern radiant-point, yet from the precise 
character of the two descriptions, and their nearness to the point of 
convergence of the tracks, we may still regard the concluded radiant- 
point as very reliably established. It was on the ecliptic near the middle 
of the last sign but one before the vernal equinox, between Aquarius and 
Capricornus. 

^ The direction of flight from altitude 24°, azimuth W. from S. 221°, 
noted in a description in the Report of the year 1864, accompanying the 
description just discussed, of the real path of another August meteor of 
the same date simultaneously observed at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich, and Hawkhurst, disagrees with the rest of the description of the 
path, to which a radiant-point at altitude 39°, azimuth 226° would cor- 
respond. The radiant-point directly given by projections of the recorded 
apparent tracks, is 28° + 68°,"near x Persei, corresponding to altitude 
45°, azimuth 228°, showing that the altitude, at least, of the slope of path 
in the table of that shooting-star's reduction, has been accidentally mis- 
represented.- The radiant near ^ Persei given dii-ectly by the recorded 
tracks is that which has been adopted in the present list. 
1 •• No. 39.^-See the remarks on the corrections in the list, below, of the 
volume for 1879 of these Reports, pp. 108 and 120, for a new observa- 
tion and reduction of this meteor's real track. 

Rectifications of Errata, and of some false conclusions contained in the 
Reports on Meteor Observations for the years 1878 and 1879. — The following 
recapitulation of some errata and defects occurring in different portions 
of the last two years' Reports are arranged with reference to the lines 
and pages of the respective volumes of these Reports where they will be 
found, for greater ease and simplicity of their discoveiy and correction. 
Remarks on the corrections which they require are given in accompany- 
ing notes when the nature or magnitude of the emendations are such as 
to call for explanations and elucidation. 

. - On account of the existence of several such material oversights, arising 
from the length of the Reports, and from lack of opportunities, which the 
Committee has had to regret during the last two years, for full and careful 
.summaries of meteor records and descriptions, it is found necessary to 
condense the comments on these erasures as much as possible. Such 
rectifications of them, accordingly, as have already been published else- 
vvhere are referred to occasionally in the notes, for further particulars of 
the expositions and reconsiderations which they have received. Sufficient 
revisions of the several imperfections are only intended to be here afforded 
to render the substance of the last two years' Reports as free from con- 
temporaneous faults and misconstructions at the time when they were 
pi'esented, as these Reports have generally been in former years. 



* i*--<V ^-w J -..- .^ • 



. ^ . li ^J t-: 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



49 



Errata for correction in the Volume of these Reports for the year 1878. 



Page 




Corrections and Remarks 



260 
267 

267 

285 
296 

304 



304 
304 

310 

333 

335 



342 



12. 
(3.) 

(15 from 

foot.) 

(4.) 

(4.) 

19. 



25. 
16 from 

foot. 
7 from 

foot. 
2 from 

foot. 
4 to 27. 



3 to 8. 



4 from 
foot. 



1880. 



For Market Harborough 7-ead Coventry. 

(In the column 'Nearest known Radiant-point, Sec.'), for D., 8 

(1877) read Denning (Dec-Jan., 1876-77). 
(In the column 'Length of Path, &:c.'), for about 7 sec. ; velocity 

18J read 3 or 4 sees. ; velocity about 35 (parabolic velocity 83). 
(In the column ' Observer, &c.'), erase the small n-oodeiit. 
(In the column ' Position, &c.'), for passed through an hour angle, 

&c., read disappeared just below rj Ursie Majoris. 
To vol. for 1872 subjoin t/w foot-note : * In the note at p. 103 of that 

volume for 160 + 51 7-ead 150 + 61 ; and for 155 +47 read 

160 + 49 ; (Heis M^, 1864 and 1867 ; = 162 + 59, 1877.) 
For 155 + 47 read 160 + 49. 
For Beckingham read Rockingham. 

For vol. for 1878 read yo\. for 1877. 

For near e read near e, or (more exactly) near 5. 

Dele all tJie text from and also . . . as far as Perse'ids of August 
10. In the foot-note, for meteor-tracks of this shower .... 
on August 10 and 11, rcflfi meteor-tracks of the shower . ... on 
August 10 and 11, 1871. And for the fellow-comet, 1870 
I .... to end of the note, read a near companion radiant- 
centre. 

For The cases .... are perhaps exceptions read The case of the 
accordance noticed above (p. 326) between the comet 1825 II. ?s 
(— 0'115, Oct. 7, 134° + 77°) and a briefly enduring meteor- 
shower, noted by Mr. Denning on the niglits of October 3 and 
4, 1877, at 130° + 79°, may perhaps be an exception. 

N. 50, tf 1870 I S ; for 43-5 + 53 read\ 
25-5 + 45. J 

[IVbte — This last and the two preceding corrections relate to an 
error, rectified by the last, of the radiant-point assigned in the 
cometary radiant-list of the Report of the year 1875, to the 
comet 1870 I. By the corrected place this comet is entirely 
separated from all appearance of connection with the ordinary 
August Perseid-shower ; and the conjecture raised in the above 
noted passages of the possible origin of a double radiant-centre 
in the August Perseid-shower of 1878 from the concurrent 
presence of two nearly coincident comet-orbits in connection 
with the meteor-stream, is entirely and at once dismissed by the 
note of the more correct position of that comet's radiant -point. 
The error of the radiant-place was noticed immediately after 
the presentation, but not in time to jDrevent its publication in 
the paragraphs of the Report of the j^ear 1878. The correction 
which the above passages required was accordingly pointed out 
in a 'Report on Meteoric Astronomy during the year 1878,' pre- 
sented to the Royal Astronomical Society in February, 1879 
(' Monthly Notices,' vol. xxxix. p. 294). Dr. J. L. E. Dreyer, of 
the Dunsink Observatory, Dublin, who has devoted much atten- 
tion to the orbit of this comet, has noticed that the true astro- 
nomical place of its meteor radiant-point (which he gives at 
27° 51' + 48° 24') is in pretty good agreement with a meteor sys- 
tem nearly contemporaneous with the Perse'ids, noted by Schmidt 

E 



After (26 to) 27 add 



{' 



50 



KEPOKT — 1880. 
Errata — continued. 



Page 


Line 


Corrections and Remarks 


353 


4. 


and others near x Persei.' Of this radiant-point a conspicuous 
maximum or special meteor-shower has been detected by Mr. 
Denning on July 31, 1878, and it is with these meteors or with 
the Perseids II. forming as distinct a special meteor system at 
the beginning of August as the Lyrids and Geminids are in 
April and December, and not at all with the ordinary August 
Perseids I. that Dr. Dreyer supposes the comet 1870 I. to be very 
possibly connected.] 
For Beiner 7-ead Einer. 



"Errata for correction in the Volume of these Reports for the year 1879. 



Page 


Line 


80 


23 and 22 
from foot. 


82 
86 


4 from 

foot. 

19. 

Last line. 
2 et seq. 


88 


30, 


99 
100 


11 from 

foot. 

10. 


102 

103 
105 


12 from 

foot. 

12. 

19. 


5> 


24 from 
foot. 



108 



109 



24 from 

foot. 



15 from 
foot. 



Corrections and Remarks 



TnseH comma and semicolon after air and simultaneously. [Dr. 
Cleveland Abbe has by a recent letter reminded the Committee 
that the explanation here given of meteoric sounds has origi- 
nated from his own propositions, and was not embraced with 
any special application to such a question in the general theory 
of sound and light waves treated of in the paper by von Eotvos.] 

For Appomatox read Appomattox. 

For meteors read meteor. 

Add to the Note 'Meteor Notes for Jan., 1879.' by W. F. Denning. 

Eiu'lose in square brackets the words The elements, &:c., and the 
column (if elements of Biela's comet. 

After 1680 and 1833, add The closest approach of the latter 
comet's to the earth's orbit occurs on Jan. 27, with a radiant- 
point at 135° + 25°. 

In the column ' Appearance, &c.,' of the meteor seen at Writtle, 
insert (see Mr. Corder's supplementary meteor list, inf., p. 114.) 

After Thames Embankment, London, add [and at Ciielmsford.] 
In the column ' Appearance, &:c.,' of the same observation add 
[see Mr. Corder's list, inf., p. 114.] 

For ' 3 or 4 seconds, &c.' read ' 3 or 4 seconds,' &c. 

In the column ' Observer, &;c.,' for Indianopolis read Indianapolis. 
In the column ' Appearance, &,c.,' after heard in 2"" add At Stock- 
ton very violent, causing terror and affright. 
Fur J. W. Backhouse read T. W. Backhouse. 

For 1858, Aug. 13, [True time 6.39 p.m] read Autumn of 1863 or 

1864. [Probably 1864, Nov. 11.] [True time probably 5.35 

p.m.] 
In the same observation, column ' Colour,' /«»• [streak white ?] read 

The long streak white. 
For [Seen also, &:c....] Q-ead [The same as that seen in France and 

Kent ; these Reports vol. for. 1865, pp. 78, 120. Radiant at 

85 + 35 ( + 10°).] 



' Astronomische NachricMen, vol. Ixxxii. No. 1963 ; and Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy, 2nd ser. vol. iii. (Science), p. 255. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 
Errata — continued. 



51 




110 

111 

114 
116 



117 



118 



119 



120 



26 from 

foot. 

26. 

10. 

5. 

11. 



11. 



17. 
16 from 

foot. 
5 from 

foot. 

27. 
33. 
34. 



18. 



Corrections nud Remarks 



For Rubernpre o-eacl Kubempre. 

Column 'Appearance, &c.,' after Favis at end of the deserijHion, add 
No detonation seems to have been heard. 

After Chelmsford add [seen also in London ; see the above General 
List.] 

Dele 1858, Aug. 1 3, &" 39"" p.m., kc, stiiUnrj out the whole of this first 
accordance of the List. See the Xote in the Erratum of p. 120. 

After (Berne time) add A fine fireball; long, slow flight, as if 
impeded, but uniform in brightness up to sudden disappearance. 
White, yellowish, or pinkish, with tail of fading sparks, and 
some light-streak left upon its course. No detonation heard. 

In column of ' Eemarks ' add [Calculation of the meteor's real 
path by G. von Niessl ; ' Verhandlungen des Naturforschenden 
Vereins in Briinn,' Bd. xvii.] 

Column of ' Eemarks '/'"' Dec. 27 read Denning 27. 

Column ' Observed Radiant,' after x Ursic Majoris, add The three 
observed paths emanate very nearly from one point. 

Column ' Places of Observation,' after Dundee, &;c., add Several 
good accounts of the meteor collected and reduced by J. E. 
Clark. 

Column of ' Remarks \for Dec. 2, 1877, o-ead Denning 2, 1877. 

Column ' Observed Radiant-point,' /w il° read 55°. 

Column ' Length of Path,' &c., after estimated ; add but the 
observations indicated a rather slow motion. 

1858 Aug. 13 e"" 39™ p.m. ct scq. to end of the paragraph on p. 46, 
dele all the Remarks on this accordance, which is a mistaken 
and unreal one ; and append the following Note : — Oct., 1879. 
A letter just received from Mr. Caws states that the meteor 
which he saw near Ryde was certainly observed in the autumn 
of one of the years 1863 or 1864, and not, as his original 
description seemed to intimate, in the year of Donati's comet, 
1858. The fireball which it described was doubtles^s the grand 
one which at dusk on the moonlit evening of Nov. 11, 1864, 
passed over the southern part of France, and which was pretty 
widely observed there, and in Kent (see these Reports, vol. for 
1865, pp. 78, 120). The contemporary descriptions, with the 
addition of this new one, only allow the real path to be roughly 
assigned (as follows) as a good average combination of the 
plentiful but loose materials. The meteor began its flight 70 or 
80 miles above the neighbourhood of Macon, or of a point mid- 
way between Lyons and Clermont, and passing in mid-path over 
the southern part of the mountains of Auvergne, ended its 
course about 50 or 60 miles above a point mid-way between 
Cahors and Montauban, on the rivers Lot and Tarn. The whole 
distance of 150 or 200 miles was traversed in about 5 seconds, 
with a speed of about 35 miles per second, from the direction, 
roughly, of a radiant-point at about alt. 5° or 10°, in the N.E. ; 
celestial position 85° + 35° ( ± 10°.) The parabolic speed of a 
meteor with this radiant-point is 32-5 miles per second. A bright 
streak visible in the twilight sky (at Rhodez, and at Pamiers in 
Arri&ge) for several minutes, when the nucleus broke up rather 
suddenly at last, remained along its course like an after-glow 
of the splendidly luminous white tail, similar in brightness to 
the head, by which the nucleus was pursued. Its appearance, 
although extremely brilliant, eclipsing the full moonlight at 
Rhodez and other places near its path, was unaccompanied by 
any audible report. 

e2 



52 



EEPOKT 1880. 

Hrrata — continued. 



Page 


Line 


Corrections and Remarks 


121 


5. 


1877, Oct. 8-9, midnight. To this accordance append a Note. 
The accordance is iUnsory. Mr. Denning's observation in England 
was made 13"" earlier than that noted in France and Belgium. 




17. 


Fm- radiant-points read radiant-point. 


122 


2 from 
foot. 


For Museids ?-ead Muscids. 


124 


Wood-cut. 


In the Illustration ' Eadiants of Geminids,' erase from the figure 
the shaded area, which was not intended to appear in the 
engraving. 


125 


16. 


For torilite read troilite. 


128 


20. 


For material read meteorite. 



Appendix II. — Aerolites. By Walter Flight. 



1841, September 6. 



-St. Christophe-la-Chartreuse, Commune de Eoche- 
Servieres, Vendee.^ 



The fall of this stone, whicli was accompanied by a double detonation 
resembling thunder and a luminous appearance, took place in the vine- 
yards of St. Christophe at the above date. It created quite a panic in the 
surroundinp- country ; on the first day none of the peasants would ap- 
proach it ; one could only look with fear in the direction where it lay, it 
was said ; but on the following day a young man, who was escorted to the 
spot, found it out and brought it away with him. 

The stone weighs 5-500 kilogrammes, and is in the hands of a pro- 
prietor who was neither disposed to communicate any information respect- 
ing it, nor to allow any fragments to be removed. M. Daubree has 
therefore to content himself with registering its existence, which up to 
the present time has not been placed on record. 

1874, November 26, 10.30 a.m. — Kerilis, Commune de Mael-Pestivien, 
Canton de Gallac (Gotes-du-Nord) .^ 

A great noise, lasting two minutes and resembling a peal of thunder, 
was heard at this date at Mael-Pestivien and for ten kilometres around. 
At the same instant a workman near the village of Kerilis saw the earth 
struck, at a spot 12 metres distant, by what he believed to be thunder. He 
visited the spot the next day, and found a meteorite at a depth of 078 
metre. The stone weighed 5*000 kilogrammes, and is covered with a re- 
markably thick black crust : a number of fragments were detached from 
the stone till its weight was reduced to 4-200 kilogrammes ; it then passed 
into the hands of a clergyman, who bought it and presented it to the 
Natural History Museum of Paris. 

A freshly broken surface of the stone shows a mottled and striated 
surface, with metallic grains of nickel iron ; the surface is of a deep gray 
colour with ochre-coloured spots, due doubtless to traces of iron chloride. 
The individual grains vary in size ; some, the largest, are chalk- white, 

> M. Daubree, Compt. Bend., 1880, xci. p. 30. * Ibid., p. 28. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 53 

the most numerous are of an asliy-gray ; here and there rounded grains 
(the chondra of Gustav Rose) are apparent, as well as yellow or bronzy 
grains of pyrrhotine. The grains of nickel iron are very small. The density 
of the meteorite is 3-51. By the action of hydrogen chloride 60 per cent, 
of the stone dissolves : this consists of olivine, nickel iron, and pyrrhotine ; 
the residue under the microscope is found to consist of a great number of 
crystalline grains, much acted upon by polarised light, and some of which 
show the forms of the prism ; others show the cleavage which indicates 
eustatite. Besides these are black grains of chromite with an octahedral 

contour. . , , . n % i • ■■ 

This stone most closely resembles those of Limerick (Adare) which 
fell 1813, September 10th, and Ohaba, Siebenbourg, 1867, October 10th, 
and belongs to the group of Sporadosideres and the sub-group Oligosi- 
deres. 

1879, May 10, 5jp.m. — Estherville, Emmet Co., Iowa} 

This curious meteorite fell near Estherville in lat. 43° 30' N., long. 
94° 60' W. within that region of the United States which has been re- 
markable for falls of meteorites, three having fallen at Rochester in 
Indiana, Cynthiana in Kentucky, and Warrington in Missouri, within the 
space of a month. The phenomena attending this fall, of which a short 
notice appeared in the Report of last year, were of the usual character, 
but on a grander scale. It occurred about five o'clock in the afternoon of 
May 10, 1879, with the sun shining brightly. In some places the 
meteorite was plainly visible in its passage through the air, and looked like 
a ball of fire with a long train of vapour or cloud of fire behind it ; and 
one observer saw it one hundred miles from where it fell. Its course was 
for N.W. to S.E. The sounds produced in its course are described 
as being 'terrible' and 'indescribable,' at first louder than the loudest 
artillery, followed by a rumbling noise, as of a train of cars crossing a 
bridge. Two persons were within two or three hundred yards of the spots 
where the two larger masses struck the earth. There were distinctly two 
explosions : the first took place at a considerable height in the atmosphere, 
and several fragments were projected to difi"erent points over an area of 
four square miles, the largest going farthest to the east. Another explo- 
sion occurred just before reaching the ground, and this accounts for the 
small fragments found near the largest mass. This latter fell within 200 
feet of a dwelling-house, at a spot where there was a hole, six feet deep, 
filled with water. The clay at the bottom of the hole was excavated to a 
depth of eight feet before the meteorite was reached. The second largest 
mass penetrated blue clay to a depth of five feet, at a spot about two miles 
distant from the first. The third of the larger masses was found on the 
23rd February of the present year at a place four miles distant from the 
first, in a dried-up slough. On digging a hole the stone was met with at 
a depth of five feet. The fragments thus far obtained weigh respectively 
437, 170, 921 28, 10|, 4 and 2 pounds. The height of the meteor is 
calculated to have been 40 miles, and its velocity from 2 to 4 miles per 
second. The masses are rough and knotted, like large mulberry calculi, 
with rounded protuberances projecting from the surface on every side. 
The black coating is not uniform, being most marked between the pro- 
jections. These projections have sometimes a bright metallic surface, 

• J. L. Smith, Amer. Jour, of Sc, June 1880, xix. 459. 



54 REPORT — 1880. 

showing tliem to consist of nodules of iron ; and they also contain lumps 
of an olive-green mineral, having a distinct and easy cleavage. The 
greater part of the stony material is of a grey colour with the green mineral 
irregularly disseminated through it. The masses vary very much in 
density in their different parts ; the average cannot be less than 4'5. 
When a mass is broken one is immediately struck with the large nodules 
of metal among the grey and green stony substance ; some of these will 
weigh 100 grammes or more. In this respect this meteorite is unique ; it 
differs entirely from the siderolites of Pallas, Atacama, &c., or the known 
meteoric stones rich in iron, for in none of them has the iron this nodular 
character. The large nodules of iron appear to have shrunk away from 
the matrix ; an elongated fissure of from 2 to 3 millimetres sometimes 
intervenes, separating the matrix and nodules to the extent of one-half the 
circumference of the latter. The only mineral which could be picked out 
separately has a slightly green colour : it occurs in masses, from one half- 
inch to one inch in size, has an easy cleavage in one direction, and was 
found to be olivine. The same mineral occurs in minute rounded con- 
dition in other parts of the material ; and minute, almost colourless, 
crystalline particles in the cavities are supposed to be olivine. Troilite 
exists in small quantity. A quantity of the silicates was picked out, 
separated as far as possible from iron, and treated with hydrochloric acid. 
The ratio of soluble to insoluble silicates varies very much in different 
parts of the meteorite, varying from 16 to 60 per cent, for the soluble part. 
The insoluble consisted of: — 



Silicic acid 54"12 

Iron protoxide . . . . . .21-05 

Chromium oxide trace 

Magnesia 2i.50 

Soda witli traces of K and Li . . . -09 
Alumina -03 



Oxygen. 
29-12 
4-67 

9-80 

0-023 

0-013 



99-29 



This is evidently the bronzite commonly found in meteorites. 

The green mineral is the soluble part of the meteorite ; its cleavage in 
one direction is very perfect ; its specific gravity is 3-35 ; it has a hardness 
of almost 7, and is readily and completely decomposed by hydrochloric 
acid. On analysis it was found to have the composition : 



Silicic acid 
Iron protoxide 
Magnesia 





Oxygen 


41-50 . 


. 22-13 


14-21 . 


. 3-12 


44-64 . 


. 17-86 



100-35 



The mineral, therefore, is olivine. Dr. L. Smith, who has examined 
this meteorite, describes a third silicate which is opalescent and of a light 
greenish-yellow colour, and cleaves readily. It was a difficult matter to 
obtain enough of the silicate for analysis, but an examination of 100 
milligrammes gave the following numbers : 



Silicic acid . 
Iron j)rotoxide 
Magnesia 



49-60 . 


. 26-12 


15-78 . 


. 3.50 


33-01 . 


. 13-21 



98-39 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 55 

This is equivalent to one atom of bronzite and one atom of olivine, 
which he says, is ' a form of silicate that we might expect to find in 
meteorites ' The nickel iron, as has already been stated, is abundant, 
sometimes in large nodules of from 50 to 100 grammes. It displays the 
Widmanstiittian figures beautifully, and possesses the following com- 

P°^^*^"° = T,..n 92-001 

. 7100 



Iron 

Nickel 

Cobalt 

Copper 

Phosphorus 



. 0-690 
Blinute quantity 
. 0-112 



99-903 



A careful examination for felspar and schreibersite was made, but with 
a negative result. 

Found 1879, July 19.— Lick Creeh, Davison Co.' 

In this paper is given an engraving, actual size, and a short account of 
a small metallic mass, weighing rather more than two pounds, and found at 
the above date in Davison county. When found it was covered with a thick 
scaly cmst of oxide. It weighs 1-24 kilogrammes or 23f ounces avoirdupois. 
It is one of the rare class that do not show the Widmanstattian figures. 
It contains iron, nickel, cobalt, and phosphorus. A complete analysis of the 
meteorite is being prepared. It is the property of Prof. W. E. Hidden, of 
the New York Academy of Sciences. Mr. Hidden has m his cabinet three 
other nndescribed meteorites from the Southern States, one of which 
weighs 1-45 kilogrammes, or 32^ oz. avoirdupois. 

1880, Februanj 18, early in the Morning .—KuritawaU-mura, Yosa-no-gori, 

Tango, Japan."^ 

An eye-witness of the fall of this stone states that in the early morning 
he was washing his face, when he saw a ball of fire cross the sky from 
north-east to south-west. He was much astonished when a small stone 
fell before him from the sky. He caught it up and found it was very hot, 
and gave forth a smell like that of gunpowder. The stone is about 1 2 mches 
long and three-quarters of an inch wide, and weighs about 100 grams, 
Troy. It is completely covered with a hard black glaze. It appears 
to be a stone and not meteoric iron. 

The same correspondent mentions a meteoric stone of large size, pre- 
served at Toji, which is said to have fallen from the heavens m ancient 
times ; and reports another at Chionin. He also says : ' I learn that a 
Btone of several pounds weight fell at Tamba a few years ago.' 

The same number of the ' Japan Gazette ' contains a short reference to 
another aerolite. The mineral stone which fell some time ago at the front of 
a gate of Iwata, of Takeda-mura, Yabe-gori, Tajima, with a brilliant light 
and report, is about H sun thick and 9 suniu circumference, and weighs 
about 200 momme. This stone has been sent to the Bureau of Agriculture 
of the Home Department, and will be investigated by Prof. Kinch. 

1 Illustrated Scientific News, New York, March 15, 1880, iii. No. 6, pp. 62 and 66. 

2 The Japan Gazette, April 10, 1880. 



56 



EEroRT — 1880. 



First and Second Reports of the Committee, consisting of Mr. David 
Gill, Professor Gr. Forbes, Mr. Howard GtRUBb, and Mr. C. H. 
GiMiNGHAM, appointed to consider the question of Improvements 
in Astronomical Clocks. 

First Bepcrt. By Mr. David Gill.' 

To maintain the motion of a free pendulum in a uniform arc, when the 
pendulum is kept in uniform pressure and temperature, and to record the 
number of vibrations which the pendulum . performs, is to realise the 
conditions which constitute a perfect clock. 

The conditions of absolute uniformity of impulse are, ivith one exception, 
realised in the following arrangement. 

Let s (figs. 1, 2, 3) be the point of suspension of a pendulum, and P, 
in the same figures, the pendulum rod. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 






Let w be an impulse-piece of the shape shown, suspended by a piece 
of very delicate spring, so as to swing accurately from the same centre as 
the pendalum. 

M is an electro-magnet, N an armature mounted on an arm A, which is 
pivoted at Q. 

In fig. 1 the pendulum is supposed at rest ; but the armature N, and 
the arm A are drawn, as they cannot remain, for a must either be pulled 
against the backing pin p, by the spiral spring k, or against p2, by the 
attraction of the electro-magnet m. 

Let us now suppose that matters are so arranged that when the im- 
pulse-piece w acts upon the pendulum, a galvanic circuit is completed, 
and M becomes an electro-magnet, we shall then have the position of the 
arm A, and of the impulse arm w, as in fig. 3, and when the impulse 
weight and pendulum rod are separated, we shall have the position of 
these as shown in fig. 2. 

' Eead at the Sheffield Meeting, 1879, but omitted from that year's Keport at the 
author's request. 



ON IMPROVEMENTS IN ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS. 57 

Now let us follow the action of this escapement. 

First suppose the battery to be attached when matters are in the 
position shown in fig. 1. The effect will bs that the arm A will be di-awn 
against p^- If ^^ now set the pendulum swinging to the right the 
impulse arm w will follow the pendulum as far as the arm A will allow it 
to do so, but on reaching this limit, the pendulum will leave the impulse 
arm and continue to swing to the right alone. 

The instant, however, that the contact between w and P is thus broken, 
M is no longer an electro-magnet, and the arm A is drawn by the spiral 
spring to the position of fig. 2 ; the pendulum continues its swing to the 
right, comes to rest, and returns. On its return it encounters the impulse- 
piece w, not where it left it (viz., at its lowest limits, the arm A resting on 
P2), but as in fig. 2, the arm A resting on p,. When P and \v encounter, 
the immediate result is that, contact being formed, M becomes a magnet, 
and the arm A is drawn against jjj. whilst the impulse-piece w continues 
its motion towards the left, along with the pendulum, and returns again 
to the right with the pendulum till it is stopped by encountering the arm 

A pressing against ^2- 

Simply stated, the impulse is this : — The pendulum in swinging 
against the impulse-weight picks it up at _pi, and in swinging with the 
impulse-weight it carries it on pastp, as far as p<i. The effective impulse 
is, therefore, that of the fall of the resolved horizontal force of w in falling 
from p, to j)2- 

This force is absolutely constant. 

There is no locking or unlocking, and no friction, and no element of 
change except such as may be due to the electric contact between w and P. 
Such contacts are liable to wear and to stick, and it was not until some 
prospect offered of overcoming this fault that we ventured to request 
a grant from the Association. The plan of escapement had already been 
contrived and tried experimentally by Mr. Gill ; but it was in conse- 
quence of an idea of Mr. Gimingham's that it first seemed possible to 
overcome the outstanding difficulty and attain a nearer approach to 
perfection. 

Mr. Gimingham's idea was to construct a relay which could be 
worked by radiation. This relay he first contrived for the purpose of 
registering the number of revolutions of a radiometer. 

The form which this relay has now assumed, after a variety of expe- 
riments, is shown in fig. 4. 

Fig. 4. 




K is a very light arm of aluminium, mounted on needle-poinfcB. 

B is a fan of mica, coated on one side with lampblack. 

c is a carbon point attached to k. 

By means of an aluminium ring r, fitting spring-tight into a glass tube, 
the supports of the needle-points of k are fixed in position — the supports 
being attached to the ring. 

Another ring, t, carries a small carbon anvil, against which the carbon 
point c can come in contact. 



58 EEPOET — 1880. 

Two platinum wires, in connection witli r and / respectively, are fixed 
into opposite ends of the tube. 

The tube is then exhausted till a Crookes' vacuum is obtained, when 
the arm K becomes a radiometer arm. 

A small slip of magnetised watch-spring is attached to B, so that a 
fixed magnet can be so placed as just to bring the carbon point and anvil 
in direct contact. 

A strong light being then turned on B, the screen acts like a radiometer 
arm, moves back, separates the carbon points, and contact is broken. 

By attaching a simple screen to the pendulum, it therefore becomes 
possible to cause the pendulum, by alternating, to admit and cut ofi" light 
from B, and so produce alternate make and break, entirely as required 
by the escapement, without employing any actual contact on the pen- 
dulum. 

The chief difficulty we now find is a tendency of the carbon points to 
stick, and some experiments are now being made relative to this matter. 

Four relays on the principle described have been constructed and are 
in the hands of the committee for experiment, and Mr. Gill has, besides, 
a model of the escapement, and a pendulum with which experiments are 
being carried out. 

A sum of 12Z. 12s. has been expended out of the grant of SOI., and 
the Committee requests that the balance of the grant should be allowed to 
be applied to the same research. 

Second Beport. 

Since the foregoing report was sent from the Cape by Mr. Gill, I have 
devoted much time in developing the mode of electric contact-making by 
radiation. 

In the above report for last year is described a form of the radio- 
relay which at the time seemed to give the most promising results 
of any that I had tried. Four of these were made, as mentioned by Mr. 
Gill, one of "which he took out to the Cape, experimented with, and in the 
report he mentions the chief difficulty as being that of the tendency of 
the contacts to stick together when work is being done by the current. 

In the case of using contacts of metal, such as platinum, this diffi- 
culty is insurmountable, for the reason that the power required to sepa- 
rate the contacts when once closed is far greater than that which can be 
obtained from any source of radiation that could be used for our purpose. 
This point I had settled some time back, and had almost abandoned the 
idea of success, when the discovery of the microphone by Prof. Hughes 
suggested to me the idea of using carbon contacts. I then commenced 
working on the subject again, and experimented with a great number of 
instruments of different forms. 

The form of a pendulum with the contacts near the point of suspension 
has at present given the most satisfactory results. Fig. 5 represents the 
pendulum form of the radio-relay ; a is a strip of moderately thin alumi- 
nium, to the lower end of which is attached a plate of silver flake mica 
b, blackened on the outer face ; c is a clear mica screen, the same size as 
the plate b, also attached to the lower end of a, enclosing a space of 
about 6 mm. between the two plates. 

The strip of aluminium a is suspended by two springs of soft iron 
wire, beaten out flat and very thin in the centre, represented by d in 



ON IMPROVEMENTS IN ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS. 



59 



Fig. 5. 



section and dd' in elevation. The springs are in metallic connection 
with the platinnm wire e, which is hermetically sealed through the tube 
A. To the other platinum wire /, the inner end of which is beaten 
out into a thin sjiring, is attached a carbon point cj, h being the cor- 
responding carbon plate attached to the pen- 
dulum, just below the suspension springs. The 
whole is enclosed in the tube A, which is ex- 
panded into a bulb at the lower end, exhausted 
from the end B, and hermetically sealed. 

On placing a source of radiation in front of 
the blackened surface h, and allowing a screen 
to move to and fro between the source of radia- 
tion and the bulb, contact will be alternately 
made and broken" between the carbons g and li. 
In order to give an idea of the amount of radia- 
ting force required to produce a Crookes' pres- 
sure of sufficient power to work an instrument 
of this kind, I will mention that a candle placed 
four or five inches ofi" the bulb, with a concave 
reflector at the back, answers exceedingly well, 
providing the surface 6 is about \\ square 
inch in area. The actual efifective force also 
depends to a great extent upon the distance 
between the surface h and the glass envelope. 
For this reason I have tried using a clear mica 
screen, placed inside the bulb very close to the 
black surface ; but although theory would indi- 
cate the advisability of so doing, practice shows 
that very little advantage is gained by the in- 
troduction of such a screen, the fact being par- 
tially accounted for by its forming a second 
obstruction to the radiant force from the light 
used to work the relay. 

By the introduction of carbon contacts I had hoped to have entirely 
avoided their sticking together when the current passed. Although for 
all practical purposes their employment together with the pendulum form 
of instrument has suflBciently reduced this sticking, yet to a certain ex- 
tent it still remains a drawback to the use of such a delicate force for 
making contact as that to be obtained from this indirect action of the 
radiation from a small lamp or candle. 

When the contacts merely pass the current through a short length of 
straight wire, there is little or no sticking, but on the introduction of 
an electro-magnet, a bright spark passes between the contacts, and stick- 
ing occurs. The spark is well known to be due to the discharge of the 
extra currents set up in the coils of the magnet, and I expected that 
both the spark and the sticking would disappear on attaching a tin-foil 
condenser to the terminals of the relay. On trying this experiment 
the spark was reduced, but there was no observable alteration in the 
sticking. 

This sticking is probably due either to the carbon containing a 
fusible ash, or the attraction caused by the close proximity of the two large 
surfaces of oppositely charged carbon, large compared with the part that 
absolutely touches and through which only part of the current would be 




60 EEPORT — 1880. 

passing. I have tried several kinds of carbon for the contacts, but the 
finest electric-lamp carbon seems to be the only available sort, the resistance 
of more compact carbons being too high. I have also tried using contacts 
of platinum, iridium, also one of platinum and the other of gold, platinum 
and iridium, carbon and iridium, carbon and platinum, all of which stick 
together more than when both are of carbon. 

In order to overcome the, for the present, inevitable amount of sticking 
of the carbon contacts, it is necessary to multiply the force for making 
and breaking contact by means of long leverage. It will be seen that 
in the pendulum an^angement described, any amount of leverage can be 
easily obtained without the friction or resistance that would be caused by 
pivots. 

The force, also, obtainable from a given source of radiation, is greatly 
augmented in this instrument by the use of a screen placed a little dis- 
tance behind the blackened surface, but fixed to it as part of the pendulum 
bob. In this way nearly the maximum amount of Crookes' pressure 
is obtained, all acting in the one direction, whereas, if there be no screen 
behind the black surface, the heat transmitted through the blackened 
mica sets up a considerable Crookes' pressure, which acts between the 
bulb and the back of the blackened mica, considerably reducing the 
effective force in front. 

In experimenting with these various radio-relays, I have used a 
seconds pendulum, having an escapement similar to that described by 
Mr. Gill in his report for last year. 

It has been necessary to use an ordinary, but very sensitive, relay 
between the radio-relay and the pfendulum, as it is best to have as weak 
a current as possible passing through the carbon contacts. 

I regret that my experiments in the radio-relay part of the subject 
should have extended over such a long period, but the time I have at my 
disposal for original work is very limited. 

I also regret that I cannot be present at the meeting this year, to 
show the various relays, and receive suggestions from the members of 
Section A. I shall, however, carefully study any discussion that may be 
recorded on the subject, and in the continuation of the experiments make 
use of any suggestions with great pleasure. 

C. H. GiMINGHAM. 

Dear Mr. Gimingham, — I return you herewith Mr. Gill's letter and 
diagrams. The principle of his proposed arrangement seems admirable, 
provided a perfect system of contacts could be devised, and your plan for 
them is unexceptionable in theory ; but as it appears that the carrying out 
of the details may be a little troublesome, I have had recourse for the 
present to a more simple contrivance, which, though not so perfect 
theoretically, will, I believe, be found to work very well in practice. 

I annex a figure (fig. 6) which represents the arrangement. A very 
small magnetised needle A a is pivoted as a compass needle on a vertical 
pin b. In a plane above or below this is pivoted a light forked lever d dd 
so placed that a pin c in the magnetised needle, hits one or other of the 
prongs of the fork dd SiS it swings from side to side. At the extreme end 
of the lever d is fixed a fine fibre of spun glass slightly buckled by the 
screw t ; this has the effect of putting the forked lever d d into a state of 
unstable equilibrium and compelling it to keep in contact with one or 
other of the contact screws s s'. The whole apparatus is enclosed in an 



ON THE ELASTICITY OF -WIRES. 



61 



Fig. 6. 




exhausted glass tube (to prevent oxidation of the gold contacts) and when 
required for use is placed in the clock case just below the iron ' bob ' of 
the pendulum. 

As the pendulum swings the magnet answers 
to its motion and draws the forked lever into 
contact with either of the screws s s' which are 
tipped with gold. The buckling of the glass 
fibre tends to make the contact very cei'tain 
and avoids any danger of recoil, while there 
being no oxygen left in the tube there can of 
course be no oxidation of the contacts. 

It is supposed that the clock has a mercurial 
pendulum with cast-iron cistern, as most pendu- 
lums are now made. 

The above arrangement is not theoretically 
perfect, for there must of course be some slight 
reaction from the magnet to the pendulum ; but 
as the pendulum weighs, or should weigh, about 
forty pounds and the magnet about ten grains, 
the reaction must be very slight, and even this 
would be of no consequence provided the mag- 
netisation of the needle remained constant. 

The convenience of the arraugement, and 
the ease with which it can be applied without 
interfering or tampering with the clock, com- 
mends it for practical work. 

The only practical fault I see in Mr. Gill's 
arrangement for driving the pendulum, is the 
extremely small ' travel ' which the impulse lever 
has in each impulse. This will necessitate very perfect 'banking ' arrange- 
ments, for a very small difference in this travel will make a large difference 
in the impulse on the pendulum, and the perfection of the arrangement 
depends on the impulse being a constant. It appears to me that it would 
be desirable to make the impulse-arm very light, but longer in its travel, 
and acting perhaps farther down on the pendulum rod. 

These are the only points that occur to me. 

Faithfully yours, 

Ho WARD GeUBB. 

Dublin : August 23, 1880. 



'rrrrrrt^ ' 




'mrmnrv 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bram- 
WELL, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley (Secretary), for commencing 
Secular Experivients on the Elasticity of Wires. 

The Committee have but little to add to their reports of the last years. 
The arrangements in the tower of Glasgow University may now be 
regarded as complete, so far as concerns the wires already suspended 
there for experiment. At the last meeting of the Association it was 
reported that pairs of wires of gold, platinum, and palladium had been. 



62 KEPOET— 1880. 

suspended in tlie tube provided for their protection, and that they had 
been carefully marked and measured. Since the last meeting observa- 
tions have been made at intervals on the lengths of the wires, and these 
have been carefully recorded. It cannot be said that there has been any 
perceptible lengthening of the vrires within the last year. 

Some improvements have been made as to caulking the joints of the 
protecting tube in order to avoid disturbance of the wires by currents of 
air. 

A set of drawings, showing the mode of suspension of the wires, 
the marks that have been put upon them, the arrangements of the 
cathetometer, &c., in such a way as may be useful for reference at any 
future time, is nearly ready, and will be published in next year's Report. 



Sixteenth and concluding Report of the Coonmittee, consisting of 
John Evans, F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edwaed 
Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, 
F.R.S., William Ayshford Sanford, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, 
F.G.S., and William Pengelly, F.R.S. {Reporter), appointed 
for the purpose of exploring Kenfs Cavern, Devonshire. 

TouK Committee's last, or fifteenth report, read during the SheflBeld 
Meeting in 1879 (See ' Report Brit. Assoc. 1879,' pp. 140-148), brought 
ujD the narrative of the exploration of the Cavern to the end of the pre- 
ceding month. From that date to 27th November, 1879, the work was 
continued day by day, in the manner adopted at the beginning and 
described in previous reports. 

Visitors. — The Superintendents have again had the pleasure of receiving 
numerous visitors, and, whilst conducting them through the principal 
portions of the Cavern, of explaining to them the most important and 
striking discoveries made during the progress of the work. The follow- 
ing gentlemen, accompanied in most cases by ladies, may be mentioned 
as amongst the visitors received : — Sir J. Bain, Sir C. A. Hartley, Revds. 
Preb. R. R. Wolfe, Dr. J. Baron, W. Earle, W. J. Earle, and J. H. N. 
Nevill ; Captain Mackenzie ; Drs. A. Davidson, H. S. Gaye, T. A. Hirst, 
J. S. Phene, and H. C. Sorby ; and Messrs. S. Bompas, C. S. M. Bompas, 
H. B. Bompas, B. V. S. Brodie, H. Burlingham, N. Cole, W. R. Cole, 
H. H. P. Cotton, A. De Lisle, E. M. Grant Duff, C. Eai'le, S. Parnfield, 
A. L. Fox, C. Freeman, W. H. E. Gaye, A. C. Haddon, T. Heath, W. H. 
Holder, C. H. S. Hope, A. N. Johnson, R. I. Johnson, H. B. Mackeson, 
E. R. Pease, J. G. Pease, A. Perks, J. Perks, W. Perks, E. J. Sing, A. E. 
Sorby, W. Spriggs, A. E. Tylor, T. Viccars, G. F. Whidborne, F. R. 
Wildon, W. M. Williams, E. T. B. Wilson, J. H. Wilson, and J. W. 
Wilson. 

The Rocky Chamber. — Tour Committee, describing in their last re- 
port that portion of the Cavern termed ' Clinnick's Gallery,' remarked : 
' On its eastern side, the third or innermost reach of Clinnick's GaUery 
opens into a large chamber, which the workmen have just begun to 



ON THE BXPLOEATION OF KENT « CAYEEN, DETONSHIEE. 63 

explore.' (' Rep. Brit. Assoc' 1879, p. 147.) This portion, now known 
as ' The Rocky Chamber,' is 56 feet long, about 28 feet in greatest breadth, 
and about 13 feet in greatest height, which it attains near the centre. It 
is ornamented with numerous striking stalagmites and stalactites, though 
less profusely than the two small adjacent chambers described last year 
(Ibid.) These have been left intact so far as possible, and will, no doubt, 
in future render this Chamber the most attractive part of the Cavern to 
ordinary visitors. 

The deposits in the first or western part of the chamber were the 
well-known ' Breccia,' or oldest of the Cavern beds, with its characteristic 
' Crystalline Stalagmite ' overlying it immediately. Each of these 
' thinned out ' entirely before the centre of the Chamber was reached, and 
the bare limestone floor lay exposed for a distance of 18 feet. Beyond 
the centre another deposit presented itself, differing in character, not only 
from the Breccia, but also from the less ancient ' Cave-earth,' being 
more like the ordinary soil of cultivated ground, than either of them ; 
there is no doubt, however, that it belonged to the Cave-earth era. It 
was at first but a very thin layer, covered uniformly with a sheet of 
' Granular Stalagmite,' no more than a few inches thick ; but, as the 
work advanced eastward, both the stalagmite and the deposit it covered 
became gradually thicker, never, however, attaining a depth of four feet, 
so that the limestone floor of the Cavern was laid bare in every sec- 
tion. 

In the right wall as one enters the Chamber, and about midway in its 
length, there is a very narrow crevice or slit in the limestone extending 
obliquely from the roof to the floor. It contained no mechanical deposit 
of any kind ; but what may be called its lower wall was lined with a thin 
sheet of stalagmite. 

The exploration of the Rocky Chamber occupied about four months, 
but the labour was not repaid with the discovery of any specimen of ranch 
value. It is satisfactory, however, to have certainly ascertained whether 
or not the deposits there contained anything of interest. The ' finds ' 
met with were only five in number (Nos. 7,318 to 7,322), and may be 
briefly described as below : — 

No. 7,318. Part of the skull of a large Hyasna, and a detached left 
upper sectorial tooth belonging to the same species, probably the same 
individual ; found in contact with the bottom of the Granular Stalagmitic 
Floor, September 12, 1879. 

No. 7,319. Relics of Hy^na, consisting of the right upper sectorial 
tooth ; the molar immediately in front of it ; the crown of a canine tooth, 
the three upper left incisors still in part of the jaw ; the right outer upper 
incisor ; and a fragment of skull. The whole were found on September 16, 
1879, at thebottomof the Granular Stalagmite, and were not improbably 
portions of the individual represented by the ' find ' No. 7,318, from which 
they were about two feet distant. No. 7,319, however, included a few 
fragments of bone belonging to some smaller species. 

No. 7,320. A piece of flint of nondescript form, from which several 
flakes had been dislodged. It was 2-4 inches long, lv5 inch in greatest 
breadth, 1 inch in greatest thickness, unrolled, the edges tolerably sharp, 
apparently non-utilized, and having a chalky texture. It was found in 
the fourth foot-level below the Granular Stalagmite, without any object of 
interest near it, on September 25, 1879. 

No. 7,321. Skull of Sheep, with eight teeth, and an axis of probably 



64 EEPORT— 1880. 

the same individual. Found November 27, 1879, lying on, but unattached 
to, the sheet of stalagmite in the ■wall-crevice or slit mentioned above. 

No. 7,322. The two rami of lower jaw of Wolf (?) or Dog (?), found 
November 27, 1879, embedded in, but not covered with the sheet of 
stalagmite in the wall-crevice or slit mentioned above. One of them was 
lying across the other, and together they contained twelve teeth, most of 
them worn considerably. 

Second, that is deeper, Excavation, in the Long Arcade. — When the 
Committee began the exploration in March 1865, it was decided to make 
a first excavation from end to end, limited everywhere to the depth of 
4 feet below the bottom of the Stalagmitic Floor ; on the completion of this, 
to begin, at the entrance where gi'onnd was first broken, a second, that 
is a deeper excavation, and proceed in the same order as before through 
the entire Cavern. The first or 4-feet excavation was completed on Novem- 
ber 27, 1879, when the exploration of the Rocky Chamber was finished. 
Every chamber, and gallery, and recess large enough for a man to work 
in — several of which bad been discovered during the progress of the work 
— had been thoroughly excavated and explored, and the entire extent and 
character of the Cavern to the depth just mentioned, was perfectly known 
to the Superintendents, as well as to the workmen. 

Excepting the Rocky Chamber and portions of one or two small 
narrow recesses, a limestone floor had nowhere been reached by the 
excavators, so that it was impossible to say what was the extent and 
character of the Cavern at lower depths, or what might be contained in 
the deposits still occupying them. 

The Committee had by no means lost sight of the original idea of a 
second, that is deeper, excavation ; nor were they unmindful of the fact 
that the work would be incomplete without it; but, bearing in mind that 
the exploration had already absorbed the continuous daily labour of nearly 
sixteen years, at a cost to the funds of the Association of 1,850Z. — a result 
greatly in excess of the first rough estimate — they came reluctantly to the 
conclusion, during the meeting at Sheffield in 1879, that the time had 
very nearly ari'ived for closing the work, and that they would apply for 
but one further grant of no more than 50L, with the definite statement 
that it was ' for the purpose oi finishing the exploration.' 

Though the Geological Section, to which it was at once communicated, 
acquiesced in this conclusion, it called forth a strong and general expres- 
sion of opinion that it was eminently desirable to lay bare the limestone 
floor in at least some part of the Cavern, as well as to ascertain whether 
or not the large mass of deposit still unexcavated contained any animal 
relics or human industrial remains ; and Professor W. C. Williamson, of 
Owens College, Manchester, suggested that subscriptions from private 
sources might not improbably be made so as to carry on the work for at 
least one additional year ; and he expressed the hope that the suggestion 
would be kept in mind by the members of the Section, so that it might 
have some practical issue at the meeting of the Association, at Swansea, 
in 1880. 

As soon as the entire 4-feet excavation was finished, the Superinten- 
dents, having a small portion of the 50Z. grant still in hand, resolved to 
begin the deeper work, and for that purpose they selected a spot a little 
within the outer or northern end of ' The Long Arcade ' (see ' Reps. 
Brit. Assoc' 1872, pp. 44-47 ; 1873, pp. 198-207; 1874, pp. 3-6). This 



ON THE EXPLOEATION OF KENT S CAVEBN, DEVONSHIRE. 



65 



spot had the advantages of being the lowest level reached in the previous 
excavation, of ofifering many facilities for carrying on the work, and the 
workmen would begin at once with the Breccia, or oldest known deposit, 
in the Cavern— all those of less antiquity having been there already re- 
moved. The work was begun on November 28, 1879, the workmen, as 
in the first excavation, digging their way daily farther and farther into 

the Cavern. 

It having become known that only a very small sum remained in hand, 
the following subscriptions from friends at a distance, as well as in the 
neighbourhood, reached the Secretary from time to time : — 



£ s. d. 


.10 


. 10 


. 10 


. 10 


. 10 


. 10 


.110 


. 10 


. 10 


.110 


.110 


.110 


.110 


. 10 6 


.500 


.500 


of the 


5) .330 


.110 


.500 


. 10 



Mr. Josiali Marples . 

„ W. Marples 

„ Mr. G. H. Morton 

„ C. G. Mott 

„ Mr. W. H. Picton 

„ Mr. D. Ratcliffe 

„ I. Eoberts (two donations) 

„ J. T. Robinson . 

„ J. Samuelson 

„ J. Tanser . 

„ Timmins 

„ I. C. Thompson . 

„ E. Vivian (Member of the 
Cavern Committee) 

„ Mr. G. Whidborne . 
Dr. G. F. A. Wilks . 
A Member of Torquay Natural 
History Society . 



£ 






6 
1 
1 






«. d. 

10 

5 

10 6 

10 

10 

10 

3 





10 

10 

10 

2 







10 



Total £51 10 



Mr. G. W. Baker . 

„ A. Benas . 

„ B. Benas . 
Dr. Campbell Brown 
Mr. I. I. Drysdale . 

„ H. Durander 
Rev. \V. Earle 
Mr. M. Guthrie 

„ I. W. Hayward . 

„ E. Hughes 

„ A. R. Hunt 
Mrs. A. Hunt . 
Miss Hunt 
Mr. R. C. Johnson . 

„ Mr. W. Jones . 

„ W. Lavers 

„ J. E. Lee (Member of the 
Cavern Committee) 

,, R. Lowndes 
Captain Mackenzie . 
Mr. Joseph Marples 

The Committee take this opportunity to thank all the donors, and to 
express their sense of special obligation to Mr. Isaac Roberts, F.G.S., 
not only for his handsome donations, but for kindly interesting his friends 
in the work, as well as for receiving and transmitting their subscriptions. 

The workmen were directed to carry the second, that is the lower, 
excavation to a depth of five feet below the bottom of the four-feet exca- 
vation, making a total depth of nine feet below the bottom of the Granular 
Stalagmitic Floor. The method of excavating employed from the first 
was still continued, the deposit being taken out in ' foot-parallels ' and 
' foot-levels ' (See ' Report Brit. Ass.' 1865, pp. 19-20) ; a total length of 
132 feet was excavated, in the first three of which a continuous limestone 
floor was laid bare ; beyond that it ceased, the limestone walls, instead of 
meeting actually, were separated by a longitudinal fissure varying from 
six inches to four feet, and averaging 1-75 foot in the first forty-five feet, 
but occasionally somewhat wider elsewhere. Throughout the greater part 
of the excavation a limestone floor was practically, though not actually, 
reached, the fisstire being too narrow for the men to work. In this fea- 
ture, as well as in some others, the Long Arcade closely resembled the two 
principal galleries of Windmill Hill Cavern, at Brixham, on the opposite 
shore of Torbay (See ' Phil. Trans.' clxiii. 485 ; or ' Trans. Devon. Ass.' 

vi. 798). , , c 

The deposit, with the exception of one or two small ' pockets of 
Cave-earth, was everywhere the well-known Breccia. Stones rather 
1880. F 



'66 REPORT— 1880. 

larger tlian usual were, perhaps, somewliat more than commonly pre- 
valent in the lowest levels ; but it still remains the fact that, so far as 
■ is at present known, the Breccia is the oldest deposit found in the Cavern. 
Pieces of Stalagmitic Floor, necessarily of still greater antiquity, pre- 
sented themselves occasionally in the Breccia, a fact which had been fre- 
quently observed during the four-feet excavation ; but no trace of the 
unbroken Floor whence they were derived has ever been detected. 

On June 19, 1880, the Committee, having spent all the money placed 
at their disposal by the General Committee of the Association, as well as 
by their private friends, were under the necessity of suspending the work 
and discharging the workmen. Nearly seven months had been spent on 
the second or lower excavation, and though no more than eighteen ' finds ' 
(Nos. 7323 to 7840) had been met with, the following description of 
them will show that the expenditiire of time and money had not been 
quite in vain. 

No 7323. A flint ' nodule-tool,' the butt end rudely an inequilateral 
quadrilateral, about 2"6 inches by 2 '3 inches, and almost quite flat. When 
standing on this as a base, the tool may be described as an oblique trian- 
gular pyi-amid, its axis being at an oblique angle to the base. It attains 
its greatest girth about 1'5 inch above the base, where it measures 
9'7 inches. The faces of the pyramid are by no means planes, and no 
two of them are of the same width. Their common vertex is a rather 
blunt edge about '9 inch long, and their greatest widths 3'4 inches, 3*3 
inches, and 1'5 inch. The extreme length of the tool is 5'9 inches. 
Portions of the original surface of the nodule remain almost everywhere 
around the butt end, and one face is completely covered with it except a 
space within 1'5 inch of the vertex, whence one flake has been dislodged. 
It was found alone, in the Breccia, in the eighth foot-level below the 
Granular Stalagmitic Floor, on December 11, 1879. 

No. 7324. Two flint specimens (Nos. t^jVt j WW)- — ^O- tA* is a 
nodule-tool, almost white, and having no remnant of the original surface 
of the nodule. In outline it is rudely quadrilateral, about 2'1 inches long, ' 
the breadth at the ends being 1"2 inch and I'l inch ; its greatest thick- 
ness is about '7 inch, which it attains near the broader end. One face 
has a tendency to flatness, the other is convex, and has one principal 
longitudinal ridge, and two or three minor ones. No. -t^w^ is a chip of 
but little interest. The ' find ' occurred in the Breccia, in the fifth foot- 
level below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, where it was met with on 
January 5, 1880. 

No. 7325. A left last upper molar of Bear, a few pieces of bone, and a 
small flint chip ; found in the Breccia, in the seventh foot-level below the 
Granular Stalagmitic Floor, on January 15, 1880. 

No. 7326. A considerable portion of a rather large tibia, the distal 
end perfect, but the proximal end gone entirely. Found alone in the 
Breccia, in the seventh foot-level below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, 
on January 20, 1880. 

No. 7327. Crown of the tooth of Rhinoceros, found alone, in a ' pocket ' 
of Cave-earth, on January 21, 1880. 
''/I 9>; -^o- 7328. A flint nodule-tool, 5*8 inches long, 2*7 inches in greatest 
width, and 1 "7 inch in greatest thickness — the maximum width and thick- 
ness being about two inches from the butt end. It is very convex on one 
face, slightly so on the other, and has a small patch of the original crust 
of the nodule at the butt end. The opposite end is round-pointed, and 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF KBNt's CAYEBN, DEVONSHIRE. 67 

not more than '2 inch thick. The tool was found alone on February 11, 
1880, in the Breccia, in the eighth foot-level below the Granular Stalag- 
mitic Floor. This specimen is peculiarly interesting, on account of a 
remarkably well-developed ' bulb of percussion ' in one of the lateral 
edges, about two inches from the butt end. It was found alone, in the 
Breccia, in the eighth foot-level below the Gi*anular Stalagiaiitic Floor, on 
June 2, 1880. 

No. 7329. A flint chip, not quite an inch long, found alone, in the 
Breccia, in the ninth foot-lovel, on February 13, 1880. 

No. 7330. Piece of bone, found alone, in the Breccia, in the seventh 
foot-level, on February 27, 1880. 

No. 7331. A small polished agate, set in silver, found alone, on the 
surface, on March h. This trinket of the present day must have been 
accidentally dropped by one of the numerous visitors to the Cavern since 
the four-feet excavation in that part of the Cavern was finished ; that is, 
since February 1873. 

No. 7332. A flint flake or chip, o'l inches long, l"o inch in greatest ' - /! 
breadth, and nearly -5 inch in greatest thickness. It retains a small (\' i- 
portion of the original surface of the nodule from which it was dis- 
lodged, but has no indication of having been used or intended for use. 
It was found alone, in the Breccia, in the fifth foot-level, on March 6, 
1880. 

No. 7333. A. flint flake or chip, 2'5 inches long, 2*2 inches in greatest ' ^ ^ ^r 
breadth, and '6 inch in greatest thickness. It retains a considerable por- 
tion of the original surface of the nodule from which it was struck, and 
was found alone, in the Breccia, in the eighth foot-level, on March 17, 
1880. There is nothing about it to suggest that it was ever intended for 
use. 

No. 7334. A left last upper molar of Bear, with a piece of bone, 
found alone, in the Breccia, in the seventh foot-level, on April 1, 1880. 

No. 7335. A flint nodule, 3'6 inches long, 2^8 inches in greatest 
breadth, and 2 inches in greatest thickness. It is pretty much rounded, 
no attempt has been made to fashion it into a tool, and indications of its 
having been used as a ' hammer stone ' are neither numerous nor well- 
pronounced. It was found alone, in the Breccia, in the sixth foot-level 
below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, on April 13, 1880. 

No. 7336. A small chert chip, found alone, in the Breccia, in the sixth 
foot-level below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, on April 24, 1880. 

No. 7337. A fragment of an unusually smoothly- worn pebble, or of 
the internal cast of an Orthoceras, found alone, in the Breccia, in the ninth 
foot-level below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, on May 21, 1880. 

No. 7338. A small flint chip, found alone, on May 31, 1880, in the 
Breccia, in the fifth foot-level below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor. 

No. 2339_. A flint nodule-tool, 5'75 inches long, 3 inches in greatest 
breadth, and 2'7 inches in greatest thickness. In form it approaches a 
four-sided pyramid ; at the butt end each face is covered with the original 
crust of the nodule, and the apex is not well formed. 

No. 734(X A mass of flint owing its present irregular form to arti- '^ 
ficial chipping, but not entitled to the name of tool. It is 335 inches 
long, 2'9 inches in greatest breadth, 1'8 inches in greatest thickness, and 
retains a small patch of the original surface of the nodule, where there 
are a few bi'uises such as might have been produced by its having been 
used as a ' hammer-stone.' It was found alone, in the Breccia, in the 

r2 



68 REPORT — 1 880. 

niutli foot-level below the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, on June 15, 1880, 
that is the fourth day before the suspension of the work. 

It may not be out of place to remark here that the second, that is the 
deeper, excavation has yielded a greater number of archaeological than of 
palseontological ' finds ' ; and that whilst no animal relic was found below 
the seventh foot-level, the three fine nodule-tools (Nos. 7323, 7328, 7339) 
were found in the eighth foot-level, and several flint chips occurred in the 
ninth or lowest. 

In closing their Report the Committee beg to express their thanks to 
Lord Haldon for so freely and kindly allowing them the entire control of 
the Cavern whilst carrying on the exploration ; to the Committee of the 
Geological Section for their uniform, firm, and most encouraging support ; 
to the General Committee of the Association for their liberal annual 
grants during a period of sixteen years, which have resulted in an instance 
of Cavern-exploration without parallel, it is believed, in this or any other 
country, for, at least, its continuity and duration ; and to the private 
friends whose timely and kind donations enabled a considerable and satis- 
factory deeper excavation to be made, and thereby to give the work a 
nearer approach to completeness than would otherwise Jiave been the 
case. 

Finally, the Superintendents feel that it would be less than just were 
they to fail on this occasion to state, not merely the satisfaction, but the 
admiration with which they review the manner in which the work has 
been done by George Smerdon and his co-labourers in the Cavern. From 
the first day of the exploration — March 28, 1865 — to its suspension on 
June 19, 1880, Smerdon was continuously engaged on the work, and for 
nearly thirteen years he was the foreman. During the entire period he 
not merely discharged his duties in a most faithful manner, but he never 
had a misunderstanding with the Superintendents. 



Report on the inode of reproduction of certain species of Ichthya 
sauries from the Lias of England and Wurtemherg, by a Com- 
mittee consisting of Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., and Mr. C. Moore, F.G.S. Dra^vn 
up by Professor H. G. Seeley. 

[Plate I.] 

Minute Ichthyosaurian skeletons found in the Lias have, from time to 
time, raised a suspicion that the young of Ichthyosaurus might possibly 
pass in their development through a tadpole stage, since the smallest speci- 
mens show no indication of limbs. Prof. Haughton, in his ' Manual of 
Geology ' (2nd edit. 1866, p. 272, fig. 37), has figured a small individual of 
this kind from the Lias of Boll. A less perfect specimen, 9 inches long, from 
the Lias of Charm outh, preserved in the Woodwardian Museum, is devoid of 
all traces of limbs. These small specimens, like the young of all vertebrate 
animals, are characterised by the relatively large size of the head. This 
uncertainty as to the mode of reproduction of Ichthyosaurus, has perhaps 
received some countenance from the circumstance that Prof. Owen, in his 



itluUUICTlOiL nil' CliETAlK SrEClES Oh' lCllTinOJ«AUHUi>. G9 



C Be 



J. ■ o * *^ 






I 




ON THE llKi'ltOUlJCTlO-N OF CERTAIN SrECIES OF IClITIITOSiAUriUS. G9 

• Anatomy of the Vertebrates ' so far hesitated about the true nature and 
classification of Ichthyosaurs as to speak of them in one place (vol. i. p. 
50) as Dipnoa, although as a rule they are arranged with the Monopnoa. 
So far as I can learn, there is no evidence in support of Prof. Haughton's 
hypothesis that Ichthyosaurs pass through a metamorphosis. _ But, on the 
conti-ary, a number of examples, British and foreign, enforce a conviction 
that several species of the genus brought forth their young alive. In all 
cases they appear to have been retained in the body of the parent till a 
compai-atively large size had been reached. Attention was first drawn to 
this characteristic of the genus by the late Dr. Chaning Pearce, of Bath, 
who, in 1846, contributed to the 17th volume of the ' Annals of Natural 
History,' a paper entitled ' Notice of what appears to be the Embryo of 
an Ichthyosaurus in the pelvic cavity of I. communis.' In his note it is 
stated that the large animal from the Lias of Somerset is about eight and a 
half feet long. The little animal lies at full length in the pelvis, with its 
head directed towards the tail of the large one, and is supported upon the 
internal surface of its integument and upon the internal sui'faces of three 
posterior ribs of the left side. The young animal measured five and a half 
inches in length. The rami of the jaws and one of the longest ribs, of 
which only five or six are visible, are each an inch long ; and of the thirty 
vertebrae which can be counted the largest measures an eighth of an inch 
in its longest diameter. 

This minute specimen is bounded on each side by the ilium, ischium, 
and pubis, and by the right and left posterior paddles, and on the right 
side by the vertebral column and ribs which extend from it. The pos- 
terior two-thirds of the little animal is within the pelvis, but the head 
appears to protrude beyond it, and was apparently in the act of being 
expelled at the time of death. The late Dr. Chaning Pearce remarks on 
the correct position of this minute skeleton in the pelvis between the right 
and left ribs, with the head protruding ; and from the exact correspondence 
between its bones and those of the large Saurian draws the inference that 
it can only be a foetal Ichthyosaurus. During the meeting of the Biitish 
Association in Bath in 18G4, it was my good fortune to have an oppor- 
tunity of studying this specimen, and it enforced in my mind the same 
inference that was enunciated by its discoverer. Its perfect condition of 
preservation, size, and position in the body seem to me completely to 
refute the current opinion of those days when Dr. Pearce's conclusions 
Avere not accepted, that the young animal might have been swallowed 
whole, and have gradually found its way to the position in which it 
was fossilized. This view Dr. Chaning Pearce combated by remarking 
that had so delicate a structure been swallowed whole it could not have 
reached its present place without being dissolved by the gastric juice. 

Among the series of Ichthyosaurs presented to the Woodwardian 
Museum, by Thomas Hawkins, Esq., is a large slab with the remains im- 
perfectly preserved, but containing a disturbed skeleton of a young Ich- 
thyosaur in the pelvic region. The vertebral column has the vertebree in 
sequence, and the head is remarkable for the high form common in embryos 
(fig. 1). Taken by itself no inference as to the mode of reproduction 
could fairly be drawn from this fossil, but as a link in a chain of evidence 
it has some value. A third British specimen is said to have occurred in 
the Lias of Lyme Regis, and to have shown a number of embryos in the 
pelvic cavity. I have not seen this specimen, but Mr. Henry Keeping, who 
first reported its existence to me, considered that it was altogether incon- 



70 REPORT 1880. 

elusive upon the mode of reproduction of the Ichthyosaurus. Mr. Charles 
Moore has examined the specimen and is doubtful as to the inference that 
should be drawn from it. These are the only British specimens which 
bear upon the mode of reproduction in Ichthyosaurs. 

I am aware that it may be fallacious to reason from the structures 
of living reptiles back to the nature of soft parts in an Ichthyosaurus ; 
but in the alligator, which is also a carnivorous animal, the contents 
of the stomach remain there till perfectly dissolved, and in a specimen 
11 feet long, the pyloric aperture was only about an inch in diameter, and 
defended with two valvular constrictions, so that, supposing the Ich- 
thyosaurs to have preyed on their own species, and to have swallowed their 
prey head first, after the manner of snakes, there is an a priori impro- 
bability that the young animal would have got farther than the stomach, 
which in alligators is placed well forward, and is not unduly large. More- 
over, I see no reason to doubt that the substances from the Lias of the South 
of England which are well known as Ichthyosaurian coprolites have been 
correctly determined. They consist of well-digested materials, and 
sometimes contain the scales of ganoid fishes, and hooks of cuttles, such 
as are met with in the stomachic region of many individual Ichthyosaurs. 
I have elsewhere taken occasion to point out that the spiral structure 
which these coprolites display indicates that there was, anterior to the 
rectum, a smaller intestine of the calibre of the coil which is wound into 
the coprolite ; ' and it is obviously impossible, even if the young specimen 
could have passed the stomach uninjured, for it to have passed uninjured 
down such a small tube, so that the snout should project from the body 
in the way which Dr. Chaning Pearce has described. 

Unfortunately Dr. Chaning Pearce did not give a figure of his 
specimen, and so the discovery missed alike recognition and recollection. 
I lost sight of the specimen until last year, when I learned that it had 
been removed to Brixton, and with the rest of the collection it was shown 
to me by Dr. Joseph Chaning Pearce, F.G.S. But whether pyrites in it 
had decayed, or whether it had suffered in the lapse of years from cleaning 
and removal, the fact remains that the young specimen is gone. The ques- 
tion here ends in a cul-de-sac, so far as the English evidence is concerned. 

An interesting Ichthyosanr in the Royal Museum at Stuttgart, to 
which my attention was drawn by Dr. Oscar Fraas, in August, 1878, 
would appear to have been the original of a figure by Dr. G. F. von Jaeger, 
published in 1824, in his work ' De Ichthyosauri sive Proteosauri, &c.,' 
which I have hitherto been unable to see. 

It is certainly the original of a very rough figure, Tab. I. fig. 4, pro- 
bably the same plate, given by Dr. von Jaeger in his work, ' Ueber fossile 
Reptilien welche in Wiirtemberg aufgefunden worden sind,' published 
at Stuttgart, in 1828. But although the young animal is figured as lying 
in the abdominal cavity of the large individual, the author does not even 
refer to its remarkable position, and confines his observations to an account 
of the structure of the genus, and an endeavour to determine the species. 
And it was not till Dr. Chaning Pearce's note became known in Germany 
that attention was awakened to the bearing of this and of some similar 
specimens. 

Other writings of Dr. Jaeger contain evidences of his renewed interest 
in this subject, for in the 'Nova Acta Ces. Leop. Car.' vol. xxv. pt. 3. p. 961, 

' Index to fossil Remains o/Aves, Ornit/wsauria, lieritilia, ^'c, p. 131, 8vo. 
1869. 



ON THE REPRODUCTION OF CERTAIN SPECIES OF ICHTHTOSAPRCS. 71 

foar Ichthyosanrs are referred to, whicli each contained a foetus. One 
of these is the specimen originally figured by himself ; ' the second is at 
Tiibingen ; and the third from Zell, near Kirchheim, was exhibited at 
Munich in 1864. He remarks that these are all entirely enclosed between 
the ribs of the parent, are all fully developed, and were ready to be born, 
or in the act of being born, as the animals sank to the bottom. ' In these 
three cases the head, though still in the body of the old animal, is directed 
backward. On the other hand, one specimen of Ichthyosaurus from 
Ohm den, now at Madrid, has the head of the young one directed forward, 
and in sequence with a connected series of vertebras.' Jaeger argues 
that the young do not exhibit any trace of having been eaten, since no 
digested matter is found with them, while the vei'tebrte are in sequence, 
and the bones hold the exact position they should have if the Ichthyo- 
saui'us were viviparous. And he further remarks, that though these 
yoting examples are rare, yet they really exist, while we find no traces of 
any eggs, though numerous coprolites are preserved ; and from the cir- 
cumstance that the skull in the young of these German specimens belongs 
to the same species as the old aaimals, concludes that, at least, the 
species which he names Ichthyosaurus tenuirostris was vi\4parous. 

Other important and beautiful specimens have been acquired for the 
University Museum at Tubingen, by Professor F. A. von Quenstedt^ 
F.M.Gr.S., and admirably developed by him. They are briefly noticed in 
his well-known works, ' Der Jura ' and ' Epochen der Natur,' but they 
led the learned and accomplished author to the conclusion that the young- 
specimens had been devoured. In the former work (1858, p. 219), after 
describing the species, which he names J. quadriscissus, it is observed, 
* this specimen contains a young one between the ribs, in a position which 
indicates that it was eaten. The splendidly preserved skull of the young 
one measures 10 inches in length, with its point towards the hinder extre- 
mity, while its tail still remains in the throat. Hence we may infer that 
the intestinal canal was as simple as in sharks.' And in the later work,, 
published in 1861, p. 549, these statements are repeated, except that two 
specimens are mentioned as being in the Tubingen collection. Though no 
argument is offered upon the subject, the large size of the young, and 
extent to which its tail reaches forward in one of his specimens, has 
evidently weighed with the Tiibingen professor in the printed expression 
of his judgment. He, however, called my attention to a small specimen in 
the University Museum, with the tail coiled up, which he thought might 
have been foetal, but it is not contained in the body of another animal. 

In 1876, Arnold R. 0. Wurstemberger printed in the ' Jahreshefte 
Ver. Nat. Wiirtemburg,' a memoir entitled ' Ueber Lias Epsilon,' which 
concludes with some account of the species of Ichthyosaurus, giving 
an interesting description of I. quadriscissus (Q). After describing a 
large parent animal, in which the head is said to be 50 cm. long, and 
the vertebral column 240 cm. in length, Wurstemberger observes that 
the stomach lies unusually far forward, being only 20 cm, behind the- 
head, and is defined by containing fish-bones and the dark-coloured 
remains of cuttle-fish. A small Ichthyosaur lies entirely behind this 
region, and is so contained between the ribs, that the author is convinced 
that it could not have got there after the death of the large animal, hence 
it can only have been eaten or be an embryo. Many bones of the young 

■ Be Ichthyosauri swe Pi'ateoti fossilu spccim. in a^ro Bolletmg repeitis. 1824 
fol. Tab. I. fig. 4a. 



72 EEPOBT— 1880. 

animal are scattered, and appear to have been washed out of the large 
animal, but are always on the ventral side. The entire animal is a good 
deal confused, so that the co-ordination and order of the parts can only be 
made out after careful study. The bones of the young animal, fi'om being 
less mineralised than those of the large individual, are much softer. The 
largest ve^rtebra is about 4 m.m. in diameter, so that, reckoning sixty 
vertebrae, the author estimates the length of the vertebral column of the 
small animal at 24 cm. The head is not only entire, but shows the 
suttires between the bones. The sclerotic plates form the usual circles 
defending the eyes. The jaws show no traces of teeth, and from their 
excellent preservation Wurstemberger inferred that none existed. It is, 
however, he says, most remarkable that the snout is not turned towards 
the hinder part of the large animal but towards its head, and the vertebral 
columns are parallel to each other. This specimen I have not been able 
to examine, and no figure of it has been published ; but although appa- 
rently less well preserved than some others, I believe it to be embryonic, 
and that the position of the young animal may possibly have been the cause 
of death in the parent. For, after the author's account of the unusually 
forward position and contents of the stomach, I do not accept his doubts 
as to whether the specimen really justifies the embryonic hypothesis, in 
face of the cumulative evidence that at least six specimens are known 
which each demonstrates the same fact of the presence of a young Ichthyo- 
saur, in good preservation, in the posterior abdominal region of the 
large specimens. 

Finally, just as I was leaving Tiibingen, Herr Kocker, Professor 
Quenstedt's obliging and excellent assistant, mentioned to me that there 
is at present at Reutlingen for sale an Ichthyosaurus, which is alleged to 
contain several young specimens in various stages of development. Being 
unable to go to see this specimen, I obtained a photograph of it, but 
unfortunately the animal appears to have lain upon its back and side, in 
such a position that the ribs of the upper side of the body have fallen 
together, leaving the abdominal cavity exposed. Beyond all doubt, there 
are the remains of several small Ichthyosaurs in and about the hinder 
abdominal region, but their condition is not so clear as in other specimens, 
and the circumstance derives its chief weight from being a link in a chain 
of evidence, and its interest from repeating a condition shown by the Lyme 
Regis specimen referred to. 

Of all this material no illustration has been given excepting the rough 
and almost worthless figure by Dr. von Jaeger, published between fifty 
and sixty years ago. I am, therefore, glad to be able, by the kind co-opera- 
tion of Dr. Oscar Fraas, to submit a photograph (of which Plate I. is a 
copy) of this the earUest found example illustrating the relation of the 
young to the parent Ichthyosaur. 

I am also greatly indebted to Prof, von Quenstedt for having allowed 
me to have photographs made of the two most striking specimens in the 
University Museum of Tiibingen. Hence these three figures will enable 
those to whom the originals may be inaccessible to judge of the nature and 
value of the evidence to which I have already referred. It may, however, 
be useful if I append a few descriptive notes on the characters of the 
specimens. The determination of the species I purposely leave for a 
memoir, in which I trust to give a systematic revision and determination 
of the British and foreign Ichthyosaurs ; and this subject is so beset with 
diflBculties, that it may yet be some time before a species of Ichthyosaurus 



ON THE HKPEODUCTION of certain species 01' ICIITIIVOSAURUS. 73 

can be defined with the same accuracy and certainty as characterises 
other kinds of palisontological work. 

The specimen in the Royal Museum at Stuttgart (fig. 4) wants the 
head and the hinder half of the tail, in which the vertebrje become greatly 
attenuated. The portion of the animal preserved is aboiit 5 feet long, and 
of this length rather less than two- thirds is comprised by the body region 
of the animal, in which dorsal ribs are developed. The fore limb lies some- 
what bent on the ventral margins of the ribs, and the hind limb is well 
preserved below the pelvic region. From the apparently firm union of the 
ribs to the dorsal centrums they have been pulled somewhat apart, and do 
not approximate towards their ventral edges. This animal lies upon its 
left side, inclining a little towards the back. As usual there is an upward 
arch of the anterior half of the dorsal region. The young animal lies in 
the abdominal cavity, and, although not perhaps so fully developed as 
might be, its length, so far as can be made out, appears to be about 
2 feet 6 inches. The vertebral column is parallel to the vertebral column 
of the large animal, and is separated from it by an interspace of 2^ inches in 
the posterior region of the large animal, becoming anteriorly a little farther 
distant from it. The young animal lies upon its right side, and although the 
ribs have been strained from their natural position, the young animal is 
still entirely between the ribs, except where a few of them have been 
purposely removed, the better to show its characters. The head of the 
small animal is about 10 inches long, and rather more than 2^ inches 
deep at the hinder border of the orbit. The snout projects from the 
abdominal cavity in the region of the pelvic bones for about a third of its 
length, but the pelvic bones are no longer in situ, owing to the conditions 
of fossilisation. The dorsal region of the young specimen has not been 
so developed as to show its ribs, but the vertebral column is in sequence, 
though the pressure of the overlying ribs of the large animal has some- 
what broken the chain, and exposed the faces of one or two of the few 
vertebrae, the lai'gest of which in the lower dorsal region has a diameter 
of half an inch. The depth of the body of the young animal was appa- 
rently 4^ inches. The extremity of the tail is not seen. It may be noticed 
that the ribs of the lai'ge animal extend over the eye and nasal region of 
the left side of the young head, but the shortening of the ribs on the left 
side of the large animal shows that the snout could hardly have been con- 
tained entirely within the pelvic cavity if the young animal occupied its 
present position during life. It is of course jjossible that there may have 
been some slight shifting of position ; but the presence of the abdominal 
ribs of the large animal in situ, and the generally undisturbed character of 
the remains, lead me to believe that the relative positions of the two indi- 
viduals are not now greatly difi'erent from what they were during life. 

I can only endorse the conclusions of Von Jaeger that we have here a 
fcetus in the act of being expelled, and although the size of the young 
animal is relatively large, it is not unparalleled among living amphibians ; 
and the eggs of birds vary so much in bulk, that with gigantic eggs, such 
as those of .(3Epiornis, the large size of this embryo is not unexampled. 
The great extension of the young in the body of the parent need perhaps 
present no difficulty when we remember the large space occupied by the 
ovarian organs in the lowgr vertebrata; and, large as the young animal is, 
there is no known limit to the capacity for expansion of the oviduct which 
would render its size and position improbable on such an explanation. If 
it were asked why the old animal should have died, I can only state that 



74 REPORT 1880. 

it has been my fortune to dissect a porpoise in which the foetus was simi- 
larly placed, and the parent animal was driven ashore in an obviously 
enfeebled condition, consequent probably upon the function in which it 
■was engaged, and if such a specimen had been fossilised it would have 
exactly paralleled these fossil Ichthyosaurs. 

The specimens in the Tiibingen Museum (figs. 3, 4,) are in some respects 
more instructive since the heads of the parent animals are preserved, the 
ribs are less disturbed, and the skeletons are altogether more complete. The 
specimen exhibited in the Museum, which is from Holzmaden in Wiirtem- 
berg, is numbered 7532. The parent animal has the skull-bones somewhat 
displaced ; they are about U^ inches long, while the length of the vertebral 
colunan is 8 feet 3^ inches, the fore limb is 16 inches long, and the 
hind limb 8^ inches in length. In the dorsal region there are forty 
vertebrae with double-headed ribs ; then follow six with single-headed ribs, 
and in about this position the ilium was placed. The caudal vertebrae 
number ] 06. The length of the abdominal region of the large animal is 
3 feet 6 inches. The iliac bones are relatively large, flattened, and oblong, 
and measure 3| inches in length. They have been a little displaced, so 
that the hinder limbs lie just below the vertebral column. 

Entirely within the abdomen is a small Ichthyosaur, lying between the 
right and left ribs, with its head directed towards the posterior region of 
the body, the extremity of the snout being separated from the present 
position of the iliac bones by a width of about five vertebras. The verte- 
bral column of the small animal is parallel to that of the large one in 
which it is contained. The head, which is well preserved, is 10^ inches 
long, has teeth in both jaws, has the eye-plates well developed, and the 
orbital cavity abovit 2 inches in length. The region of the fore limb is 
missing, owing- apparently to a fracture of the fossil in extracting it in 
the quarry. The dorsal vertebra and dorsal ribs are well shown. The 
centrums here have a diameter of 1 inch. The vertebral column can be 
traced within the large animal for 21 inches, but the series is a little 
scattered, and towards the end the vertebra are obscure from their small 
size. The interspace between the two vertebral columns is only about 
2 inches ; the depth of the body of the large animal was probably about 
28 inches. It is to be remarked that there is no indication that I could 
detect of the tail of the small specimen reaching so far forward as to 
justify the expression that it was in the throat. 

The second Tiibingen specimen is contained in the work-room, and 
has no catalogue number. 

