(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

s 



1^ 



EEPOET 



OF THE 



FIFTY-FIEST MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVMOEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



YORK IN AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1881. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MUKRAY, ALBEMA-M.E STREET. 

1882. 

■Office of the Association: 22 Ai-BEMAhi treet, London, W. 




LONDON : PBISTED BTf 

SPOTTISWOODE AXU CO., NEU'-STKEET SQCABB 

AND PAIlLIAilEST STREET 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxv 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxxii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xxxix 

Evening Lectvu*es lii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes liv 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the York Meeting ly 

Treasurer's Account , Ivii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings Iviii 

Officers and Council, 1881-82 Ix 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixi 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports and 
Researches in Science Ixiii 

Synopsis of Money Grants ]xx 

Places of Meeting in 1882 and 1883 Ixxi 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 
for Scientific Purposes Ixxii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxxii 



Address bv the President, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., D.C.L., 
LL.D., Pres. L.S 1 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, Professor (5at- 
LEY, and Professor Salmon, for the calculation of Tables of the Fundamental 
Invariants of Algebraic Forms 55 

Rt^port on Recent Progress in Hydrodynamics. — Part I. By W. M. Hicks, 
M.A : 57 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Professor 
RoscoE, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and Br. Schuster (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of collecting information vyith regard to Meteoric Dust, and 
to consider the question of uudertakiDg regular observations in various 

localities ". 88 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 
Second Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Samuel Haughton, 
M.D., F.R.S., and Benjamin Williamson, F.R.S., appointed for the Cal- 
culation of Smi-heat Coefficients. Drawn up by Dr. Haughton 89 

Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Etekett, Pro- 
fessor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Professor Ramsat, Pro- 
fessor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, 
Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. 
A. Leboue, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, ISIi-. E. Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahan, appointed 
for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Tem- 
perature downwards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. 
Drawn up by Professor Everett (Secretary) 90 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. H. Darwin, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Pro- 
fessor Purser, Professor G. Forbes, and Mr. Horace Darwin, appointed 
for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 93 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney, Professor 
W. G. Adams, and Professor G. Carey Foster, appointed to carry out an 
Investigation for the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light 126 

Final Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Herschel, Pro- 
fessor W. E. Ayrton, Professor P. M. Duncan, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. J. T. Dunn, and Professor J. Perry, on Experiments to determine the 
Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geological 
Aspects of the Investigation 126 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Heywood, F.R.S., Mr. 
William Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Robert Wilkinson, the Rev. 
W. Delany, Professor N. Story IVIaskelyne, M.P., F.R.S., Dr. Stlvanus P. 
Thompson, ISIiss Lydia E. Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., 
Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., Mrs. Augusta Webster, and Dr. J. 
H. Gladstone, F.R.S. (Secretary), on the manner in which Rudimentary 
Science should be taught, and how examinations should be held therein, in 
Elementary Schools 148 

Thii-d Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson 
and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland. Drawn up by William Hellier 
Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A. (Secretary) 152 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Dr. W. R. E. 
HoDGKiNsoN, Mr. W. Carleton Williams, and Dr. P. P. Bedson (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Method of Determining 
the Specific Refraction of Solids from their Solutions 155 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, Dr. J. Merrifield, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), Mr. J. F. Deacon, and Mr. 
Rogers Field, appointed for the purpose of obtaining information respect- 
ing the Phenomena of the Stationary Tides in the English Channel and in 
the North Sea ; and of representing to the Government of Portugal and the 
Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion of the British Association, Tidal 
Observations at Madeira or other islands in the North Atlantic Ocean would 
be very valuable, with a view to the advancement of our knowledge of 
the Tides in the Atlantic Ocean 160 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. M. Duncan, F.R.S., 
and Mr. G. R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on Fossil 
Polyzoa. Drawn up by Mr. Vine (Secretary) 161 

Report of the Committee, consisting ■ of Dr. M. Foster, the lale Professor 
RoLLBSTON, Mr. Pye-Smith, Professor Htjxlet, Dr. Oakpenter, Dr. Gwy» 



CONTENTS. ▼ 

Page 
Jeffreys, Mr. F. M. Baifottb, Sir C. Wtvilie Thomson, Professor Rat 
Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of aiding? in the maintenance of the Scottish Zoo- 
logical Station ^^.•. ^'' 

.eport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, Professor Roileston, 
Ml-. Dew-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
Mr. ScLATER, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir C. Wytille Thomson, Professor 
Rat Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the 

Zoological Station at Naples ^'^ 

teport of the Committee, consisting of 1VL-. J. A. Harvie Brown, Mr. John 
OoEDEAUX, and Professor Neayton, appointed at Swansea for the purpose 
of obtaining (with the consent of the Master and Brethren of the Tnnity 
House, and'^of the Commissioners of Northern Lights) observations on the 
Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting on the 

same, at York, in 1881 ^°^ 

leport of the Committee, consisting of Lieut.-Colonel Godwin-Austen, 
Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Gunther, Mr. Seebohm, and Mr. 
ScLATER, appointed to take steps for investigating the Natural Histoiy of 

Socotra ^^* 

.Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard Saunders, 
and Mr. Thiselton Dyer, appointed for the purpose of investigatmg the 

Natural History of Timor-laut 19' 

Report on the Marine Fauna of the Southern Coast of Devon and ComwaU. 

By Spence Bate, F.R.S., and J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S 198 

Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Ramsat and Professor 
John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the 

Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 200 

N^inth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, Professor 
T. McK. Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor T. G. Bonnet, 
the Rev. H. W. Ceossket, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. De Rance, D. 
Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, W. Pengellt, W. 
MoLTNEUX, H. G. FoRDHAM, and W. Terrill, appointed for the purpose 
of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, 
and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures 
for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary 204 
Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Leith Adams, the 
Rev. Professor Haughton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Dr. John 
Evans, appointed for the purpose of exploring the Caves of the South of 

Ireland 218 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir F. J. Bramwell, Dr. A. W. 
Williamson, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Dat, 
Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. 
Abel, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrort, Mr. 
H. Trueman Wood, Mr. VV. H. Barlow, and Mr. A. T, Atchison, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on Patent 

Legislation 222 

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Mr. F. Galton, Dr. 
Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook (Secretary and Reporter), Sir G. Campbell, Dr. 
Farr, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Major-General Pitt-Rivers, Mr, J. Park 
Harrison, Mr. James Hetwood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, 
Dr. F. A. Mahomed, Dr. Muirhead, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr, Charles 

Roberts, and the late Professor Rolleston 225 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Leone Levi, Mr. Stephen 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
BoTJENE, Mr. Brittain, Dr. Hancock, Professor Jevons, and Mr. F. P. 
Fellows, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting on the 
present Appropriation of Wages, and other sources of iucome, and considering 
how far it is consonant with the economic progress of the people of the 
United Kingdom. Drawn up by Professor Leone Levi 272 

Report of a Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
E. J. LoAVE, F.R.S., Professor R. S. Ball, F.R.S., Dr. AV alter Flight, 
F.G.S., and Professor A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S., on Observations 
of Luminous Meteors dxiring the year 1880-81 290 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S., Professor 
G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., Professor Sir 
William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. 
L. Glaisher, F.R.S. (Secretary), on Mathematical Tables 803 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, the Rev. 
H. W. Orosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. James Glaisher, Professor 
G. a. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. G. II. Morton, Mr. W. Pengelly, 
Professor J. Prestwich, Mr. J. Plant, Mr. James Parker, Mr. I. Roberts, 
Mr. S. Stooke, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Whitaker, aud Mr C. E. 
De Rance (Reporter), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Cir- 
culation of the Underground Waters in the Jurassic, New Red Sandstone, 
and Permian Formations of England, and the Quality and Quantity of the 
Water supplied to towns and districts from these formations 309 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Dewar, Dr. Williamson, 
Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain Abney, Mr. Stoney, Professor W. N. 
Hartley, Professor McLeob, Professor Carey Foster, Professor A. K. 
Huntington, Professor Emerson Reynolds, Professor Reinold, Professor 
LivEiNG, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. Arthur Schuster, and Mr. W. Chandler 
Roberts (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting upon the present 
state of our Knowledge of Spectrum Analysis 317 

Interim Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing practical 
Standards for use in Electrical Measurements, the Committee consisting of 
Professor G. Carey Foster, Mr. (!. Hockin, Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, Professor Ayrton, Mr. J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord 
Rayleigh, Professor F. Jenkin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, 
Dr. MuiRHEAD, Mr. W. II. Preece, and Mr. Herbert Taylor 423 

On some New Theorems on Curves of double Curvature. By Professor Sturm 440 

Observations of Atmosplieric Electricity at the Kew Obsenatory during 1880. 
By G. M. Whipple, B.Sc, F.R.A.S'., F.M.S., Superintendent 443 

On the Arrestation of Infusorial Life by Solar Light. By Professor John 
Tyndall, F.R.S ■ ■. 450 

On the Effects of Oceanic Currents upon ('limates. By the Rev. Samuel 
Haughton, M.D., F.R.S 451 

On Magnetic Disturbances and Earth-currents. By Pi'ofessor William 
Grylls Adams, F.R.S 463 

On some applications of Electric Energy to Horticultural and Agricultural 
purposes. By C. Wm. Siemens, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Mem. Inst. C.E. 474 

On the Pressure of Wind upon a Fixed Plane Surface. By Thomas Hawks- 
ley, C.E., F.R.S 480 

On the Island of Socotra. By Bayley Balfour, Sc.D., M.B., Regius Pro- 
fessor of Botany, University of Glasgow 482 

On some of the Developments of Mechanical Engineering during the last 
half-century. By Sir Frederick Bramwell, V.P. Inst. C.E., F.R.S 494 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



•Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSBAT, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Page 

Address by Professor Sir William Thomson, M. A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.L. 

and E., President of the Section ol8 

1. On the Possibility of the Existence of Intra-Mercurial Planets. By 

Balfour Stewart, LL.D., F.RS 51^ 

;2. On the Photographic Spectrnm of Comet 'b' 1881. By William 

HuGGiNS, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 520 

3. On a Prismatic Optometer. By Tempest Anderson, M.D., B.Sc 521 

•i. On the Eftects of the Lunar and Solar Tide in increasing the Length of 

the Sidereal Day. By the Rev, Samuel Haughton, M.D., F.R.S o2.j 

6 On the Effects of Oceanic CuiTents upon Climates. By the Rev. Samuel 

Haughton, M.D., F.RS 523 

. 6. On some applications of Electric Energy to Horticultui-al and Agricul- 
tural purposes. By Dr. C. Wm. Siemens, F.RS 524 

7. On Hydrocarbons in the Solar Atmosphere. By Captain Abnet, R.E., 

F.R.S. 524 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2 

Physical Department. 

I . On Surface-tension and Capillaiy Action. By Professor Osborne Rey- 
nolds, F.RS 524 

.2. On some Colour Experiments. By Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 526 

-3. On a Question in the Theory of Lighting. By Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 526 

4. On some uses of Faure's Acciunulator in connection with Lighting by 

Electricity. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M. A., F.R.S 526 

5. On the Economy of Metal in Conductors of Electricity. By Professor Sir 

William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 526 

6. On the proper Proportions of Resistance in the Working Coils, the Electro- 

Magnets, and the External Circuits of Dynamos. By Professor Sir 
William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S ^ 528 

7. On the Application of Electricity to the Localisation of a Bidlet in a 
Wound. By W. H. Preece, F.RS 531 

8. On some of Bell and Taint«r's recent Researches and their Consequences. 

By W. Lant Carpenter, B.A., F.C.S 5.31 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Pag& 
9. On the Electric Conductivity and Dichroic Absorption of Tourmaline. 
By Professor SJivANUs P. Thojipson, B.A., D.Sc 531 

10. On the arrangement of Cometic Perihelia with reference to the Sun's 

march in space. By Henkt'Mtjirhead, M.D 532 



Mathematical Depaetment. 

1. Second Report of the Committee appointed for the calculation of Tables 

of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms 532 

2. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables 532: 

3. Report on Recent Progress in Hydrodynamics. — Part I. By W. M. Hicks, 

M.A ; 532 

4. Sur un criterium de Steiner relatif a la theorie des sections coniques. Par 

M. Halphen 532 

5. Some new Theorems on Curves of double Cur^'ature. By Professor 

SlTTEM 534 

6. On Oongruencies of the Second Order and Second Class. By Dr. T. 
Akchee Hiesx, F.R.S 5.J4 

7. Sur les faisceaux de forme biquadratique binaire ayant une meme 
Jacobienne. Par Cyparissos Stephanos 534 

8. On a Diagi-am connected with the Transformation of Elliptic Functions. 

By Professor Catlet, F.R.S 534 

9. A partial Differential Equation connected with the simplest case of Abel's 

Theorem. By Professor Catlet, F.R.S 534 

10. On the Differential Equations satisfied by the Modular Equations. By 

Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A,, F.R.S 5-35 

11. On the q-Series in Elliptic Functions. By J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., 
F.R.S 535 

12. On the Elucidation of a Question in Kinematics by the aid of Non- 
Euclidian Space. By Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 535' 

13. On a Theorem relating to the Description of Areas. By William 
WooLSET Johnson, Professor of Mathematics ui the Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, U.S 536 

14. On the Equation of the Multiplier in the Theory of Elliptic Transforma- 
tion. By Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 538 

15. On a Linear relation between two Quadratic Surds. By Professor 

H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 538 

16. On a Class of Binodal Quartics. By Professor R. W. Genese, M.A 538 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On a Class of Differential Equations. By Professor Halphen 538 

2. On the Aspects of Points in a Plane. By Professor Halphen 538 

3. On a Connection between Homographies in a Straight Line and Points in a 
Space. By Ctpaeissos Stephanos 5.38 

4. On Involutional (1 1) Correspondence. By Professor Genese, M.A 539 

5. On the Velocity Function of a Liquid due to the Motion of Cylinders and 

Surfaces of Revolution. By A. G. Greenhill 540 



CONTENTS. IX 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Physical Department. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee ou Meteoric Dust 540 

2. Report of the Committee ou Tidal Observations in the English Channel 

and the North Sea 540 

3. Report of tlie Committee on Underground Temperature 540' 

4. Report of the Committee on the Calculation of Sun-heat Coefficients 540 

5. Observations of Atmospheric Electricity at the Kew Observatory during 

1880. By G. M. Whipple, B.Sc, F.R.A.S 540 

6. On a Universal Sunshine Recorder Stand. By G. M. Whipple, B.Sc, 

F.R.A.S 640 

7. On the Calibration of Merciuial Thermometers by Bessel's Method. By 
Professors T. E. Thobpe, Ph.D., F.R.S., and A. W. RticKEE, M.A 540' 

8. On the General Coincidence between Sun-spot Activity and Terrestrial 

Magnetic Disturbance. By the Rev. F. Howlett, F.R.A.S 541 

9. On Magnetic Disturbances and Earth-currents. By Professor W. Gkylls 
Adams, F.R.S 542 

10. On the Arrestation of Infusorial Life by Solar Light. By Professor 
John Tyndall, F.R.S 543 

11. On a new Integrating Anemometer. By the Rev. J. M. Wilson, M.A., 
and H. S. Hele Shaw 643 

12. On the Isothermals of the British Isles. By Alex. Buchan, M.A., 
F.R.S.E 644 

13. On the Diurnal Period of Hailstorms. By Axex. Buchan, M.A., 

F.R.S.E 544 

14. On the Sunspot Period, and Planetary Tides in the Solar Atmosphere. 

By F. B. Edmonds 544 

15. Some Laws which regulate the Succession of Mean Temperature and 
Rainfall in the Climate of London. By H. Oottetenat Fox, M.R.C.S.... 644 

16. On the Blowing Wells near Northallerton. By Thomas Fairley, 

F.R.S.E 544 

17. Some Remarks on Artificial Flight. By Feed. W. Breaeey, Hon. 
Secretary of the Aeronautical Society 545 

18. On the desirability of observing Occultations of Stars, of the first and 
other bright magnitudes, from places where they are to be seen near the 
horizon. By H. S. Williams, M.A., F.R.A.S 547 

Mathematical Department. 

1. Sur la representation des rotations autour d'un point par des points de 

I'espace. By Cyparissos Stephanos 547 

2. On the Polar Planes of a point with respect to four Quadiic Surfaces. 

By W. Spoxtiswoode, M..\., Pres. R.S 547 

8. On the Extension of the Theory of Screws to the Dynamics of any 
material system. By Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S., Royal Astronomer 
of Ireland * 647 

4. Ou a Property of a small Geodesic Triangle on any surface. By Professor 
H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 64* 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

5. On the General Analogy between the formulaB of singly and doubly 
Periodic Functions. By" J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 548 

6. Sur les Stjries Hyperg^ometriques. By Professor Halphen 551 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Report of the Oommittee on Electrical Standards 551 

2. Report of the Oommittee for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance 

of Gravity 551 

3. On the Rainfall Observations made upon York Minster by Professor John 
Phillips, F.R.S. By G. J. Stmons, F.R.S 551 

4. On Yolta-Electric Inversion. By Professor Silvantjs P. THOiirsoN, B.A., 
D.Sc 552 

6. On the Rotational Coefficient in various Metals. By E. H. Hall 552 

6. On a Dynamometer Coupling. By Professors W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and 
John Perry, B.E 553 

7. On an Early Attempt at a Secondary Batterv. By Dr. C. W. Siemens, 
F.R.S : 554 

■8. On an Electro-Ergometer. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., 
F.R.S 554 

9. On a Problem in Stream Lines. By Professor A. W. Ruckek, M.A 554 

10. On Potential due to Contact. By S. Lavington Hart, B.A., D.Sc, 

Scholar of St. John's CoUege, Cambridge 555 

11. On the Electric Discharge through Colza Oil. By A. Macfarlane, 
M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E 556 

12. Representation graphique de la Formule des Piles. Discussion. Par le 
Profe.?seur 0. M. Gariel, Agreg6 de Physique a la Faculte de Medecine 

de Paris, IngiSnieur des Ponts et Chauss(5es 556 

13. On an Easy Method of making Carbon Cells for Galvanic Batteries. 

By W. Symons, F.C.S : 557 

14. On an Antimonized Cellular Carbon Galvanic Battery. By \V. Symons, 
F.C.S 557 

16. On the Absolute Sine Electrometer. By Professor G. M. Minchin, M.A. 558 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Report of the Committee on a Standard of White Light 559 

•2. Report of the Committee on Luminous Meteors 559 

3. Report of the Committee on the Thermal Conductivity of Rocks 559 

4. A Contribution to the History of the Algebra of Logic. Bv the Rev. R. 
Harley, F.R.S ." 559 

6. On the Illuminating Powers of Incandescent Vacuum Lamps with 
measured Potentials and measured Currents. By Professor Sir William 
Thomson, M.A., F.R.S., and James T. Bottomley, M.A 559 

6. On Photometry, with Experiments. By Professor Sir William Thomson, 
M.A., F.R.S .561 

7. On the Dynamical Theory of Radiation. By Professor Arthur Schuster, 
Ph.D., F.R.S 661 

8. On a New Electrometer and some preliminary Experiments on Voltaic 

Action. By J. Brown 562 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
9. On a Wave Apparatus for Lecture purposes, to illustrate Fresnel's concep- 
tion of Polarised Light. By C. J. Woodward, B.Sc 563 

10. On a Microscope with arrangements for illuminating the sub-stage. By 
Edward Ceosslet, F.R.A.iS 563 

11. On a New Polarising Prism. By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, 
B.A., D.Sc 563 

12. On an Overlapping Spectroscope. By James Love, F.R.A.S., F.G.S. ... 564 

13. On Change of Density at the Melting Point. By James Love, F.R.A.S., 
F.G.S. 564 

14. On Drops and Capillarity. By Dr. T. Woods 565 

16. On Binaural Audition. — Part III. By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, 

B.A., D.Sc 565 

16. On Diflerential Resolvents. By the Rev. Robert Haeley, F.R.S 565 

17. An Analvsis of Relationships. By A. Macfarlane, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E.' 566 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Method of Determining the Specific 
Refraction of Solids from their Solutions 567 

2. On a Process for Utilising Waste-products and Economising Fuel in the 
Extraction of Copper. By J. Dixon 567 

3. On Metallic Compounds containing Bivalent Hydrocarbon Radicals. 
PartlL ByJ. Sakttrai 567 

Address by Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.O.S., 

President of the Section 568 

4. On the Chemical Action between Solids. By Professor T. E. Thorpe, 
Ph.D., F.R.S 580 

6. On the First Two Lines of Mendelejeif s Table of Atomic Weights. By 
W. Weldon, F.R.S.E •. 580 

6, On the Occlusion of Gaseous Matter by Fused Silicates at High Tem- 
peratures, and its possible connection with Volcanic Agencies. By 

L LowTHiAN Bell, F.R.S 680 

7. On the Siliceous and other Hot Springs in the Volcanic District of the 
North Island of New Zealand. By Wm. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, 
F.C.S 580 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Second Report of the Committee upon the present state of our Knowledge 

of Spectrum Analysis 582 

2. On thQ Fluid Density of certain Metals. By Professor W. Chandler 
RoBEETs, F.R.S., and T. Wrightson 682 

3. On the Oxides of Manganese. By V. H. Velet, B. A 682 

4. On the Inferences deducible from high Molecular Weights, as exhibited by 
the Oxides of Manganese. By Professor W. Odling, F.R.S 582 

5. On Manganese Nodules, and their Occurrence on the Sea-bottom. By 

J. Y. Buchanan 583 

6. On Brewing in Japan. By Professor R. W. Atkinson, B.Sc. (Lond.) ... 685 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page- 

7. On Peppermint-camphor (Menthol) and some of its Derivatives. By- 
Professor K. W. Atkinson, B.Sc. (Lond.), and H. Yoshida 585' 

8. On the Sodiimi-alum of Japan. By Professor Edward DrvERS, M.D. ... 586 

9. On the Occurrence of Selenium and Tellurium in Japan. By Professor 
Edward Divers, M.D 586 

10. On the Chrome Iron Ore of Japan. By Professor Edward Divers, M.D. 587 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On certain Points in Modern Progress in Chemical Knowledge. By 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., F.R.S 589 

2. On the alleged Decomposition of the Elements. By Professor Dewar, 
M.A., F.R.S 589' 

3. On the Production of Crystals hy the Action of Metals in Carbon Disul- 
phide in Sealed Tubes. By Philip Braham, F.O.S 589- 

4. On the Separation of Hydrocarbon Oils from Fat Oils. By Alfred H. 
Allen, F.C.S 589 

5. On some Phenomena which appear to be of the Nature of Ohemico- 

Magnetic Action. By William Thomson, F.R.S.E 590' 

6. On the Specific Refraction and Dispersion of Light by Liquids. By J. H. 

Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S 591 

7. On Molecular Attraction. By F. D. Brown, B.Sc 592 

8. Note on a new Method of Measuring certain Chemical Affinities 592 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBEB 6. 

1. On the present state of Chemical Nomenclature. By Professor A. W. 

AVilliamson, Ph.D., F.R.S 593 

2. On Alterations in the Properties of the Nitric Ferment by Cultivation. 

By R. Warington, F.C.S 693 

3. On the Eifect of the Spectrum of Silver Chloride. By Captain Abney, 
R.E., F.R.S 594 

4. Some Remarks on Crystallogeny. By Professor J. P. Cooke 595 

5. On the Action of Zinc and Magnesium on Acidified Solutions of Ferric 
Sulphate. By Professor T. E. Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S 595 

6. On the Reducin? Action of Zinc and Magnesium on Vanadium Solutions. 

By Professor H. E. Roscoe, LL.D., F.R.S 596 

7. On the Determination of the Relative Atomic Weights of Manganese, 
Oxygen, and Silver. Bv Professor Dewar, M.A., F.R.S., and A. Scott, 
B.A., B.Sc ". 596 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. On Some Vapour Density Determinations. By Professor Dewar, M.A., 

F.R.S., and A. Scott, B.A., B.Sc 597 

2. On Vapour Density Determinations. By Professor Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S. 597 

3. Note on the Phosphates of Lime and Ammonia. By J. Alfred Wankltn 597 

4. On a New System of Blowpipe Analysis. By Lieut.-Colonel Ross 598 

5. On Colliery Explosions. By William Galloway 598 

6. On the Double Iodide of Mercury and Copper. By Professor Silt anus 

P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc '. 600 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

7. Analyses of the Water and Gas from Blowing Wells near Northallerton. 

By T. FAiRLET,r.R.S.E 601 

8. On Experiments with Manures on the Barley Crop of 1881. By W. 
IvisoN Macadam 602 

9. On the Hydration of Salts and Oxides. By C. F. Cross, B.Sc 602 

10. On Cellulose and Coal. By C. F. Cross, B.Sc, and E. J.Bevan 603 

11. On the New Element, Actinium. By Dr. T. L. Phipson, F.C.S 603 

12. On Bowkett's Thermograph. Bv Wm. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, 
F.C.S ' 



604 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address hy Andrew Crombie Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., President 

of the Section 605 

1. On the Laurentian Beds of Donegal and of other parts of Ireland. By 

Professor Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S., Director of the Geological 

Survey of Ireland 609 

2. On the Laurentian Rocks in Ireland. By G. H. Kinahan, M.R.I.A., &c. 609 

3. Life in Irish and other Laurentian Rocks. By C. Moore, F.G.S 610 

4 On the occurrence of Granite in situ, about 20 miles S.W. of the Eddy- 
stone. By A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S 610 

6. Some Ohservations on the Causes of Volcanic Action. By Professor 
J.Prestwich, M.A., F.R.S 610 

■6. The Comiection between the Intrusion of "Volcanic Rock and Volcanic 
Eruptions. By Professor Sollas, M.A., F.R.S.E 613 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1 On the Influence of Barometric Pressure on the Discharge of Water from 
Springs. By Baldwin Latham, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., F.M.S 614 

:2 Glacial Sections at York, and their relation to the later deposits. By 
J. Edmund Clark, B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S 614 

3. On the Bridlington and Dimlington Glacial Shell-beds. By G. W. 
Lamplugh 616 

4. On Sections of the Drift obtained from the new Drainage Works of Drif- 
field. By J.R.Mortimer 617 

5. On the Subsidences above the Permian Limestone between Hartlepool 
and Ripon. By A. G. Cameron, Geological Survey of England and 
Wales • 617 

G The Glacial Deposits of West Cumberland, By J. D. Kendall, C.E., 
F.G.S 617 

7 On Simosaurus pusillus (Fraas), a step in the Evolution of the Plesio- 
sauria. By Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.L.S 618 

:8. On a Restoration of the Skeleton of Archfeopterj'x, with some remarlis on 
the differences between the Berlin and London specimens. By Professor 
H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.L.S 616 



XIV CONTESTS. 

SATURBAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Page 

1. On Asterosmilia Reedi, a new species of coral from the Oligocene of 
Brockenhurst, Hants. By Professor P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S 618 

2. On tlie Strata between the Chillesford Beds and the Lower Boulder Clay, 

'The Miindesley and Westleton Beds.' By Professor J. Prestwich, 
M.A., F.E.S 620 

3. On the Extension into Essex, Middlesex, and other Inland Counties, of 
the Mundesley and Westleton Beds, in relation to the age of certain hill- 
gravels and of some of the valleys of the South of England. By Pro- 
fessor J. Prestwich, M.A., F.R.S 620 

4. A preliminary account of the working of Dowkerbottom Cave, in Craven, 
during August, 1881. By E. B. Poulxon, M.A., F.G.S 622 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Seventh Report on the Circulation of the Underground "Waters in the 

Jurassic, New Red Sandstone, and Permian Formations of England, and 
the Quality and Quantity of the Water supplied to various towns and 
districts from these formations 623 

2. Third Report on the Tertiary (Miocene) Flora of the Basalt of the North 

of Ireland 623 

3. On the Formation of Coal. By Edward Wethered, F.G.S., F.C.S....... 623 

4. Preliminary Remarks on the Microscopic Structure of Coal. By Professor 

W. C. WlLLLAMSON, F.R.S 625 

5. On the Halifax Hard Seam. By W. Cash, F.G.S 626 

6. Researches in Fossil Botany. By Ja jies Spencer 627 

7. Notes on Astromyelou and its root. By James Spencer 628 

8. On the Palaeozoic Rocks of North Devon and West Somerset. By W. A. 

E. UssHER, F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and Wales 629 

9. The Devono-Silurian Formation. By Professor E. Hull, LL.D., F.R.S. 631 

10. Ou Evaporation and Eccentricity as Co-factors in Glacial Periods. By 

the Rev. E. Hill, M.A 631 

11. On the Discovery of Coal-Measures under New Red Sandstone, and on the 
so-called Permian Rocks of St. Helen's, Lancasliire. By A. Strahan, 
M.A., F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and Wales 632 

12. On the Upper Bagshot Sands of Hordwell Cliff, Hampshire. By E. B. 

Tawney, M.A., F.G.S 633 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Ninth Report on the EiTatic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 633 

2. Report on Fossil Polyzoa 633 

3. On ' Flots.' By J. R, Daktns, M.A., Geological Survey of England and 

Wales ." 034 

4. Remarks upon the Structure and Classification of the Blastoidea. By 

P. Herbert Carpenter, M.A 634 

5. On the Characters of the ' Lansdnwn Encrinite ' (Millericrinus Prattii, 

Gray, sp.) By P. Herbert CiRPEXTER, M.A 635 

6. On the Lower Keuper Sandstone of Cheshire. By A. Strahan, M.A., 

F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and Wales 6.35 

7. On a Discovery of Fossil Fislies in the New Red Sandstone of Nottingham. 

By E. Wilson, F.G.S 637 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 
8. On the Rbietics of Nottingliamsbire. By E. Wilson, F.G.S 637' 

9 The Great Plain of Northern India not an old Sea-basin. By W. T. 
Blanford, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c 638. 

10. The Gold Fields, and the Quartz-outcrops of Southern India. By 

"William King, Deputy Superintendent (for Madras), Geological Survey 

of India 639 

11. On the Geology of the Island of Cyprus. By R. Russell, C.E 640' 

12. Observations on the two types of Cambrian beds of the British fsles (the 

Caledonian and Hiberno-Cambrian), and the conditions under which they 
were respectively deposited. By Professor Edwaed Hull, LL.D., F.R.S. 642- 

13. On the Lower Cambrian of Anglesea. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, 
M.A., F.G.S 643. 

14. On the Gnarled Series of Amlwch and Holvhead in Anglesea. By 

Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A., F.G.S " .". 644 

15. The Subject-matter of Geology, and its Classification. By Professor 

W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.G.S 644' 

16. On the Exploration of a Fissure in the Mountain Limestone at Raygill. 

By James W. Davis, F.G.S., F.L.S 645 

17. On the Zoological position of the genus Petalorhynchus, Ag., a Fossil 
Fish from the Mountain Limestone. By James W. Davis, F.G.S., 
F.L.S 646 

18. On Diodontopsodus, Davis, a new genus of Fossil Fishes from the 

Mountain Limestone, at Richmond, in Yorkshire. By James W. Davis, 
F.G.S., F.L.S 646 

WHBi^BSBA Y, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Report on the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 646 

2. A Contribution to Seismology. By John Milne, F.G.S., and Thomas 
Gray, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 646 

3. Final Report on the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing 

especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation 647 

4. On an International Scale of Colours for Geological Maps. By 
W. ToPLEY, Geological Survey of England and Wales 647 

5. On the Glacial Geology of Central Wales. B}- Walter Keeping, M.A., 
F.G.S., Keeper of the York Museum 648 

6. On some points in the Morphology of the Rhabdophora. Bj'' John 
HorKiNsoN, F.L.S., F.G.S '. 649 

7. On some Ores and Minerals from Laurium, Greece. By H. Stopes, F.G.S. 650' 

8. Notes on the Cheshire Salt-field. Bv C. E. De Rancb, F.G.S., Assoc. 

Inst. C.E '. 650 

9. On some sections in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the Craven District. 

By J. E. Marr, B.A., F.G.S 650. 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
Department of Zo6logy and Botany. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Richard Owex, C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.G.S., F.Z.S., President of the Section Qh\ 



:XV1 CONTENTS. 

Page 
1. Eeport of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural History of 
Socotra -. 661 

:2. Report of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural History of 
Timor-laut 661 

3. Report on the Record of Zoological Literature 661 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1, Jurassic Birds and their Allies. By Professor 0. C. M.uisH 661 

5. On the use of the Chitinous Elements or Appendages of the Oheilosto- 
matous Polyzoa in the Diagnosis of Species. By Geoese Busk, F.R.S. 662 

3. On the Botany of Madagascar. By J. G. Baker, F.R.S., F.L.S 663 

4. On the Colours of Spring Flowers. By Alfred W. Bennett. M.A., 

B.Sc., F.L.S 666 

5. On the Constancv of Insects in their Visits to Flowers. By Alfred W. 
Bennett, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S 667 

'6. On the Mode in which the Seed of Stipa biu-ies itself in the groimd. By 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S 668 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On the Insect House in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. 
By P. L. ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Zoological 
Society of London 668 

:2. On the Birds which have bred in the Barnslej- and South Yorkshire 
District. By Thomas Lister ' 670 

.3. On the Foot of Birds, and on the Use of the Serrated Claw. By Philip 
M. C. Kermode 670 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 



1. On the Anatomy and Classification of the Petrels, based upon those 
collected by H.M.S. ' Challenger.' By W. A. Forbes, BA., F.L.S., 
F.Z.S 671 

■2. On some Permanent Larval Forms among the Crinoidea. By P. Herbert 
Carpenter, M.A 671 

3. Note on the British Comatulee. By P. Herbert Carpenter, M.A 672 

4. On the Affinities of Proueomenia. By Dr. A. A. W. Hubrecht 673 

.5. Report on the Migration of Birds 675 

6. On some Points in the Development of Osmunda reyalis (Linn.). By 
Chas. p. Hobkirk, F.L.S 675 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Sense of Colour among some of the Lower Animals. By Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S 676 

2. Report of the Committee on the Zoological Station at Naples 677 

3. Report of the Committee on the Sc'ottish Zoological Station 677 

4. On our present Knowledge of the Fauna inhabiting British India and its 

Dependeiicies. By AV. T. Blanford, F.R.S 677 

.6. On a Fossil Stem from the Halifax Coal-measures. By Thomas Hick, 
B.A., B.Sc, and William Cash, F.G.S 679 



CONTENTS. XVU 

Pago 

6. Notes on Chlamydomyxa. By P. A. Geddes 680 

7. On a New Sub-Glas3 of Infusorians. By P. A. Gctdes 680 

8. On the Improvement of Freshwater Fisheries. By Lieut.-General Sir 

James E. Alexander, Knt., O.B., F.R.S.E 680 

9. On some Vestiges of the Ancient Forest of part of the Pemiine Chain. 

By Joseph Lucas 680 

10. Eeport on the Marine Fauna of the Southern Coast of Devon and Corn- 
wall 681 

Department op Anthropology. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Professor W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.RS., F.R.C.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

Pres. Z.S., Chairman of the Department 682 

1. Eeport on the Exploration of the Caves of the South of Ireland 689 

2. On the Stature of the Inhabitants of Hungary. By Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S.. 689 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. The Viking's Ship, discovered at Sandefjord in Norway, 1880. By J. 
Harris Stone, M.A., F.L.S., F.C.S 689 

2. On Excavations in the Earthwork called Danes' Dyke at Flamborough, 

and on the Earthworks of the Yorkshire Wolds. By Major-General 
Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. (formerly Colonel Lane-Fox) 690 

3. On the Application of Composite Portraiture to Anthropological purposes. 

By Francis Galton, F.RS 690 

4. Account of the Discovery of Six Ancient Dwellings, found under and 
near to British Barrows on the Yorkshire Wolds. By J. R. Mortimer... 691 

5. On the Oi-igin and Use of Oval Tool-stones. By W. J. Knowles 692 

-6. On the Discovery of Flint Implements in stratified gravel in the Nile 
^^aUey, near Thebes. By Major-General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. (formerly 
Colonel Lane-Fox) 693 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 693 

2. On a Collection of Racial Photographs. By J. Park Harrison, M. A 693 

3. On Scandinavian and Pictish Customs on the Anglo-Scottish Border. By 

Dr. PHENfi, F.S.A., F.R.G.S 693 

4. On some Objects recentlv exhumed in Britain, of apparently Phoenician 
origin. ByDr.PnENE,'F.S.A., F.R.G.S 69-5 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Mankind. By Miss A. W. 

BUCKLAND 69o 

2. On the Papuans and the Polynesians. By C. Staniland Wake 096 

•3. On Excavations in a camp called Ambresbiu-y Banks in Epping Forest. 
By Major-General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. (formerly Colonel Lane-Fox) ... 697 

4. On the Relation of Stone Circles to Outlying Stones or Tumuli or Neigh- 
bouring Hills, with some inferences therefrom. By A. L. Lewis 097 

1881. a 



Xviii , CONTENTS. 

Page 
5. Notes on some specimens of Saw-cuts and Drill-holes in hard Stones of 

Pi-ime\- al Egyptian period . By W. Flinders Peieie 697 

G. On the Numeral and Philological relations of the Hebrew, Phoenician, or 
Canaanitic Alphalxjt and the Language of the Khita Inscriptions. By 
Hyde Clarke 698 

7. The Early Colonisation of Cyprus and Attica, and its relation to 

Bahylonia. By Hyde Clarke 69& 

8. On the Animism of the Indians of British Guiana. By Everaed F. im 
Thurm 699 

9. Origin and Primitive Home of the Semites. By G. Bertln 699 

10. On the Utilisation of the Memory. By George Harris, LL.D., F.S.A. 699 

11. On the Cultivation of the Senses. By George Harris, LL.D., F.S.A... 690 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Traces of Man in the Crag. By H. Stopes, F.G.S. 70O 

2. Tlie Results of recent further Excavations in the Caves of Cefn, near 

St. Asaph, North "Wales. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A., and 
INIrs. Williams Wynn 700 

3. Exhibition of a Roman Bronze galeated Bust. Bv Professor T. McK. 
Hughes, M.A ". 701 

4. Exhibition of Foiu- Bronze Soclieted Spears, probably ancient, from 

Chma. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A. .=> , 701 

5. On a supposed Inscribed Stone, near Llanerchymedd, in Auglesea. By 
Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A 701 

6. On some late Celtic Engra^angs on a Slate Tablet, found at Towyn. By 

J. Park Harrison, M.A 701 

7. On the Physical Characters and Proportions of the Zulus. By C. 
Roberts, F.R.C.S., and George W. Bloxam, M.A., F.L.S., Assistant 
Secretary of the Anthropological Institute 702 

8. Exhibition of Stone Implements from Asia Minor. By Hyde Clarke ... 703 

9. On certain Discoveries of Bronze Implements in and about Leeds. By 
John Holmes 703 

10. On the Profile of the Danes and Germans. By J. Park Harrison, M.A. 703 

11. On a remarkable Human Skull found near York. Bv Edward Allen, 

F.G.S ■ 704 



Department of Anatomy and Physiology. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address by Professor J. S. Burdon Sanderson, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Chair- 
man of the Department 705 

1. On the Development of the Colour-sense. By Dr. Montagu Lubbock ... 715 

2. On the Function of the Two Ears in the Perception of Space. By 
Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc 716 

3. A Contribution to the Question on the Influence of Bacilli in the Pro- 
duction of Disease. By Professor J. Cossar Eavart, M.D 717 

4. On a little-lniown Cranial Difference between the Catarrhine and Platyr- 
rhine Monkeys. By W. A. Forbes, B.A 718 



CONTENTS. xix 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Page 

1. On the Homology of the Conario-hypophysial Tract, or of the so-called 
' Piueal ' and ' Pituitary Glands.' By Professor E. Owen, M.D., C.B., 
F.R.S 719 

2. On the Acetabulum of Animals in which the Ligamentum Teres is de- 
scribed as wanting. By Professor Strtjtheks, M.D 720 

3. On the Correspondence between the Articulations of the Metacarpal and 
Metatarsal Bones in Man. By Professor Stkuthers, M.D 721 

4. On the Pronephros of Teleosteans and Ganoids. By F. M. Baifotje, 
M.A., F.R.S 721 

5. On the Digastric Muscle, its Modifications and Functions. By G. E. 
DoBSON 722 

6. On the Causes and Results of assumed Gycloidal Rotation in Arterial Red 
Discs. By R. W. Wooixcombe 722 

7. Observations on the Incubation of the Indian Python {Python molurus). 

By W. A. Forbes, B.A 723 

8. On the Effect of the Voltaic Current on the Elimination of Sugar. By 

W. H. Stone, M.B., F.R.C.P 724 

9. On the Structure and Homologies of the Suspensory Ligament of the 
Fetlock in the Horse, Ass, Ox, Sheep, and Camel. By D. J. Cttnning- 
HAM, M.D., F.R.S.E 726 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THVRSDA Y, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Sir- J. D. Hooebr, K.C.S.I., C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 

V.P.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., President of the Section 727 

1. The Equipment of Exploring Expeditions Now and Fifty Years Ago. 

By Francis Galton, F.R.S 738 

2. Isochronic Postal Charts. By Francis Galton, F.R.S 740 

3. On the Geographical Work of the Palestine Exploration Fimd. By 
Trelawnej Saunders 741 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. On the Progress of Geography in Asia during the last fifty years. By' 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart, G.C.S.L, F.R.G.S 741 

2. On the Hot-lake District and the Glacier Scenery and Fjords of New 

Zealand. By Wm. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, F.C.S 742 

3. On Oceanic ox Maritime Discovery, Exploration, and Research. By Captain 

Sir F. J. Evans, R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S 742 

4. On the River Gambia. By R. E. Cole 742 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On the Progress of Arctic Research since the Foundation of the British 
Association. By Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S 743 

2. On the Commercial Importance of Hudson's Bay, with Remarks on recent 
Surveys and Investigations. By Robert Bell, M.D 745 

a2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On the Island of Socotra. By Professor Bayley Balfour, M.D 74C 

4. A Journey to the Imperial Mausolea cast of Peking. By F. S. A. 
BouEifB 746 

TUESDA Y, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Comparative sketch of what was known in Africa in 1830 with what is 
known in 1881. By Lieut.-OolonelJ. A. Grant, C.B., F.U.S 746 

2. Some Results of Fifty Years' E.vploration in Africa. By the Rev. 
Horace Waller 746 

3. On a recent Visit to tlio Gold Mines of llie West Coast of Africa. By 

Commander ('ameron, R.N 747 

4. An Account of a recent Visit to Dahomey. By the Rev. J. Miltjm 747 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On Societies of Commercial Geography. By Edward J. Waxherston ... 748 

2. Corn or Cattle : a Comparison of the Economic Results of Agriculture 

and Cattle-raising in relation to National Food-supply. By William E. 

A. Axon, M.R.S.L., F.S.S 740 

3. Report of the Committee on the manner in wliich Rudimentary Science 

should be tauglit, and how Examinations sliould he held therein, in 
Elementary Schools 7C0 

4. Agricultural Statistics and Prospects. By Wm. Botly, M.R.A.S 750 

5. A General Banking Law for the United Kingdom. By Wm. Westgarth 761 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address hy the Right Hon. M. E. Grant Duff, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.R.Gt.S., Governor of Madras, President of the Section 752 

1. Notes on the Village System, and tlie Tenure of Land in the Dravidian 

Villages of the Di'lduin. By Sir Walter Elliot, K.C.S.I., F.R.S 758 

2. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 750 

3. On the Relation of the Gold Standard in England to the International 
Money Market. By Hyde Clarke, V.P.S.S 759 

4. The Silver (Question, and tlie Double versus the Single Standard. By 
Wm. Westgarth 759 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Results to be attained by applying to the Transfer of Land in tlils Country 
tlie metliods employed in the British Colonies. By Sir Robert 
ToRUENs, K.dM.G 760 

2. The Economic Influence of tlie Drinking Customs upon the Nation's Well- 
being. By William IIoylk 760 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Protection in Young (Communities; Recorded Results in Victoria and New 
South Wales. By George Baben-Powell, M.A., F.R.A.S., F.S.S 760 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Pago 

2. Report of the Committee for inquirini>- into llie present Appropriation of 

Wages and ntlii'v .sources of income, and considering' how lar it ia con- 
sonant with the economic progress of the pet)ple of the United Kingdom... 7G1 

3. On the Ilemedies proposed for Disputes about Wages. By the Rev. W. II. 
Jemison, LL.B 761 

4. The Depression in Agriculture; its Effects and its Lessons. By IIenky 

F. MooKE 761 

lUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Free Public Libraries of Manchester and Notting Hill, London. 

By Jamks IIeywood, F.R.S ; 762 

2. On the Progress of British Commerce in a Generation. By E. J. 

Watherston 763 

3. Some Results of the Removal of the Malt Tax. By H. Stopes 765 

4. Bankruptcy in its Economic Bearings. By J, Macdonkll 765 

5. On ]!]conomies and Statistics, viewed from tlie standpoint of the Pre- 

liminary Sciences. By Patrick Gedbes, F.K.S.E 765 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Sir W. Armsxrong, O.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President of 

the Section 767 

Observations on the Improvements of the Mississippi River, and on the pro- 
posed Sliip Railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. By 
Captain .J. B. Eads", O.E 774 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Some of the Developments of Meclianical l^'ngineoring during the last half- 
century. By Sir F.J. Bkamwell, M.1.G.10., F.U.S 774 

2. On the Automatic Sounder. By James Dillon, M.I.O.E 774 

3. On the ]<]conomical EiVect of using Cheap Gas for Gas-motors, with a 

description of Apparatus for producing such Gas. J$y J. Emkrson 
DowsoN, O.E 775 

4. On Continuous Door-locks and Footboards for Railway Carriages. By R. 

PiCKWKLL 776 

5. On a new Integrating Anemometer. By the Rev. J. M. Wilson, M.A., 

and 11. S. IIele Shaw 776 

6. The Advantages of Ex-focal Light in iirst-order Dioptric Lighthouses, 

By J. R. WiGUAM 776 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On Telegraphic Photography. By Shelford Bidwell, M.A., LL.B 777 

2. On the Swan Incandescent Lamp. By J. W. SwAN 778 

3. On l<]lectric Lighting as applied to Coal Mines. By Andrew Jamieson... 778 

4. On a Screw Gauge for Electrical Apparatus. By W. H. Preeck, F.R.S. 770 

5. On the "Value of Quadriform Gaslights for Lighthouses in comparison with 

the Electric Light. By J. R. Wigham 779 



XXll CONTENTS. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee on Patent Legislation 779 

2. Report of the Committee on the Steering of Screw Steamers 779 

3. Report of tlie Committee on Wind Pressure 779 

4 Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations in the English Ohaimel and 
the North Sea 779 

5. On some applications of Electric Energy to Horticultural and Agricultural 

Purposes. By Dr. C. Wm. Siemens, F.R.S 779 

6. On the Transmission of Power by Electricity. By J. N, Shoolbked, 

C.E., F.G.S ; 779 

7. On the Relative Value of Incandescent Electric Lights. By J. N. Shool- 

BRED, C.E.,F.G.S 780 

8. On the Society of Arts Patent Bill. By Sir F. J. Bramivell, M.I.C.E., 
F.R.S 780 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. On Coal and the Abatement of Smoke in Large Towns. By W. R. E. 

Coles ..... 780 

2. On British Shipping and the Tonnage Laws. By Captain Bedford 

PiM, R.N 780 

•3. On the Pressure of Wind upon a Fixed Plane Surface. Bv Thomas 
Hawksley, C.E., F.R.S [ 780 

4. On a new form of Lightning Conductor, which can be easily tegted. By 

Samtjel Vxle 780 

5. On an Organisation for the Systematic Gauging of the Wells, Springs, and 

Rivers of Great Britain. By Joseph Ltjoas, F.G.S 781 

6. On a Dynamometer Coupling. By Professors AV. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and 

John Perry, B.E 781 

7. On the Lawyer's Marine Pocket Case. By Captain Bedford Pim, R.N. 781 
INDEX [ 783 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I. AND II. 



Illustrative of the Eeport of the Committee on the Tertiary Flora of the North 

of Ireland. 



PLATES III. AND IV. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Anthropometric Committee. 

PLATE V. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the present state of our Knowledge 

of Spectrum Analysis. 

PLATE yi. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing practical 
Standards for use in Electrical Measurements. 



PLATE VII. 

Illustrative of Mr. G. M. Whipple's Commimication, ' Observations of Atmo- 
spheric Electricity at the Kew Observatory during 1880.' 

PLATES VIII., IX., X., XL, XII., a^d XIII. 

Illustrative of Professor William Gkylls Adams's Communication, 'On 
Magnetic Disturbances and Earth-currents.' 

PLATE XIV. 

Illustrative of Dr. Htjggins's Communication, ' On the Photographic Spectrum of 

Comet " b " 1881.' 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

« 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to 
become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to 
conform to its Rules. , 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled,. 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The OflBcers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Associa- 
tion, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

, Compositions, Suhscri'ptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermissic7i their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose -for that ami 



XXVI EDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

'all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership aud other privileges at 
any subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Ofl&ces of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to sex-ve on Committees, or to hold any oflfice. 

The Association consists of the follovping classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
■admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership 
after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

6. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 
6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a com- 

position for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a fur- 
ther sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 
1845, a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members ivho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publi- 

cation Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds 
as a composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum 
as a Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume 
for that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) 

any of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up 
to 1874, of wliicli more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. Qd. per 
volume.' 
Application to be made at the Ofiice of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, London, W. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

••A few complete sets, 1831 to 1871, are on sale, £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXVU 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Co'inmittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
ioneer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sioh- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must 
he sent to me Assistant Secretary at least one month before the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Goimcil on the claims of any 
Member of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee 
to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. 

1. The President for the time being of any Scientitic Society publish- 
ing Transactions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him ; and the 
Secretary of such Society.' Claims under this Mule to be sent to the 
Assistant Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Hule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in wi-iting, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees.'^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and . 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 

' Revised by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

- Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contribiitm-s of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections before the heginHiriij of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author sliould prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 



XXVIU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees.' 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circnmstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.'^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Px'esidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are tcr meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Fi-iday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 

and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-jjost, on or 
before , addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. a full three weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
^re accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant 
Secretary, hcforc the oonchmon of the Jl/ei-tin//. 

' Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

- Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 

of Recommendatious adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
■cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the folloAving days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
•whicli have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
«ame before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
:at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in tbe Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to he forwo.rded, at the close of the Seo- 
iional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxvii), and will receive, 
on application to the Treasurer in tlie Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Covimittee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring aiiention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Hecommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 

• This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION., 

can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report 
has been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting- 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations in every case where no sucb Report has been 
received.' 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches- 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a lueeh before the opening of the ensuing Meeting: nor is the 
Treasui'er authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Pi'ofessor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Di-awings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Ofifice of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. TJie Section Rooms and approaches thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

* Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI) 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Membei's of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officeo'S. 

A Pi'esident, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries,, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors, 
appointed by the General Committee. 



TS 

V 

•Ah 



> 

a 
Ai 

a 

u 

a 

V 

S 

a 

o 

^^ 



_o 
"-3 

'o 
o 



•w i 

-« CO 

.2 S 

® CO 

CO 1^ 

a 

m 
u 

J 
60 

a 

■•FN 

O 

j3 
m 

0) 






■izn 



< 

H 
ui 

o m^ 






.sjai 


i-i 


4 


,/P^ 


p^ 




"ife 




^r-; 


P5 . 


<^ 


-^'^ 


PR^ 




cc 


- ■ 


<* 


i^c4 


pr^ 


^m 


CO o 




o Ph 


-J «J 






P5a3 


W=3 


" S 


•2 ■" 


^ ? 


-p.5 




O OJ 




^ -5 


ffi* 


So 


^c£ 


■S^ 


fep^ 




iii 






•03" 
■■3 » 



2SS 



if 



CO 

M 
-5 

Mm 

■ s 
^.« 



. CO to i^ 
■5 5; o t»' 



DO 

PJ 



.a 

■M-S 
o 

H g 

n, O 



> 

m 

P5 



CO 

P3 

.to 

CO ,: 



Wgtots 



to 


"S 






'b,ffi 





<^ 


.5 a* 











te 


^^ 



^1 






■".sT 

. (^ So 



PPL| 
la 

o S 

■sa 



to 
P5 

.6 






=1 



.2 » -^ 






-a 



R'*> 



W 






4 

ID 



rt 00 



pi s" 



1881. 



^21 

w 

o 

P3 



t-Ri! 3 om 

a 5 d 0) « o 
«^Wg§o 

Hi-:ip3coHP< 
pi 



O u 
to » 

l-H ^S 

w a 

Pot 

o o 

m^ 
m 
a 
o 



"3 



Sl 
^ u 
•3-^ 



° a 



;?p 






oO 



CO ^^ 

o ^ 



p^' 
■^.Ico^: 

OT pip^ 

•^ -P f»s 73 

o =3 ^ &W 
30P3P a 

■a. a -a Z 



»• M . 

^ o< re 

.saS^ 

CB.gfk, g 

a=2s a 
opsmi-3 



.CO 

a>0 



1-5 a • 

Wco 



.a .te; to r 
■^ a. Pm Ph "^ 

• Sg^W 

v^P fO 

HPi-g ^^ 

.c i! ^ a, a 
HtHOPnco 



CO 

p? 



Pijg 



R 


lU 


(-1 


a 










It; 


P* 





CO 


^, 




m 



Pi 


1 




P5 


a 




33 


H 




> 




W 




M 









3 "S ° 9 i 

OJ tu qj (D a 

^ ^ ^ SI <a 



^^ 



> So 

0; "^ CO 



:' .-« 

P^Sd . 

-S '^ O) eg CI* 
lt2W:S| 

'^ t- fj o ^ 

? o o cq frf 



O <L> 






. o 
""a 
pi >; 

>^ 
R-^ 

• to 

1-5 o 
, o 

^_: bo 

W.2 

Mo 

pf'O ^ 
E^ E « S 

P 01 c o 
R S'O 



2 !>■ (^ ■? O 

EH«P<CI2f^ 



I 

CO 

pi 

>4 
d 



•3 



i-q '■ 
P^ S 

" o .i 



W 



^ 






o a 



■a 

<^ -s 
•a 5 



« 

< 
I- 
u 
q: 
u 

lU 
CD 



< 

u 
o 






t- 
z 

lU 
Q 

in 
111 
q: 

0. 



*« of 

iM tt-J 

o o 






O P • Q - 

CQ CO • - ^ 



WW 



3'0 • • S 

W - . ,^ 

7 >- 1> > o 

" O U flJ t^ 

'cc rt rt rt p-i 
■a 



en 

H 

HI 
D 
Ul 
111 
K 

a. 



►Jo 
O 

o 



3 



w 



to 

« 



C o o 



W 



^ 


a 


M 


PV 






a 


W 








c 


q 




^ 


cj 




c: 


R 


[/) 


A 






H 


S 


o 


nt-t 



•fi 



•5 .g: 



■a og o 



. fe P^ tzj "? 



pjj'^ 



feO 



f^^ 



o o »x 



wS-2 

■3 a 






:i3 :^^ 



^li. g P.?= 

d w 35 a M 

r" r* -^ C ^ 



OE! 

03 
P? 



"to &I3 
^■5 . 



P2 



CQ 

<icQ 

fep5 



!> - O 
^ " p 






.H.S C. 



p 

2&; 



p 
a 

o 
o 

pC 

iJT) . 

cS - 

w S OJ 

,.-2 3 

■Cos 
a SB .2 
•S S3 



CO a 

r >^ 

cr o 

u a> 



Kpi4 



cs a -OS a 

.Sga rwH 

'^'2 = ^83 

(D uJ J3 t3 — ^ 

iSa„.f 2S: 

&3 fe" ss 
^^Slas 



CO 

pi 

cr to 

c ^*' 

p. o^ 



:a 

• oT 
I o 

:5 



CO . 

6.K 
. . - <u 

PH^ 

P3 r 
^m . 



g& 

P5 o 
W 5 

(=1 
w 






as 
f^ a 

iJ P- 
PJ o 

H 

w 
p 






o .J 



pW 






^ 



CO 3 

pi ° 
HHcoH 



OQ 

pj 

^2 



(-5 ►- '-' 



Sh 2 3 

g.Sa 

< eS >^ 
"I" 

. P K 

«=! 

iJ p 
P3(2 

w 

o 



p". 

R r 
W'S § 

i|M 
K si 

■a .2 
3 !>" 

►-1P5& 



<i 




of 


n 


fa 


a 


a 


n* 


6- 


s« 


m 


w 


Tl 


a 








Si 


0! 




R 


s: 


»"^ 


p 


rn 




e. 




fO 


H 






-i? 


a 



3 '5 
3 a a 



a- 



JPS 

-SMI 
g'Spg 

Spp S g 

Sfiai-i 

to V <a <u 
E-iHHB 



rcorl 

3«:^^ 



O c' 
o 



§1 i =^' 

J- a o "^ 

3 a^ ? 

S3'^'2 



; ;cQ 

: :<i 

: :«■ 
: "fa' 

Ico' r 

:fa^ 
• -fa 

:fa'-i 
: .'rt 

^ rP 



■0.SWP 
■§ 5 S-P 



.x^ 



■.to 

:« 
;fa 

&0C0' r 
bo -p 



a s ^-.s "^ 



CO 

P3 

fa 

i4 
d 
P 

p 
P 



2 :» 



H . 3 

wf=;p 
«4 



a>S-p^ 

oj 0) <u a 
^ .3 .3 .!- ja 



1-3 P. 



CO f-> 

PS o 
Ph'.2 

>w 

d-g 

p^ 



.t: 2 •-- 
■3 m a 

p-p s 
4 k: 



Q -^ 3 ■« 

»i o »a 

."sai 
Hit 

W S !u a 

5 3 ♦^S 

Hf^ a 

o 



DO 




V) 

ui 

< 

♦- 

HI 

a: 
o 



< 

o 
o 



•a 
o 
o 

CO 5 

r m m 
D-W . 
*" -w^ 

s 5 > 



56 
ti 

4 

3 o » 

a >^ ; 



o J . 

. & o 
fiSH 



iW 



ce m o 



'3 ° 






tc CO 



® o c" ■" "" 

■»-" is 

0) (1) aj Qi <B 
HHHHi-i 



CO 

6 

Ico 










"5 t;3 o s 



2S 



O ij T) ^ 

-^ ^ i_] 
9 e8 lT S 



J3J3 O O O O .-C . 
OOoOO'^O'-' - 

tt tt bij tfj t£' tJD '^ g -^ 

P3BgS5g2|". 

HHHHEHHHSt-: W M H En 



"^P50 
° °'?H 

CJ QJ 2 '^ 
MJ£ Si-; 

O" =" = 

o « 5 o 

=3 «3 be ti 
m CO 5 o 



to 

■3 ° J 

_bp o* 

Sw g'.g 

.- - w .3 

-T S O c! in 

SO ° sw 
i-j c-i '-J 1-5 H 



P^ 



W 



w 



S ® a 

i-S'3 

QJ ^ O 

• o,? 
"-ji-sPh 



s 
H 

■s 

03 ■ ^ 
CO 



'■? e8 

-a 



Hi 






a a >>■ ;-» 

o o ^ -; « 

BHtBCCI/J 



, o 



o 

I?. 



9 

^<1 



(X, g 



a 0.^ 

r-' C 00 

i: P a 

fi->W 
Sag 

5 o ea 

. fr > 
t^ V V 

■J' 



-itA 






-bo 

■as 
«; H 

^ cCi 

O SJ ' 
■i jam 

i-J aiJ 
-«ri bo • 

2 ° " 



•go 



JS^m.ii. 






rT3 S3 ^*■ 



.pa 



■£■§ 

«3 1-= Hcc 



So tJ 

ii Cm -^ 

-< a 3 

J3 
H 



;4'§ 

00 53 
- ■; 0) 

^a 

O o 

rS 

m a 
W g 

cr m 

5° 



.a 
bo 



Sg-'gs 



cc 

d 
p" 



V) 

1- 

2 




UJ 




c 


eg a> 


0) 


.a 


«. 






^w 




tfis 




s« 




^ 




W 









tf 








<D 



cs • 
••§ 

CO (J 

"■« . 

'-'■2 S 
a J3 

•^ -a a* 
.a« 



Efl bo--; 

S. W 

- o o 

^ » 

Ph.P 



P^ 



GQ 
CO 

res 

^s 

of 
ag, 

• 5 

o 

;^ 

t-t 



I 



W 

w 

o 

o 
o 
p 

« 

o 

w 
M 

P 

m 

&<(Ȥ 

-^ -T 
p 

cc 



PJ 

ca 
M 
■o 
o 
W 

"A 

o 

E-i 
(J 

w. 

to 
o 



en 



r 00 • 

crpq C 

W bog 



4 

O 

o 
o .i^ 






■=1 -o i S o h^ 



CQ 

d 



Eh 00 

O s 

P?« 

O 

TO 



o 

p^ 



.||h"w 

u (D a; oj 



CO 

p^' . . 

ft CM fin 

■ga - 
S o o 

Ot = 
So 






1ft 

S o ^ f4 Cq h5 t". 
ft i . w „- .ft 

^ r-l F^ -^ •. 



■fi '■ 

rco 



»5 • SI -■- •■'^' 



I- w < 

H cc Eh cc cc I-: i-j 



ft' 


cc 


P3^-; 


f^S 




R-c" 


hi'^ 


l-l i?l 




(H a 


S-s, 


g^ 


w?i 






►-^ IS 


,• s 


t^e; 


Pi^ 


o 


cc 


cfi 


w 


ft 


o 


PS 


p< 



IS 

CQ 



oH 



ft' 

d 
R 

.a 



ao 



.d .^ tw 

^ .ft 

°R .- 
- gJ-^ 

8ft;SJ" 

= '"' S-s 



3:ri :p5 

f^. : " 
5,-/ '2 
Qajft 

3 W - S *1 

5S 03-3 s 

oftOP3 



Ii: a 



o o 



HEH02 cS'^ZRPhPh 



^ U f-i ty vj 



■~^r' 



izi 




O 


. a 


t/j 


:S 


o 


• l-H 


w 


•(N 


H 


■■S 










(^ 


. 60 


S 


•^ 


1-1 




>-) 


' X 


^ 


:% 




: c^ 



HP5 
ftft 

P5 
Pi 



-in o* 

ac5 - 
S -S 

-Ph b 
!« « a 

OEh W 



• m ■ ■ 

^^. ': : 

d"! : ; 

ft -►^ : 

-oTft • 

■a.a r : 

a — re 

pi 'H oj 



.a £ .ft . 

S'~'&; red 

o oh2(^ 
0) « .P'ft 

:s|ad|^| 

HO«Ko^-g. 
aj oj oj oj ^ . cu 
a j3 a .a .tj t; g 
ti H Eh tH cc O f-5 



02 

ft 

CQ 

P^ 
ft 

flS 

JOO 

R'^ 

".43 

as 

-a) 

-S 
«2 
Sa 
S^ 



P5 



n 






Sua 

SSft 



< 

ft' 

02 

P3 
ft' 
gT 
o 



ft 



:a5 
a?d 
Pift 
ft r 

.CQ 

Jp? 

;qft' 
"-§ 

m S 

§? 

w ^ 

So 
o'^ 

ftM 



cc t.' 

ft g 
-ft 

d 






to 

«' 
ft 

.4 
■5=d 



a g a^H 

.a o a a . 
EnhJEHHi-j 



R 

Pl4 



!2i 

o 



2 :?^ 



I— < r- 
CD 



^ ;i 



pi; 
ft 

R 

^§ 
M . o 

•^ .'S 
pjft'M 

o .. 

^2 

HP3 

o" 

p; 

Pi 



cH 




ho 








pqfe 


rr 


m 


^1^ 


i 


^" 




r> 


^^ 


.g 

-n 



: 


: :ai 


; 


: :P3 


r 


: \^ 


. 


■ -4 




. .o 


03 


•aJR 


P5 


'P^S" 


ft 


•ftJ3 










1-1 


: e:02 


o 
p 


'."Si 


^-t« :<!a 


gpj :>.-2 


^ft 


.RPh 



«y CM - Qj 

ll« § 
S ^ o' £> a 

§§tSwm 

■-H .^ Q (D M 

<U OJ (1) 0) 

ja a .b a .a 
t-iEHtt!EHH 



0!2 

P5 
ft 

R 

i4 

R-* 



1^ 3 
iJ ba 



Hg 



tc 
a) 
M 
ft 
O 
P5 
Pi 



P3 



w 

u 

< 
I- 
IIJ 
K 

u 

Ui 

m 



n 









n 
6 



to 

6 

do s 
,i; * • 



•OQ 

•(4 
.fa" 

':^ 
•d 

^.^ 



t4 ttd 



m . 

6 : 

« : 

f-i : 

aj ■ 

fi" : 
>j : 

Hi EC 

rc5 



d" 

a r 
^pj - 






«&.rh = 






dpfe- 

C cc -c .Si a r 

W W s S « ™ 

*^ *3 S a . 1-. 



be - 



fc. So 

OJ (1) ffl -^ . ''-' 

ja ,C J3 o3 -^ . ■ 



03 



O r^r =3 C 

g S5i=i 
CSWgg 

K f' -b .b 



H : 
^ : 

i4 : 

p'co 

■Jrt 

^ w ^ * 

S 3 - 

;= "^ 
t. t^ o 

O O >H 



03 



(0 




1- 




z 

UI 


WIS 


Q 


o.^ 






in 


^a 


q: 


<15 


0. 


w-^ 




CC J 




t4p 



M 
o 



03 

d 
i-i 
1-1 

D 

& 
H 

Pi 
o 
la 
<! 

03 

o 

S^ 
m 
W d 

O^ 
« 



o o a 

^ ^ C3 



n 

111 

■«iM a 
iSSS 



• tc • • 
■ 6 '■ '• 
:«' : : 
:&<':: 

•03 • • 

:^ : : 

:m" : ; 
:fi : : 

:tc : : 

v • ^ ■ • 

•° • : : 

i^^- ; '. 

1^M r^-'^- 
OH 3 ■" rh 

WW o o g 
.Ef.K' 3 8"! 




d 



JS 

p^ [j 

- to 

ri-W 



611 OQ 





DQ 




PP 




fi 




>) 


-^ 




s 


i? 


- 


IM 








a 










<J 


V 




Tl 


rt 


a 


s 


■< 








VI 


H 


A 


1» 


a 






«H 



■ 03 : 

:d : 
:« : 

■ f^ : 



^«3 

g s "^ S '^ f^ 

oH pq ^^^"^ I 
0) O Qj o* ^ Ex 

•« 5 •= r'^ >2 8 ■ 

0-^^^WW^ ■ 
5Ww5;jt; I 

a WimP? o o 



a 

K 

DQ 

P3 



rrt .2 . 



CO 



.«.!« 



P'^.rn'l 



3HB HP< 



1^ 



^Sp^Swii 



_2 S " • 

WHH^Sph 



o o -■ — 



r • o ■-: ^ M 
j-S '^ a; >-• 

r "skj hK 
^ td td -2 .S:; 

lg§Sg§ 

: 0««>W 
J OT OJ OJ O 0^ 

HBHWi-i'-i ShHHH 



'-^.-Th^oJ 



;sg,H;S'g 



d 
R 

a' 



JB I 



f5 

iJ 

P3 i^ 

»^ 

pqpH 

fe rv" 

Ph 



e"^i 


OC!§ 


SWO 
P.R 
Aug 




SPOTT 

F.R.A.S 

Dublin 


a c/i 


M 


^^ 



^ 




W 




^ 




h3 




m 




p: 




fc 




R 




tA 


05 


hJ 


OO 




r-t 


fi 


O 


a 


•4^ 






[7 




^ 




iJ 




|JC« 




<!^J 


B 



'~lc5 !^ 02 

»d-;R 
■^ ?r' g'a 

- CO _r c3 

I ^^ P en ^ 

££ as 
2^ = ? 



^ 



'^ ^ 


1: 


o£ 




p3 r 


M 


o<! 




ttlM 




^« 




s^ 




Di 




P4 





OQ • 

rt : 

^ : 

fl : 
hi : 
►^ : 

^ : 
d -^ 
fl i| 

p^ :"" 
a :2 

.. . OT 

■g • 5 

R ■§ 
wo 

1^ ., 
12 03 
WhI 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXZIX 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Livei-pool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow . 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork , 

1844. York , 

184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F R S 
Prof. M'bulloch, M.R.I.A. 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Wliewell, D.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof.Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Pi'of, 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Barnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



EEPORT 1881. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1S61. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 
187i. Belfast 



1875. Bristol.... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin.... 

1879. Sheffield . 

1880. Swansea . 

1881. York 



Secretaries 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Eev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S... . 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
R'of .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.E.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, P.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. .lenkin. Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith,. 

J. M. Wilson. 
FleemingJenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster,. 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev, R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Wliitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodtre. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher,"Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 
Prof.W. E. Ayrton, Prof. O. J. Lodge,. 

D. McAlister, Rev, W. Routh. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE, 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINEKALOGT, 

1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S, 
Dr. Hope , 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAP.IES OF THK SECTIONS. 
SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



xli 



Date and Place 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Presidents 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.K.S. 
Eev. Prof. Cumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R. S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Secretaries 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B.,F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W.Odling, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 
F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller^ 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blimdell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr.Gladst one, Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher. 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 



xlii 



REPORT — 1881. 



Date and Place 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast , 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.., 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 



Presidents 



1881. York. 



Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.K.S,... 
Prof. "W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof . A . W. Williamson, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. T. Buchanan, "W. N. Haitley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 

H. B. Dixon, Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodg- 
kinson, P. Phillips Bedson, J. M. 
Thomson. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
T. Gough. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCfENCES, 111. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge, 

1834. Edinburgh, 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 



SECTION C 

R. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhope. 
Re 7. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— <?eo- 

graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.LA. 

Henry Warbm-ton, M.P., Pres. 
Geol. Soc. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Leonard Horner,F.R.S.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.K.S. 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

Ca,ptain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. 
J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, Jolm 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 



Rev. J. C. Camming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh' 


Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 


Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen..-. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



SECTION c (^continued). — geologt. 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
P.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, P.R.S... . 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A .,LL.D., 

P.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., P.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., P.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

P.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart,, 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay. LL.D., 

P.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, P.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

P.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, P.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, P.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. P. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, , James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J, W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof, 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. bawkins, J. Johnston, H. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. B. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 



• At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved ' That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section," ' for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xlvii. 



xliv 



EEPOET — 1881. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1872. 


Brighton... 


R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 


L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 






F.R.S. 


Topley, Henry Woodward. 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 


L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 






F.E.S., F.G.S. 


Topley. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 


F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 






F.G.S. 


R. H. Tiddeman. 


1875. 


Bristol 


Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 


L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 






F.G.S. 


ley. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Prof. John Toimg, M.D 


J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 

Topley. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


W. Pengellj', F.R.S 


Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 


1878. 


Dublin 


John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 


E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 






F.S.A., F.G.S. 


R. H. Tiddeman. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 


W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 


W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 


1881. 


York 


A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 


J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh, 



183.5. Dublin. 
1836. Bristol. 



Rev. P. E. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett, 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

] 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W.Jardine, Bart. ... 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., FiR.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D {continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xlvi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. .. 
William Spence, F.R.S. 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 



- At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xlvi. 



PBESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .., 

1852. Belfast 



1853, Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856, Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof . Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

SECTION D {continued) 

Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Bep., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

AntltTojwlofjical Bep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bep. of Zool. and Bat., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— BejJ. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.\j.'$,.~Bep. of\ 
Anat. and Physivl.,7iot.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— -Oe^. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i>e/;. of Bot. and 
ZooZ.,Prof.W3rvilleThomson, 
F.R.S.— Z^e/;. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 

kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr, 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester, 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. B. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



-BIOLOGY. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H, 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B, 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H, 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved :— ' That the title 
•of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," in the 
rules for conducting thebusiness of the Sections, the word "Department" be substituted,' 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1881. 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasarow 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



Presidents 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.K.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Pliysiid., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— i)ej». of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— D^'j^. of 
A )Mt.andPh )/mil.,Pioi. Ru.- 
therf ord, M.D.— ZJr^A ofAn- 
thi-opoL, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, U.Ji.—lJip. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Yres.U.^.—D(p.ofAn- 
t/trop.,SiT W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
A natMndPhymol.,Pioi.C\e 
land, M.D., F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Riissel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S.— i><77. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A 
Y.R.^.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Phijsvd., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Phygiol., Prof. Macalister, 
yi.ii.—Bep. of Anthropol, 
Francis Galton, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Phygiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol, 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
niol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
.tioL, F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler/F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.R.S.^Bep. of Anthropol, 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. | 



Secretaries 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudlex, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W.T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendi-ick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hj'de Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hej', Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, T. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge iDr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh I Dr. Abercrombie 1 Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E. (until 1847.) — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

1835. Dublin IDr. Pritchard IDr. Harrison, Dr. Hart, 

1836. Bristol I Dr. Roget, F.R.S IDr. Symonds. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S... 
I James Watson, M.D 



1841. Plymouth... 'p. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

1842. Manchester Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 



1844 York. 



. J. C. Prit chard, M.D. 



Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. — PHtSIOLOGT. 



1845. 
1846. 

1847, 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 
Oxford' .. 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. .. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. ., 



Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. "Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar* 

gent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 

Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUB.SECTIONS OF SECTION D. 
1850. Edinburgh ; Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
1855. Glasgow ... Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

1857. Dublin Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

18.58. Leeds Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 

1859. Aberdeen... Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

1860. Oxford Prof. G. RoUeston, M.D., 

F.L.S. 

1861. Manchester Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

1862. Cambridge C. E. Paget, M.D 

1863. Newcastle Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 

1864. Bath Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

1865. Bifminghm.= iProf. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 

Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 



Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 



p. xlii.} 

1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich . 

1852. Belfast.... 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool. 

1855. Glasgow , 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION O. 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 
SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson-,- Dr. 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 



Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 



Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 
' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of 'Section D— Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siolo^'-y " (see p. xliv). The Section being then vacant was assigned m 1851 to. 
Geography. ■ ■ ' ^'^'^e uo*e on page xlv. 



xlviii 



REPORT — 1881. 



Date and Place 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. 


Birmingham 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee ... 


1868. 


Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Col. Sir H. C. Kawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 
Sir R.I.Murchison.G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawford, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 



Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 
Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 
Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Calla- 
ghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempri&re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Sliaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 
Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Stur- 
rock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymoiith.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 



SECTION E (continued). — geogeapht. 
K.C.B 



Sir Bartle Frere, 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R.LMurchison,Bt., K.C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E..C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton. Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
Clements R. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, B. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E, C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECUETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh | 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 
1841 Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea .. 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 

1865. Glasgow .. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

J. E. Drink water. 



Prof. Babbage, F.K.S 



Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 



Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 



Colonel Svkes, F.R.S 

Henry HaUam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R.Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. . . . 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. . . . 



"W. Greg, Prof. Longfield, 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Hevwood. 
W. R. Grear.'W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C, 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Lunev, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher^ J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tavler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch. Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, Wm. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION p (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1881. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishoj) of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

c 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Clieshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

jM. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines. Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. .7. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. .John Strang. 
Edmund IMacrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rosers. 



KEPOET — 1881. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1861. 


Manchester 


William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 


David Chadwick. Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 


1862. 


Cambridge 


Edwin Chadwick, C.B 


H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 


1863. 


Newcastle . 


William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 


T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory,. 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 


1864. 


Bath 


William Farr, M.D.. D.C.L., 


E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 






F.R.S. 


1865. Birmingham 


Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 


G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 






M.P. 


E. Macrory. 


1866. 


Nottingham 


Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 


R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 


1867. 


Dundee 


M. E. Grant DufE, M.P 


Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 
Warden. 


1868. 


Norwich .... 


Samuel Brown, Pres. Inst it. 
Actuaries. 


Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 


1869. 


Exeter 


Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 


Edmund Macrory, Fi-ederick Purdy, 






cote, Bart., C.B.. M.P. 


Charles T. D. Acland. 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


Prof. W. Stanley Jevons. M.A. 


Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory,, 

J. Miles Moss. 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 


J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 


J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 


187.3. 


Bradford ... 


Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 


J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Lord O'Hagan 


Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 




J_^ V^ JL.L l.*lk-" v « • • » ■ ■ 




Hans MacMordie. 


1875. 


Bristol 


James Hey wood, M.A., F.R.S., 


F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 






Pres.S.S. 


Macrory. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 


A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, 






M.P. 


Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 
Jack. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 


W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 


1878. 


Dublin 


Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 
M.R.LA. 


W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 


Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 






S.S. 


Molloy. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


G. W. Hastings, M.P 


N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 


1881. 


York 


Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant Duff, 
M.A., F.R.S. 


C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 
Moss. 







MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol j Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1837. Liverpool... Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 



1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow 



Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 
Stephenson. 
. Sir John Robinson 



1841. Plymouth John Taylor, F.R.S 

1842. Manchester 'Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

1843 CoTk jProf. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

1844. York John Taylor, F.R.S 

1845. Cambridge .George Renuie, F.R.S. 
1846.Southampton |Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

1847. Oxford Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 

1848. Swansea ... Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T.. 

Welxster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henr}' Chat field, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Belts, jun., Charles Manby. . 
J. GljTin, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 



PRESIDENTS ANJ> SECRETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



H 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1849. Birminofham 



1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 



Edinburgh 
Ipswich .... 
Belfast 



Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin.... 



Robert Stephenson, M.P., 

F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 



Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 



Leeds 

Aberdeen.. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
PljTnouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 



Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Cliarles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes M''ard. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, juu., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jiin., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 
I H. Wright. 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. W. M. FawcetV, P. Le Neve Foster, 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 'p. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 



W. J. Macquorn Rankine 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 



J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir AV. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

C2 



J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W, 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brimel, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, E. 

H. C'arbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. 

N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smj-th, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble. J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, J. 

N. Slioolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. .\tcliison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 
H. T. Wood. 



Hi 



KEPOET 1881. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



Lecturer 



1857. Dublin, 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S. 



Sir M.L Brunei 

R. L Mnrchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S.... 



Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.E.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, P.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L. 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portloak, R.E., F.R.S 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S.,; 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Eawlinson ... 



Subject of Discourse 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the iEgean Sea. 

The Earl of Eosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Eussia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered bjr Dr. Sclionbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Didus inciiUis). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
pract ical considerat ions connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Phj'sical GeograjDhy 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Eecent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the pre- 
sent time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



liii 



Dat 


e and Place 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861, 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



1864. 


Bath 


1865. Birmingham 


1866. Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1875 


Bristol 


1876 


Glasgow ... 


1877. Plymouth... 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Phillips,LL,D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof . W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odiing, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S... 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archiba,ld Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odiing, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.... 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart. ,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Pi-of. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

I Prof. Odiing, F.R.S 



The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
terj- considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulfe. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and api- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The Challenger Expedition. 

The Physical Phenomena connected 
with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 

The new Element, Gallium. 



liv 



REPORT 1881. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 


G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 

F.R.S. 
Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or J\Iodern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 


1881. York 


Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 


The Rise and Progress of Palason- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 





Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool... 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



i Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode.LL.D..F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odiing, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone, 
Electricity as a Motive Power. 
The Nortli-East Passage. 
Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 



Iv 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

YORK MEETING-. 

SECTION A. — MATHE5UTICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President— FroiessoY Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Fvofessor J. C. Adams, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor 
Ball, LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor Cayley, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. ; J. W. L Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S. ; 
Rev. S. Haughton, M.D., F.R.S. ; T. Archer Hirst, Ph.D., V.P.R.S. ; 
Professor Bartholomew Price, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor H. J. S. Smith, 
M.A., F.R.S. ; W. Spottiswoode, M.A., LL.D., Pres. R.S. 

/Secretaries.— Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ; Professor Oliver J. Lodge, 
D.Sc. ; DoDald McAlister, M.A., M.B., B.Sc. ( Recorder) ; Rev. W. 
Routh, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

Preside?ii.— Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — I. Lowthian BeU, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Dewar, M.A., 
F.R.S.; Professor E. Frankland, D.C.L., F.R.S.; J. H. Gilbert, 
Ph.D., F.R.S.; J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S.; A. G. Vernon 
Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S.; Professor W, Odling, M.B., F.R.S.; 
Professor H. E. Roscoe, B.A., F.R.S. ; Professor W. J. Russell, 
F.R.S. ; Professor T. E. Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

.Secretaries. — P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc, F.C.S. (Recorder) ; Harold B. 
Dixon, M.A., F.C.S. ; T. Gough, B.Sc, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Andrew Crombie Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, and of the 
Museum of Practical Geology. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor P. M. Duncan, M.B., F.R.S. ; R. Etheridge, 
F.R.S. ; J. Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor E. Hull, LL.D., F.R.S. ; 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Prestwich, M.A., F.R.S. ; H. C. 
Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S.; T. 
Wright, M.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— J. E. Clark, B.Sc, F.G.S. ; W. Keeping, M.A., P.G.S. ; 
W. Topley, F.G.S. (Recorder) ; W. Whitaker, B.A., F.G.S. 



Ivi EEPORT — 1881. 



SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President.— nichsird Owen, C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Froiessor W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., 
F.L.S., F.G.S., Pres. Z.S. ; Professor J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Acland, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor 
Balfour, M.D., F.R.S. ; J. Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. ; W. Bowman, M.D., 
F.R.S.; Professor Asa Gray; Professor Huxley, LL.D., Sec. R.S. ; 
Professor A. Newton, F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A., F.L.S. {Recorder) ; W. A. Forbes, 
B.A., F.Z.S. ; Rev. W. C. Hey, M.A. ; Professor M'Nab, M.D. 
(Becorder) ; W. North, B.A., F.C.S. ; John Priestley (Recorder) ;. 
Howard Saunders, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; H, E. Spencer. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President— Sir 3. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S., V.P.L.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir Alexander Armstrong, K.C.B., F.R.S.; Professor 
I. Bayley Balfour, D.Sc. ; Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S.; Clements 
R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S. ; Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S. ; 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I. ; Professor Sir Wyville Thomson, 
D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J. W. Barry; H. W. Bates, F.R.S., Assistant- Sec. R.G.S, 
(Becorder) . 



SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— The Right Hon. M. E. Grant Duff, M.A., LL.B., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Governor of Madras. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of York ; the Right 
Hon. Lord Houghton, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; the Lord 
Reay ; James Heywood, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., F.S.S. 

Secretaries. — Constantine MoUoy (Becorder) ; "W. W. Morrell ; J. F. Moss. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Siv W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. Abernethy, Pres. Inst. C.E. ; W. H. Barlow, F.R.S. ; 
J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; Sir Henry Bessemer, F.R.S.; Sir Frederick 
Bramwell, F.R.S.; Captain James B. Eads, C.E. ; Edward Easton, 
C.E.; T. Hawksley, F.R.S. ; C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — A. T. Atchison (Becorder) ; J. F. Stephenson; H. Trueman 
Wood. 



60 

'-3 



a 
m 

o 

fl 

a ^ 

o o 

95 os 

00 

CD ^ 

1l 

O Pi 

\^ . 

ooo 

oS 

^^" 

CC CO 

W pi 



w 



«.l 



05 
I— 






to t- —I 



r-f CS 

m 00 



eo 00 



bo 
C 



:t2 






Oh g c.S 

9 o '^ 
5 fl g o 






S fl o- o 



<p 



O .2 



t> !_■ U I '—' 

t> o ^ 



;» 



^S 3 -^ 2 S 
?, ^ ° t- '-'^ 

'S ^ 

>-. 
m 









03 Ph 



'^ COOOOOOOOOOOOOOrH 
X COOOOOOCOOOOOOOCO 






o 3 >. 

T* — tr3 OS 
San > 

■A o 5^ ^ 

a'9 bc-S 



eai-3 

^3 



g- o 

5.2 £:• 



5 2 S ° g2" 



t? " O M 

C02^ a3 

■3 =:^ grt 



<" S S- , 



r-! !S. 






:S S J= .2 -43 ij j2 

H^ t) a ^ &< t3 w Eh M a a 



.i! 42 o o o 
o'S "a S 



o 




a 




a( 




fH 




Ph 




^ 


, 


f-J 


Iz; 




O 


Cfi 


r/> 


^ 








TS 


ij- 


f3 


h:i 






bo 

a 


^ 




^' 


o 


, 


,y 


M 


a 


w 


(33 

pp 




+i 




Ctf 




<v 




a 




sa 





PQ 



'IS 



■^d^ 



lO OOOOt^-H o o 
iQ OOOOO^O lO O 



CO O CC O >^ CC i-l 

O O t^ c^ -t^ -^t^ -^ 

lo 1— I -* m rt O) 1— I 



o 

(M 



H 

o 

Ph 



I 
o 
oo 

rH P5 



O E? 
•5 ^ 
o CO 

23 o 
a t! 

i^ ft 

a o 
go OJ 

O o 

8 o fl 

^ " tJ 

^ L- a 

i5 o =« 

^^'^ 
^^ 

oj £ 

i3 S 

PQP^ 



hi) 

c S 

SO 

03 

O CD 







n • 




c3 


OB ; 




(U 


CI : 




p»> 


•^ I 






O ; 




>1 


ID : 




a) 


S : 










o 
o 


-c : 




Oj 


'q3 : 






iB : 




n1 


<v : 




U 


r^ • 




V* 


CO : 




cS 






a 


a 


' ' *•■ 


CD O 




£!! - 


13 -rt 



OS 

o 



US 

o -J-; <u 

02 <D H 

c «) " 



o o 

°-^ 

CO ?? 



o ^ 

|o 
•r' <u 



CI ^ 



CD'S tD 
P^ S£ 



(D - 



« 



o oj o g 

CJ M 

-^ OB Si » 
OJ CI l=! ^ 

> :=: -St <« 



- o -J 

<D 
P^ 



<U 1 



CO 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1881. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 






Presidents q, , 
Mei 


Life New 
nbers Men 


Life 
ibers 




1831, Sept. 27 ... 
18.32, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 
18.50, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 
185.5, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aiig. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, Jime 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Ang. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 
187-5, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept. 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 ... 

1881, Aug. 31 ... 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.E.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marqiiis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 1 

The Lord Francis Egerton 3 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 1 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 2 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 3 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 2 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 3 

The Marquis of Northampton 1 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 2 

Sir David Brewster, K.H i 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 1 
Lieut .-General Sabine, F.R.S. 1 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 1 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. i 
The Duke of Argyll, F.E.S. ... ] 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 1 
The Re v.Humphrev Lloyd, D.D. : 
Richard Owen, M'D., D.C.L..,. i 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... ] 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... i 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. i 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. i 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. i 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. i 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 5 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 1 
The DiTke of Buccleuch, K.C.B. ] 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 1 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L i 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D ? 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 1 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 1 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. '. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. ] 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. '. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. i 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 1 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.E.S. 1 
A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. '. 


69 6 
03 16 
09 2 

26 15 

13 3 
41 1 

14 1 
49 

27 1 
35 

72 

64 1 
41 1 
38 2 
94 3 
82 1 
^36 1 
i22 4 
64 S 
J86 2 
J21 11 
J39 1 
i03 S 
287 4 
i92 4 

m i 

L67 5 
96 1 
!04 5 
il4 J 
246 S 
J45 i 

[62 ] 
?39 i 
221 i 
L73 1 
201 1 
L84 1 
144 ] 
272 S 


5 
9 
8 

6 

8 
3 
2 

9 
8 

3 
3 
3 
4 
5 
2 

7 
1 
3 
5 
6 

14 
1 
5 
8 
1 
!9 
8 
!6 
i7 
3 
16 
i5 
19 
18 
16 
LI 
IS 


Oxford 


Cambridge 


Edinburgh 


Dublin 


Bristol 


Liverpool 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Birmingham 


Glascrow 


Plymouth 


Manchester 


Cork 


York 


Cambridge 


Southampton 

Oxford 


Swansea 


Birmingham 


Edinburgh 


IiDswich 


Belfast 


Hull 


Liverpool 


Glasgow 


Cheltenham 


Dublin 


Leeds 


Aberdeen 


Oxford 


Manchester 


Cambridge 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bath 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 


Dundee 


Norwich 


Exeter 


Liverpool 

Edinburgh 


Brighton 


Bradford 


Belfast 


Bristol 


Glasgow 


Plymouth 


Dublin 


Sheffield 


Swansea 

York 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



lix 



! Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 


Old 

Annual 
Members 


New 

Annual 

Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


For- 
eigners 


Total 












353 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


1831 






... 


... 


11 00* 


... 


900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 






1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 








"20' "o 

167 
435 
922 12 6 
932 2 2 














317 
376 
185 


... 


... 

60* 


34 
40 


1438 

1353 

891 




1595 11 
1546 16 4 
1235 10 11 


1839 
1840 
1841 




46 




75 


"33t 


331* 


28 


1315 




1449 17 8 


1842 


71 


160 








1565 10 2 


1843 


45 


190 
22 


407 


260 








981 12 8 


1844 


94 


172 


35 


1079 




831 9 9 


1845 


65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 




685 16 


1846 


197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 




208 5 4 


1847 


54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


707"o"o 


275 1 8 


1848 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


1.59 19 6 


1849 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 


111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45J 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 . 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


■2ni 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 3 1 


1881 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 
Tickets of Admission to Sections only. J Including Ladies. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1881-82. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.L.S., F.G.S. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His G-race the Aechbishop of Toi;k, D.D., F.E.S. 

The Right Hon. the Loud Mayor of York. 

Tlie Right Hon. Lord Houghton, M..A., D.C.L., 

F.R.». F.R.G.S. 
The Veu. Archdeacon Ciieykr, M.A. 
The Hon. Sir W. R. GiiOVE, iVI.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Professor G. G. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.,. 

Sec. R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S. , F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 
Allex Thomson, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E. 
Professor Allman, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. &E., 
F.L.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
C. W. SIEMENS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D. P.R.S., F.C.S., M.I.C.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Modnt-Tkjiple. 

Captain Sir F. J. Ev.ans, K.C.B., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., 
Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Colonel A. G. Cooke, R.E., C.B., F.R.G.S., Director- 
General of the Ordnance Survey. 

WynDHAM S. PoiiTAL, Esq. 

Professor Pkestwich, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.C.S. 



F. A. Abel, Esq., C.B., F.R.S., V.P.C.S., Director of 
the Chemical Establishment of the War Depart- 
ment. 

Professor De Chaumost, M.D., F.R.S. 

Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D.,. 
F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT SOUTHAMPTON. 

C. AV. A. Jellicok, Esq. John E. Le Feuvre, Esq. MoBuis Miles, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT SOUTHAMPTON. 

J. Bloukt Thoma.s, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abel, P. A., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
B.^teman, J. F., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 
Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 
De La Rue, Warhen, Esq., F.R.S. 
Evans, Captain Sir F. J., C.B., F.E.S. 
EvAN-s, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Harcourt, a. Veunon, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hastings, G. W Esq., M.P. 
Hawkshaw, J. Cl.irke, Esq., F.G.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 



HuGC4rNS. W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Hughes, Professor T. McK., F.G.S. 

Jeffreys, J. G\rYN, Esq., F.R.S. 

Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 

Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Perkin, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Prrr- Rivers, General A., F.R.S. 

Prestwk-h, Professor, F.R.S. 

Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 

Sanderson, Prof. J. S. Bubdon, F.R.S. 

SonBY, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 

Thuillieb, Gen. Sir H. E. L., C.S.L, F.R.S. 



Capt 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Douglas Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
iR.ANCis MAITL.4.ND BALFOUR, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

SECRETARY. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., 22 Albemarle Street, Loudon, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor A. \V. Williajison, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Ti-ustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., P.R.S., Pres.L.S. 
WlLLIAJI Spoti-ISWOODE, Esq., M.A., b.C.L., LL.D., Pres. R.S. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir G. B. Airy. 

General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 

The Earl of Harrowby. 

The Duke of Argyll. 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 

Sir \V. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



I Sir "WilUam R. Grove, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Prof. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Prof. Hu.xley, LL.D., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. Sur Wm. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Willianison, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. Tyudall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.E.S. 

Dr. T. Andrews, F.R.S. 

Dr. AUen Thomson, F.R.S. 

W. Spottiswoodo, Esq., Pres. R.S. 

Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.E.S.. 



P. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. R.S. I George Griffith, Esq., MA. 
Dr. Michael Poster, F.R.S. P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. 



Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 

I Professor G. C. Foster, F.E.S. 



Ixi 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for (lie year 1880-81, presented to the General 
Committee at York, on Wednesday, August 31, 1881. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. In consequence of the omission to appoint 
Auditors at the General Committee at Swansea, the accounts for the past 
year have been audited by Auditoi's nominated by the Council. 

The Council have nominated the Lord Mayor of York, Lord Houghton, 
and the Ven. Archdeacon Creyke to be Vice-Presidents for the Meeting 
at York. 

Mr. Sclater informed the Council in December last that he would not 
be able to hold the office of General Secretary after the York Meeting. 
The Council much regret the loss of Mr. Sclater's valuable services. 
They have resolved to recommend that Mr. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S., of 
Cambridge, be appointed one of the General Secretaries in the place of 
Mr. Sclater. 

Towards the end of last year, the Council took into consideration the 
duties and position of the Assistant Secretary, and during the course of 
their deliberations Mr. Gordon tendered his resignation of the office. 
'The Council, in accepting the resignation, resolved to continue his salary 
to the end of the financial year. In making arrangements to fiU up the 
■appointment, the Council further reconsidered the question of the position 
held by the Assistant Secretary. It will be in the recollection of the 
'Committee that Mr. Gordon was appointed to a different position from 
that held by Professor Phillips and Mr. Griffith. The duties of the office 
were somewhat modified, and it was thought that by requiring more 
continuous attendance from the Assistant Secretary, it would be possible 
to dispense witn the assistance of the clerk. The arrangement did not, 
however, answer the intended purpose ; and the Council have resolved to 
nominate Professor Bonney, M.A., F.R.S., to fulfil the duties of the office 
of Assistant General Secretary, as defined by Professor Phillips in his 
memorandum dated May 3, 1861, with the title of Secretary, at a salary 
of 300L per annum, with 25?. for travelling expenses. 

The Council have to deplore the loss of Sir Philip de Malpas Grey 
Egerton, Bart., F.R.S., who had been a member of the Association since 
its commencement, and who held the office of Trustee for many years. 
The Council have nominated Mr. Spottiswoode as Trustee, in the place of 
Sir Philip Egerton. 

Invitations for 1883 will be presented from Leicester, SoutliDort, 
'Oxford, Birmingham, Aberdeen, Nottingham ; and an invitation to 
Worcester has been received for 1884. 



Ixii 



REPOET 1881. 



The Council announce with great regret the loss that they have 
sustained during the past year by the death of Professor Rolleston, F.R.S. 
One vacancy having been thus caused in their body, there remain only 
four names which it is necessary to remove from the list. 

The Council propose that, in accordance with the regulations, the four 



retiring members shall be the following : — 



Mr. Easton. 
Mr. Newmarch. 



Prof. Roscoe. 

Mr. Warington Smyth. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Abel, F. A., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Bateman, J. F., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 



Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 

*De La Rue, Warren, Esq., F.R.S. 

Evans, Captain Sir F. J., C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Harcourt, A. Vernon, Esq., F.R.S. 
*Hastings, G. W., Esq., M.P. 
*Hawkshaw, J. C, Esq., F.G.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 



M.A. 



Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK.. 
JeflPreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Perkin, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Pitt-Rivers, General A., F.R.S. 
*Prestwich, Prof., F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Professor J. S. Burdon, 

F R S 
Sorby, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 
ThuilHer, General Sir H. E. L., 

C.S.L, F.R.S. 



IXlll 



Recommendations Adopted by the General Committee at the. 
YoEK Meeting in August and September, 1881. 

[VVheu Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specilic nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to communicate with 
the President and Council of the Royal Geographical Society as to the 
complete Exploration of the Snowy Mountain District of Eastern 
Equatorial Africa, and be authorised to subscribe a sum of 1001. towards 
such exploration. 

That Mr. G. H. Darwin, Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, 
Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Professor Purser, Professor G. Forbes,, 
and Mr. Horace Darwin be a Committee for the purpose of Measuring 
the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity; that Mr, G. H. Darwin be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of Ibl. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, Professor H. E. 
Roscoe, Professor A. S. Herschel, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Scott, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone be a Committee for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the practicability of collecting and identifying Meteoric Dust, 
and of considering the question of undertaking regular observations in 
various localities ; that Professor Schuster be the Secretary, and that the- 
sum of 20?. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon 
be a Committee for the purpose of Calculating Tables of the Funda- 
mental Invariants of Algebraic Forms ; that Professor Sylvester be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 807. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. Robert H. Scott, Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor H. J. 
S. Smith, Professor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr^ 
G. J. Symons be a Committee for the purpose of co-operating with the 
Meteorological Society of the Mauritius in their proposed publication 
of Daily Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861 ; that 
Mr. R. H. Scott be the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Mr. C. Hockin, Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Mr. J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, 
Lord Rayleigh, Professor P. Jenkin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkin- 
son, Dr. A. Muirhead, and Mr. W. H. Preece be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in 
Electrical Measurements ; that the names of Mr. Herbert Taylor, Pro- 



Ixiv REPORT 1881. 

fessor Everett, and Professor Schuster be added to the Committee ; 
that Dr. A. Muirheadbe the Secretary, and that the sum of lOOZ. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Dewar, Professor A. W. Williamson, Dr. Marshall 
Watts, Captain Abney, Mr. Stoney, Professor W. N". Hartley, Professor 
McLeod, Professor Carey Foster, Professor A. K. Huntington, Professor 
Emerson Reynolds, Professor Reinold, Professor Liveing, Lord Rayleigh, 
Professor Schuster, and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of our know- 
ledge of Spectrum Analysis ; that Mr. W. Chandler Roberts be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 51. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart, Riicker, and T. E. Thorpe be a 
Committee for the purpose of reporting on the Methods employed in the 
■Calibration of Mercurial Thermometers ; that Professor Riicker be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Roscoe, Mr. Lockyer, Professor Dewar, Professor 
Liveing, Professor Schuster, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall Watts be 
a Committee for the purpose of preparing a new series of Wave-lengths 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements ; that Dr. Marshall Watts be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Hugo Miiller, Professoi's Williamson, Prankland, Roscoe, 
and Odiing, and Mr. H. B. Dixon be a Committee for the purpose of 
drawing up in a tabular form the varieties of chemical names which have 
come into general use, for indicating the causes which have led to their 
•adoption, and for considering what can be done to effect some conver- 
gence of the views on Chemical Nomenclature obtaining among English 
and foreign chemists ; that Mr. H. B. Dixon be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Odiing, Huntington, and Hartley be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating by means of Photography the Ultra- Violet 
Spark Spectra emitted by Metallic Elements, and their combinations 
under varying conditions ; that Professor W. N. Hartley be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, the Rev. J. F. Blake, Professor T. G. Bonney, 
Mr. W. Carruthers, Mr. F. Drew, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor L. 
C. Miall, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. B. B. Tawuey, Mr. W. Topley, and Mr. 
W. Whitaker be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of carrying on 
the Geological Record ; that Mr. Whitaker be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. C. Ramsay, Mr. Thomas Gray, and Professor John 
Milne be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of Investigating the 
Earthquake Phenomena of Japan ; that Professor Milne be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. C. Sorby, Professor W. J. SoUas, and Professor William 
Ramsay be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Conditions under which ordinary Sedimentary Materials may be converted 
into Metaraorphic Rocks ; that Professor Sollas be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the pui-pose. 

That Professor W. C. Williamson and Mr. W. Cash be a committee 
for the purpose of investigating the' Fossil Plants of Halifax ; that Mr. W. 



EECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENEEAL COMMITTEE. Ixv 

Cash be the Secretary, and that the sum of 151. be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Professor A. C. Ramsay, Professor J. Prestwich, Professor T. 
McK. Hughes, and Mr. W. Topley be a Committee for the purpose of 
assisting in the preparation of an International Greological Map of Europe; 
that Mr. W. Topley be the Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Professors G. A. Lebour and J. Prestwich, Messrs. James Glaisher, 
E. B. Marten, W. Molyneux, W. Pengelly, James Plant, James Parker, 
J. Roberts, S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Whitaker, B. "Wethered, and 
C. E. De Ranee be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Cir- 
culation of the Underground "Waters in the Permeable Formations of 
England, and the Quality and Quantity of the Waters supplied to various 
towns and districts from these formations ; that Mr. C. E. De Ranee be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 151. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professor W. C. Williamson and Mr. W. H. Baily be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of Collecting and Reporting upon the Tertiary 
Flora of Beds associated with the Basalt of the North of Ireland ; fhat Mr. 
Baily be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. C. Sorby and Mr. G. R. Vine be a Committee for the 
purpose of reporting on the British Fossil Polyzoa ; that Mr. Vine be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor A. Leith Adams, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. 
John Evans, Mr. G. H. Kinahan, and Mr. R. J. Ussher be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of carrying out Explorations in Caves in 
Carboniferous Limestone in the South of Ireland ; that Mr. R. J. Ussher 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professor A. H. Green, Professor L. C. Miall, Mr. J. Brigg, and 
Mr. J. W. Davis be a Committee for the purpose of assisting in the 
Exploration of Raygill Fissure ; that Mr. J. W. Davis be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 20/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. F. M. Balfour, Professor Newton, Professor Huxley, Mr. 
Sclater, Professor Ray Laukester, Professor Allman, Dr. M. Foster, and 
Mr. P. Sladen be a Committee for the purpose of arranging for the 
Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples ; that Mr. 
P. Sladen be the Secretary, and that the sum of 801. be placed at their 
disjDOsal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Burden Sanderson, Dr. M. Foster, and Professor B. A. 
Schtifer, be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Albuminoid 
Substances of Serum ; that Professor B. A. Schafer be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Pye-Smith, Dr. M. Foster, and Dr. Burden Sanderson be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Influence 
of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen (the experiments to 
be conducted by Mr. North) ; that Dr. Burden Sanderson be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose, the pi-evious grant not having been expended. 

That Dr. M. Foster, Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, 
1881. (J 



Ixvi REPORT 1881. 

Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir Wyville Thomson, Professor 
Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. P. Sladen, be a Committee for the 
purpose of aiding in the maintenance of the Scottish Zoological Station ; 
that Mr. P. Sladen be the Secretary, and that the sum of 40^. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Cordeaux, Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, Professor Newton, 
Mr. R. M. Barrington, Mr. A. G. More, Mr. J. Hardy, and Mr. P. Kermode 
be a Committee for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of the 
Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and of the Commis- 
sioners of Northern Lights) observations on the Migrations of Birds at 
Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting upon the same at South- 
ampton in 1882 ; that Mr. Cordeaux be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of Ibl. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Lieut. -Colonel God win- Austen, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir J. Hooker, 
Dr. Giinther, Mr. Seebohm, and Mr. Sclater be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Natural History of Socotra and the 
adjacent Highlands of Arabia and Somali-land ; that Mr. Sclater be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. W. T. Thistleton-Dyer, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. Sclater 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of 
Timor- laut ; that Mr. Thistleton-Dyer be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. E. C.Rye be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100^. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Flower, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. Park Har- 
rison, Dr. Muirhead, General Pitt- Rivers, Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Mr. C. 
Roberts be a Committee for the purpose of obtaining Photographs of the 
Typical Races composing the British Empire, with a view eventually to 
their publication ; that Mr. Park Harrison be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. F. Galton, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook (Secretary and 
Reporter), Major-General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. J. P. Harrison, Mr. J. Hey- 
wood, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. F. H. Mahomed, Sir Rawson Rawson, 
and Mr. C. Roberts be a Committee for the purpose of carrying out the 
recommendations of the Anthropometric Committee of last year, espe- 
cially as regards the Anthropometry of children and of females, and the 
more complete discussion of the collected facts ; and that the sum of 
50Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not Involving Grants of Money. 

That Mr. W. Hicks be requested to continue his Report on Recent 
Progress in Hydrodynamics. 

That Captain Abney, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, 
Lord Rayleigh, Mr. Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Pro- 
fessor Vernon Harcourt, and Professor Ayrton be a Committee for the 
purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light ; and that Captain Abney 
be the Secretary. 

_ That Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Dr. Siemens, Sir Prede- 
rick Bramwell, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley be a Committee for the purpose 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixvii 

of continuing Secular Experiments on the Elasticity of Wires ; xi that 
Mr. Bottomley be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor Stokes, Professor Cayley. i lofessor 
Smith, Sir William Thomson, Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, and 
Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be a Committee on Mathematical Notation and 
Printing ; and that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor Stokes, Professor H. J. S. Smith, 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher 
be a Committee on Mathematical Tables ; and that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher 
be the Secretary. 

That Professor W. B. Ayrton, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Mr. J. E. H. Gordon, 
and Mr. John Perry be a Committee for the purpose of actually measur- 
ing the specific inductive capacity of a good Sprengel Vacuum, and the 
specific resistance of gases at diflFereut pressures ; and that Professor W. 
E. Ayrton be the Secretary. 

That Professor Everett, Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Pro- 
fessor E. Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. 
A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, and Mr. A. Strahan be a Committee for the purpose 
of making determinations of Underground Temperature ; and that Pro- 
fessor Everett be the Secretary. 

That Professor J. Prestwich, Professor T. McK. Hughes, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor T. G. Bonney, the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, 
Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. De Ranee, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, 
J. E. Lee, James Plant, W. Pengelly, W. Molyneux, H. G. Fordham, and 
W. Terrill be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin 
of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other 
matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for 
their preservation ; and that the Rev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That Professor H. G. Seeley be requested to report on the Organisa- 
tion of the Plesiosauria. 

That Mr. C. E. De Ranee, Sir John Hawkshaw, and Messrs. R. B. 
Grantham, J. B. Redman, W. Topley, J. W. Woodall, and W. Whitaker 
be a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into the rate of Erosion 
of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the influence of the artificial 
abstraction of shingle and other material on that action ; and that 
Mr. W. Topley be the Secretary. 

That Mr. R. Meldola, General Pitt- Rivers, and Mr. Wm. Cole be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the ancient earthwork in 
Epping Forest known as Loughton Camp ; and that Mr, W. Cole be the 
Secretary. 

That Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Percy B. Sladen, and Sir Wyville Thom- 
son be a Committee for the purpose of a Zoological Exploration of the 
Sea-bed lying north of the Hebrides ; and that Dr. Gwyn JeS'reys be the 
Secretary. 

That Mr. J. Glaisher, the Rev. Canon Tristram, and the Rev. F. Law- 
rence be a Committee for the purpose of promoting the survey of Eastern 
Palestine now on foot under the management of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund ; and that Mr. J. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That Professor Leone Levi, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Dr. Hancock, Sir 
Antonio Brady, Professor Jevons, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Mr. E J. Watherston, 

d2 



Ixviii BEPORT — 1881. 

Mr. Pearson Hill, Mr. Geo. Baden Powell, and Mr. Jeremiah Head be re- 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing the inquiry into and 
completing the report upon the appropriation of wages and other sources 
of income, and considering how far it is consonant with the economic 
progress of the United Kingdom ; and that Professor Leone Levi be 
the Secretary. 

That the Committee on Science Teaching in Elementary Schools, con- 
sisting of Mr. James Heywood, Mr. Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. 
Eobert Wilkinson, the Rev. W. Delany, Professor Maskelyne, Dr. 
Silvanus P. Thompson, Miss Lydia B. Becker, Sir John Lubbock, 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Mrs. Augusta Webster, and Dr. Gladstone 
(Secretary), with power to add to their number, be reappointed for the 
ensuing year to watch and report on the workings of the proposed 
Eevised New Code and of other legislation affecting the teaching of 
science in elementary schools. 

That Sir Joseph Whitworth, Dr. Siemens, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. 
A. Stroh, Mr. Beck, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. E. Crompton, Mr. B. Rigg, 
Mr. A. Le Neve Foster, Mr. Latimer Clark, Mr. H. Trueman Wood, and 
Mr. Buckney be a Committee for the purpose of determining a gauge for 
the manufacture of the various small screws used in Telegraphic and 
Electrical Apparatus, in Clockwork, and for other analogous purposes; 
and that Mr. H. Trueman Wood be the Secretary. 

That Sir Frederick Bramwell, Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. Abel, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. B. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, Mr. H. 
Trueman Wood, Mr. W. H. Barlow, and Mr. A. T. Atchison be re- 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of watching and reporting to 
the Council on Patent Legislation ; and that Sir Frederick Bramwell be 
the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, Mr. C. W. 
Merrifield, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor O. Reynolds, Professor W. 
Cawthorne Unwin, Mr. Rogers Field, and Mr. A. T. Atchison be reap- 
pointed to consider and report upon the best means of ascertaining the 
effective Wind Pressures to which buildings and structures are ex- 
posed ; and that Mr. A. T. Atchison be the Secretary. 



Gomimmications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

Professor Halphen's paper, ' Sur les Series Hypergeometriques,' and 
that of Professor Sturm, ' On some New Theorems on Curves of Double 
Curvature.' 

Mr. Whipple's paper, ' On Observations of Atmospheric Electricity at 
the Kew Observatory during 1880.' 

Professor Tyndall's paper ' On the Arrestation of Infusorial Life by 
Solar Light.' 

Dr. S. Haughton's paper, ' On the Effects of Oceanic Currents upon 
Climates.' 

Professor W. G. Adams's paper, ' On Magnetic Disturbances.' 

Dr. C. W. Siemens' paper, ' On some Applications of Electric Energy 
to Horticulture and Agriculture.' 

Professor Bayley Balfour's paper, ' On the Island of Socotra.' 



EECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixix 

Sir F. J. Bramwell's paper, ' On some of the Developments of 
Mechanical Engineering during the last half-century.' 

Mr. T. Hawksley's paper, ' On the Pressure of Wind upon a Fixed 
Plane Surface.' 

Besolutions referred to the Goimcil for consideration. 

That the Council be requested to consider the number and position of 
delegates from Scientific Societies, and the regulations which should be 
^adopted for governing their relations to the Association. 

That the Council be requested to consider how far it may be expedient 
to take steps to ascertain the feeling of foreign Scientific Associations as 
i,o the advisability of holding an International Scientific Congress. 



IXX EEPOET 1881. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money ajpjprapriated to Scientific Purposes 
by the General Committee at the York Meeting in August and^ 
September 1881. The Names of the Members who are en- 
titled to call on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants 
are prefixed. 

£ s. d. 
The Council. — Exploration of Mountain District of Eastern 

Equatorial Africa 100 0- 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Darwiii, Mr. G. H. — Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 15 

Schuster, Dr. A.— Meteoric Dust 20 

*Sylvester, Prof. — Fundamental Invariants (partly renewed) 80 

Scott, Mr. R. H. — Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean ... 50 

*Foster, Prof. G. C. — Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments (partly renewed) 100 

Chemistry. 

*Dev?ar, Prof. — Present state of knowledge of Spectrum 

Analysis 5 

Stewart, Prof. Balfour. — Calibration of Mercurial Thermo- 
meters 20 

Roscoe, Prof. — Wave-length Tables of Spectra of Elements 50 

Miiller, Dr. Hugo. — Chemical Nomenclature 10 

Odling, Prof. — Photographing the Ultra- Violet Spark 

Spectra 25 Q 

Geology. 