It is of much larger size, has the dorsal vertebrae and ribs in natural 
position, but the hind limbs do not appear to be 23resent, though the iliac 
bones remain, slightly displaced. The skull is here 24 inches long. There 
are 45 vertebras, with double-headed ribs, measuring, as preserved, 4 feet. 
To them succeed two vertebra?, with large single tubercles, which are 
usually regarded as sacral ; then 31 vertebrae, measuring 2 feet 8 inches, 
which form the large anterior part of the tail ; and then succeed 47 ver- 
tebrae of much smaller size ; but the extremity of the tail is not preserved. 
The abdominal ribs are not well seen, but the depth of the body is about 
25 inches. The fore limb in this animal is 13| inches long. From these 
and other considerations, which it is not withia my present province to 
dwell upon, it is evident that we have here a distinct species from the 
specimen just described. The young animal lies entirely between the 
ribs of the large one in the posterior part of the abdomen, with its back 



ON THE BEPEODUCTION OP CERTAIN SPECIES OF ICHTHYOSAmUS. 75 

towards that of the large individual in which it is contained, as is the 
case with the other specimens which I have described. The head is 
directed downwards, and the snout extends beyond the limits of the ribs, 
as though it were just protruding from the body. The extremity of the 
snout is imperfect, but the head, as preserved, is 9 inches long. The ver- 
tebral column has a total lengtKseeu of 20 inches, but may extend further 
under a rib. The vertebras are in natural sequence, though the caudal 
region is bent round in a curve veutrally ; but it is difficult to say whether 
this is the position natural to the embryo. The dorsal vertebris are ^-inch 
in diameter, and the corresponding centrums of the large animal are 
2^ inches in diameter. The ribs of the young animal are preserved, and 
there are bones which appear to be coracoids. The hind limb is distinctly 
preserved, and measures 1^ inch in length. The femur is |-inch long, and 
the smaller limb-bones are in three rows. It is unfortunate that the hind 
limb of the parent is not available for comparison, but that portion of 
the original slab is missing. So far as it is possible to compare the 
pointed snout and teeth of the young with the large animal, there is 
nothing to suggest that they belong to different species. 

After thus detailing the facts as to the position and character of these 
specimens, the conclusion to be drawn from them may be left to a con- 
sideration of the cumulative evidence of the figures ; and if I do not for- 
mally discuss the view which Prof. Quenstedt has adopted, that these 
specimens were eaten, it is because no other animals except Ichthyosaurs 
have ever been found in the hinder part of the abdominal cavity of large 
.specimens of this genus ; and because the remains of fishes and cuttles, 
which appear to have constituted the ordinary food of these sea-monsters, 
are always found, comminuted and indistinguishable in form, in a more 
anterior position. It is improbable that the large animal, with its com- 
paratively firm quadrate bones, would have been capable of swallowing 
a creature in which the head, as in the first Tiibingen specimen, was 
more than two-thirds the length of its own head, without in any way 
crushing or breaking the structure, or even disarranging an eye-plate ; 
while the evidence from the structure of coprolites seems to me to render 
superfluous any further discussion of this question of the young animals 
being in process of digestion. That the small specimens were washed in 
a dead state into the already dead bodies of the large specimens is a 
hypothesis that can need no discussion ; for the many cases in which the 
two bodies are parallel, with the smaller placed entirely within the larger, 
have no appearance of accident, while a movement of the sea which would 
wash the young about in such a way would probably scatter the bones of 
both animals. 

I therefore submit that the evidence indicates that these Ichthyosaurs 
were viviparous, and were probably produced of different relative bulk 
in different species ; and it may be from feeble health of the parent 
or from some accident of position in the young that they were not 
produced alive, and thus have left a record of their method of reproduc- 
tion to which no allied extinct group of animals has shown a parallel. 
There is some evidence that in certain cases many young were produced 
at a birth, and although the specimens are not in the best state of preser- 
vation, analogy strongly suggests that this is a distinctive character of 
certain species. It cannot be taken as proved that all Ichthyosaurs were 
viviparous ; for the character, though met with among fishes, amphibians, 
and reptiles, is not distinctive of any living order of these animals ; and it 



76 REPORT— 1880. 

is therefore probable that many species in this extinct ordinal group 
produced their young from eggs, like the majority of their living allies. 

I would express my thanks to the Council of the Eoyal Society for 
assistance in examining the museums of Europe in which remains of 
Icbthyosaurs are contained ; as well as to Dr. Fraas, Prof. Quenstedt,and 
Prof. McK. Hughes, for the facilities so. freely aiforded me for studying 
the specimens in the collections over which they preside. 

Explanation of Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Small portion of Woodwardian specimen showing part of young Ichthyo- 

saur, with a few caudal vertebrse of the large animal. 
Figs. 2 and 3. The two Ichthyosaurs with young at Tubingen. 
Fig, 4. The imperfect Ichthyosaur with young at Stuttgart. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. M. Dukcan and 
Mr. Gr. E. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on the 
Carboniferous Polyzoa. Drawn up by Mr. Vine (Secretary). 

As so much remains to be done before the Pateozoic Polyzoa can be 
properly classified — more particularly the Carboniferous fepecies— it seems 
to me that the wisest course to adopt in this Report, is to go carefully 
over the work of other authors, reviewing their labours generally, and 
giving, in as condensed a form as possible, th.e results of their varied 
efforts. 

David Ure,' the son of a working weaver in Glasgow, is the first, so 
far as I am aware, who drew attention by figures to British Carboniferous 
Polyzoa ; and Martin ^ gives some good figures of Zoophyta, but species 
of these belong to both the Corals and Polyzoa. Thirty.'five years after 
the publication of Ure's work. Dr. Fleming^ named some of the species 
figured, and the Zoophyta he called Gellepora TJrii and Eetepora elongata. 
The first of these, according to Mr. Robert Etheridge, Jun.,* is Ghcetetes 
tumidus, Phillips, and the other is a Fenestella. 

In 1826, the work of August Goldfuss* was published. In this a 
system of nomenclature was adopted, and many figures of Polyzoa and 
Corals given, which to a large extent assisted investigators and helped 
them to identify species found in this country. The generic terms used 
by Goldfuss were accepted by authors who followed him, but as no dis- 
tinction was made by the earlier investigator in separating true Polyzoa 
from true Corals, those who worked from his types and descriptions fell into 
his error, and mingled, for a time, Corals and Polyzoa together whenever 
they had fresh forms to describe. 

The chief of the generic terms used by Goldfuss were : — 

1. Gorgonia, Linnteus, 1745. 

2. Gellepora, Gmelin, 1788? 

3. Betepora, Lamarck, 1816. 

4. Geriopora, Goldfuss, 1826. 

The type of Linneeus' Gorgonia was altogether different from the types 
of Goldfuss's genus. The first had reference to the fixed Polypiferous 

' History of Rutherglen and East KilhHde, 1793. 

2 Petrifactions of BerhysMre, 1809, Petrefacta DerKensia. 

* Histonj of British Animals, 1828. 

* Ann. May. Nat. Hist. 1874. ' Petrefacta GermanUe. 



ON THE CARBON IFEKOUS POLTZOA. 77 

mass -whicli are still known by the same name, but the last are now 
referred to the Fenestellidce. 

The species of CeUepora are now placed with Chceteies, and most, 
if not all, of the Ccriopora of the Palasozoic era are also referred to 
Chceteies and to Alveolites. 

The use of the term Betepora, as applied to Palseozoic fauna, has been 
abandoned, and the better defined generic term Fenestella used instead ; 
but Lonsdale,^ in his otherwise clearly defined characters of this genus, 
included both Fenestella and Polypora types in the one description of the 
genus. 

However we may differ, at the present time, from Mr. John Phillips^ 
in his arrangement of the ' Zoophyta ' found in the Carboniferous rocks 
of Yorkshire, we must give him the credit for being amongst the first 
to attempt a division between Corals and Polyzoa ; but in the use of 
Lamarck's genus Millepora for some of his species, he seems to have 
been very undecided as to the true character of his fossils. 

Phillips describes eight species of Betepora defining certain terms 
which he uses, such as fenestmles, dissepiments, and interstices — terms 
still used in later descriptions of Fenestella. His species were B. mein- 
branacea, flahellata, tenuifila, imdulata, irregularis, polyporata, nodulosa, 
and laxa. The poverty of Phillips' diagnosis renders identification of 
his species a very diflBcult matter, but some of his species were so truly 
typical in their general, as well as in their minute characters, as to enable 
Mr. G. W. Shrubsole, in his elaborate review of the Fenestellidce,^ to 
retain three of them as types of his very restricted Carboniferous forms. 
The retained species are : — 

Fenestella memhranacea, Svno. < -0' ^ 7 ?V ^ ' 

' •' (^ F. flahellata „ 

„ nodulosa, Phill. 

„ polyporata „ 
The Betepora fltistriformis, Phill. has been placed as a synonym of F. 
plebeia, M'Coy, by Mr. Shrubsole,'* and as Ptylopora by Morris.^ By 
Phillips it was regarded as the Millepora flustriformis^ of Martyn, and he 
also said it resembled the Oorgonia antiqua of Goldfuss. Betepwa pluma, 
Phill., is now Olauconome ; and Flustra ? parallela, which Phillips describes 
as ' Linear : longitudinally and deeply furrowed, cells in the furrows, in 
quincunx, their apertures oval, prominent ' " — M'Coy * refei's to the 
genus Vincularia, Defranc, and Morris ^ places it and another species of 
M'Coy's with the genus Sulcoretepora, D'Orb. This species has no afiinities 
with any of these genera ; it appears to me to be the Carboniferous de- 
scendant of the more ancient Ptilodicfa, Lonsd. (= Stidopora, Hall). 
The non-cellnliferous, striated, sometimes rugose margin, and the central 
laminar axis, or septum, which divides the cells of opposite sides, are 
almost always present in the Carboniferous species. I shall, therefore, 
prefer to leave the Flustra? which Phill. describes with the Ptilodicfa as 
P. parallela, Phill., and this reference is founded upon original investigation 
of various specimens of Ptilodicta, of the American Silurian species,'" 

' Otology of Mussia. * Catalof/uc of British Fossils. 

^ Geology of YwksMrc, 1836. " Petrefac. JDprMeiisia. 

' Qnartcrhj Jour, of Geo. Soc. for May, 1879. ' Geo. of Yorkshire. 

* Ibid. p. 278. s Syn. Carh. Fas. of Ireland. 
' Catalogue of British Fossils. 

'" Niagara Group : Palaontol. of New York, Hall, vol. ii. ; Nat. Hist. New York, 
part 4. 



78 EEPOET — 1880. 

Ptilodicta Meeki, Nicholson, Devonian species/ as well as all the known 
species of Sulcoretepora of the Garb. Limest. series. 

The Millepora of Lamarck seems to have been the generic type of both 
Goldfuss and Phillips, and in describing the Carboniferous species, the 
latter author adopted the class Polyparia of the Radiate Division of the 
Animal kingdom at that time current among naturalists. It was 
Phillips' misfortune, rather than his fault, that he had to follow in his 
classification the authority of those who preceded him. Of the six 
species of Millepora described, four are easily identified ; the other two 
are not so easily recognised. 

Millepora rhombifera, PhilL, Geo of Yorkshire. 

„ interporosa ,, „ „ 

„ spicularis ,, „ „ 

„ oculata „ „ „ 

„ gracilis ,, Palaeozoic For. of Devon, &c. 

„ similis „ ,, „ „ Torquay. 

„ verriicosa, Goldfuss. Of this Phillips say, ' a species 
like this appears at Florence Court, Ireland.' ^ 

No group of Polyzoa, recent or fossil,^ has caused so much trouble 
to Palaeontologists as the little group here tabulated from Phillips. Mem- 
bers of it have been referred to no fewer than five distinct genera, and 
even now they may be safely referred to three, if not to four. Rather 
than postpone the analysis of the species, I shall prefer to draw upon 
later work and do it here instead of elsewhere. 

Millepora gracilis is referred to by Phillips in his later work,* for he 
seems not to have noticed it in the limestone, Toredale limest., or shales of 
Yorkshire ; yet it is most common from everywhere, whilst the M. rhom- 
bifera is by far the rarer species. We have the authority of Phillips 
himself, that the species I am dealing with, were his; for in a letter ^ 
which he addressed to the Messrs. Young of Glasgow, he says, ' I agree 
with you in referring your beautiful specimens to the three species (M. 
gracilis, M. rhombifera, and M. interporosa) named in my books ('• York- 
shire," vol. ii. and " Palseozoic Fos."). Your examples are better than 
mine were ; but I have no doubt of the reference, &c.' Morris places the 
whole of Phillips' species — with the exception of M. spicularis and M. 
oculata — with the Geriopora,^ the exceptions, for what reason I cannot 
explain, he places with the Pustulopera of Blainville, a genus that had no 
existence in the Palaeozoic seas. 

Millepora rhombifera, PhilL, Geo. Yorkshire. 
„ . gracilis „ Palaeozoic Fos. 

Both Ceriopera, Morris Catalogue. 
Rhabdomeson gracile and B. rhombiferum. Young & Young. 

Gen. Ch. B. gracile. — ' Stem slender, cylindrical, branching at right 
angles to the stem and never less than an inch apart ; and consists of a 
hollow axis formed by a thin calcareous tube, and of a series of cells ranged 
round the axis . . . apertures of cells, oval . . . ridges tuberculated.' '' 

B. rhombiferum.- — ' Stems slender, cylindrical, free ; branches of nearly 

" Geo. Mag., 1875, pp. 19-20, pi. 6, fig. U. " Geo. of Yorhshirc. 

^ Excepting the Lepralia. 

* Palceozoic Fog. of Cornrvall, Beron Sfc, 1841. 

'- April 3, 1874 ; Aim. 3Iag. of Nat. Hist., May, 1875. 

* Catalogue of Bntish Fossils, 1854. 

' Messrs. Young, Ann. Mag, of Nat. Hist., May, 1874. 



ON THE CAKBONIFEROUS POLYZOA. 79 

equal diameter given off at wide intervals ... cells in quincunx all 
round the stem ; surrounded by tuberculated ridges . . . cell-area more 
numerous on one face than on the other . , . central axis slender, slightly 
flexuous, and without transverse septa.' ' 

For these two species, the Messrs. Young of Glasgow have founded a 
new genus — Rhahdomeson — on account of the peculiar central hollow axis 
which they possess, and on which the ceUs are arranged. This peculiarity 
is unique — for I know of no other Polyzoa having a rod or mesial axis 
similar to these. Some of the Graptoloidea, sub-order, Bhahdophora, 
Allman, possess a mesial axis, and so do the Bhabdopleura — class Polyzoa, 
order Phylactolemata — but whether we should be justified in assuming on 
this account, either Hydroid or Phylactolematous affinities for these 
fossils is a very serious question to decide. The assumption in either case 
would involve the discussion of many problems into which I cannot enter 
here. The Messrs. Young, in the two papers referred to, have gone into 
the question very fairly, and those who follow them in their critical 
remarks must remember that they are contending for the antiquity of a 
type of Polyzoa organisation not — previous to their discoveries — known 
to exist in a fossil state. I have carefully followed the authors in all 
their investigations of this intricate question, but I am not prepared to 
use this fossil type as in any way indicative of the existence of Phylacto- 
lematous Polyzoa in Carboniferous times. At the same time it would be 
mere carping on my part to ignore its existence as indicative of peculiar 
structural characters that may help us in our future classification of the 
Palaeozoic Polyzoa. 

Millepora interporosa, Phill. Geol. of Yorksh. 
Ceriopora interporosa, Morris' Catalogue of Brit. Fos. 
Vincularia Binniei, Etheridge, Jun.^ 

This species is a very variable one, Phillips speaks of it as having 
' oval pores,' whilst the Millepora similis has more elongated pores ; on 
the other hand Vincularia Binniei is spoken of as having ' oval to hexa- 
gonal cells arranged in quincunx ; or in oblique ascending lines.' The 
magnified figure of a sei-ies of cells given by Mr. Etheridge as an illustration 
of his species, is one of the rarer varieties of M. interporosa. Had Mr. 
Etheridge contended for the variety, I should not have disputed his claim, 
but as he introduces a most anomalous genus into the classification of our 
Carboniferous Polyzoa, I cannot do otherwise than point out the anomaly. 
Defranc's genus Vincularia had no existence whatever in Palteozoic 
times. D'Eichwald, on whose authority Mr. Etheridge /rests, is most un- 
reliable on this point.^ h 

It is on account of their importance that I have dwelt so fully upon 
these species. They had a wide geographical range in Carboniferous 
times, and though their variability is great, they have many structural 
characters in common with the Ceriopera which range into the Mesozoic 
and Tertiary strata. 

Under the auspices of Sir Richard Griffiths, of the Irish Geological 
Survey, Frederick M'Coy published his ' Synopsis.' * There is ample evi- 
dence in this work that M'Coy had much better material than Phillips, and 

' Messrs. Young, Ann. Mag. of Nat. Hist., 1875. 

' Geoloijical Mug., April, 1876. 

' See paper on Vincularidrp, mihi. Read before the Geo. Soc, June 23, 1880. 

* Synopsis of the Carh. Fos. of Ireland, 1844. 



/^ 



80 BEPORT — 1880. 

Lis drawings and diagnosis of species are more elaborate. M'Coy adds no 
fewer than tweh^e species of Fenestella to our British Polyzoa. They are 

F. pleheia, carinata, formosa, crassa, viuUiporata, ejuncida, frutex, hemisphe- 
rica, Morrisii, oculaia, qiiadridecimalis, and varicosa. As I shall have to 
speak of these farther on, I will leave the list without any further comment. 

M'Coy retains a few puzzling forms under the name of Gorgonia. These 
are O. assimilis, Lonsd. ; G. Lonsdaleina, M'Coy ; and G. zic-zic, M'Coy. 

Another fenestrate genus, introduced by M'Coy, bears the name of 
Ptylopora. There is a feather-like arrangement in this genus : a central 
stem giving off lateral branches which are connected by dissepiments 
having oval fenestrules. Fenestella owes its expansion to the bifurcation 
of its branches. Ftylopora very rarely bifurcates, there is a basal exten- 
sion of the Polyzoary along the central stem. One species is recorded by 
M'Coy — P. fhmia — but it is a genus that deserves to be more closely 
studied than it has been. In naming some fossils lately for Mr. John 
Aitken, F.G.S., from the neighbourhood of Castleton, Derbyshire, I 
detected several small fragments of this beautiful genus. The broad 
central stem, whenever fenestration was absent, might easily be mistaken 
for a robust Glauconome. 

The Glauconomes, which M'Coy figures and gives a description of, are 

G. grandis, G. gracilis, and by his discoveries he extends the range of 
Phillips' G. Ufinnata} 

The Vincidaria I have already repudiated, and the V. parallela, Phill., 
which M'Coy accepts as a type, I have alluded to when describing 
Phillips' species. The Berenicea megastoma, M'Coy = Biastopora, Mor. 
Cat., will be placed in the genus Ceramopora on account of its many well- 
marked characters.'^ 

Having all the material at hand for the work, I sball now discuss the 
relative value of the genera and species introduced by various authors 
since the publication of the volumes alluded to. 

Synocladia, King, 1840. 
1873. Synocladia hiseriaUs, Swal., var. Carhonaria, Btheridge. 
1877. Synocladia ? scotica, Toung and Young.^ 

The type of this genus is very peculiar, and as it is well illustrated in 
King's Permian Fossils, once seen it can hardly ever be forgotten. ' The 
corallum is cup-shaped, with a small central root-like base : reticulated, 
composed of rounded narrow, often branched interstices, bearing on the 
inner face from three to five alternating longitudinal rows of prominent 
edged pores, separated by narrow keels, studded with small irregidar 
vesicles alternating v/ith the cell pores.' The essential characters of this 
genus I have underlined. 

In the 'Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,'^ Mr. Robert Btheridge, Jan., 
described a ' peculiar polyzoon from the Lower Limestone Series of 
Gilmerton, under the name of Synocladia carhonaria.' An almost identical 
form had been previously referred, by Mr. Meek,' to Synocladia hiseriaUs, 
Swallow.^ After very minute investigations, kindly supplied to him by 

' Up. Devonian, Croyde, Pilton Devon, Phill., Paleozoic Fos. 

' See paper on BiaMoporidce, mihi ; paper read before Geo. Soc, May, 1 880. 

» Dates of publication and reading of paper. The (?) is Messrs. Yoiuik's. 

* Sept. 1873. 

' Paleontology of E. Xelraslia, AVashington, 1872. 

• Transactions of St. Louis Acad., 1858, vol. i. 



ON a HE CABBONIFEROUS POLYZOA. 81 

Mr. King, — Mr. Etheridge says, ' I Lave ascertained that our Scotcli fossil 
agrees so closely in its main characters ' with the American species, 
' that it can be only regarded as a variety of it.' ' 

To Si/nocladia hiserialis Mr. Meek also refers Septopora cestriensis, Prout, 
' a form which appears to differ only from the typical species of Synocladia 
by having from one to four rows of cell- apertures on the dissepiment 
instead of two.' ^ 

In 1878, Prof. Young and Mr. John Yonng published ^ details oE 
another Synocladia, which they called Synocladia (?) scotica from the 
Upper Limestone Shales, Gillfoot and Grarple Burn stating that ' in both 
localities it is very rare.' If we accept the depai'ture from the original 
type of Synocladia, which I have no objection to, seeing that Prof. King 
nses the term for Palaeozoic Polyzoa alone, then these two species of the 
genus may be recorded as existing in Carboniferous times. They have 
the ' small irregular vesicles alternating with the pores,' not unique with 
this genus, for several others contain a ' secondary pore.' Having exam- 
ined this secondary pore in thin sections of Carb. species, I can only 
account for its presence as being indicative of the existence of a vibra- 
cula in these ancient types. There are, however, most essentially definite 
characters in the Carb. Synocladia yet to be accounted for. Very fre- 
quently, in even the smallest fragments, pores, similar to the secondary 
pores on the face, are constantly found on the reverse also. I know of 
no analogy in more recent fossil or living species to which I can refer to 
account for this feature in this ancient type. 

1873. Garinella cellulifera, R. Etheridge, Jun. 
1876. Goniocladia cellulifera, R. Etheridge, Jun. 

This is a good typical genus and species, both well described. 

Generic and specific ch. — Polyzoarium composed of angular, irregularly 
disposed anastamozing bi-anches, strongly carinate on both aspects, 
but celluliferous only on one. No regular dissepiments ; the branches 
bifurcate and reunite with one another to form hexagonal, pentagonal, or 
polygonal fenestrules of most irregular form. On each side the keel of 
the poriferous aspect are three alternating lines of cell-apertures.** The 
genus and sp., for there is only one, is well illustrated in the ' Geo. 
Mag.,' 1873. 

1849. Thamniscus, King Permian Fos. 

1873. Mr. Rob. Etheridge indicates the possible existence of a species 
of this genus in our Scotch Carbonif. rocks. ' The portions obtained are 
fragments of a robust, branching coralline, with a nearly circular section. 
. The cells are very pustulose or wartlike, with prominent raised 
margins. . . . The disposition of the cells and mode of branching is 
exceedingly like that seen in Thamniscus dubius, Schl. ... As the 
margins (of the cells) in the present form are decidedly raised and promi- 
nent, might it not probably be a species of Thamniscus ? If it be a now 
species of Polypora, I would propose for it the specific designation of 
P. pustulata.' ^ 

' Sheet 23, Scotch Geo. Survey. 
2 Ibid. Expl. of Sheet 23. 

' Proceed. Nat. Hist. Sac. of Glasgow, April, 1878. 
* Geo. May., 1873 and 1876. Expl. of Sheet 23, Scotcli Survey, p. 101. 
^ Expl. of Sheet 23, Appendix, p. 102. 
1880. G 



82 REPORT— 1880. 

1875. The Messrs. Young of Glasgow, after recording tlie opinions of 
Mr. Btheridge/ describe Thamniscus '/ RanJcini, Young and Young, in- 
serting between tlie generic and specific names a (?) ' Stems free, dicho- 
tomous, circular, about ,^^ in. in diameter, branches in one plane. 
Cells arranged in spirals. . . Cell-apertures circular when entire, oval 
when worn ; lower lip prominent. . . Non-celluliferoas aspect finely 
granulated, faintly striate.' . . ' The generic position of the fossil is 
uncertain. . . IMeanwhile, though strongly disposed to regard this 
fossil as a true Horner a, or a member of a closely allied genus, we think it 
safer to leave it in the Palseozoic genus.' In this the Messrs. Young are 
wise, but younger and less cautious observers, on the strength of the manj' 
peculiar affinities which this species has to Hornera, would have eagerly 
embraced this opportunity. I cannot, however, regard this species as a 
Palseozoic Hornera, but I must candidly confess that it comes very near to 
the generic description accepted by Busk.^ 

Glmiconome, Munster, Sy. Vincularia, Dei. 1829. Glauconome, Goldfuss, 
1826. Revised by Lonsdale, 1839. (G. disticha Lonsdale, type of 
D'Orb.'s Fenniretepora) ; Acanthocladia, King, 1849. 

It is very doubtful whether this term can be used for other than 
PalaBOzoic Polyzoa. It was originally used by Munster for Cylindiical 
forms, for the Glauconome marginata, Munst., in Goldfuss' Petrefac. of 
Germany, is given by Hincks as a synonym of Gellaria fistnJosa, Linn. It 
was, however, established by Goldfuss, and afterwards revised by Lonsdale. 
M'Coy,' improving upon Phillips' ■* poor description does not make any 
reference to the number of pores between the branchlets. In his later 
work he defines the Genus more minutely thus : — 

' Corallum of a narrow central stem, with numerous pinnules, or 
lateral branches uii connected with each other : both stems and branches 
have two rows of cells on one face, which is usually carinated between 
them, carina in some species tuberculated ; opposite face striated.' ^ 

In a paper read at the Nat. Hist. Soc, Glasgow, the Messrs. Young- 
describe several new species of Glauconome. 

18/0. Glauconome marginalis. Young and Young. 

„ stellij^ora 

„ elegans 

„ as2yera 

„ flexicarinattt 

,, retroflexa 

,, laxa ,, ,, 

1877.^ ,, rol^usia „ „ 

1877. „ elegantula, R. Etheridge, Jun. 

In describing G. elegantula Mr. Etheridge defines and criticises the 
genus Glauconome with especial reference to the Aranthoclodia.'' 

' A/i/i. and JSLuj. Nat. Hist., May, 187.5, p. iJ:?"), \i\. ix. J/.?. 

" 3[ar. Polyzoa, pt. iii. Cyclostomata, p. 10. 

^ Sy)i. Carh. Fos. Ireland. 

' Eetepora pluma, Geol. of Yorlish. 

•'' Brit. Palceozvic Fos. 

" Froc. Nat. Illft. Soo. of. Glas. 1878. Taper read 1877. 

' 'Notes on Carb. Polj-zoa,' Annals and Mat/. X. If. vol. I'l), 1877. 
























ON THE CARBONIFEROUS rOLTZOA. 83 

1875. Hyphasmopora, R. Btheridge, Jun.' 

The generic and specific characters of this new provisional genus are 
well described by Mr. Etheridgo in the paper referred to. There is only 
one species — H. Bushii, and I am glad that after submitting the specimens 
to Mr. Busk, Mr. Etheridge followed his own judgment and established a 
new genus, rather than acting upon the indiscreet reference of Mr. Busk, 
who says, ' that the above resembled the genus Vincularia, Defranc ' — 
adding afterwards, ' it is j^robably the type of a new genus, perhaps allied 
to the latter.' This beautifnl species is found in several localities of 
Scotland, but I have found it in Yorkshire, and also in N. Wales. It 
cannot, however, be considered a common form anywhere. 

1850. Sulcoretepora, D'Orbigny. 

This genus has been accepted by Morris (Catal.) and by the Messrs. 
Young of Glasgow, for certain species of Carb. Polyzoa. Morris gives 
the above date, but the Messrs. Young in their paper - say ' The genus 
Sulcoretepora was formed by D'Orbigny in 1847, with the following defi- 
nition : — Cells in furrows on one side of simple depressed branches.' 

All the Carboniferous species that have been referred to this genus 
have cells on both sides, and, as I have already referred one of the accepted 
species to another genus, I will deal now with the Sulcoretepora Eobert- 
soni, Y. and Y. As there are characters in this species altogether different 
from any known species of Ptilodicta the same reference for this as 
appears feasible for Fhistra ? parallela, Phill. is altogether out of the 
question. The S. Sohertsoni has none of the characters in common with 
Phill. sp., and I should strongly recommend the Messrs. Young to con- 
struct for this typical species a new genus, especially so as ' Between 
each pair of cells in a longitudinal series, 1 to 3 pores occur, normally 
above each cell-aperture, and in well-preserved specimens tubercles sur- 
round each cell-area more or less completely. ' ^ The faciei of the species 
of Phill. and the sp. of the Messrs. Young may at first sight appear 
identical, but the forms described by the later authors are destitute of the 
non-poriferous, rugose, and striated margins of Flustra ? parallela. It is 
upon the presence of this particularly constant character that I refer 
Phillips' species to Ptilodicta. 

Arehceopora nexilis, De Koninck. 

This genus and species, classified as it is with tlie Polyzoa is a most 
peculiar one. I have not by me De Koninck's work for refei-ence, and 
the remarks that I may offer upon the species — for I shall accept the 
genus without discussion — are the results of original investigation. The 
species is tolerably common in a few localities of Scotland. I have no 
record of it in this country except in doubtful fragments in Wales — and 
my type specimen was presented to me by Mr. John Young, and I believe 
I may safely conclude that this, with other specimens, was seen and 
approved of by De Koninck when he visited the Hunterian Museum of 
Glasgow. 

Sp. Char. — Polyzoary adherent to stems of encrinites, shells, frag- 
ments of Bhahdo meson, Ceriopora interporosa, spines of Mollusca, &c., 

' Provisional Genus of Polyzoa, ibid. vol. xv. IS?.". 
-' Proceedings of Nat. Hixt. Soc. Gh.i. 1877. 
■^ Ibid. p. 1G7. 

g2 



84 



llEl'OilT — 1880. 



spreading irregularly, forming large patches, at other times mere minnte 
specs ; pores generally oval, separated from each other by smaller open- 
ings. I cannot call them ' interstitial or csenenchymal tnbuli ' — for that 
would convey a false impression, for pores and cells are netted together. 
The number of small openings surrounding a cell varies ; sometimes there 
are as many as fifteen, in other places not more than five or seven. About 
twelve clUs with their interjacent pores occupy the space of a line and 
half across the cells, fi om nine to ten in the same space in their length. 
The polyzoary is separated from the foreign objects to which it is attached 
bj a very tliin lamina formed by the bases of the cells. There is no evi- 
FlG. 1. ' f iG. 2. 




Fig. 3. 




Archseopora nexilis, De Koninck, Capelrig E. Kilbride, Scotland. 

Fig. 1. Showing the different sizes of the cells and interjacent pores. 

2. More highly magnified, show vacant ' areolae.' 

3. Transparent, showing sections of interjacent pores ; the long arm-like processes put in 

by reflected light. 
(Drawn with Camera lucida by G. E. Vine, jiinr., June 1880.) 

dence of tabulae in thin sections, but the interjacent pores do not reach 
quite to the bases of the cells. I have never seen a specimen, on which 
a fresh colony is found spreading over an older one, but sometimes a 
colony of Stenopora is found upon the polyzoary of Archceopora. In a 
thin transparent section of a small fragment of another specimen, adhe- 
rent to a portion of shell, a most peculiar structure is revealed — a draw- 
ing of which is given, which for a long time puzzled me — because the 



ON THE CARBONIFEROUS POLYZOA. 85 

peculiar biserial cells appeared like an analogous structure referred to 
by Prof. Nicholson when describing Carinopora HimJei, Nich.' His 
figures, however, are said to be transverse ; mine are longitudinal, or in a 
line with the bases of the cells. These tail-like processes are constant 
characters at certain intervals in my very small section, and the figures 
given may help in the recognition of the genus in sections of limestone. 
At first sight Archceopora has the appearance of Gallopora incrassata, as 
described and figured by Nicholson, ^ but a vei-y little examination will 
show the difference between the two forms, whereas one is a Polyzoa and 
the other a Tabulate coral. 

I have now gone over the whole of the recorded genera and species 
of British Carboniferous Polyzoa, with the exception of the Fenestellidm. 
These having been so lately and so ably reviewed by Mr. Gr. W. Shrubsole, 
F.G.S., their omission from this report will not be so much felt as the 
omission of any of the other lesser known forms. Mr. Shrubsole, 
after very elaborate investigations, and after the careful comparison of 
nearly all the known so-called species, is inclined to restrict the twenty- 
six species to five typical ones, namely^ : — 
Fenestella plebeia — M'Coy 
„ crassa ,, 

„ polyporata — Phillips 

„ nodulosa ,, 

„ membranacea 

all the other ' species ' falling into the rank of synonyms of one or other 
of the five here received by him. But this does not confine the number 
of known species to five. When his labours on the family are completed 
several new forms will be described, together with at least two more 
species of Pohjpora — the results of laborious investigations in North 
Wales. There are also some references to the Polyzoa of the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone of the districts between Llanymynech and Minera, 
N. W., in the lately published work'' of G. H. Morton, F.G.S., Hon. Sec. 
of the Liverpool Geological Society. 

Several other papers on special points, having reference to Polyzoa, 
have been published during the last ten or twelve years. The vexed 
question as to the Hydrozoal or Polyzoal affinities of Palceocoryne has 
been debated by Prof. Duncan,^ Prof. Young, and Mr. John Young,^ and 
by myself; ^ but the question as to their real affinities is still an open one. 
Another paper by Mr. A. W. Waters,* entitled ' Remarks on some Fenes- 
fellidce,^ contains some debatable matter, and the papers of Mr. Robert 
Etheridge, Jun., on the genus GJauconome, Messrs. Young on the genus 
Ceriopora, and the paper on the ' Perfect Condition of the Cell-pores and 
other points of structure,' ° are valuable additions to our knowledge of 
Carboniferous Polyzoa. Before any attempt can be made to construct 
a system of classification which will embrace — naturally — the several 
genera of the Palaeozoic Polyzoa, many, at present, very doubtful points 

' AnnaU and Mm/. Nat. Hist. Feb. 1S74, p. 81, figs, f and i. 
- New Devonian Fos., Geo. Ma//., vol. i. 1874, page 2, plate 1. 
^ ^ ' Carboniferous Fenestellidse,' Q>ia7\ Join: Geo. Soc, May 1879. 

< The Cavb. Limestone and Cefn-y-fcdm Sandstone. London, David Bogue, 1880. 

=5 Phil. Transac, 1869. Jour, of Geo. ,Soe., 1873. Jour, of Geo. Soc, Dec. 1874. 

» Jour, of Geo. Soc, Dec. 1874. 

' Science Gossip, 1879. 

' Proc. of Manchester Geo. Soc., 1879. 

" Newspaper Report, Oct. 9, 1879. 



86 EEPOET— 1880. 

must be cleared up by a more complete study of all the species of the 
Palfeozoic and Mesozoic ages of our earth's history. It is a difficult 
matter with present classifications to place the Genera of Palfeozoic 
Polyzoa without doing violence to constructed definitions. In the ab- 
sence, therefore, of any well-defined families in which the Carboniferous 
Polyzoa can be placed, I venture to group the whole of the forms under 
separate headings, which must be considered as provisional only. But to 
prevent any misconception as to the special characters of each group, I 
shall refer to the shape of the cell or zooecia especially, as the basis of 
my arrangement, allowing all the other characters to fall into their places 
as subordinate only. 

Fam. I. — Fenestellid.4!. 

Primary Char. — Polyzoary forming small or large fenestrated or non- 
fenestrated expansions. Cells placed biserially, or alternate, so as to form 
branches or 'interstices,' similar in many respects to the Genus Scrv^o- 
cellaria among living Polyzoa : cells bladder-like, margin of mouth raised 
and covered (?) by ' operculum ' during the life of the animal. The nearest 
living representative cell among the British Polyzoa figured by Hincks ^ 
is that of Alcyonidium albidum, with which I can compare generally the 
cells of the Fenestellidce. The foUovsdng genera are grouped provisionally, 
many details having yet to be worked out : — 

Genus I. Fenestella. — plebeia, polyporafa, memhranacea, in which 
the cells are biserially placed. 
„ II Fenestellina — nodulosa, actinosfoma, in which the cells are 

alternate, literally forming single rows. 
„ III. Glaucoxome — Only some of the species studied. 

Fara. II. — PoLYPORIDiE. 

Primary Char. — Polyzoary forming small and large fenestrated ex- 
pansions. Branches robust, cells placed contiguously in a slanting direc- 
tion over the branch, opening on one side only ; the cells on the margins of 
the branches (younger cells) nearly of the same shape as in the Fenes- 
tellidce ; the older cells in the innermost jiortion of the branches much 
compressed, but never pai'taking of a tubular character. 

Genus IV. Polypora. 

The cell-structure of the following genera is such as to warrant their 
separation from the whole of the above genera, but they are not suffi- 
ciently studied, neither are their details so well worked out as to enable 
me to suggest a projDer place for them at present. 
Genus I. Goniocladia, Etheridge, Jun. 

„ II. SynocJadia, „ „ "1 Two most distinct 

Synocladia, Toung and Young. J species. 

„ III. Hyphasmapora, Etheindge, Jun. 
,, rV. Thamniscus, Toung and Young. 
„ V. Sulcoretepora Bobertsoni, Young and Young. 

„ VI. ArchcBopora, De Koninck. 
All the above are types of distinct genera, and before they can be 
properly placed the Silurian, as well as the Permian Polyzoa must be 
carefully studied in the way that I have already suggested. 

For the present, too, I will catalogue the remainder of the Carboni- 
ferous Genera, reserving for the future more detailed arrangements. 
^ JB^'it. Marine Polyzoa, 1880, p. 500; vol. i. p. Ixx. ; vol. ii. figs. 8 to 10. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGKOUNI) WATERS. 87 

Genus VII. Rhahdomesoti, Young and Young. 
,, VIII. Gerlopora, Morris. 
„ IX. Bereiiicea, M'Coy = Ceramopora, Hall. 

I thus, for the present, conclude my report on the British species of 
Carboniferous Polyzoa. It would have been comparatively easy for me 
to have made it longer — it would have been difEcult indeed to have made 
it shorter. To the Palfeontologist the study of the Pateozoic Polyzoa 
opens up many very important biological details, for the connection of 
the Polyzoa with the Graptolites is a question that must be dealt with 
in detail; and the relationship of the Pateozoic to all other Polyzoa must 
be grappled with intelligently and dispassionately; and for this pur^Dose 
members of the Association could help either myself or others by furnish- 
ing materials for the study. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Evans, Professor T. G. 
BoNNEY, Mr. W. Carruthers, Mr. ' F. Drew, Mr. K. Etheridge, 
Jun., Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor L. C. Miall, Professor 
H. A. Nicholson, ]Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. E. B. Tawney, Mr. 
W. ToPLEY, and ]\Ir. W. Whitaker (Secretary), for carrying on 
the ' Geological Record.' 

Since the last meeting of the Association (at Sheffield) the fourth 
volume of the 'Geological Record' (for 1877) has been issued. The 
printing of the volume for 1878 has been begun, and some of the work 
for the 3'ears 1879 and 1880 has been started. . 

The following jiarticulars of the published volumes may be of in- 
terest, as showing the extent of the work : — - 

The first, for 1874, pp. xvi. 397 (= 413) contains over 2130 entries. 

The second, for 1875, pp. xx. 443 (= 463) „ „ 2360 

The third, for 1876, pp. xxii. 416 (= 438) „ „ 2370 

The fourth, for 1877, pp. xxvi. 432 (= 458). 

The volumes therefore average 443 pages and 2280 entries. 



Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Hull, the 
Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, Mr. Glaisher, Pro- 
fessor G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. Morton, Mr. Pen- 
GELLY, Professor Prestvvich, Mr. Plant, Mr. IMellard Reade, 
Mr. Roberts, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. De Range {Reporter), 
appointed for investigating the Circulation of the Underground 
Waters in the Permian, Neiv Red Sandstone, and Jurassic 
Formations of England, and the Qtiantity and Character of the 
Water supplied to toions and districts from those formations. 

Lancashire. — At Bootle, near Liverpool, an important boring has beeu 
carried to a depth of 1304 feet by Messrs. Mather and Piatt, for the 
Liverpool Corporation water-supply. The diameter is 25 inches to a 



88 EEPORT— 1880. 

depth of ]000 feet, and 20 inches beneath that limit. The watei*-level 
stood at 50 feet from the surface in the bore-hole before pumping com- 
menced. This level is about that at which water stood in the adjacent 
Bootle well, when not pumped some years ago. The character of the 
Pebble Beds is well seen in the quarry in which the old well is sunk, and 
in the large quarry higher up the hill, from which it is evident that the 
thickness of this division of the Bunter is not less than 1200 feet, instead 
of 600 to 800, as anticipated ; the base of the Pebble Beds was found in 
the boring at 1039 feet, where the Lower Mottled Sandstone was first 
penetrated, the rounded ' millet seed grain ' being specially charac- 
teristic. This structure is well seen in the Lower Mottled Sandstone of 
the Vale of Clywd. The Lower Mottled Sandstone in the Bootle boring 
becomes very hard and compact at 1228 feet from the surface, being 
cemented together by lime ; but the grain, when the rock is broken up, is 
seen to be the same. For details of this boring and for facilities to inspect 
the cores I have to thank Messrs. Mather and Piatt, of Salford Iron 
Works. 

Last year I stated the hai'd compact sandstone met with in the 
Bootle boring at a depth of 1228 feet from the surface probably belonged 
to the Lower Mottled Sandstone. I also called attention to the rounded 
character of the fragments of the soft sandstones lying between the base 
of the Pebble Beds, which occurred at 1039 feet, and the top of the hard 
bed just described, and I further attempted to show that this rounded, or 
' millet seed grain,' was present in the hard rock beneath, which is simply 
the softer sandstone cemented together by lime. The boring having 
failed to penetrate the hard rock, though carried to a total depth of 1304 
feet, left a certain amount of doubt as to the correctness of my identifica- 
tion. 

In February, 1879, I was unacquainted with any rock resembling the 
hard compact sandstone of Bootle ; in May of the same year I was much 
interested to recognise it in a series of samples of cores shown me by Mr. 
Timmins of Runcorn (the contractor for the well-borings and other works 
now being put down at Winwick near Warrington). On going through 
the series of specimens occurring beneath the hard band, I had the satis- 
faction of finding that the hard band at Winwick is underlaid as well as 
overlaid by soft running-sand, with a millet seed grain, the whole series 
most certainly belonging to the Lower Mottled Sandstone. Beneath them 
are 49 feet of indurated mottled grey and dark marls, and calcareous 
bands, overlying good limestone, which appears to precisely correspond to 
the Upper Coal-measure limestones near Manchester, and the limestones 
proved in the Clayton Vale Boring described in the ' Trans. Manchester 
Geol. Soc' 1879 by Mr. Atherton,the cores from which I had an opportunity 
of examining through the courtesy of Mr. Vivian, of the North of England 
Rock-boring Company. These coal-measure deposits occurring at a 
depth of only 340 feet or 113 yards from the surface, cannot but be re- 
garded as a discovery of the highest commercial importance, as well as of 
scientific interest; for, looking to the westei'ly attenuation of thickness of 
the Coal-measures of South Lancashire, there can be little doubt but that 
the Manchester coalfield will occur at a less depth beneath the limestones 
than at Manchester, in which case a valuable and workable coalfield may 
lie under the London and North- Westex'u Railway at Parkside, where a 
boring has also recently been can-ied out, and where the coal-measures 
have probably been reached at even a still smaller depth, but the par- 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND >V.\ TERS. 



89 



ticukrs of which I have not as yet been able to find time to procure, it 
necessitating a visit to Crewe, where the cores are preserved. 
The following is the journal of the Winwick boring : — 



ft. 



30 





127 


5 


172 


G 


182 





201 





212 





214 





22G 





252 


6 


270 


6 


276 


6 


298 


6 


329 


6 


340 


6 


351 


6 


360 





365 





369 





373 





385 





396 





399 





408 





412 






Moss 

Fine while sand 

Fine-grained sandstone 
r Coarse compact sandstone, \v:tl 
. ' millet seed ' grain and red mar 
[_ band 

Shaly marl . . 

Fine-grained (L.M.) sandstone 

Hard sandstone . 
„ f Sandy marl 
"'\Marl 

Calcareous sandstone . 

Marl 

Large-grained sandstone . 

Marl 

Soft white sand . 

Soft brown sand. 

Red sandstone . 

Mottled grey marl 

Dark mottled marl . 

Hard brown sandstone 

Brown marl 

Variegated marl 

Marl 

Limestone .... 

Marl 

IJmestone .... 

Compact limestone 



/ 



•1 



ft. in. 

28 S}^"^"^^- 

1)7 5 



45 1 

9 6 

19 

10 

2 

12 

26 6 

18 

6 

22 

31 

11 
11 \ 

8 6 

5 

4 

4 

12 ; 

11 

3 

!) 

4 



New Red Sand- 
stone, 310ft. 6 in. 



Upper Coal- 
measures, 
33 ft. 6 in. 



37 feet of 
limestones. 



The dip of the Pebble Beds in the neighbourhood is to the south-east 
and south, at low angles. In Nos. 1 and 2 shafts the strata consist of soft 
red moulding sand without pebbles, very easily worked. No. 3 shaft 
exhibits characteristic Pebble Beds, the current planes being covered with, 
dark mica ; the rock is hard and contains pebbles. No. 4 shaft, near the 
Spa Well, also is in undoubted Pebble Beds, thongh moderately hard, but 
contains many pebbles. 

A drift, or level, is being di'iven to this shaft from the pumping 
station 1200 yards distant, which will doubtless throw much light on the 
structure of these sandstones. A powerful spring of water was met with in 
No. 4 shaft, at a depth of abont 90 feet from the surface. 

The level of the Parkside wells of the North- "Western Railway v\ill be 
about 110 feet, that of Winwick pumping station 125 feet, that of the Spa 
Well about 96 feet, that of the Dallam Lane Porge well about 43 feet. 
Between Golborne and Parkside the Pebble Beds occnr dipping east; 
from Parkside to Spa Well they continue, but gradually change their 
direction of dip to south-east, as is well seen at Middleton Hall Quariy, 
near Spa Well. Had not this change of strike taken place the base of the 
Pebble Beds would have cropped out north of Winwick, instead of which 
they occupy a considerable tract around Golborne, and the thickness of 
triassic strata at Parkside would have been much less than at Winwick, 
1^ miles to the sonth, the strike of the rocks nearly coinciding in direction 
with a line drawn between the two wells. 

Between the Winwick pumping station and Dallam Lane Forge, 



90 BEPOKT— 1880. 

2^ miles distant, this is not the case ; the Pebble Beds at Hnlme Delf, 
south of Winwick, dip south, or directly at the Dallam works. The 
dip varies in different quarries from 4° to 8°. Taking it at 4°, and 
the base of the trias at Winwick at 215 feet below O.D., and assuming the 
surface of the coal-measures beneath the trias to correspond to the amount 
of dip, the base of the trias could be carried down 1000 feet at Dallam 
Lane Forge, or 1215 feet below O.D., and 1258 feet below the surface. 

The boring of which I gave details actually penetrated of this depth 
880 feet, the lowest beds met with being 70 feet of soft Lower 
Mottled Sandstone, with the millet-seed grain, occurring immediately 
beneath (pebble-bearing) Pebble Beds, so that these soft beds evidently 
belong to the uppermost portion of the Lower Mottled series. These we 
have seen at Winwick reach a thickness of more than 200 feet, and at 
Bootle boring of more than 300 feet, in the latter case without their base hav- 
ing been reached, so that they may possibly be 350 feet thick under War- 
rington, in which case their base will be 1230 feet beneath Dallam Lane 
Forge, which closely agrees with the calculation of the probable position 
of the base of the trias, based upon the observed dips at Winwick. There 
is therefore strong evidence to believe that the coal-measures underlie 
WaiTington at a depth of 400 yards, but at what angle and in what direc- 
tion they dip there is no evidence to show. The highest coals of the 
Wigan coalfield, the ' Ince Mines,' are striking nearly south, between Town 
Green, Ashton, and Edge Green, Golborne ; and did no lault intervene, 
their southern prolongation would pass through Newton Bridge and Great 
Sankey, but it is repeatedly thrown back westwards by faults, with 
westerly downthrows, so that the coal-measures between Winwick and 
Sutton, are entirely measures lying above the Lyons Delf of St. Helens, 
and probably in great part belong to the Upper or Manchester coalfield. 
In the centre of this tract a colliery has been sunk at Bold Moss, cast of 
St. Helen's Junction, for opportunities to view which, and for copies of 
the sections passed through, I have to thank Mr. Harbottle, the managing- 
director. Several coal-seams have been passed through, and these have 
been supposed to be identical with the upper seams of the St. Helen's 
field ; but after having the section drawn to scale, and compared with the 
neighbouring collieries, I am inclined to think that these coals are on a 
higher horizon, and probably belong to the Upper coal-measures. Pro- 
gressing westwards the first fault with an easterly downthrow is that 
passing through Whiston, which, with that passing Sutton Heath, throws 
in the remarkable trough of New Red Sandstone, extending from Rainhill 
to Eccleston Hill, which I have lately had the opportunity of examining in 
great detail ; and it will be noted that it is in this triangle that the small 
tract of Upper coal-measure limestone is brought by faults to the surfixce 
at Huyton, long since described by Mr. Binney and Prof. Hull. Here we 
have the normal south-west and north-east strike of this area, and should 
this continue eastwards, and the limestones proved at Winwick range in 
this direction with a south-easterly dip, the measures underlying the tiias 
of Warrington must be very considerably above the horizon of the lime- 
stones, and higher in the series than any coal-measures cropping to the 
surface in Lancashire. But should the limestones of Winwick belong to 
the same horizon as those of the Manchester coalfield, it is in the highest 
degree probable that another 600 feet, and possibly much less, would 
reach the Openshmv coal, or its equivalent. 

The soft ' millet-seed '-grained moulding sands of Town Green near 



Upper 
Mottled 
Sandstone. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGBODND WATERS. 91 

Ormskirk belong to the Upper Mottled Sandstone, but occupy a lower 
horizon in it than the more compact sandstones faulted in west of the 
railroad, in which the principal well-borings of the Southport Waterworks 
have been carried. But the soft beds aflPord the water-bearing horizon, in 
the wells of the Widness Local Board, at Stocks wells and Netherley. 

For similar facilities I have to thank Mr. Beck, of Dallam Lane Forge, 
Warrington, for a boring made at that place. From an inspection of the 
cores, in company vnth my colleague, Mr. Strahan, we constructed the 
following journal : — • 

feet. X 

1. Boulder clay and drift 30 

2. Red and pale yellow, soft rock . . . HSO 

3. Red and white ditto, .slickensides . 
384 feet. Fault. 

r Flaggy micaceous sandstone ... .1 i 

4. < Red sandstone and thin shale bands . . • 218 
600 „ |_ Micaceous flags and slickensides . . . j 

5. Red and white sandstone . . . . 1 50 
752 „ Fault. 

r Pebble 

6. Red Sandstone with pebbles .... 58 i , -. 

r Lower 

887 „ 7. Soft Red Sandstone 70s Mottled 

L Sandstone. 
The water pumped was found to be salt : — 

At a depth of 227 feet from surface 40 gTains of salt per gal. 
„ o4o „ „ 1(0 ,, ,, 

390 „ „ 300 

„ 445 „ „ 750 

500 „ „ 1246 

600 „ „ 1575 

68(1 „ „ 3100 

7o(; „ „ 4000 

818 .. • „ 4.500 

At Dallam Lane Forge boring, as stated above, distinct traces of a 
fault occur at 384 feet, and at 752 feet, and Mr. Beck found the beds 
in his opinion turned on end in the former. That one fault occurs 
ranging up from the south side of the river is undoubted, and I was 
inclined with others to attribute the brine spring met with to the action 
of this fault, leading the brine from the salt district in the Keiiper 
Marls to the south. But during the past year, after careful study of the 
action of faults on the passage of water, I have given up this position as 
untenable. 

Where two porous permeable rocks are thrown against each other by a 
fault, the dislocation offers little resistance to the passage of water through 
the faults, and affords no facilities for its passage along its length, either 
between its walls or along the face of the upcast slope. 

Where two impermeable beds of shale or clay are thrown against each 
other, the fissure of the fault is narrow, so that it seldom includes foreign 
material, and water can neither pass through nor along it. 

Where permeable formations are thrown against impermeable rocks, 
by faults, the district is divided into watertight compartments ; water 
flowing down the dip planes of the strata, ponding up on the dip side, 
travels along the face of the fault, and rises until it escapes where the porous 
rock crops to the surface, and is cut off by the fault, the course of which is 
marked by a line of springs. h 



92 



REroRT — 1880. 



In the case of the fault traversing Warrington from the south, the 
fissure of the fault in the salt-bearing marls would be close, and unavail- 
able as a duct, and supposing even brine-laden water to have sunk into 
the sandstones beneath, these being porous would not absorb it equally in 
all directions, and would be incapable of conveying it, in the fissure of the 
fault, to their outcrop to the north, under Warrington. 

Looking to the probable proximity of the coal-measures to the sur- 
face, and that salt-springs occur in many coalfields, and, indeed in the 
Wigan coalfield, near Worthington, I am inclined to believe the brine- 
springs of Dallam Lane to be of coal-measure origin. 



Appendix I. — Borings in Lancashire Trias, collected hy C. E. De Range, 

Assoc, Inst. C.E. 

Boring executed by the North of England Rock-boring Company, 
Mr. Vivian, C.E., Manager, at Mr. James Hull's brewery, Preston, 1880. 
Surface about 105 feet above the Oi'dnance Datum line. 



^Well, probably in Middle (Glacial) Drift 

Muddy sand and clay 

Fine gravel and sand 

Hard sand .... 

Dry muddy sand 

Hard brown ' piunel ' 

Brown sandy ' pinnel ' 

Hard dry sand .... 

Hard dry muddj' sand 
,Red sand 

Hard red sandstone . 

Red sandstone .... 

Soft red sandstone . 

Light red sandstone (O.D. level occurs, 
part) ..... 

Red sandstone, very full of mica 

Red and grey sandstones, mixed, full 

Red .sandstone .... 

Soft red sandstone 

Coarse red sandstone 

Red sandstone 

Pink shale .... 

Red sandstone 

Rough red sandstone 



1 



Middle 
Drift 
58' 6" 

Equivalent 

of Lower • 

Boulderclay 

2.S' G" 



/ 



uppe: 



of mica 



ft. 


in 


45 


6 


4 


6 


3 


6 


6 





6 


G 


2 


6 


■^ 





3 





4 





4 


G 


7 





8 





3 


c 


8 


6 


23 


6 


14 





15 


7 


7 


1 


30 


S) 


17 


2 


o 





9 


3 



14 6 



246 10 



The water in this bore-hole rises within 40 feet of the surface, and its level is 
stated not to be connected with that of the water, in the well, derived from the 
Glacial Drift deposits. The rock passed through is a compact coarse sandstone, with 
occasional pebbles, micaceous partings, and thin shale beds, and it affords character- 
istic samples of the pebble beds of the Trias. 

Southport AVaterworks Co. Lim., per Mr. W. Harper, Secretary. 

Information arranged and notes by C. E. De Ranee. 

1. Aughton, near Ormskirk. la. 1867. Other bore-holes since well not deepened 
3. 180 ft., 10'+ 6' 8" oval, 4 bore-holes, 9-42 ft., 222 feet from surface. 3«. One due 
west 100 yds., much water in fault.; one north 17 yds.; one south 20 yds. 4. 110- 
112 ft., with constant pumping. The drift level, 144 ft. from surface, is not jjumped 
down to with two engines. 43. Came to sm-face. 7. No. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



93 



Per imperial gallon. 

8. Actual and saline ammonia ()001 

Ammonia from organic matter 0001 

Nitrogen as nitrates 

Oxygen required to oxidise organic matter . . . O'OIO 

Lime 5544 

Magnesia 2-474 

Alkalies not ammonic ....... 1-190 

Chlorine 1-340 

iSiilphuric anhydride . . . . . . . 2-114 

Nitric acid 

Carbonic anhydride 5-89." 

Silica, aluminia, &c 0-800 

Hardness 18-0 

Ditto after boiling 3-3 

It is an extremely pure water. 

C. Meymott Tidy, M.A., M.B., 

Laboratory, London Hospital. 



9. Soil 

Strong clay 
Sand and gravel 
Strong clay 
Quick sand 
Strong clay 
Red sandstone 
Ditto in bore-hole 




\ 



40' 6" 



Well, ISO'O'' 



222 



Fault with much water between Parliament Shaft and Pilot Shaft, cut in drift 
10 to 15 feet from former shaft, and again in "West drift from Pilot Shaft. 

lO. No. 11. Are none. 12. Yes. 13. No. 1ft. No. 15. No. 

South port Waterworks Co. Lim., per Mr. W. Harper, Secretary. 

1. Scarisbrick. la. 1854 ; not deepened, and no bore-holes. 3. 124 ft.; no 
bore-hole. 3fl. None. 4. Not pumping, water stands near surface, and drains away 
into Old Quarry. 4a. Same. 5. Formerly pumped. 6. No. 7. No. 8. Requires 
filtering through Mr. Spencer's Carbide. 

Hardness 20° analysed by Thos. Spencek, F.C.S., 

Euston Square. 



9. Soil and clay 
Freestone rock 



ft. 


in 


5 





115 






120 
lO. No. 11. None. 12. Yes. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Southport Waterworks Co. Lim., per Mr. W. Harper, Secretary. 

1. Springfield, near Town Green. 1«. 1876-9. Not completed. 3. 232 ft. 
loi'x 6. Two shafts. 3«. 135 ft. (39' high, by 6', then 15' high). 4. Always 
pumping, 125 ft. to water; when stopped, at surface. 4^7. At surface. 5. Half- 
million gallons without lowering. 6. Does not vary; new well. 7. No. 

8. Taken at 250 ft. from surface (bore-hole in well). 

Per imperial gallon. 

Actual and saline ammonia 0001 

Ammonia from organic matter O-OOO 

Nitrogen as nitrates 



94 



REPORT — 1880. 



Oxygen required to oxidise organic matte: 

Lime . 

Magnesia , 

Alkalies not ammonia 

Chlorine 

Sulphuric anhydride 

Nitric acid 

Carbonic anhydride 

Silica and alumina 

Hardness . 

Ditto after boiling 



0-007 
4-682 
2-298 
0-920 
1-440 
2-013 

5-123 
0-100 
14-8 
5-1 



The waters from four feeders at 100, 200, 210, and 225 feet from sm-face, contain less 
lime, magnesia, and sulphuric and carbonic anhydride. 

The water is of very great purity. I obtained no evidence of organic nitrogen 
whatever. 

C. Meymott Tidy, M.A., M.B., 

Laboratory-, London Hospital. 



/Soil . . , . 
Sand 

Soily clay 
Gravel and sand . , ! 
Clay . . . 1 ft. in. 

Gravel and sand (water) / 79 
Sandy clay 
Sand and gravel . 
Strong clay 
Sandj' gravel 
Soft red sandstone in well 
„ bore-hole 



9. 



ft. 


in 


1 





3 





5 





15 





16 





1 


6 


15 


6 


2 





5 





15 






153 
20 

252 



Mr. Mason, Manager Southport Waterworks, Springfield Station. 

Boring made by Mr. Mason, in field at Old Quarry, north-west of 
Town Gi-een Station. 

Soil 10 

Clay 19 

Sandy clay 8 6 

Freestone 134 3 

Very light rock .,,.,. ..20 

Blue rock 6 

Red sandstone, soft 1516 

300 

Boring made by Mr. Mason, in field near Gerrard Hall, east of Town 
Green Station. 

Clay 8 

Gravel (water) - 2 

Red sandstone 290 

300 

lO. No. XI. Are none. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

* The section of these drift deposits has been published by Mr. G. H. Morton, 
F.G.S., in Proceedings Liverpool Geolog. Soc, vol. iv. pari iii. p. 370, 1879. 



ON THE CIUCULATION OF UNDEUGROUND WATEKy. 95 

Mr. Arthur Tiininina, Stud. Inst. C.E. 

Boring executed in 1880 by Uv. J. Timmin.s, of Runcorn, at Burscough 
Bridge, for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 

feet 

(ilacial drift (sand and gravel) -jiO 

lied marl ........... 20 

Loose rock ........... 23 

Solid red and brown sandstone, brown conglomerate at base . 102 

451 

The volume of water is stated by Mr. A. Timmins to have increased 
much on reaching the solid rock at 289 feet from the surface. 

No section of the rock is visible very close to the boring, but as Upper 
Mottled Sandstone is seen both to the N.E. and S.W. of it, the rock first 
inet with probably belongs to this formation, and is so represented on the 
map of the Geological Survey. These beds reach a thickness in the 
district of above 400 feet, and as the first 289 feet consisted entirely of 
drift, the upper beds here have doubtless been denuded away, and only 
about 111 feet would probably be left. The boring penetrated 185 feet of 
rock, consisting of red and brown sandstone, at the bottom of which was 
a coar.se brown conglomerate, which is probably the conglomerate I found 
occurring at the top of the Lower Keuper Sandstone, near Orrel, east of 
Waterloo and north of Liverpool. 

Well and bore-hole at the works of Messrs. Bayley & Craven, at 
Ayecroft, Pendleton, near Manchester. Well 32 feet deep, 6 feet diameter. 
From bottom 2 tunnels diverge, and extend about 50 feet, containing 
when full upwards of 500 cubic yards. 

The bore-hole is 403 feet deep from the bottom of well ; the first 312 
feet is 18 inches' drain ; the remaining, 91 feet 15 inches. 

The whole depth is in New Red Sandstone, 403 feet. 

This well yielded upwards of 5,000,000 gallons per day, on Novem- 
ber 28, 1859. 

Borings in the Trias and Permians of the Midland Counties collected 
by C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S. 

Bore-hole at Allford Green, one mile east of Childs Ercall. Carried 
out for Mr. Reg. Corbet by Mr. A. Bosworth. Obtained by Mr. J. Dickin- 
son, H.M. Inspector of Mines. 

Red sandstone ^qq 

» „ with pebbles ] §0 

Dark purple marl alternating with beds of red sandstone, 8 ft' 

to 40 ft. ' ; 320 

Dark red, and a little blue marl . . . . [ ! 110 
Alternating grey, brown, and red sandstone, with (coal- 
measure ?) plants JO 

Conglomerate similar to tliat of Silverdale . . . . 10 

1060 
Some further particulars of the Leamington Waterworks are given by 

Mr. G. B. Jerrara, C.E., engineer. 

The wells are situated on the north-cast side of the town, at the foot 

of the Newbold Hills, about 214 feet above the level of the sea ; the deepest 

boring IS 248 feet deep, or 34 feet below it. 

A 20-feet well is carried to a depth of 113 feet, An adjoinino- well 



96 



BEPOKT 1880. 



7 feet G inches diameter, is down to 110 feet, and from it a tunnel about 
6 feet high, to the other well. From the larger well a 20-inch bore-hole is 
carried down to 212 feet 6 inches from the surface. From the smaller 
well another 20-inch bore-hole is carrieddown to 210 feet from the surface, 
and with a 1 2-inch diameter to a further distance, in all 242 feet 6 inches 
from the surface. 

The beds passed through by the wells consist of brown soft sandstone, 
with bands of white sandstone, hard rag, and marl partings. The bore- 
holes pass through hard red, white sandstone, with red marl partings, the 
last bed bored through being soft marl, with streaks of hard, 10 feet in 
thickness. 

Borings in the Trias, on the north and south banks of the Tees, col- 
lected by C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S. 

The Triassic sandstones seen in the banks of the Tees, in the direction 
of Stockton, dip to the S.E., and the dip obtains in the Middlesboro' salt 
area, as the salt deposit was met with at a shallower level at Messrs. Bell's 
boring, north of that of Messrs. Bolckow & Vaughans. Still fui-ther north 
there is a local roll on the coast near Greatham, close to which there is a 
boring, 1^ miles W. of Seaton Carew, 529 feet deep. 

A bore-hole was put down in 1828 by Mr. Fletcher, at Oughton, 
about a mile north of Greatham, and two west of Seaton Carew. Details 
given by Mr. Peacock, C.B., ' Trans. Cleveland L. and P. Soc.,' 1880 :— 



p 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 



Thickness, 
ft. in. 
Soil . . . . \ 10 

Gravel, with water . 11 

Blue clay, very strong . 27 
Sand, with a little water 1 8 

Blue clay, very strong . 8 6 

Red sand ... 36 

Sandy clay ... 52 

Red sand ... 1 82 

Blue clay . . . ) 136 3 10 

Sandy clay ... 16 

Sand, with a little water 8 

Clay, very strong, pebbles 24 
Grey freestone . . 2 

Grey sand ... 42 

Clay, very strong . . 19 

Clay brown, very fair . J 9 1 

Brown freestone 5 

Grey metal 7 5 

Brown post, with girdles 3 

Red stone 12 7 

"White post, very strong, metal partings . . .54 

Grey metal 12 

Red freestone 4 1 

White post 3 2 

Red freestone 15 

Post girdles 9 

Red freestone 22 10 

Blue metal 3 6 

Red freestone 116 

Blue metal 2 

Red freestone, post 6 

White post girdles . . . . . . . .06 

Blue metal . 16 



ox THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



97 



1880. 



:;l 



38. 
31t. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
4G. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
«5. 
■66. 
«7. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
S2. 
83. 
Si. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 

\n. 

92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 



Red freestone, post 
AVliite post girdles , 
Red freestone, post 
White post 
Red metal 
White post girdles . 
Red freestone, post 
White post 
Red freestone, post 
Whin girdles . 
Red freestone, post 
Stron.ij whin girdles 
Red metal 
Strong whin girdles 
Red metal 
Strong brown post, with metal partings 
Red metal 
Grey metal 
Red freestone, post 
Red bastard whin . 
Red metal 
Strong whin girdles 
Red metal 
White post girdles . 
Red metal 
White post girdles . 
Red metal and white 
Red metal 
White post girdles . 
White stone, resembling spar 
Red metal 

Bastard whin girdles 
Red metal 

Bastard whin girdles 
Soft red freestone, metal partings 
Red metal 
Red freestone, post 
Red metal 

Brown freestone, post 
Red metal 
White post 
Red metal 

Brown freestone, post 
Red metal 
White post 
Red metal 

Brown freestone, post 
Red metal, ver}' strong 
„ „ soft 
Brown freestone, post 
Red metal 

Brown freestone, post 
Red metal, strong . 



Strong brown post, with feeder of 

White post girdles . 

Red metal 

White post girdles . 

Red metal, with post girdles 

Strong brown post . 

Red metal, 329 ft. 9 in. 

Coal 



water 



Thickness 


ft. 


in. 


13 








6 


8 


6 


6 





12 








6 


6 








6 


17 


2 





4 


17 


2 





2 


2 








8 


3 





4 





6 





3 


2 


17 


6 





10 





2 





8 


9 








4 


13 


8 





2 


6 


2 


1 


6 





8 





4 





4 





6 





2 





5 


3 


6 


1 


6 


2 


7 





4 


15 


8 





8 


1 


1 





6 


6 


6 





6 


2 








4 


2 





1 





1 


2 


3 


10 





8 


3 


4 


1 


6 





6 


3 








2 


1 





10 


14 


4 


3 








4 





4 



98 



HEPORT 1880. 



t)G. Red metal 

'.)7. „ strong 

98. Strong freestone, post 

<J9. Soft i-ed metal 

100. r>rown whin . 

101. „ freestone . 

102. „ whin 

103. ,, freestone . 

104. „ whin 

105. White stone, resembling spar 

106. Brown freestone 

107. „ whin . 

108. Strong white post . 

109. „ whin post . 

110. White whin . 

111. Strong white stone 

112. „ grey post . 

113. ,, blue post . 

114. Blue metal 

115. Brown stone . 



Boring at Old Brewery, iSTorton Street, Stockton. 
Sheet 50 Durham : — 



Made groiuid 
Black sand . 
Jight-colom-e<l sand 
Loamy clay 
Brown strong clay 
Dark sand . 
Brown strong clay 
Sand, with water 
Clay, with stone 
Yellow freestone 
Rough gravel under 
Hard red sandstone 
Red sand and mould 
Soft red metal 
Hard red sandstone 
Soft red metal . 
Hard red sliale . 







Tliic- 


kuc 






fl. 


in 






. ] 

i; 










I 


>> 






J 




10 






.> 


4 






n 


/ 






~) 


7 








•> 


K 






4 

1 



1 






1 

i» 
1 


1 

1 
11 






1 



1 

c, 


1} 

i; 

7 












517 


'^t 


Geological 


Fm. 


ft 


. in. 







] 


2 







4 


10 







2 


1(1 




5 


2 







1 





I'l 




1 


4 


(1 




3 


2 


4 







:i 


(1 




2 













2 


('> 







1 


c 




4 


1 







2 


3 


<; 




1 





(1 




5 


."i 


i; 




1 


4 


i> 




1 


.> 


1 





burvey 



Section by Mr. John Marley, C.E. Sunk through Kcw IJcJ iMarls 
to the Permian, commenced Jnly, 1859. Diameter, 1 foot G inches. 
Boring ceased August 29, 1863, at Bolckow & Vanghaus', iliddles- 
brough . 



Depth 




Tliii: 


^iie 


ft. in. 




fr. 


ill 


11 


Shaft : — made ground .... 


. 1 1 


U 


19 


Dry slime or river mud .... 


■S 


II 


29 


Sand with water 


. Ill 


il 


39 


Hard clay (dry) 


. lit 


II 


40 


Red sand witli a little water , . 


1 


(1 


43 


I'Oamy 


.! 


il 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDEKGKOUND WATERS. 



09 



Depth 












Thicki 


("'>S 


ft. in. 


)'r. 


ill. 


58 


Hard clay (dry) 1 ."; 





69 


Rock mixed with clay and water 






11 


(1 


70 


dry .... 






1 





76 


gypsum .... 






6 





78 


Gypsum and water .... 






»> 





133 


Red sandstone, with veins of gypsum 






55 





139 


Gypsum, with clay .... 






6 





140 


Brown shale, with water . 






I 





144 


Red sandstone .... 






4 





156 


„ „ with small veins of sulphate of 


lime 


12 





159 


Blue posts stone, with water in both 






3 





178 


Red sandstone, with water 






19 





615 4 


Bm-ing : — Red sandstone . 






437 


4 


616 10 


Red and white „ . . . 






1 


6 


832 5 


Red sandstone 






215 





833 5 


„ „ and clay, ' 1 

52 
„ and clay L 130 feet. >» 

« „ 66 
V Strong clay 2 





885 8 


3 


894 8 





961 1 


5 


963 10 


!» 


965 4 


Red sandstone 1 


6 


992 9 


Red sandstone 




27 


5 


1001 9 


Red sandstone and clay .... 




9 





1051 1 


Ditto, with seam of blue rock IJ inch at 1005 




49 


4 


1052 6 


Red and blue sandstone .... 




1 


•> 


1058 6 


Red sandstone 




6 


i^' 


1059 11 


Red sandstone, and thin veins of gypsum 




1 


.*>. 


1099 7 


J» >J 97 




39 


•S^ 


1100 9 


Red and blue clay and gypsum 




1 


2 


1188 


„ „ with veins of gypsum 






H7 


:} 


1191 2 


Gypsum ...... 






3 


•> 


1191 10 


White stone ... 













8 


1194 6 


Limestone 










2 


8 


1194 8 


Blue rock 













2 


1194 10 


Blue clay 













2 


1195 8 


Hard blue and red rock . 













10 


1198 3 


White stone 










2 


7 


1199 5 


Dark red rock 










1 


2 


1206 


Dark red rock, rather salt 










C 


7 


1218 7 


' Salt rock, rather dark (i.) \ 1 2 


7 


1222 8 


„ „ very dark (ii.) 4 


1 


1226 2 


. „ „ light (iii.) 1 icrt.r, 3 

1 „ „ rather dark (iv.) H*^*^'' 27 


(? 


1253 6 


4 


1297 


„ very light (v.) 43 
\ „ „ rather lighter (vi.) J 9 


(■» 


1306 





1307 


Limestone .1 





1313 4 


/ Conglomerate ; this rock resem 
\ contains much salt 


blesl 


imest 


one, 


a.nd"l 


6 


4 



Analysis of Salt No. F.' 



NaCl .... 


. 96-63 


CaSO, .... 


. 309' 


Mg.SO, 


08 


Na,SO^ .... 


•10 


Li.O, .... 


•06 


Fe,03 


. traces 


HoO .... 


. 0-4 



Trans. A\ of England I. of M.E. vol. xiii. p. 10. 
H 2 



100 



REPORT — 1880. 



I have to thank Mr. Allison, of Guisborough, for a section of strata 
bored through by the Diamond Drill Co., Saltholme Farm, on the Durham 
side of the Tees, for Messrs. Bell, Bros., December 15, 1874. 



No. 


Strata 


Thickness 
ft. in. 


Depth 
ft. in. 


Remarks 


1 


Soil \ 


1 


6 


1 


6 




2 


Clay 
Dark sand 




4 





5 


6 




3 




7 


6 


13 







4 


Clean sand 


- Drift, 770 


26 





39 







5 


Red clay 




3 





42 







6 


Sand and gravel 




8 





50 







7 


Boulder clay ) 




27 





77 







8 


Red marl 


73 





150 







9 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






144 





294 







10 


White saaidstone 






1 


3 


295 


3 




11 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






153 


9 


449 







12 


Red sandstone .... 






10 





459 







13 


Soft marl 






3 





462 







14 


Red sandstone .... 






6 





468 







15 


Blue vein 









10 


468 


10 




16 


Red sandstone .... 






31 


2 


500 







17 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






27 





527 







18 


Soft marl 






4 





531 







19 


Red sandstone .... 






29 





560 







20 


„ „ with veins of marl 






49 





609 







21 


Soft marl ..... 






6 





615 







22 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






31 





646 







23 


» t* j» 






6 





652 







24 


Marl, with blue veins and sandstone 






17 





669 







25 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






66 





735 







26 


Blue vein ..... 









7 


735 


7 




27 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






13 


5 


749 







28 


Strong marl 






9 


6 


758 


6 




29 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl . 






26 


6 


785 







30 


Blue vein 









3 


785 


3 




31 


Strong marl .... 






6 


3 


791 


6 




32 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl . 






30 


6 


822 







33 


Strong marl and sandstone 






17 





839 







34 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






16 





855 







35 


Strong marl .... 






20 





875 







36 


Red sand and marl 






5 





880 







37 


Red sandstone, with veins of marl 






14 





894 







38 


Strong marl, with veins of sandstone 




6 





900 







39 






23 





923 







40 


Strong marl, with veins of gypsum . 




7 





930 







41 


Mixed marl and sandstone 




27 





957 







42 


Marly sandstone, with veins of gypsum 




141 





1098 







43 






4 





1102 







44 


Hard white stone .... 




3 


9 


1105 


9 




45 


Gypsum 




3 


6 


1109 


3 




46 


Marly sandstone, very salt 




1 


1 


1117 


4 
















/40to 45 per 














cent, of 


47 


Decayed red marl, with salt 


10 


3 


1127 


7 


salt, only 

- 3 ft. core, 

fresh wa- 


48 


Red rock salt 


9 





1136 


7 














ter being 














\ used. 


49 


Rock salt 


66 


5 


1203 







50 


Salt, with marl ai 


id gypsum 




1 


19 





1222 








ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



101 



No. 



51 
52 
53 
54 

55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 



Strata 



Gypsum, containing salt . 

Soft shale, with salt and gypsum 

Soft white shale . 

Gypsum and anhydrite 

Magnesian limestone (liberation of 

Grey limestone 

Gypsum .... 

,, containing salt 
Rock salt .... 
Marl, containing salt . 
Marl, with gypsum 
Impure salt .... 



gas) 



Thickness Depth 
ft. in. ft. in. 



7 

7 

2 

23 



1229 

1236 

1238 

1261 



52 11313 



15 

8 

1 
14 

2 
1 
1 



1328 

1336 

1337 
1351 

1353 

1354 

1355 



Remarks 



m 



A boring for coal was commenced in 1856, for Lord Falkland, 
Kirklivington, and carried on in 1857 and 1858, under the superintendence- 
of my friend Mr. P. S. Reid, M.B. :— 



1. Reddish clay 

2. Fine sand 

3. Coarse sand 

4. Fine sand 

5. Reddish clay 

6. Yellow sandstone . 

7. White sandstone, hard . 

8. Sand and gravel 

9. White sandstone 

10. Sand and gravel 

11. Light bluish sandstone . 

12. White sandstone, extra hard 

13. Light fire clay . 

14. Light fake (Scotch for shale) 

15. Red sandstone, in one bed 

16. Red fake and ' blae ' (Scotch 

stone) 

17. Red sandstone, hard 

18. „ „ soft 

19. „ fake and blae . 

20. Sandstone, extra hard 

21. Fake .... 

22. Sandstone, extra hard 

23. Fake . . 

24. Sandstone 

25. Fake .... 

26. Sandstone 

27. Fake and clay . 

28. Sandstone 

29. Clay 

30. Light red sandstone. 

31. Red sandstone in bed 

32. „ „ . . . 

33. Magnesian limestone (?) . 

34. Red fake .... 

35. „ fake and clay . 

36. ,, fire clay . 

37. Magnesian limestone (?) . 

38. Fake and clay 

39. Magnesian limestone 

40. Red fake and clay . 



for 



sand 



ft. in. 



Drift. 
109 2 



76 3 



ft. in. 


27 


7 


4 a 


10 


51 


8 


9 


4 


1 6 


3 3 


119 10 


11 


1 5 


2 6 


204 3 


1 


1 1 


18 


3 


2 3 


7 3 


2 6 


7 8 


4 


4 8 


2 1 


2 g 


3 9 


7 


1 9 


13 9 


3 


6 9 


3 


8 8 


9 5 


6 8 


2 3 


1 6 


5 1 



102 



REPOKT — 1880. 



41. Sandstone, hard .... 

42. „ in bed .... 

43. Light red sandstone, hard 

44. Red sandstone, extra hard 

45. „ ,, and beds of fake 

46. „ shale with bands of red sandstone 

47. Grey pyritic sandstone . 

48. Eed shale with beds of hard red sandstone 

49. Gypmmi, (called ' chalk and pipe clay,' by men 

50. Red shaly sandstone .... 

51. „ sandstone with a shaly appearance . 

52. Shaly sandstone and gypsum . 

53. Sandstone, with carb. and sulph. of lime 

54. Ditto . . 

.55. Ditto 



ft. 


in. 


9 


1 


4 


9 


4 





I 


4 


6 


^ 


16 


n 


1 





24 


3 





9 


6 


9 


20 


6 


20 





17 


6 


6 





14 


6 



710 



Mr. Reid is of opiiiion that the beds 33, 37, and 39 are not tmly 
referable to the magnesian limestone ; Mr. Morley, C.E., however, con- 
sidered these beds to belong to that formation, and the lower part of the 
boring to be in the Lower Permian Sandstone. 

Still farther west, two borings for coal were put down at Woodhead, 
near Great Smeaton, in 1789, by General Lambton, the one 396 feet deep, 
the other 444 feet. 

The following section is given in the Geological Society's 'Transactions,' 
vol. iv. : — 



1. 

2. 

3. 

1. 

.5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 



ft. 
24 



WooAUeaA Borings, 1789. 



in. 
9 



r Soil and brown clay 
\ Dark strong clay, witli white boulders 
Red metal stone with grey girdles 
Red stone with white girdles . 
Grey and white stone 
' Gypsum, with flinty lumps 
116 6 j Blue whin, with sulphur water 
j Strong white post, whin girdles 
Bastard whin .... 
231 3 ( Strong white post with whin girdles 

I Blue grey metal stone with white scars 

1 Gj-psum 

I Soft red stone ..... 
Red and white post .... 
Wiite post with red scars 
Eed, white, and grey post, red partings 
^ Soft blue-grey metal 
Grey and white post .... 
I Strong blue-grey stone 
Strong white and grey stone . 
189 4 -l Whin ...... 

Mixture, whin 

Strong white calcareous post and 
girdles . 



white 



ft. 


in. 


4 





20 


9 


48 





31 


3 


4 





7 





1 


6 


6 


6 


12 





36 


6 


8 





2 


6 


6 





19 





18 





27 





4 





33 





5 





60 





3 





9 





99 


4 



445 4 



The 190 feet of white sandstone in the boring has been referred by some 
to the millstone grit, but probably belongs to the waterstone, as suggested 
by Mr. Peacock. He stated the sulphur spring met with in the boring. 



ON THE CIHCULATION OF DNDERG BOUND WATEliS. 



lo: 



used ut Middleton Spa, was also found in a search fov gypsum, in a 
boring- at Ormesbarg (Mr. Pennyman's lodge-gates,) near Middlesborough, 
in 18-")1, at a depth of 40 feet, the section being: — 

ft. in. 

( 'lay and sand 7 

itod clay 1*0 

lilue metal . . . . • • • .30 
Ironstone girdle . . . • • • ' *^ '^ 
];iue metal, with sulphur water at 10 ft. . .16 8 

41 

Two miles norfch-west of the Woodhead boring at Eryholme, a boring 
was put down in 1809, by Mr. George Allan, M.P., of which the following 
account is given by Mr. Peacock : — 



Sand .... 

Clay and cobble stones . 

(Quicksand 

( 'obbles and sand . 

Ued sand jsost (water) . 