*Evans, Dr. J. — Record of the Progress of Geology 100 

*Ramsay, Prof. — Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 25 

*Sorby, Dr. H. C. — Conditions of Conversion of Sedimentary 

Materials into Metamorphic Rocks 10 

Williamson, Prof. W. C— Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Ramsay, Prof. A. C. — Geological Map of Europe 25 

*Hull, Prof. E.— Circulation of Underground Waters 15 

*WiUiamson, Prof. W. C. — Tertiary Flora associated with the 

Basalts of the North of Ireland 20 

Carried forward 685 0> 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixxi 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 686 

*Sorby, Dr.— British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Adams, Prof. A. Leith. — Carboniferous Limestone Caves in 

Southlreland 10 

Green, Prof. — Exploration of B.aygill Fissure 20 



Biology, 

*Balfour, Mr. F. M. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 80 

Sanderson, Dr. Burden. — Albuminoid Substances of Serum 10 

*Pye-Smith, Dr. — Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimi- 
nation of Nitrogen 50 

Foster, Dr. M. — Zoological Station in Scotland 40 

*Cordeaux, Mr. J.— Migration of Birds 15 

*Godwin- Austen, Lieut.- Col. — Natural History of Socoti-a ... 100 

Thiselton-Dyer, Mr.— Natural History of Timor Laut 100 

*Staiuton, Mr. — Record of Zoological Literature 100 

Flower, Prof. — Photographs of Typical Races 10 



Statistics. 
*Galton, Mr. F. — Anthropometry 50 

J1280 
* Eeappointed. 



Tlie Annual Meeting in 1882. 

The Meeting at Southampton will commence on Wednesday, 
August 23, 1882. 



Place of Meeting in 1883. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1883 will be lield at Oxford. 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 1881. 



General Statement of Sums ivhich have been paid on Account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions 20 







1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Eain-Gauges 9 

Eefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of ) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of )... 19 

Eailway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides .50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam-vessels 1 00 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 







1 





3 

















6 






1837. 

Tide Disciissions 284 1 

Cliemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 







1 

12 


6 

3 
8 

9 



£435 



£ s. d. 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification EsiDeriments ... 9 4 7 

Cast-Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 7 2 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 4 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 6 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in E.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 16 6 

Animal Secretions 10 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kinsussie 49 7 8 

FossilReptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology HO 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stai-s (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations. 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics .50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 

neanTemperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 







8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxiii 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of ) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

"Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

JMeteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Eailway Sections ,... 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Ked Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Eaces of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments... 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannise 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Oases on Light .30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire C61este) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

Eailway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Eeptiles (publication 

of Eeport) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Eace ... 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



1843. 
Hevision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 







£ 8. d. 

Eeduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observation's, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Obser- 
vatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of Rail- 
ways 20 

Publication of Report on Fos- 
sil Eeptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Eail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 II 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 6 

£1565 10 2 



Ixxiv 



EEPORT 1881. 



£ s. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Eevision of the Nomenclatui-e 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory ..., 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Eegistering- the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Eadiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Sliips 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia ..... 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 

1845. 

Publications of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 IS 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Eeduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ s. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 

Maintaining tire Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplm-a 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Blarine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthqviake Shocks 1843 15 

£831 9~9 



15 






































7 















0' 


14 8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 : 60 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 



15 

















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


& 


3 


3 


19 


8 



6 3 







16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10' 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 


















0- 








9 


■_> 


7 


7 



5 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxv 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 1] 

AtmosphericWaves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1819. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores ■■■ 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 6 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Eesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates.... ^^ 10 

£304 6 7 I 



£ s. d.. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 O 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



18.54. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 O 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 1 1 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

~£480^ 















8 


5 


7 


11 




















16 


4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

"^"734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 ft 



Ixxvi 



REPORT — 1881. 



£ s. (I. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natm-al Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land ■■■ 10 

£ 618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Mam^re Experiments 20 

British Medusidfe 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of Soutli and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



) _ £ $. d. 

I Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

, of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 
Accounts 1 13 6 

^£766 19 6 



1861. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 

Earthquake Experiments 

Dredging North and East 
Coasts of Scotland 


500 
25 

23 

72 

20 
20 
1.50 
15 
20 
20 

100 

5 
30 

60 
20 
10 
6 
25 
























5 









Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 








Steam- vessel Performance . . . 
Fossils of Lesmahago 






Explorations at Uriconium ... 

Chemical Alloys 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 

Dredging in the Mersey and 
Dee 










Dip Circle 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 






Prison Diet 





Gauging of Water 





Alpine Ascents 

Constituents of Manures 


10 




£1111 5 10 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxvii 



£ s. d. 

DredR-ing: the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining- the Establisli- 

ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and Distri- 

biition 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Piocks 8 

Hydroida ••• 10 

£1608 




































































3 10 


















































































3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredsjinu- Northumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon luider pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Ee- 

sistance 100 

Analysis of Kocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Eain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 



£. s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Eays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

^£l289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Eain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexj-lic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Euryjsterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Eesearches • 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Eesearches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Faima 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 



























8 























9 




























































































10 









£1591 7 10 



1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Eainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall , 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Poly cyan ides of Organic Eadi- 

cals 20 





13 4 

0- 

























(> 







a 



Ixxviii 



REPORT 1881 



£ s. d. 

Higor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

■Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Kesearcbes ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. "^"^^^^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
-Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 60 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminovis Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Eeports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds. 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

"£T73ir^~0 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee ]20 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Exijlorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Faiina, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperatu)-e ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. ^^^^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622" 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Pishes ...,..., 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scotlish Earihquakes 4 

Bag-shot Leaf- Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcon Quatries Fossils ... 20 



s. d. 
























































































































































































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxix 



£ s. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

^Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

•Onny Kiver Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 

J 871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Keports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

■Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoolodcal Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

•Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

•Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, Arc 40 

Matliematical Tables 50 

'Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 



... 25 









£1285 






£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature .. . 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. ^^'^^^ 

Zoological Record ...100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elif)tic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors "0 

Chemistry Record 100 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1881. 



£ s. d. 

Specific Volume of Liquids.., 25 
Estimation of Potasli and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 
Printing Mathematical Tables 159 

British "Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Etliyl Bromobuty- 
rate or Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 1,3 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels 5 

£1092 



4 


2 








15 

































































10 



































15 












1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions .., 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Na]3les 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpse, Report on 20 



















11 


7 







































£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double ComiDounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxi 



£ X. (I. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Record of the Proi;ress of 

Geology .". 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circidation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 
New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 
Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 

Heat 8 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminoiis Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 
Fundamental Invariants .....'. 8 















5 























5 






£ s. d. 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Co-efficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 

saiu-us 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... .50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry J50 

Patent Laws .- 5 

£731 7 7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperatin-e ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground "VS-^aters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Brings 30 

Electrical Standards 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 

£476 

























































































3 1 



3 1 



1881. 



xxxii EEPORT — 1881. 



General Meetings. 

Oa Wednesday, August 31, at 8 p.m., in the Exhibition, Andrew 
Crombie Ramsay, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., V.p.G.S., Director-General of 
the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, and of the Museum of 
Practical Geology, resigned the office of President to Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. L.S., F.G.S., who took the 
Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 1, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Assembly and Concert Rooms. 

On Friday, September 2, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition, Professor 
Huxley, LL.D., Sec. R.S., deUvered a Discourse on ' The Rise and Pro- 
gress of Paleontology.' 

On Monday, September 5, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition, William 
Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres. R.S., delivered a Dis- 
course on ' The Electric Discharge, its Forms and its Functions.' 

On Tuesday, September 6, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Ex- 
hibition. 

On Wednesday, September 7, at 2.30 P.M., the concluding General 
Meeting took place in the Exhibition, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee, and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Southampton. [The Meeting 
is appointed to commence on Wednesday, August 23, 1882. j 



RESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



ADDRESS 

BT 

SIR JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., M.P., 

r.B.S., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres. Linn. Soc, 

PRESIDENT. 



In the name of the British. Association, which for the time I very un- 
■worthily represent, I beg to tender to you, my Lord Mayor, and through 
you to the City of York, our cordial thanks for your hospitable invitation 
and hearty welcome. 

We feel, indeed, that in coming to York we are coming home. 
Gratefully as we acknowledge and much as we appreciate the kindness 
we have experienced elsewhere, and the friendly relations which exist 
between this Association and most — I might even say, all — our great 
cities, yet Sir R. Murchison truly observed at the close of our first meet- 
ing in 1831, that to York, ' as the cradle of the Association, we shall 
ever look back with gratitude ; and whether we meet hereafter on the 
banks of the Isis, the Cam, or the Forth, to this spot we shall still fondly 
revert.' Indeed, it would have been a matter of much regret to all of us, 
if we had not been able on this, our fiftieth anniversary, to hold our 
meeting in our mother city. 

My Lord Mayor, before going farther, I must express my i-egrct, 
especially when I call to mind the illustrious men who have preceded me 
in this chair, that it has not fallen to one of my eminent friends around 
me, to preside on this auspicious occasion. Conscious, howcvei-, as I am 
of my own deficiencies, I feel that I must not waste time in dwelling on 
them, more especially as in doing so I should but give them greater 
prominence. I will, therefore, only make one earnest appeal to your 
kind indulgence. 

The connection of the British Association with the City of York does 
not depend merely on the fact that our first meeting was held here. It 
originated in a letter addressed by Sir D. Brewster to Professor Phillips, 
as Secretai-y to your Yoi-k Philosophical Society, by whom the idea 
was warmly taken up. Tho first meeting was held on September 26, 

1881. B 



2 REPORT — 1881. 

1831, tlio chair being occnpied by Lord Milton, who delivered an address, 
after wliicli Mr. "William Vernon Harcouvt, Chairman of the Committee 
of Management, submitted to the meeting a code of rules which had 
been so maturely considered, and so wisely framed, that they have re- 
mained substantially the same down to the present day. 

Of those who organised and took part in that first meeting, few, alas ! 
remain. Bi-ewster and Phillips, Harcourt and Lord Milton, Lyell and 
Murchison, all have passed away, but their memories live among us. 
Some few, indeed, of those present at our first meeting we rejoice to see 
here to-day, including one of the five members constituting the original 
organising Committee, our venerable Vice-President, Archdeacon Creyke. 
The constitution and objects of the Association were so ably de- 
scribed by Mr. Spottiswoode, at Dublin, and are so well known to you, 
that I will not dwell on them this evening. The excellent President of 
the Royal Society, in the same address, suggested that the past history 
of the Association would form an appi'opriate theme for the present 
meeting. The history of the Association, however, is really the history 
of science, and I long shrank from the attempt to give even a pano- 
ramic survey of a subject so vast and so difficnlt ; nor should I have 
ventured to make any such attempt, but that I knew I could rely on the 
assistance of friends in every department of science. 

Certainly, however, this is an opportunity on which it may be well 
for us to consider what have been the principal scientific results of the 
last half-centnry, dwelling especially on those Avith which this Association 
is more directly concerned, either as being the work of our own members, 
or as having been made known at our meetings. I have, moreover, 
especially taken those discoveries which the Royal Society has deemed 
worthy of a medal. It is of course impossible within the limits of a single 
address to do more than allude to a few of these, and that very briefly. 
In dealing with so large a subject I first hoped that I might take our 
annual volumes as a text-book. This, however, I at once found to be 
quite impossible. For instance, the first volume commences with a 
Report on Astronomy by Sir G. Airy ; I may be pardoned, I trust, for 
expressing my pleasure at finding that the second was one by my father, 
on the Tides, prepared like the preceding at the request of the Council, 
then comes one on Meteorology by Forbes, Radiant Heat by Baden Powell, 
Optics by Brewster, Mineralogy by Whewell, and so on. My best course 
will therefore be to take our different Sections one by one, and endea- 
vour to bring before you a few of the principal results which have been 
obtained in each department. 

The Biological Section is that with which I have been most intimately 
associated, and with which it is, perhaps, natural that I should begin. 

Fifty years ago it was the general opinion that animals and plants 
came into existence just as we now see them. We took pleasure in 
their beauty ; their adaptation to their habits and mode of life in many 



ADDRESS. 3 

cases could not be overlooked or misundez'stood. Nevertheless, the book 
of Nature was like some richly illuminated missal, written in au unknown 
tongue. The graceful forms of the letters, the beauty of the coloring 
excited our wonder and admiration ; but of the true meaning little was 
known to us ; indeed wo scarcely realised that there was any meaning to 
decipher. Now glimpses of the truth are gradually revealing them- 
selves ; we perceive that there is a reason — and in many cases we know 
what that reason is — for every difference in form, in size, and in color ; 
for every bone and every feather, almost for every hair. Moreover, each 
problem which is solved opens out vistas, as it were, of others perhaps 
even more interesting. With this important change the name of our illus- 
trious countryman, Darwin, is intimately associated, and the year 1859 
will always be memorable iu science as having produced his work on 
' The Origin of Species.' In the previous year he and Wallace had 
published short papers, in which they clearly state the theory of natural 
selection, at which they had simultaneously and independently arrived. 
We cannot wonder that Darwin's views should have at first excited 
great opposition. Nevertheless from the first they met with powerful 
support, especially, in this country, from Hooker, Huxley, and Herbert 
Spencer. The theory is based on four axioms : — 

' 1. That no two animals or plants iu nature are identical in all 
respects. 

' 2. That the offspring tend to inherit the peculiarities of their 
parents. 

' 3. That of those which come into existence, only a small number 
reach maturity. 

* 4. That those, which are, on the whole, best adapted to the circum- 
stances in which they are placed, are most likely to leave descendants.' 

Darwin commenced his work by discussing the causes and extent 
of vai'iability in animals, and the origin of domestic varieties ; he showed 
the impossibility of distinguishing between varieties and species, and 
pointed out the wide differences which man has produced in some cases — 
as, for instance, in our domestic pigeons, all unquestionably descended 
from a common stock. He dwelt on the struggle for existence (since 
become a household word), which, inevitably resulting in the survival of 
the fittest, tends gradually to adapt any race of animals to the conditions 
in which it occurs. 

While thus, however, showing the great importance of natural 
selection, he attributed to it no exclusive influence, but fully admitted that 
other causes — the use and disuse of organs, sexual selection, &c. — had to 
be taken into consideration. Passing on to the difficulties of his theory he 
accounted for the absence of intermediate varieties between species, to a 
great extent, by the imperfection of the geological record. Here, however, I 
must observe that, as I have elsewhere remarked, those who rely on the 
absence of links between different species really argue in a vicious circle, 
because wherever such links do exist they regard the whole chain as a 

B2 



4 REPORT — 1881. 

« • 

single species. The dog and jackal, for instance, are now regarded as 

two sjjecies, bat if a sei'ies of links were discovered between tliem they 
would be united into one. Hence in tbia sense there never can be links 
between any two species, because as soon as the links are discovered the 
species are united. Every variable species consists, in fact, of a number 
of closely connected links. 

But if the geological record be imperfect, it is still very instructive. 
The further paleeontology has progressed, the more it has tended to fill 
up the gaps between existing groups and species : Avhile the careful 
study of living forms has brought into prominence the variations 
dependent on food, climate, habitat, and other conditions, and shown 
that manj- species long supposed to be absolutely distinct are so closely 
linked together by intermediate forms that it is difBcult to di'aw a 
satisfactory line between them. Thus the European and American bisons 
are connected by the Bison priscus of Prehistoric Europe ; the grizzly 
bear and the brown bear, as Busk has shown, are apparently the 
modern representatives of the cave bear ; Flower has pointed out the 
pala;outological evidence of gradual modification of animal forms in the 
Artiodactyles ; and we may almost say, as a general rule, that the earliest 
known mammalia belong to less specialised types than our existing species. 
They are not well-marked Carnivores, Rodents, Marsupials, &c., but rather 
constitute a gi'oup of generalised forms from which our j^i'esent well- 
marked orders appear to have diverged. Among the Invertebrata, Car- 
penter and Williamson have proved that it is almost impossible to divide 
the Foraminifera into well-marked species; and, lastly, among plants, 
there are large genera, as, for instance, Rubus and Hicracium, with 
reference to the species of which no two botanists are agreed. 

The principles of classification point also in the same direction, 
and are based more and more on the theory of descent. Biologists en- 
deavour to arrange animals on what is called the ' natural system.' No 
one now places whales among fish, bats among birds, or shrews with mice, 
notwithstanding their external similarity ; and Darwin maintained that 
' community of descent was the hidden bond which naturalists had been 
unconsciously seeking.' How else, indeed, can we explain the fact that 
the framework of bones is so similar in the arm of a man, the wing 
of a bat, the fore-leg of a horse, and the fin of a porpoise — that the 
neck of a giraffe and that of an elephant contain the same number of ver- 
tebrse ? 

Strong evidence is, moreover, afforded by embryology ; by the presence 
of rudimentary organs and transient characters, as, for instance, the 
existence in the calf of certain teeth which never cut the gums, the 
shrivelled and useless wings of some beetles, the presence of a series of 
arteries in the embryos of the higher Vertebrata exactly similar to thos6 
which supply the gills in fishes, even the spots on the young blackbird, 
the stripes on the lion's cub ; these, and innumerable other facts of the 
same character, appear to be incompatible witl\ tUe idea that each species. 



ADDRESS. 5 

was specially and independently created; and to prove, on the conLuiy, 
that the embryonic stages of species show us more or less clearly the 
structure of their ancestors. 

Darwin's views, however, are still much misunderstood. I believe 
there are thousands who consider that according to his theory a sheep 
mio'ht turn into a cow, or a zebra into a horse. No one would more 
confidently withstand any such hypothesis, his view benig, of course, not 
that the one could be changed into the other, but that both are descended 
from a common ancestor. 

No one, at any rate, will question the immense impulse which Darwin 
has given to the study of natural history, the number of new views 
he has opened np, and the additional interest which he has aroused in, 
and contributed to, Biology. When we were young we knew that the 
leopard had spots, the tiger was sti-iped, and the lion tawny ; but why 
this was so it did not occur to us to ask ; and if we had asked no one 
would have answered. Now we see at a glance that the stripes of the 
tiger have reference to its life among jungle-grasses ; the lion is sandy, 
like the desert; while the markings of the leopard resemble spots of 
sunshine glancing through the leaves. Again, Wallace in his charming 
essays on natural selection has shown how the same philosophy may be 
applied even to birds' nests— how, for instance, open nests have led to the 
dull color of hen birds ; the only British exception being the kingfisher, 
which, as we know, nests in river-banks. Lower still, among insects, 
Weismann has taught us that even the markings of caterpillars are full of 
interesting lessons ; while, 'in other cases, specially among butterfliei?, 
Bates has made known to us the curious phenomena of mimicry. 

The science of embryology may almost be said to have been created in 
the last half-century. Fifty years ago it was a very general opinion that 
animals which are unlike when mature, were dissimilar from the begin- 
ning. It is to Von Baer, the discoverer of the mammalian ovum, that we 
owe the great generalisation that the development of the egg is in the 
main a progress from the general to the special, that zoological affinity is 
the expression of similarity of development, and that the different great 
types of animal structure are the result of different modes of develop- 
ment — in fact, that embryology is the key to the laws of animal develop- 
ment. 

Thus the young of existing species resemble in many cases the mature 
forms which flourished in ancient times. Huxley has traced np the 
genealogy of the horse to the Miocene Anchitherium, and his views have 
since been remarkably confirmed by Marsh's discovery of the Pliohippus, 
Protohippus, Miohipims, and Mesohippus, leading down from the Eohippua 
of the early tertiary strata. In the same way Boyd-Dawkins has called 
attention to the fact that just as the individual stag gradually acquires more 
and more complex antlers : having at first only a single prong, in the next 
year two points, in the following three, and so on ; so the genus, as a 
whole, in Middle Miocene times, had two pronged horns ; in the Upper 



6 REPORT— 1881. 

Miocene, tliree ; and that it is not till the Uppei- Pliocene that we find 
any species with the magnificent antlers of our modern deer. It seems 
to be now generally admitted that birds have come down to ns through 
the Dinosaurians, and, as Huxley as shown, the profound break once 
supposed to exist between birds and reptiles has been bridged over by 
the discovery of reptilian birds and bird-like reptiles ; so that, in fact, 
birds are modified reptiles. Again, the remarkable genus Peripatus, 
so well studied by Moseley, tends to connect the annulose and articulate 
types. 

Again, the structural resemblances between Amphioxus and the Asci- 
dians had been pointed out by Goodsir ; and Kowalevsky in 18GG 
showed that these were not mere analogies, but indicated a real 
affinity. These observations, in the words of Allen Thomson, ' have pro- 
duced a change little short of revolutionary in embryological and zoolo- 
gical views, leading as they do to the support of the hypothesis that the 
Ascidian is an earlier stage in the phylogenetic history of the mammal 
and other vertebrates.' 

The larval forms which occur in so many groups, and of which the 
Insects afford us the most familiar examples, are, in the words of 
Quatrefages, embryos, which lead an independent life. In such cases as 
these external conditions act upon the larvas as they do upon the mature 
form ; hence we have two classes of changes, adaptational or adaptive, 
and developmental. These and many other facts must be taken into 
consideration ; nevertheless naturalists are now generally agreed that em- 
bryological characters are of high value as guides in classification, and 
it may, I think, be regarded as well-established that, just as the con- 
tents and sequence of rocks teach us the past history of the earth, so is 
the gradual development of the species indicated by the structure of the 
embryo and its developmental changes. 

When the supporters of Darwin are told that his theory is in- 
credible, they may fairly ask why it is impossible that a species in the 
course of hundreds of thousands of years should have passed through 
changes "which occupy only a few days or weeks in the life-history of 
each individual ? 

The phenomena of yolk-segmentation, first observed by Prevost and 
Dumas, are now known to be, in some form or other, invariably the pre- 
cursors of embryonic development ; while they reproduce, as the first 
stages in the formation of the higher animals, the main and essential 
features in the life-history of the lowest forms. The 'blastoderm,' as 
it is called, or first germ of the embryo in the egg, divides itself into 
two layers, corresponding, as Huxley has shown, to the two layers into 
which the body of the Ccelenterata may be divided. Not only so, but 
most embryos at an early stage of development have the form of a cup, 
the walls of which are formed by the two layers of the blastoderm. 
Kowalevsky was the first to show the prevalence of this embryonic 
form, and subsequently Laukester and Hasckel put forward the hypo- 



ADDRESS. 



thesis tliat it was the embryonic repetition of an ancestral type, from 
which all the higher forms are descended. The cavity of the cup is sup- 
posed to be the stomach of this simple organism, and the opening of the 
cup the mouth. The inner layer of the wall of the cup constitutes the 
digestive membrane, and the outer the skin. To this form Hseckel gave 
the name Gastrcea. It is, perhaps, doubtful whether the theory of 
Lankester and Ha3ckel can be accepted in precisely the form they pro- 
pounded it ; but it has had an important influence on the progress of 
embryology. I cannot quit the science of embryology without allud- 
ing to the very admirable work on ' Comparative Embryology ' by our 
new general secretary, Mr. Balfour, and also the ' Elements of Em- 
bryology ' which he had previously published in conjunction with Dr. M. 

Foster. 

In 1842, Steenstrup published his celebrated work on the 'Alternation 
of Generations,' in which he showed that many species are represented by 
two perfectly distinct types or broods, differing in form, structure, and 
habits ; that in one of them males are entirely wanting, and that the re- 
production is effected by fission, or by buds, which, however, are in some 
cases structurally indistinguishable from eggs. Steenstrup's illustrations 
were mainly taken from marine or parasitic species, of very great mterest, 
but not generally familiar, excepting to naturalists. It has since been 
shown that the common Cynips or Gallfly is also a case in point. It had 
long been known that in some genera belonging to this group, males are 
entirely wanting, and it has now been shown by Bassett, and more 
thoroughly by Adler, that some of these species are double-brooded ; the 
two broods having been considered as distinct genera. 

Thus an insect known as Neuroterus lenticularis, of which females 
only occur, produces the familiar oak-spangles so common on the under 
sides of oak-leaves, from which emerge, not Neuroterus lenticularis, but 
an insect hitherto considered as a distinct species, belonging even to 
a different genus, Spathegaster baccarum. In Spathegaster both sexes 
occur ; they produce the currant-like galls found on oaks, and from these 
galls Neuroterus is again developed. So also the King Charles oak- 
apples produce a species known as Teras terminalis, which descends 
to the ground, and makes small galls on the roots of the oak. From these 
emerge an insect known as Biorhiza aptera, which again gives rise to the 
common oak-apple. 

Many butterflies, again, are dimorphic, existing under two, or even 
three, distinct forms— one that of the winter, the other of the summer 
brood or broods. Weismann has adduced strong reasons for thmkmg 
that during the glacial period these species were one-brooded only, and 
existed in the present winter form ; that, as the climate improved, the 
period of warmth became suflacient to allow the development of a second 
brood, and led to the gradual rise of the summer form. 

He and Edwards have shown that, while, by the application of cold, 
pupa3, which would naturally have produced the summer form, can be 



8 BEPOET — 1881. 

made to assume the winter dress ; it is, on the contrary, far more difficult 
to change the winter into the summer colouring. 

In some cases — as for instance in the very curious Leptodora crystallina 
(a fresh-water crustacean, inhabiting deep lakes and reservoirs, and 
which, as its name denotes, is almost perfectly transparent) — though the 
two forms are almost exactly similar iu their mature state, the mode of 
development is very different ; for, while the winter form goes through a 
well-marked metamorphosis, in the sammer-brood the development is 
direct. 

It might seem that such enquiries as these could hardly have any- 
practical bearing. Yet it is not improbable that they may lead to \ery 
important results. For instance, it Avould appear that the fluke which pi'o- 
duces the rot in sheep, passes one phase of its existence in snails or 
slugs, and we are not without hopes that the researches, in which our 
lamented friend Prof. Rolleston was engaged at the time of his death, 
and which Mr. Thomas is continuing, will lead, if not to the extirpation, 
at any rate to the diminution, of a pest from which our farmers have so 
grievously suffered. 

It was in the year 1839 that Schwann and Schleiden demonstrated 
the intimate relation in which animals and plants stand to each other, 
by showing the identity of the laws of development of the elementary 
parts in the two kingdoms of organic nature. Analogies indeed had 
been previously pointed out, the presence of cellular tissue in certain 
parts of animals was known, but Caspar F. Wolff's brilliant memoir had 
been nearly forgotten ; and the tendency of microscopical investigation 
had rather been to encourage the belief that no real similarity existed ; 
that the cellular tissue of animals was essentially different from that of 
plants. This had arisen chieflj^, perhaps, because fully formed tissues 
were compared, and it was mainly the study of the growth of cells which 
led to the demonstration of the general law of development for all or- 
ganic elementary tissues. 

As regards desci'iptive biology, by far the greater number of species 
now recorded have been named and described within the last half-cen- 
tury, and it is not too much to say that not a day passes without add- 
ing new species to our lists. A comparison, for instance, of the edition 
of Cuvier's ' Regno Animal,' published in 1828, as compared with the 
present state of our knowledge, is most striking. 

Dr. Giinther has been good enough to make a calculation for me. 
The numbers, of course, are only approximate, but it appears that while 
the total number of animals described up to 1831 was not more than 
70,000, the number now is at least 320,000. 

Lastly, to show how large a field still remains for exploration, I 
may add that Mr. Waterhouse assumes that our museums contain not 
fewer than 12,000 species of insects which have not yet been described, 
while our collections do not probably contain anything like one-half 
of those actually in existence. Further than this, the anatomy and habits 
even of those which have been described offer an inexhaustible field for 



ADDIIKSS. 9 

researcli, and it is not going too far to say that there is not a single 
species which would not amply repay the devotion of a lifetime. 

One remarkable feature in the modern progress of biological science 
has been the application of improved methods of observation and experi- 
ment; and the employment in physiological research of the exact mea- 
Burements employed by the experimental physicist. Our microscopes 
have been greatly improved : achi-omatic object-glasses were introduced 
by Lister in 1829 ; the binocular arrangement by Wenham in 185G ; while 
immersion lenses, first suggested by Amici, and since carried out under 
the formula of Abbe, are most valuable. The use of chemical re-agents 
in microscopical investigations has proved most instructive, and another 
very important method of investigation has been the power of obtaining 
very thin slices by imbedding the object to be examined in paraffin or 
some other soft substance. In this manner we can now obtain, say, fifty 
separate sections of the egg of a beetle, or the brain of a bee. 

At the close of the last century, Sprengel published a most suggestive 
work on flowers, in which he pointed out the curious relation existing 
between these and insects, and showed that the latter carry the pollen 
from flower to flower. His observations, however, attracted little notice 
until Darwin called attention to the subject in 1862. It had long 
been known that the cowslip and primrose exist under two forms, about 
equally numerous, and diSering- from one another in the ari-angements of 
their stamens and pistils ; the one form having the stamens on the summit 
of the flower and the stigma half-way down ; while in the other the rela- 
tive positions are reversed, the stigma being at the summit of the tube 
and the stamens half-way down. This difference had, however, been re- 
garded as a case of mere variability ; but Darwin showed it to be a 
beautiful provision, the result of which is that insects fertilise each flower 
with pollen brought from a different plant ; and he proved that flowers 
fertilised with pollen from the other form yield more seed than if fer- 
tilised with pollen of the same form, even if taken from a diSerent plant. 

Attention having been thus directed to the question an astonish- 
ing variety of most beautiful contrivances has been observed and de- 
scribed by many botanists, especially Hooker, Axel, Delpino, Hildebrand, 
Bennett, Fritz Miiller, and above all Hermann Miiller and Darwin 
himself. The general result is that to insects, and especially to bees, we 
owe the beauty of our gardens, the sweetness of our fields. To their 
beneficent, though unconscious action, flowers owe their scent and color, 
their honey — nay, in many cases, even their form. Their present shape 
and varied arrangements, their brilliant colors, their honey, and their 
sweet scent are all due to the selection exercised by insects. 

In these cases the relation between plants and insects is one of mutual 
advantage. In many species, however, plants present ns with complex 
arrangements adapted to protect them from insects ; such, for instance, 
are in many cases the resinous glands which render leaves unpalatable ; 
the thickets of hairs and other precautions which prevent flowers from 



10 11EP0RT~1881. 

being robbed of tlieir honey by ants. Again, more than a century ago, 
our countryman, Ellis, described an American plant, Dionaja, in which the 
leaves are somewhat concave, with long lateral spines, and a joint in the 
middle, which closes up with a jerk, like a rat-trap, the moment any 
unwaiy insect alights on them. The plant, in fact, actually captures and 
devours insects. This observation also remained as an isolated fact until 
within the last few years, when Darwin, Hooker, and others have shown 
that many other species have curious and very varied contrivances for 
supplying themselves with animal food. 

As regards the progress of botany in other directions, Mr. Thiselton 
Dyer has been kind enough to assist me in endeavouring to place the 
principal facts before you. Some of the most fascinating branches of botany 
— morphology, histology, and physiology scarcely existed before 1830. In 
the two former branches the discoveries of von Mohl are pre-eminent. Ho 
first obsei'ved cell-division in 1835, and detected the presence of starch 
in chlorophyll-corpuscles in 1837, while he first described protoplasm, now 
so familiar to us, at least by name, in 184G. In the same year Amici 
discovered the existence of the embryonic vesicle in the embryo sac, 
which develops into the embryo when fertilised by the entrance of the 
pollen-tube into the micropyle. The existence of sexual reproduction 
in the lower plants was doubtful, or at least doubted by some eminent 
authorities, as recently as 1853, when the actual process of fei'tilisatioii 
in the common bladderwrack of our shores was observed by Thuret, 
while the I'eproduction of the larger fungi was first worked out by Dc 
Bary in 1863. 

As regards lichens', Schwendener proposed, in 1869, the startling 
theory, now however accepted by some of the highest authorities, that 
lichens are not autonomous organisms, but commensal associations of a 
fungus parasitic on an alga. "With reference to the higher Cryptogams it 
is hardly too much to say that the whole of our exact knowledge of their 
life-history has been obtained during the last half-century. Thus in the 
case of ferns the male organs, or antheridia, were first discovered by 
Njigeli in 1844, and the archegonia, or female organs, by Suminski in 
1848. The early stages in the development of mosses were worked out 
by Valentine in 1833. Lastly, the principle of Alternation of Generations 
in plants was discovered by Hofmeister. This eminent naturalist also, 
in 1851-4, pointed out the homologies of the reproductive processes in 
mosses, vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. 

Geographical Botany can hardly be said to have had any scientific 
status anterior to the publication of the ' Origin of Species.' The way 
had been paved, however, by A. de Candolle and the well-known essay 
of Edward Forbes — ' On the Distribution of the Plants and Animals 
of the British Isles,' — by Sir J. Hooker's introductory essay to the 
' Flora of New Zealand,' and by Hooker and Thomson's introductory 
essay to the ' Flora Indica.' One result of these researches has been to 
give the coujJ-de-grdcG to the theory of an Atlantis. Lastly, in a lecture 



ADDRESS. 11 

delivered to the Geographical Society in 1878, Thiselton Dyer himself 
has sammed up the present state of the subject, and contributed an 
important addition to our knowledge of plant- distribution by showing 
how its main features may be explained by migration in latitude from 
north to south without recourse being had to a submerged southern conti- 
nent for explaining the features common to South Africa, Australia, and 
America. 

The fact that systematic and geographical botany have claimed a 
preponderating share of the attention of British phytologists, is no doubt 
in great measure due to the ever- expanding area of the British Empire, 
and the rich botanical treasures which we are continually receiving from 
India and our numerous colonies. The series of Indian and Colonial Floras, 
published under the direction of the authorities at Kew, and the ' Genera 
Plantarum ' of Bentham and Hooker, are certainly an honor to our 
country. To similar causes we may trace the rise and rapid progress of 
economic botany, to which the late Sir W. Hooker so greatly contributed. 

In vegetable physiology some of the most striking researches have 
been on the effect produced by rays of light of different refrangibility. 
Daubeny, Draper, and Sachs have shown that the light of the red end 
of the spectrum is more effective than that of the blue, so far as the decom- 
position of carbon dioxide (carbonic acid) is concerned. 

Nothing could have appeared less likely than that researches into the 
theory of spontaneous generation should have led to practical improve- 
ments in medical science. Yet such has been the case. Only a few 
years ago Bacteria seemed mere scientific curiosities. It had long been 
known that an infusion — say, of hay — would, if exposed to the atmo- 
sphere, be found, after a certain time, to teem with living forms. Even 
those few who still believe that life would be spontaneously generated 
in such an infusion, will admit that these minute organisms are, if not 
entirely, yet mainly, derived from germs floating in our atmosphere ; and 
if precautions are taken to exclude such germs, as in the careful experi- 
ments especially of Pasteur, Tyndall, and Robei'ts, everyone will grant 
that in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred no such development of life 
will take place. In 1836-7 Cagniard de la Tour and Schwann indepen- 
dently showed that fermentation was no mere chemical process, but was 
due to the presence of a microscopic plant. But, more than this, it has 
been gradually established that putrefaction is also the work of micro- 
scopic organisms. Thirty years, however, elapsed before these important 
discoveries received any practical application. 

At length, however, they have led to most important results in Surgery. 
One reason why compound fractures are so dangerous is because, the skin 
being broken, the air obtains access to the wound, bringing with it 
innumerable germs, which too often set up putrefying action. Lister 
first made a practical application of these observations. He set himself 
to find some substance capable of killing the germs without being itself 
too potent a caustic, and he found that dilute carbolic acid fulfilled these 



12 REPORT 1881. 

conditions. This discovery has enabled many operations to be performed 
which would previously have been almost hopeless. 

The same idea seems destined to prove as useful in Medicine as 
in Surgery. There is great reason to suppose that many diseases, 
especially those of a zymotic character, have their origin in the germs 
of special organisms. We know that fevers run a certain definite course. 
The parasitic organisms are at first few, but gradually multiply at the 
expense of the patient, and then die out again. Indeed, it seems to 
be thoroughly established that mauy diseases are due to the exces- 
sive multiplication of microscopic organisms, and wc are not without hope 
that means will be discovered by which, without injury to the patient, 
these terrible, though minute, enemies may be destroyed, and the disease 
thus stayed. Bacillus anthracis, for instance, is now known to be the 
cause of splenic fever, which is so fatal to cattle, and is also communi- 
cable to man. At Bradford, for instance, it is only too well known as 
the woolsorter's disease. If, however, matter containing the Bacillus 
be treated in a particular manner, and cattle be then inoculated with it, 
they are found to acquire an immunity from the fever. The interesting 
researches of Burdon Sanderson, Greenfield, Koch, Pasteur, Toussaint, 
and others, seem to justify the hope that we may be able to modify 
these and other germs, and then by appropriate inoculation to protect 
ourselves against fever and other acute diseases. 

Terrier's researches, in continuation of those of Fritsch and Hitzigr, 
have enabled us to localize the function of various parts of the brain. His 
results have not only proved of great importance in surgery, and in many 
cases led to successful operations, by pointing out the exact source of the 
mischief, but an exact knowledge of the brain is also of the greatest 
importance in the ti-eatment of nervous diseases. Echeverria has col- 
lected 165 cases of traumatic epilepsy, of which 64 per cetit. were cured 
by removing a portion of the skull, the site for the operation and the exact 
nature of the lesion being indicated by cerebral localization. 

The history of Antesthetics is a most remarkable illustration how long 
we may be on the very verge of a most important discovery. Ether, 
which, as we all know, produces perfect insensibility to pain, was 
discovered as long ago as 1540. The ancesthetic property of nitrous 
oxide, now so extensively used, was observed in 1800 by Sir H. Davy, 
who actually experimented on himself, and had one of his teeth painlessly 
extracted when under its influence. He even suggests that ' as nitrous 
oxide gas seems capable of destroying pain, it could probably be used 
with advantage in surgical operations.' Nay, this property of nitrous 
oxide was habitually explained and illustrated in the chemical lectures 
given in hospitals, and yet for fifty years the gas was never used in 
actual operations. No one did more to promote the use of anoesthetics 
than Sir James Y. Simpson, who introduced chloroform, a substance 
which was discovered in 1831, and which for a while almost entirely 



ADDRESS. l3 

superseded ether and nitrons oxide, thoagli, with improved methods of 
administration, the latter are now coming into favour again. 

The only other reference to Physiology which time permits me to 
make, is the great discovery of the reflex action, as it is called, of the 
nervous centres. Reflex actions had been long ago observed, and it had 
been shown by Whytt and Hales that they were more or less independent 
of volition. But the general opinion was that these movements indicated 
some feeble power of sensation independently of the brain, and it was 
not till the year 1832 that the ' reflex action ' of certain nervous centres 
was made known to us by Marshall Hall, and almost at the same period 
by Johannes Miiller. 

Few branches of science have made more rapid progress in the last 
half-century than that which deals with the ancient condition of Man. 
When our Association was founded it was generally considered that the 
human race suddenly appeared on the scene, about 6,000 years ago, after 
the disappearance of the extinct mammalia, and when Europe, both as 
regards physical conditions and the other animals by which it was in- 
habited, was pretty much in the same state as in the period covered 
by Greek and Roman history. Since then the persevering researches of 
Layard, Rawlinson, Botta and others have made known to us, not only 
the statues and palaces of the ancient Assyrian monarchs, but even their 
libraries ; the cuneiform characters have been deciphered, and we can not 
only see, but read, in the British Museum, the actual contemporary re- 
cords, on burnt clay cylinders, of the events recorded in the historical 
books of the Old Testament and in the pages of Herodotus. The re- 
searches in Egypt also seem to have satisfactorily established the fact 
that the pyramids themselves are at least 6,000 years old, while it is ob- 
vious that the Assyrian and Egyptian monarchies cannot suddenly have 
attained to the wealth and power, the state of social organisation, and 
progress in the arts, of which we have before us, preserved by the sand 
of the desert from the ravages of man, such wonderful proofs. 

In Europe, the writings of the earliest historians and poets indicated 
that, before iron came into general use, there was a time when bronze was 
the ordinary material of weapons, axes, and other cutting implements, 
and though it seemed a priori improbable that a compound of copper and 
tin should have preceded the simple metal iron, nevertheless the researches 
of archaeologists have shown that there really was in Europe a ' Bronze 
Age,' which at the dawn of history was just giving way to that of ' Iron.' 

The contents of ancient graves, buried in many cases so that their 
owner might carry some at least of his wealth with him to the world of 
spirits, have proved very instructive. More especially the results obtained 
by Nilsson in Scandinavia, by Hoare and Borlase, Bateman, Greenwell, 
and Pitt-Rivers, in our own country, and the contents of the rich cemetery 
at Hallstadt, left no room for doubt as to the existence of a Bronze Age ; 
but we get a completer idea of the condition of Man at this period from 
the Swiss lake-villages, first made known to us by Keller, and subsequently 



14 HEPORT — 1881. 

studied by Morlot, Troyon, Dcsor, Riitimeyer, Heer, and other Swiss 
archiBologists. Along the shallow edges of the Swiss lakes there flourished, 
once upon a time, many populous villages or towns, built on platforms 
supported by piles, exactly as many Malayan villages are now. Under 
these circumstances innumerable objects were one by one dropped into 
the water ; sometimes whole villages were burnt, and their contents 
submerged ; and thus we have been able to recover, from the waters of 
oblivion in which they had rested for more than 2,000 years, not only the 
arms and tools of this ancient people, the bones of their animals, their 
pottery and ornaments, but the stuffs they wore, the grain they had 
stored up for future use, even fruits and cakes of bread. 

But this bronze-using people were not the earliest occupants of 
Europe. The contents of ancient tombs give evidence of a time when metal 
was unknown. This also was confirmed by the evidence then unexpectedly 
received from the Swiss lakes.* By the side of the bronze-age villages 
were others, not less extensive, in which, while implements of stone 
and bone were discovered literally by thousands, not a trace of metal was 
met with. The shell-mounds or refuse-heaps accumulated by the ancient 
fishermen along the shores of Denmark, and carefully examined by 
Steenstrup, Worsaae, and other Danish naturalists, fally confirmed the 
existence of a ' Stone Age.' 

We have still much to learn, I need hardly say, about this Stone-age 
people, but it is surprising how much has been made out. Evans truly 
observes, in his admirable work on ' Ancient Stone Implements,' ' that so 
far as external appliances are concerned, they are almost as fully repre- 
sented as would be those of any existing savage nation by the researches 
of a painstaking traveller.' We have their axes, adzes, chisels, borers, 
scrapers, and various other tools, and we know how they made and how 
they used them ; we have their personal ornaments and implements of 
war ; we have their cooking utensils ; we know what they ate and what 
they wore ; lastly, we know their mode of sepulture and funeral customs. 
They hunted the deer and horse, the bison and urns, the bear and the 
wolf, but the reindeer had already retreated to the North. 

No bones of the reindeer, no fragment of any of the extinct mammalia, 
have been found in any of the Swiss lake- villages or in any of the thousands 
of tumuli which have been opened in our own country or in Central and 
Southern Europe. Yet the contents of caves and of river-gravels afford 
abundant evidence that there was a time when the mammoth and rhinoceros, 
the musk-ox and reindeer, the cave lion and hyena, the great bear and the 
gigantic Irish elk wandered in our woods and valleys, and the hippopo- 
tamus floated in our rivers ; when England and France were united, and 
the Thames and the Rhine had a common estuary. This was long sup- 
posed to be before the advent of man. At length, however, the dis- 
coveries of Boucher de Perthes in the valley of the Somme, supported as 
they are by the researches of many continental naturalists, and in our 
own country of MacEnery and Godwin-Austen, Prestwich and Lyell, 



ADDRESS. 1 5 

Vivian and Pcngclly, Christy, Evans and many more, have proved that 
man formed a humble part of this strange assembly. 

Nay, even at this early period there were at least two distinct races 
of men in Europe ; one of them — as Boyd Dawkins has pointed out — 
closely resembling the modern Esquimaux in form, in his weapons and 
implements, probably in his clothing, as well as in so many of the 
animals with which he was associated. 

At this stage Man appears to have been ignorant of pottery, to have 
had no knowledge of agriculture, no domestic animals, except perhaps 
the dog. His weapons were the axe, the spear, and the javelin ; I do not 
believe he knew the use of the bow, though he was probably acquainted 
with the lance. He was, of course, ignorant of metal, and his stone 
implements, though skilfully formed, were of quite different shapes from 
those of the second Stone age, and were never ground. This earlier Stone 
period, when man co-existed with these extinct mammalia, is known as 
the Palfeolithic, or Early Stone Age, in opposition to the Neolithic, or 
Newer Stone Age. 

The remains of the mammalia which co-existed with man in pre- 
historic times have been most carefully studied by Owen, Lartet, Riiti- 
meyer. Falconer, Busk, Boyd-Dawkins, and others. The presence of the 
mammoth, the reindeer, and especially of the musk-ox, indicates a severe, 
not to say an arctic, climate — the existence of which, moreover, was 
proved by other considerations ; while, on the contrary, the hippopotamus 
requires considerable warmth. How then is this association to be ex- 
plained ? 

While the climate of the globe is, no doubt, much affected by geo- 
graphical conditions, the cold of the glacial period was, I believe, mainly 
due to the greater excentricity of the earth's orbit combined with the 
effects of precession of the ecliptic. The result of the latter condition 
is a period of 21,000 years, during one half of which the northern hemi- 
sphere is warmer than the southern, while during the other 10,500 years 
the reverse is the case. At present we are in the former phase, and there 
is, we know, a vast accumulation of ice at the south pole. But when the 
earth's orbit is nearly circular, as it is at present, the difference between 
the two hemispheres is not very great; while, on the contrary, as the 
excentricity of the orbit increases, the contrast between them increases 
also. This excentricity is continually oscillating within certain limits, 
which Croll and subsequently Stone have calculated for the last million 
years. At present the excentricity is -OIG and the mean tempera- 
ture of the coldest month in London is about 40°. Such has been the 
state of things for nearly 100,000 years ; but before that there was a 
period, beginning 300,000 years ago, when the excentricity of the orbit 
varied from -26 to -57. The result of this would be greatly to increase 
the effect due to the obliquity of the orbit ; at certain periods the climate 
would be much warmer than at present, while at others the number of 
days in winter would be twenty more, and of summer twenty less, than 



16 EEfORT — 1881. 

now, -while the mean temperature of the coldest month would be lowered 
20°. We thus get something like a date for the last glacial epoch, and 
we sec that it was not simply a period of cold, but rather one of ex- 
tremes, each beat of the pendulum of temperature lasting for no less than 
21,000 years. This explains the fact that, as Morlot showed in 1854, 
the glacial deposits of Switzerland, and, as we now know, those of Scot- 
land, are not a single uniform layer, but a succession of strata indicating 
very different conditions. I agree also with CroU and Geikie in thinking 
that these considerations explain the apparent anomaly of the co-existence 
in the same gravels of arctic and tropical animals ; the former having 
lived in the cold, while the latter flourished in the hot, periods. 

It is, I think, now well established that man inhabited Europe during 
the milder periods of the glacial epoch. Some high authorities indeed 
consider that we have evidence of his presence in pre-glacial and even 
in Miocene times, but I confess that I am not satisfied on this point. 
Even the more recent period carries back the record of man's existence 
to a distance so great as altogether to change our views of ancient 
history. 

Nor is it only as regards the antiquity and material condition of man 
in prehistoric times that great jjrogress has been made. If time 
permitted I should have been glad to have dwelt on the origin and 
development of language, of custom, and of law. On all of these the 
comparison of the varioias lower races still inhabiting so large a portion 
of tlie earth'.s sm^face, has thrown much light ; while even in the most 
cultivated nations we find survivals, curious fancies, and lingering ideas ; 
the fossil remains as it were of former customs and religions, embedded 
in our modern civilisation, like the relics of extinct animals in the crust 
of the earth. 

In geology the formation of our Association coincided with the appear- 
ance of Lyell's ' Principles of Geology,' the first volume of which was 
published in 1830 and the second in 1832.. At that time the received 
opinion was that the phenomena of Geology could only be explained 
by violent periodical convulsions, and a high intensity of terrestrial 
energy culminating in repeated catastrophes. Hutton and Playfair had 
indeed maintained that such causes as those now in operation, would, if 
only time enough were allowed, account for the geological structure of 
the earth ; nevertheless the opposite view generally prevailed, until Lyell, 
with rare sagacity and great eloquence, with a wealth of illustration 
and most powerful reasoning, convinced geologists that the forces now 
in action are powerful enough, if only time be given, to produce result.^ 
quite as stupendous as those which Science records. 

As regards stratigraphical geology, at the time of the first meeting of 
the British Association at York, the strata between the carboniferous lime- 
stone and the chalk had been mainly reduced to order and classified, chiefly 
through the labours of William Smith. But the classification of all the 



ADDKESS. 1 7 

strata lying above the chalk and below the carboniferous limestone re- 
spectively, remained in a state of the greatest confusion. The year 1831 
marks the period of the commencement of the joint labours of Sedgwick 
and Murchisou, which resulted in the establishment of the Cambrian, 
Silurian, and Devonian systems. Our Pre- Cambrian strata have recently 
been divided by Hicks into four great groups of immense thickness, 
and implying a great lapse of time ; but no fossils have yet been 
discovered in them. Lyell's classification of the Tertiary deposits : the 
result of the studies which he carried on with the assistance of Deshayes 
and others, was published in the third volume of the ' Principles of 
Geology' in 1833. The establishment of Lyell's divisions of Eocene, 
Miocene, and Pliocene, was the starting-point of a most important series 
of investigations by Prestwich and others of these younger deposits ; as 
well as of the post-tertiary, quaternary, or drift beds, which are of special 
interest from the light they have thrown on the early history of man. 

A full and admirable account of what has recently been accomplished 
in this department of science, especially as regards the palasozoic rocks, 
will be found in Etheridge's late address to the Geological Society. 

The thickness of the sedimentary strata implies an enormous lapse of 
time, but the amount of subsequent destruction which has taken place is 
scai'cely less surprising. Ramsay, for instance, has shown that in Wales 
from 9,000 to 11,000 feet of solid rock have been removed from largo 
tracts of country. Faults or cracks there esteud for miles, with the strata 
on one side raised in some cases as much as 10,000 feet above the same 
strata on the other, and yet there is not on the sui'face the slightest 
vestige of this gigantic dislocation. 

The long lines of escarpment again, which stretch for miles across our 
country, and were long supposed to be ancient coast lines, are now ascer- 
tained, mainly through the researches of Whitaker, to be due to the dif- 
ferential action of aerial causes. 

Before 1831 the only geological maps of this country were William 
Smith's general and county maps, published between the years 1815 and 
1821!. In the year 1832 De la Beche made proposals to the Board of 
Ordnance to color the ordnance-maps geologically, and a sum of 300Z. was 
granted for the purpose. Out of this small beginning grew the important 
work of the Geological Survey. 

The cause of slaty cleavage had long been one of the great difhculties 
of geology. Sedgwick suggested that it was produced by the action of 
ci'ystalline or polar forces. According to this view miles and miles of 
country, comprising great mountain masses, were neither more nor less 
than parts of a gigantic crystal. Sharpe, however, called attention tu 
the fact that shells and other fossils contained in slate rocks are com- 
pressed in a direction at right angles to the planes of cleavage, as if the 
rocks had been seized in the jaws of a gigantic vice. Sorby first maintained 
that the cleavage itself was due to pressure. He observed slate rocks con- 
taining small plates of mica, and that the effect of pressure would tend to 
1881. c 



18 BEPOET — 1881, 

arrange these plates with their flat surfaces perpendicular to the direction 
of the pressure. Tyndall has since shown that the presence of flat flakes 
is not necessary. He proved by experiment that pure wax could be made 
by pressure to split into plates of great tenuity, which he attributes mainly 
to the lateral sliding of the particles of the was over each other ; and 
thus the result of pressure on such a mass is to develop a fissile structure 
similar to that produced in wax on a small scale, or on a great one in 
the slate rocks of Cumberland or Wales. 

The difficult problem of the conditions under which granite and cer- 
tain other rocks were formed was attacked by Sorby with great skill 
in a paper read before the Geological Society in 1858. The microscopic 
hollows in many minei-als contain a liquid which does not entirely fill the 
hollow, but leaves a small vacuum ; and Sorby ingeniously pointed out 
that the rock must have solidified at least at a temperature high enough 
to expand the liquid so as to fill the cavity. Sorby's important memoir 
laid the foundation of microscopic petrogi-aphy, which is now not only 
one of the most promising branches of geological research, but which has 
been successfully applied by Sorby himself, and by Maskelyne, to the study 
of meteorites. 

As regards the physical character of the earth, two theories have been 
held : one, that of a fluid interior covered by a thin crust ; the other, of 
a practically solid sphere. The former is now generally considered by 
physicists to be untenable. Though there is still much difference of 
opinion, the prevailing feeling on the subject has been expressed by 
Professor Le Conte, who says, ' the whole theory of igneous agencies— 
which is little less than the whole foundation of theoretic geology — must 
be reconstructed on the basis of a solid earth.' 

In 1837 Agassiz startled the scientific world by his ' Discours sur 
I'ancienne extension des Glaciers,' in which, developing the observation 
already made by Charpentier and Venetz, that boulders had been transported 
to great distances, and that rocks far away from, or high above, existing 
glaciers, are pohshed and scratched by the action of ice, he boldly asserted 
the existence of a 'glacial period,' during which Switzerland and the 
North of Europe were subjected to great cold and buried under a vast 
sheet of ice. 

The ancient poets described certain gifted mortals as privileged to 
descend into the interior of the earth, and have exercised their imagi- 
nation in recounting the wonders there revealed. As in other cases, 
however, the realities of science have proved more varied and surprising 
than the dreams of fiction. Of the gigantic and extraordinary animals 
thus revealed to us by far the greatest number have been described during 
the period now under review. For instance, the gigantic Cetiosaurus 
was described by Owen in 18.38, the Dinornis of New Zealand by the 
same distinguished naturalist in 1839, the Mylodon in the same year, 
and the Archosopteryx in 1862. 

lu America, a large number of remarkable forms have been described, 



ADDRESS. 19 

mainly by Marsh, Leidy, and Cope. Marsh has made known to us the 
Titanosaurus, of the American (Colorado) Jurassic beds, which is, 
perhaps, the largest land animal yet known, being a hundred feet in 
length, and at least thirty in height, though it seems possible that even 
these vast dimensions were exceeded by those of the Atlantosaurus. Nor 
must I omit the Hesperornis, described by Marsh in 1872, as a carnivorous, 
swimming ostrich, provided with teeth, which he regards as a character 
inherited from reptilian ancestors ; the Ichthyornis, stranger still, with 
biconcave vertebraj, like those of fishes, and teeth set in sockets ; while 
in the Eocene deposits of the Rocky Mountains the same indefatigable 
palaeontologist, among other very interesting remains, has discovered 
three new groups of remarkable mammals, the Dinocerata, Tillodontia, 
and Brontotheridaj. He has also described a number of small, but very 
interesting Jurassic mammalia, closely related to those found in our 
Stonesfield Slate and Purbeck beds, for which he has proposed a new 
order, * Prototheria.' Lastly, I may mention the curiously anomalous 
Reptilia from South Africa, which have been made known to us by 
Professor Owen, 

Another important result of recent pateontological research is the 
law of brain-growth. It is not only in the higher mammalia that 
we find forms with brains much larger than any existing, say, in Miocene 
times. The rule is almost general that — as Marsh has briefly stated it — 
'all tertiary mammals had small brains.' We may even carry the 
generalisation further. The cretaceous birds had brains one-third smaller 
than those of our own day, and the brain-cavities of the Dinosauria of 
the Jurassic period are much smaller than in any existing reptiles. 

As giving, in a few words, an idea of the rapid progress in this de- 
partment, I may mention that Morris's ' Catalogue of British Fossils,' 
published in 1843, contained 5,300 species; while that now in pre- 
paration by Mr. Etheridge enumerates 15,000. 

But if these figures show how rapid our recent progress has been, 
they also very forcibly illustrate the imperfection of the geological 
record, giving us, I will not say a measure, but an idea, of the im- 
perfection of the geological record. The number of all the described 
recent species is over 300,000, but certainly not half are yet on our lists, 
and we may safely take the total number of recent species as being not 
less than 700,000. But in former times thei'e have been at the very least 
twelve periods, in each of which by far the greater number of species 
were distinct. True, the number of species was probably not so large in 
the earlier periods as at present ; but if we make a liberal allowance for 
this, we shall have a total of more than 2,000,000 species, of which about 
25,000 only are as yet upon record ; and many of these are only represented 
by a few, some only by a single specimen, or even only by a fragment. 

The progress of palaeontology may also be marked by the extent to 
which the existence of groups has been, if I may so say, carried back in 
time. Thus I believe that in 1830 the earliest known quadrupeds were 

C2 



20 REPOET — 1881. 

small marsupials belonging to the Stonesfield slates ; the most ancient 
mammal now known is Microlestes antiquus from the Keuper of Wiir- 
temberc : the oldest bird known in 1831 belonged to tbe period of the 
London Clay, the oldest now known is the Archseopteryx of the Solen- 
hofen slates, though it is probable that some at any rate of the footsteps 
on the Triassic rocks are those of birds. So again the Amphibia have 
been carried back from the Trias to the Coal-measures ; Fish from the 
Old Red Sandstone to the Upper Silurian ; Reptiles to the Trias; Insects 
from the Cretaceous to the Devonian ; Mollusca and Crastacea from the 
Silurian to the Lower Cambrian. The rocks below tbe Cambrian, though 
of immense thickness, have afforded no relics of animal life, if we except 
the problematical Eozoon Canadense, so ably studied by Dawson and 
Carpenter. But if palaeontology as yet throws no light on the original 
forms of life, we must remember that the simplest and the lowest organ- 
isms are so soft and perishable that they would leave ' not a wrack 
behind.' I will not, however, enlarge on this branch of science, because 
we shall have the advantage on Friday of hearing it treated with the 
skill of a master. 

Passing to the Science of Geography, Mr. Clements Markham has re- 
cently published an excellent summai-y of what has been accomplished 
during the half- century. 

As regards the Arctic regions, in the year 1830 the coast line of Arctic 
America was only very partially known, the region between Barrow Strait 
and the continent, for instance, being quite unexplored, while the eastern 
sides of Greenland and Spitzbergen, and the coasts of Nova Zembla, 
were almost unknown. Now the whole coast of Arctic America has been 
delineated, the remarkable archipelago to the north has been explored, 
and no less than seven north-west passages — none of them, however, 
unfortunately of any practical value — have been traced. The north- 
eastern passage, on the other hand, so far at least as the mouths of the 
great Siberian rivers, may perhaps hereafter prove of commercial im- 
portance. In the Antarctic regions, Enderby and Graham Lands were 
discovered in 1831-2, Balleny Islands and Sabrina Land in 1839, while 
the fact of the existence of the great southern continent was established in 
1841 by Sir James Ross, who penetrated in 1842 to 78° 11', the southern- 
most point ever reached. 

In Asia, to quote from Mr. Markham, ' our officers have mapped the 
whole of Persia and Afghanistan, surveyed Mesopotamia, and explored 
the Pamir steppe. Japan, Borneo, Siam, the Malay peninsula, and 
the greater part of China have been brought more completely to our 
knowledge. Eastern Turkestan has been visited, and trained native ex- 
plorers have penetrated to the remotest fountains of the Oxus, and the 
wild plateaux of Tibet. Over the northern half of the Asiatic Continent 
the Russians have displayed great activity. They have traversed the wild 
steppes and deserts of what on old atlases was called Independent Tartary, 



ADDBES8. 21 

Lave surveyed the courses of the Jaxartes, the Oxus, and the Amur, and 
have navigated the Caspian and the Sea of Aral. They have pushed their 
scientific investigations into the Pamir and Eastern Turkestan, until at 
last the British and Russian surveys have been connected.* 

Again, fifty years ago the vast central regions of Africa were almost 
a blank upon our best maps. The rudely drawn lakes and rivers in maps 
of a more ancient date had become discredited. They did not agree 
among themselves, the evidence upon which they were laid down could 
not be found, they were in many respects highly improbable, and they 
seemed inconsistent with what had then been ascertained concerning the 
Niger and the Blue and White Nilos. At the date of which I speak, 
the Sahara had been crossed by English travellers from the shores of 
the Mediterranean ; but the southern desert still formed a bar to travellers 
from the Cape, while the accounts of traders and others who alone had 
entered the country from the eastern and western coasts were considered 
to form an insufficient basis for a map. 

Since that time the successful crossing of the Kalahari desert 
to Lake Ngami has been the prelude to an era of African discovery. 
Livingstone explored the basin of the Zambesi, and discovered vast 
lakes and waters which have proved to be those of the higher 
Congo. Burton and Speke opened the way from the West Coast, which 
Speke and Grant pursued into and down the Nile, and Stanley down 
the course of the middle and lower Congo ; and the vast extension of 
Egyptian dominion has brought a huge slice of equatorial Africa within 
the limits of semi- civilisation. The western side of Africa has been 
attacked at many points. Alexander and Galton were among the first to 
make known to us its western tropical regions immediately to the north 
of the Cape Colony ; the Ogowe has been explored ; the Congo promises 
to become a centre of trade, and the navigable portions of the Niger, the 
Gambia, and the Senegal are familiarly known. 

The progress of discovery in Australia has been as remarkable as 
that in Africa. The interior of this great continent was absolutely 
unknown to us fifty years ago, but is now crossed through its 
centre by the electric telegraph, and no inconsiderable portion of it is 
turned into sheep-farms. It is an interesting fact that General Sabine, 
so long one of our most active officers, and who is still with us, 
though, unfortunately, his health has for some time prevented hinx 
from attending our meetings, was born on the very day that the 
first settler landed in Australia. 

In hydrography onr charts have been immensely improved. The study 
of rivers and of the physical geography of the sea may indeed almost 
be said to have come into existence as a science during the last fifty 
years, and in the words of Jansen, it was Maury 'who, by his wind and 
current charts, his trade-wind, storm, and rain charts, and last, but not 
least, by his work on the physical geography of the sea, gave the first 
great impnlse to all subsequent researches,' 



22 EEPORT— 1881. 

But the progress in our knowledge of geography is, and has been, by 
DO means confined to the improvement of our maps, or to the discovery 
and description of new regions of the earth ; bat has extended to the causes 
which have led to the present configuration of the surface. To a great 
extent indeed this part of the subject falls rather within the scope of 
geology, but I may here refer, in illust'-ation, to the distribution of lakes, 
the phenomena of glaciers, the formation of volcanic mountains, and the 
structure and distribution of coral islands. 

The origin and distribution of lakes is one of the most interesting 
problems in physical geography. That they are not scattered at random, 
a glance at the map is sufficient to show. They abound in mountain 
districts, are comparatively rare in equatorial regions, increasing in num- 
ber as we go north, so that in Scotland and the northern parts of 
America they are sown broadcast. 

Perhaps a priori the first explanation of the origin of lakes which 
would suggest itself, would be that they were formed in hollows resulting 
from a disturbance of the strata, which had thrown them into a basin- 
ehaped form. Lake-basins, however, of this character are, as a matter 
of fact, very rare ; as a general rule lakes have not the form of basin- 
shaped synclinal hollows, but, on the contrary, the strike of the strata 
often runs right across them. My eminent predecessor. Professor 
Ramsay, divides lakes into three classes: — (1) Those which are due to 
irregular accumulations of drift, and which are generally quite shallow. 
(2) Those which are formed by moraines, and (3) those which occupy 
true basins scooped by glacier-ice out of the solid rock. To the latter 
class belong, in his opinion, most of the great Swiss and Italian lakes. 
Professor Ramsay attributes their excavation to glaciers, because it is of 
course obvious that rivers cannot make basin-shaped hollows sun'ounded 
by rock on all sides. Now the Lake of Geneva, 1,230 feet above the 
sea, is 984 feet deep, the Lake of Brienz is 1,850 feet above the sea, and 
2,000 feet deep, so that its bottom is really below the sea-level. The 
Italian lakes are even more remarkable. The Lake of Como, 700 feet 
above the sea, is 1,929 feet deep. Lago Maggiore, G85 feet above the 
sea, is no less than 2,625 feet deep. It will be observed that these lakes, 
like many others in mountain regions — those of Scandinavia, for instance 
— lie in the direct channels of the great old glaciers. If the mind is at 
first staggered at the magnitude of the scale, we must remember that the 
ice which scooped out the valley in which the Lake of Geneva 'now re- 
poses, was once at least 2,700 feet thick ; while the moraines were also 
of gigantic magnitude, that of Ivrea, for instance, being no less than 1,500 
feet in height. Professor Ramsay's theory seems, therefore, to account 
beautifully for a large number of interesting facts. 

The problem is, however, very complex ; and, while admitting the 
force of Professor Ramsay's arguments, there are, no doubt, other causes 
which have exercised a considerable influence in the arrangement and 
configuration of lakes ; for instance— as has been ably argued by our 



ADDRESS. 23 

new secretary, Professor Bonney — irregular movements of nplieaval along 
lines athwart tlie valleys. 

Passing from lakes to mountains, two rival theories with reference to 
the structure and origin of volcanoes long struggled for supremacy. 

The more general view was that the sheets of lava and scorise 
which form volcanic cones — such, for instance, as ^tna or Vesuvius — 
were originally nearly horizontal, and that subsequently a force operating 
from below, and exerting a pressure both upwards and outwards from a 
central axis towards all points of the compass, ujDlifted the whole stratified 
mass and made it assume a conical form, giving rise at the same time, in 
many cases, to a wide and deep circular opening at the top of the cone, 
called by the advocates of this hypothesis a ' crater of elevation.' 

This theory, though, as it seems to us now, it had already received its 
death-blow from the admirable memoirs of Scrope, was yet that most 
generally adopted fifty years ago, because it was considered that com- 
pact and crystalline lavas could not have consolidated on a slope 
exceeding 1° or 2°. In 1858, however. Sir C. Lyell conclusively showed 
that in fact such lavas could consolidate at a considerable angle, even 
in some cases at more than 30°, and it is now generally admitted that 
though the beds of lava, &c., may have sustained a slight angular 
elevation since their deposition, still in the main, volcanic cones have 
acquired their form by the accumulation of lava and ashes ejected 
from one or more craters. 

The problems presented by glaciers are of very great interest. In 
1843 Agassiz and Forbes proved that the centre of a glacier, like 
that of a river, moves more rapidly than its sides. But how and why do 
glaciers move at all ? Rendu, afterwards Bishop of Anne§y, in 1841 
endeavoured to explain the facts by supposing that glacier ice enjoys a 
kind of ductility. The 'viscous theory' of glaciers was also adopted, 
and most ably advocated, by Forbes, who compared the condition of a 
glacier to that of the contents of a tar barrel poured into a sloping 
channel. We have all, however, seen long narrow fissures, a mere fraction 
of an inch in width, stretching far across glaciers — a condition incom- 
patible with the ordinary idea of viscosity. The phenomenon of regelation 
was afterwards applied to the explanation of glacier-motion. An obser- 
vation of Faraday's supplied the clue. He noticed in 1850 that when 
two pieces of thawing ice are placed together they unite by freezing at 
the place of contact. Following up this suggestion Tyndall found that 
if he compressed a block of ice in a mould it could be made to assume 
any shape he pleased. A straight prism, for instance, placed in a groove 
and submitted to hydraulic pressure, was bent into a transparent semi- 
circle of ice. These experiments seem to have proved that a glacial 
valley is a mould through which the ice is forced, and to which it will 
accommodate itself, while, as Tyndall and Huxley also pointed out, the 
' veined structure of ice ' is produced by pressure, in the same manner as 
the cleavage of slate rocks. 



24 REPORT— 1881. 

It was in the year 1842 that Darwin published his great work on 
' Coral Islands.' The fringing reefs of coral presented no special difBcnlty. 
They could be obviously accounted for by an elevation of the land, so 
that the coral which had originally grown under water, had been raised 
above the sea-level. The circular or oval shape of so many reefs, how- 
ever, each having a lagoon in the centre, closely surrounded by a deep 
ocean, and I'isiug but a few feet above the sea-level, had long been a 
puzzle to the physical geogi'apher. The favourite theory was that these 
were the summits of submarine volcanoes on which the coral had grown. 
But as the reef-making coral does not live at greater depths than about 
twenty-five fathoms, the immense number of these reefs formed an almost 
insuperable objection to this theory. The Laccadives and Maldives, for 
instance — meaning literally the 'lac of islands ' and the 'tliousand islands' 
— are a series of such atolls, and it was impossible to imagine so great a 
number of craters, all so nearly of the same altitude. Darwin showed, 
moreover, that so far from the ring of coi'als resting on a corresponding 
ridge of rock, the lagoons, on the contrary, now occupy the place which 
was once the highest land. He pointed out that some lagoons, as for 
instance, that of Vanikoro, contain an island in the middle ; while other 
islands, such as Tahiti, are surrounded by a margin of smooth water, 
separated from the ocean by a coral reef. Now, if we suppose that 
Tahiti were to sink slowly, it would gradually approximate to the con- 
dition of Vanikoro ; and if Vanikoro gradually sank, the central island 
would disappear, while on the contrary the gi-owth of the coral might 
neutralise the subsidence of the reef, so that we should have simply an 
atoll, with its lagoon. The same considerations explain the origin of the 
' barrier reefs,' such as that which runs, for nearly one thousand miles, 
along tlie north-east coast of Australia. Thus Darwin's theory ex- 
plained the form and the approximate identity of altitude of these coral 
islands. But it did more than this, because it showed us that there 
were great areas in process of subsidence, which, though slow, was of 
great importance in physical geography.' 

Much information has also been acquired with reference to the 
abysses of the ocean, especially from the voyages of the Porcupine and the 
Challenger. The greatest depth yet recorded is near the Ladrone Islands, 
where a sounding of 4,575 fathoms was obtained. 

Ehrenberg long ago pointed out the similarity of the calcareous mud 
now accumulating in our recent seas to the chalk, and showed that the 
green sands of the geologist are largely made up of casts of foraminifera. 
Clay, however, had been looked on, until the recent expeditions, as 
essentially a product of the disintegration of older rocks. Not only, 
however, are a large proportion of siliceous and calcareous rocks either 
directly or indirectly derived from material which has once formed a 
portion of living organisms, but Sir Wyville Thomson maintains that 

' I ought to mention that Darwin's views have recently been questioned \>j 
Semper and Murray, 



ADDRESS. 25 

this is the case with some clays also. In that case the striking remark 
of Linnaeus, that ' fossils are not the children but the parents of rocks,' 
■will have received remarkable confirmation. I should have thought it, 
I confess, probable that these clays are, to a considerable extent, com- 
posed of volcanic dust. 

It would appear that calcareous deposits resembling our chalk do not 
occur at a greater depth than 3,000 fathoms ; they have not been met with 
in the abysses of the ocean. Here the bottom consists of exceedingly fine 
clay, sometimes coloured red by oxide of iron, sometimes chocolate by 
manganese oxide, and containing with Foraminifera occasionally large 
numbers of siliceous Radiolaria. These strata seem to accumulate with 
extreme slowness : this is inferred from the comparative abundance of 
whales' bones and fishes' teeth ; and from the presence of minute spherical 
particles, supposed hy Mr. Murray to be of cosmic origin — in fact, to be 
the dust of meteorites, which in the course of ages have fallen on the 
ocean. Such particles no doubt occur over the whole surface of the 
earth, but on land they soon oxidise, and in shallow water they are covered 
up by other deposits. Another interesting result of recent deep-sea 
explorations has been to show that the depths of the ocean are no mere 
barren solitudes, as was until recent years confidently believed, but, on 
the contrary, present us many remarkable forms of life. We have, how- 
ever, as yet but thrown here and there a ray of light down into the 

ocean abysses : — 

Nor can so short a time sufficient, be 

To fathom the vast depths of Nature's sea. 

In Astronomy, the discovery in 1845 of the planet Neptune, made 
independently and almost simultaneously by Adams and by Le Verrier, 
was certainly one of the very greatest triumphs of mathematical genius. 
Of the minor planets four only were known in 1831, whilst the number 
now on the roll amounts to 220. Many astronomers believe in the 
existence of an intra-mercurial planet or planets, but this is still an 
open question. The Solar System has also been enriched by the dis- 
covery of an inner ring to Saturn, of satellites to Mars, and of additional 
satellites to Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

The most unexpected progress, however, in our astronomical know- 
ledge during the past half-century has been due to spectrum analysis. 

The dark lines in the spectrum were first seen by Wollaston, who noticed 
a few of them ; but they were independently discovered by Fraunhofer, 
after whom they are justly named, and who, in 1814, mapped no fewer 
than 576. The first steps in ' spectrum analysis,' properly so called, were 
made by Sir J. Herschel, Fox Talbot, and by Wheatstone, in a paper read 
before this Association in 1835. The latter showed that the spectrum 
emitted by the incandescent vapour of metals was formed of bright lines, 
and that these lines, while, as he then supposed, constant for each metal, 
differed for different metals. ' We have here,' he said, ' a mode of dis- 
criminating metallic bodies more readily than that of chemical examination, 



26 REPOET— 1881. 

and which may hereafter be employed for useful purposes.' Nay, not 
only can bodies thus be more readily discriminated, but, as we now 
know, the presence of extremely minute portions can be detected, the 
•gT^ ooooo o^ ^ grain being in some cases easily perceptible. 

It is also easy to see that the presence of any new simple sub- 
stance might be detected, and in this manner already several new elements 
have been discovered, as I shall mention when we come to Chemistry. 

But spectrum analysis has led to even grander and more unexpected 
triumphs. Fraunhofer himself noticed the coincidence between the 
double dark line D of the solar spectrum and a double line which he 
observed in the spectra of ordinary flames, while Stokes pointed out 
to Sir W. Thomson, who taught it in his lectures, that in both cases 
these lines were due to the presence of sodium. To Kirchhoff and 
Bunsen, however, is due the independent conception and the credit of 
having first systematically investigated the relation which exists between 
Fraunhofer's lines and the bright lines in the spectra of incandescent 
metals. In order to get some fixed measure by which they might 
determine and record the lines characterising any given substance, it 
occurred to them that they might use for comparison the spectrum of 
the sun. They accordingly arranged their spectroscope so that one-half 
of the slit was lighted by the sun, and the other by the luminous gases 
they proposed to examine. It immediately struck them that the bright 
lines in the one corresponded with the dark lines in the other — the 
bright line of sodium, for instance, with the line or rather lines D in 
the sun's spectrum. The conclusion was obvious. There was sodium 
in the sun. It must indeed have been a glorious moment when that 
thought flashed across them, and even by itself well worth all their 
labour. 

But why is the bright line of a sodium flame represented by a black 
one in the spectrum of the sun ? To Angstrom is due the theory that a 
vapour or gas can absorb luminous rays of the same refrangibility only 
which it emits when highly heated ; while Balfour Stewart independently 
discovered the same law with reference to radiant heat. 

This is the basis of Kirchhoff's theory of the origin of Fraunhofer's 
lines. In the atmosphere of the sun the vapours of various metals are 
present, each of which would give its characteristic lines, but within 
this atmospheric envelope is the still more intensely heated nucleus 
of the sun, which emits a brilliant continuous spectrum, containing rays 
of all degi-ees of refrangibility. When the light of this intensely heated 
nucleus is transmitted through the surrounding atmosphere, the bright 
lines which would be produced by this atmosphere are seen as dark 
ones. 

Kirchhoff and Bunsen thus proved the existence in the sun of hydro- 
gen, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, 
titanium, and cobalt ; since which Angstrom, Thalen, and Lockyer have 
considerably increased the list. 



ADDRESS. 27 

But it is not merely the chemistry of the heavenly bodies on which 
light is thrown by the specti'oscope ; their physical structure and evolu- 
tional history are also illuminated by this wonderful instrument of 
research. 

It used to be supposed that the sun was a dark body enveloped in 
a luminous atmosphere. The reverse now appears to be the truth. The 
body of the sun, or photosphere, is intensely brilliant ; round it lies the 
solar atmosphere of comparatively cool gases, which cause the dark lines 
in the spectrum; thirdly, a chromosphere, — a sphere principally of 
hydrogen, jets of which are said sometimes to reach to a height of 
100,000 miles or more, into the outer coating or corona, the nature of 
which is still very doubtful. 

Formerly the red flames which represent the higher regions of the 
chromosphere could be seen only on the rare occasions of a total solar 
eclipse. Janssen and Lockyer, by the application of the spectroscope, 
have enabled us to study this region of the sun at all times. 

It is, moreover, obvious that the powerful engine of investigation 
afiForded us by the spectroscope is by no means confined to the substances 
which form part of our system. The incandescent body can thus be 
examined, no matter how great its distance, so long only as the light is 
strong enough. That this method was theoretically applicable to the 
light of the stars was indeed obvious, but the practical difficulties were 
very great. Sirius, the brightest of all, is, in round numbers, a 
hundred millions of millions of miles from us ; and, though as big as sixty 
of our suns, his light when it reaches us, after a journey of sixteen 
years, is at most one two-thousand-millionth part as bright. Nevertheless 
as long ago as 1815 Fraunhofer recognised the fixed lines in the light 
of four of the stars, and in 1863 Miller and Huggins in our own 
country, and Rutherford in America, succeeded in determining the dark 
lines in the spectrum of some of the brighter stars, thus showing that 
these beautiful and mysterious lights contain many of the material 
substances with which we are familiar. In Aldebaran, for instance, we 
may infer the presence of hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, iron, calcium, 
tellurium, antimony, bismuth, and mercury ; some of which are not yet 
known to occur in the sun. As might have been expected the composi- 
tion of the stars is not uniform, and it would appear that they may 
be arranged in a few well-marked classes, indicating difierences of 
temperature or, in other words, of age. Some recent photographic spectra 
of stars obtained by Huggins go very far to justify this view. 

Thus we can make the stars teach us their own composition with 
light which started from its source before we were born — light older 
than our Association itself. 

Until 1864, the true nature of the unresolved nebulae was a matter of 
doubt. In that year, however, Huggins turned his spectroscope on to 
a nebula, and made the unexpected discovery that the spectra of some 
of these bodies are discontinuous — that is to say, consist of bright lines 



28 BEPORT— 1881. 

only, indicating that ' in place of an incandescent Bolid or liquid body 
we must probably regard these objects, or at least their photo-surfaces, 
as enormous masses of luminous gas or vapour. For it is from matter 
in a gaseous state only that such light as that of the nebulae is known 
to be emitted.' So far as observation has yet gone, nebulte may be 
divided into two classes : some giving a continuous spectrum, others one 
consisting of bright lines. These latter all appear to give essentially the 
same spectrum, consisting of a few bright lines. Two of them, in Mr. 
Huggins' opinion, indicate the presence of hydrogen : one of them agrees 
in position with a line characteristic of nitrogen. 

But spectrum analysis has even more than this to tell us. The old 
methods of observation could determine the movements of the stars so 
far only as they were transverse to us ; they afforded no means of 
measuring motion either directly towards or away from us. Now 
Doppler suggested in 1841 that the colors of the stars would assist us 
in tins respect, because they would be affected by their motion to and 
from the earth, just as a steam- whistle is raised or lowered as it ap- 
proaches or recedes from us. Everyone has observed that if a train 
whistles as it passes us, the sound appears to alter at the moment the 
engine goes by. This arises, of course, not from any change in the 
whistle itself, but because the number of vibrations whicb reach the ear 
in a given time are increased by the speed of the train as it ap- 
proaches, and diminished as it recedes. So, like the sound, the color 
would be affected by such a movement ; but Doppler's method was prac- 
tically inapplicable, not only because the amount of effect on the color 
would be hardly sensible, but also for other reasons ; indeed, as we did 
not know the true color of the stars, we had no datum line by which to 
measure. 

A cliange of refrangibility of light, bow'ever, does occur in conse- 
quence of relative motion, and Huggins successfully applied the spectro- 
scope to solve the problem. He took in the first place the spectroscope 
of Sirius, and chose a line known as F, which is due to hydrogen. Now, if 
Sirius was motionless, or rather if it retained a constant distance from the 
earth, the line F would occupy exactly the same position in the spectrum 
of Sirius as in that of the sun. On the contrary, if Sirius were ap- 
proaching or receding from us, this line would be slightly shifted either 
towards the blue or red end of the spectrum. He found that the line 
had moved very slightly towards the red, indicating that the distance 
between us and Sirius is increasing at the rate of about twenty miles a 
second. So also Betelgeux, Rigel, Castor, and Regulus are increasing 
their distance ; while, on the contrary, that of others, as for instance of 
Vega, Arcturus, and Pollux, is diminishing. The results obtained by 
Huggins on about twenty stars have since been confirmed and extended 
by Mr. Christie, now Astronomer Royal, in succession to Sir G. Airy, who 
has long occupied the post with so much honour to himself and advantage 
to science, 



ADDRESS. 2 9 

To examine the spectrum of a shooting star would seem even more 
difficult. Alexander Herschel first succeeded in doing so, and determined 
the presence of sodium ; since which Von Konkoly has recognised the 
lines of magnesium, carbon, potassium, lithium and other substances, and 
it appears that the shooting stars are bodies similar in character and com- 
position to the stony masses which sometimes reach the earth as aerolites. 

Some light has also been thrown upon those mysterious visitants, the 
comets. The researches of Prof. Newton on the periods of meteoroids led 
to the remarkable discovery by Schiaparelli of the identity of the orbits 
of some meteor-swarms with those of some comets. The similarity' of 
orbits is too striking to be the result of chance, and shows a true cos- 
mical relation between the bodies. Comets, in fact, are in some cases at 
any rate groups of meteoric stones. From the spectra of the small comets 
of 1866 and 1868, Huggins showed that part of their light is emitted by 
themselves, and reveals the presence of carbon in some form. A photo- 
graphic spectrum of the comet recently visible, obtained by the same 
observer, is considered by him to prove that nitrogen, probably in com- 
bination with carbon, is also present. 

No element has yet been found in any meteorite, which was not 
previously known as existing in the earth, but the phenomena which they 
exhibit indicate that they must have been formed under conditions very 
different from those which prevail on the earth's surface. I may mention, 
for instance, the peculiar form of crystallised silica, called by Maskelyne, 
Asmanite ; and the whole class of meteorites, consisting of iron generally 
alloyed with nickel, which Daubree terms Holosiderites. The interesting 
discovery, however, by Nordenskiold, in 1870, at Ovifak, of a number of 
blocks of iron alloyed with nickel and cobalt, in connection with basalts 
containing disseminated iron, has, in the words of Judd, ' afforded a very 
important link, placing the terrestrial and exti'a-terrestrial rocks in closer 
relations with one another.' 

We have as yet no sufficient evidence to justify a conclusion as to 
whether any substances exist in the heavenly bodies which do not occur 
in our earth, though there are many lines which cannot yet be satisfac- 
torily referred to any terrestrial element. On the other hand, some 
substances which occur on our earth have not yet been detected in the 
sun's atmosphere. 

Such discoveries as these seemed, not long ago, entirely beyond 
our hopes. M. Comte, indeed, in his ' Cours de Philosophie Posi- 
tive,' as recently as 1842, laid it down as an axiom regarding the 
heavenly bodies, that ' Nous concevons la possibilite de determiner leurs 
formes, leurs distances, leurs grandeurs et leurs mouvements, tandis que 
nous ne saurions jamais etudier par aucun moyen leur composition 
chimique ou leur structure mineralogique.' Yet within a few years 
this supposed impossibility has been actually accomplished, showing how 
unsafe it is to limit the possibilities of science. 

It is hardly necessary to point out that, while the spectrum has taught 



30 REPORT — 1881. 

US so mucla, we have still even more to learn. Why should some 
substances give few, and others many, lines ? Why should the same 
substance give different lines at different temperatures ? What are 
the relations between the lines and the physical or chemical pro- 
perties ? 

We may certainly look for much new knowledge of the hidden actions 
of atoms and molecules from future researches with the spectroscope. It 
may even, perhaps, teach us to modify our views of the so-called simple 
substances. Prout, long ago, struck by the remarkable fact that nearly 
all atomic weights are simple multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen, 
suggested that hydrogen must be the primordial substance. Brodie's 
researches also naturally fell in with the supposition that the so-called 
simple substances are in reality complex, and that their constituents occar 
separately in the hottest regions of the solar atmosphere. Lockyer con- 
siders that his researches lend great probability to this view. The whole 
subject is one of intense interest, and we may rejoice that it is occupying 
the attention, not only of such men as Abney, Dewar, Hartley, Liveing, 
Eoscoe and Schuster in our own country, but also of many foreign 
observers. 

When geology so greatly extended our ideas of past time, the con- 
tinned heat of the sun became a question of greater interest than ever. 
Helmholtz has shown that, while adopting the nebular hypothesis, we 
need not assume that the nebulous matter was originally incandescent ; 
but that its present high temperature may be, and probably is, mainly 
due to gravitation between its parts. It follows that the potential energy 
of the sun is far from exhausted, and that with continued shrinking it 
will continue to give out light and heat, with little, if any, diminution for 
several millions of years. 

Like the sand of the sea, the stars of heaven have ever been used as 
effective symbols of number, and the improvements in our methods of 
observation have added fresh force to our original impressions. We now 
know that our earth is but a fraction of one out of at least 75,000,000 
worlds. 

But this is not all. In addition to the luminous heavenly bodies, we 
cannot doubt that there are countless others, invisible to us from their 
greater distance, smaller size, or feebler light ; indeed we know that 
there are many dark bodies which now emit no light or comparatively 
little. Thus in the case of Procyon, the existence of an invisible body 
is proved by the movement of the visible star. Again I may refer to the 
curious phenomena presented by Algol, a bright star in the head of 
Medusa. This star shines without change for two days and thirteen 
hours ; then, in three hours and a half, dwindles from a star of the 
second to one of the fourth magnitude ; and then, in another three and 
a half hours, reassumes its original brilliancy. These changes seem 
certainly to indicate the presence of an opaque body, which intercepts at 
regular intervals a part of the light emitted by Algol, 



ADDRESS. 31 

Thus the floor of heaven is not only ' thick inlaid with patines of 
bright gold,' but studded also with extinct stars; once probably as brilliant 
as our own sun, but now dead and cold, as Helmholtz tells us that our sun 
itself will be, some seventeen millions of years hence. 

The connection of Astronomy with the history of our planet has been 
a subject of speculation and research during a great part of the half- 
century of our existence. Sir Charles Lyell devoted some of the opening 
chapters of his great work to the subject. Haughton has brought his 
very original powers to bear on the subject of secular changes in climate, 
and CroU's contributions to the same subject are of great interest. Last, 
but not least, I must not omit to make mention of the series of massive 
memoirs (I am happy to say not yet nearly terminated) by George Dar- 
win on tidal friction, and the influence of tidal action on the evolution of 
the solar system. 

I may perhaps just mention, as regards telescopes, that the largest 
reflector in 1830 was Sir W. Herschel's of 4 ft., the largest at present 
being Lord Rosse's of 6 ft. ; as regards refractors the largest then had a 
diameter of 11|^ in., while your fellow-townsman Cooke carried the size 
to 25 in., and Mr. Grubb, of Dublin, has just successfully completed 
one of 27 in. for the Observatory of Vienna. It is remarkable that the 
two largest telescopes in the world should both be Irish. 

The general result of astronomical researches has been thus eloquently 
summed up by Proctor : — ' The sidereal system is altogether more 
complicated and more varied in structure than has hitherto been 
supposed ; in the same region of the stellar depths co-exist stars of many 
orders of real magnitude ; all orders of nebulte, gaseous or stellar, 
planetary, ring-formed, elliptical, and spiral, exist within the limits of the 
galaxy ; and lastly, the whole system is alive with movements, the laws 
of which may one day be recognised, though at present they appear too 
complex to be understood.' 

We can, I think, scarcely claim the establishment of the undu- 
latory theory of light as falling within the last fifty years ; for 
though Brewster, in his ' Report on Optics,' published in our first volume, 
treats the question as open, and expresses himself still unconvinced, 
he was, I believe, almost alone in his preference for the emission theory. 
The phenomena of interference, in fact, left hardly any— if any — 
room for doubt, and the subject was finally set at rest by Foucault's 
celebrated experiments in 1850. According to the undulatory theory 
the velocity of light ought to be greater in air than in water, while if 
the emission theory were correct the reverse would be the case. The 
velocity of light — 186,000 miles in a second — is, however, so great that, 
to determine its rate in air, as compared with that in water, might 
seem almost hopeless. The velocity in air was, nevertheless, determined 
by Fizeau in 1849, by means of a rapidly revolving wheel. In the 
following year Foucault, by means of a revolving mirror, demonstrated 



32 REPORT — 1881. 

that the velocity of light is greater ia air than in water — thus completing 
the evidence in favonr of the undnlatory theory of light. 

The idea is now gaining ground, that, as maintained by 
Clerk-Maxwell, light itself is an electro-magnetic disturbance, the 
luminiferous ether being the vehicle of both light and electricity. 

Wiiusch, as long ago as 1792, had clearly shown that the three 
primary colors were red, green, and violet ; but his results attracted little 
notice, and the general view used to be that there were seven prin- 
cipal colors — red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet ; four 
of which — namely orange, green, indigo, and violet — were considered 
to arise from mixtures of the other three. Red, yellow, and blue were 
therefore called the primary colors, and it was supposed that in order 
to produce white light these three colors must always be present. 

Helmholtz, however, again showed, in 1852, that a color to our 
unaided eyes identical with white, was produced by combining yellow 
with indigo. At that time yellow was considered to be a simple color, 
and this, therefore, was regarded as an exception to the general rule, 
that a combination of three simple colors is required to produce white. 
Again, it was, and indeed still is, the general impression that a com- 
bination of blue and yellow makes green. This, however, is entirely 
a mistake. Of course we all know that yellow paint and blue paint 
make green paint ; but this results from absorption of light by the semi- 
transparent solid particles of the pigments, and is not a mere mixture of 
the colors proceeding unaltei'ed from the yellow and the blue particles : 
moreover, as can easily be shown by two sheets of colored paper and a 
piece of window glass, blue and yellow light, when combined, do not give 
a trace of green, but if pure would produce the effect of white. Green, 
therefore, is after all not produced by a mixture of blue and yellow. 
On the other hand, Clerk-Maxwell proved in 1860 that yellow could 
be produced by a mixture of red and green, which put an end to 
the pi'etension of yellow to be considered a primary element of color. 
From these and other considerations it would seem, therefore, that the 
three primary colors— if such an expression be retained — are red, green, 
and violet. 

The existence of rays beyond the violet, though almost invisible to 
our eyes, had long been demonstrated by their chemical action. Stokes, 
however, showed In 1852 that their existence might be proved in 
another manner, for that there are certain substances which, when 
excited by them, emit light visible to our eyes. To this phenomenon 
he gave the name of fluorescence. At the other end of the spectrum 
Abney has recently succeeded in photographing a large number of lines 
in the infra-red portion, the existence of which was first proved by Sir 
William Herschel. 

From the rarity, and in many cases the entire absence, of refei'ence 
to blue, in ancient literature, Geiger — adopting and extending a suggestion 
first thrown out by Mr. Gladstone — has maintained that, even as recently 



ADDRESS. 33 

as the time of Homer, our ancestors were blue-bliud. Thougli for my 
part I am unable to adopt this view, it is certainly very remarkable that 
neither the Rigveda, which consists almost entirely of hymns to heaven, 
nor the Zendavesta, the Bible of the Parsees or fire-worshippers, nor 
the earlier books of the Old Testament, nor the Homeric poems, ever 
allude to the sky as blue. 

On the other hand, from the dawn of poetry, the splendours of the 
morning and evening skies have excited the admiration of mankind. As 
Ruskin says, in language almost as brilliant as the sky itself, the whole 
heaven, ' from the zenith to the horizon, becomes one molten, mantlino- sea 
of colour and fire ; every black bar turns into massy gold, eveiy ripple 
and wave into unsullied shadowless crimson, and purple, and scarlet, and 
colours for which there are no words in language, and no ideas in the 
mind — things which can only be conceived while they are visible; the 
intense hollow blue of the upper sky melting through it all, showino- here 
deep, and pure, and lightness ; there, modulated by the filmy, formless 
body of the transparent vapour, till it is lost imperceptibly in its crimson 
and gold.' 

But what is the explanation of these gorgeous colors ? why is the 
sky blue ? and why are the sunrise and sunset crimson and gold ? It 
may be said that the air is blue, but if so how can the clouds assume 
their varied tints ? Brucke showed that very minute particles suspended 
in water are blue by reflected light. Tyndall has taught us that the 
blue of the sky is due to the reflection of the blue rays by the minute 
particles floating in the atmosphere. Now if from the white light of the 
sun the blue rays are thus selected, those which are transmitted will be 
yellow, orange, and red. Where the distance is short the transmitted 
light will appear yellowish. But as the sun sinks towards the horizon 
the atmospheric distance increases, and consequently the number of the 
scattering particles. They weaken in succession the violet, the indigo, 
the blue, and even disturb the proportions of green. The transmitted 
light under such circumstances must pass from yellow throuo-h orano-e 
to red, and thas, while Ave at noon are admiring the deep blue of the sky, 
the same rays, robbed of their blue, are elsewhere lighting up the evenino- 
sky with all the glories of sunset. 

Another remarkable triumph of the last half-century has been the 
discovery of photography. At the commencement of the century Wedo-. 
wood and Davy observed the effect produced by throwing the images of 
objects on paper or leather prepared with nitrate of silver, but no means 
were known by which such images could be fixed. This was first effected 
by Niepce, but his processes were open to objections, which prevented 
them from coming into general use, and it was not till 1839 that Daguerre 
invented the process which was justly named after him. Very soon a 
further improvement was eS'ected by our countryman Talbot. He not 
only fixed his ' Talbotypes ' on paper — in itself a great convenience — but, 
by obtaining a negative, rendered it possible to take off any number of 
1881. D 



34 KEPORT — 1881. 

positive, or natural, copies from one original picture. This process is the 
foundation of all the methods now in use ; perhaps the greatest improve- 
ments having been the nse of glass plates, first proposed by Sir John 
Herschel ; of collodion, suggested by Le Grey, and practically used by 
Archer ; and, more lately, of gelatine, the foundation of the sensitive film 
now growing into general use in the ordinary dry-plate process. Not only 
have a great variety of other beautiful processes been invented, but the 
delicacy of the sensitive film has been immensely increased, with the 
advantage, among others, of diminishing greatly the time necessary for 
obtaining a picture, so that even an express train going at full speed can 
now be taken. Indeed, with full sunlight ^^ of a second is enough, and 
in photographing the sun itself (jo^oo of a second is sufficient. 

We owe to Wheatstone the conception that the idea of solidity is 
derived from the combination of two pictures of the same object in slightly 
different perspective. This he proved in 18.33 by drawing two outlines 
of some geometrical figure or other simple object, as they would appear 
to either eye respectively, and then placing them so that they might be 
seen, one by each eye. The ' stereoscope,' thus produced, has been greatly 
popularised by photography. 

For 2,000 years the art of lighting had made little if any progress. 
Until the close of the last century, for instance, our lighthouses contained 
mere fires of wood or coal, though the construction had vastly improved. 
The Eddystone lighthouse, for instance, was built by Smeaton in 1759 ; 
but for forty years its light consisted of a row of tallow candles stuck 
in a hoop. The Argand lamp was the first great improvement, followed 
by gas, and in 1863 by the electric light. 

Just as light was long supposed to be due to the emission of material 
particles, so heat was regarded as a material, though ethereal, substance, 
which was added to bodies when their temperature was raised. 

Davy's celebrated experiment of melting two pieces of ice by rubbing 
them against one another in the exhausted receiver of an air-pump had 
convinced him that the cause of heat was the motion of the invisible 
particles of bodies, as had been long before suggested by Newton, 
Boyle, and Hooke. Rumford and Young also advocated the same view, 
Nevertheless, the general opinion, even until the middle of the present 
century, was that heat was due to the presence of a subtle fluid known as 
' caloric,' a theory which is now entirely abandoned. 

Melloni, by the use of the electric pile, vastly increased our knowledge 
of the phenomena of radiant heat. His researches were confined to the 
solid and liquid forms of matter. Tyndall studied the gases in this respect, 
showing that differences greater than those established by Melloni 
existed between gases and vapours, both as regards the absorption and 
radiation of heat. He proved, moreover, that the aqueous vapour of our 
atmosphere, by checking terrestrial radiation, augments the earth's 
temperature, and he considers that the existence of tropical vegetation — 
the remains of which now constitute onr coal-beds — may have been due to 



ADDBESS. 35 

the heat retained by the vapours which at that period were diffused in 
the earth's atmosphere. Indeed, but for the vapour in our atmosphere, a 
single night would suffice to destroy the whole vegetation of the temperate 
regions. 

Inspired by a contemplation of Graham Bell's ingenious experi- 
ments with intermittent beams on solid bodies, Tjmdall took a new 
and original departure; and regarding the sounds as due to changes 
of temperature he concluded that the same method would prove applic- 
able to gases. He thus found himself in possession of a new and 
independent method of procedure. It need perhaps be hardly added that, 
when submitted to this new test, his former conclusions on the inter- 
action of heat and gaseous matter stood their ground. 

The determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat is mainly due 
to the researches of Mayer and Joule. Mayer, in 1842, pointed out the 
mechanical equivalent of heat as a fundamental datum to be determined 
by experiment. Taking the heat produced by the condensation of air as 
the equivalent of the work done in compressing the air, he obtained a 
numerical value of the mechanical equivalent of heat. There was, 
however, in these experiments, one weak point. The matter operated 
on did not go through a cycle of changes. He assumed that the 
production of heat was the only effect of the work done in com- 
pressing the air. Joule had the merit of being the first to meet this 
possible source of error. He ascertained that a Aveight of 1 lb. would 
have to fall 772 feet in order to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water by 
1° Fahr. Hirn subsequently attacked the problem from the other side, and 
showed that if all the heat passing through a steam-engine were turned 
into work, for every degree Fahr. added to the temperature of a pound of 
water, enough work could be done to raise a weight of 1 lb. to a height of 
772 feet. The general result is that, though we cannot create energy 
we may help ourselves to any extent from the great storehouse of nature. 
Wind and water, the coal-bed and the forest, afford man an inexhaustible 
supply of available energy. 

It used to be considered that there was an absolute break between 
the different states of matter. The continuity of the gaseous, liquid, and 
solid conditions was first demonstrated by Andrews in 1862. 

Oxygen and nitrogen have been liquefied independently and at the 
same time by Cailletet and Raoul Pictet. Cailletet also succeeded in 
liquefying air, and soon afterwards hydrogen was liquefied by Pictet 
under a pressure of 650 atmospheres, and a cold of 170° Cent, below 
zero. It even became partly solidified, and he assures us that it fell on 
the floor with ' the shrill noise of metallic hail.' Thus then it was shown 
experimentally that there are no such things as absolutely permanent gases. 

The kinetic theory of gases, now generally accepted, refers the elasticity 
of gases to a motion of translation of their molecules, and we are assured 
that in the case of hydrogen at a temperature of 60° Fahr. tbey move 
at an average rate of 6,225 feet in a second ; while, as regards their size, 

d2 



36 EEPORT 1881. 

Losclimidt, wlio has since been confirmed by Stoney and Sir "W. Thom- 
son, calculates that each is at most s-ooo^oot;? °f ^^ inch in diametei'. 

We cannot, it would seem at present, hope for any increase of our 
knowledge of atoms by any improvement in the microscope. With 
our present instruments we can perceive lines ruled on glass -^ olo o ^H 
of an inch apart. But, owing to the properties of light itself, the 
fringes due to interference begin to produce confusion at distances of 
_,^i.g-^^ and in the brightest part of the spectrum at little more than 
^-j.i.^-^th they would make the obscurity more or less complete. If indeed 
we could use the blue rays by themselves, their waves being much 
shorter, the limit of possible visibility might be extended to jrWji-uv '■> ^^^ 
as Helmholtz has suggested, this perhaps accounts for Stinde having 
actually been able to obtain a photographic image of lines only xTTTmrTyt^^ 
of an inch apart. It would seem then that, owing to the physical 
characters of light, we can, as Sorby has pointed out, scarcely hojje 
for any great improvement so far as the mere visibility of structure is 
concerned, though in other respects no doubt much may be hoped for. 
At the same time, Dallinger and Royston Pigott have shown that, so 
far as the mere presence of simple objects is concerned, bodies of even 
smaller dimensions can be perceived. 

According to the views of Helmholtz, the size of the smallest particle 
that could be distinctly defined, when associated with others, is about 
-g-jj^Tj^th of an inch. Sorby estimates that a particle of albiimen of this size 
contains 125 millions of molecules. In the case of such a simple compound 
as w.ater the number is 8,000 millions. Even, then, if we could construct 
microscopes far more powerful than any we now possess, they would not 
enable us to obtain by direct vision any idea of the ultimate molecules 
of matter. Sorby calculates that the smallest sphere of organic matter 
which coiild be clearly defined with our most powerful microscopes would 
contain many millions of molecules of albumen and water, and it follows 
that there may be an almost infinite number of structural characters in 
organic tissues, which we can at present foresee no mode of examining. 

The Science of Meteorology has made great progress ; the weather, 
which was formerly treated as a local phenomenon, being now shown to 
form part of a vast system of mutually dependent cyclonic and anti- 
cyclonic movements. The storm-signals issued at our ports are very 
valuable to sailors, while the small weather-maps, for which we are mainly 
indebted to Francis Galton, and the forecasts, which anyone can obtain 
on application either personally or by telegraph at the Meteorological 
Office, are also of increasing utility. 

Electricity in the year 1831 may be considered to have just been 
ripe for its adaptation to practical purposes ; it was but a few years 
previously, in 1819, that Oersted had discovered the deflective action 
of the current on the magnetic needle, that Ampere had laid the founda- 
tion of electro-dynamics, that Schweizzer had devised the electric coil or 



address:. 37 

multiplier, and that Sturgeon had constructed the first electro-magnet. 
It was in 1831 that Faraday, the prince of pure experimentalists, 
announced his discoveries of voltaic induction and magneto-electricity, 
which with the other three discoveries constitute the principles of nearly 
all the telegraph instruments now in use ; and in 1834 our knowledge of 
the nature of the electric current had been much advanced by the in- 
teresting experiment of Sir Charles Wheatstone, proving the velocity of 
the current in a metallic conductor to approach that of the wave of light. 

Practical applications of these discoveries were not long in coming to 
the fore, and the first telegraph line on the Great Western Railway from 
Paddington to West Di'ayton was set up in 1838. In America Morse is 
said to have commenced to develop his recording instrument between 
the years 1882 and 1837, while Steinheil, in Germany, during the same 
period was engaged upon his somewhat super-refined ink-recorder, using 
for the first time the earth for completing the return circuit ; whereas in 
this country Cooke and Wheatstone, by adopting the more simple device 
of the double-needle instrument, were the first to make the electric tele- 
graph a practical institution. Contemporaneously with, or immediately 
succeeding these pioneers, we find in this country Alexander Bain, Bre- 
guet in France, Schilling in Russia, and Werner Siemens in Germany, 
the last having first, in 1847, among others, made use of gutta-percha 
as an insulating medium for electric conductors, and thus cleared the 
way for subterranean and submarine telegraphy. 

Four years later, in 1851, submarine telegraphy became an accom- 
plished fact through the successful establishment of telegraphic 
communication between Dover and Calais. Submarine lines followed in 
rapid succession, crossing the English Channel and the German Ocean, 
threading their way through the Mediterranean, Black, and Red Seas, 
until in 1866, after two abortive attempts, telegraphic communication 
was successfully established between the Old and New Worlds, beneath 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

In connection with this great enterprise and with many investigations 
and suggestions of a highly scientific and important character, the name 
of Sir William Thomson will ever be remembered. The ingenuity 
displayed in perfecting the means of transmitting intelligence through 
metallic conductors, with the utmost despatch and certainty as regards 
the record obtained, between two points hundreds and even thousands of 
miles apart is truly surprising. The instruments devised by Morse, 
Siemens, and Hughes have also proved most useful. . 

Duplex and quadruplex telegraphy, one of the most striking achieve- 
ments of modern telegraphy, the result of the labours of several in- 
ventors, should not be passed over in silence. It not only serves for the 
simultaneoixs communication of telegraphic intelligence in both directions, 
but renders it possible for four instruments to be worked irre.'ipectively 
of one another, through one and the same wire connecting two distant 
places. 



38 EEPOET — 1881. 

Another more recent and perhaps still more wonderful achievement 
in modern telegraphy is the invention of the telephone and microphone, 
by means of which the human voice is transmitted through the electric 
conductor, by mechanism that imposes through its extreme simplicity. 
In this connection the names of Reiss, Graham Bell, Edison, and Hughes 
are those chiefly deserving to be recorded. 

Whilst electricity has thus furnished us with the means of flashing 
our thoughts by record or by voice from place to place, its use is now 
gradually extending for the achievement of such quantitative effects as 
the jjroduction of light, the transmission of mechanical power, and the 
precipitation of metals. The principle involved in the magneto-electric 
and dynamo-electric machines, by which these efiects are accomplished, 
may be traced to Faraday's discovery in 1831 of the induced current, but 
their realisation to the labours of Holmes, Siemens, Pacinotti, Gramme, 
and others. In the electric light, gas-lighting has found a formidable 
competitor, which appears destined to take its place in public illumination, 
and in lighting large halls, works, &c., for which purposes it combines 
brilliancy and freedom from obnoxious products of combustion, with 
comparative cheapness. The electric light seems also to threaten, when 
sub-divided in the manner recently devised by Edison, Swan, and others, 
to make inroads into our dwelling-houses. 

By the electric transmission of power, we may hope some day to 
utilise at a distance such natural sources of energy as the Falls of 
Niagara, and to work our cranes, lifts, and machinery of every descrip- 
tion by means of sources of power arranged at convenient centres. To 
these applications the brothers Siemens have more recently added the 
propulsion of trains by currents passing through the rails, the fusion 
in considerable quantities of highly refractory substances, and the use of 
electric centres of light in horticulture as proposed by Werner and William 
Siemens. By an essential impi'ovement by Faure of the Plante Secondary 
Batteiy, the problem of storing electrical energy appears to have received 
a practical solution, the real importance of which is clearly proved by Sir 
Wilham Thomson's recent investigation of the subject. 

It would be difficult to assign the limits to which this development of 
electrical energy may not be rendered serviceable for the purposes of man. 

As regards mathematics I have felt that it would be impossible for 
me, even with the kindest help, to write anything myself. Mr. Spottis- 
woode, however, has been so good as to supply me with the following 
memorandum. 

In a complete survey of the progress of science during the half-century 
which has intervened between our first and our present meeting, the part 
played by mathematics would form no insigniflcant feature. To those 
indeed who are outside its enchanted circle it is difficult to realise the 
intense intellectual energy which actuates its devotees, or the wide 
expanse over which that enei"gy ranges. Some measure, however, of its 



ADDRESS. 39 

progress may perhaps be formed by considering, in one or two cases, 
from what simple principles some of the great recent developments have 
taken their origin. 

Consider, for instance, what is known as the principle of signs. In 
geometry we are concerned with quantities such as lines and angles ; and 
in the old systems a proposition was proved with reference to a particular 
figure. This figure might, it is true, be drawn in any manner within 
certain ranges of limitation ; but if the limits were exceeded, a new 
proof, and often a new enunciation, became necessary. Gradually, how- 
ever, it came to be jierceived {e.g. by Carnot, in his ' Geometric de 
Position,') that some propositions were true even when the quantities were 
reversed in direction. Hence followed a recognition of the principle (of 
signs) that every line should be regarded as a directed line, and every 
angle as measured in a definite direction. By means of this simple con- 
sideration, geometry has acquired a power similar to that of algebra, viz. 
of changing the signs of the quantities and transposing their positions, so 
as at once, and without fresh demonstration, to give rise to new propo- 
sitions. 

To take another instance. The properties of triangles, as established 
by Euclid, have always been considered as legitimate elements of proof ; 
so that, when in any figure two triangles occur, their relations may be 
used as steps in a demonstration. But, within the period of which I am 
speaking, other general geometi-ical relations, e.g. those of a pencil of 
rays, or of their intersection with a straight line, have been recognised as 
serving a similar purpose. "With what extensive results this generalisa- 
tion has been attended, the Geometric Superieure of the late M. Chasles, 
and all the superstructure built on Anharmonic Ratio as a foundation, 
will be sufficient evidence. 

Once more, the algebraical expression for a line or a plane involves two 
sets of quantities, the one relating to the position of any point in the line 
or plane, and the other relating to the position of the line or plane in 
space. The former set alone were originally considered variable, the latter 
constant. But as soon as it was seen that either set might at pleasure be 
regarded as variable, there was opened out to mathematicians the whole 
field of duality within geometry proper, and the theory of correlative 
figures which is destined to occupy a prominent position in the domain of 
mathematics. 

Not unconnected with this is the marvellous extension which the 
transformation of geometrical figures has received very largely from 
Cremona and the Italian school, and which in the hands of our country- 
men Hirst and the late Professor Clifford, has already brought forth such 
abundant fruit. In this, it may be added, there lay — dormant, it is true, 
and long unnoticed — the principle whereby circular may be converted into 
rectilinear motion, and vice versa, — a problem which until the time of 
Peaucillier seemed so far from solution, that one of the greatest mathe- 
maticians of the day thought that he had proved its entire impossibility. 



40 KEPOBT — 1881. 

In the hands of Sylvester, of Kempe, and others, this principle haa 
been developed into a general theory of link- work, on which the last word 
has not yet been said. 

If. time permitted, I might point out how the study of particular 
geometric figures, such as curves and surfaces, has been in many instances 
replaced by that of systems of figures infinite in number, and indeed of 
various degrees of infinitude. Such, for instance, are Pliicker's com- 
plexes and congruencies. I might describe also how Riemann taught us 
that surfaces need not present simple extension without thickness ; but 
that, without losing their essential geometric character, they may consist 
of manifold sheets ; and thus our conception of space, and our power 
of interpreting otherwise perplexing algebraical expressions, become 
immensely enlarged. 

Other generalisations might be mentioned, such as the principle of 
continuity, the use of imaginary quantities, the extension of the number 
of the dimensions of space, the recognition of systems in which the 
axioms of Euclid have no place. But as these were discussed in a recent 
address, I need not now do more than remind you that the germs of the- 
great calculus of Quaternions were first announced by their author, the 
late Sir W. R. Hamilton, at one of our meetings. 

Passing from geometry proper to the other great branch of mathe- 
matical machinery, viz. algebra, it is not too much to say that Avithin 
the period now in review there has grown up a modern algebra which 
to our founders would have appeared like a confused dream, and whose 
very language and terminology would be as an unknown tongue. 

Into this subject I do not propose to lead you far. But, as the 
progress which has been made in this direction is certainly not less than 
that made in geometry, I will ask your attention to one or two points- 
"which stand notably prominent. 

In algebra we use ordinary equations involving one unknown quan- 
tity ; in the application of algebra to geometry we meet with equations, 
representing curves or surfaces, and involving two, or three, unknown 
quantities respectively ; in the theory of probabilities, and in other branches 
of research, we employ still more general expressions. Now the modern 
algebra, originating with Cayley and Sylvester, regards all these diverse 
expressions as belonging to one and the same family, and comprises them 
all under the same general term ' quantics.' Studied fj-om this point of 
view, they all alike give rise to a class of derivative forms, previously 
unnoticed, but now known as invariants, covariants, canonical forms, etc. 
By means of these, mathematicians have arrived not only at many pro- 
perties of the quantics themselves, but also, at their application to physical 
problems. It would be a long and perhaps invidious task to enumerate 
the many workers in this fertile field of research, especially in the schools 
of Germany and of Italy ; but it is perhaps the less necessary to do so, 
because Sylvester, aided by a young and vigoi-ons staff at Baltimore, 
is welding many of these results into a homogeneous mass in the 



ADDEESS. 41 

classical memoirs wliicli arc appearing from time to time iu the 
' American Journal of Mathematics.' 

In order to I'emove any impression that these extensions of algebra 
are mei-ely barren speculations of ingenious intellects, I may add that, 
many of these derivative forme, at least in their elementary stages, have 
already found their way into the text-books of mathematics ; and one 
class in particular, known by the name of determinants, is now introduced 
as a recognised method of algebra, greatly to the convenience of all those 
who become masters of its use. 

In the extension of mathematics it has happened more than once that 
laws have been established so simple in form, and so obvious in their 
necessity, as scarcely to require proof. And yet their application is often 
of the highest importance in checking conclusions which have been 
di-awn fi'om other considerations, as well as in leading to conclusions 
which, without their aid, might have been difficult of attainment. The 
same thing has occurred also in physics ; and notably in the recognition 
of what has been termed the ' Law of the Conservation of Energy.' 

Energy has been defined to be ' The capacity, or power, of any body, 
or system of bodies, when in a given condition, to do a measurable quantity 
of work.' Such work may either change the condition of the bodies 
in question, or it may affect other bodies ; but in either case energy is 
expended by the agent upon the recipient in performance of the work. 
The law then states that the total amount of energy in the agents and 
recipients taken together remains unaltered by the changes in question. 

Now the principle on which the law depends is this : ' that every kind 
of change among the bodies may be expressed numerically in one standard 
unit of change, viz., work done, in such wise that the result of the 
passage of any system from one condition to another may be calculated 
by mere additions and subtractions, even when we do not know how the 
change came about. ■ This being so, all work done by a system may be 
expressed as a diminution of energy of that system, and all work done 
upon a system as an accession of energy. Consequently, the energy lost 
by one system in performance of work will be gained by another in having 
work done upon it, and the total energy, as between the two systems, will 
remain unchanged. 

There are two cases, or conditions, of energy which, although sub- 
stantially the same, are for convenience regarded separately. These may 
be illustrated by the following example. Work may be done upon a body, 
and energy communicated to it, by setting it in motion, e.g. by lifting it 
against gravity. Suppose this to be done by a spring and detent ; and 
suppose further the body, on reaching its highest point, to be caught so 
as to rest at that level on a support. Then, whether we consider the body 
at the moment of starting, or when resting on the support, it has equally 
received an accession of energy from the spring, and is therefore equally 
capable of communicating energy to a third body. But in the one case 
this is due to the motion which it has acquired, and in the other to the 



42 EEPORT— 1881. 

position at which it rests, and to its capability of falling again when the 
support is removed. Energy in the first of these states is called ' Energy 
of Motion,' or ' Kinetic Energy,' and that in the second state, ' Energy of 
Position,' or ' Potential Energy.' In the case supposed, at the moment of 
starting, the whole of the energy is kinetic ; as the body rises, the energy 
becomes partly potential and partly kinetic ; and when it reaches the 
highest point the energy has become wholly potential. If the body be 
again dropped, the process is reversed. 

The history of a discovery, or invention, so simple at first sight, is 
often found to be moi'e complicated the more thoroughly it is examined. 
That which at first seems to have been due to a single mind proves to 
have been the result of the successive action of many minds. Attempts 
•more or less successful in the same direction are frequently traced out ; 
and even unsuccessful efibrts may not have been without influence on 
minds turned towards the same object. Lastly also, germs of thought, 
originally not fully understood, sometimes prove in the end to have been 
the first stages of growth towards tiltimate fruit. The history of the law 
of the conservation of energy forms no exception to this order of events. 
There are those who discern even in the writings of Newton expressions 
which show that he was in possession of some ideas which, if followed 
out in a direct line of thought, would lead to those now entertained on 
the subjects of energy and of work. But however this may be, and 
whosoever might be reckoned among the earlier contributors to the general 
subject of energy, and to the establishment of its laws, it is certain that 
within the period of which I am now speaking, the names of Seguin, 
Clausius, Helmholtz, Mayer, and Colding on the Continent, and those 
of Grove, Joule, Rankine, and Thomson in this country, will always be 
associated with this great work. 

I must not, however, quit this subject without a passing notice of a 
conclusion to which Sir William Thomson has come, and in which he is 
followed by others who have pursued the transformation of energy to some 
of its ultimate consequences. The nature of this will perhaps be most 
easily apprehended by reference to a single instance. In a steam engine, 
or other engine, in which the motive power depends upon heat, it is well 
known that the source of power lies not in the general temperature of the 
whole, but merely on the difference of temperature between that of the 
boiler and that of the condenser. And the effect of the condenser is to 
reduce the steam issuing from the boiler to the same temperature as that of 
the condenser. "When this is once done, no more work can be got out of 
the engine, unless fresh heat be supplied from an outside source to the 
boiler. The heat originally communicated to the boiler has become 
uniformly diffused, and the energy due to that difference is said to have 
been dissipated. The energy remains in a potential condition as regards 
other bodies ; but as regards the engine, it is of no further use. Now 
suppose that we regard the entire material universe as a gigantic engine, 
and that after long use we have exhausted all the fuel (in its most general 



ADDBESS. 43 

sense) in the world ; then all the energy available will have become dis- 
sipated, and we shall have arrived at a condition of things from which 
there is no apparent escape. This is what is called the ' Dissipation of 
Energy.' 

Prof. Frankland has been so good as to draw up for me the following' 
account of the progress of Chemistry diii-ing the last half-century. 

Most of the elements had been discovered before 1830, the majority 
of the rarer elements since the beginning of the century. In addition to 
these the following five have been discovered, three of them by Mosander, 
viz.: — lanthanum in 1839, didj-mium in 1842, and erbium in 1843. 
Ruthenium was discovered by Glaus in 1843, and niobium by Rose in 
1844. Spectrum Analysis has added five to the list, viz.: — Caesium and 
rubidium, which were discovered by Bunsen and Kirchhoffin 1860; thal- 
lium, by Crookes in 1861 ; indium, by Reich and Richter in 1863 ; and 
gallium, by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875. 

As regards theoretical views, the atomic theory, the foundation of 
scientific chemistry, had been propounded by Dalton (1804-1808). The 
.three laws which have been chiefly instrumental in establishing the true 
atomic weights of the elements — the law of Avogadro (1811), that equal 
volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure 
contain equal numbers of molecules ; the law of Dulong and Petit (1819), 
that the capacities for heat of the atoms of the various elements are 
equal; and Mitscherlich's law of isomorphism (1819), according to which 
equal numbers of atoms of elements belonging to the same class may 
replace each other in a compound without altering the crystalline form 
of the latter, had been enunciated in quick succession ; but the true ap- 
plication of these three laws, though in every case distinctly stated by 
the discoverers, failed to be generally made, and it was not till the rectifi- 
cation of the atomic weights by Cannizzaro, in ] 858, that these important 
discoveries bore fruit. 

In organic chemistry the views most generally held about the year 
1830 were expressed in the radical theory of Berzelius. This theory, 
which was first stated in its electro-chemical and duahstic form by its 
author in 1817, received a further development at his hands in 1834 
after the discovery of the benzoyl-radical by Liebig and Wohler. In the 
same year (1834), however, a discovery was made by Dumas, which was 
destined profoundly to modify the electro- chemical portion of the theory, 
and even to overthrow the form of it put forth by Berzelius. Dumas 
showed that an electro-negative element, such as chlorine, might replace, 
atom for atom, an electro-positive element like hydrogen, in some cases 
without much alteration in the character of the compound. This law of 
substitution has formed a necessary portion of every chemical theory 
which has been proposed since its discovery, and its importance has 
increased with the progress of the science. It would take too long to 
enumerate all the theoretical views which have prevailed at various times 



44 EEPQET 1881. 

dni'Ing the past fifty years ; but the theory whicli along with the radical 
theory has exercised most influence on the development of the views now 
held, is the theoiy of types, first stated by Dumas (1839) and developed 
in a diff'erent form and amalgamated with the radical theory by Gerhardt 
and Williamson (1848-1852). It is, however, the less necessary to refer 
in detail to these views, seeing that in the now jirevailing theory of atomi- 
city we possess a generalisation which, while greatly extending the scope 
of chemical science in its power of classifying known and predicting 
unknown facts, includes all that was valuable in the generalisations 
which preceded it. The study of the behaviour of organo-metallic 
compounds in chemical reactions led to the conclusion that various 
metallic elements possess a definite capacity of saturation with regard to 
the number of atoms of other elements with which thej can combine, 
and demonstrated this regularity of atom-fixing power in the case of 
zinc, tin, arsenic, and antimony. A serious obstacle, however, in the 
way of determining the true atomicities of the elements was the general 
employment of the old so-called equivalent weights which were by most 
chemists confounded with the atomic weights. This difficulty was 
removed by the rectification of the atomic weights, which, though begun 
by Gerhardt as early as 1842, met for a long time with but little recog- 
nition, and was not completed till the subject was taken up by Cannizzaro 
in 1858. The law of atomicity lias given to chemistry an exactness 
which it did not previously possess, and since its discovery and recog- 
nition chemical research has moved very much on the lines laid down by 
this law. 

Chemists have been engaged in determining, by means of decom- 
positions, the molecular architecture, or constihition as it is called, of 
various compounds, natural and artificial, and in verifying by synthesis 
the correctness of the views thus arrived at. 

It was long supposed that an impassable barrier existed between 
inorganic and organic substances : that the chemist could make the 
former in his laboratorj-, while the latter could only be produced in the 
living bodies of animals or plants, — requiring for their construction not 
only chemical attraction, but a supposed ' vital force.' It was not until 
1828 that Wohler broke down this barrier by the synthetic production of 
urea, and since his time this branch of science, in the hands of Hofmann, 
Wurtz, Berthelot, Butlerow, and others, has made great strides. In- 
numerable natural compounds have thus been produced in the labora- 
tory — ranging from bodies of relatively simple constitution, such as the 
alcohols and acids of the fatty series, to bodies of such complex mole- 
cular structure as alizarin (the principal colouring matter of madder), 
coumarin (the odoriferous principle of the tonqua bean), vanillin, and 
indigo. The problem of the natural alkaloids has also been attacked, in 
some C8/Ses with more than partial success. Methylconine, which occurs 
along with conine in the hemlock, has been recently prepared artificially 
by Michael and Gundelach, this being the first instance of the synthesis 



ADDRESS. 45 

of a natural alkaloid. A proximate synthesis of atropine, the alkaloid of 
the deadly nightshade, has been accomplished by Ladenburg. It seems 
further probable that at no distant date the useful alkaloids, such as 
quinine, may also be synthesised, inasmuch as quinoline, one of the pro- 
ducts of the decomposition of quinine and of some of the allied bases 
has recently been prepared by Skraup by a method which admits of its 
being obtained in any quantity. 

Much also has been done in the way of building up compounds the 
existence of which was predicted by theory. Indeed the extent to which 
hitherto undiscovered substances can be predicated is doubtless the 
greatest triumph achieved by chemists during the past fifty years. 

As yet, however, only the statical side of chemistry has been de- 
veloped. Whilst the physicist has been engaged in tracing, for the 
gaseous condition at least, the paths of the molecules and calculatino- 
their velocities, the chemist, whose business is with the atoms within 
the molecule, can point to no such scientific conquests. All that he 
knows concerning the intramolecular atoms, and all that he expresses 
in his constitutional formulce is, the particular relation of union in which 
each of these atoms stands to the others — Avhich of them are directly 
united (as he expresses it) to other given atoms, and which of them are 
in indirect union. Of the i-elative positions in space occupied by these 
atoms, and of their modes of motion, he is absolutely ignorant. In like 
manner in a chemical reaction the initial and final conditions of the 
reacting substances are known, but the intermediate stages — the modes 
of change — are for the most part unexplained. 

The feeling that no number, however great, of successfully solved 
problems of constitutional chemistry (as at present understood), and 
no number of syntheses, however brilliant, of natui-al compounds, could 
raise chemistry above the statical stage — that the solution of the dyna- 
mical problem cannot be arrived at by purely chemical means has led 

many chemists to approach the subject from the physical side. The 
results which the physico-chemical methods, as exemplified in the laws 
already alluded to of Dulong and Petit, Avogadro, and Mitscherlich, 
have yielded in the past, offer the best guarantee of their success in 
the future. And the advantages of many of the physical methods are 
obvious. Every purely chemical examination — whether proximate or 
ultimate — of a compound, presupposes the destruction of the substance 
under examination : the chemist ' murders to dissect.' But observations 
on the action of a substance on the rays of light, on the relative volumes 
occupied by molecular quantities of a substance, on its velocity of trans- 
piration in the liquid or gaseous state— these teach us the habits of 
the living substance. The rays of light which have threaded their way 
between the molecules of a body have undergone, in contact with these 
molecules, various specific and measurable changes, the nature and 
amount of which are assuredly conditioned by the mass, form, and other 
properties of the molecules : the plane of polarisation has been caused to 



46 EEPORT — 1881. 

rotate ; a particular degree of refraction has been imparted ; or rays of 
certain wave-lengths have been removed by absorption, their absence 
being manifested by bands in the absorption-spectrum of the substance. 
The volumes occupied by molecular quantities are dependent partly on the 
size of the molecules and partly on that of the intermolecular spaces. 

The duty of the physical chemist is to endeavour to co-ordinate his 
physical observations with the known constitution of compounds as 
already determined by the pure chemist. This endeavour has in various 
branches of physical chemistry been to some extent successful. Le Bel 
has found that among organic compounds those only possess action on 
the plane of polarised light which contain at least one asymmetric car- 
bon atom — -that is to say, a carbon atom which is united to four different 
atoms or groups of atoms. The researches of Landolt, of Gladstone, 
and of Briihl on the specific refraction of organic liquids, have shown 
that from the known constitution of a liquid organic compound it is 
possible to calculate its specific refraction. Noel Hartley, in an examina- 
tion of the absorption-spectra of organic liquids for the ultra-violet rays, 
has demonstrated that certain molecular groupings are represented by 
particular absorption-bands, and this line of inquiry has been extended, 
with very interesting results, to the ultra-red rays by Abney and Testing. 
It is obvious that these methods may in ti>rn be employed to determine 
the unknown constitution of substances. The same holds true of the 
investigations of Kopp with regard to the molecular volumes of liquids at 
their boiling-points, in which he has established the remai'kable fact that 
some elements always possess the same atomic volume in combination, 
whereas, in the case of certain other elements, the atomic volume varies 
in a perfectly definite manner with the mode of combination. This in- 
vestigation has lately been extended with the best results by Thorpe and 
by Ramsay. Thermo-chemistry, also, which for a long time, at least as 
regards that portion which relates to the heat of formation of compounds, 
consisted chiefly of a collection of single equations, each containing three 
unknown quantities, is beginning to be interpreted by Julius Thomson, 
whose experimental work in this field is well known. Many other 
methods of physico-chemical research are being successfully prosecuted 
at the present day, but it would go beyond the bounds of this summary 
even to enumerate these. 

The concordant results obtained by these widely differing methods 
show that those chemists who have devoted themselves, frequently amid 
the ridicule of their more practical brethren, to ascertaining by purely 
chemical methods the constitution of compounds, have not laboured in 
vain. But the future doubtless belongs to physical chemistry. 

In connection with the rectification of the atomic weights it may be 
mentioned that a so-called natural system of the elements has been intro- 
duced by MendelejeflF (1869), in which the properties of the elements 
appear as a periodic function of their atomic weights. By the aid of this 
system it has been possible to pi'edict the properties and atomic weights 



ADDRESS. 47 

of undiscovered elements, and in the case of known elements to determine 
many atomic weights which had not been fixed by any of the usual 
methods. Several of these predictions have been verified in a remarkable 
manner. A periodicity in the atomic weights of elements belonging to 
the same class had been pointed out by Newlands about four years before 
the publication of Mendelejeflf's memoir. 

In mechanical science the progress has not been less remarkable 
than in other branches. Indeed to the improvements in mechanics we 
owe no small part of our advance in practical civilization, and of the 
increase of our national prosperity during the last fifty years. 

This immense development of mechanical science has been to a oreat 
extent a consequence of the new processes which have been adopted in 
the manufacture of iron, for the following data with reference to which I 
am mainly indebted to Captain Douglas Galton and Mr. Stuart Rendel. 
About 1830, Neilson introduced the Hot Blast in the smelting of iron. 
At first a temperature of 600° or 700° Fahrenheit was obtained, but 
Cowper subsequently ajjplied Siemens' regenerative furnace for heatino- 
the blast, chiefly by means of fumes from the blast furnace, which were 
formerly wasted ; and the temperature now practically in use is as much 
as 1,400° or even more : the result is a very great economy of fuel and 
an increase of the output. For instance, in 1830, a blast furnace with 
the cold blast would probably produce 130 tons per week, whereas now, 
600 tons a week are readily obtained. 

Bessemer, by his brilliant discovery, which he first brought before the 
British Association at Cheltenham in 18-56, showed that Iron and Steel 
could be produced by forcing currents of atmospheric air through fluid 
pig metal, thus avoiding for the first time the intermediate process of 
puddling iron, and converting it by cementation into steel. Similarly by 
Siemens' regenerative furnace, the pig metal and iron ore is converted 
directly into steel, especially mild steel for shipbuilding and boilers ; and 
Whitworth, by his fluid compression of steel, is enabled to produce steel in 
the highest condition of density and strength of which the metal is capable. 
These changes, by which steel can be produced direct from the blast 
furnace instead of by the more cumbersome processes formerly in use 
have been followed by improvements in the manipulation of the metal. 

The inventions of Cort and others were known long before 1830, but 
we were then still without the most powerful tool in the hands of the 
practical metallurgist, viz., Nasmyth's steam-hammer. 

Steel can now be produced as cheaply as iron was formerly ; and its 
substitution for iron as railway material and in shipbuilding, has resulted 
in increased safety in railway travelling, as well as in economy, from its 
vastly greater durability. Moreover, the enlarged use of iron and steel, 
which has resulted from these improvements in its make, has led to the 
adoption of mechanical means to supersede hand labor in almost every 
branch of trade and agriculture, by which the power of production has 



48 EEPORT 1881. 

been increased a Imnclredfold, wliile at the same time raucli higLer pre- 
cision has been obtained. Sir Joseph Whitworth has done more than any- 
one else to perfect the machinery of this coantry by the continued efforts 
he has made, during nearly half-a-century, to introduce accuracy into the 
standards of measurement in use in workshops. He tells us that Avhen he 
first established his works, no two articles could be made accurately alike 
or with interchangeable parts. He devised a measuring apparatus, by 
which his workmen in making standard gauges are accustomed to take 
measurements to the tto^oo o^ ^^ inch. 

In its more immediate relation to the objects of this Association, the 
increased importance of iron and steel has led to numerous scientific 
investigations into its mechancial properties and into the laws which 
govern its strength ; into the proper distribution of the material in con- 
struction ; and into the conditions which govern the friction and adhesion 
of surfaces. The names of Eaton Hodgkinson, Fairbairn, Barlow, 
Rennie, Scott Russell, Willis, Pleeming Jenkin, and Galton are promi- 
nently associated with these inquiries. 

The introduction of iron has, moreover, had a vast influence on the 
works of both the civil and military engineer. Before 1830, Telford had 
constructed an iron suspension turnpike-road bridge of 560 feet over the 
Menai Straits ; but this bridge was not adapted to the heavy weights of 
locomotive engines. At the present time, with steel at his command, Mr. 
Fowler is eno-aged in carrying out the design for a railway bridge over 
the Forth, of two spans of 1,700 feet each ; that is to say, of nearly one 
third of a mile in length. In artillery, bronze has given place to wrought 
iron and steel ; the 68-pound shot, which was the heaviest projectile fifty 
years ago, with its range of about 1,200 yards, is being replaced by a shot 
of neai'ly a quartei--ton weight, with a range of nearly five miles ; and 
the armour-plates of ships are daily obtaining new developments. 

But it is in raih'oads, steamers, and the electric telegraph that the 
proo-ress of mechanical science has most strikingly contributed to the 
welfare of man. 

As reo^ards railways, the Stockton and Dai'lington Railway was 
opened in 1825, but the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, perhaps the 
first truly passenger line, dates from 1830, while the present mileage of 
railways is over 200,000 miles, costing nearly 4,000,000,000?. sterling. 
It was not until 1838 that the Sirins and Great Western first steamed 
across the Atlantic. The steamer, in fact, is an excellent epitome of the 
progress of the half-century ; the paddle has been superseded by the 
screw ; the compound has replaced the simple engine ; wood has given place 
to iron, and iron in its turn to steel. The saving in dead weight, by this 
improvement alone, is from 10 to 16 per cent. The speed has been in- 
•creased from 9 knots to 15, or even more. Lastly, the steam-pressure has 
been increased from less than 5 lbs. to 70 lbs. per square inch, while the 
consumption of coal has been brought down from 5 or 6 lbs. per horse-power 
to less than 2. It is a remarkable fact that not only is our British 



ADDRESS. 49 

shipping rapidly on the increase, but it is increasing relatively to that 
of the rest of the world. In 1860 our tonnage was 5,700,000 against 
7,200,000; while it may now be placed as 8,500,000 against 8,200,000; 
so that considerably more than half the whole shipping of the world 
belongs to this country. 

If I say little with reference to economic science and statistics it is 
because time, not materials, are wanting. 

I scarcely think that in the present state of the question I can be 
accused of wandering into politics if I observe that the establishment of 
the doctrine of free trade as a scientific truth falls within the period 
under review. 

In education some progress has been made towards a more rational 
system. When I was a boy, neither science, nor modern languages, nor 
arithmetic formed any part of the public school, system of the country. 
This is now happily changed. Much, however, still remains to be done. 
Too little time is still devoted to French and German, and it is much to 
be regretted that even in some of our best schools they are taught as dead 
languages. Lastly, with few exceptions, only one or two hours a week 
on an average are devoted to science. We have, I am sure, none of us 
any desire to exclude, or discourage, literature. What we ask is that, say, 
six hours a week each should be devoted to mathematics, modern lan- 
guages, and science — an arrangement which would still leave twenty 
hours for Latin and Greek. I admit the difficulties which schoolmasters 
have to contend with; nevertheless, when we consider what science has 
done and is doing for us, we cannot but consider that our present system 
of education is, in the words of the Duke of Devonshire's Commission, 
little less than a national misfortune. 

In agriculture the changes which have occurred in the period since 
1831 have been immense. The last half-century has witnessed the in- 
troduction of the modern S3'stem of subsoil drainage, founded on the ex- 
periments of Smith of Deanston. The thrashing and drilling machines 
wei-e the most advanced forms of machinery in use in 1831. Since then 
there have been introduced the steam-plough ; the mowing-machine ; the 
reaping-machine, which not only cuts the corn but binds it into sheaves ; 
while the steam-engine thrashes out the grain and builds the ricks. 
Science has thus greatly reduced the actual cost of labour, and yet it has 
increased the wa^es of the labourer. 

It was to the British Association, at Glasgow in 1841, that Baron 
Liebig first communicated his work ' On the Application of Chemistry to 
Vegetable Physiology,' while we have also from time to time received 
accounts of the persevering and important experiments which Mr. Lawes, 
with the assistance of Dr. Gilbert, has now carried on for more than 
forty years at Rothamsted, and which have given so great an impulse to 
agriculture by directing attention to the principles of cropping, and by 
leading to the more philosophical application of manures. 

1881. E 



50 EEPOET— 1881. 

I feel that in quitting Section F so soon, I owe an apology to our 
fellow-workers in that branch of science, but I doubt not that my short- 
comings will be more than made up for by the address of their excellent 
President, Mr. Grant-Duff, whose appointment to the Governorship of 
Madras, while occasioning so sad a loss to his friends, will unquestion- 
ably prove a great advantage to India, and materially conduce to the 
progress of science in that country. 

Moreover, several other subjects of much importance, which might 
have been referred to in connection with these latter Sections, I have 
already dealt with under their more purely scientific aspect. 

Indeed, one very marked feature in modern discovery is the manner 
in which distinct branches of science have thrown, and are throwinar, 
light on one another. Thus the study of geographical distribution of 
living beings, to the knowledge of which our late general secretary, Mr. 
Sclater, has so greatly contributed, has done much to illustrate ancient 
geography. The existence of high northern forms in the Pyrenees and 
Alps indicates the existence of a period of cold when Arctic species 
occupied the whole of habitable Europe. Wallace's line — as it has been 
justly named after that distinguished naturalist — points to the very 
ancient separation between the Malayan and Australian regions; and 
the study of corals has thrown light upon the nature and significance of 
atolls and barrier-reefs. 

In studying the antiquity of man, the archaeologist has to invoke the 
aid of the chemist, the geologist, the physicist, and the mathematician. 
The recent progress in astronomy is greatly due to physics and chemistry. 
In geology the composition of rocks is a question of chemistry and physics; 
the determination of the boundaries of the different formations falls within 
the limits of geography ; while pateontology is the biology of the past. 

And now I must conclude. I fear I ought to apologise to you for 
keeping you so long, but still more strongly do I wish to express my 
regret that there are almost innumerable researches of great interest and 
importance which fall within the last fifty years (many even among those 
with which our Association has been connected) to which I have found it 
impossible to refer. Such for instance are, in biology alone, Owen's 
memorable report on the homologies of the vertebrate skeleton, 
Carpenter's laborious researches on the microscopic structure of shells, 
the reports on marine zoology by Allman, Forbes, Jeffreys, Spence Bate, 
Norman, and others ; on Kent's Cavern by Pengelly, those by Duncan on 
corals ; Woodward on Crustacea ; Carruthers, Williamson, and others on 
fossil botany, and many more. Indeed no one who has not had occasion 
to study the progress of science throughout its various departments can 
have any idea how enormous — how unprecedented — the advance has been. 
Though it is difficult, indeed impossible, to measure exactly the extent 
of the influence exercised by this Association, no one can doubt that it 
has been very considerable. For my own part, I must acknowledge with 
gratitude how much the interest of my life has been enhanced by the 



ADDKESS. 5 1 

stimulus of our meetings, by the lectures and memoirs to wliich I have 
had the advantage of listening, and above all, by the many friendships 
which I owe to this Association, 

Summing up the principal results which have been attained in the last 
half-century we may mention (over and above the accumulation of facts) 
the theory of evolution, the antiquity of man, and the far greater anti- 
quity of the world itself ; the correlation of physical forces and the con- 
servation of energy ; spectrum analysis and its application to celestial 
physics ; the higher algebra and the modern geometry ; lastly, the in- 
numerable applications of science to practical life — as, for instance, in 
photography, the locomotive engine, the electric telegraph, the spectro- 
scope, and most recently the electric light and the telephone. 

To science, again, we owe the idea of progress. The ancients, says 
Bagehot, ' had no conception of progress ; they did not so much as 
reject the idea ; they did not even entertain it.' It is not, I think, going 
too far to say that the true test of the civilisation of a nation must now 
be measured by its progress in science. It is often said, however, that 
great and unexpected as the recent discoveries have been, there are certain 
ultimate problems which mtist ever remain unsolved. For my part I would 
prefer to abstain from laying down any such limitations. "When Park 
asked the Arabs what became of the sun at night, and whether the sun was 
always the same, or new each day, they replied that such a question was 
childish and entii-ely beyond the reach of human investigation. I have 
already mentioned that, even as lately as 1842, so high an authority as 
Comte treated as obviously impossible and hopeless any attempt to 
determine the chemical composition of the heavenly bodies. Doubtless 
there are questions, the solution of which we do not as yet see our way 
even to attempt ; nevertheless the experience of the past warns us not 
to limit the possibilities of the future. 

But however this may be, though the progress made has been so rapid, 
and though no similar period in the woi-ld's history has been nearly so 
prolific of great results, yet, on the other hand, the prospects of the 
future were never more encouraging. We must not, indeed, shut our 
eyes to the possibility of failure ; the temptation to military ambition ; 
the tendency to over-interference by the state ; the spirit of anarchy and 
socialism ; these and other elements of danger may mar the fair prospects 
of the future. That they will succeed, however, in doing so, I cannot 
believe. I cannot but feel confident that fifty years hence, when 
perhaps the city of York may renew its hospitable invitation, my suc- 
cessor in this chair — more competent, I trust, than I have been to do 
justice to so grand a theme — will have to record a series of discoveries 
even more unexpected and more brilliant than those which I have, I fear 
so imperfectly, attempted to bring before you this evening, for assuredly 
one great lesson which science teaches is, how little we yet know, and how 
much we have still to learn. 

E 2 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, Profes- 
sor Cayley, and Professor Salmon, for the calculation of Tables 
of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms. 

The principal work performed by aid of tlie grant to the Committee 
during the past year has been the calculation of the irreducible invariants 
and covariants appertaining to the binary quantics of the 12th order by 
Mr. F. Franklin, of Baltimore, under the direction of Professor Sylvester, 
A brief synopsis of the result of this enormous computation is annexed. 

Table of the Ground- forms to the Binary Octavic Form. 



Orders in 
Variables 





2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 

1 

1 
2 

4 

6 

10 

9 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 


34 


'S 

1 

a 

o 

Q 


( 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 


1 
1 
2 
2 

4 

5 

7 

9 

14 

1.5 

19 

18 

12 


2 
4 

10 
16 
28 
39 
53 
56 
44 


1 

1 

3 

5 

9 

15 

24 

33 

41 

40 

7 


1 
2 
6 
11 
20 
29 
37 
30 


1 
2 

4 

7 
12 
18 
21 
15 


1 

3 

8 

14 

21 

21 


2 

4 

9 

12 

8 


1 
1 
3 
5 
3 


2 
4 
6 
5 


1 
1 
2 

3 


1 
3 

4 


1 

1 

1 


1 
2 

1 


1 


1 

1 


1 


948 = 


109 


252 


179 


136 


80 


68 


33 


35 13 


17 


7 


S 


3 


4 


1 


2 


1 



Total No. of Ground-forms (counting in the quantic itself and the absolute constant) 

= 949. 

It may be noticed that the highest order in the variables which ap- 
pears in this table is 34, coinciding with the ' superior limit ' furnished 



56 REPOKT— 1881. 

by M. Camille Jordan's law ; so that in this, as lias also been proved to 
be the case for all the forms of the 10th and lower orders, this so-called 
limit to the order is the actual highest order itself. 

The computation of the ground-forms to the binary quantic of the 
11th order, on account of the immense length of the calculations which 
it would involve, has not been undertaken. It is to be hoped that this 
may some day be accomplished, as it is probable that the generating func- 
tion for this case would, like that for the 7th order, reveal some pecu- 
liar features not observable in the generating function for quantics, the 
orders of which are multiples of 2, 3, or 5. 

Since the publication of the lists of ground- forms (calculated by aid 
of the British Association grant) in the ' American Journal of Mathe- 
matics,' Dr. Von Gall, of Mainz, has rendered a very important service 
to algebraical science by applying the German method to the ascertain- 
ment of the ground-forms of the binary quantic of the 8th order, and 
his final results have been brought into perfect accordance with those 
contained in the lists above referred to, witli the exception of one single 
form of the deg-order 10'4, which he has not been able to decompose, but 
which ought to be reducible if the fundamental postula e employed in 
the English method is valid. It became, therefore, a matter of great 
importance to demonstrate that no ground-form of such deg-order can 
exist, for this will probably be the last occasion when it will be possible 
to compare the results obtained by the two methods. 

Accordingly, Professor Sylvester, in conjunction with ]\Ir. Morgan 
Jenkins, has calculated certain of the ground-forms for a particular func- 
tion of the 8th order, and has therebj'- been able to demonstrate the 
impossiblity of the existence of a ground-form of the deg-order in ques- 
tion. This impossibility is made to depend ultimately on the fact that 
the minor determinants of the 10th order belonging to a matrix 11 places 
wide and 10 deep d© not all vanish, and the correctness of the figures 
appearing in this matrix is demonstrated by showing that a certain de- 
terminant of the 11th order, formed by adding on another line of figures 
to this matrix, does vanish, which is practically effected by testing its 
value in respect to various numerical moduli. The calculations have 
been made independently by Mr. Sylvester and Mr. Jenkins, and concur 
in proving (to the highest degree of moral certainty) the correctness of 
the previous work. The non-existence of the doubtful ground-form may 
accordingly be regarded as now placed beyond all reasonable doubt. 

A summary of the method employed, and the calculations to which 
that method leads, has been sent for insertion in the ' Comptes Rendus ' 
of the Institute of France, and the whole of the work Avill be reproduced 
in detail in the forthcoming Number of the ' American Journal of Mathe- 
matics.' 



RECEXT rilOGRESS IN nYDUODVNAMICS. 57 

Report on Recent Progress in Ifydrody nan tics. — Part I. 

Bij W. M. Hicks, M.A. 

At the meeting of the Association at Swansea, last year, I was requested 
to draw tip a report on the recent progress of hydi-odynamics. I have 
interpreted this to extend back to the time of the last report to the 
Association, in 1846, by Professor Stokes. Though the period is 
somewhat extended, and necessitates a leport perhaps excessively long, 
yet it seemed to me that this objection would be counterbalanced by the 
advantage of the different reports to the Association forming a connected 
series. The period separates itself naturally into three divisions, of about 
ten years each : from 1846 to the publication of Helmholtz' paper on vortex 
motion, in 1856 ; from then to the appearance of Thomson & Tait's 
' Natural Philosophy,' in 1866, which introduced a new general method 
into the treatment of hydrodynamics, by the application of the 
Lagrangian Equations of .Motion ; and from the last period up to the pre- 
sent time. I propose to consider the progress under the two heads of 
(I.) General Theory and (II.) Special Problems, though stress of other 
engagements has prevented my completing the second part in time for 
this meeting. I hope, however, to complete it before the next meeting 
of the Association. 

Under each head I have striven to keep as much as possible the 
historical order in which the subjects have been developed, though, for 
the sake of continuity, it has sometimes been necessary to deviate slightly 
from this rule. It has not been an easy matter, out of such a rich field 
of investigation, to decide what to include and what to leave out ; but it 
is hojDcd that the most important results obtained dui'ing the last forty 
years will be found referred to, although the report does not pretend to 
be in any sense a complete bibliography of hydrodynamics. Several 
subjects, whose boundaries are not sharply defined, have been neglected 
altogether, as they would almost require reports to themselves ; such are, 
for instance, the theory of sound and tides. The experimental side, also, 
has not been considered, except in a few cases, in the way of reference. 
These restrictions have been rendered necessary to keep the length of the 
report within reasonable bounds. 

I. General Theory. 

Under this head I propose to notice successively (a) treatment of 
General Equations for a perfect fluid, (&) Vortex Motion, (c) Discontinuous 
Motion, (cZ) Genei-al Motion of solids in fluid (e) Viscosity, (/) Waves in 
liquids. 

(a) General Equations of motion of a perfect fluid. 

In 1856, Clebsch published a paper ' (it is signed ' August, 1854 ') 
on the motion of an ellipsoid in fluid. The first part of the paper is 
devoted to a transformation of the ordinary equations when there is a 
velocity potential to moving axes, and thence to orthogonal curvilinear 
co-ordinates. He expresses the sui-face conditions in terms of the same 
co-ordinates, and shows that the velocity potential is a linear function of 
the quantities which would now be called generalised velocities and 
rotations. He then gives the pressures in the same generalised form, 

■ CreUe, 1856. 



58 EEPORT— 1881. 

and shows bow they are simplified when the body has three planes of 
symmetry. For this case he finds the generalised equations of motion in 
terms of the pressures exerted on the surface of the solid, and considers 
separately pure translation and pure rotation. Amongst results, be 
notices that the fluid moves in ' stream lines ' (in Faden), that the effect 
of the fluid is to cause an apparent increase of mass, different in different 
directions, a diminution of gravity ; and states the following laws : — ■ 
* The form of the curves on which the particles of the fluid appear to 
move relatively to the centre of gravity of the body depends only on the 
form of the body and the curve on Avhich its centre of gravity moves.' 
These results had already, several years before, been given by Stokes.' 

In the next year appeared another paper, by the same aufhor. On a 
general transformation of the liydrodynaviical equations."^ This is ex- 
ceedingly general, and starts with the consideration of equations analogous 
to the hydrodynamical equations in n variables, viz. : — 

dY c?M, dui dui dui 

dxi dt dxi dxi " dx„ 

&c., together with 

dui _^ du^ ^ + ^ = (1) 

fZis, dx2 dx„ 

He takes n arbitrary functions Uq, a^, . , . . a„_i, of the variables, 

forms their Jacobian, and takes the minors of —-5, -— , Calling 

ax I dx2 
these Ai, Ao, . . . , they satisfy the equation 

dAi d^2 _ .. 

a.'i'i dx^ 

The transformation now consists in making «,...(/„_] the dependent 
variables, being connected with the old ones by the equations Mj = Aj, &c., 
which is possible, since the equation (1) is satisfied. Introducing the 
quantity T, defined by the equation 2T = A^j + . . + A^^, he proves 
that the above equations are equivalent to others of the form 

/ (V-T)=A^^' +K,^' + . . . +^^' (2) 

ax I ax I dxi dt 

where A, . . . are functions of «[ . . . a„_ j. If the motion is steady, 
these produce 

V-T = r(a, . . . a„_0, A,„=|l' 

da,„ 

The investigation is necessarily complicated, and the reader is referred, 
for the full working out, to the paper itself. He shows, amongst other 
things, that when the motion is steady, the equations are the conditions 

that ... (T — ¥)dxi . . . dx,^is a maximum or minimum. Intro- 
ducing the condition u^ = -—1, &c., he shows that for steady motion, 

the integrals are a^ ^ const : &c., and that tliese give the lines of motion. 
After reducing the foregoing results to the case of three variables, he shows 
how to transform the independent variables to others. Lastly, he applies 

' ' On some cases of fluid motion,' Camb. Phil. Trans., viii. ' Crelle, liv. 



EECENT PROGRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 59 

the theory developed above to tbe cases of two-dimensional motion, and 
of symmetrical motion in planes tbroagli an axis. In tbe first case, the 
a,, o, give — one the planes in which the motion takes place, the other the 
function introduced by Earnshaw (stream function) ; in the second case 
the planes through the axis and Stokes' stream function. It is interesting 
to see how these functions appear, though introduced in such a different 
manner from those of Earnshaw and Stokes. The two-dimensional 
stream function was also employed by Meissel, in a short paper, 
' Ueber einen speciellen Fall des Ausflusses vomWasser in einer verticalen 
Ebene,'' apparently without being acquainted with its previous use by 
Earnshaw and Stokes. Rankine, also, has used it in his paper on plane 
water lines,^ where it enters as expressing the flow aci'oss any line. 

In the paper above referred to, Clebsch had reduced the case for 
steady motion to one of making the energy a minimum, but he had not 
succeeded in obtaining an analogous result for non-steady motion. This 
question he takes up in a paper, published in Crelle,^ ' Ueber die Integra- 
tion der hydrodynamischen Gleichungen,' but attacks the problem in a quite 
different but original way. He introduces three functions, (j), 4^, m, so 
that udx + vdy + ludz ^ df + md-<p. These can represent any general 
motion of which a fluid is capable ; and the velocities and vortex 
components, at any point, are given by equations of the form 

(/0 , d\L I 
it = -^ + m -f, &c., 
dx dx 

21 = ^ ('"'■ ^ ), &c., 
d (y. z) ' 

or, expressed in quaternion language, vortex = i V ^m y\p. As in the . 
earlier paper, he considers first the general case of any number of variables, 
but we need only state the result as applicable to hydrodynamics. If 
V denote the force potential, j^) the pressure, and p the density, the 
equations make 

dx dy dz dt 



I(--f) 



a maximum or minimum where 

V - ^ = ^ + m^^ + i (^,2 + ^2 + ,„.) 
p dt at 

and u, V, iv are expressed as above.'' The integrals of the equations 
11 = X, V = y, IV = i, are shown to be in = const., \p = const., and a third. 
It is clear, from the equation vortex = ^ V (v>n. V^)? that the vortex 
filaments are given by the intersections of the surfaces m = const., 
i// = const., and its strength is i T ^m. Tyi^ sin 6, where is the angle 
between the surfaces, or 

*v lUi +-dij\ -^dzDUl +--j}--«- 

Between these two last papers of Clebsch, appeared the well-known 
and remarkable paper of Hehnholtz in the same journal'^ on the integrals 
of the hydrodynamical equations which correspond to vortex motion. 
This will presently be noticed more fully under vortex motion, but atten- 

' Po/fff. Ann., 95, 1855. - Transactions Eoyal Sac, 186i. ' Crclle, Bd. Ivi. 
■• This is reallj' the same as Hamilton's theory of least action. ^ CreUc, Iv. 



60 KKPORT— 1881. 

tion may be drawn here to the new method by which he expressed the 
velocities of a fluid in the case of the most general motion by means of 
functions L,M,]Sr which give the velocities from 

ti = cU'ldx + cm/dy - d^i/dz, &c. 

The L,M,N are in reality the tensors of the three rectangular com- 
ponents of a vector, now called a vector potential ; in fact, the velocities 
are here expressed by a quaternion potential. Calling the potential q, the 



V^S? = 


= 


Sv? = 


Velocity = 


= vq 


= ff (say) 


Rotation = 


= iv^i 


= iv- 



For vortex rings symmetrical about an axis, Helmlioltz transforms the 
vector potential into another, which is nothing else than Stokes' stream 
function for such motions divided by the distance from the axis. 

The next great advance in theory was due to the piiblication in 1867 
of Thomson and Tait's 'Natural Philosophy.' Hei'e, for the first time, 
Lagrange's equations of motion were applied, though without any direct 
pi'oof that the equations were applicable to cases in which there is an 
infinite degree of freedom and in which a portion of the generalised co- 
ordinates do not ajjpear. Objections were raised by several mathema- 
ticians to this application, amongst whom may be mentioned Purser ^ and 
Boltzmann.^ As a matter of fact the equations are only directly applicable 
under the conditions mentioned below. In the second edition, published in 
1879, this question was considered under a general theory of ' ignoration of 
co-ordinates.' Starting with the expression for the energy containing all 
the generalised velocities, the generalised equations for the co-ordinates 
ignored are written down and integrated once on the supposition that the 
force components corresponding to the ignored co-ordinates do not occur. 
These give a number of equations, containing the velocities, equal in 
number to the ignored co-ordinates, and of the form — linear function of 
the velocities := constant. By means of these, therefore, the ignored 
velocities can be eliminated from the expression for the energy. This is 
done, and Lagrange's equations for the non-ignored co-ordinates are 
transformed to apply to the energy as expressed in the new form. 
Naturally this is more complicated than the ordinary Lagrangian form, 
but when we have to do with fluid motion, where the motion commences 
from rest, or can be brought to rest without application of force com- 
ponents corresponding to the ignored co-ordinates, the constants intro- 
duced in the first integration are all zero. "When this is the case the 
transformed Lagrangian equations reduce to the ordinaiy form. The 
half-dozen pages devoted to fluid motion in the first volume have altogether 
transformed the methods of hydrodynamics, and possibly have been a 
cause why the papers of Clebsch already referred to have been allowed to 
fall into neglect.** 

All the foregoing investigations have pi'oceeded on the method of the 
so-called Euler's equations, i.e. where the velocities at different points of 

' Quarterly Journal, xiv. p. 284. 

- ' On the applicability oO Lagrange's equations in certain cases of fluid motion,' 
Phil. Mafl. (5), vi. p. 354. 

' ' Ueber die Druckkriifte, welche auf Binge wirksam sind, die in bewegte 
Fliissigkeit tauchen,' Borch. Ixxiii. p. 111. 

■* For further notices on the equation of motion see p. 16, below. 



RECENT PROGRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 61 

the space filled by the fltiicl are sought in terras of the time and position. 
We have now to refer to a remarkable simplification introduced into the 
equations of motion in the ' Lagrangian ' form, where the position of any 
particle at any time is sought in terms of the time and its initial position. 
This was effected by Weber ^ in 1868. Integrating the equation by 
parts with respect to the time between the limits o and t, they take the 
form 

dx dx dy dy . dz dz _ c7/\ 

dt da dt da dt da da ' 

where (x y z) is the position of the particle at time t, whose initial 
position was {a h c), and whose initial velocities were ti^ Vq ivq ; where also 
\ is given by 

-^ = Force potential — — - + ?> (vel)^. 
dt ] p " 

I In the particular case where the initial velocities have a potential 
Mq + tlX/da, . . . can be written dxfda, . . . , and the equations 
with the equation of continuity give foar equations to determine the four 
unknown functions x y z and x, of the first order but second degree. This^ 
forms an easy proof of the theorem, once a velocity potential, always 
one. 

We have already seen how Clebsch attacked the theory of the general 
motion of a fluid, by employing three functions 0,m,\l/ where 

11 dd: + V dy + IV dz = df + m d\p, 

and it was pointed out that' m and \p by their intersections give vortex 
lines. It is clear then that these surfaces must form two families which 
contain the same particles of fluid at all times. The general problem of 
taking as independent variables any system of surfaces always contain- 
ing the same particles was taken up by Mr. Hill,^ apparently without a 
knowledge of Clebsch's researches. He starts by taking any three in- 
dependent sets of such surfaces (say P,Q,E,) which must bg three inde- 
pendent solutions of the equation 

df , df , df , df ^ cf 
at dx dy dz ct 

Transforming the equations to independent variables P.Q.R, and taking 
the circulation round elementary circuits, he shows that 

udx + V dy + IV d~ = f^ dV + /, cZQ + f^dU + cZK 

where /i /2 /a are definite functions of P,Q,R. Further, the pressure is 
given by 

£ +V -lU- + ^2 + ,,2\ = _ f]K 

P '\ J dt 

After proving that tbe vortex lines are the intersections of two surfaces 
which satisfy cfjlt = 0, Q and R, are chosen to be such. This introduces a 
considerable simplification and enables us to write the former equation in 
the form ^^ dx + v dy -{■ w dz ^= dx + ^d-1/ where IXjU = 0,mH = 0. The 
velocities are now in the form given by Clebsch, but the expression for 
the pressure appears at first sight difierent. This is not so in realitv, as 

' ' Ueber eine Transformation der hj-drodynamischen Gleichungen,' Crelli; Ixviii. 
= Lamb's treatise On the Motion of a Fluid, p. 18. 

' 'On some properties of the equations of hydrodynamics,' Quart. Jour, of Math. 
Feb. 1880 ; vol. xvii. 



62 EEPOET— 1881. 

may be easily shown. In Clebscli's form d4'/cU= — {21-^,+ v\pi^+ iv\p.) 
since c^L/vt = 0. Putting in this and substituting for m i' iv their values, ic 
reduces to 

^- - V = - ^ -h(<t>/ + V'/+ i>.')+hn'- ( ^.,' + 4v + 4^.') 

which is the same as Hill's form reduces to, with the sign of V changed, 
when their values are substituted for u v 10. In the latter part of the 
paper is proved a theorem analogous to Helmholtz' law in vortex motion, 
as to the constancy of vortex strength x section along a vortex filament.' 
Expressed in quatei'nion symbols, which enable us to see the meaning 
much more clearly, if Q,il be the surfaces which by their intersections 
give the filaments, it is easy to show that 

(area of section of filament) x T V (AQ.AR) = const. 

Combining this with the expression for the vortex -^V (v'W-v4') given 
above, and limiting Q.R to the case where they give the vortex filaments, 
Helmholtz' law follows as a case of a more general theorem. A special 
case of the preceding was worked out by Mr. Craig- towards the end of 
the same year. The case only of steady motion is considered and that 
only when of the three surfaces two are chosen to give the vortex lines. 
As this part of the paper is almost the same as Hill's, modified so as 
to leave out of consideration the unsteadiness of the motion, there is 
no need to refer to it further here. The latter part of the same paper 
will be noticed again under vortex motion. 

A most powerful method of attacking particular problems in fluid 
motion is that known as the method of images. The conception appears 
to have been first introduced by Stokes^ in 1843, in considering the 
problem of the motion of a sphere in presence of a plane, but the theory 
received no extension until Thomson's discovery of the electrical image 
of a point of electricity in presence of a conducting sphere again drew 
Stokes' attention to the matter, the result being a short note in the 
' British Association Heport ' for 1847, in which he gives the image in a 
sphere of a doublet whose axis passes through the centre of the sphere. 
The general cases for a source of fluid and for a doublet with its axis in 
any direction have been published by the Avriter,* and for a vortex by 
Mr. Lewis. ^ The images in two dimensions for a circle have been long 
known, but I have not been able to discover by whom first used. The 
images for ellipses are also known.^ These will be referred to again 
under the head of special problems. 

Maximum and Minimum Theorems. Uniqueness of Solution, Sfc. 

Befoi-e going further, it may be well to refer here to one or two points 
in the history which are of importance and which have not yet been 
touched upon. It has been shown how Clebsch deduced a maximum and 
minimuna theorem on the equations of motion ; but the first, so far as I 
am aware, to give any such general theorem peculiar to hydrodynamics, 

' It is not stated quite correctly, as he sjDeaks of the prodvict of a vector and an 
area being constant, instead of the tensor of a vector. 

'^ ' Methods and results. General properties of the eqnations of steady motion,' 
United States Coast and Gcmlctic Siirrei/. Washington, 1881. 

3 ' On some cases of fluid motion,' Camp. Phil. Trans., viii. 

* ' On the motion of two spheres in a fluid,' Roij. Soc. Trans., pt. ii. 1880. 

'i ' On the images of vortices in a spherical vessel,' Quart. Jour., xvi. 

^ ' On functional images in ellipses,' Quart. Jour., xvii. 



RECENT PROGRESS IN nYDRODYNAMICS. 63 

was Tbomson,' in 1849. The theorem as enunciated by him is, ' If the 
bounding surfece of a liquid primitively at rest be made to A'ary in a 
given arbitrary manner, the vis-viva of the entire liquid at each instant 
will be less than it would be if the liquid had any other motion consistent 
with the given motion of the bounding surface.' This theorem was 
afterwards, in Thomson and Tait's 'Natural Philosophy,' extended to 
dynamical problems in general. From this theorem, he states three 
corollaries — (1) The condition that udx + vdij + lodz must be a complete 
differential is, in addition to the kinematical conditions, sufficient to 
determine the motion. (2) The motion of the fluid at any time is inde- 
pendent of the preceding motion, and depends solely on the given form 
and normal motion of the bounding surface at the instant. (3) If the 
bounding surface be brought to rest, the liquid will at the same instant 
be reduced to rest. None of the theorems contained in these corollaries 
were new. But the first corollary forms, I believe, the first definite proof 
of the uniqueness of the solution obtained when the fluid is irrotational 
and the normal motion of the surface is given. Former writers, thouo-h 
convinced of its truth, had not succeeded in arriving at a formal proof 
of it. In 1843, Stokes''^ writes that it is a recognised principle, that 
when a problem is determinate, any solution which satisfies all the 
requisite conditions is the solution of the problem ; and then states that 
the problem is determinate — a proof based on experiment. The second 
and third are also proved by Stokes in the same paper, and by Cauchy.^ 
The theorem that the velocity cannot be a maximum at any point of the 
fluid was given by Maxwell* in a Senate House paper, and in his 
lectures at Cambridge, though not stated in the hydrodynamical form, 
Thomson also gives the now Avell-known application of Green's theorem 
to the energy of irrotational motion within a boundary. The analogous 
expressions for the energy, and its variation with the time in the case of 
rotational motion, were given by Helmholtz in his vortex paper, and for 
irrotational motion in multiply continuous space by Thomson.-^ 

(h) Vortex Motion. 
During the last forty years, without doubt, the most important 
addition to the theory of fluid motion has been in our knowledo-e of 
the properties of that kind of motion where the velocities cannot be 
expressed by means of a potential. Certainly, before this we knew some- 
thing. Stokes' researches had shown the kinematical nature of the 
motion — the rotation of its small parts '' — and we also knew that it 

' ' Notes on Hydrodynamics,' Caiiib. and BuM. MafJi. Jour. iv. p. 90. 

'■' ' On some cases of fluid motion,' Ciimh. Phil. Trans, viii. 

' ' Mum. sm- la Tlieorie des Ondes,' Mem. dvs Sav. Etranrjtrs (1827). 

■* Sen. Ho., Thursday afternoon, 1873. 

^ 'Vortex motion,' Roy. Soc. Edin. Trans., xxv. 

" ' On the theories of the internal friction of fluids in motion,' kc, Caml. Phil. 
Trans, viii. 

As to the true nature of this rotation, reference may be made to a discussion 
between Helmholtz and Bertrand in the Comptes Hendus, Ixvi. and Ixvii (1868). 
Bertrands objection reduced itself to a question of the use of the word rotation! 
The nature of the small displacements of a continuous medium are very fully treated 
in Thomson and Tait's Xatnral Philosophy/. The reader who desires to enter more 
fully into tlie theory of the above laws will find much to interest him in the follow- 
ing papers, not mentioned in the text : — 

E. J. Nanson, Messenger of Math., (2), iii. p. 120 and (2) vii. p. 182. 

C. W. Merrifield, Ibid. (2) iv. p. 105 

H. Lamb, Ibid. (2) vii. p, 41, shows the connection between 

Helmholtz"s and Thomson's methods of proofs. 



64 REPORT — 1881. 

could not be set up or destroyed by a system of conservative forces ; bnt 
this was almost all. Helmholtz first ^ave ns clear conceptions in liis 
well-known paper' referred to above. He introduced tlie idea of vortex- 
lines (curves whose tangents at any point' coincide in direction with the 
axis of rotation at that point), and vortex- filaments (the portions of fluid 
in a tube whose surface is generated by vortex-lines passing through an 
infinitely small curve). Helmholtz' laws are then proved — (1) Each vortex 
remains continually composed of the same elements of fluid. (2) The pro- 
duct of the section at any point of a filament into the magnitude of the 
rotation at the point is constant for all time and for all points of the 
filament. Also (3) a vortex-filament must be closed or have its ends on 
the boundary of the surface. The next part of the paper is devoted to 
finding expressions for the velocity when the rotations at every point of 
the fluid are known ; in other words, to finding solutions of the four 
differential equations.^ 

du dv dio ^ 

dx^ dy'^ Iz~ ' 
dw dv ar t e 

- — — - = 2i, &c., &c. 
di/ dz 

which reduce to three on account of the relation 

d'ijdx -f drj/dy + de/dz = 

supposed existing between the given quantities t,, »;, c. The introduction 
of the functions L, M, N, has been noticed above. It is shown that they 
are the potential functions of distributions of magnetic matter, whose 
density at any point is £/27r, ?y/2T, e/27r, and thence that each rotating 
element of fluid (a) implies in each other element (b) of the same 
fluid a velocity which follows the same law as the fori;e exerted on 
a particle of magnetism at (h) by the element of an electric current at (a), 
in the axis of rotation. 

In the same paper, examples are given of the motion of the fluid due 
to infinite straight vortices and to circular vortex-filaments. It must be 
remembered that the results here given refer to the cyclic motion of the 
fluid as determined by the supposed distribution of magnetic matter, and 
do not give the most general motion possible. Helmholtz shows that 
this motion in the case of straight parallel vortices is such that, regarding 
their strengths as positive or negative masses, according as they rotate in 
one or the other direction, their centres of gravity remain at rest. When 
two vortices are of equal and opposite strength they move forward 
together with constant velocity and at a constant distance. This solves 
also the case where a single vortex is in a fluid bounded by an infinite 
plane, to which it is parallel. The results for circular rings are more 
complicated, and since in nature the section mu^st be finite, an indeter- 
minateness enters on account of the distribution of rotation within it. 

N. Jonkoffsky, Moscaycr Math. Samml. viii. 

E. Beltrami, ' Sui principi fondamentali dell' idrodinamica,' Mem. di Bologna, i. 
ii. iii. V. 

The two latter treat systematically the kinematics of the motion. Beltrami, 
amongst other things, compares the motion of an element of fluid with what it would 
have been if suddenly solidified, and the loss of energy thereby. 

' Crelle, Iv., translated in Phil. Mag. (4) 33, p. 48.5. 

• Helmholtz employs the opposite sign for \, i\, f. 



RECENT PEOGlRESS IN HTDEODYNAMICS. 65 

The problem to determine this distribution, so that the motion shall be 
steady and the ring remain of the same mean size and shape, is one of 
extreme difficulty and has not yet been successfully attempted. If we 
regard a ring whose axial section is small, compared with the radius 
of the axis, ho shows that a single such ring moves forward, with 
approximate constant aperture, with very great velocity in the direction 
of the fluid motion through the ring itself. When there are two on the 
same axis, and rotating in the same direction, they travel in the same 
direction and thread each other alternately. If they have equal and 
opposite rotations, they approach one another indefinitely, and widen 
indefinitely as they do so. This is the case of a ring whose plane is 
parallel to an infinite rigid plane in a fluid. But it is to be remarked 
that, as stated thus, it is only partially true. This is clearly only the case 
when the fluid motions through the rings are directed towards each 
other. If they are directed from each other, they will move from each 
other, contracting as they do so to a certain limiting radias, which is 
determinate in terms of any simultaneous radius, strength, and distance.' 
The permanent character of vortex motion in a perfect fluid has 
suggested to Sir W. Thomson^ a theory of the constitution of matter in 
which atoms consist of small vortex-rings, whose axes may be knotted 
into any degree of multiple continuity, the bekuottedness (as Tait calls 
it) ■^ being a permanent character of the atom. The lines of its spectrum 
would thus depend on the vibrations of the atom, either of the section 
or axis. In the paper in which this speculation was brought forward, 
Thomson notes how the motion of the fluid may be set up by a surface 
impulse over a diaphragm, across the opening of the ring. The ring will 
carry forward with it a mass of fluid in irrotational motion, and the 
whole impulse of the motion is equal to the resultant impulse on the 
diaphragm. These ideas of the impulse of the motion, and the genera- 
tion of cyclic motion, were worked out more fully in a paper presented 
to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of which only a fi'agmenf has been 
published. In the latter part of this paper, tJae principles of vortex 
motion are developed in a quite diflerent way from that followed by 
Helmholtz, viz., from the fundamental proposition that the ' circulation ' 
in a circuit in the fluid is the same for all circuits which can be con- 
tinuously deformed into one another without leaving the irrotational 
part of the fluid. From this all the known theorems are easily deduced. 
Amongst fresh results may be mentioned the proof that the motion of a 
liquid moving irrotationally within an n + 1 ply connected space is 
determinate when the normal velocity at eveiy point of the boundary and 
the values of the circulation in the n circuits are given ; and the theorem 
that the circulation round any closed curve in the fluid is equal to twice 
the surface-integral of the resolved part of the vortices perpendicular to 

' For very interesting practical illustrations, the reader is referred to the follow- 
ing papers, by W. B. Rogers: — American Journal of Science and Art (2), xxvi. p. 246. 
This was published in 1858, without knowledge of Helmholtz's mathematical 
researches. Reusch, Pogg. Ann. ex. p. 30D (1860) ; Osborne Reynolds, Nature, xiv. p. 
477 (1876), also Proc. Royal Institution, viii. p. 272 ; Oberbeck, Wied. Ann. ii. p. 1 
(1877)-. This deals with jets, but contains interesting examples of the formation of 
rings by incipient jets ; R. S. Ball, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, sxv. 
p. 13o. 

■ ' Vortex Atoms,' Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., vi. p. 94 (1867) ; Phil, Mag. (4) 34. 

' ♦ On Knots,' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxviii. p. 145. 

* ' Vortex Motion,' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. xxv. (1860). 

1881. F 



66 JREPORT— 1881. 

the surface over any surface whose boundary is the curve. This gives at 
once Helmholtz's theorem that the surface-integral of the same quantity 
over any closed surface is zero. Looking at the general question of the 
production of cyclic motion, and noticing that the diaphragm closing the 
aperture of a ring may be of any shape, it is easy to see that the impulse 
of the motion of a closed filament of infinitely small section is the 
resultant of a uniform distribution of pressure ( = cyclic constant) over 
three plane areas which are the projections of the core of the ring on 
any three planes at right angles. 

The general question of the steady motion and stability of vortex- 
rings has also been considered by Sir W. Thomson in a paper before the 
same Society, of which, unfortunately, only an abstract ' has been published. 
The theory is based on the proposition (only to be stated for its truth to 
be evident,) that if when the vorticity ■^ and impulse are given the kinetic 
energy is a maximum or minimum, the motion is steady and stable ; if it 
is a maximum-minimum (minimax), the motion is steady, but may be 
stable or unstable. Unfortunately, the simple circular Helmholtz ring has 
its energy a minimax, so that from this it is not possible to rigorously 
decide the question of its stability for all possible displacements, although 
when the aperture is not too small compared with the section of the core, 
experiment would lead us to believe that it is stable. For displacements, 
symmetrical about its axis, it is clear that for some determinate distribu- 
tion of the vorticity the energy must be a maximum, and the motion 
stable. Very interesting too are the illustrations given of the steady 
motion of non-plane vortex-filaments. When the number of twists in 
the axis of a vortex is large, the core is approximately a helix wound on a 
circular tore, and approximate expressions are obtained in this case for 
the radii of the axis and section of the tore in terms of the number of 
twists, the circulation and the components of the given impulse. 

The method inti-oduced of considering the question of stability as a 
problem of maximum and minimum energy enables us to arrive at many 
general results which at first sight appear very remarkable, as, for 
example, the complete annulment of the energy in certain cases by opera- 
tions on the boundary alone. An extremely interesting illustration of the 
transformation of a vortex motion with stability of maximum energy to 
one with stability of minimum energy by operations on the boundary 
alone, which withdraw energy, was given by the same author before 
the British Association at its meeting at Swansea^ in 1880. Approach- 
ing the subject from another point of view Lamb** had proved that in 
steady motion it is possible to draw a system of surfaces, each of which 
is covered by a network of vortex lines and stream lines, and that 
between any two near surfaces of the system ^ w sin 6. v is constant 
where q denotes the velocity along a stream line, w is the rotation, d the 

' 'Vortex Statics.' Proc. JRny. Soc. Edin.., ix. p. 69 ; and Phil. Mar/., (5) x. p. 97. 

2 The ' vorticity ' of a vortex is given, when supposing it analysed into an intinite 
number of infinitely small filaments, the volume of each filament and its circulation 
are given. This does not suppose tliat the arrangement of the filaments is given. 

' ' On maxiraum and minimum energy in vortex motion,' Pritisk Association, 
BejutHs for 1880, p. 473 ; also Nature, xxii. p. 618. See also a practical illustration, 
given at the same meeting of the British Association, ' On an experimental illustration 
of minimum energy in vortex motion,' Po'it. Ass. Pejj., 1880, p. 491 : and Nature, 
xxiii. p. 69. . 

* ' On the conditions of steady motion of a fluid,' Proc. Loud. Math, Soc. ix. p. 
91 (1878). 



RECENT PROGRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 67 

angle between q and w, and v is the normal distance at the point of the 
two surfaces. 

The problem of the most general vibration of a straight columnar 
vortex of constant vorticity has been treated by Thomson.' If fluid be 
revolving irrotationally in a fixed cylinder, there -will be a cylindric space 
along the axis, either empty, or filled with fluid in rotational motion. In 
the former case, suppose the surface disturbed so that the generating 
lines and normal sections are deformed into harmonic curves of difFei'ent 
Avave-lengths, the wave-lengths of the cross section being of course sub- 
multiples of the undisturbed circumference. Then Thomson shows 
that two velocities of propagation are possible, of the form — angular 
velocity = iw {i i: s/Nyji where iv is the angular velocity of points on the 
inside surface of the fluid, i is the number of crests in a normal section, 
and N depends only on the number of crests in unit length along a 
generating line. One set, therefore, travels in the same direction as the 
rotation, the other in the same or opposite direction, according to the 
magnitude of N. For the special case, where the containing vessel is 
infinitely large, and the distance between the crests on a generating line 
large compared with the circumference of the hollow N=^l -}- Jc- ('IISO 
— log Ic) where h denotes this ratio. Here the slow wave for the case 
i = l travels in the reverse direction to the rotation. Of more importance 
than the foregoing is the case of the small vibrations of a vortex column 
in an infinite irrotationally moving liquid. The periodic times for given 
harmonic initial disturbance are given by the roots of a transcendental 
equation, which has an infinite number of roots. This is much simplified 
when. the disturbance is only longitudinal. When the distance between 
successive swellings of the core is large compared with the circumference, 
the velocity of propagation corresponding to the smallest root is about f 
of the circular velocity at the surface of the vortex. When there is no 
longitudinal displacement, the angular velocity of sectional waves is (i — 1) 
X ang. vel. of the vortex, where i denotes as before the number of crests 
on the circumference. The time of pulsation of a hollow vortex enclosed 
in a flexible cylindrical shell, over whose surface the pressure is constant 
has been given by the writer. - 

Mr. F. D. Thomson ^ has proved an interesting theorem relating to a 
steady motion within cylindrical surfaces. Suppose a cylindrical vessel, 
of any sectional form, and the contained fluid to be rotating as a rigid body, 
and that the vessel itself is suddenly brought to rest, then the resulting 
motion of the fluid will be steady. Another proof has been given by 
Stokes,* but it is easily seen to be a consequence of the uniform distribution 
of vorticity and Helmholtz' laws. 

Quite lately, two papers have been published respectively by Craig ^ 
and Rowland^ almost simultaneously. They both seem to have been 
struck by the fact that if the same operations are performed on the com- 
ponents of rotation that are performed on the components of velocity to 
deduce the rotations, functions are obtained which satisfy the equation of 

' 'Vibrations of a columnar vortex,' PJdl. Muff. (.5), x. p. 15!). 
^ Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, iii. p. 28.S. 

= ' Some cases of fluid motion,' Ox. Cam. Diih. Mess. Math. iii. p. 238, iv. p. 37. 
♦ Reprint, vol. i. p. 7 (1880). 

' ' Methods and results, Sec' United States Coast Survey, Washington, 1881. 
^ 'On the motion of a perfect incompressible fluid when no solid bodies are 
present,' Amer. Jour, of Math, iii, p. 226. 

f2 



68 REPOKT— 1881. 

continuity, and they are thus led to introduce -what they cull differe'rlt 
orders of motion. The functions produced after n such operations give 
the n th order of motion. If the functions of the n th order are expressible 
by means of a scalar potential, then the functions of a higher order do not 
occur. Looked at from the point of view as an investigation of the dis- 
tribution of vorticity in a fluid motion whose vector-potential is given, it 
may be possibly of some value, but I cannot help thinking that both 
Prof. Rowland and Dr. Craig have somewhat overvalued its importance.' 

(c) Discontinuous Motion. Jets. 

In a fluid in motion the pressure is, in general, given as a 
continuous function of position, and may, therefore, so far as the 
analytical treatment is concerned, become zero or negative. But, in 
this case, clearly, the fluid will cease to be continuous, and free 
surfaces will be set up inside the fluid,^ or surfaces on the two sides of 
which the tangential motions are different. It is curious that so evident 
a fact as this seems not to have been noticed by mathematicians in general 
until it was pointed out by Helmholtz,^ in 1868, though Stokes"* had drawn 
attention to it twenty years before. He had already, in his before- 
inentioned paper on vortex motion, considered, in passing, the case where 
the tangential motions are diSerent on the two sides of a surface, and 
had shown how the motions ought to be represented mathematically, by 
supposing the surface a continuous vortex-sheet, the vortex-axis at any 
point being parallel to the resultant of the two tangential velocities. In 
the later paper he points out that wherever fluid is flowing across a sharp 
edge, the velocity at the point, on the ordinary theory, would be infinite, 
and the pressure negative infinity, consequently a surface of separation 
be established. Tliis would also be the case with gases; but a 
curious exception occurs, provided they obeyed Boyle's law alone, and 
did not change their temperature on account of change of volume. 
Here log p takes the place of p, and, clearly, log p may become negative 
without necessitating a break of continuity in the fluid. This paper is 
particularly important, as containing the first successful attempt at the 
solution of a problem where discontinuity ensues. It is evident that 
along any surface of discontinuity the pressures on both sides must be 
the same ; and if the fluid on one side be at rest, under the action of no 

' The results are most easily proved and their meaning most clearly seen by the 
quaternion method. If ^ be the quaternion potential, ff the velocity, then ( Q. Jour. 
Math. xiv. p. 284), 

V^S5' = Svo' = a = y q «=po 
2p = V ff = Pi whence S vpi = 
and p„ =Vvp„-i=V''o- , S vp„ =0 

Also if p„ is derivable from a scalar potential v Pn = 0, or all successive orders 
must vanisli. The onl}- question now of any interest seems to me to be the investi- 
gation of the effect on the nature of the motions when the ■«"' operation gives zero 
result ; but whether this is important remains doubtful. 

- Thus consider a sphere in motion, in an infinite non-gravitating fluid, whose 
surface is under a constant pressure. The fluid will move in the well-known manner, 
a nd t he sphere with constant velocity, provided the velocity be not greater than 
'/2j)jp. If it is greater, there will be a hollow formed in the rear until the sphere 
has been reduced to this limiting velocity. 

^ ' Ueber discontinuirliche Fliissigkeitsbewegungen,' Monatib. der Ic. Akad. Berl., 
1868, p. 215, translated in the Phil. ''Mag. (4), 36, p. 337. 

* ' On the Critical Values of the Sums of Periodic Series,' Cam. Phil. Soc. Tram., 
viii. p. 533, or reprint, p. 310, 



RECENT TROGBESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 69 

external forces through its mass, or if there be no fluid, the pressure 
along the surface must bo constant, and, therefore, also the velo- 
city. Helmholz illustrates this by considering the function x + yi = 
A {^ + v//i + ex2) (</) + 4ii)} ■ This gives the lines of flow of electricity in 
an infinite conducting sheet, in which two parallel non-conducting lines are 
drawn stretching from the points (— A, + Att) to — go . It is, therefore, 
the solution, so far as the equation of continuity is concerned, for fluid 
flowing from between two infinite parallel walls into an infinite fluid ; but 
the conditions at the mouth break up the fluid. He then, by adding 
(T -H Ti, a function of ^ -f- \lii, to the former expression, determines ff, r, 
so that when xp ■= ± w, the velocity may be constant along the free 
surface. The value obtained is 

a + ri = Ai [\/ { — 2 exp f + 4^1 — exp 2 (f + \pi)} 
+ 2 sin ~^{i\/^ exp (<j> + '/'i)}]- 

It is then easy to show that the expression for x + yi gives the motion 
from an infinite fluid into a canal with parallel walls, extending to infinity 
in the negative direction. At a great distance from the entrance, in the 
canal, the fluid tends to flow in a stream whose breadth is half that of 
the canal. 

In Helmholtz' example it seems a happy chance by which a suitable 
function is found. KirchhoS"' remedied this want of method, to some 
extent, in a paper which contains several further examples of discontinuous 
motion. Denoting by z the complex x + yi, and hy w, (p + xpi, the 
conditions are — for the rigid boundaries, \p = constant ; and, for the free 
boundary, \p = same constant, and the velocity constant. To this end he 
puts 

and chooses/ (iv), so that for a certain value of \p, and a certain interval 
of (j), f (w) is real, and lies between the limits + 1 and — 1. For these 
values, then, 

or the velocity is constant, and equal to unity. The equation in dz/dw 
will always give to as a many-valued function of z ; now the region of z 
is the space occupied by the fluid, and since in this space one branch of 
the function must not pass over into another, the region must be so 
chosen that within it / (w) is single-valued, or, if it is not so, it must be 
made so by cuts from the branch points to infinity, along \p = const., and 
again v' {(/^)^ — 1} made single- valued by cuts from its branch points, 
along the curves i// = const, through them. The boundary of the region of 
IV consists, then, of lines \p = const., and (^ = — ooto^ = + oo, and within 
it/ (w) must nowhere be infinite. In this case the lines i// will be stream 
lines, parts of which form rigid walls, and the other parts free surfaces. 
In his treatise on mechanics,^ he has introduced the subject in a slightly 
different and improved manner. The dz/dw of the foregoing represents 
the inverse velocity at the point z ; hence, along a straight rigid boundary, 
c = dz/dw is constant in direction, whilst along a free surface it is 
constant in magnitude ; in other words, as z moves along a bounding 

' ' Zur Theorie freier Fliissigkeitsstrahlen,' Crelle, Ixx. p. 289. 
" Vorlesxmgen ilber Tnathcmafnche Physih. Leipzig. 



70 EEPOBT--1881. 

stream line, c describes a broken path, viz., a carve, which corresponds 
to the rigid walls ; and part of a circle, which corresponds to the free 
surface. For the region of to are taken two constant values of \p, and ^ 
varying between — oo and 4- oo. The boundary of c chosen is a crescent, 
one of whose arcs has its centre at the origin, and is to correspond to 
the free surfaces. Marking on this the points which correspond to the 
infinite branches of the walls and free surfaces respcctivel}', the points 
of the crescent will correspond to the ends of the walls where e changes 
from a given direction to a given magnitude. The problem now is to 
find the relation between e and w, that the regions of c, w may be 
transformed into one another, so as to be similar in their corresponding 
small elements. Several extremely interesting problems are solved in 
these two papers.' 

In one case only KirchhoS" determined the pressure exerted per imit of 
length of an infinitely long plane strip immersed perpendicular to a 
stream, but this is the only practical application he makes of his results. 
Lord Rayleigh^ has deduced several most interesting conclusions by 
means of Kirchhoif's formulas. He finds expressions for the moan 
pressure on a lamina held obliquely in a stream, and the position of the 
centre of pressure. The distance of the centre of pressure from the 
middle is ^ Z cos o / (4 + tt sin a), where a is the inclination of the 
plane of the lamina to the direction of the stream. For a = ; this 
divides the breadth in the ratio 11:5; consequently, a blade swinging 
about an axis nearer the front edge than 5/11 the breadth will be in 
stable equilibrium ; if further from the front edge, the stable positions 
of equilibrium will be inclined at angles o, on either side, given by the 
above formula ; whilst, if pivoted at the centre, the only position is 
perpendicular to the stream. He finds that the greatest pressure transverse 
to the stream is for an inclination nearly equal to 39". 

The problem of the vena contracta is a very old one, and is a case 
of the discontinuous motion we have been noticing. Hanlon^ and 
Maxwell'' have applied the principle of momentum to its consideration ; 
the former deduced that the contraction must be '5, whilst the latter 
showed that it must slightly exceed this. Rayleigh,^ by slightly varying 
the circumstances, and supposing the fluid issuing from a nozzle of 
sufBcient length projecting into the fluid, has deduced that, for this case, 
the coefficient of contraction is almost exactly -5. Considei'ing also the 
case of fluid issuing from a finite cylinder through a similar nozzle, he 
has shown that the section of the nozzle is a harmonic mean between the 
sections of the cylinder and the jet. 

It is by no means easy to illustrate rigorously, by experiment, all the 
results deduced from the foregoing theory ; for, apart from the extreme 
instability which is a general characteristic of jets and allied motions, 
other disturbing influences arise from capillary action, in the case of jets 
into another fluid or vacuum, which tends to break up a column into 
drops, and from fluid friction, even in the case of two portions of the 
same fluid moving past each other, where the influence of surface-tension 

* See under special problems. 

2 British Assoc, Glasgow; also, 'On the Resistance of Fluids,' PMl. Mm. (5) ii. 
p. 430. 

5 ' The Vena Contracta,' Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, iii. p. 4. 

* Remarks on the preceding paper, ih., p. 6. 

* 'Notes on Hydrodynamics,' Phil. Mag. (5) ii. p. 441. 



RECENT PBOftRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 'Jl 

would not be felt. Experimentally the subject has been very fully 
investigated,' but no attempt lias been made towards a general theoretical 
investigation of the stability of such motions. Lord Rayleigh has, 
indeed, considered some general aspects of the qaestion in two important 
papers, in the ' Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, '^ some 
of the results of which it may be well to state here. In the first, he 
shows that, in the case of cylindrical columns, the disturbing cause due 
to surface-tension lias most efiect when, for harmonic disturbances, the 
ratio of wave-length to diameter is about 4-508 ; and also determines the 
rate of falling away from steadiness for small harmonic disturbances in 
the cases of plane and cylindrical sheets of discontinuity. The results 
lead to the supposition, as is pointed out in the second paper, that the 
sensitiveness of sensitive jets would increase indefinitely with the pitch, 
which is not, in general, true. The explanation he finds in the operation 
of the viscosity of the fluid, which, for water, is found to be such that, if 
a plane surface of discontinuity existed at any moment, then, after the 
lapse of one second, there would be a layer of transition, consisting of 
vortex motion, of a thickness of half a centimeter. In this paper the 
fluid is treated as frictionless, but the jets as containing vortex motion, 
and in two dimensions. For a layer of given thickness, with velocities 
V and —V on the two sides, and uniform vorticity between, the motion is 
unstable when the wave-length of disturbance is great in comparison 
with the breadth, and stable when the wave-length is small. For a jet 
in fluid, at rest, with its centre moving with velocity V, and velocity 
decreasing uniformly to zero on either side, the motion is stable for 
symmetrical disturbances, or when the wave-length is small compared 
with the breadth of the jet, and unstable when it is great. In general, 
in a case where the velocity increases continually or decreases continually 
between the fixed boundaries of the fluid, a jet will be stable. 

Another kind of discontinuous motion, viz., the propagation of a 
shock through a slightly compressible liquid,, has been treated by 
Christoffel,3 in a manner founded on that of Riemann. In such a case 
there will be a surface of discontinuity in the fluid, which moves forward, 
and such that the pressure, density, and velocity are different on the 
two sides. If w be the normal velocity of progression of a point of the 
surface, ii,, pj, tig? P2> ^^^ normal velocities and densities of the fluid on 
the two sides, then the equation of continuity is 

Pi (S2i — w) = p.2 (£2o — (•)), 

and it is easily shown that the dynamical equations are three of the 
form — 

P2(^2 ~ i>>)(ui — ^l■2) + (i'l — P-i) cos o = 0, 

where ii.v.w are components of 12. o, /3, y its direction and p the pressure. 

' See chiefly Savart, Ann. de Chimie et de Physique, liv. Iv. ; and Magnus, Fogg. 
Ann., Ixxx. xcv. cvi. ; also PJiil. Mag. (4) i. A very full historical account is given 
by Plateau, in his Statique expcrimentale et tMorique des Uquides, tome ii. ch. xii. 
to which the reader is referred. Since the appearaaice of this, Oberbeck has pubUshed 
a paper on the same subject, in Wied. Ami. ii. p. 1 (1877) ; and Ridout, Nature, xviii. 
p. 60i. See also Enctjc. Brit. Art Hydraulics by W. C. Unwin, 

" ' On the Instability of Jets,' Proc. Land. Math. Soo., x. p. 4 ; 'On the stability 
or instability of certain fluid motions,' lb. p. 57. 

^ ' Untersuchungen uber die mit dam Fortbestehen linearer partieller Difierential- 
gleichungen vertraglichen Unstetigkeiten.' Brioschi, Annali di Matematica, viii. 
p. 81. 



72 REPORT— 1881. 

These equations are made linear on the supposition that the compres- 
sibility is small, and so that if p = pj, (1 + s) and p =po + Pqu^s, 
quantities of the order 1/a, and sQi are neglected. It follows easily that 
every point of the surface progresses with a velocity a, so that different 
positions of the surface at different times form a system of parallel surfaces. 
Supposing the hydrodynamical equations to hold on both sides and up 
to the surface of discontinuity, he then shows how to determine the 
function S = Sj — So on which the solution for ii depends. In the latter 
part of the paper reflection at a rigid wall is considered. Rankine ' has 
also touched on the same theory. 

(d) General Theory of the Motion of Solids in Fluid. 

Already, in 1843, had Stokes^ proved that if a body symmetrical with 
respect to two planes at right angles to each other moved in a fluid 
parallel to their intersection under tbe action of no forces the resultant 
pressure of the fluid on it would vanish, provided the body and fluid were 
originally at rest — in other words, that there is no I'otational motion in the 
fluid. If, on the contrary, its motion Averc accelerated, it would experience 
a resultant pressure equal to n x acceleration x mass of fluid displaced 
by the body, where n depends alone on the /or)??- of the body and not its size. 
A special case of this was also proved in 1854 by Hoppe,^ apparently 
without knowledge of Stokes' paper. The case considered was that of 
a solid of revolution, the equation of whose meridian section could be 
thrown into a particular form.'* The fact that in every body there are 
three directions which 230ssess the same property was explicitly stated 
and proved by Kirchhoff in his paper referred to below. 

The starting point for the investigation of the motion here considered 
was given by the publication in 1867 of Thomson and Tait's ' Natural 
Philosophy.' Here the authors applied the Lagrangian equations of 
motion of a dynamical system directly to the energy of the fluid, ex- 
pressed as a quadi'atic function of the component velocities of the body, 
which, referred to axes fixed in the body, has constant coefficients. By 
this means the general properties of the motion of a solid of revolution 
in a fluid, and moving in one plane, are deduced with the greatest ease. 
In the general case there are twenty -one constant coefficients which may 
be supposed known, and may either be found by analysis (theoretically 
at least) or by experiment (just as coefficients of self- and mutual in- 
duction in the case of electric currents) by finding the impulses necessary 
to generate the unit velocities and their combinations two-and-two. The 
general theory of the impulse as applied to fluid motion has been very 
fully developed by Sir W. Thomson^ in his paper on vortex motion, before 
referred to. 

We have already seen (p. 4) how he has shown that when the 
motion can be produced from rest by application of forces to the solids 

' ' The thermodynamic theory of waves,' Trans. Hoy. Sue. 1870. 

" ' On some cases of Fluid Motion,' Trams. Camh. PMl. Soc, viii. p. 105 ; also in 
Eeprint of Papers, p. .50. For a proof of this from the theory of stream lines and 
many illustrations of other points in tiuid motion, see Froude in Nature, xiii. 

* ' Vom Widerstande der Flussigkeiten gegen die Bewegung fester Korper,' Pogg. 
Ann., 93 (1854) ; also ' Determination of the motion of conoidal bodies through an 
incompressible fluid,' Qva/rt. Jmir. Math.,\. p. 801. 

* See under special problems. 

' Trar)s R.S.E., xxv, 



RECENT PKOGtRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. V3 

alone, Lagrange's equations are applicable directly to tlio expression for 
the energy. Now in this, the coefficients are, in general, functions of the 
angular co-ordinates of the body referred to fixed axes. If the energy 
be expressed in terms of the velocities referred to axes fixed in the body, 
the expression has constant coefficients. It is therefore advantageous 
to determine the form of the equations of motion when the energy is so 
expressed. This had been effected by him in 1858,' but was not pub- 
lished until 1871.^ At the same time also, the form of the equation for 
the motion of a single solid, with any number of apertures in it and 
cyclic motion through them, a case in which the conditions of direct 
applicability of Lagi-ange's equations are not satisfied, were deduced. 
When there are several solids, of which some at least have apertures, the 
equations are naturally more complicated. The equations of motion for 
this case were published^ by the same author in March, 1872 ; they have 
also been proved in a different manner in the new edition of Thomson 
and Tait's ' Natural Philosophy,' and have been already referred to. 

I adduce here some of the chief results of the above analysis as 
developed by Sir W. Thomson. In the ' Natural Philosophy ' was con- 
sidered the case of the motion of a solid of revolution in an infinite fluid 
so as always to keep its axis in one plane. A certain fixed point in the 
axis (the centre of reaction) determinate when the form and distribution 
of mass in the body is known, moves in a sinuous line cutting the line of 
resultant impulse at equal intervals, and the body swings about the 
centre of reaction according to the law of the quadrantal pendulum. If 
A, B are the impulses necessary to produce unit velocity along and per- 
pendicular to the axis, and jx the impulsive couple to produce unit rotation, 
then the length of the simple pendulum keeping time with the swinging 
of the body is gnAB/E,^(A — B), ^ being the resultant impulsive force of 
the motion. This is on the supposition that there is no perforation with 
cyclic motion through it. An example of this latter was solved in the 
same manner for a circular tore with no rotation round its axis, in the 
paper ' On the motion of free solids through a liquid.' Here, when the 
ring is projected with a rotation round a diameter, its axis oscillates 
rotationally according to the law of a horizontal magnetic needle carry- 
ing a bar of soft iron rigidly attached to it parallel to the magnetic axis. 
In the same paper Thomson has also treated the question of the general 
motion of a solid of ' complete isotropy with helicoidal quality.'* The 
point P about which the body is isotropic moves uniformly in a circle or 
spiral so as to keep at a constant distance from the axis of the impulse, 
and the components of angular velocity round any three rectangular axes 
are constant. 

In the ' vortex motion ' he has shown, from general reasoning, that if 
a solid moves from a great distance past a fixed obstacle to a great 

' Referred to by Eankine (1863) ' On plane water lines in two dimensions,' Trans. 
Itoy_. Sue. (1864). Reprint of Rankine's Papers, p. 495. 

= ' On the motion of free solids through a liquid,' Proc. Jt.S. Edinhurgh, vii. 
p. 384. See also p. 60. 

' ' On the motion of rigid solids in a liquid circulating irrotationally through per- 
forations in them or in any fixed solid,' Ihid. p. 668. 

_ * Tlie following is Thomson's example of such an isotropic helicoid : • Take a 
uniform sphere and place on it projecting vanes in the proper positions— f.^., cutting 
at 45° each at the middles of the twelve quadrants of any three mutually perpen- 
dicular great circles.' Of course the vanes in practice must not have sharp angles, 
else discontinuous motions will mask the effects. 



74 REPORT — 1881. 

distance on the other side it will have its path turned towards or from 
the fixed obstacle according as the direction of the impulse is in the same 
direction as, or the opposite to, that of translation. This follows at once 
after it is proved that the effect of the fixed obstacle is to add an impul- 
sive component towards itself. In the paper which treats of polycyclic 
motion with several solids is given an example of a sphere moving in a 
fluid in which there are infinitely fine immovable curves round which 
polycyclic motion exists. Here the sphere moves as a material particle, 
whose mass is equal to the mass of the sphere and half the fluid dis- 
placed, under the action of the impressed forces, and in a field of force 
whose potential is W, where W is the work done in moving the sphere to 
an infinite distance from the cores of the polycylic motions ; or the 
difference of the fluid energies in the cases when the sphere is not 
present, and when it is. When the core is an infinite sti-aight line, the 
paths of globules arbitrarily projected are Cotes's spirals. 

I have thought it well to refer to those papers of Thomson's together, 
as they form a connected series, although between their publications im- 
portant essays have appeared from other investigators. The first of these 
requiring mention is Kirchhoff, who taking up the question of the general 
motion of a body of revolution as treated in Thomson and Tait applied 
the same methods to extend their results when the motion is not con- 
fined to one plane. His investigation^ was published in March, 1870. 
He deduced by analysis alone the Eulerian^ form of the equations of 
motion in the same form as Thomson's. Taking the origin at the centre 
of reaction he obtains equations for the velocities and the co-ordinates 
which enable them to be expressed as elliptic functions of the time. 
Considering more closely the case already solved in Thomson and Tait's 
treatise, he finds exphcitly the velocities in terms of the time, and ex- 
presses the constants in terms of the constants of the kinetic energy and 
the initial motion. Two cases pi'esent themselves which dej^end on the 
energy-constants, and each of these subdivides into two subcases accord- 
ing to the initial motion. These may be expressed thus. If it requires 
a less impulse to produce unit velocity along the axis than ijeiyeiuUcular 
to it, then the velocity along the former is expressible by means of the 
sn functions and vice versa,. Calling the larger and smaller impulses A, B 
respectively, each case divides into two subcases, according as the ratio 
of the energy due to rotation bears to the energy due to the other velocity 
a greater or less ratio than (A — B)/B which corresponds to the case of 
the rotation and velocity being expressed by dn, en respectively, or vice 
versa. Kirchhoff finds also that it is possible to project a solid of revolu- 
tion with rotation round a line perpendicular to its axis, so as to describe 
a cu'cular helix — a result, which by Thomson's theory of the impulse, is 
at once seen to be true. In the same volume Kirchhoff^ considered the 
forces between any two infinitely thin rings with circular section through 
which cyclic motion is taking j^lace, and proved that the apparent forces 
between them are equal to those which would exist between them if they 
were conductors and electric currents flowed along them. The same 

■ ' Ueber die Beweguug eiues Kotationskorpers in einer Fliissigkcit,' Borch., Ixxi. 
p. 237. 

2 Thomson has proposed to keep the term ' Eulerian ' for equations of motion 
referred to axes fixed in the moving body. 

^ ' Ueber die Kriif te, welche zwei unendlich diinne starre Einge in einer Fliissigkeit 
scheinbar auf einander ausiiben konnen,' Boreh., Ixxi. p. 26'^ 



RECENT PEOGEESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 75 

question was takeu up by Boltzmann' later, wlio has considered the case 
of non-cii-cular section. He notices that Kirchhoff's analogy is not 
exact, as the forces due to the motion of the rings vanish in the case of 
fluid motion. 

Kirchhoff's investigation of the solid of revolution was completed 
in 1877 by Kopcke,^ who did for the general case of a solid of revolution 
what Kirchhoft' had done for Thomson and Tait's solution. He succeeded 
in expressing the elements of the motion and the position at any moment 
by rueans of the elliptic and 9 functions, using a quadric transformation 
to reduce the functions in «, the velocity along the axis, to the canonical 
form. In this also two chief cases occur distinguished as in the simpler 
case mentioned above. The same end was also attained by a somewhat 
different process by Greeuhill.^ 

In the case of any solid whatever, we obtain at once three integrals in 
the form of constant energy, constant impulsive force, and constant 
impulsive couple. Clebsch noticed that if a fourth integral could be 
obtained, a fifth could be at once deduced by the principle of the last 
multiplier ; and the last integral, giving the value of t, be then found by 
quadratures. In the ' Mathematische Annalen '* for 1871, soon after 
Kirchhoff's paper, he set himself the problem to discover when the equa- 
tions admitted («) of a linear integral, (/3) of a quadric integral not com- 
pounded of the first three integrals. Instead of the velocities, he takes 
the momenta for dependent variables. Writing x-^, x^, x-^, for the 
component impulsive forces of the motion and y,, 1/2, ijs, for the com- 
ponent impulsive couples, the energy can be expressed in the form Tj + 
T2 + T3 where T,, T3 are quadric functions of the (x) and (y) respec- 
tively, and T 2 contains only products of an x into a y, which he proves 
may by a proper choice of the origin be such that the coefficients of X; yj 
and Xj yi are the same. For a linear integral the condition found is that 
T must be expressible in the form ^ — 

a(xi^ + X2^) + aix^'^ + b (x^y^ + x.2 yo) + fix-^ys + ciy^^ + y^^) 

when 2/3:= const, is an integral. This includes Kirchhoff's case and 
Thomson's isotropic helicoid. For a quadric integral three cases appear, 
one of which reduces to the square of the above ; the other two are that 
T must be expressible in either of the forms 

Ti + A (a!i2/i + a;2 2/2 + ^s^s) + fJ- (2/1^+2/2^ + 3/3^) (") 
or a^x^"^ + a^x^ ^- a^x-^ ■\- l^y^ -H l^y^ + Izy^ + X {x^y^ 

4- x^y<2, 4- 0332/3). (/3) 

where o-i-az ^ ^■' ~ ^1 4. ^iJZ±2_o 

&i ^2 *3 

when the integrals are respectively 

for (a) ^T,(?/) — A = const. 

' ' Ueber die Druckkrafte, welclie auf Einge wirksam sind, die in bewegte Fliissig- 
keit tanchen,' Borch., Ixxiii. p. 111. 

- ' Zur Discussion der Bewegnng eines Eotationskorpers in einer Fliissigkeit,' 
Math. Annalen., xii. p. 387. 

' ' Motion of an ellipsoid in liquid,' Quart. Jour. Math., xvi. p. 242. 

* ' Ueber die Beweguug eines Korpers in einer Fliissigkeit,' Math. Ann., iii. 
p. 238. 

* In other words, the solid mixst be similar to itself turned through one right 
angle. 



76 EEPORT— 1881. 

■where A is a quadric function of the (x) whose coefficients (A,^) are the 
minors of the determinant formed by the coefficients (a.^) of T, (dis- 
criminant of T,) and for (/3) 

Z'2-?'3 Z'a-^i ii-h' ^^-^^ ^-^^ +2/3) -const. 

The case where the last condition is satisfied has been investigated by- 
Weber ' when the impulse of the motion reduces to a single force — in other 
words, when the state of motion can be produced by a single blow 
applied to a point rigidly connected with the body. Out of the sixteen 
Theta functions of the first order of two variables, it is possible, in several 
ways, to choose nine, whose ratios to a tenth, multiplied by proper con- 
stants, are suitable to express the direction cosines of one set of rectan- 
gular axes to another. "Weber shows that, taking the two variables to be 
linear functions of the time a t + (d, a^ t +/3i, and those nine ratios to 
represent the direction cosines of the axes fixed in the body, to the axes 
fixed in the space, it is possible, if Clebsch's last condition above is satis- 
fied, to determine the constants, so that three other ratios may represent 
the rotations about the set of axes fixed in the body, and the remaining 
three the. rotations about the axes fixed in space, provided the motion is 
such that there is no impulsive couple. There remain four constants to 
be determined by the initial conditions, viz., two relations between three 
moduli of the Theta functions and the two constants /3 /3p Four cases 
occur as in the previous investigations, which depend on the initial state. 
These are distinguished in the latter part of the paper. He also treats 
the equations in another way by direct integration by means of hyper- 
elliptic integrals. 

The motions of a solid about a fixed point in fluid under the action of 
no forces, and about a fixed axis under the action of gravity, have been 
investigated by Michaelis.^ 

In a remarkably suggestive paper in the ' Proceedings of the London 
Mathematical Society,'^ Lamb has applied Ball's theory of screws to the 
question of the steady motion of any solid in a fluid. It is easy to see 
that there are a simply-infinite system of steady motions, each being a screw 
motion, whose axis lies on a certain skew surface. The axis of each 
screw must coincide with the axis of the generating wrench, but their 
pitches are not necessarily the same. If the ratio of the impulsive force 
to the rotation set up is given, there are three screws of steady motion 
perpendicular to each other, though not necessarily intersecting. Amongst 
the infinite system of permanent screws, it is possible to choose sets of 
six mutually conjugate screws amongst which there is one set which 
contains three of infinite pitch (which correspond to the three steady 
translations), and three others which are such that the necessary gene- 
rating wrenches have zero pitch, i.e. reduce to impulsive couples. This 
latter set of three is important, as by its means it is possible to construct 
the motion when the generating wrench reduces to any couple whatever. 
The following is Lamb's method of representing the motion. The three 

' 'Anwendung der Thetafvmctionen zweier Veranderlicher auf die Thcorie der 
Bewegung- eines festen Korpers in einer Fliissigkeit,' Math. Aimalcn, xiv. p. 17.^. 

= ' Mouvement d'un solide dans un liquide,' ArcMves Nierlandaisex des Seiences 
exactes ct natiirelles, Harlem, viii. 

2 ' On the motion of a solid through an infinite m^s of liquid,' Proe. Lond. Math, 
Soc, viii, p. 273 (1877\ 



IlECENT PROGJEESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 77 

sets of screws just mentioned do not in general intersect, but their axes 
lie along the alternate edges of a parallelopiped. Take the centre of 
this parallelopiped, and call it O. Then the motion of the body is 
compounded of the motion of O, and a motion about 0. Describe 
about 0, as centre, a certain ellipsoid, which, as in Poinsot's 
representation, gives the motion relative to by rolling on a 
plane with angular velocity proportional to the instantaneous axis 01. 
The motion of is then represented by drawing round another deter- 
minate quadric. Suppose 01 cuts the quadric in P, and OM is the 
perpendicular from on the tangent plane at P ; then the motion is 
completely represented by supposing the Poinsot ellipsoid and plane to 
move bodily in the direction of OM with a velocity proportional to 
01 / (OP. OM). For particular forms of the body this naturally 
simplifies very much; for instance, in the case of an isotropic helicoid, 
any screw through O is a permanent one. The motion is stable about 
two of these fundamental screws and unstable about the third. Some of 
Lamb's results have since been obtained by Craig.' The steady motion 
of a solid of revolution has also been treated by Greenhill,- who has given 
an expression for the least rotation about the axis of a prolate solid of 
revolution that it may keep its point in front. An investigation similar 
to Greenhill's was given by Craig ^ about the same time. 

The general theory of the motion of more than one body in a fluid has 
not hitherto received much attention. Many special problems have been 
solved, especially the case of two or more spheres by several writers. But 
these, beyond those referred to above, will best be noticed later under 
special problems. Most of the qualitative results obtained for spheres, no 
doubt hold good for solids in general. We may then expect that bodies 
vibrating in a fluid will appear to act on one another with forces varying 
according to inverse powers of the distance higher than the second, while 
pulsating bodies (or bodies changing their volume periodically) will have 
the chief part of their action proportional to the inverse square of the 
distance. 

(e) Viscous Fluids. 

The general theory of viscous fluids presents diSicuIties which can 
scarcely even yet be said to be settled. The equations of motion have not 
the same degree of certainty as in the case of perfect fluids, partly on 
account of the difiiculty of finding a satisfactory theory on which friction 
is to be explained, and partly on the difficulty, as Stokes has pointed out, 
of connecting the oblique pressures on a small area with the difl^erentials 
of the velocities. In the last report to the Association Professor Stokes 
has given a clear description of the various methods by which, up to 1846, 
Navier, Poisson, St. Venant, and he himself had attacked the problem. 
Since then several others have investigated the subject with results most 
of which can be expressed in (what may be called) the typical form — 

where denotes the cubical compression. In Stokes' form, which is that 

' ' The motion of a solid in a fluid,' Amer Jour. Math., ii. p. 107. 

' ' Motion of an ellipsoid in fluid,' Quart. Jour. Math., xvi. p. 255, and xvii. p. 8C ; 
also for numerical applications to gunnery, see papers by the same author in the 
Proc. Royal Artillery Inst. x. xi. ; and art. ' Hydrodynamics,' Encyo. Brit., 9th edit. 

' ' On the motion of an ellipsoid in fluid,' Amer. Jour. Math. ii. p. 271, 



78 BEPORT— 1881. 

generally received, A =:; 3 B. O. E. Meyer ' (1861) assumes tliafc the 
friction on a small plane in a given direction in the plane is proportional 
to the rate of variation perpendicular to the plane of the component of 
velocity in the given direction, whilst there is a normal part, proportional 
to the rate of variation perpendicular to the plane, of the component per- 
pendicular to the plane. This is not so stated in his preliminary hy- 
pothesis, but is vyhat his initial expressions imply. Considering then a 
small parallelepiped dx dy dz, he arrives at the above form of equation if 
B is put zero, which agrees with the results found by previous investiga- 
tors for incompressible fluids only. Stefan ^ (1862) applies directly the 
methods of elasticity to a small tetrahedron treating the forces as functions 
of the nine differential coefficients of u v w, and shows, as in the theory of 
elastic solids, that the forces are of the form — 



He now attempts to find a relation between X and fx on the following 
hypothesis. Drawing a small plane through the direction of the velocity 
at any point, then the friction must fall in this plane and be parallel to the 
direction of the velocity. From this it results that A. = o. Stokes' cor- 
responding assumption was that a uniform expansion of any element does 
not require a re-arrangement of the molecules, which leads to X = — 2 ^/3. 
Stefan's equations then give, in the typical form, B = o. From a totally 
different point of view has Maxwell ^ approached the subject when the 
fluid in question is gaseous. He bases his theory of viscosity on the 
transference of momentum from one layer to another by the moving 
particles of a gas, treating a gas according to the kinetic theory. He 
obtains precisely the same expressions as Stokes. But this investigation 
of Maxwell's is far more important from another point of view, in that he 
attempts to express the unknown constant of internal friction in terms of 
known properties of the meditim. The first attempt towards this was 
made in his first paper'* on the kinetic theory of gases (1860), where on 
the same bases as to the cause of friction he calculates the constant on the 
supposition that the atoms of a gas are spherical and perfectly elastic, 
with the result that the constant is proportional to the square root of the 
absolute temperature and is independent of the density. O. E. Meyer ' 
(1865) also arrived at similar results from the same data. But this does 
not agree with experience, and Maxwell returns to the question again in 
the paper already mentioned. The fact that the coefficient of viscosity 
is independent of the density follows, whatever be the law of repulsion 
between the particles, but the law of its variation with the temperature 
depends on the law of force. Maxwell has chosen the inverse fifth, from 
which it results that the coefficient is directly proportional to the absolute 
temperature. Maxwell's result in this case is that A = Jcp/p where Jc is a 
constant depending only on the mass of a molecule and the force between 
two molecules at unit distance. He has also given an expression for the 

1 ' Ueber die Eeibung der Fliissigkeiten,' Jiorc?t, lix. p. 229. He acknowledges 
in 1874 {Bnrch. Ixxviii. p. 131) that the investigation is not general. 

2 'Ueber die Bewegung fliissiger Korper,' Siti. Alad. Wiss. Wicn, xlvi. p. 8. 

3 ' On the dynamical theory of gases,' Trans. Roy. Soc, 1867, p. 81. 

* 'Illustrations of the dynamical theory of gases,' Phil. Mag., 1860, January and 

July. , „ 

^ ' Ueber die innere Reibung der Gase,' Fogg. Ann. cxxv. 



RECENT PROGtRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 79 

coefficient in a mixture of gases. Later experiments ' have shown that 
the proportionality of the viscosity to absolute temperature docs not hold 
for all gases. But Maxwell's work shows in any case that the connection 
between them depends on the law of force, which is certainly a complicated 
one, and not likely a priori to be the inverse fifth. Possibly for an 
attractive force the viscosity might decrease with increase of temperature, 
and if so would form an answer to Stefan's objection against making the 
same explanation of friction a basis for a theory of the viscosity of liquids. 
Lamb, in his treatise on hydrodynamics, deduces the equation by a method 
based on those of Stokes and St. Venant. Boussinesq ^ applies the 
equations for an elastic solid directly. 

M. Levy ^ attempts to show that the stress cannot be represented by 
functions of the form : — 

but that the exact expressions are of the form — 

dv . dw" 

' c. 



X.= (.H-...v-)('£+|)... 



whilst M. Kleitz,'* arriving at the same result as to the error of the ordinary 
method of expressing the stresses, starts by supposing the constants to vary 
for different small planes round a point, and tries to find the law of this 
variation. Meyer ^ has also deduced equations of motion on the supposi- 
tion that the action between two particles takes time to act. 

In the ' Proceedings ' of the London Mathematical Society, Butcher ^ 
has attempted to develop a general theory which would comprise the 
theory of elastic solids and perfect fluids as particular cases. He supposes 
a body composed of small groups of molecules differing from one another, 
which he divides into two classes : (A) which recover their original form 
after being subjected to a strain less than a certain amount, and (B) those 
in which this limiting strain is zero. When only A groups are present we 
have an elastic solid ; when A and B groups are present the body partially 
returns to its original configuration after a strain, but the amount of its 
return is a function of the previous duration of the strain ; if the body 
does not return at all, B groups only are present, and we get a viscous 
or perfect fluid according as the acting stress is finite or infinitesimally 
small. With varying proportions of A and B groups appear difierent 

' For a discussion of this point tlie reader is referred to O. E. Meyer's Die Kine- 
tisclie Thforic dcr Gaitc. Breslan, 1S77, p. 157. Also for a fidl abstract of what is 
known experimentally on the subject. 

2 ' Memoire sur Tinfluence des frottements dans les mouvements reguliers des 
fluides.' LumvUle (2) xiii. p. 377. 

' ' Rapport sur un ]\I6mou-e de M. Mam-ice Levy relatif a, rhydrodynamiqne des 
liquides homog&nes, particulii^rement il leur econlement rectilig-ne et permanente.' 
Comjrtes Rendus, Ixviii. p. 582. 

■• ' Rapport, sur un Memoire de M. Kleitz, intitule etudes sur les forces moleculaires 
dans les liquides en mouvement, et application ii I'hydrodynamique.' Comptes 
Rendus, Ixxiv. p. 426. 

» ' Zur Theorie der inneren Reibuug,' Borcli. Ixsviii. p. 130. Zusatz zu der 
Abhandlung ' Zur Theorie der inneren Reibung,' Borch. Isxx. p. 31, "5. 

« ' On viscous fluids in motion,' Proc. Lond. Math. Soc, Wii. p. 103. 



80 REtORt— 1881. 

proportions of elasticity, plasticity, and viscosity. For viscous fluids, or 
where B groups only are present, the equations of motion are found on 
the supposition that in any element the groups not thrown out behave 
as elastic solids, whilst those thrown out behave as perfect fluids, i.e. are 
only in a state of contraction or dilatation, and that a strain of the element 
is the sum of the strains of the first as an elastic solid, and of the second 
as dilatations. The final equations obtained are : — 

with two others, where I is the ratio of the number of groups thrown out 
per unit of time to those not thrown out, and r, h are the rigidity and 
resistance to dilatation respectively for the elastic groups. With I large 
or viscosity small, this becomes — 



T dd r ■. , /v- DwN f. 



whilst for I small (as in Canada Balsam), it is — 

Mr. Butcher also forms the equations of motion for plastic solids on 
similar principles. 

Bobylew ' has transformed Stokes' form of the equations of motion of 
a viscous fluid to curvilinear co-ordinates, and has given expressions for the 
pressure at any point of a viscous fluid, and its rate of variation with the 
time, analogous to those given by Helmholtz for a perfect fluid. Simpler 
proofs of the same formulse have been given since by Forsyth ^ and Craig.' 
When the motion at the boundary is zero, the rate of variation takes the 



simple form — 4^ vrdxctydz, where lo is the rotation at the point 

(x.y.z). It is clear, therefore, that with no motion at the boundary, or 
in an infinite fluid at rest at infinity, there must be dissipation of the 
energy of motion. Lipschitz * has also given expressions for the pressure 
within a viscous fluid under the action of external and internal attraction. 
None of these theories can be regarded as perfectly satisfactory ; even 
Stokes', which has been most generally accepted, introduces stresses, 
whose appearance, simply on the theory of friction acting on the surface 
of an element of fluid, it is difiicult to understand. Take, for instance, 
the motion given by i(,=ax, v=0, iv=0 in a compressible fluid ; this gives 
a stress, due to friction, perpendicular to a small plane parallel to the 
plane of yz, where certainly no force can arise from friction, if we 
suppose it to act on the surfaces only. The method employed by Max- 
well, and suggested by Stefan afterwards for extension to liquids, would 
seeni the more hopeful road, but we must wait until the motions of 
the molecules of liquids are better understood than at present. On a 
> ' Einige Betrachtungen iiber die Gleichungen der Hydrodynamik,' Math. Ann. 

vi. p. 72. 

'' ' On the motion of a viscous incompressible fluid,' Mess. Math. ix. p. 134. 

' Journal of the Franhland Institute, October, 1880. Also < On certain possible 
cases of steady motion in a viscous fluid,' Amer. Jour., iii. p. 269. 

* ' Determinazione della pressione nelF interne d'un fluido mcompressibile soggetto 
ad attrazioni interne ed esterne,' BrioscM, Ann. (2) vi. 



RECENT PKOGHESS IN nYDRODYNAMlCS. 81 

theory of tins kind it is easy to see that forces will exist whose appear- 
ance on any theory of surface-friction in the equations of stress is here 
objected to. There can, howcA'cr, be little doubt that for small motions 
at least the ordinary equations give trustworthy results. Maxwell, in a 
note published at the end of a paper by Rohrs ' has pointed out a way to 
obtain limits of error in some particular cases by the consideration of 
eiTor- forces. 

The question of steady motion in viscous fluids has been considered 
by Craig,^ who has proved that if everywhere v^i\ V^*?, V^c ("T, v> c, being 
components of rotation) be zero, or in other words if x^hb dx + ^'^v dy + 
X'-w dz be a perfect difi'erential, the motion is steady. In this paper 
several interesting transformations of the equations of motion, and of 
the dissipation function are given. Oberbeck^ had before this shown that 
when the motion is very small and steady, the vanishing of \'^i, \'n, V^c is 
a necessary consequence. 

Helmholtz'' has given a method by which in certain cases the motions 
of one fluid with given conditions can be directly deduced from that of 
another fluid whose motion is geometrically similar. Denoting by u v %u 
the velocities at time t, at the point (x.y.z) of a fluid whose density is p, 
pressure p, and coefiicieut of viscosity ^j, and using dashed letters to 
denote the same quantities for another fluid, he points out that when 
there are no external forces the equations of motion are also satisfied by 
lii=qfi, pi=r p, U]^=nu, &c., x^^qx/n, &c. , pi=n-rp + const., ti=^qt I n'^ 
where q. r. n are three constants, two of which, q. r, are determined by the 
nature of the fluids, the other, n, is arbitrary for an incompressible fluid, but 
for a compressible fluid n must be the ratio of the A'elocity of sound in the 
second fluid to that in the first. In incompressible viscous fluids, in which 
bodies are immersed, n will be determined by the ratios of the coefficients 
of slipping at their surfaces. If this coefiicient is zero, or if there is no 
viscosity, we may take into consideration the action of gravity, but then 
n^=q. The resistances to the motion of similar bodies in the fluids are 
in the ratio q^r : 1, whilst the rates of work done in overcoming the.se 
resistances are as 7iq'^r : 1. Many interesting results flow at once from 
the foregoing considerations, e.g., the fact that in waves on the surface of 
a heavy incompressible fluid, the velocity of propagation of similar waves 
in similar vessels is always, whatever their form, proportional to the square 
root of the wave-length ; this follows at once by putting q=n^ whence 
Xi:=n-x, t^-=nt. Helmholtz applies these considerations to the relations 
between ships and their horse-power, birds and their muscular power, 
and works out with numerical details the relations between ships and 
similarly shaped balloons, with reference to volume, horse-power, and 
tonnage. For these results the reader is referred to the paper itself. 

' 'Spherical and Cylindrical Motion in Viscon.? Fluid," Proc. L. Math. Soc. v. 
p. 12.5. 

* 'Viscous Fluids,' Jour. Franhland Inst., Oct. 1880, p. 217. 'On certain possible 
cases of steady motion in a viscous fluid,' Amer. Jour. Math. iii. p. 269. A similar 
statement is also given by Graetz {Zeits.f. Math. u. Phijs. sxiv. p. 230 : ' Einige Siitze 
liber Wirbelbewegungen in reibenden Fliissigkeiten'), but with an evident error as to 
non-possibility of production of vortices in such a motion by conservative forces. 

' ' Uebrr stationare Fliissigkeitsbewegungen mit Ceriicksichtigung der inneren 
Reibung,' Borch. Ixxxi. p. 62. 

■* ' Ueber ein Theorem, geometrisch iihnliche Bewegungen Hiissiger Korper 
betreffend, nebst Anwendung auf das Problem, Luftballons zu lenken,' Monatsher. 
Berl. (1873) p. 501. 

1881. 



82 liErouT— 1881. 

The principle may be compared with that of Kewton's principle of 
dynamical similitude. An example illustrating Helmholtz' results is 
given by Rayleigh' on the analogy between the two dimensional vibra- 
tions of air in a cylindrical tube of any section, and the liquid Avavea 
contained in a vertical cylindrical vessel of the same section. 

/. Waves hi Liquids. 