Grey sand jsost 

Ditto, rather hard clay folio 

lied soft sand post 

Strong red post . 

Soft red post, not so red 

Hard dark-red post 

Clay and post 

Red post 

Flooring . .^ Grey 

Hard grey post . / beds 



wing 




Drift, '. 
VA ft. . 





ft. 


in. 


12 





Hi 





2 





4 





60 





3 





121 





3 





300 





12 





90 





3 





24 





1 





12 






666 



Coatham Boring, 1867, (communicated by Mr. Peacock, M.E.) :- 



1. 
3. 



•Ji 


1 


CS 








^ 


.J 


53^ 


c. 


fc 


7 


o 


8 


hJ 




•J 




10 








rii 


o 


12 


..J 


13 




14 








li> 


■ 


flO 


s 


17 


s 


18 


^ ^ 


19 






a 


20 


K 


SI 


W 


<>•> 



Clay 

Blue shale, with dagger band 

Nodular band 

Blue shale . 

Nodular band 

Blue shale . 

Nodular band 

Blue shale . 

Bastard post grey 

Blue shale, with hard band 

Dark shale, with sulphuretted band . 

White and grey post, with water (brine) . 

Bed and white mottled post, andblue and white 

Dark blue metal, with whin girdles . 

White shale 

Red marl, mixed with gypsum 

Whin band 

Red marl . 



Whin band 
Red marl, strong 
Gypsum 
Red marl . 



118 6 



Depth 


Thickness 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


6 


6 




39 




1 6 




1 8 




2 




6 4 




1 6 




21 




5 




33 


or. 


12 




9 




12 




19 


23 


18 




74 




2 




23 




3 




7 




1 4 


341 


9 



104 KEPORT 1880. 

Works for the manufacture of salt formerly existed at Tod Point ; bat, 
Mr. Peacock states, whether sea water or the brine spring from the sea 
was used, is doubtful. About 1856, a 6-feet shaft was sunk on the marsh 
near Coatham, by the late Mr. Slate, of Redcar, in a fruitless seai'ch for 
coal ; a strong brine was met with, to find which, the above boring was 
put down, but the brine spring met with did not realise expectation. 

This boring is valuable as showing the actual junction of the lias and 
marls with gypsum, which latter, as pointed out by Mr. Peacock, are 28 
yards thick in the Middlesboro' boring. The limestones, thick salt-beds, 
and gypsum in that boring, are probably referable to the Permian ; the 
intervening beds of red sandstone, 673 feet, are probably referable to the 
Water Stones and Lower Mottled Banter, the Upper ^lottled and Pebble 
Beds having thinned out. 

It would appear that a gradual overlap eastwards takes place in all 
the Triassic strata, along a north-east and south-west line, the more marked 
transgression being that at the base of the Keuper Water- stones, and at 
the base of the Pebble Beds of the Bunter, lines of extensive erosion 
occurring at the base of the Keuper building stones and conglomerates, 
and on the base of the Pebble Beds of the Bunter. The great thickness 
of these Triassic deposits in the north-west, is proved by these borings, 
and their thinning out to the south-east is established, and has an im- 
portant bearing on the depth to concealed coalfields as well as on the 
water-bearing capacity of the Triassic sandstones. 

NoUinghamsMre.—Vxoi. Hull, F.R.S. 

Retford. — 2 wells in breweries, with good supply, 6 feet from surface, 
600 feet in Keuper marl in the Bunter series. 

Mr. C. Tomlinson, C.E., Rotherham. 

Section of strata at boring of Retford Coal Co.'s boring at East 
Retford, Notts : — 

ft. in. 

Soft red marl and sandstone 116 

Red and grey marlstone and grey pumice . . . . 30 C 

Red sandstone 123 

Grey and red marl 3 

Red sandstone . . . , . , . . . 92 6 

Red sandstone and gravel 16 

Red sandstone 230 

Red marl and gravel 16 

Red sandstone 142 6 

Pebbles or conglomerate 8 

Red sandstone 70 

Red marl 3 

Red sandstone 69 

Red and grey marl mixed with red and white sandstone . 99 
Red marl and limestone 7 



902 



Devonshire. — Mr. Thos. S. Stooke, C.E., Shrewsbury. 
Bridge Mills, Silverton, South Devon. 

Information obtained January 1879, yield about 315,000 in twenty-fonr 
Lours. Strata passed through : — 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDEIIGIIOUND WATKR?. 



105 



Sand 
Rock 
Marl . 

Clay and greensand 
Gravel . 
Hard clay- 
Rock 



about 94 ft. 
. 27 



29 
30 

5 water 
16 
16 

217 ft. 



Approximate height above sea 80 or 90 feet. 

No analysis further than to prove it was entirely free from iron, 

Siisse.r.—Mr. W. Toplcy, Assoc. Inst. C.E., F.G.S. 

Sub-Wealden Boring. 





ft. 


in. 


Alluvial deposit . . . . 


16 





Alternating calcareous beds and 






shales 


ICO 


8 


Soft shaly sandstone, nodulesand 






flints . . . . ' . 


16 





Soft sandy shale .... 


7 


4 


Soft whitish sandstone 


52 





Soft sandstone, darker 


5 





Sandy shale .... 


17 





Kimmeridge clay 


1.54 





„ more compact . 


44 





„ softer 


2.3 





„ solid .... 


26 





„ with traces of carb. 






lime 


20 





„ dark brown veins 


66 





Brown limestone 


1 


6 


Kimmeridge clay 


3 





Brown limestone .... 


6 


6 


Kimmeridge clay 


27 





„ „ vein of carb. . 


40 





„ „ very limy 


21 





„ „ veins of carb. 






lime, fossils .... 


24 





Kimmeridge clay „ ,, . 


57 





»» yj ») »> 


19 





„ „ veins of carb. 






lime ..... 


10 





it ,)••.. 


72 





„ „ hard bands of 






limestone .... 


57 





j» „ . . . . 


16 





Oxford clay, vein of carb. lime . 


28 





„ hard, and more limy 


9 





Sandstone very soft, and vein of 






lime 


12 





Sandstone, shaly, full of fossils . 


41 






Sandy shale, full of slip 
,, ., more compact 
„ „ limestone nodules 
Shaly sandstone . 
Sandstone very shaly . 
Shaly limestone . 
Light blue limestone . 
Shaly limestone . 
Calcareous shale . 

„ „ free from sand 

Clayey shale 
Calcareous shale . 
Soft dark gritty limestone 
Calcareous shale . 
Friable calcareous grit 
Soft cal. grit, beds of lime . 
Calcareous limestone . 
Blue limestone and shale 
Strong blue shale, few fossils 
Strong blue shale 
Limestone . 
Calcareous^shale . 
Blue shale, few fossils 

„ „ traces of encrinites . 
Calcareous shale, hard bands of 

lime 

Light blue lime .... 
Calcareous shale and fossils 

,, „ hard lime . 
Soft dark shale, many fossils 
Strong dark shale 
Hard grey lime .... 
Dark sandy shale 
Dark shale 



ft. in. 

2 

17 

28 

37 

8 

27 
4 

14 

28 

26 

19 
21 6 
28 6 

20 
17 
24 

4 

27 
19 

4 

10 
36 

11 

87 

88 
10 

9 

27 

59 

12 
17 
26 
12 6 
81 6 

1905 Q 



I 



Appendix II. — Information collected by Mr. James Plant, F.G.S. 

[The Questions to which the following are Answers will be found in the Sheffield Report, 

1879, p. 161.] 

Leicestershire. — Messrs. Corah & Cooper, St. Margaret's Works, Leicester. 

1. St. Margaret's Works, Leicester, la. 1876. No. 2. 200 ft. 3. Well 26 ft. 
deep. Diameter 3 ft. 6 in. Bore 58 ft. deep. Diameter, 4 in. 3a. None. 4. 72 ft. 



106 EEPOBT— 1880. 

before, 58 ft. after. Level restored in 1 hour. S. About 150,000 gallons in 24 hours. 
6. Not known. 7. Not known. Water stands about 6 ft. below neighbouring canal. 
8. Hard, but very clear. 

ft. in. 

9. Drift, gravel, and soil 10 

Upper Keuper marls 48 

Upper Keuper sandstone 26 



84 



Several layers of sandstone are very hard, others soft. Bore ends in ' runnincr 
sand ' upon which the auger makes no impression. lO. None. 11. Yes. 12. No. 
13. No. 14. No. 15. None. 

Messrs. Scott & Sons, Bay Street Mills, Leicester. 

1. Bay Street Mills, Leicester. 1«. 1860. 2. 200 ft. 3. Bottom of well 4.'; fl. 
4 ft. diameter to bottom of bore-hole, 70 ft. ; 4 in. diameter. 3rt. None. 4. 15 ft. 
from surface. Sinks 20 ft. after pumping. 4«. 50 ft. ; now 60 ft. 5. Over 100,001 > 
gallons in 24 hours. 6. Not known. 7. Not known ; stands about 8 ft. below canal 
near. 8. Very hard. 

ft. 

9. Drift clay, gravel 12 

Upper Keuper marls .... .36 

Upper Keuper sandstone ... .22 

70 
lO. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None. 13. None. 14. None. 15. None. 

Messrs. Jessop & Go., Engineers. 

1. Friday Street, Leicester, la. 1876. No. 2. 206 ft. 3. 33 ft. ; 4 ft. diameter. 
37 ft. 4 in. diameter. Za. None. 4. 50 ft. before ; 36 after. 5. 100,000 gallons in L'4 
hours. 6. Not known. 7. Not known, stands alaout 10 ft. below canal. 8. Very 
hard. 

ft. 

9. Drift clay and gravel 12 

Upper Keuper marl 38 

Upper Keuper sandstone 20 

70 

Bore ends in Upper Keuper sandstone. lO. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None. 13. 
None. 14. None. 15. None. 

Messrs. E. Walker & Sons, Manufacturers, Leicester. 

1. Fleckney, Leicestershire, la. Many years ago. 2. 400 ft. 3. 45 ft. ; 4 ft. 

diameter. 3a. None. 6. Yes; diminished. 7. Yes, affected by heavj' rain. 
8. Very hard, but very abundant. 

ft. 
9. Lias drift (contains large boulders of limestone 

much rolled) 30 

Gravel and sand 15 

45 

This is another instance of the large supply of water in connection witli the 
Middle Lias (sand and rock) which lies about 2 miles S.E. of Fleckney, but at a 
higher level. lO. Yes. 11. No. 12. None. 13. None. 14. None. 15. No. 






^^AL 






bO^RGiorf- Bnl: Assoc:! 880., 



PLalell. 




\WHJB 



Ffrster ^ CfJjith Diihltn 



of Ihs BasaU of tJh£> M>rt/h of JrekuioL. 



SQt^If^portBnt Assoc. ISSP 



Pb:u iU 




m^ 



— ToTitn I C'/yll/l Dnliltio, 



JUusUnii>/^ the Report en Ihe, Teitcary {Mwcene) FUra, Ar. 
of tfm Basalt/ of the Ncrlh cf Irelcuid. 



ON THE TERTIART (mIOCENE) FLORA, ETC. 



107 



Second Re/poi't of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. 
Williamson and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed for the pur- 
pose of collecting and reporting on the Tertiary {Miocene) 
Flora, &c., of the Basalt of the North of Ireland. Dratvn up by 
William Hellier Baily, F.L.S., F.G.8., M.R.I.A. {Secretary). 

[Plates II. & III.] 

Since the first report on this subject, presented to the Association at 
their last meeting in 1879, the Secretary, Mr. W. H. Baily, accompanied 
by assistants, has again visited the localities from which these interest- 
ing plant-remains were obtained, as well as some collections from the 
same places made by scientific gentlemen in the neighbourhood. He 
would especially mention William Grray, Esq., M.R.I.A., of Belfast ; the 
Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., of Broughshane ; and Walter Jameson, Esq., 
Glenarm, manager of the Eglinton Chemical Works, Glasgow and Glen- 
arm, who most obligingly afforded him every facility for carrying out his 
investigations. 

To the last-named gentleman he is indebted for the following section 
of the Miocene deposits between the Upper and Lower Basalt at Libbert, 
one mile south of Glenarm, county of Antrim, who carried out the exca- 
vations there for the Eglinton Chemical Company, and to whose zeal and 
ability in the undertaking be is happy to be enabled to testify. 

Section showing ihe Position of the Leaf-heds at Libhert, near Glenarm, 
County Antrivi. — 700 feet elevation above sea-level. 



^K >< X X 
! X X. XXA 
!>< X XXX 

I X .< X X >; 
X X X X 




13 



' y ;^ X X X 

Ix ,xxxx> 
'< X X X X 
X X X X X 

X >^ XXV 
X :< X XX 

- X X X ,X >( 




Upper Oasalt, denuded, and of variable thickness. 

Thin Lignite Band. 

' Bauxite ' : Aluminous marl. 

Red and variegated clays, marls, and conglomerates. 
Leaf -bed. 

Lower or Amygdaloid Basalt, about 300 feet thick. 
White Limestone = Chalk, estimated thickness 250 feet. 



The series of Miocene deposits at this place was found to alter con- 
siderably on further excavation, the bauxite or aluminous marl being 
gradually replaced by pisolitic iron ore, accompanied by a different 
arrangement of the associated clays and marls. 

This band of aluminous earth termed bauxite, which was alone sought 



108 BEPORx— 1880. 

after by the Company for its value in certain mannfactures, was entirely 
lost shortly after obtaining this section, although a whiter variety was 
discovered towards the base of these deposits, on making a further exca- 
vation in another direction. 

The leaf-bed was found, as shown in the above section, at the base 
of this series of clays, marls, and conglomerates, proving by its fossil con- 
tents the entire series, including the basalt, to be of Middle Tertiary^ 
Miocene Age. The deposit so designated is a light grey-coloured clay or 
marl, more or less arenaceous, and highly charged with plant-remains, 
most abundant amongst them being the branches of a Sequoia, which 
appears to be identical with the species found at Ballypalady, near An- 
trim, named by the Secretary of this report S. Du Noyeri, and which he 
considered to be intermediate between S. Lannsdorfii and 8. Coaltsice 
(Heer).i 

From the condition of these formations it would appear that they 
Avere the result of successive deposition on the shores of a lake, the iron- 
ore having probably been formed in deeper water. Under the boulder 
clay the Miocene marls were found to contain broken pieces of lignite, 
indiscriminately distributed through them, the plant-bed containing the 
remains of a terrestrial vegetation, which evidently flourished at or near 
the spot where they are now found, and from their complete state of 
preservation aflbrdiug satisfactory evidence as to the character of that 
Flora. 

Several additional specimens were procured at the extensive excava- 
tions still in progress for obtaining iron-ore, found in connection with the 
Miocene deposits at Ballypalady, on the Belfast and Northern Counties 
Railway, near Antrim. Amongst them are many impressions of fruits 
and seeds, which require closer examination, in order to their determina- 
tion, than we have as yet been able to give them. 

Other specimens have also been obtained from drifted masses of iron- 
ore found on the eastern shore of Longh Neagh, containing vegetable 
remains, evidently of a similar age, and which, from the condition of the 
deposits, are also in fine preservation. Some of these have been drawn, 
and added to the series of plates preparing for publication. 

A series of the lignites found connected with these deposits and the 
silicified wood of Lough Neagh has been procured, which it is intended 
to examine microscopically by means of prepared sections. 

In addition to the list of plants from these beds read before the Asso- 
ciation in 1879, and published in the Report, we have to add the follow- 
ing :— 

ADDITIONAL LIST OF SPECIES.— NOETH OF IRELAND. 

PLANTS. 

Fam. Cupressina. 
Taxodium sp Ballypalady, co. Antrim. 

AhietiiKe. 
Pinus Graingeri, n. s. (Baily) „ 

Taxina. 
Torellia rigida (Heer) „ and Spitzbergen. 

Salininp. 
Salix sp „ 



QuaH. Journ. Geol. Sac. Land., vol. xxv. pp. 357, etc. 



ON THE TERTIARY (MIOCENE) FLORA, ETC. 109 

Ciiviilifera'. 

{Lough Neagh, Island of 
Mull, and North Green- 
land. 
LauHrKs 

Sassafras ? sp Glcnarm. 

A trilobed leaf, allied to living S. officinarum of 
N. America. 

Araliacte. 
,. „ . ,,,• V f Lough Neagh and North 

Araha Browniana (Heer) -^ Greenland. 

Magnoliaca-. 
,, ,. , » ,rr -. fBallypalady and North 

Magnolia glauca ? (Heer) cones | Greenland. 

There are other leaves at present undetermined, which appear to belong 
to Ficus, Myrica, Cinnamonium, Olea, Fraxinus, and Lauras. 

The entire number of species at present determined is about thirty ; 
and of these, and others which may be yet identified, a more detailed 
description will be given when the plates are published. 



Explanation of the Plates. 

Plate IL 

Fig. 1. a, b. Hemitelites Frazeri (Baily), shore of Lough Neagh. b. Portion of leaflet 
enlarged 3 diameters, 

„ 2. a, b. Sequoia Couttsiae (Heer), nat. size and enlarged, shore of Lough Neagh. 

„ 3. Pinus Graingeri (Baily), cone, Ballj-palady. 

„ 4. a, b. Torellia rigida (Heer), nat. size and enlarged, Ballj-palad)-. 

„ 5. a, b. Corylns McQuarrii (Forbes) ; b. enlarged portion showing nervation and 
minute reticulation. Lough Neagh. 

„ 6. Fagus-Deucalionis (Unger), Lough Neagh. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Acer sp Glenarm. 

„ 2. Fraxinus sp Glenarm. 

„ 3. a, b. Viburnum Whymperi (Heer), a. leaf ; b. fruit . . Ballypalady. 

„ 4. McClintockia Lyallii (Heer), with twigs of Sequoia Du 

Noyeri Glenarm. 

„ 5. Juglans acuminata (A. Braun) Ballypalady. 



110 REPORT— 1880. 



Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, 
Professor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, the Kev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Professor L. C. Miall, Messrs. D. Mackintosh, R. H. 
TiDDEMAN, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, W. Pengelly, Dr. Deane, 
W. MoLYNEUX, and Professor Bonney, appointed for the pur- 
pose of recording the pjosition, height above the sea, lithological 
characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matter's of interest connected 
with the same, and taking oneasures for their preservation. 
Drawn up by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary. 

Although the destruction of Erratic Blocks is proceeding with remark- 
able rapidity throughout the country, the Committee are able to report 
the discovery and preservation of many important specimens during the 
past year. 

Yorkshire. — Application has been made to the solicitors of the estate 
on which the Shap Granite Boulder near Filey, mentioned in the last 
Report of the Committee, occurs ; and they have promised to draw the 
attention of the proprietor to it, so that, it is hoped, its preservation will 
be secured. 

A remarkable block of Shap Granite, found at Seamer Station, near 
Scarborough, has been removed by the station-master into his garden, 
where it will be permanently preserved. 

This is one of the finest and most remarkaljle blocks of Shap Granite 
yet observed ; and Mr. J. R. Dakyns has favoured the Committee with 
the following report upon it : — 

At Seamer Station, near Scarborough, a splendid boulder of Shap 
Granite is to be seen. This boulder measures roughly 5 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 
10 in. X 4 ft. 3 in. It was found some years ago in quarrying a bed of gravel 
near the station for ballast. The boulder, as I am informed, was fairly im- 
bedded in the midst of the gravel. This gravel is one of those described by 
Mr. C. F. Strangways ' as forming ' a well-marked terrace, the summit of 
which is about 225 feet above the sea-level,' and as probably being the 
remains of an old raised beach. The gravel can still be examined, as the 
pits are still being worked alongside the railway near the station. It 
consists of horizontally stratified beds of dirty gravel and sand. At the 
S.W. end of the pit there is a thin wedge-shaped layer of stony clay in 
the midst of the gravel. 

The boulder is specially interesting in this, that it is the only boulder 
of Shap Granite in the neighbourhood whose position in the beds is 
known ; and, if the information is correct, this position shows that at the 
late age assigned to the gravels, ice must have been floating about, and 
dropping far-derived boulders here and there. 

Lancashire. — Mr. John Aitken, of Urmston, near Manchester, reports 
that three boulders have recently been discovered in his neighbourhood, 
in addition to the very large one found at Old Trafi"ord, about two years 
ago, and described by Mr. Binney in the ' Trans. Manchester Lt. and Phil. 
Soc' (vol. xvii. p. 55). 

' See ' Memoir of the Geological Survey.' Explanation of Quartz Simp, 9.5 S.W. 
and 95 S.E. 



ON TJIE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLANO, WALES, AND IRELAND. Ill 

1. One at Lees Sfci-eet, Piccadilly, Mauchester, measuring 4 ft. 4 in. 
X 4 ft. X 3 ft. 

2. One at Unnstoai, in the parish of Urniston, five miles west of Man- 
fhcstei'. 

3. One at Elixton, in the parish of the same name, seven and a half 
miles west of Manchester. 

This measures 3 ft. x 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 1 in., but has been broken, 
mid is said to have been originally half as large again. 

All three are subangular ; (1) and (2) are quadrilateral ; (3) is some- 
what conical. 

They have numerous groovings and striations, although none are very 
deep, upon the flat sides. 

The striations of (2) are diagonal at about 45° ; and of (3) in a line 
with the longest axis. 

The whole of these boulders, together with two others of lesser dimen- 
sions, consist of very fine highly siliceous grit rock, particularly (1) and 
( 2), which almost become quartzites. They are all of a hght bluish, fawny 
colour, (1) being of the darkest hue ; are all compact, and do not exhibit 
any trace of lamination or bedding. 

These boulders, together with the large one at Old TrafFord, were 
found in almost one line, viz., roughly, E. and W. 

^0 locality of deiivation has yet been assigned to them. 

They were disinterred from the di-ift, and are at the height of about 
120 feet above the sea. 

(1) is deposited in Alexandra Park, Manchester. 

(2) is in a farm-yard at Urmston. 

(3) is on the Red Lion bowling-green, Flixton. 

Leicestershire. — The Committee are indebted to Mr. J. Plant for the 
following notices of erratic blocks in this county, in continuation of the 
observations which have been recorded in previous Reports. 



Isolated Boulders. 

Boulder at Aylestone, near the river Soar, two iniles from Leicester. — 
Dimensions 4 ft. X 3 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. It is subangular ; the direction of the 
longest axis is N.E. by S.W., and it is without striations. It is com- 
posed of .syenite, similar to that of Markfield, seven miles distant to 
the x^.W., and there is no rock like it in the immediate locality. Long 
ridges of sandy gravel running S.E. occur near it, nnd it rests on sandy 
gravel. 

Another boulder composed of the same rock occurs in the same 
locality. Dimensions, 3 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. It is also sub- 
angular, with the same direction of its longer axis, and without striations. 
It is 200 feet above the sea-level, and is situated at the If. end of long 
ridges of hand, which appear to be the debris of Upper Keuper Sandstone. 
It rests upon sand. 

Boulderiu.the village of Thurnhy. — Dimensions, 4 x 3 x Ifoot. Rounded 
and without striations. It is composed of granite similar to tliat of 
Mount Sorrel, eight miles distant to the N.W., and there is no I'ock like 
it in the immediate locality. It is about 600 feet above the sea-level, and 
rests on coarse gravel. 

Another boulder of the same character occurs in a field near the same 



112 REl'OKT — 1880. 

village, half a mile more distant from Mount Sorrel, and about 620 feet 
above the sea-level. Dimensions, 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 

Boulder in the village of Bushby. — Dimensions, 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 
X 1 ft. 3 in. Subangular, without striations ; composed of granite similar 
to that of Mount Sorrel, eight and a half miles to the N.W. ; no rock like 
it being in the same locality. 

It is about 620 feet above the sea ; is connected with a long sandy 
ridge, and rests upon sand. 

Another boulder, precisely similar in character, occurs in the same 
village. Dimensions, 2 ft. X 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. 

Boulder in Moody Bush field, New York farm, Syston. — This boulder 
can be seen in the field, on the left side of ' The Ridge Way,' one mile 
from its junction with the road from Barkby to Queniborough. 

Its height above ground is 4 feet ; depth in the ground probably 
between 3 and 4 feet. It is five-sided, the sides measuring as follows : — • 
N.E. 1 foot 6 inches ; N.W. 1 foot; S.W. 1 foot 6 inches ; S. 8 inches; 
S.E. 1 foot 3 inches. It tarpers gradually to the top, where its size is 
reduced to about one-half. 

It is sharply angular, long-shaped, and put hito the ground by 
human agency. The longer axis of the pentagon at the top of the stone 
points N. and S., shorter axis E. and W. 

Deeply cut into four of the sides, in rude capitals, are the words 

* Moody Bush.' 

It is a very coarse ashy agglomerate from the old volcanic district on 
the I^.W. side of Chamwood Forest, about 12 miles distant. 

It is about 350 feet above the sea. It is isolated, but surrounded by 
•deep drift deposits, and the bottom penetrates the Lower Lias clay. 

Note on Moody Bush Stone. — This monolith, standing in a field on a 
very ancient road called ' The Ridge Way,' running S.E. to Tilton-on-the- 
Hill, is upon an elevation commanding a view of the surrounding country, 
for many miles on all sides, and may have served as a post of observation, 
or for a ' beacon fire,' or for communicating signals of other ' beacon 
fires,' for which evidence exists in this country at Borough Hill, lying 
due east 7 miles. 

The monolith is remarkable for having its longer axis due N. and 
S. There is a tradition which says it was called ' Mowde Bush Stone,' 
and a former owner of one of the large estates near Mount Sorrel held a 

♦ Court ' at that place, called ' Mowde Bush Court,' and this landowner 
and his steward used to go to ' Mowde Bush Hill,' where the stone is, and 
cut a turf, which was brought into Court, The stone has been in its 
present position from time immemorial. 

There is a general tradition also that it was usual for persons from 
neighbouring districts to bring a turf and put on it. 

Boulder at Johnston's Farm, Thurnby, 5 miles from Leicester. — This 
block is in the corner of a field called Pol's Parlour, in a valley at the bend 
of the Willow Brook, W. of New Ingersby, and N. of Winkerdale Hill. 
Dimensions, 5x4x2 feet, but it extends several feet below the soil. 

It is very rounded and worn, long-shaped, and the longer axis is N.W. 
by S.E. 

It has probably been striated, but any striations that may have existed 
have been worn into holes by weathering. It is composed of Biinter 
conglomerate, or Permian breccia, and was probably derived from Barr 
Beacon, or Cannock Chase, distant 40 miles due west. It is about 450 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 113 

feet above the sea- level, and is at the boundary of the parishes of Ingersby 
and Thurnby. It is connected with the Winkerdale Hill drift, and lies 
on deep sand. • 

Note on the New Ingersby Boulder. — This large ' erratic " undoubtedly 
stands at the boundary of two parishes, but I am inclined to think it is a 
mere accident ; the stone has never been moved by man, but I'emains in 
the position it must have been originally left. It may at first have 
been buried deeply in the drift sand, as it lies in a hollow, and has been 
gradually uncovered by the washing away of this drift sand by the rain 
during past ages. On comparing it with specimens of ' Bunter Con- 
glomerate ' (obtained from this formation in situ), I have come to the 
conclusion that it probably belongs to that formation. The nearest point 
where this formation occurs is on the south side of the Ashby coalfield, 
distant about 25 miles, btit from its coarse nature and the large-sized 
pebbles, I am inclined to think it must have come from ' Barr Beacon ' or 
' Cannock Chase.' It is in connection with gi'eat drift deposits which 
really form the ridges and hills of the surrounding district, which deposits 
we now know (from the cuttings of the Great Northern Railway, now in 
progress) to be upwards of 30 feet thick. It is quite possible (although 
its extreme hardness is against the idea) that this large block is a mass 
of very coarse 'pebbly drift' (some of the 'pebbles' are sub-angular), 
cemented by carbonate of lime and oxide of iron, and it may have been 
brought by ice from the N.W. side of the country, where beds of con- 
solidated ' pebbly drift ' of similar composition are known to exist. This 
source -would be about 15 miles due N.W. The erratic is quite distinct 
in composition from the sandy clays and gravels that lie ai-ound for many 
miles. 

(B.) Groups of Boulders. 

On the estate of Sir A. B. C. Dixie, in the vicinity of the village of 
Market Bosworth, are eleven blocks, varying from rough cubes of 4 feet to 
1 foot, the largest being about 4x3x2 feet. 

They are rounded, angular, and subangular. 

Some of the group may have been removed from adjacent fields. 
They are composed of syenites and ashy agglomerates from Bardon Hill, 
Markfield, Clift Hill, and Groby, 7 to 8 miles distant. They are about 
400 feet above the sea- level, and rest on the surface adjacent to drift beds. 

In the village of Carlton are eight blocks of the same character, 420 feet 
above the sea-level. They do not appear to have been moved, but are 
scattered up and down the village. 

In digging out a sewer in Victoria Road, Leicester, ten blocks were 
found together, 8 feet below the surface. They were rough cubes of 2 
feet to 1 foot, sub-angular and angular ; and composed of granite, syenite, 
mountain limestone, and chert, from Mount Sorrel 6 miles N., Breedon 
Hill 15 miles N.W., Matlock 30 miles KW. 

They -were 290 feet above the sea-level. 

In Rutland Street, Leicester, two boulders were found in making a 
sewer in boulder clay. Dimensions, 4x2x3 feet and 3 ft. x 1 ft. 10 in. 
X 1 ft. 3 in. They were sharply angular, composed of the granite of 
Mount Sorrel, 6 miles N., 212 feet above the sea-level. 

In a railway cutting near Countesthorp, Leicester, a group of boulders 
was found under a deep deposit of coarse gravel. The lai'gest was 2 ft. 6 in. 
x 2 ft; the smallest about half that size. They were rounded. Three 
1880. I 



114 REPORT— 1880. 

blocks were Lower Keuper sandstone ; two, oolitic limestone ; one green- 
stone ; two, white quartz (altered millstone grit) . They were 400 feet 
above the sea-level, and spread over an area of about 30 yards. The 
group was derived from Nuneaton 14 miles W., Oakham 20 miles N.E., 
Hartshill, 15 miles W., Croft 4 miles W. 

In the village of Oadby is a group of rounded blocks of granite from 
Mount Sorrel 9 miles N. The largest is 2 X 1 X 2 feet ; the smallest, 
1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft. They are exposed on the surface, but may have 
been moved in making the road. They are 400 feet above the sea-level. 

In Abbey Meadow, Leicester, in making the new river, a rounded 
boulder of chert, about 2 feet cube, was found. It was probably derived 
from Matlock, 30 miles to the N.W., and was about 120 feet above the sea- 
level. 

In lowering a hill on the road near Aylestone, five blocks of syenite 
were found, the largest being 3 ft. x 2 ft. 10 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. They were 
sub-angular and angular ; and derived from Groby, 5 miles to the N.W. 
They were 230 feet above the sea-level, and suri-ounded by sandy gravel. 

At Lodge Farm, on the bridle road to Ridgeway, a group of boulders 
occurs ; the largest being 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. ; the smallest, 1 foot 
cube. They are angular and subangular, and are scattered in a line for 
about 200 yards. They are composed of granite from Mount Sorrel, 5 miles 
off to the N.W., and are about 300 feet above the sea-level. They rest on 
the surface, but are in connection with a long ridge of drift. 

Devonshire. — Mr. Pengelly favours the Committee with the subjoined 
Report respecting some very remarkable transported blocks and accumu- 
lations of blocks which he has observed in South Devon, the transportation 
of which it does not seem possible that the action of water alone could 
have effected. 

I. — The Granitoid Boulders on the strand hetiveen the Start and Prawle 

Points, South Devon. 

On July 25, 1865, Mr. W. Vicary and I observed two granitoid 
boulders on the strand between the Stai-t and Prawle Points. They were 
well rounded, and totally dissimilar to any rock in situ in the district. 
The larger measured 36 x 36 x 16 inches, and contained a considerable 
amount of granular schorl ; the smaller one was nearly as large, of finer 
grain, and not schorlaceous. 

The larger of these blocks cannot weigh less than '75 ton. Their 
rounded forms may have been acquired since their lodgment on their 
present sites, as they must be exposed to the action of the waves at least 
every spring- tide storm. It is not improbable that the masses themselves 
may have been derived from submarine granitoid rocks in situ, at no great 
distance.' 

II. — The Block of Greenstone in the Village of Kingston, South Devon. 

Whilst passing through the straggling village of Kingston, nearly 
three miles, as the crow flies, S.S.W. from Modbury, South Devon, on 
September 28, 1877, I observed in the highway, very near a gateway 
leading to an adjacent dwelling-house, a ' greenstone ' boulder, irregularly 
spindle-shaped, and measuring 4x2x2 feet, and therefore weighing up- 
wards of a ton. 

' See Trans, Devon. Assoc, xi. 330-1. 



I 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 115 

There is a mass of greenstone figured on the map of the Geological 
Survey 2*6 miles long and "6 mile in breadth, having its longest axis in 
an E. and W. direction, and extending from due north of Aveton Gifford 
to a point about a mile W.N.W. of Kingston, where it makes its nearest 
approach to the village. 

III. — The Blocks of Quartzite in the Parishes of Diptford and Morleigh, 

South Devon. 

On Mai-ch 27, 1879, Mr. Paige-Browne, of Great Englebourne, near 
Totnes, wrote informing me that in a retired vale in the parish of Dipt- 
ford he had recently found a ' clatter ' of large stones, apparently quartzose, 
about two or three feet across, lying on moorish soil, and quite unlike the 
slaty rocks of the neighbourhood. They were very hard, and were broken 
up for the roads. 

On October 3 we proceeded together to the immediate neighbourhood 
of Cleve farm-house, where Mr. Paige-Browne had observed the ' clatter.' 
Measured as the crow flies, the house is about 2"5 miles S.S.E. from Dipt- 
ford village or ' church town,' and about 5 miles S.W. from Totnes. 
Adjacent to it, and on the north side, is an orchard ; and on the north of 
that, a piece of waste marshy land bounded on the west by a small name- 
less stream, which divides it from a small wood or copse, and on the east 
by a parish road. This patch of marshy land, measuring not more than 
100 feet from east to west, slopes for about 300 feet towards the north, 
where it enters a transverse valley, through which another small stream 
flows. On this waste land were the stones we had gone to see. They ex- 
tended from the orchard hedge almost, but not quite, to the transverse 
valley ; were half-buried in the soil ; and it was obvious, from the number 
of large recent-looking pits which presented themselves, that many had 
been removed within a few weeks. Nevertheless, there was still a crowd 
of blocks, all of a very fine-grained compact quartzite, of a light gTey or 
drab colour, many of them having quartz veins, and all utterly unlike the 
slaty rocks of the district. Most of them were subangular ; some almost 
perfectly angular ; whilst one was pretty well rounded. One, of ordinary 
size, measured 3 x 2'5 x 2'5 feet, whilst another, perhaps the largest of the 
series, was 5 X 2'5 x 2'5 feet. The smaller of the two must have weighed 
upwards of a ton, and the larger fully two tons. There were no such 
blocks in either of the small streams already mentioned, but their beds 
were in places covered with small stones derived undoubtedly fi-om the 
same parent rock, and none of them were more than from 3 to 4 inches in 
length. 

Mr. S. Jackson, of Cleve, informed us that within the last five years 
many scores of cartloads had been taken out of the piece of waste ground 
on which we were standing, for road-repairs ; and he was of opinion that 
the same practice had obtained long before his time. We had observed, 
moreover, that corresponding blocks had been largely used in building 
rough walls and fences in the district. 

Mr. Jackson also informed us that crowds of precisely similar blocks 
existed in various parts of the neighbourhood, and that a bed of rock of 
the same character was to be seen in situ in a quarry on Hannamoors, in 
the adjacent parish of Morleigh. 

Blocks proved to be very numerous in the orchard at Cleve already 
mentioned, and Mr. Jackson stated that his experience led him to suspect 

I 2 



116 BEPORT— 1880. 

that ia all the localities there were many more than wei'e visible, as they 
were frequently met with completely buried in the soil, and about a foot 
below its surface. He added that he had never seen a specimen in the 
wood or copse immediately on the west, or, indeed, anywhere on that 
side of the small stream which divided it from the orchard and the waste- 
land. 

In an orchard on the New-well, or Newell, or Newill estate, about '5 
mile towards the S.E., they proved to be as abundant as at Cleve, and our 
guide, Mr. Jackson, stated that they were formerly quite as plentiful in an 
adjoining field on the Farleigh estate, but that the ground had been com- 
pletely cleared. In a copse on the Farleigh grounds, and on the edge of a 
small stream, we saw a block in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, 
measuring 8'5 x 5 X 2'5 feet, thus containing upwards of 100 cubic feet, 
and weighing not less than 7'5 tons. 

On Hannamoors, in the parish of Morleigh, blocks were very abundant, 
and many of them of considerable size. 

Prom Cleve we had been continuously ascending, but not at a high 
gradient anywhere. At the highest, that is, the southernmost, point of 
Hannamoors there is a quarry in which, interbedded conformably with the 
ordinary soft slaty Devonian rocks of the district, there is a bed of 
quartzite, identical in character with the travelled blocks we had been 
studying, and of which it is no doubt the parent. This quarry is adjacent 
to the high road passing westward through the villages of Halwell and 
Morleigh to the town of Modbury, and occupyiiig the crest of the hill on 
the northern slope of which all the blocks we had seen during the day 
Avere lying. We crossed this road a few yards west of the turnpike gate, 
about half a mile west of the village of Morleigh,' and almost immediately 
entered a quarry on the southern slope of the hill, where we found another 
exposure of the quartzite bed. Indeed, both quarries are worked to obtain 
the quartzite for the roads. The bed dips about 30° towards (true) S.E. 
nearly. So far as has been observed, the travelled blocks of quartzite 
existed only on the southern slope of the hill ; they formed two parallel 
trains extending northwards, from near the ridge of the hill, along the 
distinct secondary valleys of Newell and Cleve ; there are none on the 
minor north and south ridge, which divides the said valleys ; the Cleve, 
that is, the western, train is the longer and reached the lower level ; and, 
measuring as the crow flies, is about '5 mile long. 

There can be no doubt that the blocks had been transported from south 
to north, and from higher to lower ground. The gradient, however, is 
very slight, and, as almost all the blocks are very angular as well as large, 
it is difiicult to suppose that their transportation was the result of nothing 
more than running water. 

Should blocks be also found on the southern slope of the hill, they 
would not necessitate any further modification of the foregoing conclusions 
than the substitution of the words ' both northwards and southwards ' for 
the words ' from south to north.' 

None of the blocks we saw bore any scratches or traces of polish. 

IV. — The block of ' Greenstone ' near Dipiford Court, South Devon. 

Whilst passing through the parish of Diptford, on October 3, 1879, 
Mr. Paige-Browne and I observed by the roadside, near Diptford Court, 

' See Ordnance Map. 



ON Tlli!: EltltATlC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 117 

about 5 miles, as tlie crow flies, S.W. from Totnes, a rounded block of 
'greenstone.' It measured 4'25 x 2o x 25 feet, and, hence, contained 
nearly a cubic yard of stone, and must have weighed fully 175 ton. It 
was without traces of polish or scratches. 

We had previously, and within the same hour, visited a qaarry in a 
mass of igneous rock coloured as greenstone in the map of the Geological 
Survey. This mass is represented as extending nearly east and west for 
a distance of 17 mile, and having a maximum breadth of '25 mile. The 
boulder, apparently of the same kind of rock, was upwards of '5 mile due 
north from the nearest point of this mass. The map, however, indicates 
another, but smaller, mass of greenstone about the same distance north 
of the boulder. 

V. — The Limestone Block in the parish of Stoke-in-Teign-Head, 

South Devon. 

Having been informed by Dr. Midgley Cash, of Torquay, that he 
had obsei'ved a large stone in the parish of Stoke-in-Teign-Head, and near 
the road from Torquay to Teignmouth, I proceeded to inspect it. The block 
is a mass of limestone, lying on the road to Upper Gable, about 60 paces 
west of the Torquay and Teignmouth road, and is apparently used as a 
step by persons passing over the southern hedge into the adjacent field. 

It may be described as wedge-shaped, with the angles and edges 
rounded. Each triangular face measures 3 X 3 x 1*75 foot, whilst the 
depth or thickness is 1"5 foot ; so that it contains about 3 '75 cubic feet, 
and weighs about 700 lbs., taking the specific gravity at 2"95.' 

The extensive limestone quarries of Barton and Lummaton, in the 
parish of St. Mary Church, not more, as the crow flies, than 1'25 mile 
towards S.S.W., cause one to feel very sceptical as to the claims of this 
mass to the dignity of an Erratic Block. Nevertheless, it appears desir- 
able to recoi'd its existence. 

The WhitaJcers in the parish of Tamerton Foliot in South-western Devon. 

On June 12, 1880, I accepted the invitation of Mr. F. E. Fox, B.A., 
F.R.G.S., of Uplands, in the parish of Tamerton Foliot, in the south- 
western corner of Devonshire, to inspect the ' Whitakers ' abounding on 
his property. - 

The term ' Whitaker ' is a provincialism. Mr. W. H. Marshall, in his 
' Rural Economy of the West of England,' 1796, says, ' Intermixed with 
the soil, and often united with fragments of slate-rock, is found, in blocks 
and fragments of various sizes, a species of crystal or quartz — provincially 
whittal-er — which in colour is mostly white, sometimes tinged with red 
or rust colour' (i. 16). 

The term is in use about Ashburton, and according to Mr. Rock's 
* Jim and Nell,' written in the dialect of North Devon, about Barnstaple 
also. It occurs in ' Halliwell,' where it is defined as ' a species of quartz,' 
but it is not assigned to any special localitj'. 

Uplands is from a quarter to half a mile west of the road from Ply- 
mouth to Tavistock, and about 4 miles from the former town. 

The blocks in a small plantation on the crest of the hill almost adja- 
cent to Mr. Fox's house were perhaps the most important group I saw ; 
for though, as I was told, a large number had been taken thence for 
' See Ency. Brit., 8th edit. 1856, xii. 88. 



118 EEPORT — 1880. 

various purposes, the remainder contained so many specimens, and most 
of them of such great size, that they could not fail to rivet the attention 
of every geologist who saw them. 

They were all partially, some of them perhaps deeply, buried in the 
soil, and a few were almost completely concealed by the growth of various 
plants rooted on them. 

Of the blocks in this group, one measured 10 x 3 X 3* 75 feet; and 
another 10'5 x 5'5 x 3 feet, the last dimension in each case being merely 
the height above the surface of the soil. Making full deductions for 
irregularity of form, and ignoring the undoubted penetration into the 
ground, each of these two blocks must have contained fully 100 cubic 
feet ; and, taking the specific gravity at 2'64, the weight of each must 
have been upwards of 8 tons. These were the largest blocks known 
anywhere in the district. 

From this plantation we descended into the deep narrow valley which 
it overlooks on the north-west, and noted an occasional Whitaker, here 
and there, on the slope as we passed down, and a rather greater number 
in and near the stream at the bottom — about 200 feet by estimation below 
the level of the plantation. 

On the opposite slope we again saw an occasional block, and at the 
summit were taken to an artificial straight gully, 60 paces in length 
and 25 feet in width — the length being in a direction transverse to that 
of the valley we had left. This gully, we were assured, had been made 
simply through the dislodgment of large "Whitakers, which, in a long 
narrow stream, had lain huddled together, and, so to speak, had been 
qnai'ried for road repairs. 

All the Whitakers were of white opaque quartz, having, at least in 
some cases, a laminated stnicture, and traversed occasionally with veins 
and crystals of the same material; the crystals having in some instances 
a suspicious look of being pseudomorphs of feldspar. 

The blocks were all more or less rugged, subangular, and without any 
decided traces of glacial polish or scratches. In a very few cases smooth 
striated surfaces presented themselves, but wei'C probably slickensides 
only. 

The rock of the district is the well-known Devonian shale, or ' Shillet,' 
of drab colour, having a tendency to divide into well-defined i-hom- 
bohedrons ; and, according to the map of the Geological Survey, this 
extends to great distances in all directions. It is occasionally travei-sed 
by small quartz veins, but no parent rock is known which could have 
supplied the "Whitakers. 

At least some of the blocks, instead of lying at once on the ' Shillet,' 
were lodged in a heterogeneous accumulation of clay and stones, includ- 
ing Whitakers from the size of an ordinary apple to some as large as a 
cocoa-nut. 

That the blocks have travelled a considerable distance cannot be 
doubted ; that their transportation was not efiected by the action of 
water only, is certainly proved by their irregularity of form. From the 
facts I saw it seems safe to say that they occur most plentifully on high 
ground ; and that, unless those at low levels have rolled down from above 
in recent times, the surface of the district must have been essentially the 
same at the era of transportation as it is at present. 

Their presence must at times, no doubt, be an annoyance to the 
farmer ; nevertheless, the roads, the hedges and other common walls, as 



ON FIXING A STANDARD OF WHITE LIGHT. 119 

well as the large and numerous artificial rockeries in gentlemen's grounds 
in the district, show that they are not without value, and have been very 
largely utilised. Indeed, it is to be feared that, unless care be taken to 
prevent it, those now remaining in the spots they have so long occupied 
undisturbed, may become rapidly fewer, and disappear altogether at no 

distant date. 

It must be understood that in the foregoing remarks 1 have conhned 
myself to the limited district I visited. Mr. Fox told me that he had 
noticed them elsewhere, and especially near Maristowe, about 3 miles off 
as the crow flies, in a N.N.W. direction. 

The Committee have confined their Report to a simple record of facts, 
without attempting to decide how far these facts support any special 
theories. It is believed that many other erratic blocks hitherto unrecorded 
are scattered over England, Wales, and Ireland ; and that every year a 
large number are destroyed by agriculturists and builders. The Com- 
mittee appeal, therefore, to local observers to report upon them in order 
that evidence so valuable with respect to many problems of the glacial 
epoch may be preserved. 



I 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney, Professor 
W. G-. Adams, and Professor G. Carey Foster, appointed to 
carry out an Investigation for the purpose of fixing a Standard 
of White Light. Drawn up by Captain Abney {Secretaryy 

Since the last meeting of the British Association a large number of 
experiments have been made with various lights, in order to ascertain the 
constancy of the various component radiations, the total qtiantity of such 
radiation having been only partially examined. Amongst others that may 
be mentioned are coal gas and the ordinary sperm candle. The former fails 
to satisfy the necessary conditions unless the burners employed are always 
identical, and the atmospheric pressure constant. The latter is constant 
when burnt at a constant barometric pressure ; any alteration in the tem- 
perature of the surrounding air apparently not altering the relative 
intensities of the component radiations. Coal gas and candle light appear 
to be too yellow to use as a standard for white light, unless they be 
deprived of some of their lower radiations. It has been found that the 
' crater ' of the positive pole of the magneto-electric light emits from its 
central zone a light which is excessively white, and very constant in its 
component radiations (within limits), the size of the carbon and of the 
generator being immaterial. At present, testing the light from various 
specimens of carbons is being undertaken, and not till these experiments are 
more advanced can any definite idea be given as to whether this source of 
illumination may be taken as a possible standard. The whole question is 
so involved in difficulties, instrumental and optical, that it will require a 
longer period to propose a standard for adoption than it was at first 
presumed it would do. It would be well, in the face of these difficulties, 
to enlarge the Committee, so that more workers may be brought to 
expend their energies on it. 

' This Report was )iot received until after the Annual Meeting, having been de- 
layed by accident. 



120 REPORT— 1880. 

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Farr, 
Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook {Secretary), Sir Gteorge Campbell, 
Mr. F. P. Fellows, Major-General A. L. F. Pitt-Kivers, Mr. 
F. G-alton, Mr. J. Park Harrison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. 
P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. F. A. Mahomed, Dr. 
MuiRHEAD, Sir Eawson Kawson, Mr. Charles Egberts, and 
Professor Rolleston. 

[Plates IV., V., and VI.] 

The appointment of this Committee was renewed at the SheflSeld meeting 
' for the Purpose of Continuing the Collection of Observations on the 
Systematic Examination of Heights, Weights, &c., of Human Beings in 
the British Empire, and the Publication of Photographs of the Typical 
Races of the Empire.' Since their first appointment at the Bristol 
meeting, in 1875, the Committee have had the advantage of being pre- 
sided over by Dr. Farr, who has taken the deepest interest in their 
labours, and has placed without reserve at their service his unrivalled skill 
and long experience in the collection and arrangement of statistics. That 
advantage, they regret to say, they will be deprived of in future. Dr. Farr 
having intimated a desire to retire from the office of Chairman on the 
ground of ill-health : a desire to which the Committee felt compelled to 
accede, while returning him their hearty thanks for his past services. 
Should the Committee be reappointed, Mr. P. Galton, F.R.S., has been good 
enough to consent to be nominated Chairman in the place of Dr. Farr. 

It may be recollected that the Committee reported, in the year 1878, 
that their work up to that point had been rather tentative and experi- 
mental, and gave details of the forms and instruments which, after much 
consideration, bad been adopted by them to secure both accuracy and 
uniformity. 

The instruments are : — 

1. A weighing machine. 

2. A simple apparatus for measuring height. 

3. A Coxeter's spirometer. 

4 A spring balance for testing strength of ai'm. 

In the Report of last year they were able to state that they had 
collected 12,000 original observations on weight and height, supplemented 
in many cases by observations of chest-girth, colour of hair and eyes, 
strength, and eyesight, and to furnish a number of tables, based on 
selected portions of these returns, indicating the results to be obtained 
from them. In the present year they have the satisfaction of reporting a 
considerable addition to the materials at their command, the new observa- 
tions of the year being nearly equal in number to all those collected in 
previous years. These are shown in Tables I. and II. 

The Committee submit that they are carrying on a work of no mean 
value to social statistics, supplementary to that of the National Census ; 
one that could not be performed except through voluntary association, 
such as they are exerting themselves successfully to obtain. 

They feel it a duty to return hearty thanks to the numerous observers, 
whose names are mentioned in these tables (I. and II.), and who have ren- 
dered their zealous and obliging services at great sacrifice of time. They 
have also to thank the Registrar-General, and Mr, W. Clode and Mr. J. T. 
Hammick, of the General Register OfiBce, for courteous and kind assistance. 



^rilMsoc: 1380. 



Plate V. 



Diagram TT^ni. 



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Plate V. 



Diagram IT*?]11. 

Tracings of the Annuxd Growth/ irv height of IS Girls 



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T^i^»" 






REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMEXltlC COMMITTEE. 121 

I. As to Classification of Returns. 

In deciding upon the arrangement for practical purposes of returns so 
various in their origin, and yet consisting in so large a proportion of infor- 
mation derived from special sources, the first consideration has been to 
establish a classification of the returns. In this the Committee have had 
material assistance from their colleague, Mr. Roberts, who has prepared 
the subjoined scheme of classification (Table III.), vv^hich the Committee 
have adopted. It is based on the principle of collecting into a standard 
class as large a number of cases as possible which imply the most 
favourable conditions of existence in respect to fresh air, exercise, and 
wholesome and sufiicient food— in one word, nurture — and specialising 
into classes which may be compared Avith this standard, those which depart 
more or less from the most favourable condition. By this means, in 
respect to social condition, the influence of mental and manual work ; in 
respect to nurture, the influence of food, clothing, &c., on development ; 
in respect to occupation, the influence of physical conditions ; and in 
respect to cKmate and sanitary conditions, the influence of town and 
country life may, as sufiicient materials accumulate under the hands of 
observers, be determined. 

The classification has been constructed on the physiological and 
hygienic laws which are familiar to the students of sanitary science, and 
on a careful comparison of the measurements of different classes of the 
people, and especially of school children of the age of from eleven to 
twelve years. This age has been selected by Mr. Roberts as particularly 
suited to the study of the media, or conditions of life, which influence 
the development of the human body, as it is subject to all the wide and 
more powerful agencies which surround and divide class from class, but 
is yet free from the disturbing elements of puberty and the numerous 
minor modifying influences, such as occupation, personal habits, &c., 
which in a measure shape the physique of the adult. Table IV. 
contains some of the data on which the classification has been based. 
The most obvious fact which it discloses, apart from the check which 
growth receives as we descend lower and lower in the social scale, is, that 
a difference of five inches exists between the average statures of the best 
and the worst nurtured classes of the community. When it is remem- 
bered that at birth children are of the same average size in all classes, it 
is evident that the conditions of life, combined with heredity, exert a 
most potent influence on the physique of the population of this country, 
and it will be seen that the labours of the Committee are directed to the 
elucidation of a subject which is of great national importance as well as 
of scientific interest. 

II. Results of Returns relating to Glass I. (Standard No. I.) 

Tables V.-X.' and the accompanying diagi-am give the results of 
the returns which the Committee have obtained relating to individuals 
coming under the Standard Class (Class I.) 

' It is necessary to call attention to the difference in the meaning of the terms 
average and mean — which in common language are synonymous — when used in this 
report. An average is obtained by dividing the sum of the values observed by the 
number of observations, while a mean is the value at which the largest number of 
observations occur. An average includes and is influenced by exceptional cases, 
while a mean excludes exceptional cases, and is consequently uninfluenced by them. 



122 



REPORT 1 880. 



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REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



12$ 



1 


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1 


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CO 


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126 



BBPOBT — 1880. 



to 



n 

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bo 

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no 

05 

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cc tJ Ph 



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M 

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fl ^ -a ^ 



03 to 



5o 



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CO S 



22< 



.S b 13 '^ ^ H 
a^^ (S O ca 3 












CO 
Si 

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•p S 'H T3 ^ 



r CO 

O fl 



to C*3 









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o 

ho 



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t3 



I 



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s 


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<-) 


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cq 



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on >. 
eg CO C 
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a> 

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c4 a 3 o o s 
11 H -5 -i^ J i? 




BEPOKT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



127 



e« M 



o 


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Si 




00 


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ew 




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<= S o 



O} 



t» 



= 3 



o 

■sji 

o tie'*-' 
o 2 



« 



<u 



o 

a 



5' 

CO 

<I> 

« . g 

5 M fl 

".2 m 

X! ^ f 

oa O ^^ 
'. ^ M 

m 






" '"IJS'^'^trS?!,?^ S5-^ S " 









PMM 



IM -^ «0 



m CO loo »n 

M M I M M 

O 1-^ 1^ o 



in o> ■* H M 

CO Ci r-t ^ 



J 



3 « ^ S ;H « h S 



Q P. 

ea o 

OS'S 



M H tn VO 



t^r^CO NVO CON M 



I 



M M r^ vO H fO t^ 



\0 m O ^ 



ri C^ O Tj^ 



1-4 c^ c^ ec w i-t *-< 



_i to 

ill 



M M w ■^ O vo vO 



0\ N O tn N W H 



III 



n I S 



M « •♦C^'-f-lxiOlOO r*lOH M 



H fO\OCO NOolOiiN OitNrO 



J 



*0 00 * 0^ 



« o o\ m ■«*■ M 
CO w5 ■^ «e b- ** 

CO iH l-< 






eocOiOCDQ0005rH*-<0**Me3C30JM,-l»H 
^eowi-Heo<MCD^t^w»Ocoo(MH 

rHC^COCO-*COCOMr-«i-( 



bo (j^ 

w 3 



I I I r I 

Oi 00 t- w »o 
U3 k'S W5 <I5 »S 



4< CO <:^ rH <5 o> Qo 

ifj O »i9 »0 O ^ ^ 



I J. I ■^ 
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^ ^ ^ ^ 



o 



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128 



REPORT — 1880. 






a 
m 



CD 



w 
a 



a 



c3 

So 



03 



lO 



eg c3 

o3 o 

> r-t 
O 






61/ 

■? 
o 






'a 

a 



cc 



CO 

1-3 

o 



1 <n 


>pOi003Tt<cp«5Qp(N 


l> 


T^ cp T-i \n a 'i< Oi ■*<» cpi-- 


(Mr- -HtooinO'i'os 










■Si 


ibwoi^ic^Ob-ih 


(>» 


Ob-»b^Oh»'rt< (fios i^-^ 


(fi OS r- -ii 0-1 OS h- -^ .^ 


1 


1 


1 




OiO^asoooooooot^i^ 


l> 


l^^UDtOySiOiO »0-^ -l^-f^ 


-* CO CO CO CO 'M 'M C-l 0> 


1 


1 


1 










o 


»-- !N O ^ t>« -^ t^ 


-^ 


^ S<) lO ^ Tl CJ 




'^^ 


_ 


00 






o 


11 r^ »-l (N "^ ^ 


Tj* 


-SI CO '-' .-H 1 1 1 1 1 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




^ 






.^J 


1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


>l 


OS 


do 






CO 












CO 


to 






(N 


















1 


r-lr-IN»(NW-<0 


»o 


-# 00 Ol o o -^ 




c? 










<M 


1 r-^ (M TO Tji 


-^ 


CO(M " r-H 1 1 1 1 1 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


-^ 








IM 


1 




1 1 1 1 1 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Ol 


§ 


ob 






1 


^HCOC^COQO-^OOO^ 


to 


(N 00 — < CO CO -H 




-J. 




o 








1 ^^ rH CO lO -^ 


ta 


lO ^ I-l III 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


'O 










?5 


1 




1 1 1 1 1 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


f^' 


•^" 


oo 
to 




1 


(NCClO(Ml>-C<)— ^C1 


— t 


OS -■ -1 t^ '.O ^ ^ 




^^ 


o 


CO 

o 






O 


1 ^ CQ -^ :D 00 


r> 


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II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


■^o 








<N 


1 




III 1 


11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


-^ 


--0 








1 


rH rHO3-H00N-*00 


T 


05 >-l UO O OS OS ^ r^ 




^ 


o 


00 






05 


1 (M Tfl l^ O >0 


ZD 


S>1 o to ^ i-< 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


^ 




I 




^H 


1 ^-H 


1 


r-i r^H III 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


C2 


do 


do 

CO 




1 


i-HiMeot^ooo^Tfoo 


1 

CO 


OCOt^-tfC'^OO CCC^l 




::^ 


lO 


to 






00 


TO lOffO — CO 


00 


UO .-1 — . OS --S .-^ II 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


(M 






1 




I— 1 


T-H (Tl C^l 


c^ 


(M ^1 r-( II 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


l^ 


do 


03 




^ 






I 






" 


o 


CO 


1 


















r 


't3 


1 


I'J'tS^lOOJ-*-^!^ 


(N 


t^eocooooo— '-^ »-^ r^ r^ 


_( 


•M 


o 


00 




J3 


t~ 


1 rl ■.!< (N 00 iT^ 


Ol 


l^ CD l^ ^ t>. CO 1-1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


^ 








I— 1 


1 r^ 1— (M 


s^ 


!-l «>> 1-1 r-i 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


GC' 


GO 


t^ 




^H 












'"^ 


o 


CO 




s 


























«o«o05-*ioocoi-i osao toso 














1 


(N OS iffl O CO 


OS 


IN , ilrH 


C'J 


»o 


CO 






50 


III 1 i-i i-H lOOO 


^ 


l^CO'^COCOOCO ^^1-1 












<u 


T-^ 


III 1 


T-H 


rH T-H 1— < 1— 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 




o 


CO 


; 


bD 








■ 




1—1 


cc 


CO 




<) 








1 












1 


1-1 IN -"Jl O O 


CO 


t^»0»OOXX>?D 0?0 OiO 


(N Tt^ l*< ^ 1-1 ^^ 


r^ 


li^ 


CO 


c 




»o 


II II -H IM 


CO 


t->.ccoicoc;'Oco oo^t* co5^ 


'-' III 


I^ 










1-H 


II II 




^r 


1 1 1 


Ci 


CO 


CO 

CO 






4 


rH 00 


o 


O !« 1^5 I^ >a CO o 


O t^ lO — ' 


CO in 00 ■* T«" ^ r-^ . . 


•o 


o 








1 1 1 1 1 II 


1— ( 


o Tf "O o crs o — • 


'M o OS a; 


IM 5^ 1-1 


o 








1— 1 


1 1 1 1 1 II 




^~ 1—1 




1 1 


o 


1— ( 


CO 






I 


T— 1 


<N 


■* CO o r» lO o --o '^^ 'j< 


^05 


r~ OS i^ ire CO ?J IN 1-1 


Ci 


o 


§ 






CO 


t 1 1 1 1 1 II 




1— 1-^ CO 1^5 l^ ^ (M 


(N O 


t> O CO —1 


to 








*—* 


1 II 1 1 1 II 






1—1 1—1 


1 


CO 


C3 


OS 
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1 


vH 




i-iir:o^os t>-o c^co 


050 COOSCOIN^i-(i-1 


o 


o 


OS 






c^ 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


III T-i CO -t «D t^ 


l^ 00 CO 1-1 '- 


ai 






*— 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


1 1 1 




-:t- 










1 






tH 1-1 1-1 CO CO -^ O 


t^ CO 


r-^ »ra oo 1-H t* -^ i-t 


CI 


o 


CO 
IN 






^H 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


1 1 1 1 ■- CO 


c^ -^ 


"^ <N r-l rH 


■^ 








1— t 


1 1 M 1 1 1 M 


1 


i 1 1 1 






(N 








m 








t^co cocot>.^coe^w 












a 






-t 


^-1 


Ip 


OS 
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o 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 


1—1 1—1 IN 1—1 f-l 


o 






P^ 


i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 


1 




w 


Cfi 












1 




o 


o 






o 








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n 
























-^ 












OS 


' 


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J3 


. 










1^ 




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a 


00 

'^T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


I 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II II 


o 
II 1 1 1 1 1 1 "" 






►n 


E 


^ a) 


t^C0i0-^C15(N'-HO0i 


00 


h-.COiO-fCO(Ni-' OOS 00 l^ 


CD»0 -fCOTJ^OOSOO 


" 


(—1 




'Sd'o 


t^ t'- t^ t>- W t^ t^ l> '^ 


to 


cocococoococo co»o ICirt 


iC5>0 xO>OUO^»JO^tJ1 




►-i 


§3 


I 


■3.2 








s 

o 


3 

o 

H 




2 

< 


\ 



KEPOET OK THE ANTHUOPOMETBIC COMMITTEE. 



129 



*4 «3 






w 
txU 

a^ 
'S.2 
0-2 

if 

So 



5 

CO 



§SSSS2''^'^ I I I I I I I I I I 



I I t I I O) O iC 5(5 -^ CO 
I 1 I I I tH »-l i-H c^ cc 



I>0 »COi5^ -^ ^ CO 
T^ (M G^ G^ 1— t 



I I M I I I I 



I 



I 



: C-J ■rf b* OS CO >— 1 CO CO 
! rH (M — t '^ "^ ■" 



■^ »0 O ffi t-i CO G<I 
r}< CO CO (M <— 1 



I I 



I I 



( 

o 



I 'M o m o » 00 >o 

I CO (N IN 'J* O «> 



I I I 1^ I I I M I I 



I I I 



I I I |'*'5^^P?'5^'^w^'r' 



•■O Tf -+ 00 00 CO O iTl 
■M C5 (M -— * CO CO (Tl 

5^ rt ^ r-* 



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cq 






i-H rH -M <N 



i-ioi>t^NiO'^i>-t>.'*eo 



I I I I I |rJ(iOiO<N05>-lT)<05050 
llllll rHi-ieO«O00t^^ 



I I 



I I I I t |rH»Hr-i'«:J<5^iO(N0000i-l(M00t^ 



COOivO l'-l> C^-^CO CO 
CO CO CO -^ ^ <N i-H 



II 



I I I I I I l!-"^ I 



O^CO CO 05C0 O^'HC^ 
-H O 00 CM CO 



I 11 I II I I I I 1^1 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I M 



II i-H G^ Tfi to 



-^ CO 1— I iC CO r-f 
00 CO CO i-H 



I I I I I I I I I I M I I I I I II 



I IcOt-OOOtOt^lMCOtOtO 

II c^ to ■* -* -^ 



I I I I I M I I I M I II I I II II l-^^S 






_ I ! I I I I I I I I 1 I 

Cl to 7^ l^ CO 05 lO 00 »0 O lO O ^ _ ^ ^ ^ — — - - 

l^irS? — ^OQ0l>^qDy3iO o -<f 'l^ COCO C^IM^H t-hOO OiCi 00 00t>- 



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j= 


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a 




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S -3 

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1880. 



130 



REPORT — 1880. 



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T 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II III 1 1 lllll 

i4<CC(MWOff>OOt>-<OiO -^ CO(N 1-HOCT) 00 t>- CDirs-f^CO'TJ 


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Average Che 
girth 






^>S<^-*It)<COCOCOCOCO CO COCO COCOI^ (N Sq IM<N(M<N(M 


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H 







REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



131 



a 

a 

03 

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I I I I I I I 



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132 



KEPOUT 1880. 





Ratios of a: erage annual increase of 
height, weighf, chest-girth, and strength 


iqSpAijopunod 

9U0 o; mSnaais 

JO spnno^ 


1 


1 


05 


C5 


s 


? 


Oi 


OS 


CO 

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p 


p 


1 


o 
o 

Oi 


5 

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m 
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qj-uS-lsaqojoqoui 

ano 05 q:^^u^IJS 

JO spnnoj 


1 


1 


TO 
OO 


TO 

05 


00 


-o 


TO 
•* 








CD 


1 


o 
o 

cr. 


CD 
Oi 


Cm 
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jqj.iaq JO qoui 

auo oj qjSua.j:s 

JO epunOrf 


1 


1 


op 


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03 

CO 


Ol 
CO 


O 
TO 


CO 


(M 

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00 

CO 

CO 


CD 
00 


1 


o 
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05 
CO 


IN 


jqSiaq JO qaui 

auo oj qjaii! 

-t;3'i:> jo saqanj 


1 


00 




TO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


TO 
Oi 


TO 
TO 
.— ( 

T— < 


Oi 

ip 


o 

CO 
y-t 


1 


o 

§ 

6 


fl 


qjJiS-jsaqa jo qoni 

auo OJ jqSiaAi 

JO spunoj 


1 


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CO 

1^) 


Gi 
05 


o 

1—4 


00 

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1^ 


TO 

do 


TO 

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TO 

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CD 


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p 


CO 
TO 


1 


jqSiaq jo qonj 

auo OJ jqSia.u. 

JO spunoj 


1 


00 

o 

TO 


CO 


CO 






03 


1—1 


CD 
O 


TO 
CO 


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CO 
b- 


1 


f 


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O 
IN 




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•sqx ui raiB 
JO qjSnajJS 


1 


1 






CO 

o 


CO 


00 


p 


o 

CD 


-t4 
p 
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m 

OS 
TO 


1 




TO 


ght, Chest- 


saqont ni 
qjjtS-Jsaqb 


1 


^M 
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? 


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lO 




00 

1—t 


UO 
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6 


1— 1 

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0-- 




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other. 


saqauj 
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1 




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1 


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6 


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age Height 
on to each 


-4^ 

bo - 

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iqSp.vijopunod 

auo OJ qjSuajjs 

JO spanoj 


1 


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to 


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1;0 


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-* 
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p 


qj.iiii-jsaqa JO qoui 

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JO spunOrX 


1 


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TO 

1— t 




TO 


1.H 
Op 


1^1 


T— 1 


TO 


(N 


CO 
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CO 


g 


TO 
CO 
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(N 
IN 




jqSpq JO qaui 

auo OJ qjSuajjs 

JO spnno,:[ 


1 


00 




00 

1^ 


CO 
CO 


CJ 


1 


Oi 




1—t 
CO 


CO 
TO 


Oi 

IN 

r-t 


TO 
r-t 


(N 


tie 


jqSiaq JO qoni 

auo OJ qjJtS 

-jsaqo JO saqouj 




TO 


05 


CO 


CO 




00 
00 


Oi 
Oi 


CO 

o 

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TO 

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Oi 

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TO 


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1—1 
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JO spuno^ 


CO 

o 


00 


Oi 

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CO 


o 
p 


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1* 




s 

-* 


TO 
TO 


TO 
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TO 

CO 


CO 


jqSiaq JO qouj 

auo oj jqSia.u.' 

JO spuno^ 


00 
TO 


T-H 


00 


UO 
O 

I— 1 


CO 


05 

1-t 


(33 


Oi 
<? 
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UO 
<>> 


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(f) 




tN 


5^ 
IN 

5^ 


IN 


s 

bD 
a 

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JO qjSua.ijg 


1 


o 


OS 
CO 


1—1 


1^ 

00 

o 


UO 
O 
CO 


IN 

■* 
Oi 
CO 




OS 

CO 
00 


o 
o 
o 

Oi 


TO 
Oi 

Oi 


Oi 
(N 


CO 
Oi 


Oi 

b- 

03 


n 


saqoui 
UI qjatS-jsaqo 




CD 




do 


00 
OJ 


TO 
TO 


TO 
TO 


<M 

00 
TO 
TO 


TO 

TO 

TO 


UO 


TO 


IN 

TO 


lb 

TO 


Oi 


1 

i 

m 


saqjop 

Suipnpui 

•sqi n'l jqSpAV 


TO 


do 


OS 
00 


Oi 




S3 


00 
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CO 
CO 

1-) 


CD 


CO 

do 

T— 1 


CO 
CO 

(fl 

r-l 


(N 
b- 
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m 
i-t 


1>1 

IN 

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1-t 


Oi 


saqout 
m jqgia'H 


03 


CO 


03 


00 

o 
d> 
uo 


CO 


CO 

m 

CO 


TO 
(N 
CO 

CO 


co 


CO 

(N 

do 

CO 


00 
lO 

do 

CD 


00 

o 

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do 

CO 


do 

CO 


do 

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h-i 

tn 

■< 

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£ 

>> 

o 


^ 


1 


1 

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1 


1 

to 


1 

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1—1 


1 

T-i 


1 

00 


1 

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1— < 


5-1 


1 







BEPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



133 



Class I. (Standard). Table X. — Showing the Mean Growth. 













Percentage Relative Growth 


Age 


Percentage Actual Cro-vvtli 


(Difference compared with previous year) 




















Height 


Weiglit 


Chest- 
girth 


Strength 


Height 


Weight 


Chest- 
girth 


Strength 


At 11 


2-8 


6-9 


1-8 








— 


— 


— 


12 


■ 3-6 


9-7 


1-8 


6-6 


+ 28-5 


4-40-6 


— 


— 


13 


3-5 


8-8 


1-S 


12-5 


- 2-7 


- 9-3 


— 


+ 89-4 


14 


34 


10-8 


3-6 


11-1 


- 2-8 


+ 22-7 


+ 100- 


- 11-2 


15 


4-1 


12-2 


4-3 


20- 


+ 20-6 


+ 12-9 


+ 19-4 


+ 80- 


16 


4-7 


13- 


«-5 


16-6 


+ 14-6 


+ fi-5 


+ 51'1 


- 171 


17 


2-2 


9-6 


3-8 


14-3 


-532 


-261 


- 41-5 


+ 19-1 


18 


•7 


1-7 


2-2 


9-3 


-68-2 


-82-0 


- 40-5 


- 34-9 


19 


•3 


1-7 


•7 


2-8 


-57-1 


— 


- 68-1 


- 70- 


20 


•3 


1-7 


•7 


2-7 


— 


— 


— 


- 3-5 


21 
22 


:S) 


1-6 


{:?} 


2-7 


— 


5-8 


— 


0- 


23-50 


■0 


1-9 


•7 


2-6 


— 


+ 18-7 


■ 


- 3-7 



The first part of this table (X.) shows the actual percentage growth 
in each year under each of the four heads. The second part shows the 
percentage growth of each year, compared with its immediate predecessor, 
and thus indicates how far the changes under the several heads are similar 
and contemporaneous, or otherwise. 

It will be seen in the first part that there i3 a constant, but more or 
less uneven, growth under each head throughout the whole period, 
increasing annually up to 16 or 1 7, and then rapidly diminishing. 

The data at 10 are not sufficiently reliable for purposes of comparison, 
because they represent selected boys, who were nearly 11 years old ; and 
those above 20 are imperfect in both numbers and variety. For the first 
reason it may not be safe to compare the percentage growth at 12 with 
that at 11, which depends upon the data at 10. On the remainder of the 
table the following observations may be made : 

Between 11 and 14 the rate of growth in height is almost uniform. 
At 15 it begins to advance more rapidly. At 16 it takes a further advance. 
But at 17 it falls off by more than one-half, and after that year decreases 
rapidly. 

The same features are observable in the column of weight, except that 
the increase in the rate begins a year earlier, viz. at 14. 

■ The growth of chest-girth is uniform up to 13, when it becomes 
double, and then follows nearly the same course as those of height and 
weight, except that it continues higher at 17 and 18. 

The growth of strength follows a more capricious course — doubling 
itself at 13, making no advance at 14, but makiug a great stride at 15 — 
continuing longer, and diminishing more slowly than the other heads. 
The number of observations are at present too few to be fully relied on. ^ 

At 14, while the rate of growth in height remains unchanged, there is 
a large increase in those of weight and chest-girth. 

In the second part of the table it will be seen, by comparing the 
signs + and — at the ages from 15 to 19, and allowing for the irregu- 
larity already noticed in the column of strength, the rate of growth in- 



134 EEPOET— 1880. 

creases and decreases at the same period, and with great uniformity of 
ratio, under all four heads. 

III. As to Oolo2if of Eyes and Hair of Glass I. 

In 1027 observations belonging to the standard or first class, the 
colour of eyes and hair has been recorded. As to the importance and 
utility of this branch of the inquiry the Committee may refer to Dr. 
Pruner-Bey's papers, translated in the ' Journal ' of the Anthropological 
Institute, vol. vi. pp. 71-92; to the 'Manual for Anthropologists,' pre- 
pared by the lamented Dr. Paul Broca ; and to the ' Notes and Queries on 
Anthropology,' issued by this Association. It may be useful also to 
direct attention to the valuable practical remarks of Mr. D. Kaltbrunner, 
in his ' Manuel du Voyageur ' (Zurich, 1879), pp. 504, 505. The types 
for colour of hair are the ten lithographed pages issued by the Com- 
mittee in 1877 (see Repoi't for that year). Those for colour of eyes 
were directed to be : grey, light blue, blue, dark blue, light brown, brown, 
dark brown, green, black — the colour to be viewed at such a distance 
that minor variations may blend into one general hue and tint. In the 
subjoined Table the order of the colours is altered for the reasons given 
below. The extent 'to which each colour of hair prevails is shown by 
the following' diagrram : — 

Albino . 
Very fair 
Fair 
Light brown r 




Dark brown 
Black brown ; — — y 



Black 

Red brown — Dark red 

Red 

Golden — Light red 



f 



It is to be regretted that the observations are not sufficiently numerous 
to distinguish young people from adults, as the darkening of hair goes on 
with advancing age. Dr. Beddoe has found a decided difference between 
women of 18-23 and women over 25 years, but has observed the greatest 
change to take place somewhere about 20-23 in men and earlier in 
women. He states that the associations generally of hair and eye colours 
shown by the table agree with his own observations ; that green eyes do 
not occur with black hair ; nor so-called black eyes with the blackest 
hair — this last often accompanying dark grey eyes ; and that dark blue 
eyes are rare with reddish hair, but often accompany dark or even black 
l^ir, usually in persons of Irish or Scottish Highland extraction. Other 
interesting associations may be readily traced in Table XI. 

Mr. Roberts (by whom Table XI. was prepared) has contributed the 
following remai'ks on the colours of hair and eyes :— 

* In the instructions issued by the Committee, the colours of the eyes 
and hair are arranged in a crescendo scale from fair to black, but I have 
thought it desirable to classify' them according to their anatomical and 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



135 



Class I. — Peofessional Classes. — Table XI., showing the Colour of Hair 
and Eyes, and their relation to each other, of 1027 Men and Boys 
from ages 10 to about 50 years. 







Colour of Eyes 










Colour of 


Light 


Mixed 


Dark 


Total 


Percentages 


Hair 




m 


■toS 

3-^ 


X 

S 
O 




bJJO 
3£ 


a 

o 
u 

P3 




s 








fVer3' 
fair . 


)' 


9 


4 


6 


1 


5 


— 


— 


— 


26' 




2-53' 




3 


Fair . 
Light 
brown 


2 
8 


37 
49 


24 
27 


44 
74 


1 
14 


4 
13 


5 
15 


3 

1 





120 
196 


f.487 


11-68 
19-08 


-57-15 




^Brown . 


37 


30 


67 


23 


11 


54 


13 


2 


245, 




23-86J 




/Dark 
^ brown 


}» 


30 


16 


59 


20 


12 


41 


25 


3 


215] 

„U47 

55 


20-93] 
7-50 [33-79 
5-36) 


S3 \ Black- 
fi brown 


)' 


5 


3 


21 


6 


14 


16 


11 


- 


I Black . 


3 


5 


2 


8 


— 


7 


14 


15 


1 


ped- 
"C brown 
« "1 Eed . 

I Golden. 


I: 


5 

7 
6 

190 


3 

1 
6 

116 


18 

11 
9 

317 


4 
2 
3 


4 

4 
2 


4 

3 
1 


= 


— 


38 

28 f 93 
27J 


3-70] 

2-73 • 9-0« 
2-63J 


Total . . 


27 


74 


76 


153 


68 


6 










333 




391 




303 




1027 


100 


Percentages 


2-62 


18-50 


11-30 


30-87 7-20 


7-40 


14-90| 6-62 


-59 


100 








32-42 




38-07 




29-51 







physiological relations to each other. The iris, on which the colour of the 
eye depends, is a thin membranous structure composed of unstriped mus- 
cular fibres, nerves, and blood-vessels, held together by a delicate network 
of fibrous tissue. On the inner surface of this membrane there is a layer 
of dark purple pigment called the uvea (from its resemblance to the colour 
of a I'ipe grape), and in brown eyes there is an additional layer of yellow 
(and pei'haps brown-red) pigment on its outer surface also, and in some 
instances there is a deposit of pigment amongst the fibrous structures. 
In the albino, where the pigment is entirely absent from both surfaces of 
the iris, the bright red blood is seen through the semitransparent fibrous 
tissues of a pink colour ; and in blue eyes, where the outer layer of pig- 
ment is wanting, the various shades are due to the dark inner layer of 
pigment — the uvea — -showing through fibrous structures of different 
densities or degrees of opacity. The eyes of new-born infants of both 
white and black races (and I believe the new-born young of all the lower 
animals) are dark blue, in consequence of the greater delicacy and trans- 
parency of the fibrous portion of the iris ; and as these tissues become 
thickened by use, and by advancing age, the lighter shades of blue, and 
finally grey are produced; the grey, indeed, being chiefly due to the 
colour of the fibrous tissues themselves. In grey eyes, moreover, we see 
the first appearance of the superficial layer of yellow pigment in the form 
of isolated patches situated around the margin of the pupil, or in rays 



136 BEPORT— 1880. 

ranning across the iris. In the various shades of green eyes the yellow 
pigment is more uniformly diffused over the surface of the iris, and the 
green colour is due to the blending of the superficial yellow pigment with 
the blue and grey of the deeper structures. In the hazel and brown eyes 
the uvea and the fibrous tissues are hidden by increasing deposits of yellow 
and brown pigment on the anterior surface of the iris, and when this is 
very dense black eyes are the result. It is very doubtful, however, 
whether the iris is ever so dark-coloured in the inhabitants of this country 
as to justify the term black being applied to it, and the popular use of the 
expression has reference to the widely dilated pupil common in persons 
with dark brown eyes. The nearest approach to a black eye among us 
is the dark blue or violet eye associated with black hair in some Iiisli 
adults ; here the colour is jjrobably not entirely due, as in infants, to the 
greater transparency of the fibrous structures, but to interstitial deposit of 
black pigment, or to a layer situated on the anterior surface of the iris. 

' As the observations included in the above table were made by many 
different persons without specific directions or colour-tests, and as the 
shades are not well-defined and are too numerous for easy analysis, I have 
combined them into three large groups — the light, including the shades 
of blue ; the mixed, including the grey and green ; and the dark, includ- 
ing the brown and so-called black eyes, in order to correct some obvious 
errors of observation. Green eyes are more common than the table 
indicates, and no doubt many cases of green eyes have been recorded as 
grey, and probably a few as light brown. On the other hand the number 
of grey eyes appears to be out of proportion to the rest, and this column 
probably includes a number of light blue as well as grey and green eyes. 