The subject of waves was one which received much attention amongst 
English mathematicians about the period between 1840 and 1850, and the 
labours of Green, Kelland, Barnshaw, and Airy have been noticed by 
Professor Stokes in the last report to the Association. Almost imme- 
diately after this report he himself read a paper before the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society 'On the Theory of Oscillatory Waves,' ^ in which 
was investigated the form and properties of waves which are propagated 
tvithout change of form and irrotationally. It appeared that with these 
conditions^ given, to a given velocity of propagation corresponded one 
definite form ; when the height is small compared with the wave-length, 
the wave-form is the curve of sines ; but if the height is comparable with 
the wave-length this is not the case, but the crests of the waves are 
steeper than the hollows, and this difference becomes more prominent 
the shallower the fluid is. A curious result of the analysis is that the 
fluid particles, in addition to a motion of oscillation have also a small one 
of translation, which depends on the square of the ratio of the height to 
wave-length, a result which Rayleigh'* has shown to depend directly ou 
the absence of molecular rotation of the wave. In this paper Stokes 
carried the approximation to a second order for finite depths, and to a 
third order when the depth of fluid is infinite. In the reprint of his 
papers''' (1880) he adds a supplement to the above in which a totally 
different method is employed. Instead of taking the rectangular co- 
ordinates of a particle as independent variables and expressing the 
velocity potential thereby as usual, the velocity potential and stream 
functions are taken as independents and the co-ordinates of a point 
sought in terms of them. This so much simplifies the calculation that 
it is an easy matter to press the approximation to the fifth oi'der for 
infinitely deep fluids, and to the third order for those of finite depth. In 
infinitely deep fluids a wave-form of length 27r/wi and height 2a + ^m^ a^ 
the velocity of propagation (c) is given by'' 

c2 = £ (l + vi^a- + fwV) 
m 

> ' On Waves;,P7iil. Miff. (.5) i. p. 275. 

- Trans. Cawb. Phil. Sue. viii. p. 441. Also reprint, vol. i. p. 197. 

' It will be seen below that another conditiou is implied, viz., the finitenesa of 
wave-length. 

■' ' On AVaves,' Phil. Mar/. (5) i. p. 270. 

5 Mathematical and Physical Pajjcrs, G. G. Stokea. Vol. I. Cambridge 
Universit.y Press. 

" li h = height of crest above the trough and A = wave-length 






jit OS 

TT-h' 6rr .T , tt'//-* Sir x 



+ VfT cos — j; COS • + 

"' A- A ■- A' A 



KECENI PKOGRESS IN HYDE0D"XNAM1CS.- 83 

and the form of tlie wave to the fourth order by 

y + ^ ma^ — §■ m?a* = a cos mx — i ma* (1 + Yk w^*^) cos 2 m:ti 
+ f lii^a^ cos 3 mx — ^ m^ci* cos 4 iJia; .... 
This embraces so far as the third order the results of the earlier paper. 
To the third order this agrees with the expansion for a trochoid, and 
therefore the curve approximates to Gerstuer's and Rankine's form men- 
tioned below.' In the same paper Stokes also considers the analogous 
problem for the waves at the common surface between two liquids. When 
the fluids are confined by horizontal rigid walls there is as before only 
one form of wave, for given velocity of propagation, and the velocity (c) 
is given by 2x0- = ^\ (p — p^) \p tanh 2irhj\ + p^ tanh 27r/i,'/A.}"' 
where h, /t' are the thicknesses of the fluids, and the meanings of the 
other constants are evident. The case is difiTerent when the upper fluid 
has a free surface. Here either for given wave-length or for given 
velocity of propagation there are two possible systems of wave-forms. 
One of these, when the lower fluid is deep, corresponds to that form, 
which is propagated on a single surface, and this whatever the depth of 
the upper fluid. The other form is propagated with velocity given by 
27rc2 = gX(p- pi) (p tanh 2Trh^ jX + p')"'. 

Only one definite series of waves of permanent typo can be pro- 
pagated in a fluid in which no vortex motion is present ; but it does not 
follow that this is the only permanent form which is possible in a perfect 
fluid. One other at least is known, which was first discovered by 
Gerstner^ in 1802, and afterwards independently by Rankine'^ in 1862. 
The latter gives a most elegant geometrical proof that a trochoidal form 
of wave is a possible one, and that the velocity of propagation is 
\/((7X/27r). Here the motion of any particle is a uniform one in a circle, 
the radius of the circle diminishing with the depth. In a later note * he 
discovers the essential difierence between this mode of wave-motion and 
that considered by Stokes. It lies in the fact that the exact trochoidal 
waves possess molecular rotation. Stokes notices this in the reprint of 
his own papers^ and points out that in order that such waves may be 
excited in a perfect fluid by operations on the surface alone a preparation 
must be laid in the shape of a horizontal velocity decreasing from the 
surface downwards according to the law exp (—4-!rh/\) where k is a 
function of the depth given by 

depth = 7i; i ^ "~ ^•^-T ( ^ J ( 

The physical interest therefore of these motions is not so great as has 
been sometimes thought. 

The same objection, amongst others, lies against an attempt by Hagen'' 

' The theory of periodic waves has been treated by Boussinesq in a very long 
paper in the 3Iem. -par dircrs Samnts, xx. p. 509. He does not seem to have been 
acquainted with much of the work done outside France. 

^ ' Theorie der Wellen,' Abhand. der Konigl. Bolwiisclwn Gesellscliaft der Wiss. 
1802. Also printed separately, Prague, 180i. Also in Gilbert's Annalen der Phys-lh, 
Bd. 32, p. 412. 

^ ' On the exact form of waves near the surface of deep water,' Trans. Roy. Soc, 
1863. Also Reprint, p. 481. St. Tenant reproduces in the C.R., Ixxi. p. 186, a some- 
what similar proof by M. Belanger, given by the latter in 1828. 

* Reprint, p. 494. 

* Appendix A to Oscillatory Waves, p. 219. 

" ' Ueber Wellen auf Gewassern von gleichmilssiger Tieie.'—MatJt, Abhand. konig. 
Ahad. d. Wiss. Berlin (1861), p. 1. This is a long drawn-out paper. 

02 



84 REPOHT— 1881. 

to develop a solTiewliat similar theory for a fluid of finite depth. In tlie 
trocboidal waves in deep fluids all the jDarticles describe circles with 
uniform velocities. Hagen starts by assuming the path to be an ellipse 
distorted so that the higher and lower halves are raised from the sym- 
metrical position, i.e. the paths are given by 

a; = a sin f, y = ft cos f + y cos^ f 

where ^ is a function of the time and cij3,y are constants for each 
particle. He also assumes that particles in a vertical line always remain 
so. The condition of constant pressure at the surface as expressed by 
him is only approximately satisfied. St. Venant' has given for stationary 
waves a theory similar to that of Gerstner's for progressive waves, and 
has also attempted to develop a theory for progressive and stationary 
waves when the fluid is of a finite depth, but unfortunately his theory 
does not satisfy the equation of continuity. 

The limiting form of trochoidal waves being the cuspidal, it is clear 
that permanent waves could exist whose crests would be infinitely fine, a 
result contradicted by experience if we suppose the theory actually to 
apply to waves as ordinarily seen, that is in irrotational motion. This 
alone would show that they cannot be taken as the type of naturally 
produced waves. In another wave-form considered by Rankine,^ 

•4/ = 2mj/X - e.vj} (- 2-7/ /A) cos 27rxl\ 

the steepest form cuts itself at 90° ; but this is a forced wave, that is the 
pressure along the surface is not constant. The velocity of propagation 
here also is \/((7\/27r). In a supplement to this paper^ he attempts to 
prove that all waves in which molecular rotation is null must begin to 
break when the two slopes of the crest meet at a right angle. But this 
has been criticised by Stokes' who has very neatly proved that if such a 
sharp angle is possible it must be one of 120° ; and this is borne out by 
the fact that the analytical series for the permanent type of irrotational 
periodic waves seems to become divergent as the wave approaches the 
form with a crest of 120°. 

The question of permanent types of waves of longitudinal disturbance 
through the medium, properly belongs to the domain of the theory of 
sound. It has been investigated by Stokes,* Earnshaw,*" Riemann,^ and 
Rankine.^ The essential difference between this case and the preceding 
is that the medium must fulfil the condition (t^djjjdp = const. Earnshaw 
regarded this as unrealisable ; but Rankine has shown that with a given 
law of conduction of heat, there are types of waves which can be pro- 

• ' Sur la houle et le clapotis,' Compt. Bend., Ixxiii., p. .521, 589. 

^ ' Summary of the properties of certain stream-lines,' ridl. Mag. (4), xxviii. 
p. 282. 

^ Phil. Mag. (4), xxix., p. 25. 

* Math, and Phys. Papers. App. B., ' Considerations relative to tlie gi'eatest 
lieight of oscillatory irrotational waves wliich can be propagated without change Of 
form,' p. 225. 

= ' On a difficulty in the theory of sound,' PMl. Mag. (.^), xxxiii. p. .^49. 

^ ' On the mathematical theory of sound,' Trans, hoy. Soc. (1860), p. 1.^.3. 

^ 'Ueber die Fortpflanzung ebener Luftwellen,' Gott., Ahhand. Math. Class., viii. 
p. 43. 

" ' On the thermodynamic theory of waves of finite longitudinal disturbance,' 
Trans. Roy. Soc, 1870. Also Reprint, p. 530, 



RECENT PROGfRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 85 

pagatcd so that this condition is satisfied. It is curious that sudden waves 
of condensation are permanent, whilst those of rarefaction are not so. 

When the length of the wave is very great compared with the depth 
of the fluid, it is clear that the vertical motion of any particle is very 
small compared with the horizontal. A theory based on the neglect of 
the vertical motion is called a theory of long waves, and had been very 
fully treated by Lagrange, Airy, and others. If in addition to small ratio 
of depth to length, the ratio of height of wave to depth is also small, 
then to the first order of these quantities the wave is of a permanent 
type. But if the height of the wave has a finite ratio to depth of fluid 
Rayleigh ' has shown that it is impossible for the waves to rnaintain their 
form. In order that it should do so the force of gravitation oiight to 
vary as the inverse cube of the height above the bottom of the fluid. In 
the'same paper he points out that in a canal of slowly varying section, if 
the velocity of the stream be less than that of a free wave, a contraction 
of the channel produces a decrease in wave-height, and vice versa. The 
opposite happens if the velocity of the stream is greater than that of a 
free wave. 

The theory of irrotational waves of pei-manent type, considered _ by 
Stokes, proceeds on the assumption that an infinite series of similar 
waves follow one another, or that the wave-length is finite ; and we have 
seen how, in this case, the solution is unique for given velocity of 
propagation. But this theory does not take account of the question 
whether a solitary wave can be thus propagated ; in fact, it is clear that 
the functions determining such a wave must not be expressible as a series 
of circular functions, as the motion is essentially non-periodic. That 
such waves exist has been known for a long period, since the experiments 
of Scott-Russell brought to light the wave called by him the solitary 
wave. In the last report, Stokes has mentioned Earnshaw's attempt at 
giving a mathematical theory of this kind of wave, and has pointed out 
the objection to it, that it requires a finite change of velocity and pressure 
at the beginning and end of the wave. Rayleigh has noticed that the 
cause of this is that Earnshaw's wave contains molecular rotation, whilst 
the fluid beyond the wave is at rest. A satisfactory theory^ has been 
given by Boussinesq,^ when the curvature of the wave-profile is of such 
a magnitude that d*i//cM may be neglected. He deduces that the 
velocity of the wave is given by s/ gh where h is the primitive depth of 
the fluid, which is Russell's result, as found by experiment. The form 
of the profile is given hy y = a sech^ a!A/(3a/4 h^), a being the height 
of the wave above the original surface. The centre of gravity of this 
wave is at one-third of its height above the undisturbed level. 
Boussinesq introduces a quantity, connected with any swelling of fluid 
propagated along the surface, which he calls the moment of instability. 
For all swellings of equal energy this moment! s least when the svrelling 
is the solitary wave, which keeps its form ; when the moment is not 
quite a minimum, the form of the swelling will oscillate about the 
permanent form given above. It follows, from the analysis, that a 
negative permanent wave is impossible, a result also of Russell s 

' ' On W.aves,' Phil. Mag. (5), i., p. 257 (1876). 

2 < Theorie des ondes ct des remous qui se propagent le long d'nn canal rec- 
tangulaire horizontal, en communiquant au liquide contenu dans ce canal des vite.sges 
senpiblement pareiUes de la surface au fond,' LiowiUe (2), xvii. (1872), p, 55, 



86 REPORT— 1881. 

experiments. The paths' described in solitary waves by particles of the 
fluid are parabolic arcs with axes vertical, constant horizontal chord 
equal to the quotient of the volume of the wave by the primitive depth, 
and height proportional to the initial height of the pai-ticle above the 
bottom ; being, for a particle at the surface, equal to the height of the 
wave. The latus rectum at the surface is four-thirds the primitive depth 
of the fluid, and varies for other particles inversely as their height above 
the bottom, and is independent of the height of the wave. Rayleigh^ 
also gave, independently, a few years later, a theory of the solitary wave 
agreeing with that of Boussinesq's. 

Rankine-^ has attempted to determine the velocity of propagation of 
any possible kind of wave in a liquid of limited or unlimited depth 
simply from the fact that the free surface is one of constant pressure. 
But, in reality, he implicitly assumes that the waves are of a permanent 
type. He proves that the velocity of propagation is equal to that 
acquired by a body in falling through half the virtual depth. In this, the 
velocity of the wave is defined as the mean of the velocities with which 
the form advances relatively to particles in the crest and trough 
respectively, and the virtual depth as follows : Suppose a stream flowing 
Avith a velocity equal to the difference of the velocities of the particles at 
the crest and trough ; then the depth of stream, in order that the amount 
of horizontal disturbance should equal the whole amount of horizontal 
disturbance in the actual fluid between two vertical planes, through the 
crest and trough respectively, is the virtual depth. We have seen how 
an analogous theorem can be deduced from the theory of dynamical 
similarity. 

In all the foregoing, the waves have been regarded as following each 
other in infinite series, or the whole extent of the fluid has been taken 
into consideration. The theory would have to be modified, therefore, 
when waves ai'e propagated into fluid at rest. This happens, for instance, 
M'ith the trail of waves from the bow of a boat, or the group of waves 
formed on the surface of water by pei-iodically disturbing it for a 
short interval. It is then observed that the waves are not of the same 
size, but that they advance in a group, of which the largest are in the 
middle, and that the group itself progresses with only half the velocity 
of the waves themselves. If a single wave be observed, it is seen to die 
gradually out, while others are formed in its rear. The explanation of 
this was given by Osborne Reynolds, at the meeting of this Association 
at Plymouth, in 1877.'' The energy of a liquid trochoidal wave is half 
kinetic and half potential, the latter of which is transmitted at the rate 
of its amount in unit of length X the velocity of the wave. It is then easy 
to see that, in a group of waves, which slightly decrease in size towards 
the front, the form of wave is transmitted twice as fast as the energy, 
and the velocity of the group is only one-half that of the waves composing 
it. The propagation of groups of waves had been considered before 
Reynolds, by Rayleigh,^ who treated them as compounded of two infinite 
trains of waves, of equal amplitude and slightly diSerent wave-length ; 

' ' Addition au Memoire sur la Tlieorie,' &c. lAou. (2) xviii. p. 47. 
= ' On Waves,' Phil. Ma^. (5) i. p. 262. 

' ' On Waves in Liquids,' Proc. Roy. Sue, xvi. p. 344 (1868). 
* The paper is published in Nature, xvi. p. 343 : ' On the rate of progression ot 
groups of waves, and the rate at which energy is transmitted by waves.' 
' Theory of So^ind, vol. i. p. 246. 



RECENT PROGRESS IN HYDRODYNAMICS. 87 

and showed that if V is the velocity of propagation of a wave-form of 
length ^TTJli, the velocity of the group is d (kY)ldk. In the 'Proceedings 
of the Mathematical Society,'^ Rayleigh extends Reynolds's theory to other 
types of waves, and attempts to show how his expressions for the velocity 
may result from the theory of the latter. If the velocity of the wave 
vary as the ?Ath power of its wave-length, the velocity of group-propa- 
gation is (1 — n) times the velocity of the wave (V) ; thus, for deep-water 
waves it is ^V ; for aerial waves, V (beats travel with the same velocity 
as the notes) ; and for waves due to capillary action on the surface 
it is f V. 

The theory of these latter waves has been given by Thomson. ^ The 
velocity of propagation Avith air of density a, above water whose super- 
ficial tension is T is v/(<7,\/2t + 27rT,//\) where pi = g(l - ff)/! + o-) 
and T, = T/(l + a). So long as the wave-length is less than 27r V(TJgi) 
the velocity of propagation increases as the wave-length diminishes, and 
the capillary tension has most effect in producing the motion, while if the 
wave-length is greater, the velocity of propagation increases with the 
wave-length, and gravity has most effect. Thomson proposes to confine 
the name ripples to fluid waves whose wave-length is less than this 
critical value. The velocity of propagation is then a minimum and 
^/(2^/ C^TiTi) ). For water, this gives a velocity of 23 centimeters per 
second for a wave-length of 17 centimeters. This result agrees well with 
some experiments made by him on sea water. When wind acts on the 
surface, the results are modified, the wave-velocity with a wind-velocity 
equal to V is equal to ffV/(l + rr) ± {w^ — (7V2(1+ a) "^jJ where w is 
the velocitj^, without wind. The discussion of this formula leads to 
interesting results ; for instance, that the surface of still water is unstable 
if the velocity of the wind exceeds 



^^'^/^-^)) 



This accounts for the fact that a small breath of Avind sweeping over the 
surface of still water dims the surface only while it lasts, for the capillary 
waves die away at once through the viscosity of the water. The values of 
the velocity of propagation of capillary waves on water without air, have 
been found by Kohicek,^ apparently without knowledge of Thomson's 
work. 

Some very elegant illustrations of Huyghen's principle as applied to 
liquid waves have been given by Hirst.* He has developed the differen- 
tial equations for the line of ripple due to any centres, or lines of 
disturbance, which give small waves, as, for instance, the ripples just 
mentioned, on the surface of fluid moving in any manner ; and has 
applied them particularly to the case where the centre of disturbance 
describes a circle uniformly on still water. The results are compared 
with experiment, with full agreement between theory and practice. 

The theories of straight waves in a vertical square cylinder, and of 

• ' On progressive waves,' Proc. Land. Math. Soc, ix. p. *21. He states that the 
theory is originally due to Stokes. 

= ' Hydrokinetic Solutions,' parts 3, 4, 5, PMl. Mag. (4) slii. p. 368. 
' ' Ueber den Einfluss des capillaren Oberflachen'druckes auf die Fortpflanzungs- 
geschwindigkeit von Wasserwellen,' Wied. Ann. v. p. 42.5. 

* ' On Eipples and their relation to the velocities of currents,' PMl. Mag. (4), xxi. 
p, 1 and 188. 



88 KKPORT — 1881. 

cylindrical waves in circular vessels, have been investigated by Rayleigh ' 
and compared -with his own experiments and those of Professor Guthrie^ 
published in 187-5. The question has also been investigated by Giesen.^ 
Kircbhoff'' has considered plane waves in a rectangular trough whose 
sides are equally inclined to the vertical, the crests of the waves being 
l^arallel to the sides. 



Report of the Cotnriilttee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, 
Professor EoscoE, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and Dr. Schuster 
(Secretary), appointed for the piirpose of collecting information 
tvith regard to Meteoric Dust, and to consider the question of 
undertaking regular observations in various localities. 

This Committee was appointed for the double purpose of examining the 
observations hitherto recorded on the subject of meteoric dust, and of 
discussing the possibility of future more systematic investigations. 

With regard to the first point, we note that in a paper presented to 
the Royal Astronomical Society ^ in 1879, Mr. Ranyard has given what 
appears to be a j^retty complete account of the known observations as to 
the presence of meteoric dust in the atmosphere. 

It appears that in the year 1852 Professor Andrews found native iron 
in the basalt of the Giant's Causeway. Nordenskjold found particles of 
iron, which in all probability had a cosmic origin, in the snows of Fin- 
land and the icefields of the Arctic regions. Dr. T. L. Phipson, and, 
more recently, Tissandier, found similar particles deposited by the winds 
on plates exposed in different localities. Finally, Mr. John Murray dis- 
covered magnetic particles raised from the deposits at the bottom of the 
sea by H.M.S. Challenger. These particles were examined by Professor 
Alexander Herschel, who agreed with Mr. Murray in ascribing a cosmic 
origin to these particles. For fuller details and all references we must 
refer to Mr. Ranyard's paper. 

Some interesting papers have also been published by Professors 
Silvestri and Tacchini.^ 

There can be little doubt that magnetic dust, which in all probability 
derives its origin from meteors, has often been observed, though it ought 
to be mentioned that some writers have come to a contrary conclusion.^ 
The question arises in what way we can exercise our knowledge on these 
points to an appreciable extent. 

A further series of occasional observations would in all probability 
lead to no result of great value unless the observations were continued 

' ' On Waves,' Phil. Mag. (5), i. p. 257 (1876). 

= 'On Stationaiy Liquid Waves,' Phil. Mag. (4), L pp. 290. 377(1875); see also 
Eayleigli in Nature, xii. p. 251. 

' 'Versuch einermathematisclien Darstellung der Fliissigkeitswellen,' Schl. Zeits. 
filr Math., xxii. p. 133. 

* ' Ueber stehende Schwingungen cincr schweren Fliissigkeit,' Wied. Ann., x. 
p. 3i ; also Monatsber. d. It. ahad. d. Wiss. zu Bcrl., May 15, 1879. For experiments 
bearing on this theory see a paper by Kircbhoff andHansemann in the same journal, 
' Versuche iiber stehende Schwingungcn des Wassers,' ih., p. 3;i7. 

* Monthly Notices, xxxix. p. 161 (1879). 

" Annali della Mcteorologia, Tarte III. 1879. 

^ Flogel, Zfitschrift fiir Mcteorologic, August 1881, 



ON THE CALCULATION OF SDN-IIEAT COEFFICIENTS. 89 

over a considerable length of time, and carried on in places specially 
adapted for the purpose. 

For we know that meteoric dust does fall, and further observations 
onght, if possible, to be directed rather towards an approximate estimate 
of the quantity which falls within a given time. Difficulties very likely 
will be found in the determination of the locality in which the observa- 
tions should be conducted. The place ought to be sheltered as much as 
possible against any ordinary dust not of meteoric origin. The lonely 
spots best fitted for these observations ai-e generally accessible to occa- 
sional experiments only, and do not lend themselves easily to a regular 
series of observations. Nevertheless, experiments continued for a few 
months at some elevated spot in the Alps might lead to valuable results. 

The Committee would like to draw attention to an instrument which 
might be well fitted for snch observations. It was devised by Dr. 
Pierre Miquel for the purpose of examining, not the meteoric particles, 
but organic and organised matters floating about in the air. A descrip- 
tion, with illustrations, will be found in the ' Annuaire de Montsouris ' for 
1879. 

Two forms of the instrument are given. In the first form, which is 
only adapted to permanent places of observation, an aspirator draws a 
quantity of air which can be measured through a fine hole. The air 
impinges on a plate coated with glycerine, which retains all solid matter. 
By means of this instrument we may determine the quantity of solid 
particles within a given volume of air. 

The second more portable form does not allow such an accurate 
quantitative analysis. The instrument is attached to a weathercock, and 
thus is always directed against the wind, which traverses it, and 
deposits, as in the other permanent form, its solid matter on a glycerine 
plate. An anemometer placed in the vicinity serves to give an approxi- 
mate idea of the quantity of air which has passed through the apparatus. 
These instruments have been called aeroscopes by their inventor. 

But perhaps the simpler plan of exposing a large horizontal surface 
covered with glycerine, and examining the dust deposited on it, will 
prove the most efficient for the purpose which the Committee has in 
view. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of the Kev. Samuel 
Haughto\, M.D., F.R.S., and Benjamin Williamson, F.R.S., ap- 
pointed for the Galcnlation of Sun-heat Coefficients. Drawn 
up by Dr. Haughton. 

The Committee placed upon the table the volume of calculations relative 
to the equator, as a specimen of the five volumes which will ultimately 
be placed, for reference, in the library of Trinity College, Dublin ; and 
explained the method by which the reductions had been made. 

The formulae, by means of which the calculations were made, have 
been published in the British Association Report for the Sheffield meeting 
(1879), and the Royal Irish Academy have undertaken the publication of 
all the summarised results in detail, so that it will not be necessary to ask 
the Association to undergo the expense of printing them. 



90 REPORT— 1881. 

Note on Method of Bechiction. 

1°. Time spent by the sun in every zone of altitude, one degree broad, 
on each day of the year, is calculated. 

2°. These all added together should give a sum equal to half the year, 
or 

262,980 minutes. 
They actually give 

263,020 minutes, 
being an error of 40 minutes in the whole year. 

3". Supposing the error equally distributed in all the ninety zones ; a 
correction is made by a multiplier, and the approximate true time spent 
by the sun in each zone is found. 

4°. These times are then multiplied by the heat-coefficients of each 
zone, already published (Sheffield). 

5°. Tlie total heat received is represented by 27,03S'425. 

6°. The total heat received, if there were no atmosphere, is 
40,171-391. 

7°. The heat received at the earth's surface at the equator is there- 
fore only 07*55 per cent, of that i-ecclved at tho surface of the utmo- 
sphd'e. 



Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consistinrf o/ Professor Everett, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Professor 
Eamsay, Professor GtEIKIE, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor ED\^'ARD Hull, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Professor Gr. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. GrALLOWAY, jNIr. JoSERii DiCKiNSON, Mr. Gr. F. Deacon, Mr. 
E. Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahan, appointed for the purpose, 
of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Tempera- 
ture doivmuarcls in various Localities of Dry Land and under 
Water, Dratun ^^_p by Professor Everett (Secretary). 

Six observations in the Talargoch Lead Mine, Flintshire, were given in 
last Report, and another has since been taken at a point distant 400 
yards to the S.S.W. from Station VI. there mentioned. The depth 
beneath the surface of the ground is 220 yards, and the position is in a 
level going west from the engine-shaft. It was 3 yards from the fore- 
breast, and had only been exposed nine days. The level was dry and 
there was not much circulation of air. The thermometer (one of the 
Committee's slow-action instruments) was inserted in a hole 25 inches 
deep, which was plugged with rag and 12 inches of clay after its inser- 
tion. It was withdrawn and read on three several occasions, July 19, 23, 
and 27, and on each occasion the temperature found was 62° Fahr. 

Assuming, as in last year's Report, that 48° is the mean temperature 
at the surface, this would give an increase of 14° in 660 feet, or of 1° for 
47 feet. The rock is white limestone with a little chert. 

Comparing this observation with the other six, which exhibited great 
discordances among themselves, the discordance is still fuT'ther increased, 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPER ATURE. 91 

this last station being relatively hotter than any of the others. Though 
only 24 feet deeper than Station VI., it is 3-2° warmer ; and Station VI. 
was itself exceptionally warm. 

It is evident that there are local sources of distui-bance which render 
this spot unsuitable for obtaining average results. The observation itself 
may be relied upon as correct, having been made by the captain of the 
mine, Mr. J. Lean, who assisted Mr. Strahan in last year's observations. 

Mr. E. Garside, engineering student. Queen's College, Belfast, has 
continued his observations in the East Manchester coal-field. 

In Ashton Moss Colliery, the temperature was observed on June 27 at 
the depth of 930 yards, and found to be 85-3°, the thermometer being 
inserted in a hole 2 inches in diameter and 3^ feet deep, drilled for the 
purpose in hard blue shale which lies below the Great Mine coal seam, 
being newly-opened ground, dry, and free from cracks. The hole was 
allowed to stand ten or fifteen minutes, that the heat of drilling might 
partially escape, and one of the Committee's slow-action thermometers 
was then inserted with proper plugging, and left in for six hours. It 
was not considered advisable to leave it longer, as, ' owing to the great 
crush and unsettled state of the ground,' there might have been difficulty 
in extracting it. Up to the time at which the thermometer was withdrawn, 
no disturbance of the solidity of the ground had occurred. The tunnel, 
and especially this part of it, was free from the action of any strong air- 
current. 

Assuming 49° as the surface-temperature, we have here an increase of 
36-3° in 2,790 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 76-9 feet. 

Earlier observations were taken, at the depths of 871 and 897 yards, 
by the colliery engineer ; but Mr. Garside reports that the thermometer 
with which they were taken was an ordinary cheap one with wood scale, 
and that on examination the tube was found to be a little loose in the 
scale. It seems best therefore to neglect them as unreliable. 

^ In reference to an apprehension which was expressed that the heat of 
drilling had not had sufficient time to escape, Mr. Garside writes that he 
has on several occasions made a second observation in the same hole in 
places where he knew that the strata would stand and not crack, and he 
has always found the temperature unchanged ; but that it is impossible to 
repeat the observation at such great depths as that of Ashton Moss, as in 
a few hours the holes became crooked. 

Mr. Garside's next observation was at Bredbnry Colliery (in the 
county of Cheshire), at the depth of 340 yards. A hole was drilled, as 
before, in dry warren earth (an argillaceous rock) free from cracks or 
water, in New Mine south level ; and the temperature, observed as before, 
was 62°. 

Assuming (as above) 49° as the surface-temperature, we have here an 
increase of 13° in 1,020 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 78-5 feet. 

The distance from Ashton Moss Colliery is three or four miles, and 
the two shafts are sunk through the same coal-measures, one being near 
the outcrop, and the other more on the deep. 

Making no assumption as to surface-temperature, but comparing the 
two observations with each other, we have an increase of 23-3° in 1,770 
feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 760 feet. The consistency of these 
results is eminently satisfactory. 

On a subsequent date, July 19, Mr. Garside took the temperature at 
Nook Pit, belonging to the Broad Oak Colliery Company, at the depth of 



92 iiEPORT — 1881. 

350 yards, in the floor of the Royley Mine. It is in newly opened gronnd, 
free from cracks or other visible irregularities, at the far end of the newly 
opened North Level. The depth of the hole, which was in hard warren 
earth, and the other conditions of observation, were the same as before, 
and the temperature observed was 62^° Fahr. 

Taking the surface-temperature as 49°, this gives an increase of 13g-° 
in 1,050 feet, or of 1° for 79 feet. 

AH these stations, as well as Dukinfield, where Mr. Garside last year 
obtained results in good agreement with those now presented, are within 
a few miles of each other and close to the river Tame, which is here the 
boundary between Lancashire and Cheshire. Mr. Garside calls attention 
to the great quantity of water which is found in some parts of the rock 
overlying the coal-measures in this district, a source Avhich is largely 
di'awn upon for water-supply, and suggests, with much show of reason, 
that its presence may account for the slowness of the rate of increase 
shown by all these observations. 

Mr. James M'Murtrie, general manager of the Radstock Collieries, near 
Bath, has taken observations in three different pits belonging to these 
collieries. The instrument used in each case was one of the Committee's 
slow-acting thermometers, placed in a hole drilled 2 feet deep, which was 
jilugged with about 4 inches of clay. A moderate current of air was 
passing. The level, in each case, was dry and free from cracks, and the 
face at the place where the hole was drilled had only been exposed a day 
or two. The rocks overhead consist of lias above, then new red sand- 
stone, and under this the shales and sandstones of the coal-measures. The 
mines, speaking generally, are comparatively dry, and the strata were 
perfectly dry where the temperatures were taken. There are no great hills 
near, the Mendips being about six miles distant, and the surface rises 
about one in fifty towards them, leaving out of account local undulations. 
The strata in all three cases were nearly level. 

In Wells May Pit, the thermometer was left two days in a hole drilled 
in the sandstone rock at the depth of 560 feet, and read 61'7°. 

In Ludlow's Pit, it was left two days in a hole drilled in the Ball Vein 
coal, at the depth of 1,000 feet, and read 63°. 

In the same pit it was left five days in a hole drilled in the Middle 
Vein coal, at the depth of 810 feet, and read 63°. 

All these observations were taken in June and July of the present 
year. Arranging them in order of depth, and assuming the surface- 
temperature to be 50°, the result stands thus : — 



Depth 


Temperature 


Excess over 


Feet per 


in feet 


Fahr. 


surface 


decree 


.560 


61-7 


11-7 


48 


810 


63 


13 


62 


1000 


63 


13 


77 



They exhibit a large amount of irregularity, which is not easily 
accounted for. The mean result may be taken as 1° in 62 feet. Mr. 
Wethered's observations in the Kingswood Collieries, near Bristol (see 
' Report' for 1879), gave about 1° in 68 feet. 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 93 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Gr. H. Uakwin, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor GtRANT, 
Dr. Siemens, Professor Purser, Professor Gr. J'orijes, and Mr. 
Horace Dar'Win, appoiivted /«»?' the Measurement of the Lunar 
Disturbance of Gravity. 

On an instrument for detecting and measuring small changes in the direction 
of the force of graviti/, hy George H. Darwin, M.A., F.B.8., formerly 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cavtbridge, and Horace Darwin, M.A., 
Assoc. M. Inst. G.JE. 

[This report is written in the name of G. H. Darwin merely for the sake of verbal 

convenience.] 

I. Accotmt of the experiments. 

We feel some difficulty as to the form wliich this report should talce, 
because we are still carrying on our experiments, and have, as yet, 
arrived at no final results. As, however, we have done a good deal of 
"woi'k, and have come to conclusions of some interest, we think it better 
to give at once an account of our operations up to the present time, 
rather than to defer it to the fnture. 

In November, 1878, Sir William Thomson saggested to me that 
I should endeavour to investigate experimentally the lunar disturbance 
of gravity, and the question of the tidal yielding of the solid earth. 
In May, 1879, we both visited him at Glasgow, and there saw an 
instrument, which, although roughly put togethea", he believed to contain 
the principle by which success might perhaps be attained. The instrument 
was erected in the Physical Laboratory of the University of Glasgow. 
We are not in a position to give an accurate description of it, but the 
following rough details are quite sufficient. 

A solid lead cylinder, weighing perhaps a pound or two, was suspended 
by a fine brass wire, about 5 feet in length, from the centre of the lintel 
or cross-beam of the solid stone gallows, wliich is erected there for the 
purpose of pendulum experiments. A spike projected a little way out 
of the bottom of the cylindrical weight ; a single silk fibre, several 
inches in length, was cemented to this spike, and the other end of the 
fibre was cemented to the edge of an ordinary galvanometer-mii-ror. 
A second silk fibre, of equal length, was cemented to the edge of the 
mirror at a point near to the attachment of the former fibre. The other 
end of this second fibre was then attached to a support, which was 
connected with the base of the stone gallows. The support was so 
placed that it stood very near to the spike at the bottom of the pendulum, 
and the mirror thus hung by the bifilar suspension of two silks, which 
stood exceedingly near to one another in their upper parts. The instru- 
ment was sci'eened from draughts by paper pasted across between the two 
pillars of the gallows ; but at the iDottom, on one side, a pane of glass 
was inserted, thi-ough which one could see the pendulum-bob and 
galvanometer-mirror. 

It is obvious that a small displacement of the pendulum, in a direction 
perpendicular to the two silks, will cause the mirror to turn about a 
vertical axis. 



94 HEPOBT— 1881. 

A lamp and slit were arranged, as in a galvanometer, for exhibiting 
the movement of the pendulum, by means of the beam of light reflected 
from the mirror. 

No systematic observations were made, but we looked at the instrument 
at various hours of the day and night, and on Sunday also, when the 
street and railway traffic is very small. 

The reflected beam of light was found to be in incessant movement, 
of so irregular a character that it was hardly possible to localise the 
mean position of the spot of light on the screen, within 5 or 6 inches. 
On returning to the instrument after several hours, we frequently found 
that the light had wandered to quite a difi'erent part of the room, and wc 
had sometimes to search through nearly a semicircle before finding it 
again. 

Sir William Thomson showed us that, by standing some 10 feet away 
from the piers, and swaying from one foot to the other, in time Avith the 
free oscillations of the pendulum, quite a large oscillation of the spot of 
light could be produced. Subsequent experience has taught us that con- 
siderable precautions are necessary to avoid efl'ects of this kind, and the 
stone piers at Glasgow did not seem to be well isolated from the floor, and 
the top of the gallows was used as a junction for a number of electric 
connections. 

The cause of the extreme irregularity of the movements of the pendulum 
was obscure ; and as Sir William Thomson was of opinion that the instru- 
ment was well worthy of careful study, we determined to undertake a 
series of experiments at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge. Wo 
take this opportunity of recording our thanks to Lord Rayleigh' for his 
kindness in placing rooms at our disposal, and for his constant readiness 
to help us. 

The pressure of other employments on both of us prevented our 
beginning operations immediately, and the length of time which we have 
now spent over these experiments is partly referable to this cause, 
although it is principally due to the number of difficulties to be overcome, 
and to the quantity of apparatus which has had to be manufactured. 

In order to avoid the possibility of disturbance from terrestrial 
magnetism, we determined that our pendulum should be made of pure 
copper.'^ Mr. Hussey Vivian kindly gave me an introduction to Messrs. 
Elkington, of Birmingham ; and, although it was quite out of their 
ordinary line of business, they consented to make what we required. 
Accordingly, they made a pair of electrolytically- deposited solid copper 
cylinders, 5j inches long, and 2j inches in diameter. From their 
appearance, we presume that the deposition was made on to the inside of 
copper tubes, and we understand that it occupied six weeks to take place. 
In November, 1879, they sent us these two heavy masses of copper, and, 
declining any payment, courteously begged our acceptance of them. 
Of these two cylinders we have, as yet, only used one ; but should our 
pi-esent endeavours lead to results of interest, we shall ultimately require 
both of them. 

Two months before the receipt of our weights, the British Association 
had reappointed the Committee for the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity, 
and had added our names thereto. Since that time, with the exception 

' Professor Maxwell had given us permission to use the ' pendulum room,' but we 
had not yet begun our operations at the time of his death. 

" We now think that this was probably a superfluity of precaution. 



ON THE MEASDREMENT OV THE LUNAU DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 95 

of compulsory intermissions, we have continued to work at this subject. 
My brother Horace and I have always discussed together the plan on 
which to pi'oceed ; but up to the present time much the larger part of 
the work has consisted in devising mechanical expedients for overcoming 
difficulties. In this work he has borne by very far the larger share ; and 
the apparatus has been throughout constructed from his designs, and 
under his superintendence, by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument 
Company. 

Near the corner of a stone-paved ground-floor room in the Cavendish 
Laboratory there stands a very solid stone gallows, similar to, but rather 
more massive than, the one at Glasgow. As it did not appear thoroughly 
free from rigid connection with the floor, we had the pavement raised all 
round the piers, and the earth was excavated from round the brick 
basement to the depth of about 2 feet 6 inches, until we were assured 
that there was no connection with the floor or walls of the room, excepting 
through the earth. The ditch, which was left round the piers, was 
found very useful for enabling us to carry out the somewhat delicate 
manipulations involved in hanging the mirror by its two silk fibres. 

Into the middle of the flat ends of one of our copper weights (which 
weighed 4,797 grammes, with spec. gr. 8-91) were screwed a pair of 
copper plugs ; one plug was square-headed and the other pointed. Into 
the centre of the square plug was soldered a thin copper wire, just capable 
of sustaining the weight, and intended to hang the pendulum. 

A stout cast-iron tripod was made for the support of the pendulum. 
Through a hole in the centre of it there ran rather loosely a stout iron rod 
with a screw cut on it. A nut ran on the screw and prevented the rod 
from slipping through the hole. The other end of the copper wire was 
fixed into the end of the rod. 

The tripod was placed with its three legs resting near the margin of 
the circular hole in the centre of the lintel of the gallows. The iron rod 
was in the centre of the hole, and its lower end appeared about six inches 
below the lower face of the lintel. The pendulum hung from the rod by 
a wire of such length as to bring the spiked plug within a few inches of 
the base of the gallows. This would of course be a very bad way of 
hanging a pendulum which is intended to swing, but in our case the dis- 
placements of the end of the pendulum were only likely to be of a magni- 
tude to be estimated in thousandths or even millionths of an inch, and it 
is certain that for such small displacements the nut from which the 
pendulum hung could not possibly rock on its bearings. However, in 
subsequent experiments we improved the arrangement by giving the nut 
a flange, from which there projected three small equidistant knobs, on 
which the nut rested. 

The length of the pendulum from the upper juncture with the iron rod 
down to the tip of the spike in the bob was 148-2 cm. 

An iron box was cast with three short legs, two in front and one 
behind ; its interior dimensions were 15 x 15 x 17i cm. ; it had a tap at 
the back; the front face (15 X 17h) was left open, with ai-rangements for 
fixing a plate-glass face thereon. "The top face (15 x 17i) was pierced 
by a large round hole. On to this hole was cemented an ordinary 
earthenware 4-inch drain pipe, and on to the top of this first pipe there 
was cemented a second. The box was thus provided with a chimney 
144 cm. high. The cubic contents of the box and chimney were about 
3^ gallons. 



96 REPORT— 1881, 

The box was' placed standing on tbe base of tlie gallows, witb the 
chimney vertically underneath the round hole in the lintel. The top of 
the chimney nearly reached the lower face of the lintel, and the iron rod 
of the pendulum extended a few inches down into ihe chimney. The 
pendulum wire ran down the middle of the chimney, and the lower half 
of the pendulum bob was visible through the open face of the iron box. 
The stone gallows faces towards the S.E., but we placed the box askew 
on the base, so that its open face was directed towards the S. 

The three legs of the box rested on little metal discs, each with a conical 
hole in it, and these discs rested on three others of a somewhat larger size. 
When the box was set ajo^^roximately in position, we could by an arrange- 
ment of screws cause the smaller discs to slide a fraction of an inch on the 
larger ones, and thus exactly adjust the position of the box and chimney. 

A small stand, something like a retort stand, about 4 inches high, 
stood on a leaden base, with a short horizontal arm clamped by a screw on ' 
to the thin vertical rod. This was the ' fixed ' support for the bifilar 
suspension of the mirror. The stand was placed to the E. of the pendulum 
bob, and the horizontal arm reached out until it came very close to the 
sjDike of the iiendulum. 

The suspension and protection from tarnishing of our mirror gave us 
much trouble, but it is useless to explain the various earlier methods 
employed, because we have now overcome these difficulties in a manner to 
be described later. The two cocoon fibres were fixed at a considerable 
distance apart on the edge of the mirror, and as they were very short they 
splayed out at nearly a right angle to one another. By means of this 
arrangement the free period of oscillation of the mirror was made very 
short, and we were easily able to separate the long free swing of the pen- 
dulum from the short oscillations of the mirror. 

The mirror was hung so that the upper ends of the silks stood wiiliin 
an eighth of an inch of one another, but the tip of the spike stood ^ or -j'|j of 
an inch higher than the fixed support. The plate-glass front of the box 
was then fixed on with indiarubber packing. 

It is obvious that a movement of the box pai'allel to the front from E. 
to W. would bring the two fibres nearer together ; this operation we shall 
describe as sensitising the instrument. A movement of the box perpen- 
dicular to the front would cause the mirror to show its face parallel to tlie 
front of the box ; this operation we shall describe as centralising. As 
sensitising will generally decentralise, both sets of screws had to be 
worked alternately. 

The adjusting screws for moving the box did not work very well ; 
nevertheless, by a little trouble we managed to bring the two silks of the 
bifilar suspension very close to one another. 

After the instrument had been hung as above described, wo t)-ied a 
preliminary sensitisation, and found the pendulum to respond to a slight 
touch on either pier. The spot of light reflected from tlie mirror was very 
unsteady, but not nearly so much so as in the Glasgow experiment; and 
we were quite unable to produce any perceptible increase of agitation by 
stamping or swaying to and fro on the stone floor. This showed that the 
isolation of the pier was far more sati.sfactory than at Glasgow. 

We then filled the box and pipes with water. We had much trouble 
with slow leakage of the vessel, but the most serious difficulty arose from 
the air-bubbles which adhered to the pendulum. By using boiled water 
we obviated this fairly well, but we concluded that it was a great mistake 



ON TBB MEASUEEMBNI OF THE LUNAE DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 97 

to have a flat bottom to the pendnlum. This mistake we have remedied 
in the final experiment described in the present paper. 

The damping effect of the water on the oscillations of the pendulum 
and of the mirror was very great, and although the incessant dance of 
the light contmued, it was of much smaller amplitude, and comparatively 
large oscillations of the pendulum, caused by giving the piers a push, 
died out after two or three swings. A very slight push on the stone piers 
displaced the mean position of the light, but jumping and stamping on 
the pavement of the room produced no perceptible effect. If, however, 
one of us stood on the bare earth in the ditch behind, or before the 
massive stone pier, a very sensible deflection of the light was caused ; 
this we now know was caused by an elastic depression of the earth, which 
tilted the whole structure in one or the other direction. A pull of a few 
ounces, delivered horizontally on the centre of the lintel, produced a clear 
deflection, and when the pull was 81bs., the deflection of the spot of hght 
amounted to 45 cm. Wc then determined to make some rough systematic 
experiments. 

The room Avas darkened by shutters over all the windows, and the 
doors were kept closed. The paraffin lamp stood at three or four feet to 
the S.E. of the easterly stone pier, but the light was screened from the 
pier. 

We began our readings at 12 noon (March 15, 1880), and took eight 

between that time and 10.30 p.m. From 12 noon nntil 4 p.m. the lamp 

was left burning, but afterwards it was only lighted for about a minute to 

take each reading. At 12 the reailing was 595 m.m., and at 4 p.m. it 

was 936 m.m.' ; these readings, together with the intermediate ones, 

showed that the pendulum had been moving northwards with a nearly 

uniform velocity. After the lamp was put out, the pendulum moved 

southward, and by 10.30 p.m. was nearly in the same position as at noon. 

During the whole of the two following days and a part of the next we 

took a number of readings from 9 A.M. nntil 11 p.m. The observations 

when gi-aphically exhibited showed a fairly regular wave, the pendulum 

being at the maximum of its northern excursion between 5 and 7 p.m., 

and probably furthest south between the . same hours in the morning. 

But besides this wave motion, the mean position for the day travelled a 

good deal northward. We think that a part of this diurnal oscillation 

was due to the warping of the stone columns from changes of temperature. 

An increase of temperature on the south-east faces of the piers canned 

the lintel towards the north-west, and of this displacement we observed 

only the northerly component. The lamp produced a very rapid efi'ect, 

and the diurnal change lagged some two hours behind the change in the 

external air. The difference between the temperatures of the S.E. and 

N.W. faces of the pier must have been very slight indeed. At that time, 

and indeed until quite recently, we attributed the whole of this diurnal 

oscillation to the warping of the piers, but we now feel nearly certain that 

it was due in great measure to a real change in the horizon. 

We found that warming one of the legs of the iron tripod, even by 
contact with the finger, produced a marked effect, and we concluded that 
the mode of suspension was unsatisfactory. 

' I give the numbers as recorded in the note-book, but the readings would some- 
times diifer by 2 or 3 m.m. within half-a-minute. The light always waves toand 
fro in an uncertain sort of way, so that it is impossible to assign a mean position 
witli any certainty. 

1881. H 



98 REPORT — l88i. 

Altliotlgli we had thus learnt that changes of temperature formed 
the great obstacle in the way of success, thei'c were a good many things 
to be learnt from the instrument as it existed at that time. 

After the box and pipes had been filled for some days the plate-glass 
front cracked quite across, and a slow leakage began to take place ; we 
were thus compelled to dismount tlic whole appai-atus and to make a 
fresh start. 

It is obvious that to detect and measure displacements of the pendulum 
in the N. and S. direction, the azimuth of the silks by which the mirror 
is suspended must be E. and W., and that although any E. and W. dis- 
placement of the pendulum will be invisible, still such displacement will 
alter the sensitiveness of the instrument for the N. and S. disiDlacements. 
In order to obviate this we determined to constrain the pendulum to 
move only iu the N. and S. azimuth. 

Accordingly wc had a T-piece about 4 inches long fixed to the end of 
the iron rod from which the pendulum hung. The two ends of a fine 
copper wire were soldered into the ends of the T-picce ; a long loop of 
wire was thus formed. The square-headed plug at the top of the 
pendulum-bob was replaced by another containing a small copper wheel, 
which could revolve about a horizontal axis. The bearings of the wheel 
were open on one side. 

When the wheel was placed to ride on the bottom of the wire loop, 
and the pendulum-bob hooked on to the axle of the wheel by the open 
bearings, we had our pendulum hanging by a bifilar suspension. The 
motion of the pendulum was thus constrained to take place onlj'^ perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the wire loop. 

The iron tripod was replaced by a slate slab large enough to entirely 
cover the hole in the lintel of the gallows. Through the centre of the 
slab was a round hole, of about one inch in diameter, through which 
passed the ii'on rod with the T-jjiece at the lower end. The iron rod was 
supported on the slate by means of the flanged nut above referred to. 
There was also a straight slot, cut quite through the slab, running from 
the central hole to the margin. The purpose of this slot will be explained 
presently. 

In the preceding experiment we had no means of determining the 
absolute amount of displacement of the pendulum, although, of course, 
we knew that it must be very small. There are two methods by which 
the absolute displacements are determinable ; one is to cause known small 
displacements to the pendulum and to watch the effect on the mirror ; 
and the second is to cause known small horizontal forces to act on the 
pendulum. We have hitherto only employed the latter method, but we 
are rather inclined to think that the former may give better results. 

The following- plan for producing small known horizontal forces was 
suggested by my Ijrother. 

Suppose there be a very large and a very small pendulum hanging by 
wires of equal length from neighbouring points in the same horizon ; and 
suppose the large and the small pendulum to be joined by a fibre which 
is a very little shorter than the distance between the points of suspension. 
Then each pendulum is obviously deflected a little from the vertical, but 
the deflection of the small pendulum varies as the mass of the larger, and 
that of the larger as the mass of the smaller. If m be the mass of the 
small pendulum, and If of the large one, and if a be the distance between 
the points of suspension, then it may be easily shown that if a be in- 



ON THE MEASDREMENT OV THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE 01? GRAVITY. 99 

creased by a small leugfcli ca, the increase of tlie linear deflection of the 
large pendulum is mcal(m + M). If I be the length of cither pendulum, 
the angular deflection of the larger one is mlajl^m + M), and this is 
the deflection which would be produced by a horizontal force equal to 
mlajl{m+M) of gravity. It is clear, then, that by making the inequality 
between the two weights rii and M very great, and the displacement of the 
point of suspension very small, we may deflect the large pendulum by as 
small a quantity as we like. The theory is almost the same if the two 
pendulums are not of exactly the same length, or if tho length of one of 
them be varied. 

Now in our application of this principle we did not actually attach the 
two pendulums together, but we made the little pendulum lean up against 
the large one ; the theory is obviously just tho same. 

We call the small pendulum ' the disturber,' because its use is to 
disturb the large pendulum by known forces. A small copper weight for 
the disturber weighed '732 grammes, and the large pendulum-bob, with its 
pulley, weighed 4831"5. Therefore the one was 6600 times as massive as 
the other. The disturber was hung by a platinum wire about xoVcr*'^ of 
an inch in diameter, which is a good deal thinner than a fine human 
hair. 

We must now explain how the disturber was suspended, and the 
method of moving its point of suspension. 

Parallel to the sides of the slot in the slate slab there was riveted a 
pair of brass rails, one being V-shaped and the other flat ; on these rails 
there slid a little carriage with three legs, one of which slid on one rail, 
and the other two on the other. A brass rod with an eyelet-hole at the 
end was fixed to the centre of the carriage, and was directed downwards 
so that it passed through the centre of the slot. The slot was directed 
so that it was perpendicular to the T-piece from which the pendulum hung, 
and the brass rod of the little carriage was bent and of such length, that 
when the carriage was pushed on its rails until it was as near the centre of 
the slab as it would go, the eyelet-hole stood just below the T-piece, and 
half-way between the two wires. A micrometer screw was clamped to 
the slab and was arranged for making the carriage traverse known lengths 
on its rails, and as the wires of the pendulum were in the E. and W. 
plane, the carriage was caused to travel N. and S. by its micrometer 
screw. 

One end of the fine platinum wire was fastened to the eyelet, and the 
other (as above stated) to the small disturbing weight. The platinum 
wire was of such length that the disturber just reached the pulley by 
which the big pendulum hung. We found that by pushing the carriage 
up to the centre, and very slightly tilting it off one rail, we could cause 
the disturber-weight to rest on either side of the pulley at will. If it 
was left on the side of the pulley remote from the disturber-carriage, it 
was in gear, and the traversing of the carriage on its rails would produce 
a small pressure of the disturber on to the side of the pulley. If it was 
left on the same side of the pulley as tho disturber-carriage, the two 
pendulums were quite independent and the disturber was out of gear. 

On making allowance for the diS'erence in length between the pen- 
dulum and the disturber, and for the manner in which the thrust was 
delivered at the top of the pendulum, but omitting the corrections for 
the weights of the suspending wires and for the elasticity of the copper 
wire, we found that one turn of the micrometer screw should displace the 

H2 



100 itEPORi— 188i. 

spike at the bottom of the pendulum tlirougli O'OOOl mln. or o^sVwTr^h of 
an inch. The same displacement would be produced by an alteration in 
the direction of gravity with reference to the earth's surface by jV^h of a 
second of arc. 

A rough computation showed that the to and fro motion of the 
pendulum in the N.S. azimuth, due to lunar attraction, should, if the 
earth be rigid, be the same as that produced by 2f turns of the micro- 
meter screw. 

We now return to the other arrangements made in re-erecting the 
instrument. 

A new mirror, silver-ed on the face, was used, and was hung in a 
slightly different manner. 

The fluid in which the pendulum was himg was spirits and water. 
The physical properties of such a mixture will be referred to later. In 
order to avoid air-bubbles we boiled 3| gallons of spirits and water 
for three hours in vacuo, and the result appeared satisfactory in that 
respect. 

After the mirror was hung, the plate-glass front to the box was fixed 
and the vessel was filled by the tap in the back of the box. The disturber 
was not introduced until afterwards, and we then found that the pen- 
dulum I'esponded properly to the disturbance. 

As the heat of a lamp in the neighbourhood of the piers exercised a 
large disturbance, we changed the method of observing, and read the 
reflection of a scale with a telescope. The scale was a levelling staff 
divided into feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, laid horizontally 
at 15 feet fx-om the piers, with the telescope immediately over it. 

Since the amount of fluid through which the light had to pass was 
considerable, we wei'e forced to place a gas- flame immediately in front of 
the scale ; but the gas was only kept alight long enough to take a 
reading. 

After sensitising the instrument we found that the incessant dance 
of the image of the scale was markedly less than when the pendulum 
was hung in water. A touch with a finger on either pier produced 
deflection by bending the piers, and the instrument responded to the 
disturber. 

The vessel had been filled with fluid for some days, and we had 
just begun a series of readings, when the plate-glass front again cracked 
quite across without any previous warning. Thus ended our second 
attempt. 

In the third experiment (July and August, 1880) the arrangements 
were so nearly the same as those just described that we need not refer to 
them. The packing for the plate-glass front was fonned of red lead, 
and this proved perfectly successful, whereas the indiarubber pack- 
ing had twice failed. As we were troubled by invisible leakage and 
by the evaporation of the fluid, we arranged an inverted bottle, so as 
always to keep the chimney full. We thought that when the T-piece at 
the end of the shaft became exposed to the air, the pendulum became 
much more unsteady, but we now think it at least possible that there 
was merely a period of real terrestrial disturbance. 

From August 10 to 14 we took a series of observations from early 
morning until late at night. We noted the same sort of diurnal oscilla- 
tory motion as before, but the outline of the curve was far less regular. 
This, we think, may perhaps be explained by the necessity we were under 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 101 

of leaving the doors open a good deal, in order to permit the cord to pass 
by which Lord Rayleifjh was spinning the British Association coil. 

Notwithstanding that the weather was sultry the warping of the 
stone coliimus mast have been very slight, for a thermometer hung close 
to the pier scarcely showed a degree of change between the day and 
night, and the difference of temperature of the IST. and S. faces must have 
been a very small fraction of a degree. At that time, however, we still 
thought that the whole of the diurnal oscillation was due to the warping 
of the columns. 

We next tried a series of experiments to test the sensitiveness of the 
instrument. 

As above remarked the image of the scale was continually in motion, 
and moreover the mean reading was always shifting in either one direc- 
tion or the other. At any one time it was possible to take a reading to 
within -iVth of a foot with certainty, and to make an estimate of the 
-p\^th of a foot, but the numbers given below are necessarily to be 
regarded as very rough approximations. 

As above stated, the gallows faced about to the S.E., and we may 
describe the two square piers as the E. and W. piers, and the edges 
of each pier by the points of the compass towards which they are 
directed. 

On August 14, 1880, my bi'other stood on a plank supported by the 
pavement of the room close to the S.W. edge of the W. pier, and, light- 
ing a spirit lamp, held the flame for ten seconds within an inch or two of 
this edge of the pier. The effect was certainly produced of making the 
pendulum-bob move northwards, but as such an effect is fused in the 
diurnal change then sroing: on, the amount of effect was uncertain. He 
then stood similarly near the N.E. edge of the E. pier, and held the 
spirit flame actually licking the edge of the stone during one minute. 
The effect should now be opposed to the diurnal change, and it was so. 
Before the exposure to heat was over the reading had decreased '15 feet, 
and after the heat was withdrawn the recovery began to take place 
almost immediately. "VVe concluded afterwards that the effect was equi- 
valent to a change of horizon of about 0"'15. 

When the flame was held near but not touching the lintel for thirty 
seconds, the effect was obvious but scarcely measurable, even in round 
numbers, on account of the unsteadiness of the image. 

When a heated lump of brass was pushed under the iron box no 
effect whatever was perceived, and even when a spirit flame was held 
so as to lick one side of the iron box during thirty seconds, M^e could not 
be sure that there was any effect. We had expected a violent disturb- 
ance, but these experiments seemed to show that convection currents in 
the fluid produce remarkably little effect. 

When a pull of 300 grammes was delivered on to the centre of the 
lintel in a southward direction, we determined by several trials that the 
displacement of the reading was about '.SO feet, which may be equal to 
about 0"'.3 change of horizon. 

Two-thirds of a watering-can of water was poured into the ditch at 
the back of the pier. In this expei'iment the swelling of the ground 
should have an effect antagonistic to that produced by the cooling of the 
back face of the pier, and also to the diurnal changes then going on. 
The swelling of the ground certainly tilted the pier over, so that the 
reading was altered by '10 foot. A further dose of -^^'ater seean.ed to have 



102 IIKPORT— 1881. 

the same effect, and it took more than an honi* for the piers to regain their 
former position. As the normal diurnal change was going on simulta- 
neously, we do not know the length of time during which the water con- 
tinued to produce an effect. 

On August 15 we tried a series of experiments with the disturber. 
When the disturber was displaced on its rails, the penduluna took a very 
perceptible time to take up its new position, on account of the A^scosity 
of the fluid in which it was immersed. 

The diurnal changes Avhich were going on pi'evented the readings 
from being very accordant amongst themselves, but we concluded that 
twenty-five turns of the screw gave between '4 foot and '3 foot alteration 
in the reading on the scale. From tlie masses and dimensions of the 
pendulum and disturber, we concluded that 1 foot of our scale corre- 
sponded with about 1" change in horizon. Taking into account the 
length of the pendulum, it appeared that 1 foot of our scale corresponded 
with y-4:\jyth of a mm. displacement of the spike at the bottom of the 
pendulum. Now as a tenth of a foot of alteration of reading could be 
perceived with certainty, it followed that when the pendulum point 
moved through T^^-fnT^li of ^ mm. we could certainly perceive it. 

During the first ten days the mean of the diurnal readings gradually 
increased, showing that the pendulum was moving northwards, until the 
reading had actually shifted 8 feet on the scale. It then became neces- 
sary to shift the scale. Between August 23 and 25 the reading had 
changed another foot. We then left Cambridge. On returning in 
October we found that this change had continued. The mixTor had, 
however, become tarnished, and it was no longer possible to take a 
reading, although one could just see a gas flame by reflection from the 
mirror. 

Whilst erecting the pendulum we had to stand on, and in front of, 
the piers, and to put them under various kinds of stress, and we always 
found that after such stress some sort of apparently abnormal changes in 
the piers continued for three or four hours afterwards. 

We were at that time at a loss to understand the reason of this long- 
continued change in the mean position of the pendulum, and were reluc- 
tant to believe that it indicated any real change of horizon of the whole 
soil ; but after having read the papers of MM. d'Abbadie and Planta- 
mour, we now believe that such a real change was taking place. 

By this course of experiments it appeared that an instrument of the 
kind desci'ibed may be brought to almost any degree of sensitiveness. 
We had seen, however, that a stone support is unfavourable, because 
the bad conductivity of stone prevents a rapid equalisation of tempera- 
ture between different parts, and even small inequalities of temperature 
produce considerable warping of the stone piers. But it now seems 
probable that we exaggerated the amount of disturbance which may 
arise from this cause. 

A cellar would undoubtedly be the best site for such an experiment, 
but unfortunately there is no such place available in the Cavendish 
Laboratory. Lord Rayleigh, however, placed the ' balance room ' at 
our disposal, and this room has a northerly aspect. There are two 
windows in it, high up on the north wall, and these we keep boarded up. 
The arrangements which we now intended to make were that the 
pendulum and mirror should be hung in a very confined space, and 
should be immersed in fluid of considerable viscosity. Tiie boundaiy of 



ON THE MEASUBEMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 103 

that space should be made of a heat-conducting material, which should 
itself form the support for the pendulum. The whole instrument, 
including the basement, was to be immersed in water, and the basement 
itself was to be carefully detached from contact with the building in 
which it stands. By these means we hoped to damp out the short oscil- 
lations due to local tremors, but to allow the longer oscillations free to 
take place ; but above all we desired that changes of temperature in the 
instrument should take place with great slowness, and should be, as far 
as possible, equal all round. 

We removed the pavement from the centre of the room, and had a 
circular hole, about 3 feet 6 inches in diameter, excavated in the ' made 
earth,' until we got down to the undistni-bed gravel, at a depth of about 
2 feet 6 inches. 

We obtained a large cylindrical stone 2 feet 4 inches in diameter and 
2 feet G inches in height, weighing about three-quarters of a ton. This 
we had intended to place on the earth in the hole, so that its upper sur- 
face should stand flush with the pavement of the room. But the excava- 
tion had been carried down a little too deep, and therefore an ordinary 
flat paving stone was placed on the earth, with a thin bedding of cement 
underneath it. The cylindrical block was placed to stand upon the 
paving stone, with a very thin bedding of lime and water between the 
two stones. The svirface of the stone was then flush with the floor. We 
do not think that any sacrifice of stability has been made by this course. 

An annular trench or ditch a little less than a foot across is left round 
the stone. We have lately had the bottom of the ditch cemented, and 
the vertical sides lined with brickwork, which is kept clear of any con- 
tact with the paA^ement of the room. On the S. side the ditch is a little 
wider, and this permits us to stand in it conveniently. The bricked 
ditch is watertight, and has a small overflow pipe into the drains. The 
water in the ditch stands slightly higher than the flat top of the cylin- 
drical stone, and thus the whole basement may be kept immersed in 
water, and it is, presumably, at a very uniform temperature all round. 

Before describing the instrument itself we will explain the remaining 
precautions for equalisation of temperature. 

On the flat top of the stone stands a large barrel or tub, 5 feet G 
inches high and 1 foot 10 inches in diameter, open at both ends. The 
diameter of the stone is about 2 inches greater than the outside measure 
of the diameter of the tub, and the tub thus nearly covers the whole of 
the stone. The tub is well payed with pitch inside, and stands on two 
felt rings soaked in tar. Five large iron weights, weighing altogether 
nearly three-quarters of a ton, are hooked on to the upper edge of the 
tub, in order to make the joint between the tub and the stone watertight. 
Near the bottom is a plate-glass window ; when it is in position, the 
window faces to the S. Tliis tub is filled with water and the instru.ment 
stands immersed therein. 

We had at first much trouble from the leakage of the tub, and we 
have to thank Mr. Gordon, the assistant at the Laboratory, for his ready 
help in overcoming this difficulty, as well as others which were per- 
petually reciirring. The mounting of the tub was one of the last things 
done before the instrument was ready for observation, and we must now 
return to the description of the instrument itself. 

We used the same pendulum-bob as before, but we had its shape 
altered so that the ends both above and below were conical surfaces, 



104 KEPOBX — 1881. 

whilst the central part was left cylindrical. The upper plug with its 
pulley is replaced by another pliig bearing a short round horizontal rod, 
with a rounded groove cut in it. The groove stands vertically over the 
centre of the weight, and is designed for taking the wire of the bifilar 
suspension of the pendulum ; when riding on the wire the pendulum-bob 
hangs vertically. 

Part of this upper plug consists of a short thin horizontal arm about 
an inch long. This arm is perpendicular to the plane of the groove, and 
when the pendulum is in position, projects northwards. Through the 
end of the arm is bored a fine vertical hole. This part of the apparatus 
is for the modified form of disturber, which we are now using. 

The support for the pendulum consists of a stout copper tube 2^ 
inches in diameter inside measure, and it just admits the pendulum-bolj 
with l^th inch play all round. The tube is 3 feet G inches in height, and 
is closed at the lower end by a diaphragm, pierced in the centre by a 
round hole, about ^ inch in diameter. The upper end has a ring of ,brass 
soldered on to it, and this ring has a flange to it. The upper part of the 
brass ring forms a short continuation 4' of an inch in length of the 
copper tube. The ring is only inti'oduced as a means of fastening the 
flange to the copper tube. 

The upper edge of the brass continuation has three V notches in it at 
120° apart on the circumference of the ring. A brass cap like the lid of 
a pill-box has an inside measure ^ inch greater than the outside measure 
of the brass ring. The brass cap has three rods which project inwards 
from its circumference, and which are placed at 120° apart thereon. 
When the cap is placed on the brass continuation of the upper tube, the 
three rods rest in the three V notches, and the cap is geometrically fixed 
with respect to the tube. A fine screw works through the centre of the 
cap, and actuates an apparatus, not easy to explain without drawings, by 
which the cap can be slightly tilted in one azimuth. The object of 
tilting the cap is to enable us to sensitise the instrument by bringing the 
silk fibres attached to the mirror into close proximity. 

Into the cap are soldered the two ends of a fine brass wire ; the 
junctures are equidistant from the centre of the cap and on opposite sides 
of it ; they lie on that diameter of the cap which is perpendicular to the 
axis about which the tilting can be produced. 

"When the pendulum is hung on the brass wire loop by the groove in 
the upper plug, the wires just clear the sides of the copper tube. 

It is clear that the tilting of the cap is mechanically equivalent to a 
shortening of one side of the wire loop and the lengthening of the other. 
Hence the pendulum is susceptible of a small lateral adjustment by 
means of the screw in the cap. 

To the bottom of the tube is soldered a second stout brass ring ; this 
ring bears on it three stout brass legs inclined at 120° to one another, 
all lying in a plane perpendicular to the copper tube. From the extre- 
mity of each leg to the centre of the tube is 8^ inches. The last inch of 
each leg is hollowed out on its under surface into the form of a radial V 
groove. 

There ai-e three detached short pieces of brass tube, each ending below 
in a flange with three knobs on it, and at the upper end in a screw with a 
rounded head. These three serve as feet for the instrument. These 
three feet are placed on the upper surface of our basement stone at 120° 
apart, estimated from the centre of the stone. The copper tube with its 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 105 

legs attached is set down so that the inverted V grooves in the legs rest 
on the rounded screw-head at the tops of the three feet, and each of the 
feet rests on its three knobs on the stone. The bottom of the copper tube 
is thus raised 5^ inches above the stone. By this arrangement the copper 
tube is retained in position with reference to the stone, and it will be 
observed that no part of the apparatus is under any constraint except 
such as is just necessary to geometrically determine its position. 

The screws with rounded heads which form the three feet are 
susceptible of small adjustments in height, and one of the three heads is 
capable of more delicate adjustment, for it is actuated by a fine screw, 
which is driven by a toothed wheel and pinion. The pinion is turned by 
a wooden rod, made flexible by the insertion of a Hook's joint, and the 
wooden rod reaches to the top of the tub, when it is mounted surrounding 
the instrument. 

The adjustable leg is to the N. of the instrument, and as the 
mirror faces S. we call it the 'back-leg.' When the copper support 
is mounted on its three legs, a rough adjustment for the verticality of 
the tube is made with two of the legs, and final adjustment is made by 
the back-leg. 

It is obvious that if the back-leg be raised or depressed the point of 
the pendulum is carried southwards or northwards, and the mirror turns 
accordingly. Thus the back-leg with its screw and rod affords the 
means of centralising the mirror. The arrangements for suspending the 
mirror must now be described. 

The lower plug in the pendulum-bob is rounded and has a small 
horizontal hole through it. When the pendulum is hung this rounded 
plug just appears through the hole in the diaphragm at the bottom of 
the copper tube. 

A small brass box, shaped like a disk, can be screwed on to the bottom 
of the copper tube, in such a way that a diameter of the box forms a 
straight line with the axis of the copper tube. One side of the box is of 
plate glass, and when it is fastened in position the plate glass faces to 
the S. This is the mirror-box; it is of such a size as to permit the 
mirror to swing about 15° in either direction from parallelism with the 
plate- glass front. 

The fixed support for the second fibre for the bifilar suspension of the 
mirror may be described as a very small inverted retort-stand. The 
vertical rod projects downwards from the underside of the diaphragm, 
a little to the E. of the hole in the diaphragm ; and a small horizontal 
arm projects from this rod, and is of such a length that its extremity 
reaches to near the centre of the hole. This arm has a small eyelet-hole 
pierced through a projection at its extremity. 

The mirror itself is a little larger than a shilling and is of thin plate 
glass ; it has two holes drilled through the edge at about 60° from one 
another. The mirror was silvered on both sides, and then dipped into 
melted paraffin ; the paraffin and silver were then cleaned off one side. 
The paraffin protects the silver from tarnishing, and the silver film seen 
through the glass has been found to remain perfectly bright for months, 
after having been immersed in fluid during that time. A piece of platinum 
wire about xoVw^t of an inch in diameter is threaded twice through each 
hole in opposite directions, in such a manner that with a continuous piece 
of wire (formed by tying the two ends together) a pair of short loops are 
formed at the edge of the mirror, over. each of the two holes. When the 



106 REPOKT— 1881. 

mirror is hung from a silk fibre passing throngli botli loops, the weight of 
the mirror is sufficient to pull each loop taut. 

A single silk fibre was threaded through the eyelet-hole at the end of 
the blunt point of the pendulum-bob, and tied in such a way that there 
was no loose end projecting so as to foul the other side of the bifilar 
suspension. The other end of the silk fibi-e was knotted to a piece of 
sewing silk on which a needle was threaded. 

The pendulum was then hung from the cap by its wire loop, outside 
the copper tube, and the silk fibre with the sewing silk and needle 
attached dangled down at the bottom. The cap, with the pendulum 
attached thereto, was then hauled up and carefully let down into the 
copper tube. The sewing silk, fibre, and blunt end came out through the 
hole in the diaphragm. 

"We then sewed with the needle through the two loops on the margin 
of the mirror, and then through the eyelet-hole in the little horizontal 
arm. The silk was pulled taut, and the end fastened ofi" on to the little 
vertical rod, from which the horizontal arm projects. 

The mirror then hangs with one part of the silk attached to the 
pendulum-bob and the other to the horizontal arm. 

The two parts of the silk are inclined to one another at a considerable 
angle, so that the free period of the mirror is short, but the upper parts 
of the silk stand very close to oiie another. The mirror-box encloses the 
mirror and makes the copper tube watertight. 

There is another pai't of the apparatus which has not yet been ex- 
plained, namely, the disturber. This part of the instrument was in reality 
arranged before the mirror was hung. 

We shall not give a full account of the disturber, because it does not 
seem to work very satisfactorily. 

In the form of disturber which we now use the variation of horizontal 
thrust is produced hj variation in the length of the disturbing pendulum, 
instead of by variation of the point of support as in the previous experi- 
ment. It was not easy to vary the point of support when the pendulum 
is hung in a tube which nearly fits it. 

The disturber-weight is a small lump of copper, and it hangs by fine 
sewing silk. The silk is threaded through the eyelet in the horizontal 
arm which forms part of the upper plug of the pendulum ; thus the 
disturber- weight is to the N. of the pendulum. The silk after passing 
between the wires suppoi-ting the pendulum has its other end attached to 
the cap at the top at a point to the S. of the centre of the cap. Thus 
the silk is slightly inclined to the plane through the wires. The arrange- 
ment for varying the length of the disturbing pendulum will not be 
explained in detail, but it may suffice to say that it is produced by a third 
weight, which we call the ' guide weight,' which may be hauled up or let 
down in an approximately vertical line. This guide weight determines by 
its position how much of the upper part of the silk of the disturber shall 
be cut off", so as not to form a part of the free cord by which the disturb- 
ing weight hangs. 

The guide weight may be raised or lowered by cords. which pass 
through the cap. If the apparatus were to work properly a given amount 
of displacement of the guide weight should produce a calculable horizontal 
thrust on the pendulum. The whole of the arrangements for the disturber 
could be made outside the copper tube, so that the pendulum was lowered 
into the tube with the disturber attached thereto. 



ON THE MEAisURKMENT OF XHE LUNAll DISTUllBANCE Ok" GKAVITV. 107 

After tlie mirror was hung and the mirror-box screwed on, a brass cap 
was fixed by screws on to the flange at the top of the copper tube. This 
cap has a tube or chimney attached to it, the top of which rises five inches 
above the top of the cap or lid from -which the pendulum hangs. From 
this chimney emerges a rod attached to the screw by which the sensitising 
apparatus is actuated, and also the silk by which the guide weight is 
raised or depressed. 

The copper tube, with its appendages, was then filled with a boiled 
mixture of filtered water and spirits of wine by means of a small tap in 
the back of the mirror-box. The mixture was made by taking equal 
volumes of the two fluids ; the boiling to which it was subjected will of 
course have somewhat disturbed the proportions. Poiseuille has shown ' 
that a mixture of spirits and water has much greater viscosity than either 
pure spirits or pure water. When the mixture is by weight in the pro- 
portion of about seven of water to nine of spirits, the viscosity is nearly 
three times as great as that of pure spirits or of pure water. As the 
specific gravity of spirits is about -8, it follows that the mixture is to 
be made by taking equal volumes of the two fluids. It is on account of 
this remarkable foot that we chose this mixture in which to suspend 
the pendulum, and we observed that the unsteadiness of the mirror was 
markedly less than when the fluid used was simply water. 

The level of the fluid stood in our tubular support quite up to the top 
of the chimney, and thus the highest point of the pendulum itself was 
5 inches below the surface. 

The tub was then let down over the instrument, and the weights 
hooked on to its edge. The plate-glass window in the tub stood on the 
S. opposite to the mirror-box. The tub was filled with water up to 
nearly the top of the chimney, and the ditch round the stone basement 
was also ultimatelv filled with water. The whole instrument thus stood 
immersed from top to bottom in water. 

Even before the tub was filled we thought that we noticed a diminu- 
tion of unsteadiness in the image of a slit reflected from the mirror. The 
filling of the tub exercised quite a striking effect in the increase of 
steadiness, and the water in the ditch again operated favoui-ably. 

We met with much difiiculty at first in preventing serious leakage of 
the tub, and as it is still not absolutely watertight, we have arranged a 
water-pipe to drip about once a minute into the tub. A small overflow 
pipe from the tub to the ditch allows a very slow dripping to go into the 
ditch, and thus both vessels are kept full to a constant level. We had 
to take this course because we found that a rise of the water in the ditch 
through half an inch produced a deflection of the pendulum. The ditch, 
it must bo remembered, was a little broader on the S. side than else- 
where. 

In Maj^, 1881, we took a series of observations with the light, slit and 
scale. The scale was about 7 feet from the tub, and in order to read it 
we found it convenient to kneel behind the scale on the ground. I was 
one day watching the light for nearly ten minutes, and being tired with 
kneeling on the pavement I supported part of my weight on my hands a 
few inches in front of the scale. The place where my hands came was 
on the bare earth fx-om which one of the paving stones had been removed. 
I was surprised to find quite a large change in the reading. After 

' Pogycndmfs Ainialni, 1843, vol. r,S, p. 437. 



108 KEPOKT— 1881. 

several trials I found that the pressure of a few pounds with one hand only 
was quite sufficient to produce an effect. 

It must be remembered that this is not a case of a small pressure 
delivered on the bare earth at say 7 feet distance, but it is the difference 
of effect produced by this pressure at 7 feet and 8 feet ; for of course the 
change only consisted in the change of distribution in the weight of a 
small portion of my body. 

We have, however, since shown that even this degree of sensitiveness 
may be exceeded. 

We had thought all along that it would ultimately be necessary to 
take our observations from outside the room, but this observation im- 
pressed it on us more than ever ; for it would be impossible for an observer 
always to stand in exactly the same position for taking readings, and my 
brother and I could not take a set of readings together on account of the 
difference between our weights. 

In making preliminary arrangements for reading from outside the 
room we found the most convenient way of bringing the reflected image 
into the field of view of the telescope was by shifting a weight about the 
room. My brother stood in the room and changed his position until the 
image was in the field of view, and afterwards placed a heavy weight 
where he had been standing ; after he had left the room the image was in 
the field of view. 

On the S.W. wall of the room there is a trap-door or window which 
opens into another room, and we determined to read from this. 

In order to read with a telescope the light has to undergo two reflec- 
tions and twelve refractions, besides those in the telescope ; it has also to 
pass twice through layers of water and of the fluid mixture. In con- 
sequence of the loss of light we found it impossible to read the image of 
an illuminated scale, and we had to make the scale self-luminous. 

On the pavement to the S. of the instrument is placed a flat board on 
to which are fixed a pair of rails ; a carriage with three legs slides on 
these rails, and can be driven to and fro by a screw of ten threads to the 
inch. Backlash in the nut which drives the carriage is avoided by means 
of a spiral spring. A small gas-flame is attached to the carriage ; in front 
of it is a piece of red glass, the vertical edge of which is very distinctly 
visible in the telescope after reflection from the mirror. The red glass was 
introduced to avoid prismatic effects, which had been troublesome before. 
The edge of the glass was found to be a more convenient object than a 
line which had been engraved on the glass as a fiducial mark. 

The gas-flame is caused to traverse by pulleys driven by cords. The 
cords come to the observing window, and can be worked from there. A 
second telescope is erected at the window, for reading certain scales 
attached to the traversing gear of the carriage, and we find that we can 
read the position of the gas-flame to within a tenth of an inch, or even 
less, with certainty. 

From the gas the ray of light enters the tub and mirror-box, is 
reflected by the mirror, and emerges by the same route ; it then meets a 
looking-glass which reflects it nearly at right angles and a little upwards, 
and finally enters the object-glass of the reading telescope, fixed to the 
sill of the observing window. 

When the carriage is at the right part of the scale the edge of the 
red glass coincides with the cross wire of the reading telescope, and the 
reading is taken by means of the scale telescope. 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LCNAH DlSTDEBANCE OF GEAVITY. 109 

Arraugements had also to bo nii>de for working the sensitisev, cen- 
ti'aliser, and disturber from outside the I'oom. 

A scafibldiug was erected over the tub, but free of contact therewith, 
and this supported a system of worm-wheels, tangent screws, and pulleys 
by which the three requisite movements could be given. The junctures 
with the sensitising and centralising rods were purposely made loose, 
becaiise it was found at first that a slight shake to the scaffolding 
disturbed the pendulum. 

The pulleys on the scaffolding are driven by cords which pass to the 
observing window. 

On the window-sill we now have two telescopes, four pulleys, an 
arrangement, with a scale attached, for raising and depressing the guide 
weight, and a gas tap for governing the flame in the room. 

After the arrangemeiits which have been described were completed we 
sensitised the instrument from outside the room. The arrangements 
worked so admirably that we could produce a quite extraordinary degree 
of sensitiveness by the alternate working of the sensitising and central- 
ising wheels, without ever causing the image of the lamp to disappear 
from the field of view. This is a great improvement on the old arrange- 
ment with the stone gallows. 

We now found that if one of us was in the room and stood at about 
16 feet to the S. of the instrument with his feet about a foot apart, and 
slowly shifted his weight from one foot to the other, then a distinct 
change was produced in the position of the mirror. This is the most 
remarkable proof of sensitiveness which we have yet seen, for the instru- 
ment can detect the difierence between the distortion of the soil caused 
by a weight of 140 lbs. placed at 16 feet and at 17 feet. We have not as 
yet taken any great pains to make the instrument as sensitive as possible, 
and we have little doubt but that we might exceed the present degree of 
delicacy, if it were desirable to do so. 

The sensitiveness now attained is, we think, only apparently greater 
than it was with the stone gallows, and depends on the improved optical 
arrangements, and the increase of steadiness due to the elimination of 
changes of temperature in the support. 

From July 21 to July 25 we took a series of readings. There was 
evidence of a distinct diurnal period with a maximum about noon, when 
the pendulum stood furthest northwards ; in the experiment with the 
stone gallows in 1880 the maximum northern excursion took place 
between 5 and 7 p.m. 

The path of the pendulum was interrupted by many minor zigzags, 
and it wonld sometimes reverse its motion for nearly an hour together. 
During the first four days the mean position of the pendulum travelled 
southward, and the image went oS" the scale three times, so that we had 
to recentralise it. In the night between the 24th and 25th it took an 
abrupt turn northward, and the reading was found in the morning of the 
25th at nearly the opposite end of the scale. 

On the 25th the dance of the image was greater than we had seen it 
at any time with the new instrument, so that we went into the room to 
see whether the water had fallen in the tub and had left the top of the 
copper tube exposed ; for on a previous occasion this had appeared to 
produce much unsteadiness. There was, however, no change in the state 
of affairs. A few days later the image was quite remarkable for its 
steadiness. 



no iiEroRT— 1881. 

On July 'J15, and again on the 27tL, we tried a series ot' observations 
with the disturber, in order to determine the absolute value of the scale. 

The guide weight being at a known altitude in the copper tube we took 
a series of six readings at intervals of a minute, and then shifting the 
guide weight to another known altitude, took six more in a similar 
manner ; and so on backwards and forwards for an hour. 

The first movement of the guide weight produced a considerable dis- 
tu-rbance of an irregular character, and the first set of readings were 
rejected. Afterwards there was more or less concordance between the 
results, but it was to be noticed there was a systematic difierence 
between the change from ' up ' to ' down ' and ' down ' to ' up.' This 
may perhaps be attributed to friction between certain parts of the 
apparatus. We believe that on another occasion we might erect the dis- 
turber under much more favourable conditions, but we do not feel sure 
that it could ever be made to operate very satisfactorily. 

The series of readings before and after the change of the guide weight 
were taken in order to determine the path of the pendulum at the critical 
moment ; but the behaviour of the pendulum is often so irregular, even 
within a few minutes, that the discrepancy between the several results 
and the apparent systematic error may be largely due to unknown 
changes, which took place during the minute which necessarily elapsed 
between the last of one set of readings and the first of the next. The 
image took up its new position deliberately, and it was necessary to wait 
until it had come to its normal position. 

Between the first and second set of observations with the disturber, it 
had been necessary to enter the room and to recentralise the image. We 
do not know whether something may not have disturbed the degree of 
sensitiveness, but at any rate the results of the two sets of observations 
are very discordant.' 

The first set showed that one inch of movement of the gas-flame, 
which formed the scale, corresponds with -i^th. of a second of arc of 
change of horizon ; the second gave j^th of a second to the inch. 

As we can see a twentieth of an inch in the scale, it follows that a 
change of horizon of about 0"'00.5 should be distinctly visible. In this 
case the point of the pendulum moves through ^^^ J-y ^th of a millimeter. 
At present we do not think that the disturber gives more than the order 
of the changes of horizon which wo note, but our estimate receives a 
general confirmation frona another circumstance. 

From the delicacy of the gearing connected with the back-leg, we 
estimate that it is by no means difficult to raise the back-leg by a 
millionth of an inch. The looseness in the gearing was purposely kept 
so great that it requires a turn or two of the external pulley on the 
window-sill before the backlash is absorbed, but after this a very small 
fraction of a turn is sufficient to move the image in the field. 

We are now inclined to look to this pi'ocess with the back-leg to 
enable us to determine the actual value of our scale, but this will require 
a certain amount of new apparatus, which we have not yet had time to 
arrange. In erecting the instrument we omitted to take certain measure- 
ments which it now appears will be necessary for the use of the back-leg 
as a means of determining the absolute value of our scale, but we know 
these measurements appi'oximately from the working drawings of the 

' See, however, the postscript at the end of this part. 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. Ill 

instrument. Now it appears that one complete revolution of a certain 
tangent-screw by which the back-leg is raised should tilt the pendulum- 
stand through almost exactly half a second of arc, and therefore this 
should produce a relative displacement of the pendulum of the same 
amount. We have no doubt but tliat a tenth of the turn of the tangent- 
screw produces quite a large deflection of the image, and probably a 
hundredth of a turn would produce a sensible deflection. Therefore, 
from mere consideration of the effect of the back-leg wc do not doubt 
but that a deflection of the pendulum through a ^liotli of a second of 
arc is distinctly visible. This affords a kind of confirmation of the 
somewhat unsatisfactory deductions which we draw from the operation 
of the disturber. 

Posfscrijyf. — The account of our more recent experiments was written 
during an absence from Cambridge from July 29 to August 9. In this 
period the gradual southerly progression of the pendulum-bob, which was 
observed up to July 28, seems to have continued ; for on August 9 the 
pendulum was much too far S. to permit the image of the gas-flame to 
come into the field of view of the telescope. On August 9 the image was 
recentralised, and on the 9th and 10th the southerly change continued ; 
on the 11th, however, a reversal northwards again occurred. Durino- 
these days the unsteadiness of the image was much greater than we have 
seen it at any time with the new instrument. There was some heavy 
rain and a good deal of wind at that time. We intend to arrange a scale 
for giving a numerical value to the degree of unsteadiness, but at present 
it is merely a matter of judgment. 

It seems possible that earthquakes were the cause of unsteadiness on 
August 9, 10, and 11, and we shall no doubt hear whether any earth- 
quakes have taken place on those days. 

After August 11 we were both again absent from Cambridge. On 
August 16 my brother returned, and found that the southerly progression 
of the pendulum-bob had reasserted itself, so that the image was again 
far out of the field of view. After recentralising he found the image to 
be unusually steady. 

This appeared a good opportunity of trying the effect of purely local 
tremors. 

One observer therefore went into the room and, standing near the 
instrument, delivered some smart blows on the brickwork copino- round 
the ditch, the stone pavement, the tub, and the large stone basement 
underneath the water. Little or no effect was produced by this. Very 
small movements of the body, such as leaning forward while sitting in a 
chair, or a shift of part of the weight from heels to toes, produced a 
sensible deflection, audit was not very easy for the experimenter to avoid 
this kind of change whilst delivering the blows. To show the sensitiveness 
of the instrument to steady pressure we may mention that a pressure 
of three fingers on the brick coping of the ditch produces a marked 
deflection. 

On August 17 1 returned to Cambridge, and noted, with my brother, 
that the image had never been nearly so steady before. The abnormal 
steadiness continued on the 18th. There was much rain during those days. 

On the afternoon of the 19th there was a high wind, and although 
the abnormal steadiness had ceased, still the agitation of the image was 
rather less than we usually observe it. 

The image being so steady on the 1 J'th, we thought that a good oppor- 



112 REPORT— 1881. 

tunifcy was afforded for testing the disturber. At G.16 P.M. of that day 
we began the readings. The changes from ' up ' to ' down ' were made as 
quickly as we could, and in a quarter of an hour we secured five readings 
when the guide weight was 'up,' and four when it was 'down.' 

When a curve was drawn, with the time as abscissa, and the readings 
as ordinates, through the 'up's,' and similarly through the 'down's,' the 
curves presented similar features. This seems to show that movement of 
the disturber does not cause irregularities or changes, except such as it 
is designed to produce. 

The displacement of the guide weight was through 5 cm. on each 
occasion. 

The four changes from ' up ' to ' down ' showed that an inch of scale 
corresponded with 0"-0897, with a mean error of 0"'0021 ; the four from 
'down' to 'up' gave 0"'0909 to the inch, with a mean error of 0"-0042. 
Thus the systematic error on the previous occasions was probably only 
apparent. 

Including all the eight changes together, we find that the value of an 
inch is 0"-0903 with a mean error of 0"-00r!0. 

A change in the scale reading amounting to a tenth of an inch is 
visible without any doubt, and even less is probably visible. Now it will 
give an idea of the delicacy of the instrument when we say that a tenth 
of an inch of our scale corresponds to a change of horizon ' through an 
angle equal to that subtended by an inch at 384 miles. 

II. On the luorJc of previozis observers. 

In the following section we propose to give an account of the various 
experiments which have been made in order to detect small variations of 
horizon, as far as they are known to us ; but it is probable that other 
papers of a similar kind may have escaped our notice. 

In a report of this kind it is useful to have references collected 
together, and therefore, besides giving an account of the papers which 
we have consulted, we shall requote the references contained in these 
papers. 

In Poggendorf's ' Annalen ' for 1873 there are papers by Professor 
P. ZoUner, which had been previously read before the Royal Saxon 
Society, and which are entitled ' Ueber eine neue Methode zur Messung 
anziehender und abstossender Krafte,' vol. 150, p. 131, ' Beschreibung und 
Anwendung des Horizontalpendels,' vol. 150, p. 134. A part of the 
second of these papers is translated, and the figure is reproduced in the 
supplementary number of the 'Philosophical Magazine ' for 1872, p. 491, 
in a paper ' On the Origin of the Earth's Magnetism.' 

The horizontal pendulum was independently invented by Professor 
Zollner, and, notwithstanding assertions to the contrary, was probably for 
the first time actually realised by him ; it appears, however, that it had 
been twice invented before. The history of the instrument contains a 
curious piece of scientific fraud, of which we shall give an account below. 

The instrument underwent some modifications under the hands of 
Professor Zollner, and the two forms are described in the above papers. 

• We use the expression ' change of horizon ' to denote relative movement of 
the earth, at the place of observation, and the plumb-line. Such changes may arise 
either from alteration in the shape of the earth, or from displacement of the plumb- 
line ; our experiments do not determine which of these two really takes place. 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GHAVITT. 113 

The principle employed is as follows : — There is a very stout vertical 
stand, supported on three legs. At the top and bottom of the vertical 
shaft are fixed two projections. Attached to each projection is a fine 
straight steel clock spring ; the springs are parallel to the vertical shaft 
of the stand, the one attached to the lower projection running upwards, 
and that attached to the upper one running downwards. The springs 
are of equal length, each being equal to half the distance between their 
points of attachment on the projections. 

The springs terminate in a pair of rings, which stand exactly opposite 
to one another, so that a rod may be thrust through both. 

A glass rod has a heavy weight attached to one end of it, and the 
other end is thrust through the two rings. The rings are a little separated 
from one another, and the glass rod stands out horizontally, with its 
weight at the end, and is supjDorted by the tension of the two springs. 
It is obvious that if the point of attachment of the upper spring were 
vertically over that of the lower spring, and if the springs had no 
torsional elasticity, then the glass rod would be in neutral equilibrium, 
and would stand equally well in any azimuth. 

The springs being thin have but little torsional elasticity, and 
Professor ZoUner arranges the instrument so that the one support is very 
nearly over the other. In consequence of this the rod and weight have 
but a small predilection for one azimuth more than another. The free 
oscillations of the hox^zontal pendulum could thus be made extra- 
ordinarily slow ; and even a complete period of one minute could be easily 
attained. 

A very small horizontal foi'ce of course produces a large deflection of 
the pendulum, and a small deflection of the force of gravitation with 
reference to the instrument must produce a like result. He considers 
that by this instrument ho could, in the first form of the instrument, 
detect a displacement of the horizon through 0"'00035 ; in the second his 
estimate is 0"-001. 

The observation was made by moans of a mirror attached to the 
weight, and scale and telescope. 

The maximum change of level due to the moon's attraction is at St. 
Petersburg 0"-0174., and from the sun 0"-0080 [C. A. T. Peters, 'Bull. 
Acad. Imp. St. Petersbourg,' 1844, vol. 3. No. 14] ; and thus the insti-a- 
ment was amply sensitive enough to detect the lunar and solar disturb- 
ances of gravity.* 

Professor ZoUner found, as we have done, that the readings were never 
the same for two successive instants. The passing of trains on the rail- 
way at a mile distant produced oscillations of the equilibrium position. 

' We are of opinion that M. Zijllner has made a mistake in using at Leipsig 
Peters' results for St. Petersbiarg. Besides this he considers the changes of tlie 
vertical to be 0'''017i on eacli side of a mean position, and thus sa^'s the change is 
0"'0348 altogether. Now a rough computation which I have made for Cambridge 
shows that the maximum meridional horizontal component of gravitation, as due to 
lunar attraction, is 4'12 x 10"'* of pure gravit}'. This force will produce a dellec- 
tion of the plumb-line of 0"'00S."), and the total amplitude of meridional oscillation 
will be 0"'0170. The maximum detiection of the plumb line occurs when the 
moon's hour-angle is ± 45° and ± 135° at the place of observation. The change at 
Cambridge when the moon is S.E. and N.W. ^s 0''-0l'16. The deflection of the plumb 
line varies as the cosine of the latitude, and is therefore greater at Cambridge than at 
St. Petersburg. Multiplying 021!} by sec 51-43' cos 60° we get -0174, and thus my 
calculation agrees with Peters'. 

1881. ' I 



114 RBPOET— 1881. 

He seems to have failed to detect the laws governing the longer and 
wider oscillations performed. Notwithstanding that he took a number of 
precautions against the effects of changes of temperature, he remarks 
that 'the external circumstances under which the above experiments 
were carried out must be characterised as extremely unfavourable for this 
object (measuring the lunar attraction), so that the sensitiveness might be 
much increased in pits in the ground, provided the reaction of the glowing 
molten interior against the solid crust do not generate inequalities of the 
same order.' 

Further on he says that if the displacements of the pendulum should 
be found not to agree in phase with the theoretical phase as given by the 
sun's position, then it might be concluded that gravitation must take a 
finite time to come from the sun. 

It appears to me that such a result would afford strong grounds for 
presuming the existence of frictional tides in the solid earth, and that 
Professor Zollner's conclusion would be quite unjustifiable. 

Earlier in the paper he states that he preferred to construct his instru- 
ment on a large scale, in order to avoid the disturbing effects of convection 
currents. We cannot but think, from our own experience, that by this 
course Professor Zollner lost more than he gained, for the larger the 
instrument the more it would necessarily be exposed in its various parts 
to regions of different temperature, and we have found that the warping 
of supports by inequalities of temperatui'e is a most serious cause of 
disturbance. 

The instrument of which we have given a short account appears to us 
very interesting from its ingenuity, and the account of the attempts to 
use it are well worthy of attention, but we cannot think that it can ever 
be made to give such good results as those which may perhaps be attained 
by our plan or by others. The variation in the torsional elasticity of the 
suspending springs, due to changes of temperature, would seem likely to 
produce serious variations in the value of the displacements of the pendu- 
lum, and it does not seem easy to suspend such an instrument in fluid in 
such a manner as to kill out the effects of purely local tremors. 

Moreover, the whole instrument is kept permanently in a condition of 
great stress, and one would be inclined to suppose that the vertical stand 
would be slightly warped by the variation of direction in which the 
tensions of the springs are applied, when the pendulum bob varies its 
position. 

In a further paper in the same volume, p. 140, ' Zur Geschichte 
des Horizontalpendels,' Zollner gives the priority of invention to M. 
Perrot, who had described a similar instrument on March 31, 1862, 
(' Comptes Rendus,' vol. 54, p. 728), but as far as he knows M. Perrot 
did not actually construct it. 

He also quotes an account of an ' Astronomische Pendelwage,' by 
Lorenz Hengler, published in 1832, in vol. 43 of ' Dingler's Polytechn. 
Journ.,' pp. 81-92. In this paper it appears that Hengler gives the 
most astonishing and vague accounts of the manner in which he detected 
the lunar attraction with a horizontal pendulum, the points of support 
being the ceiling and floor of a room 16 feet high. The terrestrial rotation 
was also detected with a still more marvellous instrument. 

Zollner obviously discredits these experiments, but hesitates to 
characterise them, as ihey deserve, as mere fraud and invention. 

The university authorities at Munich state that in the years 1830-1 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OP THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 115 

there was a candidate in philosophy and theology named Lorenz Hengler, 
of Reichenhofen, ' der weder friiher noch spater zu finden ist.' 

At p. 150 of the same volume Professor Safarik contributes a 'Bei- 
trag zur Geschichte des Horizontalpendels.' He says that the instru- 
ment takes its origin from Professor Gruithuisen, of Munich, whose 
name has ' keinen guten Klang ' in the exact sciences. 

This strange person, amongst other eccentricities, proposed to dig a 
hole quite through the earth, and proposes a catachthonic observatory. 
Gruithuisen says, in his ' Neuen Analekten fiir Brd- und Himmelskunde ' 
(Munich, 1832), vol. 1, part i. : ' I believe that the oscillating-balance 
(Schwung-wage) of a pupil of mine (named Hengeller), when constructed 
on a large scale, will do the best service.' 

Some of the most interesting observations which have been made 
are those of M. d'Abbadie. He gave an account of his experiments in a 
paper, entitled ' fitudes sur la verticale,' ' Association Fran9aise pour 
I'avancement des Sciences, Congres de Bordeaux, 1872,' p. 159. As this 
work is not very easily accessible to English readers, and as the paper 
itself has much interest, we give a somewhat full abstract of it. He has 
also published two short notes with reference to M. Plantamour's obser- 
vations (noticed below), in vol. 86, p. 1528 (1878), and vol. 89, p. 1016 
(1879), of the ' Comptes Rendus.' We shall incorporate the substance of 
his remarks in these notes in our account of the original paper. 

When at Olinda, in Brazil, in 1837, M. d'Abbadie noticed the varia- 
tions of a delicate level which took place from day to day. At the end of 
the two months of his stay there the changes in the E. and W. azimuth 
had compensated themselves, and the level was in the same condition as 
at first ; but the change in the meridian was still progressing when he 
had to leave. 

In 1842, at Gondar, in Ethiopia, and at Saqa, he noticed a similar 
thing. In 1852 he gave an account to the French Academy (' Comptes 
Rendus,' May, p. 712) of these observations, as well as of others, by 
means of levels, which were carried out in a cellar in the old castle of 
Audaux, Basses Pyrenees. 

Leverrier, he says, speaks of sudden changes taking place in the level 
of astronomical instruments, apparently without cause. Airy has proved 
that the azimuth of an instrument may change, and Hough notes, in 
America, capricious changes of the Nadir. 

Henry has collected a series of levellings and azimuths observed at 
Greenwich during ten years, and during eight of the same years at Cam- 
bridge ('Monthly Notices, R.A.S.,' vol. 8, p. 134). The results with 
respect to these two places present a general agreement, and show that 
from March to September the western T of the transit instrument falls 
through 2"-5, whilst it deviates at the same time 2" towards the north. 
Elhs has made a comparison of curves applying to Greenwich, during 
eight years, for level and azimuth. He shows that there is a general 
correspondence with the curves of the external temperature (' Memoirs 
of the R. Ast. Soc.,' vol. 29, pp. 45-57). 

In the later papers M. d'Abbadie says that M. Bouquet de la Grye 
has observed similar disturbances of the vertical at Campbell Island, 
lat. 52° 34' S.. M. Bouquet used a heavy pendulum governing a 
vertical lever, by which the angle was multiplied.' He found that the 
1 I do not find a reference to M. Bouquet in the K.S. Catalogue of _ scientific 
papere. It appears from what M. d'Abbadie says that certain observations have 

12 



116 REPORT— 1881. 

great breakers on the shore at a distance of two miles caused a deviation 
of the vertical of l"'l. On one occasion the vertical seems to have varied 
through 3" '2 in 3| hours. 

M. d'Abbadie also quotes Elkin, Yvon Villarceau, and Airy as having 
found, from astronomical observations, notable variations in latitude, 
amounting to from 7" to 8". 

As M. d'Abbadie did not consider levels to afford a satisfactory 
method of observation of the presumed changes of horizon, he deter- 
mined to proceed in a different manner. 

The site of his experiments was Abbadia, in Subernoa, near Hendaye. 
The Atlantic was 400 meters distant, and the sea level 62 meters below 
the place of observation. The subsoil was loamy rock (joclie marneuse), 
belonging to ci-etaceous deposits of the South of France. Notwithstanding 
the steep slope of the soil, water was found at about 5 meters below the 
surface. 

In this situation he had built, in 1863, a concrete cone, of which tho 
external slope was one in ten (una inclinaison d'une dixieme). The con- 
crete cone is truncated, and the flat surface at the top is 2 meters in 
diameter. It is pierced down the centre by a vertical hole or well 
1 meter in diameter. This well extends to within half a meter of the top, 
at which point the concrete closes in, leaving only a hole of 12 centi- 
meters up to the flat upper surface. 

From the top of the concrete down to the rock is 8 meters, and the 
well is continued into the rock to a further depth of 2 meters : thus 
from top to bottom is 10 meters. 

A tunnel is made to the bottom of the well in order to drain away the 
water, and access of the observer to the bottom is permitted by means of 
an underground staircase. Access can also be obtained to a point half. 
way between the top and bottom by means of a hole through the con- 
crete. At this point there is a diaphragm across the well, pierced by a 
hole 21 centimeters in diameter. The diaphragm seems to have been 
originally made in order to support a lens, but the mode of observation 
was afterwards changed. The diaphragm is still useful, however, for 
allowing the observer to stand there and sweep away cobwebs. 

The cone is enclosed in an external building, from the roof of which, 
as I understand, there hangs a platform on which the observer may 
stand without touching the cone ; and the two staircases leading up to 
the top are also isolated.' 

On the hole through the top of the cone is riveted a disk of brass 
pierced through its centre by a circular hole 21 mm. in diameter. The 
hole in the disk is traversed across two perpendicular diameters by fine 
platinum wires ; at first there were only two wires, but afterwards there 
were four, which were arranged so as to present the outline of a right- 
angled cross. The parallel wires were very close together, so that the 
four wires enclosed in the centre a very small square space. 

At the bottom of the well is put a pool of mercury. The mercury 
was at first in an iron basin, but the agitation of the mercury was found 
sometimes to be so great that no reflection was visible for an hour to- 
been made with pendulums in Italy, but that it does not distinctly appear that the 
variations of level are simultaneous over wide areas. No reference is given as to 
the observers. 

' This passage appears to me a little obscure, and I cannot quite understand the 
arrangement. ■ - ' 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 1 1 7 

gether. At the suggestion of Leverrier the iron basin -was replaced by 
a shallow wooden tray with a corrugated bottom, and a good reflection 
was then generally obtainable. Immediately over the mercury pool 
there stood a lens of 10 cm. diameter and 10 meters focal length, 
and over the brass disk there stood a microscope with moveable mi- 
crometer wires in the eyepiece, and a jaosition circle. The platinum 
wires were illuminated, and on looking through the microscope the 
observer saw the wires both directly and by reflection. The observations 
were taken by measuring the azimuth and displacement of the image of 
the central square relatively to the real square enclosed by the wires. 

One division of the micrometer screw indicated a displacement of 
vertical of 0"'03, so that the observations were susceptible of consider- 
able refinement. 

The whole of the masonry was finished in 1863, and M. d'Abbadie 
then allowed the structure five years to settle before he began taking 
observations. The arrangements for observing above described were 
made in 1868 and 1869. 

In the course of a year he secured 2,000 observations, and the results 
appear to be very strange and capricious. 

Throughout March, 1869, the perturbations of the mercury were so 
incessant, that observations (taken at that time with the iron basin) were 
nearly impossible ; on the 29th he waited nearly an hour in vain in trying 
to catch the image of the wires. Two days later the mercury was 
perfectly tranquil. On April 6 it was much agitated, although the air 
and sea were calm. A tranquil surface was a rare exception. 

In 1870 the corrugated trough was substituted for the iron basin ; 
and M. d'Abbadie says : — 

' Cependant, ni le fond inegal du bain rainc ni sa forme ne m'ont 
empeche d'observer, ce que j'appelle des ombres fuyantes. Ce sent des 
bandes sombres et paralleles qui traversent le champ du microscope avec 
plus ou moins de vitesse, et qu'on explique en attribuant au mercure des 
ondes tres tenues, causees par une oscillation du sol dans tin seul sens. 
Le plus souvent ces ombres semblent courir du S.E. au N.O., appi'oxi- 
mativement selon I'axe de la chaine des Pyrenees ; mais je les ai obser- 
vees, le 15 Mars 1872, allant vers Ic S.O. A cette epoque le mercm^e 
etait, depuis le 29 fevrier, dans une agitation continuelle, comme mon 
aide I'avait constate en 1869, aussi dans le mois de Mars.'' 

He observed also, from time to time, certain oscillations of the 
mercury too rapid to be counted, which he calls ' tremoussements.' 
There were also sudden jumpings of the image from one point to another, 
or ' fretillements,' indicating a sudden change of vertical through 0"'49 
to 0"-65. 

He observed many microscopic earthquakes, and in some cases the 
image was carried quite out of the field of view. 

He also detected the difference of vertical according to the- state 
of the tide in the neighbouring sea ; but the change of level due to this 
cause was often masked by others occurring contemporaneously. 

From observations during the years 1867 to 1872 (with the exception 
of 1870) he finds that in every year but one the plumb-line deviated 
northwards during the latter months of the year, but in 1872 it deviated 
to the south. 

' M. d'Abbadie writes to me that this phenomenon was ultimately found to 
result from air-currents (Nov. 6, 1881). 



118 REPORT— 1881. 

He does not give any theoretical views as to the causes of these 
phenomena, but remarks that his observations tend to prove that the 
causes of change are sometimes neither astronomical nor thermometrical. 

The most sudden change which he noted was on October 27, 1872, 
when the vertical changed by 2"'4 in six hours and a quarter. Between 
January 30 and March 26 of the same year the plumb-line deviated 4"'5 
towards the south. 

We now come to the valuable observations of M. Plantamour, which 
we believe are still being prosecuted by him. His papers are ' Sur le 
deplacement de la bulle des niveaux a bulle d'air,' ' Comptes Rendus,' 
June 24, 1878, vol. 86, p. 1522, and ' Des mouvements periodiques du 
sol accuses par des niveaux a bulle d'air,' 'Comptes Rendus,' December 1, 
1879, vol. 89, p. 937. 

The observations were made at Secheron, near Geneva, at first at the 
Observatory, and afterwards at M. Plantamour's house. After some 
preliminary observations he obtained a very sensitive level and laid it on 
the concrete floor of a room in which the variations of temperature were 
very small. The azimuth of the level was E. and W., and the observa- 
tions were made every hour from 9 a.m. until midnight. Figures are 
given of the displacement of the bubble during April 24, 25, and 26, 1878. 
The results indicate a diurnal oscillation of level, the E. end of the level 
being highest towards 5.30 p.m. ; the amplitudes of the oscillations were 
8""4, ll"-2, 15"'75 during these three days. It also appeared that there 
was a gradual rising of the mean diurnal position of the E. end during 
the same time. 

The level was then transported to a cellar in M. Plantamour's 
house, when the temperature only varied by half a degree centigrade. 
The bubble of the level often ran quite up to one end. A new and larger 
level was obtained, together with the great 'chevalet de fer,' which is 
used by the manufacturers in testing levels. Both levels were placed E. 
and W., at about two meters apart. During May 3 and 4, 1878, the 
bubble travelled eastward without much return, and it is interesting to 
learn that simultaneous observations by M. Turretini, at the Level 
Factory, three kilometers distant, at Plainpalais, showed a similar 
change. 

Between May 3 and 6 the level actually changed through 17". Up 
to the 19th the level still showed the eastward change. 

M. Plantamour remarks that the eastern pier of a transit instrument 
is known to rise during a part of the year, but not by an amount com- 
parable with that observed by him, and that the diurnal variations are 
unknown. 

After further observations of a similar kind one of the levels waa 
arranged in the N. and S. azimuth. 

The same sort of diurnal oscillations, although more irregular, were 
observed, but the hours of maximum were not the same in the two levels. 
During the four days May 24 to 28 the maximum rising of the north 
generally took place about noon. This is exactly the converse of what 
we have recently observed. 

In the second paper he remarks : 

* Dans le sens du meridien, les mouvements diurnes sont tres rares 
irreguliers et tou jours tres faibles, le niveau en accuse parfois, quand il 
n'y en a point de Test a I'ouest, et inversement, quand ces derniers sont 
tres prononces, on n'en aper9oit que tres rarement du sud au nord.' 



ON THE MEASDEEMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OF aRAYITY. 119 

In our experiment of March 16 to 18, 1880, we found tliat the 
pendulum stood furthest north about 6 p.m., so that at that time the S. 
was most elevated ; and in the short series of observations during the 
present summer the maximum elevation of the S. took place about noon. 

On October 1, 1878, M. Plantamour began a new series of observa- 
tions, which lasted until September 30, 1879. The levels were arranged 
in the two azimuths as before, and the observations were taken five times 
a day, namely, at 9 a.m., noon, 3, 6, and 9 p.m. The mean of these five 
readings he takes as the diurnal value. 

During October and November the eastern end of the level fell, which 
is exactly the converse of what happened during the spring of the same 
year ; he concludes that the eastern end falls when the external tempera- 
ture falls. 

When a curve of the external temperature was placed parallel with 
that for the level, it appeared that there was a parallelism between the 
two, but the curve for the level lagged behind that for temperature by a 
period of from one to four days. 

This parallelism was maintained until the end of June, 1879, when it 
became disturbed. From then until the beginning of September the E. 
rose, but in a much greater proportion than the rise of mean temperature. 
It must be noted that July was a cold and wet month. 

Although the external temperature began to fall on August 5, the 
E. end continued to rise until September 8. This he attributes to an 
accumulation of heat in the soil. The total amplitude of the annual 
oscillation from E. to W. amounted to 28"'08. 

There was also a diurnal oscillation in this azimuth which amounted 
to 3""2 on September 5. The east end appeared to be highest between 6 
and 7.45 p.m., and lowest at the similar hour in the mox'ning.' 

The meridional oscillations were much smaller, the total annual 
amplitude being only 4"-89. From December 23, 1878, until the end of 
April, 1879, there was a correspondence between the external temperature 
curve and that for N. and S. level. We have already quoted the remark 
on the diurnal meridional oscillations. 

M. Plantamour tells us that in 1856 Admiral Mouchez detected no 
movement of the soil by means of the levels attached to astronomical 
instruments. On the other hand, M. Hirsch established, by several years 
of observation at Neuchatel, that there was an annual oscillation of 
a transit instrument from E. to W., with an amplitude of 23", and an 
azimuthal oscillation of 75", Similar observations with the transit 
instrument were made at the observatory at Berne in the summer of 1879. 

It is to be regretted that M. Plantamour does not give us more 
information concerning the manner in which the iron support for the 
levels was protected from small changes of temperature, nor with regard 
to the effect of the observer's weight on the floor of the room. We have 
concluded that both these sources of distui'bance should be carefully 
eliminated. 

' It seems that M. Plantamour sent a figure to the French Academy with the 
paper, but no figure is given. This figure would doubtless have explained the mean- 
ing of some passages which are somewhat obscure. Thus he speaks of the mitii- 
mwn occurring between 6 and 7.45, but it is not clear whether minimum means E. 
highest or E. lowest. Hinterpret the passage as above, because this was the state of 
things in the observations recorded in the first of the two papers. There is a similar 
difficulty about the meridional oscillatious. 



120 HEPORT— 188L 

Some interesting otDservations were made at Pulkova on a subject 
cognate to that on which we are writing. M. Magnus Nyren contributed, 
on February 28, 1878, an interesting note to the Imperial Academy of 
St. Petersburg, entitled ' Erderschiitterung beobaclitet an einem feinem 
Niveau 1877 Mai 10.'' On May 10 (April 28), 1877, at 4.16 A.M., 
a striking disturbance of the level on the axis of the transit was observed 
by M. Nyren in the observatory at Pulkova. The oscillations were 
watched by him for three minutes ; their complete period was about 
20 seconds, and their amplitude between 1"'5 and 2". At '±.35 a.m. 
there was no longer any disturbance. He draws attention to the 
fact that it afterwards appeared that one hour and fourteen minutes 
earlier there had been a great earthquake at Iquique. The distance 
from Iquique to Pulkova is 10,600 kilometers in a straight line, and 
12,640 kilometers along the arc of a great circle. He does not posi- 
tively connect the two phenomena together ; but he observes that if 
the wave came through the earth from Iquique to Pulkova it must have 
travelled at the rate of about 2'4 kilometers per second. This is the 
speed of transmission through platinum or silver. 

M. Nyren thinks the wave-motion could not have been so regular 
as it was, if the transmission had been through the solid, and suggests 
that the transmission was through the fluid interior of the earth. 

It appears to us that this argument is hardly sound, and that it would 
be more just to conclude that the interior of the earth was a sensibly 
perfectly elastic solid ; because oscillations in molten rock would surely 
be more quickly killed out by internal friction than those in a solid. 
However, M. Nyren does not lay much stress on this argument. He 
also draws attention to the fact that on September 20 (8), 1867, 
M. Wagner observed at Pulkova an oscillation of the level, with an 
amplitude of 3", and that seven minutes before the disturbance there 
had been an earthquake at Malta. On April 4 (March 23), 1868, M. 
Gromadzki observed an agitation of the level, and it was afterwards 
found that there had been an earthquake in Turkestan five minutes before. 

Similar observations of disturbances had been made twice before, 
once by M. Wagner and once by M. Romberg ; but they had not been 
connected with any earthquakes — at least with certainty. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens has invented an instrument of extraordinary 
delicacy, which he calls an 'Attraction-meter.' An account of the 
instrument is given in an addendum to his paper ' On determining the 
depth of the sea without the use of the sounding-line' (' Phil. Trans.,' 
1876, p. 659). We shall not give any account of this instrument, because 
Dr. Siemens is a member of our committee, and will doubtless bring any 
observations he may make with it before the British Association at some 
future time. 

III. Hemarlcs on the present slate of the suhject. 

Although our experiments are not yet concluded, it may be well to 
make a few remarks on the present aspects of the question, and to state 
shortly our intentions as to future operations. 

Our experiments, as far as they go, confirm the results of MM. 
d'Abbadie and Plantamour, and we think that there can remain little 

' Bull. Acad. St. Pet., vol. 24, p, 567. 



ON tHE MEASUREMENT OF THE LDNAU DlSTCEBANCE OF GRAVITY. 12 1 

doubt that the surface of the earth is in incessant movement, -with 
oscillations of periods extending from a fraction of a second to a year. 

Whether it be a purely superficial phenomenon or not, this considera- 
tion should be of importance to astronomical observers, for their instru- 
ments are necessarily placed at the surface of the earth. M. Plantamour 
and others have shown that there is an intimate connection between the 
changes of level and those of the temperature of the air ; whence it follows 
that the principal part of the changes must be superficial. On the other 
hand, M. d'Abbadie has shown that it is impossible to explain all the 
changes by means of changes of temperature. It would be interesting 
to determine whether changes of a similar kind penetrate to the bottom 
of mines, and Gruithuisen's suggestion of a catachthonic observatory 
seems worthy of attention, although he perhaps went rather far in the 
proposition that the observatory should be ten or fifteen miles below the 
earth's surface. 

It may appear not improbable that the surface of the soil becomes 
wrinkled all over, when it is swollen by increase of temperature and by 
rainfall. If this, however, were the case, then we should expect that 
instruments erected at a short distance apart would show discordant re- 
sults. M. Plantamour, however, found that, at least during three days, 
there was a nearly perfect accordance between the behaviour of two sets 
of levels at three kilometers apart ; and during eight years there appeared 
to be general agreement between the changes of level of the astrono- 
mical instruments at Greenwich and Cambridge. It would be a matter 
of much interest to determine how far this concordance would be main- 
tained if the instrument of observation had been as delicate as that used 
by M. d'Abbadie or as our pendulum. 

M. Plantamour speaks as though it were generally recognised that 
one pier of a transit circle rises during one part of the year and falls at 
another.' But if this be so throughout Europe, we must suppose that 
there is a kind of tide in the solid earth, produced by climatic changes ; 
the rise and fall of the central parts of continents must then amount to 
something considerable in vertical height, and the changes of level on the 
easterly and westerly coasts of a continent must be exactly opposite to 
one another. We are not aware that any comparison of this kind has 
been undertaken. The idea seems of course exceedingly improbable, but 
we understand it to be alleged that it is the eastern pier of transit instru- 
ments in Europe which rises during the warmer part of the year. Now 
if this be generally true for Europe, which has no easterly coast, it 
is not easy to see how the change can be brought about except by a 
swelling of the whole continent. 

We suggest that in the future it will be thought necessary to erect 
at each station a delicate instrument for the continuous observation of 
changes of level. Perhaps M. d'Abbadie's pool of mercury might be best 
for the longer inequalities, and something like our pendulum for the 
shorter ones ; or possibly the pendulum when used in a manner which 
we intend to try might suflfice for all the inequalities. 

' ' Dana roperation au moyen de laquelle on verifie I'horizontalite de I'axe d'une 
lunette meridienne, il parait qu'on remarque bien un leger mouvement d'exhausse- 
ment de Test pendant une partie de I'annee, mais il n'est pas aussi considerable que 
celui qu'accuse mon niveau, et Ton n'a jamais remarque, que je sache, une oscillation 
diurne comme celle qu'a indiquee le niveau dans le pavilion.' — Comptes Rendiis, June 
24, 1878, vol. 86, p. 1525. 



122 EEPORT— 1881. 

At present the errors introduced by unknown inequalities of level are 
probably nearly eliminated by tbe number of observations taken ; but it 
could not fail to diminish the probable error of each observation, if a 
correction were applied for this cause of disturbance from hour to hour, 
or even from minute to minute. If the changes noted by M. Plantamour 
are not entirely abnormal in amount, such corrections are certainly suffi- 
cient to merit attention. 

In our first set of experiments we found that stone piers are exceed- 
ingly sensitive to changes of temperature and to small stresses. Might it 
not be worth while to plate the piers of astronomical instruments with 
copper, and to swathe them with flannel ? We are not aware as to the 
extent to which care is taken as to the drainage of the soil round the 
piers, or as to the effect of the weight of the observer's body ; but we draw 
attention to the effect produced by the percolation of water round the 
basement, and to the impossibility we have found of taking our obser- 
vations in the same room with the instrument. 

In connection with this subject we may notice an experiment which 
was begun 3^ years ago by my brother Horace. The experiment was 
undertaken in connection with my father's investigation of the geological 
activity of earthworms, and the object was to determine the rate at which 
stones are being buried in the ground in consequence of the excavations 
of worms. 

The experiment is going on at Down, in Kent. The soil is stiff red 
clay, containing many flints lying over the chalk. There are two stout 
metal rods, one of iron and the other of copper. The ends were 
sharpened and they were hammered down vertically into the soil of an 
old grass field, and they are in contact with one another, or nearly so. 
When they had penetrated 8 feet 6 inches it was found very difficult to 
force them deeper, and it is probable that the ends are resting on a flint. 
The ends were then cut off about three inches above the ground. 

A stone was obtained like a small grindstone, with a circular hole in 
the middle. This stone was laid on the ground with the two metal rods 
appearing through the hole. Three brass V grooves are leaded into the 
upper surface of the stone, and a moveable tripod-stand with three 
rounded legs can be placed on the stone, and is, of course, geometrically 
fixed by the nature of its contact with the Vs. An arrangement with a 
micrometer screw enables the observer to take contact measurements of 
the position of the upper surface of the stone with regard to the rods. 
The stone has always continued to fall, but during the first few months 
the rate of fall was probably influenced by the decaying of the grass 
underneath it. The general falling of the stone can only be gathered 
from observations taken at many months apart, for it is found to be in a 
state of continual vertical oscillation. 

The measurements are so delicate that the raising of the stone pro- 
duced by one or two cans full of water poured on the ground can easily 
be perceived. Between September 7 and 19, 1880, there was heavy rain, 
and the stone stood 1*91 mm. higher at the latter date than at the former. 
The effect of frost and the wet season combined is still more marked, for 
on January 23, 1881, the stone was 4'12 mm. higher than it had been on 
September 7, 1880. 

The prolonged drought of the present summer has had a great effect, 
for between May 8 and June 29 the stone sank through 5-79 mm. The 
opposite effects of drought and frost are well shown by the fact that on 



ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE LUNAR DISTURBANCE OP GRAVITY. 123 

January 23 the stone stood 8*62 mm. higher than on June 2t), 1881. 
The observations are uncorrected for the eifect of temperature on the 
metal rods, but the fact that the readings from the two rods of different 
metals always agree very closely inter se, shows that such a correction 
would amount to very little. 

The changes produced in the height of the stone are, of course, 
entirely due to superficial causes ; but the amounts of the oscillations 
are certainly surprising, and although the basements of astronomical 
instruments may be very deep, they cannot entirely escape from similar 
oscillations. 

In his address to the mathematical section at the meeting of the 
British Association at Glasgow in 1876, Sir William Thomson tells 
us' that Peters, Maxwell, Nyren, and Newcomb^ have examined the 
observations at Pulkova, Greenwich, and Washington, in order to discover 
whether there is not an inequality in the latitude of the observatories 
having a period of aboat 306 days. Such an inequality must exist on 
account of the motion in that period of the instantaneous axis of rotation 
of the earth round the axis of maximum moment of inertia. The in- 
equality was detected in the results, but the probable error was very 
large, and the epochs deduced by the several investigators do not agree 
inter se. It remains, therefore, quite uncertain whether the detection of 
the inequality is a reality or not. But now we ask whether it is not an 
essential first step in such an enquiry to make an elaborate investigation 
by a very delicate instrument of the systematic changes of vertical at each 
station of observation ? 

We will next attempt to analyse the merits and demerits of the various 
methods which have been employed for detecting small changes in the 
vertical. 

The most sensitive instrument is probably the horizontal pendulum of 
Professor ZoUner, and its refinement might be almost indefinitely in- 
creased by the addition of the bifilar suspension of a mirror as a means of 
exliibiting the displacements of the pendulum-bob. If this were done it 
might be possible to construct the instrument on a very small scale and 
yet to retain a very high degree of sensitiveness. We are inclined to 
think, however, that the variation of the torsional elasticity of the sus- 
pending springs under varying temperature presents an objection to the 
instrument which it would be very difficult to remove. The state of 
stress under which the instrument is of necessity permanently retained 
seems likely to be prejudicial. 

Next in order of sensitiveness is probably our own pendulum, em- 
bodying the suggestion of Sir William Thomson. We are scarcely in a 
position as yet to feel sure as to its merits, but it certainly seems to be 
capable of all the requisite refinement. We shall give below the ideas 
which our experience, up to the present time, suggest as to improvements 
and future observations. 

Although we know none of the details of M. Bouquet de la Grye's 
pendulum actuating a lever, it may be presumed to be susceptible of 
considerable delicacy, and it would be likely to possess the enormous 

' B. A. Report for 1876, p. 10. For ' Nysen ' read ' Nyren.' 

« Peters' paper is in Bull. St. Pet. Acad., 1844, p. 305, and Ast. JVacJi. vol. 22, 
1845, p. 71, 103, 119. Nyren 's paper is in Mem. St. Pet. Acad. vol. 19, 1873, No. 13. 
With regard to ]\Iaxwell, see Thomson and Tait's JVat. Phil. 2nd edit, part 1, vol. 1. 
An interesting letter from Newcomb is quoted in Sir W. Thomson's address. 



124 REPORT — 1881. 

advantage of giving an automatic record of its behaviour. On the othet 
hand the lever must introduce a very unfavourable element in the friction 
between solids. 

M. d'Abbadie's method of obsei-vation by means of the pool of mercury 
seems on the whole to be the best which has been employed hitherto. 
But it has faults which leave ample fields for the use of other instruments. 
The construction of a well of the requisite depth must necessarily be 
very expensive, and when the structure is made of a sufficient size to 
give the required degi'ee of accuracy, it is difficult to ensure the relative 
immobility of the cross wires and the bottom of the well. 

Levels are exceedingly good from the point of view of cheapness and 
transportability, but the observations must always be open to some 
doubt on account of the possibility of the sticking of the bubble from 
the effects of capillarity. The justice of this criticism is confirmed by 
the fact that M. Plantamour found that two levels only two meters 
apart did not give perfectly accordant results. Levels are moreover, 
perhaps, scarcely sensitive enough for an examination of the smaller 
oscillations of level. Dr. Siemens' form of level possesses ample sen- 
sibility, but is probably open to the same objections on the score of 
capillarity. 

In the case of our own experiments we think that the immersion of the 
whole instrument in water from top to bottom has proved an excellent 
precaution against the effects of change of temperature, and our experience 
leads us to think that much of the agitation of the pendulum in the 
earlier set of experiments was due to small variations of temperature 
against which we are now guarded. 

The sensitiveness of the instrument leaves nothing to be desired, and 
were such a thing as a firna foundation attainable, we could measure the 
horizontal component of the lunar attraction to a considerable degree of 
accuracy. "We believe that this is the first instrument in which the vis- 
cosity of fluids has been used as a means of eliminating the effects of 
local tremors. In this respect we have been successful, for we find 
that jumping or stamping in the room itself produces no agitation of the 
pendulum, or at least none of which we can feel quite sure. We are 
inclined to try the effect of fluids of greater viscosity, such as glycerine, 
syrup of sugar, or paraffin oil. But along with such fluids we shall 
almost inevitably introduce air-bubbles, which it may be hard to get rid 
of. If a fluid of great viscosity were used, we should then only observe 
the oscillations of level of periods extending over perhaps a quarter to 
half a minute. The oscillations of shorter periods are, however, so 
inextricably mixed up with those produced by carriages and railway 
trains, that nothing would be lost by this. 

In connection with this point Mr. Christie writes to me, that ' In the 
old times of Greenwich Fair, some twenty years ago, when crowds of 
people used to run down the hill, I find the observers could not take 
reflection observations for two or three hours after the crowd had been 

turned out We do not have anything like such crowds now, even 

on Bank holidays, and I have not heard lately of any interference with 
the observations.' If the observers attributed the agitation of the mer- 
cury to the true cause, the elasticity of the soil must be far more perfect 
than is generally supposed. It would be surprising to find a mass of 
glass or steel continuing to vibrate for as long as two hours after the 
disturbance was removed. May it not be suspected that times of agita- 



ON THE MEASUKEMENT OF THE LUNAK DISTURBANCE OF GRAVITY. 125 

tion, such as those noted by M. d'Abbadie, happened to coincide on two 
or three occasions with Greenwich Fair ? 

As the sensitiveness of our present instrument is very great, although 
the sensitising process has never been pushed as far as possible, we think 
that it will be advantageous to construct an instrument on half, or even 
less than half, the present scale. The heavy weights which we now 
have to employ will thus be reduced to one-eighth of the present amount. 
The erection of the instrument may thus be made an easy matter, and 
an easily portable and inexpensive instrument may be obtained. 

Our present form of instrument has several serious flaws. The image 
is continually travelling off the scale, the gearing both internal and ex- 
ternal to the room for observing is necessarily complex and troublesome 
to erect, and lastly we have not yet succeeded in an accurate determina- 
tion of the value of the scale. 

"We are in hopes of being able to overcome all these objections. We 
propose to have a fixed light, which may be cast into the room from the 
outside. This Avill free us from the obviously objectionable plan of having 
a gas-flame in the room, and at the same time will abolish the gearing 
for traversing the lamp on the scale. We should then abolish the dis- 
turbing pendulum and thus greatly simplify the instrument. The read- 
ings would be taken by the elevation or depression of the back-leg, until 
the image of the fixed light was brought to the cross wire of the observing 
telescope. 

The ease with which the image may be governed with our present 
arrangements leads ua to be hopeful of the proposed plan. The use 
of the back-leg will, of course, give all the displacements in absolute 
measure. 

The only gearings which it will be necessary to bring outside the 
room will be those for sensitising and for working the back-leg. The 
sensitising gearing when once in order will not have to be touched 
again. 

The objections to this plan are, that it is necessary to bring one of the 
supports of the instrument under very slight stresses, and that it will not 
be possible to take readings at small intervals of time, especially if a more 
viscous fluid be used. 

Our intention is to proceed with our observations with the present 
instrument for some time longer, and to note whether the general 
behaviour of the pendulum has any intimate connection with the 
meteorological conditions. We intend to observe whether there is a 
connection between the degree of agitation of the pendulum and the 
occuiTence of magnetic storms. M. ZoUner has thrown out a suggestion 
for this sort of observation, but we find no notice of his having acted 
on it.' 

We shall also test how far the operation by means of the back-leg 
may be made to satisfy our expectations. 

We have no hope of being able to observe the lunar attraction in the 
present site of observation, but we think it possible that we may devise 
a portable instrument, which shall be amply sensitive enough for such a 
purpose, if the bottom of a deep mine should be found to give a suffi- 
ciently invariable support for the instrument. 

The reader will understand that it is not easy to do justice to an 

> PUl. Mag. Dec' 1872, p. 497. 



126 REPORT — 1881. 

incomplete apparatus, or to give a very satisfactory account of experi- 
ments still in progress ; but as it is now two years since the Committee 
was appointed, we have thought it best to give to the British Association 
such an account as we can of our progress. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney, 
Professor W. G-. Adams, and Professor Gr. Carey Foster, ap- 
pointed to carry out an Investigation for the purpose of fixing 
a Standard of White Light. 

Since the last meeting of the Association but little progress has been 
made in the investigations. Though several series of experiments have 
been made, no definite conclusion on the subject has been arrived at by 
your Committee. Owing to the accidental omission to present a report to 
the last meeting, the recommendation embodied in the communication 
which was printed in the last annual volume could not be carried out. 
(See 'Reports Brit. Assoc' 1880, p. 119.) 



Filial Report of a Gominittee, consisting of Professor A. S. Her- 
SCHEL, Professor W. E. Ayrton, Professor P. M. Duncan, Professor 
Gr. A. Lebour, Mr, J. T. Dunn, and Professor J. Perry, on 
Experiments to determine the Thermxil Conductivities of certain 
Rocks, shotuing especially the Geological Aspects of the Investi- 
gation. 

In bringing to a close the series of Reports which it has submitted during 
the past series of years since 1874, the Committee has endeavoured to 
collect and to compare together the several exact and well-deduced 
results from observations arrived at hitherto by various independent 
experimenters and investigators in the subject of its inquiry, so as to 
show at once the present position of the exjjerimental research and the 
most essential points in which it requires further extensions and improve- 
ments. .II,-,. 

The method pursued by Professor Everett in his work on ' Units and 
Physical Constants,' of expressing all the well-determined data of phy- 
sical experiments in terms of the centimetre, the gi'amme, and the second 
as a common system of units, is adopted in forming the general list of 
absolute and relative thermal conductivities by different observers, which 
the Committee has met with and collected together in the simple order 
and arrangement of a classified Table of thermal properties of rocks pre- 
sented with this Report. Many of the data presented in the Table are 
therefore already furnished in the uniform and well-authenticated form 
required, in Professor Everett's work. But the result of the present 
comparison has afforded the Committee such positive grounds of confi- 
dence in the general accuracy of the values found by its long-continued 
series of experiments, that it has been enabled by that means to assign 
absolute values to the relative ones of several important lists of thermal 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 127 

conductivities which, on account of their relative values only, could not 
receive admission to the store of absolute data furnished by Professor 
Everett's descriptions and reductions. In relation to this procedure the 
example of Peclet has been followed in the present list, who, in 1841, 
adopting relative numbers found by Despretz in 1821 and 1827, assigned 
absolute values to Despretz's series, by means of his own absolute deter- 
mination of the thermal conductivity of one of the substances (statuary 
marble) examined by Despretz. The values so assigned conjointly by 
Peclet and Despretz are marked ' Despretz (a) ' in the Table. But in a 
later relative list of Despretz, of a few specimens of rocks tested in 1852 
(not used, apparently, by Peclet in his general list of 1853), the value 
given for marble, for reduction of Despretz's earlier list, is not adhered 
to in the present Table, but the average conductivity found by a number 
of experiments of the Committee on different marbles is used instead of 
it, and Despretz's relative values thus converted into absolute ones are 
marked ' Despretz (/3), 1852,' in the present list. 

A similar course had to be pursued in the case of two important 
relative researches published almost simultaneously in 1856 and 1857 
by Helmersen of St. Petersburg, and Hopkins of Cambridge, on 
thermal rock-conductivities. To the relative quantities given by those 
researches for vein-quartz and white statuary marble respectively, the 
average values of the absolute conductivities of those rocks found by the 
Committee's repeated observations of them, are assigned (with a slight 
deviation in the latter case for the reasons recognised below), to convert 
the other relative quantities of the two researches into absolute measure, 
and to allow of their being compared on a common scale with other absolute 
determinations in the general list. 

The work of Helmersen terminated in recording the observed tem- 
peratures along bars of the tested specimens one and a-half inch 
square and eighteen inches long, heated at one end, according to 
Despretz's method. Pour thermometers being distributed at equal 
distances along the bars, it was found that in the worst-conducting bars 
the logarithmic decrement of temperature was so far from uniform and 
constant, that abandoning the doubtful measurement of its true value in 
each of them, Helmersen was contented to conclude from his experiments 
that vein-quartz was the best conducting material of those which he 
examined. 

As, however, unusual care was bestowed on Helmersen's experiments, 
the relative quantities which they denote are yet of great value for 
corroborative estimations. The decrements for each bar, and for each 
interval between the four thermometers, was therefore deduced from 
them, and by a mode of reduction to a mean decrement for each bar used 
independently of each other by two of the Committee to reduce the 
observations with the best presumptive regard to their respective weights, 
to relative conductivities, the following two series of numbers were 
obtained : — 

Mica Serpen- Sand- Lime- 
Rock Specimen Quartz Schist Granite Marble Porphyry tine stone stone 
Kelative ] I. 00710 -00501 00356 00510 -00448 -00555 -00471 -00466 
Conductivity, I 

7e jll. -00688 -0056.^ -00375 -00412 -00371 00458 00508 00399 

Of these two scries preference has been given to the latter, as it gives 
more weight to the thermometric intervals near the source of heat, that 



128 REPORT — 1881. 

to those near the cool end of the bars, where the stationary temperatures 
shown by the thermometers inserted in the bars were, in general, very 
little in excess of the temperature of the surrounding air. The numbers 
in this series were divided by 0-72 to make that for quartz correspond 
to the thermal conductivity 0-0096, found for that substance as the 
average result of the Committee's experiments described in former years 
in these Reports. The constant rate of logarithmic decrement in the 
quartz-bar, in fact, shows that its conductivity was more exactly measured 
by that quantity than in the case of the other bars whose rates of 
logarithmic decrement were very variable. 

The processes of experiment used by Hopkins and by Less to compare 
together the thermal conductivities of two considerable series of rocks, 
were those of Fourier and of Peclet, with some slight modifications, and 
they differ principally from the latter, and from that employed in the 
experiments of these Reports, in not affording the absolute, but only 
the relative, conductivities of the tested plates. In both mercury was 
used to establish direct contact between the plates and the heater and 
cooler between which they were interposed ; and the heat traversing the 
plate from below in the former, escaped to the surrounding air from the 
bright fluid surface of the upper covering of mercury whose temperature, 
and that of the mercury below the plate was at the same time observed. 
In Less's experiments the heat which passed downwards escaped to the 
outer air from a blackened copper plate pressed (like a heated one above) 
against the rock plate with a wet-junction of mercury. A thermopile 
placed opposite to the radiating-plate enabled its temperature to be 
observed. 

The numbers (relative ones) 7C3 and 769, found by Less for Italian 
and Carrara marbles are higher than the Committee's absolute (signifi- 
cant) numbers (57 and 61) of white marbles from Italy and Sicily ; the 
same being in general the case throughout the two lists. , The numbers 
of Less's list have all been diminished by one-tenth to assimilate them 
to and incorporate them in the present general list. But no altera- 
tion of the significant relative numbers obtained by Hopkins from his 
experiments was found to be required, the slightly defective number, 53, 
for statuary marble being compensated, especially in some granites and 
hard rocks, by a little excess of the relative numbers above those obtained 
by the Committee as absolute ones for quartz and granite. Accordingly, 
in the general list the relative numbers given by Hopkins have been used 
directly in a proper decimal place to give average absolute values of the 
conductivities which he found for certain different groups of common 
descriptions of rock tested in his experiments. 

Other observations, especially those of Peclet and Neumann, are 
originally absolute determinations. 

Of the original memoirs from which these data were extracted, and 
also of a long series of other papers relating to measurements of thermal 
conductivity, which mainly comprise the past history of its experimental 
investigation, a descriptive index and digest was drawn up for the 
Committee by Mr. Dunn. Of this abstract, as it supplies references, and 
further particulars of the experiments which have just been described, 
and as it affords a condensed review of the progress of experiment on the 
physical properties which here claim attention, the titles and substances 
' of the publications which have most eminently extended and advanced 
^'" the subject are added at the end of this Report, as an Appendix. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 129 

The appearance, in the first quarter of this century (in the year 1822), 
of Fourier's work on the laws of heat-conduction, and later on (in the 
year 1835) the production by Poisson of a similar treatise, together with 
publications by these and by Rudberg, Quetelet, Kuppffer, and other 
wi'iters of distinction on the same subject in the interval between those 
dates, directed the attention of those concerned in investigations of terres- 
trial physics to a new method of enquiry regarding the debated question 
of the globe's internal temperature. Between the upholders of the rival 
theories of the earth's original igneous, or aqueous consolidation, the reality 
of the argument of the gradual increase of temperature with depth 
below the surface of the earth was clearly demonstrated and established 
at about that time by the works of Cordier in Prance, and of Fox and 
Henwood in England, on the temperature of mines in deep workings at 
ma,ny different locahties of the globe. The evidence which this,*now 
universally established phenomenon presents in the views of Fourier's 
theory of a waste (presumably constant) of the globe's internal heat, has 
pointed not only to an extremely high present, but also to a much higher 
past internal temperature ; and the verification and extension of Fourier's 
theory by legitimate and practicable experimental trials is a course of the 
greatest speculative, and, without doubt, also of the greatest practical, 
consequence and interest to geologists. It is a meritorious recollection of 
its earliest proceedings that, among its first few years' recommendations, 
the British Association assisted and substantially endorsed these views by 
directing at that time the establishment in Edinburgh, under a Meteoro- 
logical Committee, of which Professor Forbes, Professor PhUlips, Colonel 
Sykes, Dr. Apjohn, and other distinguished men of science were most 
efficient members, of the three series of rock- and earth-thermometers in the 
trap-rock of the Calton Hill, the sand of the Botanical Garden, and the 
sandstone of Craigleith Quarry, near Edinburgh, which were read and 
recorded weekly, and finally reduced to thermal data for the five years 
following theii' establishment, from May 1837 to May 1842, by Professor 
Forbes.' The two last of these thermometer-sets were then abandoned, but 
the weekly readings of that in the Royal Observatory grounds on the 
Calton Hill in Edinburgh were continued uninterruptedly, until the recent 
destruction of the instruments, for forty years. 

The records of five years during which observations were recorded at 
all the three sets of thermometers by Professor Forbes, and of thirteen 
following years, were similarly reduced to thermal data, in the year 
1860, by Sir W. Thomson f and Professor Everett also calculated from 
a seventeen years' period of the same observations a coefficient of con- 

' Transactions of the Boyal Society of Edinhurgh, vol. xvi. p. 219.— The co- 
etticients of conductivity there arrived at are given, like Poisson's, in French metres 
and the year ; for trap, sand, and sandstone, A=ll-120, 8-260, 20884 ; roquirino- for 
reconversion to Paris-feet (the unit of depth of the thermometers) to be multiplied 
oaaoi '/-* square of the number of Paris-feet in a metre, giving 105 38, 78'^S 
K «■ \v .?.? '^^"°^ *^®'^® figures wth those in Paris-feet, 124-2, 78-31, .319-3 givon 
by bir W. Ihoinson's discussion on the page quoted belo-w, it will be seen that Sir W 
.Ihomsons citations of Forbes's values ('111-2, 82-6, 298-3') at that place, are 
erroneous in havmg only been multiplied by 10, instead of by 9-477, for their con- 
version ; and that the two results for sand are, in fact, almost identical, while sensible 
differences do actually exist in the values found by Professor Forbes and Sir William 
Thomson for trap-rock and Craigleith sandstone. The values of Forbes' data entered 
^f w ^u''^^" 1 able are those furnished directly by the origmal conclusions as above, 
r^f his above-quoled Memoir. ■> a , 

-,'q^' ^°^- ^^^- P- ^'^-^^ <e£.,.(theconcluded-data.on p. 425). 
lool. g 



130 



BEPORT — 1881. 



O 

Cm 
O 

• r-t 

Is 
o 

a 
C5 



p. 
■c . 

CA QJ 

P s 

<« C 






,o 


^> 


a 


!3 




O 


T) 


-tJ 


0) 


rt 


a 


c 


3 
rn 


a 


'd 




^ ^ 


-t-J 




(U 


.» 


TJ 


n 


+^ 


0> 


M 






tH 


a 


<u 




s 


<D 






<U 




K 








.2 

> 



a 






o 

a 

o 



2 2 



-^ 5-73 

-2 "■ o i 
go & a 






m 



M 



■a 



to 
o 

o 
o 






• C4 J, 

55 S S g 



_ ^ lO o CO qj 

O O O O <?' "5 



is.i§i5i 






in >n 

4t< o 



^ g a a » tj« 



o 






o 
o 



o 
o 



>0 <M 

r> 00 CO 

cs r^ to 

o o o 

o o o 



r- O m X3 

o J* 3 w S O 

« S S P a » 









'^ I 



o 






bog 



to 

o 
o 






II 






s8 a !« 









CO 

fan ■» bo in t^ 

T^ 2 • 03 CO 

fli 3 G; rt ^H 
O bD£ „ 



«.s 



«5 



rt ^■ 



•-I V 
oPh 



« ■ - 

a) •- d 

c« to en 

^^ c3 S 

a -s i « " 

^ p< n to ID 

<L» o a) d) j3 



a ^ 
ca o 

^ .- 
"&• 

ij fc; 

afi^ 

o 
c 

•- CS . 
TO p 

.S Cl =« 
^ O &I 



a . 
o a 

o -'^ 
C« TO 2 

o « ^ 

a a " 
is 



a ■" 



:a 



^"co 3 

CO t~M 

S;co H 

4) 0) !^ 
to " 'kC^ 



<u <u 

^ M 

<u o 

•si 

■s CO 

lO OJ 

I ,a 
I— -« 

CO 

i-( o 

gT CO 

a§ 



01 

M I 
o t^ 

O CO r; '^ 

a'^ ^-g 

2 2^-2 

s £ S^a 2 § 

•S -^ « 3 S <» 



c5 



HH 



<J> CO 

O r- 



ISIS II 



O t- CO 

.-( «o cr> 

rt o o 

o o o 






(M t^ (M O CD 

O -K C» t^ «0 



0» 05 



lO CO 
00 t~. 



00 
C4 






O 1(1 

CO CO 



p 
lb 



CO 
I— I 

I CD »-H (M ■* 



(M r-1 >-l CO -H 



^ O O CO --I 
C-l 00 lO CD O 
»0 CD 'f5 lO CO 
O O O O O 
O O O O O 



O O O iM 

9C C:t -^ CD lO 

»0 »C lO CO CO 

o o o o o 

o o o o o 



o 
o 



p 



I I 



o 



I I 



^ CO 1-1 



I \t 



in 

o 



I I 



o in 

"S" lO 



00 



00 

lO 



41 



^ 



u 
el 

■T 
a 
'S 



• 1-4 


■3 


tH 














§^ 


e- 


CO 




o 




v> 












g 


. "^ 


. Q4 


c3 


u 


o ■ 




• 


• 


■ 




• 


ti 


H 


s 


"0 



o 




53 


a> 


• 


• 


V 


• 


"2 
§ 




H 


5 




c« a 

<5o 




Granit 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 


1 


ta o 

«Ph 


2-g 



§• 



w 

d 
o 

O 



5S 

So 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OP CERTAIN ROCKS. 



131 



^ 




o 








o 


.1 







•k-) 




s 






5 


d 


^ 






4) 


rV 














W X> 


^ 


'-' 


O 








a 


a 


o 


<u 




ro 


«w 






CI 




a 


nr> 






4> 


►iw 



JO 
o 
o 



<l> 






Q o 
o 



_ a 
'§'3 

««| 

a s § 

m 00 ^ 

C t- Ph 
<U 05 

9. "2 9 

"' ^ a 



en 



fti 






1^ 



0) 



o 

a 

a 
.2 

'■+3 
o 

a 
o 
o 



g o 
o 






fa 



o 
o 

n 






bo 

a 
o 



'-+3 
§ 

a 
o 
u 



cS' 



33 






o 






0) 



jj C3 00 

a'^if 

o o t^ 
^> o 

*n •" <D ™ "■ 
o m « ii n-; 



,a - 

l-< 00 
03 rH 

a& . 

M w ^ 



a 

• — I 
u 
o 

a 

o 

CD •■-< 

a a 






o 

oj 



o 



S? I — it- 

'Q ^ 00 

O O ■-! 

"■eg 






Cli 






^ . 
o •-' 

W 



H Ph K 5 Cd 

'C - O *^ •- 
.„ g pC c3 00 
' o ho 01 i-i 

^1 S-^ d 
boC "S tc *i 

3 fl -pi fa a, ■ - 



c« 



C^ n M 
r-l '^ fli 



!2; fa 



o 
a. 



a 
o 



CO 
CO 



1^ 



c3 

-a 

a-g 

fa M 



O 
O 
O 

. n 
§-= 

o . 

O o 

^ (1 

3 Ei 

6C0> 



u O 
^ II 



. a> 



« . 



.5 a 



fcO I 






°4h 

a> S aj 



w O 

a to 
o o 



i-< a ^"^ 

a .a >, 

WW 



1 1 



00 to t~ 

O ^ O 

CO o 



I I 



CO o t- t^ 

to to CO t— 

o I o o o 

o I o o o 



CO 



la r-t 

iO la w* 

CO o CO 

rH C^ « C^ 

o o o o 



CO 

;s I I 

o 



00 lO 

00 o 



(M to e^ta 

00 O 0> TtH 



CO 

o 



'i* CO Oi 
to ^ ■* 

r-( (N r-< 



CO ■* O 
lo 00 CO 

<N IM CO 



lO k— 



r— 1 la 

"5 --I 



CO 



<M IN 

r-l 5<l 



US 



>0 I O 

r^ I 6 



o 
o 



00 I -H 



O >p 
<N --I 



«5 



CO IM 



O 



.-I Cq tH CO 



-*i CO 

CO i-H <N 



CO H 
v-/^ — ' 



t- 

CO 






■-I CO 

CO -< 

lO U5 

§o 
o 



o -* o 

>0 rH CT OJ 

«fi> »o •« to 

So O O 
<~, O O 



OJ 

-*l 

o 
o 



O CO o 
— 1 o t- 
to ■* to 
o o o 
o 91 o 



IC (M CO 

CJ lO o 

CO CO CO 

80 o 
o o 



■o 10 

CO o 

o o 
99 



CO 
to 



co ■* 

to OJ 

o o 

o o 



00 
to 
o 



to <N to t- 

to t- O C> 

CO to l^ CO 

o o 00 

o o 00 



00 
<N IN 



10 
CO 



o 

CO 



o 
CO 



10 o 
IN >b 






p 



I I 



I 1"^ 



I -^ 



»o 10 

6 6 



10 
o 



OJ 

I IS 



00 (N 

o ' o 



i-H IN 

to 10 
6 o 



1 — 1 


IN 

<o 


(N 

to 




-* 














© 



in u 

<s o 



■8.8 



o 

o 
Ph 



OJ 
CO 



w 



■■s a 

CO -M 

I m 

. c4 So 



-»^ o 
te OS S 

CC frJ CJ 









a> 

SSs 



. 0) . 

OS 
f~-l 
. Oi 
O • O 






^% 



^ 



a 
o 



02 



CO Q ^ Q O S 3< 



cS 

w 



ID 

o 

a 

eS 
02 



0} 



O O 



a 
o 

in 

-ci 


03 
CO 

13 

OS 

a 



a 
o 

m 

a 

CO 



*;3 



132 



BEPORT 1881. 



to a> 

a s 

a a 
.. a> 
w cj 
to g 
S'o 

Ota 



H 

<5 
H 

W 

o 

iii 
t-i 
O 

m 

CO 

Q 

>■ 

m 

-I 
O 

Ea 
O 

» 

B 
-) 



3 



C3 




t 


,!<1 




u 








03 

■3 




a 

O 


-4-3 




-s 






o 


is 




cS 


o 




a 




















>, 




.„ 


a 




OO 


a 




t^ 


g 




CO 
I— 1 


I") 






C5 


m 


m 


o 


a 

o 


o 

o 


tf-t 


d 


^ 














rf) 


r^ 


"5 rz^ 


f/1 


,i<i 


^-^ 


^ 




H 









a 

a 
o 









a 

c3 



0) 



o 



=! -I 



<u 



O 00 +^ 

^ 2 *^ 



'^ ."t^ 



CQ 



«} 



SO Q be 2 

oo <u -►^ 

^ n - _ 



^ »■ 



2 


^ 




^ 


flj '"^ 




cS 


■ r. 


.S CO 




eS o 


t>^ 


^•^Z 


CO 


1—1 




w" CJ 


th c^ 




<u 


i-i Xi 


•- fl 


O ^3 


13 «^ 


P.c^ 




«^ 


il 


o s^ 


Wh^ 


EH 



•i 
a -2 

sis 

" s 

=^a 

s O 
I'd 



CO fl . 

--is 
if- 2 

« Ah 



a 

o 



r/1 


a) 


a 


o 


-s. 


a 


o 


01 


WW 



s 

o 
d 
S 

m 

a 

a 

§ 
o 

a 

00 

S 2 

OD " 



., 00 0) J3 

fie-H 



o 



c 



OS 



o 
W 



CO 

o 

o 
o 



C(5 
O 



o 



,o s j- to fl 









00 

o 



C2 »C OD rH ^H -H 

00 1-- »0 t- b- .-H 



4»1 •— I -^< ■"*< i-i 
OD 00 <M -H to 
•— I f-H I— t N ^^ 



« ^ 









o 
lb 



I I «>? 

I I l-CV 



QJ C ° S 13 cj 



CO 
.— t 



F-l fH ^-( CO CO 



^.1 




to 


o 


o 


o 


IN m 


LI 


lO 


O 


O -* >o t- o 


o 


solu 
erm 
net! 




^-. « 


--ti 


CO 


M 


t^ CO 


00 


00 


Ir- 


in lO o eo iM 


t^ 




V?; 


(M 


■^ 


in 


O CO 


lO 


urs 


OO 


in lo 00 ■* 50 


CO 


■^ 




o 




O O 


o 




O 


o o o o o 




•S-^'S 




o 


^ 


o 


^ 


o o 


o 


O 


O 


o o o o o 


^ 


<lEHg 































o 



I I I 



o 

CO 



O 

6 






a"" o 



I I 



m 



o 







x: 














o 


m 




ft© 


a 








o 


d 


ec 


55; 




(S 


i^J 


1 


i 

03 




1 


«Q 


^ 


d 

o 






^-/ 


-i-j 






<*-! 


!^ 






O 








C/J 


fcq 






ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 



133 



1— 1 










t 




•3 
























a 






s 


c> 


& 




CM 

o 




• 




^^ 










*? 










-i:> 


> 




a 




• f-4 




•rS >* 










^ 










o 


G§ 


1 

g 

a 

"3 

<u 

& 

o 




o 




'?*i 


/•~^ 


•■^ri* 










a 






i 

CO 

I-) 




v 

1 

Soo 


1 

oo 
oo 

f-H 

oT 

o 


a ^ 

o 0) 




-5 

-a 

0) 

;-« 
/•~\ 

i 

o 

oo 

i-H 


8 
£ 

U 

a 

o 

a 


§1 
It 

oo o 

xn 2 


I-H 
-*< 
00 

a> 
"o 

00 

I-H 


oo p< 


CO 








o 

i 

a 

Id 

1 

% 

o 
o 

CO 




oo 

oo 

t-H 

in 
o 






oo o 


p. 






a' 


Si 


a Q 


^W^ 


S? a<i> 


lO 








lO 




P4 


H 

*- 


13 


gfS 


S^-^ 






Si 






52 ■" .a 
^«5 


oo 

.-H 


m 

fl 






t-H 




ST 

P^ 


P. 
(A 




IS 




^ H l-H 


ri^ O O 













3 o o o 1 o ^ 

w p p S S 5 H 


1 




1-H 

's 




«J5 

.-1 ■* O 

T— ! T-H CO 

o o o 
o o o 


1 1 


1 


to 
to 

's 




>0 CO 

88 


1 


1 oo 

o o 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 


CD 
CO 
O 
O 



o 

CO 


00 iM 


00 lo 
oo »o 
»o ■<*l 


1470 

787 


o o CO m lo 

O t^ CO oo !£> 
Tjl (M CO -*< IM 


00 <o 

C5 00 
CO H 


t- CJ> to O 

I-H C5 lO O 
-*< lO lO CO 


C0t-050«D<NO(M 
COtD«OODI^-*io 

coto-*c:it-io-*CT> 

I-H I-H I-H CO C^ 


1 


OO 

f-H 


1 1 


1 1 1 


^ 1 1 1 1 


1 1 


o o in in 
■* >b lb to 

I-H fH 


1 1 1 1 1:^^ 1 

I-H 



«o 


l-H I-H 


O IM 
to (M 

CO lo 

O O 
O O 


OO 

O O 

O o 



(N I-H rH I-H I-H IH I— I 



N N (M IM 



OOO OOOtOb- oo Ot-Oin 

toi;^ ict^OOt— lOio i^coooco 

Oi-H C^ICOCOC-JCO (MCO CvlrHi— ICO 

OO ooooo oo OOOO 

oo OOOOO oo OOOO 



moootoooi-Hio 

t^lCt^i-HlOOI-t^O 
O^O-hOOO^ 

oooooooo 
oooooooo 



I® 



o 



I I I I 11 



lO O 

1^ to 



,111^ --- 



I i 





ifii 


















o 








lO 


^— _ 






1 


1 ^ 






1 «o 




, t-O 








1 "-• 


<o lO 






, CO (M 




1 


1 1 i 1 1 l| 


1 


-* 






'I' 




•* 'i* 




! 


1 1 


00 


^ 00 






CO to 






O 






' 6 




' 66 








' O 


oo 






' 66 






• a 

60 

a 


0) 




• • 

• • 

1- 




• • • 

• • • 


i' 


• 
• 


• • 

• • 

•S 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


1 

1 


a 
8 

}H 

o 


• • • 





• 




g- 

p 

m 
a, . 


• • ■ 


1 


• 


Siliceous Powder 
Argillaceous ditto 
\ Sil. and \ Argil. 
Calcareous ditto . 
Powdered Chalk 
Pounded BriCk 
White Siliceous 
dry. 


o 
O 


21 
33 


d 
o 
-«^ 

S 

a 
3 


i3 




(o 


Coal 

House-coal 
Cannel Coal 


G 


5 

b 


Wet ditto 
Very wet CI 
Dry Clay 
Wet ditto 


tS -M 

b| 


1 


Brick and P 
Terracotta 
Brick, dry 
Ditto, wet 


1 





134 



nEPOEt — 1881. 





'n 


Qi 


s 


n 


Hi 


Tt 


irt 


s 


rn 




a 




a> 


<u 


a 








n 


•a 


s. 


CiCQ 






Id 
d 

a 



00 



o 

a> 
Ph 






-O bo 

a (u 

m '^ 

Eel 



01 



2 CO 
-sa oo 

a bo 

o ^ 



^ . o o 

-ta -*^ "^ 
TO -^ 0) *H 

w u tn CL> 

-SSI 
.2g a 

o El's " 

O ^ r3f£J 



ij g g o m 

H fa 




0) - . 

>■ w r] 

.1-; o s 






0) . aj .T5 



<1> 
























■♦-» 


•« o 


CO Zj 
^ O 


t— 1 

00 

o 

o 


I— t 

00 

o 

o 


o 


CD lO 
rt O 

CJ CO 

o o 
o o 


i-H 

s 

o 


CO 
Oi 

o 
o 


CD 
CO 

•a 


o 
o 


■0114 
•00356 




























v^J I— I 



(N 


(M 


OO 


OO 


eo 


CO 



CM 



OS OS N 

CO in OS 



M >.», a t. o g p. 
Wo iH 



I I I 



; g-S-o S.S " 



I I 



o 


(N 


(>) 


CO 


CO 


e^ 


O 


o 


o 


o 



(M 
CD 
(M 
O 

o 



CO 

o 
o 



22g 

o o V 



fl O tfi r] •" , 

i e*-! a 2 " 



I I 



I I 



O 9? ?i 00 



-H lO 



COC CO 

2 t^ "=> 

'pro CO 



CD 
O 







13 

o a 

Cl !U 

0) M 

O 03 

u o 

fe o 



• 


' 


§ 


■ • • • 






fti 






CS 


«Q 






«3 


S 












t>> 









c? 


O 


5i 


• * • • 












.2 


1 


Ice 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Snow 




1 


!^ 



ON IHB THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROOKS. 



135 



I 



ffi 

.S 

<u o 

la 

2 o 






a 

o 



a 
a 

11 

goo 

2 <1> s^ 

rn OQ O 

M a> o 



fo 



as 



I- 00 

•S-2 2 

O ft M 

• en "? o 
CO S Ol 



<p 



3^ 

CO -t^ 

o a 

m O !S 

.So 
bo to -S 









<u 


c« > 


Is 


4) »C 




•<** 


H-> 


a CO <t^ 


^ 


3 ■* « 


bu 


fcl 00 i>< 


S 


"C r-( ^ 


o 


a 


o 


vi to 



2 

CM 



tj CO 

1° 



4) I— I 



(U o 

voj -r" Jd 
PhOH 



fHh-ll-ll-il-Hh-ll— 1« 



I^Too 00 ." 

. - r d 
13 r^ n3 'd 

:d3 2 "^ 



I a 

1=2 



« as? ^"v 

*^ «: O o ,^ 
•s ^ <u a 



o 



■ 0) .- 

S'-'fi 



03 ^3 
o o *- ca 



o 






03 



p 3 



^ C3 

=« b s d 

» §^a £ 

fli O .r. ^ *>,^*' 

S m to ;r'-^ _" 



gco 



a 8; 

<u ■ 



0) 

-M fd CL<iJ 

o u 



a 

o 

<D CO 



I +-« j^ »+H 

§ ««« ® 
rrt CO 

S V - o 

o n 'o'd 

O) J/} "^ ^ 

Ills'-" 

g o <p " 
'^ - ^^ 

f-H i— t O d 

a-^^i 
a§2a 

o-^pq o 



C CO 
O CO 



o 

-^ ^ 

§-§ 

.2 a 

-2 -a 

CO -r* 

'o o 

c3 ^ 



05 



CO 
© I o 

o o 



1^ 



I — I CO 

I— I tOiMO'^COCiCO-"** 

an »o^*oocM-*'— ia>t>- 

O OOi-HCOOOOO 

O OOOOOOOO 



to 

CO 

o 
o 






o 
o 



00 t- 

CO to 

CO <n 

O i-H 

o o 



o 
o 



o 

CO 
CO 

o 
o 



>0 ■<»< OS o 

.1 cq I-H sq 



t~ « o 

CO lO -^ 
O W t^ 



00 © CO 00 to CO t- 
t- © 05 t- ■— I to a*i 
o* >o . . to oo 0-1 



9 

do 



I i I I I I I 



I— I rH i-H ©^ rH 



to to b- 
eo i-i o © 
to ^ lo >o 
© © © o 
o© o o 



CT «o >o 

Oi CO CO 

© I-H t-H 

o © © 

© © © 



to © 00 00 to <N H*! 

CO Cq O W © 1-H -»< 
© © rH .-H © © © 

o o © © © © o 



© 
CO 



I © I 00 

© o 



t>. 10CO(MO'<Hi-HlO 

CCj tCi'*tO-*i-HtO'*< 

© 6P,6 ©o 6 © 



I 



<B a 



pp 



Ah 



PhOP 



es 

^ • 

0) ft 

O K 

ao8 



IH 



PLiP 



V ;h 






^i 



^ 






1-H -If 



•-H * . 
00 rt ^-v 

- m .22 

^ -O o« 
fl ^^ " 

Hesse's 
^ --00 •" 

t-H .ftl ,^ 



N 



Ph 



o 
a 
o 



eo 
04 

I 

1-H 

00 tM 
^m 

02 



1=1 -u? 
0) CM 

Si 

JUS ^^ 

-^ o 
CO -^^ 

2h.n 



tn 



CQ 



m 



I 



CO 
00 






136 REPORT— 1881. 

ductivity for the Trap of Calton Hill scarcely distingnistable In its value 
from that fonnd by Sir W. Thomson.' 

Transforming these determinations to centimetres, grammes, and 
seconds from the units of the Paris-foot and year in which they are 
expressed, the corresponding values of the absolute thermal coefficients 
so obtained for Calton Hill trap-rock are arranged with those obtained 
from the Committee's experiments, in the accompanying general list. 
Similar values in the same list denote also, in comparison with the Com- 
mittee's observations, the absolute conductivities (by unit- weight of water 
and by unit- volume of the rocks) found by the two independent methods 
for the sandstone of Craigleith quarry and for the sand of the experi- 
mental garden, near Edinburgh, where the other thermometers were 
planted. 

The dii'ectly measured values are in general, in these cases, in such 
very fair agreement with the thermal conductivities found by computa- 
tions, that the verifications which they afford of those results are also a 
sjabstantial confirmation of the theory upon which they are founded. 
Angstrom's reductions of the 10 feet deep Upsala earth-thermometers in 
moist clay afford the same conclusion ; and indeed the agreement pre- 
sented by the series of Despretz's, Helmersen's, and Neumann's observa- 
tions, and especially by Messrs. Ayrton and Perry's experiment on a 
sphere of trachyte, made by methods based on Fourier's theoiy, with the 
direct results of various forms of Peclet's method used in the other 
determinations of the table, plentifully attest and abundantly substantiate 
the same physical agreement. 

There are, indeed, as great difficulties in determining thermal 
conductivities from earth-thermometer observations, as in successful 
applications of the processes of direct experiment. For while in the latter 
artificial temperature and heat-supplies are difficult to keep constant and 
to measure accurately, in the former case the natural periodical variations 
which furnish observational results for computation, are uncertain in 
their separate and combined intensities and efi'ects from year to year. It is 
only on the average of several years' records that the annual, semi-annual, 
and other quicker oscillations of temperature at the earth's surface can be 
regarded as sufficiently constant for a single average period to be severally 
followed downwards by calculation, as individual heat-waves among the 
deep- sunk thermometers. In this case the same rate of decrease per foot 
of logarithmic amplitude, and of angular lead of the maximum or minimum 
phase of the descending heat-wave, would be found for all the annual, semi- 
annual, and other quicker portions of the oscillation at the surface. The 
same value of the earth's conductivity, at any place, would be found from 
all these periods. But the varying character, at any place, of the yearly 
oscillations of temperature at the earth's surface from year to year, pre- 
cludes the possibility in general of such perfectly accordant calculations, 
for records not extending over more than one or two years. Reductions, 
like Sir W. Thomson's and Professor Everett's, for records extending over 
periods of seventeen or eighteen years, show very close approximations to 
it. But in briefer periods the efiect on range and retardation near the 
surface, produced by half-yearly and other faster oscillations. Is not always 
found to be compatible with that attributable to the yearly one, from 
secular changes of greater period than either being accidentally combined 

' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edmburgh, vol. xxii, p. 437, 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 137 

with them, of which only long-continued observations can by a final 
average eliminate the inconstant actions. 

With all the loss of certainty which thence arises, the records of 
earth-thermometers for one or two years only have frequently been 
reduced, so as to afford approximate coefficients of amplitude-decrease 
and retardation, from which corresponding conductivities in terms of the 
heat capacity of a unit-volume of the rock- substance, and of the centi- 
metre, gramme, and second, as fundamental units, are easily calculated, 
when the fundamental units are known in which the concluded coefficients 
were expressed. Coefficients of this kind were deduced by Kuppflfer 
from Ott's extensive three-year observations at Ziirich about the years 
1760-62, and from Dr. Leslie's, at Raith, near Edinburgh, in 1816 and 
1817. The equivalents of these coefficients given in the table in the 

column of the ratio —, assume the units in which they were originally 

c 
expressed to have been, the Paris-foot in the former, and the English- 
foot in the latter reduction, those having been apparently (in the absence 
of other intimations in Kuppffer's work), the scale-units of depth of 
the Ziirich and Raith thermometers used and adopted by Kuppffer in 
his calculations. The conductivity derived directly from the recorded 
loss of range, which was nearly the same in one year as in the other, 
between the two deepest (4 feet and 8 feet deep) thermometers at Raith 
in 1816 and 1817, differs so much from that belonging to the higher 
seated ones (at 1 foot, 2 feet, and 4 feet deep), and from Kuppffer's 
mean value of the rate of logarithmic decrement for the whole of the 
records at the different depths, that in view of the probability of the 
lowest pair of thermometers being least of all affected in their ranges 
by temperature-oscillations of short periods at the surface, a separate 

entry is given in the Table of the value of the ratio ■ — derived from 

c 

the two lowest thermometers only, on the supposition here adopted of its 
being more certainly dependable than that arrived at from all the ther- 
mometer indications together, without any choice or preference. 

Another logarithmic rate instanced by Kuppffer in the same paper as 
the last two, is deduced from three' years observations at Strasburg, by 
Hemmschneider, in 1821-23, of a thermometer fifteen feet below the sur- 
face of the earth. This reduction seems to be as doubtful and uncertain 

as that last described, and the equivalent conductivity - is as high 

c 

(0'01267) as that denoting Kuppffer's mean rate for the Raith thermo- 
meters is low (0*00444) among ordinary values. But from Rudberg's 
one- to three- feet deep thermometer records in the Observatory plain of 
coarse sand at Stockholm, three reductions for one year each, 1832-33, 
1833-34, and 1834 alone (the last two by Quetelet and Angstrom) give 
conductivity equivalences 0-0060, 0-0071, and 0-0093 very divergent but 
generally resembling those found by Forbes and Thomson, -0067, -0079, 
and -0087 for Calton Hill trap-rock and garden-sand. The Committee's 
experiments gave -0036 for dry, and '0144 for thoroughly water-saturated 
fine siliceous sand. But the source of divergence in the appajrent geo- 
thermal conductivity at Stockholm was more probably, as Angstrom 
recognised, in comparing Quetelet's with his own result, the irregular 
course of temperature at the locality in two successive years, than possible 



138 REfOST— 1881. 

variations at the place of the soil's dryness or Wetness during the same 
time. The high valae of the stratum-conductivity, found by Quetelet, in 
two years at Brussels, for earth of the deep-sunk thermometer bed, estab- 
lished and observed there in 1834 and 1835 (0-0120), may, perhaps, for 
the same reason, be in some measure accidental ; but no errors of the 
same kind can be easily supposed to affect the widely different value 
(0-0057) which Angstrom's reduction in 1851, of seven years' records of 
the deep-sunk thermometers, at Upsala, gave for the uniform bed of 
sandy clay in which those thermometers are placed. 

The surface-stratum conductivity given by Poisson's reduction, in his 
' Theorie Mathematique de la Chaleur,' of Arago's unpublished e%rth- 
thermometer observations in Paris (0-0083), and that assigned by Ang- 
strom's discussion of Caldecott's observations for three years of deep-sunk 
thermometers in ' laterite,' at Trevandrum (0-0074), are both of average 
or ordinary magnitudes. Two values, however, obtained subsequently 
by Angstrom, apparently from earth-thermometer records at Upsala, 
for wet clay and argillaceous sand (0-0047 and 0*0045), are again re- 
jnarkably low quantities compared with the well-established conductivities 
in terms of heat-capacity by volume (00205 or 0231) found by Forbes 
and Thomson to belong to Craigleith sandstone. 

Of the existence, thei-efore, in different rocks and soils, of great 
diversity in their powers of transmitting heat-waves, or periodical and 
other fluctuations of temperature, the hitherto conducted observations of 
earth-thermometers have given abundant proofs and illustrations. It 
redounds, indeed, especially to the well-earned scientific prestige of the 
British Association that this result has been arrived at by one of its 
earliest initiatives and promotions of scientific objects in no small degree ; 
for by its timely establishment and careful choice of the sites of the 
Edinburgh rock- and earth-thermometers, a thermal property of the pure 
Craigleith coal-measure sandstone has been revealed, to which no other 
earth-thermometer records and reductions yet made have hitherto pre- 
sented any parallel. The geothermal conductivity of this kind of sand- 
stone is nearly twice as great as that of any other earth-stratum hitherto 
tested with thermometers, and five or six times as great as that of moist 
clay and argillaceous earth tested by the same mode of observation. 

An error of reduction which affected all the Committee's absolute 
conductivity-determinations, was noticed after the production in the 
volume of these Reports for the year 1878, of the last general table 
of the Committee's observations. The necessary correction which it 
entailed upon the list was notified in the following report (in the volume 
of these Reports for the year 1879), and corrected values of several of 
the results before obtained were then communicated. The required 
corrections have now been applied to the whole of the measurements 
contained in the last general table, and the numerous trials made in 
several cases of rocks of the same class and geological description have 
been incorporated, owing to the close similarity which in general subsists 
between them, into single average results for the several distinct classes 
or geological kinds of rock. The comparison which can thus be formed 
in the accompanying general list between these measurements and those 
obtained by other methods and researches is in general very satisfactory, 
and exhibits in many cases corroborations of very excellent accordance. 

The confirmations desired by Poisson of the applications of Fourier's 
theory to the problem of heat and temperature- distribution and changes 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CEfiTAIN ROCKS. 139 

in the interior of the globe, by instrnmentally measured values of the 
thermal coefficients to which they either lead, or which, on the other 
hand, they require for their extensions, are now at least partially sup- 
plied. But it must be admitted that many imperfections of experimental 
methods, as well as intricacies of the theory's applications, still remain to 
be removed before the confirmation and assistance which one branch of 
the subject of heat-conduction can derive from and may usefully offer to 
the other, can yet be satisfactorily affirmed to be complete. 

Upon this point, which embraces the geological aspect and objects of 
the present investigation in its widest sense, much more might be written 
and comprised in this report which the Committee has noted and col- 
lected in its work of original reference and research. But as these notes 
and historical reviews would lead to the extension of this report much 
beyond its contemplated length, the Committee deems it necessary, in its 
concluding report, to confine itself to the results of recent work and pub- 
lications which bear most immediately upon the experimental part of 
the problem regarding whose progress and recent investigations it has, 
during the long period now terminated of its frequent I'eappointment, 
chiefly endeavoured to record the nseful acquisitions, and to present to- 
gether an outline of the best existing information. 



APPENDIX. 

Abstracts of Papers relating to the Conduction of Heat, and a List of 
Authors' Names and Writings on the Subject. By J. T. Dunn. 

Dalton, • Ann. Chim.' (1), 45, 177 (1803). — Method of determining point of maxi- 
mvun density of HoO by thermometers. 

Despretz, 'Ann. Chim. Phys.' (2), 19, 97 (1821).— The first of the well-known 
memoirs. Eesults : Cu 12 ; Fe, Zn, Sn, 6 ; Pb, 2 ; marble, ^ ; brick clay, 
porcelain, 35- 

Despretz, ib. (2) 36, 422 (1827). — Extension of former results, with numerical details 
of experiments. Good conductors satisfy Fourier's exponential law, but the 
successive quotients with bad conductors differ widely. Figures : — 

Porcelain 12 -2 

Brick and 'i -i -i . 

firebrick/ ^ ^ 

Fourier, ib. (2) 37, 291 (1828). — Conducting powers of thin films. A thermometer is 
immersed in Hg in a conical iron vessel with a flexible skin-bottom. This 
having been warmed to a suitable temperature is placed on the film or lamina 
lying on a block of constant temperature, and the fall of the thermometer noted 
Comparative results only. An air-thermometer has the lower half of its bulb in 
contact with the lamina, which again is in contact with a hot body of constant 
temperature, while the upper half of the thermometer-bulb is in contact with 
melting ice. Order of conductivity given by the temperature which the ther- 
mometer takes up. 

De la Bive and Decandolle, ib. (2) 40, 91 (1829).— Conductivity of woods. Same 
method as Despretz. End of bar cased in tinplate and heated by spirit lamp. 
Order of conductivity only. Allier ( Cratcegus aria), walnut, oak, pine, poplar 
(long.). Walnut, oak, pine (trans.). Cork (long.). 

Lam§, ib. (2) 53, 190 (1833). — Theoretical remarks on isothermal surfaces. 

Despretz, ib. (2) 71, 206 (1839). — Liquids. Heated from surface in deep cylinder. 
Temperatures of thermometers follow same law as in solid bar. At same level 
temperature diminishes from axis towards side, and thence to middle of wall. 
With cylinders of different diameters temperature-differences agree with theory. 



Au 1000 


. Cu 898-2 , 


. Sn 303-9 


Pt 981 . 


. Fe 374-3 . 


Pb 179-6 


Ag 973 


. Zn 3630 


. Marble 23-6 



140 



REPORT — 1881. 



Peclet, ib. (3) 2, 107 (1841).— The well-known method. Eesult for Pb k = 3'84 
(1 kilo. H,0 1° C. 1 sq. m. 1 mm. 1 sec). Hence, from the results of Despretz, 
Au = 21-28', Pt = 20-9.5, Ag = 20-71, Cu= 19-11, Fe = 7-95, Zn=7-74, Marble = -48, 
Porcelain = -24, Fireclay = -23. 

8enarmont de, ib. (3) 21, 457, and 22, 179 (1848) Crystals. Covered with wax, 

and heated either by spot of sunlight, by voltaic ignition of Pt wire bored 
through, by stream of hot air through silver tube, or by conduction in silver rod. 
Conductivity varies much as optic elasticity does. In cubic system, surface 
is a sphere ; in square prismatic or rhombic, ellipsoid of revolution, with unequal 
axis coinciding with axis of symmetry ; in rectangular prismatic, ellipsoid axes 
coinciding with axes of crystal ; in monoclinic, ellipsoid with one axis in axis of 
S3Tnmetry, others not predicable ; in anorthic, no axis predicable. 

Senarmont de, ib. 23, 257. Stress and conductivity. Glass, porcelain, and flint 
compressed, and the old method used. Axis in direction of compression always 
shortened, and vice versa. 

Wiedemann and Franz, ib. 41, 107 (1854). Metals. The method of Langberg, 
using thermopile with mechanical means of ensuring contact,, and calibrating the 
indications by direct comparison with thermometer. Kesults in air diifer slightly 
from those in vacvo. 

Pt 8-4 
Ag 100-0 . Brass 23-1 . Fe 11-9 . Pd 6-3 
Cu 73-6 . „ 24-1 . Steel 11-6 . Kose 2-8 

Au 53-2 . Sn 14-5 , Pb 8-5 . Bi 1-8 

AViedemann, ib. 45, 377 (1855). — Same method applied to junction of two metals. 
Appeared at first that there was a sudden fall at the junction when better con- 
ductor was hotter, but none when bad conductor was hotter. This, however, 
found to be due to rate of commimication of heat to thermo-pair, and when 
thermo-pair was immersed in Hg in each bar no difference of temperature was 
found at the junction. 

Gouillaud, ib, (3) 48, 47 (1856).— Metals (Fe, Zn, Pb). Despretz' method, only 
using longer bars. Verifies experimentally the formulae y = T6~»^, and 
y = A€" + B6"" between the limits for which Newton's law holds. Verifies also 
the law of thicknesses as Despretz didfor liquids. Deduces and verifies that the 
constant A in expression — y = A (e"' — €"*') -t-Te~"' — varies directly as the ex- 
cess of temperature of the source, and shows tliat without sensible error the 
formula may be put in the form (2E being the thickness of the bar and I its 

length), y = ^~^^ Tt-'»'(6"-t-") +T6-". 

Wiedemann, ib. (3) 58, 126 (1860). — Alloys. Calvert and Johnson's paper appears 
to show that with alloys the thermal and electric conductivities do not agree 
as with metals. According to these results they do. Thermal conductivity 
determined by W. and F.'s method, electrical by Wheatstone's Bridge comparison 
with zinc wire. 



Cu 








8 Cu 1 Zn . 








6-5 








4-7 








21 








Zn 








Sn 








3 Sn 1 Bi 








1 Sn 3 Bi 








» IPb 








Rose's metal "1 




(1 Sn, 1 Pb, 


2 Bi) 


/ 





Th. 


El, 


73-6 


79-3 


27-3 


25-5 


29-9 


30-9 


311 


29-2 


25-8 


25-4 


28-1 


27-3 


15-2 


17-0 


10-1 


90 


5-6 


4-4 


2-3 


20 



40 3-2 

With Cu Zn alloys, conductivity is nearly same as that of Zn. With Sn Bi 
alloys, conductivity is about the mean of those of constituents. 

Neumann, ib. (3) 66, 183 (1862). — Variable state observed. For metals, bars pro- 
vided with tbermo-pairs near either end heated to stationary state, then sum and 



cD 




1-37 


Cu . 


1-68 


Brass 


13-5 


Zn . 


4-2 


German silver 


10-8 


Fe . 


16-0 




12-9 




7'0 





ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 141 

difference of thermo-currents observed periodically while cooling. (Sum depen- 
dent on h, difference on k.) For bad conductors, cubes or spheres with central 
and external thermo-pairs similarly treated. (To convert units to Peclet's, multi- 
ply by •0848 ; to Ingstrom's, by -0509.) 



Oil 1-37 Cu 1306 

Sulphur 1-68 Brass 356 

Ice 13-5 Zn 362 

Snow 4-2 German silver .... 129 

Frozen soil .... 108 Fe 193 

Sandstone 

Large-grained granite 
Serpentine (Zoplitz) 

Angstrom, ib. 67, 379 (1863). — Ear, exposed at one section to periodic heating and 
cooling, and K deduced from observations of periodic temperatures at other 
portions. Cu 54-62, Fe 9-77 (grm. cm. min.). 

Jannettaz, ib. (4) 29, 5 (1873). — Crystals. Method essentially de Senarmont's, 
but modified and improved in details (plates of apparatus given). Confirms, 
on a large number of crystals, the general results obtained by de Senarmont as 
to relation of axes of conductivity to crystallographic axes and cleavage. 

T. Thompson, 'Mch. Journ.' 1, 81 (1802). Eegarding convection. Experiments to 
prove that the motions of amber in Eumford's experiment do not imply currents 
in the fluid. Two layers of fluid, coloured and colourless, superposed and con- 
taining solid particles. On heating, the solid particles travel beyond the coloured 
into the colourless fluid, without being accompanied by coloured fluid. 

Murray, ib. 1, 165, and 241. Conduction in fluids. Eumford's experiments with 
heating from below inconclusive, prove only that not all the transference of heat 
in a fluid is conduction. Heating from above, by hot oil poured on water, or 
brass ball immersed in it over thermometer-bulb, tliermometer rose. But this, 
perhaps, partly from conduction by sides. That sides do conduct shown by 
jacketing cylinder with outer one filled with water and containing thermo- 
meter, outer thermometer likewise rose. To obviate errors from this, made 
vessel of ice with thermometer frozen through side, filled with oil or Hg, and 
warmed by hot water poured into can floating or suspended on surface of liquid. 
Thermometer rose in all cases. Not radiation, because when hot water sus- 
pended just over surface of fluid without touching, rise of thermometer exceed- 
ingly slight. 

Traill, ib. 12, 132 (1805). — Fluids. Turned wood vessel, with thermometer, and lid 
bored with hole to admit hot iron cylinder, resting by flange on edge of hole. 
With different liquids, thermometer took different times to rise 3° ; had sides of 
vessel alone operated, times should have been equal. 

Rumford, ib. 14, 353 (1806). Heats water-surface from the point of a cone just 
dipping into it, and fails to raise the temperature of a thermometer beneath. 
Admits, however, that thermometer might have been raised, had heated particles 
of water been prevented from rising up outside of the cone. 

Langberg, ' Ph. Mag.' (3), 20, 161 (1846).— Metals, Cu, Steel, Sn and Pb. No ther- 
mometers, but thermo-pair applied to surface. Bars (or wires) about 36 mm. 
long, and 1-7 x 1 mm. section. Law of Biot found not to hold. But ? as to 
correctness of thermopile indications, from thinness of bars and long contact. 

Wiedemann, ib. (4) 10, 393 (1855).— See ' A.C.P.' (3), 45, 377. Longer and more 
detailed abstract here. 

Thomson, ib. (4) 22, 23 and 121 (1861).— Eeduction of underground temperature 

observations, and deduction of K for the rocks in the three Edinburgh stations. 

See Trans. R.S.E, xxiii. (1860) p. 426, and these Reports (on 'Conductivity ') for 

1875. 
Neumann, ib. 25, 63 (1863).— Translation from * A.C.P.' (3), 66, 183. 
Angstrom, ib. 25, 130. — Cf. Pogg. 114, 513, of which this is a translation, fuller than 

the abstract in ' A.C.P.'(3) 67, 369, In addition to figures for Cu and Fe, deduces 



142 



IlEPOBX — 1881. 



from Upsala observations 
Ups.' S. 3, 1,211) for 

Argillaceous sand -— 

CO 



of underground hemperature (' Act, Reg. Soc. Sci. 



26952 



S... 1-725 
1-821 



•4416 



K... -2053 



sec. , 

^7—, we get 
min. 



•4448 . -2264 

00342 and -00377 as the values 



Moist clay . . -27958 
Eeduced to B.A. units, multiplying by 

of K. 

Gripon, ib. 32, 547 (1866). — Mercury, by Peclet and Despretz' method. Results 1-67 
(Pb = 3-84, Peclet) ; 354 (Ag = 100). 

Guthrie, ib. 35, 283 (1868). — Liquids : film of liquid sustained by adhesion between 
two flat plates ; one the lower surface of heating steamer, the other the upper 
surface of ' bulb ' of air-thermometer. Order of conductivity only : Hg, water, 
oil of turpentine, glycerine, amjd iodide, nitro-benzene, aniline. 

Paalzow, ib. 36, 469 (1868). — Liquids. Despretz' method, using glass vessel (60 mm. 
diameter), and four thermometers. Order of conductivity only : Hg, H.,0, Sat. 
CuSOj, H2SO4 (1-25), Sat. ZnSO„ Sat.' NaCl. 

McFarlane, ib. 43, 392 (1872). — External conductivity (emissive power) of Cu. 
Ratio of polished to blackened surface, for differences from 5° to 60° C., nearly 
constant at -690. 

Mayer, ib. 44, 257 (1872). — Application of double iodide of Hgand Cu, which changes 
colour at 70°C., to determine crystal conductivities after de Senarmont's method. • 

Weber, ib. 481. — Fe and German silver ; used Neumann's modification of l.ngstr6m's 
method, bringing the two ends of a bar alternately for stated periods to tempera- 
tures U|, and u,, and observing by thermopairs the constant temperature ultimately 
attained by the middle point, and the difference of temperature between points 
distant J and | of the whole length of the bar from one end. These give two 
relations between // and 7i (mathematical exposition given in paper) whence 
values of h and 7i are deduced. 

For Fe, k. = -1485, /* = -000266 (@, 39° C.) 

For German silver, Z; = -08108, k = -000304 (@, 31° C.) 

Eumford, ♦ Ph. Trans.' 1804, 23. — Holes in glaciers filled with water, how explained. 
Reply to Murray's and Thompson's remarks on his former experiments. No 
experiments. 

Hopkins, ib. 1857, 805. — Rocks, 5-in. disc, about IJ — 2" tliick, surrounded by a 
square block of substance of similar conductivity, resting in contact with Hg, and 
having upper surface covered with layer of Hg. Lower Hg heated by steam or 
otherwise, and when stationary state had supervened, temperatures of lower and 
upper Hg (taken as those of lower and upper surface of rock) read along with 
atmospheric temperature. Comparative values of k thus obtained. 



Calcareous powder 


•056 


Millstone-grit, Dukenfield, 120 ft 


-51 


Argillaceous „ . . . 


-070 


„ deeper . 


•65 


Siliceous „ . . . 


-150 


„ „ 1,300 ft. V. hard 


•726 


500/0 Arg. and 50% Sil. powder 


-110 


„ „ Chapel-le-Frith 


•75 


Chalk, well-dried . 


-170 


J, », ,, 


•76 


Clunch, very wet . 


-300 


Blue hard sed. rock Penmaenmawi 


-5 




r-38 

■ -37 
L-37 


If »i 


•6 


Oolites from Ancaster . 


Slate, Charnwood Forest 


•61 




Granite .... 


•53 


Statuary marble 


-53 


Scotch granite 


•55 


Blue mountain limestone, Derby 


-55 


' Welsh gi-anite ' (so-called) . 


•60 


Dry clay .... 


-27 


Scotch large-grained granite 


•75 


Very dry .... 


-23 


Basalt, L. Katrine 


•53 


Moist . . . . 


-37 


Syenite, Charnwood Forest 


•85 


New red sandstone. 


-25 


Hard close-grained rock do.. 


•99 


„ (wet) .... 


-60 


Igneous rock, L. Katrine 


100 


Freestone .... 


-33 


Basalt do. 


•59 


Building sandstone 


-43 


Mountsorrel granite 


•80 


Millstone grit (decomp.) 


-376 


Spermaceti .... 


-086 


grit 


-58 


Wax 


■072 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS:. 



143 



Effect of pressure and temperature on conductivity practically nil. Effect of 
discontinuity to lessen conductivity, but not to any great extent where good 
contacts exist between discontinuous portions. Effect of moisture largely to 
increase conductivity, attaining a maximum before saturation of the rock is 
reached, 

Calvert and Johnson, 'Ph. Trans.' 1858, 349, and 18.59, 831.— Metals, alloys, and 
amalgams. Square bars, with one end immersed in hot, other in cold, water, 
both of known temperature. Means taken to obviate passage of heat between 
calorimeters, except through bar, and rise of temjaerature of cold water in given 
time noted. Relative results only, and probably only order of conductivity since 
inrtuence of sp. heat must have been considerable. Long table of resulting 
figures. Action of compound bars compared with that of alloys. 

Guthrie, ib. 1869, 637.— Liquids. Same apparatus as in ' Ph. Mag.' 4, 35, 283, but 
modified by having cone surfaces of Pt, ground quite plane, and with an arrange- 
ment for regulating and measuring distance between. Figures for relative 
' resistances ' given. No. of ht.-units arrested per minute by 1 sq. dm., 1 mm. 
thick, T (of air) being 20°-17 C. and A T 10° C, as follows :~ 



Water . 
Glycerine 
Acetic «cid . 
Acetone 
Ethyl oxalate 
Sperm oil 
Alcohol . 
Ethyl acetate 
Nitrobenzol . 
Amyl oxalate 
Butyl alcohol 



•0106 
•0407 
•0888 
•0902 
•0938 
•0938 
•0963 
•0963 
•1045 
•1060 
•1060 



Amyl acetate 
Amylamine . 
Amyl alcohol 
Oil of turijentine . 
Butyl nitrate 
Chloroform . 
Bichloride of carbon 
Mercury amyl 
Ethylene dibromide 
Amyl iodide . 
Ethyl iodide . 



•1060 
•1075 
•1084 
•1245 
•1258 
•1283 
•1369 
•1369 
•1395 
•1407 
•1505 



Thomson, W. ' Camb. Math. Journ.' 3, 25. — Motion of heat in a sphere. 3, 71. Motion 
of heat in homogeneous solids. 3, 171. Linear motion of heat. 3, 206. Ditto 
part 2. 4, 33. Equations of motion of heat refciTed to curvilinear co-ordinates. 
4, 67: Some points in the theory of heat. 4, 179. Orthogonal isothermal surfaces. 

Stefan, ' Chem. Soc. Jour.,' 25,591 (1872). — Gases: Abstract of method. Eesults 
for air K = -OOdOSe (c.g.s.) Conducting power of a gas independent of density. 
K for hydrogen = seven times K for air. 

Mayer, ' Sill. Amer. Jour.' (3) 4, 37 (1872) Cf. ' Ph. Mag.' (4), 44, 257. 

Forbes, ' P.E.S.E.' 1, 5 (1833).— Conducting powers of metals for heat and electricity. 
Order for heat determined by Fourier's contact-thermometer : Au Ag Cu Brass 
Fe, Zn, Pt, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi. o » . 

Forbes, ib. 1, 223 (1838). — Results of observation of underground thermometers; and 
ib. 1, 343 (1841).— Same discussion continued. Order of conductivity. Sand- 
stone, sand, trap, beginning with the best. 

Forbes, ' P.R.S.E.' 4, 607 (1862). Conductivity of Fe. Loss of heat at different tem- 
peratures by radiation and convection determined directly. Conductivity then 
calculated for different temperatures ; approximate results, K = (c g s ) 0° 206 • 
50°, ^186 ; 100°, ^166 ; 150°, -1455 ; 200°, •127. v t. ^ . 

Ib. 5, 369 (1865).— Further reductions and observations with the same bars, 
and also with another of different make. 



1862 



1865 



0° 


•206 


•207 


50° 


•186 


•177 


100° 


■166 


•157 


160° 


•1455 . 


•145 


200° 


■127 


•136 


250« 




•128 



1865 
(new bar) 
•153 
•1395 
•129 
•123 
•118 
■114 



Tait, ib. 8, 55 (1873).— Note on Angstrom's method of determining conductivity, with 
some approximate determinations. 



144: 



REPORT — 1881. 



Forbes, G. ib. 62. — Conductivity of ice and other substances. Kate of formation of 
plate of ice measured, formed in water of 0° C. by vessel with flat bottom con- 
taining freezing mixture. Similar method adopted for other substances. Results 
(cg.s.) 



Ice, par. to axis 
„ perp. to axis 
Black marble 
Wliite „ 
Slate . 
Snow . 
Cork . 
Glass . 
Pasteboard 
Carbon 
Roofing felt 
Firwood, ax. 

tang. 
Boiler cement 
Paraffin 
Sand . 
Sawdust 



•00223 
•00213 
•00177 
•00115 
•00081 
•00072 
•00072 
•00050 
■00045 
•00040 
•00033 
•00030 
•00009 
•00016 
•00014 
•00013 
•00012 



Kamptulicon 


. -00011 


Vulc. Caoutchouc 


. -00009 


Horn . 


. -000087 


Beeswax . 


. ^000087 


Felt . 


. -000087 


Vulcanite . 


. •OOOOSO 


Haircloth . 


. ^000040 


Cotton wool (div.) 


. ^000043 


„ „ (comp.) 


. -000033 


Flannel 


. -000035 


Coarse linen 


. -000030 


Quartz (par. to ax.) 


. ^00092 


>» 


. ^00024 


»> 


. •00056 


)> 


. ^00083 


„ (perp. to ax.) 


. ^00400 


i» 


. ^00442 



Figures all very low, save that the one for ice agrees with De la Eive's. 
Figures for quartz show conductivity five times as great across axis as along it. 

Playfair, ' Trans. R.S.E.' 6, 353 (1812). — Cooling of a sphere. Simple mathematical 
treatment of the question of terrestrial temperature. 

Forbes, ' Trans. R.S.E.' 23, 133 (1862) and 24, 73 (1865). c. ' Proc' 4, 607 and 5, 369. 
Details of experimental method and of the calculation of the results. 

Helmersen, ' Ann. Chim. Phys.' (3), 46, 126 (1856).— Eocks (from Altai). Despretz' 
method : bars, 456'""'^ x 38°""- square ; four thermometers 67""'"^ apart, and holes 
filled with Hg ; bars covered with black to equal surface ; hot end in contact 
with boiling H,0. 

















Average K ; ' 
















relative (as- 
















sumed abso- 




"1 


«2 


"5 


n 




K 


lute) values 


Quartz . 


12-15 


o 

. 4^8 


o 
. 21 . 


o 

11 


. 5836 


7758 


12680 1 


8758 
(•00710) 


Quartzose mi- 1 
ca scMst / 


11-5 


. 4^1 


. 1-7 . 


•7 


, 4984 


6841 


6734 1 


6186 
(•00501) 


Fine-grained 1 














f 


4386 


granite, > 
little mica J 


8-6 


2-4 


•8 . 


•3 


. 3255 


4393 


5511 < 


(00356) 


Wh.finegrnd.\ 
marble J 


81 


21 


•85 . 


•4 


. 2909 


6481 


9331 1 


6240 
(•00510) 


Porphyry (a-^l 














9128 <^ 


5528 


phanite V 
with albite) J 


8-55 


. 2-2 


. 75 . 


•35 


. 2877 


4578 


(00448) 


Hard serpen- "\ 
tine J' 


7-85 


. 215 


. •gs . 


•45 


. 3161 


7948 


9496 1 


6868 
(00555) 


Fine-grnd. s.T 
stone with ar- \ 
gill, cement J 


8-7 


. 2-3 


. 1-05 . 


■7 


. 2995 


8623 


32250 \ 


5809 
(•00471) 














L 


Limestone . 


7-75, 


. 21 


. -75 . 


•35 


. 3110 


5001 


9128 1 


5746 
(•00466) 



' The average values here found differ (as above described in this report) from 
those entered in the general list, in being obtained fi^om the three successive ob- 
served thermometric intervals ; wliile those adopted in the list are simUai^ly deduced 
from the three temperature-intervals all reckoned /w?^ the first, or hottest of the 
four thermometric readings Vx-t',- 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN EOCKS. 



145 



De la Eive, ' Ann. Chim. Phys.' (4), 1, 504 (1864) : also ' Bibl. Univ. de Geu6v.' 
1864. — Conductivity of ice. Plates of glass, ice, iron, fixed in wooden" tube, and 
interspaces filled with Hg. Outside of glass, H„0 @, 0° C, outside of Fc, cooled 
turpentine. Thermometer between glass and ice falls, and when it reaches mini- 

K (ice) 



mum flow across glass = flow across ice, hence 



obtained 1-70. K (glass) 



K (glass) 

got by Peclefs method, using water at 0° C. and mercury on opposite sides. Re- 
sults for glass, -0013, ice, -0023 (c.g.s). Paper then discusses rate of increase of 
thickness of ice in a lake. (See Forbes, ' P.R.S.E.' 8, 62.) 



Comparative results 



Tyndall, 'Ph. Trans.' 185.3, 217.— Woods and organic bodies, 
only. Results in ' Heat a mode of motion.' 

Despretz, ' Compt. rend.' 7, 833 (1838). — Passage from one solid to another. Cu 
and Sn fixed end to end (pressed together). Temperature of junction calculated 
from each bar : Cu thus about l°-5 hotter. 

Despretz, ib. 35, 540 (1852). — New determinations of K for metals, ifcc. 
objections raised by Langberg and others to the former results. 



Answer to 



Cast iron 

Iron 

Statuary marble 

Lithographic stone 

Pierre de Tonnerre 

Pine wood 



1 

2-0024 

2017 
2133 
2100 
2-302 
2-190 



Schumeister, ' Chem. Soc. Jour.' 34, 831 (1878). — Conductivity of cotton, wool, and 
silk. K, (air = 1) for cotton 37, wool 12, silk 11. 

Littrow, ' Wien. Ber.' 1875, 4, ' Chem. Soc. Jour.' 28, 1150 (1875).— Soils. Thermo- 
meters bedded in the soils at different distances from the source of heat in an 
india-rubber cyUnder. Finely divided soil conducts worse than coarser. Organic 
matter diminishes conductivity. Wet soils conduct better than dry. 

Less, ' Pogg.' Ergiinzb. 8. — Rocks and woods. Plate gripped between mercury-wetted 
copper bottom of steam vessel and mercury-wetted upper surface of equal-sized 
blackened Cu jjlate. When stationary state of things reached, thermopile exposed 
to radiation from Cu plate, and deflections give relative conductivity. 



A Supplementary List of Original Notices and Memoirs on Subjects relating 
to Conduction of Heat. B>j J. T. Dunn. 









' Comptes Eendus. 


J 


Author Reference 


Nature of contents 


Hcnwood vol. 1 p. 343 


Temperature in minus. 


Liouville . 






3 622 


Mathematical 


»» 






3 653 


>) 


Despretz . 






7 833 


Junction of two solids 


»> • 






7 033 


Liquids 


Peclet 






8 627 




Despretz . 






8 838 


Liquids 


)> 






8 870 


» 


Senarmont 






25 450 




t» 






25 707 




Duhamel . 






25 870 


Mathematical 


Desains 






26 212 


' Diffusion of heat ' 


^lasson and Jamin 






31 14 


ji >> 


Desains 






33 444 


}) *) 


Despretz . 






35 540 




Gouillauil 






35 690 


Metals 


Jamin 






36 994 




Duhamel . 






43 1 


Mathematical 


Calvert and Johnson 




47 1069 




1881. 






L 





146 



EEPOET — 1881. 



Author 
Morin 
Gripon 
Morin 

Calvert and Johnson 
Boussinesq 
Jamin and Eichard . 

Jannettaz 



Fusiniere . 
Sencbier . 
Biot 

Despretz . 
Cordier 
Decandollc 
Despretz . . . 
Duhamel . 

o • • • 

Lame 

Duliamel . 
Ijame 
Liouville . 

LiouviUe . 

La:u6 

»i . . . 

Thomas and Lauicns 

Ostrogradsky . 

t» • ■ ' 
Lcnz 

P.igani 

. r . 

Angstrom . 

Eumford . . . . 
»» • • • 
Peluc 



' Comptes Kendus.' 


Reference 


vol. 61 


p. 477 


63 


21 


66 


1333 


68 


11)2 


69 


32'.) 


75 


10.5 


75 


453 


75 


940 


75 


1501 



Nature of contents 
Mathematical 
Mercurj' 
Mathematical 
Alloys of Cu and Sn 
Mathematical 
' Refroidissement des gas ' 

»i »» 

Crystals 



' Ann. Sci. Lomb. Veneto.' 

2 141 Conduction in a bar 

' Turin Mem. Acad.' 
. 1804 51 

' Jour, des Mines.' 

17 203 

' Moniteur Scient.' 

13 254 Two superposed liquids 

' Paris Mem. Acad. Sci.' 

7 473 Terrestrial temperature 

' tienev. Mem. Soc. Phys.' 

4 70 Woods 

' Moigno. Cosmos.' 

1 70G 

' Paris Ecole Polyt. Jour,' 

13 356 Mathematical 

14 20,67 „ 
14 194 

Liouville, ' Journ. Math.' 

4 63 Mathematical 

2 147 

13 72 

Gergonne, ' Ann. Math.' 

21 133 Mathematical 
' Mem. Sav. Etrang.' 

5 174 
5 418 

' L'Institut.' 

1 7 

' St. Pelersb. Acad. Sci. Mijju.' 

1 123 Jlathematical 

3 353 ,, 

14 54 Temperature and conductivity uf 

metaLs 

Quetelet, ' Corresp. Matli.' 

3 237 Mathematical 

4 384 

' Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat.' 

22 .321 

' Gilbert's Annals.' 

1 214 Fluids 

2 '>4'.) 
1 tC4 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 
' London Elect. Soc. Proc' 



147 



Author 
Pollock (1843) . 

Schroder (1839) 

Calvert (1860) . 

Dalton (1802) . 

Forbes 



Geo 



Playfair (1812) 
Forbes 



Fox (1822) 
Gordon (1844) 



Nature of contents 



Reference 
. vol. 9 p. 66 

Sturgeon, ' Ann. Elec' 
5 104 

' Manch. Lit. and Phil.' 

2 165 Amalgams 

* Manch. Phil. Soc. Mem.' 

5 373 Fluids 

' Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin.' 

1 223 1 

. o JO > Edinburgh earth- thermometers. 

4 607 Iron 

5 369 Conduction in a bar 
8 62 Ice, &c. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.' 

6 353 Conduction in a sphere 
24 73 Conduction in a bar 

' Quart. Journ. Sci.' 

12 339 Terrestrial temperature 

' Glasgow Phil. Proc' 

2 140 Terrestrial temperature 



Edinburgh Journal of Science ' and ' New Phil. Jour.' 



Henwood (1829) 
(1861) 

Henwood (1843) 

Senebier . 



Langberg 
Magnus 



Stefan . , 
>» • 

Jlohr 
Clausius . 

Jannettaz 

Amslcr 
Arago 

Anon (1816) . 

Arago 

Schroder . 

Aubuisson de Voisins 



Temperature in mines 

,, in Chilian do 



'E.J.S.' 10 323 

E.N.Ph.J,' 13 173 

' Cornwall Geol. Soc. Trans.' 

5 246 Temperature in Cornish mines 

' Gehlen. Jour.' 
7 307 

' Berlin Akad. Ber.' 
. 1845 268 

. 1868 158 

. 1868 249 

' Wien. Akad. Ber.' 
47 326 

65 45 Gases 

'Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber.' 

4 85 Gases 

4 269 

' Bull. GM. Soc. Paris.' 

. 1873 117 Crystals 

' Crelle Jour.' 

42 327 

' Paris, Bureau Long. Ann.' 

. 1834 171 Terrestrial temperature 



Experiments relative to trans- 
mission of heat 
Terrestrial temperature 



'Bibl 
3 


. Univ.' 
77 


4 
19 


165 
162 


Journ. 
62 

] 


de Phys 
443 



Ter;estrial tempertiLine 



148 



KEPORT — 1881. 



' Paris Soc. Philom Bull.' 



Author 






Reference 


Nature of contents 


Biot 1801 


p. 36 


Fluids 


„ . .... 1801 


215 




, 1815 


21 


Newton's law 


Dupretz(?Despretz)^ , .1821 


113 


Solids 


' Upsal. Nov. 


Act. Soc 


Sci.' 


Angstrom 1 


147 


Terrestrial temperature 


3 


51 




' Stockholm 


Ofversicht.' ' 


Angstrom . . . . . 18 


3 




, 19 


21 




'Pegs 


endorff." 




Fischer (1830) 


507 


Platinum 


iSchroder . 








46 


135 


? 


Despretz . 








46 


484 


Junction of two solids 


Peclet 








5.5 


167 




Langberg 








66 


1 




IMiiller 








73 


474 


Heat or electricity ? 


Desains 








74 


147 


? 


Wiedemann & i 


'ranz 






89 


497 


Metals 


Wiedemann 








95 


337 


»> 


)» 








108 


393 


Alloys 


Pfaff 








113 


647 


Crystals 


Angstrom 








114 


512 


Metals 


Clausius 








115 


1 


Gases 


Angstrom 








118 


423 




>» ■ 








123 


628 




Magnus 








134 


45 




Kirchhoff . 








134 


177 


Conductivity and sound 


Paalzow . 








134 


C18 


Fluids 


Despretz . 








142 


626 


Two superposed fluids 


WeLer 








146 


257 


Iron and German silver 


Beetz 








Jiibel 


23 


Gases 


Hermann . 








151 


177 


Mercm'y 



Report of the. Committee, consisting of Mr. James Heywood, F.R.S., 
Mr. William Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Robert Wil- 
kinson, the Rev. W. Delany, Prof. N. Story Maskelyne, M.P., 
F.R.S., Dr. SiLVANUS P. Thompson, JNIiss Lydia E, Becker, Sir 
John Lubbock, Bai-t., 31. P., F.R.S., Professor A. W. Williamson, 
F.R.S., Mrs. Augusta Webster, and Dr. J. H. G-ladstone, F.R.S., 
{Secretary'), on the 'tnanner in which Rtcdimentary Science 
should he taught, and how examinations should he held therein, 
in Elementary Schools. 

Your Committee, as constituted at Swansea, believed that it would be 
very desirable to add to their number Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Professor 
Williamson, F.R.S., and Mrs. Augusta Webster, Member of the London 
School Board, each of whom is well known to have taken a deep interest 
in the subject for which the Committee was appointed. Each of these 
acceded to the request, and the Committee, so constituted, present the 
following report. 

Rudimentary science is taught in public elementary schools in the 
form of — I. Object lessons. II. Class subjects under article 19, c. 1, of 
the New Code. III. Specific subjects under Schedule IV. of the same 



ON RUDIMENTARY SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 149 

Code. IV. Science subjects preparatory to entering classes in connection 
with science schools. 

I. Object lessons are attempted in a large number of infant schools, 
and in some instances are very effective in developing the perceptive 
powers and intelligence of the children ; but in other cases they are too 
formal, and left too much to the junior teachers. In boys' and girls' 
schools they frequently appear upon the time-table, especiall;^ where, as 
in the schools of the London Board, they are looked upon as a necessary 
part of the instruction : but they are generally given in an unsystematic, 
and often in an unsatisfactory manner. 

II. The teaching of science as a class subject under the Code only 
commenced last October, and thus no examinations have yet been held 
under it. Natui'al history, physical geography, natui'al philosophy, &c., 
are mentioned in article 19, c. 1, and it is stated that the instruction 
should be given ' through reading lessons, illustrated, if necessary, by 
maps, diagrams, specimens, &c. ;' but the teachers are limited to two 
subjects, and the old subjects, grammar, history, geography and needle- 
work, naturally retain their place in the great majority of the schools. 
Suitable reading-books for these rudimentary science subjects have 
scarcely yet come into existence. 

III. The specific subjects of the fourth schedule include mechanics, 
animal physiology, physical geography, botany, and domestic economy, 
but only two subjects may be taken (or three if the child has passed 
Standard VI.); and the schedule also includes English literature, 
mathematics, Latin, French, and German. Literature is a general 
favourite ; and domestic economy is obligatory in gii'ls' schools if any 
specific subject is taken at all ; so that the chance of any of the others 
being introduced is very much diminished. It must also be remembered 
that these subjects are only allowed to be taught to children in the fourth 
standard and upwards; while only about one-fifth of the children in the 
boys' and girls' schools are to be found at present in these standards. 
According to the Report of the Committee of Council for Education 
recently issued, there were 476,761 children presented for examination in 
these standards, of whom the following numbers only were examined in 
the science subjects : — 

2,109 
24,72.5 



Mechanics 
Animal physiology 
Physical geography 
Botany 
Domestic economy 



34,288 
1,853 
50,797 



Out of 489 boys' and girls' departments under the London School 
Board, the specific science subjects were taken up, as follows, during: the 
year 1880:- P. . S 

Mechanics in ... 

Animal physiology in 

Physical geography in . 

Botany in ... . 

Domestic economy in 
Mr. Hance, of the Liverpool School Board, has favoured us with an 
account of the systematic scientific instruction which is given in the 
Board schools of that town by a special science staff. The subject selected 
for the boys is mechanics as defined in the new code, with a considerable 
development in the direction of elementary physics. It has been in 



4 departments 

112 

9 » „ 
172 



150 



REPORT— 1881. 



operation since 1877, and the results for the year 1880-81 are given in the 
following table : — 



Year 1880-81. 


Number 
presented 


Number passed 


Percentage of | 
passes 


Stage I 

„ n. ... 
„ III. . . . 


797 
398 
122 


442 

261 

82 


55-46 
65-59 
67-21 


Total .... 


1317 


785 


59-6 



Domestic economy is also taught to the girls in a similar manner. 
Tn Birmingham 1200 scholars are receiving scientific instruction in the 
schools of the Board, and it i.s stated that the teachers unifonnly find 
that ' it added interest to the work of the school, that the children were 
eager to be present, and that the lessons were enjoyed, and were in fact 
giving new life to the schools.' The Board have found the results so 
satisfactory that they are now furnishing their newest school with a labora- 
tory and lecture- room. 

IV. As to science-teaching which does not fall under the provisions of 
the New Code it is not probable that any large amount is attempted. In 
Manchester, however, the Board gives instruction to 404 children, all of 
whom have passed Standard VI., the highest ordinary standard, in the 
following subjects : — 

Physiology. 

Acoustics, Light and heat, 

Magnetism and electricity. 

Chemistry . 

,, practical. 
Botany. 
This teaching is illustrated by means of good apparatus, &c., and 
has had a very beneficial effect upon the science and art classes of the 
town. 

When it is considered that the provisions of the Code naturally form, 
in almost all cases, the extreme limit of what will be attempted in the 
schools, it is important that they should be placed as high as possible. 
This will be a great advantage to the stronger schools, and no disadvantage 
to the weaker ones, as the higher branches of science-teaching will of 
course be optional. 

Your Committee have, therefore, arrived at the following conclu- 
sions :' — 

I. As to object lessons. That it is very desirable that Her Majesty's 
Inspectors should take object lessons into account in estimating the 
teaching given in an infant school ; and that they should examine the 
classes in the graded schools wherever object lessons are given. 

II. As to class subjects. That the teaching of such subjects as natural 
history, phvsical geography, natural philosophy, &c., should not neces- 
sarily be 'through reading lessons,' as oral lessons 'illustrated by maps, 
diagrams, specimens, &c.' are undoubtedly better when given by a 
teacher duly qualified to handle these subjects. They are of opinion, 
also, that it will be desirable to allow a larger number of class subjects 
to be taken up in any particular school, and to give in such case a pro- 
portionately increased grant. 



ON RUDIMENTARY SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 151 

III. As to specific science suhjects. That a knowledge of the facts of 
nature is an essential part of the education of every child, and that it 
should be given continuously during the whole of school life from the 
baby class to the highest standard. Of course in early years this teaching 
will be very rudimentary ; but by developing the child's powers of per- 
ception and comparison it will prepare it for a gradual extension of such 
knowledge. They consider also that the early teaching must be very 
general, while the later may bo more specific ; they think, however, that 
the science subjects as given in Schedule IV. are fairly open to objection, 
as being somewhat too ambitious in their nomenclature and in their 
scope, and that they ought not to bo attempted unless the child has had 
a previous training in natural knowledge before entering the fourth 
standard. Thus the specific scientific subjects ought not to be distinct, as 
they practically ai-e at present, from the previous teaching ; greater lati- 
tude of choice might be allowed in them ; and while they should not 
afford technical instruction they should prepare the way for any technical 
classes or schools into which the children may subsequently enter. In 
regard to domestic economy they are of opinion that most of the points 
embraced in the schedule would be useful to boys as well as to girls. 

IV. As to examinations. That in the appointment of Her Majesty's 
Inspectors some knowledge of natural science should be considered as 
absolutely requisite ; that in examining the children they should direct 
their inquiries so as to elicit not so much their knowledge of special facts 
as their intelligent acquaintance with the world of nature around them ; 
and that this may be much better done by oral examination than by paper 
work. 

, Fostscnpt. — Since this report was in the printer's hands, Mr. Mundella, 
the Vice-President of the Committee of Council on PJducation, has laid 
upon the table of the House of Commons certain proposals for revision of 
the Code. Your Committee is very glad to observe that these proposed 
changes are generally in the direction indicated in the above recommen- 
dations. Thus, in Infant Schools the full grant will not be paid unless 
there be provided ' a systematic course of simple lessons on objects, and 
on the phenomena of nature, and of common life ; ' the children in 
Standard I. may share in the benefit of elementary science teaching ; and 
the instruction of the children in the subsequent standards in scientific 
subjects need not necessarily be given ' through reading lessons.' Your 
Committee regrets that a stronger inducement has not been held out 
to introduce rudimentary science as a class subject ; or rather, that the 
prominence given to English grammar and the recitation of poetry will 
exclude the new lessons on elementary science from schools where 
geography continues to be taken up. It is to be feared, indeed, that if 
these proposals should be adopted in their present shape, the children of 
Standard IV. will have even less chance of instruction in natural know- 
ledge than they have at present, for they will not be allowed to take up 
any science as a specific subject, while their taking elementary science as 
a class subject will be very problematical. Your Committee, therefore, 
while expressing great satisfaction with the general scope of these pro- 
posals, would urge that the knowledge of nature be put on an equal 
footing in our schools with the analysis of the mother tongue, and that 
any two of the proposed three class subjects may be taken. 



162 HEPORT— 1881. 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. 

Williamson and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed for the pur- 

p)ose of investigating the Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland. 

Draivn up hy'^'iLiAA.u Hellier Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A. 

{Secretary). 

[Plates I. & II.] 

The present Report is an account of the continuation of work conducted 
by the Secretary, the results of which have been laid before the British 
Association at their last and a previous meeting. 

The still further opening np of the iron ore dejDOsits in the County of 
Antrim has enabled us to continue the investigation of the plant-remains 
associated with it. 

By the identification of these plant-remains we are enabled to fix the 
period at which they lived as being Lower Miocene, and thns to deter- 
mine the age of the great flow of basalt which is estimated at fifty miles 
long by thirty wide, and consequently to extend over about 1,200 
square miles of the north of Ireland, attaining in some places a thickness 
of 900 feet. They also afford strong evidence of being contemporaneous 
with other volcanic districts, such as those of the island of Mull, on the 
west coast of Scotland, and North Greenland, where mid-European 
plants, such as these, once flourished. 

Most abundant amongst these plant-remains in the North of Ireland 
is the sequoia, a species of cypress allied to the great Wellingtonia — 
Sequoia sempervirens and S. gigantea of California. The species from 
these deposits is closely allied to the fossil Sequoia Langsdoifi, but has 
been considered sufficiently distinct to receive the specific designation 
of Sequoia Du Noyeri. Another species from the ironstone nodules 
found on the shores of Lough Neagh is evidently identical with Sequoia 
Couttsice, common at Bovey Tracey, also occurring on the Baltic shores 
and at North Greenland. 

Impressions of wliat appear to be the cones of Sequoia and other 
fruits are not unfrequent in the sedimentary ochreous deposits of Bally- 
palady, and at the same place are masses of wood, evidently coniferous, 
which may probably have belonged to the Sequoia. 

Mr. Walter Jamieson, manager of the Eglinton Company of Glasgow's 
Mining Works at Glenarm, has kindly furnished us with much valuable 
information respecting the Miocene deposit there, which is worked by 
that company in connection with the aluminiferous earth or bauxite, 
and contains an abundance of plant-remains from which on our various 
visits we have obtained many interesting specimens. He estimates these 
deposits, nnder the Upper Basalt, at not less than 50 or 60 feet in thick- 
ness, and states that at Cullinane, near Glenarm, in the course of the 
mining operations carried out under his direction, he had been fortunate 
enough to find upwards of twenty specimens of fossilised wood of large 
size. One of these deserves special meution, as being the root and about 
five to six inches of the erect stem of a tree which was found under about 
50 feet of basalt. He describes it as ' having a decidedly charred 
appearance, its upper portion being in immediate contact with the basalt, 
and the stem and root imbedded, to their full extent, in the aluminous 
clay.' On a recent visit to Glenarm, this gentleman exhibited to ns fi-ag- 
ments of several of these large trunks of trees which he had collected, 
some showing knots. One of these pieces of wood measured in its flat- 



ON THE TERTIARY FLORA OF THE NORTH OF IRELAND. 153 

tened state 20 inches across : its diameter would probably have been 
about six feet in an uncompressed state. These large woody trunks were 
found lying at various angles in the aluminous earth. The character of 
this wood still remains to be determined. 

Branches of a cypress, and pine cones, with grasses and reed-like 
plants, are not unfrequent in these deposits. 

Leaves and seeds or fruit of Dicotyledonous trees are most frequent. 
We have been enabled to identify several of these with fossil plants 
from the island of Mull, GEningen, and North Greenland. 

A list of all the species named and identified to the present time is 
appended to this report ; and as there are others we have, for want of 
sufficient material, only been able to name generically, it may be thought 
desirable to continue this investigation, which has added so largely to our 
hitherto meagre Miocene Flora of the British Islands. 

LIST OF SPECIES.— NORTH OF IRELAND. 
CbyptOGAM^. Fungi. 
SphEcria conccntrica (JIass.) Flor. Seuegalliese . . Sandy Bay, Lough Neagh. 

Filices. 
Hemitelites Frazeri (Baily) B. A. Report, 1879 , . ,, ,, 

Conifer^?:. Order CuprcMincr. 
Cupressoxylon Pritchardi, Silicified Wood . . . Shores of Lougli Neagh, &o. 
Cupressites MoHenrici (Baily), ' Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. ^ Ballypalady, Co. Antrim. 

XXV. pi. 15, fig. 5 J 

Taxodium sp » >. 

Order AMetinir. 
Sequoia Du Noyeri (Baily), 'Journ. Geol. Soc' vol.| ballypalady and Glenarm. 

XXV. pi. 15, fig. 4 J 

I Sandy Bay, Bovey Traooy, 

Sequoia Couttsi^ (Hear) 1 -^- Gtreenland, Baltic 

L Shores. 
Pinus Plutoni (Baily), ' Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxv. pl.T Ballypalady. 

15, fig. 1 J 

Pinus Graingeri (Baily), ' B. A. Rep.' 1880, pi. 2, fig. 3 „ 

Fam. Taxinw. 
Torellia rigida (Heer) „ and Spitzbergen. 

MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

_¥!,m^ Gramine^ /Ballypalady ; (Enin-en, N. 

Phragmites (Emngensis (Ad. Brong.) . . . . | Greenland, Spitzbergen. 

„ sp Ballypalady. 

Poacites sp „ 

Iridce. 
Iri.s latiEolia ? (Heer) „ Spitz. Baltic 

DICOTYLEDONES. 
Fam. Salicina;. 

Salix sp Ballypalady. 

Populus sp. ........ . „ 

BetHlacc(r. 
Alnus Kefersteini ? (Goepp.) „ and Baltic. 

Cupnlifer^ f Lough Neagh. Island of 

Corylus McQuarrn (Forbes) -^ Mull,& North Gre.niland. 

„ sp Lough iSTeagh and Glenarm. 

? Fagus sp Ballj-palady. 

Quercus sp Glenarm. 

^J^'^^f.f: ,r,' s /Glenarm, (Eningen, and 

Platanus GmllelmEe (Goepp.) | North Greenland. 



154 KEPOET— 1881. 

LmiHne<e. 
? Sassafras sp Glenarm. 

Aceraccce. 
Acer sp. „ 

JEricaccic. 
Andromeda sp . Ballypalady. 

CaprifoliaccfP. 

ViburnunxWhymperi(Heer) { ^t^K G^^enC'"' 

Araliacea. 

Aralia Browniana (Hccr) A°"g'^ ,^t^'^^ ^"-^ N. 

^ ^ l_ Greenland. 

Nyssa ornithobroma (Hear), ' 15. A. Report," 1880, pi. J ^'^T'Y . ^'I'^N G°e"'°'' 

-'>«8-^'"^ 1 land!' '''"' 

Muqtiuliaceip. 

Magnolia glauca? (Hear) / BaHypalady and N. Graen- 

Mcnistpermacca^ 1 

McClintockia Tjyalli (Heer) ..... Glenarm and N.Greenland. 
, . ■ /IT \ f Glenarm, liallvpalady and 

tnnervis (Heer) | North Greenland. 

lihamnccr. 
Rhamnus .sj). ........ Ballypalady and Glenarm. 

■Tuglans acuminata? (A. Brann) {^'N.^areenland?'"^^"'"" 

Other leaves are at present undetermined ; some of them apparently 
belong to Ficus, Myrica, Ciutiamonium, Olea, Fraxinns, Laurus, &c. 

In Messrs. Tate and Holden's commanication to the Geological 
Society of London on iron ores associated with the basalts of the N.E. of 
Ireland, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xxvi. pp. 151, &c., the following 
additional identifications are given on their authority : — ' Platanus 
acoroides. Sequoia Langsdorfi, species of Juglans, Fagus, Laurus, &c., 
from ash-beds on the shores of Lough Neagh, and from the sedimentary 
ochreons beds at Ballypalady we have collected the following unrecorded 
forms: — Eucalyptus oceanica, Ung. Hakea sp., Cclastrus sp. Daphno- 
gene Kanii, Heer ? Graminites, sp. &c.' 



nragmitcs sp. 

, / 11- 1 t A ■!■ \ fin ironstone, from near Glen Conway, bed of 

Inus (allien to A. gracilis) I „, .' t u x^ i n n *• * 

^ .., , ^, ,/< Glenavy river. Lough Iseagh. Collection ot 

yssa ornithobroma (seed) | -„ ■ ^•' r' ■ t. -r> 

•' L Rev. Canon Grainger, D.I). 



Explanation of the Plates. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Phragmitcs sp. 

„ 2. Alr 
» 3. Nys 

„ 4. McClintockia trinervis (Heer), Ballypalady. Collection of Nat. Hist. Museum 
of Science and Art, Dublin. 

„ B. Ficus sp., allied to F. lanceolata (Heer), Flor. Mioc. Bait. pi. 22, figs. 1, 2. 
Ballypalady. Coll. Nat. Hist. Mus. Science and Art, Dublin. 

„ 6. a, h. Fruit ? allied to Sparganium stygium (Heer), Foss. Flor. of N. Green- 
land. ' Phil. Trans.' pl."'42, tigs. 4, 5. 

Blate II. 
Fig. 1. Quercus sp., showing reticulated structure, Glenarm. 
„ 2. Alnus Kefersteinii ? (Goepp.), Flor. Mioc. Bait. pi. 19, figs. 1-13, Glenarm. 
,, 3. Platanus Guillelmai ? (Goepp.), Foss. Flor. N. Greenland, pi. .59, fig. 4 h, 

Glenarm. 
„ 4. Sassafras? sp., allied to S. Ferretianum (Massalonga), Foss. Flor. N. Green- 
land, pi. 50, figs. 1, 2, Glenarm. 



51'PReport,Bnt:Msoc 7881. 



Plate 1. 




lUushtxMny the Report cjv the TerKary (MicceneJ FLcrxv &c, 
cf the BoLsaUb cf the JVor^v of Irelarvd 



Sl^Sfiepprr BrU- Assoc- ?8f>7 



Plau- ]L 








W.H.B Foster iCi'LithDvLbUn 

lUuslraUag 2h£. Report on, the Tertiary (MiecerieJ Florco £-o. 
of Ihe Basalt of the North, of Jrelanci 



1? i'^^i.N 






ON THE SPECIFIC REFRACTION OF SOLIDS. 155 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
Dr. W, R. E. HoDGKiNSON, Mr. W. Carleton Williams, and 
Dr. P. P. Bedson {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Method of Determining the Specific Refraction 
of Solids from their Solutions. 