'Mr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., has examined the colouring matter of the 
hair,' and has separated three pigments which he describes as brown-red, 
yellow, and black ; and he attributes the different shades of the colour of 
hair to one of these pigments, or to their combination in different propor- 
tions. Thus, fair and brown hairs owe their colours chiefly to yellow and 
black pigment ; and the shades of red hair to red and black pigments, the 
brightest red having the least black or yellow. Acting on these investi- 
gations, and bearing in mind that amongst black-haired races red (and 
not yellow) hair frequently occurs, and is generally associated with black 
hair in this country, I have interposed the black between the yellow and 
red shades in the table. This arrangement has the advantage of sepai'at- 
ing the browns and the reds, and of showing how the black overshadows 
these colours as the hair darkens by advancing age ; and it is useful in 
distinguishing the chief racial elements of our population. The diagram 
shows the quantity of hair of each colour, and the relation which the 
colours bear to each other above the age of 10 years. If the observations 
commenced at birth, and were grouped in periods of four or five years, the 
curve would change with advancing age, and the apex would move 
gradually from the fairer to the darker shades. By grouping the whole 
of the observations into fair, dark, and red, as I have done in the table, we 
see the prevailing complexion of the higher and professional classes in this 
country.' 

IV. As to Toivn mid Country Origin of Class I. 

Though the statistics as yet obtained are not sufiBcient to show con- 
clusively the different tendencies of town and country life, an attempt has 

' Jovr. Anthrop. Inst., vol. viii. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROrOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 137 

been made to elicit from the retai'ns of height and weight relatively to 
age some particulars as to the effect of town and country origin respec- 
tively on growth of this class. The means for this is given by the follow- 
ing extract from the General Instructions issued by the Committee with 
the Forms of Schedule :— 

' Okigin. — If the individual has lived habitually in the country he 
should be noted as '■'■country folk." This, however, is not to include 
residence in large country towns (more than 5000 inhabitants), unless 
the individual so residing is habitually occupied in country pursuits. If 
both father and mother are also country folk in the sense above defined 
the entry should be "pure cormtri/ folk." In cases where the history of all 
four grandparents is known, and they or the majority of them were all 
country folk, the entry should have the word " very " prefixed ; thus, 
"very pure country folk." If he is of country birth, but has lived in a 
town since he was a boy, the entry should be " c birth, t since ioy.^' This 
form admits of all required variations by writing "p c" or "v p c" 
instead of "c," and " child," " youth," or " manhood" instead of "boy." 
As regards other cases, too numerous to attempt to define, in which a 
doubt may exist as to the proper entry, leave a blank. 

' Similar instructions ro be observed as regards townsfolk.' 
The returns of cadets at Sandhurst, scholars at "Westminster, students 
at Aberystwith, medical students, at London Hospital, and scholars at 
Felstead, afford the means of making this distinction, at ages from ten ta 
thirty, in the following number of cases : — 

' Total of country origin 379 



Total of town oriein . 250 



629 

The observations give a slight advantage in both height and weight 
relatively to age to country origin over town origin. Taking the two 
years of age, eighteen and nineteen, in which there are the largest number 
of observations in each class to afford an average, the 161 country lads 
have an average height of 68'2 inches and weight of 141 lbs., while the 
seventy-nine town lads have an average height of 68'0 inches and weight 
of 139*5 lbs. The distinction is not so easily followed through the grades 
of purity in consequence of the small number of observations in some of 
them, but it seems to prevail, the averages at the two ages named being — 
Height Weight Height Weight 



Country . , 




203 


Pure country . 




40 


Very pure country 




50 


Country birth, town 


since 


26 


Town 


, 


210 


Pure town 




17 


Very pure town 




5 


Town birth, country 


since 


18 


Total observed 



Country . . 68-1 142 

Pure . . 67-4 138 

Very pure . 68-8 142 

Country birth, "^ 

town since ./ "° " ^'^•' 



Town . . 67-9 139 

Pure . . 67-5 136 

-IT _, r2 cases , -_ 

Very pure . ,1 ^ ^^]^. -^ 155 

Town birth, -1 gg.^ " j^g 
country since J 



These obsei'vations being deduced from the standard class present less 
difference than may be expected from a comparison derived from the 
peasants and artisans, as persons of this class rarely spend their lives ex- 
clusively either in the country or in towns. 

The following are full details : — 



138 



EEPORT 1880. 



Table XII. — Table showing the Average Height in Inches at each of the 
undermentioned Ages of Persons of the different grades of Country 
Origin. 













Country Origin 














Very Pure 
Country 


Country Birth, 


All the Grades 


Age 


Country 


Pure Country 


Town since Boy 
or Child 


of Countiy 
Origin 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 




of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Heiglit 


of Ob- 


Height 


of Ob- 


Height 




serva- 


m 


serva- 


in 


serva- 


m 


sei-va- 


in 


serva- 


lU 




tions 


Inches 


tions 


Indies 


tions 


Inches 


tions 


Inches 


tions 


Inches 


10- 


1 


53-5 














_ 




1 


53-5 


11- 


4 


57-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


. — 




4 


570 


12- 


8 


57-5 


— 


— 


— 




— . 


— 


8 


57"5 


13- 


9 


59-5 


1 


58-5 


— 


— 


— 


. — 


10 


59-4 


14- 


23 


62-7 


5 


62'1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


28 


62-6 


15- 


23 


65-5 


4 


66-3 


2 


67-5 


— 


— 


29 


65-7 


16- 


25 


66-9 


3 


67-2 


3 


66-8 


— 


— 


31 


67-0 


17- 


25 


68'1 


4 


64-8 


2 


69-5 


2 


68-5 


33 


678 


18- 


59 


67-4 


10 


67-9 


18 


68-4 


4 


66-8 


91 


67-7 


19- 


38 


68-8 


6 


66-8 


15 


69-2 


11 


68'6 


70 


68-7 


20- 


20 


691 


2 


670 


6 


69'1 


4 


71-0 


32 


69-2 


21- 


7 


68-6 


2 


660 


2 


68-5 


2 


690 


13 


68-3 


22- 


13 


691 


1 


68-5 


1 


65-5 


2 


690 


17 


68-9 


23- 


6 


67-7 


1 


70-5 


— 


— 


I 


72-5 


8 


C8-6 


24- 


1 


70-5 


1 


67-5 


1 


68-5 


1 


68-5 


4 


68-8 


25-30 


3 


70-2 


1 


66-5 


• — 


— 


1 


71-5 


5 


69-7 


Total . 


265 


— 


41 


— 


50 


— 


28 


— 


384 


— 



Table XIII. — Table showing the Average Height in Inches at each speci- 
fied Age of Persons of different grades of Town Origin. 



Age 










Town Origin 






Town 


Pure Town 


Very Pure Town 


Town Birth, 
Coimtry since 
Boy or Child 


All the Grades 
of Town 
Origui 


Number 
of Ob- 
serva- 
tions 


Average 
Height 

in 
Inches 


Number 
of Ob- 
serva- 
tions 


Average 
Height 

in 
Inches 


Niunber 
of Ob- 
serva- 
tions 


Average 
Height 

in 
Inches 


Number 
of Ob- 
serva- 
tions 


Average 
Height 

in 
Inches 


Number 
of Ob- 
serva- 
tions 


Average 
Height 

in 
Inches 


10- 


1 


52-5 














_ 


_ 


1 


52-5 


11- 


3 


53-5 


— 


— 


— 





-- 


— 


3 


53-5 


12- 


6 


58-7 


1 


55-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7 


58-2 


13- 


12 


59-9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


12 


59-9 


14- 


29 


61'2 


— 


— 


1 


62-5 


-^- 


— 


30 


Gl-2 


16- 


25 


64-9 


5 


64-5 


— 


— 


— . 


— . 


30 


64-8 


16- 


25 


66-3 


— 


. — 


.1 


66-5 


— 


— 


26 


66-3 


17- 


23 


67-5 


1 


69-5 


1 


66-5 


3 


66-5 


28 


67-4 


18- 


23 


68-0 


5 


67-1 


— 


— 


5 


69-3 


33 


68-1 


19- 


35 


67-9 


4 


68-0 


2 


71-0 


5 


67-1 


46 


67-9 


20- 


13 


67-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


69-5 


14 


67-9 


21- 


5 


66-7 


1 


69-5 


. — 


— 


2 


680 


8 


67-4 


22- 


4 


66-3 





— 


. — 


— 


1 


71-5 


5 


67-3 


23- 
24- 
25-30 


3 


66-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


675 


4 


66-8 


3 


68-2 


— 


— 


--- 


— 


— 


— 


3 


68-2 


Total . 


210 


— 


17 


— 


5 




18 


— 


250 


— 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



139 



Table XIV.— Table showing tlie Average Weight in Pounds at each of tlie 
undermentioned Ages of Persons of difBerent grades of Country Origin. 













Country Origin 






















Coimtry 


Bii-th, 


All the 


C! rades 






Pm-e Coiuitry 


Very 


Pm-e 


Town 


since 


of Country 












Couua-y 


Boy or 


Child 


Origin 


Age 






















Number 


Average 
Weight 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 




of Ob- 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 




serva- 


in 


serva- 


in 


serva- 


m 


serva- 


m 


serva- 


in 




tions 


Ponnds 


tions 


Poimds 


tions 


Poimds 


tions 


Pounds 


tions 


Pounds 
72-5 


10-11 


1 


72-5 


._ 








— 


— 


— 


1 


11- 


4 


72-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


72-5 


12- 


8 


77-5 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


77-5 


13- 


9 


90-3 


1 


92-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


10 


90-5 


14- 


23 


103-6 


5 


102-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


28 


103-4 


15- 


23 


114-7 


4 


110-3 


2 


112-5 


— 


— 


29 


114-7 


16- 


25 


125-5 


'i> 


l.SO-8 


2 


127-5 


— 


— 


30 


126-2 


17- 


24 


136-0 


4 


115-0 


2 


142-5 


2 


142-5 


32 


134-2 


18- 


59 


135-0 


10 


140-0 


18 


142-5 


4 


1350 


91 


137-1 


19- 


39 


148-4 


6 


135-8 


15 


142-2 


9 


143-6 


69 


145-3 


20- 


20 


147-8 


9 


142-5 


6 


147-5 


4 


168-7 


32 


150-0 


21- 


7 


147-5 


•> 


142-5 


2 


152-5 


2 


150-0 


13 


147-9 


22- 


11 


154-8 


1 


147-5 


1 


132-5 


2 


155-0 


15 


152-8 


23- 


6 


149-2 


I 


1G2-5 


— 


— 


1 


152-6 


8 


151-3 


24- 


1 


147-5 


i 


162-5 


1 


157-5 


1 


162-5 


4 


157-5 


25-30 


3 


167-5 


— 


■ 


1 


132-5 


1 


177-5 


5 


162-5 


Total . 


263 


— 


40 




50 


— 


26 


— 


379 


— 



Table XV. — Table showing the Average Weight in Pounds at 
specified Age of Persons of difi"erent grades of Town Origin. 



each 













Town Origin 
















Town Birth, 


All the Grades 




Town 


Pure Town 


Very Pure 


Country since 


of Town 












Town 


Boy or Child 


Origin 


Age 
















Number 


Average 


Number 


Average 


Number 


Average Nmnber [Average 


Number Average 




of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 


Weight 


of Ob- 1 Weight 


of Ob- Weight 




serva- 


Ul 


serva- 


m 


serva- 


m 


serva- in 


serva- in 




tions 


Poimds 


tions 


Pounds 


tions 


Pounds 


tions 


Pounds 


tions rounds 


10- 


] 


67-5 


_ 

















1 


67-5 


11- 


3 


60-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


60-8 


12- 


6 


78-3 


1 


77-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7 


78-2 


13- 


14 


85-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— • 


14 


85-4 


14- 


29 


94-2 


— 


— 


1 


107-5 


— 


— 


30 


94-7 


15- 


26 


114-6 


4 


116-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


30 


114-8 


16- 


25 


123-5 


— 


— 


1 


132-5 


— 


— 


26 


123-8 


17- 


23 


133-4 


1 


132-5 


1 


117-5 


3 


120-8 


28 


131-4 


18- 


23 


136-4 


5 


133-5 


— 


— 


5 


145-5 


33 


137-3 


19- 


34 


141-6 


4 


138-8 


2 


155-0 


5 


138-5 


45 


141-6 


20- 


10 


147-5 





— 


— 


— 


1 


147-5 


11 


147-5 


21- 


5 


144-5 


1 


152-5 





— 


2 


152-5 


8 


147-5 


22- 


4 


135-0 


— 





— 


— 


1 


162-5 


5 


140-5 


23- 


3 


135-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


142-5 


4 


137-5 


24- 





— 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-. . 


— 


— 


25-30 


5 


134-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 


134-5 


Total . 


211 


— 


16 


— 


5 


— 


18 


— 


250 


- 



140 



EEPORT 1880. 



Table XVI. — Table showing the Average Height and Weight at each 
Age of Persons of all grades of Country Origin, of all grades of 
Town Origin, and of all grades of Town and of Country Origin. 



Age 


AU the Grades of Country 
Origin 


All the Grades of Town 
Origin 


Total of all Grades 


No. 
Obs. 


Height 
Inches 


Weight 
Pounds 


No. 
Obs. 


Height 
Inches 


Weight 
Pounds 


No. 
Ob.<i. 


Height 
Indies 


Weight 
Pounds 


10- 


1 


53-5 


72-5 


1 


52-5 


67-5 


2 


530 


70-0 


11- 


4 


57-0 


72-5 


3 


53-5 


60-8 


7 


55-4 


67-5 


12- 


8 


57-5 


77-5 


7 


58-2 


78-2 


15 


57-8 


77-8 


13- 


10 


594 


90-5 


14 


59-9 


85-4 


24 


59-7 


87-5 


14- 


28 


62-6 


1034 


30 


61-2 


94-7 


58 


61-9 


98-9 


15- 


29 


65-7 


114-7 


30 


64-8 


114-8 


59 


65-2 


114-8 


16- 


30 


670 


126-2 


26 


66-3 


123-8 


56 


66-7 


125-1 


17- 


32 


67-8 


134-2 


28 


67-4 


131-4 


60 


67-6 


132-9 


18- 


91 


67-7 


137-1 


33 


68-1 


137-3 


124 


67-8 


137-1 


19- 


69 


68-7 


145-3 


45 


67-9 


141-6 


178 


68-4 


143-9 


20- 


32 


69-2 


150-0 


11 


67-9 


147-5 


43 


68-8 


149-4 


21- 


13 


68-3 


147-9 


8 


67-4 


147-5 


21 


67-9 


147-7 


22- 


15 


68-9 


152-8 


5 


07-3 


140-5 


20 


68-5 


149-8 


23- 


8 


68-6 


151-3 


4 


66-8 


137-5 


12 


680 


146-7 


2i- 


4 


68-8 


157-5 


— 


. — 


. — 


4 


G8-8 


157-5 


25-30 


5 


G9-7 


162-5 


5 


G8-2 


131-5 


10 


69-1 


148-5 


10 i^^^ 


13 


570 


750 


11 


56-4 


72-5 


24 


56-8 


74-2 


13 „ 16 


67 


63-5 


106-4 


74 


62-5 


101-1 


141 


G3-0 


103-6 


16 „ 19 


153 


G7-5 


134-3 


87 


G7-4 


131-4 


240 


67-5 


133-3 


19- „ 22 


114 


(J8-8 


146-9 


64 


67-9 


143-4 


178 


G8-4 


145-6 


22 „ 25 


27 


G8-8 


153-1 


9 


67-1 


139-2 


36 


68-4 


149-6 


25 „ 30 


5 


C9-7 


162-5 


I ^ 


68-2 


134-5 


10 


69-1 


148-5 



Mem. — Comparing the two columns lieaded ' All Grades of Country Origin ' and 
'All Grades of Town Origin,' it will be observed that those of country origin have 
in nearly every case an advantage in height and weight over those of town origin ; 
and on referring to the table at foot, where the results are given in periods of 
three years, this will be still more noticeable. 

V. As to Growth. 

One very interesting branch of the inquii-y with which your Com- 
mittee is charged is the annual development of young people of both 
sexes ; but the opportunity of obtaining such information continued over 
a considerable number of years is very rare, and the Committee have as 
yet been able to procure only one return of this nature. It relates to the 
yearly growth of a small number of children of American parents, pre- 
sented by Dr. Bowditch, Professor of Physiology in Harvard Medical 
School. But they are of opinion that the publication of it, and of some 
results which have been deduced from it by the Committee, may be useful 
in suggesting to persons who are in possession of similar observations, 
however few in number, and limited in period of record, to communicate 
them to the Committee. Many parents take the height of their children 
periodically ; a few perhaps take their weight also. Ati examination of 
Tables XVII. and XVIII., and the remarks thereon, will show to what 
good account a collocation and comparison of such facts may be turned. 

Table XVII. is a comparative statement abstracted by Sir Rawson Raw- 
son from Dr. Bowditch's original table, of which Table XVIII. is a copy. 



KErOKX OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



141 



Table XVII. — Comparative Statement of the Annual Growth of a cer- 
tain number of American Boys and Girls (12 boys and 13 girls) as 
far as recorded, from birth to 22 years of age, abstracted from the 
following Table. 











Number 


Average 

Height in 

Inches 


Annual Growth in Inches 




of Cases 




Males 


Females 




Yeara 














M 


s 


(n 


? 
^ 






0) 

to 


§0 


• 












1 










C3 
> 


SS 

o 
> 

< 


OS 


.9 


From birth to 1 year 





1 





23- 








8-1 


— 





„ 1 year „ 2 years 


8 


7 


291 


27-8 


5- 


2^5 


372 


413 


5-3 


2^8 




, 2^ 


(rears,, 3 


tf 


8 


8 


32-3 


31-6 


5-3 


2^5 


3-52 


374 


5^1 


2-7 




, 3' 


„ „ 4 


jt 


8 


9 


36-3 


35-6 


4-4 


14 


2^78 


2-97 


37 


21 




, 4 


,, „ 5 


ft 


9 


10 


39-5 


38-3 


3-3 


1-5 


242 


2-52 


29 


1^9 




, 5 


„ „ 6 




10 


10 


421 


40-9 


31 


11 


2 50 


2-41 


31 


1^7 




, 6 


,. „ 7 


if 


10 


11 


44-6 


43-5 


2-9 


13 


2-26 


2-42 


29 


1-7 




, 7 


„ „ 8 




12 


11 


46-6 


45-8 


36 


21 


2-61 


234 


2^8 


2- 




, 8 


„ ,, 9 


jj 


12 


12 


49-3 


48-5 


4- 


r4 


2^33 


223 


3- 


13 




, 9 


„ „io 


ft 


12 


12 


51-6 


50-6 


23 


14 


l-Si 


2^11 


2^8 


14 




, 10 


„ „11 




12 


12 


53-5 


52-7 


2-2 


1-5 


191 


2-18 


2-6 


■7a\ 
14 / 




, 11 


., ,,12 


ft 


12 


13 


55"5 


54-8 


2-5 


1-2 


1-88 


2^70 


6^1a 




. 13 


„ „13 


ft 


11 


13 


57-3 


57- 


3-9 


■9 


204 


307 


496 


23 \ 
•9J/ 




. 13 


„ „ 14 




11 


13 


59o 


60-3 


4-7 


11 


2^52 


195 


3-3 




. 14 


„ „15 


j> 


11 


13 


62- 


62-2 


3-9 


1-7 


236 


1-29 


35 


•1 




, 15 


„ „ 16 




11 


12 


64-2 


63-5 


3-8 


•5 


231 


•76 


1-3 


■0 




, 16 


„ „17 


»} 


10 


12 


66-4 


63-8 


2-5 


•5 


1-45 


•61 


1-4 


•1 




, 17 


„ „18 


j» 


9 


11 


68-3 


64-7 


2-3 


•1 


■98 


•21 


•7 


•0 




, 18 


„ „ 19 


j» 


8 


6 


69- 


64-9 


1-8 


•1 


•76 


•49 


•7 


•15 




, 19 


„ „20 


>) 


7 


3 


70-5 


65-2 


1-0 


Nil 


•26 


•43 


■9 


•2 




, 20 


„ „21 


ff 


5 


— 


70' 7 


66-2 


•45 


■05 


•25 


— 


— 


— 




, 21 


„ „22 


3* 


3 


— 


709 


— 


•45 


I -05 


•27 


— 


— 


— 






a. 


Thes 


ime gi 


Tl. 




b 


Thes. 


ame (ai 


lother) ( 


jirl. 







The accompanying charts, Nos. II. and III. (Plates V. and VI.), show 
tracings of Prof. Bowditch's observations on the successive growth in 
stature of twelve boys and thirteen girls nearly related in blood and of 
the professional class. The tracings for each individual cannot be fol- 
lowed throughout on account of the intersections and overlapping which 
occur, but they are sufficiently distinct to show the relative course which 
each and all have run. A marked feature iu the charts when compared 
together is the greater regularity and parallelism of the growth of girls, 
especially at the earlier periods of life. From this it is obvious that the 
physical development of boys is subject to more powerful modifying 
agencies than that of girls, which is attributable to the more varied lives 
lx)ys lead, and to the lower degree of viability which they possess even 
from the period of birth. Some of the irregularities shown by the trac- 
ings are probably due to slight errors of observation, but the deviations 
in direction are clearly due to external causes ; if the tracings had been 
made at the time the measurements wei'e taken, and the apparent causes 
of the deviations had been recorded, we should possess some very in- 
teresting charts of the physical history of each individual, and many 
useful facts illustrating the influence of media on the growth of the human 
body. 



142 



REPOBT 1880. 



Table XVIIl. 



-Table showing the Height and Annual Growth (in feet, inches, 

Bowditch, Professor of Physiology 



Females 






Age last 


~1 


Birth i 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Lillie . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Mary . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4-0-0 


4-2-3 


4-4- 




Alice . . . 


— 


2-5- 


2-7-8 


2-11- 


3-1-1 


3-3-7 


3-6.5 


3-8-7 


3-10-8 


— 


4-3- 




Charlotte . 


— 


2-4- 


2-9- 


3-0-8 


3-3-9 


3-6-8 


3-8-9 


3-11-6 


4-2-1 


4-3-4 


4-6- 




Lucy . . . 


— 


2-4-6 


2-9-3 


3-0-7 


3-3-7 


3-6-6 


3-8-8 


3-10-6 


4-1-1 


4-3-7 


4-6- 




Lily . . . 


1-11- 


2-7-1 


2-10- 


3-1-2 


3-4-1 


3-6-4 


3-9-2 


3-11-6 


4-2-0 


4-4-3 


4-6-2 




Livy . . . 


— 


--- 


— 


— 


3-1-8 


3-4-2 


3-6-8 


3-8-5 


3-11-0 


4-2-0 


4-4-1 




Fanny . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3-9-4 


4-0-3 


4-2-5 


4-4-1 


4-6-9 




Esther . . 


— 


— 


— 


3-0-4 


3-31 


3-5-6 


3-7-3 


3-9-5 


3-11-5 


4-1-8 


4-4-3 




Susan . . 


— 


— 


2-5-6 


2-9-8 


3-0-8 


3-3 2 


3-6-3 


3-8-7 


3-11-1 


4-1-7 


4-3-6 




Arria . . 


— 


2-1- 


2-6-3 


2-11-4 


3-2-3 


3-4-8 


3-6-7 


3-9-6 


— 


4-1-9 


4-3-8 




Mary . . 


— 


2-2-6 


2-6-5 


— 


3-1-4 


3-4-2 


3-6-4 


3-8-7 


— 


4-2-3 


4-3-7 




Annie . . 


— 


2-2-8 


2-6-3 


2-10-6 


3-1-4 


3-3-3 


3-6-0 


3-8-1 
3-9-8 

2-3 


3-10-3 


4-0-6 


4-2-8 




Average ■\^ 
Height J 


— 


2-3-8 


2-7-6 


2-11-7 


3-2-4 


3-4-9 


3-7-5 
2-G 


4-0-5 


4-2-6 


4-4-7 


Annual \ 
Increase / 


— 


— 


3-8 


4-1 


2-7 


2-5 


2-7 


2-1 


2-1 


Males 


























Frank . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3-7-8 


3-10-7 


4-1-4 


4-4-4 


4-7- 


4-8-8 




Henry . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3-8-4 


3-10-9 


4-1-3 


4-3-2 




Charles . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3-6-2 


3-9.0 


4-0- 


4-2-3 


4-4-9 


4-7-5 


4-9-4 




Alfred . . 


— 


2-8-3 


3-0-6 


3-3-8 


3-6-7 


3-9-0 


3-11-8 


4-2-2 


4-4-7 


4-7-3 


4-9-3 




Nat . . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3-11- 


4-1-7 


4-3-2 


4-5- 




Ned . . . 


— 


2-4-3 


2-9- 


3-0- 


3-2-3 


3-5-6 


3-7-7 


3-9-8 


4-0- 


4-2-3 


4-4-2 




Vin . . . 


— 


2-8-2 


3-0- 


3-3-2 


3-5-6 


3-7-3 


3-10-0 


4-0-3 


4-2-7 


4-54 


4-7-0 




James . . 


— 


2-2-2 


2-4-7 


2-10- 


3-2-4 


3-5-5 


3-7-8 


3-10-7 


4-0-8 


4-4-8 


4-6-6 




Ernest . . 


— 


2-4- 


2-9- 


2-11-9 


3-3-8 


3-5-9 


3-8-2 


3-11- 


4-1-7 


4-3-4 


4-4-8 




John . . . 


— 


2-4- 


2-8- 


3-0-3 


3-25 


3-5-3 


3-8-4 


3-10-3 


4-0-6 


4-2-0 


4-4-3 




Arthu)- . . 


— 


2-5- 


2-7-5 


2-10- 


2-11-4 


3-1-6 


3-2-7 


3-4- 


3-7-6 


3-10- 


4-0- 




Basil . . . 

Average "\^ 
Height J 


— 


2-5- 


2-8- 


2-11-8 


3-2-5 
3-3-5 


3-4-0 


3-6-7 


3-8-6 


3-11-4 


4-1-4 


4-3-1 

4-5-5 




2-5-1 


2-9-5 


3-0-3 


3-6-1 


3-8-6 


3-10-6 


4-1-3 


4-3-6 




Annual ~1 
Increase / 


— 


— 


4-4 


2-8 


3-2 


2-6 


2-5 


2-0 


2-7 


2-3 


1-9 



Note. — The measurements 



were all taken annually during the last 25 years, and the 
1872, and The Growth of Children, ' Eighth Ann. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



143 



and tenths) from year to year of 25 children of both sexes. By Dr. H. P. 
at Harvard Medical School. 





Birthday 






11 


12 


13 


14 


.5 


k; 


17 
5-4-2 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 






4-4-6 


4-6.1 


4-11- 


4-11-9 


5-2-3 


5-3-6 


5-4-7 


5-5-1 


5-5-3 


— 








4-4-7 


4-10-8 


5-1-4 


5-2-6 


6-3- 


5-3- 


5-3.3 


5-3-6 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-5-3 


4-8-4 


4-11-5 


..._ 


5-3-4 


5-4-5 


5-4-6 


— 


5-6-3 


5-6- 


— 


— 






4-8-5 


4-10-8 


5-2-1 


5-4-6 


— 


— 


5-6-3 


— 


6-6-9 


5-7-8 


— 


— 






4-8-3 


4-10-5 


5-0-9 


5-4- 


5-4-7 


5-5-6 


5-7- 


5-7-3 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-8-2 


4-10- 


5-0-4 


5-3-7 


5-5-1 


6-5-6 


5-6-4 


6-6-6 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-6-7 


4-10-3 


5-0-8 


6-2-3 


5-3-2 


5-3-9 


— 


5-4-2 


5-4-9 


— 


— 


— 






4-9-3 


5-0-2 


5-2-7 


5-4- 


5-4-7 


— 


5-5- 


5-5- 


5-5-7 


5-5-9 


— 


— 






4-6-5 


4-9-5 


4-11-8 


5-0-9 


— 


5-1-1 


5-2-3 


6-2-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-6-2 


4-9-5 


4-11-8 


5-1-3 


5-1-8 


5-1-2 


5-3- 


— 


5-3-3 


— 


— 


— ■ 






4-6-3 


4-8-5 


• — 


5-2-1 


5-4-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 








4-5-6 


4-7- 


4-11- 


5-0- 


6-3-5 


5-4-4 


5-4-6 


— 


— 


— 


— 








4-5- 


4-6-9 


4-10- 


5-1-2 


6-2-8 


5-4-2 


5-5-2 


5-5-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-6-8 


4-9- 


5-0-3 
3-3 


5-2-2 


6-3-5 


5-3-8 


5-4-7 


5-4-9 


5-5-2 


5-6-2 


— 


-{ 


feet& 
inches 




2-1 


2-4 


1-9 


1-3 


0-3 


0-9 


0-2 


0-3 


1-0 


— 


— 


inches 




4-10-8 


5-0- 


5-2-9 


5-7-6 


6-9-3 


5-9-8 


5-10-4 


5-10-5 


5-11-3 


5-11-4 


5-11-6 








4-5-0 


4-7-2 


4-9- 


4-11- 


5-1-4 


5-4-7 


6-7-2 


5-8-8 


5-9-5 


5-9-8 


5-10- 


— 






4-11-2 


5-11 


5-3- 


5-4-4 


5-6-3 


5-9-2 


5-11-3 


6-0-8 


6-0-9 


6-1- 


— 


— 






4-11-4 


5-1-2 


5-2-8 


5-4-5 


— 


5-8-4 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 






4-7- 


4-9-5 


4-11-3 


5-1- 


6-3-2 


5-5-6 


5-7-7 


5-10- 


5-10-8 


5-10-9 


6-11- 


5-11-3 






4-5-8 


4-7-9 


4-9-9 


5-1- 


5-4-9 


6-8-7 


5-9-2 


5-9-4 


5-10- 


5-10- 


— 


5-10-1 






4-9-2 


4-11-3 


5-3-2 


5-6-8 


5-8-8 


— 


5-10-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


■ — 






4-8-5 


4-10- 


4-10-9 


5-29 


5-4-7 


— 


5-8- 


5-8-7 


5-9- 


6-9-2 


— 


5-9-9 






4-7-0 


4-9-2 


4-11-5 


5-1-7 


5-4-2 


5-7-5 




5-9-6 


5-10-6 


— 


— 


— 






— 


4-7-4 


4-9-2 


4-10-3 


5-1-4 


5-3-7 


— 


5-8- 


5-9-8 


5-10-8 


— 


— 






4-21 


4-4-0 


4-5-4 


4-7-6 


4-101 


5-0-6 


5-2-6 


5-3-4 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-5- 


4-6-8 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






4-7-5 


4-9-3 


4-11-5 


5-2- 


5-4-2 


5-6-4 


5-8-3 


5-9- 


5-10-5 


5-10-7 


5-10-9 


5-10-4 


feet & 
inches 




20 


1-8 


2-2 


2-1 


2-2 


2-2 


1-9 


0-7 


1-5 


0-2 


0-2 


— 


inches 



individuals were all nearly related to each other. See ' Boston Med. & Surgical Journal,' Dec. 
Kep.of the State Board of Health of Mass.,' 1877. 



144 



EEPORT — 1880. 



Bemarks on Table XVIII. 

The number of persons observed in the above tables is too small to 
admit of drawing any positive conclusions from the data ; but it is hoped 
that they may be confirmed, or corrected, by other independent observa- 
tions. 

1° The average growth of the girls in each year from 1 to 5 exceeds 
that of the boys, but in a decreasing ratio, viz. : — 

-excess of girls- 



In 2ud year, viz. : from I to 2- 
3rd „ „ 2 „ o 

4th „ „ 3 „ 4 

5th „ „ 4 „ .5 



Averasfe 



-8 '3 per cent. 
6-2 „ 
6-1 
41 „ 

6-6 



From 5 to 6 the scale inclines slightly in favour of the boys, viz. : 
o ; but as from 6 to 7 it turns back agaia, being 7 % in favour of 



2° 

the girls, it may be assumed that the deviation was accidental, and that 
from 1 to 7 years of age the growth of the girls exceeds that of the boys, 
the average excess of the whole period being 5 2 %. 

3° From 7 to 9 the scale turns decidedly in favour of the boys, being 
8"1 % in excess, but from 9 to 13 there is a marked excess in favour of 

the girls, viz. : — 

Excess of Girls 
In 10th year, viz. : from 9 to 10 — 14'6 per cent." 

11th „ „ 10 „ 11 — 141 „ I Average 

12th „ „ 11 „ 12— 43-6 „ ( 31-1 per cent. 

13th „ „ 12 „ 13—50-5 „ J 

4° The great excess between 11 and 13 is the more remarkable, as after 
the latter year the scale turns in favour of the boys, and continues up to 
19, when the number of observations is too small to admit of any conclu- 
sion being drawn from what may have been an accidental change. 

Excess of Boys 
In 14th year, viz. : from 13 to 14 — 29-2 per cent. 



15th 
16th 
17th 
18th 
19th 



14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



15— 82-9 
16—203-9 
17-137-7 
18—366-6 
19— 55-1 



5° From the above it will be seen that 

From 1 to 7 the growth is slightly in favour of girls, viz. 
7 „ 9 „ ,, „ boys, „ 



9 
11 
13 
15 



11 
13 
15 
18 



moderately „ 
largel}- „ 

immensely „ 



girls, 
boys, 



Average 
95-4 per cent. 



5-2 per cent. 

8-1 „ 
14-4 
47-2 

50-6 „ 
200-0 



With regard to the last proportion the fact is that while at the age of 12 
the annual growth among the boys begins to increase — averaging about 
that which they made between 4 and 9 — it decreases rapidly among the 
girls. The total increase from 15 to 19 among the boys was 5'76 inches, 
and among the girls only 2-50 inches. 

6° In comparing the maxima and minima growths of the two sexes, 
there appear to be in the former no very marked features up to the age 
of 11. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



145 



Boys Girls 
From 1 to 3 they are equal, viz. : .... 5-2 5'2 inches 

„ 3 „ 5 aslightexcessamongboys,averagingannually3-8to3-3 ,, 
„ 5 „ 7 exactly equal ...... 3* 3' „ 

„ 7 „ 9 an excess among boj's .... 3-8 2-9 „ 

„ 9 „ 11 „ „ girls .... 2-2 2-7 „ 

At 11 to 33 there are in this table two cases of unusual gi'owth 
among the girls, viz., 6'1 and 4"9 inches in one year respectively ; and it 
is remarkable that in the first case the girl grew only 0'7 inch in the pre- 
ceding year, and in the second case the girl (a difi'erent one) grew only 
0'9 inch in the succeeding year. No such remarkable case occurred 
among the boys. After eliminating these two cases, the excess in this 
period remains in favour of the girls, but after 13 it preponderates greatly 

among the boys : — 

Boj's Girls 
From 11 to 13 the excess among the girls, averaging annually 3"2 to 41 inches 
„ 13 „ 17 „ „ boys, „ „ 3-7 „ 24 „ 

7° Ti'eating the minima in the same way, those of the boys are uni- 
formly lower than those of the girls up to the age of 7, viz. : — 

Boj-s Girls 
From 1 to 7 the excess among the girls, averaging annually 1-7 to 2-1 inches 
,, 7 „ 11 „ „ boys, „ „ 1-6 „ 1-3 „ 

At 11 to 13 the minima of the girls are, like their maxima, exceptional; 
showing that in these two years the growth of girls is not only excep- 
tionally, but at both ends of the scale usually, in excess of that of boys. 

Boys Girls 
From 11 to 13 the excess among the girls, averaging annually 10 to 1-8 inches 
» 13 „ 19 „ „ boys, „ „. 0-7 „ 02 „ 

8° The following table would be of considerable interest if it were 
based on a larger number of cases. As far as it goes, it shows that in both 
sexes a rapid annual growth, of 3 inches or more, occurs chiefly between 
the ages of 1 to 3 and 11 to 16, the proportion being greater among girls 
at the latter age, while it is greater among boys between 4 and 11. 





Numb 


er of 


Cases 


of Rapid Growth at Different Ages. 






Ages 


Boys 


Girls 


3 to 4 


4to6 


5 to 6 


3 to 4 4 to 5 


5toC 


Above 






inches 


inches 


inches 


inches inches 


inches 


6 inches 


At 1 . 


, , 


2 


3 


1" 




1 


1 


2 


01 




, 2 . 










4 


1 


1 


>15 


3 


2 


1 


Us 




, 3 . 










2 


1 







3 








0\ 




, 4 . 










1 





0-^ 













0" 






, 5 . 










2 










1 















, 6 . 










1 


























, 7 . 










1 





oy 6 














■ 2 




, 8 . 













1 







1 















, 9 . 





































, 10 . 





































, 11 . 
















0\ 




5 








1\ 






, 12 . 










1 










1 


3 












, 13 . 










2 


2 







3 















, H . 










2 








. 10 


1 











-14 




, 15 . 










2 


























, 16 . 








1 





oj 













oj 




1 


880. 












L 

















146 



EEPOBT — 1880. 



Percentage Proportion of above in Three Periods. 



From 1 to 3 
„ 4 „ 10 
„ 11 „ 16 



Bovs 


Girls 


48-4 


44-8 


19-4 


6-9 


32-2 


48-3 



Total 



100- 100- 



The importance of the period between 11 and 13 among girls is again 
illustrated by the above comparison. 

9° Of continuous rapid growth the instances were not numerous, but 
they were more striking among the girls, and chiefly at an early age. 









r 1 


grew 


105 inches 


Boys in 3 


years from 


1 to 3 < 


1 ^ 


>) 


11-8 


)> 








I 1 


») 


12-2 


»> 


,, 2 


>» 


12 „ 14 




>» 


7-5 


»t 


tf 


f> 


14 „ 16 




»> 


7-7 


)J 










)j 


10-6 


5> 


Girls in 3 


»» 


1 „ 3 . 




J) 


10-8 
11-2 












» 


11-9 


>» 


„ 2 


»» 


1 „ 3 




»j 


10-4 


»> 


» 2 


fj 


11 „ 13 




j» 


8-7 


»» 


,, 2 


J) 


12 „ 14 




j> 


81 


)> 



10° The following table would be of much value if the observations 
were more numerous. The periods have been divided according to evi- 
dent changes in the average growth of one or both sexes. It wiU not 
escape remark that the average growth of both sexes between 3 and 9 was 

exactly equal. 

Boys Girls 

From 1 to 3 average annual growth 3'61 3-87 inches 

„ 3 „ y „ „ 2-48 2-48 

„ 9 „ 11 „ „ 1-87 2-14 

„ 11 „ 13 „ „ 1-97 2-88 

„ 13 „ 17 „ „ 216 115 

„ 17 „ 20 „ „ 0-66 0-38 

The more general, but not less valuable, remarks of Professor Bow- 
ditch on his original table, published in the ' Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal' of December 19, 1872, are as follows : — 

' The measurements were all taken annually during the last twenty- 
five years, and the individuals were all nearly related to each other. An 
examination of the curves shows the following facts : — 

' 1. Growth is most rapid during the earliest years of life. 

' 2. During the first twelve years boys are from one to two inches taller 
than girls of the same age. 

' 3. At about twelve and a half years of age girls begin to grow faster 
than boys, and, during the fourteenth year, are about one inch taller than 
boys of the same age. 

' 4. At fourteen and a half years of age boys again become the taller, 
girls having, at this period, very nearly completed their growth, while 
boys continue to grow rapidly till 19 years of age.' 

The Committee adds the following table illustrative of the greater 
weight as well as height of girls during a critical period of life, ab- 
stracted from Mr, Roberts's paper on ' Factory Children ' (1876). 



BEPOET OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



147 



Table XIX. — Table showing the relative Height and Weight of Boys and 
Girls in England at the age of 13-14 years. (0. Roberts.) 



Class of Children 




Height. 






Boys 


Girls 


Difference 


Stanway, 1833, Factory Children 

„ 1833, Non- factory „ 
Ferguson, 1871-3, Factory „ 
Roberts, 1873, Non-factory „ 


No. 

45 
22 

24 


Inches 

54-48 
54-98 

55-21 


No. 

63 

18 

14 


Inches 

55-64 
55-07 

56-08 


Boys 


Girls 

116 
0-09 

0-87 



Class of Children 


Weight 


Boys 


Girls 


Difference 


Stanway, 1833, Factory Children 

„ 1833, Non-factory „ 
Ferguson, 1871-3, Factory 
Roberts, 1873, Non-factory „ 


No. 

45 

22 

494 

35 


lbs. 

72-11 
75-36 
68-72 
76-48 


No. 

63 

18 

542 

27 


lbs. 

73-25 

72-72 
70-25 
77-58 


Boys 
2-63 


Girls 
1-14 

1-63 
1-10 



il'.iV 



VI. Marlborough College Statistics. 



Though it does not in any degree enter into the contemplation of the 
Committee to discuss the returns of any particular college or establish- 
ment in detail, and indeed it would be foreign to their purpose to furnish 
the means of comparison that might be invidious between one institution 
and another, the series of 1850 observations made during several years by 
Dr. Fergus on boys in Marlborough College, and communicated to the 
Committee by the Rev. T. A. Preston, have been thought by the Com- 
mittee to constitute an exception, and it has been considered advisable to 
prepare abstracts of them as afibrding an excellent example of the useful- 
ness of systematic records. These have been prepared by Sir Rawson W. 
Rawson for each quarter of a year of age, in the same manner as those of 
the boys at Christ's Hospital, contained in the Committee's last Report. 
See Tables XX. to XXIII., to which are added tables of head-girth, arm- 
girth, and leg-girth (XXIV.-XXVI.) prepared by Mr. Roberts. 



12 



148 



REPORT — 1880. 



Table XX. — Statement of the Height, without shoes, of Boys in Marl- 
borough College, showing the average, maximum, and minimum at 
each year and quarter of a year of age, between 9 and 20. (Taken 
in 1874-78.) 



Age in 
Quarters 
of Years 



9 
9f 



10 

101 
lOl 



11 
lU 

111 



12 
12J 

12* 
12f 



13 

13i 
13| 
13f 



14 
Ui 
14^ 
14J 



No. of 
Obser- 
vations 



Height in Inches and Decimals 



Quarterly 



Average 



51 

54 
56-2 



Average of 
Quarterly Averages 



54-7 
53-8 
55'4 
53-8 



Maximum 



54-2 

57-2 



55-6 



55-4 
56-4 
57-6 
57-2 



Average of 
Quarterly Averages 



18 
16 
26 
24 



54-7 
56-3 
56-7 
56-5 



Average of 
Quarterly Averages 



37 
54 

50 
67 



570 
57-3 
57-9 
57-2 



56-6 



62-4 
670 
61-2 
60-4 



62-6 



62-2 
700 
61-6 
640 



Average of 
Quarterly Averages 



80 
77 
96 
80 



57-4 
59-3 
59-0 
59-2 



Average of 
Quarterly Averages 



110 

79 
97 
81 



60-8 
61-4 
61-2 
62-2 



Average of 
Quarterly Averages 



64-4 



650 
68-2 
71-2 
67-4 



68-0 



68'2 
680 
69-0 
68-4 



68-3 



Minimum 



53-6 
54-6 



54-2 



54-0 
51-6 
52-0 
49-4 



51-6 



49-4 
51-2 
52'2 
48-2 



50-2 



520 
53-6 
52-6 
52-4 



52-6 



51-6 
54-4 
54-6 
49-6 



52-5 



54-2 
540 
51-2 
56-0 



53-7 



Yearly 



No. of 
Obser- 
vations 



Average 



6 .53-7 



25 



84 



208 



333 



54-4 



560 



57-3 



58-7 



367 61-4 



HEPOKT OF THE ANTHUOPOMETIUC COJIMIXlEli. 



149 



Table XX. —Statement of the Height, kc— continued. 



Age in 
Quarters 


No. of 
Obser- 


Height in Inches and Decimals 




Quarterl}' 




Yearly 












of Years 


vations 








No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


15 


85 


62'4 


69-6 


55-4 






15i 
15* 


78 
69 


62-7 
641 


70-0 
70-0 


540 

57-2 


. 315 


63-4 


151 


83 


64-4 


73-5 


550 






Average of 


70-6 


553 


16 


Quarterly Averages 






, 




77 


651 


70-6 


57-7 


16i 


75 


65-6 


72-0 


59-4 


• 283 


65-6 


16i 


73 


65-1 


70-4 


54-6 


16| 

17 


58 


66-8 


72-2 


60-0 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


71-3 


58-8 


46 


67-4 


72-6 


60-3 


17i 
\7h 


46 
26 


67-0 
67-7 


730 

71-4 


57-4 
62-4 


[ 148 


67-5 


171 


30 


68-0 


76-4 


62-4 






Average of 


733 


60-7 


18 


Quarterly Averages 




■ 59 




27 


67-7 


710 


63-4 


18i 
18| 


16 . 
9 


69-7 
67-5 


72-4 
70-2 


64-7 
63-4 


68-5 


183 
19 


7 


69-3 


71-2 


65-2 




Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


71-2 


64-0 


9 


67-9 


73-4 


630 


19 i 


5 


66-3 


666 


66-0 


20 


67-4 


19i 


5 


675 


68-4 


65-4 


19| 


1 


68-0 


— 


— 


' 




Average of 


693 


63-5 


20 


Quarterly Averages 






' 


62-7 


2 


62-7 


67-0 


58-4 



150 



EEPOKT — 1880. 



Table XXI. — Statement of the "Weight of Boys in Marlborough College, 
showing the average, maximum, and minimum at each year and 
quarter of a year of age, between 9 and 20. (Taken in 1874-78.) 



Age in 
Quarters 
of Years 


No. of 
Obser- 
vations 




Weight in 


lbs. and Decimals 


Quarterly 


Yearly 








No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


9 


1 


750 





_ 


> 




H 


















n 


2 : 76-5 


79-0 


74-0 


r ** 


77-0 


n 

10 


3 79-3 


82-0 


75-0 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


80-5 


74-5 


-t 


74-2 


81-0 


68-0 


m 


6 


71-5 


79-0 


69-0 




T'-i-'-i 


10* 


8 


76-2 


91-0 


63-0 






lOf 


7 


71-5 


79-0 


63-0 






Average of 


82-5 


(v*^ • 7 


11 


Quarterly Averages 










18 


76-3 


98 


56 


Hi 


16 . 


77-0 


88 


63 


• 84 


7Q-4. 


11* 


26 


85-0 


102 


71 




111 


24 


79-3 


104 


t;7 


• 




Average of 


98-0 


63-7 


12 


Quarterly Averages 






\ 




37 


83-9 


103 


65 


12- 


54 


83-6 


109 


62 


■ 208 


84-7 


12.: 


.50 


86-3 


108 


69 






12, 


67 


85-6 


115 


58 






Average of 


108-7 


63-5 


13 


Quarterly Averages 










80 


90-9 


133 


64 


131 


77 


92-3 


144 


74 


. 333 


92-3 


13i 


96 


93-7 


125 


70 






13a 

U 


80 


92-4 


127 


58 


■ 




Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


132-2 


66-5 


110 


98-2 


163 


74 


Ui 


79 


100-5 


141 


75 


I 367 


101-5 


u^ 


97 


102-7 


140 


64 






14f 


81 


104-7 


146 


75 




1 


Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


147-5 


72-0 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMBTRIC COMMITTEE. 



151 



Table XXI. — Statement of the Weight, &c. — continued. 



Age in 


No. of 




Weight in 


lbs. and Decimals 




Quarterly 




Yearly 


Quarters 
of Years 


Obser- 
vations 
















No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


15 


85 


108-9 


142 


84 






15i 


78 110-2 
69 117-2 


168 
151 


73 

86 


■ 315 


113-2 


I5i 
16 


83 


116-7 


186 


74 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


161-7 


79-2 


77 


122-7 


161 


88 


m 


75 


126-2 


173 


91 


• 283 


127-0 


16^ 


73 


128-0 


179 


76 






16f 
17 


58 


131-4 


174 


100 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


171-7 


88-7 


46 


132-0 


173 


94 


m 


46 


133-9 


164 


95 


• 148 


136-3 


17i 


26 


142-5 


201 


116 






17f 
18 


30 


136-9 


175 


106 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


178-2 


102-7 


27 


140-6 


158 


104 


m 


16 


145-8 


179 


124 


I 59 


144-1 


18^ 


9 


150-7 


210 


127 






18f 
19 


7 


139-3 


157 


118 


) 




Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


176-0 


120-7 


9 


141-0 


160 


121 


m 


5 


134-8 


144 


126 


\ 20 


140-0 


19^ 


5 


140-0 


149 


134 


19f 
20 


1 


144-0 


— 


— 


J 

2 


1160 


Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


151-0 


127-0 


2 


116 


139 


93 



152 



REPOKT 1880. 



Table XXII. — Statement of the Chest-girth of Boys in Marlborougli 
College, showing the average, maximum, and minimum at each year 
and quarter of a year of age, between 9 and 20. (Taken in 1874-78.) 



Age in 


No. of 


Chest-girth in Inches and Decimals 


Quarterly 


Yearly 


Quarters 


Obser- 












of Years 


vations 








No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


9 


1 


29 


— 


— 






9-»- 


2 


26-2 


26-7 


260 


6 


27-4 


9f 


3 


27-0 


290 


26-2 


' 




Average of 


27'8 


26-1 


10 


Quarterly Averages 






4 


26-5 


27-6 


26-0 


lOi 


6 


26-6 


27-0 


24-4 


25 


261 


lOi 


8 


26-3 


28-2 


250 


lOf 


7 


25-1 


26-4 


21-2 


' 




Average of 


273 


241 


11 


Quarterly Averages 




] 




18- 


26-5 


300 


21-4 


Hi 


16 


27-0 


29-0 


25-0 


« 


270 


lU 


26 


27-3 


310 


250 


llj 


24 


271 


300 


250 


I 




Average of 


30-0 


24-1 


12 


Quarterly Averages 








37 


26-6 


29-6 


250 


12A 


54 


27-0 


29-4 


250 


• 208 


27-0 


12i 


50 


27-3 


300 


25-4 


12f 
13 


67 


27-1 


31-4 


25-0 


] 




Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


301 


251 


80 


28-0 


32-4 


25-2 


131 
13^ 


77 
96 


28-0 
28-2 


34-2 
32-4 


24-0 
25-0 


I 333 


280 


13| 
14 


80 


27-9 


31-4 


24-6 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


32-3 


24-7 


110 


27-0 


37-0 


25-2 


Hi 


79 


28-7 


340 


250 


• 367 


28-3 


14| 


97 


28-1 


34-4 


25-4 






81 


29-4 


351 


25-4 






Average of 
Quarterly Averages 


35-1 


25-2 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



153 



Table XXII.— Statement of the Chest-girth, kc—cantimied. 



Age in 
Quarters 


No. of 
Obser- 




Chest-girth in 


Inches and Decimals 




Quarterly 


Yearly 












of years 


vations 








No. of 








Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Obser- 
vations 


Average 


15 


85 


30-2 


33-4 


260 


\ 




15i 


78 


301 


35-4 


26-2 


. 315 


30-3 


15^ 


69 


30-4 


360 


26-4 






151 


83 


.30-7 


35-4 


27-0 


) 




Average of 


35-0 


26-4 


16 


Quarterly Averages 






r 283 




77 


32-2 


34-2 


26-6 


16i 


75 


31-7 


36-0 


28-0 


320 


16^ 


73 


31-9 


38-0 


27-0 






16J 


58 


32-2 


38-0 


27-0 




Average of 


36"5 


27-1 


17 


Quarterly Averages 






. 




46 


32-3 


36-0 


28-6 


17i 


46 


32-0 


360 


27-2 


• 148 


32-3 


17i 


26 


32-4 


35-1 


300 






17$ 


30 


32-5 


36-6 


290 






Average of 


359 


28-7 


18 


Quarterly Averages 










27 


32-8 


35-4 


29-6 


18J 


16 


340 


37-0 


30-4 


■ 59 


340 


18^ 


9 


34-5 


40-0 


330 


18J 


7 


33-5 


36-0 


30-4 






Average of 


371 


30-8 


19 


Quarterly Averages 






■ 20 




9 


33-2 


35-4 


310 


19r 
19:. 


5 
5 


32-7 
32-7 


33-4 
33-4 


32-0 
32-2 


32-9 


19| 


1 


330 


— 


— 




Average of 


33-8 


31-6 


20 


Quarterly Averages 


2 


29-7 


2 


29-7 


31-4 


28-0 



154 



KEPOKT — 1880. 



Table XXIII. — Abstract of the Height, Weight, and Chest-girth of the 
Boys in Marlborough College, observed at each year of age, with the 
actual and proportional rate of annual increase. 





Height in Inches and Decimals 










Aver- 


Aver- 








Age 


Num- 








age of 


age of 






Percentage 


ber of 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Quar- 


Quar- 


Annual Increase 


Proportion of 




Obser- 


age 


mum 


mum 


terly 


terl3' 


in Inches 


Increase at 




vations 








Maxi- 
ma 


Mini- 
ma 






each age 


From 




















9 to 10 


6 


53-7 


57-2 


51-0 


55-6 


54-2 


— 




— 


10 „ 11 


25 


.54-4 


57-6 


49-4 


56-6 


51-6 




0-7 


1-.30 


11 „ 12 


84 


56-0 


67-0 


48-2 


62-4 


50-2 




1-6 


2-94 


12 „ 13 


208 


57-3 


70-0 


52-0 


64-4 


52-6 




1-3 


2-27 


13 „ 14 


338 


58-7 


71-2 


49-6 


68-0 


52-5 




1-6 


2-62 


14 „ 15 


367 


61-4 


69-0 


51-2 


68-3 


53-7 




2-7 


4-60 


15 „ 16 


315 


63-4 


73-5 


54-0 


70-6 


55-3 




2-0 


3-25 


16 „ 17 


283 


65-6 


72-2 


54-6 


71-3 


58-8 




2-2 


3-35 


17 ., 18 


148 


67-5 


76-4 


57-4 


73-3 


60-7 




2-0 


307 


18 ., 19 


59 


68-5 


72-4 


63-4 


71-2 


64-0 




10 


1-48 


19 „ 20 


20 


67-4 


73-4 


63-0 


69-3 


63-5 


Decrease 


1-1 


Decrease 1-60 


20 


2 


62-7 


67-0 


58-4 


— 


— 


— 




— 


Total. . 


1850 










Weight in lbs. and Decimals 






From 
9 to 10 














6 


770 


82-0 


74-0 


80-5 


74-5 


_ 






10 ., ]1 


25 


73-3 


91-0 


63-0 


82-5 


65-7 


Decrease 


3-7 


- 5-05 


11 „ 12 


84 


79-4 


104-0 


560 


98-0 


63-7 


+ 


0-9 


+ 1-14 


12 „ 13 


208 


84-7 


115-0 


580 


108-7 


63-5 


+ 


5-3 


+ 6-67 


13 „ 14 


333 


92-3 


144-0 


58-0 


132-2 


66-5 


+ 


7-6 


+ 8-99 


U „ 15 


367 


101-5 


163-0 


64-0 


147-5 


72-0 


-1- 


9-2 


+ 9-96 


15 „ 16 


315 


113-2 


186-0 


73-0 


161-7 


79-2 


~r 


11-7 


+ 11-50 


16 „ 17 


283 


127-0 


179-0 


76-0 


171-7 


88-7 


+ 


14-0 


+ 12-36 


17 „ 18 


148 


136-3 


2010 


940 


178-2 


102-7 


+ 


9-3 


+ 7-32 


18 ., 19 


59 


144-1 


210-0 


104-0 


176-0 


120-7 


4- 


7-8 


+ 5-72 


19 ., 20 


20 


1400 


160-0 


121-0 


151-0 


127-0 


Decrease 


61 


Decrease 2 77 


20 


2 


116-0 


139-0 


93-0 


139-0 


930 


Excepti 


anal 


~ 


Total. . 


1850 








C 


hest-girth in Inches and Decimals. 






From 
9 to 10 














6 


27-4 


29-0 


26-0 


27-8 


26-1 


_ 




_ 


10 „ 11 


25 


26-1 


28-2 


21-2 


27-3 


24-1 


— 


1-3 


- 4-74 


11 „ 12 


84 


27-0 


31-0 


21-4 


30-0 


24-1 


+ 


0-9 


+ 3-44 


12 „ 13 


208 


27-0 


31-4 


21-4 


30-1 


25-1 


+ 


— 


+ nil 


13 „ 14 


333 


28-0 


34-2 


24-0 


32-3 


24-7 


+ 


1-0 


+ 3-70 


14 ., 15 


367 


28-3 


37-0 


25-0 


35-1 


25-2 


-1- 


0-3 


+ 9-10 


15 „ 16 


315 


30-3 


36-0 


26-0 


35-0 


26-4 


+ 


20 


+ 7-06 


16 „ 17 


283 


320 


38-0 


26-6 


36-5 


27-1 


+ 


1-7 


+ 5-61 


17 „ 18 


148 


32-3 


36-6 


27-2 


35-9 


28-7 


+ 


0-3 


+ 0-09 


18 „ 19 


59 


34-0 


40-0 


29-6 


37-1 


30-8 


+ 


1-7 


+ 5-26 


19 „ 20 


20 


32-9 


35-4 


31-0 


33-8 


31-6 


-~ 


1-1 


- 3-23 


20 


2 


29-7 


31-4 


28-0 


31-4 


28-0 


Exceptional 


— 


Total. . 


1850 





BEPORT OF THE ANTHR0P05IETRIC COMMITTEE. 



155 



Table XXIV.— Head-girth of Boys at Marlborough College 'Measured 
on a line passing above the occipital protuberances and above the 



Head-sirth in 
Inches 


Age last Birthday 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 

















X 








24-5 




— 


— 





















24 

23-5 

23 

22-5 

22 




— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 
2 


2 
6 


3 

8 


2 
14 


2 
7 


2 










4 


14 


29 


44 


63 


42 


22 


10 




1 


1 


3 


20 


60 


60 


94 


84 


45 


14 


8 


•'1'5 




3 


4 


13 


65 


124 


137 


106 


81 


30 


12 


2 


•>l 






12 


23 


85 


85 


91 


52 


36 


15 


3 


— 


20-5 







7 


31 


34 


43 


39 


16 


6 


— 


1 


— 


20 







2 


17 


10 


6 


10 


2 


2 


— 


'~~ 




19-5 






— 


2 


1 


— 


1 




~ 








Total Observa 
tions 

Average Head 




4 


26 


89 


219 


333 


370 


320 


282 


150 


61 


22 


21-62 


20-96 


21 -03 


21-23 


21-44 


21-48 


21-77 


21-95 22-18 


22-23 


22-36 


girth 


J 

























WOTE. — Tue uommiTiee reuoiuuienu. uiiau uuc licav^-gii..!^ ^i^„..*^v „„ -— --. 

passino- iust above the frontal eminence (or eyebrows), including the occipital pro- 
tuberance. This and all other girths sliould be taken with a plain tape, and the 
length afterwards read off on a rule, divided into inches and tenths of inches. 
Table XXV.— Arm-girth of Boys at Marlborough College. ' The arm was 
held in a loosely-flexed state, the mnsrles being at rest and flaccid ; the 
measurement being made round the thickest part of the biceps muscle.' 













Age last Birthday 










Arm-girth in 
Inches 






















9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


13 


_ 











— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


12-5 








— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


12 








— 





— 


— 


— 


3 


2 


2 


2 


11-5 








— 


. 


— 


— 


1 


4 


3 


6 


1 


11 
















o 


6 


17 


11 


5 


2 


10-5 













2 


2 


4 


24 


24 


13 


1 


10 










1 


1 


13 


39 


47 


45 


16 


9 


9-5 











1 


12 


23 


43 


71 


28 


10 


4 


9 


_„ 





4 


11 


34 


76 


74 


66 


21 


7 


3 


8-5 




1 


11 


33 


75 


87 


86 


30 


12 


1 


— 


8 


2 


3 


22 


70 


114 


107 


50 


15 


4 


— 


— 


7-5 


1 


12 


31 


71 


79 


48 


12 


4 


— 


— 


— 


7 


1 


9 


17 


28 


15 


8 


5 


1 


— 


— 


— 


6-5 


— 


1 


3 


4 


1 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


6 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




"" 




Total Observa-"! 
tions J 


4 


26 


89 


219 


333 


370 


320 


282 


150 


61 


22 


Average Arm- "1 
girth / 


7-50 


7-26 


7-55 


7-71 


8-01 


8-34 


8-76 


9-36 


9-70 


10-12 


10-04 



Note.— The arm-girth should be taken when the arm is extended horizontally 
at the thickest part of the biceps muscle. In right-handed persons the right arm, 
and in left-handed persons the left arm, should be measured. 



156 



EEPOKT — IS 80. 



Table XXVI. — Leo-girth of Boys at Marlborough College. ' Measured 
at the thickest part of the calf, the muscles being at rest.' 



Leg-girth in 
Inches 


Age last Birthday 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 

1 

1 

5 

15 

27 

37 

38 

10 

12 

3 

1 


18 


19 


16-5 

16 

15-5 

15 

14-5 

14 

13-5 

13 

12-5 

12 

11-5 

11 

10-5 

10 

9-5 

9 


1 
1 

] 
1 


2 
4 

8 
5 
6 

1 


1 

5 

7 

16 

34 

18 

7 

1 


8 
15 
43 
52 
68 
19 
12 

2 

219 


1 

1 

8 

23 

37 

78 

95 

62 

23 

4 

1 


1 

2 

10 

27 

53 

54 

109 

68 

32 

9 

5 


1 
4 

7 
28 
38 
76 
59 
58 
35 
10 
3 
1 


1 

2 

5 

19 

35 

49 

89 

42 

27 

9 

2 

1 


1 

1 

6 

7 

20 

13 

10 

4 


1 
3 
8 
5 
2 
2 
1 

22 


Total Observa-"! 
tions J 


4 


26 


89 


333 


370 


320 


282 


150 
13-32 


61 


Average Leg- "1 
girth / 


10-75 


10-70 


11-00 


11-31 


11-63 


12-09 


12-62 


12-99 


13-90 


13-61 



Note. — The leg-girth should be taken in the standing position at the thickest 
part of the calf. The right leg in right-legged persons, and the left leg in left- 
legged persons, should be measured. 

VII. Telegraph Messengers. 

Mr. G. Carrick Steet has published, in the 'St. George's Hospital Re- 
ports ' (1874-6), a paper on the development and growth of boys between 
13 and 20 years of age, from which Table XXVII. is extracted. 

This table shows the average weight, chest-girth, and lifting strength 
of boys of the same stature, but of different ages, and elicits the interest- 
ing fact that there is, with increasing age, an increase in the weight, 
girth, and strength, even when the height remains stationary. Mr. Steet 
constructed the table to form standards of the average physical pro- 
portions of candidates for the postal, telegraph, and similar branches of 
the Civil Service throughout the country — a purpose for which they are 
well fitted. The figures in black type indicate the stature of the boys 
"which should be selected. 



VIII. Females. 

Hitherto the Committee has been engaged in obtaining statistics re- 
lating only to males, but they have received from Mrs. Bovell-Sturge, 
M.D. (Paris), observations on 100 girls, by the consent and co-operation 
of Miss Buss, of the North London Collegiate School. These will be 
dealt with in future reports. 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



157 



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158 KEPORT— 1880. 

IX. Exteiisions of the Inquiry. 

It has been urged upon the Committee by Major-General A. L. Fox 
Pitt-Rivers that they ought not to neglect any of the more important 
measurements used by anthropologists, the utihty of which is well 
established. ' The facts which it is the object of the Committee to deduce 
concern the influence on race ; first, of heredity, and, secondly, of external 
causes. Anthropometry may be divided under the three heads : size, form, 
and colour. Of these, the Committee have as yet taken cognizance only 
of size and colour, except so far as the collection of photographs may be 
regarded as bearing on form ; but as the study of physiognomy is not yet 
reduced to a system, no statistics can be derived from these. Of the three 
headings, size, form, and colour, as tests of race, colour is generalhr 
allowed by anthropologists to be the most important because the most 
persistent, form the next, and size the least important, because all animals 
are able to increase in bulk through good living, whereas this cause has 
less influence on colour and form. Of the various measurements relating 
to form, head form, especially the cephalic index, seems the most 
important, for the following reasons : — it is universally employed, easily 
obtained, ample data for comparison already exist, it can be obtained from 
living subjects as well as skulls, it is useful not only as a test of race, but 
also in its bearing upon intellect.' General Pitt- Rivers therefore proposed 
that the greatest length and greatest breadth of head should be added to 
the subjects inquired for by the Committee. The Committee propose that 
this should be done in future years. 

The Committee have had before them also a paper by Dr. Mahomed 
relating to useful extensions of the inquiry to medical subjects in cases 
where the observers are duly qualified medical men. Upon these sug- 
gestions they propose also to act hereafter. 

X. Photograplis. 

The collection for publication of photographs of the typical races of 
the Empire has been again enti-usted to a sub-Committee, of which 
Mr. Park Harrison has been so good as to act as convener. Their report, 
prepared by him, is subjoined. 

' Durino- the past year about 400 photographs have been received by the 
Committee, mostly from Wales, the Shetland Isles, Morayshire, North 
and South Arran, Cornwall, East Norfolk, Worcestershire, and the more 
remote parts of Kent and Sussex. A certain number have been arranged 
on sheets of cardboard for more ready comparison. 

' The photographs from Shetland, taken in full face and profile for the 
Committee at the expense of Mr. Brace, the owner of tJnst Island, are of 
considerable value. They comprise the porti-aits of fourteen individuals 
belono-ino- to families who have inhabited the islands as long as there are 
any records ; and they still, in several cases, retain their original Scan- 
dinavian names. 

' The portraits from Moray and Arran, with others from difierent parts 
of Scotland, were presented by Dr. Muirhead. 

' The Welsh photographs, obtained by Mr. Harrison, represent the 
darker race in the Principality, and assist in the recognition of kindred 
types which appear to exist, with more or less mixture, in various dis- 
tricts in England; for example, at Brandon, in Norfolk. Several portraits 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF BODILY EXERCISE, ETC. 159 

from that locality have been mistaken by competent judges of physiog- 
nomy for Welsh. The inhabitants contrast strongly in colour of hair and 
eyes with the population of other parts of the county.' 

' In several other counties there appear to be populations differing es- 
sentially in features ; but a larger number of portraits, taken on a uniform 
system, in profile and full face, would be required, together with head- 
measurements, to enable the Committee to define racial characteristics. 

* The Committee have been furnished with a fine series of photographs 
of eleven typical inhabitants of the district around Bradford, Yorkshire, 
taken and presented by Messrs. Appleton & Co., photographers, of Brad- 
ford, and selected and described by Mr. Thomas Tate, F.G.S., to whom 
the Committee are much indebted. 

' Owing to the funds at the disposal of the Committee being required 
for the reduction of the mass of observations that have been acquired, no 
other original photographs have been taken this year under their direc- 
tion. Pew consequently of those that have been obtained are of value 
for strict scientific examination ; and by far the greater part of England, 
and Scotland, and the whole of Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the 
Isle of Man are unrepresented at present by any photographs.' ^ 

The Committee would therefore press on the consideration of the 
Committee of Recommendations the advisability of an extra grant for the 
acquisition of photographs. 

XI. Conclusion. 

The Committee request that they may be reappointed, and suggest 
that the reference should be in the more general terms ' for the purpose 
of continuing the collection of anthropometric observations and of photo- 
graphs of the typical races of the Empire.' 

They have received most efficient services in abstracting the returns 
and otherwise from their assistant secretary, Mr. J. Henry Young. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor 
M. Foster, and Professor Burdon Sanderson (^Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the Influence of Bodily 
Exercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen (the experimients con- 
ducted by Mr. North). 

During the past year four series of preliminary experiments, each of 
several weeks' duration, have been made by the Committee on the subject, 
the expenses of which have been met from other funds. In the course 
of these experiments unexpected difficulties have been encountered 
relating to method. The most serious of these difficulties having now 
been for the most part overcome, we are in a position to proceed with 
our inquiries next winter, and have therefore to request that the sum of 
SOL, previously granted to us, may again be placed at our disposal. 

' Out of eighty recruits who joined the West Norfolk Militia this spring, there 
were only three with black or very dark hair and eyes. 

2 Since the last meeting of the sub-committee several portraits of natives of 
Heligoland have been received as a gift from the divisional officer of the Coast 
Guard connected with the island. 



160 REPORT— 1880. 



Second Report of the Gom7)iittee, consisting of Mr. C, Spence Bate 
and Mr. J. Brooking Kowe, appointed for the purpose of explor- 
ing the Marine Zoology of South Devon. 

We beg to report tliat we liave had a series of dredgings, &c., from various 
parts of the coast of Devon and Cornwall, selecting more especially those 
localities that have been hitherto little explored, or which previous re- 
search has shown to be places of interest for the objects that have been 
found. 

From off the Dudman we have received many animals, which, although 
not new, yet have been considered as being among the rarer of our British 
Crustacea. Among them are Polybius henslowii, and a macrura that is new 
to the coast, if not an undescribed species. It evidently belongs to the 
genus Nephropsis. Nephropsis stewarti was taken by Mr. Wood-Mason in 
the Indian Seas at a depth of 300 fathoms ; another species has been 
taken during the Challenger Expedition at 700 fathoms, south of New 
Guinea ; and another at 800, from off Bermuda : N. Atlantic. All these 
are remarkable for the depth at which they were taken, as well as for the 
rudimentary or depauperised condition of the eye-stalks ; whereas the 
British form was taken floating on the surface of the sea, and has large 
and well-developed eyes. 

The resemblance of all four species is very close, and the distinction 
of one from the other is dependent chiefly upon the modified forms of 
more or less important parts. 





Nephropsis cornubiensis (new species). 

We look upon the discovery with considerable interest, as it bears a near 
resemblance to the preserved fossil remains of Hoploparia belli, as figured 
by Woodward in his table of fossil Crustacea. 

If we compare our newly-found form with Nephrops norvegicus of the 
Northern Ocean, we shall find many points of similarity and many also 
of definite separation — the latter so strong that were we assured that iV^e- 
phropsis cornubiensis, the name by which we provisionally intend to recog- 
nise the newly-found species, were an adult or mature form, we should 
not hesitate to accept it as a distinct species. But as we know so 
little of the young of any of the macrura after they have passed the earliest 
forms in which they first appear, we are induced to believe it may be no 
. other than an immature condition of Nephrops. If this be the case then 
all the species of the genus Nephropsis (Wood-Mason) must be recognised 
as in the same position, and probably the fossil Hoploparia also. There are 
conditions that make one hesitate to affirm this too hastily, and among 
these are the facts that, in the localities where Nephropsis has been taken, 
Nephrops has not been recorded. There has been no instance of Nephrops 
having been taken in the English Channel, or anywhere south of the 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 161 

North-Irish and Scotch waters. And as far as we are aware, no specimen 
of the genas has been taken in New Guinea, the Philippine Islands, or 
Bermuda. 

This is, however, but negative evidence, and only valuable until re- 
search has been perfected ; and until it is more so than at present, it will 
be convenient to allow the genus Nephropsis to include the smaller 
forms. 

We have also obtained specimens of Arcius arctus, and many others 
of interest. But the sudden and severe illness of our colleague Mr. J. 
Brooking Rowe, on whose assistance we had calculated, has precluded us 
from a complete examination of all our specimens, more especially in 
Annelids, Mollusca, &c. A box of offshore washings has been placed 
in the hands of Dr. Zenker, of Potsdam, for examination, more especially 
to ascertain the enotomostracous forms of Crustacea that may exist in 
this locality. 

When all liabilities have been paid, we expect to have some eight or 
nine pounds still in our possession, with which we hope to be able to 
complete our report at the next meeting of the Association. 

The collections that we may secure we propose to deposit in the 
museum of the Athenaeum at Plymouth, which is essentially of a local 
character, and the duplicates, more especially the edriophthalmous species 
of Crustacea, we intend forwarding to the Bristol Museum, to perfect 
the collection of British forms in that institution. 



Report of the Comviittee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, Professor 
KollestojV, Mr. Dew-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, 
Dr. G-WYN Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir C. 
Wyville Thomson, Professor Eay Lankester, and Mr. Percy 
Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for 
the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. 

YoTJB Committee have to report that the Zoological Station at Naples 
continues in a most satisfactory state. Under the able management of 
Dr. Dohrn, no opportunity is left unemployed for promoting its efficiency 
and utility ; and in these endeavours he is admirably seconded by his 
whole staff. During the past year the establishment has been placed 
upon a more secure footing than it has previously enjoyed, by the German 
Government having voted a grant equivalent to 15001. towards the sup- 
port of the Station, and which is understood to be an annual and per- 
manent one. As a proof of the great interest taken in the undertaking 
in Germany, it may be mentioned that this grant was the result of a 
direct resolution of Parliament on a petition moved by Helmholtz, 
Dubois- Raymond, and Virchow ; and that in the discussion that followed 
many of the chief men of the Reichstag took part. The money is 
bestowed as a donation from the Empire, for which no return is asked, 
each separate State paying for the hire of its table in the usual way ; 
Prussia having three tables, and five other States one each. In addition 
to this Prussia votes 1501. annually towards the publications of the Sta- 
tion ; and the Berlin Academy has this year gi-anted 100?. for the first 
1880. M 



162 KEPOET — 1880. 

volume of the 'Fauna und Flora.' It will thus be seen that Germany- 
contributes a total sum of between 2250Z. and 2350?. per annum towards 
the expenses of the undertaking : a truly noble support, when it is borne 
in mind that the nation has no greater dii'ect participation in the 
advantages of the Station than any other country or association that may 
hire a table. 

In addition to the tables previously taken, one has recently been hired 
by Belgium and one by the Italian Navy ; the last chiefly for the purpose 
of instructing officers in the collection and preservation of marine 
organisms. Russia has also prolonged its contract for five years. 

The Royal Society has granted 100?. towards the publications. 

Respecting the publications issued under the auspices of the Station, 
the following monographs of the series ' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von 
Neapel ' will be issued in the course of a few weeks : — 

1. Dr. Chun : ' Ctenophora.' 

2. Dr. Emery : ' On Fieresfer.' 

The remaining monographs mentioned in the previous Report are all 
in a forward state ; and to the list already given there has recently been 
added one by Dr. Andres on the Actinite of the Gulf. 

Of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station ' (in which are 
published, amongst other works, the investigations carried out by the 
members of the staff of the Station which are not comprised in special 
monographs) vol. i. and vol. ii. part i. have already appeared, and part ii. 
is now in the press. 

The ' Prodromus Faunae Mediterranese ' is near completion, and may 
probably appear during the year. 

The ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht ' for 1879 is in the press. 

The Library of the Station is continually on the increase, and the num- 
ber of journals has been considerably augmented by the exchange of the 
' Mittheilungen ' for the proceedings published by other institutions. 

The collecting capabilities of the Station have gained an important 
advantage in the Scaphander diving-apparatus. Officials belonging to 
the establishment have already descended to a depth of 20 metres, and 
remained over an hour on the sea-floor, searching for animals and plants ; 
and by this method many new insights have been obtained. 

A new tow-net has also been constructed, according to a device of Dr. 
Dohru's, by which the animals occurring in different dej^ths may be 
caught ; the apparatus being so arranged that the net can be opened or 
closed at any depth it may be desired to investigate. 

Surface-collecting is carried out daily as usual ; and dredging from 
the steamer is prosecuted sevei'al times per week ; excursions for this 
purpose having latterly been extended as far as Gaeta and the Ponza 
Islands. 

In order to keep pace with the advances made in methods of in- 
vestigation, various additions of apparatus and instruments have been 
acquired by the laboratory : under this category may be mentioned four 
new microtomes, a micro-polai'iscope, a spectroscoj^e, and an induction 
apparatus, besides other apparatus which it is unnecessary to mention 
here. 

Two elevated reservoirs have recently been erected, by which a regular 
circulation of sea-water can be supplied to a number of smaller basins, 
specially constructed as working laboiatory tanks. 

By means of the reconstructions carried out during the previous year 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 163 

the aquarium has gained both in beauty and utility, whilst the new system 
upon which the glass plates have been fixed has proved so satisfactory 
that not a single leakage has taken place. Observations upon the organ- 
isms m situ are much facilitated, being now taken regularly, and tabu- 
lated by one of the officials of the Station. 

In the Dredging Department the Station has received from Dr. Wm. 
Siemens about 1000 metres of iron wire of special manufactiire, where- 
with dredging can be carried on in much greater depths than formerly. 

Your Committee have pleasure in announcing that since the presenta- 
tion of their last Report, Dr. Dohrn has himself set on foot a scheme for 
the foundation of a travelling fund for the benefit of naturalists who may 
occupy the English tables, and that a sum of money has been contributed 
which may be applied to this purpose. Your Committee are therefore 
now in a position to oSer a grant of money towards the travelling ex- 
penses of any naturalist who may be selected to occupy the Association 
table. 

It should also be mentioned that preparations are progressing for the 
establishment of a small Zoological Station at Messina, as a dependency 
of the one at Naples. Students who come to work at the latter place 
will thus be enabled to find similar advantages at Messina, although on a 
smaller scale ; whilst the fauna is even richer in pelagic animals than that 
of Naples. 

For these additional advantages, several lessors of tables (Prussia, 
Baden, Strasburg, and others) have already consented to raise their con- 
tributions from 751. to 901. Your Committee would strongly advocate the 
adoption of a similar course by the Council of the British Association ; 
not only on this account, but also in recognition of the special advantages 
afforded to occupiers of the English tables by the establishment of the 
travelling fund above mentioned. 

Your Committee would, with these particulars before them, most 
strongly urge the renewal of the grant as a worthy contribution towards 
the advancement of science. 

Since the last Report the Association table has been occupied by Mr. 
Arthur Wm. Waters, whose report will be found appended ; and also 
various details, kindly furnished by the staff of the Zoological Station. 

I. Report on the Occupation of the Table, hy Mr. ArtMir Wm. Waters. 

The British Association granted me the use of their table at the 
Naples Zoological Station for two months, from the beginning of November 
last year; but, being in an unsatisfactory state of health, I soon found that 
I was unable to stand the climate of Naples, and was forced to leave by 
the middle of that month, and, consequently, have no report to furnish of 
work cornpleted, but will indicate some of the points I hoped to be able 
to investigate. 

Recently a good deal of attention has been paid to a tissue of the 
Bryozoa, now called the endosarc, which at one time was looked upon as 
a colonial nervous system ; but, thanks to the researches of Joliet and 
others, we are able to see that the earlier views were quite incorrect, and 
know that it plays a most important part in the economy of the colony, 
a,lthough not as a nervous system, but in connection with the growth and 
life of the various parts of the Bryozoon. The endosarc in one zooecium 

M 2 



164 KEPOBT— 1880. 

is connected with that in another by means of disks in the zooecial walls,' 
which have been called rosette-plates. 

These rosette- plates I found, as regards position, form, &c., furnish 
characters which in some genera are of great use in the specific determi- 
nation, and from what I have seen anticipate that in some cases they also 
can be used to distinguish genera. By the position of the rosette-plates 
in recent and fossil species (when the state of fossilization allows exami- 
nation), the part of the zooarium from which fresh growth takes place is 
in most cases clearly indicated ; and it seemed to me of great importance 
that a comparative study of the endosarc and its position, and of the 
rosette-plates, should be made ; and the arrangements of the Zoological 
Station furnish every opportunity for so doing, and made it the more 
disappointing to relinquish the investigation. 

ZooiotryoH pellucidus, the ctenostomatous species examined by Rei- 
chert, being transparent, is very favourable for examination, and from 
watching it in different circumstances I conclude that in the normal con- 
dition the endosarc always consists of a large number of fine threads, 
and when it is found as a more solid cord it is in a less vigorous state, 
absorption of some of the tissues has commenced, and, if I am justified 
in drawing conclusions from incompleted work, this condition must be 
looked upon as pathological, or, perhaps, it must be considered the result 
of a check to growth caused by periodical or exceptional causes, such as 
the unsatisfactory nature of life in an aquarium. This was shown in 
several cases in specimens which, when freshly collected, showed a vast 
number of anastomosing threads, but after living some days in the 
aquarium presented the thick cord in much the condition figured by 
Reichert. 

After some considerable trouble I induced DiacJwris magellanica, a 
transparent cheilostomatous species, to root upon some slips of glass, 
placed in my small tank for the purpose ; but being successful in this only 
just before leaving, I was unable to make the continuous observations 
intended. It, however, seemed that while this species, which is brought 
from a depth of 30 to 40 fathoms, would live in the aquarium, showing 
for some time activity of the avicularia, and occasionally movement 
of the polypide, and also throwing out radicles, there was, with this 
exception, no further growth ; so that a bud, which was growing when 
brought in, would remain at the same stage, and the contents of the cell, 
which were of a cellular character, would separate into an irregular 
network. 

From these and other observations, I saw reason to believe that besides 
the study of actively growing specimens, much could be learnt from an 
examination of the reversed changes, which take place when growth is 
arrested ; and apparen.tly ari'est of growth takes place in some parts 
frequently and perhaps in the whole periodically, when the endosarc will 
become consolidated, and is thus a store ready for fresh growth. 

From the immediate neighbourhood, I found but few species not 
mentioned in the paper published two years ago, but hope shortly to 
draw up a list of additions from a somewhat wider range ; some are 
species known in distant localities, thus again showing that the geo- 
graphical range is often very large with the Bryozoa. 