The specific refraction of a substance, i.e., the index of refraction, minus 
unity divided by tlie density, is, according to Messrs. Gladstone and Dale, 
a property uninfluenced by the passage from the solid to the liquid state. 
Further, since the specific refraction of a mixture of liquids is the mean 
of those of its constituents, it .follows that tlie specific refraction of a 
solid may be deduced from that of a solution containing it ; the specific 
refraction of the solvent being known. In support of the method of 
determining the specific refraction of a solid, based upon these observations, 
these authors have advanced some direct proof ('I^hil. Trans.,' 1869, 
{)p. 13, 14), and also a large amount of collateral evidence.' The method 
has, however, been called in question, more especially by Janovsky 
(Sitzungsber. Wien. ' Akademie,' Ixxxii. 1880,148), Avho denies the possi- 
bihty of determining the refractive index of a solid from solution ._ Hence it 
was thought desirable to submit the method to further examination, (1) to 
test the accuracy of the statement made by this investigator, and (2) to 
ascertain how far this method is applicable to determine the specific and 
molecular refraction of solid compounds. 

In order to test the method, the specific refraction of liquid phenol has 
been determined and compared with that obtained from its solution in 
alcohol and glacial acetic acid. Further, the specific refractions of rock 
salt, borax, and boric acid in the solid state have been compared with 
the values obtained from their aqueous solutions. The instrument used to 
detei-mine the refractive indices was a spectrometer obtained from Becker 
(Meyerstein's successor) ; its graduated circle is divided into tenths of a 
degree, and by means of verniers these divisions are further divided, 
so that readings can be made to one second. The refractive indices have 
been determined for the hydrogen lines a, ft, and y. in some cases for 
the sodium line also ; from these, by the aid of Cauchy's formula, the 
index of refraction (A) for a ray of light of infinite wave-length has 
been calculated. The refractive indices are deduced from at least four 
readings ; the refractive indices, calculated in two sets of observations 
from such readings, differing from one another in the fifth place of 
decimals only. 

In the case of liquids, a hollow prism was used of about 15 ccm. 
capacity, closed by two plates of glass, the surfaces of which were 
parallel. The prism has an aperture for the insertion of a thermometer, 
by means of which the temperature of the liquid under experiment may 
be ascertained. The thermometer used was one of Geissler's, graduated 
to two-tenths of a degree, and, consequently, readings to one-tenth of a 
degree could be made with accuracy. The temperature of the liquid 
in the prism was raised to and maintained at the point desired, by means 
of the circulation of warm water through a series of glass tubes placed 
at the back of the prism and under the table upon which it stood. 

The specific gravities of liquids and solutions were determined in an 

« Dr. Gladstone's article, Phil. Mag., 1881, pp. 64-60. 



156 



REPORT — 1881. 



apparatus similar in form to that used by Sprengel, by means of which 
great accuracy can be attained. The specific gravities are given in relation 
to water at 4°. 

The specific refractions of the alcohol, glacial acetic acid, and the 
distilled water used in the following experiments were determined with 
special care, and gave the following results : — 





Eef. in. for A 


Spec. gray. 


A-1 

d 


Alcohol at 20° C 
„ at25°C . 


1-35157 
1-34'J54 


0-8019 

0-7976 


•4384 
•4382 

•3438 


Acetic Acid at 20° . 


1-36389 


1-0559 


Water at 20° . 


1^32402 


0-99831 


•3246 



I. Liquid pJienoJ, and ]}henol in ahoJiolic and acetic acid solutions. 

The phenol used in these experiments was pure, as ascertained by its 
boiling point. The values obtained for the specific refraction of liquid 
phenol at 40° and 45°, viz., •4850 and -4848, are closely approximate to 
that obtained by Briihl (' Journ. Chem. Soc.,' abst., 1880, p. 782) for 
phenol at 20°, viz., -4862. Further, these results agree very well with 
the mean of the specific refi-actions obtained from the alcoholic and acetic 
acid solutions. 

The following table contains the nnmbers obtained ; the specific 
gravities were taken at the temperature of observation, water at 4° being 
taken as unit : — 



Description of substance 


Temp, of 
Observa- 
tion 


Spec. grav. 
H,Oat 
4° = 1 


o 


P 


7 


A 


A-1 

d 

For 

phenol 


1 Liquid Phenol . / 


40° 
45° 


1-0591 
1-0545 


1^53618 
1^53386 


1-5.5496 
1-55263 


— 


1-61375 
1-51144 


-4850 
-4848 

•4801 
■4828 

•4854 
•4856 


Alcoholic solution 
I. 20^64 % Phenol / 


20° 

25° 


0-8540 

0-8487 


139212 
1^39003 


1-40036 
1-39841 


1-40534 
1-40317 


1-38186 
1-37984 

1-40371 
1-40144 


n. 34^84 % Phenol | 


20° 
25° 


0-887 
0-883 


1-41584 
1^41371 


1-42578 
1-42348 


1-43147 
1-42952 


III. 48^85 % Phenol . 


20° 


0-9213 


1^43680 

1^41585 
r43498 


1-44827 


1-45523 


1-42247 


•4799 


Acetic acid solution 
IV. 25^38 % Phenol . 
V. 36-47 o/o „ 


20° 
20° 


1^0594 
1^0617 


1-42572 
1-44613 


1-43159 
1-45291 


1-403612 
1-421039 


-4900 
-4883 



Experiments made with phenyl ether (PhoO) yielded results similar to 
those obtained with phenol. The refractive index for Fraunhofer's line 
A of liquid phenyl ether at 24° was found to be 1*5702, and its specific 



ON THE SrECIFIC REFRACTION OF SOLIDS. 



157 



gravity afc the same temperature was found to be 1'074'i ; heuce its 
specific i-efraction for this ray is -5307. An alcoholic solution, containing 
50-6 per cent, of phenyl ether, gave '5265 as the specific refraction for the 
same line A. 

II. EucJc salt in solid state and in aqueous solution. 

Rock salt was chosen for these experiments for the following reasons :— 
(1) the fact that it can be obtained in large transparent masses, (2) its 
refraction is not influenced by its crystalline form, (3) its easy solubility in 
water. For the determination of its refractive index a prism was cut from 
a piece of a colourless and clear specimen ; and the prism then ground and 
polished. The angle of the prism was determined by aid of the image of 
the illuminated slit reflected from the two faces, and the refractive indices 
for a, ft, and y determined in the usual manner. The specific gravity of 
the prism was determined by weighing it first in air, and then in pure 
benzene. In the preparation of the aqueous solutions, jjortions of the 
rock salt from which the prism had been cut were used. The following 
table contains the numbers obtained, and the specific refractions of salt for 
A:— 



Description of substance 


Temp, of 
Observa- 
tion 


Spec gi-av. 
H„Oat 
4° = 1 


a 


^ 


Y 


A 


A-l 

d 

For rock 

salt 


Kock salt . 


15° 


2-1641 


1-54095 


1-55384 


1-56128 


1-52515 


-2426 


Aqueous solution. 
I. 13-625 o/o salt . 


20° 


1-0979 


1-35488 


1-3G711 


— 


1-34652 


-3587 


11. 12-02 o/o salt . 


20° 


1-087 


1-35208 


1-35881 


1-36244 


1-34402 


-2570 


III. 16-88 o/o salt 


20° 


1-108 


1-35728 


1-36422 


1-36805 


1-34891 


•2415 



The specific refraction deduced from the aqueous solution, taking the 
mean of (I.), (n.)> ^^^ (III.), is greater by -0098 than the value obtained 
for the solid du-ectly. Further, the results from (I.), (II.), and (III.) do 
not exhibit such agreement amongst themselves as was found in the case 
of phenol, the extreme difference being -0172. 

III. Fused horax in the solid state and. in aqueous solution. 

Fused borax is one of the few soluble substances which can be easily 
obtained in large transparent masses. After many futile attempts, it was at 
last found possible to obtain it in the form of prisms. This end was attained 
by casting liqiiid borax, which had been maintained in a state of fusion 
for a considerable time (in order to remove the air-bubbles), in a mould 
made of silver plates. The most successful experiments were made with 
borax which, before pouring into the mould, had been allowed to cool 
down, so as to render it comparatively viscous. The prisms so obtained 
were, after annealing, ground and polished. The refractive indices of 
three such prisms have been determined ; their specific gravities were 
determined as in the case of rock salt. The borax used in the preparations 
of the aqueous solutions was a portion of the same used to make the 
prisms, The following table contains the numbers obtained : — 



158 



KEPOET — 1881. 



Description of substance 


Temp, of 
Observa- 
tion 


Spec. grav. 
H.Oat 
4° = 


a 


^ 


Na line D 


A 


A-l 

(/ 

For 
borax 


Borax Prism (1) . 


18-5° 


2-373 


1-51537 


1-52139 


1-51323 


1-50325 


-2120 


» » (2). . 


16° 


2-368 


1-51222 


1-52068 


161484 
1-51615 


1-50187 


-2118 


„ » (3). . 


14-2° 


2-370" 


1-51398 


1-52269 


1-50332 


•2124 


Aqueous solution 
(1) 2-423 c/c boras . 


20° 




a 


^ 


V 


1-32876 


-2187 


1-0209 


1-33589 


1-34188 


1-34506 


(2) 3-653 % borax . 


20° 


1-0331 


1-33819 


1-34417 


1-34738 


1-33104 


•2121 


(3) 2-077 o/c borax . 


20° 


10185 


1-33520 


1-34110 


1-34453 


1-32795 -2013 


(4) 2-504 o/o borax . 


20° 


1-0222 


1-336025 


1-34195 


1-345005 


1-32904 -2168 


(5) 2-405 o/a borax 


20° 


1-0203 


1-33655 


1-34161 


1-34511 


1-32816 -2074 



The results for the prisms of borax agree very -well with one anothei-, 
the greatest difference being "0006, and the mean •2120 may therefore be 
taken as the specific refraction of fused borax. The mean of the values 
obtained for borax dissolved in water is ^2112, which diffei-s from the 
value obtained for the solid by •0008 ; the greatest difference, however, 
exhibited by these numbers being '0174. 

IV. Fused horic acid in the solid state and in solution. 

Prisms of boric acid were cast in a similar manner to those of borax ; 
and their refractive indices and specific gravities determined in the same 
manner. The aqueous solutions were prepared with portions of the boric 
acid used to make the prisms. 

The results obtained are contained in the following table : — • 



Description of substance 


Temp, of 
Observa- 
tion 

14-4° 


Spec. grav. 
H.,0 at 
4°"= 1 


a 


P 


Na line D i A 

1 
! 


A-l 

d 

For boric 

acid 


Prism of boric acid (1) 


1-848 


1-46220 


1-46860 


1-46303 


1-45437 


-2458 
-2444 


2nd Prism . 


15-8° 


1-853 


1-46245 


1-47024 


1-46427 


1-45292 


Aqueous solution 




1-0111 


a 


? 


y 
1-34250 
1-34255 


1-32641 


-2383 


(1) 1^93 % boric acid. ! 20° 


1-33345 


1-33938 


(2) 1-932 % „ 


20° 


1-0109 


1-33349 


1-33937 


1-32642 


-2383 


(3) 1-68 o/o 


20° 


10096 


1-33365 


1-33958 1-34277 


1-32656 


-2560 



Comparing the mean of the specific refractions of the two prisms, viz., 

'21:51, with the mean of the values obtained for boric acid dissolved in 

water, viz., "2442, the latter is seen to be 0009 greater in the former. 

' This specific gravity is the mean of the determinations for the other two prisms. 



ON THE SPECIFIC HEFKACTION OF SOLIDS. 



159 



Here again, as 



in the case of salt and boras, the extreme difference 



between specific refractions obtained by the second method is a number 
affecting the second place of decimals, viz., -0177. 

V. Fused sodium vietajihosjohato in the solid state and in solution. 

The attempts made to determine the specific refraction of solid sodium 
metaphosphate, by a method similar to that adopted in the case of borax 
and boric acid, were frustrated by the hygroscopic nature of this 
substance, which rendered it impossible to polish the prisms, which were 
cast as before. Nevertheless, a close approximation to its refractive 
index, for a ray of light of infinite wave-length, lias been attained, by a 
method which, by a more careful application, will probably yield exact 
results. This method consists in making a mixture of two liquids, one 
more and the other less refractive than the solid, until there is no 
apparent difference between the refraction of the solid and liquid. The 
refractive index of the liquid is then determined for a, ft, and y, and the 
refractive index (A), for a ray of light of infinite wave-length, calculated 
from these. 

Such a mixture of aniline and amyl alcohol gave 1'47518 for A, and 
one of bromobenzene and amyl alcohol gave 1-45747 for A. The specific 
gravity of sodium metaphosphate (fused) was found to be 2-503. Hence 
its specific refraction is -1898, calculated from the first value of A, and 
•1827 from the second. The mean of these values, viz., -1862, differs by 
•0023 from the mean of the specific refractions deduced from its aqueous 
solution. 

The following table contains the results obtained from aqueous 
solutions of sodium metaphosphate of different strengths: — 



Percentage of NaPOj 
(fused) 


Temp, of 
Observa- 
tion 


Spec. gray. 

n,o at 

4° = 1 


a 


P 


7 


A 


A-1 

d 
For NaPOj 


5-366 % 


20'" 


1-0412 


1-33721 


1-34317 


1-34637 


1-330115 
1-32847 


-1826 


4-01 o/o 


20° 


1-029 


1-33570 


1-34169 


1-34513 


•1894 


8-769 % 


20° 


1-0673 


1-34135 


1-34738 1-3507C 


1-33403 


•1919 


8-509 96 


20° 


1-0652 


1 34104 


1-34705 


1-35070 


1-33359 


-1901 


Mean . 


•1885 



A — 1 
The extreme difference in the values of — ; — is -0093, about the same 

a 

difference as observed in other cases. 

The results of these experiments serve to substantiate the statement 
of Messrs. Gladstone and Dale, at any rate, as Jar as singly-refractive 
sohds are concerned. By the aid of the method' used to determine the 
refractive index of solid sodium metaphosphate, some clue will, it is to be 
hoped, be obtained, as to how far this statement affects doubly- refractive 
solids. 

' The mean o£ two determinations of the specific, refraction of rock salt by this 
method was found to be -2374 ; and the mean of two determinations for borax gave 
•2108, values difl'ering but slightly from those obtained for solid rock salt and borax. 



160 EEPOKT— 1881. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Dr. J. Merrifield, Professor Osborne Keynolds, 
Captain Douglas GtAlton, Mr. J. N. Siioolkred {Secri'tary), Mr. 
J. F. Deacon, a>id Mr. Eogers Field, appointed for the pitrpjose 
of obtaining information respjecting the Phenomena of the 
Stationary Tides in the English Channel and in the North Sea ; 
and of repjresenting to the Government of Portugal and the 
Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion of the British Associa- 
tion, Tidal Observations at Madeira or other islands in the North 
Atlantic Ocean ^voidd be very valuable, with a view to the ad~ 
vancement of our knotvledge of the Tides in the Atlantic Ocean. 

YouK Committee consider that the special ^yorks for which they were 
appointed have been carried out. 

In this, their final report, they beg to mention that the pamphlet-notice 
of the tidal observations, named in last year's Report as having been pre- 
pared for those Continental observers who rendered valuable assistance 
to the Committee in obtaining a portion of the observations, has been 
circulated. 

It appears to be considered to contain valuable information, and as 
forming the basis, or starting point for common action in the future ; 
when the subject of the phenomena of these stationary tides receives the 
attention it deserves, and whenever it may appear desirable to study the 
entire question in a close and thorough manner. 

No ofl&cial reply has been received by the Committee (indeed it was 
hardly to bo exjaected) in answer to the inquiries made by it respecting an 
international datum for tidal observations, and as to future concerted 
action amongst the various maritime Governments respecting a more 
extended series of tidal observations. 

Nevertheless, the advantage of a common international datum, which 
has for some time been desired, seems to be acknowledged ; and though 
the datum suggested by the Committee has in no way been recognised as 
such, yet no objections of any moment have been raised against it ; wliile 
considerable value seems to be attached to it, as having at least done much 
to advance the desired object, if not to offer the actual solution which is 
most desirable. 

With regard to the second object of the Committee : — to urge tho 
desirability of the Azores Islands as a station, where a series of valuable 
observations might be carried out upon the tides of the North Atlantic 
Ocean, it has already been stated that the Portuguese Government 
readily took up the idea, and had established a self- registering tide-gauge 
in the Bay of Funchal. 

Another incidental duty which fell to the lot of the Committee was to 
urge upon the Board of Trade the importance of a self-registering tide- 
gauge at Dover. 

That department of the Government, as already reported, set up at its 
own expense the desired instrument, which is working regularly and 
giving satisfaction ; so that, before long, a series of permanent records 
may be expected from this most important station, which will serve aa 
data for future observations, when required. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 161 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. M. 
Duncan, F.R.S., and Mr. Gr. K. Vine, appointed for the purpose 
of reporting on Fossil Polyzoa. Drawn up by Mr. Vine 
(Secretary). 

After many laborious researches, Naturalists, generally, have accepted 
Dr. AUman's Gymnol5;mata, for one at least of the orders of the Class 
Polyzoa. In this order the ' Polypide is destitute of an epistomc (foot) : ';u«^/t M 
and the lophophore is circular.'^ The order is divided into three sub- fi^/tt^i, 
orders : — 

I. GheUostomata, Busk. = Oelleporina, Ehrenberg. 
II. Gyclostomata, „ = TuhuUporina, Milne-Ed., Hagenow, 

I r • f Johnston. 

III. Ctenostomata, „ n. i cry—rP^'-'L^t^ ^ 
The whole were ' founded by Professor Busk on certain structural 
peculiarities of the cell.''^ Only species belonging to two of these sub- 
orders are found fossil, and to these alone I shall direct attention. 

I. Cheilostomata. — Polyzoa belonging to this sub-order are ' distin- 
guished by the presence of a movhible opercular valve.' ^ This, however, 
is not a character on which the Paiasontologist can rely for evidence ; 
but there are others. The ova are usually matured in external ' mar- 
supia,' or ova-cells ; there are also appendicular organs — avicularia and 
vibricula ; and later investigations have proved the existence of peculiar 
perforations in the cell- walls, which Eeichert called 'Rosettenplatten,' and 
Hincks ' communication-pores.' Through these openings the ' endo- 
sarcal ' cord of Joliet,^ in the living Polyzoa, passed from cell to cell. 
The aperture, or mouth of the cell, though variously shaped, is always 
sub-terminal. To prove that Polyzoa (judging from the calcareous 
remains) of this sub-order were present in the Paleozoic seas, it is 
necessary that some one or other of the above-named characters should 
be present in the species introduced as Cheilostomatous. 

II. Cyclostomata. — The simplicity of structure in this sub- order 
precludes elaborate description. There are, however, a few points of 
special structure to which it may be as well to direct attention. The cells 
are invariably tubular, or nearly so ; the mouths are circular, and, 
generally speaking, of the same diameter as the cell. The cell-mouths 
in many of the Cyclostomata are covered by calcareous opercula, in both 
recent and fossil species, and these are considered to be — by Mr. P. D. 
Longe * — of an analogous character with the corneous opercula of the 
Cheilostomata. Be this as it may — all the Cyclostomatous opercula are 
calcareous — and their use has not yet been definitely made out. 

In his classification of the British Marine Polyzoa, Mr. Hincks bases his 
genera and species, to a large extent, upon the shape and character of the 
cell and ceU-mouth, — the habit of species is only of secondary importance. 
To working naturalists amongst living species his carefully worked-out 

* Hincks' Brit. Marine Polyzoa, p. cxxxvi. - Ibid. p. cxxiv. 

' ' Corneous ' ; Waters on the rise of the Opercula. Proceed, of Manchester Lit. and 
Phil. Sac, 1878. (Italics mine.) 

* Nervous Tissue, Miiller. 

' Oolitic Polyzoa, F. D. Longe, F.G.8., Geo. Mag., January, 1881. See also HinckB' 
Brit. Marine Polyzoa, Introduction, p. cv, and pp. 460-1. 
1881. M 



162 REPORT— 1881. 

divisions are of supreme importance, and the Palaeontologist may do well 
to carry over the leading idea of Smitt and Hincks when working out 
fossil species, especially so when dealing with Palaeozoic types. It may 
be well, too, to caution the student in his use of the generic names of the 
earlier authors. These have to be revised according to modern usage. In 
every case where I could retain the original designation of the author of 
genera and species I have done so, but it seems to me to be folly to 
perpetuate a nomenclature which does not indicate generic affinity. In his 
otherwise carefully written 'Introduction,' Mr. Hincks says, 'There is 
evidence, however (as I learn on the excellent authority of Mr. R. 
Etheridge, Jun.), of the existence of a few Cheilostomatous genera at 
least within this epoch (Palaeozoic), and probably the group is represented 
in the Silurian division of it ' ' — a conclusion, which after the most 
careful research, I am unable to agree with. 

In this, as in my former Report, I shall revise the whole of the genera 
and species that have been introduced since the time of Goldfuss into the 
nomenclature of Silurian and Devonian literature. I would prefer to 
deal only with British species, but as many papers describing new genera 
and species, from foreign sources, have been published in this country, I 
cannot do otherwise than review, if not revise, these as well. But 
whereas, in my former Report I dealt generally with material in my own 
cabinet, in this I shall refer largely to the Polyzoa in the magnificent 
collection of the School of Mines, Jermyn Street. For this purpose I have 
handled, and noted down particulars of every specimen in the collection, 
from the Lower Silurian to the Devonian. This I have been enabled to 
do through the kindness of Mr. Etheridge, F.R.S., and Mr. E. T. Newton, 
Assistant Naturalist of the School of Mines. 

Professor Duncan has expressed a wish that in this Report I should 
draw up a suggestive Terminology, that would be in keeping with modern 
usage and applicable to Palasozoic species. In accordance with the spirit 
of this request the following terms may be accepted generally. In it I 
have followed the leading of Busk and Hincks, without wholly neglecting 
the terms used by our leading PaljBontologists. 

ZoABiUM. — ' The composite structure foi'med by repeated gemmation,' 

= Polyzoarium and Polypidom of authors. 
ZocECiOM or cell. ' The chamljer in which the Polypide is lodged.' 
C(EN(ECIUM. ' The common dermal system of a colony.' Applicable 
alike to the ' Frond,' or ' Polyzoary,' of Fenestella, Polypora, 
Phyllopora, or Synocladia : or to the associated Zooecia and 
their connecting ' interstitial tubuli,' of Oeriopora, Hyphas- 
mapora, and Archffiopora, or species allied to these. 
Fenestrules. The square, oblong, or partially rounded openings in 
the zoarium, — connected hy non-cellular dissepmients, — of Fenes- 
tella, Polypora, and species allied to these. 
Fenestra; applied to similar openings, whenever connected by the 
general substance of the zoarium — as in Phyllopora, Clathro- 
pora, and the Permian Synocladia. 
Branches. The cell- bearing portions of the zoarium of Glauconome, 
Fenestella, Polypora, or Synocladia ; or the off-shoots from the 
main-stem of any species. 
Dissepiments. Bars which connect the branches of Fenestella, &c. 

' JBrit. Mar. Poly., p. cxviii. Aiiding in a note ' Of recent genera Stomatopora and 
J)instopora appear to occur in the Silurian Eocks.' 



UN lOSSIL POLYZOA. 1G3 

G0N(ECIUM. ' A modified zooecium or cell, set apart for the purposes of 

reproduction.' 
GoNOCTST. ' An inflation of the surface of the zoarium in which the 
embryos are developed.' Modern terms from the Rev. Thos. 
Hincks. 
I have no desire to discuss my use of the term ' Polyzoa ' instead of 
' Bryozoa.' I use it as a matter of choice after carefully considering all 
that has been said by my friend Mr. Waters, Hincks, Busk and others. 
After all the question of priority is still an open one, and those of my 
readers who desire to consult authorities will find ample material in a 
paper ' On the Priority of the term Polyzoa for the Ascidian polypes ' 
Busk, 'Ann. Nat. Hist.,' 1852, Rev. T. Hincks' ' Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' 
p. cxxxii, and A. W. Waters' 'Ann. Nat, Hist.,' January, 1880. 

.... ■ Sub-order Cheilostomata, Busk. 

Genus Hippothoa, Lamx. 

Hippothoa inflata, Nicholson, ' An. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' February, 1871, 

PL xi. fig. 4. 
Aledo inflata, Hall, ' Pal.' New Tork, vol. i. p. *?7, pi. xxvi. figs, la-lh. 

This species of Hall's has been reworked from fresh material, by 
Nicholson. The slight figures given by him show a habit nearly akin to 
Kippotlioa alstersa, Busk, fig. 6, pi. 22, Busk's ' Crag Polyzoa,' only rather 
more swollen at the distal part of the cell. In the cell-mouth of Busk's 
figure the peristome is sinuated : in Nicholson's figure it is circular. There 
is also a resemblance to Goldfuss' Aulopora dichotoma, Tab. 65, Fig. 2. I 
know of no species of HipjDothoa, recent or fossil, with which it can be 
otherwise favourably compared. Generically it has no affinity with the 
HippOTHOlD^ of Busk, and without doing violence to the generic character 
of Hippothoa as given by Hincks,' it cannot be placed with the genus. 
The species, Nicholson says, is abundant in the Cincinnati Group of the 
Hudson River formation, near Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Genus Betepora, Imperato. 

Ever since this genus was introduced in 1559, it has been used by 
authors indiscriminately for all manner of fenestrated polyzoa. Lamarck, 
in 1815, fixed the type of Linnaeus, Millepora cellulosa, calling it E. cellulosa, 
and since then, the name Betepora has been used for a genus of tbe 
EsCHARiD^. None of the so-called Retepora of the Pateozoic era haAc 
any affinity with this family, or even with the genus as now itndevstood. 
The word should be entirely abandoned for every species of Palivozoir 
Polyzoa. 

183G. Escharina, Milne-Edwai-ds. 

1847. Escharopora, Hall. 

As both these genera have been used by authors ^ for Palceozoic 
species it may be as well to draw attention to its misuse. The types E. 
recta and the var. nodosa Hall compares with Eschara ? scalpellum — now 
Ptilodictya scalpelhim, Lonsd., and the Escharina of Milne-Edwards, in 

1 Brit. Mar. Poly., p. 286. 

- Escha/rina wnguldris, Lonsd., Morris Catalogue. Escharipora recta. Hall, Pal. 
New York, vol. i. 

M 2 



164 REPORT— 1881. 

pai't, is the Microporella of Hincks, a geuus wliicli includes species 
selected from no fewer than ten genera of recent and fossil Polyzoa. 

Laying aside the genus Ptilodictya, I have no knowledge of any other 
Palseozoic Polyzoa that can be, even provisionally, placed with the Cheilo- 
stomata. After careful consideration I am reluctantly obliged to say that 
at present there is no evidence that the sub-order existed in any of the 
Palaeozoic seas, and further, the evidence is very doubtful until we reach 
the Mesozoic era. Notwithstanding this decision I shall be amongst the 
first to acknowledge the ea,rlier existence of types if well-defined evidence 
is brought to bear in the diagnosis of new discoveries. 

Taking into consideration the shape and character of the cell as pre- 
senting, apparently, an Eschuridie type, I think I cannot do better than 
begin this Report with a revision of the whole of the PtUodicfya. M'Coy ' 
places this genus as the fourth in his Family Escliaridm ; Berenicea being 
the third genus in the family. From the characters given, ' cells shal- 
low, oblong, or ovate, often provided with an operculum, capable of being 
closed by special musdeti,' M'Coy evidently believed that the Palteo- 
zoic species could be naturally placed in this Family. The true EsCHA- 
RiD^ are of later date, probably not older than the Lower Oolite, and 
then not as a typical, but only as a kind of passage group. Leaving the 
classification as an open question at present, I shall take Lonsdale's defi- 
nition for the group as redescribed by M'Coy : — 

1839. Ptilodictya, Lonsdale. 
1847. Stictopora, Hall. 

' Zoarium- thin, calcareous, foliaceous, or bi-anching dichotomously ; branches 
sometimes coalescing : a thin, laminar, flattened, concentrically wrinkled 
central axis ; set Avith oblique, short, subtubnlar, or ovate cells on both 
sides, with prominent oval mouths, nearly as large as the Cells within ; 
branches often flattened, with the margin solid, sharp-edged, striated, and 
without cells ; the boundary ridges of the cells square or rhomboidal.' 

This genus is very fairly represented by specimens in the School of 
Mines. There are no fewer than ten species named, and three marked 
' New Sp.' awaiting description. Accepting the w-ork of other authors, 
I can do no more than furnish notes on them, just as they are named. 
The first specimen is P. dichotoma, Portlock, in the Wyatt-Edgell Col., 
and is found in the Lower Llandeilo flags, and the species ranges into 
the Upper Llandeilo and Caradoc. In the Caradoc, also, we have the 
P. acuta, Hal], which, if correctly identified, is very widely distributed in 
the American and English Silurians of the same horizon ; and P. explanafa, 
M'Coy. Three species undescribed, but bearing MS. names by Mr. 
Etheridge : P. papilMa, P. ramosa, F. scutata. In the Lower Llandovery 
we have the P. fucoides, M'Coy, a species having a very limited range. 
.In the Upper Llandovery we have P. lanceolata, Lonsd., which ranges 
through the Wenlock Shale, Wenlock Limestone, Lower Ludlow and 
Aymestry Limestone. There is a departure from the type in P. scalpellum 
(Eschara? scalpedhim, Lonsd.); it is marked as appearing in the Upper 
Llandovery and "Wenlock Limestone. Hall, in the first vol. of the 'Pal.,' 
New York, figures and describes P. (Stictopora) acuta, which he compares 
with this species of Lonsdale. In this species, too, there seems to be no 
central laminar axis. It is found in the Trenton Limestone. With regard 

^ ^rit. Pakeozoic Fos. '■ CoraTbmx, Lonsdale, M'Coy's Pal. Fos. 



ON rossiL roLYzoA. 165 

to Fiilodidya lanceolata, Lousd., and P. Uimeolata, Goldfuss, there seems 
to be a little confusion iu our varied identifications of species. lu the 
Catalogue of Cambrian and Silurian Fossils,' all the P. lanceolata found 
in the Upper Llandovery to the Upper Ludlow series, with the exception of 
one species found in the 'Weulock Limestone, are ascribed to Lonsdale. The 
Wenlock species is identified as that of P. lanceolata, Goldfuss. This con- 
fusion is to be regretted, and in justifying the course taken by Mr. E. T. 
Newton in the Catalogue, I would suggest that the Wenlock shale species 
receive a new name — P. Lonsclalia. There are many characters in this 
species distinct from the species described by Goldfuss as Flustra lanceo- 
lata. . There is also a pressing necessity that the types of Ptilodictya 
should become fixed, either as a genus or as a family. 

Ptilodictya scalpellum is a type somewhat diiferent from that of other 
species, and under a family name — PTiLODiCTiDiE — I should reconsider 
my own reference to this genus of the carboniferous Sidcoretepora.- 

Professor Nicholson^ has added much to our knowledge of this group, 
by the publication in this country of his papers on American forms. He 
has also founded two new genera to take in what he considers to be allied 
types. The Upper Sil. species, which are new, are: 1. P.falcifonnis, Nich.f " 
allied to Uscharopora recta, Hall. His species, however, differs from 
Mustra {Ptilodictya) lanceolata, Goldf. P. gladiola &ndi P. sulcata, BiWingfi, 
2. P. emacerata, Nich., a beautifully delicate species, with ' elliptical cells, 
their long axes corresponding with that of the branches, six or seven in 
the space of one line measured longitudinally.' ' This Nicholson con- 
siders to closely resemble P. fracjilis, Billings, and it is possible that it 
may be only a variety of Billings' species.' * 3. P. flagellimi, Nich. : 
This also resembles P. gladiola, Billings, and it also very closely re- 
sembles the P. Lonsdalia of our own Wenlock shale, excepting that 
the ' attenuated base ' of our own species is rarely ' flexuous,' but more 
often truncated and round. 4. P. fenestelliformis,^ Nich. : All these 
species are typical, having the non-poriferous margins and the central 
laminar axis. One species — Ptilodictya ? arctiopora, Nich. — has affinities 
with P. raripora. Hall ; but Nicholson doubts the possibility of keeping 
these two species with the genvis. The cells closely rese_mble_ some of 
the characters of our own Silurian species, but as there is evidently a 
departure from the original types, it maybe as well to study these passage 
forms, if such they be, more carefully than they have yet been done. 5. 
P. cosciniformis,^ Nich. : Hamilton formation, Bosanquet, Ontario. 

For species allied to Ptilodictya, Nicholson has founded two new genera, 
and adopted one from Hall. 

1874. Tceniopora, Nicholson, Geological Mag. 1874. 
„ Clathropora, Hall, „ „ „ 

1875. Heterodictya, Nicholson ,, ,, 1875. 

In Tceniopora we have a zoarium that is a flattened, linear, calcareous 
expansion, with cells on both sides, the branches of which are dichotomous. 
There is a median ridge on each face of the zoarium having a longitudinal 
direction, on the lateral halves of vvhich the cells are developed. These 
are longitudinally placed in rows of from three to five. The margins are 

' Ifus. of Practical Geology, 1878. 

" Carhoniferous Polyzoa, B. A, Rep. 1880, 2nd page of Report. 
» An. ]Lag. Nat. Hist. March, 1875. " Ibid. p. 179. 

* MeJwlson, Geo. Mag. Jan. 1875. 




I6t) REPOM— 1881. 

usually plain and non-celluliferous. Two species are described : T. exiguUf 
Nich., and T. penniformis, Nich., both from the Hamilton group. 

In Clathropora the zoarium is a kind of membranous flattened ex- 
pansion, with rounded or oval fenestras of considerable size. The cells are 
on both sides, separated by a thin laminar axis. The fenestrae are 
surrounded by a striped non-celluliferous margin. One species is de- 
scribed — G. ititertexta, Nich. — from the Corniferous Limestone, but in 
some respects it resembles P. coseiniformis, Nich., of which mention ha.s 
already been made. 

In Heterodicta the zoarium forms a simple, flattened, unbranched, two- 
edged frond, with sub-parallel sides. The cells are in two series ; the 
central cells are perpendicular to the base, the lateral cells are oblique. 
' In the only species known — H. gigantea, Nich. — the cells of a few of the 
median rows of the frond arc straight .... and, as I am only ac- 
quainted with an exceedingly large species, I should, however, suspect 
that Flnstra (JPtilodidya) lanceolata, Goldf., will very probably turn out 
to be an example of this genus.' ' 

The material for a thorough revision of this genus is ' not easily 
accessible. Many of the Bala series are beautiful casts only, and the Upper 
Silurian species ai"e often bedded in blocks of the Dudley Limestone ; and I 
think it very unwise to disturb the present nomenclature without suffi- 
cient reason. 2 The MS. names of Mr. Robert Etheridge require con- 
firmation, and the best way to do this would be to describe and figure 
them. The new genera of Professor Nicholson may in the future em- 
brace some few of the forms already described, but we can hardly super- 
sede the clear definitions of Lonsdale's types as given by M'Coy. In the 
Lower Ludlow rocks specimens of P. lanceolata, Goldf., often break up, 
showing the concentrically wrinkled central axis. In the Girvan District 
— Scotland — at least two distinct species of this genus may be found — 
P. costellata, M'Coy, and P. dichotoma, Portl. 

1844. MTEIAPORID.S!, M'Coy. Family name only. 

This is the third family of M'Coy's very restricted classification of 
Palaeozoic Polyzoa. It embraces the Retepora, Lamk. = to Elasmopora, 
King. The family includes Glauconome, Goldfuss, restricted by Lons- 
dale, and the genus Fenestella, Lonsdale. It is impossible to retain the 
family name in the present Report. 

1849. Phyllopora, King. 

There are unquestionably present in both the American and British 
Paleozoic rocks, species of Polyzoa having some of the inosculating 
characters of Betepora cellulosa. These can neither be referred to 
Fenestella nor Polypora. My objections to the term Retepora for these 
have already been expressed. King, also, in his Permian Fossils, has ex- 
pressed his dislike to this term, and he suggests another word to be used 
instead — Phyllopora. I prefer this, especially as it has been consecrated 
by two good workers — Salter and De Koninck. The earliest appear- 
ance of the genus, so far as I am acquainted, is in the Lower Llandeilo^ 

' Geological Mag. 1875. 

2 Since writing the above I have been able to study, very carefullj-, the leading 
types of Palfeozoic Ptilodictya. In a future paper on the Family Ptilodictid.iE I 
shall be able to correct many inaccuracies of our ordinary nomenclature. 

^ School of Mines, iv. ~ in Catalogve of CamV, and Sil. I^ossih. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 167 

flags at Ffairfach. The species is unnamed and it forms one of the 
specimens of the Wyatt-Edgel collection. The general habit of the 
specimen is somewhat like Retepora. We have only the reverse of a 
portion of the zoarinm, but in several places the branches are worn and 
the cells exposed, but not with sufficient distinctness to make out their 
actual structure. The fenestra are oval and irregular, and the branches 
anastomose without dissepiments. A fine large specimen — reverse only 
— of this type is marked 'Bryozoa,' in case vii. 6/44 of the School of 
Mines, and as ' Bryozoon ' in the ' Catalogue of Cambrian and Silurian 
Fossils,' p. 105. All the other specimens are very fragmentary, but in 
the Devonian series there is a matrix of a very fine species. If better 
fragments could be found in the Devonian rocks, good facilities for the 
closer study of this type of Palajozoic Polyzoa would be offered. 

De Koninck refers two specimens, doubtfully, to this genus ' — P. ? 
Haimeana, De Kon. ; and P. ? crihellum, De Kon. These are amongst the 
Indian Fossils of Dr. Fleming. In the monograph of Permian Fossils 
Mr. King refers, and fully describes, P. Ehreiibergi, Geinitz, as belonging 
to this genus. In his paper on the Permian rocks of South Yorkshire,^ 
Mr. Kirkby refers fragments of the same species to Ret&pora Ehrenhergi 
(Phyllopora). The genus is a comparatively rare one, and well-authenti- 
cated specimens are also rare. To this genus I refer Nicholson's species^ 
— Plujllopora (Retepora) Trentonensis. It is well described, seeing that his 
specimens were mere fragments. Salter has already referred to this 
genus — M'Coy's Retepora (Phyllopora) Hisengeri — in his catalogue of 
Silurian Fossils. 

1821 ? Bereiiicea, Lamaroux. 

This genus for the present I have allowed to remain with the family 
Diastoportdce^ — not as Diastopora, but as provisional. So far as the 
Palaeozoic species are characteristic of the genus we may take M'Coy's 
description.^ He says, 'the cells resemble Cellepora, but are not piled,' 
but with more justness, ' They also resemble the cells of Stictopora 
(Ptilodictya), but are parasitic and confined to one side. They differ from 
Discopora by each cell being separated by a small space from its neigh- 
bour.' Bereiiicea irregnlarls, Lonsdale (Silurian Sys.), and B. heterogyra, 
M'Coy, are distinct types. The Discopora favosa, Lonsd., Wenlock Lime- 
stone, approach nearer to the Geramopora type of Hall and Nicholson.^ 

1828. Discopora, Flem. ? 

Two types of this genus, as understood by Lonsdale, are found in the 
Wenlock series of Fossils at the School of Mines. One, D. favosa, 
Lonsd., is a beautiful little dome-like species with cells very regularly 
disposed radiating from the centre. The other is much larger and marked 
Discopora favosa ? Lonsd. Both are good types, and they will ultimately 
find their proper place in our classification. But as Discopora {Patindla 1 
and Discoporella of Busk) it will be at present impossible to retain them, 
unless under very severe limitation, 

1849. Fenestellidj;. King. 

After the three very able papers of Mr. G. W. Shrubsole, it will be 
useless to dwell at much length upon this family. With the whole of Mr. 

' Qua/rt. Joio-n. Geo. Soc. vol. xix. 1862. ^ Journ. of Geo. Soc. vol. xvii. 1861. 

' Geo. Mag. Jan. 1875, pi, 2, figs. 4-46. ■* Quart. Journ. Geo. Soc. Aug 1880. 

* Palseozoic Fos, • Geo. Mag. 1874-6. 



168 REPOBT— 1881. 

Shrnbsole's work I am inclined, generally, to agree. He may be blamed for 
the limitation of species, but the fault lies not with him, but with authors 
who have introduced into our scientific literature specific names for frag- 
ments that were really portions only of other species. This has already 
been pointed out, but much yet remains to be done before the family can 
be considered to be completely revised. It may then be necessary to 
reintroduce one or two species which are now regarded as synonyms, and 
also to establish two or three new ones. For the present I can do no 
other than report on the literature and species which have not yet found 
a place in the revisions of Mr. Shrubsole. 

Gorgonia assimilis, Lousd., Murch Sil. 

Fenestella „ Cat. Cambrian and Sil. Fos. School of Mines. 

This species has been alluded to in Mr. Shrubsole's second paper 
(p. 247). In the above catalogue it may be found among the Caradoc 
and Wenlock Limestone series of Polyzoa. This species has not been 
described, and there seems to be a doubt whether it should be referred to 
Fenestella or Retepora (Phyllopora).* 

Many of the earlier specimens — Caradoc and Up. Llandovery — are 
very indistinct, and complete identification seems to be impossible. The 
type is a peculiar one, but after going over the specimens I can make out 
the following characters. The zoarium is irregular and dichotomously 
branching, no regular dissepiments or fenestra). The frequent bifurca- 
tions of the branches, by infringing upon the lower branches, are the 
only means by which fenestree are formed ; the number of pores on either 
side of these vary fi-om ten to thirteen. I cannot therefore suppose that 
these earlier Fenestella assimilis of the Catalogue are in any way related to 
Fenestella reteporata, Shi'ubsole, of the Wenlock Limestone, So far as I 
am able to judge from the specimens, tliey are totally distinct. 

The whole of the type specimens of Upper Silurian Fenestella, Mr. 
Shrubsole has gone over carefully ; but as many of these were mere frag- 
ments of the reverse, showing no cell-arrangement, he found them alto- 
gether valueless for accurate definition. In consequence of this revision the 
whole of the Upper Sil, Fenestellid^ i«i^put down by him as follows : — 

F&tiestella rigidtda, M'Coy, ' Brit. Pal. Fos.' p. 50, pi. i. C. fig. 19. 
„ reteporata, Shrubsole, ' Qt. Jour. Geo. Soc' May, 1880. 
,, lyneata ^ ,, „ „ ,, „ 

„ intermedia „ „ „ ,, „ 

All these species are found in the Wenlock Limestone, Dudley, and two 
of them — if not three — in the Niagara Limest., Lockport, America. 

Of the Devonian Fenestella but few species are recorded. But as 
Professor Nicholson has published his papers in this country, we are 
largely indebted to him for what little is known, besides those that are 
figured and described by Goldfuss and Phillips. 

1826-33. Betepora (Fenestella) prisca, Gold.^ Eifel. 

,, „ _ „ antiqua, „ ,, 

1841 . Fenestella antiqua ; anthritica ; an d Hemitrypa oculata, Ph .^ 

■ 'A Review of the Carb, Fenestellidae,' QiiaH. Jov/rn. of Geo. Soc. May 1879 ; 'A 
Review of the Various Species of Up. Sil. FenesteUidse, Quart. Jowrn. Geo. Soc. May, 
1880; ' Further Notes on Carb. Fenestellidje,' ibid. May, 1881. 

- Petrefac. Ger. tab. 36, fig. 19, tab. 9, fig. 10. 

' Phillips' Palce. Fos. Devon, S;c. 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 169 

1874. Feneslella magnifica, Nicliol. ' Geo. Mag. ' 1874, pi. ix. 
„ ,, marginalis, „ „ „ „ „ 

„ „ fiUformis „_ _ ,, „ „ ,, 

„ Eetepora (Fenestella) PhilUpsl „ „ „ 

Many, if not all, of these species are founded upon fragments, or on the 
reverse only of specimens ; and according to the laxness or rigidness with 
which they are examined, their value in a scientific criticism is of variable 
importance. They are nevertheless links in the chain of evidence, and 
until they are displaced by better specimens, which, of course, will allow 
of better work, they should find a place in this Report. Nicholson, with 
others, uses the term Retepora very indifferently. Speaking of i?. 
Phillipsi, he says, ' This is a genuine Betepora, and in its general form and 
its biserial cells is closely allied to R. prisca, Gold., which I have found 
abundantly in the Corniferous Limestone of Ontario.' As I have already 
placed Goldfuss's B. prisca with the Fenestellid^, I cannot do otherwise 
with this one. 

In addition to this species Nicholson founded two new genera for 
Devonian Fenestella : — 

1874. Gryptopora, 'An. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Feb. 1874. 
,, Carinopora „ „ „ „ „ 

Two species — Gryptopora mirahilis, Nich., and Garinopora Hindei — 
Nicholson places to these new genera. With all due respect for Professor 
Nicholson and his work, I must take his admission that these are 
apparently Fenestellidce, and as such there was, I am inclined to think, no 
need for founding new genera for their reception. The author refers to 
Hemitrypa, and, in one sense, compares his genera with the genus of 
M'Coy. Unfortunately for the fate of all three genera, we have only 
true Fenestella encrusted by a coral, and the diagnosis of the species 
given by both authors is encumbered with partly coraline and partly 
polyzoal structures. All the illustrations which Professor Nicholson gives 
are structures found in typical Fenestella,' with the exception of Fig. 2 g, 
p. 81. Here the 'carina,' or keels, are apparently united by 'stolons,' 
which may b6 sections of the tabulte only of the encrusting coral. Fig. 
/ is without this ' stoloniferous ' connection, but both are sections of 
branches cut through perpendicular to the surface, and showing the 
largely developed keel, with the transverse section of the cells. Fig. i is 
one of these, isolated. It would be better to view the structures reversed. 
Figs, d and e are evidently ordinary Fenestella, and the sections above 
described are portions of the same frond.^ The development of the keel 
is remarkable, and speaking of G. Hindei Nicholson says, ' The thickness 
of the frond, measured at right angles to its plane of growth, is one line 
or a little more, nearly two-thirds of this being accounted for by the great 
internal keels.' This is equalled by the species F. Lyelli, Dawson, which 
is figured and partly described in ' Acadian Geology.' ^ 

1826-33. Glauconome disticha, Goldf. Petr. Germ. 

1874-5. Bamipora, Toula, Permo-Carbon. Fossilien.'' 

? 1878, „ Hochstetteri, Toula, Bigsby, Devonian Carboniferous. 

1879. „ „ var. Garinata, R. Eth. Jun. ' Geo. Mag. '1879. 

' See the illustration in the An. Mag. of iV. Hist. Feb. 1874. 

* I wish the reader to refer to Nicholson's paper as given above. 

* Carb. Limestone, pp. 288-9. 

* See Arctic Pal, Polyzoa, E. Etheridge, Jun., 1878. Jour. Geo. Society. 



170 EEPORT— 188L 

I arrange these genera and species, not because they are allies, but 
because they are the reverse of that. The genera are as distinct as 
genera can be, yet they have been confounded by authors. The 0. 
disticha of Goldfuss is, I think, distinctly an Upper Silurian type. The Bala 
type of Glauconome is a different genus ; and Bamipora, as described by 
Toula, has five or six rows of irregular pores. The genus Ramijpora 
is a Permo- Carboniferous type, and although having some facial resem- 
blance to the species from the Bala beds, and figured as Bamipora, var. 
carinata, Bth. Jun.', by Mr. Robert Etheridge, Jun., the two forms differ 
in many respects considerably. Bamipora is much larger naturally than 
the Bala Olauconome ; the cells are differently arranged. In the Lower 
Silurian species, both the primary and the secondary branches bear two 
rows of alternately arranged cells. Having handled and carefully examined 
the specimen in the School of Mines, figured by Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., 
Bamipora Hochstetteri, var. carinata, 'Eth., I can bear willing testimony to 
the faithful delineation of this beautiful type. 

There are several specimens of this as yet undescribed genus in the 
collection already named, and their study will afford a good general idea 
of the varying habit of the species. 

1844. Polypora, M'Coy. 

Zoarium a delicate, reticulated, calcareous expansion. Branches round, 
from three to five rows of cell-openings — margins usually not projecting, 
branches connected (occasionally) by thin dissepiments. 

This genus is represented by only one species, P. crassa, Lons., in the 
Wenlock Limestone, Dudley. The genus was more fully represented in 
America in the Devonian strata, — in our own country — in the Arctic 
regions — and India during the Carboniferous epoch. Professor Nicholson ^ 
describes and figures three species : P. pidcliella, Nich., P. tenella, Nich., 
P. tuberculata, Nich. As a P. tuberculata has been previously described 
byProut^ the name of Nicholson is rather unfortunate, as there is a 
difference in the two species, for Nicholson says his is allied to P. verucosa, 
M'Coy, and as such it differs fi'om Prout's P. tuberculata, if the identifica- 
tions of the Messrs. Young be correct. P. pidcJiella and P. tenella are 
nearly allied to P. Malliana, Prout, which occurs ' in the St. Louis 
Group of Illinois, and which I have likewise detected in the Corniferous 
formation of Ontario.' — Nicholson. 

I have now gone over all the genera wherein the cell-characters are 
either ovate or sub-tubular, without saying arbitrarily that these genera 
and species belong to the Ctclostomata. I have begun with the species 
having the nearest apparent afiBnities with the Cheilostomata, and then 
allowed the others to fall in, in a consecutive order. This temporary 
arrangement will be better for the present, and this will allow time for a 
proper classification when the whole of the Pateozoic Polyzoa have been 
more closely studied. The following genera I have not the least hesita- 
tion in placing with the Cyclostomata as at present understood. 

1859. Cyclostomata, Busk. 

' Cell tubular ; orifice terminal, of same diameter as the cell, withont 
any moveable apparatus for its closure ; consistence calcareous.' ■• 

' Geo. Mag. 1879. 2 j^g^ Devonian Fossils, Geo. Mag., 1874. 

' Trans, of Acad, of Science, St. Louis, Geo. Mag., June, 1874. 
* Monograph of the Crag Polyzoa, p. 9. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 171 

1825. Stomatopora, Bronn. 
1821. Alecto, Lamx. 1820. Aulopora (pars.) Goldfuss. 

' Zoarium closely adnate thi^onghont, simple or irregularly branched ; 
branches linear or ligulate ; cells disposed in a simple series or in more or 
less regular transverse rows of from two to four.' ' 

A few types of this genus are present in the Palaeozoic rocks of this 
country — in the Devonian of Bifel — and in America. 

James Hall, in his ' Pal.' of New York, vol. i., records the existence of 
Alecto inflata in the Trenton Limestone. This is a very simple serial 
species of a most remarkable type. From the same stratum lie records 
another species, Aulopora araclmoidea, altogether different from the first 
type. Except that Hall calls these species ' corals,' there are not in his 
descriptions any characters that would prevent them being properly 
placed with the Polyzoa. I have already alluded to this species, A. inflata, 
Hall, when writing of Hippothoa. I now restore it to its proper place. 

1874. Alecto auloporides, Nich.^ 

„ frondosa = Aulopora frondosa, James. 
1874. „ confusa, Nich. 

These seem to be true Stomatopora (Alecto of Busk), and their exist- 
ence is recorded by Nicholson as appearing in the Lower Silurian or 
Hudson River Group. One species, A. auloporides, as a branching form, 
survives into the Niagara Limestone. In the Caradoc series of Fossils in 
the School of Mines, a small specimen of Polyzoa is marked Heteropora, 
allied to H. crassa.^ This is a very peculiar species, but in no way related 
to Heteropora as now understood. The cells are short and tubular, 
alternately placed on the sides of the branch, very similar to the figure given 
by Nicholson. Having carefully examined the specimen, I therefore — 
temporarily — place it as a variety, at least, of Stomatopora aulopondes, 
Nich. 

I have, since the above was written, discovered no less than three 
distinct STpecies ot Stomatopora in the Upper Silurian Shales of Shropshire. 
One I have figured and described — S. dissimilis, Vine."* Of the others I have 
not yet sufficient details to allow of description. I have also discovered 
two species of Ascodictyon,^ full details of which will be published. In 
King's Monograph of Permian Fossils, pi. 3, fig. 13, a figure is given of 
— apparently — a badly preserved specimen of Stomatopora. It very much 
resembles the species of Hall, but no cell-mouths are given. King names 
it Aulopora [Stomatopora') Voigtiana, King. 

1839. Diastopora (Atdopora) cotisimilis, Lonsd. 
A species of Polyzoa, named as above, is in the Ketley Collection at 
the School of Mines. It is found in the Wenlock Limestone series, but 
no locality is given. This is the Aulopora consimilis Lonsd. of the Silurian 
System, pi. 15, fig. 7. I have found fragments in the washings of 
Mr. Maw.^ Another specimen of the same species, from the Wenlock 
Limestone, Dudley, encrusting a small coral, is in the cabinet of 

' Busk, Cyclostomata, p. 22. 

* Paper read at Brit. Assoc, Belfast ; printed. An, Mag. Nat. Hist., 1875. 
' Catalogue of Silwrian Fos., p. 44, case vii. ^. 
■• Geo. Soc. Pap. read June 22, 1881. 
' Nicholson, An. Mag. JVat. Hist., June, 1877. 

« In plate 1.5, Siluriam System, reproduced as pi. xli., Silnria, ed. 1859, marked 7, 
Diastopora ? consimilis, probably a Bryozoon. 



172 iiEPOKT— 1881. 

Mr. Longe, of Cheltenham. In the Devonian collection of Poly zoa, at the 
School of Mines, a species marked Berenicea M'Goyii, Salter, Middle 
Devonian, Padstow, bears a very close resemblance to this Silurian type. 
Unfortunately the Devonian specimen is very poorly preserved, but I 
can trace in the zoarium a svifficient number of cells to afford me some 
idea of the general character. The specimen in Mr. Longe's cabinet I 
have carefully studied, and I now give a description with very accurate 
measurements. 

Zoaria encrusting by a single layer a fragment of coral. Zomcia 
tubular, rather regular, in series. As sevei'al colonies are found upon the 
same coral, a remarkably irregular character is given to the associated 
'Maria. For the j^urpose of this diagnosis I isolate a single colony. Cell- 
mouths circular, with a well- formed peristome, and slightly less than the 
diameter of the tubes. Six zooecia occupy the space of a line measured 
across the mouths of the cells, and two and half, to three, lengthwise in 
the same space.' 

The habit of Lonsdale's species in the School of Mines, and also 
Salter's Devonian Berenicea, is that of the ordinary Diastopora. The 
habit of the species here described, and also the measurements, correspond 
with Nicholson's Alecto confusa. If these be true Diastopora — for I 
cannot ignore the existence of D. consimilis and Berenicea APGoyii — we 
have a true tubular Diastopora carried backward in time to the Wenlock 
Limestone ; consequently the Berenicea which I left provisionally with 
the Diastoporidce^^ will be displaced by undoubted tubular species. The 
measurement of Alecto confusa, Nich., is five cells to the line, measured 
across the mouth.^ This is slightly less than my own, and may be 
accounted for by the more compact arrangement of the cells in the Dudley 
specimen. 

1826. Geriopora, Goldfuss. 

Several species of this genus are given as Upper Silurian by authors, 

Ceriopora affinis, Goldfuss. 

,, granulosa, ,, 

„ punctata, ,, 

and Nicholson in his New Devonian Fossils adds Ger'iopova ? Samiltonensis, 
of which he says, ' This beautiful little fossil (about five cells occupy the 
space of a line vertically) occurs in great abundance in some of the beds 
of the Hamilton Formation. It is allied to G. ijunctata. Gold., and 
Millepora interporosa, Phill. (' Geo. of Tork.') I am at present un- 
able to decide as to its true generic affinities, and have simply referred it 
provisionally to Ceriopora.' I will also leave it and the other species 
alone for the present. The whole of the Gerioporidce will have to be re- 
vised, and species from the Silurian to the Crag will have to be re- worked. 

1821. Spiropora, Lamx. 
In some of the shale- washings supplied to me by Mr. Maw from strata 
below the Wenlock Limestone, I have come across many beautiful frag- 

• This was written in December, 1880, a copy of which was furnished shortly 
after to Mr. Longe, for his correction and approval for publication in tliis Report, as 
Alecto confusa, Nicholson ? var. regularis. I have seen since that a paper has been 
read by him on Biastopora, at the Geological Society, May, 1881. I have no desire to 
press my own name in preference to his, seeing tliat I wrote my description previously 
to the examination of Lonsdale's and M'Coy's Silurian and Devonian species in the 
School of Mines. 

- Review of the Fam. Diastoporidfe, Quart. Jour. Geo. Sac, Aug. 1880, 
^ Nicholson does not say this, but I infer it from his remarks. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 173 

raents of this genas, which will enable me to carry back the type to 
Silurian times. Mr. R. Tate has already carried back the genus to 
the Lias ' but the specific difi'erences between the Liassic and Silurian 
forms are very marked. The Silurian species I shall describe under the 
name of Spiropora regularis, Vine. 

1874. Botnjllopora, Nicholson.^ 

This curious genus, founded by N'icholson for Devonian species, is 
allied to Defrancia and Lichenopora, but unlike either. The author says 
' I have been unable to refer these singular Polyzoa to any existing group, 
and have therefore been compelled to found a new genus for their recep- 
tion. Zoarium calcareous, sessile, and encrusting, forming systems of 
small circular discs, the upper surfaces of which ai^e marked with radiat- 
ino- ridges, upon which the cells are carried. Each disc is attached by its 
entire lower surface, slightly convex above, with a central nonporiferous 
-space, round which a number of radiating poriferous ridgep occupy an 
exterior, slightly elevated zone. Cells forming a double series on each 
-ridge, immersed with rounded mouths,, which. are not elevated in any 
part of their circumference above the general surface.' ^ 

One species is given, B. socialis, Nich. PI. ix. fig. 10, and it is not of 
very rare occurrence in the Hamilton Formation. I have not seen among 
any of our own Palceozoic Polyzoa any approach to this genus. It may 
be well to direct attention to the characters, because workers may find 
even this amongst the group of our hitherto most neglected fossils. 

In my first Report (' British Carboniferous Polyzoa,' 1880^) 1 said that 
" to the Palteontologist the study of the Palteozoic Polyzoa opens up many 
very important biological details; for the connection of the Polyzoa Avith 
the Graptolites is a question that must be dealt with in detail." 

Since this was written I have gone over much that has been written 
in this country on this debatable subject. Professor Huxley, Mr. Salter, 
and Professor H. Alleyne Nicholson have severally occupied themselves 
.with this question of affinity. Mr. Salter says, ' I think Professor Huxley 
'first suggested the resemblance to Defrancia ' ^ ; his own opinion, how- 
ever, was very decidedly expressed. ' The point I would chiefly call 
attention to is that there is a complete series up to the most compound 
in this remarkable family ' ; and after pointing out the varied features of 
the leading types of the GraptoUtidce, he concludes by saying ' Dendrograptus 
has the branches numerous, nnsymmetrical, and crowded, while Didyonema 
completes the series by showing the numerous rod-like stems each with 
their cells in double rows, connected by numerous transverse bars into a 
network like that of Fenestella, to which, indeed, I believe it forms the 
passage group.''' Professor Nicholson, after examining in detail the 
various points raised by Mr. Salter, says, ' The " polyzoarium " (of the 
Polyzoa) is commonly more or less highly charged with lime, and this is 
especially the case with the fossil-forms. The polypary of the Graptolites, 
on the other hand, are invariably corneous (or chitinous).' ^ Notwithstand- 
ing these varied opinions, I very reluctantly reviewed the whole of the 
points mooted by Nicholson and others, and then submitted my notes to 

' Spiropora liassica, Tate, Geo. Mag., 1875. 

2 Canadian Jour., No. 80, Geo. Mag., 1874, p. 23. ^ Ibid. p. 23. 

■• JBritixh Association Reports. 

5 Memoirs oft/ie Geohgical Survey — North Wales, p. 328, 1866. 

6 Ibid. ' British Graptnlitidce, p. 85. 



174 



REPORT — 1881. 





* 




•n 




<1> 


u 


^"ii 


a 




o 


s 



a 

be o) 
S bo 



O 



00 






to 









ID 

O 
1^ 






o 

o 

CS 



(U 

o 



o 



o 
ft 

t3 



o 



o 



o 



O CG 

t-l ° 



• 


• 


!=l 


o 


» 

m 

^ 


^ 


o 


O 


r. 


Tl 


J 






CJ 


n 


O 




Pi 


O 


Iz; 



o 
O 



be 



o 



bB 

CD 

ra 



w (2 ^ s 



• bo • 

• i-H 

"3 _• .2 

w :^ w 






en 

9 8 o 



g 



p 



I-? 






ft 



ft 






ft S 




e e 



•2 ^ 



& « 



« ss 









« ^ 



i 



ft 8 



ft 



-I 



H 



<, z 






e 
>» 






^ ^ 

rO i*^ 



^i?^ 



s s e 

S f. i. 

2 <» c 

^ a & 

<i tt; a, 






l-^ 



e 

*> 



"« 






»j :2 s rS 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



175 



.IS 






§•1: 

so =i, 



Ol 
O 

o 



a 

o 



2 I*. 

=« g I 

« -a 












s=; f«; i<j 



* « 



CO o 

Mogg 



S <u S t 






(u'S go 






IN CO 



•3 0) 0) ^ fK • 
^ S«2 g " 

Oft S e "« 

=S o^ e S| 

•^ n ^ .'^ Bh f o 

" „, o "- 2 o 

a > 2 « • s o 

p S^ c3'*< « CI 

^— . — -^ 



pi 
1-^ 



o 

►-1 



CI 
o 

tn 

'D 
>. P 

^ *^ 

a & 

<J P 



a 

«« O wOmfljO 

■m" ISH'o r!?>i:«4-i''3«t-i'a ^i 
oo _.-o ^.-ooooaJ 



o 
C3 



03 



3 



JS ~ Js « 



^ TO 



O 



(D 






^ 



S 8 



■s. 



-I I 






-si 



<3 

to 



ft) 



.Si 



e e 
^ "to 



fi^ 



o 

CD 
O 

g 















•« 
^ 



« ft. 






i 



^ ^ ^ 



e 
?» 



t^^^ 












^N ■* 






176 



REPORT — 1881. 



Mr. Lapworth's scrutiny before publication. He has gone over every one 
of these notes critically, and, as his decision is adverse to my own views 
(founded to a large extent upon facial resemblances), I cannot do other- 
wise than bow to his dictum. ' If the Polyzoa and the Graptolithina 
had a common ancestor — a view I have always been disposed to adopt 

myself it must have existed at an antiquity far more greatly removed 

from Silurian times than Silurian time is from our own ages ; for the 
differences which then separated the two groups appear to have been 
almost as gigantic in importance as those which divide the Hydrozoa and 
Polyzoa of the present day.' 

For the purpose of comparison I append a list of the leading genera 
of the Graptolites with the genera of Polyzoa found in the same foi-ma- 
tions. 

Vertical Range of Gkaptolites, according, to Nicholson, Lapworth, and 
Catalogue of Cambrian and Silurian Fossils, School of Mines. 

(N.) Nicholson. (S.M.C.) School of Mines Catalogue. 
Genera onlj' given, with corresponding increase of Polyzoa. 

Oldhamia antiqua, Forbes ; O. radiata, Forbes (S.M.C. p. 8). 

JDiotyoneiiia spciale, Salter (S.M. p. 12), also in Tremadoc slates 
(N.) 

Dichograptiis, Didymograptus, Tetragraptus, Climacograptus, 
DiiDlograptus, Graptolithus, Eastrites, Dictyonema? Phyllo- 
graptns, Graiitolithus (S.M.C. pp. 17-18), Trigonograptus, 
Ptilograptus, Dendograptus, Callograptus, Dictyograptu.s 
(Lap.) Polyzoa: Phyllopora.Ptilodictya (Lower Llandeilo), 
Branching pol^'zoon (S.M.C. xo. 20), hardly distinguishable iu 
form from Graptolithina, only it is calcareou.s. 

Didymograptus, Tetragraptus, Climacograptus, Diplograptus, 
Dicranograijtus, Graptolithus, Eastrites, Dictyonema, Pro- 
tovirgularia, Helicograptus, Pleurograptus, Dicellograptus, 
Cyrtograptus (S.M.C. pp. 23-24). Polyzoa: Ptilodictya 
and Fenestella ? n.p. (Ibid. p. 28). 

ClimacogTaptus, Diplograptus, Dicranogxaptus, Dendograptus, 
Graptolithus (S.M.C.'p. 31). PoLYzoA : Berenicea, Fenes- 
tella, Glauconome, Phylojjora, Ptilodictya, great increase of 
species (Ibid. p. 44). 

No Graptolites in S. M. C, Climacograpsus one sp., Graptolites 
pnodon, Bronn (Nich. Mono. pp. 97, 98). Polyzoa : Fenes- 
tella ? Glauconome innexa, Phyllopora, Ptilodictya. 

GraptoUthvs j^nodun, Dictyonema (S.M.C. p. 69). Polyzoa : 
Ptilodictya, Fenestella. 

Cladograptus, Cyrtograptus, Graptolithus, Eetiolites, Dictyo- 
nema (S.M.C. p. 81). Polyzoa : Fenestella, Ptilodictya 
(Stomatopora species. Vine). 

Graptolithus priodon, Bronn (S.M.C. p. 93), Graptolites colonos, 
Eetiolites, Cyrtograpsus, Ptilograpsus (Nich. p. 98). Poly- 
zoa : great increase of species, see list. 

Dendograptus, Graptolithus (S.M.C. p. 115). Four species 
recorded both in Catalogue and the same by Nicholson. 

Graptolithus sp. recorded (S. M. Cat. p. 128). 



(L.) Lapworth 

Formation. 

Cambrian. 

Up. Lingula Flags. 

Arenig and Llau- 
deilo. 



Up. Llandeilo. 

Caradoc. 

Lower Llandovery 

Up. Llandovery 
Wenlock Shale 

Wenlock Limestone 

Lower Ludlow 
Upper „ 



> Concluding remark in Mr. Lapworth's letter to me, May 16, 1881. 



ON THE SCOTTISH ZOOLOGICAL STATION. 177 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Fostei{, the late 
Professor Eolleston, Mr, Pye-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. 
Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, My. F. M. Balfour, Sir C. 
Wyville Thomson, Professor Ray Lankester, Professor Allman, 
and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of aiding in the maintenance of the Scottish Zoological Station. 

The Committee beg to report that with the aid of the grant (50?.) voted 
last jeav, they have been able to assist in the maintenance of the Station 
whilst at Cromarty. The most important work undertaken during this 
period has been the ' Observations on the Locomotor System of the 
Echinodermata,' by Mr. Romanes and Professor Ewart. The paper con- 
taining the results of the investigations, having been constituted the 
Croonian Lecture, was read at the meeting of the Royal Society, held on 
March 24. A short account of the work was given in 'Nature,' No. 697, 
vol. 23 ; and an abstract will appear in the ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Society.' 

The authors report that during their investigations they directed 
attention chiefly to the structure and function of the ambulacral and 
nervous systems. By injection, they satisfied themselves : — 

(1) Tbat the ambulacral was independent of the blood- vascular system, 
and that both systems were in communication with the external medium 
at their common origin in the madreporic plate — the blood-vascular sys- 
tem being in freer communication with the exterior than the ambulacral 
system. 

(2) That iu the common Holothurian, the ambulacral fluid passed 
from the circular canal into five small sinuses, from which it might either 
enter the radial canals or the large sinuses at the bases of the tentacles. 

Of the nervous system, it was shown that in Echinus the lateral 
branches from the radial trunks escaped with the pedicels and blended 
with an external sub-epidermic plexus, which extended on to the spines and 
pedicellariae. 

In the physiological part of the paper it was pointed out — 

(1) That the natural movements of the echini exhibit great co-or- 
dination, and further, that Echinoderms when inverted always right 
themselves. 

(2) That Echinoderms endeavour to escape from injury in a direct 
line from the source of irritation. 

(3) That the pedicels, spines, and pedicellariEe approximated when 
any part of the surface of the shell was irritated. 

(4) That severe internal or external irritation had a powerful influence 
on the spines and pedicels. 

(5) That starfish and echini, when their eye-spots are intact, crawl 
towards the light. 

(6) That detached rays of starfish act in the same way as the entire 
animal, while division of the radial nerves destroys co-ordination among 
the rays. 

(7) That if echini be divided into several portions, the pedicels, spines, 
and pedicellarios of these portions continue to exhibit local reflex irrita- 
bility ; and if a portion contains an entire row of pedicels, it is able to 
crawl about and, when inverted, to right itself. 

1881. N 



178 REPORT— 1881. 

(8) That the pentagonal nerve-ring, throngh having no influence 
on the pedicellarife or on the local reflex action of the spines, has a more 
centralizing function than any other part of the nervous system. 

The work of the Station is being continued this autumn at Oban. 
The Committee again respectfully solicit assistance and urge the renewal 
of the grant. 

During the autumn of 1880, a total sum of 120Z. was spent in connec- 
tion with the Zoological Station while at Cromarty. The 50Z. voted by 
the British Association was partly used for providing apparatus and 
reagents, and partly for paying for the use of a steam-launch and for 
boatmen. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, Professor 
KoLLESTON, Mr. Dew-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, 
Dr. G-WYN Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir C. 
Wyville Thomson, Professor Eay Lankester, Professor Allman, 
and Mr. Percy Sladen {^Secretary'), appointed for the purpose 
of arranging for the occupjation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples, 

Your Committee have the pleasure of reporting the continued success 
and prosperity of the Zoological Station at Naples. During the past 
twelve months a greater number of naturalists have availed themselves 
of the facilities there afforded for investigation than in any previous 
year. This of itself is an encouraging testimony to the excellent 
management of the establishment, and also forms an index of the con- 
tinned and increasing support accorded to the Station by all the chief 
European nations. It may be said truly, and without exaggeration, that 
no institution could be more cosmopolitan in its princij^les of organisa- 
tion, or fulfil more admirably the purpose of its existence. The biologists 
of all civilised counti-ies are under a debt of gratitude to Professor 
Dohrn for the energy and self-sacrifice he has Ijestowed on this noble 
undertaking. 

Bach annual report issued from the Station contains an account of 
some general improvement made in the laboi'atories, or of the addition 
of new appliances or apparatus likely to be of service to the working 
naturalist ; in fact, every opportunity is taken by the Directorate to 
provide whatever the developments of modern methods of investigation 
render indispensable, or even desirable, for the success of a student. 

(Laboratory). — It is scarcely necessary for this Committee to specify 
in detail the various items added to this department during the past year, 
and of which a full account is to be found in the last ' Bericht ilber die 
Zoologische Station ' by Dr. Dohrn, published in the ' Mittheilungen aus 
der Zool. Station,' Bd. ii., Heft 4. It will sufiice to mention that the 
recent additions to the laboratory comprise micro-spectroscopic and 
polariscopic appai^atus, a new Du Bois-Reymond section apparatus, and 
also a valuable series of chemico-physiological apparatus ; the latter 
through the munificence of the Berlin Academy, by whom an excellent 
microscope (nf Hartnack's make) has likewise been presented. This 
instrument will naturally be placed in the first instance at the disposal 
of the occupant of the Academy table. 

The general arrangements for the circulation and distribution of sea- 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 179 

water throughout the establishment have been considerably improved. 
In all the small separate work-rooms, tanks similar to those in the large 
laboratory have been erected, and the number of small portable breeding 
aquaria has also been increased. The aerating apparatus, which have 
now been in use for some time, having proved so satisfactory for develop- 
mental investigations, a larger apparatus of the same description is about 
to be constructed, in order to supply a current of air of greater strength 
and capable of subdivision. 

(Library^ — The library is being continually increased by the ex- 
change of publications with other institutions and by donations from 
authors, whilst a number of the older systematic woi'ks and descriptions 
of travels have recently been purchased. A new appendix to the library 
catalogue is issued in the ' Mittheiluugen,' Bd. ii., Heft 4. 

{PiMications) . — The various publications undertaken by the Station, 
and brought out under its auspices, are now well before the scientific 
public, and have already received a worthy and well-merited meed of 
praise. 

(1) Of the series entitled 'Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel' 
two monographs have been issued since the last report, viz., ' Die 
Ctenophoren des Golfes von Neapel ' by Dr. Carl Chun, and ' Le Specie 
del Genere Fierasfer nel Golfo di Napoli ' by Dr. Carlo Emery. Three 
monographs are announced to appear during the present year, viz. : — 

Monographic der Pantopoda (Pycnogonid^), by Prof. Anton Dohrn. 

Die Corallineen, by Graf zu Solms-Laubach. 

Monographic der Gattung Balanoglossus, by Dr. J. W. Spengel. 

Of these the two first-mentioned are now in the press, and the plates 
of Dr. Andres' monograph on the Actinite, which will be published sub- 
sequently, are already in the lithographer's hands. A list of twenty-two 
monographs has been promised for this series up to the present date. 

(2) Of the ' Mittheiluugen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel,' 
vol. ii. is now completed, and vol. iii., part i., is in the press. Many 
valuable memoirs have already been published in this periodical. 

(3) The ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht ' for 1879 was issued at the end 
of last year, and that for 1880 is already in the press. The ' Bericht ' 
for 1879 occupied 1,250 pp. and formed two thick volumes, comprising 
the labours' of thirty-six referees. The present Report will not be less 
bulky, but will be issued — with a view to the convenience of many 
naturalists — in four parts. These will be independently paged, and may 
be purchased separately. The division of the work will be as follows : — 
Part 1,- "Lower Animals ; 2. Arthropoda ; 3. Mollusca; 4. Vertebrata. 

(Submarine Collecting). — During the past two years very important 
service has been rendered to the Station by the introduction of diving, 
not only as a means of collecting, but also of investigating in sitit, the 
fauna and flora of shallow and moderate depths. As the application of 
this method to Natural History purposes is novel, the following particulars 
may not be without interest. 

Nearly three years ago, Dr. Dohrn conceived the idea that some of 
the modern appliances for diving might be made use of for the purposes 
of the Zoological Station ; and being at that time in Berlin, a journey was 
forthwith taken to Kiel, for the purpose of making preliminary experi- 
ments. The water was not especially clear where the descent was made, 
in consequence of the bottom being somewhat muddy ; nevertheless, 
shells and other objects were to be seen distinctly, and the conviction was 

N2 



180 REPORT — 1881. 

established that in the clear water of tlie Mediterranean, advantageous 
results would be obtained by the employment of diving. On returning 
to Italy Dr. Dohrn made application to the Italian Minister of Marine 
for the loan of a ' Scaphander ' apparatus, a request which was granted 
with the greatest liberality. By means of these appliances Dr. Dohrn 
and several of the gentlemen of his staff have been enabled during the 
last two years to investigate, by actual inspection, the coast and sea-bed 
at the following localities : — The neighbourhood surrounding the Castel 
deir Uovo, the "sea-bed of the Chiaja and Mergellina, all the coast and 
grottos of Posilippo, the Secca della Gajola, the whole of the circum- 
ference of Nisita, the bay of Baja between Pozzuoli and Capo Miseno> 
the coasts of Procida and Vivara, the Secca di Vivara, different points of 
the coast of Ischia, also a few at Ventotene and Ponza, as well as some 
places round Capri, the Blue Grotto, the Siren Islands, and some grottos 
at Amalfi. These explorations are continued as often as the weather 
permits. 

Practice and experience have enabled several improvements to be 
effected ; and, indeed, much more depends upon the successfal manage- 
ment of the diving apparatus than upon the possession of the apparatus 
itself. 

It is of primary importance that the diver should be a strong man, 
able to carry, when out of water, his 165 lbs. — the weight of the dress 
and its appurtenances. This is a factor upon which so much rests that 
it needs especial notice. In water, however, the apparatus becomes 
naturally lighter to carry the deeper the diver proceeds, and even in 
four or five fathoms he is able to move about quite conveniently with 
it. Por the satisfactory attainment by diving of the objects of a zoologist 
or botanist, free movement on the sea-floor is unquestionably a sine 
qua non. 

The mere fact of descending or of being let down is comparatively 
unproductive if the diver is not able to seek out special localities where 
animal and plant life is richest and most varied ; and he would even be 
led to conclude that uniformity of character exists on the sea-floor. In 
order that the diver may move about freely and without impediment, the 
boat which carries the air-pump must always follow his course, — this 
being shown by the bubbles of air which ascend from the helmet and 
are continually bursting on the surface of the water. The diving-boat 
should be large and strong, and will require the following complement. 
Two men for rowing, two for keeping the pump continually in motion, 
and, as this is fatiguing work, it will be desirable to carry an extra man 
as relief, especially if more than one person is diving ; whilst another 
man, making five or six in all, is needed to attend to the diver's signal 
rope, for the purpose of communication, — the signs being given by puUing 
or jerking at this rope. For further convenience, it is desirable to have 
a small jolly-boat near by, canning tubs and buckets for the reception 
of the stones, rock-fragments, or other booty which the diver sends up 
in the net or fish-basket which is let down to him repeatedly. The diver 
himself is armed with hammer and chisel, and will be able, if only 
cautious that none of the glasses in his helmet are broken accidentally, 
to remain an hour or two at the bottom of the sea, according as he may 
wish or as his powers last. Currents are his greatest enemy, and these 
are sometimes so strong as to knock the diver down, or if within reach 
of the action of the waves he may be pitched about hither and thither 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 181 

■with such force that a strong man becomes fatigued in half an hour and 
has to be drawn up again. In a tidal sea these forces must be regarded 
as great hindrances to the convenient use of diving apparatus. 

It is scarcely necessary to indicate the special advantages which are 
likely to accrue from the use of diving as an agent in Natural History 
research ; — they are of themselves self-evident. By this means it is 
possible to explore fissures, cavities, or the nnder-side of overhanging 
rocks, and similar parts of the sea-bottom which are naturally inaccessible 
either to the trawl or the dredge. The examination of all such places 
is of the greatest importance for the collection of Sponges, Hydroids, 
Actinise, I3ryozoa, and all sessile organisms ; as well as for Planarians, 
Nudibranchs, and other MoUusca ; and for the Algae, perhaps, chief of 
all. Furthermore, by the aid of a diving apparatus important material, 
of the description just enumerated, may be readily procured in large 
quantities, whilst the association and variations of organisms may be 
studied with the greatest accuracy. Notes can be written, or even 
sketches made, by the diver without difficulty ; and direct observations 
obtained on the conditions of environment. A more definite knowledge 
of the distribution of a marine Fauna and Flora is thus rendered possible 
than by any other means of investigation ; and we have here a method 
of approaching many problems which had hitherto seemed inaccessible, 
and whose solution has been wholly hypothetical. 

Amongst the rarities recently procured may be mentioned: — 
Ehodosoma {Ghevreulius) callense, Heller, the northern Lophogaster tijpicus, 
Sars, several new forms of parasitic Bopijridce, as well as various 
Scopelidce. 

(The Preservation of Specimens). — This has always been an important 
feature in the general routine of the Station. Experience and careful 
investigation have brought about numerous improvements in the methods 
of treating different groups of organisms ; and success has been attained 
in various cases which had hitherto been regarded as impracticable. In 
testimony of the excellence of manipulation, it may be mentioned that at 
the International Fishery Exhibition, held at Berlin, in 1880, a First 
Prize and Gold Medal were awarded to the Zoological Station for the 
preservation of marine aiaimals. 

(The British Association Table). — During the past year, two naturalists 
have occupied the British Association table, viz., Mr. Francis G. Penrose 
and Mr. Allen Harker. These gentlemen have furnished reports of the 
investigations undertaken by them during their occupancy of the table, 
in accordance with the requirements of this Committee. These reports 
will be found appended below ; and it is gratifying to note that interesting 
results outspringing from the studies there specified will, in all probability, 
be published shortly. 

Application has been made for the use of the table, during the coming 
year, by Mr. Patrick Geddes, by whom important results, from a previous 
short occupation of this table, in 1879, have already been published. 
Mr. Geddes is now desirous of prosecuting certain special investigations ; 
these will extend over a longer period, and Mr. Geddes will be 
accompanied by an assistant, whose services are rendered necessary by 
the nature of the investigations about to be undertaken. 

With tlie foregoing facts and details before them, your Committee 
would most strongly urge the renewal of the grant for the eusuing year. 
They would further recommend that the amount be increased to 901., in 



182 EEPOET— 1881. 

consideration of the additional advantages now afforded to the occupier 
of a table, as specially mentioned in the last report. 

I. Bejport on the Occtipation of ilie Tahle by Mr. Allen HarJcer. 

By the kind permission of the Committee, I occupied the British 
Association's table, at the Zoological Station, at Naples, from the 14th 
Feb. to the 20th May, 1881. For the first few weeks I devoted my 
attention to a general study of the comparative Morphology of the 
organs of circulation and respiration in the Polych^tous Annelids, more 
especially in the sedentary forms (Tubicola). I then confined myself to 
the examination of one particular group, the family Maldanidm, and the 
closely allied Amviocharidce, and continued my researches on these 
families, as represented in the Bay of Naples, during the remainder of 
my stay. I studied the histology of the remai-kable coloured bands 
(ceinhires of Claparede) which adorn some of the anterior segments in 
the various species of Maldanidce, with a view to tracing their relation 
(if any) to the function of respiration. With that object I made some 
2,000 sections, and prepared a large amount of material, which I am still 
engaged in working out. The results I purpose publishing as soon as 
they are completed. The frequent occurrence in the Bay of the singular 
Ammochares fusiformis, Delia Chiaja, and its close relationship with 
the Maldanidce, led me to make a careful study of it, in the hope of 
elucidating some points in its anatomy which had been left incomplete 
by Claparede. I succeeded in tracing the nervous system, in continuous 
sections of the whole animal, which had (by that method) escaped the 
notice of the illustrious author of 'Les Annelides du Golfe de Naples.' 
The advantage of having so large a supply of this species enabled me to 
examine some thousands of specimens, and to note some interesting 
variations in the form of the branchial apparatus : these, too, I hope to 
make public shortly, together with drawings of the special features 
observed. 

I had a further opportunity of studying the habits of Phyllochaitopterus 
pergamentacem, and extending the observations of Claparede on the 
structure of its tubes. I was (during the whole of my stay) kept 
supplied with abundant material, which is so indispensable to the study 
of my subject. 

In addition to the opportunity afforded of carrying out my studies 
under the most favourable and perfect of conditions, I am indebted to my 
visit to the Station for much valuable knowledge of new and improved 
methods of manipulation in biological research, which cannot fail to be 
of lifelong service. An opportunity of putting some of that knowledge 
to a very practical use has been afforded me since my return, in fitting 
up a small biological laboratory, at the Royal Agricultural College, at 
Cirencester, where I have been largely guided by my Naples experiences. 

While it would be merely superfluous to add one word in praise of 
the Station, I should fail in my duty were I not to record my deep 
gratitude for the uniform and kindly assistance rendered by the whole of 
the staff, and for the great interest which Professor Dohrn took in my 
work, and the very valuable advice and assistance he was ever ready to 
afford me. 

For the permission to occupy the table I beg to tender my sincere 
thanks. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 183 

II. Beport on the Occupation of the Tahle hy Mr. Francis G. Penrose. 

I asked for permission to use the British Association's table at 
the Zoological Station at Naples, so that, as I was obliged to leave England 
by medical advice at the beginning of this year, for three months, 
I might, if possible, employ a portion of my time in endeavouring to get 
some° practical idea of general marine zoological work, especially with 
reference to the numerous invertebrate larval forms: their mode of 
capture, appearance, and the means in use at the Station of preserving 
them and showing their structure. The only point which I proposed to 
myself for special investigation was the vascular system of LameUibranchs, 
which had been suggested to me by Professor Lankester in connection 
with Solen legumen. » • t 

Many eminent naturalists— as Lacaze-Duthiers, Agassiz, Langer-- 
have studied the subject, and have demonstrated many points, both in 
the o-eneral course of the circulation and the channels through which the 
bloocl passes. In doing so they have almost invariably had recourse to 
artificial injection, which, though it has shown a great deal of much 
importance, has not proved entirely successful, probably because the 
arterial and venous portions of the circulatory system appear not to be 
connected by definitely-walled capillary passages, but that the blood finds 
its way, after leaving the arteries, amongst and between the various 
tissues and organs of the body, and is only re-collected into true 
sanguiniferous tubes near the great vena cava. 

So that further investigation was still necessary, to decide such 
questions as to whether any blood passes into the ca.vity of the pericar- 
dium ; and, if so, what becomes of it ? Whether the apertures which con- 
nect the vascular system with the exterior are only for the inception of 
external fluid ; or whether, under any circumstances, liquid contained, m 
the vessels is able to pass outward through them ? In fact, whether the 
liquid which is so copiously thrown out by a Lamellibranch, on con- 
traction, consists of blood, or of any portion of the blood-fluid ? Solen 
legume7i seemed to be particularly favourable for the study of these 
questions, as the blood of this animal, besides possessing ordinary 
colourless corpuscles, is particularly rich in bright red corpuscles, 
discovered by Professor Lankester, and shown by him to contain 
hsemoglobin, which forms a perfectly natural injection; and, as will be 
seen from what has been said above, this is a point of very great 
importance. Unfortunately, notwithstanding the exertions made to 
obtain for me as many individuals of this species as possible, but very 
few were forthcoming, and those were nearly all full-grown, which were 
not very suitable, owing to the want of transparency and to the practical 
diCBculties of manipulation,— the slightest injury rendering the individual 
useless for the research. But, from what I saw in them, I venture to 
think that, had it been possible to obtain younger specimens, they would 
have enabled me to settle those questions I was hoping to answer. As a 
definite result, I consider that (at any rate, in the only individual that 
allowed me a favourable examination) there were not any red corpuscles 
in the cavity of the pericardium, excepting, of course, those contained 
within the heart. In conclusion, I have to thank the staff at the Station 
for the constant facilities and assistance they afforded me. 



184 



EEPOET — 1881. 



III. A List of the Naturalists who have ivorJced at the Station Jrom the end 
of June, 1880, to the end of June, 1881. 









Duration of 


Occupancy 




Num- 


Naturalist's Name 


State or University 










ber on 


wliose Table 










List 
146 




was made use of 


Arrival 


Departure 


Prof. Emery . 


Italy 


July 21, 


1880 


Nov. 11, 


1880 


147 


Cand. Koster . 


Bavaria 


Aug. 24 


)J 


Oct. 12 


jj 


148 


Prof. Gasco 


Italy . 


Sept. 1 


»l 


„ 25 


r» 


149 


/Prof. Graf SolmsO 
\^ Laubach J 


Strasburg , 


,. 2 


If 


,, 12 


»» 


150 


Dr. Gaule 


Saxony 


„ 10 


>> 


„ 12 


,, 


151 


Prof. Salensky . 


Russia 


„ 24 


)) 


June 11, 


1881 


152 


Prof. Kroneker 


Berlin Academy . 


„ 24 


J» 


Oct. 29, 


1880 


153 


Dr. G. Colasanti 


Italy . 


„ 27 


>< 


„ 29 


)» 


154 


Dr. Weyl 


Berlin Academy . 


Oct. 10 


J» 


Mai-. 16, 


1881 


155 


Prof. R. Kossinann . 


Baden . 


„ 15 


J) 






156 


Herr G. M. Bedot . 


Switzerland 


Nov. 6 


j» 


„ 27 


J) 


157 


Dr. G. C. J. Vosmaer 


Holland ' . 


„ 26 


It 


Feb. 19 


tt 


158 


Dr. A. Delia Valle . 


Italy . 


Jan. 1, 


1881 






159 


Dr. A. Andres 


Italy . 


» 1 


,» 






160 


Barone R. Valiante . 


Italy . 


,, 1 


,» 






161 


Mr. F. G. Penrose . 


British Association 


„ 28 


tt 


Mar. 23 


J) 


162 


Mr. W. H. Caldwell. 


Cambridge . 


Feb. 2 


,1 






163 


Dr. Ulianin 


Russia 


,, 5 


,, 


June 11 


It 


164 


Mr. Allen Barker . 


BritishAssociation 


„ 12 


>, 


May 21 


Ji 


165 


Dr. Carl Friedliinder 


Prussia 


» 17 


„ 


Mar. 10 


)) 


166 


Dr. J. W. van Wyhe 


Holland . 


„ 27 


5> 


June 11 


II 


167 


Dr. J. Carrifere 


Strasburg . 


March 7 


)» 


April 23 


» 


168 


Dr. E. Zacharias 


Hamburg . 


,, 7 


)) 


„ 23 


>» 


169 


Dr. J. Brock . 


Bavaria 


,, 7 


„ 


.. 27 


)> 


170 


Prof. W. Flemming. 


Prussia 


„ 8 


ti 


,, 21 


ft 


171 


Dr. V. Meresclikovsky 


Russia 


April 21 


>1 






172 


Dr. J. MacLeod 


Belgium 


March 9 


„ 






173 


Dr. C. Chun . 


Saxony 


„ 13 


)» 


„ 23 


» 


174 


Prof. Selenka . 


Wiirtemberg 


„ 15 


J» 


„ 24 


rt 


175 


Dr. Griesbrecht 


Prussia 


April 2 


,, 






176 


Prof. Ed. van Beneden 


Belgium 


„ 5 


), 






177 


Cand. E. Goldy 


Switzerland 


„ 8 


)> 






178 


Dr. H. Kraepelin 


Hamburg . 


„ 19 


)» 


June 3 


jf 


179 


Professor v. Kock . 


Darmstadt . 


May 23 


)» 







IV. A List of Papers which have been published from Augiist, 1878, up to 
the end of 1880 by the Naturalists who have occupied Tables at the 
Zoological Station. 



Professor Salenski 
Mr. M. Marshall 
Professor Merkel 
Mr. A. Waters 



Etudes sur les Bryozoaires entoproctes. ' Ann. Scienc. Nat.' 

6 sir. t. 5, 1877. 
The Morphology of the Vertebrate Olfactory Organ. ' Quart. 

Journ. Micr. Science,' vol. six. 
Ueber die Endigungen der sensiblen Nerven in der Haut der 

Wirbelthiere. Rostock, 1880. 
On the Bryozoa of the Bay of Naples. 'Ann. and Mag. 

Nat. Hist.' vol. iii. 
Professor Grenacher Untersuchungen iiber das Sehorgan der Arthropoden. Got- 

tingen, 1879. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



185 



Professor Ulianin . 
Professor 0. Schmidt 

Dr. Falkenberg 



Dr. Gabriel 
Mr. G. Bullar . 
Mr. F. M. Balfour . 
Professor Eimer 
Dr. E. Tasclienberg 



Dr. A. Lang 



• • 



• • 



Professor Schmitz 



Dr. C. Chun . 



Professor E. Metsch- 
nikoff 



»» • • 

Prof. V. Eougemont . 
Prof. C. Emery 



• • 



Dr. V. Ibering 

Mr. Percy Sladen . 
Dr. A. A. W. Hubrecht 



• • 



• • 



Sur le genre Sagitella. ' Arch. Zool. Experim.' t. 7. 

Zusatz zu Dr. Keller's Aufsatz iiber neue Ccelenteraten aus 

dem Golf von Keapel. 'Arch. f. Mikr. Anat.' Bd. 18. 
Ueber eudogene Bildung normaler Seitensprossen in der Gat- 

tungen Eytii^hloea, etc. ' Nachr. K6n. Ges. Wiss.' Gottingen, 

1879. 
Ueber primitives Protoplasma. 'Ber. fechles. Gesellsch.' 

1878. 
On the Development of the Parasitic Isopoda. ' Phil. Trans. 

Roy. Soc' 1878. 
Monograph on the Development of Elasmobranch Fishes. 

London, 1878. 
Versuche iiber kiinstliche Theilbarkeit von Beroe ovata. 

<Aroh. f. Mikr. Anat.' Bd. 17. 
Helminthologisches Zeitsch. f. d. ges. Naturwissensch, 1878. 
Beitriige zur Kenntniss ectoparasit. mariner Trematoden. 

' Abb. Naturf . Ges.' Halle, 1879. 
Didymozoon, eine neue Gattung in Cysten lebender Trema- 
toden. Ibid. 
Die Dotterfurchung vonBalanus. ' Jenaische Zeitschr.' Bd. 12. 
Die Metamorphose der Nauplius-Larven von Balanus, etc. 

' Mittheil. d. Aarg. Natuii. Ges.' 1878. 
Untersuchungen zur vergl. Anatomic u. Hist, des Nerven- 

systems der Plathelminthen. I. ' Mittheil. Zoolog. Station, 

Neapel.'Bd. 1. 
Ueber den Bau der Zellen bei den Siphonocladiaceen. ' Sitz.- 

Ber. niederrh. Ges. f. Nat. u. Heilk. zu Bonn,' 1879. 
Untersuchungen iiber die Zellkerne der Thallophyten. Ibid. 
Untersuchungen iiber die Structur des Protoplasmas und der 

Zellkerne der Pflanzenzellen. Ibid. 1880. 
Bildung der Sporangien bei der Algengattung Halimede, 

Ibid. 
Die im Golf von Neapel erscheinenden Eippenquallen. 

' Mittheil. Zool. Station, Neapel.' Bd. 1. . 
Die Ctenophoren des Golfs von Neapel und der angrenzenden 

Meerestheile. ' Fauna u. Flora d. Golfs v. Neapel,' herausg. 

v. d. Zool. Station. Leipzig, 1880. 
Spongiologische Studien. ' Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool.' Bd. 32. 

Ueber die intracellulare Verdauung bei Coelenteraten. ' Zool. 

Anzeiger,' 1880. 
Bericht iiber seinen Aufenthalt im Auslande (russisch). 

Odessa, 1880. 
Ueber Helicop.syche. ' Zool. Anzeiger,' 1878. 
La Cornea dei Pesci Ossei. Dal ' Giorn. di Scienze Nat. ed 

Econ.' Palermo, 1878. 
Contribuzioni all' Ittiologia. Eeale Accad. dei Lincei, 1878. 
Le Specie del genere Fierasfer nel Golfo di Napoli. ' Fauna 

u. Flora d. Golfs v. Neapel,' herausg. v. d. Zool. Station. 

Leipzig, 1880. 
Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Nudibranchign des Mittelmeeres. 

' Malakozool. Bliitter,' N. F. Bd. 2. 
Graffilla muricicola, eine parasitische Ehabdocoele. ' Zeitschr. 

f. wiss. Zool.' Bd. 34. 
On a Eemarkable Form of Pedicellaria, etc. ' Ann. and Mag. 

Nat. Hist. 1880.' 
Vorliiufige Eesultate fortgesetzter Nemeirtinen-Untersuchun- 

gen. ' Zool. Anzeiger,' 1879. 
The Genera of European Nemertean? critically revised. 

'Notes Leyden Mus.' 1879. 
Vorloopig Overzigt natuurh. Onderzoek, etc. in het Zool. 

Stat, te Napels, etc. Leyden, 1879. 
Zur Anatomic u. Physiologic des Nervensystems der Nemer- 

tinen. ' Naturk. Verb. d. Koninkl. Akad.' Deel. XX. 



186 



REPORT — 1881. 



Dr. W. Hubrecht 

j» • 

Dr. Delia Valle 

Mr. P. Geddes . 

>> • 

Dr. A. Andres . 
Dr. Berthold . 

Dr. Solger 

Dr. Keller , 
» • 

» • 

Professor Selenka 



Professor O. n. R. 

Hertwig 
Professor v. Koch . 

Dr. V. Meresch- 
kowski 

)> • • 

Professor F. Todaro 
Professor A. Gotte . 

)j • • 

Dr. W. Vigelius . 



Prof. G. Duplcssis . 

)> • • 

Dr. Brock . , 

Dr. A. Batelli . , 

Dr. Foetinger , , 

)» • • 

Dr. J. W. Spengel . 

Prof. C. Hoffmann . 

Dr. Ludwig . , 



The Peripherical Nervous System in Palfeo- and Schizo- 

Nemertini, one of the layers of the body- wall. ' Quart. 

Journ. Micros. Sc' 1880. 
Het periiDherisch Zenuwstelsel der Nemertinen. ' Tidschr 

Ned. Dierk. Vereen.' Deel V. 
Sui Coriceidi Parassiti e sull' Anatomia del genere Licho- 

molgus. ' Mittheil Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. 2. 
Sur la Chlorophylle animale. 'Arch. Zool. Experim.' t. 8. 
Observations sur le Fluide perivisceral des Oursins. Ibid. 
Intorno all' EdwardsiaClaiDaredii. K. Accad. d. Lincei, 1879. 
Zur Kenntniss der Siphoneen und Bangiaceen. ' Mittheil. 

Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. 2. 
Neue Untersuchungen zur Anatomic der Seitenorgane der 

Fische. I. Die Seitenorgane der Chimfera. ' Arch. f. 

Mikrosk. Anat.' Bd. 17. II. Die Seitenorgane der Sela- 

chier. Ibid. III. Die Seitenorgane der Knochenfische. 

Ibid. Bd. 18. 
Zur Entwicklung.sgesch. der Chalineen. - ' Zool. Anzeiger,' 

1879. 
Studien iiber Organisation u. Entwicklung der Chalineen. 

' Zeitschr. f . wiss. Zool.' Bd. 33. 
Neue Coelenteraten aus dem Golf von Neapel. ' Arch. f. 

Mikr. Anat.' Bd. 18. 
Keimbliltter und Organanlage bei Echiniden. ' Sitzber. d. 

Physik. Med. Soc' Erlangen, 1879. 
Keimbliltter land Organanlagen der Echiniden. 'Zeitschr. f. 

wissensch. Zool.' Bd. 33. 
Die Actinien anat. u. histol. "mit bes. Ber. desNervensystems 

untersucht. Jena, 1879. 
Bemerkungen iiber das Skelct der Korallen. ' Morphol. 

Jahrbuch,' Bd. 5. 
Sur la Structure de quelques Coralliaires. ' Comptes Rendus,' 

1880. 
Sur rOrigine et le Developpement de I'CEuf chez la Meduse 

Eucope avant de la fecondation. Ibid. 
Siai primi Fenomeni dello Sviluppo delle Salpe. ' Reale Acca- 

demia d. Lincei,' 1880. 
Bemerk. zur Entw.-Gesch. der Echinodcrmen. 'Zool. Anzeiger,' 

1880. 
Ein neucr Hydroidpol}^^. Ibid. 
Vorloopig Verslag van de Werkzamheden, etc. (Cephalopoden- 

Anatomie.) 
Ueber das Excretionssystem der Ceplialopoden. ' Niederl. 

Archiv.' 1880. 
Untersuchungen an Thy.sanoteuthis rhombus. ' Mittheil. Zool. 

Station Neapel,' Bd. 2. 
Observations sur la Cladocoryne flocconeuse. Ibid. 
Catalogue provis. des Hydroides medusipares, etc. Ibid. 
Hydroides medusipares du Golfe de Naples. ' Bull. Soc. 

Vaud.' 2" Stii. vol. xvii. 
Versuch einer Phylogcnie der dibranchiaten Cephalopoden, 

' Dissert Morphol. Jahrbuch,' Bd. 6. 
Istolog. della Pelle dei Pesci Teleostei. • ' Eivista Scientifica- 

Industr.' Firenze, 1880. 
Sur la Dficouverte de I'Hemoglobinedans le systfeme aquiffere 

d'un Echinoderme. ' Bull. Acad. Ec.y. Belg.' 2" ser. t. 49. 
Sur I'Existence de I'Hemoglobine chez les Echinodermes. 

' Archives de Biologic,' vol. i. 
Die Geruchsorgane und das Nervensystem der MoUusken. 

'Zeitschr f. wissensch. Zool.' Bd. 35. 
Vorliiufige Jlitth. zur Ontogenie der Knochenfische. ' Zool. 

Anzeiger,' 1880. 
Die Bikiuug der Eihiillen bei Antedon rosacea. Ibid. 



ON TnE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



187 



Dr. E. Tung 



Sur I'Action des Poissons chez les Cephalopodes. ' Comptes 
Kendus,' 1880. 

De rinfluence de Milieux alcalins ou acides sur les Cephalo- 
podes. Ibid. 

De rinfluence des Lumiferes colorees sur le Developpement des 
Animaux. Ibid. 

' Mitth. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. 2. 



V. A List of Naturalists to loliom Specimens have leen sent from the end of 
June, 1880, to the end of Ju7ie, 1881. 

1880. June 23 Prof. "Weismann, Freiberg, i. B. 

„ 2.S F. von Czeschka, Gratz , , 

„ 29 Professor Kiihne, Heidelberg . 

July 19 Dr. Krukenberg, Heidelberg . 

„ 19 Musee Koyal, Brussels 

„ 19 Senator Komer, Hildesheim 

„ 19 Naturw. Cabinet, Stuttgart 

.„ 1.9 Prof. E. K. HofEmann, Leyden . 

Aug. 3 Prof. Lankester, London . 

,r 3 Dr. E. B. Aveling . 

3 Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell, London . 

.,, 14 Prof. Kiiline, Heidelberg . , 

„ 14 Dr. Spengel, Gottingen . 

„ 19 Prof. Weismann, Freiberg, i. B. 

„ 31 Zool. Institut, Heidelberg. . 

„ 31 Dr. Fraisse, Tutzing. 

Sept. U Dr. W. Lecke, Stockholm 

„ 11 Prof. A. M. Marshall, Manchester 

„ 18 P. de Loriol, Chalet des Bois . 

Oct. 20 Naturh. Museum, Hamburg , 

„ 23 Zoolog. Museum, Hanover 

„ 23 Dr. Bger, Vienna 

„ 27 Dr. Graetfe, Zool. Station, Trieste 

Nov. 8 Dr. Si^engel, Gottingen . 

,, 8 Prof, von Siebold, Mvmich . 

,, 11 Prof. Emery, Cagliari . . 

„ 12 Nicolai-Gymnasium, Leipzig 

„ 12 H. N. Moseley, London . , 

„ 12 Senator Eomer, Hildesheim 

„ 23 Prof. Steindachner, Vienna 

„ 23 Prof. Plateau, Ghent 

„ 27 Prof. Ehlers, Gottingen . 

„ 29 Naturh. Museum, Schaffhausen. 

Dec. 7 Prof. Grenacher, Eostock . 

„ 12 Dr. W. F. Vigelius, Dordrecht . 

„ 19 E. Graebke, Potsdam . , 

„ 20 Dr. Eger, Vienna . 

„ 21 Kgl. Gymnasium, Leipzig 

„ 31 Liceo Geuovesi, Naples 

1881. Jan. 9 Prof, van Beneden, Liittich 

„ 9 Prof. von. Siebold, Munich 

9 Prof. T. J. Parker, New Zealand 

„ 9 Kev. A. M. Norman, Durham . 

„ 9 Zoolog. Institut, Strasbm-g . 

„ 17 Dr. Eger, Vienna . . , 

Feb. 16 E. Graebke, Potsdam. 

„ 17 Dr. Everts, Haag 

„ 17 University, Leyden . 

„ 23 Bait . Verein f. Thierzucht, 
Griefswald 





Lire 


Hydroida. . . 


120 


Cephalopoda . . 


10 


Fish-eyes. 


28 


Amphioxus 


27 


Various classes 


510 


Select preparations . 


— 


Select preparations . 


— 


Material for dissection . 


260 


Pontobdella, Amphiglena 


19-45 


Various classes 


38-35 


All classes 


37-70 


Eyes of Mustelus . 


3 


Chiton. Ostrea 


— 


Hydroida 


13-25 


Various classes 


219-19 


Gastropoda 


8-10 


Various classes . 


49-33 


All classes 


652-19 


Echinodermata 


20-5 


Various classes 


242 


Ctenoph., Echinod., Crus 




tacea . 


155 


All classes. 


152 


Living Amphioxus . 


7-50 


Vermes . 


— 


Argentina 


16-20 


Select preparations 


112.50 


All classes 


93 


Alcyonium . . 


17-50 


Fishes 


136 


Fishes . 


. 106 


Hydromedusa . 


. 211-50 


Toxopneustes 


79 


Various classes 


150-55 


Eyes of Cephalopoda 


18-75 


Cephalopoda . 


67 10 


Coelent., Echinod., Crus- 




tacea . . . 


. 18-20 


Various classes 


, 86-5 


All classes 


. 186-16 


Elementary collection 


. 130 


Ascidife . . . 


. 158-33 


Ophiura . 


. 10- 


All classes 


. 328-88 


Crustacea 


. 233-97 


MoUusca 


. 16 


Various classes 


. 86-80 


MoUusca. 


. 23 


Cestum . 


, 7 


Ascidise . 


— 


Various classes 


— 



188 



REPORT 1881. 



1881. Feb. 


28 


April 


9 


a 


28 


j> 


28 


>* 


28 


}) 


28 


May 


4 


jf 


12 


j» 


12 


■»» 


12 


ft 


L3 


i» 


13 


■»» 


21 


9» 


21 


■>» 


21 


■»> 


21 


June 


2 




o 


■>i 






o 


?» 




j» 


6 


>» 


6 


■)> 


10 


'»» 


U 


■j> 


14 



Kgl. Cadetten-Corps, Munich . 

Hohere Biirgerschule, Dordrecht 

Prof. Ansserer, Staats Gjrm- 
nasium, Gratz. 

Fric, Naturalienhiindler, Prague 

Prof. Eimer, Tubingen 

Dr. Chun and Dr. Fraisse, Leip- 
zig 

Prof, van Beneden, Liittich 

M. Goeldi, SchafEhausen . 

Prof. Cattie Arnhem, Holland . 

Dr. Carpenter, London 

Zoolog. Institut, Leipzig , 

Dx. Tasclienberg, Halle . 
Eev. A. M. Norman, Durham . 
Zool. Institut, Giessen 
Zool. Institut, Wurzburg . 
Prof. Weismann, Freiberg, 1. B. 
Dr. Eger, Vienna ... 
Prof. Butschli, Heiclelberg 
Prof. Dames, Berlin . 
Dr. E. B. Aveling, London 
H. N. Moseley, London . 
Naturhist. Museum, Hamburg . 

C. Giinther, Berlin 

F. M. Balfour, Cambridge 



Lire 

Elementary collection . 75 
Coelent., Echinod. , . 89-75 

Elementary collection . 134-23 

Various classes . , 53'5 

Annelida, Coelenterata . 162-95 

Various classes , . 129'73 

Select preparations . . 402-25 
Various classes . . 34-85 
Selachii .... 57-50 

All classes . . . 265-85 
Cephalopoda, Echinoder- 

mata .... 331-75 
Various classes, for anatomy 68-50 

Echin., Crust., Sponges . 152-82 
Variousclasses, for anatomy 164-5 
Various classes, for anatomj- 132-15 
Hydroida . . . 2-85 
Coelent., Vermes . . 37-97 
Amphioxus, Hippocampus 17-66 
Heads of Fishes . . 27 

Various classes . . 150-93 

Various classes . . 825- 

All classes, except Mol- 

lusca .... 246-73 
Eadiolaria ... 4 

Various .... 102-40 



8492-57 



VI. A List of Naturalists to zvJioni Microscop 
from the end of June, 1880, up 



ic Preparations have heen sent 
to June, 1881. 



1880. July .1 Prof. Fiirbringer, Amsterdam 
Nov. 30 A. Mj'^vre, Nice .. 
Dec. 2 Di-. A. Valle, Trieste 

1881. Feb. 16 Dr. Guida, Naples . . 

„ 26 Maurice Bedot, Geneva 

March, 5 L. Dreyfus, London . all 

.„ 10 Percy Sladen, Halifax 

.„ 11 Prof. L. von. Schmarda, Vienna 

„ 11 Prof. Berlin, Amsterdam 

.„ 11 Prof. Salensky, Kasan 

— Dr. Vigelius, Dordi-echt . 

11 Prof. Huxley, London . . 

,, 12 Prof. Heller, Innsbruck . 

„ 12 Prof. Waldeyer, Strasburg 

■ „ — Prof. Ausserer, Gratz . , 

April 11 Prof, van Bambeke, Ghent 

„ 23 Prof. Emery, Bologna 

„ 26 Wallroth & Co., London . 

„ 27 Prof. Schneider, Breslau . 

; May 6 Prof. E. van Beneden, Li&ge . 

. „ .6 Prof. P. van Beneden, Louvain 

.„ 27 Dr. Bouvin, Utrecht 

. „ 30 Zoolog. Institut, Budapest 







Lire 


. 12 preparations 


35-75 


. 20 


fi 


44-50 


. 15 


jy 


31-50 


2 


)l 


2-60 


2 


J? 


3- 


anatomical 


preparations 


563-50 


. 28 


preparations 


60- 


. 62 


jt 


144-25 


. 59 


,t 


131-50 


. 33 


»» 


73-0 


. 7 


}i 


17- 


. 49 


)i 


118-50 


. 25 


)( 


58-75 


. 12 


*i 


27-64 


. 28 


)f 


60- 


. 68 


» 


157- 


. 59 


t) 


134-50 


. 124 


ti 


259-75 


. 7G 


it 


150-75 


. 50 


») 


119- 


. 50 


M 


119- 


. 4 


»» 


8- 


. 28 


tf 


60- 



2377-39 



ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. IQQ 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, 
3Ir. John Cordeaux, and Professor Newton, appointed at 
Swansea for the purpose of ohtaininfj (tvith the consent of the 
Master and Brethren of the Trinity House, and of the Com- 
missioners of Northern Lights) observations on the Migration 
of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting on 
the same, at York, in 1881. 

Printed schedules for filling in observations, accompanied by letters 
of instruction (similar to those laid on the table), were issued by 
Mr. Cordeaux and Mr. Harvie Brown to 83 stations on the east coast of 
Scotland and England and the Channel Islands, a large proportion of 
these being light-vessels, situated far from land in the North Sea. 

On the west coast of Scotland and the Western Isles, includino- the 
Isle-of-Man, Mr. Harvie Brown supplied papers to 38 stations. 

And on the West Coast of England Mr. Philip Kermode, of Ramsey, 
Isle-of-Man (whose kind assistance the Committee desire gratefully to 
acknowledge), issued papers to 39 lighthouses and lightvessels. 

Altogether the stations from which co-operation was asked number 
160. 

From these, returns have been received from 103, namely : east coast 
stations, 46 ; west coast stations, 57. From several stations letters 
have also been received, stating that the scarcity, or total absence of 
birds, has prevented any return being.sent in. 

Schedules, letters of instructions, were also forwarded, throuo-h 
Mr. Alexander Buchan (Secretary, Scottish Meteorological Society, 
Edinburgh) to three stations, two in Iceland and one in Faroe. A fourth' 
more northern station, is secured on Fair Island for 1881, Mr. Williaui 
Lawrence having kindly undertaken the work. The Faroe station has 
failed this year, but the Committee hope better things from it next. 

The Committee have also made arrangements with Mr. Alexander 
Goodman More, of Glasneviu, Dublin, and Mr. Richard M. Barrington, 
of Fassaroe, Co. Wicklow, to undertake the working of the Irish coast in 
1881, and beg leave to suggest that these gentlemen, as well as Mr. Philip 
Kermode, before mentioned, and Mr. James Hardy, of Old Cambus, 
Berwickshire (who has rendered great assistance to the Committee in 
the Scotch stations), be added to the Committee, should it be re-appointed. 
_ Great credit is due to the various observers for the careful and 
painstaking manner in which the greater proportion of the returned 
schedules have been sent in. The observations taken are a decided 
improvement on those of the preceding year, when the men were new to 
the work ; and they exhibit generally, in a marked degree, the intelligent 
interest taken in the inquiry. The work, it must be remembered, is 
entirely voluntary, and often carried on under circumstances of consider- 
able difficulty and discomfort. 