' The rosette-plates may be seen also in the diaphragms of some Ctenostomata ; 
in the avicularian chambers, and in Jldmbranijwra ccn-icornis is well developed at 
the base of the projecting process. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 165 

Of material, whicli I had more or less prepared for examination, I 
sent home a series in tubes and bottles at that time, hoping I should in 
the future have the health to complete the investigation, but if unable to 
do so, these points will no doubt all be elucidated ere long by others. 

I found the zoological station much changed in several particulars 
since I was previously there. The staff is now much larger, with the 
duties more subdivided ; and the library, which is now removed into a 
more convenient room, is much improved ; but for some time the weak 
point is likely to be in systematic works. I cannot close without saying 
that I always found the staff ready to give me every assistance, and 
must thank Dr. Dohrn and Dr. Eisig for their kindness, especially in 
giving me leave to apply to the Station for help in any work I undertook 
while remaining in the neighbourhood. 



II. Beport on the Reference Collection. 

The General Reference Collection has latterly received considerable 
attention under the management of Dr. Paul Mayer (in conjunction with 
Mr. Schmidtlein for Fauna and Distribution, and Dr. Berthold for Botany). 
Dr. Mayer has kindly furnished the following notes. 

1. The object of collection is : — 

a. To facilitate the determination of specimens for students work- 

ing in the laboratory, and to serve as a reference in doubtful 
cases. 

b. To collect material for the Fauna of the Gulf of Naples (extend- 

ing northward to Gaeta and southward to Salerno), and 
specially for comparison with the forms from Messina. 

c. To collect material for systematic purposes, such as the in- 

vestigation of individual variation, mimicry, and biological 
questions in general. 

d. To obtain material for anatomical and special histological in- 

vestigations, special reference being had to the best methods 
of preservation. 

2. Preservation is generally effected in alcohol of 70 to 90 % ; for 

fishes, alcohol of 50 % is mostly used ; and plants are usually 
placed first in concentrated solution of common salt, and then 
in alcohol. 

3. The number of specimens representing the diS'erent groups of 

animals varies greatly, because (a) some of the forms are not 
equally abundant in all localities ; (b) the preservation is not 
yet sufficiently good in many groups for the animals to remain 
thoroughly recognizable ; (c) in many groups the determination 
cannot at present be carried out. 

4. The determination of the specimens is undertaken, as far as prac- 

ticable, by specialists. 

5. The following summary will indicate the present condition of the 

different groups : — 

a. Fishes. — Most of the forms of the Gulf represented, together 

with some interesting young stages. 

b. Tiinicata. — Well represented, specially Ascidiee ; and nearly all 

determined. 



166 



REPORT 1880. 



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ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



167 



c. Mollusca. — Gasteropoda and Conchifera determined part by 

Kobelt and part by Gwyn Jeffreys. The Cephalopoda 
include some rarities from Messina, but numerous blanks 
exist in the group, specially in the Nudibranchiata. 

d. EcJmiodermata.— Most of those named in Ludwig's ' Prodromus,' 

and all determined by him. 

e. Crustacea.— Ne-dxlj all the Decapoda recorded by Camill Heller 

(some of them being new to the Fauna of the Gulf of Naples), 

determined by P. Mayer. Important collection of Zcese 

reared from the egg. 
Amphipoda, Isopoda, Copepoda, &c., only poorly represented, 

on account of the difficulty of determination. 
/. Bryozoa. — Nearly all collected and determined by A. Waters. 
g. Nemertina. — Determined by Dr. Hubrecht. 
h. Annelida. — By Dr. Eisig. 
i. The remainder of the Ammlosa only imperfectly represented, 

pending the publication of the monograph on the subject. 
h, Ccelenterata. — Fairly numerous, especially sponges, which are 

well represented. 
I. Protozoa. — Just commenced. 



IV. A List of Papees which have been published since the Presenta- 
tion OF THE previous EEPORT, BY THE NATURALISTS MENTIONED THEREIN. 



Dr. V. Ihering 



Dr. Hubrecht 



Mr. Percy Sladen . 

Dr. DeUa Valle 

Mr. Geddes 

Dr. Berthold . 

Dr. Solger , . 

Dr. Keller 

Prof. Selenka . 

Profs. Oscar and 
Eichard Hertwig 
Prof. V. Koch . 

Dr. Mereschkowsky ; 



Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Nudibranchien des Mittelmeer.s. I. 

(' Malak. Blatter.' N. F. ii.) 
Graffilla muricicola, eine parasitische Rhabdocoele. (' Zeitsch. 

wiss. Zool.' Bd. 34.) 
Vorlaufige Resultate fortgesetzten Nemertinen-Untersuchnn- 

gen. ('Zool. Anzeiger,' 1879.) 
The Genera of European Nemerteans critically re^■ised. 

('Notes, Lej'den Museum,' 1879.) 
Vorloopig Overzigt van het Naturhist. Onderzeek, etc. in het 

Zool. Station de Naples. 
Zur Anatomic und Physiologic des Nervensystems der Nemer- 

tinen. (Amsterdam, 1880.) 
On a remarkable form of Pedicellaria, and the functions per- 
formed thereby ; together with general observations on the 

allied forms of this organ in the EcMnida. ('Ann. and 

Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. v. vol. vi. 1880.) 
Sui Coriceidi parassiti, e sul anatomia del gen. Lichomolgus. 

(Mittheil. Zool. Station, Bd. H.) 
Sur la Chlorophyle Animale (P.S.). ('Archives Zool. Experini.' 

t. 8.) 
Zur Kenntniss der Siphoneen und Bangiaceen. (' Mittheil, 

Zool. Station,' Bd. 2.) 
Neue Untersuch. zur Anatomic der Seitenorgane der Fisclie. 

(' Ai-chiv. fiir Mikr. Anatomie,' Bd. 17.) 
Studien iiber Organisation u. Entwickelung der Chalineeii. 

(' Zeitschr. wiss. Zool.' Bd. 33.) 
Keimblatter und Organanlagen bei Echiniden. (' Zeitscln-. 

wiss. Zool.' Bd. 33.) 
Die Actinien anatom. und histol. mit besonderer Beriicksicli- 

tigung des Nervensystems untersucht. (Jena, 1879.) 
Bemerkungen iiber das Skelet der Korallen. (' Morphol. .Jahr- 

buch,' Bd. 5, 1879.) 
Sur la Structure de quelques Corallaires. (' Comptes Rendus,' 

No. 18, 1880.) 



168 



REPORT — 1880. 



Dr. Mereschkowsky : Sur I'Origine et le Devel. de I'CEuf chez la Medusa Encope, etc. 

(' Comptes Eendus,' No. 17, 1880.) 
Prof. Todaro . . Sui primi fenomeni dello sviluppo delle Salpe. (Real. Accad. 

del Lincei, 1880.) 



V. A List of Naturalists to whom Specimens have been sent 
FROM June 25, 1879, to June 21, 1880. 



1879. June 25 F. M. Balfour, Cambridge 

July 29 Anatomical Museum, Oxford . 

., 29 Prof. Ganin, "Warsaw 

„ 29 P. de Loriol, Chalet des Bois . 

„ 29 Prof. F. E. Schulze, Graz. 

„ 29 Ed. Schunk, Manchester . 

29 Prof. E. Selenka, Erlangen 

„ 29 Prof. Th. Owsjannikow, St. 
Petersburg 

Aug. 3 W. Kitchin Parker, London . 

„ 20 F. M. Balfour, Cambridge 

,, 21 Museum, Toronto 

„ 22 Prof. Hasse, Breslau 

Sept. 8 Zoolog. Institut, Erlangen 

„ ' 22 Chr. Vetter, Hamburg . 

„ 29 Ung. Jos. Polytechnikum, Bu- 
dapest 

Oct, 6 Prof. Liitkcn, Copenhagen 

„ 6 Science and Art Dept., South 

Kensington, London 

„ 25 Prof. Maly, Graz 

„ 25 Prof. Ray-Lankester, London . 

7 G. Cotteau, Auxerre 

7 Prof. Loven, Stockholm . 

8 Prof. Todaro, Rome . 
2 Naturh. Museum, Frauenfeld . 
2 Prof. Schmarda, Vienna . 

15 Zoolog. Comptoir, B^le . 

24 Dr. P. Fraisse, Wiirzburg 

24 Naturh. Museum, Hamburg . 

24 Zoolog. Institut, Wiirzburg 

11 J. Madathian, Riesbach . 

12 Zoolog. Institut, Heidelberg . 
27 Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva . 

2 S. Brogi, Sienna 

2 Prof. E. Grube, Breslau . 

20 Chr. Vetter, Hamburg . 



Nov. 



Dec. 



1880. Jan. 



Feb. 



March 1 Prof. Alex. Goette, Strasburg . 

„ 9 Fischerei-Ausstellung, Berlin . 

„ 18 Dr. Bellonci, Bologna 

April 5 Prof. 0. Nasse, Halle 

6 N. Fenoult & Co., St. Petersburg 

„ 15 Realschule, Kempten 

„ 16 Dr. Eger, Vienna 

„ 16 Dr. Retzius, Stockholm . 

,, 16 Zoolog. Museum, Charkow 

„ 27 Naturhist. Museum, Groningen 

„ 27 Gymnasium, Eeichenberg 

„ 27 Zoolog. Museum, Lausanne 

„ 30 Museum, Liverpool . 





Lire 


Echin. and MoUusca 


. 182 


Coelent. and Mollusca 


. 54 


All classes 


. 378 


Asteroidea 


. 30 


Sponges . 


. 10 


Murex 


21 


Selachian embryos . 


. 42 


j» »» . 


. 38 


Hippocampus embryos 


13 


Chimnera, Clavellina . 


45 


All classes 


. 1,065 


Torpedo embryos 


25 


Eossia 


. 12 


Coelent. Echin. Mollusca 


. 63 


Crustacea .■ 


. 78 


Cephalopoda and Fishes 


. 74 


All classes . . 


, 345 


Dolium 


7 


Hydromedusfe . 


. 102 


Asteroidea 


54 


All classes 


. 328 


Salpas 


. 17 


All classes 


143 


Coelent. Annel. Mollusca 


135 


Coelent. and Echinoderma 


ta 52 


Gasteropoda 


5 


Coelent. Echin. Annel 




Crustacea 


200 


Gasteropoda 


18 


Physalia . 


5.70 


Coelent. Echin. Annelida 


140 


Coelent. and Mollusca 


150 


Echinodermata 


75 


Annelid. Crust, and Fishes 


64 


Coelent. Echin. Annel 




Mollusca 


103-60 


Coelent. Crust, and Mol- 




lusca 


49 


All classes 


— 


Nephrops . 


11 


Hydromedusa, Sagitta 




Cephalop. &c. 


10 


All classes 


314 


Elementary collection 


41 


Different classes 


40 


Tunicata and Fishes 


81 


DiflEerent classes 


174 


All classes 


255.50 


Elementary collection 


78 


Different classes 


162 


Coelenterata 


86-60 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIEOPTEEA, ETC. 



169 



May 



June 









Lire 


6 


M. Rebmann, Karlsruhe . 


Cephalopoda and Fishes 


18 


24 


Naturh. Museum, Bremen 


All classes 


380 


24 


Zoolog. Institut, Erlangen 


MoUusca . 


78 


24 


„ „ Wurzburg 


Echin. Cephalop. Annel. 


148 


1 


Prof. C. V. Siebold, Munich 


All classes 


381 


1 


Prof. Theil, Hermannstadt 


Elementary collection 


62 


21 


Prof. Ehlers, Goettingen 


All classes 


112 



VI. 



1879. 



1880. 



A List of Naturalists to whom Microscopic Preparations have 

BEEN SENT FROM MARCH 6, 1879, TO JUNE 5, 1880. 



March 6 


May 


14 


June 


12 


>» 


20 


July 


18 


Nov. 


3 


Dec. 


20 


Feb. 


2 




14 


»> 


16 


April 


23 


May 


17 


„ 


7 


f» 


18 


»» 


18 


»> 


20 


June 


5 



Mr. Bruker, Constance . 
Prof. Harting, Utrecht . 
Mr. Haddon, Cambridge 
Prof. Berlin, Amsterdam 
Prof. Cossar Ewart, Aberdeen 
Prof. Emery, Cagliari 
Dr. Brandt, Berlin . 



Prof. Emery, Cagliari 
Dr. Brandt, Berlin 
Prof. Goette, Strasburg . 
Mr. Geddes, Edinburgh . 
Prof. Metschnikoff, Odessa 
Prof. Todaro, Rome 
Dr. Ludwig, Bremen 
Prof. Du Plessis, Lausanne 
Zoolog. Institut, Strasburg 
Dr. Spengel, Gottingen . 



2 
15 
17 
37 
50 
17 

8 



preparations 



Lire 
1.50 
20.91 
23.10 
52.78 
70.00 
23.80 
10.90 





202.99 


10 


14.00 


3 


4.00 


34 


46.60 


36 


45.35 


20 


27.00 


14 


22.00 


29 


39.15 


5 


6.60 


80 


116.00 


2 


2.60 



323.30 



Report on accessions to our knowledge of the Ghiroptera during the 
past two years (1878-80). By Gr. E. Dobson, M.A., M.B., &c. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso 

among the Reports.] 

One of the chief results hoped for from the publication of my natural 
history of the order Ghiroptera,' as stated in the preface to that work, 
was that it would be ' a stimulus to collectors and students to pay more 
attention to this difficult and obscure group of animals than has been the 
case hitherto.' How fully this hope has been realised has been abundantly 
shown, not only by the publication of numerous papers on the subject in 
various scientific journals, both home and foreign, contrasting remarkably 
in number and quality, and especially in the number of difierent writers, 
with those recorded in any previous period of like duration, but also by 
the activity which has been displayed by collectors, as evidenced by the 
contributions received at the different museums, and by the numerous 
letters received by the writer from almost all parts of the world from 
those whose interest in the Ghiroptera has been at length awakened. 

' Entitled Catalogue of the Chwoptera in the Collection of the Bntigh Museum. 
Published June, 1878. 



170 EEPORT— 1880. 

To enumerate, classify, and correct these contributions ; to add some 
remarks, supply a few omissions, and correct one or two errors since 
discovered in tlie work refei'red to above, is tlie object of this paper. 

I commence by re-defining the suborders into which I have divided 
the Chiroptera, adding some important characters previously omitted. 

Suborder I.— MBGACHIROPTERA. 

Crowns of the molar teeth smooth, marked with a longitudinal furrow ; 
bony palate continued behind the last molar, narrowing gradually back- 
wards ; trapezium large, deeply grooved for articulation with the trochlear 
base of the first metacar^ial bone ; second finger with three phalanges, 
generally terminating in a claw ; sides of the ear-conch united below, 
forming a complete ring at the base ; pyloric extremity of the stomach 
elongated ; spigelian lobe of the liver ill- defined or absent. 

Suborder II.— MICROCHIROPTBRA. 

Crowns of the molar teeth acutely tubercular, marked with transverse 
furrows ; ' bony palate narrowing abruptly, not continued laterally behind 
the last molar ; trapezium small, forming a simple articulation with the 
concave base of the first metacarpal bone ; second finger with a single 
rudimentary phalanx, rarely (in Blmiopoma only) with two, not termi- 
nating in a claw ; stomach simple or with the cardiac extremity more or 
less elongated ; spigelian lobe of the liver well developed. 

Suborder I.— MBGACHIROPTERA. 

Family — PTEROPODiDiE. 
Epomophorus monstrosus, Allen. ^ 

In the Paris Museum I found a specimen of this species from Ogone, 
collected by M. Marche, which had previously been unknown south of the 
equator. 

Epomcyphorus minor. 

Ejwmojilwrug minor, Dobson, 'P.Z.S.' 1879, \i. 715. 

This small species should come next after E. macrocephalus, which 
stands second in the list of species in the ' Catal. Chiropt. Br. Mus.' It is 
scarcely more than half the size of that species, but resembles it in the form 
and arrangement of the palate ridges. The head is, however, proportionally 
much shorter and broader, and in comparative measurements the female 
differs less from the male, as I have shown in the original description. 
These remarks are founded on an examination of five well-preserved adult 
specimens which I owe to the kindness of Dr. Robb, H.M. Indian Army, 
Civil Surgeon of Zanzibar, and the following are the raeasurements of 
the largest, a perfectly adult male : — 

Length: head and body 4" '0 inches, head 1"'65 (in adult female 1"'55) ; 
eye from tip of nostril 0"'65 (in adult female 0"'55), ear 0"'72, forearm 

' In the Stcnodermata, which are frugivorous or sanguinivorous in their habits, 
this character is not well developed, but the fundamental form of the teeth is the 
same as in other ^licrookirojrtera. 

^ All species referred to in this paper, and of which descriptions may be found 
in my work on the Chiroptera, are simply named ; other species since described have 
the place of publication of the original description indicated. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGK OF THE CHIROPTBRA, ETC. 



171 



2"-5, third finger (metacarp. l"-7, 1st ph. 1"1, 2nd ph. l"-65), fifth finger 
(metacarp. l"-55, 1st ph. 0"-8, 2nd ph. 0"-8), tibia 0"-96, foot 0"-6. 
Hab. Zanzibar. 

Epomopliorus labiatus, Temm. 

The occurrence of well-preserved spirit specimens, in the collection 
received by me from Dr. Robb, enables me to define the species more 
correctly than I was able to do in 1878, when dried skins were alone 
available. While agreeing closely with E. gambianus in the total length 
of the head, the muzzle is shorter, and all other measurements, except those 
of the feet, are less. The fifth palate ridge also is not divided, being 
marked by a slight gi'oove only. The following are the measurements of 
an adult female with well-worn teeth : — 

Length : head and body 5""0 inches, head 1"'95, eye from tip of 
nostril 0"-8, ear 0"-8, forearm 2"-85, thumb l"-2, third finger l"-95, 
(1st ph. l"-3, 2nd ph. 2"0) fifth finger (metacarp. l"-9, 1st ph. 0"-9, 
2nd ph. 0"-95), tibia 1"-15, foot 0"-75. 

The fur extends much less densely upon the interferaoral membrane 
and legs than in E. gamhianus ; a very few hairs only appear upon the 
backs of the feet. In the female there are distinct, though rudimentary, 
shoulder-pouches. Hah. Abyssinia ; Shoa ; Malindi (Fischer and Peters). 

Epomophoriis comptus, Allen. 

When describing this species the only specimen available was the skin 
of an adult female preserved in alcohol. Hence I was unable to add very 
many desirable particulars, especially those relating to secondary sexual 
characters and dentition. Fortunately this deficiency has been lately amply 
made good by a most excellent account of the characters furnished by an 
examination of four specimens preserved in alcohol, and a skin, by Dr. J. 
A. Smith, published in the ' Proc. Roy. Pliys. Soc. Edinb.' 1880, pp. ,362- 
69, the paper being accompanied by two woodcuts. The spirit specimens, 
consisting of two adult males and a female with a young male (which she 
was nursing when captured), I have since had an opportunity of examining 
in the British Museum (to the collection of which they have been pre- 
sented by Dr. Smith), and I can endorse the very great accuracy of Dr. 
Smith's remai'ks. 

The following measurements were made by me before seeing Dr. 
Smith's paper : — 







Adult 


Adult 


Adult 


Adult 






male 


male 


female 


female 


Length 


of head ... . . 


2-25 


2-25 


1-85 


1-9 




eye from tip of nostril 


0-9 


0-9 


0-75 


0-7 




ear 


0-9 


0-9 


0-9 


0-9 




forearm 


3-7 


3-7 


3-3 


3-4 




thumb, metacarp .... 


0-5 


0-6 


0-4 


0-45 




„ phalanx (without claw) . 


0-75 


0-85 


0-9 


0-9 




third finger, metacarp . 


2-65 


2-7 


2-3 


2-35 




„ 1st phalanx 


1-65 


1-7 


1-6 


1-55 




„ 2nd phalanx . 


2-45 


2-6 


2-2 


2-4 




fifth finger, metacarp . 


245 


2-6 


2-2 


2-3 




„ 1st phalanx 


1-3 


1-25 


1-15 


1-2 




„ 2nd phalanx 


1-35 


1-35 


1-15 


1-2 




tibia 


1-45 


1-5 


1-2 


1-3 




foot 


0-95 


0-9 


075 


0'8 



172 REPORT— 1880. 

In the fourth column I have arranged the measurements of the skin 
of the adult female specimen from which my original description was 
taken. The differences in the comparative measurements of the soft parts 
(notably of the ear and muzzle) between this and the female spirit speci- 
men in the third column, are easily explained by the distortion alwaj's 
occurring even in the best preserved skins, and shows how very advisable 
it is never, if possible, to describe from skins. It may be noticed that the 
thumb and third finger of one of the male specimens is considerably 
shorter than those of the other, though the rest of the measurements agree 
remarkably closely. 

In my description of this species I took care to remark that, in the 
adult animal, there wei-e two upper incisors, for I had noticed how, in 
E. franqueti, the lateral upper incisors were liable to fall out (vide ' Catal. 
Chiropt.' p. 13), and these well-preserved specimens show that my suspi- 
cion that the dental formula did not really differ from that of the other 
species was quite correct. As Dr. Smith remarks, the immature male has 
four upper incisiors, quite similar to those in immature examples of 
E. franqueti, one of the males has lost both upper outer incisors, the other 
and the female has lost the left upper incisor only. 

The presence of two upper incisors _ only, which was fixed upon as a 
distinguishing character by the author of the original description is, 
therefore, conclusively shown to be a delusive one. We have, however, 
in the form of the palate ridges, as previously noted by me {op. cit. p. 14, 
pi. II. fig. 5), a valuable specific character which can be relied upon, 
especially when taken into consideration with other characters. The 
figure of the palate ridges referred to above, taken from the single indif- 
ferently preserved female specimen, is sufficiently accurate, but, necessarily, 
not so good as the excellent woodcut of the same parts in an adult male 
individual, which illustrates Dr. Smith's paper. In this species, then, the 
third palate ridge (that between the second upper premolars) is undivided 
like the preceding ridge, while in E. franqueti (with which alone it may 
be confounded) the corresponding ridge is represented only by a promi- 
nent oval papilla at either side. 

As in E . franqiieti, the males of this species have large shoulder-pouches 
measuring nearly half an inch across in specimens in alcohol, probably 
much larger in living individuals. In these specimens a minute tail about 
one-tenth of an inch long is concealed among the hairs. I was unable to 
find any trace of one in the skin of the female specimen referred to, and 
there is certainly none in any specimen of E. franqueti I have yet exa- 
mined. This part of the body being evidently in a vanishing condition, its 
suppression should not lead us, in the absence of other distinguishing 
characters, to found therefrom even a distinct race, much less a species. 
Hah. West Africa (Lagos, Gaboon, Old Calabar, Ogone). 

■ Pteropus germaini. 

Pteropus germaini, Dobson, 'P.Z.S.' 1878, p. 875.' 

Ears shorter than the muzzle, concealed by the long fur of the head, 
triangular, obtusely pointed, thinly clothed throughout with soft hairs. 

' Scarcely was my work on the Chiroptera'out of the hands of the printer when 
I was enabled, through the kindness of M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, to inspect some 
most interesting specimens of bats lately received by the Paris Museum, among 
which were the type of this species, and others to be referred to hereafter. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPTERA, ETC. 173 

Fur long and woolly, like that of Ft. aneiteanus, on the back long like 
that of the head, directed backwards. Humerus and forearm rather thinly 
covered with straight fur like that of the back. The legs are clothed with 
long fur, which extends to the backs of the feet; the margin of the wing- 
membrane almost as far outwards as the extremity of the fifth finger is 
clothed with straight appressed hairs ; the posterior margin of the nar- 
row interfemoral membrane is quite concealed. Face in front of and 
immediately above the eyes light greyish-brown ; head and the whole 
inferior surface of the body dark blackish-brown, interspersed with several 
shining greyish hairs, the shoulders and back darker, the rump and legs 
greyer ; upper surface of the neck and shoulders pale yellow with reddish 
extremities. 

Teeth like those of Pt. medius, the first upper premolar small, scarcely 
raised above the level of the gum, and occupying the centre of the small 
space between the canine and second premolar ; last upper molar slightly 
larger than the first lower premolar, and about the size of the last lower 
molar. 

Length (of a not quite adult female) : head and body about 6" inches ; 
head 2"-3, ear 0"8, forearm 4"'7, thumb 2"-3, third finger (metacarp. 
3", 1st ph. 2"-5, 2nd ph. 3"'5), fifth finger (metacarp. 3", 1st ph. l"-5, 
2nd ph. l"-35), tibia 2"-2, foot 1"7. 

Hah. New Caledonia. Type in the collection of the Paris Museum. 

This species resembles externally, to some extent, Pt. aneiteanus, but 
the very different form of the teeth at once distinguishes it. From Pt. 
vetulus, inhabiting the same islands, it is distinguished by the completely 
different colour of the fur, as well as by the absence of transverse basal 
ridges in the molars and premolars. Its food appears to consist, in part 
at least, of figs, as I found portions of these fruits in the mouth of the 
typical specimen. 

Pteropus hypomelanus, Temm. 

To the localities for this species add Cambodja. 

Pteropus Icerandrenii, Q. & G. 

To the islands inhabited by this widely distributed species must be 
added New Caledonia, where are found two other species also, namely, 
Pt. vetulus and Pt. germaini. 

Cynonycteris amplexicatidata, Geoff. 
Add also Cambodja (M. Harmand, Paris Museum). 

Cynonycteris collaris, lUiger. 

Lord Lilford has brought from Cyprus, and presented to the collection 
of the British Museum, specimens of the large frugivorous bat of that 
island, which I find undoubtedly belongs to this species, hitherto known 
only from Equatorial and Southern Africa. I have already pointed out 
the close connection which exists between this species, C. cegyptiaca, and 
C. ainplexicaudata, and this fact of specimens agreeing in all respects with 
South Africa.n examples occurring in Cyprus, where we should rather 
expect to find 0. cegyptiaca, renders it extremely doubtful whether the 
characters used to separate the species are really of specific importance. 
More specimens are, however, required before this question can be finally 
settled. 



174 REPORT— 1880. 



Oynonycteris straminea, Geoff. 

To synonyms of this species add Pteropiis palmarum, Heuglin, ' Verli. 
Leop. Carol. Akad,' 1865, Heft 5, Nr. 3, 4. 

Genus Boneia} 

Boneia, Jentiuk, Notes from the Leyden Museum, 1879, p. 117. 

Characters generally those of Cynonycteris, but with two upper 
incisors only, separated from the canines and also in front ; tail well 
developed. 

Boneia hidens. 
Boneia hidens, Jentink, I.e. 

Bai's longer than the muzzle, rounded at the tips ; a prominent 
thickened lobule at the base of the outer margin of the ear-conch : 
nostrils deeply emarginate between, their inner margins projecting : eyes 
equally distant from the ears and from the extremity of the muzzle ; 
upper and lower lips deeply grooved in front. Wings from the back near 
the spine, about one-sixth of an inch apart at their origin, and from the 
base of the toes between the first and second metatarsal bones ; tail as 
long as the ear and very thick, projecting two-thirds its length beyond 
the interfemoral membrane. Face yellowish-brown ; head and upper 
surface of neck and shoulders golden yellow ; beneath dark brown through- 
out. Fur moderately long and dense, scarcely extending upon the mem- 
branes ; the muzzle, ears, legs, and feet naked. 

Dentition : — inc. 



1-1 1-1 


3-3 




2-2 


2-2' " 1-1' P"'- 


3-3' 


m. 


3-3 



Cephalotes minor. 
Cephalotes minor, Dobson, ' P.Z.S.' 1878, p. 875. 

Resembles G. peroni closely in general structure, but less than half 
the size of adult specimens of that species ; the feet are much smaller 
than in very young specimens of G. peroni, and the wing-membrane is 
attached to the outer toe, not to the space between the toes, as in that 
species ; it also extends further outwards, terminating opposite the second 
joint of the next toe. 

The teeth are also slightly different ; the upper incisors are wider 
apart ; the second upper premolar has not the prominent antero-internal 
basal cusp observed in G. peroni ; and the first lower premolar scarcely 
rises above the gum. 

Length: head and body 4"-5, tail 0"-6, head 1""6, ear 0"'7, foi-earm 
3"-2, first finger l"-3, third finger (metacarp. 2"'0, 1st ph. l"-5, 2nd ph. 
l"-9), fifth finger (metacarp. 2"-0, 1st ph. 1"-1, 2nd ph. 1"-1), tibia 1"-1, 
calcaneum 0"-25, foot 0"-8. 

Hah. Amberbaki, New Guinea. 

Type in the collection of the Paris Museum. 

' This appears to be the proper position of the genus, of which I have not yet hafl 
an opportunity of seeing the type of the siaecies on which it is founded. 



\ 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPTERA, ETC. 175 

Suborder II.— MICROCHIROPTERA. 
Family Rhinolophid^. 

lihinolophus luctus, Temm. 

Hab. Mount Willis, Java, 2500 feet (Baron v. Hiigel). This new 

locality for B. liictus also indicates, as I have previously remarked, that 

this species appears to be restricted to the highlands of the countries 
which it inhabits. 

Bhinolophus acuminaius, Ptrs. 

To the localities of this species add Laos, Siam, (M. Harmand, Paris 
Museum). 

Rhinolophus affinis, Horsfield. 
Add also Cochin China (M. Harmand, Paris Museum). 

Bhinolophus minor, Horsfield. 

Dr. W. Peters remarks ' that I have unaccountably confounded Bh. 
cornnhis, Temm. with this species, which, he states, is to be distinguished 
from it, as Horsfield's figure shows, by the superior margin of the central 
connecting process behind the sella being obtusely rounded ofi", as in 
Bh. affinis, and not sharply pointed. 

The following notes will, I think, sufficiently explain why I still regard 
Bh. cornutus, Temm. a synonym of EJi. minor. 

1. With respect to Horsfield's figures they are not only badly executed, 
but were taken, as the types show, from very badly preserved specimens, 
and therefore cannot be depended upon as correct. 

2. The type of Bh. minor (lately in the collection of the India Museum, 
and now transferred to the British Museum) agrees so closely vrith 
Horsfield's description that there can be no doubt of its being really the 
type of the species. In it the part of the noseleaf referred to above is 
very different in shape from the corresponding part in Bh. affinis (to 
which Dr. Peters likens it), it is triangular and pointed, very like that of 
Bh. landeri (see ' Catal. Chiropt. Br. Mus.' pi. vii. fig. 9), and quite 
similar to that of two specimens from Japan, lately added to the collec- 
tion of the British Museum, which I have no hesitation in recognising as 
examples of Bh. cornutus, Temm. But in other specimens of Bh. minor, 
especially in those of smaller size, I have observed that the superior margin 
of the posterior connecting process is even more acute, in some exceedingly 
so, constituting the variety Bh. pnsillus, Peters, (not Temminck) ; in 
others, still smaller, the terminal portion of the posterior lancet-shaped 
nose-leaf is broad, with straight sides, forming almost an equilateral 
triangle, very different from the corresponding narrow terminal process 
in other individuals, constituting another variety, which, until lately, I 
considered a distinct species and named Bh. garoensis. As a further indi- 
cation of how liable this species is to vary, as I have previously remarked, 
the position and size of the second lower premolar is very uncertain, being 
found in some small individuals of moderate size and standing in the 
tooth-row, in larger specimens minute and quite external, and vice versa. 

M. B. Akad. Berl. 1880, p. 24. 



176 



REPORT 1880. 



In the following table tlie measm-ements of eight specimens are given, 
the localities of each, the position of the second lower pi-emolar, the place 
of attachment of the wing membrane to the posterior extremities, and the 
nominal specific title of each being indicated beneath : — 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 






? 


? 


? 


? 


? 


? ! <? 


<? 


Length, head and body . 


..* 


1-75 


1-65 


1-5 


1-5 


1-65 1-75 


1-55 




tail 


0-75 


0-9 


0-65 


0-7 


0-75 


0-85 


0-75 


0-7 




head 


■ •. 


0-7 


0-65 


0-6 


0-65 


0-7 


0-7 


0-65 




ear 


0-52 


0-7 


0-65 


0-5 


0-55 


0-6 


0-63 


0-55 




forearm .... 


1-45 


1-6 


1-4 


1-3 


1-45 


1-5 


1-55 


1-4 




third finger, metacarp. 


1-0 


113 


0-95 


1-0 


1-05 


11 


1-1 


1-05 




„ 1st phalanx . 


0-4 


0-5 


0-4 


0-4 


0-43 


0-45 0-45 


0-43 




2nd 


0-6 


0-7 


0-55 


0-55 


0-6 


0-7 1 0-7 


0-6 




fifth finger, metacarp. 


1-05 


1-2 


1-0 


1-0 


1-0 


1-15 i 1 15 


l-0o\ 




„ 1st phalanx . 


0-35 


0-4 


0-3.5 


0-34 


0-35 


0-4 


038 


0-35 




2nd 


0-4 


0-5 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


0-5 


0-45 


0-4 




tibia 


0-6 


0-65 


0-5 


0-6 


0-5 


0-6 


06 


06 




foot 


025 


0-3 


0-25 


0-25 


0-28 


0-26 


0-26 


0-25 



In 1, 2, 3, and 4, the second lower premolar stands in the tooth-row, 
and is distinctly visible without the aid of a lens, in 5 it is half external, 
in 6 and 7 it is three-fourths external, in 8 it is quite external to the 
tooth-row, scarcely visible without the aid of a lens and the first and 
third premolars are closely approximated. But neither the form of the 
noseleaf nor the size of the individual corresponds to these differences ; 
in 2 and 4, the largest and smallest respectively, this premolar stands in 
the tooth-row and can be easily seen with the naked eye ; in 1, 2, and 5 
the noseleaf corresponds exactly in form, in 4 and 8. the posterior con- 
necting part of the sella develops a long, very acutely pointed, process, 
while in G and 7 the form of the same part is intermediate. Again in 1, 
2 and 8 the wing-membrane is attached to the tibia immediately above 
the ankles, while in 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 it extends to the ankles or even to 
the tarsus ; 1 is the type of Bh. minor ; 2 (from Japan) undoubtedly 
represents Bh. cormdus, Temminck ; 4 Bh. garoensis, Dobson, while 3, 
6, 6, 7, and 8 should, accoi'ding to Dr. Peters, be referred to Bh. 'pusiUus, 
Temminck. 

The specimens from Japan differ from the type of Bh. minor only in 
being larger throughout ; but, as I have shown in the table above (in 
columns 6 and 7), in this respect intermediate forms (from Tsagine, 
Upper Burma, collected by Dr. Anderson) are found, while the shape of 
the nose-leaf, and the development and position of the second lower 
premolar, are again intermediate between these forms and that of which 
the measurements are given in column 8, and which would be regarded as 
a typical Bh. pusilhis. 

For these reasons I have considered all these forms as but different 
phases of the same species ; for, although individuals like those of which 
the measurements are given in columns 2 and 8, appear to differ so widely 
in size in the development and position of the second lower premolar, and 
in the form of the posterior connecting process of the nose-leaf, yet such 
perfectly intermediate examples are found that it becomes imjDossible to 
say under which title the latter should be classed. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPXEKA, ETC. 177 

Bhmolophus euryale, Blasius. 

The Alps and the Pyrenees have been hitherto considered the northern 
limit of the distribution of this species in Europe, but lately M. Lataste 
has discovered it at Saint Paterne, a place north of the Loire.' Dr. B. L. 
Trouessart remarks * that as M. Lataste had previously obtained specimens 
of the same species at Vernet-les-Bains (Pyrenees Orientales) it may be 
fairly supposed that it is distributed in greater or less abundance through- 
out N.W. and S.W. France. 

Bhinolophus lii-pfosideros, Bechst. 

The types of Bh. pusillus, Temm., in the collection of the Leyden 
Museum, are, as I have previously remarked, undoubtedly specimens of 
Eh. hipposideros, and I have, therefore, considered Temminck's species 
identical with that previously described, especially as his description quite 
agrees with the characters afforded by the types. Prof. Peters, however 
considers ^ that I should not have been led to beUeve that the so-called 
types are really the types, and suggests that an interchange of labels may 
have taken place, remarking that I should have attended more closely 
to the figure of Eh. pusillus which accompanies Temminck's description. 
To this my reply must be much the same as in the case of Eh. minor et 
cornutus (vide supra) namely, (1) that Temminck's figures cannot be 
depended upon ; (2) that even \iEh. pusillus, Temminck, be as defined by 
Dr. Peters, I can only (for the reasons stated above under Eh. minor) 
consider it a variety of Eh. minor ; and (3) that in taking the types as 
a guide I acted only as Dr. Peters did years ago, in the case of Spix's 
Brazilian types, and for which he deserves the thanks of every naturalist. 
To the synonymy of this species, as given by me, should be added 
Vespertilio mimihis, Montagu, ' Trans. Linn. Soc' 1808, p. 163. 

Ehinolophus ferrum-equinum, Schreb. 

All the known Ethiopian species of the genus are more or less related 
to this species, agreeing with it in the low antitragus which is separated 
from the rest of the outer margin of the ear-conch by a shallow obtuse- 
angled notch, also in the geaeral form of the nose-leaf, in the very small 
size of the second lower premolar (which is quite external to the tooth- 
row, the first and third premolar being closely approximated), and more 
or less in the closeness of the second upper premolar to the canine. It is 
worthy of notice that no species having all these characters in common 
has as yet been found beyond the limits of the Ethiopian and Paleearctic 
regions.'* Of these allied Ethiopian forms I have recognised four as 
species, namely — Eh. landeri, clivosus, capensis, and cethiops, but between 
these and Bh. ferrum-equinum come several more or less intermediate forms 
presenting slight differences either in the nose.leaf, in the position and 
size of the first upper premolar, in measurements, or in the colour of the 
fur, which I have included in the synonymy of Bh. ferrum-equinum and Eh. 

' I have to thank M. Lataste for sending me specimens of this species (and 
of others to be referred to farther on), of which he obtained 200 individuals at the 
above-named place. 

= Le Katuraliste, No. 16, 1879, p. 125. 

5 M. B. Akad. Berl. 1880, p. 23. 

* Bh. fcrrum-equitmm has been found in the Himalayas, but they are on the 
boundary of the Palaearctic Region, 

1880. N 



178 KEPORT— 1880. 

capensis, leaviug it to subsequent observers, ■when more material is avail- 
able in our jMiiseums, to say how far some of them may be regarded as 
representing permanent varieties. Of these some were not included in my 
work, either owing to accident, or because I had not been able to obtain 
in time before publication an examination of the types or copies of the 
papers in which the}' were described. These I now proceed to notice. 

lih i)ioloplius macrocephalus. 

Mkinoloj/hiis mric?-ocep/iulus, Heuglin, ' Keise in Nordost-Afrika,' ii. p. 22 (1877). 

It appears quite evident that this is only another name for Rh. fumi- 
gatus, Riipp. which I have regarded as a small form of Bh. ferrum-equinum 
with dark-coloured fur. 

Rhinolophus lobatus. 

RMiwlopkus hbatm, Peters, 'Reise nach Mossambique,' Siiugeth, p. 41, pi. 9, 13,. 
figs. 16, 17 (1852). 

To this form I accidentally omitted all reference (in the ' Catal. Chiropt. 
Br. Mus.') although I had examined the type in the collection of the 
Berlin Museum, and find the following record in my note-book. 

Nose-leaf like that of Bli. affinis, the summit of the posterior connect- 
ing process of the sella more convex and covered with a very few hairs r 
the posterior lancet-shaped leaf longer ; ears and teeth as in Bh. ferrum- 
equinum; wings from the ankles, interfemoral membrane slightly trian- 
gular behind ; extreme ' tip of the tail alone projecting ; fur, dark 
slate-blue (in alcohol). Length (of an adult female) : head and body l"-9 
inches, tail l"-0, ear 0"7, forearm l"-7, thumb 0"-26, third finger 2"-6, 
fifth finger 2"-2, tibia 0"-7, foot 0"-3, nose-leaf 0"-5 x 0"-32. 

Hah. Mozambique, Galitja. 

Bhiuolophus cethiops, Ptrs. 

I have received two specimens of this species from Dr. Robb, Zanzibar, 
which differ in no important respect from other specimens hitherto known 
only from the West Coast of Africa, 

Bhinolojjlms hildehrandUi. 

Rkinohjihus Mldehraudtii, Peters, ' M.B. Akad. Berl.' 1878, p. 19.';, pi. 1. Ho. 
1, 1 a. ' '"' 

In general form very like Bh. cethiops but somewhat larger, tlie shape 
of the ears and of the nose-leaf almost identical with those of that species, 
but the central erect process of the sella is much broader and higher, and 
more rounded ofi" above, and the posterior lancet-shaped part of the leaf 
is rather thickly clothed with hair. Wings from the ankles ; the last 
and half the ante-penultimate caudal vertebras projecting abruptly, mar- 
gined by a narrow piece of membrane on either side. The following are 
measurements of an adult specimen (a skin preserved in alcohol), and of 
an adult specimen of Bh. tvthiops from Zanzibar. 

in. in 

Length : head and body .... 

,, tail. . . ' 

), ear 

„ fore-arm 

thumb ...... 



1-5 . 


1-3 


1-15 . 


0-95 


2-4 . 


2-25 


0'3 . . 


0-3 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPTEEA, ETC. 



179 



Lengtli : third finger, metacarp. . 
1st phalanx 
„ 2nd „ 

fifth finger, metacarp. . 
,, 1st phalanx 

„ 2nd „ 

tibia .... 
calcaneum 
foot .... 



in. 


ID. 


1-6 . 


1-46 


0-8 . 


0-7 


1-4 . 


1-25 


1-75 . 


1-65 


0-65 . 


0-5 


0-7 . 


0-6 


10 . 


0-95 


0-6 . 


0-55 


0-55 . 


0-5 



Hcib. Ndi, Taita, East Africa. 

An examination of a specimen of this species (named by the desoriber) 
in the collection of the British Museum enables me to m^he the above 
notes. A careful comparison of that specimen with specimens of Rh. 
cethiops from Zanzibar, while showing the differences I have indicated, at 
the same time shows also their close connection in all other respects ; and 
I can scarcely regard Uh. Mlclebrandtii as more than a hill form of Bh. 
cethiops, standing in much the same relation to that species as Vesperugo 
lasiopierus to V. noctula, though differing much less in size than the liitter 
variety. 

Trioenops persicus. 
THcenops 2>ersicus, var. afer, Dobson, ' P.Z.S.' 1879, p. 717. 

An examination of two well-preserved spirit specimens of this species 
in Dr. Robb's collection from Zanzibar, and of others sent to the British 
Museum from Ushambola, enabled me to affirm the identity of the Persian 
and African forms in the paper referred to aljove where I have compared 
their measurements, &c. 

Hab. Persia (Shiraz) ; East Africa (Mombasa, Ushambola, Zanzibar). 

Phyllorhina tridens, Geoff. 

This species, as well as the preceding, extends into both Asia and 
Africa. Specimens in the collection lately reeeived by the British Museum 
from the India Museum ai-e labelled 'El Leil, Mesopotamia,' and 
' Bushire, Persia.' The basioccipital bone between the auditory buUre is, 
in this species, proportionally much narrower than in other species of 
Phyllorhina, and approaches that of Rhinolophus in this respect. 

Phyllorhina tricuspidata, Temm. 

To list of localities of this species add New Guinea (M. Raffray, 
Paris Museum). 

Phyllorhina commersonii, Geoff. 

Add Malindi, East Africa (Fischer and Peters). 

Phyllorhina armigera, Hodgson. 
Add Cochin China (M. Hai-mand, Paris Museum). 

Phyllorhina diadema, Geoff. 

Add also Cochin China (M. Harmand) ; Sanghir Island (M. Laglaize). 
The specimens from the latter locality differ from all others hitherto 
examined by me in the great development of the central projecting ridge of 

N 2 



180 KEPOHT— 1880. 

the sella, which, in one instance, projects almost as far forwards as the 
corresponding part of the nose-leaf in Ph. cyclops ; the blunt projection in 
the centre of the npper margin of the transverse terminal part of the leaf 
is also much more defined than in other specimens of this species, and in 
one from Sanghir Island corresponds to a large cell behind. 

Pli llllnrJiina larvata, Horsfield. 
To list of localities add Cochin China (M. Harmand, Paris Museum). 

Phylhrhina hicolor, Temm. 
Add also Cochin China (M. Pierre, Paris Museum). 

Ccelops frithii, Blyth. 

To my description of this most remarkable species the following may 
be added : — 

The calcaneum is weak, but distinct, nearly one-fifth of an inch in 
length, and projects at its extremity slightly beyond the interfemoral 
membrane ; there is no trace of a tail externally ; the wing-membrane 
extends to the proximal extremity of the metatarsus ; the female has 
pubic teat-like appendages, as in the other species of Bhinolophidce ; the 
terminal phalanx of the fourth finger ends in a large T-.shaped process. 
The measurements agree closely with those of the specimen in the Leyden 
Museum from which my description (' Catal. Chiropt. Br. Mus.' p. 153) 
was taken. 

To the localities of this species add Laos (in the roof of the Great 
Pagoda at Lakhon, collected by M. Harmand) and Bantam, Java. In 
the Laos specimens the fur is very dark brown above, (appearing black 
in alcohol), beneath jialer, the terminal third of the hairs ashy; ears light 
brown ; membranes very dark brown or black. 

Family NycTERiDiE. 

To the regional distribution of this family add the Australian region 
(Austro-Malayan and Australian sub-regions). 

Megaderma spasma, L. 
To localities add Laos and Macassar. 

Megaderma gigas. 
Megaderma giyns, Dobson, 'P.Z.S.' 1880, Pt. iii. p. 461, pi. xlvi. 

Although many times larger, yet in general external structure this 
species agrees very closely with M. spasma, the relative proportions of 
parts, however, being somewhat diSerent. Thus the posterior lobe of 
the tragus, though similarly shaped, is proportionately shorter, while the 
anterior lobe is much broader at the base, more convex forwards, and 
obtuse at the tip ; the nose-leaf also, though almost identical in shape, 
is not much larger than that of that species. 

While in M. spasma the extremity of the second finger does not extend 
as far as the middle of the first phalanx of the third finger, in this species, 
as in M. frons, it extends beyond it. 

Tail rudimentary, two short vertebrae only project beyond the extre- 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPTEKA, ETC. 181 

mities of the ischiatic bones, and are quite concealed between the two 
layers of integument, divided from the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the 
body, forming the base of the large interfemoral membrane. 

The single specimen, an adult male, is very peculiarly coloured, some- 
what like the specimen of M. hjra, in the writer's collection previously 
described.' As in it, the general colour of the fur, ears, nose-leaf, and 
membranes is white, the base of the fur, upon the upper surface only, 
being pale slate-blue, the colour so characteristic of the genus ; unlike the 
other known species, the extremity of the carpus, the thumb, and the 
membrane between the thumb and the second finger are clothed with 
short hairs, in the type specimen of a white colour. 

The teeth scarcely difler in general form from those of M. spasma, but, 
as in the Ethiopian species of this genus, there is no minute upper pre- 
molar, and the dental formula therefore agrees with that of M. frons. 

The rudimentary premaxillne resemble more closely those of the Bhino- 
lophidce than those of any other species of Megaderma. As in that family, 
they project considerably beyond the line of the canines, from which they 
are also separated by a diastema on either side, and two small depressions 
in the gum may be seen, which appear to be the empty sockets of a pair 
of rudimentary teeth, occupying precisely the same relative position as in 
the species of Bhinolophidce, an additional indication of the close affinity of 
the Nyderidce to that family. 

In the skull, as I have generally observed in the larger species of each 
genus, the sagittal crest is well developed, and the pair of ridges into 
which it divides in front are so strongly marked as to cause the frontal 
bones between them to appear considerably hollowed. These ridges ter- 
minate on each side in a blunt but well-marked post-orbital process, which, 
however, as in M. spasma, is not perforated by a foramen. In this respect, 
therefore, the skull agrees with that of M. spasma, which inhabits part of 
the same zoological region, though apparently agreeing more closely with 
M. frons and M. cor. in the flattened and expanded frontals, and in the 
absence of a minute upper premolar : — 

Length (of an adult male) : head and body (inches) 5"-3, head l"-9, 
nose-leaf 0"-6, ear 2"-2, tragus (anterior lobe 0"-45, posterior lobe 1"'0), 
forearm 4"-2, thumb 0"-8, second finger (metacarpal 3"-3, phalanx 
0"-6), third finger (metacarp. 2"7, 1st ph. l"-85, 2nd ph. 3"-6), 
fourth finger (metacarp. 3"-l, 1st ph. l"-0, 2nd ph. 1 '-5), fifth finger 
(metacarp. 3"-3, 1st ph. l"-25, 2nd ph. 1"1), tibia l"-7, calcaneum 
1"-1, foot r'-i. 

Hab. Mount Margaret, Wilson's River, Central Queensland, Australia 
(captured by Mr. Wilson). 

The single specimen from which the above description- was taken, was 
sent by Dr. Schuette to the Gottingen Museum, accompanied by a note 
from Mr. Kreff"t on the colour of the fur and membranes in the recently 
killed animal. He describes the fur on the upper surface as leaden or 
slate-coloured, with greyish extremities, beneath white ; the ears, nose-leaf, 
and membranes flesh-coloured, with the exception of the band of integu- 
ment uniting the ears in front, which is deep blood-red. 

This species, in comparison with the four other known species of the 

genus, is really gigantic in size, exceeding the largest, namely, ill. hjra, as 

much as the Noctule (Vespemgo noctula) exceeds the Pipistrelle {V.pipis- 

trettus). If its habits be similar to those of M. lyra (see my Monograph 

' Catal. Cidropt. Brit. Mus. p. 157. 



182 BKPORT--1880. 

of the Asiatic Chiroptera, p. T7, 1876), it must be a very tiger among 
bats, able, from its superior size, great development of the volar membranes, 
and powerful canine teeth, to prey not only upon every known species of 
Microchiroptera inhabiting the Australian region, but also, probably, upon 
every other species of the whole sub-order, for one species only — Phyllo- 
rhina commersonii. Geoff. ( = EJi. gigas. Wgnr) — exceeds it in the length 
of the forearm, yet in that species the forearm is disproportionately long, 
and in general measurements Megaderma gigas has greatly the superiority 
—it is therefore also the largest known species of Microchiroptera. 

The position of this species in the genus appears to be between M. 
spasma and M. cor., but more closely related to the latter, with which it 
agrees in the presence of post-orbital processes (though comparatively 
very short), and in the absence of the minute first upper premolar. 

To the great liberality of Prof. Ehlers, of the Grottingen Museum, I 
owe the opportunity which has been afforded me of examining and 
desci'ibing the type of this most interesting species. 

Megaderma cor. Ptrs. 
Rab. Abyssinia 5 Malindi ; Mombasa. 

Megaderma frons, Geoff. 

To the localities of this species add Kau, River Osi, Bast Africa 
(Fischer and Peters). Heuglin (op. cit.) notices this species from the 
Upper Nile, south of the fifteenth parallel of latitude, and remarks that it 
occurs along the banks of streams, and in thick jungle in the tops of 
trees ; that it sees well by day, and occasionally flies about in fall sun- 
shine. This agrees sufficiently closely with Capt. Speke's account of the 
same species quoted by me in ' Catal. Chiropt. Brit. Mus.' p. 160. 

Nycltris liispida, Schreb. 

To the localities of this species add Kitui, Pokomo-land (Fischer and 
Peters). 

Xijcteris grandis, Ptrs. 

The occurrence of two perfectly adult specimens of this species in Dr. 
Robb's Zanzibar Collection, not only adds a new locality, but their size 
shows that the type in the Leyden Museum, and the larger specimen in 
the British Museum, are but immature individuals. The following are 
the measurements of an adult male : — 

Length: head and body, 3" inches, tail 3", head 1"-16, ear l"-35, 
tragus 0"-3 x 0"-l, forearm 2"-5, thumb 0"-65, third finger (metacarp. 
1''''8, 1st ph. l"-2, 2nd ph. l"-5), fifth finger (metacarp. 2"-2, 1st ph. 
0"7, 2nd ph. 0"-65), tibia l"-2, calcaneum l"-0, foot 0"-55. 

The second lower premolar in these specimens is much smaller pro- 
portionately, evidently owing to the growth of the adjoining teeth, and is 
crushed in between the first premolar and first molar. 

Nycteris mthiopica, Dobson. 

The tragus is incorrectly given ( ' Oatal. Chiropt. B. M.,' p. 165) as 
narrower than that of N. javanica. It is really broader and altogether 
larger, as the well-preserved specimens in Dr. Robb's collection show, the 
mistake in my original description having arisen from the contracted con- 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGK OF THE CHIROPTERA, ETC. 1&3 

ditiou of the tragus in the dried skins then only known. The following- 
are the measurements of one of these specimens : Length : head and body 
2"-3:), tail 2"-25, head 0"-9, ear 1"-15, tragus 0"-3 X 0"-15, forearm l"-95, 
thumb 0"-55, third finger (metacarpal l"-4, 1st ph. l"-0, 2nd ph. l"-2), 
fifth finger (metacarp. l"-65, 1st ph. 0"-5.5, 2nd ph. 0"-55), tibia 0"-9.5, 
calcaneum 0"7, foot 0''-45. 

Nycteris thehaica, Geofi". 

.V. angolensis, Ptrs., has been lately reported by its describer from Ndi, 
Taita, north of Zanzibar, on the opposite side of the African continent from 
Ano-ola. Thus it occurs in a country very close to Zanzibar, whence comes 
N. °fuliginosa, Ptrs., originally described from Mozambique. In Western 
Africa N. damarensis, Ptrs., from Damara-laud, appears as an intermediate 
form between N. anrjoJensis from the north and N. capensis from the south. 
The geographical cliain is thus completed. It is difficult to imagine such 
allied forms meeting and not interbreeding freely. I have already remarked 
that I do not think the size or position of the second lower premolar 
(which is more or less rudimentary in all the known Ethiopian species 
of the genus) of sufficient importance to found a species upon. I have 
pointed out its variability in N. grandis, and I believe that the different 
sizes and positions of this tooth as exhibited in the following table are 
but other examples of its variability in a single species, namely — in N. 
thehaica : 

/I. Second lower premolar qinte internal to the tooth-row. 

//'. Second lower premolar minute . . . . 1. iV. thehaica. 

Egypt ; Abyssinia. 

h'. Second lower premolar larger 2. N. angolensis. 

Angolo ; Pokomo-land. 

h. Second lower premolar half internal to the tooth-row. 

c'. Second lower premolar larger 3. N. damarensis. 

Damara-land. 
c. Second lower premolar in the tooth-row. 

d'. Second lower premolar minute .... 4. N. cajycntds. 

Zambesi ; Natal. 

<■'. Second lower premolar larger 5. N. fuliginosa. 

Zanzibar ; Mozambique. 

Family Vespertilionidje. 
Plecotus aiiritus, L. 

Sir Joseph Payrer has lately sent me specimens of this bat rrom 
Sutherlandshii'e; it therefore extends from the extreme south almost to 
the extreme north of Great Britain, though probably not found in the 
Shetlands, for Mr. Ernest Brown, now (August) visiting these islands, has 
at my request particularly inquired into the presence of bats there, and 
writes to me that he has never seen one since his arrival, and that the 
inhabitants assure him that such animals are quite unknown there. 

This widely distributed species has also lately been recorded by Dr. 
Peters from Nikko, Japan, so that it extends from the extreme west to 
the extreme east of the Palaearctic Region. 

PJecohis ustus, Heuglin, is re-described in the * Reise in Nordost- 
Afrika,' p. 30 (1877), but whether that (?) species really belongs to the 
genus Plcrotus or not I am quite unable to judge from the description, 
which omits all reference to the dental characters. 



184 RBPOKX— 1880. 

Vespenigo velatus, Is. Geoff. 
Add Bolivia to the localities of this species. 

Vespen^go serotinus, Schreb. 

Considering the gi'eat variability of specimens of this species, which 
are occasionally found to vary more even in the same region than speci- 
mens collected in very distinct zoological regions many thousands of miles 
apart (for instance, specimens of the Serotine from Central America 
have been found by me to present not the very least difference vyhen 
compared with European examples), I am led to believe that the speci- 
mens from Yunan described by me under the name of V. andersoni 
(' Proc. As. Soc. Beng.' 1871, p. 211) represent but a variety or perhaps 
local race only of this species. 

To the synomymy also add Vespertilio incisivus, serotinus et palustris, 
Crespon, ' Faune meridionale,' p. 11 (1844), (vide Trouessart, ' Bull. Soc. 
des Sci. Nat.' Nimes, fevr. 1879, p. 35) ; and for the variety, V. fuscus, 
add the locality Folsom, El Dorado, California. 

Vesperugo borealis, Nills. 

Vegj'crvgo borealis, Dobson, ' Scientific Eesults of the Second Yarkand Mission,' 

—Mammalia, p. 12 (1879). 

To the description of this species (as given by me in the ' Catal. 
Chiropt. Br. Mus.') may be added that a fringe of fine straight hairs 
extends round the upper lip in front beneath the nostrils. This character 
affords, in the case of badly preserved skins of immature specimens, an 
easy method of distinguishing V. borealis from V. discolor, in which this 
fringe is quite absent. 

Vesperugo maurus, Bias. 

In a paper, of which I have only recently been made aware by Dr. 
Forsyth Major,' the identity of Vespertilio savii, Bonap. Vespertilio bona- 
partii, Savi, and Vesperugo maurus, Bias, has been demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of the author and of others, but as the types of the first two 
named species are not forthcoming, and as the descriptions are incorrect 
or insufficient, I retain Blasius' name. 

In the collection of the Gottingen Museum, I have lately found a 
specimen perfectly indistinguishable from this species, which was carefully 
labelled as having been sent from Popayan, in New Granada, in 1844, by 
Degenhardt. The presence of a single specimen is, of course, not sufficient 
ground to extend the distribution of this species to the Neotropical Region, 
the Chiroptera of which (with one exception only — Vesperugo serotinus, as 
I have shown ^) are quite distinct from those of any of the zoological 
regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. There are, however, in the same 
collection, several other specimens of species, evidently Neotropical, which 
are labelled ' Popayan' (to be referred to hereafter), and with which this 
specimen agrees precisely in the state of preservation. It is also note- 
worthy that V. 7naurus has been found in Europe at very high elevations 
only, along the Alps, and in this respect the South Amertcan habitat given 

' In Atti della Soc. Tosc. di Sci. Nat. iii. fasc. i. Pisa, 1877. 
» Catal. Chiropt. Br. Mug. p. 193. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIEOPTERA, ETC. 185 

agrees very well, for Popayan is situated on an elevated plain in the Andes, 
6000 feet high. 

If, then, specimens of this species have really come from such very 
distinct and distant zoological regions, and exhibit so few differences, 
it becomes evident that we must consider the Oriental representatives 
of this species described under the names Vesperugo morel ax, Ptrs., V. 
pulverafus, Ptrs., and V. austenianus, Dobson, as a distinct species, which, 
although agreeing remarkably in general structure and even in the colour 
of the fur with V. maurus, differs in its conspicuously greater size (forearm 
1""6) in the very shallow emargination in the upper half of the outer 
margin of the ear-conch, in the considerably less degree in which the 
extremity of the tail projects from the interfemoral membrane, and in the 
much greater development of the first upper premolar, which, although 
the second premolar is also clcse to the canine, may be seen without 
difficulty from without. 

In an interesting paper,' Sgnr. E. Regalia has noted the variations 
presented by about thirty individuals of this species collected in Northern 
Italy. His observations may with much advantage be attended to by 
those who are inclined to found species on slight differences in structure 
and colour. Among many other important differences noted by this 
observer the variability in the general measurements, and in the size and 
presence or absence of the first upper premolar may be especially referred 
to here. In his table of measurements the length of the forearm (of which 
I had given the average measurement as 1*35 inches) is shown to vary 
from about 1*28 to 1"45 inches. Also both first upper premolars were 
found in ten individuals ; in three the first premolar was present on the 
right side only ; while in one this tooth was absent on both sides. 

Vesperugo brunneus. 

Vesj}ertiffo {Vet^erus) hrunneus, 0. Thomas, 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Aug. 1880, 

p. 165. 

Muzzle broad and flat above, the grandular prominences well-developed, 
increasing its width. Ears slightly shorter than the head, with broadly 
rounded-off tips, outer margin of the conch faintly convex, angularly 
emarginate opposite the base of the tragus, the terminal lobe elongated ; 
tragus reaching its greate.st width above the middle of the inner margin, 
obliquely truncated above, inner margin straight, outer margin almost 
parallel to it, with a small triangular basal lobule. 

Wings from the base of the toes ; post-calcaneal lobe well-developed ; 
tail wholly contained within the interfemoral membrane. 

Fur, above and beneath, dark-brown. 

Outer upper incisors minute, barely one-third the height of the large 
unicuspidate inner incisors ; no minute first premolar. Lower incisors at 
right angles to the direction of the jaws. 

Length (of an adult female) : head and body l"-8 inches, tail l"-35, 
head 0"-6, ear 0"-55, tragus 0"-2, forearm l"-33, third finger 2"-27, 
fifth finger l"-6, tibia 0"-5, foot 0"-85. 

Hah. Old Calabar. Type in the collection of the British Museum. 
Distinguished from V. capensis by its unicuspidate upper incisors ; from 
V. maurus, not only by the absence of the minute upper premolar, but 
also by the tail being wholly included vrithin the interfemoral membrane. 

' Alcune variazione e particolarita osservage nel Vesperugo Savii Bonap. nota di 
E. Regalia. R. Instituto Lombardo, 25 Apr. 1878. 



186 KEPORT— 1880. 

Vesperugo noctula, Schreb. 

To the localities of this species add Hakodate, Yesso, Japan (Hilgen- 
dorf and Peters) . 

Vesperugo vagans, 

Vesperugo vagans, Dobson, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Aug. 1879, p. 135, 

Bars short, triangular, like those of V. pipistrellus ; the tragus reaches 
its greatest width in the upper third, inner margin slightly concave above, 
outer margin straight in lower two-thirds, with a small rounded lobule 
at the base not succeeded by an emargination, upper margin broadly 
rounded oflF, in general outline, on the whole, like that of V. maurus. 

Post-calcaneal lobule well developed ; the rudimentary last caudal 
vertebra alone projecting. Fur above, dark reddish-brown ; beneath 
similar, but paler at the extremities. The membranes are nearly naked. 

Upper incisors like those of V. temminclcii ; the inner incisor on each 
side moderately long and unicuspidate, the outer veiy short and conical, 
scarcely exceeding the cingulum of the inner incisor in vertical extent, 
but nearly equal to that tooth in cross-section at the base ; lower incisors 
nearly at right angles to the direction of the jaws, trifid and crowded ; 
first upper premolar extremely small, with difficulty seen even with the 
aid of a lens, in the inner angle between the closely approximated canine 
and second premolar. 

Length (of the type, an adult female) : head and body 2"'0, tail 1"'8, 
head 0".65, ear 0"-5, tragus 0"-2, forearm l"-55, thumb 0"-3, third finger 
(metacarp. l''"45, 1st ph. 0"'6, 2nd ph. 0"'75) ; fifth finger (metacarp. 
1"-13, 1st ph. 0"-35, 2nd ph. 0"-36), tibia 0"-6, foot 0"-38. 

Type in the collection of the British Museum. Hab. uncertain, from 
some part of the North American continent or from the West Indies. 
Mr. Matthew Jones sent the specimen to the British Museum in the same 
bottle with some fishes and other specimens collected at Bermuda, but he 
informed me (during my visit to him at Halifax, N.S.) that he could not 
say where the bat in qviestion was obtained. 

During my visit to Bermuda, I went over Mr. Bartram's collection, 
and found only specimens of Afalapha cinerea and of Vesperugo iioctiva- 
gans, which he assured me were the only species of bat ever obtained in 
the island. 

Vesperugo ahramus, Temm. 

Vespertilio akohomuli, Temminck (Monogr. 'Mammal.' ii. p.' 223, pi. 57, 
figs. 8, 9), was accidentally omitted in the list of synonyms of this species 
(' Catal. Chiropt. B. M.' p. 226), although given as such in my ' Notes 
on Dr, Severtzoffs Mammals of Turkestan ' (' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' 
1876, p. 130). Dr. Jentink has called attention to this omission in ' Notes 
from the Leyden Museum,' ii. pp. 37-40 (1879). 

Signor B. Regalia has published some interesting notes • on this 
species, recorded from Italy by Dr. Forsyth Major, in which he discusses 
the relative values of the characters used to distinguish it from V. pipis- 
trellus. 

Dr. B. L. Trouessart has lately ^ recorded the capture, by M. Lataste, 
of a specimen of this species at Cadillac, Gironde, hitherto unknown west 

' Estratto dal processu verhale delta Societa di Sci. Nat. res. in Pisa, 1880. 
' Le Naturaliste, 1879, p. 125. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPTEEA, ETC. 187 

of the Rhine, and Mr. Oldfield Thomas has pointed out to me a specimen 
in the British Museum, lately received from the Aru Islands. 

Vesperugo huhlii, Natt. 

Pipistrellits lepidus, Blyth (' Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng.' xiv. p. 340), 
and, probably, Scotophilus rusticus, Tomes (' P.Z.S.' 1861, p. 35), should be 
added to the list of synomyms. According to the description of 8. rusticus, 
it must come veiy close to this species, with which it agrees in dentition, 
in the white margin to the wings behind, in size, &c., but this question 
cannot be definitely settled without an inspection of the type, which both 
Dr. Peters and the writer have in vain endeavoured to obtain from Mr. 
R. F. Tomes. 

To the localities of this species add also Cadillac, Gironde (Lataste and 
Trouessart) . 

Vesperugo temmincJcu, Czetzsch. 

Vesperugo senaarensis et Iti/poleucns Fitzing and Heugl. (' Sitzuugb. 
Akad. Wein.' 1866) are again referred to by Heuglin [oj). cit. p. 32) ; 
they appear to be identical with this species. 

Vesperngo georgianus, F. Cuv. 

Dr. Jentink having examined the types of Vespertilio erythrodactylus, 
Temminck (which escaped my notice on both occasions of visiting the 
Leyden Museum), has determined their identity with specimens of this 
species. 

Ves2oerugo nanus, Ptrs. 

To localities add Kitui, Ukamba, and Ndi, Taita, East Africa (Hilde- 
brandt and Peters). 

Vesperugo noctivagans, Leconte, 

Of this species, which has probably the highest northern i-ange among 
the bats of North America (see ' Catal. Chiropt. B. M,' p. 239) I ob- 
served specimens, easily distinguished by the peculiar colour of the fur, 
in Mr. J. T. Bartram's collection, during my late visit to the island of 
Bermuda. It has previously been recorded from Bermuda by Mr. J. 
Matthew Jones.' 

Vesperugo dorice, Ptrs. 

In my description of this species (' Catal. Chiropt. B. M.' p. 240) at 
end of line 22 from top of page the word ' inner ' has been accidentally 
substituted for ' outer.' 

Scotophilus horbonicus, Geoff. 

To the synonyms of this species add Nycticejus flavigaster et murino- 
flavus, Heuglin (' Verb. L. Carol. Akad.' 1861, pp. 14, 15, and 'Reise in 
Nordost-Afrika,' 1877, pp. 32, 33), and to localities Sierra Leone and 
Cape Coast Castle. 



Atalapha cinerea, P. de B. 

sily distinguished species 
:ion at Bermuda, thus coi 

' Guide to Bermuda, p. 122. 



Specimens of this easily distinguished species were also found by me 
in Mr. Bartram's collection at Bermuda, thus confirming Mr. J. Matthew 



188 REPORT— 1880. 

Jones's record (I.e.). Examples from Buenos Ayrea have lately been 
added to the collection of the British Museum, giving another locality to 
the species, and showing how very widely it is distributed in the New 
World. 

Haiyiocephahts suillvs, Temm. 

Add Mount Willis, Java, 2500 feet, to the localities of this species 
(Baron von Hiigel and 0. Thomas, Br. Mus.). 

Harpiocephalus liilgendorfi. 
Ha/i'jnocejjhalus hilgendorfi, Peters, ' M.B. Akad.' Berlin, 1880, p. 24, pi,, figs. 1-10. 

Ears somewhat shorter than the head, rounded off at the tips, outer 
margin of the conch flatly emarginate above the middle, the remainder of 
the outer and inner margin convex. Tragus long, reaching to the^^dge of 
the emargination on the outer side, pointed, with a tooth-like lobule at the 
base of the outer margin, the inner margin convex, the outer concave in 
upper three-fourths. Nostrils as in H. harpia. 

Wing-membrane extending to the middle of the first phalanx of the 
first toe. Extremity of the tail projecting 0-15 inch beyond the inter- 
femoral membrane. 

Fur, long and soft, extending thickly upon the interfemoral mem- 
brane and upon the backs of the toes ; the wing-membrane between ihe 
humerus and femur more thinly clothed with long hairs. Muzzle dark- 
brown, under the eyes and behind the chin greyish-white : on the back 
greyish-brown, each hair dark at the base with greyish extremity, or with 
a sub-apical dark band and whiter tip ; on the interfemoral membrane 
lighter brown, almost unicoloured ; fur on the abdominal surface shorter, 
bi-coloured, dark at the base, at the surface greyish-white. 

Length (of an adult male) : head and body 2"-5 inches, tail l"-5, 
head 0"-85, ear 0"-65, tragus 0"-38, forearm l"-6, thumb 0"-6, third 
finger (metacarp. 1"'5, 1st ph. 0"-7, 2nd ph. 0"-9), fourth finger (meta- 
carp. l"-4, 1st ph. 0"-55, 2nd ph. 0"-5), fifth finger (metacarp. l"-45, 1st 
ph. 0"-6, 2nd ph. 0"-45), tibia 0"-65, calcaneum 0"-55, foot 0"-48. 

Sab. Yedo, Japan. Type in the collection of the Berlin Museum. 

With the exception of II. harpia, this is the largest known species of 
the genus. In the synoptical table of the genus (' Catal. Chiropt. B. M.* 
p. 2/7), it may be arranged thus : — 

I. First upper premolar much smaller than the second Suhg. JMurina. 

a. Upper third of the outer margin of the ear- 
conch concave, forearm l"-35 . , \. H. suilhts. 

h. Upper third of the outer margin of the ear- 
conch flatly emarginate, forearm l"-6 . 2. H. liilgendorfi . 

c. Upper third of the outer margin of the ear- 
conch convex, forearm 1"-1 . . . 3. Zf auratvs. 

Harpiocephalus liarpia, Temm. 

Add also Mount Willis, Java, to the localities of this species (Hodgson 
and 0. Thomas, Br. Mus.). 

Vesperfilio capaccinii, Bonap., var. V. macrodactylus, Temm. 

Dr. W. Peters, who in 1866 demonstrated the identity of Bonaparte's 
and Temminck's types, having obtained a well-preserved specimen corre- 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIROPTERA, ETC. 189 

spondiiig to the latter from Nikko, Japan, has been enabled to add the 
following notes ' : — The European form is larger, has longer feet, broader 
and more rounded-off ears, and the tragus is distinctly curved outwards 
above, whereas in the Japan animal it is quite straight. 

Vespertilio daubenionii, Leisl. 

To synonymy add Vespertilio palhscens, Crespon (' FauneMeridionale,' 
t. i. p. 11, 1844), vide Trouessart, (' Bullet. Soc. Sci. Nat. de Nimes,' fev. 
ISJ'9, No, 2, p. 35). The same writer has discovered this species in 
caves near Villeveque, Maine-et-Loire. 

Vespertilio hechsteinii, Leisl. 
round in caves, referred to above, with V. dauhenionn (Trouessart). 

Vespertilio africauus, Dobson. 

Owing to a mistake in the labelling of the type, I was led to assign 
the Gaboon as a locality for this form, the true country of which, Mr. 
Oldfield Thomas informs me, is unknown. V. hfricanus is easily distin- 
guished from V. murinns by its much shorter ears, and acutely pointed 
tragus, but intermediate forms may, hereafter, turn up, and the name 
which has been unfortunately given may conveniently sink into the list of 
synonyms. 

Vespertilio nigricans, Wied. 

To list of localities add Popayan, New Gi-enada, and Cordova, Argen- 
tine Republic (Gottingen Mus.). 

Vespertilio lucifugtis, Leconte. 
Add Nova Scotia (Matthew Jones and 0. Thomas, Br. Mus.). 

Kerivoula africana, Dobson. 

In my description of this species ('Catal. Chiropt. Br. Mus.,' p. 335), 
the ears should have been described as being ' as long as the head,' so as to 
agi'ee with the statement in the synoptical table (op. cit. p. 331). 

Kerivoula smithii. 

Kerivoula smithii, 0. Thomas, ' Ann. Mag:. Kat. Hist." August, 1880, p. 3.38 
(with a woodcut of the ear). 

Ear-conch as in K. africana, but the basal lobule of the tragus is 
exceedingly small. Wings to the base. Fur, above and beneath, grey- 
ish-brown, the extremities of the hairs shining grey. DistHbution of the 
fur as in K. lanosa, with the exception of the interfemoral fringe, of which 
there is no trace. 

Inner upper incisors long, with a distinct posterior secondary cusp at 
the commencement of their terminal third, to which point the extremity 
of the outer incisor on each side extends ; outer incisors with a postero- 
internal secondary cusp at the commencement of their terminal half; 
first upper premolar intermediate in size between the second and third, 
lower premolars equal. 

■ M. B. Ahul. BcvVxn, 1880, p. Sr.. 



190 REPOKX— 1880. 

Length (of the type, an adult male, in alcohol) : head and body, 
l"-55, tail 1"7, head 0"-58, ear 0"-55, tragus 0"'3, forearm l"-3, thumb 
0"'27, third finger 2"-7, fifth finger l"-9, tibia 0"-55, foot 0"-25. 

Hob. Old Calabar, West Africa. Type in the collection of the British 
Museum. 

In my synopsis of the species (' Catal. Chiropt. Br. Mus.' p. 331), this 
species may be ai'ranged as follows : — 

y. Outer upper incisors unicuspidate, longer than the outer 

secondary cusps of the inner incisors ; forearm 1' -1 . A', africana. 

S'. Outer upper incisors bicuspidate, not exceeding the outer 
secondary cusps of the inner incisors in vertical ex- 
tent ; forearm l"-3 K. smithii. 

Kerivoula javana. 
Kerivmda javana, 0. Thomas, 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' June, 1880 (woodcut of head). 

Ears rather short, laid forwards they extend about half-way between 
the eyes and the extremity of the nose ; ear-conch and tragus as in 
K. jagorii. 

Distribution of the fur as in K. papuensLs, but there is no interfemoral 
fringe. Above and beneath greyish black, the proximal third of each hair 
being black, the middle third whitish, the extremity black occasionally 
tipped with shining grey. 

Teeth as in K. papnensis. 

Length (of the type, an adult female, in alcohol) : head and body 1"'9, 
tail 1"7, head 0"-78, ear 0"-6, tragus 0"-37, forearm l"-53, thumb 0"-27, 
third finger 3"-0, fifth finger 2"-2, tibia 0"-72, foot 0"-35. 

Hah. Kosala, near Bantam, Java (2100 feet) ; collected by Mr. H. 0. 
Forbes. Type in the collection of the British Museum. 

In my synopsis of the species (?.c.) this species may be thus ar- 
ranged : — 



o^ 



ri'. Forearms and thumbs naked ; fur bicoloured ... A'. ja{forii. 
6'. Forearms and thumbs clothed with short appressed hairs ; 

fur tricoloured K. javana. 

Kerivoula lanosa, Sm. 

To the description add: — The second finger, and along the outer 
margin of the wing to the extremity of the last phalanx of the third finger, 
as well as the tail, are clothed with short shining yellow hairs. Outer 
upper incisor with a posterior basal cusp, which in some specimens is quite 
worn down, and the tooth then appears to be unicuspidate. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas has called my attention to the above omission, 
which is required in order to make the description agree with the charac- 
ters given in the synopsis of the species. 

Natalus micropus. 

NataluB micropus, Dobson, 'P.Z.S.' 1880, p. 443 (woodcut of head). 

Ears and tragi as in N. stramineus, but the tip of the ear-conch is ob- 
tuselj- rounded off, and the external emargination is very shallow. The 
superior margin of the face terminates above the nasal apertures in a small 
rounded wart-like process, covered on all sides, except in front, by thick- 
set hairs, in front naked, with a projecting upper margin. Lower lip 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHIBOPXEKA, ETC. 191 

reflected outwards as in N. stramineus, but beneath it, in front, there is, as 
in the species of ChiJonycferis (PJii/lJostomiJce), but much less developed, a 
small horizontal cutaneous jjrojectioti, like a second lower lip. 

Wings from the tibias, at junction of middle and lower thirds. Foot 
extremely small, appearing scarcely half the size of that of JV^. dramineus. 
Fur, above, pale yellowish brown at the base, the terminal half reddish or 
chestnut brown ; beneath, pale yellowish brown throughout. This is the 
appearance of the fur in alcohol. 

Upper incisors like those of N. stramineus, but the outer incisor on each 
side, instead of exceeding the inner in cross-section, is equal to or even 
smaller than it ; upper premolars as in that species, but the second pre- 
molar is still moi'e widely separated from the third. 

Length (of the type, an adult male) : head and body l"-5, tail 1"85, 
head 0''-65, ear 0"'5, forearm 1"'3, thumb 0"'15, third finger (metacarp. 
r'-5, 1st ph. 0"-55, 2nd ph. 0"7), fourth finger (metacarp. 1"-1, 1st ph. 
0"-;35, 2nd ph. 0"-35), fifth finger (metacarp. l"-05, 1st ph. 0"-35, 2nd 
ph. 0"-35), tibia 0".65, foot 0"-25. 

Hah. Jamaica (environs of Kingston). 

Natahis lepidus, Gerv., is still smaller, has a differently formed tragus, 
and is also easily distinguished from both this species and N. stramineus 
by its dentition.' 

The discovery of this additional form requires a change in the synopsis 
of the species as given by me at page 342 {op. cit.) ; the species may now 
be arranged as follows : — 

a. Lower premolars equal. 

a'. A horizontal cutaneous expansion beneath the 

lower lip in front ; forearm l"-3 . . . JNI microjnis. 

v. No cutaneous expansion ; forearm 1"'5 . . N. stramineus. 
h. First lower premolar half the size of the second. 

f'. No cutaneous expansion ; forearm 1 '05 . . N.le^idus. 

Thyroptera tricolw, Spix. 

To localities of this species add Sarayacu, Ecuador (Buckley and 
0. Thomas). 

Myxopoda aurita. 

Myxojjoda aurita, A. Milne-Edwards, ' Bull. Soc. Philom. de Paris,' June, 1878 ; 
Dobson, <P.Z.S.' 1878, p. 871. 

Crown of the head but slightly raised above the face-line ; muzzle 
obliquely truncated, in general form closely resembling that of the species 
of the genus Chilonycteris {Phyllostomidm), for the nostrils open widely 
apart by similar circular sharply defined margins, and the lower lip is also 
papillated and reflected outwards, though not so broadly, and it has not a 
thin free margin ; the obtuse extremity of the rather long muzzle projects 
in front considerably beyond the lower lip. Ears very large, much longer 
than the head, in general outline like those of Vespertilio murinus, but the 
inner margin of the conch commences in a small lobe projecting down- 
wards ; in the usual position of the tragus or slightly in front of it there 
is an irregularly square lobe continuous above with the keel of the ear- 
conch ; opposite this, on the outer side, is a mushroom-shaped process 
consisting of a short stalk supporting a bi'oad flat reniform expansion ; the 
outer margin of the conch terminates near the angle of the mouth. 

' See Catal. CMroj)t. Brit. Mm. 1878, p. 344. 



192 BEPORT — 1880. 

Thumb with an ill-developed claw, but the whole of the inferior surface 
of its metacarpal and phalangeal bones supports a large flat horse-shoe- 
shaped pad, more than 0"'2 inch in diameter, whereof the circular margin 
is directed forwards and slightly notched in front. The feet have also 
adhesive cushions, but while resembling those of the thumbs in structure 
they differ in being much smaller. 

Metacarpal bone of the index finger nearly as long as that of the 
index fiftger, but there are no distinct phalanges ; third finger with three 
phalanges, whereof the first and second are nearly equal in length. 

The tail projects beyond the posterior margin of the interfemoral 
membrane, as in Thyroptera tricolor, but to a much greater extent, the free 
portion being nearly as long as the tibia ; calcaneum long, with a very 
narrow lobe notched or toothed near the foot. 

As in T. tricolor, the toes are united as far as the base of the claws, 

and have each two phalanges, and the wing-membrane extends almost to 

the base of the claws. 

2—2 1—1 3—3 3-3 

Dentition :— inc. — -, c. — , pm. — , m. — . Upper incisors short, 

in pairs, placed close to the canines ; the outer incisor, on each side, small, 
conical, and acutely pointed, but much larger than the inner one, which 
lies close to it, and can hardly be discerned without a lens ; lower incisors 
short and blunt, in the direction of the jaws ; first and second upper pre- 
molars very short, the third exceeding the molars in vertical extent; 
second lower premolar minute, in the tooth-row, the first premolar 
slightly smaller than the third ; molars acutely tubercular, with W-shaped 
cusps. 

Length (of the type, an adult male, in alcohol) : head and body 2"-3 
inches, tail l"-9, tail free from membrane 0"-6, head 0"-85, ear l"-3, 
trao-us 0"-25, forearm l"-85, thumb 0"-3, third finger (metacarp. l"-5, 
lst°ph. 0"7, 2nd ph. 0"-75, 3rd ph. 0"-55), fifth finger (metacarp. l"-5, 
1st ph. 0"-5, 2nd ph. 0"-5), tibia 0"-7, calcaneum 0"-6, foot 0"-3. 

Certain peculiarities in the structure of this very remarkable species 
recall similar peculiarities in Thyropiera tricolor, and have evidently re- 
sulted from adaptation to the same purposes. Thus in these two species 
alone are the toes united to the base of the claws, and in them alone, 
among all known species of bats (except the Phyllorhiniuce), have the toes 
an equal number of phalanges ; they also, in the possession of a third 
phalanx in the middle finger, differ from all the species of Vespertilionidce, 
and from those of the allied families. This species, however, differs re- 
markably from T. tricolor in the structure of the adhesive disks, in the 
presence of a well-developed metacarpal bone of the second finger, in the 
form of the head and ears, and in dentition, and must undoubtedly be con- 
sidered the type of a distinct genus of Vespertilionidce. 

The adhesive cushions of the thumbs and feet are evidently less perfect 
clinging organs than the corresponding parts in T. tricolor ; unlike them, 
the thumb-pads are sessile, scarcely hollow on their inferior surface, and 
evidently homologous in all respects to tho.se of Vespertigo pachypus ; but 
the foot-pads differ from those of that species in being much smaller and 
in this respect corresponding with T. tricolor. 

It is probable that this species (in common with the few other known 
species of bats provided with such accessory clinging organs') uses the 
' See my paper ' On Peculiar Structures in the Feet of certain Species of Mam- 
mals, &c.,' P.Z.S., 1876, p. 526, pi. Iv. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CUIROrTERA, ETC. 193 

adhesive cushions in sustaining its hold on the sniootli hard stems and 
leaves of palms and of other hard-wooded trees. 

Miniopterus SchreibersH, Nat. 

Lately discovered at Vernet-les-Bains by M. Lataste, and in the Grotto 
de Sarre (Basses P^-rcnees) by M. de Folin,' the first recorded occurrence 
of this species in France. Also obtained at Awa, Japan (Hilgendorf and 
Peters) . 

Emhallonura semicaiidata, Peale. 

The British Museum has lately obtained a specimen of this species 
(hitherto recorded from the Polynesian sub-region only) li-om Sarawak, 
collected by Mr. Everett. 

Emhallonnra raff ray ana. 

Emballonura niffnujana, Dobson, 'P.Z.S.' 1878, p. 876 (with woodcuts of head, tar, and 

muzzle). 

Slightly larger thaii E. nirirescem, and agreeing with that species in 
the comparatively widely separated nostrils, but resembling the species of 
the other section of the genus in the projecting e.'i;tremity of the muzzle, 
which extends considerably beyond the lower lip ; tlie ears also are much 
broader, and the upper third of the outer margin of the conch is convex, 
not concave ; the ti'agus is comparatively shorter and much broader, 
attaining its greatest breadth above, where it is so broadly rounded off as 
to appear abruptly truncated ; the outer and inner margins are straight 
or faintly concave. 

Wings from the ankles or from the tarsi ; feet much larger than 
in E. niijrcscens ; calcanea about tvvo-thii'ds the length of the tibiag ; fur 
above dark brown, paler at the base; beneath, paler throughout, wino-s 
nearly naked; upper surface of the iuterfemoral membrane thinly clothed 
as far as the extremity of the tail. 

Teeth as in E. nlijrcscena, except that the first premolar is smaller and 
scarcely raised above the level of the gum. 

Length (of an adult $ ) : head and body l"-65, tail 0"-5, head 0"-6o, 
ear 0"-58, tragus 0"-2, forearm l"-55, thumb 0"-2.5, third finger (meta- 
carp. l"-3, 1st ph. 0"-4, 2nd ph. 0"65), fourth finger (metacarp. i"% 1st 
ph. 0"-o, 2nd ph. 0"-2), fifth finger (metacarp. 1"-, 1st ph. 0"-38, 2nd ph. 
0"-15), tibia 0"-G, calcaneum 0"-45, foot 0"-3. 

Hah. Gilolo Island. 

Type in the collection of the Paris Museum. 

Coleura afra, Peters. 

In recording this species from Tschaka, East Africa, Dr. Peters re- 
marks (' M. B. Akad. Berl.,' 1879, p. 832) that, as noted in his original 
descripti'.m, there is a groove in the lower lip. To this I can only reply 
that in the specimen (preserved in alcohol) in the British Mnseimi, from 
Dr. Peters' collection, there is no trace of a groove in the front of the 
lower lip. 

' Troucssart, Le Natnralide, 1879, p. \2o. 

1880. 



194 EEPOUT— 1880. 

Taphozous mauritiamis, Geoff. 

Taphozons dobsoni, Jentink (' Notes from the Leyden Museum,' 1879, 
p. 123), must be referred to this species. Having suspected from the 
description that the species, which Dr. Jentink had been good enough to 
connect my name with, was at most a variety only of T. mmiriiiamis, I 
sent a specimen of that species to the Leyden Museum, and had it com- 
pared with the type of T. dobsoiii. The small fleshy pads at the base of 
each thumb and on the sole of the foot, noted as a specific peculiarity by 
the describer, are equally present in all other species of the genus, indeed ~ 
in the species of most other genera of the family EuihaUonuridcc, being 
particularly large in the sub-family Molossmce,^ having reference, I lielieve, 
especially to progression on a flat surface, and not coming within the 
class of accessory clinging organs described by me in my paper referred to 
by Dr. Jentink. ^ 

Tapliozous nudiveniris, Cretzsch. 

Nyct'icejus serrafus, Heuglin (' Reise in Nordost-Afrika,' p. 36, 1877), 
is evidently a synonym of this species. 

Noctilis leporinus, L. 

In November last, when dropping down the Sibun river, British Hon- 
duras, by moonlight, about 6 p.m., between the tall mangroves which 
crowd the banks, one of my companions in the boat (Dr. H. A. W. 
Richardson, R.N.) shot a specimen of this species which was flying about 
a yard or so above the surface of the smooth stream. The remains of some 
of the small insects whicli were disporting themselves over the river were 
found in his mouth, but the stomach was quite empty. Several specimens 
of a species of Nycteribia were seen running about on the short fur. It 
was pi-obably to get rid of such parasites, and not to catch shrimps, that 
the individuals observed by Mr. Fraser (see ' Catal. Chiropt. B.M.,' p. 397) 
occasionally struck the water as they flew along. 

Bhinopoma microjyJiyUuin, Geoff. 

Heuglin (' Reise in N.-O. Afrika,' 1877, ii. p. 24) has described as new 
BJi. cordofanicum, which he distinguishes as being larger than this species. 
The measurements given, however, are considerably less than those of the 
type of this species, and I have no doubt that this species, as well as those 
described by him in conjunction with Pitzinger (' Sitzungb. Akad. Wien,' 
1866), namely, Bh. senaarense and Bh. Jonr/icaudatum, are also referable to 
this species. 

Nyctinomus hivittatus, Heuglin. 

From the description {op. cit. p. 28), it would appear to me that the 
names Dysopes talpinus and hepaticus, Heuglin, must be considered syno- 
nyms of this species, which is so closely related to N. p>licatus that it can 
scarcely be regarded as more than a local race of that species. 

Nyctinomus hrachypterm, Ptrs. 
To the localities add Malindi, E. Africa (Fischer and Peters). 

' See my definition of that sub-family in Catal. CMrojrK B.M., pp. 402, 403. 
^ Vide snpra, footnote, p. 192. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OK THE CfllROPTERA, ETC. 195 

Nyctinomus limhafuSy Pfcrs. 
Add also Kitui, Ukamba, E. Africa (Fischer and Peters). 

NycHnohius rnaorotis, Gray. 

Specimens of this species taken in Jamaica were found by me in 
! Kingston 
of the island. 



the Kingston ^Inseum. This adds another new mammal to the fauna 



Nijctbwmus setiger. 

Moriii(ij</r>'iis adiijcr, I'etors, ' JI.l!. Akad. Berl.' 1878, p. l'J2, pi. i. fig. 2. 

Ears trianguhir, shorter than the head, widely separated from each 

other ; i\-p of the ear-couch rounded off, the inner and outer margins 

faintly convex ; tragus qiiadrate, the thickened upper margin with a few 

hairs ; anti-tragus scarcely defined, and not separated by a notcli fi'om the 

outer margin of the conch. Head very flat and broad ; muzzle flat above, 

slightly hollowed in the middle, clothed with short haii's which do not 

conceal the skin. Nasal ajjertures obliquely oval, opening under the 

sharply cut extremity of the muzzle, separated by more than their double 

diameter from each other. The broad, thickened, but not transversely 

folded upper lip has on either side four or five rows of short thickened 

bristles, between which fine long and short hairs project outwards ; the 

lower lip has a few shorter but similar bristles. 

^ .... . 1-1 1-1 1-1 3-3 TT 

Dentition: — inc. -— , c. - — -, pm. --— , m. --—. Uppei; mcisors is- 

D J- — i Z — .-I O — O 

tinctly bicuspidate, the outer cusps short ; the remaining teetli present no 
peculiarity. 

Fur short ; on the back, sides of the neck, thorax, and abdomen reddish- 
brown, pale at the base of the hairs ; middle of the breast and abdomen 
clothed with still shorter hairs of a reddish-yellow colour. Throat with a 
transverse fold passing into a sacciform groove. 

Tail extending for half its length beyond the interfemoral membrane. 
Thumbs and toes with a few long- bristle-like hairs. Wine'- membrane 
dark-brown. 

Length (of a female specimen in alcohol) : head and body 2"-5 inches, 
tail 1"-1, free from membrane 0"-8, ear 0"-65 X 0"-45, tragus 0"-15, fore- 
arm 1"-A; thamb 0"-23, third finger (metacarp. l"-4, 1st ph. 0"-55, 2nd 
ph. 0"7). fourth finger (metacarp. l"-3, 1st ph. 0"-.5, 2nd ph. 0"-45), 
fifth finger (metacarp. 1"0, 1st ph. 0"-3, 2nd ph. 0"-35), tibia 0"-43, 
calcaneum U '-Go, foot 0"'3. 

Hah. Ndi, Taita, East Africa. 

Type in the Berlin Museum collected by Herr J. M. Hildebrandt. 

This species is easily distinguished from those of the section of the 
genus to which it belongs by the very widely separated ears and by the 
form of the tragus. 

Family Phyllostomid.«:. 

Ohilonycteria macleayi, Gray. 

During a visit to Jamaica in March last, I observed many individuals 
of this species flying about in the environs of Kingston, about a quarter- 
of-au-hour after snnsct ; their flight is remarkablj- rapid. Thanks to 

o 2 



196 nEroRT— 1880. 

Mr. Edward Newton, wlio shot several for me, I was able to examine 
them in the recent state, and found that in all the fur was tinged with 
reddish-yellow, a colour never observed by me in dried skins. 

Mormops blaiiivillei, Leach. 

This remarkable species also occurs in the environs of Kingston, and 
a specimen with exceedingly brilliantly coloured fur of a golden chestnut 
hue was shot by Mr. Newton. 

LoncliorJdna atirita, Tomes. 

The British Museum has lately received a specimen of this extraor- 
dinary species from New Granada, collected by Mr. Fry. Hitherto the 
species was represented by a single specimen, the type in the collection of 
the museum of the Army Medical Department, of which the locality was 
uncertain, but from collateral evidence, believed by me to be Trinidad, a 
supposition now rendered extremely probable. This second specimen 
differs in no important respect from the type. 

Schizostoma megalotis. Gray. 
To the localities of this species add Popayan, New Granada. 

Lo7ichoglossa wledii, Ptrs. 

In an apparently adult male specimen from Popayan, I found the 
zygomatic arches cartilaginous. The following are the measurements : — ■ 
Length : head and body 2"-5 inches, head 1"-1, tail 0"'15, ear 0"'6, fore- 
arm l"-6, thumb 0"-35, third finger (metacarp. l"-5, 1st ph. 0"-5, 2nd ph. 
0"-8, 3rd ph. 0-5), fourth finger (metacarp, l"-45, 1st ph. 0"-4, 2nd ph. 
0"-55), fifth finger (metacarp. l"-25, 1st ph. 0"-35, 2nd ph. 0"57), tibia 
0"-55, foot 0"-38. 

Choironyderis minor, Ptrs. 

To the localities of this species add Guatemala (Godman). 

Artlbeus hilohaius, Ptrs. 
Add Sai-ayacu, Ecuador, as a locality (0. Thomas). 

Artlbeus fzrspicillatus, L. 

This appears to be by far the commonest species of bat in Jamaica. 
I found it abundant in every cave visited by me, inhabiting the honey- 
comb-like cells in the white limestone. The floor of these caves is covered 
to the depth of many feet with their dung, which forms a soft black mass, 
in which near the entrances a few sickly plants of the bread-imt were 
always found vegetating, having sprang up from the rejected kernels of 
that fi-uil, which appears to form the greater part of their food. At 
Kind's House, near Kingston, Mr. Newton pointed out to me on the floor 
of the bath-room the remains of these fruits, which the bats carried in at 
night-time, to feed upon at leisure, while they hung themselves from the 
ratters. At the same place, about midday, we forced an individual to 
quit his home in a hollow mango tree, but he flew only as far as the next 
tree, where he was scon secured. In him the fur was strongly tinged 



ON TIIK INDUCTIVE CAVACITV Ob' A OIUOD .>lMtENUKL VACUUM, ETC. 1 97 



with yellow, over the shoulder especially, so that when flying forth from 
his retreat I thought it was a specimen of Noctilio leporimis. In this re- 
spect this individual contrasted remarkably with all the cave-haunting 
specimens I had examined, for in them the colour of the fur appeared to 
be almost quite uniform, namely, dai-k brown in the terminal third, the 
extreme tips of the hairs greyish, the basal three-fourths pale greyish 
bi'own ; beneath the greater part of the hairs uniooloured greyish brown, 
paler towards the extremities. The facial streaks were more or less 
defined in all the individuals captured by me. 

Avtiheus quadririttaftis, Ptrs. 
Add Popayan to the localities of this species. 

Ghirodertna salvini, Dobson. 

An adult male specimen, also from Popayan, in the collection of the 
Gcittingen Museum, has the facial streaks faintly marked, thus showing 
that the development of these marks are probably as variable as I have 
already noticed in the case of Artiheus pJanirostris. There is also a very 
faint white line along the spine, which is absent in the type. The 
peculiar form of the first lower premolar is, however, as well marked as 
in the type. 



Preliminary Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. E. 
Ayrton {Secretary), Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Mr. J. E. H. Gordon, and 
Mr. J. Perry, appointed for the purpose of accurately measuring 
the specific inductive capacity of a good Spjrengel Vacuuvi, and 
the specific resistance of gases at diferent pressures. 

In 1870 two of the members of your present Committee concluded, from 
theoretical reasons, based on the analogy between the viscous yielding of 
bodies to mechanical stress and the absorption of the electric charge in a 
Leyden jar, that some connection of an inverse order would be found to 
exist between the specific inductive capacities and the specific resistances 
of dielectrics. As at that time it was only for gutta percha and india- 
rubber that the specific resistances had been measured, it was necessary, 
in order to put the theory to the test of experiment, to carefully measure 
the specific resistances of several other dielectrics of which the specific 
inductive capacities were known. The substances selected were paraffin- 
wax, shell lac, mica, ebonite, &c., and it was found that, in a general way, 
if bodies were arranged in increasing order of specific inductive capacity, 
they would be found arranged in decreasing order of specific resistance.' 

Again, since different gases had different indices of refraction for light, 
it was felt that Faraday's not having succeeded in finding experimentally 
different specific inductive capacities for the various gases, must have 
arisen from the comparative roughness of his apparatus ; and very delicate 
experiments undertaken in consequence, showed that hydrogen had a 
decidedly less specific inductive capacity than air, and that carbonic 

' ' The Viscosity of Dielectrics,' bv W. E. -iyrton a.v<\ .Tolin Perry, Proe. Boy. Soc. 
No. 180,1878. 



198 REroET— 1880. 

dioxide, coal gas, sulpliuric dioxide, &c., a decidedly greater. Lastly, 
since tlie resistance of a gas to disruptive discharge varied with tLe pres- 
sure, it was anticipated — also in opposition to the results of Faraday's 
experiments — that the specific inductive capacity of even the vacuum of 
an ordinary air-pump must be slightly different from unity, a conclusion 
also subsequently verified by experiment.' 

The method employed for that investigation which was cariied out in 
Japan consisted in using two condensers, one an open air condenser of 
adjustable capacity, the other a closed condenser into which any gas at 
any pressure could be jjut. The open air condenser was adjusted to have 
the same capacity as the closed one when the latter was filled with air at 
the ordinary pressure and temperature ; then the change in capacity of the 
latter when tbe pi-essure of the air inside was diminished, or when another 
gas was introduced, could be determined by changing the insulated coat- 
ings of these two condensers to equal and opposite potentials, discharging 
thera into one another, and measuring the resultant potential Avith a 
Thomson's quadrant electrometer adjusted for great sensibility. 

Previously, however, to this, but quite unknown to these members of 
your Committee, Prof Boltzmann had made a similar investigation, using, 
however, a different method of experimenting. The results obtained in 
the two independent investigations for the same gases are placed under- 
neath side by side, and the fairly close agreement, considering the extreme 
delicacy of the experiments, make it quite certain that the general bearing 
of the experinients is correct : — 

Ayrton and Perrv ]5oltzniauii 

Air 1-0000 ' .... 10000 

Vacuum .... 0-9985 .... 0-9994 

Hydrogen .... 0-9998 .... 0-9997 

Coal Gas .... 1-0004 .... 

Marsh Gas .... .... 1-0004 

Carbonic dioxide . . . 1-0008 .... 1 -0004 

.Sulphuric dioxide . . 1-0037 

Tbe gases were at 760 mm. pressure ; the vacuum varied from about 
10 mm. to somewhat gi"eater pressures. The observation for sulphuric 
dioxide is given, as it is the highest specific inductive capacity yet ob- 
tained for any gas. 

The very peculiar behaviour of a good Sprengel A-acuum in resisting 
the passage of an induction spark led to tbe formation of this Committee, 
to investigate, with the aid of a grant from the Association, the specific 
inductive capacity of a far higher vacuum than had been employed in 
either of the two preceding investigations since Messrs. Ayrton and Perry 
predicted that such a vacuous space would be found to have a capacity 
very considerably smaller than if filled with ordinary air. 

The closed condenser in this case consists of five aluminium cylinders 
39-3 ceiitimetres long, placed concentrically at about ^ centimetre apart, 
in a glass tube .58'5 centimetres long and 5"5 centimetres in diameter. 
The second and fourth cylindci-s form the insulated coating, and the first, 
third, and fifth the earth coating. The cylinders comprising eaeli coating 
are rigidly connected at each end with a thin platinum rod, and these 
platinum rods, like the cylinders, do not touch the glass tube, but are held 
in position by a thin glass rod, one end of which is fused to the platinum 

' ' On tlic Specific Inductive Capacity of Gases,' by Jolm Perry and W. ]-;. Ayrton, 
Trans. Asiatic Stw. of Japan, Vol. v. part i. p. 116. 



ON THE INDUCTIVE CAPACITY OF A GOOD SPRENGEL VACUUM, ETC. 199 




rod and the otlier to tlie inside of the g]ass tube. To give, in a small 
space, length to these glass rods, for obtaining surface insulation, they 
are made zigzag, and in the form of a flat spiral. To the thin platinum 
rods are attached two fine platinum wires, which form the two electrodes 
of the condenser, and where these pass out through the glass tube, glass 
is fused on to the wire both inside and outside, as in the figure, to increase 
the surface insulation. 

The area that one set of aluminium cylinders exposes 
to the other is about 1800 square centimetres, so that the 
electrostatic capacity is about 450 centimetres in absolute 
units, or ^o^ of a microfarad. 

A small spiral glass tube connects the condenser with 
a three-fall-tube Sprengel pump, and as the internal ca- 
pacity of the condenser is large, it was thought desirable End of Condenser, 
to attach to the pump an Alvergniat or Geissler arrange- 
ment to enable the pressure to be rapidly reduced to about 10 cen- 
timetres of mercury. A barometer gauge and a McLeod gauge are 
attached to the pump. The entire glasswork in the apparatus was made 
by Mr. Gimingham, and the Committee desire to express their thanks 
for the assistance he has so kindly given. 

Method of Experimenting. — In the accompanying figure, A is the alu- 
minium condenser just described, the interior not being shown in the 
figure ; B is Sir William Thomson's ' sliding condenser,' kindly lent by 
him to the Committee. This, as is well known, consists of a brass tube, 
I, about 38 centimetres long and 5'08 centimetres in external diameter, 
attached at one end to an ebonite collar, d d, by 
which it is supported and insulated. Outside and 
inside this brass tube, but without touching it, 
slide two other tubes, T, and T^, electrically con- 
nected with the outer tube T-^ and with the earth. 
The motion of the tube Tj forms a coarse adjust- 
ment, and that of the tube T2 a fine adjustment of 
the capacity of the condenser. On account of the 
action of the edges it would be somewhat difficult 
to calculate the whole capacity of this condenser 
for any given position of the tubes, but it is com- 
paratively easy to calculate the change of capacity 
produced by moving either tube a known distance 
measured on the fine linear scale engraved on each 
of the sliding tubes. 

As the capacity of this condenser, when the 
tube r, is in its mean position, is considerably less 
than that of the aluminium condenser, another air- 
condenser, C, having a fixed capacity about equal to the difference, was 
constructed. B, then, could be adjusted so that its capacity, together with 
that of C, was equal to that of A, when A contained air at ordinary pi'es-. 
sure. Then any change in the capacity of A, produced by exhausting the 
air, could be measured by finding the new adjustment of B necessaiy ta 
produce balance. 

The mode of testing the equality of capacities was suggested by one 
of the Committee, Dr. Lodge, and consisted of a modification of Prof. 
Hughes' Induction Balance. Z is a coil of wire of about 3 ohms' resist- 
«,u<5e, in which the current from two or three Grove's cells, P, flows in- 



'fTOf"^' 




200 



REPOKT 1880. 



tennitteutly, the circuit being alternately made and broken by a clock, M. 
ic, ij arc perfectly similar coils of about 800 ohms' resistance each, and 
adjusted in position relatively to Z, so that when the condensers on the 
two sides of the balance have perfectly equal capacity no sound is heard 
in an especially delicate telephone, T, when the connections are made as 
in the figure. It will be observed that the nature of the arrangement is 
such that any failure of insulation in A would make it appear to have too 
large a capacity and not too small, as would be the case with the method 
of experimenting previously described. 

For air at pressures gi'eater than one millimetre, the Committee have 
not thought it necessary to make many experiments, but between 001 
and 0001 of a millimetre pressure several sets of expeinments have been 
carried out. At the latter pressure — that is, at about one-millionth of an 
atmosjDhere — the specific inductive capacity is certainly low, some experi- 
ments apparently making it as much as 0-6 to 08 per cent, less than that 
for ordinaiy air, whereas the greatest diminution obtained for an air- 
vacuum in the two previous investigations, when the pressure was not 
diminished lower than 5 millimetres, was only O'l per cent. In all the sets 
of experiments for very low pressures there are decided waves in the curves 
connecting capacity and pressure, but whether these waves really express 
a physical law, or whether they are due to the method of experimenting 
witb currents of very short duration, or whether, lastly, they are due to 
the capacity not depending solely on the pressure, but also on the amount 
of residual gas occluded in the aliminium cylinders, the Committee have 
not yet ascertained, and therefore in this preliminary report they refrain 
from giving the curves. A sample of the observations, however, may be 



int( 


cresting : — 


















August 26. 


Reading 
cylinder, 


on small sliding 
Tn, Tu remainin 




Pressure in millimetres 


stationary 






r 0-0100 . ., . 


. ■ . 


185 






0-0041 










194 




Pump 
continuously i 
working 


00031 
00032 
00020 
00017 
00020 
00018 










165 
208 
162 
140 
160 
143 






Augiist 28. 










r 00207 


, 


314 






00407 








, 


332 






0-0568 








» 


343 




Air being 


0-0765 










350 




very slowly 


0-1204 










326 




let in 


01924 

1-0000 

3-2500 

[_ 5-5000 

760-0000 










292 
320 
341 
379 

395 



The readings on either day may be compared one with another, but 
not those on different days. In either case, however, a difference of 100 
in the reading indicates roughly a difference of about 1 per cent, in the 
capacity of the aliminium condenser. It will be observed that, in addition 
to the curious fluctuations in the capacity for the same small pressure, a 



,V Bwt« BnJ Asicc IdSC 



I 



r^ 



DECLINATION 
Mai-rh •T:'^ 1879. 



S 3 W « 



I 



rS a 5 5~ 



« 5 3 W V knut /an 



ff 6 7 




Kri-Kr-ce at/Skvr 



-IT -IF - n 



DECLINATION 
>Uirch 13'1G. 1879- 
•S'' PeUrabur^i, Kew, Vitmuti cuuii flnmbrtL. 



e e J a 9 lopm n n i t 3 



S earn- ~ g 9 



n }ZnMn,t 2 s 




lUuatraUng h-otrs-sor W. f,rylU Ailuma' (hminnmcatwrL 
(hmpartson of turves vC tht: iifA^tnaliim. Ma^netpgrxiphe al> Id-w. 
SUiii^lturab. (hiiribr-a'.LiftbfUL, Vutmui, aiuL <S'^ Pkie*>sburQ' 




r 

r 



W* Rep(H Bnl Jssw 169C 



DECLINATION. 
March aa^."! 1879. 



iS"'' Peierxburq 




DECLINATION. 

Mai'ch 29')' 1879 

tS*" Pelersburq, Jirw and- Viennn. curves. 




S>iUifrt*dti^liAIjr,ifn. 



IlUi.-ilniiifXff l^'ole-fsrr It' OrylAt Aiiani.t' Cnnuniinwutwn. 
(hmpuruiorL of (iu-ves oC Uik Declinalioa. Maqnetetftrifih-i lU Ken. 
Storufhur^t,. fhinibriLfLutivnj, iteruuL, nnd SP hUet'^sburi^.' 



50^ Report Brit: Assoc- 1880. 



Plate K. 



DECLINATION 



Mat'ck 28-29 1879. 



<SP Petersburg 



Hon. 



Force at Hew. 



Verii. Forde, at' Hew. 



oroe, I 




4-ay.nh. 



UJUistroduijg Professor W. GryU^s Adanvs' (hmmutucatwrL: 

Contpor'isorv of Curves of the BecUn/jijbcn,' Maqnelographs at Kew, 
Stcio/hurst, CounhrcUjLtshotv, Vie-ruui/, and St" Pctej^sburg.' 



ON CUllVKS OK nECLIiNATION JIAGNKTOGUAl'II.S, lUC. 201 

result constantly obtained when very small pressures were employed, and 
wliicli may Lave arisen from the effect of tlio remanent occluded gas, there 
also appears to be a sudden diminution of the capacity at about O'lO mil- 
limetre pressure. To make sure that this was not an accidental result, 
the air was pumped out again when the pressure was about 3 millimetres 
until it was reduced again to about O'l millimetre, when the same dimi- 
nution of capacity at about 0'19 was again observed. Now although 
these numbers are merely now given as a preliminary indication of the 
results obtained by the Committee, there is this interest about them, as 
has been pointed out by Mr. G. F. Fitzgerald of Dublin, that the values 
obtained for the capacity between about 002 and 02 millimetre's pressure 
bear a general resemblance to those obtained for the Crookes' force. 

O .... 

One difficulty met with in the investigation consists m an apparent 
change in the capacity of the condensers B and G (partly, no doubt, aris- 
ing from changes of temperature) from day to day. A similar difficulty 
was met -with in the previous investigation made in Japan, but it was 
overcome by making alternate measurements of the capacity of the closed 
condenser, first with air, then with vacuum, then with air, &c., &c. In 
the present case this is, of course, impossible, since on account of the large 
internal capacity of the condenser A, and the considerable quantity of 
gas occluded in so large a mass of aluminium, it takes several days to 
obtain a vacuum of 0001 of a millimetre even, although, at the suggestion 
of Mr. Gimingham, induction sparks from a large induction coil (not 
shown in the figure), are kept passing between the two sets of aluminium 
cylinders at all times that a measurement of capacity is not being made. 
Probably the best method of procedure is that followed on August 28, the 
last day of the investigation, viz., first obtain slowly a very perfect vacuum, 
no measurements of capacity being necessarily made, then admit into the 
pump, drop by drop, mercury, occluding air, and make, during a couple of 
hours or so, a complete series of measurements of capacity as the pres- 
sure rises from, say, 0"001 of a millimetre up to ordinary atmospheric 
pressure. Such a set of experiments being performed several times would 
probably give a fair indication of tbe curve for capacity. As it is also 
extremely desirable that the experiments should be made with statical 
charges of electricity, the Committee have had constructed a somewhat 
modified form of Thomson's quadrant electrometer, which they also pro- 
pose employing for the measurement of the specific resistance of gas at 
different pressures — the second half of their work, which they have not 
yet commenced. 



Comparison of Curves of the Declioyxtion 3fagnetographs at Kew, 
Stonyhurst, Goimbra, Lisbon, Vienna, and St. Petersburg. By 
Professor W. Grylls Adams, F.R.S. 

[Plates VII., VIII., and IX.] 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extengo among 

the Keports.] 

During the month of March, 1879, there were several very considerable 
magnetic disturbances, and therefore there were several favourable oppor- 
tunities for comparing the effects of magnetic disturbances at different 



202 REPORT— 1880. 

stations wherever photographic records similar to those at Kew are 
obtained. 

Mr. Whipple was accordingly instructed by the Kew Committee to 
write to the various observatories where declination magnetograpLs are 
photographed, to ask thsLt fac-siviiles of the records taken at those stations 
might be sent to the Kew Committee for compai'ison. 

In answer to this request, Dr. Hann, Director of the Observatory at 
Vienna, and Senlior Capello, Director of the Observatory at Lisbon, have 
kindly lent the original negatives, and Rev. Prof. S. J. Perry, Director 
of the Observatory at Stonyhurst, and Dr. Da Souza, Director of the 
Observatory at Coimbra, have kindly forwarded positives printed from 
their original curves, and Dr. "Wild, Director of the St. Petersburg Obser- 
vatory, has kindly forwarded very careful tracings of the St. Petersburg 
photographs. These have been compared with one another, and with 
the original negatives taken at the Kew Observatory, and much valuable 
information has already been obtained. Other records have been asked, 
but a sufficient time has not yet elapsed for them to come to hand ; it is 
hoped that, as soon as they arrive, a complete discussion of them will 
greatly extend our knowledge as to the causes of magnetic disturbances 
over a considerable area of the earth's surface. 

A disturbance began at 4.20 a.m., Greenwich time, on the 3rd of March, 
1879, which is described in the Stonyhurst record as ' a tremulous motion 
of the declination magnet, which lasted for about thirteen hours, accom- 
panied by a gradual increase of westerly declination.' 

About 5.80 a.m. the agitations west and east became greater, and at 
7.30 a.m. there were sudden and great disturbances, the maximum 
westerly declination being reached about 8 a.m. : again marked dis- 
turbances, not quite so sudden, occurred just before 10 o'clock; then, 
after a slight motion eastward until 10.30 a.m., there was again an increase 
in the westerly declination, accompanied by great agitations, until 1 p.m., 
after which there is a decrease in the westerly declination, and the dis- 
turbance ends at about 5 p.m. 

During the whole time of this increase in the westerly declination 
the agitations of the declination needle, including some twenty-four 
maxima and minima values, ai'e absolutely coincident in time, and very 
often equal in magnitude, at Kew and at St. Petersburg. 

At Stonyhurst also the curves are coincident with those at Kew 
and are silmost facsimiles of them. 

On comparing the jihotographs at Coimbra and at Lisbon with those 
at Kew -and at St. Petersburg, it is found that the agitations in Portugal 
are not so clearly marked, but are coincident in time with those at the 
other stations. 

Comparing the Vienna photographs of the same disturbance with 
those at Kew, they are found to be almost facsimiles of one another — 
every agitation westward or eastward at one place is coincident in time 
with a similar agitation at the other. The Vienna jDhotographs are 
remarkably clear, but the agitations are usually not so large as those at 
Kew, and both are usually less than those at St. Petersburg, as given by 
the tracings ; but the forms and periods of the successive agitations in a 
disturbance, as well as the duration of the disturbances, are the same at all 
the stations. 

Between 5 and 6 p.m. on the 3rd there was a disturbance, first east- 
ward and then westward, at St. Petersburg, which was not felt at Kew ; 



ON CURVES OF DECLINATION MAGNETOGRAPHS, ETC. 203 

and between 10 p.m. and 12 there wei-e simultaneous disturbances at 
Kew and St. Petersburg, but in opposite directions. 

From about 10 to 10.40 p.m. there is a disturbance of a very regular 
kind, i.e. without much agitation, consisting of a motion of the needle 
towards the east, followed by a motion of the needle westward for about 
half an hour. This disturbance is strongly marked at Kew and at 
Stonyhurst; is less strongly marked, but coincident in time, at Coimbra 
and at Lisbon ; and also very well shown, but is small, in the Vienna 
photographs ; but in the tracing from St. Petersburg a disturbance 
begins at the same point of absolute time (i.e. about 10 p.m. Greenwich 
time), with a motion of the needle towards the ivest — this motion west- 
ward lasts for about 20 minutes, until 10.20 p.m., and is then followed by 
a gradual motion eastward until about 10.45 p.m. 

The declination at St. Petersburg then remains nearly steady for a 
quarter of an hour, whilst the westerly declination at the other stations 
is regularljr increasing, and from 11.30 p.m. (Greenwich time) the dis- 
turbances at St. Petersburg coincide in direction and in time with those 
at Kew and at the other stations. 

Plate VII., fig. 1, represents the St. Petersburg, Kew, and Vienna 
declination curves for March 3rd, the time being Greenwich mean time 
for all stations. 

On referring to the Kew curves for the horizontal force, of which Mr. 
Whipple has kindly prepared tracings for me, I find that whenever the 
deflections of the declination needle are eastward at Kew and westward 
at St. Petersburg at the same instant, as in this disturbance between 10 
and 10.20 p.m., there is at the same time an increase in the horizontal 
force ; and when the deflections are westward at Kew and eastward at 
St. Petersburg at the same instant, as l)"t\veen 10.20 p.m. and 10.45 p.m., 
there is at the same time a decrease going on in the horizontal force. 

This statement is borne out by the comparisons of disturbances on 
other days throughout the month. 

Three easterly movements of the needle occurred between 3 and 8 p.m. 
on the 5th of March. 

One began about 2.45 p.m., which is only just noticeable at Lisbon 
and Coimbra when looked for, but which is clearly seen in the Kew and 
Stonyhurst jjhotographs, and becomes much more important at Vienna, 
and is much larger still at St. Petersburg ; but at all places the gi-eatest 
easterly declination occurs at the same absolute time (at about 3 p.m. 
Greenwich time), and there is then an increase in the westerly declination 
iintil about 3.30 p.m. 

From 5 p.m. to 5.20 p.m. there is an easterly movement of the 
needle, which is absolutely coincident in time and is well marked at all 
the stations, and the amount of the disturbance is as great at Kew and at 
Stonyhurst as it is at St. Petersburg. This is followed by a westerly 
movement, which is also precisely similar at all the places. 

Another similar easterly movement begins about 6.20 p.m. (Green- 
wich time) at all the stations, and lasts for a quarter of an hour, 
followed by an equal movement westward for the next quarter of an 
hour, thus forming a regular \/ in the photograjjhic curves. The 

second side of this \J is continued to double the length in the St. Peters- 
burg tracings, but the following greatest eastward declination is reached at 



204 KEPORT— 1880. 

the same time (about 7. "20 p.m.) at all tbc stations. Theu the needle 
gradually returns to the westward, and the disturbance dies away. 

This deviation of the St. Petersburg curves from the others occurs at 
6.40 p.m., at which time there is a sudden increase in the horizontal 
force. 

Another considerable disturbance, consisting of a general eastward 
movement of the north end of the needle, began about 6 p.m. on the 7th, 
followed by a westward movement, which ceased about 10 p.m. 

In this disturbance, as in others, the Lisbon and Coimbra curves are 
like exact reproductions of one another, so also are the Kew and Stony- 
hurst curves. Placing the Lisbon negative behind the Coimbra positive, 
the dark lines of the Lisbon photograph are seen through the bright 
lines of the Coimbra curves ; and in the same way, placing the Kew 
negative behind the Stony hurst positive, the dark lines of the Kew curves 
are seen to coincide with the bright lines of the Stonyhur.st cui-ves, just 
as if one were an exact print taken from the other. 

Comparing the Kew and the \'icnna curves this disturbance is found 
to be of precisely' flic same cliaracter at both stations, but its range at 
Vienna is less than at Kew. In this case the periods of the disturbance 
occur at the same absolute time at all the stations. 

At St. Petersburg Ihe disturbance at the beginning is also similar in 
character to that at Kew, but previously at 2 p.m. (Greenwich time), 
there had been an easterly disturbance at St. Petersburg, which was not 
perceived at Kew; and just before 8 p.m., towards the end of the great 
disturbance, the westerly range of the needle is very much greater at 
St. Petersburg than at Kew, but the needle reaches its extreme positions 
either west or east exactly at the same absolute time at the two, and, 
indeed, at all the stations. 

Unfortunately at Coimbra four curves are drawn on the same slip, 
and the zero line for one curve frequently runs into and coincides witli 
the curve for another dnj, so that it is difficult or impossible to make out 
the character of the disturbances. The distance between the curve and 
the zero line appears to be the same as in the Kew curves. 

At Stonyhnrst three curves are photographed on the same slip, but 
the difficulty of dealing with the Coimbra curves is avoided by placing 
the zero or time line a long way from its own curve, but the curves for 
different days are placed so close to one another that occasionally they 
are apt to run into and confuse or cross one another. 

At Kew, at Lisbon, and at St. Petersburg, two curves are drawn on 
the same slip, and sufficiently far apart not to interfere with one another, 
the distance at St. Petersburg being greater than at Kew, because, as a 
rule, the disturbances are of larger amount than at Kew. 

At Vienna each curve is photographed on a separate slip, and the 
hours ai-e numbered astronomically from to 23, the slip being changed 
at or just before 21 hr., or 9 a.m. local time, i.e. about 8 a.m. Greenwich 
time. 

The Vienna plan of photographing each curve on a separate sheet is 
the most convenient of all for the comparison of disturbances at different 
places, and there is an additional advantage in this plan because when 
there are two or more curves on a slip, disturbances occurring at the same 
hour on two successive days are not vertically above one another, and the 
•want of agreement of the time lines for two or more curves is apt to be 
confusing. 



ON CURVES OF DECLINATION MAGNETOGRAPHSi, ETC. 205 

From the Stony liurst report Ave find that ' the chief disturbance of the 
month began about noon on the 9th, and lasted till 4 a.m. on the follow- 
ing day.' 

On comparing the Lisbon and Coimbra curves for the aa hole period of 
this disttirbance, they are found to be absolutely coincident throughout. 

On comparing the Kevv and Stonyhurst curves, they are also found to 
be absolutely coincident, both in I'ange of disturbances and in time ; indeed, 
this is one of the most remarkable instances that I have seen. 

At Vienna the disturbances are nearly all of the same character, and 
take place at the same time, but the i'ange is not quite so great. 

On comparing the St. Petersburg curves, it is found that there are 
disturbances of the same character, and taking place — i.e. having their 
maxima and minima— at the same time as those at Kew and Vienna and 
the other stations ; but superposed upon these are other disturbances, one 
to the eastward fi-om 2 to 3.20 p.m., and to the vrestward from 8.20 to 
3.40 p.m. ; another violent one to the eastv^ard from 4.20 to 4.50 p.m., 
followed by a quicker retui-n to the westward until 5 p.m. ; another, not 
quite so violent, eastward from 6 to 6.30, and westward from 6.30 to 
7 p.m. ; then, after a period of comparative rest, at 10.20 there is another 
disturbance westward for about ten minutes, followed by a i-eturn of 
the needle to the eastward until 11 p.m., superposed on those dis- 
turbances which are the same as the disturbances which are seen in the 
Kew curves. 

The effect of these extra disturbances, which are so marked at St, 
Petersburg, is only just seen in the Vienna curves, the result being that 
the heights of some of the maxima are diminished or increased, or the 
slopes of parts of the curves are slightly altered, in consequence of the 
action of opposing or reinforcing disturbances. 

These differences in the disturbances at St. Petersburg and at the 
other stations coincide in time with corresponding changes in the value 
of the horizontal force, as measured by the Kew curves. Thus from 2 to 
3.20 p.m. the horizontal force is diminishing, then from 3.20 to 3.40 p.m. 
the horizontal force is increasing ; from about 4.15 to 4.45 p.m. the hori- 
zontal force is diminishing, but again increases more rapidly until 5 p.m.; 
then from 6 to 6.20 p.m. it diminishes, and afterwards increases more 
slowly until a little after 7 p.m.; after a period of rest there is a large in- 
crease from 10.15 to 10.35, followed by a diminution of the horizontal 
force until 11 p.m. 

It thus appears from these comparisons — and the statements are fully 
borne out by the other principal disturbances which have been examined 
— that : 

A diminution in the horizontal force is accompanied by greater easterly 
deflections of the declination needle at St. Petersburg than at Kew. 
2. Increase of the horizontal force is accompanied by greater westerly 
deflections at St. Petersburg than at Kew, or is sometimes accompanied 
by a westerly deflection at St. Petersburg and an easterly deflection at 
Kew. 

On March 11, a disturbance, first eastward for a quarter of an hour 
until 9 p.m., then westward for an hour, causes a well-mai'ked and regular 
depression in the declination curve. 

This takes place at the same instant at Kew, Stonyhurst, and Vienna, 
but is not present at St. Petersburg; but at the time of the greatest 
eastward deflection, at 9.4 p.m., there is a slight westward deflection at 



206 REPORT~1880. 

St. Petersburg, tlie otlier small disturbances at all the places being tlie 
same. 

Again, on the 13th, there is a magnetic storm, lasting from G.20 p.m. 
until 8 p.m., which takes place absolutely at the same time at all tlie 
stations, and for which the curves for places near together absolutely fit 
one another. 

At St. Petei'sburg tliis storm was more violent than at the otlicr 
stations, and was preceded by a violent storm, iu which the needle de- 
viated first to the cast and then to the west, between 4.20 and 6 p.m. 
This preceding storm was only slightly felt at the other stations, and 
rather more at Vienna than at Kew or Stonyhurst. 

About 2.30 a.m. on the 14th, there is a sudden disturbance of the 
needle to the westward, which is stronger at Kew and Stonyhurst than at 
Vienna or at St. Petcvsburg. 

The nest considerable disturbance was on the 15th, beginning at 
9.20 p.m. and ending at midnight, followed by lesser disturbances arising 
from a distinct cause which lasted until 4 a.m. on the 16th. 

This disturbance from 9.20 p.m. to midnight produced similar deflec- 
tions at Kew and Stonylmrst, and also at Coimbra and Lisbon, first rapidly 
to the east until 9.50 and then to the west ; but tiie range was not so great 
at these latter places. At St. Petersburg the deflections of the needle 
were in the opposite direction to those at Kew and Stonyhurst, and the 
opjjosite deflections occurred at the same time ; and this remark applies to 
all the oscillations of the declination needle up to midnight. The dis- 
turbance westward was also much greater than the simultaneous eastward 
disturbance at Kew. 

The disturbances between midnight and 4 a.m. take place at the same 
time at all the stations, and are precisely similar in character and in 
direction at St. Petersburg, at Vienna, and at Kew. They are also equal 
in amount, so that the curves almost fit one another. Here, then, we have 
a cause producing opposite disturbances at Kew and at St. Petersbin-g 
for more than two hours, followed by probably some other cause of dis- 
turbance producing identical effects at all the stations for a period of four 
hours. 

At Vienna from 9.20 to midnight the disturbances were simultaneously 
in the same direction as, but were very weak in comparison with, those 
at St. Petei'sburg, so that this magnetic storm was very little felt at 
Vienna. 

On reveri5ing the Kew curve for this disturbance and comparing it 
with St. Petersburg, it is seen that the successive maxima and minima 
are absolutely simultaneous, so that the deflections opposite ways at the 
two places are seen to be due to the same cause ; and the Vienna curve is 
very nearly coincident with the mean curve obtained by superposing the 
Kew and St. Peterslmrg curves. 

Plate VII., fig. 2, represents the St» Petersburg, Kew, Vienna, and 
Coimbi-a declination curves for March 15th-lGth. 

The beginning of this disturbance was accompanied by a sudden and 
large increase of the horizontal force until 9.50 p.m., and then by a dimi- 
nution until 10.45 p.m., followed by slight oscillations of the needle until 
midnio-ht, which are simultaneous with the oscillations of the St. Peters- 
burg declination needle. 

The vertical force gradually diminishes from 9.20 to 10.30 p.m. 

Nothing can show move clearly than this the direct relation between 



ON CDRVKS Of DKCLINATION MAGNETOGUAPHS, ETC. 207 

the changes in the horizontal force and the differences in the declination 
curves at St. Petersburg and at Kew. 

At 11.45 a.m. on March 18 there is a sudden kick to the westward, 
lasting for about t-\vo minutes and measured by a length of 2 millimetres 
on the Kew curve, i.e. giving a deflection of about 2'. This kick takes 
place simultaneously at St. Petersburg and at Vienna, and is nearly equal 
at all the stations. It is also felt at the same instant at Coimbra and at 
Lisbon. 

A similar kick, but less marked at St. Petersburg, occurs next day at 
11.30 a.m. (Greenwicli time) at all the stations. 

After an entire agreement between the curves through the day, at 10 
p.m. a disturbance occurs wliicb deflects the needle eastward at Kew and 
westward at St. Petersburg, but by midnight the cui-ves coincide again, 
and remain coincident with the same very small variations through the 
night. 

Between 3 and 4 p.m. on March 20 we get disturbances opposite ways, 
first westward at Kew and eastward at St. Petersburg simultaneously, 
again followed by coincidences through the day. 

Another disturbance commenced by a tremulous motion of the mao-net 
about 7 a.m. on the 23rd, and lasted until 11 p.m. ° 

From the beginning of this storm until 1.45 p.m. the several east and 
west disturbances or oscillations of the needle are simultaneous and of the 
same character, and are verj nearly equal in amount at Kew, Stonyhurst, 
and at St. Petersburg. From 1.45 to 2.30 p.m. the deflections to the 
eastward were far greater at St. Petersburg than at the other stations, 
but were still simultaneous at all the stations. The record at Stonyhurst 
shows that the vertical force increased in value about 2 p.m., so that here 
an increase in the vertical force is accompanied by greater eastward deflec- 
tions at St. Petersburg. 

The St. Petersburg curve remains below the Kew and Stonyhurst 
curves, with the same smaller disturbances, until 7.12 p.m., just 
after one but before another violent disturbance, each of which 'lasted 
half an hour. The first of these two violent disturbances was first east- 
ward and then westward at all stations, but greater at St. Petersburg 
than at Kew, and was accompanied by a con-esponding decrease, and 
then an increase of the horizontal force. At 7.25 p.m., accordino- to 
the Stonyhm-st record, the V.F. had diminished to its mean value, 'and 
simultaneously with this diminution the horizontal force had been in- 
creasing. The second violent disturbance was westward at St. Peters- 
burg, and eastward at Kew and Stonyhurst. This second disturbance 
was also westward at Vienna, but less violent in character. The maxi- 
mum was reached at 7.30 p.m. 

The simultaneous disturbances become alike again in character and 
direction at 7.50 p.m., but from 8.15 p.m. until 11 p.m. (the end of the 
storm) the disturbances at Kew and at St. Petersburg do not correspond, 
but are at times in opposite directions. From 11 p.m. the curves are 
again agreeing with one another. 

The time scales for different stations are nearly but not quite the 
same ; the St. Petersburg is slightly shorter than the Kew scale, and the 
Kew is slightly sliorter than the Vienna scale. They are so nearly equal 
that for short lengths the difference is not perceptible. In Plate VIII., 
fig. 1, where tlie disturbances daring seventeen hours on March 23-24 are 
represented ia one diagram, an attempt has been made to guide the eye by 



208 RLPOUT— 1880. 

drawing three oblique time lines at 9 a.m., 8 p.m., and 2 a.m. tln-ough the 
St. Petersburg, Kew, and Vienna curves. There is more difficulty in 
determining tlie exact instant at which any small disturbance occurs from 
the Lisbon photographs, as the curves are not divided into hourly or two- 
hourly divisions as at the other observatories. 

From 7.20 to 7.30 p.m. there is a sudden and large increase in the 
horizontal force, which continues high until 7.40, and then suddenly 
diminishes until nearly 8 p.m. 

On March 28, at 4.30 p.m., a slight eastward distui-bance takes place 
at St. Petersburg, which is scarcel}^ perceived elsewhere. From 10.20 to 
10.30 at all the stations the declination needle is moving westward, and 
both the horizontal and vertical forces at Kew are increasing. From 
10.30 to 10.40 the St. Petersburg needle continues to move west\vai-d, 
and the horizontal and vertical forces continue to increase, but the Kew 
needle moves back to the eastward fron 10.30 p.m. until 11.5 p.m., and 
then westward to 11.30 p.m. From 10.20 p.m. to 1.25 a.m. on the 29th, 
during which time there are two large distiarbances, there is a very close 
resemblance between the St. Petersburg declination curve and the Kew 
horizontal force curve, the disturbances being simultaneous, and a westerly 
deflection at St. Petersburg corresponding to an increase of the horizontal 
force at Kew. Taking the mean line of no disturbance as common to the 
two, the hei<'-ht or depth of the Kew horizontal force curve is about one- 
third of the height or depth of the St. Petersburg declination curve at 
the same point. 

Plate IX. gives the St. Petersburg, Kew, and Vienna declination 
curves and the horizontal and vertical force at Kew from 10 p.m. to 
4 a.m. on March 28-29. 

The Vienna curve is very nearly the mean between the St. Petersburg- 
and Kew declination curves between 10.30 and 11.30 p.m., but agrees abso- 
lutely with the Kew curve for the part of the disturbance after midnight. 
This disturbance was only slightly felt at Lisbon or at Coimbra. 
According to the Stonyhursb record, the horizontal force magnet was 
rather disturbed during the.'^e declination disturbances. 

On the next day (March 29), at 8.20 p.m., an e:isterly excursion begins, 
which is identical at all stations until 8.45 p.m. ; but at this point the 
St. Petersburg needle turns sharply back to the Avest, while the Kew and 
Stonyhurst needles continue moving to the east, giving the greatest eastern 
deflection for the month (15' 49")- This point is reached at 8.55 p.m., 
whilst the corresponding western deflection at St. Petersburg is reached 
about 9.5 p.m. The St" Petersburg curve then falls again, reaching its 
lowest point at 9.30 p.m., after which the curves show a westward motion 
of the needles at all stations. 

In Plate VIII., fig. 2, the time lines are drawn obliquely, as in the 
curve for March 23-24. 

The Vienna curve is almost exactly the mean of the other two curves, 
and the Lisbon and Coioibra curves very closely resemble the Vienna 
curve for this disturbance. 

About 10.40 and again at 11.15 p.m. the St. Petersburg needle is de- 
flected to the west, and the Kew needle toward the cast. The St. Peters- 
burg needle reaches its maximum at 11.30 p.m., then both needles move 
eastiwai-d until 12.10 a.m., after which the Kew needle begins to move 
westward. At 12.30 a.m. the St. Petersburg needle also begins to 
move westward, the curves very closely agree, and the disturbance is 
veiy nearly over. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE CAVES OF THE SOUTH OF IRELAND. 209 

On July 19, before seeing the Kew horizontal force curves, I wrote as 
follows : / am led to conjecture that at 8.45 p.m. on the 29th, and at 11.15 
p.m., there is an increase in the horizontal force. 

On comparing the Kew horizontal force curves I find that from 8.45 
to 9.5 p.m. the horizontal force is inci'easing rapidly, and that it decreases 
again from 9.5 to 9.30 p.m. At 10.40 the horizontal force again increases, 
and after a slight decrease about 11 o'clock, there is again an increase in 
the horizontal force, beginning at 11.15 p.m., and ending at 11.30 p.m., 
i.e., when the St. Petersburg declination needle reaches its greatest 
■westerly deviation. 

On comparing an exceedingly good photograph from Vienna for March 
26-27, with the photograph from Kew, which is also good, in a disturbance 
lasting from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., in which there were twelve distinct deflec- 
tions in each direction and a decided character given to the curve, but in 
which no excursion was as great as 2' from the mean position, I fovmd 
that the curves were absolutely coincident. 

The Stonyhurst positives agreed with Kew as far as one could judge, 
but the agreements between the Kew and Vienna curves here spoken of 
are such as are entirely beyond the power of testing by a positive. Almost 
the whole of the Vienna photograph of the disturbance lies within the 
breadth of the base line in the Stonyhurst positive. The oscillations are 
also found to take place absolutely at the same instant of time at Kew 
and at Vienna. Similar instances occur on March 31 between 12 and 
1 p.m. and between 6 and 7 p.m. 

The St. Petersburg tracings also show the same disturbances occurring 
at the same times, but the agreement of these Vienna and Kew 
curves is far greater than any that can be tested by means of tracings ; at 
the same time, there are numberless instances of comparison which might 
be given which .show that the St. Petersburg tracings are remarkably 
good. They are also taken on a very excellent tracing paper, and the 
hours are carefully marked on the curves, so that there is no difficulty in 
arriving at the time at which any given disturbance occurs. 

Tt would be easier to make accurate measurements of time if the base 
line were nearer to the curve than it is in the Vienna photographs, and if 
only one curve were photographed on each slip at all stations, as is the 
case in the Vienna photographs. For the comparison of magnetic dis- 
turbances it is important that the arrangement of lamps, lenses, &c., 
should be as exactly as possible the same at all stations, for the accuracy 
of the agreement of the results is such that any variation in this arrange- 
ment interferes with the degree of accuracy of the conclusions which may 
be drawn as to the character or the cause of magnetic disturbances. 



\ 



First Re.port of the Gonnyiittee, consisting of Professor A. Leith 
Adams, the Eev. Professor Haughton, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, 
and Dr. John Evans, appointed for the purpose of exploring the 
Caves of the South of Ireland. 

The following is a preliminary Report on the Bone Caverns, near Middle- 
ton, in the county of Cork, lately explored, in part, by R. J. Ussher 
and J. J. Smvth, Esqrs. The work has been restricted to a few days' 

1880. ' p 



210 BEPOET— 1880. 

diggings in the superficial deposits. These, however, are sufficiently 
encouraging, and will be renewed on the first favourable opportunity. 

A. Leith Adams, 
July 21, 1880. Secretary of the Committee. 

Report on the Caves and Kitchen-viidden at Carrigagower, Co. Cork. 

By R. J. UssHEE. 

These caves, whose original mouths are now probably destroyed or 
concealed by rubbish, open at present into a quarry in a limestone knoll 
on the townland of Cai-rigagower (' Rock of the Goat '), three or four miles 
south of Middleton. They are not broad nor lofty, but have extensive 
ramifications, especially that one which opens into the north-west part of 
the quarry. At its eastern end, and at a depth of 20 feet from the surface, 
the quarry is crossed by a cave now exposed by the removal of its western 
side. This cave runs in the line of a joint or fissure, and penetrates the 
rock north and south. The floor of this cave, where it remains (through 
the northern half of the exposed portion), is of stalagmite resting on pale 
sandy clay that overlies the limestone bottom. On this stalagmite floor, 
among the debris of broken stalactites, loose charcoal was found, and, on 
removing a layer of the solid stalagmite, from 1 inch to 2 inches in thick- 
ness, much charcoal was found embedded in it, with sandstone gravel and 
some shells of a small Helix, marking the horizon of an old floor that 
had been encrusted by the subsequent formation of stalagmite. The 
portion of the cave laid open appeared in its southern part to have had no 
stalagmite floor, but to have had an upward opening to the sky, through 
which an accumulation of brown surface-earth and kitchen waste had 
been introduced, extending downwards into the cave so as to have com- 
pletely filled this vertical opening. The accumulation was uniform in 
character, containing much charcoal, often in large lumps, and a great 
profusion of bones and teeth of ox, sheep or goat, and pig, with some 
remains of horse, dog, and cat, and a few of hare and rabbit. The bones 
were usually broken. Their colour was generally yellowish, but often 
blackened, though they exhibited no appearance of dendritis. In some 
instances they appeared to have been burned, and charcoal was very fre- 
quently found adhering to them and in their interstices. Numbers of 
sea-shells occurred through the accumulation. Seven species of these 
were noted, the most common being limpet and periwinkle. Many shells 
of the common garden-snail also occurred. With the above were found 
several articles of human use. Sharpeniug-stoues of different sizes, flat 
circular pebbles, hammer-stones, flint-flakes artificially chipped, a frag- 
ment of wheel-made pottery, two iron knives of an antique form, an iron 
chisel, and a large flat-headed iron nail, some slag and a piece of jet (?). 
A portion of a jet bracelet had previously been found in the same brown 
surface-earth close to this spot. J. J. Smyth, Esq., to whose kind assist- 
ance we are much indebted, found in a recess, close to the above spot, 
a portion of the upper stone of a quern embedded in earth. Near the 
centre of the quarry, a portion of a cave remains that has been partly 
quarried away. In this was discovered, with bones of deer and ox, part 
of another stone, very similar to the above portion of a quern, with a flat 
surface and a circular hole in it, though not in a direction exactly perpen- 
dicular to the surface. In the surface of an adjoining field a deeply 
indented arrowhead of flint was found some time since, and labourers 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE CAVES OF THE SOUTH OF IRELAND. 211 

employed on the spot say that triangular chipped flints have frequently 
been met with there. The surface-earth around the quarry contains 
many bones of ox, goat, and pig, showing that the spot had been the site 
of some human habitation for a considerable lapse of time. 

Further explorations in this cavern have been postponed, but will be 
resumed presently. 

Extract from a Report by Kobeet Dat, Esq., F.8.A., on the Implements 
found at Oarrigagower, Co. GorJc. 

The iron objects are peculiarly interesting, as examples of very early 
domestic articles— comprising a chisel and two knives. The larger of 
these has a portion of the Avooden haft still adhering to it, and the turn- 
up on the handle part, designed for securing it effectually, occurs on a 
larger knife in my collection which was found at Larne, Co. Antrim. 
These objects lack the peculiar blue or cobalt patina that is so frequently 
found on iron tools from Irish craunogs. The oblong stone with polished 
sides is a burnisher or whetstone, upon which probably the knives were 
once sharpened. The broken stone may either have been a hone stone or 
a chisel-shaped celt. If it was found in the same deposit as the iron 
objects, I should say it was another polisher, as it is not probable that a 
chisel of the advanced iron type would be found in conjunction with one 
of stone. Two of the natural pebbles are hammer-stones, and the third, 
with its ground and partly jjolished face, is one of a type commonly met 
with in the North of Ireland. In this the central depression is barely 
defined, but in others it is much more fully developed, so that I have long 
come to the conclusion that, while serving some purpose (perhaps for 
grinding the broken points of arrowheads), they were made to pay a 
double debt, and served as amulets ! I noticed upon the broken bit of 
pottery what looks very like a worn-out inscription in Roman capital 
letters. This is best seen with a pocket lens. The bit of jet (?) may be 
jet or coal ; I am not competent to give an opinion. The fragments of 
flint are all artificial. Among them is the base (showing the bulb of per- 
cussion) of a worked flake. These flint-flakes were used down into the 
iron age, and we have here another proof of the fact. The bone scoop 
sent by Mr. Smyth is, from the character of the texture or structure of 
the bone, altered by exposure and time, as it is unquestionably older than 
the apple-scoops which schoolboys made in the present century, 
and which it closely resembles. I have another like it, from 
the Lough Revel Crannog, Co. Antrim, with cobalt patina. 
This from Rathcoursey (Carrigagower) is ornamented, and the 
flint arrowhead found there is small, beautifully chipped, and of 
the scarce and deeply indented type. 

The iron nail is very curious, with a head like a horse nail. 




P2 



212 UEPoirr~1880. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of ]\Ir. Sclater, Dr. Gr. 
Hartlaub, Sir Joseph Hooker, Captain F. M. Hunter, and 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. GtOdwin-Austen, appointed to take steps for the 
Invest! jation of the Natural History of Socotra. 

Colonel Godwin- Austen having been unable to carry out his intention of 
going to Soootra, the Committee were fortmiate enough to obtain the 
services of Dr. I. B. Balfour, Professor of Botany in the University of 
Glasgow, for this purpose. Prof. Balfour left this country on January 9, 
for Aden, and returned home on April 21. As his report of proceeding?, 
&c. (appended), will show, he has, considering the short time (only six 
weeks) that could be devoted to the investigation of the island, and the 
inevitable delays and difficulties always attending the first exploration of 
an unknown country, not only achieved a remarkable amount of success, 
but has proved how much more rich the island is than was anticipated, 
and how much is left for future explorers. 

The total expenditure of Prof. Balfour on his expedition amounted to 
about 420Z. The Committee having received 100/. from this Association, 
and 300?. from the Government Grant Fund of the Royal Society, there 
remains a debt of about 20Z. due to Prof. Balfour. 

The Committee request that a grant of 50Z. may be made to them to 
enable them to discharge this debt. The balance they propose to devote 
in aid of the publication of the results obtained by the expedition. 

The Committee consider that the best thanks of the Association are 
due to Prof. Balfour for having undertaken this expedition, and for the 
zeal and industry with which he has carried it through. 

The Committee consider that the best thanks of the Association are 
also due to Brigadier- General Loch, C.B., Resident at Aden, Major Good- 
fellow, Assistant Political Agent, and Captain Heron, of H.M.S. Seagull, 
for the great assistance they have rendered to Prof. Balfour on this occa- 
Bion. The success of the expedition is, as Prof. Balfour informs us, 
mainly due to the cordial co-operation of these gentlemen. 

Referring to the report of Prof. Balfour, the Committee feel no doubt 
that in every branch of science considerable results are yet to be obtained 
by further investigations in Socotra, and are of opinion that a second 
expedition should be sent out as soon as the necessary facilities can be 
obtained. 

Report to the Socotra Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science of the proceedings of the Expedition to the Island of 
Socotra. By Batley Balfour, Sc.D., M.B., Regius Professor of Botany, 
University of Olasgoio, in charge of the Expedition. 

Having undertaken at the request of the Committee the work of an 
expedition to the Island of Socotra, for the purpose of investigating its 
Natural History, I left England on January 9, and joining the French 
mail steamer Ava at Marseilles, reached Aden on the 24th of that month. 
I was accompanied by Alexander Scott, a gardener from the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

On arrival at Aden, 1 met my friend Dr. Hay, the Port Surgeon, to 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OJ? THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SOCOTRA. 213 

whose kindness I am much indebted, and with his aid I was enabled to 
make a fair collection of the plants of Aden. Captain F. M. Hunter, 
Junior Assistant Political Resident, a member of your Committee, was not 
at Aden at this time, having gone to the interior a few days previously, 
and as he had no prospect of returning to Aden before the expedition left 
for Socotra, he had left for me a letter of instruction, giving valuable 
information and bintg, the outcome of his personal experiences on the 
island. In his absence Major Goodfellow, Senior Assistant Political 
Resident, gave me evexy assistance, and the attainment of the object of 
the expedition is in great pai't due to him. 

The official letters of recommendation to the authorities at Aden from 
the Home Government, for which the Committee applied, had not reached 
Aden at the date of our arrival, but having a private letter of introduc- 
tion from General Strachey to Brigadier- General Locb, C.B., Political 
Resident, I presented it. General Loch very cordially sympathised with 
the object of the expedition, and promoted most materially the carrying 
out of the work of the expedition. In defaiilt of instructions from the 
Home Government he telegraphed to the Bombay Council asking for 
authority to aid the expedition, and received a very gratifying affirmative 
reply. He then at once placed the despatch boat Dagmar, of the Bombay 
Marine, at our disposal to convey us to Socotra, and we were enabled 
to obtain from the arsenal, tents and camp implements. He also very 
kindly granted leave to Lieutenant Cockburn, 6th Royal Regiment, that 
he might go with us to Socotra. Lieutenant Cockburn then joined the 
expedition, and apart from the advantage and pleasui'e I derived from 
having him as a companion, the excellent sketches ' he made will enable 
the Committee to judge of how great an acquisition he was to the staff 
of the expedition and of the valuable services he rendered. 

The P. & O. mail steamer arriving on January 26, brought the 
promised official letters, one from the India Office to the Resident, and 
another from the Admiralty to the Senior Naval Officer at Aden. As 
a result of the latter letter. Captain Heron, of H.M.S. Seagull, called 
upon me on the 27th and offered to take the expedition to Socotra 
in his ship. It was subsequently arranged, therefore, that we should go 
in the Seagull instead of the Dagmar, and the date of sailing was fixed 
for February 2. 

The intervening days were occupied in obtaining stores and servants ; 
the latter not easy to procure, especially a good interpreter, on account 
of the very high rate of pay demanded. 

All our gear was shipped on the Seagull by noon on February 2, and 
our party — composed of Europeans, — Lieutenant Cockburn, Alexander 
Scott, and myself; and natives, — interpreter, cook, tent Lascar, general 
servant, and two coolies— went on board later. Captain Heron purposed 
to sail that day, but the monsoon blowing strongly up the harbour 
a start was delayed until next morning. On the morning of the 3rd, 
though the wind had not much lulled, anchor was weighed and the 
Seagull steamed out of Aden harbour in the teeth of a stiff breeze. By 
the afternoon we had made so little way against the wind and current, 
and were pitching and rolling so gi-eatly, that Captain Heron determined 
to put back and make for Aden again. The expedition at the outset thus 
encountered annoying delay, for we remained in Aden Harbour until the 
morning of February 6, when again the Seagull left for Socotra. Heavy 
' Some of the sketches were exhibited at the meetinsr. 



214 REPOET— 1880. 

weather kept us back, on this our s.econd attempt, and it was not until 
the morning of the 11th that we sighted Socotra. 

I desired to land at Hadibu, the chief village of the island, where the 
Sultan has his Court ; but as much coal had been expended on the voyage, 
and the anchorage at Hadibu being reported unsafe. Captain Heron 
deemed it advisable to anchor in Gollonsir Bay, a bay considered the 
safest round the island, and at its north-west end. 

From the village sheikh we learned that the Sultan was living at his 
hill residence, some miles from Hadibu. We therefore sent by messengers 
the letter of recommendation furnished to us by the Aden Government. 
But it was not until February 16 that an answer an'ived at Gollonsir — 
an answer of a very satisfactory kind, allowing us to go where we pleased, 
and charging the village sheikh and the people of the neighbourhood to 
aid us if possible. Whilst waiting for news from the Sultan, our tents, 
stores, and baggage were landed from the Seagull, and our first camp was 
formed on the slope of a hill N.E. of the Gollonsir village, and we entered 
on our work. 

The Seagull left on February 16, 

Making in the first instance Gollonsir our head-quarters, we explored 
the adjacent country to the S. and S.W., until the 25th inst., when we 
struck tents, and sending our heavy baggage and stores by sea, started to 
march to Hadibu. We took four days to accomplish it, reaching Hadibu 
late on the night of the 28th inst. 

Having communicated to the Sultan the fact of our arrival, he came to 
Hadibu on March 1, when we had an interview. 

Establishing our depot now on the Hadibu plain, about a mile from the 
town, we spent the time until the 7th inst. investigating the magnificent 
Haggler range of hills shutting in on the south the Hadibu plain. 

On March 8, leaving a tent Lascar in charge of the depot at Hadibu, 
we started upon a trip to the eastern end of the island, going eastward 
along the northern side and returning westward l)y the southern side of 
the island. During this trip we reached Has Mome, the extreme eastern 
headland. Camp at Hadibu was again entered on March 18. 

As yet we had not seen much of the southern parts of the island, so 
on March 22 we left Hadibu on our last excursion. Crossing the Haggler 
range we emerged upon the southern shore at Nogad, traversed the coast 
line for some distance, and then recrossed the island, so as to come 
down upon Kadhab village on the north side. We regained Hadibu on 
the 27th. 

March 28. The Dagmar arrived this morning, having been sent 
specially for us by the Resident. We were not sorry to see her, as our 
camp was now very sickly — Scott was down with fever, one coolie had had 
sunstroke, and the other servants were all suffering badly from fever. 
So much so that for some time previously hardly one of them could work, 
and we had been compelled to hire some of the Sultan's men. 

Having shipped our collections and gone on board the Dagmar, she left 
Socotra on March 30, and after a smooth but tediously slow passage 
reached Aden on Ajiril 3. 

Here on our return we experienced as much kindness as before. 
General and Mrs. Loch extended to me their hospitality at the Residency. 
Our collections were overhauled and finally packed for transmission to 
Britain by the P. & 0. steamer Deccan, which reached Aden early on 
Api'il 10. By this steamer I also took passage, and travelling to Brindisi, 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SOCOTRA. 215 

arrived in London on the 21st. Alexander Scott weftt by the Beccan to 
Southampton, which brought him to England with the collections earjy 
in Maj. Lieutenant Cockbiirn rejoined his regiment at Aden. 

Collections of specimens in all branches of Natural History were made. 
As may be supposed I devoted particular attention to the Botany of the 
island, and there are dried specimen.s of between 500 and 600 species of 
floweiing plants in the collection, besides some Cryptogams. A certain 
number of specimens were brought to England alive, amongst them being 
such interesting plants as the Dragon's-blood tree and the true Aloe. A 
misfortune deprived me of a number of living plants, and on this wise ■,±r 
Having selected the majority of the more delicate living plants I purposed 
to bring them with me to London, as thereby they would arrive a fort- 
night earlier than by going by Southampton. At Brindisi, however, the 
Custom House officer seized the plants and insisted on their being taken 
back to the ship, not allowing me even to book them by another steamer 
which would have taken them more directly to England. Consequently 
the plants had to travel up to Venice and thence back to Suez before they 
could be forwarded to Britain. And all this because the Italian Govern- 
ment dreads the introduction of the Phylloxera into Italy, forgetful 
apparently of the fact that it is already abundant in the country, and 
also that it lives only on vines. , , ,! , .,; 

Specimens of the gums produced on the island and used in commerce 
have been brought home. In the zoological collections there are a fe;r 
snakes and lizards, some birds, fi-eshwater fish, Mollusca, Crustacea, and 
Insecta of various kinds. 

Some of the land Mollusca have, come to this country alive. Two 
living civet cats I was bringing for the Zoological Gardens died on the 
way home. 

Illustrative of the geology of the island are about 500 specimens of 
rocks and minerals from various localities on the island. Igneous, meta- 
morphic, and sedimentaiy rocks are all represented. 

I regret that I was unable for some time after my return to turn my 
attention to the distribution of the collections for examination. I have 
recently, however, done so, and the following gentlemen have kindly con- 
sented to examine certain groups : — 

Birds .... Mr. Sclater and Dr. Hartlaub. 

Land shells ~~ " r -^'-^^:^^""- Col. God win- Austen. 
Zoological. ^ Crustacea . • • Prof Huxley. 

J Remaining Zoological col- "1 Dr. Giinther and Zoological staff 

V lections . . , / of British ]\Iuseum. 

r Igneous and nietaraorphic 1 -p,.^^^^^^^ Bonney. 
Geological. < rocks . . . J 

(^ Sedimentary . . . # * * 

r Algse .... Dr. Dickie. 

I Fungi Dr. M. C. Cooke. 

Botanical. < Mosses and allies . . * * » 

Flowering and vascular . 1 j^^ -g , , Balfour. 

VCryptogamic plants . J 

The agreement made with the Committee as to the final disposition of 
the specimens will be carried out, viz., the first set of specimens, zoolo- 
gical, to go to the British Museum ; the first set of specimens, botanical, 
to go to'^the collection at Kew ; a set of botanical to go to the British 



rl 
] 



216 REPORT— 1880. 

Museum. The remainder will be distributed variously. The publication 
of results is a matter for consideration by the Committee. 

In the foregoing report I have confined myself to a narrative of the 
proceedings of the expedition. It is as yet too early to speak definitely 
of what the total results will be. But I think I may safely say, from what 
I have learnt regarding the birds from Mr. Sclater, and regarding the 
land shells from Col. Godwin- Austen, as well as from what I know 
of the plant collections, that the results promise to be of exceptional in- 
terest. What has been done by the expedition is but a fragment of what 
there is to be accomplished. In exploring the island, I deemed it better, 
considering the short time of our sojourn, rather to attempt to cover as 
much ground as possible, with the view of obtaining a representative 
collection, than to examine in detail a limited tract of country. By doing 
this, much barren land was travelled over, and many rich and fertile 
spots were necessarily only superficially looked at. Especially amongst 
the hills of the Haggier range are there valleys which would well 
repay a careful and extended investigation. The expedition just com- 
pleted ought to be considered only preliminary, for I am assured a rich 
harvest awaits any collector who may visit the island. 

If at any future time an expedition should be sent to the island, it 
would be well if the date of its arrival were timed so that it should have 
the last months and the first months of a year upon the island. Our ex- 
pedition reached the island too late in the year, so that before we left 
the heat was so intense as to prevent our doing so much work 
as we desired. Again, the inaccuracy of our knowledge of the geography 
of the island is a point to which the attention of future expeditions 
should be directed. The chart based on Wellsted's observations is the 
only available one, and that is so incomplete and incorrect as to be almost 
useless to anyone moving about the island. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my hearty thanks, and those of the 
other members of the expedition, to the Committee for their aid. Also to 
General Loch, C.B. ; Major Goodfellow; Dr. Hay; Capt. Heron, R.N., 
and ofiScers of H.M.S. Seagull, and to the officers of the despatch- 
boat Dagmar, for the very kind way they one and all co-operated to 
make the expedition successful. 



Report of the Goinniittee consisting of the Eight Hon. A. J. ]MtJN- 
DELLA, M.P., James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., Stephen Bourne, 
Esq., Chas. Doncaster, Esq., the Rev. A. Bourne, Taiso Masaki, 
Esq., Constantine Molloy, Esq., R. J. Pye-Smith, Esq., Dr. 
Hancock, and Robert Wilkinson, Esq. (Secretary), appointed 
to consider and report on the German and other systems of 
teaching the Deaf to speak. 

The Committee was appointed to consider this subject in consequence 
of the reading of a paper at Sheffield by Dr. David Buxton. 

The General Committee, by this appointment, confirmed the resolu- 
tion of the Sectional Committee, and of Dr. Buxton's audience — ' That 
a Training College for Teachers of the German system of teaching the 
deaf — by speech and lip reading — is a matter of national importance,' and 



ON THE GERMAN SYSTEM OF TEACHING THE DEAF TO SPEAK. 217 

it was referred to this Committee to consider tlie best means of promoting 
the adoption of this system throughout the country. 

In pursuance of this reference, they have made themselves acquainted 
with the most recent pubhcations upon the subject, consultation has been 
held with, and valuable information received from, persons of eminence 
and known experience in this department of education, and lengthened 
visits have been paid to each of the schools, in and near London, where 
deaf children are taught upon this system. 

In the paper read at Sheffield, it was pointed out that other countries 
performed their work of this kind better than it had hitherto been done 
in this country : — 

1. Because they employ the ' German ' system in preference to the 

' French ' or ' Combined ' method, their pupils being taught by 
' Speech,' and not by ' Signs.' 

2. Because they employ a superior class and a larger number of 

Teachers, who, where it is possible, are specially trained for the 
work, not promiscuously engaged in it, as with us. 
To which may, we think, be added further: — 

3. Because this department of Education is undertaken and super- 

vised by the State in other countries ; not left, as here, to the 
direction of bodies of men whose chief qualifications for the 
office are their annual subscription and their kind-hearted- 
ness. 
More, probably, than any other person engaged in education, the 
teacher of the deaf needs the encouragement which springs from an 
intelligent sympathy. The entire field of education is a vast one. The 
instruction of children who are deaf is bnt a very limited portion of that 
field, into which very few persons thoroughly enter. To those who labour 
in it, and those who are brought into connection therewith by family ties, 
the close study of this subject has been almost exclusively confined. We 
may add, also, in passing, that the repelling character of the sign system 
is greatly to blame for this. And it has come to pass that those who 
have supported the schools and asylums for the ' Deaf aud Dumb ' have 
done so, not from any special knowledge or sympathy, but on the general 
grounds of philanthropy, charity, or religion ; and those who have ad- 
ministered their affairs have done so in utter ignorance of the peculiar 
condition and necessities of the class over whom they were the, generally, 
self-constituted guardians. The first feeling of surprise that the born-deaf 
could be taught at all has sufficed to keep these kindly unintelligent 
observers satisfied that something was being done. How inadequate that 
' something ' really was — how far below both the necessities and the 
possibilities of the case, they knew not, nor cared to know. In recent 
years, however, a change has taken place. The attention attracted to the 
subject, by papers which have been read, and discussions which have 
followed, in our own and kindred societies, the reported observations of 
travellers abroad, and articles in the daily and periodical press, have all 
gained for it a large amount of interest among men of science, medical 
men, the clergy, and the educated classes generally ; and probably the 
very first wish of all persons who have to deal with the future of any deaf 
child has now come to be the wish to have it educated on the ' German ' 
system. This advantage has, however, been all but unattainable, since 
nearly all the public asylums and schools in the country ai-e conducted 
on the ' French ' system. To discover and point out the advantages of a 



218 REPORT— 1880. 

better method, and to make those advantages easier of attainment, are, 
we believe, the objects we were appointed to promote, and to this purpose 
thus understood we have assiduously applied ourselves in our present 
enquiry. 

That a large proportion of the deaf children of this country ai'e grow- 
ing up without education, we think is undeniable. The blessing of educa- 
tion to the individual, and the burden to the community of an uneducated 
deaf and dumb population, impart to this questioii an importance which 
cannot be gainsaid. Whenever it is the foolish — and in this case culpable 
— reluctance to part with the child which keeps it at home in lifelong- 
ignorance, we think compulsion is necessary. Thus far as to children 
not at school : our verdict is that they ought to be sent there, and that it 
is the nation's duty to send them. Of those who are at school the nation 
should further see that the best is made of the opportunity (1) by those 
who go to learn, and (2) by those who claim to teach. 

1. To those who learn, sufficient time should be given. They should 

not be kept waiting for admission on the chances of election by 
the votes of the subscribers; nor should they be prematurely 
taken from school through failure of funds for paying the fees, 
or the eagerness of parents to get them employed. 

2. Those who teach should be furnished with the best advantages in 

the way of training, remuneration, and status ; and they should 
instruct the pupils committed to their charge by the best 
methods which are attainable. 
That the ' German ' system — speech and lip-reading — is the best 
method of instruction for the deaf, we entertain no doubt whatever. No 
other system can be placed in comparison with it. That it should not be 
applicable in this country to English children, when it is found in success- 
ful use in Germany, Holland, Italy, and other countries, is a plea which 
cannot be seriously entertained. What is not good enough for those 
conntries cannot be admitted to be good enough for us. This was forcibly 
put before the Section at Sheffield last year, and we heartily endorse it. 
To the Training College for teachers, now established at Ealing, we look 
for results of the greatest importance. A course of systematic and pro- 
fessional training, and a system of granting certificates after examination, 
form an entirely new departure in the education of the deaf. Nowhere 
was such a change more needed. Improvements in every other depart- 
ment of educational woi-k left this sole exception only the more observ- 
able. 