The Committee beg to express their best thanks to the Master and 
Elder Brethren of the Trinity House, and the Commissioners of Northern 
Lights, for then- ready co-operation and assistance, through their officers, 
and men, m the inquiry. Indeed, without the help thus afi'orded, the 
observations could never have been obtained. 

The best returns, as might have been expected, have been sent in 



190 EEPORT 1881. 

from isolated stations, at lighthouses on islands and skerries off the 
coast, as well as from the lightvessels. Lighthouses situated some 
distance inland, or surrounded by houses, make few returns, or none. 

In presenting their report, your Committee are aware that the 
inquiry is as yet in its infancy. Their work, so far, has been mainly to 
collect and tabulate sufficient data, from which they have every reason 
to expect that, at some future time, reliable facts may be deduced on the 
migratory movements of birds in their spring and autumn migrations. 
The results of the observations taken so far, in 1879 and 1880, have 
proved so satisfactory and unexpected that the Committee have been able, 
with tolerable certainty, to arrive at the following conclusions : — 

On the east coasts of England and Scotland, as in 1879, the main 
line of migration has been a broad stream from east to west, covering 
the whole of the English and Scotch east-coast ; this is the line mainly 
followed by the Passeres. Taking this line as a basis, we find birds 
also occasionally coming from points north of east, but, in the vast 
majority of instances, the migration has had a decidedly southerly trend, 
coming from points south of east, and even direct from the southward. 
In 1879 the main body of immigrants crossed at the most southern 
stations, at the narrowest parts of the North Sea, and direct into our 
south-eastern counties ; in 1880 the main body has been tolerably 
equally divided between the mid and south-eastern counties. During 
the principal month of migration, October, the wind blew persistently, 
day by day and week by week, from northei'ly and north-easterly 
quarters, and to this cause we may fairly attribute, to some extent, the 
deflection of migrants to the south ; on the north-east coast of England 
and the stations on the east-coast of Scotland birds are reported as 
comparatively scarce, and in some instances absent altogether. 
A reference to the meteorological charts in the ' Times ' shows that, in 
the autumn of 1880, the prevailing winds and gales were from the east 
and north-east, and while these winds do not appear to have compressed 
the horizontal lines so much as the north-westerly did, in 1879, the birds 
appear to have passed at greater elevations and, in many cases, to have 
been borne far to the westward of these islands. The migration does not 
appear to have come in such great throbs or ' rushes ' in 1880 as in 1879, 
but to have been more dispersed and more regular ; this, no doubt, is a 
natural consequence of the waves being more spread out in 1880 than in 
1879. 

Independent of the broad stream of immigrants coming directly 
from the east, there is, in the autumn, always a steady stream of 
migrants which closely follow the coast-line from north to south, 
composed of birds either moving from more northerly districts of our 
islands, or of such immigrants coming from the east as strike the coast 
in more northern latitudes, and then follow it to the south. The great 
E. to W. stream of migration is mainly composed of some few 
well-known species, which regularly come to us in the autumn, the great 
body undoubtedly remaining to winter. Placed in order of rotation, 
according to their numerical superiority or otherwise, we find the Skylark, 
Starling, Hooded Grow and Book, the Song Thrusli, Blackbird, Fieldfare 
and Redwing ; and then Sparrows (both the common species and tree- 
sparrow), and Linnets, and Chaffinches compose the bulk of the immigrants. 
Others, as the Redstart, Wheatear, Whinchat and Stonechat, and other 
soft-billed insect-eaters, although coming from the eastward, after striking 



ON THE MIGRATION OP BIRDS. 191 

the coast, persistently follow the shore-line to the south, blithe waders 
and other shore-birds, as well as Geeae, Bucks, Divers, and Gulls, and 
sea-fowl generallj', move from north to south — cutting the line of the 
Passeres at right angles. As a rule, the sea- fowl migrate some distance out 
at sea, the waders along the coast. Although, as yet, the Committee 
have no stations, except Heligoland, on the European side of the North 
Sea, it may fairly be presumed that there is similarly another stream of 
birds passing down the coast-line of Europe. Migration, as observed on 
that island for many years, by that veteran ornithologist, Herr Gatke, 
points to the undoubted fact that the line followed by birds is, as a rule, 
from E. to W., and doubtless some portion of these Heligoland birds 
keep moving westward or south-westward till, eventually, they strike 
our east coast. There are, however, many species which appear to make 
Heligoland the western iDoundary of their autumn wanderings, and 
crossing, as they do, that island in enormous numbers, must eventually 
follow the coast-line to the south, for the simple reason that they never 
occur on our own coast, except as very rare and occasional wanderers. 
Such are the WJdte-Wagtail and Blue-headed Wagtail of the Continent, 
the Blue-throat, Ortolan, Lapland Bunting, Richard's Pipit, and, in a 
less degree, the Pied-flycatcher and Shore-lark. These, then, must all 
pass southward along the European coast, as do, doubtless, an immense 
majority of those countless Sparrow-haivks, Siskins, and more familiar 
birds, which cross that island in the autumn migration ; and just as, 
occasionally, some species, whose line of migration lies further eastward 
still, turn up on the old rock as wanderers from the regular track, so do, 
occasionally, now one and now another of the regular Heligoland 
immigrants get blown across to our side. 

The observations taken at some of the southern stations, in 1879 and 
1880, show that, in the autumn, there is what may be called a double 
stream of birds, crossing each other near the entrance to the English 
Channel, that is, from the Essex and Kent coast towards the S.E. on the 
French and Belgian coast, and again, in the opposite direction, from 
Belgium to the coast of Kent. During the severe weather in the early 
part of December, 1880, flocks of birds came to us direct from the 
French coast, or from S. to N. These latter must be considered purely 
local migrations, caused by sudden outbursts of severe weather. 

It is a curious fact that, in nearly every case of birds passing the 
Casquets off Alderney, in the past autumn, they were travelling in a 
N.W. direction, or from the French to the English coast, a line of 
migration which does not seem to be in proper accord with that 
we should imagine migrating birds would, or rather ought to, take. 
On reference to the chart of the Channel, it is apparent that any flocks 
leaving the French coast at or near Cape de la Hogue, and crossing 
Alderney, when once off the Casquets, might as readily and easily steer 
their course for the Start Point, on the English side, as across the wide 
break in the French coast for Port Sillon, each being about equal distances 
from the Casquets. Not the least interesting portion of the full report 
refers to the large flocks of birds seen during the autumn of 1880 far 
out over the Atlantic. The great easterly gales, continuing for weeks 
together over the Atlantic and North of Europe, so disastrous to our 
shipping, undoubtedly carried many migrants far to the westward, and 
the mortality amongst them must have been very great indeed, to judge 
from the few records that have arrived from seagoing vessels. These 



192 REPORT— 1881. 

gales have also, no doubt, affected the direction of the migration to a 
considerable extent, and indications of this agency may be found in the 
occurrence, on our shores, of many rare wanderers, in the autumn of 
1880. 

Notwithstanding the enormous number of immigrants arriving, as 
shown in the schedules returned from each station, it is quite certain that 
these returns only represent an almost inappreciable percentage of the 
actual number on passage. On days of uncertain light, or on clear, fine, 
starlight nights, when migration is carried on at a considerable height, 
immense numbers of birds might pass any of the stations for hours 
without being observed ; and it is quite possible that, if the whole 300 
miles of the east-coast line of England were studded with floating posts 
of observation at the distance of half-a-mile, equal average results would 
have been obtained ; the present stations on the light- vessels affording no 
more especial line of advantage than any other imaginary line drawn 
across the North Sea. 

As, in 1879, birds have crossed at all hours of the day and night, and 
in all winds and weathers. The returns also shoM^ as did the preceding, 
that they seldom fly dead to windward, except with very light breezes, 
and that strong opposing winds are invariably prejudicial to their passage. 
The line of flight mostly adopted is within three or four points of the 
wind ; they will go on well with a beam- wind, or some points even aft o£ 
beam, if not too strong. Small weak-winged birds have often, as noticed 
on the light-vessels, great difficulty in making head against strongly- 
opposing winds. If the wind changes during the actual passage, birds 
have been observed to change the direction of their flight to suit the 
wind. Even the sti-ong-winged wild geese and swans are observed, when 
well-up in the wind, to drift to one side a little, having the appearance of 
flying left shoulder first instead of head first. 

Birds are noticed at the stations as sometimes flying high, sometimes 
low ; often with northerly and easterly winds they fly high, and with 
winds in opposite quarters, low. The state of the weather at the time of 
migration has more, we think, to do with the height at which birds travel 
than the direction of the wind. On clear light nights they travel high, 
as a rule ; but in fog, rain or snow, or in thick murky weather, low — not 
many feet above the waves. On thick dark nights, indeed, lost birds will 
wheel for hours round a light-vessel, but with the first break in the 
clouds, the stars appearing, or streak of early dawn, are on their course 
again to the nearest land. At times birds are seen passing high in aii*, 
almost beyond the ken of human vision, and when clouds or fogs rapidly 
lift or clear off during the time of migration, the said migration appears 
often to cease to mortal vision, indicating an ascent to a higher level. 
Birds are also known to descend upon Heligoland and the light-vessels 
almost perpendicularly from the sky, indicating a course of migration at 
a great height. The height at which birds travel in foggy weather, or in 
snow or rain, has probably a good deal to do with the various numerical 
returns of those killed at lanterns. Broadly speaking it is the brightest, 
■whitest, fixed lights which, having most influence in penetrating fog or 
haze, attract the most birds. In 1877, at Skerryvore, in the month of 
October, the number of birds killed was 600, chiefly the common thrush 
and the ring-ousel. This year the mortality has been heavy at some of 
the light- vessels. At the Casquets, off Aldemey, on October 7, from 
11 P.M. to 3 A.M., S.S.E., rain, land-rails, water-rails, woodcocks, ring- 



ON THE MIGIUTION OP BIRDS. 193 

ousels, song-thrushes, and swallows were seen around the lirrbt. Of 
these there struck the glass : one land- rail, one water-rail, four ring- 
ousels, and 100 swallows. At the Casquets, wliich is a revolving light 
the larger birds follow the rays, but do not often strike the glass. 
Some of the reporters state extreme height above the sea, as a cause of 
birds seldom or never striking the glass, or being seen hovering around 
the light. Certainly returns show a preponderance of deaths first at 
light- vessels, whose average height above the sea is only a few feet • 
secondly, at such stations as the Bell-rock, Dhuheartach or Skerry- 
vore, whose lanterns are not higher than sixty or seventy feet above 
the sea. 

With such favourable passages as light head-winds afford, the 
migrants are so little fatigued that they do not alight on reaching land, 
but keep on their course to the interior. At other times with adverse 
winds they drop on reaching the shore, being hardly able to struggle to 
land. 

The observations show beyond doubt that all birds are migratory (if 
we except our common game-birds, and perhaps the green woodpecker). 
Even such comparatively weak-winged birds as the gold-crested ivren, 
common wren, the titmice, hedge-sparrow, common sparrow, and redbreast 
change their locality, crossing the North Sea in large numbers. At 
Heligoland, Herr Giitke remarks (in the very comprehensive and highly 
interesting notes sent to us), ' Up towards the end of July, all yoano- 
sparrows disappeared from the island,' and ' up to the middle of Sep- 
tember nearly all old sparrows had quitted' the island.' On October 10 
there was ' an influx of fresh sparrows,' probably arriving from some 
more northern region. 

As a rule, the young of the year migrate some weeks in advance of 
the old birds ; this holds good with all orders and almost all species. In 
the spring the males often migrate in advance of the females. In sprint, 
birds migrate, with rare exceptions, at night, and as the weather is then 
finer, and the nights shorter and clearer, do not fly low and run their heads 
so much against the lanterns of lighthouses and lightships. The sprint 
migration is also carried on much more leisurely, migrants;' proceeding 
by easy slopes northward, and there are none of those great ' waves ' 
or ' rushes ' which are so characteristic of the autumn migration. The 
notes on spring migi-ation taken in 1879 and 1880 point also to the con- 
clusion that, at this season, migrants strike the glasses of lanterns fi'om 
11 P.M. to the dawn of day, the majority after midnight, and not also in 
the early hours of night, as is the case in the autumn. 

It is remarkable how suddenly the stream of migration commences 
running, and how suddenly it stops again ; it may be from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. 
there is a continual stream of various migrants arriving on our coasty, 
and then, or at least for that day, migration is apparently over, and not 
another bird is seen. 

The time of migi-ation of any particular species extends over a con- 
siderable period. Sometimes it is over four or five weeks, in other cases 
going on for months or even half-a-year. Indeed, birds seem to be 
crossing the North Sea all the year round, and no sooner does the ebb of 
the autumn migration cease — and it is prolonged into February — than 
the flood sets in, and birds are passing northward again. In every case 
of normal migration, any given species will continue to pass day by day, 
or week after week, till it attains the maxinaum in ^ ' great rush,' the 
1881. ' 



194 KEPORT — 1881. 

main body passing, and after this falls away, till the migration of that 
species ceases or is completed. 

Independent of the normal or ordinary migration we have frequently 
local migrations, due to sudden changes of weather, or in search of fresh 
feeding-grounds. These ' great rushes ' of immigrants coming helter- 
skelter on to our coasts, are, as will be seen from the Report, often accom- 
panied, or followed very closely, with outbursts of severe weather ; and 
a sudden increase of cold in winter will almost clear a whole district 
of birds. 

In 1879 the maximum of immigrahts crossed the North Sea between 
the 12th to the 2.3rd of October ; in 1880, between the 15th and end of 
the same month ; in both years, perhaps the greatest number on any 
given day on the 17th of the month. It is a curious fact that the 
stomachs of migratory birds on their first landing never contain any 
food. 

This is as much as can be set forth in an abstract. A full aiid detailed 
account of the Migration of Birds in the Autumn of 1880, will be found 
in the General Report, which contains much interesting matter bearing 
on migration. It may be added finally, that in endeavouring to arrive 
at any conclusions regarding the causes of migrational phenomena in 
1880, as set forth in the General Report, the Committee have taken 
more account of the vertical area of birds' flight in 1880 than in 1879, 
and have compared the effects of prevailing north-west winds in 1879 
pressing laterally upon the lines of migration with those of 1880, which 
being easterly and north-easterly, have had the contrary effect of spread- 
ing out the migratory wave, or at least not deflecting it to the same 
extent, and also causing birds to migrate at greater elevations, and where 
the gales have been most severe to bear them away above the range of 
vision and carry vast numbers out to sea, until, weary and exhausted, 
they have ceased to be able to guide themselves, and involnntai'ily 
lowered, to be picked up senseless and stunned on board the ships, or to 
perish in thousands in the ocean. And, lastly, the Committee have 
hinted at the wideness of the migratory waves depending upon the 
pressure of the starting-points, or upon, perhaps, a larger north and 
south area occupied in the breeding season of 1880. 

The data, however, are not yet sufiicient, nor have the observations 
been carried on sufficiently long, to ai'rive at any positive conclusions as to 
the lioiu and the luhy of the whole matter. The Committee must, there- 
fore, for the present, be satisfied to say nothing more, but trust that the 
Association will enable it to continue the collection of facts. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Lieut.-Colonel Godwin- 
Austen, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Gunther, Mr. 
Seebohm, and Mr. Sclater, appointed to take steps for investi- 
gating the Natural Histoid of Socotra. 

The debt due to Professor Balfour for the balance of the bosts of the 

expedition (23Z. 12s. 2c?.), and the sum of Is. 3cZ. for petty expenses, have 

been paid out of the sum of 50/. gtanted at the Swansea meeting, leaving 

l).-'f c" "I 26/. 7x. 10./. in the hands of the Committee. This has been 



ON THE NATUBAL HISTORY OP SOCOTRA. 195 

increased by the proceeds of the sale of the duplicate birds (71. 10s.) 
and land shells (3L 2s.), making a balance of 36Z. 19s. IQd. now in the 
hands of the Committee for future operations. 

The greater part of the zoological collection made by Professor Balfour 
has now been worked out, chiefly by the. Assistants in the Zoological 
Department of the British Museum, to which institution the first complete 
series of zoological specimens of every class has been assigned. 

The following reports on these collections have been published in the 
' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society of London : — 

1. On the Birds collected in Socotra by Professor I. Bayley Balfour. 
By P. L. Sclater and Dr. G. Hartlaub. 'P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 165. 

2. On the Lepidoptera collected in Socotra by Professor I. B. Balfour. 
By Arthur G. Butler. ' P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 175. 

3. On the Land Shells of the Island of Socoti-a, collected by Professor 
Bayley Balfour. By Lieut.-Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen. Part I. 
'P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 251. 

4. Descriptions of the Amphisbasnians and Ophidians collected by 
Professor I. Bayley Balfour in the Island of Socotra. By Dr. A. Giinther. 
'P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 461. 

5. Notes on the Lizards collected in Socotra by Professor I. Bayley 
Balfour. By W. T. Blanford. ' P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 464. 

6. On the Coleopterous Insects collected by Professor I. Bayley Balfour 
in the Island of Socotra. By Charles O. Waterhouse. 'P.Z.S.' 1881, 
p. 460. 

7. On the Hymenoptei'a collected by Professor I. Bayley Balfour in 
Socotra. By W. F. Kirby. ' P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 649. 

8. On the Land Shells of the Island of Socotra collected by Professor 
I. Bayley Balfour. By Lieut.-Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen. Part II. 
Helicacea. ' P.Z.S.' 1881, p. 802. 

The following are some of the more remarkable points touched upon 
in these reports : — 

The Birds, reported upon by Mr. Sclater and Dr. Hartlaub, are found 
to belong to thirty-six species — generally 'North-east African in character, 
being mostly such as are included in Heiiglin's " Ornithologie Nord-ost- 
Afrikas." ' Six, however, are peculiar to the island, the most remarkable of 
them being a new form of sparrow with a very thick bill, which is named 
by Messrs. Sclater and Hartlaub Ixhyncliostmthus socotranus. 

Mr. Butler's report on the Butterflies and Moths captured by Professor 
Bayley Balfour and his assistants in Socotra, tells us that of the thirteen 
species of which examples were brought, not less than seven were new 
to science. ' Of the new forms five are allied to previously-recorded types 
from the following localities : — one from the Comoro Islands, one from 
South-west Africa, one from Zanzibar, and two from Arabia. Without 
the help of these last two it would therefore have been impossible for 
anyone not acquainted with it to guess at the locality from which this 
collection had been obtained.' 

The Reptiles collected by Professor Balfour in Socotra have been 
worked out by Dr. Giinther and Mr. W. T. Blanford, Dr. Giinther taking 
the Snakes and AmphisbiBuians, and Mr. Blanford the remaining Laccr- 
tilians. Both of these collections were found to be of considerable 
interest. Among the snakes is a new form allied to Tachijmenis, which 
Dr. Giinther has proposed to call Bitypophis, and a new species of Zamenis 
{Z. soootrce): Both these indicate an allistnce with the circum-Mediter- 



196 REPORT— 1881. 

ranean fauna. On tlie other hand the Socotran Sand-Asp {Echis colorata) 
belongs to an Arabian and Palestine species, while the Amphisbaena of 
Socotra {F achy calamus brevis, gen. et sp. nov.) has its nearest allies in 
Eastern and Western Tropical Africa. Of the six species of lizards of 
which examples were in Mr. Blanford's series, three proved to be new to 
science. 

As regards the Land Shells of Socotra, which are of special interest, 
we annex a special report upon this branch of the subject drawn up by 
Lieut.-Colonel Godwin-Austen, one of the Committee. 

From this report and from what has been already stated, it will be 
obvious that, although the collections made by Professor Balfour were 
very small in each group — in some cases almost of a fragmentary 
character, the results in every case present features of great interest. It 
is obvious that, judging from what is thus known, Socotra must possess 
— what was thought scarcely probable by many at the time the scheme 
for exploring it was first started — an indigenous fauna of considerable 
extent, and well worthy of further investigation. As regards the flora 
of Socotra we have said nothing, because Professor Balfour, who has 
himself undertaken the investigation of the botanical collections, has not 
yet completed his task. But a preliminary examination has shown, we 
believe, that his series embraces about 150 absolutely new ilowering 
plants, amongst which are from fifteen to twenty representatives of new 
genera — so that it is manifest that, like the fauna, the flora of Socotra 
possesses a strong autochthonous element. 

Under these circumstances, we trust that the Committee for the 
investigation of the Natural History of Socotra may be re-appointed, with 
its sphere extended so as to embrace the adjoining highlands of Arabia and 
Somali-land, without the exploration of which it is not possible that a 
true understanding of the flora and fauna of Socotra can be aiTived at ; 
and that the sum of 2001. may be assigned to the Committee for this 
purpose. 

Appendix. 

Beport on the Socotran Land and Freshivater Shells collected hy Professor 
Balfour, hy Lieut.-Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.B.S. 

Since the last meeting of the British Association the land and freshwater 
shells of Socotra, which were assigned to me to work out, have been nearly 
all described, and quite come up to the expectations I was led to form of 
them at a first inspection. The Cyclostomacese were described in a paper 
which was read before the Zoological Society in February, 1881, illustrated 
by two plates ; the Pulmonata, in June, also illustrated by two plates. In 
the first paper, we find that no less than seven species of Otojioma (Africo- 
Arabian) were brought home, of which four are quite new, viz., 0. halfouri, 
complanatum, conicum, and turhinatutn : Tropidophora (Madagascar-Rod- 
riguez), two species, T. socotrana and halfouri: Lithidion (Arabia), one 
species, L. marmorosum, and a Cyclotopsis (Southern India — Seychelles), 
perhaps the most interesting form discovered by Professor Balfour in this 
island, which 1 have named ornatus. This is another example of the con- 
nection between Southern India on one side of the Arabian Sea and Africa 
on the other. The Pulmonata are more numerous and mostly belong to 
a sub-genus of the Bulimnli, Achatinelloides, Nevill, created for the very 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TIMOR-LAUT. 197 

common Socotran shell BuUmulus socotorensis of Pfeiffer. All the allied 
species on the island I have pat into this group until we know more 
about the land shells of the mainland near Cape Guardafai. We have 
altogether ten species in this genns ; some of them very prettily marked 
forms. One group of BuUmulus is very peculiar, and in form and colora- 
tion approaches B. velntinus, Pfr., from the Seychelles Islands. 

Of the genus Ennea we have one form already known, passamiana, 
Petit, and a new species which I have named after Professor Balfour. 

Of the Stenogyrida3 there are some fine shells ; one elongate form, 
■which is used as a pipe by the natives of the island, I have named 
fumificatus ; the other species are gollonsirensis, adonaensis, Jessica, and 
enodis. A Sululina with hairy epidermis (hirsuta) closes the list, with one 
Pupa (rupicola). These twenty-two togetherwith eleven operculated species 
give a total of thirty- three. It is a curious fact that there is not a single 
Helix in the collection. The freshwater shells I have not yet had time to 
v7ork out. A number of small forms have been brought home on the water 
plants that were collected, and these I have been taking out. I find among 
them examples of the following genera and species : — 

Planorbis, no less than three species, one large. 

Bithinea, one very small form. 

Melania, four or five ; one very beautiful spined species, reminding one 
of a similar form from Ceylon. One Gerithium occurred with these. 

I have alluded to how little is known of the mainland of Africa, near 
Cape Gaardafui. When this has been examined, and it is very necessary it 
should be, we shall know more as regards the range of some of these 
Socotran forms ; and I hope that the British Association will be able to 
assist a naturalist to visit this district. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard 
Saunders, and Mr. Thiselton Dyer, appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Natural History of Timo7'-laut. 

In a letter addressed to Sir Joseph Hooker, Director of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, Mr. H. O. Forbes wrote from Sumatra, oSering, if some 
assistance could be forwarded him, to attempt an expedition to Timor- 
laut for the purpose of investigating its natural history — ' an object,' as 
Mr. Forbes states, ' the accomplishment of which is desired both by 
botanists and zoologists.' An application on Mr. Forbes's behalf was 
accordingly made to the British Association, and a sum of 501. was voted 
by the General Committee at the Swansea Meeting to be placed at the 
disposal of the Committee, to whom the conduct of the matter was 
entrusted. 

The action taken by the Association was communicated to Mr. 
Forbes,* and the letter, of which a copy is annexed, was received in reply. 
This is the most recent information which the Committee possess as to his 
plans. It is somewhat doubtful whether, owing to insufficiency of funds, 
he was able to start. At any rate, the grant made at Swansea remains 
in the hands of your Committee. 

The expedition is obviously attended with some difficulty, if not 
danger. Its success must be largely dependent on fortunate accident. 



198 REPORT— 1881. 

Tour Committee, however, think that there is a reasonable chance of 
the work being done, and therefore recommend their reappointment, and 
that a further sum of lOOL be placed at their disposal. 

S. Sumatra, 
December 8, 1880. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, 

Dear Sir, — ^Accept my warmest thanks for the kind interest you 
have taken in my intended visit to Timor-laut, which has obtained for 
me a grant of 50Z. frona the Council of the British Association. 

For the present I am engaged in Sumatra, but about the end of 
February, or beginning of March, I intend to return to Batavia, in order 
to make my way to Timor-laut. His Excellency the Governor- General 
kindly placed at my disposal such ships of the Dutch Navy as might be 
on the Amboina Station going down towards the Tenimber Islands. I 
have, however, given up the hope of being able to accomplish my object if 
I travel by this means, as the islanders are at best not very friendly, and 
by landing from a man-of-war I am not likely to meet with greater 
favour. I mean, therefore, to attemjit the journey in one of the Arab 
prahus instead, which go there to jjurchase horses. I have been fortunate 
in securing the friendly assistance of the highest rank Arab in Java, a 
very clever influential man (the Native Master of Ceremonies to the 
Governor), whose brother is one of the largest traders to the Eastward 
Islands. He has offered to send forward intimation of my coming, and to do 
his best to secure, as far as he can, the goodwill towards me of the natives, 
with whom his countrymen deal. 

Neither the time of my departure nor of my return can I positively 
fix ; the former date depends on the state of the monsoon, which these 
few years back has been very irregular, the latter on the amount of 
goodwill which the natives show towards me. If I find them not very ill- 
affected towards strangers, I may extend my stay over the diy monsoon, 
and do my best to hold out till the return of the trading season at the 
end of nest wet monsoon. 

If, therefore, the British Association grant be placed at my disposal, 
I shall draw upon it only on my actual departure for Timor-laut. Not- 
withstanding the very bad character given to the Tenimber Islanders by 
the Dutch officials, I have good reason to think that the perils are much 
exaggerated ; and I hope for the best. 

Again offering you, and those who so kindly supported the application 
made on behalf of the exploration of Timor-laut, my best thanks, 

Believe me, yours obediently, 

(Signed) H. O. Forbes. 



Report on the Marine Fauna of the Southern Coast of Devon and 
GornivaU,by Spence Bate, F.R.S., and J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S. 

In presenting our report on the exploration of the marine fauna of the 
south-western coast of England, we beg to state that we have carried on 
a series of dredgings off the coast between Plymouth and Falmouth, more 
especially off the district known as the Dudman. 



ON THE MARINE FAUNA OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 199 

Here, in from forty to sixty fathoms, we have invariably met with 
some of our most interesting forms, such as are considered of the rarer 
species belonging to our British fauna. 

Hitherto among Crustacea we have taken species of Nika, Typton, 
Nephropsis, Caridina, Callianassa, and other forms that have generally 
been considered as very rare, and this year we have taken, at a depth 
of fifty-five fathoms, a considerable number of Pagurus sculptimanus of 
Lucas, a species that the late Prof. Bell has described in his ' History of 
British Stalk-eyed Crustacea,' under the name of Pagurus forhesii, under 
the impression that it was an undescribed form — a single specimen of 
which was sent to him with others from the coast of Falmouth. 

This is the first time that this species has been taken in British 
waters since Bell received his specimen, which is now in the British 
Museum (whither we propose sending some of the recently dredged 
specimens), from the late Dr. Cocks, some thirty-five or forty years since ; 
a fact that appears to suggest that the word ' rare,' as used in relation 
to our knowledge of species, merely represents our want of knowledge of 
the natural habitat of the animal. 

An example of this may be seen in the following passage from Pro- 
fessor Bell's work on Pohjhius lienslowii, ' which is very local in its dis- 
tribution, and probably nowhere existing in great numbers'; whereas 
I have recently been informed by Mr. F. Day, that it has been thrown up 
on the shores of Mount's Bay, this spring, after a strong south-western 
gale, in such quantities that it is thought that along the shore there 
could not have been less that two tons in weight. 

Again, the little crustacean which Bell has described as Thysanopoda 
couchii, and of which he states, on the authority of Couch, that it is found 
in ' myriads in the stomach of the mackerel and other fish,' Mr. Couch 
had not found since, although he was in the habit of searching the 
stomachs of mackerel and other fishes. Our experience is confirmatory 
of that of Mr. Couch, inasmuch as we have only obtained it one season, 
and then in abundance from the stomachs of fish. And recently we have 
had our attention drawn to a parallel fact in the Indian seas, from 
whence Professor Milne-Edwards described, under the name of Acetes 
indicus, in 1829, a small crustacean, that, as far as we are aware, has not 
been noticed since ; yet Sir Walter Elliot has given us a carefully drawn 
figure of the same, with the remark that it was found in the stomach of 
a very large Dicerobetes, taken off the coast of Malabar in such quantities 
that basketfuls were carried away by the fishermen, and thousands left 
scattered about the shore. 

In referring still to the Crustacea we beg to draw attention^ to the 
fact that many of the specimens recorded from this locality — that is, from 
the deeper water at the entrance of the English Channel — are species that 
are common to the Mediterranean Sea, while others, such as Mtmida- 
barnficus, as also others of less noticeable forms, have their centre of 
radiation near the arctic zones. 

Although it has been several times demonstrated that deep-sea species 
have a large geograpical distribution, yet it is interesting to observe that 
some of our long-shore species have been represented by specimens that 
appear to be identical in the eastern seas. Thus the common Grangon 
vulgaris has its representative at Japan, or one that cannot, on the closest 
analysis, be distinguished from it. This is also found to be the case with 
one of our specimens ofCa^prella {Gap-ella ccpiilibra) as well as other species. 



200 EEPOM— 1881. 

We are therefore much inclined to believe that by a series of deep- Water 
explorations — by which we mean the dredge and deep-water tow-nets, 
situated so as to sweep the sea at each successive fifty fathoms of water 
— very interesting and valuable results would be obtained. It is our 
strong conviction that many of the specimens recorded from very great 
depths are inhabitants of mid-water rather than dwellers at the sea- 
bottom, from whence they are supposed to have been brought. 

Hitherto we have had at our command only fishermen's trawlers and 
shore-boats ; but to explore the deep water that surrounds the south- 
western limits of Cornwall and the Scilly Islands would require vessels 
of larger tonnage and greater power than we have been able to procure 
with the grant placed at our disposal. 

Among the fish and other animals, numerous specimens of various 
species have been procured. Those that are the most seldom met with on 
our coast have been preserved ; and here we would like to record that 
specimens offish and Crustacea which have been preserved, as recommended 
by us at the meeting of the British Association at Brighton, and have been 
so kept for several years, are soft and flexible, and retain much of the 
colours of living specimens. 

Numerous annelids and zoophytes have also been obtained, but we 
have not to record any that appear to be new or differ from those that 
have been reported by us in the lists already published. 

As soon as our specimens are all arranged and tabulated, we hope to 
forward some to the British Museum, and present the rest to the Museum 
of the Plymouth Institution. 



Report of the Committee^ consisting of Professor A, C. Ramsay and 
Professor John Milne {Secretary\ appointed for the ptirpose of 
investigating the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan. 

The Seismological work which I have been engaged upon since the British 
Association generously placed the grant of 25Z. in the hands of Andrew 
Ramsay, Esq., and myself as an assistance towards the investigation of 
the earthquake phenomena of Japan, has been partly a continuance of 
experiments and observations commenced four years ago, and jiartly the 
commencement of experiments more or less new. 

The results of work which has been accomplished has been almost 
wholly read before the Seismological Society of Japan, and will very 
shortly appear in its Transactions. 

The work which I have been engaged upon since receiving the grant 
has been as follows : — 

I. Attemjjis to determine the area from which the shakings so often felt in 

Toldo and Yokohama emanate. 

To do this, instruments intended to record the direction and maximum 
amplitude of an earthquake were placed at four points, from 10 to 20 
miles apart, round the upper portions of Yedo Bay. For the shakings 
of January 7, 22, and 24 of this year, lines drawn parallel to the direction 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 201 

of motion at these different stations intersect each other in a number of 
points between Yokohama and Kanasawa. 

Although several other earthquakes have had their origin localised in 
the same district, there remain several, the origin of which has not been 
localised, the records of direction being probably in many cases, and 
certainly in some, a confusion of normal and transverse vibrations. 

As a confirmation of these results, I find by a careful series of time 
observations made by myself in Tokio and in Yokohama, by Mr. W. H. 
Talbot, for the accuracy of which we are indebted to the telegraph 
department who daily furnished us with a time-signal, that many shocks 
have been felt about 30 seconds in the latter place before they were felt 
in the former. 

The facts that in Yokohama small earthquakes are sometimes felt 
which are not recorded in Tokio, and also that at the time of a severe 
shock the vertical motion appears to be greater in Yokohama than in 
Tokio, may also be taken as indications that the origin of many of the 
recent earthquakes has been nearer to Yokohama than to Tokio. 

In order to make the localisation of the various shocks more certain, 
I have very recently established instruments in Tokio and Yokohama 
which give graphical records of both the normal and transverse vibrations. 
When similar instruments have been established at the remaining stations, 
the complete distinction between these two sets of vibrations may, inde- 
pendently of the interest that these records have of themselves, assist us 
to determine the origin of nearly all the earthquakes we feel. 

The district where several shocks have had their origin already 
localised is one showing numerous faults, and one which shows exceed- 
ingly clear evidence of recent elevations. As it is very possible that this 
district may still be rising, one probable inference we might make is that 
faults are still being formed, and are due to the elevations, and that 
the earthquakes are to us the announcement of the formation of these 
fractures. 

As confirmatory of this idea we may say that, first, the records of 
earthquakes, as written by our seismographs, usually commence gently, 
then have several maxima and minima, and finally die out as they com- 
menced ; and secondly, the testimony of our feelings leads us to believe 
that there is a sliding, jolting kind of motion, as might be produced by one 
mass of rock slipping over another. 

Further, I may remark that recently, since having more perfect in- 
struments which record each successive vibration of the earth, both in 
regard to time and space, I have recorded shocks in Tokio with a motion 
almost entirely east and west, whilst the time observations showed that 
they must have come from the south, which is the faulted district. 

Assuming that these records are correct, and I have no reason to 
believe that they are not so, it would seem that from the faulted district 
in the south it is possible to receive an earthquake consisting only of 
transverse vibrations. 

Such an earthquake we can imagine might be produced by a fault 
giving rise to an elastic wave of distortion. 

If the earthquakes were produced by a blow we should have a wave 
of compression with normal vibrations, followed by a wave of distortion, 
with transverse vibrations. 

Observations bearing on these points I hope to carry out during the 
coming year. 



202 REPORT — 1881. 



II. Observations to determine the nature of Tjarthquahe-motion. 

With the help of specially contrived seismographs, so far as my ob- 
servations have hitherto gone, it is shown — 1st. That the actual horizontal 
motion of an eaTth-particle at the time of an earthquake is very much 
smaller than we anticipated from our senses, being seldom over a few 
millimetres and often under one millimetre. 

2ndly. The backward and forward motion of the ground is very ir- 
regular, both in regard^to space and time. 

Srdly. That there are seldom more than two or three complete vi- 
lirations per second. 

These observations, I am pleased to say, have been confirmed by a 
more complete series of records than my own, obtained by Professor 
Ewing. 

4thly. A motion often takes place in more than one direction. Both 
at the Yokohama station and the Tokio station records have been 
obtained of two sets of irregular ellipses crossing each other nearly at 
right angles, these ellipses being drawn by the pointer of a seismogi-aph 
moving over a smoked glass plate at rest beneath it. 

For the same earthquake this diiference in direction may be experienced 
at one station, but not at another, 15 or 20 miles distant. 

From records obtained it would seem possible that at Yokohama both 
transverse and normal vibrations may be recorded, whilst at Tokio, six- 
teen miles distant, only the former are recorded. As these latter obser- 
vations need confirmation, I hope during the coming year to be able, 
with the help of a few similar instruments placed at different stations, to 
obtain records of a series of shakings, to show the relation between the 
dying out of one set of vibrations as compared with the dying out of 
another. 



Ill, The recording of Eartli-tremors. 

With the help of a specially- contrived instrument, by which a motion 
of the earth equal to the ttmjtt^^ o^ ^"^ inch can be definitely recorded, I 
am able to say that in Tokio there are very many small disturbances in 
the ground, which are not registered with any of our ordinary seismo- 
graphs. 

My object in recording these small motions is to see, first, whether 
they are in any way connected with the larger motions which we call 
earthquakes, just as the crackling of a stick is connected with its break- 
ing ; and, second, whether there is any periodicity connected with these 
small movements, it being possible, for example, that influences which 
produce the tides in the ocean may perhaps be sufiicient to produce earth 
cracMes, whilst they may not (excepting where they are, so to speak, 
like the last straw upon a camel's back) produce an earthquake. 

As Yokohama appears to be nearer to the origin of many of our 
earthquakes than Tokio, and also because, as compared with Tokio, it 
stands upon the rock, I have quite recently taken two of my tremor 
instruments there. One of them has been placed in the hands of Mr. W. 
H. Talbot, and the other with Mr. H. Pryer, these gentlemen having 
very kindly undertaken to keep a record of their movements. 



ON THK EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OP JAPAN. 203 

IV. An endeavour to find out the relative extent of motions and variation 
in direction of an earthquake in passing over a limited area, the contour 
and geological structure of ivhich is irregular. 

To work out this problem I have distributed six similar seismometers 
on the hills and in the valleys near my house. Since being established 
only four earthquakes have been recorded. Until a number of shocks 
have been felt I can hai'dly speak of what the result of this investigation 
may be. 

V. The carrying out of a long series of experiments on artificial earth- 
q_iMhes in the alluvium of the Tolcio plane. 

These experiments were carried out jointly with my colleague Mr. 
Thomas Gray. 

These earthquakes were produced by allowing a heavy iron ball to 
fall from various iieights up to 35 feet. The results obtained were as 
follows : — 

1. A partial determination, of the eifects of cuttings (like a deep 
pond) and hills upon the transmission of vibrations. Small hills seemed 
to produce but little effect in stopping transverse vibrations, but a pond 
to a certain extent cut off both transverse and normal vibrations. 

2. A complete graphical separation of normal from transverse vibra- 
tions. 

3. A determination of the relative amplitudes of normal and trans- 
verse vibrations as observed at points differently situated with regard to 
the origin of the shock. It appeared that although near to the origin 
the amplitude of the normal vibrations was greater than that of the 
transverse ones ; as we made observations at more distant stations these 
normal motions diminished more rapidly than the latter. Roughly 
speaking, the amplitude of the normal vibrations was inversely as the 
distance from the origin of the shock. The transverse vibrations 
diminished in amplitude more slowly. 

4. There appeared to be usually about six vibrations per second. 
The normal vibrations were the more rapid. 

5. The average velocity of the normal vibrations was 438 feet per 
second, whilst that of the transversal movements was only 357 feet. 

6. At a distant station (250 feet) four or five dissimilar vibrations 
would be first recorded, and then the same four or five vibrations would 
be repeated in the same order as first recorded. At times this cyclic- 
like action was very distinct. 

7. The experimental determination (by bending and twisting) of the 
elastic moduli, &c., of several common Japanese rocks. These experi- 
ments were performed in conjunction with my colleague, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, in the physical laboratory of the Imperial College of Engineering. 

In addition to the work which I have mentioned as being before me 
for the coming seismic season, I shall endeavour to increase the stations 
where time-observations have been made from two to three or four, at all 
of which telegraphic signals can be received. I do this, firstly, because 
I find from experience the important part taken by time-observations in 
the interpretation of the best of our records ; and, secondly, because 
they may perhaps be the means of showing us the true relations existing 
between normal and transversal movements. 



204 REPORT— 1881. 

In conclusion I mnsfc remark that had I not, previously to the time 
at which I received the grant of the British Association, been engaged 
in recording earthquakes, and spent much time in experimenting with 
various instruments, testing each with a long series of actual earth- 
quakes (see ' Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan '), 
I should not have been in the position to carry out the work which has 
here been referred to. 

As I have established a small earthquake observatory, and have by 
several years' experience determined upon instruments which appear to 
me to be best suited for some of the more important seismological 
investigations, have obtained and taught observers at various stations, 
and, lastly, have received the co-operation of several friends — one of whom, 
Mr. W. H. Talbot, has also established a special observatory — I sincerely 
hope that the British Association will see fit to extend its previous grant 
for the working out of seismic problems in a district which, amongst 
all others, is one of the very best for carrying on such observations. 



Ninth Report of the Conionittee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, 
Professor T. McK. Hughes, Pl-ofessor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor 
T. Gr. BoNNEY, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. 
E. De Range, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, 
W. Pengelly, W. Molyneux, H. Gr. FoRDHAM, and W. Terrill, 
appointed for the purpose of recording the position, height above 
the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic 
Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters 
of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for 
their preservation. Draivn up by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, 
Secretary. 

During the past year this Committee has pursued the researches entrusted 
to it ; and is able to record the following additional instances of the 
occurrence of Erratic Blocks. 

Cumberland. — Mr. T. A. Colfox furnishes the Committee with the 
following particulars respecting granite and sandstone boulders found 
while excavating for the new docks at Maryport, parish of Dearham, 
Cumberland. 

The granite boulders vary in size from small pebbles to a ton or 
thereabouts in weight. 

Those of the New Red Sandstone, which occur at a lower level, vary 
from half a ton to two tons or more. 

The granite boulders are rounded ; those from the New Red Sandstone 
have sharp angles. No ruts, groovings, or other marks are visible. 

The nearest granite occurs in the Kirkcudbrightshire hills on the 
other side of the Solway, 15 or 20 miles distant, nearly due north ; the 
New Red Sandstone is the stone of the district. 

The granite specimens are numerous, but only four or five of the New 
Red Sandstone ones have been found. The former were resting on the 
top of a bed of sandy clay, underlying the sand and shingle of the fore- 
shore, at a depth of 10 to 15 feet below the surface; the latter occur in 



ON THE EERATIC BLOCKS OP ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 205 

the bed of clay itself, 15 or 16 feet above the New Red Sandstone rock, 
gimilar to the boulders themselves, which underlies the clay. 

The height of the group of granite boulders was 2 feet or 3 feet 
heloiv low water at ordinary spring tides. 

About three acres have been at present excavated. 

Yorkshire. — In previous reports a description has been given of Shap 
Granite Boulders, found in the neighbourhood of Filey. 

One of these Shap Granite Boulders has now been removed to the 
University Museum, Oxford, and placed, with a descriptive inscription, 
on the lawn in front. 

It was found near the edge of the cliff about half a mile N. of the old 
church, Filey, Yorkshire. 

It measures 3 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 9 in., and is subangular or 
rounded. 

It has apparently been moved, although nothing is known respecting 
this point. 

Shap, near Penrith, the nearest place where a red porphyritic granite 
of the same character is found, is 108 miles distant, bearing W.N.W. 
from Filey. 

The boulder described rested on Oolitic strata, at a height of about 
150 feet above the sea. 

Anglesea. — Professor T. McK. Hughes draws the attention of the 
Committee to a boulder which occurs near the centre of Anglesea. It is 
chiefly interesting as having been by some considered an inscribed stone ; 
but the supposed characters are entirely due to rock-structure. 

It consists of bands of porphyritic hornblende diabase, occurring 
along master joints in ordinary hornblende diabase ; with cross joints 
tei'minated at the master joints, and having the appearance of runic 
characters. It measures 7 ft. x 5 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. It occurs in a 
field on E. of the railway opposite Cae Scynan, about f mile S. of 
Llanerchymedd, Anglesea, and may have been derived from a dyke near 
Gorphwysfa, about 7 miles distant. 

Attention has already been called to this boulder by the Rev. W. 
Wynn Williams in the ' Archajologia Cambrensis.' 

Leicestershire. — Mr. J. Plant continues, as follows, his reports to. the 
Committee on the erratic blocks of this county. 

In the parish of Knighton, on the Clarendon Park Estate, Leicester, 
are two boulders, the longest 5 ft. x 4-J- ft. X 3 ft. 9 in. ; the smallest 4ft. x 
3 ft. 1 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. They are subangular and not known to have been 
moved. They are derived from Mount Sorrel, W. of N. a few degrees, 
7 miles distant. The two blocks are of granite, and lie close together at 
a height of 300 feet above the sea-level, and were found under 8 feet 
of mottled drift clay in digging out foundations of houses. 

In the parish of Stoughton, on the ' Dairy Farm,' near Leicester, are 
two blocks of granite, the longest being 4 ft. x 3 ft. x 2^ ft. They are 
subangular and not known to have been moved by man, and are derived 
from Mount Sorrel, 9 miles N.W. They lie together on the surface, 360 
feet above the sea-level. 

In the parish of Evington, on the Lodge Farm, Leicester, are three 
blocks of granite, the longest 4| ft. x 2^ ft. x 1 f t ; the smallest, 3 ft. X 
2^ ft. X 1 ft. ; they are subangular, and have been derived from Mount 
Sorrel, 7 miles N.W. The three blocks lie close together on the surface, 
360 feet above the sea-level. 



206 REPORT— 1881. 

In the parisli of Aylestone, Leicester, is a group of syenite boulders ; 
the longest is 4 ft. X 3 ft. x l-|ft., and is rounded. It was derived from 
Groby, 5 miles N.W., and lies exposed on the surface, 190 feet above the 
sea-level. 

A number of boulders in this locality have been described in my 
previous report, which are far below the height at which they must have 
been originally deposited. They are now found lying in the alluvium of 
the valley of the river Soar, having subsided to their present position as 
the debris was washed away by floods from age to age. 

On the estate of Spinney Hills, at Lodge Farm, Leicester, is a group of 
boulders of millstone gi-it and granite, the longest 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 

1 ft. 9 in. ; the smallest, 2 ft. x 1 ft. x 1 ft. The largest block (millstone grit) 
is very much rounded, the others (granite) are subangular and angular. 
There are faint striaj on the millstone grit. The millstone grit may be derived 
from Stanton, near Melbouriie,Derbyshire; the granites from Mount Sorrel. 
The former is about 35 miles N.W. ; the latter G miles N.W. The granite 
blocks are the most numerous. They are 320 feet above the sea-level. 

These boulders were in a deposit of stiff tenacious clay drift, 8 feet 
deep, and were found lying upon the denuded surface of the rhastic beds, 
which were uncovered in making a new road. The boulders are found on 
the S.E. face of the hill, although they have ti'avelled from the N.W. 

In the parish of St. Margaret's, on the estate of Abbey Meadow, 
Leicester, are three blocks of granite, the longest being 2 ft. x 2 ft. x 1 ft. ; 
the smallest, 1^ ft. x 1 ft. x 1 ft. They are rounded and subangular, and 
were derived from Mount Sorrel, G miles N. They were exposed in 
excavating a new river-bed, and were found lying under 8 feet of coarse 
pebbly drift (which forms an extensive deposit all over this area), at a 
height of 165 feet above the sea-level. 

In the parish of Rothley, on the estate of Rothley Temple, Leicester, 
is a group of four granite boulders, the longest 3 ft. x 2 ft. Gin. x 2ft. ; 
the smallest, 2 ft. G in. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. They are subangular, and were 
derived from Mount Sorrel, 2 miles due north. They lie exposed on 
the surface, 280 feet above the sea-level. 

In the ]3arish of St. Mai^garet's, on the Great Northerir new line of 
T'ailway, Willowbrook, Leicestei-, are four boulders, the longest 3 ft. x 

2 ft. X 2 ft. ; the smallest 2 ft. x 2 ft. x 1 f t. 3 in. The millstone-grit blocks 
are rounded ; the altered slate are angular, the granites sub-angular. 

The millstone grit may be derived from Stanton, Derbyshire ; the altered 
slate from Swithland ; the granite fron Mount Sorrel. Stanton is 35 miles 
N.W. ; Swithland 5 miles N.W. ; Mount Sorrel 6 miles N. 

These boulders were uncovered in excavations for the line of railway, 
and were found at vai'ious depths in a drift composed almost entirely of 
rounded pebbles, 175 feet above the sea-level. Numerous other erratics, 
but of smaller dimensions, are found scattered throughout the mass. 
The depth exposed at various points of this coarse pebbly drift varies 
fi'om 10 to 20 feet, but as the solid rock was in no case reached, it must be 
much deeper. This deposit must be of immense extent, it having been 
found at various points over an area of 2 miles by \\ miles. The pebbles 
constituting this pebbly drift are very much rounded and polished. 

In the parish of St. Maiy's, on the Victoria Park estate, Leicester, is 
a widely extended group of boulders ; the longest 1^ ft. x 1 ft. X 1 ft. ; 
the smallest cube of about 10 inches. Many of them are rounded, sub- 
angular, and angular. They were derived from localities all -round this 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 207 

county except the south side, extending from 6 to 60 miles, and from all 
points of the compass except from the south. 

They comprise granites, syenites, slates, grits, sandstones, mountain 
limestones, oolitic limestones, lias limestones, marl-stones, chalk-flints 
coal and coal-shales, &c. 

The group is 290 feet above the sea-level and covers about 100 acres ; the 
number counted was 500. They were turned out in an extensive system 
of draining carried out over the whole area to a depth of 4i to 7 feet, in 
widths varying from 1^ to 2 feet. All occur in drift, gravel, sand, and 
clay. Many thousands of erratics must lie concealed under the remainder 
of the area. 

The great ' Erratic,' called the ' Holy stone,' at Humberstone (briefly 
alluded to in the Second Report for 1874, and more fully described in 
the Sixth Report for 1878), one of the largest yet discovered in the mid- 
land counties, is now entirely uncovered, and some fine photographs (on 
a large scale) have been taken of it. The block is pentagonal in shape, 
the sides are quite vertical, and are of the following dimensions in leno-th, 
7 ft., 6 ft. 4 in., 5 ft., 5 ft. and 4 ft. 4 in. It may be observed that two of 
the sides of 5 feet each are opposite to each other. The depth of the 
sides is 5 feet. The longest axis is 10 feet, and the next in length (and 
at right angles to it) is 9 feet. 

The vertical sides and corners of the block are as fresh as if recently 
quarried, and no groovings can be seen upon them. The upper surface 
(the longer axis of which lies N. and S.) has several deep irregular 
grooves running N. and S., but these are considered to have been done 
since the block was deposited, as it is thought, from reasons that cannot 
be here entered upon, that it has been very much higher, and that a 
considerable portion of the upper part has been worn away by natural 
and artificial causes. 

The bottom of the block cannot be seen without turning it over, and 
this would be a work of some labour. Careful calculation makes the 
weight nearly 21 tons. 

The block rests on a denuded bed of the rhajtic formation, and the 
material around it, which nearly covered it, is of recent accumulation, 
so that originally it is thought to have stood quite exposed. The height 
of the hill from which it is considered to have been brought is about 400 
feet above the level of the sea, and is situated 6 miles N.W. The hill- 
side on which the block now rests is about 240 feet above the sea, and 
there is a river valley between these two points (at right angles to the 
line of transit of the block) which is only 110 feet above the level of the 
Bea. 

The proprietor, in obliging compliance with the request of the Com- 
mittee, will take measures for its preservation. 

Hertfordshire. — Mr. H. George Fordham.P.G.S., presents the following 
report on the Erratic Blocks of the parish of Ashwell. 

[Ordnance Maps— 1-inch, Sheet 46. N.E., and 25-inch, Parisli Map.] 

The village of Ashwell lies in the middle of the parish, on the Chalk 
Marl and the lowest beds of the Lower Chalk, at the foot of a ridge of Lower 
Chalk hills, from which the river Cam, or Rhee, rises on the east side of the 
village. 

To the north the parish is flat, consisting of Chalk Marl, through which 
the river cuts a narrow channel, and it just reaches the Gault in its ex- 
treme northern point, about 2| miles from the village. 



208 REPOET — 1881. 

The village itself is about 160 ft. above sea-level (Bench-mark on 
church = 162-5 ft.).- 

South and south-east of the village the ground rises rapidly into the 
ridge above referred to — highest point, about half-a-mile fi-om the village 
(Clay Bush Hill), 329 ft. — and this ridge runs S.E., at right angles to the 
main line of hills formed by the upper beds of the Chalk, constituting 
the edge of the London basin, until it joins this high ground near Kel- 
shall. 

The ridge near Ashwell bends away towards the north-west, and 
gradually loses its elevation. It forms the line of division between the 
valley of the Cam, or Rhee, and that of the Ivel, which latter stream 
flows into the Ouse. 

There do not appear to be any boulders on the flat ground north of 
the village, nor on the low hills in other parts of the parish, and the only 
locality for boulders within the parish seems to be the upper part of the 
ridge of high ground already described. The whole of the higher part of 
this ridge, within the parish, is covered with clays and gravels of glacial 
origin ; and it is clear from the uneven appearance of the surface, that 
the ground during long periods has been worked to obtain materials for 
road-making and other purposes ; and to a small extent it is still so worked. 
From this source, we may fairly assume, has been derived the large quan- 
tity of pebbles and boulders which we now find in all parts of the village 
of Ashwell. Indeed, at the present day, boulders are brought down from 
time to time from the one gravel-pit now open. 

The boulders and pebbles, of which the following is a catalogue, and 
which are found in different parts of the village, must be therefore 
considered as belonging to the ridge above the village, from which there 
is every reason to suppose they have all, at one time or another, been 
obtained, from a height of from 270 ft. to 329 ft. above the sea. 

The catalogue includes all the larger blocks, and such smaller ones as 
appear to be representative in point of material, or of any interest from 
external characteristics. 

The measurements and descriptions of external appearances are from 
my own observations ; for descriptions of the rocks I am indebted to 
Professor Bonney, to whom specimens have been submitted. He writes 
that, as they reached him when away for some time from books and 
collections, he has not attempted to name the few and generally im- 
perfectly preserved or exposed fossils which he has noticed. 

Boulders lying (it the end of harrel-ivashing shed, Ashivell Breivery. 

1. Roughly cubical, angles but little worn, surfaces nearly flat and 
somewhat smoothed. Fine sandstone : may be either carboniferous or 
Jurassic. 15^ in. X 12 in. X 11^ in. 

2. Irregular shape, much rounded and smoothed on two sides (probably 
by man). Fine sandstone: carboniferous or Jurassic. 15 in. x lOHn. 
X Sin. 

3. Rounded fragment, breaking into slabs along planes of bedding. 
Ferruo-inous calcareous sandstone : neocomian, or possibly carboniferous. 
10 in. in longest diameter. 

4. Irregular shape, smoothed and worn. Fine sandstone : neocomian, 
or possibly carboniferous. 12 in. x 9 in. x 5 in. 

5. Irregular, slightly smoothed. Fine, hard sandstone : possibly 
inferior oolite, if not, probably carboniferous. 11 in. x 7 in. x 6 in. 



ON TMB ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IHELAND. 209 

G. One side flat, the other sides irregular and smoothed. Hard sand- 
stone : possibly oolitic. 11 in. X 10 in. X 10 in. 

7. Very irregular in shape, smoothed, rounded, and marked with lines 
of bedding. Ferruginous sandstone : oolite, or neocomian, 17 in. x 13-^ in. 
X Sin. 

8. Rounded and smoothed. Ferruginous sandstone : oolite or car- 
boniferous. 8 in. X 6 in. x 4 in. 

9. Somewhat wedge-shaped, with two of its faces flat. Generally 
smoothed and worn. Compact limestone: probably carboniferous. 
9|in, X 9in. x 5|^in. 

10. Roughly prismatic, irregular surface, slightly worn. Fine, ferru- 
ginous sandstone : inferior oolite or neocomian. 12 in. x 7in. x 6 in. 

11. Somewhat broadly wedge-shaped, with several perfectly flat and 
smoothed plane surfaces. Basalt. 10 in. x 9 in. x 6 in. 

12. Irregular and smoothed. Fine, hard, rather ferruginous sandstone : 
possibly inferior oolite. 12 in. x 8 in. x 4^ in. 

13. Broken end of boulder, rounded, one surface nearly flat. Sand- 
stone : carboniferous or Jurassic. 6 in. x 6 in. X 4^ in. 

14. Oval, smoothed and worn, all tlie angles worn ofi" and most of the 
faces smoothed and flat. Evidently much rolled and worn. Traces of 
parallel grooving on one face : compact sandstone. 15 in. x 12 in. X 8 in. 

15. Long-shaped, rounded and worn, with one long flat face, 
? scratched : compact sandstone. 18 in. x 11 in. x 7^ in. 

16. Roughly prismatic, irregular surfaces, rounded. Ferruginous 
sandstone : oolitic or neocomian. 15 in. x 10 in. x 8 in. 

17. Prismatic, angles rounded. Somewhat pyramidal in shape. 
IS^in. X 12in. X 6iin. ^ 

Boulder at corner of stable, Ashwell Brewery Yard. 

18. Rounded, much worn by atmospheric action and ill-usage, and the 
Surface consequently rough and broken. Coarse sandstone, rounded, 
glazed grains : neocomian. 16 in. x 12 in. x 9 in. 

Boulders in ^pavement near vmU of garden, Aslmell Brewery Yard. 

19. Small boulder. Basalt, rather decomposed. 7 in. x 7 in. x ?, 

20. Pebble, oval and worn. Ferruginous sandstone : probably neoco- 
mian. 6 in. X 21 in X ?. 

Boulders bedded in the ground along side of garden ivall, Ashwell Brewery 

Yard. 

21. Oval, worn. Fine, hard sandstone: carboniferous or oolite. 
11 in. X 6 in. X ?. 

22. Roughly rectangular, with uneven, smoothed upper surface. Sand- 
stone with carbonaceous markings, 11 in. x 7^ in. x ?. 

23. Apparently a fragment of larger boulder, with flat surface of 
fracture. Other sides smoothed and rounded. Compact limestone : 
carboniferous or oolitic. 13 in. x 7 in. x Q>\ in. 

24. Smoothed and rounded. Compact" limestone : mountain lime- 
stone (?). 10 in. X 61 in. x ?. 

25. Smoothed, uneven upper surface, nearly flat. Angles bui little 
wotn. Basalt. 9 in. x G^in, x ?. 



1881. 



f 



210 KEroRT — 1881. 

26. B/Oughly rectangular, smoothed, angles little rounded. Basalt. 
7iin. X 7in. X ?. 

27. Long-shaped, pointed at one end, worn, but without any definite 
plane surfaces. Several rounded knobs on different parts of the surface. 
Basalt. 11 in. X 7 in. X 6 in, 

28. Worn, cuboidal. Ferruginous sandstone. 10 in. x 7 in. X ?. 

29. Cubical, slightly worn angles, and surfaces nearly flat and smooth. 
Coarsish ferruginous sandstone. Bin. x 7 in. X ?. 

30. Very uneven surfaces, covered with little knobs and depressions, 
broken on one side. Crystalline ; a coarse gneiss with black mica. 
8^ in. X 7 in. X ^m. 

31. Smoothed and much worn, marked in some parts by irregular, 
broad grooves. Hard sandstone : possibly oolitic. 12 in. X 7 in. X 7 in. 

32. Flat, smooth upper surface, angles but little worn. Hard sand- 
stone: carboniferous or oolite. 10^ in. X C in. x ?. 

33. Rounded and smoothed. A crystalline rock, not in very good 
condition for examination : contains felspar crystals : — ? a porphyritic 
gneiss. 7 in. x 6 in. x ?. 



Boulders forming edge of path, outside end of garden, entrance to Ashwell 

Brewery Yard. 

34. Cubical, smoothed, angles slightly rounded, and sides nearly flat. 
Fine sandstone : carboniferous or oolite. 13 in. x 14 in. X ?. (Noted in 
Fifth Report of the Committee.) 

35. Subangular, surfaces smoothed. Ferruginous sandstone : neoco- 
mian or oolite, 7 in. x 5| in. x ?. 

36. Rounded, worn. Calcareous, ferruginous sandstone : probably 
oolite. Sin. x 7in, x ?. 

37. Rounded, flattish, worn. Ferruginous sandstone : neocomian or 
oolite. 7^ in, X 7h in. x 5 in. 

38. Flattish, smooth, rectangular, angles worn. Hard sandstone: 
carboniferous or oolite. 10^ in. x 84 in. X 6 in. 

39. Nearly spherical, worn ; surface slightly uneven, but well rounded 
as a whole. Hard, ferruginous sandstone : probably oolitic. 10^ in. 
X 9in. X ?. 

40. Upper surface flat, otherwise rounded. Coarse sandstone : rather 
like a millstone grit. 11^ in. x 11 in. x ?. 

41. Rounded, somewhat rectangular pebble, well-worn. Ferruginous 
sandstone : probably neocomian, 6 in. X 4 in. x ?. 

42. Rounded, with several flat surfaces. Ferruginous sandstone ; 
well-rounded grains : probably neocomian. 13 in. X 8^ in X ?, 

43. Subti'iangular, rounded and smoothed. Hard sandstone : car- 
boniferous or oolite. 10 in. X 7-5 in. X ?, 

44. Rectangular, with rounded angles and smoothed surfaces. Sand- 
stone : neocomian or oolite, 13 in. x 7 in. x ?. 

45. Oval, rounded and worn. Sandstone: probably oolitic. 16 in. 
X •© in. X ?. 

46. Somewhat rectangular, angles rounded, sides nearly flat. Sand- 
stone : carboniferous or oolite, 13 in. x 7 in. x P. 

47. Long, subangular, stratified slab, FeiTtiginoua sandstone s pro- 
bably oolite. 19 in. x 5iin, x ?. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 211 

48. Rectangular, sides flat, angles but little worn. Fine, ferruginous 
sandstone : probably ncocomian. 12 in. x 5 in. X ?. 

49. Rectangular, but mucb worn, and angles rounded. Ferruginous 
sandstone : neocomian or oolite. 9 in. x 5 in. X ?. 

50. Rounded. Ferruginous sandstone : neocomian or oolite. 7 iu. 
X 5 in. X ?. 

51. Broken slab, with sharp angles round one face, but otherwise 
much worn and smoothed. Basalt.- 18 in. x 5 in. x ?. 

52. Flattish, smoothed, worn, surface irregular. Sandstone : probably 
Jurassic. 8 in. X 9 in. x 5 in. 

53. Roughly prismatic, with angles rounded and faces smoothed. 
Sandstone, with annelid markings. 9 in, x 6 in. x 6 in. 

54. Subangular, prismatic slab, angles rounded and whole surface 
smoothed. Hard, ferruginous sandstone : carboniferous or oolite. 15 in. 

X Gin. X ?. 

55. Rounded, smoothed. Ferruginous sandstone : probably oolitic. 
9 in. X 6 in. X ?. 

56. Rounded and smoothed. Sandstone : probably neocomian. 8 in. 
X 7 in. X 4|in. 

57. Subangular, worn. Ferruginous, calcareous sandstone : neocomian 
or oolite. 11 in. x 6 in. x ?. 

68. Broken fragment, rounded and worn. Compact limestone : pro- 
bably carboniferous limestone. 5^ in. X G in. X ?. 

69. Subangular, irregular, little worn. Pink-red, mottled, ferruginous 
sandstone : neocomian or oolite. 6 in. x 7 in. X 4 in. 

60. Piece of somewhat worn chalk-marl [doubtfully a boulder.] 
17 in. X 9 in. X Gin. 

Slab in jpavement in front of hoiler-room door, Ashwell Brewery. 

61. Upper surface smooth and flat, angles rounded. Compact sand- 
stone. 21 in. X 16 in. X ?. 

Boulder lying at end of ham opposite office, Ashwell Brewery. 

62. One end broken, otherwise much rounded and smoothed. Coarse 
sandstone or grit. 16 in. x 11 in. x 6 in. 

Boulder lying on S. side of entrance to AaJnvell Brewery Yard. 

63. Irregularly-shaped, faces flat and smoothed, angles but little worn. 
Hard, compact sandstone. 18 in. X 12 in. x ?. 

Boulder on N. side of entrance to Ashicell Brewery Yard, against corner of 
house. [_8ince moved into stable yard adjoining.^ 

(This is the large boulder referred to in the Fifth Report : — the measurements are 

now taken somewhat differently.) 

64. Rounded and much worn, without any particular regularity of 

shape. When moved the lower portion of the surface, where it had not 

been exposed, was much less worn, and rather uneven. Sandstone : 

corresponds in character with hand-specimens of mill-stone grit. 2 ft. 10 in. 

X 2ft.8in. X 2ft.0in. 

p2 



212 iiEPorvT — 188h 

Boulders from large lieap of pebbles at end of stable, Ashwell Brewery 

Yard. 

65. Irregularly prismatic, angular, angles slightly -worn. "White 
quartzlte, probably derived from pebbles in Bunter. [It is somewhat 
doubtful -whether this is a boulder ; possibly it has been brought here with 
building materials, or in some similar way.] 12 in. x 7 in. x 4^ in. 

GQ. Broken, rounded pebble. Appears to be a dark felsite or por- 
phyrite : possibly from the Cheviots. 4 in. x 4 in. x 3 in. 

07. Rounded pebble. Basalt. G in. x 4 in. x 3 in. 

Boulder at corner of house at angle of road to The Bury, in Mill Lane, 

68. Worn and smoothed slab, showing lines of bedding, and weathering 
iron-red. Coarse, deep red, ferruginous sandstone, with rounded grains : 
neocomian. 2 ft. in. x 2 ft. in. x 1 ft. in. 

Boulders used as stepping -stones at the Springs. 

G9. Irregularly-shaped, angles well rounded, and sides smoothed. 
Top much worn by use as a stepping-stone. Hard ferruginous sandstone, 
weathering red. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. 

70. Irregularly-shaped, worn and smoothed. Coarse, rather ferru- 
ginous sandstone. 2 ft. 1 in. X 1 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. 

Boulders on side of road, at the W. end of ' The Cricketers ' Beerhouse. 

71. Flat, roughly hexagonal slab, top quite smooth and flat, sides and 
angles worn. Compact, light-yellow sandstone. 2 ft. G in. X 1 ft. II in. 
X 1 ft. in. 

72. Rounded, many-sided block, surface rough and granular from 
exposure. Granite, with black mica, not unlike that of Criflfell. 16 in. 
X 14 in. X ?. 

Boulder at corner of ' The Waggon and Horses,' near the Spring Head. 

73. Smooth, worn and rounded, shape somewhat irregular. Basalt ; 
weathering dark blue. 21 in. x 18 in. x 12 in. 

Boulder in Greater Hodwell, at corner of garden luall, opposite the 

Loch-it,p. 

74. Long, flattish, worn and smoothed. Hard, fine sandstone : 
carboniferous or oolite. 2 ft. 6 in. x I ft. G in. X ?. 

Seap of boulders forming fernery , in extreme E. comer of garden of Breiver's 

House, Ashwell Bretoery. 

75. Rounded, weather-worn, and marked irregularly by small cracks : 
doubtfully scratched on upper surface. Carboniferous limestone. 11 in. 
x 8 in. X 7 in. 

7G. Much rounded, nearly oval in shape. Coarse grit : probably 
neocomian. 8 in. X 7h in. X 5 in; 

77. Irregulai'ly-shaped, smoothed. Fine ferruginous sandstone: car- 
boniferous or oolite. 9 in. x 8i^ in. X 5 in. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OV ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 213 

78. Apparently a broken fragment. Irregular shape, somewhat angular, 
woi-n on one face. Carboniferous limestone, containing fossils (spiriforae) . 
8 in. X 7 in. X 5 in. 

79. Ronghly rhomboidal, worn and smoothed. Sandstone : carboni. 
ferous or oolite. 16 in. X 11^ in. X 8 in. 

80. Wedge-shaped, with flat, smoothed faces, and rounded angles. 
Fine sandstone : probably oolitic. 8 in. x 7 in. X 5 in. 

81. Prismatic in shape, angles rounded, and faces smoothed, Coarsish, 
loose sandstone. 13^ in. x 6 in. x 4j in. 

82. Broken end of a sandstone boulder, similar in character and 
material to 81. 6^ in. x 6 in. X 3 in. 

83. Thick slab, one face perfectly flat and smooth, and opposite face 
nearly so, angles ronnded. Sandstone. 15 in. .x 12 in, x 5^ in. 

84. Prismatic block, angles rounded, faces smoothed and worn. 
Sandstone. 14 in. x 7 in. x 4^ in. 

85. Much worn and rounded. Slightly ferruginous sandstone : possibly 
carboniferous. 20 in. (?) x 16 in. x 8 in. 

86. Rounded, worn. Ferruginous sandstone : probably neocomian. 
12 in. (?) X 7 in. X 4 in. 

87. Prismatic, flat, smoothed faces, angles little worn. Ferruginous 
sandstone: probably neocomian. 16 in. x 7 in, x 7 in. 

88. Much worn and smoothed. Ferruginous grit : probably neocomian. 
20 in. X 14 in. x 7 in. 

89. Rounded, worn, pear-shaped. Limestone ; probably carboniferous. 
15 in. X 11^ in. x 7 in. 

90. Worn, somewhat prismatic in shape, angles rounded and sides 
flat. Basalt. 15 in. x 10 in. x 7h in, 

91. Much rounded and smoothed, almost to the extent of being 
polished. Hard, white, fine-grained sandstone: probably carboniferous, 
17 in, X 10 in. X 8 in. 

.. 92, Rounded and worn. Fine, compact sandstone, 9 in. x 6 in. 
X 4 in. 

93. Broken fragment, smoothed on one face. Black limestone : 
carboniferous. lOj in. X 8 in. x 5 in, 

94. Rhomboidal, faces flat, angles little worn. Ferruginous sandstone : 
probably oolitic. 12 in, x 6 in. x 5|- in. 

95. Rectangular slab, upper face flat and smoothed, lower rather 
rounded. Hard, rather ferruginous sandstone : probably oolitic. 12:^ in. 
X 9 in. X 5^ in. 

96. Elongated rhomb, flat, smoothed surfaces, and angles rounded. 
Hard sandstone: probably oolitic. 11|^ in, x 6 in. x 6 in. 

97. Flat-topped, somewhat angular slab. Ferruginous sandstone : 
possibly neocomian or oolitic. 10| in, x 9 in. x 4 in, 

98. Smoothed and rounded slab. Hard sandstone : carboniferous or 
oolite. 9 in, x 61 in. x 3^ in, 

99. Roughly cuboidal, surface uneven, and slightly worn. Basalt. 
7 in, X 6^ in, x 6 in. 

100. Rounded, slightly smoothed. Fine ferruginous sandstone : 
probably oolitic. 10 in. 'x 7^ in, x 4^ in, 

101. Rounded, smoothedr Hard sandstone: probably oolitic, 8 in. 
X 6 in. x ?, 

102. Rounded. Fine, hard sandstone : might be neocomian ov port, 
landiap. 84 in. x 7 in, x ?. 



214 KEPORT — 1881. 

Boulders in High Street, in front of Jessamine Farm, 
At N. corner of garden, in front of house. 

103. Smoothed, rounded, faces nearly flat. Basalt. 2 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 

8 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. 

At W. corner of garden. 

104. Flat, roughly triangular slab, edges rounded, upper surface 
broken. Fossiliferons limestone : probably oolitic. 2 ft. 2 in. X 2 ft. 
in. X in. 

Boulder at side of step of door of ' The Australian Coio ' Beerhouse, at 
corner of High Street and Lime Kiln Lane. ■ 

10.5. Long block, irregular shape, much worn, and angles rounded. 
Coarse grit ; probably millstone grit. 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. X 11 in. 

Boidders along side of road, against wall of Ume-Jciln pit, at the top of 

Bear Lane. 

106. Irregular, rounded. Ferruginous sandstone ; neocomian or oolite. 
19 in. X 14 in. X 12 in. 

107. Rectangular, angles but little worn, sides nearly flat. Sandstone : 
probably oolitic. 14 in. x 12 in. x ?. 

108. Rounded, flattish oval. Part of septaria; possibly from Oxford 
or Kimmeridge clay. 2 ft. in. x 1 ft. 4 in. x ?. 

109. Rounded, somewhat oval, smoothed. Fine limestone : carboni- 
fei'ous or neocomian. 16 in. x 13 in. X ?. 

110. Rounded, smoothed,slightly cuboidal in shape, angles well-worn. 
Sandstone : probably millstone-grit series. 12 in. x 11 in. x ?. 

111. Similar to 108. Broken and buried in the ground, but 
apparently about the same size. 

112. Rounded, cuboidal. Sandstone: probably millstone-grit series. 
12 in. X 11 in. x 10 in. 

113. Rounded, flattish block. Sandstone : neocomian or oolite. 10 in. 
X 9 in. X 6^ in. 

Heap of houlders at junction of roads opposite lime-kiln, at the top of 

Bear Lane. 

These have all been recently brought down from the gi'avel-pit on the 
S. side of Clay Bush Hill. 

The workmen state that they are all found in the upper part of the 
gravel-beds. 

[114 to 122, described below, have been taken away to be built into 
a wall alongside of the river where it passes under the high road outside 
the lower end of The Bury close.] 

114. Flat slab, surface well-smoothed, and angles rounded. Very 
hard, fine ferruginous sandstone : possibly carboniferous, 3 ft. in. x 
2 ft. in. X 6 in. 

115. Subangular, faces flat. Sandstone : possibly carboniferous. 
21 in. X 12^ in. X 11 in. 

116. Worn, rounded, flattish block. Sandstone : possibly oolitic. 
2 ft. li in. X 1 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 1 in. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OP ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 215 

117, Rounded, worn. Hard sandstone : possibly carboniferous. 1 7 in. 

X 14 in. X 12 in. 

118, Slightly rounded, triangular block, sides flat and smooth. Sand- 
stone, probably oolitic. 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. in. 

119, Sub-angular, irregular shape. Fine sandstone. 12 in. x 11 in. 

X 10 in. 

120, Sub-angular, rectangular block, with flat faces and planes of 
bedding parallel to plane of longest face. Basalt. 11 in. x 8i in. x 6^ 
in. 

121, Smoothed and rounded slab. Sandstone : ueocomian or oolite. 

14 in. X 9 in. X 5i in. 

122, Flat-faced", many-sided, sub-angular block. Basalt, 10 in, x 7 in. 
X 5 in. 

123, Sub-angular, wedge-shaped. Basalt. 8^ in. x 7 in. x 5 in. 

124, Broken, rounded fragment. Basalt. 5 in. X 5 in. x 3 in. 

125, Rounded, many-sided block. Basalt. 8 in. x 5^ in. x 4| in. 

BmUers and locbWes forminrj Rocl-ery, Sfc, in the Eedory Garden. 

[It is doubtful whether Nos. 126 to 15.5 all belong to Ashwell, as some of them 
are said to have been brought from a brickpit at Stotfold, Bedfordshire, three miles 
S.W. It is not, however, clear which, or how many, belong to Stotfold.] 

126, Roughly triangular, worn. Fine, hard sandstone, probably car- 
boniferous. 15 in. X 12 in. X ?. 

127, Rough block, with surface much broken, but in some parts 
smoothed, and general outline rounded. Possibly a piece of septarian 
concretion from Oxford or Kimmeridge clay, 15 in. x 12 in. x ?. 

128, Flat, triangular pebble, angles worn. _ Fossiliferous, impure 
limestone : very like Lias marlstone. 10 in. x 7 in, x 4 in, 

129, Flattish, stratified, worn and rounded, with a few short, deep 
farrows (probably artificial). Sandstone. 22 in. x 15 in. (?) X 6 in. (?) 

130, Angular block, very little worn. Coarse sandstone : probably 
millstone grit. 17 in. X 12 in. x 7 in. (?) 

131, Roughly rectangular, surface uneven and broken, but somewhat 
worn. Hard sandstone, with plant-remains (?) : probably Jurassic. 14 in. 

X 11 in. X ?, 

132, Rounded, worn pebble. Sandy limestone: probably Jurassic, 
9 in. X 7^ in. X 5^ in, 

133, Rounded, 'worn, flattish fragment. Ferruginous, slightly cal- 
careous sandstone : probably neocomian. 10 in. x 8^ in. X 3 in, 

134, Little-worn slab. Ferruginous sandstone : probably neocomian. 
12 in. X 4^ in, X 2 in, 

135, Worn, smoothed, broken slab, slightly scratched. Limestone 
with fossils : probably Jurassic. 7 in, X 7 in. X 2 in. 

136, Rough, broken pebble. Limestone, with fossils : Jurassic. 4 in. 
X 4 in. X 3 in, 

137, Broken piece, much rounded on original surface ; apparently a 
piece of a nearly spherical boulder ; a few scratches and grooves. Lime- 
stone : probably Jurassic. 9 in. x 6 in. X 3^ in. 

138, Rough, broken, somewhat smoothed on one side. Coarse grit, 
with small, rounded quartz pebbles : millstone grit. &\ in. X 6 in. X 4 in. 

139, Flat slab, angles rounded and whole surface smoothed, except 
lower side. Fine hard sandstone : possibly carboniferous. &h in.- X 6 in. 
X 2 in. 



216 REPORT — 1881. 

140. Triangulai', broken fragment ; one face well-smootlied, and 
scratched and grooved in varions directions. (Very probably these 
markings are not ancient). Limestone: probably Jurassic. 8^ in. X 7 in. 

X 2 in. 

141. Worn and smoothed, wedge-sliaped. Felstone, either orthoclase- 
felsite or porphyrite. ? Cheviots or S. Scotland. 7^ in. x 5^ in. x Sin. 

142. Rough, angular slab (possibly not a boulder). Limestone, with 
fossils : probably mesozoic. 19 in. x 9 in. x ?. 

14.3. Similar to 142. 2 ft. 6 in. (?) x 8 in. x ?. 

144. Broken, worn piece. Limestone : carboniferous. 8 in. x 9 in. 
X 6 in. 

145. Rounded, worn pebble. Very hard fossiHferous limestone : pro- 
bably Lias Marlstone. 9 in. x 7 in. x ?. 

146. Rough, irregularly- shaped pebble, very slightly worn. Sandy 
limestone : very like Lias marlstone, with pecten (? sequivalvis). 9 in. 

X 6 in. X 51 in. 

147. Rounded, worn, flattish boulder. Fossiliferous limestone : pro- 
bably identical with 140. 12 in. x 10 in. (?) x 6 in. 

148. Smoothed, rounded, and slightly scratched, bi'oken piece. Lime- 
stone : carboniferous or mesozoic. 85 in. x 7 in. x 5 in. 

149. Angular, rough, cubical block, very little worn. Limestone : 
email pecten on surface. 16^ in. x 12 in. x 11 in. 

150. Rough, flat-topped slab, worn on lower side, appears to have 
been broken on upper face. Chiefly decomposed felspar, with a fine 
chloritic minei'al, decomposed mica or possibly hornblende. So poor in 
quartz as hardly to be worthy of being called gneiss. 2 ft. in. x 1 ft. 
2 in. (?) X 7h in. 

151. Worn, rounded, surface uneven. Basalt. 8in, (?)x 7^ in. x Gin. 

152. Broken, rough, angular fragment. Calcareous sandstone, with 
serpula, ostreea or exogyra, &c. Jurassic. 12|- in. x 10 in. x ?. 

153. Rounded, cuboidal block, surface rough. Calcareous mudstone, 
with ostr.iea or gryphcea. Jurassic, very like Lias Marlstone. 13 in. x 
9i in. X ?. " 

154. Rounded, with nearly flat faces. Coarse ferruginous sandstone, 
with rounded quartz grains. Neocomian. 15 in. X 10 in. x ?. 

155. Flat slab, angles worn. Limestone : probably carboniferous. 
10^ in. X 10 in. x 3 in. 

156. Angular, bi'oken slab. Limestone : Jurassic. 12 in. x 10 in. x 
Bin. 

157. Much smoothed, worn slab. Fine sandstone : probably car- 
boniferous. 9 in. X 9 in. x 3 in. 

158. Angular slab, possibly slightly worn. Argillaceous limestone, 
with fossils : probably Lias. 11 in. X 10 in. x 4 in. 

159. Worn, faces nearly flat, and angles a little rounded. Ferrn- 
ginous sandstone : probably neocomian. 13 in. x 10^ in. x 7 in. 

160. Flat, worn slab. Sandstone : perhaps carboniferous. 11^ in. 
X 9 in. X 5 in. (?) 

161. Triangular, worn slab, smooth, and angles but little rounded. 
Ferruginous sandstone : probably neocomian. 11 in. x 7in. x 6 in. 

162. Flattish, worn block. Fine, hard sandstone : probably car- 
boniferous. 10 in. X 5^ in X 4fg in. 

163. Irregularly triangular, smooth, bedded slab. Fine, hard ferru- 
ginous sandstone : probably carboniferous. in. x 6^ in. X 4 in. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 217 

164. Much worn and rounded pebble, with a few scratclies. Com- 
pacfc, Avhito sandstone. 10 in. x 6 in. X ?. 

165. Rounded, broken piece. Fine sandstone. 9 in. x 7 in. x 4 in. 

166. Rectangular, broken slab (probably not a boulder). Oolitic 
limestone. 12 in. x 10 in. x 3 in. 

167. Rounded, smoothed and worn. Hard sandstone: probably 
iieocomian. 10^ in. x 9 in. x ?. 

168. Rounde"d, worn. Fine sandstone: probably Jurassic. 11 in. 
(about) X 7^ in. X ?. 

169. Wedge-shaped, worn pebble. Ferruginous, calcareous sand- 
stone : probably Jurassic. 7^ in. x 6 in. X 4 in. 

170. Rough, slightly worn. Limestone, with serpnla : Jurassic. 8|in. 
X 7 in. X 6 in. 

171. Rough slab, little worn. Ferruginous sandstone : neocomian 
or possibly itierior oolite ironstone. 13 in. x 6^ in. x 8^ in. 

172. Prism-shaped, faces flat and smoothed, angles a little worn. 
Basalt. 10 in. x 5^ in. x 5 in. 

173. Worn slab. Coarse grit : perhaps neocomian. 10^ in. x 7^ in. 
X 3 in. 

174. Broken slab, hardly worn. Sandstone. 9^ in. x 8 in. x 3|in. 

175. Rounded, nearly spherical, smoothed. Limestone, with serpula, 
&c. Jurassic. 11 in. x 8 in. x 7 in. 

176. Worn, rounded, smooth pebble. Hard sandstone. 8^ in. x 7 in. 
X 3 in. 

177. Irregularly. shaped, worn, angles but little rounded off. Basalt. 
121 in. X 7 in. X 6^ in. 

"178. Slightly worn fragment of a slab. Rather ferruginous sand- 
stone. 11^ in. x 5 in. X 3 in. 

179. Long, smoothed and worn boulder. Sandstone. 11^ in. x 5^ in. 
X 3 in. 

180. Rough, irregular, little-worn pebble. Fine sandstone : probably 
carboniferous. 7 in. x 7 in. x 6 in. 

181. Flat, broken slab, little worn. Fine sandstone : possibly Jurassic. 
13 in. X 9^ in. x 5 in. 

182. Rounded, worn, smoothed, nearly oval pebble. Sandstone : 
probably neocomian. 8 in. x 6 in. X 5i in. 

183. Rectangular, little- worn block. ' Fine, hard sandstone : probably 
carboniferous. 11 in. x 6| in. x ?. 

184. Worn slab. Coarse sandstone or grit : millstone grit, almost 
certainly. 11 in. x 9 in. x 4 in. 

185. Wedge-shaped, worn pebble, with flat faces, and angles little 
worn. Fine, ferruginous sandstone : probably neocomian. 9^ in. x 7 in. 

X 4 in. 

186. Irregularly-shaped, smoothed and worn. Basalt. 16 in. x 9 in. 
X 8 in. 

187. Worn, rough block. Fine ferruginous sandstone : probably neo- 
comian. 10 in. X 6 in. X 6 in. 

188. Worn, smoothed. Fine sandstone : possibly Jurassic. 2 ft. in. 
X 1 ft. 3i in. X ?. 

It will be observed that none of these specimens are local. The 
general derivation is from the Oolites of the Midlands and from Car, 
boniferous and other rocks of more northern districts. 



218 REPOET— 1881. 

Denhighshire. — The Committee have received the following communi- 
cation from Mr. D. Mackintosh, F.G.S. : — • 

I lately found a large boulder of Eskdale granite 164 feet above the 
highest level of the parent rock in situ. It lay amidst many millstone 
grit boulders on the summit of the mountain ridge south of Miners, 
Denbighshire, at a height of about 1,450 feet above the sea. 

Height above the Sea of Erratic Ghalk-Jlints. — I lately found many 
chalk-flints associated with pebbles of Eskdale granite, &c., more than 
1,100 feet above the sea on the E. side of the mountain south of Minera. 
Mr. John Aitken has lately informed me that he found univorJced as well 
as worked chalk-flints more than 1,000 feet above the sea on the western 
side of the Pennine hills. It is well known that chalk-flints occur in the 
drift on Moel Tryfan in North Wales up to a great altitude. During late 
visits to the mountain I found them as high up as 1,350 feet above the 
sea, or about 350 feet higher than the chalk in situ in Ireland. That the 
chalk-flints were transported by ice, and that they are not the insoluble 
residue of chalk which once existed in situ, is evident from the extent to 
which they are intimately associated with undoubted erratic stones, and 
from their not being associated with insoluble silicified chalk fossils. 
It is at the same time very difficult to conceive of chalk itself having once 
extended over an area so large as that which is more or less strewn with 
flints without leaving patches in protected situations. 

Passage of Boulders through Gaps. — Many large boulders from the Arenig 
IMountains have found their way through the gap in the Minera moun- 
tain range which is traversed by the road leading from Mountain Lodge 
(W. of Ruabon), to the World's End (N, of Llangollen.) i 

The Committee earnestly repeat their request for the assistance of 
local observers to enable them to catalogue the rapidly disappearing 
Erratic Blocks of the country with as much completeness as possible. A 
large part of the most interesting specimens are especially liable either 
to be destroyed as nuisances on the land, or utilised as building materials ; 
and unless especial attention be paid to them during the next few years, 
no accurate record of their position and character will remain. 



Second Report of the. Committee, consisting of Professor A. Leith 
Adams, the Eev. Professor Haughton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
and Dr. John Evans, appointed for the purpose of exploring the 
Caves of the South of Ireland. 

Be]port on the Caves and Kitchen-middens near Gappagh, Go. Waterford, by 

R. J. USSHER. 

Since the explorations reported to the British Association last year, 
made in a cave at Carrigagower near Middleton, in company with Mr. 
J. J. Smyth, of Rathcoursey, I had the pleasure of excavating in his 

' In and E. of that gap they are strewn in a manner more easily explained by 
floating ice than land ice, as it is more difficult to conceive of land ice (after passing 
through the gap), continuing its course in a narrow stream for several miles in an 
easterly direction, than it is to conceive of floating ice doing the same. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OP THE CAVES OF THE SOUTH OF IRELAND. 219 

company a spot on the townland of Ballylionock, not far from Castle 
Martyr, in the Co. Cork, where in a piece of rocky uncultivated ground 
we found a kitchen-midden containing hones of domesticated animals, 
charcoal, sea-shells, a quern stone, sharpening stones, and several other 
relics of man. Beneath the above, or mixed with them, we found a 
number of human bones, both of adults and young children (there were 
six or eight of the latter), apparently the remains of bodies that had 
been entire when deposited there. Previous to our excavations there had 
been discovered at the same spot one of the dumbbell-shaped stones, 
cupped at each end, that have been found in other places in Ireland. It 
is now in the Cork Institute. 

I also excavated the kitchen-midden of a rath at Bewley, in the 
Co. Waterford, where I found, among charcoal, slag, burned stones and 
numerous broken bones of ox, goat, Vg> horse, and red deer, a quantity 
of broken pieces of hand-made pottery of rude make, full of quartz 
grains and representing a number of vessels of considerable size, charrfd 
and burned sometimes internally and sometimes externally. This pottery 
was all broken, and generally in a most friable condition. Shells of the 
fresh-water mussel were also found in this refuse-heap, and a human 
metacarpal or metatarsal bone ; but the most remarkable object I naet 
with there was a rude stone hatchet formed from a waterworn flattish 
stone, adapted for the purpose by breaking it across and chipping its 
broad broken extremity to an edge, two deep indentations being also 
made at opposite sides, evidently to hold a ligature or attachment for a 
handle. 

Continuing my researches along the scarp where the bone-cave of 
Ballynamintra is situated, I found in and around the mouth of a small 
cave on the townland of Ballynameelah another kitchen-midden with 
bones of the usual domestic animals and red deer, charcoal, slag, flint- 
chips, sea-shells, some pieces of iron, pieces of a jet bracelet, a fine ring 
of bronze, probably an ear-ring, portion of a bone comb of a type to be 
described, a carved bone whorl, and a number of whetstones. 

In the month of May last I commenced operations in a rath situated 
on a high rocky knoll that forms the scarp opposite to that containing 
the bone cave. This rock is called Carrigmurish, or the Eock of Maurice. 
A tradition exists that a highwayman named Maurice Conway lived there, 
who was put to death on the rock for his crimes. The rath consists of a 
ring fence in a ruinous condition, and contained a depression flanked 
on one side by a rock that appeared hollow beneath. This hollow I 
found at once to contain the kitchen-midden of the rath, and now that 
it is excavated to the depth of some thirty feet it is shown to have filled 
a cave, descending at an angle of 50° or so, of considerable size, _ This 
cavity was choked with earth and stones containing large quantities of 
charcoal, bones, and other relics. The larger bones were almost all 
broken, to extract the marrow. The animals represented were a small 
breed of oxen (the foreheads of which were broken in), pigs, goats, asses, 
red deer, and in a few instances dogs, cats, and domestic fowl. Some of 
the canine bones were of large size. Pieces of the antlers of red deer 
were plentiful. These were generally cut in lengths with a saw, the cuts 
being made at both sides and the piece then broken off. Several articles 
of antler were found, marling- spikes or piercers, pins, whorls, and beads. 
An interesting series of narrow scoops occurred, one class of which are 
made of the tibise of goats and another of those of fowl. Pins of the 



220 EErORT— 1881. 

latter bones were also plentiful, but wanted the polish observable on 
those made of antler, which were more carefully finished and had either 
a notched groove, an eye, or a head otherwise carved for attachment by a 
string. Of the bone articles there are several combs with teeth on both 
sides, whose middle portion is formed of three plates of bone fastened 
together with rivets of bone and in one instance of iron. A knife-handle 
of antler, polished and ornamented with small circles, held an iron blade, 
some of which remains. A portion of a large polished jet bracelet, as well 
as of a smaller one, was also fotind, and two bits of coloured iridescent 
glass. 

A bronze pin and other objects of bronze were also found. 

Iron objects were numerous, especially small curved knife-blades 
thick at the back. There is one long slender knife or poniard, a spear- 
head eleven inches long, and the head of a smaller spear, a series of 
slender rods and pins of iron, two of the latter with iron rings attached 
to them, large-headed iron nails, a rude buckle, a portion of a crucible 
or helmet, and the share of a wooden plough with wood adhering. One 
of the most interesting objects of iron is a small saw with the end curved 
up like that of a skate. This is inserted in a wooden back, which doubt- 
less served as the handle, and explains why the pieces of antler Avere not 
cut through, as would be done by a modern saw-blade. 

Stone objects were also numerous ; a quern, a round mace or hammer- 
head with a hole for inserting a handle, spindle- whorls, a small stone 
bead, a large assortment of whetstones, one of which was beautifully cut 
and pierced by a hole for attachment, burnishing stones, globular and 
disc-shaped pebbles, which probably served as sling-stones, and one of 
which has a cross cut on it, also a number of marine pebbles, probably 
selected for their colouring, and crystals. With these sea-pebbles may be 
mentioned shells of oysters, limpets, whelks, cockles, scallops, and other 
marine molluscs. Slabs of sandstone, and in some cases of silurian rock, 
foreign to the locality, frequently occurred, arranged evidently for hearths, 
at different levels in the cavity, which doubtless became buried under sub- 
sequent debris. 

A large amount of the kitchen-midden is believed to remain un- 
disturbed, probably quite as much as the excavated material. At a depth 
of more than twenty feet the cavity was found to extend very much and 
not to be filled with earth. On exploring the open part with lights, large 
chambers were discovered, from one of which by a steep descent we 
made our way into the extensive system of galleries shown in the accom- 
panying plan, which has been dialled and laid out by Mr. Duflfin, County 
Surveyor, who has given me the most valuable assistance. The dialling 
shows the directions and lengths of the chambers and galleries already 
known, but time did not allow of making a detailed survey. When the 
dialling was laid out on the surface it was found that the point R is 
very near the face of the scarp, and that persons within the cave could 
here communicate by sounds with those without. Here a convenient 
entrance can be made into the caverns. On the surface of the different 
galleries were found broken bones of domestic animals similar to those 
in the kitchen-midden, as well as charcoal. As a rule a stalagmite floor 
extends throughout, exhibiting in places large pillars, domes, cones, 
dammed-up pools of clear water, and similar phenomena. This stalag- 
mite floor rests on a deposit of cave-earth several feet in depth, which it 
is desirable to excavate and remove to daylight for thorough examination, 



bJ^ TliE EXPLORATION OF THE CAVES OF IHE SOUTH OF IRELAND. 221 

considering the interesting remains discovered in the adjoining cavern. 
This work will, however, be a matter of great labour, and require con- 
siderable time. 

The excavation of the kitchen-midden above described was difficult, 
owing to the depth from which the large amount of material had to be 
lifted, in a box or buckets, by means of a pulley, windlass, and other 
plant. 

The grant of 101. made in 1879 has been expended, as well as a great 
pai-t of another grant of 50Z. made by the Royal Irish Academy. To 
thoroughly explore all the galleries would cost a very large sum, but if 
the British Association were to grant us a sum of 501. we could make a 
good commencement, quite sufficient to show what the fauna of the cave- 
earth may have been. 

Bough plan of Caverns at Ballynamintra, with dialling hy W. E. L'EsTRANQE 

DuFFiN, County Surveyor. 

Dialling of Carrigmurish. 




SCALE 120 FEET=I IMCH 



222 EEPOKT — 1881. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir F. J. BkamwElL, Dr. 

A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. 

John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. ]\Ierrifield, 

Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. Abel, Captain Douglas G-alton, 

Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, JMr. H. Trueman Wood, 

Mr. W. H. Barlow, and Mr. A. T. Atchison, axjpointed for the 
purpose of ivatching and reporting to the Council on Patent 

Legislation. 
The Bill of this Sessiou, 1881, by Mr. Anderson, Mr. Brown, Mr Hinde 
Palmer, and ISh-. Broadbnrst, was read and considered. 

This Bill, which as it stands is a mere sketch, and not likely to prove 
a working piece of legislation, is identical with the Bill introduced last 
year by the same gentlemen, and referred to in the last Report (JB. A. 
Reioort, 1880, p. 318) of this Committee. It was, however, read a second 
time in the House of Commons and consequently reached a further stage 
than in 1880. 

The Bill proposes the appointment of a Chief Commissioner and 
assistants. It would reduce the fees considerably, that on application to 
10s. and on sealing to IZ. It extends the period of provisional protection 
to twelve months. It gives a patentee power to add (apparently by way 
of supplement) to his original patent. 

The Committee certainly approve the proposal to appoint paid Com- 
missioners. They think the proposed reduction in fees much too large. 
They approve the principle of letting a patentee amend his patent, but 
it would be necessary that proper provision should be made. The clause 
in the Bill would be quite unworkable. 

The Committee have also to report that a carefully prepared Bill has 
been published by the Council of the Society of Ai-ts for discussion, with 
the view of its being introduced into Parliament next year. 

The principal alterations in the law which would be made by the 
Society of Arts' Bill are shown in the following memorandum, ^which 
appeared in the Journal of the Society for August 12, 1881 : — 

Commissioners of Patents. — The Patent-office would be removed from 
under the charge of the present Commissioners, who are the Lord 
Chancellor, the Master of the Rolls, and the Law Officers. Three Com- 
missioners would be appointed on account of their special knowledge. 

Application for Letters Patent. — Metlwd of granting same. — The method 
of application for a patent would be somewhat as follows : — The applicant 
would file a provisional specification, which would be referred to examiners 
appointed for the purpose. They would see that the invention was 
proper subject-matter for a patent ; that the specification fairly described 
the invention, and that it was generally intelligible and properly drawn. 
They would not inquire into novelty or utility. They would report, and 
their report would be shown to the applicant before being seen by the 
Commissioners. The applicant would then have an opportunity of con- 
ferring with the examiners as to any required alterations. Provisional 
protection would be granted immediately on receipt of the application, 
and would last for nine months. Before the end of that time the appli- 
cant would be required to file a complete specification, fully describing 
his invention. This would be referred to the examiners, and treated in 
the same manner as the provisional specification. The appHcant would 
be enabled to amend his specification in accordance with the recom- 
mendation of the examiners, and on his doing so a patent would be 



2 


10 


]0 





30 





60 






ON PATENT LEGISLATION, 223 

gtatited. If the examiners reported that the application was in respect 
of matters which could not properly be made the subject of a patent, and 
if the applicant still persisted, a patent would still bo granted, but the 
objections of the examiners would be endorsed upon the specification. 

Duration of Pafeut. — The duration of Letters Patent would be iu- 
. creased to seventeen years — the duration being as now contingent upon 
the payment of fees at or before the expiration of each period. 

Fees. — The fees would be half the present amounts, namely : — 

£ g. 
Fee for Provisional Protection . . . < . 

Fee for Grant 

Fee at expiration of fourth year .... 
Fee at expiration of eighth year .... 

Existing System. — Under the present law there is practically no ex- 
amination whatever. Applications for patents are referred to one of the 
two law officers, who reports whether a warrant may be issued for the 
granting of Letters Patent. The only point upon which the law officer 
decides is whether the invention is proper subject-matter for a patent, i.e. 
whether it comes within the definition of the Statute of Monopolies 
(21 Jac. I., cap. 3) of being ' a new manufacture within this realm.' The 
complete specification, upon which the patent is really granted, is never 
examined at all by anybody. 

Suhject-matter. — The following is the definition of ' subject-matter ' 
adopted in the Bill : — 

(a) Any manufacture or any product not being a natural product ; 

(b) Any machine or any means of producing any manufacture product 
or result ; 

(c) Any process or method of producing any manufacture product or 
result ; 

(d) Any part of a machine means process or method of producing 
any manufacture product or result. 

At present the ancient definition of the Statute of Monopolies is in 
force, but, as a matter of fact, the question of subject-matter depends 
wholly on the decisions of the Courts. 

Opposition. — Under the proposed Bill, opposition to the granting of 
Letters Patent would be limited to persons who could state that the 
applicant had obtained the invention from them by means of fraud. Under 
the present law any person can oppose, the general ground of opposition 
being that the person opposing already has a patent for the same or nearly 
the same invention. 

Amendment. — The Bill provides that the inventor should be entitled to 
amend his specification after it had been first filed. Under the pi'esent 
system this power is very restricted. 

Prolongation. — It is proposed to continue the system of prolonging 
patents in special cases, the Bill being framed in such a manner as to give 
greater facility for this than now exists. Under the present system, pro- 
longations are granted by the Privy Council, and are considered a matter 
of special favour, whereas the effect of the new Bill would, it is hoped, 
be to givfe them as a right to any inventor who could show just cause for 
having his privilege prolonged, on the ground of his not having had 
sufficient reward, or the time having been insufficient to enable him to 
bring his invention into action, or similar grounds. The period for which 
a patent could be prolonged would be diminished by the three years which 
the Bill would add to its original term. 



224 KKPORT— 1881. 

Ohligato)'y Licenses. — The Bill would compel a patentee to grant 
licenses in cases where it could be clearly shown that the invention was 
not being worked in such a way as to supply the reasonable wants of the 
public ; but the clause has been so worded as to prevent any improper 
interference with the rights of the patentee over what is considered to be 
his own private property. 

Trial of Patent Cases. — The Bill would provide for the trial of patent 
cases in an entirely new manner. They would be tried, in the first 
instance, before one of the Commissioners, and an appeal would lie to the 
whole body. The Commissionere would have power to call in assessors, 
and would have such other powers as would enable them to try the cases 
fully. It is hoped that this would greatly simplify the patent litigation, 
and would prevent the enormous expense which is now incurred by having 
to bring complicated questions of law and fact before a jury, who are 
probably ignorant of the scientific or mechanical considerations involved. 
It may be noted that one great source of expense is the preparation of 
models, which are only necessary to illustrate mechanical questions to 
persons unaccustomed to deal with such questions. For experts in such 
matters, drawings would be sufficient ; indeed, an engineer would generally 
much prefer proper drawings to any model of a machine. 

Antidpation. — It is proposed that a mere publication more than thirty 
years old, unaccompanied by use within the thirty years, should not be 
considered sufficient to invalidate a patent. The object of this is to 
remove the hardship, which now not infrequently occurs, of a patent being 
invalidated, or a patentee being put to great expense in order to prove 
his claim, by the discovery of some ancient and probably incomplete 
description, a description which in many cases could not have been put 
into operation at the time it was made for want of necessary appliances to 
carry it into effect. 

Patents to Foreigners. — It is proposed that patents should be granted 
to foreigners, or persons resident abi'oad, on precisely the same terms as 
those on which they are granted to British subjects resident in the 
United Kingdom. At present patents are granted to British subjects 
in respect of communications from abroad ; that is to say, the theory is, 
a person travelling abroad sees a useful invention, brings it home, and 
patents it in England, such person not being, in any sense, the inventor. 
In jiractice, patents for communications from abroad are nearly always 
taken out by patent agents, whoso clients arc resident out of the country, 
and the patent, as soon as it is taken out, is assigned to the real foreign 
inventor. Cases of injustice have occurred through the action of this 
system, in which a patent has been granted to a person who had no moral 
right to it, but who anticipated the original inventor in obtaining the 
English patent. 

Effect of Foreign Patents on English Patents. — At present an English 
patent lapses at the expiration of any foreign patent taken out by the 
same inventor for the same invention. It is proposed in the Bill that 
English patents should not in any way be affected by foreign patents. 

The Committee request that they may be re-appointed, in order to 
watch the progress of this Bill through Parliament, as well as that of 
any other Bill for the amendment of the Patent Law which may be 
introduced. 

The Committee have not expended any of the sum of 51. placed at 
their disposal last year, but they would be glad to have the grant 
renewed. 



HBPOBT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 225 

Report of the Anthropometric Gorrhmittee, consisting of JMr. F. 
Galton, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook {Secretary and Reporter), 
Sir Gr. Campbell, Dr. Farr, Mr. F. P. P^ellows, Major-G-eneral 
PiTT-EiVERS, Mr. J. Park Harrison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. 
P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. F. A. Mahomed, Dr. 
MuiRHEAD, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. Charles Egberts, and 
the late Professor Rolleston. 

[Plates III. and IV.] 
1. — The Committee were first appointed in 1875, and instructed to 
continue the collection of observations on the systematic examination of 
heights, weights, &c., of human beings in the British Empire, and the 
publication of photographs of the typical races of the empire. It may be 
convenient to recapitulate briefly what the Committee have done in 
previous years. 

2. — In the first year they prepared schedules and instructions and 
had them printed, and purchased a small outfit of instruments to send 
to places where measurements were to be made. The co-operation of 
inspectors of the army, of the navy, of factories, and of pauper schools 
was secured. 

3. — In the second year the Committee obtained a series of measure- 
ments of the 2nd Royal Surrey Militia from Colonel Lane Fox (now 
General Pitt-Rivers) and circulated copies of his report as a model for 
other observers. They further revised the instructions, prepared a book 
of lithographed patterns of hair colours, added to the collections of 
instruments for lending, and initiated the work of collecting typical 
photographs. 

4. — In the third year the collection of statistics was actively pro- 
ceeded with, and returns were obtained of a few well-defined classes, as 
boys in Westminster school, letter-sorters in the Post Office, criminals, &c. 
Tables were prepared from these, and a Report by Mr. Galton on the 
returns of criminals was printed and circulated. Progress was made in 
the collection of photographs. 

5. — In the fourth year the Committee continued the collection and 
tabulation of observations. They had by that time obtained statistics of 
about 12,000 individuals, which were sufficiently complete to justify the 
publication of tables of average height and weight, and of the ratio of 
weight to height. They had been furnished by the Warden of Christ's 
Hospital with the records in his possession which enabled Sir Rawson 
Rawson, one of the members, to construct a series of tables, serving as a 
model for similar observations. Mr. Roberts prepared for the Committee 
a series of tables and charts, showing the relation of height and weight 
in the several classes of the English population, as compared with the 
observations of Americans and Belgians published by Drs. Bowditch, 
Baxter, and Quetelet respectively. 

6. — In the fifth year the Committee were able to double the number 
of observations, and to reduce them to order by adopting a scheme of 
classification. They selected from the returns those which related to a 
standard class living under the most favourable conditions witb respect 
to fresh air, exercise, and wholesome and sufficient food, and prepared 
a series of tables relating to that class. They also digested the returns 
relating to the colour of hair and eyes in the standard class, and sum- 
marised the statistics of height and weight from persons of country 
1881. Q 



226 



HEPORT — 1881. 



origin and town origin respectively. They availed themselves of the 
observations made during several years at Marlborough College to show 
the usefulness of such systematic records. 

7. — In the present year, the sixth of their existence, the Committee have 
not carried on operations under favourable circumstances. The returns 
obtained in relation to the several classes are now of sufficient number 
to make it desii'able to subject them to scientific ari'angement by skilled 
computers, but the small fund at the disposal of the Committee (30/.) 
has not been sufficient to enable this to bo done comjiletely. 

8. — The same cause has prevented the incurring any expense in 
grants towards actual observations, which, as they involve skill and care 
and time, ought, in many cases, to be paid for. The whole of the returns 
collected during the year have been due to obliging voluntary assistance. 

9. — -The Committee think it an important part of their duties to show 
how observations should be made, and how they should be used when 
obtained. From this point of view, they are inclined to hope that their 
labours have been very successful. 

10. — It is confidently anticipated that many ot tlic persons who have 
been furnished with the forms and instructions adopted by tlie Committee, 
and to whom these reports arc accessible, Avill proceed with the collection 
and recording of observations on the definite system laid down, and that, 
by this means, valuable results will be obtained and made available even 
after the Committee have ceased operations. 

11. — This remark applies particularly to the case of the public and other 
schools and institutions which have furnished information to the Com- 
mittee, as recorded in the present and previous reports. In each of these 
it is hoped that the practice of keeping an anthropometric record will be 
continued. 

12. — On page 3 is a statement of the additional returns Avhich have 
been furnished to the Committee during the present year. 

13. — The special thanks of the Committee are due to the contributors, 
mentioned in the list, whose zealous assistance in a matter necessarily 
involving a great expenditure of time and trouble deserves most hearty 
acknowledgment. 

14. — Adding these returns to those referred to in the previous reports, 
the aggi'egate number of original observations fui'nished to the Committee 
is as follows : — • 



Year 


Sex 


Number of observations 


Of birth- 
place and 
origin 


Of age, 

heiRht, and 

•weight 


Of colour of 

hair and 

eyes 


Of girth of 

chest 


Of strength 
of arm 


Of eyesight 


1879 
1880 

1881 1 


Male 

Male 

Male 

Female 


5,254 

3,206 

796 

368 


11,745 
11,956 

6,877 
403 


4,011 

3,511 

867 

403 


6,321 

5,766 

789 

403 


2,131 

1,686 

1,521 

338 


1,368 

1,260 

315 

13 


Total . . 


9,624 


29,981 


8,792 


13,279 


5,676 


2,956 



15. — Upon the main branch of the inquiry, therefore, that of the 
relation of height and weight to age, the Committee have collected, in 
round numbers, 30,000 original observations. To these have to be 
added the 50,000 or more observations independently collected by Mr. 
Chai'les Roberts, one of the most active members of the Committee. 



nEPOllT OF THE ANTIIKOPOMETIUC COMMITTEE. 



22- 



00 

00 
i-H 

f-t 

o 






a 
d 

-S 
o 

ID 



J3 
tlO 



W 



IS 



»0 CO 



o to 






o 
o 









10 C5 
IM 1-1 






in 



o 
o 



00 

CO 



Ci 
00 



j3 -^ 



O 
O 



CO 



CO lO 



O to 

CO .CO 



lO CO >0 50 <H lO 
>0 IM ■* 00 t^ 



o «o 



C-1 



(-1 ^ 



^J3 -4J 

^ <i> ^ CD 






CO 



CO 



O lo 

CO <o 



lO 00 lO !0 rH O 
lO N -:t< 00 t- 



O 5D CO CO 
O « rH rH 



t~ O O CO 
lO O O t- 

^ O 



CO lO 
t- CO 



o >o 

CO CO 



lo CO lo o T-H o 

lO fM "^ 00 00 

0^ 



O CO CO CO 
O S*l »-< "-I 



© 



o 

CO 
C-l 



m 

x> 

o 

o 



bo 



t- cs H 



lO o 



CO 



co 



O "O 

CO CO 



lO CO lO CO 
JO N -X 



O CO CO CO 

O IM rH 1-1 



C4 



Cj 

a 



" cj 



C« 



I— < 

:a 
IP 



8 








5 


B 


C3 


SS 


O 




-? 


s 


(Tl 


5 


> 


^ 


h 


? 



n 






■73 

O , • 

O >, 

i i=i n, 

S C3 Q^ 

m a> ^H 

J-( m Sh 

S«g 






W1? 



S 

bo to . ■ , 

i^ §1 1 «>. I 



tg 



•'C • 


- 


fl 




cS 












» C * 




raw 




CD ^^ 




<U o 




hJ SC^ 


• 


>— ' o o 




m^ ° 


o 


+^ o -S 


o 


§^^ 


-§ 


Stud 
slaus 
aker 


1— 1 

"3 


Ila 




^^- 


4i 


s^:t2 


^ 



be O 
(U o 

O m C3 
■ O.S^ 

s ■« 

'S'^ 0) 2 

- £ ^5 



a 



o 2 ... 

0-3 £ 



"vi 


cc 


a; 


QJ 


C! 


(I 




cS 


rn 




o 




i-:1Ph 


« 






-M 






-M 






<i; 






M 



~ a CI 



ft? 





ct 




St=l 








-a 












n 


M 


c3 


" 


'J 
1 


o 


U3 


0) 


n 


;^ 


ffi 




<ii 


-*-3 


CJ 


-;:: 


be 




O 


1 


o 

1 


03 


3 
M 


MO 


-M 









■^ 


T^ 






s 





■-I cq CO 1^ 



■s 

02 
n ■ 

<u 
a. 

cS • 
Ph 
d 
o 

a 

cj u 
02 O 

.fe <" o 

^ '^ -*^ 
^ 0) ^ 



o --I <M « •* "o *§ 5:; 



Q2 



228 



HEPoiiT— 1881. 



0) 












5 


















OOtOiacDlO'+l-*!M0505>0'-<COO'H CO rH 


b- 


.*" 






CO 


OOJ.-lOt«-<*<(M'ClOt-C»00-*COOO 13 O 


CO 










f-H rtrt CO CO (N IN IN (M (M OS 05 


lO 


(B 








rH 


»o 


60 




« m 








-SI 








1 1 1 1 |c0Or-(03MMi-lC0-+it-C-lN>0OO-*iMi0OOIM 


o 


t-% 


-W 

^ 




IC 


1 1 1 1 1 C^ (NMCOMCYSUSCOMm^eO CO-*Cil>«5 (M 


00 


^« 


if; 










OJ M 








(B g 


Cm 










-1^ -a 


o ■ 






1 1 1 O to 50 t~ CO CO 05 eO f- 05 CO O rH CO o O to cj ig to t- r^ 1 


•■^ 


CO 




rt^ 


1 1 1 -« Oi -* 1-- 1^ CO 00 1^ lO O O <M to lO lO LO ■* lO O to -# <M 1 


CO 


il 


C 






tOCO-Hi-ltOmi^i-li-li-lr-ii-l rHi-H 


o 

1 


« 




f— 1 t— ( f-H 


t^ 








Oas 


§ 


3 








« s 


J= 






1 1 1 1 |tOOiO'0 010'i4l:~050'HIN-HCOr-lO-Hr-lrH05J< 


<M 


_« <s 


o 




CO 


1 l-tOOTeC-*ll~tOt01:->0<MC3l^rHtOOCO-*ll^lMC<l 


as 


by tl 
ddoe 


o 






«OT-li-li-lrH,-lr<(M(MlMrHr-l«rHt-tOlOC0rH 










rr-l «J 








^COOM-H^lOOOOiOC-li-lrHt^t-lOtOtOCOtOt^OmMtO 1 


iO 


-^ 




CN 


»— lo:irH*00-^»OCOCOtDlOir5»0»0»0'^'<^C<»CT5(NGOCOCOCOi— ( i 


rH 


9. ^ 








<N CO ■* CO CO iM 


CO 


fSfi 










G^ 


§^ 






















1 g 








(MiOOi— <00(M-+liOC0O'-l»0>00i)t0 >0 CO f CO 


CO 






tH 


ClCOtO<M-*lOCOOCO-*llOtOrHrHlO ri >* -*l rH 


o 








rHCOtOt^tOaDt-tOCi'*iCOC^^ i-H 


C"! 


w &■ 








rH rH 


cT 


^■^ 








' '* >^-^— M — ^— %/ — ^— • 














ni tn 










*H 


C ."t^ 








Ci—JlOrH-HO-H^C'lCiCir-rHiOtOt^ rH t^C- r^C-lfMGO 


tQ 


^^Z 






cs 


<0<0-rt<SOrH90tOCJt— l-tOCO-fiM-H OO CO-<tOtOJI05 


t-- 








Ci O to lO -^ M rH lO O ^ CO CO CO CO 03 »n •* C-1 rH (M 




H =3 


• 


, . 


* 


1— 1 


1— * 


H t3 




O QJ 








"r; o 












.(^ Js 












w-a 








C>rH>0 1 rHCOtOO-^CilO>CCCrHCTrH-KTt<?lS0002'-!;N<N 

*H-n<e^i (McowcoCocoeo-^co-^-^-^icoiCrHcotoc-i 


r-l 


-*J 


* " 


■>o 


f— < 


^§ 


r£3 






■* CO CO .-H rH 


o 


b 


w 


" 








M rj 


■ ■ 






Pi -W 


%-< 










O 03 


o 












m 






tOOCO-1<CO-HrHrHr-t~lCl00100<M^tC05COOrH-*t0 2'l 


f— 1 


c: 




■* 


C0-t"C5rHl0t0OrH»~l--l--t0O1<M<Cit-tOlCUS0C)rHt0rH(N 


l>* 




CO 




CO C-lrHtOCO-^COt- CO C-lrHrHrHrHrH rHi— 1 I 


It* 

00 


05 c^ 




TO 














O 01 




o 








O O 


O 






cot^iocociioi^ioeococot-w^coco-^'Mcoco'OrHrHjji-.-j" 


o 




M 


COCiCTiO -ii^t,-:»<-*<c»t~<Mt~>o-HC»tocto-*ico.om-*co 


o 


(^ 






l^OCO-* lOrH ^rHrHi-HI-l4^(MC<)i-HrHClrHt-tO>OCOrH 


b^ 


CO 


o. 








tC 


§ ^ 












rQ a 










a 

3 


■ • 






CO 


p 


^ 






COl^O.lt^O'llOl^-O^COrHrHCOCJCTt-t-t^COtOllJCMCOSOtO 


t- 


f3 T! 




(M 


*-HOOO*0 0*^rHOJOtOtO»OW540tO-^"^'^4COC<)COOO'^COrH 1 


f— t 






- - 




COtOCSCOCOOl-lr-ii. ., 1 


\o 






























-HOIOCitOrHlMCI-Hi-lrH^t^-^l^ t^ C-l to 


Oi 










O^C^t0t0t^O»0d»0tDtDC^lrH»0 O »0 -^ 


C^ 






t-H 


i-H<>1-*OOC5w5rH<X<l~Ci-*ICO<MrH >-l II 


co_ 




- 




rH r-*' tH 


O 


o 










1-4 


p^"^ 


, 












M tH 












1 '33 




m 








: 03 








o 




->t\ CO 




a 




Jl I'll II lltl'll'IIIJ.J,i-l.JLrJ,A 

OrHKlCO-^lOtO't- OC)C;OrH(MCO-»llOtOt^COe>0>00»002 




w 




'" 




rti-HrHl-HrH-HrH-^ JiirHCq<M(M(NIMMlN<Me^<NCOeO-V*>0<0 








<1 




^ ^.» , J 





REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 229 

1(5, Mr. Roberts has rendered his colleagues very essential help by 

the preparation of the diagrams and a great nnmber of the elaborate 
tables in the forn\er Reports of the Committee, and has contributed to the 
present Report the paper on the general result of the observations, which 
is given in the Appendix. 

17. — Mr. Roberts's Tables (I.-IV.) shovf the general result of the 
observations collected by the Committee as to (1) height, (2) weight, (3) 
chest-girth, (4) strength. 

18. — The height of 38,953 persons is recorded in Table I., the hori- 
zontal black lines in which indicate the curve of growth formed by the 
' mean ' height at each age, which is 3 feet 5 inches at the age of 5, and 
becomes 5 feet 8 inches at the age of 50. 

19. The weight (with clothes, for which about 7 lbs. may be allowed) 

of 26,560 persons is recorded in Table II. The horizontal black lines in 
this Table indicate the curve of increase in weight formed by the ' mean ' 
weight at each age, which is 4 st. 9 lbs. at the age of 10, and becomes 
11 St. 81 lbs. at the age of 70. 

20. — The chest-girth of 17,883 persons is recorded in Table III., the 
horizontal black lines in which indicate the curve of increase formed by 
the ' mean ' chest-girth at each age, which is 26 inches at the age of 10, 
and becomes 36^ inches at the age of 40. 

21. — The strength, as indicated by the drawing power of the arm, in 
5,039 persons is recorded in Table IV., the horizontal black lines in which 
indicate the curve formed by the variations of the ' mean ' drawing power 
at the successive ages, rising from 35 lbs. at age 11 to 80 lbs. at 
ages 25-30, and falling again to 70 lbs. at the age of 50. 

22. In using Mr. Roberts's tables, however, it is important to bear 

in mind that he employs the term ' mean ' not in the ordinary sense of an 
arithmetical mean or average, but as representing ' the value at which the 
largest number of observations occur,' or that of ' greatest frequency.' 
The arithmetical average is found by him in adults to exceed the 'mean' 
in general by about half an inch. 

23. — In Tables V. and VI. Mr. Roberts is able to show the results 
of a comparison as to the ' average ' height and weight of the several 
classes of the population, distinguished as (1), the professional classes, 
including town and country ; (2), the commercial classes in towns; (3), 
the labouring classes in the country ; (4), the artisans in towns. 

24. — Table V. relates to height, which is taken without shoes. The 
relative position of the four classes stands in the order stated ; classes 1 
and 2 being taller, and classes 3 and 4 shorter, than the general popula- 
tion. This relation is maintained throughout, and the table affords 
material for study as to the comparative effects of occupation and town 
and country life on growth. 

25. — Table VI. relates to weight, which is taken with clothes. The 
relative position of the four classes still stands nearly in the same order, 
class 1 being heavier and class 4 lighter than the general population, but 
class 3 very nearly coincides with the general average, and is in general 
superior in weight to class 2. In other words, the rural occupation of 
the country labourer gives him the advantage in weight over the town 
tradesman, though the latter has the advantage in height. 

26. — Class V. of the classification adopted by the Committee in the 
Report for 1880 — the industrial workers or sedentary trades in towns ; 
and Class VI., the specially- selected occupations, have not f\irnishfd 
returns in suflBcient niiwber tn be available for cpptiparison. 



230 KEPORT — ]881. 

27. — The chairman of the Committee, Mr. Francis Galton, conti'ibutes 
to the Appendix to this Report a paper on the range in height, -weight, 
and strengtli of the different classes at every age. He measures the 
range, not between the maximum and minimum valufes recorded, which 
afford no safe basis for comparison, but through an extension of the 
principle by which the so-called ' probable error ' is ascertained. Thus, 
he first arranges the cases in the order of their magnitude, then he 
cuts off a certain fractional portion of them from either end of the series, 
and measures the difference between the maximum and minimum of the 
intermediate group. The ranges given are between the upper and the 
lower tenths and between the upper and the lower fourths, the value of 
the latter range being identical with twice the ' probable error.' 

28. — Inspector- General Lawson contributes to the Appendix to this 
Report a valuable paper giving the results of the earlier portion of the 
observations furnished to the Committee on eyesight. 

29. — The total number of observations of eyesight collected by the 
Committee has been 2,956 ; many of which, as will be seen by Dr. Law- 
son's paper, are not considered ti'ustworthy. Sufficient, however, have 
now been derived from various independent sources to form a fair average. 

30. — This inquiry as to eyesight has led the Committee to consider 
the very important question of colour-blindness, which has been ascer- 
tained in Germany and America to affect 1 in 25 of the male population, 
and which probably exists in this country to a greater extent than is 
suspected by most people. 

31. — To facilitate the collection of statistics relating to colour-blind- 
ness, the Committee accepted an offer which a member, Mr. Roberts, 
was enabled by the kindness of the Norwegian professor, Daae, to make, 
that he should prepare for publication an English edition of that profes- 
sor's tests for colour-blindness, as published in Berlin ; also a description 
of Professor Holmgren's method, with a revised series of the eyesight 
tests and popular instructions of his own. 

32. — This work has been published in a compact form,' audits applica- 
tion might even be made a parlour pastime, since it requires no special 
qualification in the observer, who may indeed be a colour-blind person him- 
self. The Committee hope that this little book may be widely circulated 
and freely used. This book of teats is in use at Marlborough College, 
and Mr. Roberts conti'ibutes to the Appendix of this report an analysis of 
the observations made on the whole of the boys and masters, 600 in 
number, at present in the College, by the Rev. T. A. Preston, a gentleman 
to whom the Committee arc indebted for many valuable contributions to 
their store of anthropometric observations. 

33. — Mr. Roberts has remarked on this important subject that ' some 
unnecessary alarm will be felt by travellers if they are led to believe that 
colour-blindness is as prevalent among engine-drivers as other men of 
their own class, and that one person in every twenty-five is subject to 
this defect. As a matter of fact, the severer forms of colour-blindness 
are quickly eliminated from the railway services, either by the conscious 
inability of the men to distinguish the signals to which they are daily 
and almost hourly subjected, or by the minor accidents they fall into, 
which leads their employers to dismiss them as careless, incompetent, or 
intemperate servants. It is, however, most desirable that this clumsy and 

' The Detection of Colmir-hlindness and Imperfect Eyesight. By Mr. Charles 
oberts, F.R.C.S. Published, at .5.t., bj' Mr. P.ogue, ^ St. Martin's Place, W.C. 



EErORT OF THE ANTIIBOPOMETUIC COMMITTEE. . 231 

dangerous process of elimination should be superseded by a searching, 
trustworthy method of testing the colour-sense, especially in fresh candi- 
dates for employment on railways and steam- vessels, and it is a disgrace 
to our country — which was the first to discover and investigate the sub- 
ject of colour-blindness and to point out its dangers — that it should bo 
the last to recognise its practical importance. But the subject has a 
much wider bearing than the regulation of traffic by sea and land. As 
many arts and occupations can only be carried on successfully by persons 
who possess a normal colour-sense, the testing of the eyesight, whether 
for colours or objects, should take place in childhood, and before a youtli 
has wasted much time in acquiring technical knowledge which his faulty 
sight precludes him from using to the same advantage as his more fortu- 
nate competitors. Every parent shsuld be cognisant of the condition of 
the colour-sense of his children, in order that he may provide the colour- 
blind ones with suitable occupations. Fortunately the art of testing the 
colour-sense is a very simple one, and is quite within the capacity of a 
schoolmaster or parent of ordinary intelligence, as it requires neither a 
knowledge of the theory of colour-blindness (which, indeed, is not yet 
agreed on by specialists) nor of medicine or surgery.' 

34. — Upon the portion of the reference to them which relates to the 
* publication of photographs of the typical races of the Empire,' the Com- 
mittee have not at present anything to add to previous reports. It was 
intended that a portion of the grant made to the Committee should 
be applied towai-ds this branch of their work, but the more urgent needs 
of the general anthropometric work have absorbed the whole of it. 
Dr. Beddoe, however, has presented a set of photographs of pure High- 
landers, and a collection of Irish types has been made by Mr. Park 
Harrison. 

35. — The total expenditure of the Committee during their six years' 
operations has been only 243L 15s., or about 40Z. a year. This has in- 
cluded the preparing, printing, and circulating of many thousands of 
papers of instructions, forms of returns, cards and other publications, and 
of a costly series of colour-types ; besides the judicious payment of small 
sums, in a few cases, as remuneration to the observers, where their posi- 
tion in life (as regimental sergeants &c.) rendered it desirable ; the 
purchase of photographs and negatives of photographs and of several sets 
of instruments for making measurements, and the cost of clerical labour 
in abstracting the returns. The Committee venture to think that they 
have not improvidently administered the fund at its disposal. 

36. — The Committee could, indeed, not have accomplished the work 
at so small a cost but for the obliging exertions of some of the members, 
notably Sir Rawson W. Rawson and Mr. Roberts. They have also to 
acknowledge the services of several gentlemen, not members of the 
Association, who have kindly consented to act as advisers to the Committee, 
viz. : — Dr. Bain, Dr. Balfour, Inspector-General Lawson, Dr. Waller 
Lewis, and Dr. Ogle. 

37. — It remains to note briefly the work still to be done by the Com- 
mittee in the event of their reappointment. 

38. — First, it is exceedingly desirable that more complete details 
should be obtained with regard to the earlier ages from birth to 10 years, 
a period in which the rate of growth and development is probably more 
affected by external circumstances than in after-life, and which therefore 
lends itself more readily to classification. 



232 REPORT — 1881. 

39. — Secondly, it is of great importance to proceed with the inquiry 
into anthropometric facts relating to females, which has been commenced 
with much zeal by the mistresses of some of the high schools for girls, 
and which by their example may be extended among the various classes 
of girls' schools throughout the kingdom. 

40. — Thirdly, a larger number of statistics are required of individuals 
belonging to class V. — town industrial workers — to form an average for 
comparison with the other classes. 

41. — Fourthly, further observations should be obtained on the colour 
sense and on eyesight. 

42. — Fifthly, the materials already existing should be more completely 
worked out, especially those referring to the colour of hair and eyes, as 
well as the physical proportions of the population in different geographical 
districts, or districts inhabited by persons of different racial origin. 

43. — Lastly, the encouragement in public and private schools and es- 
tablishments of systematic weighing and measuring on fixed principles 
should be continued. 

44. — The Committee have, in conclusion, to state that the assistant- 
secretary, Mr. J. Henry Young, has performed his duties with marked 
intelligence and zeal. 



BEPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 233 



APPENDIX. 

Mr. C. Roberts, ivho has prepared the Tables from I. to VII. for the 
Committee, has contributed the following explanations and remarJcs : — 

Tables I. (height), II. (weight), III. (chest-girth), and IV. (strength), 
are intended to show the chief physical characters of the British race : 
hence the whole number of observations are given to show the range or 
variation of the stature, weight, &c., at each age, and the relative number 
of individuals at each height, weight, &c. ; the mean height, chest-girth, 
weight, and strength being indicated by the horizontal lines crossing the 
columns of figures where the largest number of observations occur. 

Tables V. and VI. show the average stature and weight of different 
classes of the nation, — classes which have been differentiated by social or 
sanitary surroundings and peculiar occupations. 

It is necessary to call attention to the difference between the average 
and the mean as employed in these tables. An average is obtained by 
dividing the sum of the values observed by the number of observations, 
while the mean is the value at which the largest number of observations 
occur (' the value of greatest frequency.') An average is influenced by 
exceptional cases, but a mean disregards exceptional cases and is entirely 
dependent on the predominating numbers ; hence I have employed the 
mean to distinguish the racial type, and the average the variations to 
which the race is subject by the modifying influences of local and excep- 
tional causes. To determine the racial type of a nation by means of an 
average it would be necessary to have all classes of the community 
represented in their due proportions ; but the unequal distribution of 
occupations renders this impossible, unless a general census were taken. 
Even within narrow limits it is almost impossible to obtain observations 
of all the individuals of a class, as the taller and better-developed members 
readily submit to measurement, while the shorter and imperfectly- de- 
veloped evade examination, and the sick and deformed are passed over 
altogether. On the other hand, the determination of the racial type by 
the mean is free from these sources of error, as we disregard both the ill- 
developed and the over-developed individuals, and depend entirely on 
those which represent the medium development of the class or nation. 
Table VII., giving the stature of adult men of different classes of the 
British population shows the difference between the average and the 
mean. In those classes, where all the individuals have been accessible 
and no selection has been attempted, the average and the mean stature 
are almost identical ; but in the case of the recruits for the army, where 
all the men below a certain standard are excluded, the average is an inch 
higher than the mean stature. The average in this case implies that 
recruits are of the same type as the agricultural classes (Class III.), but 
the mean shows that they are really of the type of the town artisan 
class (Class IV.) from which we know they are chiefly drawn. This 
also explains why the average stature of the general population (Table V.) 
J8 half an inch higher than the mean stature (Treble I.) 



234 



EEPORT — 1881. 



The tables show some new and interesting facts in connection with 
the iDhysical development of the body at different periods of life. Below 
the age of ten years the observations are very imperfect, but from that 
age up to sixty years they are very numerous, and fairly representative of 
all classes of the population. 

The accompanying chart (PI. III.) shows graphically the variations in 
the mean height, chest-girth, weight, and strength of the general population 
with advancing age, and the relation of these qualities to each other ; and 
the following figures show their actual value : — 

Relative Increase in the Size, Weight, and Strength of the Body from 

5 to 70 years of age. 



Age 


Height 


Girth 


Weight 


Strength 
(drawing power) 




inches 


inches 


lbs. 


lbs. 


5 


— 


■i 






6 
7 
8 
9 


20 
2-0 
2-0 
2-0 


No observa-1 






' tions at 


ditto 


ditto 


these ages j 






10 


2-0 


— 


— 


— 


11 


20 


•5 


5-0 


— 


12 


20 


•5 


7-5 


2-5 


13 


2-5 


".5 


7-5 


2-5 


14 


2-5 


10 


7-5 


2-5 


1.5 


20 


1-0 


100 


5-0 


16 


2-0 


20 


1.50 


7-5 


17 


1-5 


20 


17-5 


7-5 


18 


1-0 


•o 


7-5 


50 


19 


•5 


•5 


— 


2-5 


20 


— 


— 


2-5 


2-5 


21 


•5 


•5 


— 


2-5 


22 


— 


— 


2-5 


2-5 


2,S 


— 


•5 


— 


— 


24 


— 


— 


2-5 


— 


25-30 


— 


•5 


— 


2-5 


30-40 


— 


— 


2-5 


-2-6-| g 


40-50 


— 


•5 


2-5 


-2-5 ^§ i 


50-60 


•5 


"1 No observa- 
J> tions at these 


2-5 


-5-0 J g ! 


60-70 


— 


2-5 




70- 


— 


J ages. 


2-5 


— 



1. After the age of 10 years the greatest increase in stature takes 
place at 13 and 14 ; in chest-girth at 16 and 17 ; in weight at 15, 16, and 
17 ; and in strength at 15, 16, 17, and 18 years. The chest-girth and the 
strength have a more direct relation to the weight than to the stature. 

2. The stature increases rapidly to the age of 21, after which there is 
a very slow, but decided increase, in all classes (see Table V.), up to the 
age of 70 years. 

3. The weight increases rapidly up to the age of 19, after which it 
continues to increase slowly but uniformly up to the age of 70 years. 

4. The chest-girth increases at a rate similar to that of the weight up 
to the age of 50 years (the limit of the Committee's observations). 

5. The strength increases rapidly and at a rate similar to that of the 
weigbt up to the age of 19, more slowly and regularly up to .30, after 
which it declines at an increasing rate to the age of 60 yeai's. 



Ch art shawin ^^ BvUiajv giverv irv TabhsIJlJE cuulIV 









mYearsJl'i 7 



2m 25-30 30-4O 40-60 50- GO 60-10 




C.Rohert'S 



^oUisyiotdi kC° LtiK ZoTidoTx. 



Ontrt shrtrtii^/he mran Hriglits. ('hrff-dtrths. h'ei^ht&nnti Jtrmgth of tht gtntral population of Or-ratBrif tan gnvnin Tables fJlJU and I\ 




lUtutraimg OitlUpartoF tht, Jnihrvpcnubtn Qir/anUlt^ 



BEPOUT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 235 

The increase of stature throughout life as shown by Tables I. and V. 
is a new and unexpected fact, but it is obviously due to the survival of 
the taller and better developed members of the population, and the elimina- 
tion by disease or death of the smaller and feebler ones. Quetelet has 
stated that man attains his maximum height at the age of 30 years and 
maintains it up to 50 years, after which it begins to recede, and at 90 it 
has lost three inches. This may be true of individuals if measured from 
year to year, but it does not appear to be true of the population in the 
iiggregate. The loss of stature resulting from the degeneration and loss 
of tissues, and the stooping position assumed by old people, is more than 
counterbal9,nced by the survival of a greater number of individuals who 
are above the average in height. The uniform increase in the weight and 
chest-girth throughout adult life also confirms this view. 

The Tables do not show distinctly at what period man attains his full 
stature, and much difference of opinion exists on this subject. Some 
French writers (Barnard, Allaire, &c.) maintain that growth in height 
goes on until the 32nd or 3oth year, and Dr. Baxter arrives at the same 
conclusion from the statistics of the United States Army ; while most 
English writers (Danson, Aitken, Roberts, &c.) regard the 25th as the 
year of mature growth, and Dr. Beddoe places it as early at the 23rd 
year, admitting, however, that a slight increase may take place after this 
age. The difference of opinion on this subject arises, no doubt, from the 
faulty method of relying on the measurements of many dififerent indivi- 
duals, instead of measuring the same individuals from year to year until 
growth ceases. The elimination of the weak and ill-developed by death, 
the difficulty of following the same class, and all the members of the class, 
through successive years, and the selection of special classes (i.e. recruits, 
whose ages are never certain), invalidate all conclusions as to the period 
of maturity, drawn from statistics of measurements of many different 
persons ; but, allowing for these sources of error and judging by the run 
of the curves formed by the means and averages in Tables I. and V., 
it is probable that little actual growth takes place after the age of 21, 
and that it entirely ceases by the 25th year. It is evident, moreovei', 
from Table V., that the full stature is attained earlier in the well-fed 
and most favoured class (Class I.) than in the ill-fed and least favoured 
classes of the community. 



236 








REPORT 


^1881. 


















: \ 


1 


rABLB I. — Showing the Stature (without shoes) 










Whole number of Observations, 


The horizontal 
















Age last 




Height 














































5- 


6- 


7- 


8- 


9- 


10- 


11- 


12- 


13- 


14- 


15- 


16- 




ft. in. 


in. 


























6 5 


77 to 78 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 




6 4 


76- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




6 3 


75- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 




6 2 


74- 


— 


— 





— 


— 





— 








— 


— 


2 




6 1 


73- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


1 


— 




6 


72- 














— 














1 


2 


19 




5 11 


71- 


— 


— 


— 


— 








— 





1 


2 


5 


19 




5 10 


70- 











— 








__ 








4 


17 


57 




5 9 


69- 






















1 





13 


33 


102 




5 8 


68- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


2 


16 


48 


160 




5 7 


67- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





1 





6 


32 


120 


235 




5 G 


66- 




















_ 


__ 


7 


60 


168 


240 




5 5 


65- 


























13 


112 


223 


293 




5 4 
5 3 


64- 
63- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 
6 


28 
47 


130 
192 


332 
353 


389 




336 




5 2 
.0 1 


62- 
61- 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 
1 


12 
28 


85 
131 


256 
378 


495 


278 
229 




461 




6 
4 11 


60- 
59- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


10 
13 


55 
86 


205 
279 


399 


405 
317 


168 
109 




465 




4 10 


58- 


— 








___ 





5 


38 


1.50 


305 


514 


242 


72 




4 9 


57- 














2 


15 


80 


206 


—402— 


351 


127 


48 




4 8 


56- 














3 


31 


104 


276 


373 


239 


72 


20 




4 7 
4 6 


55- 
54- 


— 


— 


— 


1 


8 
23 


73 
111 


210 
296 


314 


371 
246 


138 
58 


38 
20 


4 
3 




295 




4 5 
4 4 


53- 
52- 


— 


— 




4 
5 


43 
107 


203 
296 


294 


279 

278 


116 
66 


33 
16 


10 
2 


1 
2 




.^21 




4 3 
4 2 


51- 
50- 


— 


— 


2 


31 
60 


107 
245 


316 


267 
228 


138 
107 


37 
11 


9 
3 


2 


'~— 




306 




4 1 
4 


49- 
48- 


— 


1 
2 


n 

36 


133 

189 


270 


254 
177 


136 
56 


34 
26 


8 
3 


2 


1 


— 




299 


3 11 


47- 


— 


6 


67 


242 


221 


94 


35 


9 


— 


— 


— 


— 




3 10 


46- 





19 


128 


247- 


160 


45 


15 


2 


— 


— 










3 9 
3 8 


45- 
44- 


2 

7 


25 
50 


142 


186 
129 


67 
24 


24 
4 


1 


1 


— 


~— 


— 


— 




173 




3 7 
3 6 


43- 

42- 


17 

24 


68 


105 
76 


56 
25 


13 

1 


3 

1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 




69 




3 5 


41- 


48 


56 


32 


8 


2 


_ 








— 


— 










3 4 


40- 


32 


18 


10 


5 




_ 


__ 














^ 




3 3 


39- 


29 


10 


_ 


1 








.^ 





— 


— 










3 2 


38- 


10 


2 


1 


__ 


„ 








— 


— 


— 










From 3-1 


37-38 


5 


2 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 




Total 


174 

41-0 


328 
43-0 


784 


1322 


1656 


1952 


2107 


2306 


2742 


3429 


3495 


2786 








Mean Height . . . 


45-0 


47-0 


49-0 


51-0 


53-0 


55-0 


57-5 


60-0 


62-0 


64-0 






— 


2-00 


2-00 


2-00 


2-00 


2-00 


2-00 


2-00 


2-50 


2.50 


2-00 


2-00 









fiBPORT Of THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



237 



of the General Population of Great Britain. 

black lines show the mean stature for eacli age. 





Birthday 






















Centi- 
metres 


































17- 


18- 


19- 


20- 


21- 


22- 


23- 


24- 


25-30 


30-40 


40-50 


50-60 


60-70 


70- 









... 


_ 


_ 














2 








195-5- 




— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 





__ 





1930- 






2 


— 


2 


3 


1 


3 


— 


1 


4 


5 








1 


190-5- 




4 


3 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


9 


8 


3 


4 





., 


187-9- 




2 


t 


10 


6 


16 


11 


12 


5 


26 


14 


19 


4 


2 





185-4- 




11 


32 


24 


14 


26 


15 


10 


18 


55 


46 


28 


4 


1 


2 


182-8- 




51 


60 


52 


42 


42 


43 


25 


24 


88 


84 


44 


22 


9! 


1 


180'3- 




131 


134 


83 


53 


97 


57 


49 


37 


152 


127 


100 


15 


1 


2 


177-8- 




200 


235 


128 


85 


93 


82 


63 


55 


213 


249 


155 


26 


5 


2 


175-2- 




254 
847 
355 


282 

329 

—312— 


186 
232 


112 
129 


107 

—109 

140 


90 

—96 

96 


95 
—105 

98 


78 

—101 

81 


245 
—321 

288 


297 

—332 

360 


158 
—196 

203 


33 


5 


1 


172-7- 
170-1- 
167-6- 




33 

28 


6 
9 


1 
1 




203 


130 




—372— 


319 


183 


121 


95 


73 


81 


68 


243 


241 


157 


19 


5 




165-1- 




320 


221 


161 


99 


54 


46 


78 


61 


153 


180 


103 


12 


1 


1 


162-5- 




283 


195 


104 


63 


23 


29 


18 


42 


74 


105 


54 


11 


2 




160-0- 




203 


132 


61 


34 


11 


9 


13 


24 


89 


60 


35 


8 


1 


, 


157-4- 




118 
62 


47 
15 


23 
9 


19 


3 
1 


1 


4 


2 
5 


15 

4 


22 
13 


17 
9 


4 
2 


1 


— 


154-9- 
162-4- 




19 
17 


5 
3 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


6 


5 


4 


— 


— 





149-8- 










— 


~ 


— 


— 


1 


4 


— 





— 





147-3- 




7 
3 
3 


— 


1 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 





144-7- 




— 





— • 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


142-2- 




~^ 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


139-7- 




*^ 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


137-1- 
134-6- 
132-0- 
129-5- 
127-0- 








— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


124-4- 




""" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


121-9- 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


652 


658 


602 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


119-4- 
116-9- 
114-3- 
111-7- 
109-2- 
106-6- 
104-1- 
101-6- 
99-0- 

93 9- 




2764 


2336 


1463 


915 


824 


1935 


2152 


1293 


225 


41 


12 


38953 




65-5 


66-5 


67-0 


67-25 


67-5 


67-5 


67-5 


67-5 


67-5 


67-5 


67-5 


68-0 


68-0 


— 


— 




1-50 


1-00 


•50 


■25 


•25 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


•50 


— 


— 


— 



238 



EEPOUT — 1881. 






I CO I iH .-H r-« 

' h I 



1 1 -■" I 1-^ I M I I 



(N ( tJH (>» CQ rt< rM CO O C< T-t Tj^ I CO i-H (M 



I '"^'^ I I I 







r-i 






'*• 



3 "5 



>-*CiO I— < ^» O i^iO COCO^^»ft-**CDCO 



lOr-fN'oCC'r* CO t- O CICC t-<-H-^»J^COU5if5 



I f-1 o o -« t- 

I .-1 C^ M rH 



t* trs -^ CO M rH i-H 









r-t T~* Ot Q^ 



CI c^ 



o 




C4 


171 






-#QOlOaONt--U5CD010 r-*r-i 
tCl^COtOrHQ0-«^(N r-( 

C» M *< r-( i-H 



•^ o w o ■ 








1 


1 « 





i-( 1-H i-H -^ C^ <£) I- I 



i-((NCOOC100'<t<CO»>- Q0»-<eO l^ CI 
t^^L-j^C^cO-^OaSQO t-QOCO 
rHrHClMCOeOTt<C0C^ i-H 



' .-4 rH W W '^ -H 



tMC-lCC-fCOCiOOCNCO t--OCC» O C^iM 
i-Ht-iC^COCO-^ CO<N 



I 1 



^ rH (M (Tl C^ !-• 



.— i(n»oco ir4??cM c; oo«-( 



I I I M I I i 1 I 



« K 



I I 



I ii-((Mr-ci-f*oloci.-' I 

I I rH CO O CO lift O i-H i 



I I I I I I I 

Ci i« T— ( t* CO Oi U3 
»C -^ CO .-I O CO t- 
O* W C% W « i-H rH 



t-COCO U5 lO -^ -^CO COC^iMrHnHOOOlClQO GOt-fc* CO 50 



1115 

»o o »o 
tn u» 1^ ' 



P4 



•a 

o 



;^ 



REPOKT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



239 





1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

CO \^ ^i '^ ^ '^ <^ ici <yi 


■Jl CJ CO 


olo!.L:L<^'.^TJ<,.i,c!, J,cl4oici 


C~ 
CC 

00 






6% 


•*^cii-+.^02ocb 


.^ do o 


CC 1— ' X' cb «5 — H 'Xi O W O ob >0 CO 


1 


1 


i-lrHOOOOOl0505 


Ol «3 00 


GO XI W L-. 1-- L^ CD C£> tD CO UO U5 UO 


I- 

r-t 


1 


1 




c 


»-l<Nt>»'-t^or^iooI:^ 


(M -f CO 


O t^""*!!!! I lllft 


fM 


§ 


•o 






<N ^H <N C^ -^ lO 


CO -d* ^ 

1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 


CD 
CO 


CO 
CO 




— i-*i>.ioeoot^o>Tj< 


1 

i~ ■* to 


t-^^b-(Mr-1,T-( , 1 , T , , 


s" 


>o 

CI 




(N CO «0 0> r-l Tf 


r~ lO — 1 


>0 (M 1 


cr> 


G*l 






rH T-H 


1— 1 1— 1 1— ( 


1 1 i 1 1 1 1 


o 






CO 




1 




"— ' 


CO 




o 

=0 


C-I ^H -^ (>) t^ 0> CO (M O- 
(N (M COO CO 


o 


o o 

CO l^ 


CO 00 c* >o -^ 




^ 




OCOrHi-l II 1 llll) 




^k 


T— ( tH 


T— t 


r^ 1—1 


" 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


o 


to 






'M 










1-1 


CO 




1 




1 






>o 


>o 




-r 


1 1 rH IM ■* 05 lO r)< O 


O C5 t-* 


CO X o t~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


— . 


1;* 


G^ 




(N 


11 i-< CO to 


GO 00 Ci 


^--^ III 1 1 1 1 1 1 




CO 








1 






o 


>o 






1 , rt •* JO la lO (N 


CO uo so 


C~ O 00 C-. , T-l , , II,,. 


o 


»c 


'M 




TO 


J 1 .-1 CO o 


t~ o o 


CO CO 


l^ 


CO 






C^ 




T^ 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 






1 


i-Hi-H UO CO «0 O 


O CO 


o 


1^ CO t^ CO Tf 


1—1 


CI 


(>1 




tM 


III rH CO l^ 


O CO 


« 


00-* r-H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


to 




(M 


1 1 1 


»— 1 T— 1 


1-^ 


1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CD 


lb 

CO 


^' 


1 


1— < T— 1 CO tC to o <M 


00 CO 


l^ 


Ol (M 'Jl CO t;< -* i-H IN 


l'-^ 


o 

o 






II 1-1 Tt< 00 


iC l~ 




O lO (M 1 1 1 1 1 


CO 




<M 




1—1 r-4 


?^ 


T-^ 1 1 1 1 1 


00 


CO 




f 


1-H O CO 00 CO 


1-1 fM 


o 


CO CO iri iC 00 iH T-< 


a^ 


lO 


o 




O 


III! ^H 1-1 CO l^ 


CO o 


1^ 


t^ t> CO 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


I- 


h" 


C-J 




OJ 




T-l (M 


-M 


^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 


o 


1^ 
















1—1 


CO 




C3* 






1 




















o 


o 


j: 


1 


1 1 , 1 <M l» O --I 00 


^ CM O 


COOC5<7TiO-!iHi— 1 1 1 ,1—1, , 


^ 


o 


o 


c- 


1 1 1 1 t-l ■* l^ 


o;^ CO -^ 


»0 00 00 CO 1-1 1 


Oi 


^ 




tH 


»— ( 




T— ( CO -H 


CO 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 


t-^ 




s 

1^ 






1 




t-l 


CO 




r 


rt !M SM O O CO 


^ f IN 


CO ^ t- CO tH G^l -^ CI 1-1 


o 


o 


o 


c: 


oo 


III <N UO <N 


O lO UO 


•M (M lO t^ CO 1-1 II II 


^ 


o 


»o 


'~-' 


^H 


111 T-l 


CM CO O 


O CO rH II 1 J 


-^ 


* 


CJ 










(M 


CO 




to 






















1 , 




o 


o 






1 I 1 I , CO ^^ »— < rH 


T)< ^ CO 


'^l-^iM^GOT-lr^Ttli-lT-l, , , 


CO 


>p 


o 




l~ 


II .-1 CO L^ 


CD CO CO 


(M >0 r-t O iO CM T-H 1 


1^ 


CO 

CO 






l-H 




1-1 (M CO 


-rti CO <M 1-1 III 


O 
CJ 


(M 








1 




o 


o 




J. 


1 1 t 1 1 1 1 00 s^ 


A O^ CO 


'<^CS'^(MCOO^iO-^l>-CN 1 , , 


o 


ip 


o 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rH 


(M CO O 


coasoocooi^'^tM 1 1 1 


00 


1—1 
CO 


(N 




»-H 




T-l 


T-l T-H 1-1 i-H T-l rH III 

1 


e-1 

1— I 








1 




o 


o 




1 




(M la CI 


Oi (N O '^ CTj l^ (M <M 1— ■ T-* 5<I I , 


lO 


to 


o 




lO 


II 


1-1 <N 


lO^O^COOt^OCM'^^i-t 1 1 


CI 


C5 
CI 


T— ( 




t-t 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1— 1 (M CO CM <M (N 1-1 ' ' 

1 


T— 1 








1 




o 


o 




1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <M 


1 CO »r; 


OCC<M-^!MC:>OOiC-<t<OOTt<i— 1 1 


-f 


•o 


9 




•^^ 






T-Hi— ICOC-COCDiOCOCDi-) 1 


m 


do 

CI 


1—1 




1— t 






i-« 1—1 1-1 rH * 

1 


00 








1 




o 


C' 




? 




1 1 »-< 


r-(dT-<00COt^(MCOC5COCOi-l , 


CO 


>o 


lO 




CO 


1 1 1 1 1 




lMi*OOCO>OOOCOi-l 


Oi 


Cl 






1—1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 


^T 


lO 




1 






rH l>-iO CO '^ 


CD CM Ci Tj< (M (M 


oo 


o 
o 


o 




<M 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 


II n< t~ CO 


O CD i-( 


lO 




rH 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 


1 1 T* 


^-^ 


■cf 


c^ 










1 




o 


o 




1 


t 1 ■ ■ I • • I I 


I 


, , r-t G^ t-- O <0 T-t (M -^ (M -^ 1-1 


03 


iC 


Ip 




1— I 






1 1 rH lO CD O Ci CO T-t 


l^ 


CO 
CI 






rH 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 


* ' T— 1 

1 


CO 




1 






1-4 CO 1-1 CI 


1>- Oi iTi CO r-l 


CI 


o 
o 






O 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 


llll (M CO CO 


^CO 


CI 


1 




r-t 


1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 


1 1 1 


llll 




(N 


cb 

CI 


I 




CO 












-a 


^ 












.4^ 173 






(M 








;-, Of 


o 




c^ 








Z 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f 

»O-^C0C<li-HO0S00t^ 

rH"*Tl<TJ<Tj<Tj<COCOCO 


CO »0 T}< 


1 ! 1 1 t 1 I I 1 r 1 1 1 

ep©^rHoai06t^ cd io-^cog^*-^ 

«0COCOCO(NG^CN (N CN(N<NC^(N 






o 

en 


CO CC CO 




c 


Ct 


m >~^ 






a 


Qi 


ci 




«> _ 








c; 


o 








2 


t 


s 


c 



240 



REPORT — 1881. 



Kilo- 
grammes 


1 t 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 ( 1 f 1 1 lit 1 


13-7- 

11-4- 

9-1- 


05 
CO 


1 


1 


s, 

bo 

< 


o 


1 1 j J 1 J 1 1 jr-trH.C^C<)i-ICN'«*<CD 


.oco^l 1 1 1 1 1 


CO 


9 
o 


1 


o 
o 


1 )-" 1 1 1^ 1 1 [""^"'^ggJ 


C- CO fM CO lO <N CM T-l , , , 

<>. ^ III 


1—1 


o 


1 


o 

TO 


1 


CO 




1 


TO 


, 1-H ,-H T-H 1 (M (M if^ , O Tt^ 'to i-H r-1 -rj- O 
1 I 1 1-1 (M '.^ CO I--. 00 


O O S-l 00 l^ CO , , , , , , 

o 00 =o<>a llllll 


00 
>t5 


o 
o 

00 


UO 

1 




1 
1 i 1 1 1 1 1^ l^^'"^2S?5g5§S2^'^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 


02 




1 


1 

II III 1 r-((MrH(NCOTO.-l 1 III! 

1 






1 


0^ 


1 
llll 1 --(.-HCMtN(MCO(Mi-l III 

1 


1 1 1 


O 






1 


1 1 1 1 |t-t|THfH-^r-iOiOQOOOr^ 
lllll 1 rHi— lr-l^JCO<M 


CO <N^, llllll 


CO 
5^ 


o 
lb 




1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 |T)<S«-*»CC>C<NQOO-t<'M<M(MCOT((eO| | 1 1 1 
lllllll i-llMr-iroCOCOMCOr-l lllll 

1 


C3 
■ O 


ip 


•p - 


1— I 


I |»— trHrHi-f |COCNlOC01>u:5COt--COOOO 

II 1 T-t 1-1 rH (M T^ CO ''Ji 


,-1 ^ -H rH OrH 1 
to U3 CO 1-1 1 


1 1 1 


00 
CO 


o 
o 




^ 


I 

1 1 I |<^^r-^l-^l-^TJ^C0t--^C:O0^^(M<^^Tt^OlOiC00CN i 
llll .-li-(C<Ji-iCO-<^iOiOCD'«(J1CN 1 

1 


1 1 1 


in 




o 
lb ^ 




1 

1 1 l^'-t Ii-iCOtHCO-^ |00^10l-*COi— lCJCtii-lOiOO<N 
III 1 1 t-ii-l,-(<NO'^OiOOS^i-l 

1 


^ 1 1 


00 
00 

CO 


to 




I 

1— 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1- 1 I'^^'^'-S^SSSS 


O' <M O .1 
t>- O CO (M 


00 1 1 


00 
CO 


9 




I 

T— 1 


1 

1 1 1 1 1 l'~''^l 1 l5'ii-HM^oeoooooOt-.(MCj-j<<:> 

llllll III T-(T-IOST»>U50000U5 


r-( 1 


CO 




o 
•b 


4 


1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 |r-(fHi-l.-lr-(1-ICOl~O5-HO3r-(C0-*00 
llllllllll SMrllOtOl'O 

1 


t^ CO rH 


I* 

CO 


ira 


no 


?5 ! 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r-^ 1 """--« 




IM CO 1 

r-t 1 


CI 
r-i 


o 

o 




1 


1 

M 1 1 M M 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 I 1 1 ">'^^^ 

1 


»o CO 1 


TJ1 


I*"- 

CO 


■p 


J^ 


1 1 1 1 1 M 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 III ""'""' 


to-* 1 


1^ 


9 

'O 

CO 


1 


Drawing 

Strength. 

lbs. 


o 

CO 

T— t 

iO^D-^-^eOCOIN'Nr-lrtOOCsmCOOO t> l-» WOO >0>ai-* CO 


30- 
25- 
Frora 20 to 25 


3 





REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



241 



The following is a copy of the drawing- and instructions issued by the Committee 
to observers in collecting statistics of strength : — 




The above figure represents the position in which the strength of arm should be 
tested. The right or left arm, whichever is the stronger, should be used to draw, 
and the other to resist. The resisting arm must be free, and extended straight from 
the side, as nearly as possible in the line of the shoulders, and the hand of the other 
arm brought back towards the ear, as an archer uses a bow. 



1881. 



242 



BBPORT 1881. 



Table V. — Showing the average Stature (ivitliout sJioes) of difTereut 
classes of the Population of Great Britain. 



Age 

last 

Birth 

day 


General 

Population. 

AU Classes. 

Town and Countr. 


Class I. 
Professional 
Classes. 
f Town and Countrj 


Class II. 

Commercial 

Classes. 

Towns 


Class III. 

Labouring 

Classes. 

Country 


Class IV. 
Artisans 
Towns 


O 




o p 

1— I 


i 

o 

1 


> 01 c 


is 


til 

O 

d 


III 

& a> s 


if 


o 

d 

|25 


fe.'^-g 

^ <^ a 


a M 


O 
d 

12; 


Is's 


w to 


Birtl 
1- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


100 


19-34 


— 


3- 

i- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


- 


— 


- 


— 


- 


21 


38-45 


— 


•->- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 


41-09 


2-64 


G- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


43-28 


2-19 


/ — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


46-16 


— 


— 


— 


— 


53 


45-71 


2-43 


S- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16 


47-31 


1-15 


268 


47-03 


— 


176 


47-06 


1-35 


.9- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


81 


50-18 


2-87 


418 


49^06 


2-03 


358 


48-94 


1-88 


10- 


1551 


51-84 


— 


101 


53-69 


— 


331 


52-04 


1-S6 


783 


50^93 


1-87 


336 


50-72 


1-78 


11- 


1766 


53-50 


1-66 


242 


55-23 


1-54 


687 


53-7G 


1-72 


597 


52'32 


1-39 


240 


52-68 


1-96 


12- 


1981 


54-99 


1-49 


490 


57-29 


2-06 


902 


55-29 


1-53 


395 


53-67 


1-35 


194 


53-72 


1-04 


13- 


2743 


5G-91 


1-92 


869 


59-08 


1-79 


857 


57-43 


2-14 


403 


55-31 


1-64 


614 


55-81 


2-09 


14- 


3428 


59-33 


2-42 


966 


61-29 


2-21 


800 


59-47 


2-04 


9 


57-94 


2-63 


1653 


58-61 


2-80 


l.j- 


3507 


62-24 


2-01 


974 


63-61 


2-32 


644 


62-19 


2-72 


515 


61-82 


3-88 


1465 


61-36 


2-75 


IC- 


2780 


64-31 


2-07 


1102 


66-23 


2-62 


110 


64-55 


2-36 


177 


63-62 


180 


1391 


62-85 


1^49 


17- 


2745 


66-24 


1-93 


1852 


67-81 


1-58 


107 


66-59 


2-04 


75 


65-87 


2-25 


711 


64-70 


1-85 


18- 


2305 


66-96 


-73 


1724 


68-26 


-45 


62 


67-44 


-85 


148 


66-53 


•66 


371 


65-60 


•90 


19- 


1435 


67-29 


•33 


951 


68-58 


•32 


63 


67-55 


•11 


143 


66-87 


•34 


277 


66-17 


-57 


20- 


880 


67-52 


•23 


461 


69-08 


— 


61 


67-58 


-03 


183 


66-93 


•06 


175 


66^50 


•33 


21- 


757 


67 63 


•11 


364 


68-70 


-12 


51 


67-79 


•21 


177 


67-15 


•22 


165 


66-55 


•05 


22- 


558 


67-68 


-05 


227 


68-94 


— 


53 


67-82 


•C3 


169 


67-35 


•20 


109 


66-60 


•05 


23- 


592 


67-48 


— 


114 


68-73 


-03 


59 


67-42 


— 


274 


67-38 


•03 


145 


66-40 


— 


24- 


517 


67-73 


-05 


57 


68-82 


-09 


62 


68-09 


•27 


258 


67-47 


•09 


140 


66-55 


— 


25- 














/4T 


67-93 


— 


218 


67-52 


-05 


92 


66-40 


— 


2G- 














47 


68-07 


_ 


194 


67-4G 


— 


74 


66-4C 


— 


27- 


y-1794 


67-80 


-07 


107 


69-14 


•32 


J 27 


68-13 


•04 


162 


67-76 


-21 


66 


66-67 


•07 


28- 














33 


67-65 


— 


208 


67-31 


— 


69 


66-65 


— 


29- 














i 26 


67-96 


— 


163 


67-54 


— 


53 


66-82 


•16 


30-35 
35-40 


)-1886 


68-00 


-20 


52 


69-61 


-37 


85 
( 82 


67-70 
68-07 


— 


745 
631 


67-59 
67-62 


— 


ISO 
111 


66-65 

67-08 


•26 


40-.'-,0 


1148 


67-96 


— 


46 


69-38 


— 


79 


68-09 


— 


943 


67-56 


— 


80 


66-80 


— 


50-00 


198 


67-92 


— 


13 


69-50 


— 


16 


67-69 


— 


147 


68-06 


-30 


22 


66-45 


— 


60-70 


44 


67-41 


— 


S 


69-10 


— 


3 


66-16 


— 


34 


67-88 


— 


2 


66-60 


— 


70- 


12 


69-22 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


68-50 


— 


11 


69-95 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total 
Obs. 


31627 




— 


10717 


— 


— 


5195 


— 


— 


8448 


— 


— 


9410 


— 


— 



KErOKT OF THE ANTHROPOMETraC COMMITTEE. 



243 



Table VI. — Showing the average "Weight (indmllng clothes) of different 
classes of the Population of Great Britain. 



Age 
last 
Birth- 
day 


General 

Population. 

All Classes. 

Town and Country 


Class I. 

Professional 

Classes. 

Town and Country 


Class II. 

Commercial 

Classes. 

Towns 


Class III. 

Labom-iug 

C Lasses. 

Country 


Class IV. 
Artisans. 
Towns 

1 


i 

O 

o 


SO- 


S5 


o 

c 






• 

o 

d 
'A 


1^ - 

-5^ 


6 


O 
d 
-A 


1^ - 




o 

d 


7- .5 


_ 1 


Birth 


-^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— . 




— 


— 


— 


100 


1- 


— 


— 




— 


__ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


G- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


-— 


— 


— 


— 


7- 





— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8- 








— 








— 





— 


— 


238 


55-3 


— 


1!5 


53-7 


— 


9- 





— 


— 





— 


— 


81 


GO-3 


— 


345 


61-2 


5-9 


296 


58-3 


4-6 


10- 


1464 


G7-5 


— 


92 


74-0 


— 


370 


65-2 


4-9 


721 


67-0 


5-8 


281 


64-0 


5-7 


11- 


1599 


72 


4-5 


18-5 


78-7 


4-7 


686 


G8-0 


2-8 


553 


72-2 


5-2 


175 


69-0 


5-0 


12- 


1786 


76-7 


4-7 


369 


84-9 


6-2 


905 


73-2 


5-2 


366 


75-9 


3-7 


146 


73-0 


4-0 


13- 


2443 


82-G 


5-0 


621 


91-6 


6-7 


854 


80-1 


6-9 


328 


79-7 


3-8 


640 


79-0 


6-0 


14- 


2952 


92-0 


9-4 


748 


102-2 


10-6 


799 


89-5 


9-4 


9 


89-2 


9-5 


1396 


87-3 


8-3 


15- 


3118 


102-7 


10-7 


652 


114-3 


12-1 


344 


99-4 


9-9 


676 


100-6 


11-4 


1446 


96-4 


9-1 


16- 


2235 


119-0 


16-3 


834 


129-5 


15-2 


55 


117-2 


17-8 


169 


117-2 


16-6 


1177 


112-2 


15-8 


17- 


2496 


130-9 


11-0 


1705 


141-7 


12-2 


38 


128-8 


11-6 


80 


131-5 


14-3 


673 


121-5 


9-3 


18- 


2150 


137-4 


G-5 


10.38 


146-4 


4-7 


39 


135-1 


6-3 


135 


138-7 


7-2 


338 


129-3 


7-8 


19- 


1438 


139-6 


2-2 


940 


148-5 


21 


69 


13S-fi 


3-5 


140 


140-2 


1-5 


289 


131-1 


1-8 


20- 


851 


143-3 


3-7 


451 


152-4 


3-0 


52 


140-1 


1-5 


175 


144-3 


4-1 


173 


136-4 


5-3 


21- 


738 


145-2 


1-9 


365 


1.52-7 


-3 


52 


143-9 


3-S 


164 


147-8 


3-5 


157 


13G-2 


— 


22- 


542 


146-9 


1-7 


215 


1.52-8 


-1 


51 


145-5 


1-6 


167 


150-6 


2-8 


109 


138-6 


2-2 


23- 


551 


147-8 


•9 


112 


151-5 


— 


57 


146-8 


1-3 


279 


152-8 


2-2 


103 


140-2 


1-6 


24- 


483 


1480 


-2 


56 


149-6 


^- 


57 


147-1 


. -3 


250 


151-9 


— 


120 


143-4 


3-2 


25- 


\ 












/45 


148-5 


1-4 


224 


154-1 


1-3 


61 


139-9 


— 


26- 














46 


154-1 


5-6 


192 


164-1 


— 


5S 


142-2 


— 


27- 


-1559 


152-3 


4-3 


115 


15G-3 


3-5 


.^26 


149-2 


— 


171 


156-7 


2-6 


56 


146-9 


6-5 


28- 














33 


156-1 


2-0 


213 


155-1 


— 


50 


148-0 


1-1 


29- 


/ 












1 26 


154-3 


— 


161 


158-0 


1-3 


46 


148-1 


-1 


30-35 


964 


159-8 


7-5 


24 


171-5 


15-2 


87 


158-5 


2-4 


700 


].'i9-2 


1-2 


153 


150-1 


2-0 


35-40 


840 


164-3 


4-5 


24 


173-5 





80 


166-6 


8-1 


631 


160-5 


1-3 


105 


156-5 


G-4 


40-50 


1040 


163-3 


— 


44 


172-5 


1-0 


72 


168-6 


2-0 


911 


162-0 


1-5 


113 


151-7 


— 


50-60 


179 


16G-1 


1-8 


13 


174-5 


2-0 


16 


173-4 


4-8 


129 


170-9 


8-9 


21 


145-6 


— 


60-70 


35 


l.-)S-l 


2-0 


5 


164-5 


— 


3 


165-7 


— 


24 


170-9 


— 


3 


130-S — 1 


70- 

Total 
Obs. 


v: 


18-2-] 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


189-0 


— 


11 


175-3 


4-4 


— 


— 




29475 


— 


— 


9208 


- 


— 


4944 




— 


8162 




— 


8300 


— 


— 



K 2 



•244 



EEPORT — 1881. 






a 

o 
o 






bXi 






"3 








^•S 










r^ 




£S 


1 1 1 1 1 1 IT) CO .-H r^ i:,- -:t> 05 O O 1 | | | | | | 


Oi 


iC 


Oi 




1 1 1 M 1 ^ 


-^ r- rt ^rH 1 1 1 1 1 I 


o 


-^ 


ih 




32 








CO 


C5 




CCrt 












, 














OJ 






1 








m 


- to 




1 








to 


eo a> 




1 








O 




1 1 1 .M 5-1 tc t^ oo o 


o<^1^!^^0505(^^lO•*''-l'M 1 


^ 


ip 




§2 


1 1 1 -H Cq 


■* CO uo O (M (M 1-H 1 


CO 


CO 


to 














s 


-^ « 












CD 


























1 

1— H 


2 S 

Si 


1 1 ^ Jl rt to O Ci -^ 


CO 'X 


■OOO— '— lt^5<l>-^rt 1-^ 




C' 


■jr- 




II CM <M 'tl 


l^ c^ 


L^ t^ Tf C^ ^ 1 


0-- 


CO 
CO 


^o 




"i-< — 














^ 


Ph-S 














a 
















73 




1 










."i^ Q? ^-_ 




1 






-:t< 




r* ^ '-'t— 


1 1 1^1 1 CO 00 S-) 


I-l TI< 0-. o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


-f 


»p 


T 




3 :_ S =» 


III II i-H 


■-H i-< 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CO 


CO 


r^ 




S 3 i^ -^ 




1 




CO 


IZ> 






1 








.■>. . « £ i 












Class V 
Sedentar 

Occupa- 
tions : 
Factorie 
hoemake 

Tailors 


1 1 1 I-H 1 Tt< O: 00 CO 


(NCOCO — (M^COT-lrill 1 1 


CO 


XO 


CM 

OS 


1 1 1 1 "-1 


5^ 5^ ^ CO —1 1-1 III 


en 


lb 

CO 


lb 
to 


en 














1 1 1 'M C^l CO -i^ lO ^ 


t^ OC -t< 00 t> -*< lO 5-1 1 1 1 1 


c^ 


»p 


o 


Class 
Arti 

CI as 
livin 

To\\ 


III TH rt ^ 


IC5 t^ CO CO r-( 1 1 1 1 


CO 


CO 

CO 


i 
o 


3 g w 3 oT m 




1 








7? O C3 o .— "J 


1 -H -O -H -^ (>> CO CO C' 


C-. ^-JOlOOOCOrltN^— 1 


■.-5 


"? 


T— 1 


1 t-H IN ■* lO O CO 


I- ^ i-< CO CO CN 1 




t*-- 


w 


n .^ Pt- r- ^ « 


r-* 1 — I 


r^ r—* r-^ 


CO 


--0 


'^ -Si 




1 








II. 

cial 

es, 

and 

■pers 










vO 




I 1 I O-l CD CC -*^ <^ lO 


lO -f Oi .-^ ur; -^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 


o 


o 


05 


III T-l CO 'N 


CO (M ^ 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


00 


do 


w 








CO 


to 


• 










Q CO 










--- 


"3 


1 








M a o) 


1 










O <D 


1 








^ 


••" -31 S 


I 1-^ CO t^ c; ^ o Ico 


COOO-^fNfNI^I 1 1 I 1 


l^ 


o 


T* 


M a; cfi 

C3 ■'" C3 


II tN tM rH 


rH 1 1 1 1 1 1 


o 


OJ 


CT> 


-i- ,QJ ^- 








to 


a'S'^ 












li 












(X, 










— 


■■^ <1J -^ 












1— < O Q^ 0) 














2 •-=: .S '§ 












^ 


Metro] 

tan Po 

andF 

Briga 


•-( 1 <N t^ CO 0>1 00 


t^ CO 


(M CO CN n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


■x 


o 


o 


1 rt <N CO 


CO <>J 


^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CD 


o 


ci> 


o: 




1 








'-' ° S! 




1 








2- 2 




1 






-* 


S « 'S 


T-I.-IOCOIOOO(M CO O 


^HOOCOCO-^OSLCS^CO^rH 1 


lO 


in 


in 


JlS 


<m lO 00 lO — . -t< 


5-) 00 -J< >0 W CO r-l 1 


CO 


co 




.-( (M <N 


CO (M C^ T-l 


C5 


CO 


PL, a 














t~ 


t^ 


. 








C^ 


lO 




■!-> 




.COiO^COtNW O Ci 

1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 


COt^ COiO'^CO'Nr-IOCnOO _ 




J= 




coco COCDCOCOCOCCCOiOuoO 

II 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 '^^ 




_W) 




-S--^ 


COO^COIM— lO CTJ 00 


t^co lr5*1^co(^^^^oC500l>co 




w 

ca 
a; 


2 

0) 




t^ t^ !>. i> t> i^ r^ CO CO 


coco COCDCDCOCOCOiOiO»0»0 

p 








^ 

(^ 


^ 


> 

< 



REPORT OF THE ANTIIROPOMETEIC COMMITTEE. 245 

'Mv. Francis Galton vjJio has prepared the Tahles VIII. to X. on the Range 
in Height, Weight, and Strength, has contributed the following remarks 
upon them. 

In determining the range I have employed and extended the method 
by which the so-called ' probable error ' is found. That is to say, the 
observations in each series were arranged in the order of their respective 
magnitudes, beginning with the lowest and ending with the highest. A 
definite fraction was then cut off from either end of the series ; the values 
at tbe exact points where the divisions took place were ascertained by 
interpolation, and the diiference between these gave the range of the in- 
termediate portion. 

The fractions so cut ofE were — (1) a half; this gave simply the median 
value : (2) a quarter ; this gave the upper and lower ' quartile ' values, 
and consequently the ' interquartile ' range (which is equal to twice the 
' probable error ') : (3) a tenth ; this gave the upper and lower ' decile ' 
values, and consequently the ' iuterdecile ' range. The following are the 
definitions of these terms, Median, Quartile, and Decile : — 

The Median, in height, weight, or any other attribute, is the value 
which is exceeded by one-half of an infinitely large group, and which the 
other half falls short of. 

The Ujjper Quartile is that which is exceeded by one-fourth part of an 
infinitely large group, and which the remaining three-fourths fall short 
of. Conversely for the Loiver Quartile. 

The Upper Decile is that which is exceeded by one-tenth of an in- 
finitely large group, and which the remaining nine-tenths fall short of. 
The Lower Decile is the converse of this ; one-tenth falls short of it, and 
nine-tenths exceed it. 

Each line of the annexed tables is to be read as in the following 
instance, taken from the fourth line of Table Villa. 

Example: — 869 observations were made of boys of the professional 
classes, of 13 yeai-s of age, whence it appears that — 

(1) There are as many boys above the height of 59-0 inches as below 
it. This Median value differs from the Average value by 0-1 inch, 
which shows a trifling want of symmetry in the distribution of the 
heights. 

(2) One-fonrth of the boys exceeds the height of 60-9 inches, and 
another fourth falls short of 57-1 inches; in consequence, the difference 
of 3-8 inches defines the range in height of the intermediate two-fourths, 
or middle half, of the boys. 

(3) One-tenth of them exceeds 62-8 inches, while another tenth falls 
short of S-S-'i inches. The difference between these numbers is 7"4, which 
defines the range in height of the intermediate eight-tenths, or three- 
quarters of the boys. 

(4) The highest measurement actually taken in these 869 observa- 
tions was 71-5 inches (reckoning to the nearest inch), and the lowest was 
similarly 49-5 inches, showing a diffei'ence of 22 inches. 

Tiic information as to the extreme values that happen to have been 
observed in these 869 cases, is avowedly of little solid value. Their 
magnitude depends to a great degree upon the accident of this particular 
series happening to include, or not to include, one very excejjtional 
instance of great stature and another of small stature. It is beyond the 
power of statistical science to determine the extreme values that might 
possibly be observed. 



246 BEroRT— 1881. 

On the other hand, the Median, Decile, and Qaai'tile values possess a 
trustworthiness of the same order as that of the Average or Ai'ithmetic 
Mean values. They are not sensibly affected by a solitary accident, and 
a moderately large series of observations is sufficient to determine them 
with as much precision as is needful for ordinary statistical purposes. 

A small error in the position of the medians, quartiles, &c., causes an 
error in their values proportional to the tangent of the circumscribing curve 
at the corresponding points. On protracting the curves for height, weight, 
and strength from their tabular values, it appears that the tangents at 
the quartiles are but little greater than those at the medians, but that the 
tangents at the deciles are about twice as great. Again, the tangents at 
corresponding points in two of these curves, drawn from different num- 
bers of observations (the ordinates relating to the successive values being 
supposed in all cases to stand at the same distances apart), must vary 
inversely as the number of observations. Consequently, in order to as- 
certain decile values in the series with which we are now dealing, with 
the same accuracy as medians and quartiles, we require to have about 
twice the number of observations. 

It appears to be well worth while to print, not only summary tables of 
results, as Table VIII. for the height, and Table IX. for the weight, but 
to supplement these by other tables going more into detail and referring 
to the classes separately. So much has been written on the applicability 
of the Exponential Law of Error to statistical results, that it is important 
to publish material for the more complete discussion of the subject. Into 
the discussion itself, this is hardly the place to enter, further than by 
saying that the median values will be found to conform very closely in- 
deed with the arithmetical means, that the distribution of variations on 
either side of the median value is so symmetrical that the difference be- 
tween either quartile or decile and the median is almost exactly one-half 
of the difference between the two quartiles or the two deciles, and, lastly, 
that the range between the two deciles is very commonly a trifle short 
of double the range between the two quartiles. According to the Ex- 
ponential Law of Error, the results in every case would have been nearly 
the same as these. 

I would refer those who desire to pursue the subject on a theoretical 
basis to a paper of my own on the ' Geometric Mean in Vital and Social 
Statistics,' in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, October, 1879, and 
more especially to the subsequent one by Dr. Donald McAlister on the 
' Law of the Geometric Mean,' in which the equation is given to the cir- 
cumscribing curve, both on the assumption of the arithmetical mean of 
two fallible observations of the same fact being the most probable inference 
from them, and on that of the Geometric Mean being accepted, as I have 
argued that it ought to be, as the more probable inference in all physiolo- 
gical phenomena. 

On the Calculation of Deciles, Quartiles, and Medians. 

The deciles, quartiles, and medians are ordinates to an ideal curve, 
supposed to be constructed as follows : — An infinite number of measure- 
ments, belonging to the same statistical group, are arranged in the order 
of their magnitudes, and ordinates of lengths corresponding I'espectively 
to each of them are erected side by side, at equal, but infinitesimally 
small, distances apart, along a given line AB ; then the curve passing 
through their tops is the curve in question. The median is the ordinate 
corresponding to the abscissa of i'AB ; the lower and upper quai'tiles 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



247 



correspond respectively to :^'AB and to |"AB ; tlie lower and upper 
deciles correspond to j^y AB and to ~^^ AB. It may be remarked that 
the general shape of the cnrve will always resemble that shown in the 
diagram, owing to the recognised statistical fact that medium values are 
much more frequent than extreme ones, deviations from the mean value 
becoming increasingly rare in a rapidly increasing ratio. 

In order to deduce approximately the above-mentioned curve from a 
finite series of n observations, we divide AB into n equal spaces, and 
erect an ordinate in the middle of each of a length proportionate to the 
corresponding datum. The spaces will be defined by divisions that run 
from 0° at A, to ii° at B, and therefore there will be ti + I of them. 
The first ordinate will stand at 0°*5 of the graduated scale, the second at 
1°'5, and so on, while the abscissae of the deciles, quartiles, and medians 
will be at the following positions : to> h l» ?' > t^- The data are grouped 
and tabulated as in columns A and B of the following example, which, 
for the sake of simplicity in illustration, consists of only twelve obser- 
vations. 



Height in 
inches 


Number of 
observations 


Total number of 
previous records 


Halves of the 
entries in 
column B 


Abscissae. 

Sums of the 
columns C and D 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


54 
53 
62 
51 
50 


1 
3 
4 
3 

1 


12 

11 

8 

4 

1 


0-5 
1-5 
2-0 
1-5 
0-5 


12-0 
11-5 
9-5 
60 
2-5 
0-5 



HEIGHT 
IN 

INCHES 

54 

53 
52 
51 

50 




|o 2" 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° I 



B 

2° 



248 REPORT— 1881. 

To work out this case, take a base line AB, divide it iuto twelve 
equal pai'ts, and erect an ordinate (see the dark lines in tLe diagram) in 
the middle of each of them. The first ordinate will reach to 50 inches 
(the lower part of the ordinate is suppressed to save space) ; the next 
three will reach to 51 inches; the nest four to 52 inches, and so on 
according to the tabular data. Erect ordinates of suitable heights (see 
the light lines in the diagram) at each of the graduations, and draw 
horizontal lines through the top of each group of dark lines until it 
meets the light lines on either side of them. A figure is thus produced 
which consists of a series of rectangles rising in equal steps. A curved 
line (see the dotted line) which smooths off the corners of the rectangles, 
is the curve upon which the deciles, &c., are to be measured, and the 
broken line formed by joining the central points of the upper boundary 
of each rectangle may be adopted as an equivalent to the curve without 
material error. Tl^e ordinates at these central points are those that cor- 
respond to the successive integral heights of 50, 51, 52, &c. inches. The 
value of their corresponding abscissas is equal to half the number of the 
dark lines in the rectangle in question ]}lus the number of dark lines in 
all the previous rectangles. An inspection of the figure will show this 
more readily tiian a verbal explanatioii. 

The calculation is very easily made by appending to the tabular data 
in A and B three other columns, C, D, and E. Column C contains in 
each line the sum of all the heights inferior to the number of inches 
found in A upon the same line. D contains the halves of the entries in 
B, and E contains the sura of the entries in and D, and consequently 
gives the abscisste corresponding to the several integral inches. 

Example : to find the lower decile in the above instance. As we know 
the abscissa of the decile, we proceed to find from column E the two entries 
between which it lies, and we take the corresponding ordinates from A, 
whence we find the decile itself by simple interpolation. As there are 
twelve observations in the example, the abscissa of the decile is 1-2, 
which lies between the tabular entries in B of O'S and 2'5, and these are 
the abscissiB of 50 and 51 inches respectively. Therefore the decile is 
equal to 50 inches plus a certain fraction of an inch, x, whose value may 
be ascertained by a simple rule of three. Thus : — 

difierence between 2-5 and 05 : 1 inch :: difference between 1-2 and 

0'5 : X inches 

a;=0-35, and the required decile=50'35 inches. 

On a first glance at the tables, a very remarkable fact is manifest. It 
is the uniformity of range at all the ages given in it. Let us begin with 
height, as shown in Table VIII. ; the range between the upper and lower 
fourths is as great at ] 1, or even at 8, years of age as it is at 22 or 40 
years, and at the intermediate ages it is much the same, viz., about 3'3 
inches. It might have been expected that the range would vary with the 
average height, so that the fact of boys of 11 years of age having a 
median or average height of 53"5 inches, and an interquartile range of 
3*2 inches, would imply that men of 22 years, having a median height of 
Q7'Q inches, would have an interquartile range of 4'4 inches, because 
53'6 : 3-2 ::67"6 : 4'4. The interdecile range is equally constant. It seems 
so difficult to conceive of variation otherwise than as a fraction of the 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 240 

average height, that we are justified in expressing the steadiness of the 
range°at different ages by the phrase that the variation in height at 
all ages between boyhood and manhood is inversely proportional to the 
average height at those ages. The results of 100 measurements of newly- 
born male infants at their full term, furnished to me by Mr. Roberts, show 
a large range ; the median value is 19 2, the interquartile range is 1-8, and 
the interdecile range is o'S ; but it must be recollected that it is difficult 
to measure infants with accuracy. 

It would be of much interest to examine this question further, and to 
find out at what age the range begins to be steady, but my data are at 
present insufficient to enable me to do this. 

As regards weight, much the same holds good at and after the age of 
14, but the range decreases steadily as we go farther back. Among the 
newly-born infants the median value is 7-6 lbs., the interquartile range 
is 17 lbs., and the interdecile range is So lbs. 

As regards strength the range is small in early life, large in early 
manhood,"but in after-life other 'conditions appear which materially and 
steadily reduce it. The upper quartile values begin to decrease and the 
lower quartiles to increase ; in other words, the stronger quarter of English- 
men do not keep up their full, vigour, and the weaker quarter become 
steadily stronger. This latter event is certainly due in large part to the 
previous removal of many of the weakest by early death. As regards the 
deciles we see that the athletes preserve their vigour very fairly, while the 
weakly tenth considerably improve, so that the interdecile range also 
decreases in advancing life. 

Another very curious fact is a marked increase of range of height 
from about 14 to 16 years of age in Classes I. and II., and in a less degree 
in Class lY., which disappears afterwards. Probably the increase of 
range takes place in different boys at slightly different ages, and therefore 
becomes smoothed down in the mean result. If so, it would be still more 
striking if the classes had been further subdivided. I gather from this 
temporary increase of range that precocity is, on the whole, of 



no 



temporary 

advantage in later life, and that it may be a disadvantage. It is certain 
that the precocious portion do not maintain their lead to the full extent ; 
it is possible that they may actually fall back, and that many of those 
who occupied a low place in the statistical series between the ages of 
14 and 16 occupy a high place after those years. The full discussion 
of this requires the collation of many individual histories ; it cannot be 
effected through mean results. Perhaps the class of statistical researches 
in anthropometry that most deserves encouragement at the present time 
is the preservation of these records of the same individual throughout 
life. He might with little trouble be measured and weighed annually or 
more often, in the nursery, at school, at college, and in after-life, and 
all the records might be kept seriatim in a book, with remarks at the 
side accounting, as far as may be, for abnormalities of growth. A large 
collection of well-kept records of this kind would be of the highest value, 
not only from an anthropometric but from a sanitary point of view, using 
that term in its widest sense. 



250 



KEPORT 1881. 



'S 






<1 f> 



> 






be tH 

o o 



it 
< 

o 
cS 

_tp 

'S 

K 
.S 

bo 

PS 


d 
a 
H 
u 

g 

o 


Average 
of all 

Classes 


^t^cp':pT^y5»pas-^^ascpiC'?^epoq^cD^c^ooooO'-Ht^cs»oo(N 


a; 

CQ 

3 


^ 


Si'-'OOOOOCOt3rHe<lC^OO(»lOt>-*COOiO!Nl:~l>-«5t~000(NO 


CO 


"^cpopc5cp.7i 1 ^t;--7^■J<lnvco^ot^lOoo-H>ooo-^^.oot^t~ 


IM 


2 1 |cpco•^•^l>p•o^pT;^T-ll^^^t^(^^c3co•^^cOT-(<^^'M>oo(^> i 
"o ' ' >b tb i t- <» oo i t^ t^ >o ti> i uo t> ?b la lb o -i CO lb lb t- o ' 


rH 


13 ' 1 lb 'i o i^ ii (» I- i o 'i -i i o t- lb ' ' <i ' ' ib ' cb ' ' 
C3 s„/ ^^ v^^ 


-<^ 
)-■ 
;3 
O 

^4 

o 
o 

1-1 

§ 
Si 

a. 
p. 
t= 
c 

O) 
OS 


Average 

of all 

Classes 


s 

_^cpo<»Mipcp^oocpipiN(NcpiriT)<.^C5C5i-ico<>)'>iocoe<>«! 
ocbcb<Ncbcbcb^cbcbcbcbcbcbc55cbcbTO(N?^cbobcbcbcbMcb<N 


m 

m 

o 


^ 


m 

2i-^oc>»7Hi^t^^ot^tr-iOT-icoQocoa3cootG<icoo^H»HOOo^t^ 
'o«ro(fjOTcb:ficb'iticbcb!Ncb(>i(Ncb(N(m<N^ff^Mcbeb<N<mcbc^ 


CO 


CO 

2l^^oO(^^'^I05 i lplplp«co-HcoT)^cn1-H-!t<0(^^(^^oo-#rt<>ooo 

"o CO CO CO CO CO (j-l ' C-l C^> !J^ « cb CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO <>) CO M CO CO tH 


(M 


m 
%, 1 1 '.- <?> t^ t- "P '^ ^ O <M ~- "-"O O C-. t^ CN -^ O 00 '^ <^ 0^ 1^ CO l^ 1 

o 1 ' |^^ « as CO -^ ■* 4r 4fi ^ !■) « CO if^ CO CO (fi TO CO CO CO CO 5^ CO 1^1 ' 


^H 


o ' '(^ico«co-*-*M«5ebTOcb«cbcb(M ' 'ri: ' 'cb cb 


> 

a 


Average 

of all 
Classes 


S O CO -^l >C C^. -J O CO ip CO 02 IM •<: CO to -f r)H rH C-) I^ -1< lO -*l O lO CO ■* 

•g r~ 05 <>) cb -^h i> o cj -* o cb b- 1^ i'-- t^ t^ i'-- 1- t^ w f- 1?- 1?- t^ t^ t^ t^ 

g-:t<TfiOiO.OuocOOW-OcacOCSCOCOCOOC5COCOOCDCOCCCD-OC:5 


O 


-fl 


C;O^HOI:^iCt^TOTOOt^-^rHOir^iCC^1-1^TOr}^CCCOC5t-~OOOCOO 

■g i- di .^ e-i M -i o ^ CO -^ ic 6 6 -b i o -b -i -b -b <b -b -b t- -b cb cb 

gTf<-#iOiOiOioio-ocsc3CDcooc3cz;cccocococj5C2coo;acoc;c:3 

•fH 


CO 


Soa-yocccpco 1 05 CO 00 ■* lOO o 5^ CO o ■* CO CO ^-jC ip CO ip ipca 
■f- cb 05 o (f.) cb lb ^ cb uo i cb t^ t'- i'- t^ 1^ ^- t- 1-- i'- b- b- t^ I?- i^ <xi 

gTl<T)<iOiOOO cococococococococococococococococococoo 


W 


75 1 i(fiTOibl^moqibcbi^wi~cbt^wh-wobo6ao(i)i?-t»(»oo 1 

g lOiOuOOlOCOCDCOCOCOCO-OCOCOCOCOCOCCCOCOCOCOCOCO 


.—1 


2 1 |C:5!N--io'>ir~-i<ococorJooioa> 1 |-i< ( li;- lo i | 
-r, 1 lcDibt^Oi-^cbcbf-c»c»d--cci;dba> ' 'oi ' 'm 'oi ' ' 

S lOiOiOOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOO CD CO CO 


n 


4i 


C--Tt*COCOOCOC^r^OiOO-HOt--CO'MC^t^iCiCO'MO-+^00'i^ir5 

o -H CO CO 00 ^ r- 0-. 00 -* o S -jc o — m ^ o — ir; o f — -M ..o -? oo 

COiOiOt^Oil^Tt<-t<t^l^CO-fXWOOiOTOCOTJCOC-IOOOCO-!fr-. 
7-^ 1-H 1-1 3^ CO TO CN (M 1>) ^ ri 




tn 


1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

XO^OrH/T^TO-fiOCOt^QOCSOrHC^CO-t^iOCOl^OOCnOiOOi-C:) 
rtrHrHrtrHrHrHr^,-^r-.(M(MCM(M(NlM(MS^C^S^lC0«^-cfHO 



KEPORT OK THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



251 



8bS S 










































o 


o 


p 


o 


o 


p 


o 


p 


p 


p 


p 


p 


p 


p 


p 


p 


o 


•s =* 


o 


i-\ 


OJ 


■>\ 


o 


.Ih 


6 


CJO 


l'- 


C5 


»b 


-r 


CO 


C5 


CO 


l>1 


cb 




1— I 


04 


<M 


o\ 


<M 


<N 


(N 




T— t 




■"^ 


I— 1 


1~{ 




I-H 


1— ( 


f-H 


"- c - 






































1 § 


^ c^ 


o 


C5 


o 


T—i 


o 


-# 


t- 


o 




C75 


CO 


CO 


CO 


lO 


C-l 


-V 


lO 


- 1 i 


^ ^ 


-* 


-4^ 


I-O 


1--5 


o 


O 


LO 


to 


to 


1-0 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


.- & 


o 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


£ ' -2 


C CO 


CO 


00 


c» 


o 


Oi 


CO 


to 


C2 


o 


CO 


c-l 


(M 


<M 


•rV 


i-H 


CO 


-+I 


.z: a> 


.-^ -t< 


^ 


-n 


•* 


LO 


^ 


o 


1.0 


o 


o 


lO 


to 


to 


to 


to 


o 


to 


to 


^. •" 






































1— 






































§ g 




00 


r-* 


<M 


CO 


to 


10 


1^ 


CO 


CO 


t- 


t- 


t^ 


to 


-« 


lO 


to 


CO 


.S|g 


to 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I- 

1 


1- 

1 


1 


1 


^ 


1 


I-- 

1 


I- 

i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


X ' -^ 


G »^ 


t^ 


o 


T— ( 


C-l 


lO 


•* 


to 


t^ 


t^ 


to 


to 


to 


lO 


CO 


•r>t 


lO 


t~ 


S s 


."lO 


o 


t^ 


t- 


t~ 


t- 


t^ 


l- 


t- 


l^ 


t- 


t- 


t- 


l^ 


t- 


t~ 


l-~ 


t- 


g ■= 






































ails 2 


X 

ec^ 


"? 


-V 


-¥ 


to 


ip 


CO 


to 


to 


p 


t- 


CO 


o 


p 


IM 


o 


CO 


CO 


-^llsg 


■go 


■i 


tb 


t- 


oo 


oo 


t- 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


t- 


lb 


to 


lb 


to 




•F-l 








































^^ 


?' 


-t^ 


n"' 


^.^ 


1-0 


lO 


oo 


^^ 


l^ 


35 


o 


!>1 


<M 


^H 


to 


00 


^o 




^ 


-t< 


O 


b- 


cs 


i-> 


^ 


-* 


IV 


lb 


lb 


lb 


lb 


to 


to 


to 


lb 


o o 


go 


o 


»o 


L-^ 


o 


o 


o 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


>^p> 






































g^ 


a=P 


fO 


to 


CO 


CO 


00 


03 


^H 


-* 


p 


-^ 


« 


t— 1 


(N 


■* 


»— 1 


-* 


p 


C.-3 


-j= cb 


oo 


o 


CT 


lb 


t^ 


03 


^ 


I— ( 


1-H 


li) 


0<> 


N 


ij^ 


T^ 


IN 


<M 


<M 


^.S 


^o 


lO 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


l- 


t^ 


t~ 


t~ 


t- 


t- 


l^ 


t- 


t- 


t~ 


t~ 


^a 


^a 




































„ fl-S », 






































P q; 2 t- ^ 


m 




































ic S a £ — 
C > s. te - 


^f- 


r— i 


"* 


OD 


in 


lO 


t- 


lO 


-^ 


CO 


-+I 


•* 


Ol 


t^ 


CO 


T— 1 


»— 1 


05 


= -C S S 3 


1^ 


CO 


cb 


cb 


-* 


-^ 


cb 


CO 


cb 


cb 


cb 


m 


cb 


CO 


(Jl 


cb 


cb 


cb 


-^ ^ a. «" 




































o 








































s ■* 


t- 


«o 


f— ( 


p 


■* 


"? 


rH 


to 


p 


"* 


c^ 


-* 


t- 


LO 


to 


f-H 


-*< 


^ t- 


^CM 


CO 


lb 


b- 


G5 


»M 


-* 


to 


to 


to 


b- 


b- 


t- 


to 


t- 


»"- 


do 


b- 


S 2 


1"^ 


lO 


>o 


O 


O 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


CO 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


o 


to 


^6" 






































<D 






































s -^ 


g^ 


00 


o 


CJ 


l-O 


p 


C-l 


to 


© 


c^ 


00 


o 


to 


-n 


CO 


l^ 


0-1 


to 


^^ t» 


-?, "^ 


tJD 


C5 


o 


^ 


lb 


oo 


C5 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


6 


o 


o 


f-H 


6 


^J 


1*° 


o 


JO 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


t~ 


t- 


t- 


t- 


l~ 


l^ 


b- 


t- 


t- 


l^ 


o 
o 






































S<>' 


1 


Ol 


1— ( 


-H 


y—< 


w 


^^ 


1 


1 


1 


"?■ 


^H 


1— 1 


1 


n 


f-H 


-* 


^ + 


1 


1 


'l 


1 


-t- 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


+ 


+ 


'l 


1 


+ 


+ 


'l 


SB 


a 




































5 






































o 






































§= 


0) r- 


(M 


«5 


.— ( 


m 


to 


(ji 


°p 


cp 


to 


f-H 


t- 


p 


to 


c» 


r-. 


p 


-^ 


> 


-S" 


lb 


t^ 


CS 


^ 


cb 


to 


i- 


oo 


do 


C3 


do 


do 


do 


do 


o 


03 


o 


§'-'> 


lO 


o 


»o 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


o 


to 


<J 








































(M 


rH 


o 


N 


t- 


-+I 


p 


CO 


o 


T-H 


o 


o 


lO 


<c 


•^ 


t- 


o 


'S 


1- 


lb 


^- 


C5 


T^ 


m 


to 


t- 


oo 


t» 


C3 


do 


o 


do 


do 


C3 


C3 


o 


o 


o 


o 


lO 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


s 


•" 






































r-< 


<M 


o 


C5 


to 


-^ 


IM 


<M 


-n 


.— ) 


1— 1 


•^ 


t^ 


■* 


t- 


t- 


IM 


to 


S ° S.2 


o 


■^ 


Ci 


to 


o 


i^ 


o 


lO 


Q-l 


lO 


to 


to 


<>) 


J-i 


lO 


o 


LO 


-Tl 


t— 1 


<M 


^ 


00 


CV 


cs 




CO 


l^ 


C5 


'^ 


CO 


<M 


1— ( 




f— ( 






















i-H 




















y. o 










































































o 




1 


1 


1 




I 


1 


I 


1 




I 


1 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 


LO 

1 


o 




01 


zk 


-H 


1-0 


to 


t^ 


CO 




o 




IM 


CO' 


-+I 


10 


o 


o 


y ? 


f-H 


I—* 


f— * 


»— t 


r— 4 


rH 




i-H 




f-H 


(N 


<M 


(>) 


CM 


CN 


IM 


CO 


•^ 


<^ ''■ 







































252 



KEPORT — 1881. 




REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



253 



Difference 
between 
maximum 

and 
minimum 


S o p p o o tp 

-^ '^ CO ^ ^) lb -^ 


1 ppppppppppppppppppppp 
1 1-*^ C'l •— ^1 CD <M r^ t- CO -tH b- CD CO -T-i lb b- l'— C30 '^ r^ 


.= 


Minimum 
between 


g -H CO IC t^ to 05 

r- Tfl '^t' '^T' "'T' ^^ '^^ 

~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 

= O S^ -* tC lO QO 

■^ -t< '^ -rt^ -^ -* -*( 


CDOlMCOCOOi—ICOOIM'-tOOCnOMrHOOO — CO 
1 lOCDCDCDCOlOCDCOCOCOCOlClOCDCO^DCDCDCDCOCD 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

lOOJ^IMlMOOOlMCrj — Ot-OOC3!MOa3C5050lM 
lOiOCDCOCOiOCOCDiOCOCOiClOlCCOCOlOlOlOCOCO 


Maximum 
between 


2 lo o C2 o .-H CO 
?; o lo la *o CO tc 
•g 1 1 1 1 1 1 

E -f "O CO 00 O <M 

•" lo lo iO la CO o 


.— * (M C-1 ■rt^ 10 IC CO -H l^ IC to 10 CO 10 CD t^ r^ CO Lt ^ 
1 t- t~ t- t- t- t- 1-- 1^ I- t- 1- 1^ t- t- L^ t- l^ l^ t- t~ t- 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

0'-^^HCO'*-HC<lCOCO"r+H-?<^-:HiO-H10CDCDl^ 1-CO 

I— t- t^ t- t- l^ t- t- t- t- t- t^ L^ l^ t- l^ t^ t^ L~ b- t^ 


Range 

between 

upper and 

lower 

tenths 


g —1 CO OT CI CO r-H 

-^ CO lb »b lb CO CO 

_a 


1 r— 1 1-- --H -f 10 10 CO t^ 1^ CO T-- 10 10 CO c<i 10 CD t^ r^ 

1 ib-^ibcbcbcbcbcbcbcbcb»^cbcbibcbcbcbcbt^oo 


U Of 

O) ^ 


g CO CD p ^ CD CO 

r^ CO CD do o cb> (f 5 

g ^ -*< ^ -* lO o 


1 pppC'ipppCT.--pCTr>ll:^C5COlO-*-HO— <N 

1 a5.^cbcbc-bcb-^<^<-#cb-*-iH-Vcb^-*4<-+'-i<-*-+ 

lOCOCOCDCDCOCOCDCOCOCOCDCOCOCDCOCOCDCDCCCO 




£ C5 C-l O) CO p -+ 
^ CJ3 ij-l CO lb CD OO 

g -* lo lo la iQ lo 


1 -*p-+pp.7^plcpppp!^^■-n-tll^05O^-cccM 
1 -^cbooroocboooO'^'^'^ocboo.^o.^tk 

COCOCOCOt-t^t-t-t-t^t^t^t-t^t^t^t-l^l^t-t^ 


Range 

between 

upper and 

lower 

fourths 


g iM p p CT C^ p 

-g CO CO CO CO CO oq 


1 10 'p 10 p p rt p -H p .-H -^ p !?.) c>1 O) ^ -* 10 CO C -H 
1 C^ 01 (JC) CO CO CO CO CO CO C-: CO CO CO CO C-l CO CO CO CO -+ CO 


05 

S3 
Is 


g CO O -H b- -7^ 00 

-5 lb do c> O CT CO 

g -!*<-*-*< lO lO o 


1 pppp.H-*10pp-f(pppl--,-(03m05l:~i-H— 1 

1 c^i -^ -V lb lb lb lb lb lb lb lb CO ib cb ib ib ib ib cb cb 

CDCOCDCDCDCOCDCOCDCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCDCOCDCDCD 


a) 

^3 


g O p -* p CO b- 
-S 00 .^ « CO lb CO 

g ^ O lO IQ lO lO 


1 -^ p r^ p -* p p p p 10 p IN -* p p p p -# CO -^ l-O 
COCDCOCDCDCOCDCOCDCOOCDCDCOCOcOCOCOCOt-CD 


s 

a 
£ 

Q 


inches 

-•1 

+ •3 

-1 


' + 'lll + IIIIIM + ll'l' + l 


0) 

1 


g p rH 02 C! b- CO 

^ 1^ C-. O c^ CO lb 

^ -*i -;« lO lO lO lO 


cocoCiiopppp-Hi— iiO'^oocoiococot^iOf— <c; 
1 .^coibcbicbb-b-t-b-b-b-b-b-tUt-t^^-t^coi^ 

1 COCDCDCDCOCOCOCOCDCDCOCOCDCDCCCOCDCDCOCOCD 




g Ci -+ p p p p 
pJ3 CO 62 o CI CO lb 
g -* ^ 10 10 


ppp-*pppppp-*pp-+<^lOCDlQlO(MCO 
1 rlj cb lb cb cb b- t- t- b- b- b- b- t- l^ b- t^ l^ 1^ i^ oD l~ 

' COCDCOCOCDCDCOCOCDCOCOCOCOCDCDCOCOCOCOCOCO 


Number 

of 
Observa- 
tions 


CO CO eo t- 10 CO 

CO 10 CO Oi OS 

HH I— t 1- CO '^ 


05>Ot-'O00e0C0b-I^TH0000-H<MC0C0lO^.-H<Mt^-* 
-Ht~l— ^-^iCOt-tMt-lOi-iC-. COOCD-^COlOO-i-CO 
lOrt .-H,-lr-..-Hr-IC^S<)Sq,-HrHS>)i-lt-<OinC0^ 


Age in 
years 


1 1 1 1 1 1 

00 05 ■— CM CO 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

•*hl0C0t^00CiO'-''^^C0-^10C0t^C0C^Ol0Ol0OO 
i-lr-lrti-lF-(i-tNC<»C>)I^NCS(MiMC^IMC0C0^'*lOCO 



254 



KEPOET — 1881. 



O JJ s ^ 



gOOOOOpOpO' 



_ 'pppppopppoooooopooooo 

W ^H^H— ^i— (I— II— (C<»<Mi-H^-1f— (^HrHr-I^H i— *i— it-H^Hr-(i— ti— (,— ,— i-H^- 



■glllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



ollllllllllllllilllllllllllillll 
.-. ^ Ti< -:H o >o ic o CO CO tc t- t- i^ t^ t- t^ t^ t>. t~ t~ t- t^ t- r^ i^ t^ t- 1^ t^ r^ fC. 



' § ^^ s 



M c3 

a 



_2a5-+l»M»^pp<f>OM^pTHO^(^^^»a)lp^--■*cpo>o^^~^-tot~oD0 010 



.o ^ 



2<NOt--pp-^COI--tp-*COC»r--HWp-*CC— 150O^-O00mC0C0t^-*00MC<? 

gcccc-<*<-*<-^'*"*-^oiou5»oir3cooo'y:>cocoocococoocoococDcococo 



ai~ 2--l-*lO!^^^^•7^<»^atpl^(^^!^lMC5l»!^^cot»p!^ll~.-*ppO(^^-*c■1M 

=-'3 ^OCTO<»O-fimOI^C5C0O5bt^C>DOC>C2OC2ilC5OC5C2O050C2C>O 

— '^ , 5^-Tt^^-*''**0O»^»^»^»0C0OOC0C0OOOt.^C0OC0OOOt-.OI>.C0t>.t^ 

k3q .a 



o 



--g 



cu 






3 p: a 



]meiia3cO'S<pC5'7^t-t--*pt-«05r-iooooc(505a505<NicoOi-i'Hooo-t<i:^ 



gS^pt--*-^<!p"P'7-<05-*a)OTP'^';HOpm0>0205pNC00iMrtl>.C^r-iaD 
gCi:iCO-*l'^-*l-*'*>0»0>n>OlOO«0«OC0505D?OCOCOtOOtOOCOtO«D50«OtO 



^1 



S50i^lOOi:00-J'e-ltOr^Ncph-OTOl;-00'7HN<»C'lcri-HC5C5-H 

-^Of^'^i^doO'>i-HiboO'^cb-^cbt~-t^t^aoaot^ooi-^t^b-t^oo 

"cc^-i<-t<-t<iO'0'OL-:otctocooo«o«30«>eooo5000o 



N lO 0-1 O 'O 
I i.'j T- ^.fc^ i^ i^- 1^ ^*j ^/^ t-™ vj i^* i-^ c~- i"^ L»J CO 00 CO CO oo 

itOCOOOOCDOOtOOOCOOOOCOCOO^CO 



-* IN tH <N1 M 
I + I + + 



'l 'l 



'l 'l 



I + 



to 

C3 



g ip -^ CO t- T^ p t-- l~ l^ t» O -t* (» I-- O O^ 'O !» O -;*< "O 13 •^ >;- t^ t» t-- >— ^ 

'^oDOcb»bt-ooo6^cbcbo»^w--t<ibcbebcbcbcb«bcbcb'i2«b'i?b»>~cbcbcb 

ge(3-*-*-*-*-*lO»OlO'OlOCO«OCD«0«OCOCOCOtOCDtDCOCOOCO';0«OCOCOtD 












O 



— Ib-OCCCOCOCOOCC 
<MCO-^»CI^)OCC-+<C^-- ■^.' ^ 
rHCOCOMi— leoto-* 



CO«:-;+^CCt-^COC<lrHi— Ir-Hi-H^H i— I.-H 

^H I— I i-H 



tcS 
<5 ?% 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I III I I I I I I I 

■«}<in«ot-ooosO'— icico-*>n«Di:^<»asOi— isqos-tiiotDt-ooosoioo'oo 



KEPOBT OF THE ANTJIROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



:ioo 



< 

■*^ 
(a 

C 

« 


■s 
s 

1 

1-1 

CS 

l 
g 

-§ 


Average 
of all 

Classes 


.Ot^pTHcpt--(>iooocpi;-rtJOOi-<cocicoo.-iioc:)OOT-< 
^ O C^ -rtl t^ -^ Ci O i^D o i> t^ >b o i O ffj t^ r>i i «:; (fl ib o »b OO 
^!NS^(MSSC0C0'*TO-;)<roc0MT(<^^TP^T)<u3Tt<O>0'Ot0O 


CO 

to 
5 


-^ 


;:5 c^cococococc'^cocococo-^^cc'^-^-^io^io«^ 


CO 


. . 1 1 1 . O M O <p op cp ip t^ -^ »7( G<l O OS UO ff^ CO r-< t^ 00 "^ 

-H CO C^ CO Tl< CO CO CQ -^ lO -^ -TJI ^ ^ Tji r^ »0 lO lO O «£> 


n 


.COtOQp^lOa»'7<>0-OC5.HTt<C005CpCOI>)«5t^COOC50>OC3 
«5S(M<N5<ICO-*OTl<COCOCO(M^CO'*CO-V*«S-*-*«acOi:^CO 


1-1 


.•^5OC000i-lt>i-IC0«O-H(MiO>Oa>C5 1 1^ 1 ,t~ .l« 1 , 
?=H{M(M(MC0'<4<*^'^COCOCOCOCOCO'^C0 '^ UO I> 


1 
1 

c< 

Oh 

g 


bi- 
ts -. 


05 

■' CO 


.<£>>po-^TH'^^!poc5»pcs^-^co^•'^^»o^^QOc^cp^*CiOlO 

_QAr^cb-^ocbc<»oo6^oi>.»^c^oa5Ai4-iA((»cbcboD(f^t^ 

;=!rHrH,H,-l(M?MCT(M<»rH(Mrt(NrH(M(N'M«^lC<lrt(N(M(MCOCO 


CD 
« 

3 


^ 


• 1 . . Op CO OS t^ 00 -^ CO «p »0 (N tH O 03 lO «p t-H .-^ G<I rH l>. (N (M 
^ .-H t-t (N t-H tH T-H (M tH tH (M 1-^ CM (M !M (M r-t 1-H C^ (M C<l (N CO 


CO 


. 1 1 1 I |<»'>10COOmO-*<t;-<X)CpOI^COOCO-^H.7H05Cp 
^ 1 1 1 1 1 (>1 '-b ^ -^ do >^ OD Tfi (f) C5 CO IC O CO O CO Tf l*-- E^ t*^ 
;Z, (Mi-tC^lC^i-iC^T-t(M(Mi-Hff^(ri(M(M«^CM'MC<l(MCO 


!M 


.ip--fl'ri»pT^t-^Oi^-t<:pCil;^COCp'7*cpp»y^T-(^^Or^OOOO 

_a»^t^c^^'^^c4o^CJCiOo^b'^o^bAl:ocs»o■^A:b^^c^tOT^ 

;^i-t.-(T-<r-t<N(N(Mt-Hi-lT-H(M.-HC^,.^rN!MrH'>q'>JOlc<lCOCO^'* 


1— 1 


.t;->p000200CpCpO»)<CpO-i<O(»C5 . .CO . .o',m~, 1 


> 


1- 


■* en 

'3 


.Cp>f;(M^i7lf;-OOp«pO«COI--t--OOCO^T)<OOJ-H(M o<NW 

So=5~i03-*(N^A6b-oicbcbibtbt^i^-oo^^.*(i)t^oj(fi 

;gcOI>l^OOC50<MCOCOCO-;)<'*^-:t<-*^-:f<.OiOU5iOiOiOiO& 




^ 


^^^*cocplpf^^cOTl^cpcp'7H^p^-co^l>.ocoo^oOl00o 
^ I Icboo»^.^c^o:b'rt<b-o(Mt^ciDibcb!bcbAHt'-:l>dn 

^ ' 1 'OOOO— ('M(MC0COC0C0Tj<rtiT(<CO'a<TfTt<^S-J<'5<-$< 


OT 


'^^«3'»gi005b-oco^i-»co^eo^rj(T(<t^C2 

S Oi'MC)oocO"*<t^m-H^co^uOTfb-t.(i)omci= 

;2 1 1 1 1 lmc;jcococo^-^-2|io.oto>ouoSuoSS§SS 


<N 


_^-*tpo>ov'99=?'>'<»<p<?>9<»t^<M>«ajio5<iioioco>io 

;2tDrai>t:^oocn(M<Mcoco-*-#-#TtiTt<-*-*iooSo3o?-?2 


—4 


_ (M O !>. t-. o op qi !N CO <M I-- •* ip t;- b- ST o" o" 
WThl^-^OOMCsAlibb-rHfMcboCi 1 lib I lo ItH I 1 
;2l>Ir^00OTO-H(MT)H.*T^U0'O>«iO-^ 1 'uo 1 Iti 'S 1 1 
•— It— (I— <rHT— (tHt-Ii— *»HiHrH i— < i— « ,— | 


Total 
number 


° So.; 


3 
> 

1 


C0000^^00G0vCC0OG0i-(C^<M.-<C0O(0C0?OC0O5D^^^CD 
Ot;t~-H;^rHCp03iOCOUOCOTtliOOOC005iOOiCO'*l^^>OtO 

co>rai:^«5Tt;ojj-j<rtTt<cot>io>raTt(cowc-ie<ic^C50otOTHrt 

T— 1 C<l CO C^ C^ C<) I— * 


g 

< 






o 
Or-KMco-^ira-iit^oomortcMco-^ocotioomoiooiod 

»-lT-l^f-(i-ir-li-lT-<T-lrHC<IC^C^W(NC^I<M(M(M<MCOCO'^*<i<0 



Si 



^ in 

as 






(3 to 



256 



REPOET — 1881. 



bo 

CO 

•^ m 
O CO 

TO ;s 

IS g 

C5 P 



.5 a 
'^ o 



P^ 



XI 






» E c 








































S =1 3 3 

n Qj S ^ 


■ o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


>o 


lO 


la 


lO 


lO 


lO 


lO 


lO 


to 


to 


to 


lO 


to 




ffere 
etwe 
ax in 
anc 
iaim 


s^. 


o 


o 


lO 


r-1 


m 


en 


CO 


r^ 


(M 


CO 


IM 


00 


-H 


CO 


1— 


rH 


-*l 


1 


-* 


o 


CO 


O 

r-H 


o 


o 


o 

I-H 


o 

I-H 


I-H 


o 

I-H 


C3 


t~ 


to 


C/J 


05 


o 


I-H 




Q-^ S 2 








































P 


o 


<-) 


<-5 


r^ 


1'^ 


lO 


o 


lO 


lO 


O 


lO 


o 


o 


- 


lO 


1-0 


to 


o 




ii^ 




tp 


to 


to 


to 


t— 


c/) 


cs 


o 


I-H 


Oi 


(M 


IM 


c-l 


I-H 


I-H 


c-l 






2S 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




I-H 
1 


I-H 
1 


1 


I-H 

1 


I-H 

1 


I-H 

j 


1 


1 


1 


I-H 

1 


1 
1 


'.a -s 


^ »c 


1^ 


to 


10 


o 


o 


lO 


c; 


o 


lO 


o 


lO 


lO 


UO 


o 


o 


o 


10 






lO 




lO 


to 


1^ 


r- 


Oi 


o 


o 


OS 


I-H 


I-H 


I-H 


r~l 


I-H 








s ■= 


















""* 


I-H 




f-H 


I-H 


I-H 


1-H 


I-H 


r^ 


r-H 




g a 




1^ 


c-> 


lO 


to 


05 


o 


CO 


1^ 


1^ 


CO 


l^ 


CO' 


C. 


CO 


t^ 


_l 


— 






o 


(N 


-* 


to 


00 


QO 


o 


I-H 


I-H 


o 


I — 1 


■__■ 


CO 


o 


r-H 








S 1 " 




^H 


»-H 


I—t 


-H 


I— 1 


T-H 


3^< 


C-l 


C-l 


IM 


ox 


CI 


I-H 


c-l 


(.^1 






1 


■^ '^ 


^A 


<—, 


1-1 


o 


A 


lO 


o 


C-. 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


Ci 


to 


03 


CO 


t^ 


to 




« » 




r-i 




-tl 


to 


r^ 


r^ 


CX) 


o 


o 


ou 


o 


CO 


l^ 


QO 


<-> 


T-H 






1 ^ 




-H 


.-H 


r-f 




r-t 


rH 


I-H 


(M 


<M 


I-H 


0-1 


I-H 


I-H 


rH 


0-1 


c^ 


c^ 




Range 

between 

upper and 

lower 

tenths 


. =c 


to 


CO 


00 


r-i 


t— 


^ 


CO 


CO 


r-H 


Ol 


lO 


,^ 


CC 


Oi 


I-H 


t^ 


10 










r-i 


(~t 


lO 


CO 


C5 


a 


00 


r^ 


00 


t^ 


CO 


-f 


o 


C2 


-)•< 


1 


(M 


<M 


CO 


•^ 


'it 


^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO' 


^ 


CO 


-tH 


to 


l^ 






. CO 


r-* 


10 


10 


m 


to 


c 


-X 


-f 


-*H 


„ 


o 


, 


t- 


l. 


C-1 


lO 


to 




11 


^f. 








rn 


r—i 


t^ 


o^ 


to 


o 


•^ 


CO 


-V 


cc 


r-H 


o 


l^ 


I-H 


1 


«5 


1^ 


^^ 


00 


a 


o 


(M 


0-1 


CO 


CO' 


CO 


CO 


C-( 


CO 


H^ 


-+< 


^ 




JQ 














I-H 


I-H 






rH 


















SrS 


. 05 


W 


00 


CO 


o 


CO 


„ 


h- 


o 


10 


M 


lO 


to 


to 


-f 


CO 


c-l 


o 




5S 


|-> 


rn 


1^ 


-+< 


t^ 


o 


,—, 


to 


00 


-H 


T-H 


r~i 


c-l 


to 


o 


l^ 


to 


1 




03 


C5 


o 


T-H 


CO 
I—* 


l-O 

I-H 


to 

I-H 


to 

I-H 


to 


I-H 


t^ 


i-H 


rH 


to 


CO 


0-1 


c-l 




Range 

between 

ui>per and 

lower 

fourths 


l^ 


iO 


(X 


Ci 


CO 


^^ 


CO 


o 


-i> 


CO 


to 


•* 


^ 


CO 


05 


CO 


o 


c; 




2 .^ 


," , 


CO 


to 


f-, 


in 


lO 


I-H 


O 


02 


00 


o 


c 


o 


00 


CO 


c-l 


-tH 


1 


5^ 


i-H 


r^ 


1— i 


(M 


IM 


(M 


CM 


C^l 


f-H 




04 


rH 


c-l 


rH 


<M 




•* 




St; 


. C'l 


(» 


05 


!>. 


CO 


10 


00 


CO 


00 


„ 


00 


,^ 


CO' 


_ 


o 


00 


Ci 










Ol 


1 


__^ 


00 


o 


10 


CO 


CT 


,-H 


O) 


r-< 


O 


-+H 


lO 


cc 


1 


^1 


l>. 


t^ 


cr 


rrs 


o 




so 


CO 


CO 


-*l 


-tH 


-* 


^f 


-f 




















T-H 


' ' 


I-H 


' ' 


I-H 


I-H 


rH 


rH 


" 












rtile 


. C3 


cc 


(^ 


to 


^H 


CO 


^ 


00 


IM 


"^ 


-t^ 


r-H 


<M 


O: 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




r^S 




^ 




IM 


to 


T-H 


.H 


to 


t^ 


r-< 


c-l 


IM 


T-H 


CI 


1~ 


l^ 


CO 


1 


C 03 


nn 


C5 


m 


»— 1 


(M 


■* 


o 


in 


lO 


ty 


to 


to 


CO 


i:3 


to 




OJ 


1 


U ^ 

'^O' 










l-H 


'~^ 


I-H 


" 


I-H 






















a> 










































<M 


T— 1 


(M 


a 


(M 


lO 


-K 


»o 


to 


CO 


t- 


CO 


l^ 


CO 


rH 


-n 


lO 


to 




1 


03 ■ 
- + 


r-H 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


-1- 


1 


+ 


1 


C<l 

1 


1 


1 


s 








































bo 


. o 


t^ 


a 


to 


!M 


CO 


lO 


l^ 


-* 


lO 


■* 


t- 


00 


to 


CO 


CO 


to 


CO 


to 




Is 












rn 




to 


00 


IM 


0^ 


<M 


I-H 


Oi 


to 


c^ 


•* 


7—i 


< 


t^ 


CO 


Ci 


O 


l-H 


<N 


-^ 


-*< 


•^ 


lO 


lO 


1C3 


to 


'i' 


•C5 


t~ 


t- 


tr- 








































§ 


. (>* 


o 


t^ 


t- 


O 


00 


01 


!M 


CO 


cq 


(— 


-H 


lO 


t- 


t^ 


cr. 


o 


c; 


io 




fm J+- 


b« 




o 


o 


CO 


CI 


»-H 


lO 


►^ 


,-H 


<M 


CO 


o 


o> 


to 


o 


-tH 


T-H 


;2t- 


(^ 


on 


Oi 


o 


rH 


Cvl 


^ 


'^ 


-*l 


IC 


lO 


■o 














S 










.— I 


i-H 


I-H 


I-H 
























S ? » 


(M 


to 


c^ 


»— 1 


m 


^1 


-+• 


lO 


CO 


o 


^ 


■o 


lO 


c-l 


CO 


lO 


CO 


-If 


00 


■5"*- >- S 












lO 


CO 


o 


CO 


-f 






r—t 


I-H 




rH 








a o o .o 




1—* 




tn 


t^ 


to 


CO 


1^ 


to 


0-. 


'^ 


CO 


QA 


I-H 












,^ -O -^ 
















I-H 


I-H 






















>5 o 














































































o 


9 « 






























1 


1 


1 




1 




i 


^ 1 








lO 


t-O 


1^ 


cr> 


05 


o 


t—l 


(M 


CO 


"tl 


10 


o 


o 


o 




r-^ 


.—1 


I— ' 


f— I 


^H 


I-H 




I-H 


I-H 


Oi 


■M 


CM 


c-l 


c-l 










< ^ 









































REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



257 



Difference 

between 

maximum 

and 
miniunim 


. o o o o p o p o o o '3 lo in m lo i-o to in lo lo lo o lo iQ u5 
^ O C la lO lb O O lb o O 4h 03 « ■* o -* Ai ci cq i) ii I't^ ci .1^ ^ 

1— 1 rH ^ r-i r-^ 


Minimum 
between 


lO O O O O O lO O 10 l-O lO O lO O i-O O lO lO O O O O 1^ lo 1'^ 
l.T10 10O«5l-l-OOO-HOOCT.-l(MC-1r-<C0;='r:;j0(N-Mrn 

— O lO 1(5 in lO la O lO O O O lO O lO O lO O O O lO 1" l•'^ O o A 

i.o -^ -f lo lo to i^ 03 o o — C3 o rt .-^ .-H (M rH 0-1 o o c^i ?i c^ ?: 


Maximum 
between 


10O1010 10O10l0 10 10Cf:CC:nC5C3C5^05l^n5-..C3m^— i 
OOOC.tMmiOtOCOOt-OOOOOOCOOCOOOrHOCllbiracrS 

t" , "T* , '^ T '^ T' "ti 'T* T "^J "^' ^< "^ '":' ^ <^' '-' '^ <^^ 0-1 <>) !M s-1 <M 

J3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

SoiOOOOiOOOOOC305C3iO»OiOt-iC«OTt-.ioiotit>. 

i-lfHi-Hr-li-Hr-li-(r-i|-li-Ht-li— rtCqr-l(Nl-ICq!NS*)tMCq 


Range 

between 

upper and 

lower 

tenths 


.fOOOO^lOp-HlOtpC-. r;^-*CpCSMCCC-"^«0^^~Cf^005^0>003 

^0'^oqi^cb<f5fH^^io4<cbo54i.^T^C3ifii^-*cb(C.oi;_Jjin 

:;(M(MCq'MCO-*ir5-*COC(5CO(N-*iCO^CO^^O^-*<ScDt-«D 


o a; 


.(NOJ-HtTHOTiptClOCOWOOf^lOrHlpCOOO^miOlQTiHlOOOrH 

2ibt-.^ODOoo''3<»i(Nmtbcbcbt^C5iba5r^cciiooM-* 

t;'0»0!0t0t^t>.0>O'-HS-l{M'M0-1C0iqiMmiMCCC0C0--t4-5lC0-5i 




.lOl0031pfO-*C5ppt-piacOpOOC2(>1COOODCCCOOCOO 

Sibc3m«-*.Htbo.Ht~-Hiboiboooot-0'iTOcb.^c»ibo 
rit:-t-coc:o<M'*fioioiotoiot^«r>otot~c~c>t-coooo^ 


Range 

between 

upper and 

lower 

fourths 


.io-*<r5io-^t;-0'H*ti«ppb-coco.H