If the new movement is well supported and fully developed, the great 
hindrance to future progress will be removed. That hindrance we find 
was this — The persons engaged as teachers had no qualifications for Iheir 
work, and they were first required to learn the sign-language of the pupils 
— to descend to the pupil's level. The newer system is, to instruct the 
pupil in the language of the teacher, and so to raise him to the teacher's 
level. A generation of practice on this principle will work a change not 
easy to realise. It will assimilate the deaf, as far as possible, to the 
intellectual and social condition of those who hear, and will bi'eak down 
those restraints which confine them amongst themselves, and make them 
more and more ' deaf and dumb,' thus confirming and strengthening that 
introversion of character which is natural, and which wiser methods and 
wider influences would unfold and develop, to their far greater happiness. 
In order to promote the valuable objects we have described we re- 
commend — 



ON THE APPOINTMENT OF INSPECTOBS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 219 

1. That Parliamentary Grants be made for the Education of the Deaf 

on the ' German ' system. 

2. That the Grants be made to meet all the educational needs of any 

given district or locality, and that a sum in proportion to the 
number of deaf pupils therein be appropriated for their benefit. 

3. Aid to Training Colleges, or Grants to approved Students desiring 

to be trained. 



Report of the Coonmittee, consisting of Mr. James Heywood, Mr. 
Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Wilkinson, the Eev. W. 
Delany, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone (^Secretary), appointed for 
the pjiirpose of reporting whether it is important that H.M. 
Inspectors of Elementary Schools shoidd be appointed with 
reference to their ability for examining in the scientific spjecific 
subjects of the Code in addition to other matters. 

The Committee nominated at Sheffield for the purpose of considering 
' whether it is important that H.M. Inspectors of Elementary Schools 
should be appointed with reference to their ability for examining in the 
scientific specific subjects of the Code in addition to other matters,' have 
received a considerable amount of evidence upon the subject, and beg to 
I'eport as follows : — 

1. It has come to their knowledge that the teaching of the scientific 
specific subjects is practically discouraged by the incapacity of many of 
H.M. Inspectors to examine in them. 

2. This incapacity is explained by the fact that the Inspectors are not 
generally chosen so much for their fitness to judge of such educational 
work, as on account of their high, scholarship, or through political 
patronage. 

3. In the opinion of this Committee there might be an examining body 
for H.M. Inspectors, composed of three of the most experienced of the 
present senior Inspectors, associated with a similar number of the Science 
Examiners of the Science and Art Department. The examination should 
be thrown open to Elementary Teachers, and the candidates might be 
tested in the practical work of examination in one of the Central Elemen- 
tary Schools in London. 

4. The Committee believe that the opening of the Inspectorship to 
fully qualified Elementary Teachers would tend to raise the esprit de corps 
of the profession, and improve the character of both Inspector and 
Teacher. 

5. The Committee are further of opinion that while a university 
degree may be fitly regarded as a test of scholarship, it is not a test of 
the particular qualifications for an examiner, and therefore is not suffi- 
cient in itself to guarantee the holder thereof as worthy the position of 
Inspector. There appears to be no I'eason why academical honours should 
be made an indispensable condition of appointment. 

6. The Committee recommend that a Memorial be presented to the 
Lords of the Committee of Privy Council on Education embodying the 
above conclusions. 



220 SEPORT— 1880. 



On the Anthracite Goal and Goal-field of South Walef>. 
By C. H. Perkins. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in. c.rtensa 

among the Reports.] 

The anthracite or 'stone coal' deposit of the British Islands is confined, 
with shght exception, to a small portion of the South Wales coal-field. 
But, limited as it is, it possesses features of an unusually interesting and 
attractive nature, both in respect to its geological character and the pe- 
culiar quality of the coal itself. In considering this subject it will be 
desirable to bear in mind some of the leading features of the coal-field 
alluded to, of which, as stated, the anthracite deposit forms a part. 

The South Wales coal-field has its eastern boundaiy near the centre 
of Monmouthshire, and extends from at or near Pontypool in that county, 
in a westerly direction, until lost in the waves of the Atlantic Ocean, or, 
more correctly speaking, the Irish Channel, in St. Bride's Bay in Pem- 
brokeshire. It thus traverses a distance of over 90 miles. To this consider- 
able length its breadth forms a proportion by no means commensurate, as 
it nowhere exceeds 21 miles. We are now standing within two or three 
miles of the southern outcrop of the coal basin, and a crow's flight north- 
wards of 15 or 16 miles will bring us to the north outcrop in Carmai'- 
thenshire. The sides and bottom of this great geological valley are 
composed of mountain limestone, within whicli are piled up the various 
carboniferous strata to a maximum depth in the centre of over 3000 
yards. 

This valley or basin is marked by two distinct troughs. The south, 
the smaller one of the two, extends from the Sirhowy valley on the east 
to the neighbourhood of Aberavon on the west ; while the larger or north 
trough reaches from Llanelly through Morriston, Neath, and Blackwood, 
to Pontypool on the east. The south trougli passes out of the coal mea- 
sures near Swansea, leaving to the west but one basin, a continuation, in 
fact, of the north trough, with which, in respect to anthracite, we have 
alone to do. From the centre of this basin, where the measures lie flat 
or nearly so, the rise may be regarded for our present purpose as north 
and south, though in reality nature has not followed minutely these car- 
dinal points. ' Level course ' would thus run in the main east and west, 
and, as a rule, the faults cut it in a transverse direction. These faults 
are frequently of great magnitude, showing at times a displacement up 
to 200 to 300 yards. 

The quality of the South Wales coal ranges from the pure anthi'acite 
or ' stone coal ' to the semi-anthracite or Welsh steam coal, and onwards 
to the highly bituminous or smith's and gas coal. There is also a con- 
siderable quantity of coal commonly known as ' bastard anthracite,' the 
quality of which is extremely inferior ; for while debarred of the purity 
and strength of anthracite, it does not possess the opening or swelling 
faculty of the steam coal, and decrepitates when burning to an unusual 
degree. Anthracite or ' stone coal,' with the exception of the Pembroke- 
shire portion of the coal-field, is found exclusively on the north rise. I 
use the term ' stone coal ' advisedly, for that of anthracite has, with more 
or less correctness, been applied to coals which, while bearing an affinity 
to it, are yet far removed from this, the diamond of the British coal-field, 



ON THE ANTHRACITB COAL AND COAL-FIELD OF SODTII WALES. 221 

SO beautiful in appearance, so pure and powerful in combustion, and so 
cleanly in its nature. The deposit may be said to commence on the east, 
at the higher points of the Neath valley. At Kidwelly, on the west, it 
is submerged under the waters of Carmarthen Bay, again to reappear at 
Saundersfoot in Pembrokeshire, and finally to be lost in St. Bride's Bay. 
Its limitation to the north rise renders the width of the deposit extremely 
narrow, the more so as stone coal jealously refuses to mingle with its less 
carboniferous kindred, and a barrier of intermediate quality intervenes as 
a rule between it and the bituminous seams of the south rise ; but to the 
north the mountain limestone and its associated strata alone check the 
operations of the stone coal worker. The gradual transition in their 
quality, which the same scenes present, renders a definition of the anthra- 
cite boundaries extremely diflicult. Speaking roughly, I estimate the 
length of the deposit, exclusive of Pembrokeshire, at DO miles, with an 
average breadth of 6 miles. Upon this supposition we should have an 
area of 180 square miles or 115,200 acres. In addition to this the por- 
tion beneath the sea in Carmarthen Bay is 15 miles in length by 6 in 
breadth ; and the Pembrokeshire coal-field extends for 20 miles, with an 
avei-age width of 5 miles. I have not considered it necessary within 
the limits of this paper to enter into any minute calculation regarding 
the quantity of workable coal now existing in the leading portion of the 
deposit. I allude to that lying eastwards of Carmarthen Bay ; but I 
believe we shall be within the mark in estimating an average thickness to 
exist of 35 feet of workable coal, affording a yield of some 35,000 tons to 
the acre. An allowance must, of course, be made for the workings that have 
already occurred; but they can have made but an insignificant inroad 
into the enormous mass of magnificent fuel which here lies for the benefit 
of mankind and the exercise of science and art, in the provision of the 
best means for its utilisation. The coal-field may be divided thus : — 

1st. The Pembrokeshire district. 

2nd. The Gwendraeth Valley district. 

3rd. From thence eastwards to the Vale of Neath in Glamor- 
ganshire. 
I have already stated the area of the first, which, according to the 
report made to the Royal Coal Commission, contains over two hundred 
and fifteen millions of tons of workable coal, all anthracite. The ground 
is here much disturbed, and the seams, as a rule, thin ; but the quality 
of the coal, more especially the ' Kilgetty ' and 'Timber' veins, is pro- 
bably the finest in the world. Mr. Thomas Foster Brown, in his interest- 
ing paper upon the South Wales coal-field, gives a list of seven workable 
seams, containing an aggregate thickness of 17 feet 9 inches, and lyino- 
within a depth of 980 feet. ° 

The Gwendraeth Valley, in Carmarthenshire, is rich in both coal and 
iron ore. At its upper end the quality is highly anthracitic, modified to 
some extent as we approach the sea at Barry Port or Pembrey. There 
are some twenty-two seams of coal, varying from one to nine feet in 
thickness, that crop out in this valley, with a collective thickness of over 
60 feet. I am quite unable, within the limits of this paper, to enter into 
any detail of the mineral features of this and the adjoining district, 
reaching, as before stated, to the Vale of Neath. I must confine myself 
to simply pointing out the abundance of its resources. The seams of 
coal are numerous, and range even up to 18 feet in thickness, all pro- 
ducing anthracite, but, as usual, varying to some extent in quality. The 



222 



REPORT — 1880. 



' Big Vein ' of the Aman Valley, known as the ' Stanlljd ' of the Gwen- 
draeth and Mynydd Maur districts, has the highest reputation for purity 
and strength. This seam must not be confounded with the ' Nine-foot ' 
vein, to which the appellation of ' Big Vein ' is sometimes applied, both 
in the Gwendraeth Valley and at Mynydd Maur. 

Another well-known seam is the ' Brass ' vein, known also as the 
' Peacock ' and the ' Diamond ' vein, which attains its best condition in 
the Swansea Valley, and is greatly esteemed for the various purposes to 
which anthracite is applied. Many of the other seams are also deserving 
of special notice ; but having given such a description of the coal-field as 
may lead us, to some extent, to realise its value in respect to its resources 
and productive power, it will be desirable to consider the difference, 
chemical and otherwise, that distinguishes pure anthracite from semi- 
anthracite and bituminous coals ; and here we are necessarily met with 
the same difficulty as in attempting to define the boundaries of the coal 
basin, and from the same cause, that of the gradual and almost imper- 
ceptible merging into each other of the coals referred to. Professor 
Dawkins says : ' The whole difference between anthracite coal and ordi- 
nary coal consists in this, that the bituminous portion of the anthracite 
has been removed in some way ; while in the case of ordinary coal, the 
hydrogen and oxygen of the bituminous part still remains.' But this 
definition still leaves us to determine where anthracite ends and bitu- 
minous begins ; and, in considering this portion of my subject, I have 
felt myself compelled to fall back upon the analysis I have before me of 
a few of the coals worked in the South Wales basin, which are recog- 
nised as examples of the various descriptions referred to. 



PURE ANTHRACITE. 
Pembrokeshire. 



' Lower Level Vein.' 


' Kilgetty Vein 


Carbon .... 94-18 


93-27 


Hydrogen .... 299 


2-72 


Oxygen .... -76 . 
Sulphur .... -59 
Nitrogen .... "SO 


2-47 
•15 
•18 


Ash -98 . 


1-21 


100-00 


100-00 


Carmarthenshire. — Aman V 


illei/. 


' Big Vein.' 




Moistvu-e 


0^107 


Carbon , .... 


92-558 . 
3-109 "*•» 
4-678 

•120 

•428 


Hydrogen ...... 

Oxygen and Nitrogen .... 

Sulphur 

Ash 




100-000 


Swansea Valley. 




' Brass Vein.' 




Carbon ....... 


91-11 


Hydrogen 

Oxygen and Nitrogen .... 

Sulphur 

Ash 


3-55 

3-24 

•59 

1-51 



100-00 



ON THE ANTHRACITE COAL AND COAL-FIELD OF SOUTH WALES. 228 

Passing from these several examples of pui'e anthracitte, I have selected 
a coal worked at Ynismedu, in the Swansea valley, and thought to be the 
same vein as the ' Four- foot ' of Aberdare, as a type of the ' bastard ' 
anthracite of the district, the analysis of which is as under: — • 

Carbon 89-18 

Hydrogen 404 

Oxygen and Nitrogen 3'44 

Sulphur 0-71 

Ash 2-63 

100-00 

As an example of the celebrated South Wales steam coal, I shall not 
be wrong in giving the analysis of ' Nixon's Merthyr ' as follows : — 

Carbon 90-27 

Oxygen 2-53 

Nitrogen -63 

Hydrogen 4-12 

Sulphur 1-20 

Ash 1-25 

100-00 

That of the ' No. 3 Rhondda ' vein I quote from ' Fairley's South 
Wales Coal-field,' as one of the best known and most valued bituminous 
seams of the district, the analysis of which is as under : — 

Carbon 72-73 

Oxygen and Nitrogen 22-60 

Sulphur 1-17 

Ash 3-50 

100-00 

From these details it will appear that in the chief constituent, carbon, 
the purest anthracite exceeds the ' bastard ' anthracite by 5 per cent., the 
best Welsh steam coal by 3-91, and the bituminous coal by 21-45 per cent. 
But, on the whole, and regarded simply in a practical light, I consider 
these returns singularly unsatisfactory ; I may almost add, deceptive. I 
allude particularly to the analysis of the ' bastard anthracite ' and that of 
the Welsh steam coal. In the examples I have given there is but a 
difference of 1-9 in. carbon, '8 of hydrogen, and "28 in oxygen and nitrogen. 
And yet practically, and for all marketable purposes, no greater diver- 
gence can exist. 

I must leave it to the chemist or others to explain this difficulty, 
one which also to some extent exists in respect to the Welsh and 
American anthracites. Judging from analysis, appearance, and general 
characteristics, these fuels are connected by the closest ties ; and ^-et, 
while our Welsh coal, with all its splendid attributes, is neglected and, 
excepting for a few purposes, shunned and despised, its great American 
brother enters into wide and general use. Much of this is due, no doubt, 
to habit, custom, and necessity ; and I also believe that the rendering of 
the coal for market in pieces of various and suitable size, as adopted in 
America, is a very great convenience, and would, if followed in this 
country, greatly increase the trade of the anthracite worker. We should, 
however, look deeper into the matter for a solution of the problem. Dr. 
Percy indeed saj^s with respect to anthracite coal, 'The property of 
decrepitating may cause the production of fine particles to such an extent 



224 REPOBT— 1880. 

as seriously to check the passage of air through a furnace in which 
anthracite is used for fuel, even when the air is impelled by a blast engine. 
It is a property belonging to Welsh anthracite, and to some varieties of it 
to an extraordinaiy degree, but not, I am informed, to the anthracite of 
the United States of America.' However this may be, we know that 
anthracite does not possess the opening or swelling qualities of the Welsh 
steam coal, nor the binding or caking properties of the bituniinons coal. 
And thus we have occasion for the introduction of appliances for securing 
perfect and more rapid combustion ; to which, in alluding to the history 
of anthracite, in respect of the various purposes to which it is applied, or 
sought to be applied, I shall venture to direct your attention. 

This history is replete with the recoi'ds of attempts made to extend 
the use of this fuel. Imbued with the knowledge of its inherent strength, 
its purity and admitted advantages, persons have come forward through 
a series of years — some actuated by personal interest, combined with a 
desire to promote the public good, others through the latter incentive 
alone, and have spent money, time, thought, and labour upon this object, 
but unfortunately with but little success. 

To this day, the use of anthracite in this country is practically 
confined to malting, hop-drying, and lime-burning, and consequently the 
resources of this fine coal-field remain practically iindeveloped. 

As early as the year 1-595 attention seems to have been drawn to the 
valuable qualities of anthracite coal. Writing in that year a history of 
Pembrokeshire, George Owen, Esq., of Henllys, says, after speaking of 
certain woods that had existed in times past, but were then destroyed : 
' But, for the most part, those that dwell neere the cole, or that may have 
it carried by water with ease, use most cole fii-es in their kitchings, and 
some in their halles, because it is a ready fiere, and very good and sweete 
to rost and boyle meate, and voyde of smoake where yet chymnies are.' 
It is, he adds, ' called stone cole for the hardness thereof,' ' and being once 
kindled giveth a greater heat than light, and delighteth to burn in darke 
places.' ' Is not noysome for the smoake nor nothing soe lothsome for the 
smell as the ring cole is, whose smoake annoyeth all things neare it, as 
fyne linen, men's handes that warm themselves by it ; but this stone cole 
yieldeth in a manner noe smoake after it is kindled, and is soe pure that 
fine camerick and laune is usually dried by it without any stayne or 
blemish, and is a most proved good dryer of malt — therein passing wood, 
feme, or strawe. This cole for the rare properties thereof was carried out 
of this country to the citie of London, to the late Lord Tresurer Burley, 
by a gentleman of experience, to shewe how farr the same excelled that 
of Neucastell wherewith the citie of London is servid, and I think if the 
passage were not soe tedious there would be greate use made of it.' Such 
is the tribute to the excellent quality of stone coal afforded by this inte- 
resting old geologist. Two hundred and fifty years later, Taylor, in his 
' Statistics of Coal,' writes of Welsh anthracite, after alluding to the 
slight use made of it : ' Yet, if we mistake not greatly, the day will arrive 
when this great metropolis (London) will seek from the mountains of 
Wales her supplies of a mineral fael far preferable to that which from 
custom she now considers so valuable, and which, from its imperfect 
combustion, among other cau.ses, now darkens the air with smoke, and 
pervades a vast and densely inhabited area with its sooty and noxious 
particles.' This prophecy is still unfulfilled — but in the presence of fogs 
hanging with increasing frequency like a funereal pall over the city — 



ON THE ANTHRACITE COAL AND COAL-FIELD OF SODTH WALES. 225 

raising the rates of mortality to an alarming extent, depressing the spirits 
and injuring the property of its inhabitants, it may well become a subject 
for earnest consideration whether some great alteration is not needed in 
our domestic heating arrangements, in cases where a population so vast 
and unprecedented is brought together. Our English prejudices fill us 
with the belief that comfort is alone to be found in an open grate and a 
blazing fire, around which we crowd in order to obtain some portion of 
the heat which finds its natural vent up the chimney ; but is not this 
really prejudice or the result of habit ? and would not the Canadian stoves, 
so much extolled by Mr. Hussey Vivian in his notes on his American 
tour, used with anthracite coal, afford a far more desirable and equable 
heat, and at the same time relieve the atmosphere from the masses of 
smoke now poured forth during the greater part of the year from every 
chimney in London, and render it as pure and clear as that which per- 
vades the great anthracite-consuming city of Philadelphia ? 

Canadian or other stoves are moreover not essential for the use of 
stone coal for domestic purposes. An ordinary grate, with brick sides 
and back, close bars and a fair draught, will afford as clear and cheerful a 
fire as can be desired. 

From its maritime position, Pembrokeshire was enabled to take the 
lead in the supplies of this fuel. An outlet for the workings in the 
remaining and far larger portion of the coal-field (excepting such as mules 
and ponies could afl'ord) was only provided through the formation of 
canals and railways. 

Their construction has been as follows : — The Swansea Canal, from 
Swansea to Abercrave, made in 1796, now supplemented by the Swansea 
Vale Railway, worked by the Midland Railway Company; the Neath 
Canal, made in or about the year 1800, up the Neath Valley, from Swan- 
sea and Britonferry, the use of which is now in a great degree superseded 
by the Great Western Railway, with which is connected the Neath and 
Brecon line passing through Crynant and Onllyn ; the Gwendraeth 
Valley Canal, now converted into a railway, formed in 1825 from the port 
of Pembrey to Pontyberem; and the Llanelly Railway, now owned by 
the Great Western Railway Company, from Llanelly to Cwmaman and 
Llandilo, constructed in 1840. These several arteries, with a line about 
to be made to Mynydd Maur, in Carmarthenshire, form a complete outlet 
for the entire basin, and a ready means of communication with the ports 
of Swansea, Neath, Llanelly, and Pembrey, and with all parts of the 
kingdom, and their formation marks the epochs when anthracite was 
enabled to enter the general markets. 

The first attempt in this country, so far as I am aware, to use stone 
coal for steam navigation, was on board a little boat called the Anlhrao'fe, 
running on the Thames about the year 1835, but I have no records by 
me of the course or results of that experiment. In 1847 some 600 tons 
was supplied to the steam-ship Washington, belonging to the American 
line running from Southampton to New York. In this case a fan was 
used, and, under the influence of the magnificent fires afforded by stone 
coal so treated, she proceeded on her voyage with the best prospects of 
success ; but within a few hours she was back at Southampton with her 
furnace bars utterly destroyed by the great heat. Recognising the neces- 
sity of employing artificial draught, and that under such circumstances 
some method was needed for the protection of the bars, Messrs. Kymer 
and Kirk, the proprietors of an anthi'acite colliery, took out a patent in 
1880. Q 



226 REPORT— 1880. 

1847 for a water grate to efiFect the object in view, but after a series of 
experiments it was not found practically to do so. 

In the years 1853-54 Messrs. McLarty and Co. employed anthracite 
in their steamers the Livorna and Geneva, trading between Liverpool and 
the Mediterranean ports, and apparently with great success. In this 
case no artificial draught was used, and they reported thus : ' The an- 
thi'acite has proved to be a twofold saving — in regard to economy of space, 
and to a very large saving in the consumption. In the former, the average 
saving of stowage is 20 per cent., and in the latter, the reduction in con- 
sumption is from 40 to 50 per cent., according to the quality of the coal. 

' Its great cleanliness and entire freedom from smoke we look upon as 
not the least of the benefits its use confers upon us.' 

The general business of this firm was not, I believe, profitable, and 
consequently this successful exposition of the use of anthracite ceased to 
exist. Prior to this period Dr. Frankland had reported to Mr. Watney 
the result of his experiments with the ' Pump Quart ' vein coal of the 
Gwendraeth Valley. He states ' that the coal possessed an evaporating 
power considerably greater than any other fuel yet examined, 1 lb. eva- 
porating, under favourable circumstances, in this boiler, 12'43 lbs. of 
water.' He adds that the space occupied by a ton of this anthracite, as 
used for fuel, is less than that taken up by any other coal, and he fur- 
nishes a table showing the number of lbs. of water evaporated by 1 cubic 
foot of various coals as under : — 

' Duffryn,' Welsh Steam Coal 565-02 

Graigola „ 581-20 

Nixon's Merthyr „ 514-93 

James and Aubrey's (Anthracite) 66502 

Sliverdagh „ 618-58 

Watney's „ 742-30 

Anthracite was also introduced and for some time used on board her 
Majesty's yachts Fairy and the Victoria and Albert. 

The ' Times' of July 7, 1853, under the head of naval intelligence, and 
referring to the sailing of the Victoria and Alhert, from Holyhead to 
Dublin, contains the following paragraph : ' Her Majesty and the Court, 
as well as the oflBcers of the yacht, will have a more comfortable voyage 
this ti-ip than hitherto, owing to the use of the anthracite fuel with 
Colonel Coffin's steam jets fitted to her furnaces, by which no smoke or 
ashes issue from the funnel, thus abolishing the nuisances of smuts in the 
eyes and on the clothes of all on deck, and covering the decks with the 
dust from the flues, which the ordinary coal throws upon them.' The 
Great Britain steamship, the Boyal Charter, the Faith and other vessels 
were also at this time using anthracite with much success ; but these 
vessels, I am informed by Mr. Vickerman, of Hean Castle, Pembrokeshire 
(alluding to the two first), ' passed into other hands, who were interested 
in steam coal colleries.' He adds, ' The royal yacht also used anthracite 
from these collieries in her Majesty's yachting days, and she was so 
charmed with the cleanliness that she forbade the use of any other fuel 
when herself aboai'd.' In no single case, however, has the use of this 
fuel continued, and the opinion long since entertained and expressed, 
that without artificial draught it will not be a permanent success, has 
been fully confirmed. Economy in consumption, saving in space, and 
other advantages are no doubt readily obtained, but not so rapidity in 
evaporation ; and, further, it has been demonstrated that the fierce fire 



ON THE ANTHRACITE COAL AND COAL-FIELD OF SOUTH WALES. 227 

and extraordinary heat evolved by stone coal under the influence of arti- 
ficial draught, requires some means for the protection of the bars. I also 
venture to think that, as described by Dr. Percy in the extract from his 
work which I have already given, the property of decrepitation may, as 
he says, so seriously check the passage of air through a furnace that the 
desirability of conveying the draught by means of the bars themselves, to 
all parts of the fire, is very apparent. 

With the view of meeting the several difficulties I have endeavoured 
to describe, Mr. R. W. Perkins (than whom no better authority upon 
matters connected with anthracite exists), in connection with Mr. F. H. 
Perkins and Mr. Joseph Williams, took out a patent in November 1876, 
entitled ' Improvements in and relating to furnaces for burning anthra- 
cite and other fuel,' the main features of which consisted in the employ- 
ment of hollow perforated bars, through which the blast is forced by a fan, 
steam-jet, or other artificial means. In this way combustion is enormously 
accelerated, and at the same time the bars are kejDt perfectly cool by the 
current of cold air passing through them. I have myself seen a piece of 
paper inserted within a bar when the fire was at its hottest, and remain- 
ing unsinged for a very considerable time. With this appliance Mr, 
Perkins instituted a series of trials at the foundry of Mr. T. W. Williams, 
of Swansea, and he has favoured me with the following results : — 

Duration of experiment, five hours, with ordinary furnace and chimney 
draught, which was good ; coal used, ' Birch Grove Graigola ' — 

Evaporated 706 lbs. water to lib. of coal, and 672 lbs. water per 
hour. 
Coal used, 'Powell's Duffryn' — 

Evaporated 7'S3 lbs. Avater to 1 lb. of coal, and 745 lbs. water per 
hour. 

The bars with this coal were much burnt. 

With Perkins's bars, but no blast ; coal used, anthracite — 

Evaporated 7-94 lbs. water to 1 lb. of coal, and 594 lbs. water per 
hour. 

Bars slightly heated, but not damaged. 

With a fan and Perkins's furnace ; coal used, anthracite, Hendre- 
forgan ' Big Vein ' — 

Evaporated 7'981bs. water to lib. of coal, and 960 lbs. water per 
hour. 
Deducting steam used for fan, the result was 7-92 and 952, the 
bars remaining perfectly uninjured. 

The above experiments were authenticated by Mr. J. F. Flanneiy, 
C.B., who was present on behalf of Mr. E. J. Eeed, M.P. 

A further series of experiments was made with Korting's steam-jet 
blower and Perkins's furnace, with the following results : — 

Blower used No. 1 ; diameter of steam nozzle |th of an inch, full 
open ; coal, Hendreforgan anthracite ; duration of experiment 2 hours 
15 minutes- — • 

Evaporated 814 lbs. water to 1 lb. of coal, and 912-22 lbs. water per 
hour. 
Same blower and coal ; duration of experiment 3 hours 50 minutes — 
Evaporated 8-62 lbs. water to 1 lb. of coal, and 819-13 Iba. water per 
hour. 

Q2 



228 REPORT— 1880. 

During a portion of tliis trial the intervals between coaling were too 
prolonged, which diminished the rapidity of evaporation. 

With No. 2 blower ; diameter of steam nozzle -Jth of an inch ; ^ to 
■^ open ; duration of trial, 3 honrs 16 minutes — 

Evaporated 804 lbs. water to 1 lb. of coal, and 925"25 lbs. water per 
hour. 

With same blower, |ths open ; duration of experiment, 4 hours — 
Evaporated 6"5G lbs. water to 1 lb. of coal, and 1203" 78 lbs. water per 
hour. 

With blower No. 2, full open; coal, anthracite 'big vein' (not the 
* 9-foot,' called ' big vein ' of the Gwendraeth Valley ; duration of trial 
2 hours- 
Evaporated 6'59 lbs. water to 1 lb. of coal, and 1200 lbs. water per 
hour. 

In the foregoing trials the pressure of steam was maintained at 40 
to 45 lbs. 

I may here mention that Perkins's furnace, with Korting's No. 1 
blower, has been in use for the past two years under the boilers at the 
stationary engine belonging to the Metropolitan District Railway, and 
situated on the Thames Embankment at the Temple Station, close to the 
statue of the late Mr. Brunei, where it can be seen ; and it has removed 
much inconvenience that they there experienced from great deficiency of 
draught, which I have no doubt Mr. Speck, the manager of the railway, 
will confirm. In February 1878 a patent was taken out by Mr. T. W. 
Williams, whose name I have already mentioned, the object of which is 
to apply a blower of a cheaper construction than Korting's, and to avoid 
the noise created by the latter. This he effects by the application of a 
steam-jet inserted into every alternate bar through a nozzle of about yV^^ 
of an inch diameter. The furnaces thus constructed have given much 
satisfaction, both in the use of anthracite as well as other coal, effecting 
much economy in the cost of fuel, and they are in use in a large number of 
the most important works in this neighbourhood and elsewhere. These 
patents have been followed by one taken out by Mr. J. E. Elannery, in 
September 1878, for effecting still further improvements, having the 
same objects in view. 

First. The conduction of the blast so that it may enter the bars where 
necessary from their length, or for its better application, or other- 
wise, at both ends. 
Second. When a steam-jet blower is used, in lieu of inserting a jet 
into each bar, as in Williams' patent, he forms a blower in connec- 
tion with each pair of bars. This lessens by half the number of 
nozzles, and is intended to make the blast more effectual, and at the 
same time to decrease the consumption of steam. 
Third. By a hole in the bar at the end furthest from the entry of the 
blast, he expels any ash or refuse that might enter through the 
perforations, by means of the blast itself. 
But for marine steam boilers there are objections to the use of steam 
blowers, the chief being the quantity of steam they require, and the waste 
of fresh water in the boilers, and consequently a fan or other blast is 
desirable. In reference to the application of anthracite to marine 
engines, a series of experiments was made last year on board the steam- 



ON THE ANTHRACITE COAL AND COAL-FIELD OF SOUTH TVALE.?. 229 

ship Elephant, belonging to Messrs. Penn & Son. Into the fall details 
time -will not permit me to enter— they are given in a paper read by Mr. 
Flannery before the Society of Naval Architects, and fully reported in 
' Engineering,' on April 16, 1880. I may say, however, that they fully 
confirm the trials made at Swansea. Mr.' Flannery concluded his paper 
in the following words : ' It would be superfluous to say that this coal, 
anthracite, should have very general adoption in Her Majesty's N"avy, and 
on board yachts, on account of its cleanliness, economy, non-explosive 
character, absolute smokelessness and strength under transportation, 
along with the absence of deterioration in the tropics.' 

For stationary engines, where there is ample gi-ate-surface, and great 
rapidity of evaporation is not needed, stone coal requires but a good natural 
draught and proper stoking. 

I need hardly say that it is used for the engines at all the anthracite 
collieries, and for thirty years by Messrs. Hall & Son, at their powder 
mills at Faversham. These gentlemen have been good enough to reply 
to inquiries I made of them in view of this paper, as follows : — 

' We took to anthracite primarily on account of the absence of smoke 
and sparks, and it always satisfies us in this respect. 

' Fo alteration in our furnaces was needed. Forty pounds of steam is 
our average, although some of our boilers work up to fifty pounds. 

' We use no artificial draught. The distance between the fire-bars is, 
in the larger furnaces one inch, and in the smaller fths ; and we do not 
notice that they burn out faster. If the nominal price of North Country 
and Welsh coal is the same, we should say the latter is 25 % the cheaper 
of the two.' 

Messrs. Pigou & Wilks have also used the same fuel at their Dartford 
powder mills, for the past five or six years, and I am favoured with 
information of a similar nature to the foregoing, in respect of their expe- 
rience of it. 

I had intended alluding to the use of anthracite in the manufacture of 
iron ; but I fear my paper has already exceeded the limits to which I am 
entitled, and the subject is too large and interesting to be dismissed in a 
few brief sentences. I can but hope that I have said enough generally 
with respect to this fuel, to show the great desirability of increased 
attention being paid to it. Quoting the words of Mv. Hiissey Vivian — 
' We possess the finest anthracite in the world, and it lies almost 
untouched.' 

Its advantages as a steam-raising fuel are undeniable, and not less so 
are those it presents for domestic and general purposes, where, as in 
London and other great cities, the absence of smoke would so greatly 
minister to the health and happiness of the inhabitants. I believe there 
is here a field worthy of the attention of scientific men, whose duty and 
privilege it is to render the products of the earth available for the benefit 
of mankind. 



230 REPOKT— 1880. 



Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. 
By C. Spexce Bate, F.R.S , c&c. 

Part V. — Ox Feccxdatiox, Eespiratiox, and the Green Gland. 

Copulation of the crayfish takes place, according to the observatious of 
M. Chantran,' during a period which includes the months of November, 
December, and Jannary. The male seizes the female with his large 
nippers, turns her over, and whilst he holds her lying on her back, places 
himself in such a manner as to pour out the fecundating material upon 
the two outer lamelliB of the tail. After this first operation, which lasts 
some minutes, he conveys her rapidly beneath his pleon, in order to effect 
a second deposition of semen upon the plastron round the external open- 
ing of the oviducts, by means of the curious mechanism so accurately 
described by M. Coste, upon the plates of the caudal fan (Bipisura).^ 

According to the degree of the maturity of the ova at the time of the 
union of the sexes, oviposition takes place at a period varying from ten 
to foi'ty-five days after copulation. At the moment when this function 
is about to be performed, the female raises herself upon her feet, and her 
pleopoda secrete for several hours a very viscous greyish mucus ; and 
then she lies upon her back and brings up her tail upon her plastron in 
such a manner as to form with her pleon a chamber, as has also been ob- 
served by Lereboullet, in which the ova are collected, enclosing the aper- 
ture of the oviducts, the wall of which secretes a viscous fluid intended to 
fasten the eggs to the pleopoda during incubation. When things are in 
this state, the laying of the eggs takes place. It is efiected at once, 
usually during the night, rarely during the day. ' In different females 
this expulsion lasts from one to two hours. The ova, which are always 
turned so as to present their whitish spot or cicatricula above, as if to 
receive more easily the influence of fecundation, are thus immersed in the 
greyish mucus, which in a manner binds the pleopoda and the margins 
and extremity of the telson to the pereion, and which assists in bounding 
the pouch or chamber so formed, in which a certain quantity of water is 
enclosed with the ova and mucus. Immediately after the oviposition we 
may detect in this mucus and water the presence of spermatozoids, pre- 
cisely similar to those which are contained in the spermatophores attached 
to the plastron, and derived from them. With them are mixed pale yellowish 
drops and a certaia number of rounded gi^anulated globules, isolated or 
united in little masses, which do not exist in the cavity of the spermato- 
phores, when spermatozoids are to be found. These spermatozoids are 
thus in direct contact with the ova, and in the midst of the vehicle which 
facilitates their penetration. Fecundation, then, is accomplished in this 
chamber — that is to say, outside of the genital organs of the female.' 

The observations of M. Chantran have been corroborated by M. C. 
Robin, who has ' seen that the spermatozoids, which are found in contact 
with the ova in the chamber I have just described, are similar to those 
seen in the genital organs of the males, and to those in the spermatophores 

' Comptes B^ndus, July 4, 1870, tome Ixxi. pp. 42-45. Ann. Nat. Hist. 4th ser, 
vol. 6, p. 265. 

^ 'Pixi'y, fan ; ovpd, tail (fantail). Telson and posterior pair of Pleopoda, 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 231 

attached to tlie pereion. They are in the form of flattened cells, with five 
to seven rigid immovable cilia starting from their contour, and with a 
barrel-shaped projection about their middle. During the first two days 
following the oviposition, these spermatozoids, which are very abundant 
around the ova and in the mucus, become spherical and pale and remain 
motionless ; in the following days they wither, and also become smaller, 
darker, and irregular. Lastly, when, after the fixation of the ova, the 
excess of the mucus has completely disappeared, in consequence of the 
pressure exerted by the incessant contractions of the pleon (which takes 
place in a variable period, of from eight to ten days after the oviposition), 
those spermatophores which still remain attached to the plastron, consist 
of small, white coriaceous filaments, either isolated or mutually adherent ; 
they no longer show anything but a central cavity, in which the micro- 
scope reveals only a few more or less withered spermatozoids. The wall 
of these spermatophores retains its thickness, and remains, as before, 
composed of a concrete, striated, tenacious mucus.' ' 

Incubation lasts about six months, and the hatching takes place in 
May, June, or July. 

The first moult takes place ten days or thereabouts after exclusion ; 
the second, third, fourth, and fifth moults take place at intervals of from 
twenty to twenty-five days, so that the young animal changes its integu- 
ment five times within a hundred days, corresponding to the months of 
July, August, and September. The sixth, seventh, and eighth moalts 
take place in the following May, .June, or July. So that there are eight 
moults during the first year of the animal's existence : five in the second 
year, and two in the third, of which the first takes place in June, the 
second in September. From this time the young crayfish becomes an 
adult. 

After this the moulting takes place once a year in females and twice in 
males, which M. Chantran considers explains why the latter are larger 
than the former, the growth being in proportion to the number of 
moults. In the adult males the first moi^lt takes place in June or July, 
and the second in August or September. The single moult of the females 
occurs in August or September. 

To effect its moult, the animal places itself on its side ; with its head 
and back it raises its carapace, which swings like a lid upon its hinge ; 
then when it has thus completely disengaged the antei-ior part of the body, 
it separates entirely from its old carapace by a sudden movement of the 
posterior part. This operation, which lasts about ten minutes, is favoured 
by the previous secretion of a gelatinous material between the two cara- 
paces, which facilitates their disengagement. 

Twelve hours after the moults the legs of the crayfish are sufficiently 
firm to pinch strongly. Twenty- four hours later they are completely 
hardened, the dorsal surface remaining longer flexible ; but at the end of 
forty-eight hours it has attained nearly a normal degree of consistency. 

The young animal remains attached to the pleopoda of the parent for 
ten days after exclusion, when the first moult takes place. This is effected 
actually under the tail of the mother, and M. C. Robin has ascertained 
by means of the microscope, as shown by M. Chantran to the Academy, 
that the young remain suspended beneath the pleon of the mother by 
means of a hyaline chitinous filament, which extends frona a point of the 

' Comptes Rendus, January 15, 1872, tome Ixxiv. pp. 201-2. Ann. Xut. Hist. 4tli 
ser. vol. 9, pp. 173-4. 



232 HEPOET— 1880. 

inner surface of the ovisac to the internal branch of each of the four lobes 
of the median membranous lamina of the caudal appendage. This fila- 
ment exists when the embryos have only attained about three-fourths of 
their development. 

If the young, continues M. Chantran, detach themselves before this 
period, they cannot live separately ; but after the first nioulb they some- 
times quit their mother and return to her again, up to the twentieth day, 
at which period they can live independently. He .'=ays {Gomptes Rendus 
for July 17, 1871) he has observed that the young not only feed, 
while attached to the mother, upon the pellicle of the eggs, and the 
exnvia of the early moults, but the stronger ones cat those individuals 
whose development is rendered difficult by their agglomeration, and 
whicli cannot moult. Those which in moulting break their limbs ai-e also 
devoured by their companions. Thus the crayfish which are ten days 
old eat each other, and this is moreover the case with those of any age 
when they moult and are too numerous for the small space they occupy 
beneath the pleon of the mother. 

M. Chantran also has observed that temperature exerts a marked in- 
fluence upon the duration of incubation and the number of the periodical 
moults between the exclusion of the young from the ovum and the adult 
period. The male becomes ready for copulation on entering its third 
year, and the female for fecundation at the commencement of the fourth 
year. In relation to the reproduction of the lost appendages M. Chan- 
tran's observations require confirmation, which he promised to make 
known. He says that the antennae are reproduced during the period of a 
single moult. The other limbs are reproduced more slowly, three moults 
taking place during their regeneration. In the first year of their existence 
seventy days suffice for the reproduction of these limbs, while in the adult 
crayfish, the female requires three or four years to reproduce its limbs, 
and the male from a year and a half to two years, for the adult male 
moults twice a year and the female only once. 

M. Gerbe, who has given much attention to the development of Crus- 
tacea, says, none of those that he has observed has its organisation complete 
on its quitting the ovum as a hrephalus (or larva), or j^ossesses features iden- 
tical with the parent, so that it might be referred to the species to whicli 
it belongs. All are furnished with transitory appendages adapted for 
natation, whicli give them a locomotion different from that of the adult 
stage. These appendages, he states, remain until the fifth and sixth 
moult, and become atrophied in position without falling off. It is not 
until the fifth or sixth moult that the general form of the adult external 
organs are complete. The brepJiali of various species, however they may 
resemble each other in external form, show minor features of distinction, 
such as a variation in the number and form of spots, and especially in 
the number and conformation of the plumose hairs and spines which 
fringe the extremity of the last segment of the pleon. These, he says, 
present definite characters which enable us to say to what species any 
particiilar brepbalus belongs. 

The stomach of the Crustacea in the zoasa stage presents, he says, no 
solid pieces adapted for the grinding of food. It is furnished on its inner 
surface with stiff siJinuIes arranged in rows, and with vibratile cilia like 
those found in the stomachs of a great number of the lower animals. 
These cilia communicate an incessant movement of rotation to the orgauic 
molecules upon which the animals feed. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 233 

111 the brephalus of Paltemon, whicli we have carefully studied in a 
fresh and living state, we liave not been able to detect any vibratile cilia 
within the stomach, but have observed that the outer wall has a strong 
and persistent power of contracting upon itself, and so forcing the con- 
tents of the stomach in a constant motion. 

M. Gerbe (loc. cit.) also states that the liver consists of two simple cteca, 
one on each side, ' manifestly a diverticulum of the intestinal tube, with 
which it has wide communications ; by ramifying it forms a hollow tree, 
at the base of which oscillate the vitelline globules, which the umbihcal 
vesicle pours into the pyloric portion of the intestine.' 

He also states that in whatever manner the respiratory functions may 
be performed in the adult crustacean, all have a tegumentary respira- 
tion in the brephalus condition, whether it be in the zoaja or megalop stage. 

He has observed the brephalus of Eomarus to possess a rudimentary 
branchial apparatus quite unfit to perform any functions, while the bre- 
phali of other genera are absolutely destitute of such organs, and some do 
not obtain them until after several moults. 

This want of branchial respiration necessitates a distinction m the 
character of the circulation in the younger, as compared with that of 
the adult forms of Crustacea, that is as between those that have none and 
those that have matured branchial organs. 

In the brephali of Maia, .Forcellana, Crangon, Palamon, Palinurus, 
Eomaru?, Cancer, &c., the blood which the arteries have distributed to the 
different parts of the body returns entirely, directly to the heart, and this 
condition continues for a considerable time. ' It is,' he says, ' only after 
the third moult, in the most perfect brephalus of the species inhabiting our 
seas, that of the lobster, that a few globules are diverted from the original 
general circulation to penetrate into the nascent branchiae. All the 
arteries open directly into the venous passages by an aperture more or 
less dilated into a trumpet-like form. 

' In somelarvee the abdominal artery may present a sort of sphincter m 
its course, at some distance from the central organ of circulation ; this, 
by contracting, temporarily suspends the flow of blood to the hinder 
parts.' This remarkable peculiarity exists not only in the larva of the 
lobster, but also in those of the Porcellance, and may be found most pro- 
bably in the many other genera, as M. Gerbe has observed the circulation 
iu the last somite of the pleon of the brephalus of Cancer, Carchms, and 
Palcemon to have interruptions. 

The same author states that, ' Although the transitory spines which 
arm the thorax ' (carapace) ' of some species do not receive any arterial 
branch, a complete circulation is established in their cavity. Some of the 
globules which the venous lacunae convey to the heart, make a digression 
into these transitory appendages, traverse nearly their whole length, and 
return by a parallel course into the lacuna from which tliey started. 

M. Felix Plateau, of Ghent, has, through the agency of a graphic 
method, succeeded in obtaining a delineation of the heart's action in the 
crayfish. A curve is obtained, of which the ascending portions correspond 
to diastole, and the descending to systole, contrary to w^iat obtains in the 
heart of vertebrate animals. 

It is, he says, strikingly like the trace of the contraction of a 
muscle — a rapid, almost sudden ascent, with a flat summit, then a 
gradual descent, at first quicker, then slower. This, however, does not 
represent the whole truth; it is possible also to demonstrate a wave 



234 ■ EEPORT— 1880. 

affecting the muscular wall of the heart, and travelling from behind 
forwards, thus demonstrating that this condensed heart is a true dorsal 
vessel. On the stimulus of the entrance of renovated blood, it is only the 
hinder half or two-thirds of the heart that contracts immediately. This 
forces the blood into the anterior half, which contracts while the posterior 
division is dilating. When the temperature is increased, as a general rule 
the diastolic phase is abbreviated, the number of pulsations rising at the 
same time. M. Plateau has also succeeded in making experiments on the 
action of the cardiac nerve of Lemoine, an unpaired branch of the stomato- 
gastric ganglion. It is shown that excitation of this nerve quickens the 
pulsations of the heart and augments their energy, while the division of 
it lessens the heart's action. Whereas excitation of the pereionic ganglia 
always retards the heart's movements, being the converse of a similar treat- 
ment of the cai'diac nerve. 

M. Plateau likewise says that acetic acid applied to the heart-substance 
arouses its contractions even after they have ceased, and maintains them 
for several hours. • 

M. Jobert, in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles,' 6th ser. vol. 4, has 
drawn attention to the character of respiration in the terrestrial Crustacea of 
the decapod order. He says that in an examination of the anatomy of these 
animals we iind that they are provided with branchia the same as other 
crabs both marine and fluviatile, and their habit of life in relation to 
these organs, which are essentially constructed for aquatic respiration, 
appears to be paradoxical, and has not escaped the attention of naturalists. 
In 1825 Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire suggested that the ridges which line the 
respiratory cavity of Birgus latro assisted the respiration — an hypothesis 
that in 1828 was combated by MM. Milne-Edwards and Andouin, who 
studied the respiratory cavity of the Gecarcinida;, and attributed to a fold 
in the membrane which lined the internal cavity, the power of storing up 
a supply of water, with which it regularly laved the branchial apparatus, 
this water not serving respiration directly, but by its slow evaporation 
saturating with moisture the air which is brought into contact with the 
branchia, and so precluding the dessication of these organs. 

M. Jobert has endeavoured to verify the correctness of these two 
opinions, and for this purpose has studied the habit of living specimens 
of Uca, Gelassimus, Cardisoma, Orapsus, Telphusa, and Tylocarcinns. 

He takes as typical, Uca ttjiar, in which the respiratory apparatus is the 
most complete, and points out the vai-ious modifications which he has 
noticed among the other Crustacea. 

The branchial chamber is lined with a soft blackish grey membrane 
in continuity with the vertical septum {cloison^. In a histological study of 
this membrane we find the elements of tihe hypodermic membrane of Crus- 
tacea, for instance, large pigmentary cellules, special hypodermic cellules, 
and some peculiar fibres, either solitary or nnited in bundles in the form of 
X, which exist all over the membrane. This membrane is lined or covered 
by another very thin membrane capable of being separated from it by the 
aid of maceration in a very weak solution of acetic acid, and it appears 
to be a thin surface of chitin. 

M. Jobert opened more than 200 specimens after having been confined 
for two, four, and six days in a perfectly dry place, and never found a drop 
of water, or ever found the surface of the branchia moist ; the cavity was 

> Nature, 1879, xix. 470. 



ON OUK PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 235 

always fall of air, whicli the animal had not the power to expel, and even 
after submersion of the animal in water for three days some Uca had still 
a considerable quantity of air in the upper part of the branchial vaults. 
By the researches of Milne-Edwards and Andouin, we know that the 
ai-terial blood traverses vessels which become smaller and smaller, but is 
not taken up by the capillary veins, that it passes into some lacuna; in com- 
munication with the general cavity, and a portion of the branchiae, and 
that after it has been revivified in these organs it is taken up by vessels 
which carry it into the pericardiac chamber, which is no other than an 
auricula : from thence into the heart. A coloured injection demonstrates ' 
if the canals of the resj^iratory membranes are arterial or venous. It also 
shows a network of extreme beauty that ramifies upon the vault, both 
on the internal and external parietes of the respiratory chamber. This 
network is regularly developed, and commences in a large sinus situated 
in the anterior part behind the orbital cavity. It divides into three 
vessels which ramify on the vertical septum (cloison), and another vessel of 
very large diameter which traverses the angle of connexion between the 
carapace and the lateral walls of the branchial cavity. Of the other 
vessels of less importance, one of which should be noticed, it curves and 
ramifies in the folded membrane described by Milne-Edwai'ds and Andouin. 
All these vessels send forth a number of branches which resolve into 
capillaries that terminate in small irregular polygonal spaces, which are 
the true lacunae ; but from these lacunte other equally delicate vessels take 
their departure. They may be observed to enlarge and open into still 
larger vessels, which still increase in size and open in their turn into a 
large trunk, which opens into an enormous sinus situated posteriorly to 
the pereion (or body of the animal) near where the pleon commences, 
about a centimetre within and above the basal portion of the last pair of 
feet. This large sinus traverses the vertical septum (cloison) and opens; 
into the auricle. 

A coloured injection forced into the sinus gives evidence of vascular 
network nearly symmetrical with that observed so regularly di.^played on 
the walls of the respiratory chamber. Of these vessels one ramifies on the 
vertical septum, the other, which is of considerable diameter, winds upon 
the roof of the chamber. Another equally worthy of notice is situated in 
the angle of the internal membrane folded horizontally on the walls of the 
chamber. 

There consequently exists, according to M. Jobert, in the parietes of 
the respiratory chamber a double system of vessels connected together by 
an intermediate capillary network inducing communication direct between 
the heart and the general cavity. 

The air which is contained in the respiratory chamber never stagnates, 
but is renewed very regularly by the aid of a true movement of inspiration 
and expiration. The expiratory orifice of the ch.amber offers nothing very 
particular ; whereas the inspiratory, in addition to that v/hich is situated at> 
the anterior part of the first pair of feet, is supplemented by others smaller 
but still important, situated between the third and fourth and posterior 
pairs, having the orifices externally hid by long hairs. It is to the 
vertical septum that the power belongs that induces the alternating 
movements of inspiration and expiration, and that iinder the influence of 
the central organ of circulation. In Uca, where the heart is of consider- 
able size, we may observe at the period of the afflux of the blood into 
the cavity a corresponding movement outside the vertical septum which 



236 EEPOKT— 1880. 

separates the general cavity of the respiratory chamber, produced by a 
special mechanism. 

M. Jobert found this respiratory chamber largest in Uca Una, the 
reflexion of the membrane most developed, the vascular vessels the most 
numerous. Gelassimus, he says, may be considered as possessing an 
organism nearly as perfect. Among the Grapsi, which live half of their 
time under water, the respiratory cavity is diminished by the flattenino- 
of the carapace, and the vascular network is less abundant. 

Under all circumstances M. Jobert found a respiratory organisation 
similar to that which exists in all Crustacea, but capable of undergoing a 
distinct usage. The organisation consists of a simple cavity, the membrane 
which lines it is furnished with vessels ; one carrying deoxygenised 
blood, the other returning it to the heart without passing it through the 
branchiffi, after it has been brought into contact with air that has been 
incessantly renewed. Moi-eovei-, this membrane is covered by a pellicle 
which precludes desiccation and fulfils the part of a veritable epidermis. 

In consequence of the observations which M. Jobert has made, he 
proposes to call the Crustacea so organised by the name of ' Branchio- 
pulmones,' in consequence of the capability by which their structure per- 
mits them to adapt themselves to atmospheric respiration, while they 
possess an anatomical arrangement that is essentially aquatic. 

Professor Huxley has recently given much attention to the arrange- 
ment of the branchia in Crustacea, and has done good sei-vice in suggest- 
ing a tabulation of them under a distinct nomenclature. 

The position of the bi-anchial plumes are constant throughout the 
several orders, and are absent or present according to specific or generic 
variation. He thus has proposed that each plume should be distinguished 
by a name that will at once recognise its position, and has proposed the 
following classification. The branchia that is rooted to the coxa of the 
several pairs of pereiopoda he calls imdohmnchia. The two that are 
situated on the articulating tissue that unites the appendnge Avith the 
body of the animal, he calls anterior or posterior artliropoda, and the one 
that originates from the side or wall of the .several somites of the pereion 
lie calls pJeurohmnchia. To the long flabelliform lash that is so liable 
to vary both in form, size and number, he uses the two names proposed by 
Milne-Edwards for the same homotypical part, when attached to the organs 
of the mouth, or when ap]3ended to the leet, namely, the Ejngnathe and 
epipodite, an inconvenience that he himself lias expressed when writing of 
the same in his work on the Crayfish. This, Milne-Edwards in his 
earlier works recognised by the title of the flabelliform appendage. It 
appears to me therefore that a term recognising the part in its true 
relation wherever existing will be found both more convenient as well as 
more correct in anatomical description. I have therefore elsewhere 
adopted for it the term of Mastihranchia^ (branchial lash). 

The same author has also proposed the classification of the macrura 
according to their branchial arrangement. But the study of a larger 
number of species is yet necessary, before we can see the advantage of 
placing in separate families, animals that in form and structure generally 
resemble each other, while others that are outwardly dissimilar are placed 
in the same genus. 

During the voyage of the Challenger the lamented naturalist, Dr. 

• Meio-Tis, lash ; fipdyxtov, gill. 



ON OCR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 237 

Willemos-Salim, investigated the metamorphosis of some Crustacea which 
■were repeatedly captured in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the 
Pacific' 

Among these he obtained many specimens of Amphion, and of its 
brephalus (larva) not only of the true zosea with a simple telson, but also 
of all the intermediate stages between it and the adult form, with two, 
three, four,, five and six pairs of walking legs. Of the full-grown Amfldon 
he had examined three specimens, two of which were undoubtedly males, 
as the testes and branchiaa were plainly visible, the former opening into 
the last pair of legs. 

He was thus able to endorse Anton Dorhn's researches, wherein he 
dissected a full-grown specimen which possessed branchias and an ovarj-. 

There is, he says, now no doubt that Ampliion is not a larva, but that 
there arc several species, and perhaps genera, of this remarkable form. 
For during the expedition they had captured two very interesting mature 
animals which are closely allied to Amphion. One of these has enormously 
long eye-stalks, being as long as the entire body of the animal. Another 
has, besides the long eye-stalks, the carpus of its several pereiopoda, 
very broad and paddle-shaped, while the dactylos is very minute. Both 
these forms, like Amphion, have a ceotral ocular spot and eight pairs of legs, 
each supporting an ecphysis. But, as a whole, the animal is less flat and 
more resembles Sergesfes than Ampliion ; and he states also that he has been 
able to determine that the form described by A. Dorhn under the name of 
Elaphocaris is the brephalus of a Sergestes. There is, however, one species, 
he says, which in the brephalus stage is not an Elaphocaris, but a larger 
and less spiny form, but similar in all other respects. 

The manner in which ElapTiocaris matures into the perfect Sergestes, he 
has been enabled to determine from the numerous specimens that he 
collected in tlie Western Pacific. After the first moulting the brephalus 
gets six more branched legs and loses many spines. It enters the Amphion 
stage, then moults, throws off the branched legs, gets branchia, and becomes 
a spiny Sergestes. It is only after this last moulting that the central 
ocular spot disappears. 

He also observes that very similar to the development of Sergestes is 
that of Leucifer. The earliest form that he had obtained had no eyes, 
then sessile ones appear, and the animal then presents the form which Dana 
has called JErictMna demissa. After the second moulting the eyes are pro- 
jected on stalks, and very long hairs are apparent on all the animal's 
appendages, and the animal appears a long and very delicate zosea. It 
now enters the Amphion stage, but never gets more than four pairs of 
pereiopoda, and even loses a pair of these when it moults, and puts on the 
adult form of Leucifer, in which two pairs of pereiopoda are wanting. 

It appears to me that instead of confirming the opinion of Anton 
Dorhn that Amphion is an animal in the adult stage, the observation of 
the accomplished naturalist of the Challenger rather induces one to believe 
that it is only a stage in the development of some of the Schizopod Crus- 
tacea. The brephalus of Amphion, Sergestes, or Leucifer he has not been 
able to determine, inasmuch as he had never been able to obtain them. It 
is singular that Amphion was never taken excepting during the night. 

M. Gerbe ^ says that the central nervous system of the larvte of crus- 

' Ann. Xat. Hist., 4th series, vol. 17, pp. 1G2-3. 
2 CovqHcs Bendus, M.-^y 7, 18C(j, pp. 10-21. 



238 EEPOiiT— 1880. 

tacea presents differences in its arrangement and form from that of the 
perfect individual, and the development of each of the medullary nuclei 
which constitute the ganglionic masses is in relation to the development 
of the organs to which these nuclei correspond. 

Herr C. E. Wassiliew ' has given an account of his investigations of 
the curious ' green gland ' of the crayfish. He states that it consists of a 
single unbroken coiled tube, closed at one end and opening at the other 
into the sac of the gland or urinary bladder, and consists of three distinct 
portions. The first of these has the form of a somewhat triangular yel- 
lowish-brown lobule, lying at the upper surface of the gland and forming 
the blind terminal portion of the whole tube ; the second forms a green 
cake-shaped mass, constituting the lateral and inferior parts of the gland ; 
while the third is a long, white, coiled tube, connected a.t the end with 
the green portion and by the other opening into the bladder. 

The entire tubular gland is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, 
outside which is a fine structureless tunica propria, containing strongly 
refracting nuclei. There is no cuticular lining to the tube, which thus 
differs very markedly from the malpighian vessels of insects. 

In the yellow portion the cells are sharply defined and convex on 
their inner surface. In the green part of the tube the cells are large, and 
their protoplasm is in connection with a peculiar network of pseudopo- 
deal processes which extend into projections of the wall into the lumen 
of the tube. In the proximal portion (that nearest to the green section) 
of the white part of the tube the walls are smooth, and lined by small 
cells approximating the pavement form. In its distal portion mammili- 
form and dendritic processes of the wall project into the cavity, often 
giving the tube a spongy appearance, and the cells have long bi'oad pro- 
cesses developed from their inner surfaces. The epithelium of the bladder 
agrees with that of the smooth portion of the tube. 

The products of secretion are seen in the white and green, but not in 
the yellow portion of the gland, as yellowish, rather highly refracting, 
drops on the surface of the cells. Probably the yellow part seci'etes 
a substance soluble in alcohol. That part of the white tube, with the 
tesselated epithelium, most likely acts mei'cly as a duct. 

The anterior portion of the gland and bladder are supplied by a branch 
of the antennary arteries, their posterior portions by the sternal arteries ; 
these break up into a rich network of capillaries in all parts of the gland. 
The nerve-supply of the bladder is also derived from two sources, its an- 
terior part being supplied by a branch of antennary nerves (coming from 
the supra-cesophageal ganglion), its posterior part by a nerve from the 
supra- oesophageal ganglion, but no nerves have been observed in the 
gland itself. 

This same green gland has been studied by Professor Huxley and Mr. 
Martin, who, in an elementary woi'k on practical biology, describes it as 
a soft greenish mass lying on each side of the extreme front part of the 
cephalon, and that a fine bristle may be passed in through an aperture 
on the first joint of the antenna?. And in his more recent work on the 
crayfish. Professor Huxley accepts, with apparently little doubt, that the 
green gland is the representative of the kidney. ' The green gland,' he 
writes, ' is said to contain a substance termed guanin (so named because 
it is found in the guano, which is the accumulated excrement of birds), 

' Zool. Atueigcr, 1, 1878. 



ON OUR rHESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 239 

a nitrogenous body analogous in some respects to ui'ic acid, but less 
highly oxidated ; if this be the case, there can be little doubt that the 
green glaud rej^resents the kidnej-, and its secretion the urinary fluid, 
while the sac is a sort of urinary bladder.' 

The evidence on which this newly-proposed use of the green gland 
rests is the mild statement of Will and Gorup-Besanez (I quote from the 
notes in Professor Huxley's 'Crayfish' '), who say that in this organ and 
in the organ of Bojanus of the fresh-water mussel, they found ' a sub- 
stance, the reactions of which, with the greatest probability, indicate 
guanin,' but that they had been unable to obtain sufficient material to 
give decisive results. 

"When we consider the position of this organ in its relation to the 
other parts, as they ai'e arranged in separate genera, very definite analyses 
ought to be determined before a cautious anatomist can accept this idea 
as proven. 

There is an osseous tubercle on the first joint of the antenna that is 
hollow, the orifice being covered by a thin translucent membrane, in the 
centre of which there is a narrow pei-foration. This tubercle Milne-Edwards 
and most carcinological students have thought to be the passage con- 
nected with acoustic properties, but which I have always contended was 
related to the olfactory sense ; but as the observations of Will and 
Gorup-Besanez, although published in 1848, have been supported by 
Wassiliew in 1878, and Huxlej' in 1879, it will be desirable to allude to this 
tubercle by a name that will not commit its relation to any decided use 
until so determined. I shall consequently write of it as the Fhymacerite? 

This organ is always in connexion with the coxa or first joint of the 
second pair of antennfe, even in those Crustacea in which the antennaj are so 
fused into the frontal region (or metopus), that without previous know- 
ledge it is impossible to determine its relation to the antennfe. In these 
cases, as in most of the higher types of the Brachyura, it is so concentrated 
into the animal that it is very generally covered and protected by the 
appendages of the mouth, and it is always closely associated with that 
organ. Moreover, the watery sac is so delicate in its structure that it is 
diflacult to dissect it without rupturing its walls — a circumstance that I 
have never succeeded in doing in the Brachyura — and the passage of an 
inserted bristle must puncture its walls at any point. 

In the Amphipoda the entrance is through a long spine, and the 
membranous passage is slightly winding. In the Isopoda I never observed 
any, at least conspicuous, tubercle. In the Brachyura it is generally closed 
by an osseous ojjcrculum. 

Writing on this same organ, Milne-Edwards says : ' The Crustacea, or 
at least those of the higher ordei's, possess also the sense of hearing ; the 
experiments of Minasi, as shown by a number of daily observations, 
furnish proof that, among a great number of these animals, there exists an 
apparatus that appears to be the seat of this faculty. 

' This organ is situated on the inferior surface of the head, in advance 
of the mouth, and behind the second pair of antennas, or even in the 
basilaire joint of the antennae itself. In the crayfish, as exliibited by the 
researches of Scarpa, it exists at this place on each side of the body — a 
little osseous tubercle (Phymacerlie) of which the summit presents a 
circular orifice which is closed by a thin, firm, and elastic membrane, 

' Gelehrte Anzei/jer d. li. Baienschen Aliademie, No. 233, 1848. 
* <E>£jua, tubercle ; /ce'pos, horn (antennal tubercle). 



240 EEPOET— 1880. 

wliicli may be compared to a tympanum, or " a la membrane de la fenetre 
du vestibule des animaux superieurs " (PI. XII. fig. 11 and 11 bis). Behind 
this membrane, at the base of the tnbei-cle, we find a little membranous 
vesicle full of an aqueous fluid, which receives on the inner and upper 
surface a nervous filament given off from the antennal branch. Moreover, 
it is capped by a spongy mass, of which Scarpa makes no mention, which 
appears to be well adapted for an organ of hearing, although some narrow 
bands unite it to the organ of which we are about to speak (PI. XII. 
fig. 9a). It is this organ which has already been considered as connected 
with the sense of smell. In the Langouste (Palinurus), in the centre of the 
membrane that closes the aperture of the antennal tubercle (Phymacerite) 
is a small opening which communicates with a disc-like organ (I'organe 
en form de galette) the object of which is doubtful, and for the most part 
among the Brachyura is entirely replaced by a small osseous, more or less 
movable, disc. In Maia and some other short-tailed Crustacea, the dis- 
position of this kind of operculum is very cui-ious ; we have ascertained, 
M. Andouin and myself, that on the anterior border there exists a tolerably 
large osseous plate which is bent at right angles and directed upwards 
towards the organ, and forms a disc that terminates in a point ; near its 
base this lamellous prolongation is pierced by a great oval foramen, and 
this kind of opening is closed by a thin elastic membrane which we shall 
call the internal auditory membrane, and near which the auditory nerve 
appears to terminate. Fasciculi of muscles are attached to the extremity 
of the osseous lamella, which comes from the opercular disc of the 
auditory tubercle (Phymacerite), and which by its form resembles the 
stirrup of the human ear ; finally, upon the anterior border of the external 
opening which is closed by this disc, there exists also a little osseous plate 
which is parallel with the internal auditory membrane, and when the 
anterior muscle of the ossicle contracts, so as to be slightly thrown back, 
all the little apparatus before the membrane to which we allude becomes 
more and more extended. 

' After the researches made on the transmission of sound by M. Savart, 
we know that the existence of an opening closed by a thin elastic membrane 
is a condition most available for the increase of the power of heai-ing 
delicate sounds. This savant has observed that pieces of cardboard which 
are not susceptible to vibration so as to determine the form of regular 
figures in the fine sand placed upon the surface, are capable of so becoming 
when they were covered with a membranous disc. It is then to be presumed 
that the kind of drum that we now describe as that of the external auditory 
membrane of the crayfish, serves to communicate to the auditory nerve 
the vibrations that are transmitted to it, and which afiect but little or 
nothing the sounding parts that are not in direct communication with 
these membranes. The mechanism by means of which the internal 
auditory membrane can be alternately relaxed or extended is analogous to 
that which is produced in the human ear by the action of the chain of 
ossicles, which traverses the cavity of the ear, and its effects may be sup- 
posed to be of the same kind. It serves to augment or diminish the 
undulations which strike the vibrating membrane, and to modify the 
intensity of the sounds which strike the ear.' 

That this organ is not connected with hearing is now, I believe, 
accepted by those who have inquired into the subject, since organs 
resembling otolithes have been found in the coxa of the first pair of 
antennse, and in the inner ramus of the posterior pair of pleopoda. 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 241 

The green gland in Palinmnis is very large, and I have been subjectino- 
it to examination as to its form and structure, as well as placed the 
seci'etion contained in the sac connected with it in the hands of an 
expert chemist, but the results have not sufficiently progressed to enable 
me to embody them in this report. 



Report on the best means for the Development of Light from Coal- 
Gas of different qualities, by a Committee consisting of Dr. 
William Wallace (Secretary), Professor Dittmar, and Mr. John 
Pattinsox, F.G.S., F.I.G. Drawn up by Mr. Pattinson. 

Part II. 

The first part of this Report, which was presented at the meeting of the 
Bi'itish Association in 1878, had reference chiefly to the use of cannel gas 
such as supplied in most of the towns of Scotland, and which has an 
illuminating power equal to 26 candles when burned in a union-jet 
burner at the rate of 5 cubic feet per hour and under a pressure of 0'5 
inch. It also pointed out the best means known of burning this quality 
of gas, and gave the results of photometric testing of several kinds of 
burners under varying conditions of pressure. 

It is the object of this second part of the Report to give similar infor- 
mation regarding the burning of what is known as common gas, or gas 
made from the common bituminous coal of the Newcastle and other coal- 
fields, or from this class of coal mixed with a small quantity of cannel 
coal, and having an illuminating power equal to 16 standard sperm 
candles when consumed at the rate of 5 cubic feet per hour in Sugg's 
No. 1 London Argand Burner — the standard burner adopted in London by 
the London Gas Referees, and prescribed in nearly all I'ecent Acts of Par- 
liament of gas companies. This quality of gas, or gas varying from 14 
to 16 candles illuminating power, is chiefly used in London and in most 
towns in England and Ireland. 

The principal condition to be observed, in order to develop the maxi- 
mum amount of light from coal gas, is to supply the flame in a suitable 
manner with just a sufficient amount of air to effect the complete combus- 
tion of the gas. If coal gas is lighted as it issues under a low jjressure 
from the end of a gas pipe from which the burner has been removed, it 
burns with a long, irregulai'-shaped flame, giving off much smoke, and 
yielding a dull yellowish light of very little intensity. The gas has to 
ascend to a considerable height before it meets with sufficient air to con- 
sume it comjjletely, and the upward currents created by the heat waft the 
languid flame about in all directions and cause it to give off smoky par- 
ticles. On the other hand, if the gas is forced under considerable pressure 
through a very small orifice or very narrow slit, it burns with a thin bluish 
flame, without visible smoke, and yielding very little light. The small, 
rapid stream of gas, by virtue of the force with which it issues, becomes 
mixed at once with such an excessive amount of air that the carbonaceous 
constituents of the gas, instead of being partially separated and made in- 
candescent, are converted at once into carbonic acid in a flame havino- 
little or no luminosity, just as when gas is burned in a Bunsen burner. 
These illustrate two cases in which air is supplied to the flame in an un- 
1880. K 



242 



REPORT — 1880. 



suitable manner, one in wliicli air is supplied too slowly, and the other in 
-which it is too rapidly mixed with the gas. As in flat-flame burners the 
air supply is chiefly regulated by means of the pressure under which the 
gas is allowed to issue, it is necessary to avoid these two extremes in order 
to develop the light-giving properties of the gas. The dimensions of the 
orifice through which the gas issues from such burners, and the velocity 
with which it issues, should be so adapted to each other that the gas in 
burning is brought into contact with air in such a manner that the heat 
developed from a portion of the burning gas heats the remainder to a high 
state of incandescence before it is ultimately entirely oxidised. The 
quality of a flat-flame burner depends almost entirely on the extent to 
which this condition is fulfilled. Tn Argand burners, or at any rate in 
those of the best consti-uction, the due supply of air is admitted to the 
interior and exterior of the cylinder of flame, and regulated by means of 
the chimney and cone, the gas being allowed to issue from the burner 
under little or no pressure. A more complete control is thus obtained 
over the air supply than is possible in the case of flat-flame burners, and 
it is probably on this account that more light can be developed from com- 
mon gas when burned in good Argand burners than when burned in 
ordinary quantities in flat-flame burners. 

The efiect of the pressure under which gas is caused to issue upon 
the air supply, and consequently upon the amount of light emitted, is 
shown in the following results of experiments made with union-jet and 
batwing burners having orifices of various dimensions and unprovided 
with any means of checking jiressnre. The gas was caused to pass 
through them under different pressures applied by means of a weighted 
gas-holder. 

The gas used was equal to 16 candles when tested with the standard 
burner — Sugg's No. 1 London Argand. 



Union-Jet Burners. 



Pressure of gas in 


Cubic feet of gas Illuminating power 


Illuminating power 

per five:cubic feet of 

gas per hour 


inches 


used per hour in standard candles 




No. 1, with holes 0'02i in. diameter. 




0-.5 


1-6 


10 


3'1 


1-0 


2-5 


1-2 


2-4 


1-5 


3-2 


1-2 


1-9 




No. 3, with holes 0-032 in. diameter. 




0-3 


1-3 


1-8 


7-0 


0-.5 


2-5 


34 


6-8 


10 


3-8 


4-4 


5-8 


1-5 


51 


50 


41) 




No. 6, with holes 0-0i3 in. diameter. 




0-2 


1-2 , 1-8 


7-5 


0-3 


2-0 


3-7 


9-2 


0-5 


3-8 


7-3 


9-6 


0-7 


4-7 


8-8 


9-2 


1-0 


60 


10-2 


8-5 


1-5 


8-1 


120 


7-4 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 



243 



Batwing Burners. 



Pressure of gas iu 


Cubic feet of gas used 


Illuminating power 


Illuminatinj^ power 

per live cubic feet of 

gas per hour 


inches 


per hour 


in standard candles 




No. 2 burner, with slit 0-008 in. wide. 




o;j 


08 


1-0 


6-3 


0-5 


2-0 


4-0 


10-0 


0-7 


2-8 


.5-7 


10-2 


10 


3-8 


7-3 


9-6 


1-2 


4-4 


7-6 


8-6 


1-5 


5-4 


9-0 


8-3 • 




No. 4 burner, with slit 0-012 in. wide. 




0-3 


1-3 


2-7 


10-4 


0-5 


3-2 


7-6 


11-9 


0-7 


4-3 


10-1 


11-7 


10 


5-6 


12-6 


11-3 


1-2 


6-4 


140 


10-9 


1-5 


7-7 


16-4 


10-6 


20 


9-0 


17-5 


9-7 




No. 6 burner, with slit 0014 in. wide. 




0-3 


1-4 


2-6 


9-3 


0-5 


3-7 


9-5 


12-8 


0-7 


4-7 


12-7 


13-5 


1-0 


6-1 


15-7 


12-9 


1-2 


7-0 


17-7 


127 


1-5 


8-5 


19-5 


11-5 


20 


Flares 
Another batwing, with slit 0020 in. wide. 




0-1 


3-2 


9-1 


14-2 


0-6 


6-7 


17-2 


15-1 


0-8 


7-1 


22-6 


15-9 


1-0 


8-3 


27-0 


16-3 


1-2 


9-3 


30-8 


16-6 


14 


10-2 


32-0 


15-7 


1-6 


11-1 


330 


14-9 


1-8 


11-8 


34-0 


14-4 


20 


Flares 





It will be seen that the small quantity of gas passing throtigh No. 1 
union-jet becomes so mixed with air that even at 0'5 inch pressure the 
light emitted when burning 1'6 cubic feet per hour is only equal to one 
candle, or 3-1 candles when calculated for 5 feet consumption of gas. 
When the pressure is increased to I'S inches the results are still worse, 
for 3' 2 cubic feet of gas per hour are burned with the production of light 
equal to 1-2 candles, or only 1-9 candles per 5 cubic feet of gas. With the 
larger sized union-jets the results are better, No. 6, when consuming 3-8 
cubic feet of gas at 0*5 inch pressure giving a light equal to O'G candles 
per 5 feet of gaa. This amount of gas— 3-8 cubic feet — when issuing 
under 0-5 inch pressure is not mixed with so much air as the 32 cubic 
feet issuing under a pressure of 1-5 inches from the No. 1 burner. 

The effect of the increase of pressure on the air supply, and conse- 
quently on the light produced, is also seen in the results of the experiments 

If the result of burning 5'4 cubic feet of gas 
k2 



with the batwing burners 



244 



REPOllT — 1880. 



issuing from No. 2 batwing under a pressure of 1-5 inches is compared 
with the result of burning tlie amounts of gas nearest to this amount in 
the case of each of the other burners, it will be seen that the illuminating 
power increases as the pressure required to send the desired amount of 
gas through the burner decreases ; or, in other words, the illuminating 
power is increased as the gas, issuing with less velocity, is thus mixed or 
brought into contact with less air. The following figures taken from the 
above table show this : — 



Ko. of burner 


Pressure of gas 


Cubic feet of 

gas used per 

bour 


Illuminating 

power in standard 

caudles 


Illuminating 

power per .5 cubic 

feet of gas 


2 
4 
6 

Large 


l-o 
10 
0-7 
OG 


5-4 
.5-6 
4-7 
5-7 


90 
12-6 

12-7 
17-2 


8-3 
11-3 
13 5 
1.5-1 



It will also be observed, in examining the above tables, that in the 
case of each burner there is a certain consumption and a certain pressure 
which gives the best result, and that at all other consumptions and 
pressures above or below this the results are worse. No. 6 union-jet, for 
instance, gives the best result when consuming 38 cubic feet of gas under 
0'5 inch pressure ; No. 2 batwing gives the best result when consuming 2-8 
cubic feet under 07 inch pressure ; No. 6 batwing the best result when 
using 47 feet of gas under a pressure of 07 inch, and the large batwing, 
when using 3 cubic feet of gas under a pressure of 12 inches. There 
is, therefore, a limit to the reduction of pressure, causing an increase of 
the illuminating power of the gas consumed, and this limit is reached 
when the flame ceases to have a somewhat definite form, and burns in a 
languid, waving manner, showing very low intensity of combustion, and 
having a tendency to smoke. In such cases the air is not supplied suffi- 
ciently for vigorous and intense combustion. This condition is illustrated 
in the above tables, and especially in the case of the batwing burners. 
With each of these buimers the gas issuing under the lowest pressures 
■used produced less light than when higher pressures were used. Thus, 
for instance. No. 6 burner gives a light equal to only 9-3 candles per 5 
cubic feet when the gas issues under a pressure of OS inch, which is 
increased to 13-5 candles per 5 cubic feet when the pressure is increased 
to 07 inch. Again, with the large batwing having a slit 0'020 inch 
wide, the gas issuing at a pressure of 0*4 inch gives light equal to 14-2 
candles per 5 cubic feet, whilst under a pressure of 1-2 inches the gas 
yields a light equal to 166 candles per 5 feet, a result even better than 
the standard testing burner gives. 

Another point to be noticed in the above tables is, that as larger 
burners are used, and larger quantities of gas burned, the illuminating 
power per 5 cubic feet is increased. Although the chief cause of this 
impi'ovement is the better apportionment of the gas supply to the air as 
regulated by the pressure, yet the increased volume of flame causing 
greater intensity of combustion, and preventing the cooling of the flame 
by the surrounding atmosphere, is doubtless another cause producing this 
improved result. 

It has often been asserted that if gas be heated before it is burned, 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 245 

the illuminating power is improved, and some experiments made in the 
laboratory of the University of Llunich go to show that an increase of 
18 per cent, in the illaminating power -was produced by heating the gas 
from 64^ degrees to 288 degrees Fahrenheit. The London Gas Referees, 
in an able report on the construction of gas-burners, issued in 1871, 
repeated this experiment, and found no appreciable difference in the 
illuminating power of gas on heating the gas before burning from about 
68 degrees to 296 degrees Fahrenheit. One of us has recently tried the 
same experiment. The gas was caused to pass through about 6 feet of 
copper tubing, heated to dull redness. By this means the gas was heated 
from 58 degrees up to 350 degrees, as indicated by a thermometer placed 
in the current of the gas within 6 inches of the burner. It was found 
necessary to open wider the tap of the meter as the temperature rose, in 
order to pass exactly the required quantity of 5 cubic feet per horn*, the 
heated and expanded gas requiring more time to pass through the burner 
than the same quantity of cold gas. Careful observations were made of 
the illuminating power as the temperature rose. The result was that no 
appi-eciable difference could be seen in the illuminating power even at the 
highest temperature reached — 350 degi-ees Fahrenheit — thus confirming 
the results obtained by the London Gas Referees. As the temperature of 
combustion would be increased by heating the gas, and consequently a 
higher degree of incandescence produced, some increase of the illumi- 
nating power may be expected, but the increase of temperature tried 
(and it is very difficult to heat the gas even so high as 350 degrees) is 
evidently too insignificant to produce any appi-eciable increase in the illu- 
minating power. 

An experiment to try the effect of heating the air supplied to the 
burner was more successful in producing an appreciable impi-ovement in 
the illuminating power. The air was supplied from a holder under 
pressure. It was passed through a heated copper tube, and from thence 
into the bottom of the standard Argand burner, which was closed, 
excepting to the admission of the heated air. A thermometer was fixed 
in the current of heated air about 6 inches from the burner. There was 
no difficulty in heating the air to a temperature of 520 degrees Fahrenheit. 
At this heat the soldering of the apparatus gave Avay, so that no higher 
temperature was tried. The temperature of the uuheated air was 70 
degrees, and the gas used, when supplied with air of this temperature, 
gave a light equal to 16 candles per o cubic feet per hour. As the tem- 
perature of the air was increased, the illuminating power gradually rose, 
until at 520 degrees a light equal to 17'5 candles was pi-oduced — a rise of 
a candle and a half, or about 9 per cent., for an increase of 450 degrees in 
the temperature of the air supply. As the amount of heat sujjplied by 
the heated air brought into contact with the gas and the flame is consider, 
able, an appreciable effect is produced on the temperature of the flame, 
and consequently on its illuminating power. It would appear, however, 
that the principle of heating the air supply is not likely to be a lopted for 
general lighting purposes, for the additional light which any practicable 
amount of heating would cause to be obtained would probably not com- 
pensate for the exti-a cost and trouble attending the use of the required 
apparatus. 

A number of burners of various kinds, now supplied to the public, 
have been tested with common coal gas, having an illuminating power 



246 



REPORT — 1880. 



eqnal to 16 standard speiin candles, when burned at the rate of 5 cubic 
feet per hour in Sugg's No. 1 London Argand Burner, and the results 
obtained are given in the following tables. The standard candle, as in the 
case of cannel gas, is one consuming 120 grains of sperm per hour. 
The photometric apparatus and the method of testing employed were 
about the same as those described in the first part of this report. The 
two jets representing the candles were supplied with gas from a separate 
gas-holder, always kept under exactly the same pressure. The gas con- 
sumed in the burners to be tested was also supplied from a separate 
holder, to which any required pressure could be readily applied. For 
comparison, the results obtained are calculated into the amount of light 
for a consumption of 5 cubic feet per hour in each case. 

Of the four classes of burners described in the first part of this report, 
the ' rat-tail ' or single-jet burner is now seldom or never used for common 
gas for lighting purposes. The union-jet or fish-tail burner, the batwing 
burner, and the Argand burner, or modifications of these various burners, 
are now almost exclusively used. These burners and their modifications 
have for the most part been already fully described, and it is therefore 
unnecessary to repeat these descriptions at any length. 

Messrs. Bray and Co. manufacture a great variety of flat-flame burners. 
Their ' Regulator ' burner checks the pressure of gas in the mains by 
means of layers of muslin inserted in the burner. Their ' Special ' 
burner, in addition to the layers of muslin, has also a piece of a kind of 
porcelain, containing a round hole of less area than the exit orifices, 
placed below the muslin, through which the gas passes into the burner. 
These ' regulator ' and ' sjDecial ' burners are made in three different 
forms — union-jets, batwings, and a modification of the batwing called a 
'slit-union.' The latter, owing to a peculiar chambering out of the head 
of the burner, forms a narrower and liigher flame than the ordinary bat- 
wing, and is therefore better adapted for use in globes. This form of 
batwing is also made by various other makers. Besides the burners 
already mentioned, Messrs. Bray and Co. also make each form of burner 
of high lighting power and of medium lighting power, and they recom- 
mend the medium lighting power burners in preference to the others for 
general use, as having less tendency to smoke. 

Of these burners of Messrs. Bray & Co., the following have been 
selected for trial : — 





Bray's 


Medium Light 


ing Power ' Regulator ' Union- Jets. 




No. of 


AtO 


■5 in. pressure 


At 10 in. pressure 


At 1*5 in. pressure 




to 

a 


5t^ 


r, ? O 


to 


.St." 




bo 
c 

■5 >- 




burner 


o fct.S 


•S ^ 


lfc-2 


.2 ii^ 

Pi 


•S ? 


.aS^.s 


o to.S 


.s s 


.sr.2 




a c (1) 


5 ^ 


E £.3 


3 


^ o " 


3 o a, 
O P. 


|2 


.2 S « 






h— t 






l-l 


1— ( ^'' 




^ 




1 


20 


2-1 


5-3 


32 


2-2 


3-4 


4-4 


2-3 


2-6 


2 


2- (J 


30 


5'8 


40 


4-0 


50 


5-4 


4-3 


40 


?, 


2-9 


3-8 


5-6 


4-3 


4-9 


5-7 


5-8 


5-4 


4-7 


i 


3-4 


6-1 


8-9 


5-3 


8-5 


80 


7-1 


10-2 


7-2 


5 


3'8 


7-8 


10-2 


61 


11-G 


9-5 


8-3 


13-4 


8-1 


6 


4-4 


10-2 


11-6 


6-8 


14-2 


10-4 


90 


17-8 


9-9 


7 


4-6 


12-0 


12-9 


7-2 


19-2 


13-3 


9-7 


24-5 


12-7 


8 


5-2 


15-8 


15-2 


8-6 


27-3 


15-8 


11-5 


Flares 


— 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 



247 





Bray's 


Medium Lighting Power ' Special ' 


Union - 


Jets. 




No. of 
burner 


AtO 


5 in. pressure 


At 1-0 in. pressure 


Atl 


5 in. pressure 


Cubic feet 

of gas 
per hour 


c 
5 "^ 


Illuminating 

power per 5 

cubic feet 


Cubic feet 

of gas 

per liour 


to 

c 
■-3 u 

B ^ 
1— t 


Illuminating 

power per 5 

cubic feet 


Cubic feet 

of gas 
per hour 


to 

c 

c ^ 

■S o 
= & 
s 

1—* 


Illuminating 

power per 5 

cubic feet 


1 


2-1 


30 


71 


31 


42 


6-8 


4-2 


5-0 


6-0 


2 


2-3 


4-3 


9-3 


3-7 


65 


8-8 


51 


80 


7-8 


2-5 


4-6 


9-2 


3-9 


6-5 


8-3 


5-3 


8-1 


7-5 


4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


2-9 


5-7 


9-8 


4-5 


8-6 


9-6 


61 


10-7 


8-8 


35 


7-6 


10-9 


5-2 


118 


11-3 


70 


15'2 


10-9 


3G 


8-G 


11-9 


5-8 


13-7 


11-8 


80 


17-6 


110 


4-2 


10-6 


12-6 


G-6 


17-6 


13-3 


8-8 


23-2 


13-2 


4-5 


12-8 


14-2 


7-3 


22-5 


15-4 


101 


310 


15-3 


4-8 


13-6 


14-2 


7'7 


240 


15-6 


10-4 


32-5 


15-6 





Bray's 


Medium Lighting Power ' Special ' 


Slit-Unions. 






AtO 


5 in. pressure 


At 1-0 in. pressure 


Atl 


•5 in. pressure 


■M 


to 

n 


^'^"'^ 


-ij 


to 


^'"^ 


4^ 


to 




No. of 
burner 

1 


Cubic fee 

of gas 

per lioui 


s ^ 


Illuminati 

power pel 

cubic fee 


Cubic fe 

of gas 

per hou 




Illuminat 

power pel 

cubic fe( 


Cubic fe 

of gas 

per liou 




Illuminat 

power pe 

cubic fe 


1-9 


3-9 


10-3 


31 


6-5 


10-5 


4-2 


8-9 


10-6 


2 


2-2 


4-4 


100 


3-5 


7-6 


10-9 


4-9 


9-8 


10-6 


3 


2-8 


6-5 


11-3 


4-5 


110 


12-2 


61 


15-6 


12-8 


4 


30 


7-2 


12-0 


4-9 


12-8 


130 


6-6 


17-2 


13-2 


5 




8-0 


12-1 


5-3 


14-4 


13-6 


7-3 


19-4 


13-3 


6 


3-8 


10-2 


13-4 


6-2 


17-4 


14-0 


8-3 


23-6 


14-2 


7 


4-1 


1 1-0 


13-4 


6-6 


19-1 


14-5 


8-9 


26-0 


14-6 


8 


4-8 


13-4 


13-9 


7-6 


23-5 


15'5 


10-4 


32-0 


15-4 


9 


53 


15-2 


14-3 


8-5 


260 


15-3 


11-4 


37-0 


16-2 



Bray's High Lighting Power ' Special ' Union-Jets. 



No. of 
burner 


At 0-5 in. pressure 


At I'O in. pressure 


Atl 


•5 in. pressure 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


fee 
a 

5 ~ 


Illuminating 
power per 
5 cubic feet 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


to 

n 

'-S <-' 

a o 


Illuminating 
power per 
5 cubic feet 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


be 

ci 53 
□ > 


Illuminating 
power per 
5 cubic feet 


3 


2-6 


5-2 


100 


3-9 


8-6 


110 


5-3 


10-8 


10-2 


4 


2-7 


6;2 


llo 


4-5 


11-0 


12-2 


6-2 


160 


12-1 


5 


30 


7-1 


11-8 


4-8 


11-6 


120 


6-5 


154 


11-8 


,6 


3-4 


90 


13-2 


. 5-8 


1.60 


13-8 


8-0 


229 


14-3 


7 


".•8 


10'2 


13-4 


63 


18-4 


14-6 


8-6 


25-4 


14-8 


8 


4-1 


11-4 


13-9 


6-9 


20-8 


15-0 


9-4 


29-5 


15-7 



248 



REPORT 1880. 





Bray 


s High Lighting Power ' Sp 


ecial * Slit-unions. 




No. of 


AtO 


•5 in. pressure 


At 1-0 in. pressure 


At 1 


•5 in. pressure 


feet of 
as 




nating 
r per 

ic feet 


feet of 
as 

iiour 


.2 ^ 


nating 
r per 
ic feet 


feet of 

as 

lour 


a 
'■S t" 


nating 
r per 

cfeet 


burner 


1 ^ 


|a 




3 <=^ 


p o 
a ^ 


lumi 

50W€ 

cub 


3 p. 


"a ° 
1^ 


11 




o 


1—1 




o 


t-H 


- -o 


u 


1— 1 


_ f^o 


4 


3-2 


80 


12-5 


4-8 


13-0 


14-2 


6-4 


17-8 


13-9 


5 


3-2 


8-2 


12-8 


51 


14-2 


13-9 


7-0 


19-5 


13-9 


6 


3o 


8-8 


12-6 


5-7 


160 


140 


7-8 


21-6 


13-8 


7 


3-9 


10-6 


13-6 


6-4 


18-4 


14-4 


8-8 


26-0 


14-8 


9 


4-8 


13-2 


13-8 


7-9 


25-2 


15-9 


10 8 


34-5 


16-0 



Bray's High Lighting Power ' Special ' Batwings. 



No. of 
burner 


At O'o in. pressure 


At I'O in. pressure 


At 1-5 in. pressure 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


to 

c 

Is S 

a ^ 

|- 

t— 1 


Illuminating 
])owcr per 
6 cubic feet 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


a 

§ a. 

1—1 


Illuminating 
power per 
5 cubic feet 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


c 


Illuminating 
power per 
5 cubic feet 


4 
5 
6 

7 


2-9 
3-3 
3-6 
4-1 


7-3 

9-1 

9-8 
11-8 


120 
13-8 
13-7 
14-4 


4-6 
5-3 
5-7 
0-7 


12-6 
14-8 
lC-4 
20-4 


13-7 
14-0 
14-4 
15-2 


G-3 
7-2 
7-9 
90 


lG-9 
20-5 

22-8 
28-1 


13-4 
14-4 
14-4 
I5G 



It will be noticed that in some of the nnion-jet burners the lower 
numbers of these give very poor results with common gas. It is only 
when Nos. 4 and 5 are reached, and with a consumption of about 5 cubic 
feet of gas per hour, that good results are obtained. As a rule, all the 
burners burn to greatest advantage when the pressure of gas is one inch. 

Messrs. Bray & Co.'s Market Burner, intended, as its name implies, for 
use in the open air, also gives very excellent results from the somewhat 
large amounts of gas they consume. Two of these gave the following 
results : — 

Bray's Market Barner — Batwing. 



Mark of burner 


At 0-5 in. pressure 


At 10 in. pressm-e 


At 1-0 in. pressure 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


■p s 

5 » 

1— f 


Illuminating 

power ]ier 

5 cubic feet 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


.S & 


Illuminating 
power per 
.5 cubic feet 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hoar 


to 

1— 1 


Illuminating 
power per 
5 cubic feet 


Market . . . 
,, ... 


5-8 
6-2 


17-8 
19-3 


15-3 
15-6 


9-8 
10-3 


32-2 
33-5 


15-6 
16-2 


13-6 
141 


45-0 
480 


16-5 
17-0 



This firm has also recently manufactured some flat-flame burners of 
very large size, suitable for street illumination. These are made in an en- 
larged form of the slit-union pattern, and are called 'standard ' burners. 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM CO.VL G.\S. 



249 



Another form of street burner — a 'double-flame' burner— is made by 
them. This is formed by two burners being so placed that the flames from 
the two join together a little above the burner. We have not had an 
opportunity of testing the latter burners, but the large ' standard ' burners 
have been tested with 16-candle gas at pressures of 0"5 inch, 8 inch, and 
1-0 inch, with the following results, which, it will be seen, arc higher than 
those obtained with the standard Argand burner : — 





Bray' 


s T large ' Standard ' 


Burners for Street Lighting. 








AtO- 


5 in. pressure 


At 0-8 in. pressure 


At I'O in. pressure 




fcc 


tn 




to 


M jj 


sc 


%" ■" 


Mark of burner 


feet 
our 


c 

■•is 


atin 
per 

feet 




1- 


atin 

per 

3 fee 


-4J , — 

o — •- 


C t. o 






— o o 

6 ^ 


1—1 


Illumin 
power 
.5 cubic 


Cubic 

ofg 

per h 


)— 1 


lllumii 
power 
5 cubi 




powei 
5 cubi 


30 Candle . . 


11-0 


37-1 


16-9 


1.5 


49-3 


161 


190 GO-8 


16-0 


40 




12-7 


43-2 


17-0 


18-4 


60-8 


16-6 


21-2 720 


17-0 


50 




15-0 


48-8 


16-3 


19-3 


65-6 


16-9 


230 800 


lG-9 


60 




13-3 


44-2 


16-6 


18-3 


60-8 


16-6 


23C 77-9 


16-5 


70 




160 


52-5 


16-4 


21-9 


73-6 


16-8 


2.50 84-8 


16-9 


80 




16-5 


55-0 


16-6 


22-7 


74-9 


16-5 


27-2 87-7 


16-1 



Silber makes flat-flame burners in three forms — single, double, and 
triple batwings. A wedge-shaped piece of brass is inserted between the 
heads of the two latter burners, for the purpo-se of directing air currents 
to the flame. The body of the burners in each case is large and vase- 
shaped. The results obtained by testing these burners are given in the 
following table : — 

Silber's Flat-flame Burners — Single, Double, and Triple Batwings. 







At 0-5 in. pressure 


At 1-0 in. pressure 


At 1-5 in. pressure 


Mark of burner 


1.8 

3 = - 


to 

a 

Is 

2-1 

2-8 

5-8 

80 

8-6 

11-6 

13-2 

60 

7-4 

9-2 

100 

9-0 

7-9 

8-4 


C t. cu 


6 '=• 


to 


C t. QJ 

e - 2 

3 


~ 


it 

S 2 

_3 ''~ 


S ^-3 
3 


Single A . 

„ B . 

„ C . 

„ D . 

„ E . 

„ F . 

„ G . 
Double B . 

„ C . 

„ D . 

» E . 
Triple C . 

„ D . 

„ E . 




1-2 
1-3 
2-6 
3-2 
3-3 
4-2 
4-8 
2-6 
3-3 
3-8 
4-3 
4-4 
4-9 
4-9 


8-8 
10-8 
11-2 
12-5 
130 
13-9 
13-7 
11-5 
11-2 
12-1 
11-6 
10 2 
8-1 
8-6 


1-7 
21 
3-9 
5-1 
5-2 
6-3 
7-1 
4-6 
5-4 
6-3 
70 
7-8 
8-2 
8-8 


3-6 

4-6 
100 
141 
150 
19 
21-0 
12-7 
16-2 
200 
22-3 
23-6 
22-5 
24-0 


10-6 
11-0 
12-8 
13-8 
14-4 
15-1 
14-8 
13-8 
150 
15-9 
15-9 
151 
13-7 
13-6 


2-4 

2-7 

50 

6-5 

6-9 

8-2 

9-2 

6-3 

7-5 

8-7 

9o 

110 

11-5 

131 


4-8 
GO 
13-6 
18-3 
20-5 
25-0 
27-0 
171 
220 
26-5 
31-0 
36-2 
38-0 
43-5 


10-0 

111 

13-6 
14-1 
14-9 
15-2 
14-7 
13-6 
14-7 
15-2 
16-3 
16-5 
16-5 
16-6 



I 



The double and triple burners do not give good results excepting 
at the higher pressures. The double ones give smoky sluggish flames at 



250 



REPOBT — 1880. 



0'5 incli pressure, and the triple ones smoky and shapeless flames even at 
a pressiire of 1 inch. 

Besides other flat-flame burners, Sagg has recently manufactured a 
large burner for large consumption of gas, which he calls a ' table-top ' 
burner. This has a flat disc-shaped head with a semispherical centre, 
in which the slit is formed. Each burner is fitted with a govei-nor. Two 
of these have been tested with the gas supplied to the governors at the 
under-mentioned pressures, and the following results obtained : — 





Sugg's ' Table 


-top ' Burners. 




Pressure of giis 
in inches 


Cubic feet of 
gas used 


Illuminating power 


Illuminating power 
per 5 cubic feet 


0-5 


a-8 


10-0 


13-2 


1(» 


G-2 


18-6 


150 


2() 


8-3 


24-8 


150 


;5-o 


84 


25-2 


150 




Another biu-ner 




0-5 


5-0 


14-0 


14-9 


1-0 


8--1 


27-7 


16-5 


2-0 


i2-:5 


41-8 


170 


;j-() 


11-4 


35-5 


15-6 



Bronner's burners, already described in the first joart of this report, 
have also been tested. They are made specially for use for common gas, as 
well as for cannel gas. The A-top burners are intended for use in globes 
with common gas ; and the B-top burners for use without globes, or in 
street lamps, also with common gas. The tops and bottoms of each 
burner are separately marked, and are iuterchangeable. The A-top bur- 
ners are made with two sizes of tops and eleven sizes of bottoms. The 
B-top burners are made with eight sizes of tops and eleven sizes of 
bottoms. The following results were obtained with the A-top and B-top 
burners, using 16-candle gas : — 





Bronner's A-Top Burners for Use 


in Globes. 






No. of top 


Xo. of 
bottom 


At 0- 


5 in. pressure 


At I'O in. pressure 


At 1'5 in. pressure 


5- 


Illuminating 
power 


Illuminating 

power per 5 

cubic feet 


-4J 
=2§ 


to 

.S 

a a 

|l 
S ft 


Illuminating 
power per .') 
cubic feet 




■■gS 


Illuminating 

power per 5 

cubic feet 


A 2 


• 1 


_ 


_ 





1-5 


2-7 


90 


20 


40 


10-0 


do. 


■ 2 


1-6 


2-9 


9-1 


2-4 


5-2 


10-8 


31 


6-8 


no 


do. 


2i 


20 


3-9 


9-8 


2-9 


6-8 


11-7 


3-8 


9-4 


12-4 


A3 


O 


2-1 


4-4 


10-5 


3-2 


7-8 


12-2 


4-4 


10-6 


120 


do. 


3J 


2-5 


4-8 


9-6 


3-8 


9-2 


121 


4-9 


12-2 


12-4 


do. 


4 


2-5 


5-4 


10-8 


3-8 


9-6 


12-7 


5-2 


13-6 


13-1 


do. 


4' 


30 


G-4 


10-7 


4-5 


10-8 


120 


5-9 


14-8 


125 


do. 


5 


3-2 


■ 7-7 


12-0 


5-1 


13-2 


130 


68 


18-0 


13-2 


do. 


C 


3-7 


8-7 


11-8 


5-8 


15-5 


13-3 


■ 7-7 


21-0 


13-6 


do. 


7 


3-5 


8-6 


12-3 


59 


160 


13-6 


8-4 


23-0 


13-7 


do. 


8 


3-7 


90 


12-2 


6-2 


16-8 


13-5 


8-6 


23-4 


13-6 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FEOSI COAL-GAS. 



251 







B 


ronner 


's B-Top Burners for Common 


Gas. 






No. of toji 


No. of 
l^ottom 


At 0"5 in. pressure 


At 10 in. pressure 


At 1- 


5 in. pressure 




Is 
•s S 


Huminating 
lower per 5 
cubic feet 


~ 




1 H 


Cubic feet 

of sas 
per liour 


be 

c 

■5 o 

= P. 

3 


Humiuatinu; 

power per 5 

cubic feet 








p— 1 


"■^ 




'"' 


■"^ 




' ' 




No. 1 B 


1 


_ 


— 


1-3 


2-3 


8-8 


1-8 


3-5 


9-7 


,. 2 B 


2 


1-3 


2-3 


8-S 


2-1 


4-4 


10-5 


2-S 


6-4 


11-4 




, 2 B 


n 


1-6 


30 


9-4 


2o 


60 


12-0 


3-4 


8-4 


12-4 




, '^ B 


3 


20 


3-8 


90 


30 


7-2 


12-0 


41 


10-1 


12-3 




, S B 


32^ 


2-3 


4-3 


9-3 


3-4 


7-7 


11-3 


4-5 


110 


12'2 




, 4 B 


■1 


2-3 


47 


10-2 


3-6 


8-8 


12-2 


.50 


13-0 


13-0 




, 4 B 


ih 


2-7 


.5-9 


iOO 


4-3 


10-4 


121 


.50 


150 


13-4 




, B 


5 


31 


7-0 


11-3 


4-9 


12-9 


13-2 


6-3 


18-0 


13-8 




, C B 


C 


3-8 


0-C 


12-6 


5-9 


16-4 


13-8 


80 


23-0 


14-4 




, 7 B 


7 


40 


10-2 


12-8 


6-6 


19'0 


14-4 


90 


26-0 


14-4 




, 8 B 


8 


4-7 


11-8 


12-6 


7-3 


22-0 


15-1 


9-6 


300 


13-7 



Harrison's ' Gas-Light Improver ' is a device similar to that of Scholl 
applied to iinion-jets. It consists of a small plate of thin iron placed 
across the top of the union-jet burner, against w^hich the jets of gas im- 
pinge, thereby checking the force with which they mingle with the air. 
When the ' Improver ' is applied to a burner with small holes, and when 
the gas issues under considerable pressure, the light results are better 
than when no ' Improver ' is applied, btifc it produces no improvement if 
applied to a good burner of the same kind in which the pressure has been 
ali-eady checked. 

Of Ai'gand burners, those manufactured by Sugg and Silber have 
been tested. It will be seen that by carefully controlling and directing 
the air supply much better results can be obtained than with the Standard 
Argand used in testing. Each burner was tested with the consumption of 
gas to which it was best fitted, which was the largest quantity the burner 
will use without smoking. 

The Silber Argand tried was one marked B. It was used with' chim- 
neys of various sizes, by means of which various quantities of gas could 
be consumed. 

Silber's B Argand with various sized chimneys. 



Size of cliimaey 


Cubic feet of 


in inches 


gas used 


5 X 13 


4-3 


7 X 13 


5-7 


8 X 13 


6-4 


9 X If 


7-1 


10 X 13 


71 



Illuminating power 



14-1 
210 
23-8 
26-2 
26-6 



Illuminating 


power 


per 5 cubic 


feet 


lG-4 




18-4 




18-6 




18-5 




18-7 





The following results wei'e obtained in testing a series of Argand 

New Reading Lamp 
sepai'ate governor, to 



burners made by Sugg, which are called Sugg's New Reading Lamp 



Argand Burners. Each burner is fitted with 
control the pressure of gas in the mains : — 



a 



252 



REPORT — 1880. 



Sugg's New Reading Lamp Argand Bui-ners. 



Mark of 


Xo of 


Size of 


Cubic feet of 


Illuminating 


Illuminating 


Burner 


Holes 


Cliimnej' 


gas 
per hour 


power 


] lower per 
u cubic feet 


A 


15 


6xl§ 


3-2 


9-6 


15-0 


r, 


18 


6xlf 


3-7 


11-8 


16-0 


c 


21 


6xl| 


4-0 


12'8 


160 


D 


24 


7xli 


4-4 


15-8 


18-0 


E 


27 


7xlf 


4-9 


17-2 


17-2 


F 


30 


7xlf 


5-6 


19-4 


17-3 


G 


33 


8xlf 


G-6 


24-2 


18-3 


H 


36 


9x13 


8-0 


27 


169 


J 


39 


9xlf 


8-1 


29-0 


17-9 


K 


42 


9xia 


8-5 


30-9 


18-2 



Sugg lias recently pi-oduced some very large Argand burners for street 
lighting purposes. These are made with concentric rings, from ^vhich the 
gas is suppUed. Two of these, one a hundred-candle burner, and the other 
a two hundred-caudle burner, were tested with 16-candle gas, with the 



followins: results 



Sugg's Large Street Argand Burners. 



Description of Burner 


Cubic feet of 

gas 

per hour 


Illuminating 
power 


Illuminating 

power per 

b cubic feet 


oO-candle burner with two concentric 1 
rings J 

100-candlc burner with two concentric \ 
rings and a centre jet . .J 

Do. do 

200-candle biu-ner with tliree coucen-"] 
trie rings and a centre jet . J 

Do. do 


14-7 

260 
29-5 
.52-0 
5.5-0 


54-9 

9.i0 
110-4 
196-0 
220-S 


18-6 

18-4 

18-7 
18-8 
20 



Although a greater amount of light can be obtained from the burning 
of common gas in ordinary quantities in good Argand burners than can 
be obtained by the use of ilat-flame bm-ners, yet there are many reasons 
for thinking that the latter are better adapted for general use, and that 
they will continue to be much more largely used for general lighting pur- 
poses than Argands. In the first place, the first cost of the Argand 
burner is necessarily very much gi'eater. The cost of maintenance — 
replacing broken chimneys, &c. — is also very much greater. Then, again, 
the cleaning of the chimneys is troublesome. They must be kept clean, or 
a loss of light will result. A chimney which had been in constant use for 
thirty hours, burning Newcastle gas, was so dimmed by the deposition of 
what is probably sulphate of ammonia on the inside, that half a candle 
of the light was intercepted. If, from the irregularities of the pressure 
of gas in the main or from other cause, a larger amount of gas is passed 
through the burner than can be thoroughly consumed, the flame gives off 
dense smoke, which, if not at once stopped, produces very disastrous 
effects in rooms. Hence it is almost absolutely necessary to use a special 
governor to each burner, Avhich adds still more to the cost. It is only 
-when the consumption of gas for which the Argand bui*ner is specially 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT FROM COAL-GAS. 



253 



adapted is used, that the liiglier illuminating power results are obtained. 
With smaller amounts the loss of light by the excessive supply of air 
which then enters the chimney is much greater than in the case of flat- 
flame burners of good quality. On burning various quantities of gas 
through the standard Argand used for testing, the following results were 
obtained : — 



Cubic feet of ga.s i>er hour 


Illuminating power 


Illuminating;- power per 5 
cubic feet 


2o 


2-5 


.5-0 


ao 


5-0 


8-3 


3-4 


7-9 


11-6 


41 


12-1 


14-8 


4-5 


14-3 


15-8 


50 


16-0 


160 


5-5 


17-8 


16-2 


5-T 


17-8 


151 



By reducing the consumption of gas from 5 feet to 2-5 feet per hour, 
the illuminating power is reduced from 16 candles to S'O candles per 5 
cubic feet. 

The amount of light lost for illuminating purposes by the use of globes 
around the lights has been mentioned in the first part of this Report. In 
many cases this loss is considerable, and the use of globes with narrow 
openings, and made of very opaque white glass, should be avoided. 
The principal advantage of the use of globes is that the direct glare of the 
flames is prevented, and the light is softened and diffused in a pleasant 
manner. It is often worth the sacrifice of a portion of the light to produce 
this effect. With properly made globes of thin milk-white glass, having 
openings of not less than four inches at the bottom, and still wider ones 
at the top, the loss of light can be to a great extent avoided, the light 
being reflected by the white surfaces of the interior of the globe through 
the wide openings both upwards and downwards. 

From what has been frequently shown in this report it will be seen 
how very important it is to have complete control of the pressure at which 
the gas is supplied to the burners in order to develop its light-giving pro- 
perties to the best advantage. The first part of the report jjoints out the 
various causes which give rise to great fluctuations of the pressure in the 
gas mains. In many towns the pressure may vary from less than an inch 
to four inches. No doubt the pressure as supplied to the burners can be 
regulated by the taps at the burners or at the meter, but in many situa- 
tions where the pressure alters much in the course of a single night this 
is very troublesome to attend to, and in most cases will be neglected. It 
is best in such places to have governors which act automatically by the 
pressure of the gas. 

Besides the various governors already mentioned suitable for a number 
of lights, it is now possible to obtain governors suitable to be applied to 
single lights at a cost within the reach of most gas consumers. These 
are placed near the burner, and in many cases form a part of the burner. 
In many situations subject to great variations of pressure it is worth while 
on the score of economy to adopt such burners. Vastly different amounts 



254 REPORT— 1880. 

of gas are passed, often imperceptibly, throngli the same burner. In most 
of the burners tested for the purposes of this Report, and which are not 
provided with means of checking the pressure, it will be seen that about 
twice as much gas is passed through the burner at 1'5 inches pressure as 
is passed through at 0*5 inch pressure, and the pi'essure in the mains often 
Tai'ies more than this. The amounts of gas passed through a burner 
without obstruction for checking pressure with and without a governor at 
different pressures is shown in the following table : — 



Inches of pressure in 
the main 


With governor. Feet of 
gas used per hour 


Without governor. Feet of 
gas used per hour 


|in. 

1 » 

2 „ 

3 „ 


2-6 
4-0 
40 

4-0 


4-9 

7-4 

n-8 

15-6 



Single-burner governors are now made by Sugg, Peebles, "Wright, 
Bori-adaile, and others. Many of these regulate the pressure by the rising 
and falling of a small cup or cone fitting loosely in a receptacle through 
which the gas passes on its way to the burner, and they are of a size 
which does not obstruct the downward light, and of a form which does 
not offend the eye. Several of these have been tested at pressures varying 
from half an inch to three inches. From the exigencies of their construc- 
tion they do not act absolutely perfectly, but at pressures vai-ying from 
one inch (at which most of them are constructed to commence to act) to 
thi'ee inches the amount of gas they allow to pass to the burner does 
not vary more than half a cubic foot per hour. Such gov^ernors are of 
very great service, not only in preventing waste of gas, but also in very 
nearly securing \Vhat is so essential to the development of the maximum 
amount of light, ft uniform supply of gas to the burner. 



Report of the ' Committee, consisting of Dr. G-ajsigee, Professor 
ScHAFER, Professor Allman, and Mr. Geddes, for conducting 
Palceontological and Zoological Researches in Mexico. Drawn 
up by Mr. Geddes {Secretary). 

In pursuance of the plan for carrying on certain geological and zoological 
explorations in Mexico (of which I gave some account in my application 
for a grant from the Association last year), I sailed from Liverpool on 
September 10th, 1879, and arrived at the city of Mexico on October 10th. 
Besides the general object of a naturalist's first visit to the tropics, 
that of obtaining a more general view of animated nature, I proposed 
undertaking certain specific researches : — 

1. To examine some of the deposits of fossil bones in the Valley of 
Mexico, of which so many accounts had been given me by eye-witnesses,, 
and to ascertain their age and contents. 

2. To fill up such leisure as might remain from that inquiry with a 
study of the completely unknown microscopic life of the great lakes. 

3. To make a general collection. 



ON PAL^ONTOLOGICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL KESEAllCHES IN MEXICO. 255 

4. To drccTge on tbe const, should time allow. 

I shall proceed to discuss in how fai* each of these jsarts of my pro- 
gramme has been carried out, but must first explain that almost imme- 
diately after my arrival in Mexico my health commenced to suffer ; that 
indisposition soon passed into illness, and that this illness, aggravated 
by very severe, and as it after svards turned out, mistaken medical 
treatment, confined me to my room for ujjwards of two months, 
and left me utterly enfeebled. After my recovery I remained more 
than a month in hopes of recovering strength and returning to work, 
and even attempted a few excursions, e.g. to the caves of Caca- 
huamilpa; but was at length compelled to yield to the urgent advice 
of my physicians and relatives, and return to Scotland to recruit my 
health. I therefore sailed from Vera Cruz on 1st March last. It will thus 
be readily understood that my results, gathered as they are from a period 
of a few weeks after my arrival (during which my time was largely 
occupied in the preliminary work of gathering information and improving 
ray knowledge of the language, not to speak of failing health), are neces- 
sarily of the most imperfect kind, and that, of various undertakings, well 
begun, bu^t never finished, nothing can be said at all. I hope, however, to 
make my memoranda useful to another explorer, my friend M. Joyeux- 
Laffuie, D.Sc, who proposes shortly to undertake a similar and I trust a 
more fortunate expedition to Mexico. 

For dredging on the coast there was of course no time. I am con- 
vinced, however, that excellent results await the fortunate naturalist who 
can devote a winter to the task, particularly on the Pacific side, which is 
completely unexplored. 

My collections, though small, were by no means valueless. I obtained 
a number of plants, mainly from the ravines eroded by streams in the 
alluvial of the Plateau, and these are of considerable interest, since 
many are of subtropical fades, belonging to a zone of vegetation consi- 
derably warmer and lower than the Plateau itself. This tends to throw 
some light upon the migrations of plants in these countries. The plants 
growing on the sides of ravines being protected from inclemencies of 
weather, better exposed to the sun, &c., are thus enabled to reach altitudes 
otherwise uninhabitable by them. I have presented these dried plants 
to the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, where also 
some of their seeds are being grown. 

My zoological collection is deposited in the British Museum. It con- 
sisted of a few mammals, of which two are of considerably rarity, viz. : 
Spermophilus Mexicanus, Licht., and Blarma micrura, Tomes ; twenty-five 
reptiles, fifty-two fish, twelve crustaceans, and a few insects. Some of 
the reptiles, fishes, and crustaceans are of interest to the systematic 
zoologist, and a note upon some of the crustaceans has just been published 
by Mr. Miers in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' I was 
also able to pro\ade Professor Huxley with a small collection of crayfishes 
and prawns. 

The microscopical investigation, too, had commenced to yield results of 
interest. Although in aiitumn the general fades was surprisingly Euro- 
pean, yet new and strange Protozoa, Rotifers, &c., were by no means rare. 

Despite all hindrances, however, the main inquiry, as to the age and 
contents of the superficial deposits of the Plateau, came much nearer to a 
solution. The Plateau is covered to an unknown depth — so great that the 



256 EEPOET— 1880. 

Artesian "wells •svLicli are frequently bored never reach the bottom — with 
a series of lacustrine deposits, earthy, clayey, and sandy. Most frequently 
the alluvium contaius a great quantity of pumice and volcanic ash, and 
then acquires so much consistence as to be used in the cheaper and less 
durable kinds of building. A con^siderable area is covered by lakes, 
Chalco. Xochimilco, Tezcocn, &c., and these, particularly the latter, have 
diminished greatly since the Spanish Conquest. The principal lake, into 
which all the others drain, Tezcoco, is very shallow, nowhere more than 
fonr or five feet deep, and has no definite limits, but alters its area by 
many square miles in the course of every season. It is easy to see that the 
various lakes now scattered over the Plateau are merely the remnants of 
one vast lake, whose shallow watei's extended over the vast plain around 
the site of the City of Mexico, and which received the torrents which 
come down from the surrounding mountains every rainy season laden 
with detritus. Meanwhile the volcanoes, which are scattered over and 
around the Plateau, were in great activity, and the surface of the lake 
seems to have been generally either wholly or partly covered with pumice 
and ashes, which as the waters receded during di'ougbt wonld be deposited 
along with the mud at the bottom. 

It is interesting to compare the lava-flows Avhich have been emitted 
on what was at the time dry land with those which were formed in the 
lake itself. The former, such as the Pedregal de Thalpan, are dense, 
hard, and black, like the lava of Vesuvius ; the latter, e.g. the two little 
hills near ]\Iesico, known respectively as the Great and Little Peiion, are 
gigantic cinders, red, cracked and porous, and here and there containing 
large irregular caves, formed simply by the expansion of the included 
water into steam. 

All over the Plateau, imbedded in the soft alluvium or in the denser 
' tipitate ' as the rock containing j^imice is called, and frequently laid 
bare by the streams, are to be fonnd considerable numbers of mammalian 
skeletons. To examine and collect these I made a good many expeditions, 
generally accompanied by one or two Indians, who served as guides and 
excavators. I obtained many sjjecimens, nearly all, however, in very 
imperfect preservation, and many so friable as scarcely to bear removal. 
The most abundant I'emains are those of Elephas. Mastodon, however, 
occasionally occurs, and skeletons of horses, buffaloes, and wolves are 
tolerably common. I was much interested by the fact that some time 
before and again during my visit a specimen of Glyptodon, apparently 
clavipes, had "been found in the course of some engineering work, and 
had come into the possession of the museum there, thus establishing the 
rano-e of this genus of Edentates into the northern part of the Neotropical 
reo-ion. I was fortunate in discovering a magnificent Edentate skeleton, 
closely resembling Myhdon ; but, on returning with my workmen early 
next morning to continue the excavation, we found our specimen shattered 
into fragments. Some of the country people, who always watched one's 
movements with intense suspicion, and who alternately regarded us as 
treasure-seekers and as magicians, so adding considerably to the danger 
and discomfort of the undertaking, had done this, and we were able only 
to rescue a single broken tooth, now in the British Museum. 

On my way home I examined, along with Mr. Halliday, C.B., of Vera 
Cruz, an artesian well which he was boring in hopes of obtaining a supply 
of water for that city. He had passed through 1260 feet of sands and 



O.N ESTABLISHING A CLOSE TIME FOR INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 257 

clays, and kindly gave me specimens of all the strata passed tbrough. 
These, with his description, are at present in the hands of my friend. Dr. 
James Geikie, F.R.S., for transmission to Mr. Mnrray or some other 
specialist, from whom an account of their microscopic contents may 
perhaps be forthcoming at the next meeting of the Association. 



Rejjort of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes-Law- 
renc'k', ]Mr. SrENCE Bate, Mr. Henry E. Dresser {Secretary), ]Mr. 
J. E. Harting, Dr. J. GtWyn Jeffreys, Mr. J. Gr. Shaw Lefevre, 
Professor Newton, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for 
the purpose of inquirinrj into the possibility of establishing a 
Close time for Indigenous Animals. 

Your Committee has to report that on the 7th of June last Mr. Dillwyn, 
M.P., obtained leave from the House of Commons to bring in a Bill to 
amend the Laws relating to the Protection of Wild Birds, which Bill was 
read a second time on the 14th, and ordered to be considered in Committee 
of that House on the 21st of June. 

Owing to the late period at which the Bill was introduced, the rapid 
progi'esa of its earlier stages, and the difiBculty of communicating with 
some members of your Committee, an attempt to fix a meeting failed, and 
your Committee, as a body, had therefore no opportunity of discussing 
this Bill, nor, if need were, of reporting thereon to the Council of the 
Association according to its instructions. In their private capacity some 
members of your Committee, conceiving that the Bill contained much that 
was objectionable, are understood to have made representations to that 
effect to various members of the House of Commons whom they believed 
to be interested in the subject. The Bill passed thi-ough Committee of 
the House of Commons on the 21st of June, and, in consequence of the 
various amendments then adopted, assumed an entirely different aspect 
from that which it originally presented, several of the features believed to 
have been regarded by some members of your Committee as most objec- 
tionable having disappeared. In this state it was read a third time in the 
House of Commons, and was sent to the House of Lords on the 15th of 
July. 

In the House of Lords charge was taken of it by Lord Aberdare, and 
it received very careful consideration, several important amendments pro- 
posed by him and by Lords Lilford and Walsingham being made in it, both 
in Committee and on Report, and it was read the third time on the 15th of 
August. 

The Bill now awaits the approval of the House of Commons to the 
Lords' amendments. 

Tour Committee, for the reasons above assigned, having been unable 
to discuss this Bill, refrains from offering any remarks upon it, and, while 
trusting that the new measure may prove to be efficient, begs leave to 
submit this short statement of facts. 



1880. 



258 REPORT— 1880. 

Report of the Coriimittee, consisting of Professor Dewar, Dr. 
Williamson, Dr. :M.\i!.snALL Watts, Captain Abney, Mr. Stoxey, 
Professor Hartley, Professor McLeod, Professor Carey Foster, 
Professor A. K. HuxTiNGTOif, Professor Emersox Reynolds, Pro- 
fessor Reinold, Professor Liveing, Lord Eayleigh, Dr. Schuster, 
and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of repjortlag upon the. present state of our KnovJedge 
of Spectrum Atudysis. 

[Plates X. axd XL] 

Coiitciitii. 
§ 1. Spectra of Metalloids (drawn up by Dr. Schuster). 
§ 2. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on the Spectra of Gases (drawn up b\ 

Dr. Schuster). 
§ ?,. Emission Spectra of the Kays of High Refrangibility (drawn up by Prof. Hartley). 
§ 4. Absorption Spectra of the Hays of Hioh Kefrangibility (drawn up by Prof. 

Huntington). 

§ 1. Spectra of Met.'vllgids. By Dr. Schuster, F.B.S. 
I. Preliminary RemarJcs. 
Certain spectroscopic changes and variations, wliich we now know to bc- 
common botb to metals and metalloids, were first observed in the case of 
metalloids. It is owing to this fact tliat their spectra have given rise to 
so much discussion. Angstrom and v. d. Willigen had examined electric 
sparks passing through various gases, and had thus observed the spectra 
of several metalloids ; but the subject first received due attention when 
Plucker and Hittorf (1804) announced the important discovery that one 
and the same element can, under different conditions, show more than one 
spectrum.' Attempts were naturally made to disprove such a remarkable 
and at first sight improbable assertion. DiSerent spectroscopists took 
different views ; most metalloids were carefully examined, and in the long 
dif^cussion which followed, each side had to give in on some points. 
Pliicker's discovery, however, was established in the case of all metalloids 
Avhich have been sufficiently well studied. There is now among those 
best able to judge a general agreement on the facts, although great diffei-- 
ences exist as to their interpretation. We have in the present Report 
nothing to do with the explanations which have been offered to account 
lor the variability of spectra, but only to record facts and to desci'ibe the 
phenomena which appear when the spectra of metalloids are examined 
under different and varying conditions. 

It is perhaps advisable to say one word on the nomenclature which 
we shall adopt, and on the general appearance of the spectra with which 
we have to deal. Different spectra often resemble each other in 
general appearance, so that we can classify and roughly divide them into 
three kinds or orders : continuous spectra, line spectra, and spectra of 
Anted bands, or channelled-space spectra, as they are sometimes called. 
Piiicker and Hittorf called the spectra of fluted bands, spectra of the first 
Older ; the line spectra, spectra of the second order. This nomenclature 

' Both Plucker and v. d. Willigen had already, in 1858, described the band spec- 
trum of nitrogen, but the sultject was first tlioroughly investigated by Piiicker and 
Hittorf, and only received due attention after the publication of their paper. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF SPECTRDM ANALYSIS. 259 

is sometimes adopted ; it presents no advantages, but, on the contrary, 
may give rise to a good deal of misconception. We shall not use the 
expressions. A spectrum is called a continuous spectrum when it extends 
over a wide range, and is not broken up into separate lines. It is, how- 
ever, not necessary that it should extend through all the colours. We 
may have a continuous spectrum in the green without an admixture of 
red and blue, and we often have continuous spectra which are confined to 
one end of the spectrum, either to the red or to the violet. 

The spectra of fluted bands or channelled spaces generally appear, 
when seen in spectroscopes of small dispersive power, as made up of 
bands, which have a sharp boundary on one side and gradually fade away 
on the other. When seen with a more perfect instrument, each band 
seems to be made up of a number of lines of nearly equal intensity, which 
gradually come nearer and nearer together as the sharp edge is approached. 
This sharp edge is generally only the place where the lines are ruled so 
closely that we cannot distinguish any more the individual components. 
The edge is sometimes towards the red, sometimes towards the violet end 
of the spectrum. Occasionally, however, the bands of channelled space 
spectra do not present any sharp edge whatever ; but are simply made up 
of a series of lines which are, roughly speaking, equidistant. In small spec- 
troscopes these bands appear to be altogether homogeneous, presenting a 
fairly sharp edge on both sides. A body, as we shall see, may have more 
than one spectrum of the same kind. 

Variations in the spectra of gases are generally obtained by a sufficient 
alteration in the intensity of the electric discharge, which renders them 
luminous. We shall call the discharge which passes, when the electrodes 
are connected directly with the terminals of the induction coil, ' the 
ordinary discharge,' in contradistinction to the ' jar discharge,' in which 
each terminal is also connected with one of the coatings of the Leyden 
jar. In order to get the best effect with the jar discharge, it is generally 
necessary to interrupt the circuit in some part, so that a spark is forced 
to break through the air whenever the discharge passes. 

II. Nitrogen. 

o 

Angstrom: ' Pogg. Ann.' xciv. p. 158 (1865). 

Pliicker: ' Pogg. Ann.' cv. p. 76 (1858) ; cvii. p. 519 (1859). 

V. d. Willigen: ' Pogg. Ann.' cvi. p. 618 (1859). 

Huggins : 'Phil. Trans.' cliv. p. 144 (1864). 

Pliicker and Hittorf : 'Phil. Trans.' civ. p. 1 (1865). 

Brassak: ' Abh. Nat. Ges. Halle,' x. (1866). 

Wiillner : ' Pogg. Ann.' cxxxv. p. 524 (1868) ; cxxxvii. p. 356 (1869); 

cxlvii. p. 326 (1872) ; cxlix. p. 103 (1873). 
Salet : ' Ann. Ch. Phys.' xxviii. p. 52 (1873) ; C.R. Ixxxii. p. 223 : 
„ 274(1876). 
Angstrom and Thalen : ' Nov. Act. Ups.' (3), ix. (1875). 

The Line-spectrum. — This spectrum appears whenever a strong spark 
(jar discharge) is taken in nitrogen gas. It is always present when 
metallic spectra are examined by the ordinary method of allowing the jar 
discharge to pass between two metallic poles. A good knowledge of this 
spectrum, which is very rich in lines, is important in all cases where 
an electric discharge is used for spectroscopic analysis. The spectrum 
has been studied especially by Huggins and Thalen. The latter has 

S2 



260 REPORT— 1880. 

given the wave-lengths of all atmospheric lines, but has not separated 
the oxygen and nitrogen lines. Huggins' measurements have been 
reduced to wave-lengths by Watts (Index of Spectra). At atmospheric 
pressure the lines are not shai-p, so that an exact measurement is difficult. 
Pliicker and Hittoi'f have given a drawing of the lines as seen in vacuum 
tubes with jar and air-break ; but they did not use a sufficient dispersion 
for accurate measurement, and their points of reference are so few, that 
the reduction to wave-length made by Watts was attended by many 
difficulties, and the result is not altogether satisfactory. A careful set of 
measui'ements of the nitrogen lines as they appear, when the pressure is 
low and with high dispersive power, would be a very useful addition to 
our knowledge of this spectrum. The continuous spectrum generally 
accompanying this spectrum has been investigated by Wiillner (1869). 

The Band-fipectrum of the Positive Discharge. — This spectrum which is 
generally called the ban'l-spectrum of nitrogen, always appears when the 
discharge is sufficiently reduced in intensity. 

It was first observed by Pliicker (1858) in a vacuum tube, and about 
the same tioae by v. d. Willigen in the brush discharge of an ordinary 
electrical machine. The best way of obtaining it is that adopted by Pliicker, 
who was the first to introduce the shape of vacuum-tubes now generally 
in use with the capillary part. Hence these tubes are often called Pliicker's 
tubes. The capillary part increasing the resistance greatly increases the 
luminosity of the discharge. If nitrogen (or atmosphei'ic air) be intro- 
duced into such a Pliicker tube, the capillary part will shine, on reduction 
of pressure, with a rose-coloured light, when the ordinary discharge is 
sent through it. The spectrum is one of the most beautiful which can be 
observed. A \cvy good coloured drawing of it is given in Pliicker and 
Hittorf's paper. Accurate measurements of the bands are given by Ang- 
strom and Thalen. Another drawing with measurements will be found 
in Lecoq de Boisbaudran's Atlas.' 

The bands of this spectrum, which are situated in the red and yellow, 
present a different appearance from those which are seen in the blue and 
violet. This fact has led Pliicker and Hittorf to the supposition that 
we have to deal with two different spectra which are superposed only but 
given out by two distinct sets of molecules. The authors tried and suc- 
ceeded in separating the two spectra. By increasing the diameter of the 
capillary part they obtained a tube which only showed the red and yellow 
bands. Their experiment is described in the following words, which will 
be found in the 28th paragTaph of the paper mentioned at the head of this 
chapter : — 

'Thus we succeeded in constructing a tube which, when the direct 
discharge was sent through it, became incandescent with the most brilliant 
gold-coloured light, which might easily be confounded with the light of 
highly-ignited vapours of sodium ; but with the intercalated jar, the light 
of the incandescent gas within the same tube, had a fine bluish- violet 
colour. The yellow light when analysed by the prism, gave a beautiful 
spectrum of shaded bands, extending with decreasing intensity to the 
blue, the channelled spaces being scarcely perceptible. The bluish light 
when examined was resolved by the prism into channelled spaces, extend- 
ing towards the red ; while the former bands almost entirely disappeared. 
We may transform each colour and its corresponding spectrum into the 
other ah lihitmn.' 

' Lecoq de Tloisbaudran, Sjwctrcs Lumineux, Paris (Gautbier Villars). 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. 261 

Tliis experiment might not be considered to be altogether conclusive, 
as a mere relative increase of intensity in the violet end by an increase 
of temperature might not be considered sufficient evidence for such a 
wide distinction. It was, therefore, thought better to discuss these 
spectra together, and not to separate them, for there is no donbt that in 
the vast majority of cases they appear as one whole and not as two dis- 
tinct spectra. It might, however, be adduced in support of Pliicker and 
Hittorf's opinion that the general aspect of the spectrum in the green is 
certainly that of two overlapping spectra. Wiillner (' Wied. Ann.,' viii. p. 
590), has described the gradual changes seen in a nitrogen tube having 
a very fine capillary bore, when the pressure is gradnally reduced to a 
very small amount. Owing to the increase of temperature the spectrum 
gradually changes into a line spectrum, which is essentially the same as 
the well-known line spectrum of nitrogen. Wiillner's results will be dis- 
cussed in a separate report. 

The Spedrum of the Negative Glow. — The glow which surrounds the 
negative electrode in an exhausted tube shows in many gases a spectrum, 
which, as a rule, is not seen in any other part of the tube. In niti'ogen 
this spectrum has often been observed since v. de Willigen first drew 
attention to it, and was recently mapped by Angstroin and Thalen. It is 
a channelled-space spectrum, fading away towards the blue. The bands 
partially overlap some of the bands which are seen in the spectrum of the 
positive discharge, so that with low dispersive powers it might seem as if 
in the negative glow some of the ordinary bands were greatly increased 
in intensity. But in reality a new series of bands is added at the nega- 
tive pole, as will be seen with a good spectroscope, even if one prism only 
be used. The ordinary spectrum of the positive discharge no doubt is 
also present, though weak, in the negative glow, and often traces of the 
spectrum of the negative pole are seen in the positive discharge ; but there 
can be no doubt that we have to deal with two distinct spectra, although 
it may not be easy to separate them entirelj^ When the pressure is much 
reduced the negative glow gradually extends into the whole tube, and the 
spectrum is then well seen in the capillary part. 

Discission on the Chemical Origin of the above Spectra. — Some discus- 
sion has taken place on the chemical origin of the spectrum seen in the 
positive discharge. In the year 1872 the writer of the present Report 
('Proc. R. Soc.,' XX. p. 482), described some experiments, in which he 
showed that when sodium is heated in a nitrogen tube the band spectrum 
disappears, and is replaced by a series of lines which he thought belonged 
to nitrogen. He drew the conclusion from his experiment that the bands 
were due to an impurity of an oxide of nitrogen. It has since, however, 
been shown, especially by Salet, that the disappearance of the bands is 
due to another cause, and that the line spectrum which appears on heating 
the sodium is not due to nitrogen. Salet also showed how, with proper 
precautions, sodium may be heated in a tube containing nitrogen without 
destroying the band spectrum, and he has therefore furnished the proof 
that this spectrum is really due to nitrogen, and not to an oxide. Wiillner 
has also come to the same conclusion. Angstrom and Thalen, however, 
in their joint paper, support the opinion that the spectrum is that of 
some oxide of nitrogen. They try to support this view by an experiment 
showing that when the brush discharge from a Holtz machine is observed 
in atmospheric air, or when the ordinaiy discharge of a coil is sent through 
rarefied air, the band spectrum is seen, and that at the same time the 



262 BEPOKT— 1880. 

formation o£ nitrogen dioxide can be proved by means of a solution of sul- 
phate of iron. But the reasoning proves too much ; for oxides of nitrogen 
are also formed under the influence of the jar discharge when the line 
spectrum is visible, and we should, therefore, have an equal right to 
assume that the line spectrum of nitrogen is due to an oxide. It is im- 
portant to remark that the chemical compounds which are formed outside 
the sjjark give us no information on the chemical origin of the spectrum 
which is given by the spark itself. In the absence of any contradictory 
proof, Salet's experiment that the band spectrum of nitrogen is seen in a 
tube in which sodium is heated to its fusing point must be considered 
conclusive that the spectrum is not due to an oxide. 

Compounds of Nitrogen and Hydrogen. 

Schuster: 'Brit. Ass.' Brighton (1872) p. 38; 'Nature,' vi. p. 

359. 
Dibbits, Dr. : ' Spektraal- Analyse,' p. 127 ; ' Pogg. Ann.' cxxii. p. 518. 
Hofmann : ' Pogg. Ann.' cxlvii. p. 95. 

The spectrum seen when a weak spark is taken in a current of am- 
monia is neither that of nitrogen nor that of hydrogen, but must be due 
to a compound of these two gases. The writer of this report could even 
obtain a spectrum in a vacuum tube by maintaining a current of the gas 
through the tube. The spectrum consisted of a single band in the 
greenish yellow, standing on a faint continuous background. The wave- 
length was approximately found to be 5686 to 5627 decimetres. If am- 
monia and hydrogen are burnt together, either in air or in oxygen, a 
complicated spectrum is obtained, the chemical origin of which has not 
been satisfactorily explained as yet. Drawings of this sjiectrum are given 
by Dibbits and Hofinann. 

Compounds of Nitrogen and Oxygen. — No emission spectrum has as 
yet been found which can be with certainty referred to a compound of 
nitrogen and oxygen ; though it is possible that the above-mentioned 
spectrum of the flame of ammonia and hydrogen may in part be due to 
an oxide of nitrogen. The absorption spectrum of the red fumes of 
nitrogen tetroxidc has often been mapped ; the most perfect drawing is 
given by Dr. B. Hasselberg (' Mem. de St. Pet.'xxvi. No. 4). According 
to Moser (' Pogg. Ann.' clx. p. 177), three bands close to the solar line 
disap23ear when the vapoiir is heated. 

III. Oxygen. 

o 

Angstrom : ' Pogg. Ann.' xciv. p. 141 (1855). 

Pliicker: ' Pogg. Ann.' cvii. p. 518 (1859). 

Huggins : ' Phil. Trans.' cliv. p. 146 (1864). 

Pliicker and Hittorf: 'Phil. Trans.' civ. p. 23 (1865). 

Brassak: 'Abh. Nat. Ges. Halle,' x. (1866). 

Wiillner : ' Pogg. Ann.' cxxxv. p. 515 (1868) ; cxxxvii. p. 350 (1869) ; 

cxliv. p. 481 (1872) ; cxlvii. p. 329 ; ' Wied. Ann.' viii. p. 263 

(1879). 
Salet : 'Ann. Ch. Ph.' xxviii. p. 35 (1873). 
Schuster : ' Phil. Trans.' clxx. p. 37 (1879) ; ' Wied. Ann.' vii. p. 670 

(1879). 

The spectrum of oxygen has been examined by Pliicker, Wiillner, 
Salet, and more recently, by the author of this report, to whose paper the 



ON OVli KNOWLEDUE OF .SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. 263 

reader is referred for all historical details, as well as for all measurements. 
Great care must be taken when experimenting with oxygen to exclude all 
impurities containing carbon ; for the electric spark oxidizing these com- 
pounds shows the spectrum of carbonic oxide, which is much more bril- 
liant than the spectrum of oxygen, and may entirely eclipse it. We 
distinguish four spectra of oxygen. 

The Elementary Line-spectrum of Oxygen. — This is the spectrum 
which appears at the highest temperature to which we can subject oxygen ; 
that is, whenever the jar and aii'-break are introduced into the electric 
circuit. It consists of a great number of lines, especially in the more 
refrangible part of the spectrum. It has been called elementary line- 
spectrum to distinguish it fi-om the other line-spectrum, because, accord- 
ing to one hypothesis, which has been suggested, to explain the variability 
of spectra, the molecule which gives this spectrum is in a simpler or more 
elementary state than that which gives the other or so-called compound 
line-spectrum. We may, however, adopt the nomenclature independently 
of any hypothesis which may have suggested it. 

The Compound Line-spectrum of Oxygen. — This spectrum appears at 
lower temperatures than the first. It consists of four lines : one in the 
red, two in the green, and one in the blue. With the exception of the 
blue line, all the lines in this spectrum widen very easily, and with an 
increase of pressure, more easily even than the hydrogen lines. They do 
not widen out equally on both sides, but more towards the red than 
towards the violet. This fact is especially noticeable in the more re- 
frangible of the two green lines. The blue line always remains sharp, 

The Continuous S-pedrum of Oxygen. — This spectrum appears at the 
lowest temperature at which oxygen is luminous. The wide part of a- 
Pliicker tube, filled with pure oxygen, generally shines with a faint yellow 
light, which gives a continuous spectrum. Even at atmospheric pressure 
this continuous spectrum can be obtained by putting the contact breaker 
of the induction coil out of adjustment, so that the spark is weakened. 
According to Becquerel an excess of oxygen in the oxyhydrogen flame 
produces a yellow colour, which colour very likely is due to this continuous 
spectrum of oxygen. The contiuuous background which often accom- 
panies the elementary line-spectrum must not be confounded with thisr 
spectrum. 

The Spectrum of the Negatire Glov;. — This spectrum, which was first 
accura,tely described by Wiillner (1872), is always seen in the glow sur- 
rounding the negative electrode in oxygen. It consists of five bands : 
three in the red and two in the green. The least refrangible of the red 
bands is so weak that it easily escapes obser\-ation ; the two other red 
bands are rather near together, and may be taken for one single band if 
the dispersion applied is small. The two green bands, which appear of 
the same brightness throughout, with pretty .sharply defined edges, are 
resolved into a series of lines, when looked at v.-ith high optical powers. 
The same no doubt holds of the red bands ; only the resolution has not 
been effected, owing to the weakness of the light. 

Transformation of Spectra into each other. — The following description 
of the appearance of a vacuum-tube filled with pure oxygen, as it under- 
goes gradual exhaustion, will give an idea of the way in which the spectra 
of oxygen gradually diffuse into each other : — 

'At fii'st the spark has a yellow colour, and the spectrum is perfectly 
continuous. Almost immediately, however, four lines are seen in the 



264 REPORT— 1880. 

capillary part above the continuous spectrum. One of these lines is in the 
red, two are in the green, and one is in the blue. The discharge still 
passes as a narrow spark throughout the length of the tube. In the 
wide part the spectrum remains continuous, and it extends more towards 
the red and blue than in the capillary part. It seems as if the four lines 
had taken away part of the energy of the continuous spectrum. As 
the pressure diminishes, these lines increase considerably in strength, the 
spark spreads out in the wide part of the tube, and the intensity of the 
continuous spectrum is, therefore, considerably diminished, Avhile it still 
forms a prominent part in the spectrum of the capillary part. When the 
pressure is small the continuous spectrum decreases in intensity. At 
the same time the negative glow, with its own characteristic spectrum, 
gradually extends through the negative half of the tube into the capil- 
lary part. The continuous spectrum has now entirely disappeared ; the 
bands of the negative pole and the four lines stand out on a perfectly 
black background. It is under these conditions that the change from the 
compound line-spectrum to the elementary line-spectrum is best studied. 
The mere insertion of theLeyden jar, I find, makes hardly any difference; 
the jar does not seem to be charged at all. If, in addition to the jar, we 
insert a movable air-break, which can be opened or closed at will, while 
we look through the spectroscope, we shall be able to see alternately two 
perfectly distinct spectra. If the air-break is closed, the four lines of the 
compound spectrum only are seen ; if the air-break is opened these four 
lines will disappear entirely, and the elementary line-spectrum will come 
out. We have here as complete a transformation as we have from the 
band to the line spectrum of nitrogen, taking place under exactly the 
same circumstances. We have, therefore, the same right to consider the 
two-line spectra of oxygen as two distinct spectra as we have in the case 
of the two spectra of nitrogen.' ' 

Chemical Origin of Spectra. — There can be no doubfc that all the above 
spectra really belong to oxygen. They appear iu whatever way the oxygen 
has been prepared. They are seen with electrodes of aluminium, platinum, 
silver, brass, and iridium. The glass also could not have introduced any 
appreciable impurity, for all the spectra were observed in a large glass 
receiver in which no part of the spark was within two and-a-half inches 
from the glass. 

It has been observed already that great caution is necessary to exclude 
all carbon impurities, and the reader is warned that several descriptions of 
the carbonic oxide spectrum as a supposed oxygen spectrum have even 
recently appeared.^ 

ly. Carbon. 

Swan: 'Phil. Trans. Ed.' xxi. p. 411 (1857). 

Pliicker : ' Pogg. Ann.' cv. p. 77 (1858) ; cvii. p. 533 (1859). 

V. d. Willigen : ' Pogg. Ann.' cvii. p. 473 (1859). 

Attfield: 'Phil. Trans.' clii. p. 221 (1862) ; * Phil. Mag.' xlix. p. 106 

(1875). 
Dibbits : ' De Spectraal Analyse' (1863) ; 'Pogg. Ann.' cxxii. p. 497 

(1864). 
Morren: 'Ann. Chim. Phys.' iv. p. 305 (1865). 
Pliicker and Hittorf : ' Phil. Trans.' civ. p. 1 (1866). 

• Fhil, Tram. clxx. p. 51. ' Paalzow, Wied. Ann. vii. p. 130. 



OK OUK KNOAVLEDGE OF SPECTKUM ANALYSIS. 265 

Hnggins: 'Phil. Trans.' dviii. p. 558 (18G8). 

Lielegg: 'Wien. Ber.' Ivii. (2) p. 593 (1868). 

Watts: 'Phil. Mag.' xxxviii. p. 249 (1869); xlviii. pp. 309 and 456 

(1874) ; xlix. p. 104 (1875). 
Wiillner: 'Pog-g. Ann.' cxliv. p. 481 (1872). 
Salet: 'Ann. Chim. Phys.' xxviii. p. 60 (1873). 
Angstrom and Thalen : ' Nov. Act. TJps.' ix. (1875). 
Lockyer: ' Proc. Roy. Soc' xxvii. p. 308 (1878) ; xxx. p. 335 (1880). 
Liveing and Dewar : 'Proc. Roy. Soc' xxx. pp. 152, 494 (1880). 
Piazzi Smyth: ' Ast. Obs. Ed.' xiii. (R.) p. 58 (1871) ; 'Phil. Mag.' 

xlix. p. 24 (1875) ; viii. p. 107 (1879). 

Few spectra have given rise to so much controversy as the spectrum 
of carbon. We shall give an account of the most important experiments 
which have been made on the subject. 

The Line-spectrum. — This spectrum appears when a very strong spark 
is sent through carbonic oxide or carbonic acid. It has been observed and 
described by Watts, Wiillner, Angstrom and Thalen. The best measure- 
ments seem to be given by the two Swedish observers. Watts gives many 
lines which are not found in Angstrom and Thalen's map, but it seems 
possible that the separation of carbon and oxygen lines has only been 
imperfectly effected by Watts. All observers seem agreed in ascribing 
this spectrum to carbon. Though Huggins and Watts wei'e only able to 
obtain this spectrum from carbonic oxide and carbonic acid, Angstrom and 
Thalen seem to have seen it also in hydrocarbons when they used a large 
condenser. 

2. The Band-spectrum {Candle-spectrum) . — This is the spectrum which 
is observed at the base of every candle and gas flame. The controversy 
on the carbon spectrum chiefly relates to this spectrum, there being a 
disagreement of opinion whether it is due to the element carbon or to a 
hj-drocarbon. The spectrum which has first been described by Swan 
consists of a series of bands apparently fading away towards the blue, but 
in reality easily resolvable into a series of lines. A good idea of the 
appearance of this spectrum as it appears in spectroscopes of one prism, 
is obtained from the drawing given in Lecoq de Boisbaudi'an's Atlas. 
Angstrom and Thalen and Watts give more detailed drawings and 
measurements. The spectrum was considered by Swan to be due to a 
hydrocarbon, but Swan's experiments were only made with gases 
containing hydrogen. Attfield discussed the question at great length in 
1862, and came to the conclusion, that the spectrum was really due to 
carbon. The experiments which were considered crucial by Attfield and 
the great majority of observers were as follows : — 

1. A flame of cyanogen in oxygen shows, amongst other bands, this 
spectrum most hrillianthj, after both gases have been carefully dried. 
Cyanogen burning in air also gives the spectrum, but more faintly. 

2. Sparks taken in the following gases, at atmospheric pressure, 
carefally prepared and dried, show the spectrum. 

Cyanogen. 

Carbonic oxide. 

Carbon bisulphide. 

These gases have only carbon in common, and, unless the experiments 
are vitiated by impurities, they prove undoubtedly that the spectrum is due 
to the element carbon. 



266 itEPOBT— 1880. 

Mr. Atfcfielil's paper induced Morren to take up the question. Starting 
with the intention of disproving Attfield's conclusions he ended by being 
convinced that he was right. Entirely confirming Attfield's experiments 
Morren satisfied himself that the candle spectrum was really due to carbon, 
and not to a hydrocarbon. He especially testifies to the brilliancy of the 
spectrum in a flame of cyanogen and oxygen. 

Dibbits had already, before Morren, arrived at the same conclusion. He 
was the first to furnish an answer to the theoretical objection which can 
be raised against Attfield's explanation, and which at first sight appears 
serious. The temperature of an ordinary flame is certainly not high 
enough to volatilise carbon. How, then, can carbon be present in the state 
of vapour and give us a discontinuous spectrum. Dibbits explains the 
difficulty by saying that carbon exists before combustion, combined with 
hydrogen ; after combustion it is combined with oxygen, and it must 
therefore have existed during a certain stage of transition in the form of 
simple carbon uncombined. During this stage of transition it gives us the 
carbon spectrum. He sujjports the explanation by the fact that a flame 
of carbonic oxide does not show the spectrum, because in it the carbon is 
never in a free and uncombined state. Dibbits' view has received a good 
deal of support by some very interesting experiments made recently by 
Gouy (' C. R.' Ixxxiv. p. 231). In a Bunsen flame, the spectrum under 
discussion is confined to a naii'ow cone ; Gouy charges the air before it 
enters the burner with powdered salts in a finely divided state, and shows 
that at the same place where the candle-spectrum appears we may obtain 
the spectra of bodies which it would be impossible to volatilise in the flame. 
Thus the salts of iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, give lines which we know 
to be due to these metals, as they are found in their spectra obtained 
by means of electric sparks. Even platinum salts give a spectrum in the 
blue cone, but it is not certain that this spectrum is really due to platinum 
in an uncombined state. Gouy believes that these experiments indicate a 
very high temperature in the blue cone of a Bunsen flame, but we think 
an explanation, identical with the one given by Dibbits for carbon, will be 
found more plausible. V. de Willigen had already, before Attfield, made 
some not quite satisfactory experiments tending to show that the candle- 
spectrum is due to carbon. Pliicker and Hittorf, as well as Wiillner, arrive 
(after Attfield) at the same conclusion. Watts has made a long series of 
experiments, all tending to support Attfield's view. In addition to the 
gases experimented on by Attfield he took carbonic tetrachloride and 
obtained from it the candle-spectrum. Lockyer has quite recently 
experimented with the same gas and shown that this much discussed 
spectrum can be obtained, when a strong spark does not reveal the 
presence of hydrogen. Huggins' attention was drawn to this spectrum 
through his observations on comets, and he also obtained the candle- 
spectrum in a current of cyanogen gas, and therefore considered the 
spectrum to be due to carbon. 

On the whole it may be said that, from the publication of Attfield's 
paper until the year 1875, every spectroscopist, whether he was a chemist 
or a physicist, who had set to work to decide the question, came to the 
conclusion that the candle-spectrum was a true spectrum of carbon, and 
the question appeared to be settled. In the year 1875, after Angstrom's 
death, Thalen published a paper in which he describes some experiments 
jointly made with Angstrom. In consequence of these experiments the 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. 267 

authors expressed the opinion that the candle-spectrnm was due to a hydi'O- 
carbon. The experiments wliich they gave in support of their view were 
made by taking the spark of carbon electrodes in various gases and 
examining the spectra of the ' aureole ' ' or ' glory,' as it might be called. 
If the spark is taken in oxygen the undoubted spectrum of carbonic oxide 
appears ; in hydrogen the candle-spectrum is seen ; and in nitrogen some 
blue and violet bands are added to the candle-spectrum which appear to 
be due to a compound of carbon and nitrogen. As it is known that 
acetylene is formed when the spark is taken in hydrogen, Angstrom and 
Thaleu conclude that the spectrum seen in the ' glory ' is due to 
acetylene. 

Recently Professors Liveing and Dewar have supported Angstrom's 
view. The following quotations from their paper will give an idea 
of the view taken up by the two Cambridge professors : — ■ 

' Our faith in the conclusions of Angstrom and Thalen on this subject 
has been much strengthened by our own observations, which we now pro- 
ceed to describe ' (p. 154). 

Their experiments consisted in observing the spectra seen in the electric 
arc passing between carbon poles in various gases, such as air, carbonic 
acid, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, carbonic oxide, nitric oxide, and am- 
monia. They also examined some flames of carbon compounds. The 
following is their summary of that jsart of their work which relates to the 
candle-spectrum : — 

' In the next place, the green and blue bands, characteristic of the 
hydrocarbon flame, are well seen when the arc is taken in hydrogen ; but 
though less strong when the arc is taken in nitrogen or in chlorine, they 
seem to be always present in the arc whatever the atmosphere. This is 
what we should expect, if they be due, as Angstrom and Thalen suppose, 
to acetylene ; for we have found that the carbon electrodes always contain, 
even when they have been long treated in chlorine, a notable quantity of 
hydrogen. 

' In the flames of carbon compounds they by no means always appear ; 
indeed it is only in those of hydrocarbons or their derivatives that they 
are w^ell seen. Carbonic oxide and carbon disiilphide, even when mixed 
with hydrogen, do not show them ; and if seen in the flames of cyanogen, 
hydrocyanic aeid, and carbon tetrachloride mixed with hydrogen, they 
are faint, and do not form a principal or prominent part of the spec- 
trum. This is all consistent with the supposition of Angstrom and 
Thalen.' 

The experiment, noticed above, on carbon tetrachloride was made by 
Lockyer in answer to Professors Liveing and Dewar's paper. 

To recapitulate shortly the arguments on either side : Those who 
believe the spectrum to be due to the element carbon rely chieflj- on the 
brilliancy with which these bands are developed when cyanogen is burnt in 
oxygen, also when the spark is taken in cyanogen, carbon tetrachloride, 
and carbonic oxide at high pressure ; all the gases being dried with the 
greatest care. Those who oppose this view and who hold that the spec- 
trum is due to a hydrocarbon, refer to the impossibility of excluding all 

' The French language is the only one which possesses, as far as I know, an 
appropriate word for the sheet of light connectiug imdcr certain conditions the 
electrodes in addition to the spark proper or trait dv feu. The term * glory " was, as 
far as he can rcmeiuber, sugge.sted to the writer by the late Prof. Maxwell. 



\ 



268 REPORT— 1880. 

traces of moisture, and to the fact that this spectrum is well developed 
under circumstances "where we know hydrocarbons to be present. Finally 
we give the wave-lengths of .the least refracted lines of the most con- 
spicuous bands. According to Angstrom and Thalen they are : 5633"0 ; 
5164'0; 4736'0. Watts gives slightly different values, via.: 5634-7; 
5165'5 ; 4739-8. 

Compounds of Carhmi and Nitrogen. — The flame of cyanogen, which 
had already been examined by Faraday and Draper, before the days of 
Spectrum Analysis, shows a series of bands in the red, reaching into the 
green, which are not seen in any other flame. Pliicker and Dibbits have 
given drawings of these bands, which have their sharp edge on the most 
refrangible side. There is no doubt that they are due to a compound of 
carbon and nitrogen. The same bands are also seen, when cyanogen is 
burnt in oxygen, although, according to Morren and Watts, they are less 
developed, a fact which they ascribe to the smaller quantity of undecom- 
posed cyanogen at the higher temperature of the flame in oxygen. Ac- 
cording to Pliicker and Hittorf, and also Dibbits, the bands in the red 
become more brilliant when cyanogen is burnt in oxygen. There seems 
to be a conflict between the increased brilliancy due to a higher tempera- 
ture and the decrease of luminosity due to the more rapid decomposition 
in the oxygen flame. 

Besides the red and yellow bands, a cyanogen flame shows a series 
of bands in the blue, violet, and ultra-violet. These bands have been, 
until quite recently, ascribed to carbon, as they have also been observed in 
carbon compounds not containing nitrogen, but according to the experi- 
ments of Professors Liveing and Dewar, they can in those cases always 
be traced to impurities containing nitrogen. 

Thus, according to Watts, the bands are seen when a spark is taken 
in carbonic oride at the atmospheric pressure. According to Professors 
Liveing and Dewar this is true, if the carbonic oxide has been prepared 
from ferrocyanide of potassium. When the gas, however, was made by 
the action of sulphuric acid on dried formiate of sodium, a faint trace of 
one of the bands only could be detected. When the gas was pi'epared 
by heating a mixture of quicklime with pure and dry potassium oxalate, 
no trace whatever of the bands in question appeared. 

Similarly Watts and Lockyer had observed the bands in a tube con- 
taining- carbon tetrachloride, but, according to Professors Liveing and 
Dewar, these bands do not appear when the tetrachloride has been well 
purified, and when all traces of air have been expelled from the tube. 

Experiments with naphthalene gave the same results ; the bands did 
not appear when the air had been properly expelled from the tube. 

Tlaese experiments seem conclusive as to the chemical origin of the 
spectrum in question. It seems remarkable, however, that this spectrum 
should be reversed in the solar spectrum ; for a photograph taken by 
Lockyer shows a decided coincidence of one of the flutings with a series 
of dark lines in the solar spectrum ; and Professors Liveing and Dewar 
consider the reversal of another set of flutings still further in the ultra- 
violet as probable. The spectrum we have been discussing consists chiefly 
of three sets of bands ; the first set consists of seven fluted bands (wave- 
lengths 4600 to 4502, Watts), the second set of six bands (\=4220 to 
4158, Watts), and the third set in the ultra-violet of five bands (X = 3883-5 
to 3850, Liveing and Dewar). According to Professors Liveing and 



ON OUIl KNOWLEDGE OF SPECTllUM ANALYSIS. 269 

Dewar there is another band still farther in the ultra-violet, and apparently 
coinciding with the solar line P. 

Spectmm of Carbonic Oxide. — It has been said already that great care 
must be taken, in order to produce a spectrum of oxygen, to exclude all 
carbon impurities. If this precaution is not taken a spectrum is obtained 
which no doubt belongs to carbonic oxide. The spectrum is most bril- 
liantly obtained in a Pliicker's tube filled with carbonic oxide. The spec- 
trum was carefully examined by Wiillner, and was measured by Watts as 
well as Angstrom and Thalen. As some of the bands are situated rather 
near to the bands of the candle-spectrum, the two spectra have often been 
confounded, and we therefore give the wave-lengths obtained by the 
Swedish observers for the most conspicuous bands: 5607-5 ; 5197-0; 
4833-0. 

Spectrum of Carbonic Acid. — Pliicker mentions already m his first paper 
on the spectra of gases (1858) that carbonic acid in a vacuum-tube shows 
a baud in the red which is very strong at first and gradually disappears. 
This band he attributes to carbonic acid (1859), which, it is known, is 
gradually decomposed by the spark. Wiillner has carefully examined 
and described the changes going on in the spectrum seen in a vacuum-tube 
when it is first filled with carbonic acid. 

Professor Piazzi Smyth (' Phil. Mag.' xlix. p. "24) has given some very 
careful and valuable measurements of the details in some of the flutings 
of the spectra which we have described. He ascribes the candle spec- 
trum to a hydrocarbon, and the spectrum which we have put down as 
belonging to carbonic oxide, he refers to carbon, as it is also visible in 
tubes not containing any oxygen. Professor Piazzi Smyth has, however, 
not filled his own tubes, and we must be careful not to attach too much 
value to the labels put on vacuum tubes by the glass-blower who has 
filled them. According to Watts, a tube containing hydrocarbons does 
not show this spectrum when the gas is heated in contact with metalHc 
sodium.' 

V. Chlorine. 

V. d. Willigen : ' Pogg. Ann.' cvi. p. 624 (1859). 

Pliicker: 'Pogg. Ann.' cvii. p. 528 (1859). 

Pliicker and Hittorf : 'Phil. Trans.' civ. p. 24 (1865). 

Salet : ' Ann. Chim. Phys.' xxviii. p. 24 (1873). 

Ciamician : ' Wien. Ber.' Ixxviii. (II.) p. 872 (1873). 

Morren: 'C. K' Ixviii. p. 376 (1869). 

Gernez: ' C. R.' Ixxiv. p. 660 (1872). 

W. A. Miller : 'Phil. Mag.' xxvii. p. 81 (1845). 

The Line-spectrum. — This is the spectrum which is obtained if an 
electric spark is taken in chlorine gas. It has been mapped by Pliicker 
and Hittorf, whose measurements have been reduced to wave-lengths by 
Watts. Some earlier measurements of the strongest lines will be found 
in Pliicker's paper. Salet has also mapped this chlorine spectrum as well 
as could be done with a spectroscope of small dispersive powers. A few 
of the lines have been measured by Angstrom (' Phil. Mag.' xlii. p. 398), 
None of these measurements lay claim to great accuracy. Recently 
Ciamician has given a detailed account of the successive changes which 
this spectrum undergoes, if the pressure is either greatly reduced or 
' PMl. Mag. xlviii. p. 45G 1874). 



270 BEPOKT— 1880. 

increased. Lines, Avhich are visible at one pressure, altogether disappear 
at another. Some preliminary experiments have convinced the writer of 
this report, that we have here to deal with a mixture of several overlap- 
ping spectra. In reality the phenomena are even more complicated than 
Ciamician supposes, but a more extensive series of experiments is required 
before any detailed account can be given. 

The Band-spectrum. — This is the spectrum Avhich is obtained by ab- 
sorption, if sunlight is sent through a long column of chlorine gas. The 
spectrum was first observed by Morren, who describes it, but does not give 
any measurements. It has never been obtained as an emission spectrum. 

Compounds of CJdorine and Oxijgen. — The absorption spectra of chlorine 
trioxide and chlorine peroxide were examined by Prof. "W. A. Miller in 
184-5 and found to be identical, while chlorine monoxide did not show 
any bands. As no other case is known in which two different compounds 
give the same spectrum, and as the oxides of chlorine are very unstable, 
there is no doubt that the spectrum of one of them only was observed, 
that gas to which the spectrum belongs being also present when the other 
oxide was examined. Gernez confirming Miller's results, also found that 
a weak solution of these gases in some liquids presents the same absorption 
bands. According to Gernez a long tube filled with chlorine monoxide 
shows the same spectrum. A drawing of the spectrum will be found in 
Miller's paper. 



VI. Br 



amine. 



Pliicker: 'Pogg. Ann.' cvii. p. 527 (18-59). 

Pliicker and Hittorf : ' Phil. Trans.' civ. p. 24 (1865). 

Salet: 'Ann. Chim. Phys.' xxviii. p. 26 (1873). 

W. H. Miller : ' Phil. Mag.' ii. p. 381 (1833). 

W. A. Miller : ' Phil. Mag.' xxvii. p. 86 (1845). 

Eoscoe and Thorpe : 'Phil. Trans.' clxvii. p. 207 (1876). 

Moser : ' Pogg. Ann.' clx. p. 177 (1877). 

Ciamician: ' Wien. Ber.' Ixxviii. (II.) p. 874 (1878). 

Hasselberg: 'Mem. de St. Pet.' xxvi. 4 (1878). 

_ The Line-specirmn. — We only possess approximate measurements of 
this spectrum by the same authors who mapped the chlorine spectrum. 
The spectrum appears whenever the electric discharge passes through 
the vapour of bromine. Ciamician has observed similar changes in tiie 
spectrum of 'bromine to those already mentioned in chlorine. 

The Band-spectrum. — This spectrum is obtained by absorption. It 
was first observed by Prof. W. H. Miller in 1833. 

Drawings and measurements have been made by Roscoe and Thorpe 
and Moser, who mentions some changes which the spectrum shows on 
being heated. The most detailed and apparently the best drawings ai-e 
given by Dr. B. Hasselberg. Both Moser and Hasselberg's measurements 
begin in the orange, so that for absorption-bands in the red we have to 
refer to Roscoe and Thorpe's map. 

A flame of hydrogen containing bromine gives a continuous spectrum 
only._ Similarly, if a hard glass tube is heated to a low red heat and 
bromine introduced, the gas becomes luminous ; but a continuous spectrum 
only is seen. It is uncertain whether this continuous spectrum is due only 
to the bands of the absorption spectrum widened by an increase of 
temperature, or whether we have to deal with a true continuous spectrum. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. 271 

In the latter case we should have the remarkable fact of a vapour giving a 
continuous spectrum at a higher temperature than the one at which it 
gives the band spectrum. 

VII. Iodine. 

Pliicker: ' Pog-g. Ann.' cvii. p. (338 (1859). 

Wiillner: ' Pogg. Ann.' cxx. p. 158 (1863). 

Mitcherlich: