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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPOET 



OP THE 



FIFTY-THIED MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



SOUTHPORT IN SEPTEMBER 1883. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMAKLE STREET. 

1884. 

Office of the Association: 22 Albemaele Street, Londox, W. 



LOXDOy : PEISTED BV 

SPOTTISWOODE ASD CO., KEW-STKEET SQUARE 

AND PABLLiMEST STBKET 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxi 

Places and Times of Meeting and OfScers from commencemeut xxviii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement XXXV 

Evening Lectures xlix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes li 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Southport Meeting lii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings liv 

Treasurer's Account Ivi 

Officers and Council, 1883-84 Ivii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Iviii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports and 

Researches in Science Ixi 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixviii 

Places of Meeting in 1884 and 1885 Ixix 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes Ixx 

Arrangement of theGeneral Meetings Ixxx 

Addi-ess by the President, Arthur Catley, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Sadlerian Professor of Pure Mathematics in tlie University of Cambridge... 1 

I 
EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, :\u-. J. Peury, Professor W. G. 
Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Professor Jexkix, Dr. U. J. Lodge, Dr. Johx 
HopKncsoiT, Dr. A. Muirhead (Secretary), Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. 
Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Sir W. 
Siemens, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, and Professor Chrystal, appointed for tlie purpose of con- 
structing and issuing practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments 41 

Sixteenth Report of the Committee, consi^tins: of Professor Everett, Pro- 
fessor Sir VriLLiAM Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Sir A. 0. Ramsay, 

aL' 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, JNJr. Pengellt, Professor Edwaed 
Httll, Professor Peestwich, Dr. C. Le Nete Foster, Professor A. S. 
Hekschel, Professor G. A. Lebotte, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, 
Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wetheeed, and Mr. A. 
Strahan, appointed for tlie purpose of investigatiDg the Rate of Increase 
of Underground Temperature downwards in various Localities of Dry Land 
and under Water. Dra^Ti up by Professor Everett (Secretary) 45 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney, Professor Stokes, 
and Professor Schuster (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of deter- 
mining the best Experimental Methods that can be used in observing Total 
Solar Eclipses 49 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Professors G. H. Darwin and J. C. 
Adams, for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations. Dra'mi up by 
G. H. Darwin '. 49 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Robert H. Scott (Secretary), 
Mr. J. NoEMAN LocKYER, Profcssor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour 
Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Symons, appointed for the purpose of co-operating 
with the Meteorological Society of the Mauritius in their proposed publica- 
tion of Daily Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861 118 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Oayley, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Sir William Thomson, Mr. James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. 
Glaisher, on Mathematical Tables 118 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown (Secretary), 
and Messrs. Milne-Holme, John Murray, and Buchan, appointed for 
the purpose of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in 
making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 125 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Schuster (Secretary), Sir 
William Thomson, Professor H. E. Roscoe, Professor A. S. Herschel, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. Scott, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and 
Mr. J. B. N. Hennessey', appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
practicability of collecting and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of consider- 
ing the question of undertaking regular observations in various localities.... 12& 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. Preece, 
Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. Vernon Harcourt, and Pro- 
fessor Ayrton, reappointed for the purpose of fixing a Standard of 
Wliite Light 127 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Williamson, Frankland, 
Roscoe, Ceum Brown, and Odling, and Messrs. J. Millar Thomson, 
V. H. Yeley, and H. B. Dixon (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
drawing up a statement of the varieties of Chemical Names which have 
come into use, for indicating the causes which have led to their adoption, 
and for considering what can be done to bring about some convergence of 
the views on Chemical Nomenclature obtaining among English and foreign 
chemists 127 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Odling, Hunting- 
ton, and Hartley (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investi- 
gating by means of Photography the Ultra-\ iolet Spark Spectra emitted 
by Metallic Elements, and their combinations under varying conditions. 
Drawn up by Professor W. N. Hartley 127 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors W. A. Tilden and H. E. 
Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 132 



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CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Report of tbe Committee, consisting of Professor Valexxixe Ball, Pro- 
fessor \V. BoTD Dawkins, Dr. J. Evans, Mr. G. II. Kinahan, and Mr. 
RlCHAED J. IJssHER (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of carrying out 
Explorations in Caves in the Carboniferous Limestone in tlie South of 
Ireland 132 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. H. Green, Professor 
L. C. MiALL, Mr. John Brigg, and Mr. James W. Davis (Secretary), 
appointed to assist in the Exploration of Raygill Fissure, Yorkshire 133 

Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting- of Professors J. Prestwich, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonnet, Dr. H. W. 
Crossket, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. De Range, II. G. Fordham, J. E. 
Lee, D. MACiaNTOsH, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. H. Tiddeman, for 
the purpose of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological 
characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and 
Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and 
taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by Dr. Crosskey, 
Secretary 136 

Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, Professors G. A. Lebour and J. 
Prestwich, and Messrs. James Glaisher, H. Marten, E. B. Marten, 
G. H. Morton, W. Pen^gelly, James Plant, James Parker, I. Roberts, 
Thos. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, 
and C. E. De Range (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigat- 
ing the Circulation of Underground Waters in the Permeable Formations 
of England, and the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied to 
various Towns and Districts from these Formations. Drawn up by 0. E. 
De Range 147 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson, Mr. 
Thos. Hick, and Mr. W. Cash (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Fossil Plants of Halifax 160 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. C. Sorbt and Mr. 

G. R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on Fossil Polyzoa. 

Drawn up by Mr. Vine ((Secretary) 161 

Parti. Cretaceous Polyzoa. British area only 161 

Part II. Classification of Cyclostomatous Polyzoa, etc 175 

Part III. Pseudo-Polyzoan Forms 205 

Part IV. Bibliography 206 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson 
and Mr. W. H. Batly, appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland. Drawn up by William Hellier 
Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A. (Secretary) 209 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R, Etheridge, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 211 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil Phyllopoda 
of the Palaeozoic Rocks 215 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard 
Saunders, and Mr. Thiselton-Dyer (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Natural History of Timor-laut 224 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Lieut.-Col. Godwin-Austen, Dr. 
G. Hartlaub, Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Gunther, Mr. Seebohm, and Mr. P. L. 
Sclater (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Natural 
History of Socotra and the adjacent Highlands of Arabia and Somali 
Land... 1 227 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph Hooker, Dr. Guuthee, 
Mr. HowAED Satjndees, and Mr. P. L. Sclatee (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of exploring Kilimanjaro and the adjoining mountains of 
Eastern Equatorial Africa 228 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Johx Cordeatjx (Secretary), 
Mr. J. A. Haevie-Beoavn, Mr. P. M. 0. Keemode, Professor Newtoit, j\Ii-. 
R. M. BAEEENGTOif, and Mr. A. G. Moee, reappointed at Southampton, for 
the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of the Master and Brethren of 
the Trinity House, and tlie Commissioners of Northern and Irish Lights) 
observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and LightsMps, and 
of reporting on the same ; 229 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor M. 
Fostee, Professor Huxlex, Dr. Caepexter, Dr. Gwy:!^ Jeffeets, Professor 
Rat Lankestee, Professor Allman, and ^Ii\ Percy Sladen (Secretary), 
appointed for the piurpose of aiding in the maintenance of the Scottish 
Zoological Station 233 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Rat Lankestee, Professor 
Newton, Professor Huxlet, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Allman, Pro- 
fessor M. Foster, Mr. A. SedciWick, and Mr. Peect Sladen (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at 
the Zoological Station at Naples 234 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pyt)-Smith, Professor de Chait- 
MONT, Dr. M. Foster, and Dr. BuRDOif Sanderson (Secretary), reappointed 
for the purpose of investigating the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the 
Elimination of Nitrogen (the experiments conducted by Mr. North). 
Drawn up by Mr. North 242 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Meldola, General Pitt- 
Riyers, Mr. AVorthington Smith, and Mr. William Cole, appointed 
to investigate the Ancient Earthwork in Epping Forest, known as the 
'Loughton ' or ' Cowper's' Camp 24.S 

Final Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting in 1882-3 of Mr. 
F. Gaeton (Chairman), Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook (Secretary), Mr. Frank 
Fellows, Mr. James Hetwood, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. F. A. Ma- 
homed, Mr. J. E. Price, Lieut.-General Pitt-Riters, Sir Rawson W. 
Rawson, and Mr. 0. Robeets. Associates, Dr. T. G. Balfoue, Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone, Inspector-General L.awson, Dr. W. Ogle. Dra-mi up by Mr. 
C. Robeets and Sir- Rawson W. Raavson 255 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. Beddob, 
Mr. Beabeook, Professor Flowee, Mr. F. Galton, Dr. Gaeson, Mr. J. 
Paek Haeeison (Secretaiy), Dr. Mthehead, Mr. F. W. Rudlee, and 
Professor Thane, appointed for the purpose of defining the Facial Charac- 
teristiirs of the Races and Principal Crosses in the British Isles, and obtain- 
ing Illustrative Photogi-aphs 30& 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaishee (Secretary), 
the Rev. Canon Teisteam, and the Rev. F. Laweence, for promoting the 
Survey of Eastern Palestine 308 

Report of the Committee, consistmg of Mr. James Hetavood, Mr. William 
Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bottene, Mr. Robeet Wilkinson, the Rev. W. 
Delant, Professor N. Stoey Maskeltne, Dr. Selvantjs P. Thompson, 
Miss Ltdia E. Beckee, Sir John Litbbock, Professor A. W. Williamson, 
Mrs. AuGirsTA Webster, Dr. H. W. Crossket, Professor Roscoe, Pro- 
fessor G. Caret Fostee, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Secretary), appointed 
to watch and report on the workings of the proposed revised New Code, 
and of other legislation aflecting the teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools 30f> 



CONTEKTS. Vll 

^^§^ 
Report of the Committee, consistiiifr of Sir Fredeeick Bramweli, (Secre- 
tary), Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir AVilliam Thomson, Mr. St. 
John Vincent Day, Sir "William Siemens, Mr. C. W. IMekrifield, Dr. 
Neilson Hancoce, Sir Feeberick Abel, Captain Doitglas Galton, Mi-. 
E. H. Caebuit, Mr. Macroet, Mr. H. Trueman Wood, Mr. W. H. 
Barlow, and Mr. A. T. Atchison, appointed for the piu'pose of watching 
and reporting to the Council on Patent Legislation .316 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph Whitworth, Su- William 
Siemens, Sir Freberick Bramwell, Mr. A. Stroh, Jlr. Beck, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. E. Ceompton, Mr. E. Rigg, Mi-. A. Le Neye Foster, Mr. 
Latimer Clark, Mr. H. Trtteman Woob (Secretary), 'Mr. Bucknet, and 
Sir William Thomson, appointed for the piu-pose of determining- a Gauge 
for the manufactiu-e of the various small Screws used in Telegraphic and 
Electrical Apparatus, in Clockwork, and for other analogous purposes 318 

Report of the ' Local Scientific Societies ' Committee, consisting of Mr. 
Francis Galton (Chairman), the Rev. Dr. Crossket, Mr. C. E. De 
Rance, Ml-. H. G. FoRBHAM (Secretary), Mr. John Hopkinson, Mi-. R. 
Melbola, Mr. A. Ramsat, Professor Sollas, Mr. G. J. Stmons, and Mr. 
W. Whitaker, appointed by the Council in compliance with a resolution 
referred to the Council hy the General Committee 318 

On some Results of Photographing the Solar Corona without an Eclipse. 
By William Huggins, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 346 

On Lame's Differential Equation. By Professor F. Linbemaj^n, D.Ph. ...... 351 

Recent Changes in the Distribution of Wealth in relation to the Incomes 
of the Labouring Classes. By Professor Leone Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S., 
F.R.G.S 353 

On the Mersey Tunnel. By Charles Douglas Fox, M.Inst.C.E 370 

On Manganese Bronze. By P. M. Parsons, M.List.C.E 378 

Nest Gearing. By Professor H. C. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E... 387 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDATy SEPTEMBER 20. 

Page 
Address by Professor Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the London 
Mathematical Society, President of the Section 393 

1. Third Report of the Committee on Meteoric Dust 400 

2. On some Spectroscopic Appliances. By Professor Arthuk Schuster, 

F.R.S 400 

3. On the Absorption Spectrum of Didymium Chloride, By Professor 
Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., and T. G. Bailei 400 

4. On the Cause of Crystalline Form. By G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S.... 400 

5. A specimen of the Work of the new Chronograph at Dunsink Observa- 

tory. By Professor Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 400 

6. Experiments in Bolometry. By Professor Silvanus P.Thompson 401 

7. On the Equations of Motion and the Boundary Conditions for Viscous 

Fluids. By Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S 401 

8. Suggestions for facilitating the use of a delicate Balance. By Professor 
Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 401 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 402 

2. On a case of Rapid Diffusion of Molten Metals. By Professor Chandler 

Roberts, F.R.S 402 

3. On the Magnetic Susceptibility and Retentiveness of Soft Iron. By Pro- 
fessor J. A. EwiNG, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 402 

4. On Maxwell's Equations for the Electro-Magnetic Action of Moving Elec- 
tricity. By Professor Fitzgerald, F.R.S 404 

5. On the Energy lost by Radiation from Alternating Electric Currents. 

By Professor Fitzgerald, F.R.S 404 

G. On a method of producing Electro-magnetic Disturbances of compara- 
tively Short Wave-lengths. By Professor Fitzgerald, F.R.S 405 

7. Gyrostatic Determination of the North and South Line, and the Latitude 

of any place. By Sir William Thomson, F.R.S 405 

8. On a Model illustrating Helicoidal Asymmetry, and particularly the for- 

mation of Right- and Left-handed Helicoidal Crystals from a non-Heli- 
coidal Solution. By Sir William Thomson, F.R.S 405 

9. Report of the Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Obser- 

vations 405 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

10. On the Attractive lufluence of the Sun and Moon causing Tides, and the 
Variations in Atmospheric Pressure and Rainfall causing Oscillations in 
the Underground Water in Porous Strata. By Isaac Roberts, F.G.S., 
F.R.A.S , 405 

11, On the Physical Theory of the Tides, with especial reference to their 
Diurnal Inequality. By the Rev. James Pearson, M.A., F.R.A.S 405 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables 406 

2. On Lame's Differential Equation. By Professor Ltxdemann 406 

3. On a Fuudamantal Theorem in the Dynamics of Non-Euclidian Space. 

By Professor Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 406 

4. On a Geometrical Illustration of a Dynamical Problem. By Professor 
Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 407 

5. On an Approximate Expression for .r ! By Professor A. R. Forsyth 407 

6. On a Generalised Hypergeometric Series. By Professor A. R. Forsyth... 408 

7. Note on a Simple Method of Solving the General Equation of the Fourth 

Degree. By Alfred Lodge 408 

8. Oa Symmetric Functions, and in particular on certain Inverse Operators 

ia connection therewith. By Captain P. A. MacMaho^t, R.A 409 

9. On the most Commodious and Comprehensive Calculus. By Dr. Ernst 

Schroder 411 

10. E.xposition of a Logical Principle, as disclosed by the Algebra of Logic, 

but overlooked by the Ancient Logicians. By Dr. Ernst Schroder ... 412 

11. On Carves of the Fourth Class, with a Triple and a Single Focus. By 

He.'try M. Jeffert, F.R.S 412 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

1. Sixteenth Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature 414 

2. Report of the Committee appointed to co-operate with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben 
Nevis 414 

3. On tbe Completion of the European portion of the Preliminary Meteoro- 

logical Catalogue. By G. J. Symons, F.R.S 414 

4. On the Heat of the Sunshine at the Kew Observatory, as registered by 

Camnbell's method. By Professors H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., and Balfour 
Stewart, F.R.S 414 

5. On apparent Sun-spot Inequalities of Short Period. By Professor Bal- 

four Stewart, F.R.S., and W. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc 418 

6. On the Forms of the lufluence exerted by the Sun on the Magnetism of 

the Earth. By Professor Balfour Stewart, F.R.S 419 

7. Description of a Marine Anemometer. By Dr. W. G. Black, F.R.M.S... 422 

8. On a Method for Measuring the Height of the Clouds. By Professor 
LtJROTH 422 

9. On Fixing a Standard of White Light. By Captain Abney, F.R.S 422 

10. On the Dependence of Total Radiation on Temperature. By Sir Willtasi 
Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S 425 

11. On a Lamp giving a Constant Light. By A. Vernon Harcourt, 
M.A., F.R.S 426 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

12. Ou some Results of Pliotograpliiiig the Solar Corona without an Eclipse. 

By William Hitg&ins, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 427 

13. On the Internal Constitution of the Sun. By Professor Arthur 

ScHTJSXER, F.R.S 427 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. Note sur les Resultats de ses Observations de I'Eclipse totale du 6 Mai 
1883, k rile Caroline (long. 152° 20' ouest, Paris, lat. 10° sud), Ocean 
Pacitique. By Dr. J. Janssen 409 

2. On the Involution of Two Matrices of the Second Order. By Professor 

J. J. Sylvester, F.R.S 4:30 

3. On a Modification of Bunsen's Ice Calorimeter. By Professor Balfour 
Stewaut, F.R.S 432 

4. On some Measurements of Glacier-Motion in 1883, By Professor Arthur 
Schuster, Ph.D., F.R.S 4.32 

5. Note on some recent Astronomical Experiments at High Elevations in the 

Andes. By Ralph Copeland, Ph.D 436 

6. On some points in Lemstrom's recent Am-oral Experiments in Lapland. 

By J. Rand Capron 439 

7. On some Indefinite Integrals, that contain the Elliptic Integrals E and F. 

By Dr. D. Bierens de Haan 440 

8. On the probable Explanation of the Effect of Oil in Calming Waves in a 

Storm. ByE. P. Culveravdll 443 

9. On the Pressure of the Vapour of Mercury at the Ordinary Temperature. 

By Professor McLeod, F.R.S 443 

10. On the Imperfection of the Galvanometer as a Test of the Evanescence of 

a Transient Current. By Professor Lord Ratleigh, F.R.S 444 

11. On the Adjustment of Numerical Results derived from Observation. By 

T. B. Sprague 446 

12. On the Action of Currents of Air between Plates. By Philip Bra- 
ham, F.C.S 447 

13. A new Reflector for Incandescent Electric Lamps. By Professor Frank 
Clowes, D.Sc 447 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER I'd. 

Addi-ess by J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., President of the Section 448 

1. On Sun-spots and the Chemical Elements in the Sun. By Professors 

Dewar and Liveing 455 

2. Colouring Matters of the Diazo-Group. ByRAPHAEL]\lELDOLA,F.I.C.,F.C.S. 455 

3. Suggestions for computing the Speed of Chemical Reaction. By Professor 
Robert B. Warder 456 

4. Ortho-Amido-Cinnamic Acid. By T. M. Morgan, B.Sc 458 

5. On the preparation of Cinnamic Acid. By T. M. Morgan, B.Sc 458 

6. On Manganese Bronze. By P. M. Parsons 459 



CONTENTS. XI 



FBIBAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

Page 

1. Eeport of the Committee on Chemical Nomenclature 459 

2. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of investigating hy 
means of Photography the Ultra- Violet Spark-Spectra emitted by Me- 
taUie Elements, and their Comhinations imder varying conditions 459 

3. Explosion of Carbonic. Acid Gas. — A Demonstration, By H. B. Dixon, 
M.A.,F.C.S 459 

4. Chemical Views on the Constitution of Matter. By Professor A. W. 
Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S 459 

6. On the Atomic Weight of Manganese. By Professor James Dewar, M. A., 
F.R.S., and Alexander Scott, M.A., D.Sc 459 

6. On the Molecular Weights of the Substituted Ammonias. By Professor 
James Dewar, M.A.,F.R.S., and Alexander Scott, M.A., D.Sc 460 

7. The Length of the Prismatic Spectrum as a Test of Chemical Purity. By 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 461 

8. The Application of Bisulphide of Carbon to the Scouring of Wool. By 

Professor William Ramsat, Ph.D 462 

9. On the Conversion of Oleic Acid into Palmitic Acid, and Fusions with 
Caustic Alkalies at High Temperatm-es. B\- Wm. Lant Carpenter, 
B.A., B.Sc, F.C.S 462 

10. On the Action of Sunlight on P^Og. By the Rev. A, Irving, B.Sc 463 

MONBAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

1. On Liquid Marsh Gas. By Professor Dewar, F.R.S 464 

2. On Critical Points and Pressures and then- relation to Atomic Volumes. 

By Professor Dewar, F.R.S 464 

3. On the relation between Chemical Constitution and Crystalline Form. By 

G. Johnstone Sidney, F.R.S 464 

4. Electrolysis of dilute Sulphuric Acid in Secondary Batteries. By Dr. J. 

H. Gladstone, F.R.S., and Alfred Tribe 464 

5. On the Mobility of Gold and Silver in Molten Lead. By Professor W. 
Chandler Roberts, F.R.S 464 

6. On Algin, a new substance obtained from Seaweed. By Edward C. C. 
Stanford, F.C.S 464 

7. Methods for Coking Coal and recovering the Bye-products. By Watson 

Smith, F.C.S., F.I.C ,. 465 



TUESBAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. Report of the Committee for investigating Isomeric Naphthalene De- 
rivatives 467 

2. On the alleged Direct Union of Nitrogen and Hydrogen. By H. Breke- 
TON Baker 467 

3. On the Decomposing Action that Chloride of Aluminium exerts on Hydro- 
carbons. By Professors C . Friedel and J. M. Crafts 468 

4. On the Nitrates in Soil, By R. Warington, F.C.S 469 

5. On a Simplified Thermostat. By M. Whitley Willlims, F.C.S 470 



Ell CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. Some Experiments on Asbestos. By M. Whitley Williaiis, F.C.S. ... 470 

7. Ou the Constitution of the Natural Fats. By J. Alfeed Wankltn and 

William Fox .". 470 

8. On the Employment of Limed Coal in Gas-making. By J. A. Wankltn 471 

9. On the Development of Crystals from Transparent Glass by the Action of 
Solvents upon it. By Williaii Thomson, F.R.S.E 471 

10. On certain Molecular Movements in the vicinity of thin Iron Plates. By 

William Thomson, F.R.S.E 472 

11. On the Teaching of Ohemistrv in Elementary Schools. By Wm. Lant 
Caepentee, B.A., B.Sc, F.O'S 474 

12. A new Method for Disinfecting Sewage and Recovering Ammonia from 

it. By J. Boyd Kinneae 474 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

Address by Professor W. C. W^illtamson, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 475 

1. Notes on Geological Sections within Forty Miles Radius of Southport. 

By C. E. De Range, F.G.S 489 

2. Section across the Trias recentlv exposed by a railway excavation in 
Liverpool. ByG. H. Moeton, F^G.S \ 489 

■3. The Master-Divisions of the Tertiary Period. Bv Professor W. Boyi) 
Dawkixs, F.R.S 1 490 

4. Report on the Explorations in Oaves in the Carboniferous Limestone in 
the South of Ireland 491 

5. Report on the Exploration of Raygill Fissure, Yorkshire 492 

6. On the Occurrence of Remains of Labvrinthodonts in the Yoredale Rocks 

of Wensleydale. By James AV. Davis, F.G.S 492 

7. On some Fossil Fish-Remains found in the Upper Beds of the Yoredale 

Series at Leyburn, in Yorkshire. By James W. Davis, F.G.S 492 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Eleventh Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 493 

2. On some supposed Fossil Alg,ie from Carboniferous Rocks. By Professor 

W. 0. Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S 493 

3. Report on the Fossil Plants of Halifax 493 

4. On the Geological Relations and Mode of Preservation of Eozoon Cana- 

dense. By Principal J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 494 

5. On the Geological Age of the North Atlantic Ocean. By Professor 
Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 494 

6. On the Influence of Bai-ometric Pressure on the Discharge of Water from 

Springs. By Baldwin Latham, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S., F.R.M.Soc 495 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. Some additional notes on Anthracosaurus Edgei (Baily sp.), a large 

Saaro-Batrachian from the Lower Coal Measures, Jarrow Colliery, near 
Castlecomer, Couaty KiUceany. By William Hellier Baily, F.L.S., 
F.G.S., M.R.LA 496 

2. On Basalt apparently overlying Post-Glacial Beds, Co. Antrim. By W. 

J. Knowles 497 



CONTEXTS. Xlii' 

3. Recent Opinions on the Loess Deposits of the Valley of the Ehine. By 
Mark Stikktjp, F.G.S 497 

4. On the former Physical Condition of Glendale, Northumberland. By 

G. P. Hughes 498 

5. On a Conglomerate with Boulders in the Laurentian Eocks of North Uist, 

Scotland. By James Thomson 498 

6. On a Coral Atoll on the Shore-hne at Arhigland, near Dumfries, Scot- 
land. By James Thomson 498 

7. Fourth Report on the British Fossil Polyzoa 498 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

]. Ninth Report on the Circulation of the Underground Waters in the Per- 
meable Formations of England, and the Quality and Quantity of the AVaters 
supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Formations 49^ 

2 Report on the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 499 

3. Preliminary Notice of the Earthquake of 1881 in the Island of Ischia. 

By H. J. Johnston-Lavis, F.G.S 499 

4. Preliminary Notice of the Earthquake of July 1883 in the Island of Ischia. 

By H. J. Johnston-Latis, F.G.S 501 

5. Dyas re?-ms Permian. By the Rev. A. Ikying, B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S 503 

6. On the Coloration of some Sands, and the Cementation of Siliceous Sand- 
stones. By the Rev. A. Irving, B.A. B.Sc, F.G.S 504 

7. On a Boulder from the Chloritic IMarl of Ashvrell, Herts. By H. George 
FORDHAM, F.G.S 505 

8. Report on the Fossil PhyUopoda of Palaeozoic Rocks 500 

9. Fourth Report on the Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland 50C 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. On a supposed case of Metamorphism in an Alpine Rock of Carboniferous 
Age. By Professor T. G. BoNNEY, M.A., F.R.S 507 

2. Note on the Nagel-flue of the Rigi and Rossberg. By Professor T. G. 
Bonnet, M.A., F.R.S 507 

3. On the Pre-Cambrian Igneous Rocks of St. David's. By Professor J. F. 
Blake, M.A.,F.G.S .507 

4. On the Geology of the Troad. By J. S. Diller 508 

5. On the Causes of Change of Climature during Long Periods of Time, and 

of Coincident Changes of Fauna and Flora. By John Gtjnn 50'J 

6. Preliminary Note on the further discovery of Vertebrate Footprints in the 
Penrith Sandstone. By George Varty Smith 510 

7. Archseastacus "Willemsesii, a new Genus of Eryonidae. Bj- C. Spence 
Bate, F.R.S 511 

Section D.— BIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

Address by Professor E. Eat Lankester, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., President of 

the Section 5] 2 

1, On the Origin and Development of the Rhincceros Group. By W. B. 
Scott and II. F. Osborne 62S 



SIV CONTENTS. 

Page 
On tlie Diflerences between tlie Males and Females of the Pearlv Nautilus. 
By A. G. Bourne ". 528 

3. On the Polvmorphism of Alcyonaria. By Professor Milnes Marshall, 

M.D., D.Sc : 529 

4. On the Budding of Polj'zoa. By Professor A. C. Haddon 529 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Third Report of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural 

History of Timor-laut 529 

2. Report of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural History of 
Socotra and the adjacent Highlands of Arabia and Somali Land 529 

3. Report of the Committee for the Exploration of Kilimanjaro and the ad- 

j oining Mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa 529 

4. Report on the Migration of Birds 529 

5. On a young specimen of the Grey Seal (H. gryphon) from Boscastle, 
Cornwall. By Professor E. Rat Lankestee, F.R.S 529 

6. On the Germ-Theory of Disease, considered from the Natm-al History 
point of view. By IVilliam B. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S 529 

7. On Wool Plugs and Sterilised Fhuds. By J. Duncan Matthews, 
F.R.S.E 531 

8. On Cattle Disease in South America. By Dr. Ror 532 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. On the Occurrence of Chlorophyll in Animals. By Dr. C. A. MacMunn, 
M.D., B.A., F.C.S : 532 

2. On the continuity of the Protoplasm through the walls of Vegetable cells. 

By Walter Gardiner, B.A 534 

3. On the relations of Protoplasm and Cell-wall in the Vegetable cell. 
ByF. 0. Bovver 535 

4. On the Intercellular Connection of Protoplasts. By Professor William 
Hellhouse, B.A., F.L.S 535 

5. On some Cell Contents. By Marshall Ward 537 

6. On the Nectar Gland of Reseda. Bv Professor Alexander S. Wilson, 
M.A.,B.Sc : 537 

7. On the Closed Condition of the Seed-vessel in Angiosperms. By Professor 
Alexander S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc 538 

MOXDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

1 . Report on the Record of Zoological Literature 5-39 

2. Report of the Committee for aiding in the Maintenance of the Scottish 
Zoological Station 539 

3. Report of the Committee for arranging for the Occupation of a Table at 
the Zoological Station at Naples 5.39 

4. On two new Dredging Machines. By Professor Milnes Marshall, M.D., 
D.Sc .540 

5. On the Influence of Wave-Currents on the Marine Fauna of shallow seas. 

By A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S 540 



CONTENTS. 

Fage 
G. On Green Oysters. By Professor E. Eat Lankestek, F.R.S 540 

7. The Ego--capsules of tlie Dog-wlielk and their contents. By Dr. Carpenter, 
O.B., r.RS 540 

8. New British River-worms. By Professor E. Rat Lankester, F.R.S. ... 541 

9. The King Crab and the Scorpion. By Professor E. Rat Lankester, 

F.R.S 541 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. An Attempt to Classify Rotifers. By C. T. Hudson 541 

2. The Fauna and Flora of the Ashton-under-Lyne District. By J. R. 

Btrom ,.. 541 

3. OnPeripatus. By Adam Sedgwick, B.A 543 

4. On Heredity in Cats with an abnormal number of Toes. By E. B. 
POULTON 543 

5. Report on the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of 

Nitrogen , 544 

G. On the Electrical Resistance of the Human Body. By Dr. W. H. Stone 544 

7. On some Effects of Brain Disturbance on tlie Handwiiting. By Dr. 

W. H. Stone 644 

8. On the Muscular Movements that are associated with certain Complex 
Motions. By R. J. Anderson, M.A., M.D , 544 

9. On the Annelides of the Southport Sands. By Dr. Carrington 544 

10. On Protoplasmic Continuity in the Floridese. By Thomas Hick, B.A., 
B.Sc 547 

11. On some newly-discovered localities of the rare Slug, Testacella Haliotidea. 

By E. J. Lowe, F.R.S 549 



DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 
Address by AV. Pengellt, F.R.S., F.G.S., Chairman of the Department 549 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Report of the Committee for defining the Facial Characteristics of the 

Races and Principal Crosses in the British Isles 5G1 

2. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 6G1 

3. The Borness Cave, Kh-kcudbrightshire. By A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S. 56L 

4. On the relative Length of the first three Toes of the Human Foot. By 

J. Park Harrison, M.A ".. 562 

."3. On the Antiquity of Man in teland. By W. J. Knowles 562 

G. On a Human Skull found near Southport. By G. B. Bakeon, M.D 562 

7. On the Descendants of Cain. By C. Staniland Wake 5G'j 



xvi COI^TENTS. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

Page 

1. Eeport of the Committee on the Investigation of ' Loiighton ' or ' Cowper's' 

Camp S64 

2. On a Flint Implement found on Torre-Abbey Sands, Torbay. By W. 
Pengelly, r.R.S., F.G.S 564 

3. Three Golden Cups. By Miss A. W. Buckland 565 

4. On the Koeboes and other Tribes of Sumatra, and on some Customs pre- 
valent among the Inhabitants qf Timor. By H. 0. FoEBES, F.Z.S 565 

6, On the Cranial Characters of the Inhabitants of Timor-laut. By J. G. 
Garson, M.D 566 

6. Yassin and the Kajunah District. By Dr. E. G. Latham 566 

7. On the Words Celt, German, and Slavonian, their Misinterpretation, and 

its Results. By Dr. R. G. Latham 567 

8 On a Pile Dwelling recently discovered at Ulrome, in Ilolderness, 
Yorkshire. By James W. Davis, F.S.A., F.G.S 567 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. The Influence of Town Life on Statiu-e. By J. Paek Haeeison, M.A.... 568 

2. Anthropometry. By J. G. Garson, M.D 569 

3. A new Method of comparing the Forms of Skulls. By W. S. Duncan... 570 

4. Local Science Societies and the minor Pre-historic Remains of Britain. 

By R. Meldola, F.C.S 571 

5. The Yahgan Indians of Tierra del Fuego. By Hyde Clarke 572 

6. Primitive Astronomical Traditions as to Paradise. By R. G. Halibueton 572 

7. Personal Names and Tribe-Names of the Gaels. By Hector McLean ... 573 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26. 

1. The Polynesians and their Origin. By 0. Staniland Wake 573 

2. The Germanic andRhfetiim Elements in Switzerland. By John Beddoe, 
M.D., F.R.S 574 

3. ' Krao,' the so-called Missing Link. By J. Park Harrison, M.A 575 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

Address by Lieut.-Colonel H. H. GoDwrN-AusTEN, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., 

President of the Section 576 

1. On the Hot Springs of Iceland and New Zealand, with Notes on Maori 

Customs. By Cuthbeet E. Peek, F.R.G.S 500 

2. Notes on the Territory of Arizona. By Litton Forbes, M.D., L.R.C.P., 
F.R.G.S 590 

3. Preliminary Report on Local Scientific Societies 591 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

Page 

1. On the proposed Jordan Channel. By Teelawnt Saunders, F.R.G.S,... 591 

2. On the Jordan Valley. By the Eev. Canon Tristbam, D.D., F.R.S 591 

3. OnKairwan. By Edward Rae, F.R.G.S 591 

4. A Journey in Russian Central Asia, including Kulja, Bokhara, and 
Khiva. By the Rev. Henry Lansdell, D.D., F.R.G.S 592 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

1. A Visit to Mr. Stanley's Stations on the Congo. By H. H. Johnston ... 593 

2. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting the 

Survey of Eastern Palestine 694 

3. On the Volcanic and Earthquake Regions of Central America, with Oh- 
servations on recent Phenomena. By William Hancock 594 

4. Nos Vey and the South- West of Madagascar. By the Rev. S. J. Perry, 
F.R.S 595 

5. On the Somali and Galla Countries. By E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. ... 595 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. On New Guinea : a Sketch of the Physical Geography, Natural Resources, 
and Character of the Inhabitants. By Coutts Trotter, F.R.G.S 695 

2. On North Formosa. By William Hancock 597 

3. On the Advance of the Southern Chinese. By Holt S. Hallett, M. Inst. 
C.E.,F.R.G.S 598 

4. Curiosities of Travel on the Tibetan Frontier. By E. Colborne Babee, 
F.R.G.S 590 

5. On the Athabasca District of the Canadian North- West Territory. By 

the Rev. Emile Petitot 591) 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

1. The Cotton Trade : its Condition and Prospects. By Edwin Guthrie... 601 

2. An Attempt at the more Definite Statement of the Malthusian Principle. 

By the Rev. AVilliam Cunningham 603 

3. On the Statistics of the Free Public Library, Notticg Hill. By James 
Heywood, F.R.S 604 

4. On the Evils arising from the Pollution of Rivers. By General Sir J. E. 
Alexander, K.C.B., F.R.S.E 605 

5. On Free Libraries. By Professor Leone Levi, F.S.S 605 

Address by R. II. Inglis Palsrave, F.R.S., F.S.S., President of the Section 605 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Canada, as it impresses and influences an Emigrant, with Notes on the 
North- West Territory. By Harry Moody 612 

1883. a 



XViii CONTENTS. 

Pago 

2. A brief Chronological and Statistical Eeview of the Past and Present of 
Canada. By Cornelius Walfokd, F.S.S 613 

3. Recent Changes in the Distribution of Wealth in relation to the Incomes 

of the Labouring Classes. By Professor Leone Leyi, F.S.S 616 

4. On the Number of the Deaf and Dumb in the World. By William 

E. A. Axon 616 

5. On the Palestine Channel and Canal Scheme. Bv Coenelitts Walfoed, 
F.S.S ; 617 

6. The English-spealdug Populations of the World. By Hyde Clarke 618 

7. Agi-icultural Statistics. By W. Botlt , 619 

8. Foot and Mouth Disease of Cattle : its True History and Remedy. By 
the Rev. D. Ace, D.D., F.R.A.S .'. 620 

SATURDAY, SEPTE2IBER 22. 

1. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 620 

2. On the Effect of Alcoholic Drinks on Length of Human Life. By W. 
Braham Robinson, R.N 620 

.3. Forestry. By William Botlt 621 

4. On the Introduction of Science into Higher and Jliddle-class Schools. By 

D. Mackintosh, F.G.S 622 

5. The Importance of a Creed Census ; with Notice of that taken in 1881 for 

the Diocese of Liverpool, By the Rev. Canon Hume 622 

3I0NBAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

1. The Growth of Barrow-ln-Fiu-ness, &c. By Hyde Clarke, F.S.S 623 

2. On the Increase of National "VN'^ealth since the time of the Stuarts. By M. 

G. Mulhall 624 

3. Gold m-«us Goods. By John B. Martin, F.S.S 625 

4. ^Method of Measuring Changes in the Value of Gold. By J. L. Shad- 

AVELL 626 

5. The Scottish Poor Law, past and present, tried by results. By E. A. 
Macknight 626 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25. 

1. Report of the Committee on the workings of the proposed revised New 

Code and of other legislation affecting the teaching of Science in Elemen- 
taiy Schools 627 

2. A System of Science Demonstration in Elementary Schools. By W. 
Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc 627 

3. On the Education of Artisans. By G. B. Barron, M.D 627 

4. The True Reason why so many Children try to avoid School Attendance. 

By the Rev. Canon Hume 628 

5. The Education of Pauper Children, industrially and otherwise. By the 

Rev. Jas. 0. Bevan, M.A., F.G.S 629 

6. Southport as an Example of Modern Enterprise. By F. Norfolk 630 



CONTENTS. XIX 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 

Page 

1. A Comparison of Morecambe Bay, Barrow-iu-Furness, North Lancashire, 

AVest Cumherland, &c., in 1836 and 1883. By Hyde Clarke 631 

2. On the use of the term Stability in the Literature of Naval Architecture. 

By Professor Osborne Retnoids, F.R.S 631 

3. On the Euphrates Valley Railway. By J. B. Feli, C.E 632 

4. On the Construction and Working of Alpine Railways. By J. B. Fell 633 

5. The Injector Hydrant for Fire Extinction. By J. H. Greathead, 
M.Inst.C.E ; .' 635 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

Address by James Brunless, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Pres. Inst. C.E., President of 
the Section 635 

1. Report of the Committee on Patent Legislation 646 

2. On the Supply of Hydraulic Power. By Edward Bayz.atid Ellington, 
M.Inst.C.E 646 

S. On Compound Locomotive Engines. By Francis W. Webb, M.Inst.C.E. 647 

4. The Mersey Railway. By C. Douglas Fox, M.Inst.C.E 647 

5. On the Construction and Ventilation of Long Railway Tunnels. By T. 

R. Crajipion 647 

6. On the Resistance of Beams when strained bej'ond the Elastic liimit. By 
Walter R. Browne, M.A., M.Inst.C.E 648 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 

1. Report of the Committee on Screw Gauges 650 

2. On Nest Gearing. By Professor Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S 650 

3. On Telegraphic Intercommunication. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 650 

4. On Electric Launches. By A. Reckenzatjn 650 

5. On Electric Launches. By J. Clark 652 

6. On Electric Tramways. By M. Holrotd Smith 652 

7. Secondary Batteries and the Economical Generation of Steam for Elec- 
trical purposes. By W. W. Beaumont and C. II. W. Biggs 652 

8. Fire Risks of Electric Lighting. By Killingworth Hedges 653 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

1. Improved Current Meters and Mode of taking Sub-siu'face Observations. 

By Professor H. S. Hele Shaw 654 

2. A Flexible Band Dynamometer. By Professor W. C. Unavin, M.Inst.C.E. 656 

3. Curves of Air Resistance. By Professor Greenhill, M. A 656 

4. Southport Sewage. By Isaac Shone 656 

5. On the Rosebridge Colliery Deep Mine and the Winding Machinery 
employed. By G. H. Daglish, M.Inst.C.E 657 

6. The proposed Jordan Canal. By Trelawney Saunders 657 

a2 



XS CONTENTS. 

WHBiYESBAY, SEPTEMBER 26. 

Page- 

1. The British Navy. By Captain Bebfoed Pim, R.N., F.R.G.S 657 

2. On a Self-registering Ship's Compass. By Robeex Pickwell 657 

3. The Working of Slate Quarries. By A. W. Dakbishike 658 

4. The Action of Waves on Sea Beaches. By A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S. ... 658 

6. Harbours of Refuge. By Robeex Capper, F.R.G.S 658 

6. The Panama Canal. By the Chevalier de Stoess 650 

Index ^^'> 



LIST OF PLATE3. 



PLATE I, 



Illustrative of the Report of the Committee for investigating the Tertiary Flora of 

the North of Ireland. 



PLATES II. AND IIL 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee for investigating the Ancient Earth- 
work in Epping Forest, known as the ' Loughton ' or ' Cowper's' Camp. 

PLATES IV.— X. 

Illustrative of the Final Report of the Anthropometric Committee. 

PLATES XL AND XIa.* 

Illustrative of Dr. Huggins"s Communication, 'On some Results of Photographing: 
the Solar Corona without an Eclipse.' 

PLATE Xn. 

Illustrative of Mr. C. Douglas Fox's Communication, ' On the Mersey Tunnel.' 

PLATES Xni.— XV. 
Illustrative of Professor II. C. Fleeming Jenkin's Communication, 'Nest Gearing.' 

* This plate was presented by the author; the materials for it having been 
received by him after the article was printed. 



I 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



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Xxii KULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

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names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 

' Kevised by the General Committee, Southampton, 1882. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Cmitrihutm-s of J/£>»wm'«.— Authors are reminded tbat, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on whic,-. 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections bcfm-e the heriinning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in tlie published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, tos-ether with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 



Xxiv RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees.^ 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease. ^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 
On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section vrho may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present • 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the "Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,* Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly- 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 

Ijefore .addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 

\enient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Eeports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, 
before the conclusion of the 3Icetinff. 

» Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

2 Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

s Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at 
Southport, 1883. 

5 These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV 

of Recommendatious adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
Avhich have been i-ead on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing -the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Pi'inting Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the Greneral Committee (vide p. xxiii), and will receive, 
on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee shoidd be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, .the Becom,- 
onendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 

" This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



XXVI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received. "^ 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting : nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
nnpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Booms and approaches thereto can be used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, ^ and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

• Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 

^ The meeting on Saturday may begin, if desired by the Committee, at any time not 
earlier than 10 or later than 1 1 . Passed by the General Committee at Southport, 1883. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXvii 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Dtdies of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they wotild advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officer's. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affiiirs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to - 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors • 
appointed by the General Committee. 







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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretai-ies 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Da vies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.K.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1S58. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

Prof. M'bulloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

b2 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W, Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M<Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly; 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly', G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. StWelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G.- Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine, Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof, D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood. 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



XXXVl 



REPORT 1883. 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Nev>rcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter, 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W.Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C-L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. .lenkin. Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof . H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

p,. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. McAlister. 
Prof.W. E.Aj-rton,Prof.O. J. Lodge, 

D. McAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. McAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. McAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETAP.IES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xxxvn 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 


•John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Dr. Hope 


James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr Christison, 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol...... 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 
ISGO. Oxford 

18C1. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 



Dr. T. Tliomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. William Whewell,F.E.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.E.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.E.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.E.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Gumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Eev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.E.S. 

Eiehard Phillips, F.E.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.E.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.E.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.E.S. 

Prof. J. F. "W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.E.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.E.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.E.S., 

M.E.LA. 
Sir J. F. W, Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C.B., F.E.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.E.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 
F.E.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston, 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Eeynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Eichardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. E. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Eobert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

E. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Eandall, 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, E. Hunt, T. V/illiams. 

E. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Eonalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. E. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone,Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Di'. H. E. Eoscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, E. Eey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcoto. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Eoscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 



W.Odling, M.B.,F.E.S.,F.C.S.iA.V.PIarcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 



XXXVUl 



EEPOBT — 1883. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1865. Birmingham Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 
V.P.K.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.K.S. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plj'mouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.E.S.E. , -. - 

Prof. E. Frankltad, F.E.S., 

F.C.S. 
Dr. H. Debus, F.K.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H, E. Eoscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S... . 

Prof. W. J. Kussell, F.E.S... . 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.E.S 

F. A. Abel, F.E.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.E.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.E.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.E.S. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

Dr. J. h". Gladstone, F.E.S... 



Secretaries 



A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Eussell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Eussell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Eus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thoiiae. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Eoberts, Dr. 
W. J. Eussell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Eoberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Eoberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Eoberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Eoberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. 51. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. E. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 

H. B. Dixon, Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodg- 
kinson, P. Phillips Bedson, J. M. 
Thomson. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
T. Gough. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
J. L. Notter. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 
Dixon, H. Forster JMorley. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1882. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge, 

1834. Edinburgh, 



R. L Murchison, F.E.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool.., 

1838. Newcastle., 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY, 

E. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Qeogrtqjhy, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

FES 
C. Lyeli, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geoqraphy, Lord Prudhope, 



Captain Port lock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI X 



Date and Place 



1S39. Birmingham 

1340. Glasgow ... 

I8III Plymouth... 
1843. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 



1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 
1850, Edinburgh' 



Presidents 



Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geoqrajihy, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— <?eo- 

grapliy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Oeo- 

grapJnj, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



George Lloyd, ll.T)., H. E. Strick- 
land, -Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoul^rj M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Huttdn." 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Biinbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Rusk in. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Jphnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



SECTION c (^continued'). — geology. 
WilliamHopkin6,M.A.,F.R.S. 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock, E.E., 

1 853. Hull : Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

1854. Liverpool.. Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.R.S.... 



1855. Glasgow 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

18^8. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D.^ 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Ilarkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicbl, H. C. Soi-by, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith, 



Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved < That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, iinder the title of the " Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,'" for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xliv. 



xl 



BEPOET — 1883. 



Date and Place 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee .. 

1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1873. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea .., 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



Presidents 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir K. I. Murchison, Bart, 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A, Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D. ... 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Eov. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
Hughes,"L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, AVilliaia 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L, C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L, C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANT, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh. 



Rev, P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836, Bristol. 



1837, Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman I J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow [J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen. 
Dr. Richardson. 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



' At this Meeting Phj-siology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xliii. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xli. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



] 8.30. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 



Prof. Owen, F.K.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.E.S, 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 



1844. York jVeryEev. the Dean of Man- 

j Chester. 

lEev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S..., 

j Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F P S 
i H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S, 



Secretaries 



1845. Cambridge 
1840. Southamp- 
ton. 
1847. Oxford 



E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson.. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R.- 
Patterson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King,. 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston, H.. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V^ 
■VVollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zooLOGr and botany, including phtsiologt. 



[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xliii, xliv.] 



1848. 


Swansea ... ; 

1 


1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 


1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


185.S. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 


Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 
1803. 


Cambridge 
Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. 


Birmingham 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleemina:, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

, F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour-, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S. ... 



Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Doufflas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester,. 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankestcr,"Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev, 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



xlii 



REPORT — 1883. 



SECTION D (continued), — biology. 



Date and Place 



11866. Nottinaham 



:1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich 



11869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinbiirah 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth. 



Presidents 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Phijdoloyiccd Bip., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Aniliropohgical Dej),, Alf. 

E. Wallace, F.E,G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dip. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bcp. of PJiyswliigy, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bcp. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Etlino., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. RoUeston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., ¥.1^.8. — Bcp. of 
Anat. and Phi/»iol.,'Proi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— i^c^A 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i^e^'A of Bot. and 
^oo?.,Prof.W}rviileThomson, 
V.^.'&.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Be}), of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— Z'e/A of Antlmijjol, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.E.S.— Bcp. of 
Anat. and Ph yinol.,Vxot. Ru- 
therford, U.i).—Bcp. ofAii- 
thropoL, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, ILD.—Bc]). of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— Z»(7Ao/^«- 
tlirop.. Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, Y.'K.K—Bep.of 
Anat. and Ph ysiol. ,Vroi.ClQ 
land, M.D., t.U.'S.-.—Bep.of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.l^.^.—Bep. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S.— iJ^YA of Anat. and 
Phy.^wl., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffi-eys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
¥.1,.B.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Bep. of Anthropol., 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Bloore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith, 

Prof. TIiiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W.T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Xab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 



I Francis Galton,M.A.,F.R.S. 

' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved :— ' That the title 
of Section D be changed to Biology;' and 'That for the word "Subsection," in the 
vules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word " Deiwrt ment' ' be substituted. ' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 



1878. Dublin 



.1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



Presidents 



Prof. W. H. Flower, F.E.S.— 

Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 

Huxley, Sec. E.S.—Dej}. 

of Anat. and Physiol., K. 

McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. St. Geo]-ge Mivart, 

F.R.S.— J9e/;. of Antliropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of A nat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— i)f/;. of Anthrojwl., 

F. W. Eudler,"F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.R.S.— Z)eyA of Anthropoh, 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.— i>c/A of Anat. and 
Physivl., Prof. J. S. Burden 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
¥.R.^.—Bep. ofAnthrojwl.. 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nala, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. fiudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. "W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, "W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, AV. Hurst, Prof. A. M 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGT. 

1833. Cambridge j Dr.' Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh Dr. Abercrombie [Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOIIT AND MEDICINE, 



1835. Dublin 

183G. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844 York 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. E.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long> 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W, Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R, S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 



xliv 



EEPOET 1883. 



SECTION E. — PHrSIOLOGT. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1845. Cambridge Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 

1846. Soutbamp- , Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

ton. 

1847. Oxford ' ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.K.S. . 



Secretaries 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 

1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Aberdeen.. 
Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



Birming- 
ham.- 



PHTSIOLOGICAL SUB.SECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. 
Prof. G. Eolleston, M.D., 

F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Pa?et, M.D 

Prof. Eoileston, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 

Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 



p. xxxviii.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



Dr. Prif chard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1840. Bii-mingham 
1850. Edinburgh ! Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King, 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGBAPHT AND ETHKOLOGT. 



1851. Ipswich . 

1852. Belfast.... 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool. 

1855. Glasgow . 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Sir E. L Murchison, F.E.S., 
I Pres. E.G.S. 

I Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 
[ F.E.S. 
I E. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 
I F.E.S. 
iSir J. Eichardson, M.D., 

F.E.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Eev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 
Pres. E.I.A. I 



E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
E. gull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

Eumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. E. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Sliaw. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. xli). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Oeography. 

^ Vide note on page xlii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1S63. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1667. Dundee ... 
1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southnort 



Presidents 



Sir R.L Murchison.G.C.St.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 



Sir R. L Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Cliarles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Calla- 
ghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wriglit. 

Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 
Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. AVatson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Mm-chison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 
K.C.B 



Sir Bartle Frere, 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.L.&E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
Clements R. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements It. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 
Rye. 



xlvi 



EEPOKT — 1883. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, YI. STATISTICS. 



Date and Place 



1833. 
1834. 



Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Prof. Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Cliarles Lemon, Bart.. 



Secretaries 



J. E. Drinkwater. 

Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Pljrmou^th... 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 



Cliarles Babbage, F.E.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon,.Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

.J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishoi) of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



"W. Greg, Prof. Long-field, 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
P. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. E. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



1856. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics 
Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P, 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859, 


Aberdeen,,, 


1860. 


Oxford 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.E.S. 
Nassau AV, Senior, M.A, 



Rev. C. H, Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W, Newmarch, W, 

M, Tartt, 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J, Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E." T. Rogers, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlviJ 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich.... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 
1871. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



William Newmarch, F.E.S.... 



Edwin C'hadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.K.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P , 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit 
Actuaries. 

Rt. Hon. Sir StaflfordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A, 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. .., 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Haoan 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.I.A, 
G. Shaw Lefe\Te, BI.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant Duff, 

BI.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S 



Secretaries 



David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 

H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 

T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Piudy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston,. 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E.. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J,. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, , 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory,. 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows^. 

Hans MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. J\Iolloy. 
C. Molloy, W.'W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. IMolloy. 



R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

I Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy.. 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION Q. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE, 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 



Bristol 

Liverpool... 
Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow .... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S,, and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev, Prof. Willis, F,R,S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A. . 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster., 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T.. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod,. 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J.. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingslcy. 



xlviii 



REPOKT — 1883. 



Date and Place 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 
18.51. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 
3 863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Pl}-mouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Professor Walker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., 

F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. IMacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward AVoods, C.E 

Edwai-d Easton. C.E 



Secretaries 



William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesuiier, W. P. Struve 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles ]\Ianby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M, 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. IMarshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Baiierman. 
H. Bauennan, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbiitt, J'. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomlev, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Svmes, H. T. 
. Wood. 



LISr 0¥ EVENIXa LECTURES. 



xlix 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 


J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.E.S.E., 
Pres.Inst.C.E. 


A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Kigg, H. T, Wood. 


1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast...... 



Lecturer 



1883. 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

SirM. I. Bnmel 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.E.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W, R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S... . 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlosk, R.E., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinomis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the ^gean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus i/icjrtus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of diilerent Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
pract i cal considerations oonnec t e d 
with it. 



REPORT 1883. 



Date and Place 



1853. Hull, 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 

1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870, 
1871. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S, 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 

Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Dublin Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Leeds Trof. J. Plnllips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Miirchison, D.C.L... . 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 



Aberdeen.. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Csborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete jukes, F.R.S... 



William Hnggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 



E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

AnthroiDomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Ciineiform research up to tlie 
jiresent time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Higlilands. 

Electrical Discharges in higlily 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Liglit. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measm'es be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
laud Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archseology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulje. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
l^lications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



li 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton . 

{cont.) 

1873. Bradford . 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool . 

1872. Brighton . 

1873. Bradford . 

1874. Belfast.... 

1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877 Plymouth. 

1879. Sheffield . 

1880. Swansea . 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. K. GliflEord . 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode.LL.D., F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

Sir Wyville Thomson, F R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S. 

W. Spottiswoode, Pre.s. R.S. 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S., 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Aims and Instruments of Scien" 

tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The HjqDothesis that Animals are 

Aiitomata, and its Historj^. 
The Colours of Polarized Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The ChaUcuf/cr Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or JModern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Paleon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvani and Animal Electricity. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. AV. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L. Treas. R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. 
c2 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Exjaerimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the SiDCctrum. 

Savages. 

Sunsliine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by EJectricitj'— Telephones, 



lii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

SOUTHPORT MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICATi AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the 
London Mathematical Society. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor J. C. Adams, F.R.S. ; Professor R. S. Ball, 
F.R.S.; J. Baxendell, F.R.A.S. ; J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S. ; Rev. 
Professor Salmon, D.J)., F.R.S.; Sir William Siemens. F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor Balfour Stewart, F.R.S. ; Professor Stokes, Sec. R.S. ; G. 
Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S. ; Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — W. M. Hicks, M.A. ; Professor 0. J. Lodge ; D. MacAlister, 
M.A. (Recorder) ; Professor R. C. Rowe. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— i . H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Preside7its. — Professor J. Dewar, F.R.S. ; A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 
F.R.S.; Professor G. D. Liveing, F.R.S. ; Hugo MiiUer, F.R.S.; W. 
H. Perkin, F.R.S. ; Professor H. E. Ro.'scoe, F.R.S. ; Professor T. E. 
Thorpe, F.R.S. ; W. Weldon, F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. Williamson, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor P. P. Bedson, D.Sc. (Recorder); H. B. Dixon, 
M.A. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Froiessor W. C. Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; Professor E. Hull, 
F.R.S.; G. H. Morton, F.G.S. ; C. Ricketts, M.D. ; Professor F. 
Roemer, M.A. 

Secretaries.—'R. Betley, F.G.S. ; C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S. ; W. Topley, 
F.G.S. (Recorder) ; W. Whitaker, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor E. Ray Lankester, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Evans, Treas. R.S. ; Professor Gamgee, F.R.S. ; 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S.; Professor Schafer, F.R.S.: W. T. Thiselton- 
Dyer, F.R.S. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. IJii 

.Secretaries.— G. J. Haslam, M.D. ; W. Heape ; Professor A. M. Marshall, 
M.D. ; Howard Saundta-s, F.L.S. (Recorder); Dr. G. A. Woods, 
F.R.M.S.; G. W. Bloxam, F.L.S. {Recorder) ; Walter Hurst. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

Preside7it.—Lient.-Co\onel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Qiv Rawson W. Rawson, K.C.M.G., C.B. ; Rev. Canon 

Tristram, D.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— John Coles, ~F.R.G.S.; E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S; E. C. 

Rye, F.Z.S. (Recorder). 

SECTION P. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— H. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S., F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor R. Adamson, M.A., LL.D. ; J. Heywood, 

F.R.S. 

.Secretaries. — Rev. W. Canningliam, M.A ; Professor H. S. Foxwell, 
F.S.S. ; J. N. Keynes, F.S.S. ; Constantino Molloy (Recorder). 

SECTION G.- — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — James Brnnlees, F.R.S.B., Pres.Tnst.C.B. 

Vice-Presidents.— W. H. Barlow, F.R.S.; J. F. Bateraan, F.R.S.; Sir 
F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ; Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. ; Sir 
William Siemens, F.R.S. ; Sir Joseph Whitworth, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— A. T. Atchison, M.A. ; Edward Rigg, M.A. ; H. Traeman 

Wood, B.A. (Recorder). 



liv 



KEPOET — 1883. 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aua:. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 .. 

1867, Sept. 4 .., 

1868, Aug. 19 .. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14 .. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14 .. 

1873, Sept. 17 .. 

1874, Aug. 19 .. 
187.5, Aug. 25 .. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15 .. 

1878, Aug. 14 .. 

1879, AiTg. 20 .. 

1880, Aug. 25 .. 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23 .. 

1883, Sept. 19.. 



Wliere held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin ^ 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Kewcastle-on-Tj'ne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingliam 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton ... 
Southport 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Kev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Eev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Eev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir Jolm P. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick L Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robin.son, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Hairowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WiniamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S, 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S, 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S, 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Old Life 
Members 



169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 

184 

144 

272 

178 

203 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Iv 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 


Old 

Annual 

Members 


New 

Annual 

Members 


Asso- y 
ciates ^ 


dies 


For- 
eigners 


Total 


... 


... 




•• 


... 


353 

900 
1298 






1831 
1832 
1833 
18.34 
1835 


; 














£20 "o "o 
167 




... 


... 


• 




•• 


... 


1350 
1840 




435 
922 12 6 


1836 
1837 




46 
75 
71 
45 
94 
65 
197 
54 


ill 

376 
185 
190 
22 
39 
40 
25 


. 


1 


100* 

60* 
331* 
L60 
260 
L72 
L96 
!03 

97 


34 
40 

28 

35 
36 
53 
15 


2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 

1079 
857 

1320 
819 




932 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

831 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 

275 1 8 


1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 








'33t ; 
'"n i 

407 ] 
270 ] 
495 1 
376 ] 














^m'o'o 


93 


33 


447 I 


!37 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 


128 


42 


• 510 1 


!73 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 


61 


47 


244 ] 


41 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 


63 


60 


510 i 


J92 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 


56 


67 


367 S 


!36 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 


121 


121 


765 I 


)24 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 


142 


101 


1094 t 


)43 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1856 


104 


48 


412 i 


S46 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 


156 


120 


900 £ 


>69 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 ■ 


18.57 


111 


91 


710 f 


)09 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 


125 


179 


1206 i 


S21 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1869 


177 


59 


636 i 


63 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 


184 


125 


1589 7 


91 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 S 


42 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 IC 


>04 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 


182 


103 


1119 IC 


)58 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 


215 


149 


766 £ 


08 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 


218 


105 


960 7 


71 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


18C6 


193 


118 


1163 7 


71 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 


226 


117 


720 6 


82 


45j 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 


229 


107 


678 6 


00 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 


308 


195 


1103 8 


10 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 7 


54 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 9 


12 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 6 


01 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 6 


30 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 6 


72 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 


331 


185 


1265 7 


12 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 2 


83 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 6 


74 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 3 


49 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 1 


47 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 


.313 


176 


12.30 5 


14 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 3 1 


1881 


253 


79 


516 1 


89 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 


330 


323 


952 8 


41 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 
t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. I Including Ladles. 



„ 


CO 






M 




o 
o 

CO 


(M 

(M 


i 




OFFICEKS AND COUNCIL, 1883-84. 



PRESIDENT. 
ARTHORCAYLEY, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.. V.P.R.A.S., Sadlerian Professor of Mathematics in the 

University of Cambridge. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

TheRight Hon. the Earl of Derby, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

The Right Hon. the Earl op Crawford and Balcarres, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

The Right Hon. tlie Earl of Lathom. 

Principal J. \V. Dawson, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

J. G. Grebnsvood, Esq., LL.D., Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University. 

Professor H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

The Bight Hon. LORD BAYLEIGH, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Professor of Experimenta 

Physics in the University of Cambridge. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Excellency the Goverxor-Gexeral of Canada. 
The Right Hon. Sir John Alexaxder Macdoxald, 

K.C.B., D.C.L. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Platfair, K.C.B., M.P., 

Ph.D'., LL.D., F.R.S.L. & E., F.C.S. 
The Hon. Sir Alexander Tillooh Galt, G.C.M.G. 
The Hon. Sir Charles Tupper, K.C.M.G. 
Sir Naecissb Doeion, C.M.G. 



The Hon. Dr. Chauveau. 

Principal J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Professor Edward Franklaxd, M.D., D.C.L., Ph.D ., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Hln-gston, Esq., M.D. 
Thomas Sterry Hunt, Esq., M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT MONTREAL. 
S. E. Dawson, Esq. | S. Rivard, Esq. | Thos. White, Esq., M.P. 

R. A. Ramsay, Esq. 



S. C. Stevenson, Esq. 



LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT MONTREAL. 
F. WOLFERSTAN THOMAS, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Batbman, J. F. La Trobe, Esq., F.R.S. 
Bramwell, Sir F. J., F.R.S. 
Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 
Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd, F.R.S. 
De La Rue, Dr. Warren, F.R.S. 
Dewar, Professor J., F.R.S. 
EVAXS, Captam Sir F. J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Flower, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Godwin-Austen, Lleut.-Col. H. H., F.R.S. 
Hastings, G. W., Esq., M.P. 



THE COUNCIL. 

Hawkshaw, J. Clarke, Esq., F.G.S. 
Henrici, Professor O., F.R.S. 
HuGGiNS, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK., F.G.S. 
Jeffreys, Dr. J. Gwyn, F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Perkin, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Prestwich, Professor, F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Prof. J. S. Burdon, F.R.S. 
SCLATER-BOOTH, Tlie Right Hon. G., F.R.S. 
SOMY, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. DOUOLAS Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 

A. G. Vernon H.arcourt, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, Oxford. 

SECRETARY. 

Professor T. G. Bonnet, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A., Pres.G.S., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williajison, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Professor the Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
The Dukeof Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.G. 



Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Pres. R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 
Dr. T. Andrews, F.R.S. 
Dr. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Six- John Lubbock, Bart., P.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Dr. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. I P. L. Solater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

I George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S. | 



Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
1 George Griffltli, Esq., U.A., F.C.S. 1 John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Iviii 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Be^port Of the Council for tlie year 1882-83, presented to the' General 
Committee at Southport, on Wednesday, September 19, 1883. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the meeting at Southampton the following have been elected 
Corresponding Members of the Association : — 



Baumhauer, Dr. B. H. 

Clausius, Dr. R. 

Du Bois-Raymond, Professor 



Langley, Professor 
Rath, Professor G. vom 



The Council have nominated Principal J. "W. Dawson, C.M.G., LL.D., 

P.R.S., to be a Vice-President for the meeting at Southport. 

As the lamented death of Professor F. M. Balfour, one of the General 
Secretaries, occurred only a few weeks before the meeting at South- 
ampton, the Council were not prepared at that date to recommend his 
successor, but at their next meeting they nominated Mr. A. G. Vernon 
Harcourt, F.R.S., as a General Secretary, and requested him to act in 
that capacity until the next meeting of the Association. They accord- 
ingly now recommend that he be appointed a General Secretary in the 
room of the late Professor F. M. Balfour. 

They regret the loss by death of three of their number. Of these the 
first was Professor H. J. S. Smith, who at Southampton was elected one 
of the Vice-Presidents for this meeting ; a man of whom it is difficult to 
say whether he was more regarded with admiration for his rare talents, 
or beloved for his personal qualities. The Association was deprived, 
almost simultaneously, of two of its Trustees ; both former General 
OfBcers ; both past Presidents. The very advanced age of General 
Sabine had for several years prevented him from taking any active part in 
the business of the Association (though in his time he had been one of 
its most energetic and laborious members), but in Mr. William Spottis- 
woode, President of the Royal Society, the Council and the whole Associa- 
tion have lost one who was ever active in promoting its interests, to 
whom, it was hoped, no small period yet remained for good and useful 
work. Few men have been so deeply and deservedly lamented, for in 
him were united, to an exceptional degree, great mental powers, singular 
ability in practical matters, and a noble unselfishness. The Council 
recommend that in the place of the late General Sabine and the late Mr. 
Spottiswoode, Lord Ray leigh and Sir Lyon Playfair be elected Trustees of 
the Association. 

Four resolutions were referred by the General Committee to the 
Council for consideration, and action, if desirable. In respect of one of 
these, that which empowered the Council to communicate with Foreign 
Scientific Associations with the view of promoting the organisation of an 



EEPOET OF THE COUNCIL. lis 

International Scientific Congress, the Council, having regard to the special 
circumstances of the present and coming year, have deemed it wiser to 
postpone any decisive action for the present. 

In accordance with the powers granted to them by the General 
Committee in the other resolutions : The Council have considered the 
question of amalgamating the Departments of Zoology and Botany and 
of Anatomy and Physiology for the present year, and have decided to 
amalgamate them under the designation of the Section of Biology, retain- 
ing the Department of Anthropology. 

The Council have also appointed a Committee, with Mr. F. Galton as 
Chairman, and Mr. H. G. Fordham as Secretary, 'to draw up suggestions 
upon methods of more systematic observation and plans of operation for 
local Societies, together with a more uniform mode of publication of the 
results of their work.' This Committee were also requested to draw up a 
list of local Societies which published their transactions. They have pre- 
sented a preliminary report to the Council, with a request that it may be 
communicated to the Committees of Sections for consideration and sug- 
gestions. This the Council propose to do, and recommend that after it 
assumes its final form it be printed in the annual volume, among the 
reports made to the Association. A list of publishing local Societies will 
be appended to the report. 

The Council have further appointed a Committee to co-operate with 
them for the purpose of considering the arrangements for the meeting at 
Montreal. 

In respect of this meeting, the Council have to inform the Association 
that of those who were members at the time of the meetinsr at South- 
ampton, 445 have notified their intention of being present at the meeting 
at Montreal, and 55 persons have either become members or expressed 
their wish to become members, wiib the view of taking part in this 
meeting. Negotiations with respect to the arrangements for the meeting 
on the basis of the letter from Sir A. T. Gait, dated March 3, 1883, are 
still proceeding, and for some little time it will not be possible for the 
Council to communicate the precise details to the members of the Associa- 
tion, but the following points may be regarded as settled : There will be 
a reduction of fares on the part of the Steamship Companies to all 
members of the Association, and a further reduction, in consequence of 
the Canadian subsidy, at any rate to all who were members at the meet- 
ing of 1882 ; and there will be an excursion after the meeting — free of 
cost to members as regards transit — one to the Rocky Mountains, lasting 
from twelve to fourteen days, another to the Falls of Niagara and 
Chicago ; with probably one or two shorter excursions. As soon as all 
details can be arranged the Council will communicate them to the 
members of the Association. 

The Council have considered what alterations, if any, it may b& 
desirable to make in the transaction of business at the Montreal Meeting, 
in consequence of the exceptional distance, and the unprecedented fact 
that the place of meeting is not within the British Isles. They are of 
opinion that, as there is likely to be so representative a gathering of 
British members at Montreal, and as 154 members of the General Com- 
mittee have signified their intention of being present, little alteration will 
be necessary in the custom, and no changes need be proposed in the 
written law of the Association. There will, however, be difficulties in 
fixing the place of meeting for 1886, and the date of that in 1885, for 



Ix REPORT 1883. 

delegates from the towns concerned could not be expected to attend. It 
may also be felt that members who are unable to leave the United 
Kingdom ought to have the opportunity of voting on these points, and on 
the election of the President and Officers for 1885. The Council, there- 
fore, recommend that the General Committee hold only two meetings at 
Monti-eal, and an adjourned meeting at some convenient place in London, 
on some day, to be hereafter fixed, towards the end of the month of 
October, 1884. 

It has been represented to the Council that a strong wish is felt in 
some of the Sections to meet at an earlier hour than eleven o'clock on the 
Saturday morning ; the Council, therefore, recommend that an explana- 
tory note be added to the rule which fixes the hour of the Sectional 
Meetings, to state that on this day only the Committee of any Section 
can arrange for that Section to commence its meeting at any time not 
earlier than ten or later than eleven o'clock. 

The Council have been informed that, through an inadvertence, the 
resolution of the Sectional Committee recommending the reappointment 
of the Committee on Underground Temperature was not transmitted to 
the Committee of Recommendations, and so did not receive the sanction 
of the General Committee. The Council, having regard to the important 
work carried on by that Committee, have requested them, through their 
Secretary, Professor Everett, to continue their labours and make a report, 
as though they had been duly appointed. The Council ask that this 
action of theirs be sanctioned, and that the above-named report be re- 
ceived and printed in the annual volume among the Reports of Com- 
mittees duly appointed. 

One vacancy having been caused in the Council by the death of 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, one by the i^etirement of Sir H. E. L. Thuillier, 
one by the election of Professor Cayley to the Presidency, and one by 
that of Mr. Vernon Harcourt to the office of General Secretary, there 
remains only one name which it is necessary to remove from the list. 

The Council propose that, in accordance with the regulations, the 
retiring member shall be the following : — 

Mr. J. Heywood. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



A-dams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Bramwell, Sir F. J., F.R.S. 
Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 
Dawkius, Professor W. Boyd, 

F.R.S. 
De La Rue, Warren, Esq., F.R.S. 
*Dewar, Professor J., F.R.S. 
Evans, Captain Sir F. J., K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Flower, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
^Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
* God win- Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H., 

F.R.S. 



Hastings, G. W., Esq., M.P. 
Hawkshaw, J. Clarke, Esq., F.G.S. 
*Henrici, Professor O., F.R.S. 
Haggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Profes.sor T. McK., F.G.S. 
Jeffreys, Dr. J. Gwyn, F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Perkin, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Prestwich, Professor, F.R.S. 
Rayleigh, Lord, F.R.S. 
Sanderson, Professor J. S. Burden, 

F.R.S. 
«Sclater-Booth, The Right Hon. 

G., F.R.S. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 



Ixi 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
SouTHPORT Meeting in September 1883. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That Professor Crnm Brown, Mr. Milne-Home, Mr. Jolin Murray, and 
Mr. Bucban be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of co-operatino- 
with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteorological obser- 
vations on Ben Nevis ; that Professor Crum Brown be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 50?. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Eayleigh,. 
Professor Jenkin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muir- 
head, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Pro- 
fessor Schuster, Sir W. Siemens, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitz- 
gerald, Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, and 
Professor "W. Garnett be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments ; that Mr. Glazebrook be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50/. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, Professor H. E. 
Roscoe, Professor A. S. Herschel, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Scott, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of investigating the practicability of collecting and identifying Meteoric- 
Dust, and of considering the question of undertaking regular observa- 
tions in various localities ; that Professor Schuster be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 20Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Captain Abney, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, 
Lord Rayleigb, Mr. Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. 
Vernon Harcourt, and Professor Ayrton be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light ; that Captain Abney 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of 20Z. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert H. Scott, Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Symons be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of co-operating with the Meteoroloo-ical 
Society of the Mauritius in their proposed publication of Daily Synoptic 
Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861 ; that Mr. R. H. Scott be 
the Secretary, and that the still unexpended sum of 50Z. be again placed 
at theii- disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Knox Laughton, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Mr. Johnstone Stoney be a Committee 



Ixii REPORT — 1883. 

for the purpose of co-operating with Mr, E. J, Lowe in his project of 
establishing a Meteorological Observatory near Chepstow on a permanent 
and scientific basis, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. James N. Shoolbred and Sir William Thomson be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reducing and tabulating the Tidal Observations 
in the English Channel made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and of connect- 
ing them with observations made on the French coast ; that Mr. Shool- 
bred be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Professor G. H. Darwin and Professor J. C. Adams be a Com- 
mittee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations ; that Professor 
Darwin be the Secretary, and that the sum of 45Z. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Odling, Huntington, Dewar, Liveing, Schuster, and 
Hartley be a Committee for the purpose of investigating by means of 
Photography the Ultra-violet Spark-spectra emitted by Metallic Elements, 
and their combinations under varying conditions ; that Professor W. N. 
Hartley be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. E. Etheridge, Mr. T. Gray, and Professor J. Milne be re- 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Earthquake 
Phenomena of Japan ; that Professor J. Milne be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 751. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor W. C. WiUiamson, ]\Ir. T. Hick, and Mr. W. Cash be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Fossil 
Plants of Halifax ; that Mr. W. Cash be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 15L be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. C. Sorby and Mr. G. R. Vine be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting on the British Fossil Polyzoa ; that Mr. G. 
E. Vine be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professors J. Prestwich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. 
De Eance, H. G. Fordhara, J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. 
Plant, and E. H. Tiddeman be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking 
measures for their preservation ; that Dr. Crosskey be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 10?. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. E. Etheridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. E. 
Jones be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the 
Fossil Phyllopoda of the Paleozoic Eocks ; that Professor T. E. Jones be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 15Z. be placed at their disposal for the 

purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Professors J. Prestwich and G. A. Lebour, and INIessrs. James Glaisher, 
E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I,' 
Eoberts, Fox Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden- 
Wrio-ht, B. Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Eance be a Com-' 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Underground 
Waters in the Permeable Formations of England, and the Quality and 



EECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixiii 

Quantity of the "Waters supplied to various towns and districts from tliese 
formations ; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
151. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. W. Car- 
ruthers, F. Drew, R. B. Newton, F. W. Rudler, W. Toi^ley, B. Wetbered, 
and W. Whitaker be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of carryiDo- 
on the Geological Record ; that Mr. W. Whitaker be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 15L be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. H. Green, Professor L. Miall, Mr. John Brigg, and 
Mr. J. W. Davis be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of assisting 
in the Exploration of Raygill Fissure, Lothersdale ; that Mr. J. W. 
Davis be the Secretary, and that the sum of 15^. be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor J. Prestwich, Professor T. McK. Hughes, and Mr. 
W. Topley be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of assisting in the 
preparation of an International Geological Map of Europe; that Mr. 
Topley be the Secretary, and that the*" sum of 20Z. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Newton, Ray Lankester, and Gamgee be a Committee 
for the purpose of preparing a Bibliography of certain Groups of Inver- 
tebrata ; that Professor Newton be the Secretary, and that the sum o£ 
601. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. Thiselton 
Dyer be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Natural History of Timor-laut ; that Mr. Thiselton Dyer be the Secre- 
tary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, and 
Mr. Percy Sladen be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of arrang- 
ing for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples ; 
that Mr. Percy Sladen be the Secretary, and that the sum of 80Z. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Park Harrison, General Pitt-Rivers, Professor Flower, 
Professor Thane, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Dr. Muirhead, Mr. F. W. 
Rudler, and Dr. Garson, be a Committee for the purpose of 'defining the 
Facial Characteristics of the Races and Principal Crosses in the British 
Isles, and obtaining illustrative Photographs with a view to their pub- 
hcation ; that Dr. Garson be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Gilnther, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. 
Sclater be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of exploring Kili- 
manjaro and the adjoining mountains of Equatorial Africa; that Mr. 
Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sum of -500?. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

TVT '^■S^^''^^'' '^" Bordeaux, Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, Professor Newton, 
Mr. R. M. Barrington, Mr. A. G. More, and Mr. W. Eagle Clarke be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent 
ot the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and of the 
Commissioners of Northern Lights) observations on the Migration of 
Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting upon the same at 
the meeting of 1884 ; that Mr. Cordeaux be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 
, That Professor M. Foster, Dr. Pye-Smith, and Dr. L. C. Wooldridge 



Ixiv REPORT — 1883. 

he a Committee for the purpose of prosecuting a research on the Coagu- 
lation of the Blood ; that Dr. L. C. Wooldridge be the Secretary, and; 
that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. E. C. Rye be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological 
Literature ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100?.. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Lieut.-Colonel Godwin-Austen, Mr. W. T. Blanford, Lord Alfred 
Churchill, Mr. Francis Galton, Professor Moseley, Admiral Sir Erasmus 
Ommanney, and Mr. H. VV. Bates be a Committee for the purpose of 
considei'ing the most expedient methods of furthering the Exploration of 
New Guinea, and of advising the Council thereon ; that the Council be- 
empowered to make representations, if they see fit, to the Imperial and 
to any Colonial Government, and to any Public Institution or Scientific 
Society, urging the exploration of New Guinea, and to offer a grant in 
aid of their scientific outfit ; that Mr. H. "W. Bates be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Brabrook, Mr. F. Galton, Sir Rawson Rawsoc, and Mr. C. 
Roberts be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of defraying the 
expenses of completing the preparation of the Final Report of the Anthro- 
pometric Committee ; that Mr. Brabrook be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of lOL be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Frederick Bramwell, Professor A. W. Williamson, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Sir W. Siemens, Sir 

F. Abel, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, 
Mr. H. Trueman Wood, Mr, W. H. Barlow, Mr. A. T. Atchison, Mr. R. 
E. Webster, Mr. A. Carpmael, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. Theodore Aston, 
and Mr. James Brunlees be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
watching and reporting to the Council on Patent Legislation ; that Sir 
Frederick Bramwell be the Secretary, and that the sum of 51. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mi\ Francis Galton (Chairman), 
Dr. Crosskey, Mr. C. E. De Ranee, Mr. H. G. Fordham (Secretary), 
Mr. John Hopkinson, Mr. R. Meldola, Mr. A. Ramsay, Professor Sollas, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, and Mr. W. Whitaker, appointed by the Council in 
compliance with a resolution of the General Committee at Southampton, 
i-elating to Local Scientific Societies, be reappointed. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor Stokes, Sir William Thomson, Mr. 
James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be reappointed a Committee 
on Mathematical Tables ; and that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of Calculating Tables of 
the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms; and that Professor 
Sylvester be the Secretary. 

That Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor Stokes, Mr. G. Johustone 
Stoney, Professor Roscoe, Professor Schuster, Captain Abney, and Mr. 

G. J. Symons be a Committee for the purpose of considering the best 
methods of recording the direct intensity of Solar Radiation ; and that 
Professor Balfour Stewart be the Secretary. 

That Professor Everett, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixv 

Symons, Sir A. 0. Ramsay, Dr. A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Prestwicb, Dr. C. Le Neve Poster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. 
Gralloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
and Mr. A. Strahan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of in- 
vestigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards 
in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water ; and that Professor 
Everett be the Secretary. 

That Professor Sir William Thomson, Sir W. Siemens, Mr. W. H. 
Barlow, Professor A. W. Williamson, Mr. W. H. Preece, and Mr. J. M. 
Thomson be a Committee for the purpose of promoting arrangements for 
facilitating the use of Weights and Measures in accordance with the per- 
missive clauses of the Weights and Measures Act, 1878 ; and that 
Mr. J. M. Thomson be the Secretary. 

That Professors Williamson, Dewar, Frankland, Roscoe, Crum Brown, 
Odling, and Armstrong, Messrs. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, J. Millar 
Thomson, H. B. Dixon, and V. H. Veley, and Drs. P. Japp and H. Forster 
Morley be a Committee for the purpose of drawing up a statement of the 
varieties of Chemical Names which have come into use, for indicating the 
causes which have led to their adoption, and for considering what can be 
done to bring about some convergence of the views on Chemical Nomen- 
clature obtaining among English and foreign chemists ; and that Mr. H. B. 
Dixon be the Secretary. 

That Captain Abney, Professor Stokes, and Professor Schuster, with 
the addition of the names of Mr. Lockyer and Dr. Hnggins, be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of determining the best experimental 
methods that can be used in observing Total Solar Eclipses ; and that 
Professor Schuster be the Secretary. 

That Professors W. A. Tilden and H. E. Armstrong be a Committee 
for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Naphthaline Derivatives ; and 
that Professor H. E. Armstrong be the Secretary. 

That Professors Dewar and A. W. Williamson, Dr. Marshall Watts, 
Captain Abney, Dr. Stoney, and Professors W. N. Hartley, McLeod, 
€arey Foster, A. K. Huntington, Emerson Reynolds, Reinold, Liveing, 
Lord Rayleigh, and W. Chandler Roberts be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of reporting upon the present state of our knowledge of Spectrum 
Analysis ; and that Professor W. Chandler Roberts be the Secretary. 

That Professor Roscoe, Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, Liveing, 
Schuster, and W. N. Hartley, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall Watts be 
a Committee for the purpose of preparing a new series of Wave-lengths 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements ; and that Dr. Marshall Watts be 
the Secretary. 

That Messrs. R. B. Grantham, J. B. Redman, J. W. Woodall, W. 
Whitaker, W. Topley, and C. E. De Ranee be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of inquiring into the rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts 
of England and Wales, and the influence of the artificial abstraction of 
shingle and other material in that action ; and that Messrs. Topley and 
De Ranee be the Secretaries. 

That Dr. Pye-Smith and Professors de Chaumont, M, Foster, and 
Burden Sanderson be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen 
(toe experiments to be conducted by Mr. North) ; and that Professor 
Burdon Sanderson be the Secretarv. 

1883. ■'d 



Ixvi KEPOET — 1883. 

That Mr. James Glaisher, the Rev. Canon Tristram, and the Rev. 
F. Lawrence be reappointed a Committee for promoting the Survey of 
Eastern Palestine ; and that Mr. James Glaisher be the Secretary. 

That Dr. Gladstone (Secretary), Mr. W. Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, 
Miss Lydia Becker, Sir J. Lubbock, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Professor Roscoe, 
and Mr. James Heywood be a Committee for the purpose of continuing 
the inquiries of a similar Committee appointed last year relating to the 
teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. 

That the Special Committee appointed to watch and. report on the 
workings of the Code and other legislation affecting the teaching of 
science in Elementary Schools be requested to consider the desirableness 
of making representations to the Lords of the Committee of Her Majesty's 
Privy Council on Education in favour of aid being extended towards 
the fitting up of workshops in connection with elementary day schools or 
evening classes, and of making grants on the results of practical instruc- 
tion in such workshops under suitable direction, and if necessary to com- 
municate with the Council. 

Reports on Progress in Science. 

That jMr. R. T. Glazebrook be requested to report on recent progress 
in Physical Optics. 

That Mr. J. J. Thomson be requested to draw up a report on Elec- 
trical Theories. 

That Mr. W. Topley be requested to report upon National Geological 
Surveys. 

That Mr. P. Drew and Professor A. H. Green be requested to report 
upon the present state of knowledge respecting the Literior of the Earth. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

Dr. Huggins' paper ' On a Method of photographing the Solar Corona 
•without an Eclipse.' 

Professor Lindemann's paper ' On Lame's Differential Equation.' 
Professor Leone Levi's paper ' On the Distribution of Wealth.' 
Professor Fleeming Jenkin's paper on ' Nest Gearing.' 
Mr. 0. D. Fox's paper ' On the Mersey Tunnel ' (with diagi-ams). 
Mr. Parsons' paper ' On Manganese Bronze.' 



Resolutions referred to the Council for Consideration, and Action, if 

desirable. 

That the Council be empowered, if they think fit, to form a separate 
section of Anthropology, and to give to the section of Biology the title, 
* Section D — Biology (Zoology, Botany, and Physiology).' 

That application be made to the Admiralty to institute a Physical and 
Biological Survey of Milford Haven and the adjacent coast of Pembroke, 
shire, on the plan followed by the American Fisheries Commission. 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to consider 
the report of the Committee of Section A respecting the sniDpression of four 



KECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixvil 

of the seven principal observatories of the Meteorological Council, and to 
forward a copy of the same to the Meteorological Council. 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to com- 
municate at the earliest opportunity with the Executive Committee of the 
International Fisheries Exhibition in order to urge upon that body the 
appropriation of a sufficient sum out of the surplus funds remaining in 
their hands at the close of the Exhibition to found a laboratory on the 
British Coast for the study of Marine Zoology ; and to point out, as a 
reason for such appropriation, the great value to science, and to the 
prosperity of the fisheries industries, of such an institution. 



d2 



Ixviii EEPOET — 1883. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes 

by the General Committee at the Southport Meeting in Sep- 
tember 1883. The Names of the Members who are entitled 
to call on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are 
prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 
♦Brown, Professor Crum. — Meteorological Observations on 

BenNevis 50 

♦Foster, Professor G. Carey.- — Electrical Standards 50 

♦Schuster, Professor. — Meteoric Dust 20 

*Abney, Captain.— Standard of White Light 20 

*Scott, Mr. R. H. — Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean 50 

Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Meteorological Observations 

near Chepstow 25 

Shoolbred, Mr. J. N". — B,eduction of Tidal Observations 10 

*Darwin, Professor G. H. — Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Ob- 
servations 45 

Chemistry. 

*Odling, Professor. — Photographing the Ultra- Yiolet Spark- 
Spectra 10 

Geology. 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 75 

* Williamson, Professor W. C— Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

*Sorby, Dr. H. C— British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

*Prestwich, Professor. — Erratic Blocks 10 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Fossil Phyllopoda of the Paleozoic 

Rocks 15 

* Hull, Professor E. — Circulation of Underground Waters ... 15 

*Evans, Dr. J. — Geological Record 15 

*Green, Professor A. H. — Raygill Fissure 15 

■*Prestwich, Professor. — International Geological Map of 

Europe 20 

Carried forward £470 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GEANTS OF MONEY. Ixis 



£ 's. d. 

Bronglit forward 470 

Biology. 

Newton, Professor. — Zoological Bibliograpliy 50 

*Sclater, Mr. P. L.— Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

*Lankester, Professor Ray. — Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 80 

*Harrison, J. Park. — Facial Characteristics of Races in the 

British Isles 10 

*Hooker, Sir J. — Exploring Kilimanjaro and the adjoining 

Mountains of Equatorial Africa 500 

*Cordeaux, Mr. J. — Migration of Birds 20 

Foster, Dr. M. — Coagulation of the Blood 50 

*Stainton, Mr. H. T. — Record of Zoological Literature 100 



Geograjphy. 
Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Colonel. — Exploration of New Guinea 100 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Brabrook, Mr. E. "W. — Preparation of the final Report of 

the Anthropometric Committee 10 

Mecha7tics. 
*Bramwell, Sir F. — Patent Legislation 5 

£1445 
* Keappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1884. 
The Meeting at Montreal will commence on Wednesday, August 27. 

Place of Meeting in 1885. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1885 will be lield at Aberdeen. 



Ixx 



KEPORT — 1883. 



General Statement of Sums tuhich have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions •• 20 



d. 







1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ■.. 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-Gauges 9 13 

Eefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Obseivations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

"Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of)... 19 

Eailvray Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments ,,.. 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 






1 

12 


6 

3 
8 

9 



£932 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kina;ussie 49 

FossirEeptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



18 

11 
4 

7 
1 


18 


16 

10 

1 






d. 

6 


7 

2 
4 

6 

6 









1841. 
Observations on Waves . . . 
Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 



8 
9 




£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations. 62 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



30 



8 











7 
























-GENEllAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxi 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (LacaUle) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of ) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .. . 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometriclnstruments... 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannise 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars(Brit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels ISO 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 

mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 

£1449 17 8 

1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 



£ 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 
Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons — 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Eartliquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of ) - 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
iledicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials ^ 60 

£15€S 



s. 


d. 














12 


s 


























6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 





11 










5 



8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



Ixxii 



EEPOET — 1883. 



£ s. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of tlie British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Ee vision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Lig] it on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Kail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fislies 

ofthe Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Eegistering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

St ructiire of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Eadiata and MoUusca of the 

iEgean and Bed Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 1 00 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 

1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogvie of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Eeduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura . . . : 1 843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 14 

£831 9 9 



5 






































7 















1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1 829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Kesearches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York .^ 12^ 

£685 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 




8 



15 

















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 



6 3 




16 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



5 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxiii 



£ 
1S48. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 



s. 


d. 


15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 60 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Kadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Kesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



£ s. d. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16~4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



Ixxiv 



REPORT — 1883. 



£ s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Eesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

llarthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Eeport on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Eeport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidfe 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Eocks and Minerals 25 

Eesearches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Eesearches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Eesearches on theConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

~^°766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ ^<, 

1861 £22 0/'" 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Eocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 

Eavages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Ee- 

sistance 50 

Piailway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 





















































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 









6 





















































9 


6 


1 






























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxv 



£ 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging ofWater 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo- Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 



s. 


d. 














LO 


















1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

•Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

■Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and Distri- 
bution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Eocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

































































3 10 


















































































£1608 3 10 



186i. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Eocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Eain-Gauges 19 15 g 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Eays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 

1865. "" 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Eain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Eesearches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Eesearches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath "Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 fXa 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Eainfall 60 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron .50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 



Ixxvi 



EEPOET 1883. 



£ s. d. 

Kigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

TjTsical Crania Kesearches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

1867. •== 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4~1 ) 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamshijj Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

'Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondarj' Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna •-. IC" 

1869. ~~" 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and SI eel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

:£'1622 ' 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals .'iO 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 50 

Kiltorcon Quatries Fossils ... 20 



a 



















































a 





























































































































































©■ 





& 











& 








0- 






































0- 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxvii 



£ g. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

■Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 

J871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progi'ess 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing- 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Eecord 100 

TidarCommittee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave- Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism , 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



















































2 


6 












































































































































































£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. ==^=^= 

Zoological Record lOO 

Chemistry Record lOO 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. ""^ 

Eliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors ;jo 

Chemistry Eecord 100 



Ixxviii 



KEroRT — 1 883. 



£ 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 100 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Pishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



d. 












1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels .^ 5_ 

£1092 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpje, Report on 20 



4 2 



15 















































10 



































15 
















4 2 















11 


7 







































£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxix 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 60 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 

Kecord of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th BlilUons ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 
English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Luna,r Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 
and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Keport on Carboniferous 
I'olyzoa 10 



£ s. d. 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Eecord 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 • 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zoological Record 100 0- 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

Electrical Standards 25 0- 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

£476 3 1 

1882. 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Migration of Birds 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 















1 


11 











0' 





a 

































Ixxx 



REPORT 1883. 



£ s. d. 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by- 
Bodily Exercise 50 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Photographing Ultra- Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Exploration of Kaygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-lengths Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Geological Kecord 100 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 » 

£1126 1 11 

1883. 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Zoological Literature Record 100 



£ 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 
manjaro 500 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives , 15 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 
Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 60 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Kocks 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Screv? Gauges 5 

£1083 



s. 


d. 




















3 


3 





































































3 3 



General Meetings — in the Winter Gardens. 

On Wednesday, September 19, at 8 P.M., Sir W. Siemens, D.C.L., 
LL.D. P.R.S., F.C.S., M.Inst.C.E., resigned the office of President to 
Professor Cayl'ey, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S., who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place. 

On Friday, September 21, at 8.30 p.m.. Professor R. S. Ball, LL.D., 
F.R.S. Astronomer Royal for Ireland, delivered a Discourse on 'Recent 
Researches on the Distance of the Sun.' 

On Monday, September 24, at 8.30 p.m., Professor J. G. McKendrick, 
M.D. F.R.S.E., delivered a Discourse on ' Gal vani and Animal Electricity.' 

On Tuesday, September 25, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place. 

On Wednesday, September 26, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General 
Meetino' took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, 
and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the 

Members. 

The meeting was then adjourned to Montreal. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, August 27, 1884.] 



PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1883. 



ADDEESS 



BY 



AETHUE CAYLEY, 

M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Sadlerian Professor of Pure Mathematics in the 

JJiiiversity of Cambridge, 

PRESIDENT. 



Since our last meeting we have been deprived of three of our most 
distinguished members. The loss by the death of Professor Henry John 
Stephen Smith is a very grievous one to those who knew and admired 
and loved him, to his University, and to mathematical science, which he 
cultivated with such ardour and success. I need hardly recall that the 
branch of mathematics to which he had specially devoted himself was 
that most interesting and difficult one, the Theory of Numbers. The 
immense range of this subject, connected with and ramifying into so 
many others, is nowhere so well seen as in the series of reports on 
the progress thereof, brought up unfortunately only to the year 1865, 
contributed by him to the Reports of the Association : but it will still 
better appear when to these are united (as will be done in the collected 
works in course of publication by the Clarendon Press) his other mathe- 
matical writings, many of them containing his own further developments 
of theories referred to in the reports. Thei-e have been recently or are 
being published many such collected editions— Abel, Cauchy, Cliffijrd, 
Gauss, Green, Jacobi, Lagrange, Maxwell, Riemann, Steiner. Among 
these the works of Henry Smith will occupy a worthy position. 

More recently, General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B., for twenty-one 
years general secretary of the Association, and a trustee, President of the 
meeting at Belfast in the year 1852, and for many years treasurer and 
afterwards President of the Royal Society, has been taken from us, at an 
age exceeding the ordinary age of man. Born October 1788, he entered 
the Royal Artillery in 1803, and commanded batteries at the siege of 
Fort Erie m 1814 ; made magnetic and other observations in Ross and 
Parry's North Polar exploration in 1818-19, and in a series of other 
voyages. He contributed to the Association reports on Magnetic Forces 
in 1836-7-8, and about forty papers to the Philosophical Transactions ; 
originated the system of Magnetic Observatories, and otherwise signally 
promoted the science of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

There is yet a very great loss— another late President and trustee of 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1883. 

the Association, one who has done for it so much, and has so often 
attended the meetings, whose presence among us at this meeting we 
might have hoped for — the President of the Royal Society, William 
Spottiswoode. It is unnecessary to say anything of his various merits : 
the place of his burial, the crowd of sorrowing friends who were present 
in the Abbey, bear witness to the esteem in which he was held. 

I take the opportunity of mentioning the completion of a work pro- 
moted by the Association : the determination by Mr. James Glaisher of 
the least factors of the missing three out of the first nine million numbers : 
the volume containing the sixth million is now published. 

I wish to speak to you to-night upon Mathematics. I am quite aware 
of the difiBcnlty arising from the abstract nature of my subject ; and if, 
as I fear, many or some of you, recalling the Presidential Addresses at 
former meetings — for instance, the resume and survey which we had at 
York of the progress, during the half-century of the lifetime of the Asso- 
ciation, of a whole circle of sciences — Biology, Palaeontology, Geology, 
Astronomy, Chemistry — so much more familiar to you, and in which 
there was so much to tell of the fairy-tales of science ; or at South- 
ampton, the discourse of my friend who has in such kind terms intro- 
duced me to you, on the wondrous practical applications of science to 
electric lighting, telegraphy, the St. Gothard Tunnel and the Suez 
Canal, gun-cotton, and a host of other purposes, and with the grand 
concluding speculation on the conservation of solar energy : if, I say, 
recalling these or any earlier Addresses, you should wish that you were 
now about to have, from a diiferent President, a discourse on a different 
subject, I can very well sympathise with you in the feeling. 

But, be this as it may, I think it is more respectful to you that I 
should speak to you upon and do my best to interest you in the subject 
which has occupied me, and in which I am myself most interested. And 
in another point of view, I think it is right that the Address of a Presi- 
dent should be on his own subject, and that different subjects should be 
thus brought in turn before the meetings. So much the worse, it may 
be, for a particular meeting ; but the meeting is the individual, which 
on evolution principles must be sacrificed for the development of the 
race. 

Mathematics connect themselves on the one side with common life 
and the physical sciences ; on the other side with philosophy, in regard"^ 
to our notions of space and time, and in the questions which have arisen 
as to the universality and necessity of the truths of mathematics, and the 
foundation of our knowledge of them. I would remark here that the 
connection (if it exists) of arithmetic and algebra with the notion of time 
is far less obvious than that of geometry with the notion of space. 

As to the former side, I am not making before you a defence of 
mathematics, but if I were I should desire to do it— in such manner as in 
the 'Republic ' Socrates was required to defend justice — quite irrespectively 
of the worldly advantages which may accompany a life of virtue and 



ADDRESS. 5 

justice, and to show that, independently of all these, justice was a thing 
desirable in itself and for its own sake — not by speaking to you of the 
utility of mathematics in any of the questions of common life or of 
physical science. Still less would I speak of this utility before, I 
trust, a friendly audience, interested or willing to appreciate an interest 
in mathematics in itself and for its own sake. I would, on the contrary, 
rather consider the obligations of mathematics to these different subjects 
as the sources of mathematical theories now as remote from them, and in 
as diflPerent a region of thought — for instance, geometry from the measure- 
ment of land, or the Theory of I^umbers from arithmetic — as a river at 
its mouth is from its mountain source. 

On the other side, the general opinion has been and is that it is indeed 
by experience that we arrive at the truths of mathematics, but tliat expe- 
rience is not their proper foundation : the mind itself contributes some- 
thing. This is involved in the Platonic theory of reminiscence ; looking 
at two things, trees or stones or anything else, which seem to us more or 
less equal, we arrive at the idea of equality : but we must have had this 
idea of equality before the time when first seeing the two things we were 
led to regard them as coming up more or less perfectly to this idea of 
equality ; and the like as regards our idea of the beautiful, and in other 
cases. 

The same view is expressed in the answer of Leibnitz, the nisiintellectus 
ipse, to the scholastic dictum, nihil in intelledu cjiiod non prius in sensu : 
there is nothing in the intellect which was not first in sensation, except 
(said Leibnitz) the intellect itself. And so again in the ' Critick of Pure 
Reason,' Kant's view is that while there is no doubt but that all our 
cognition begins with experience, we are nevertheless in possession of 
cognitions a priori, independent, not of this or that experience, but 
absolutely so of all experience, and in particular that the axioms of 
mathematics furnish an example of such cognitions a priori. Kant holds 
further that space is no empirical conception which has been derived from 
external experiences, but that in order that sensations may be referred to 
something external, the representation of space must already lie at the 
foundation ; and that the external experience is itself first only possible 
by this representation of space. And in like manner time is no empirical 
conception which can be deduced from an experience, but it is a necessary 
representation lying at the foundation of all intuitions. 

And so in regard to mathematics, Sir W. E. Hamilton, in an Introduc- 
tory Lecture on Astronomy (1836), observes : ' These purely mathematical 
sciences of algebra and geometry are sciences of the pure reason, deriving 
no weight and no assistance from experiment, and isolated or at least 
isolable from all outward and accidental phenomena. The idea of order 
with its subordinate ideas of number and figure, we must not indeed call 
innate ideas, if that phrase be defined to imply that all men must possess 
them with equal clearness and fulness : they are, however, ideas which 
seem to be so far born with us that the possession of them in any con- 



6 EEPORT — 1883. 

ceivable degree is only the development of our original powers, tlie un- 
folding of our proper humanity.' 

The general question of the ideas of space and time, the axioms 
and definitions of geometry, the axioms relating to number, and the nature 
of mathematical reasoning, are fully and ably discussed in Whewell's 
'Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences' (1840), which may be regarded as 
containing an exposition of the whole theory. 

But it is maintained by John Stuart ]\Iill that the truths of mathematics, 
in particular those of geometry, rest on experience ; and as regards geo- 
metry, the same view is on very different grounds maintained by the 
mathematician Riemann. 

It is not so easy as at first sight it appears to make out how far the 
views taken by Mill in his ' System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive ' 
(9th ed. 1879) are absolutely contradictory to those which have been spoken 
of ; they profess to be so ; there are most definite assertions (supported 
by argument), for instance, p. 263 : — ' It remains to enquire what is the 
ground of our belief in axioms, what is the evidence on which they rest. 
I answer, they are experimental truths, generalisations from experience. 
The proposition " Two straight lines cannot enclose a space," or, in other 
words, two straight lines which have once met cannot meet again, is an 
induction from the evidence of our senses.' But I cannot help considering 
a previous argument (p. 259) as very materially modifying this absolute 
contradiction. After enquiring ' Why are mathematics by almost all 
philosophers . . . considered to be independent of the evidence of ex- 
perience and observation, and characterised as systems of necessary truth ? ' 
Mill proceeds (I quote the whole passage) as follows : — ' The answer I 
conceive to be that this character of necessity ascribed to the truths of 
mathematics, and even (with some reservations to be hereafter made) the 
peculiar certainty ascribed to them, is a delusion, in orderto sustain which 
it is necessary to suppose that those truths relate to and express the 
properties of purely imaginary objects. It is acknowledged that the 
conclusions of geometry are derived partly at least from the so-called 
definitions, and that these definitions are assumed to be correct represen- 
tations, as far as they go, of the objects with which geometry is conversant. 
Now, we have pointed out that from a definition as such no proposition 
unless it be one concerninsr the meaninsr of a word can ever follow, and 
that what apparently follows from a definition, follows in reality from an 
implied assumption that there exists a real thing conformable thereto. 
This assumption in the case of the definitions of geometry is not strictly 
true : there exist no real things exactly conformable to the definitions. 
There exist no real points without magnitude, no lines without breadth, 
nor perfectly straight, no circles with all their radii exactly equal, nor 
squares with all their angles perfectly right. It will be said that the 
assumption does not extend to the actual but only to the possible exis- 
tence of such things. I answer that according to every test we have 
of possibility they are not even possible. Their existence, so far as 



ADDEESS. 7 

we can form any judgment, would seem to be inconsistent with the 
physical constitution of our planet at least, ii not of the universal \_sic']. 
To get rid of this difficulty and at the same time to save the credit of the 
supposed system of necessary truth, it is customary to say that the points , 
lines, circles and squares which are the subjects of geometry exist in our 
conceptions merely and are parts of our minds ; which minds by working 
on their own materials construct an a priori science, the evidence of which 
is purely mental and has nothing to do with outward experience. By 
howsoever high authority this doctrine has been sanctioned, it appears to 
me psychologically incorrect. The points, lines and squares which any- 
one has in his mind are (as I apprehend) simply copies of the points, lines 
and squares which he has known in his experience. Our idea of a point 
I apprehend to be simply our idea of the minimum visihile, the small 
portion of surface which we can see. We can reason about a line as if it 
had no breadth, because we have a power which we can exercise over the 
operations of our minds : the power, when a perception is present to our 
senses or a conception to our intellects, of attendincj to a part only of that 
perception or conception instead of the whole. But we cannot conceive a 
line without breadth : we can form no mental picture of such a line ; all 
the lines which we have in our mind are lines possessing breadth. If any- 
one doubt this, we may refer him to his own experience. I much question 
if anyone who fancies that he can conceive of a mathematical line thinks 
so from the evidence of his own consciousness. I suspect it is rather 
because be supposes that unless such a perception be possible, mathe- 
matics could not exist as a science : a supposition which there will be no 
difficulty in showing to be groundless.' 

I think it may be at once conceded that the truths of geometry are 
truths precisely because they relate to and express the properties of what 
Mill calls ' purely imaginary objects ; ' that these objects do not exist in 
Mill's sense, that they do not exist in nature, may also be granted ; that 
they are ' not even possible,' if this means not possible in an existing 
nature, may also be granted. That we cannot ' conceive ' them depends 
on the meaning which we attach to the word conceive. I would myself 
say that the purely imaginary objects are the only realities, the ovtuq 
ovTu, in regard to which the corresponding physical objects are as the 
shadows in the cave ; and it is only by means of them that we are able 
to deny the existence of a corresponding physical object ; if there is no 
conception of straightness, then it is meaningless to deny the existence of 
a perfectly straight line. 

But at any rate the objects of geometrical truth are the so-called 
imaginary objects of Mill, and the truths of geometry are only true, and 
a fortiori are only necessarily true, in regard to these so-called imaginary 
objects ; and these objects, points, lines, circles, &c., in the mathematical 
sense of the terms, have a likeness to and are represented more or less im- 
perfectly, and from a geometer's point of view no matter how imperfectly, 
by corresponding physical points, lines, circles, &c. I shall have to return 



8 REPORT — 1883. 

to geometry, and will then speak of Riemann, but I will first refer to 
another passage of the Logic. 

Speaking of the truths of arithmetic Mill says (p. 297) that even here 
there is one hypothetical element : ' In all propositions concerning 
numbers a condition is implied without which none of them would be 
true, and that condition is an assumption which may be false. The con- 
dition is that 1=1 : that all the numbers are numbers of the same or of 
equal units.' Here at least the assumption may be absolutely true; one 
shilling ^ one shilling in purchasing power, although they may not be 
absolutely of the same weight and fineness : but it is hardly necessary ; 
one coin + one coin = two coins, even if the one be a shilling and the 
other a half-crown. In fact, whatever difficulty be raisable as to 
geometry, it seems to me that no similar difficulty applies to arithmetic ; 
mathematician or not, we have each of us, in its most abstract form, the 
idea of a number ; we can each of us appreciate the truth of a pro- 
position in regard to numbers ; and we cannot but see that a truth in 
regard to numbers is something difi'erent in kind from an experimental 
truth generalised from experience. Compare, for instance, the proposition 
that the sun, having already risen so many times, will rise to-morrow, and 
the next day, and the day after that, and so on ; and the proposition 
that even and odd numbers succeed each other alternately ad infiidtum : 
the latter at least seems to have the characters of universality and 
necessity. Or again, suppose a proposition observed to hold good for a 
long series of numbers, one thousand numbei's, two thousand numbers, as 
the case may be : this is not only no proof, but it is absolutely no evidence, 
that the proposition is a true proposition, holding good for all numbers 
whatever ; there are in the Theory of Numbers very remarkable instances 
of propositions observed to hold good for very long series of numbers, 
which are nevertheless untrue. 

I pass in review certain mathematical theories. 

In arithmetic and algebra, or say in analysis, the numbers or magni- 
tudes which we represent by symbols are in the first instance ordinary 
(that is, positive) numbers or magnitudes. We have also in analysis and 
in analytical geometry negative magnitudes ; there has been in regard to 
these plenty of philosophical discussion, and I might refer to Kant's 
paper, ' Ueber die negativen Grossen in die Weltweisheit ' (17G3), but the 
notion of a negative magnitude has become quite a familiar one, and has 
extended itself into common phraseology. I may remark that it is used 
iu a very refined manner in bookkeeping by double entry. 

But it is far otherwise with the notion which is really the funda- 
mental one (and I cannot too strongly emphasise the assertion) under- 
lying and pervading the whole of modern analysis and geometry, that of 
imaginary magnitude in analysis and of imaginary space (or space as a 
locus in quo of imaginary points and figures) in geometry : I use iu each 
case the word imaginary as including real. This has not been, so lar as 



ADDEESS. 9 

I am aware, a subject of philosopMcal discassion or enquiry. As regards 
the older metaphysical writers this would be quite accounted for by saying 
that they knew nothing, and were not bound to know anything, about it ; 
but at present, and, considering the prominent position which the notion 
occupies — say even that the conclusion were that the notion belongs' to 
mere technical mathematics, or has reference to nonentities in regard to 
which no science is possible, still it seems to me that (as a subject of 
philosophical discussion) the notion ought not to be thus ignored ; it 
should at least be shown that there is a right to ignore it. 

Although in logical order I should perhaps now speak of the notion 
just referred to, it will be convenient to speak first of some other quasi- 
geometrical notions ; those of more-than-three-dimensional space, and of 
non-Euclidian two- and three-dimensional space, and also of the general- 
ised notion of distance. It is in connection with these that Riemann 
considered that our notion of space is founded on experience, or rather 
that it is only by experience that we know that our space is Euclidian 
space. 

It is well known that Euclid's twelfth axiom, even in Playfair's form of 
it, has been considered as needing demonstration ; and that Lobatschewsky 
constructed a perfectly consistent theory, wherein this axiom was assumed 
not to hold good, or say a system of non-Euclidian plane geometry. 
There is a like system of non-Euclidian solid geometry. My own view is 
that Euclid's twelfth axiom in Playfair's form of it does not need 
demonstration, but is part of our notion of space, of the physical space of 
our experience — the space, that is, which we become acquainted with by 
experience, but which is the representation lying at the foundation of all 
external experience. Riemann's view before referred to may I think be 
said to be that, having in intellectu a more general notion of space (in fact 
a notion of non-Euclidian space), we learn by experience that space (the 
physical space of our experience) is, if not exactly, at least to the highest 
degree of approximation, EucHdian space. 

But suppose the physical space of our experience to be thus 
only approximately Euclidian space, what is the consequence which 
follows ? Isfot that the propositions of geometry are only approximately 
true, but that they remain absolutely true in regard to that Euclidian 
space which has been so long regarded as being the physical space of our 
experience. 

It is interesting to consider two different ways in which, without 
any modification at all of our notion of space, we can arrive at a system 
of non-Euclidian (plane or two-dimensional) geometry; and the doing so 
will, I think, throw some light on the whole question. 

First, imagine the earth a perfectly smooth sphere ; understand by 
a plane the surface of the earth, and by a line the apparently straight 
line (m fact an arc of a great circle) drawn on the surface ; what ex- 
perience would in the first instance teach would be Euclidian geometry; 
there would be intersecting lines which produced a few miles or so would 



10 EEPOET — 1883. 

seem to go on diverging : and apparently parallel lines which would 
exhibit no tendency to approach each other ; and the inhabitants might 
very well conceive that they had by experience established the axiom 
that two straight lines cannot enclose a space, and the axiom as to 
parallel lines. A more extended experience and more accurate measure- 
ments would teach them that the axioms were each of them false ; and 
that any two lines, if produced far enough each way, would meet in two 
points : they would in fact arrive at a spherical geometry, accurately 
representing the properties of the two-dimensional space of their ex- 
perience. But their original Euclidian geometry would not the less be a 
true system : only it would apply to an ideal space, not the space of their 
experience. 

Secondly, consider an ordinary, indefinitely extended plane ; and let 
us modify only the notion of distance. We measure distance, say, by a 
yard measure or a foot rule, anything which is shoi-t enough to make the 
fractions of it of no consequence (in mathematical language by an infini- 
tesimal element of length) ; imagine, then, the length of this rule constantly 
changing (as it might do by an alteration of temperature), but under the 
condition that its actual length shall depend only on its situation on the 
plane and on its direction : viz. if for a given situation and direction it 
has a certain length, then whenever it comes back to the same situation 
and direction it must have the same length. The distance along a given 
straight or curved line between any two points could then be measured in 
the ordinary manner with this rule, and would have a perfectly determin- 
ate value : it could be measured over and over again, and would always 
be the same ; but of course it would be the distance, not in the ordinary 
acceptation of the term, but in quite a different acceptation. Or in a 
somewhat different way : if the rate of progress from a given point in a 
given direction be conceived as depending only on the configuration of 
the ground, and the distance along a given path between any two points 
thereof be measured by the time required for traversing it, then in this 
way also the distance would have a perfectly determinate value ; but it 
would be a distance, not in the ordinary acceptation of the term, but 
in quite a different acceptation. And corresponding to the new 
notion of distance we should have a new, non-Euclidian system of plane 
geometry ; all theorems involving the notion of distance would be 
altered. 

We may proceed further. Suppose that as the rule moves away from 
a fixed central point of the plane it becomes shorter and shorter ; if this 
shortening takes place with sufficient rapidity, it may very well be that a 
distance which in the ordinary sense of the word is finite will in the new 
sense be infinite ; no number of repetitions of the length of the ever- 
shortening rule will be sufficient to cover it. There will be surrounding 
the central point a certain finite area such that (in the new acceptation of 
the term distance) each point of the boundary thereof will be at an 
infinite distance from the central point ; the points outside this area you 



ADDRESS. 11 

cannot by any means arrive at with your rule ; tliey will form a terra 
incognita, or rather an unknowable land : in mathematical language, an 
imaginary or impossible space : and the plane space of the theory will be 
that within the finite area — that is, it will be finite instead of infinite. 

We thus with a proper law of shortening arrive at a system of non- 
Euclidian geometry which is essentially that of Lobatschewsky. But in 
so obtaining it we put out of sight its relation to spherical geometry : the 
three geometries (spherical, Euclidian, and Lobatschewsky's) should be 
regarded as raembers of a system : viz., they are the geometries of a 
plane (two-dimensional) space of constant positive curvature, zero curva- 
ture, and constant negative curvature respectively ; or again, they are the 
plane geometries corresponding to three different notions of distance ; 
in this point of view they are Klein's elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic 
geometries respectively. 

Next as regards solid geometry : we can by a modification of the 
notion of distance (such as has "just been explained in regard to Lobat- 
schewsky's system) pass from our present system to a non-Euclidian 
system ; for the other mode of passing to a non-Euclidian system it 
would be necessary to regard our space as a flat three-dimensional space 
existing in a space of four dimensions (i.e., as the analogue of a plane 
existing in ordinary space) ; and to substitute for such flat three-dimen- 
sional space a curved three-dimensional space, say of constant positive or 
negative curvature. In regarding the physical space of our experience 
as possibly non-Euclidian, Riemann's idea seems to be that of modifying 
the notion of distance, not that of treating it as a locus in four-dimen- 
sional space. 

I have just come to speak of four-dimensional space. What meaning do 
we attach to it ? Or can we attach to it any meaning ? It may be at once 
admitted that we cannot conceive of a fourth dimension of space ; that 
space as we conceive of it, and the physical space of our experience, are 
alike three-dimensional ; but we can, I think, conceive of space as being 
two- or even one-dimensional ; we can imagine rational beings living in a 
one-dimensional space (a line) or in a two-dimensional space (a surface), 
and conceiving of space accordingly, and to whom, therefore, a two- 
dimensional space, or (as the case may be) a three-dimensional space 
would be as inconceivable as a four-dimensional space is to us. And 
very curious speculative questions arise. Suppose the one-dimensional 
space a right line, and that it afterwards becomes a curved line : would 
there be any indication of the change ? Or, if originally a curved line, 
would there be anything to suggest to them that it was not a right line ? 
Probably not, for a one- dimensional geometry hardly exists. But let the 
space be two-dimensional, and imagine it originally a plane, and afterwards 
bent (converted, that is, into some form of developable surface) or con- 
verted into a curved surface : or imagine it originally a developable or 
curved surface. In the former case there should be an indication of 
the change, for the geometry originally applicable to the space of their 



12 EEPOET— 1883. 

experience (our own Eaclidian geometry) would cease to be applicable ; 
but tbe change could not be apprehended by tbem as a bending or deform- 
ation of the plane, for this would imply the notion of a three-dimensional 
space in which this bending or deformation could take place. In the latter 
case their geometry would be that appropriate to the developable or curved 
surface which is their space : viz. this would be their Euclidian geometry : 
would they ever have arrived at our own more simple system ? But 
take the case where the two-dimensional space is a plane, and imagine 
the beings of such a space familiar with our own Euclidian plane geometry ; 
if, a third dimension being still inconceivable by them, they were by their 
geometry or otherwise led to the notion of it, there would be nothing to 
prevent them from forming a science such as our own science of three- 
dimensional geometry. 

Evidently all the foregoing questions present themselves in regard to 
ourselves, and to three-dimensional space as we conceive of it, and as 
the physical space of our experience. ' And I need hardly say that the 
first step is the difficulty, and that granting a fourth dimension we may 
assume as many more dimensions as w^e please. But whatever answer 
be given to them, we have, as a branch of mathematics, potentially, if 
not actually, an analytical geometry of ?i-dimensional space. I shall 
have to speak again upon this. 

Coming now to the fundamental notion already referred to, that of 
imaginary magnitude in analysis and imaginary space in geometry : I 
connect this with two great discoveries in mathematics made in the 
first half of the seventeenth century, Harriot's representation of an equa- 
tion in the form f(x)=:0, and the consequent notion of the roots of an 
equation as derived from the linear factoi's of /(a;), (Harriot, 1560-1621 : 
his 'Algebra,' published after his death, has the date 1631), and 
Descartes' method of coordinates, as given in the ' Geometric,' forming 
a short supplement to his ' Traite de la Methode etc' (Leyden, 1037). 

Taking the coefficients of an equation to be real magnitudes, it at 
once follows from Harriot's form of an equation that an equation of the 
order n ought to have n roots. But it is by no means true that 
there are always n real roots. In particular, an equation of the second 
order, or quadric equation, may have no real root ; but if we assume the 
existence of a root i of the quadric equation x^ + 1 = 0, then the other 
root is = — t ; and it is easily seen that every quadric equation (with 
real coefficients as before) has two roots, a ± hi, where a and h are real 
magnitudes. We are thus led to the conception of an imaginary magni- 
tude, a + &', where a and /; are real magnitudes, each susceptible of any 
positive or negative value, zero included. The general theorem is that, 
taking the coefficients of the equation to be imaginary magnitudes, then 
an equation of the order n has always n roots, each of them an imaginary 
magnitude, and it thus appears that the foregoing form a + hi oi imagi- 
nary magnitude is the only one that presents itself. Such imaginary 



ADDRESS. 13 

magnitudes may be added or multiplied together or dealt with in any 
manner ; the result is always a like imaginary magnitude. They are 
thus the magnitudes which are considered in analysis, and analysis is the 
science of such magnitudes. Observe the leading character that the 
imaginary magnitude a + hi is a magnitude composed of the two real 
magnitudes a and h (in the case 6 = it is the real magnitude a, and in 
the case « = it is the pure imaginary magnitude bi) . The idea is that 
of considering, in place of real magnitudes, these imaginary or complex 
magnitudes a + hi. 

In the Cartesian geometry a curve is determined by means of the 
equation existing between the coordinates (x, y) of any point thereof. In 
the case of a right line this equation is linear ; in the case of a circle or 
more generally of a conic, the equation is of the second order ; and gener- 
ally, when the equation is of the order n, the curve which it represents 
is said to be of a curve of the order «. In the case of two o-iven curves 
there are thus two equations satisfied by the coordinates (x, y) of the 
several points of intersection, and these give rise to an equation of a 
certain order for the coordinate x or y of a point of intersection. In 
the case of a straight line and a circle this is a quadric equation ; it has 
two roots, real or imaginary. There are thus two values, say of x, and 
to each of these corresponds a single value of y. There are therefore two 
points of intersection — viz. a straight line and a circle intersect always 
in two points, real or imaginary. It is in this way that we are led 
analytically to the notion of imaginary points in geometry. The conclu- 
sion as to the two points of intersection cannot be contradicted by expe- 
rience : take a sheet of paper and draw on it the straight line and 
circle, and try. But you might say, or at least be strongly tempted to 
say, that it is meaningless. The question of course arises, What is the 
meaning of an imaginary point ? and further. In what manner can the 
notion be arrived at geometrically ? 

There is a well-known construction in perspective for drawing lines 
through the intersection of two lines, which are so nearly parallel as not 
to meet within the limits of the sheet of paper. You have two given 
lines which do not meet, and you draw a third line, which, when the 
lines are all of them produced, is found to pass through the intersection 
of the given lines. If instead of lines we have two circular arcs not 
meeting each other, then we can, by means of these arcs, construct a 
line ; and if on completing the circles it is found that the circles intersect 
each other in two real points, then it will be found that the line passes 
through these two points : if the circles appear not to intersect, then 
the line will appear not to intersect either of the circles. But the 
geometrical construction being in each case the same, we say that in the 
second case also the line passes through the two intersections of the circles. 

Of course it may be said in reply that the conclusion is a very natural 
one, provided we assume the existence of imaginary points ; and that, 
this assumption not being made, then, if the circles do not intersect, it is 



14 REPORT— 1883. 

meaningless to assert that tlie line passes througli their points of inter- 
section. The difficulty is not got over by the analytical method before 
referred to, for this introduces difficulties of its own : is there in a plane 
a point the coordinates of which have given imaginary values ? As a 
matter of fact, we do consider in plane geometry imaginary points intro- 
duced into the theory analytically or geometrically as above. 

The like considerations apply to solid geometry, and we thus arrive 
at the notion of imaginary space as a locus in quo of imaginary points 
and figures. 

I have used the word imaginary rather than complex, and I repeat 
that the word has been used as including real. But, this once under- 
stood, the word becomes in many cases superfluous, and the use of it 
would even be misleading. Thus, ' a problem has so many solutions : ' 
this means, so many imaginary (including real) solutions. But if it 
were said that the problem had ' so many imaginary solutions,' the word 
' imaginary ' would here be understood to be used in opposition to real. 
I give this explanation the better to point out how wide the application 
of the notion of the imaginary is — viz. (unless expressly or by implication 
excluded), it is a notion implied and presupposed in all the conclusions 
of modern analysis and geometry. It is, as I have said, the fundamental 
notion underlying and pervading the whole of these branches of mathe- 
matical science. 

I shall speak later on of the great extension which is thereby given 
to geometry, but I wish now to consider the efiect as regards the theory 
of a function. In the original point of view, and for the original purposes, 
a function, algebraic or transcendental, such as \/x, sin x, or log a;, was 
considered as known, when the value was known for every real value 
(positive or negative) of the argument ; or if for any such values the 
value of the function became imaginary, then it was enough to know that 
for such values of the argument there was no real value of the function. 
But now this is not enough, and to know the function means to know its 
value — of course, in general, an imaginary value X + (T, — for every 
imaginary value x + iij whatever of the argument. 

And this leads naturally to the question of the geometrical repre- 
sentation of an imaginary variable. We represent the imaginary variable 
X + iy by means of a point in a plane, the coordinates of which are 
(a;, y). This idea, due to Gauss, dates from about the year 1831. We 
thus picture to ourselves the succession of values of the imaginary variable 
X + iy by means of the motion of the representative point : for instance, 
the succession of values corresponding to the motion of the point along 
a closed curve to its original position. The value X -f- iY of the function 
can of course be represented by means of a point (taken for greater con- 
venience in a different plane), the coordinates of which are X,T. 

We may consider in general two points, moving each in its own 
plane, so that the position of one of them determines the position of the 



ADDRESS. 15 



otlier, and consequently the motion of the one determines the motion of the 
other: for instance, the two points may be the tracing-point and the 
pencil of a pentagraph. Ton may with the iirst point draw any figure 
you please, there will be a corresponding figure drawn by the second 
point : for a good pentagraph, a copy on a different scale (it may be) ; 
for a badly-adjusted pentagraph, a distorted copy : but the one figure 
will always be a sort of copy of the first, so that to each point of the one 
figure there will correspond a point of the other figure. 

In the case above referred to, where one point represents the value 
X + iy of the imaginary variable and the other the value X + iY of some 
function f^x + iy') of that variable, there is a remarkable relation between 
the two figures : this is the relation of orthomorphic projection, the same 
which presents itself between a portion of the earth's surface, and the 
representation thereof by a map on the stereographic projection or on 
Mercator's projection — viz. any indefinitely small area of the one ficrure is 
represented in the other figure by an indefinitely small area of the same 
shape. There will possibly be for different parts of the figure great 
variations of scale, but the shape will be unaltered ; if for the one area the 
boundary is a circle, then for the other area the boundary will be a 
circle ; if for one it is an equilateral triangle, then for the other it will be 
an equilateral triangle. 

I have for simplicity assumed that to each point of either figure there 
corresponds one, and only one, point of the other figure ; but the general 
case is that to each point of either figure there corresponds a determinate 
number of points in the other figure ; and we have thence arising new and 
very complicated relations which I must just refer to. Suppose that to 
each point of the first figure there correspond in the second figure two 
points : say one of them is a red point, the other a blue point ; so that, 
speaking roughly, the second figure consists of two copies of the first 
figure, a red copy and a blue copy, the one superimposed on the other. 
But the difficulty is that the two copies cannot be kept distinct from each 
other. If we consider in the first. figure a closed curve of any kind — say, 
for shortness, an oval — this will be in the second figure represented in 
some cases by a red oval and a blue oval, but in other cases by an oval 
half red and half blue ; or, what comes to the same thing, if in. the first 
figure we consider a point which moves continuously in any manner at 
last returning to its original position, and attempt to follow the corre- 
spondmg points in the second figure, then it may very well happen that, 
for the corresponding point of either colour, there will be abrupt changes 
of position, or say jumps, from one position to another; so that,°to 
obtain m the second figure a continuous path, we must at intervals allow 
the point to change from red to blue, or from blue to red. There are in 
the first figure certain critical points called branch-points (Verzioeigungs- 
:punUe),^ and a system of lines connecting these, by means of which the 
colours in the second figure are determined ; but it is not possible for me 
to go further into the theory at present. The notion of colour has of 



16 EEPOET— 1883. 

course been introduced only for facility of expression ; it may be proper 
to add that in speaking of the two figures I bave been following Briot 
and Bouquet rather than Riemann, whose representation of the function 
of an imaginary variable is a different one. 

I have been speaking of an imaginary variable (x + iy), and of a 
function ^(x + iy) = X + iT of that variable, but the theory may equally 
well be stated in regard to a plane curve : in fact, the x + iy and the 
X -1- iY are two imaginary variables connected by an equation ; say their 
values are u and v, connected by an equation ¥{u, v) = ; then, regard- 
ing tt, V as the coordinates of a point in piano, this will be a point on the 
curve represented by the equation. The curve, in the widest sense of the 
expression, is the whole series of points, real or imaginary, the coordinates 
of which satisfy the equation, and these are exhibited by the foregoing 
corresponding figures in two planes ; but in the ordinary sense the curve 
is the series of real points, with coordinates «, v, which satisfy the 
equation. 

In geometry it is the curve, whether defined by means of its equa- 
tion, or in any other manner, which is the subject for contemplation and 
study. But we also use the curve as a representation of its equation — 
that is, of the relation existing between two magnitudes x, y, which are 
taken as the coordinates of a point on the curve. Such employment of 
a curve for all sorts of purposes — the fluctuations of the barometer, the 
Cambridge boat races, or the Funds — is familiar to most of you. It is in 
like manner convenient in analysis, for exhibiting the relations between 
any three magnitudes x, y, z, to regard them as the coordinates of a 
point in space ; and, on the like ground, we should at least wish to regard 
any four or more magnitudes as the coordinates of a point in space of a 
corresponding number of dimensions. Starting with the hypothesis of 
such a space, and of points therein eacb determined by means of its 
coordinates, it is found possible to establish a system of w-dimensional 
geometry analogous in every respect to our two- and three-dimensional 
geometries, and to a very considerable extent serving to exhibit the 
relations of the variables. To quote from my memoir ' On Abstract 
Geometry ' (1869) : ' The science presents itself in two ways : as a legiti- 
mate extension of the ordinary two- and three-dimensional geometries, 
and as a need in these geometries and in analysis generally. In fact, 
whenever we are concerned with quantities connected in any manner, 
and which are considered as variable or determinable, then the nature of 
the connection between the quantities is frequently rendered more intel- 
ligible by regarding them (if two or three in number) as the coordinates 
of a point in a plane or in space. For more than three quantities there 
is, from the greater complexity of the case, the greater need of such a 
representation ; but this can only be obtained by means of the notion of 
a space of the proper dimensionality ; and to use such representation we 
require a corresponding geometry. An important instance in plane 



ADDRESS. 17 

geometiy has already presented itself in the question of the number of 
curves which satisfy given conditions ; the conditions imply relations 
between the coeflScients in the equation of the curve ; and for the better 
understanding of these relations it was expedient to consider the 
coefficients as the coordinates of a point in a space of the proper 
dimensionality.' 

It is to be borne in mind that the space, whatever its dimensionality 
may be, must always be regarded as an imaginary or complex space 
such as the two- or three-dimensional space of ordinary geometry ; the 
advantages of the repi'esentation would otherwise altogether fail to be 
obtained. 

I have spoten throughout of Cartesian coordinates ; instead of these 
it is in plane geometry not unusual to employ trilinear coordinates, and 
these may be regarded as absolutely undetermined in their magnitude — 
viz. we may take x, y, z to be, not equal, bat only proportional to the 
distances of a point from three given lines ; the ratios of the coordinates 
(a;, 2/, z) determine the point ; and so in one-dimensional geometry, we 
may have a point determined by the ratio of its two coordinates x, y, these 
coordinates being proportional to the distances of the point from two 
fixed points ; and generally in ^-dimensional geometry a point will be de- 
termined by the ratios of the (n-fl) coordinates («, y, z . . .). The 
corresponding analytical change is in the expression of the original 
magnitudes as fractions with a common denominator ; we thus, in place 
of rational and integral non-homogeneous functions of the original vari- 
ables, introduce rational and integral homogeneous functions (quantics) 
of the next succeeding number of variables — viz. we have binary quantics 
corresponding to one- dimensional geometry, ternary to two-dimensional 
geometry, and so on. 

It is a digression, bat I wish to speak of the representation of points 
or figures in space upon a plane. In perspective we represent a point in 
space by means of the intersection with the plane of the picture (suppose 
a pane of glass) of the line drawn from the point to the eye, and doing 
this for each point of the object we obtain a representation or picture of 
the object. But such representation is an imperfect one, as not deter- 
mining the object : we cannot by means of the picture alone find out the 
form of the object ; in fact, for a given point of the picture the corre- 
sponding point of the object is not a determinate point, but it is a point 
anywhere in the line joining the eye with the point of the picture. To 
determine the object we need two pictures, such as we have in a plan and 
elevation, or, what is the same thing, in a representation on the system of 
Monge's descriptive geometry. But it is theoretically more simple to 
consider two projections on the same plane, with different positions of the 
eye : the point in space is here represented on the plane by means of two 
points which are such that the line joining them passes through a 
fixed point of the plane (this point is in fact the intersection with 

1883. C 



18 EEPOET— 1883. 

tlie plane of the picture of the line joining the two positions of the 
eye) ; the figure in space is thus represented on the plane by two figures, 
which are such that the lines joining corresponding points of the two 
figures pass always through the fixed point. And such two figures com- 
pletely replace the figure in space ; we can by means of them perform 
on the plane any constructions which could be performed on the figure in 
space, and employ them in the demonstration of properties relating to 
such figure. A curious extension has recently been made : two figures 
in space such that the lines joining corresponding points pass through a 
fixed point have been regarded by the Italian geometer Veronese as repi'e- 
sentations of a figure in four- dimensional space, and have been used for 
the demonstration of properties of such figure. 

I referred to the connection of Mathematics with the notions of 
space and time, but I have hardly spoken of time. It is, I believe, usually 
considei'ed that the notion of number is derived from that of time ; thus 
Whewell in the work referred to, p. xx, says number is a modification of 
tbe conception of repetition, which belongs to that of time. I cannot 
recognise that this is so : it seems to me that we have (independently, I 
should say, of sjDace or time, and in any case not more depending on time 
than on space) the notion of plurality ; we think of, say, the letters a, h, c, 
&c., and thence in the case of a finite set — for instance a, h, c, d, e — we 
arrive at the notion of number ; coordinating them one by one with any 
other set of things, or, suppose, with the words first, second, &c., we find 
that the last of them goes with the word fifth, and we say that the number 
of things is = five : the notion of cardinal number would thus appear to 
be derived from that of ordinal number. 

Questions of combination and arrangement present themselves, and 
it might be possible from the mere notion of plurality to develope a 
branch of mathematical science ; this, however, would apparently be of a 
very limited extent, and it is difficult not to introduce into it the notion 
of number ; in fact, in the case of a finite set of things, to avoid asking the 
question, How many ? If we do this, we have a large enough subject, 
including the partition of numbers, which Sylvester has called Tactic. 

From the notion thus arrived at of an integer number, we pass to that 
of a fractional number, and we see how by means of these the ratio of 
any two concrete magnitudes of the same kind can be expressed, not 
with absolute accuracy, but with any degree of accuracy we please : for 
instance, a length is so many feet, tenths of a foot, hundredths, thousandths, 
&c. ; subdivide as you please, no7i constat that the length can be expressed 
accurately, we have in fact incommensurables ; as to the part which these 
"play in the Theory of Numbers, I shall have to speak presently : for the 
moment I am only concerned with them in so far as they show that 
Mve cannot from the notion of number pass to that which is required 
in analysis, the notion of an abstract (real and positive) magnitude 
susceptible of continuous variation. The difficulty is got over by a 



I 



ADDRESS. 1 9 

postulate. We consider an abstract (real and positive) magnitude, and 
regard it as susceptible of continuous variation, without in anywise 
concerning ourselves about the actual expression of the magnitude by a 
numerical fraction or otherwise. 

There is an interesting paper by Sir W. R. Hamilton, 'Theory of 
Conjugate Functions, or Algebraical Couples: with a preliminary and 
elementary Essay on Algebra as the Science of Pure Time,' 1833-35 
(Trans. R. I. Acad. t. 17), in which, as appears by the title, he purposes 
to show that algebra is the science of pure time. He states there, in the 
General Introductory Remarks, his conclusions : first, that the notion of 
time is connected with existing algebra ; second, that this notion or 
intuition of time may be unfolded into an independent pure science ; and, 
third, that the science of pure time thus unfolded is coextensive and 
identical with algebra, so far as algebra itself is a science ; and to sustain 
his first conclusion he remarks that ' the history of algebraic science shows 
that the most remarkable discoveries in it have been made either expressly 
through the notion of tivie, or through the closely connected (and in some 
sort coincident) notion of continuous progression. It is the genius of 
algebra to consider what it reasons upon asflotving, as it was the genius 
of geometry to consider what it reasoned on as fixed. . . . And generally 
the revolution which Newton made in the higher parts of both pure and 
applied aJgebra was founded mainly on the notion of fl,uxion, which 
involves the notion of time.' Hamilton uses the term algebra in a very 
wide sense, but whatever else he includes under it, he includes all that 
in contradistinction to the Differential Calculus would be called algebra. 
Using the word in this restricted sense, I cannot myself recognise the 
connection of algebra with the notion of time : granting that the notion of 
continuous progression presents itself, and is of importance, I do not see 
that it is in anywise the fundamental notion of the science. And still less 
can I appreciate the manner in which the author connects with the notion 
of time his algebraical couple, or imaginary magnitude a + hi (a + hx/ —1, 
as written in the memoir). 

I would go further : the notion of continuous variation is a very 
fundamental one, made a foundation in the Calculus of Fluxions (if not 
always so in the DifPerential Calculus) and presenting itself or implied 
throughout in mathematics : and it may be said that a change of any 
kmd takes place only in time ; it seems to me, however, that the changes 
which we consider in mathematics are for the most part considered 
quite in-espectively of time. 

It appears to me that we do not have in Mathematics the notion of 
time until we bring it there : and that even in kinematics (the science 
of motion) we have very little to do with it ; the motion is a hypo- 
thetical one ; if the system be regarded as actually moving, the rate 
of motion is altogether undetermined and immaterial. The relative rates 
of motion of the different points of the system are nothing else than the 
ratios of purely geometrical quantities, the indefinitely short distances 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1883. 

simultaneously described, or which might be simultaneously described, by 
these points respectively. But whether the notion of time does or does 
not sooner enter into mathematics, we at any rate have the notion in 
Mechanics, and along with it several other new notions. 

Regarding Mechanics as divided into Statics and Dynamics, we 
have in dynamics the notion of time, and in connection with it that of 
velocity : we have in statics and dynamics the notion of force ; and also a 
notion which in its most general form I would call that of corpus : viz. 
this may be the material point or particle, the flexible inextensible string 
or surface, or the rigid body, of ordinary mechanics ; the incompressible 
perfect fluid of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics ; the ether of any undu- 
latory theory ; or any other imaginable corpus ; for instance, one really 
deserving of consideration in any general treatise of mechanics is a 
developable or skew surface with absolutely rigid generating lines, but 
■which can be bent about these generating lines, so that the element of 
surface between two consecutive lines rotates as a whole about one of them. 
We have besides, in dynamics necessarily, the notion of mass or inertia. 

We seem to be thus passing out of pure mathematics into physical 
science ; but it is difficult to draw the line of separation, or to say of 
large portions of the ' Principia,' and the ' Mecanique celeste,' or of the 
whole of the ' Mecanique analytique,' that they are not pure mathematics. 
It may be contended that we first come to physics when we attempt to 
make out the character of the corpus as it exists in nature. I do not 
at present speak of any physical theories which cannot be brought under 
the foregoing conception of mechanics. 

I must return to the Theory of Numbers ; the fundamental idea is 
here integer number : in the first instance positive integer number, but 
which may be extended to include negative integer number and zero. 
We have the notion of a product, and that of a prime number, which is 
not a product of other numbers ; and thence also that of a number as 
the product of a determinate system of prime factors. We have here the 
elements of a theory in many respects analogous to algebra : an equation 
is to be solved — that is, we have to find the integer values (if any) 
which satisfy the equation ; and so in other cases : the congruence nota- 
tion, although of the very highest importance, does not affect the 
character of the theory. 

But as already noticed we have incommensurables, and the con- 
sideration of these gives rise to a new universe of theory. We may take 
into consideration any surd number such as\/i!, and so consider numbers 
of the form a 4- &\/'^, (c^ and h any positive or negative integer numbers 
not excluding zero) ; calling these integer numbers, every problem which 
before presented itself in regard to integer numbers in the original and 
ordinary sense of the word presents itself equally in regard to integer 
numbers in this new sense of the word ; of course all definitions must be 
altered accordingly : an ordinary integer, which is in the ordinary sense 



ADDEESS. 21 

of the word a prime number, may very well be the product of two 
integers of the form a + &\/2, and consequently not a prime number in 
the new sense of the word. Among the incommensnrables which can be 
thus introduced into the Theory of Numbers (and which was in fact first 
so introduced) we have the imaginary i of ordinary analysis : viz. we may 
consider numbers a + hi {a and h ordinary positive or negative integers, 
not excluding zero), and, calling these integer numbers, establish in 
regard to them a theory analogous to that which exists for ordinary real 
integers. The point which I wish to bring out is that the imaginary i 
does not in the Theory of Numbers occupy a unique position, such as it 
does in analysis and geometry ; it is in the Theory of Numbers one out of 
an indefinite multitude of incommensurables. 

I said that I would speak to you, not of the utility of mathematics 
in any of the questions of common life or of physical science, but rather 
of the obligations of mathematics to these different subjects. The con- 
sideration which thus presents itself is in a great measure that of the 
history of the development of the different branches of mathematical 
science in connection with the older physical sciences, Astronomy and 
Mechanics : the mathematical theory is in the first instance suggested by 
some question of common life or of physical science, is pursued and 
studied quite independently thereof, and perhaps after a long interval 
comes in contact with it, or with quite a different question. Geometry 
and algebra must, I think, be considered as each of them originating in 
connection with objects or questions of common life — geometry, notwith- 
standing its name, hardly in the measurement of land, but rather from the 
contemplation of such forms as the straight line, the circle, the ball, the 
top (or sugar-loaf) : the Greek geometers appropriated for the geometrical 
forms corresponding to the last two of these, the words (rcpalpa and KiLfoe, 
our cone and sphere, and they extended the word cone to mean the 
complete figure obtained by producing the straight lines of the surface 
both ways indefinitely. And so algebra would seem to have arisen from 
the sort of easy puzzles in regard to numbers which may be made, either 
in the picturesque forms of the Bija-Ganita with its maiden with the 
beautiful locks, and its swarms of bees amid the fragrant blossoms, and 
the one queen-bee left humming around the lotus flower ; or in the more 
prosaic form in which a student has presented to him in a modern text- 
book a problem leading to a simple equation. 

The Greek geometry may be regarded as beginning with Plato 
(B.C. 430-347) : the notions of geometrical analysis, loci, and the conic 
sections are attributed to him, and there are in his Dialogues many very 
interesting allusions to mathematical questions : in particular the passage 
in the ' TheEetetus,' where he affirms the incommensurability of the sides 
of certain squares. But the earliest extant writings are those of Euclid 
(B.C. 285) : there is hardly anything in mathematics more beautiful 
than his wondrous fifth book ; and he has also in the seventh eighth, 



22 REPORT — 1883. 

ninth and tenth books fully and ably developed the first principles of 
the Theory of Numbers, including the theory of incommensurables. 
We Lave next Apollonius (about B.C. 247), and Archimedes (b.c. 287- 
212), both geometers of the highest merit, and the latter of them the 
founder of the science of statics (including therein hydrostatics) : his 
dictum about the lever, his ' EvprjKa,' and the story of the defence of 
Syracuse, are well known. Following these we have a worthy series of 
names, including the astronomers Hipparchus (b.c. 160) and Ptolemy 
(a.d. 125), and ending, say, with Pappus (a.d. 400), but continued by their 
Arabian commentators, and the Italian and other European geometers of 
the sixteenth century and later, who pursued the Greek geometry. 

The Greek arithmetic was, from the want of a proper notation, 
singularly cumbrous and difficult ; and it was for astronomical purposes 
superseded by the sexagesimal arithmetic, attributed to Ptolemy, but 
probably known before his time. The use of the present so-called Arabic 
figures became general among Arabian writers on arithmetic and astro- 
nomy about the middle of the tenth century, but was not introduced into 
Europe until about two centuries later. Algebra among the Greeks is 
represented almost exclusively by the treatise of Diophantus (a.d. 150), in 
fact a work on the Theory of Numbers containing questions relating to 
square and cube numbers, and other properties of numbers, with their 
solutions ; this has no historical connection with the later algebra, intro- 
duced into Italy from the East by Leonardi Bonacci of Pisa (a.d. 1202- 
1208) and successfully cultivated in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
by Lucas Paciolus, or de Burgo, Tartaglia, Cardan, and Ferrari. Later 
on, we have Vieta (1540-1603), Harriot, already referred to, "Wallis, 
and others. 

Astronomy is of course intimately connected with geometry ; the most 
simple facts of observation of the heavenly bodies can only be stated in 
geometrical language : for instance, that the stars describe circles about 
the pole-star, or that the different positions of the sun among the fixed 
stars in the course of the year form a circle. For astronomical calcula- 
tions it was found necessary to determine the arc of a circle by means of 
its chord : the notion is as old as Hipparchus, a work of whom is 
referred to as consisting of twelve books on the chords of circular arcs ; 
we have (a.d. 125) Ptolemy's 'Almagest,' the first book of which contains 
a table of arcs and chords with the method of construction ; and among 
other theorems on the subject he gives there the theorem afterwards 
inserted in Euclid (Book VI. Prop. D) relating to the rectangle contained 
by the diagonals of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. The Arabians 
made the improvement of using in place of the chord of an arc the sine, 
or half-chord of double the arc ; and so brought the theory into the form 
in which it is used in modern trigonometry : the before-mentioned 
theorem of Ptolemy, or rather a particular case of it, translated into the 
notation of sines, gives the expression for the sine of the sum of two arcs 
in terms of the sines and cosines of the component arcs ; and it is thus the 



ADDRESS. 23 

fundamental theorem on the subject. "We have in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries a series of mathematicians who with wonderful en- 
thusiasm and perseverance calculated tables of the trigonometrical or 
circular functions, Purbach, Miiller or Regiomontanus, Copernicus, 
Reinhold, Maurolycus, Vieta, and many others ; the tabulations of the 
functions tangent and secant are due to Eeinhold and Maurolycus re- 
spectively. 

Logarithms were invented, not exclusively with reference to the calcu- 
lation of trigonometrical tables, but in order to facilitate numerical calcu- 
lations generally ; the invention is due to John Napier of Merchiston, 
who died in 1618 at 67 years of age ; the notion was based upon refined 
mathematical reasoning on the comparison of the spaces described by 
two points, the one moving with a uniform velocity, the other with a 
velocity varying according to a given law. It is to be observed that 
Napier's logarithms were nearly but not exactly those which are now 
called (sometimes Napierian, but more usually) hyperbolic logarithms — 
those to the base e ; and that the change to the base 10 (the great step 
by which the invention was perfected for the object in view) was indicated 
by Napier but actually made by Henry Briggs, afterwards Savilian Pro- 
fessor at Oxford (d. 1630). But it is the hyperbolic logarithm which is 
mathematically important. The direct function e" or exp. x, which has 
for its inverse the hyperbolic logarithm, presented itself, but not in a 
prominent way. Tables were calculated of the logarithms of numbers, 
and of those of the trigonometrical functions. 

The circular functions and the logarithm were thus invented each for 
a practical purpose, separately and without any proper connection with 
each other. The functions are connected through the theory of imaginaries 
and form together a group of the utmost importance throughout mathe- 
matics : but this is mathematical theoiy ; the obligation of mathematics 
is for the discovery of the functions. 

Forms of spirals presented themselves in Greek architecture, and 
the curves were considered mathematically by Archimedes ; the Greek 
geometers invented some other curves, more or less interesting, but re- 
condite enough in their origin. A curve which might have presented itself 
to anybody, that described by a point in the circumference of a rolling 
carriage-wheel, was first noticed by Mersenne in 1615, and is the curve 
afterwards considered by Roberval, Pascal, and others under the name of 
the Roulette, otherwise the Cycloid. Pascal (1623-1662) wrote at the age 
of seventeen his ' Essais pour les Coniques ' in seven short pages, full of new 
views on these curves, and in which he gives, in a paragraph of eight 
lines, his theorem of the inscribed hexagon. 

Kepler (1571-1630) by his empirical determination of the laws of 
planetary motion, brought into connection with astronomy one of the 
forms of conic, the ellipse, and established a foundation for the theory of 
gravitation. Contemporary with him for most of his life, we have Galileo 
(1564-1642), the founder of the science of dynamics ; and closely follow- 



24 KEPOET— 1883. 

ing upon Galileo we have Isaac Newton (1643-1727) : the ' Philosopliiae 
naturalis Principia Mathematica ' known as the ' Principia ' was first pub- 
lished in 1687. 

The physical, statical, or dynamical questions which presented them- 
selves before the publication of the ' Principia ' were of no particular 
mathematical difficulty ; but it is quite otherwise with the crowd of 
interesting questions arising out of the theory of gravitation, which, 
in becoming the subject of mathematical investigation, have contributed 
very much to the advance of mathematics. We have the problem of two 
bodies, or, what is the same thing, that of the motion of a particle about a 
fixed centre of force, for any law offeree ; we have also the (mathematically 
very interesting) problem of the motion of a body attracted to two or 
more fixed centres of force ; then, next pi'eceding that of the actual solar 
system — the problem of three bodies ; this has ever been and is far beyond 
the power of mathematics, and it is in the lunar and planetary theories 
replaced by what is mathematically a different problem, that of the 
motion of a body under the action of a principal central force and a 
disturbing force : or (in one mode of treatment) by the problem of 
disturbed elliptic motion. I would remark that we have here an instance 
in which an astronomical fact, the observed slow variation of the orbit 
of a planet, has directly suggested a mathematical method, applied to 
other dynamical problems, and which is the basis of very extensive 
modern investigations in regard to systems of differential equations. 
Again, immediately arising out of the theory of gravitation, we have 
the problem of finding the attraction of a solid body of any given 
form upon a particle, solved by Newton in the case of a homogeneous 
sphere, but which is far more difficult in the next succeeding cases of the 
spheroid of revolution (very ably treated by Maclaurin) and of the ellipsoid 
of three unequal axes : there is perhaps no problem of mathematics which 
has been treated by as great a variety of methods, or has given rise to so 
much interesting investigation as this last problem of the attraction of an 
ellipsoid upon an interior or exterior point. It was a dynamical problem, 
that of vibrating strings, by which Lagrange was led to the theory of the 
representation of a function as the sum of a series of multiple sines and 
cosines ; and connected with this we have the expansions in terms of 
Legendre's functions P,„ suggested to him by the question just referred to 
of the attraction of an ellipsoid ; the subsequent investigations of Laplace 
on the attractions of bodies differing slightly from the sphere led to the 
functions of two variables called Laplace's functions. I have been speak- 
ing of ellipsoids, but the general theory is that of attractions, which has 
become a very wide bi-anch of modern mathematics ; associated with it 
we have in particular the names of Gauss, Lejeune-Dirichlet, and Green ; 
and I must not omit to mention that the theory is now one relating to 
7i-dimensional space. Another great problem of celestial mechanics, 
that of the motion of the earth about' its centre of gravity, in the most 



ADDRESS. 25 

simple case, that of a body not acted upon by any forces, is a very 
interesting one in the mathematical point of view. 

I may mention a few other instances where a practical or physical 
question has connected itself with the development of mathematical 
theory. I have spoken of two map-projections — the stereographic, 
dating from Ptolemy ; and Mercator's projection, invented by Edward 
Wright about the year 1600 : each of these, as a particular case of the 
orthomorphic projection, belongs to the theory of the geometrical repre- 
sentation of an imaginary variable. I have spoken also of perspective, 
and of the representation of solid figures employed in JVIonge's descriptive 
geometry. Monge, it is well known, is the author of the geometrical 
theory of the curvature of surfaces and of curves of curvature : he was 
led to this theory by a problem of earthwork ; from a given area, covered 
with earth of uniform thickness, to carry the earth and distribute it over 
an equal given area, with the least amount of cartage. For the solution 
of the corresponding problem in solid geometry he had to consider the 
intersecting normals of a surface, and so arrived at the curves of curvature. 
(See his 'Memoire sur les Deblais et les Remblais,' Mem. de I'Acad., 
1781.) The normals of a surface are, again, a particular case of a doubly 
infinite system of lines, and are so connected with the modern theories of 
congruences and complexes. 

The undulatory theory of light led to Fresnel's wave-surface, a 
surface of the fourth order, by far the most interesting one which had 
then presented itself. A geometrical property of this surface, that of 
having tangent planes each touching it along a plane curve (in fact, a 
circle), gave to Sir W. E. Hamilton the theory of conical refraction. 
The wave-surface is now regarded in geometry as a particular case of 
Kumraer's quartic surface, with sixteen conical points and sixteen sin- 
gular tangent planes. 

My imperfect acquaintance as well with the mathematics as the 
physics prevents me from speaking of the benefits which the theory of 
Partial Differential Equations has received from the hydrodynamical 
theory of vortex motion, and from the great physical theories of heat, 
electricity, magnetism, and energy. 

It is difficult to give an idea of the vast extent of modern mathematics. 
This word ' extent ' is not the right one : I mean extent crowded with 
beautiful detail — not an extent of mere uniformity such as an objectless 
plain, but of a tract of beautiful country seen at first in the distance, 
but which will bear to be rambled through and studied in every detail of 
hillside and valley, stream, rock, wood, and flower. But, as for anything 
else, so for a mathematical theory — beauty can be perceived, but not 
explained. As for mere extent, I can perhaps best illustrate this by 
speaking of the dates at which some of the great extensions have been 
made in several branches of mathematical science. 



26 REPORT— 1883. 

As regards geometry, I have already spoken of the invention of the 
Cartesian coordinates (1637). This gave to geometers the whole series 
of geometric curves of higher order than the conic sections : curves of the 
third order, or cubic curves ; curves of the fourth order, or quartic curves ; 
and so on indefinitely. The first fruits of it were Newton's ' Enumeratio 
linearum tertii ordinis,' and the extremely interesting investigations of 
Maclaurin as to corresponding points on a cubic curve. This was at once 
enough to show that the new theory of cubic curves was a theory quite 
as beautiful and far more extensive than that of conies. And I must 
here refer to Euler's remark in the paper ' Sur une contradiction appa- 
rente dans la theorie des courbes planes' (Berlin Memoirs, 1748), in 
regard to the nine points of intersection of two cubic curves (viz. that 
when eight of the points are given the ninth point is thereby completely 
determined) : this is not only a fundamental theorem in cubic curves 
(including in itself Pascal's theorem of the hexagon inscribed in a conic), 
but it introduces into plane geometry a new notion — that of the point- 
system, or system of the points of intersection of two curves. 

A theory derived from the conic, that of polar reciprocals, led to the 
general notion of geometrical duality — viz. that in plane geometry the 
point and the line are correlative figures ; and founded on this we have 
Pliicker's great work, the ' Theorie der algebraischen Curven ' (Bonn, 
1839),in which he establishes the relation which exists between the order 
and class of a curve and the number of its different point- and line- 
singularities (Pliicker's six equations). It thus appears that the true 
division of curves is not a division according to order only, but according 
to order and class, and that the curves of a given order and class 
are again to be divided into families according to their singularities : 
this is not a mere subdivision, but is really a widening of the field of 
investigation ; each such family of curves is in itself a subject as wide 
as the totality of the curves of a given order might previously have 
appeared. 

We ^mite families by considering together the curves of a given 
Geschlecht, or deficiency ; and in reference to what I shall have to say on 
the Abelian functions, I must speak of this notion introduced into 
geometry by Riemann in the memoir ' Theorie der Abel'schen Punctionen,' 
Crelle, t. 54 (1857). For a curve of a given order, reckoning cusps 
as double points, the deficiency is equal to the greatest number 
^(n — 1) (n — 2) of the double points which a curve of that order can 
have, less the number of double points which the curve actually has. 
Thus a conic, a cubic with one double point, a quartic with three double 
points, &c., are all curves of the deficiency ; the general cubic is a curve, 
and the most simple curve, of the deficiency 1 ; the general quartic is a 
curve of deficiency 3 ; and so on. The deficiency is usually represented 
by the letter p. Riemann considers the general question of the rational 
transformation of a plane curve : viz. here the coordinates, assumed to 
be homogeneous or trilinear, are replaced by any rational and integral 



ADDRESS. 27 

functions, homogeneous of the same degree in the new coordinates ; 
the transformed curve is in general a curve of a difierent order, with its 
own system of double points ; but the deficiency p remains unaltered ; 
and it is on this ground that he unites together and regards as a single 
class the whole system of curves of a given deficiency p. It must not be 
supposed that all such curves admit of rational transformation the one 
into the other : there is the further theorem that any carve of the class 
depends, in the case of a cubic, upon one parameter, but for p>l upon 
3p — 3 parameters, each such parameter being unaltered by the rational 
transformation ; it is thus only the curves having the same one para- 
meter, or Sp — 3 parameters, which can be rationally transformed the one 
into the other. 

Solid geometry is a far wider subject : there are more theories, and 
each of them is of greater extent. The ratio is not that of the numbers 
of the dimensions of the spaces considered, or, v.'hat is the same thing, of 
the elementary figures — point and line in the one case ; point, line and 
plane in the other case — belonging to these spaces respectively, but it is 
a very much higher one. For it is very inadequate to say that in plane 
geometry we have the curve, and in solid geometry the curve and surface : 
a more complete statement is required for the comparison. In plane 
geometry we have the curve, which may be regarded as a singly infinite 
system of points, and also as a singly infinite system of lines. In solid 
geometry we have, first, that which under one aspect is the curve, and 
under another aspect the developable, and which may be regarded as a 
singly infinite system of points, of lines, or of planes ; secondly, the 
surface, which may be regarded as a doubly infinite system of points 
or of planes, and also as a special triply infinite system of lines (viz. the 
tangent-lines of the surface are a special complex) : as distinct particular 
cases of the former figure, we have the plane curve and the cone ; and 
as a particular case of the latter figure, the ruled surface or singly infinite 
system of lines ; we have besides the congruence, or doubly infinite system 
of lines, and the complex, or triply infinite system of lines. But, even if 
in solid geometry we attend only to the curve and the surface, there are 
crowds of theories which have scarcely any analogues in plane geometry. 
The relation of a curve to the various surfaces which can be drawn 
through it, or of a surface to the various curves that can be drawn upon 
it, is difierent in kind from that which in plane geometry most nearly cor- 
responds to it, the relation of a system of points to the curves through 
them, or of a curve to the points upon it. In particular, there is nothing 
in plane geometry corresponding to the theory of the curves of curvature 
of a surface. To the single theorem of plane geometry, a right line is 
the shortest distance between two points, there correspond in solid 
geometry two extensive and difficult theories — that of the geodesic lines 
upon a given surface, and that of the surface of minimum area for 
any given boundary. Again, in solid geometry we have the interesting 
and diflicult question of the representation of a curve by means of 



28 REPORT— 1883. 

equations ; it is not every curve, but only a curve whicli is the complete 
intersection of two surfaces, which can be properly represented by two 
equations (x, y. z, w)'" =: 0, (x, y, z, zy)" = O, in quadriplanar coordinates ; 
and in regard to this question, which may also be regarded as that of the 
classification of curves in space, we have quite recently three elaborate 
memoirs by Neither, Halphen, and Valentiner respectively. 

In ?^-dimensional geometry, only isolated questions have been con- 
sidered. The field is simply too wide ; the comparison with each other 
of the two cases of plane geometry and solid geometry is enough to show 
how the complexity and difficulty of the theory would increase with each 
successive dimension. 

In Transcendental Analysis, or the Theory of Functions, we have all 
that has been done in the present century with regard to the general 
theory of the function of an imaginary variable by Gauss, Caachy, 
Puiseux, Briot, Bouquet, Liouville, Biemann, Fachs, "Weiei'strass, and 
others. The fundamental idea of the geometrical representation of an 
imaginary variable x + iy, by means of the point having x, y for its 
coordinates, belongs, as I mentioned, to Gauss ; of this I have already 
spoken at some length. The notion has been applied to differential 
equations ; in the modern point of view, the problem in regard to a 
given differential equation is, not so much to reduce the differential 
equation to quadratures, as to determine from it directly the course of the 
integrals for all positions of the point representing the independent 
variable : in particular, the differential equation of the second order 
leading to the hypergeometric series F(<!, /3, y, x) has been treated in 
this manner, with the most interesting results ; the function so deter- 
mined for all values of the parameters (a, /3, y) is thus becoming a known 
function. I would here also refer to the new notion in this part of 
analysis introduced by Weierstrass — that of the one-valued integer func- 
tion, as defined by an infinite series of ascending powers, convergent for 
all finite values, real or imaginary, of the variable x or 1 j x — c, and so 
having the one essential singular point x:= cc or a; = c, as the case may 
be : the memoir is published in the Berlin Abhandlungen, 1876. 

But it is not only general theory : I have to speak of the various special 
functions to which the theory has been applied, or say the various known 
functions. 

For a long time the only known transcendental functions were the 
circular functions sine, cosine, &c. ; the logarithm — i.e. for analytical 
purposes the hyperbolic logarithm to the base e ; and, as implied therein, 
the exponential function e'. More completely stated, the group comprises 
the direct circular functions sin, cos, &c. ; the inverse circular functions 
sin"' or arcsin, &c. ; the exponential function, exp. ; and the inverse 
exponential, or logarithmic, function, log. 

Passing over the very important Eulerian integral of the second 
kind or gamma-function, the theory of which has quite recently given 



ABDEESS. 29 

rise to some very interesting developments — and omitting to mention at all 
various functions of minor importance, — "we come (1811-1829) to the very 
wide groups, the elliptic functions and the single theta-functions. I give 
the interval of date so as to include Legendre's two systematic works, the 
'Exercises de Calcul Integral ' (1811-1816) and the ' Theorie des Fonctions 
EUiptiques ' (1825-1828); also Jacobi's ' Pundamenta nova theorise Func- 
tiontim Ellipticarum ' (1829), calling to mind that many of Jacobi's results 
were obtained simultaneously by Abel. I remark that Legendre started 
from the consideration of the integrals depending on a radical V'X, the 
square root of a rational and integral quartic function of a variable x ; for 
this he substituted a radical A^, =: \/l — k^sin'^f, and he arrived at his 
three kinds of elliptic integrals F^, B^, 11^, depending on the argument 
or amplitude <p, the modulus /.-, and also the last of them on a parameter n ; 
the function F is properly an inverse function, and in place of it Abel and 
Jacobi each of them introduced the direct functions corresponding to 
the circular functions sine and cosine, Abel's functions called by him 
f,/, F, and Jacobi's functions siuam, cosam, Aam, or as they are also 
written sn, en, dn. Jacobi, moreover, in the development of his theory of 
transformation obtained a multitude of formulas containing q, a tran- 
scendental function of the modulus defined by the equation q ■=■ e""-^" •''■', 
and he was also led by it to consider the two new functions H, ©, which 
(taken each separately with two different arguments) are in fact the 
four functions called elsewhere by him 0,, ©2, ©3, 0^; these are the 
so-called theta-fuuctions, or, when the distinction is necessary, the sino-le 
theta-functions. Finally, Jacobi using the transformation sin ^ := sinam u, 
expressed Legendre's integral of the second and third kinds as integrals 
depending on the new variable m, denoting them by means of the letters 
Z, n, and connecting them with his own functions H and © : and the 
elliptic functions sn, en, dn are expressed with these, or say with 
©1, ©2, ©3, ©4, as fractions having a common denominator. 

It may be convenient to mention that Hermite in 1858, introducino- 
into the theory in place of q the new variable m connected with it by the 
equation 2=6'"" (so that w is in fact = iK' jK), was led to consider the three 
functions 0(ij, \poj, yu), which denote respectively the values of X/¥, X/lc' 
and ^\/ kk' regarded as functions of w. A theta-function, putting the 
argument = 0, and then regarding it as a function of u), is what Professor 
Smith in a valuable memoir, left incomplete by his death, calls an omeo-a- 
function, and the three functions ^w, \p(jj, x<^ are his modular functions. 

The proper elliptic functions sn, en, dn form a system very analogous 
to the circular functions sine and cosine (say they are a sine and two 
separate cosines), having a like addition-theorem, viz. the form of this 
theorem is that the sn, en and dn o£ x + y are each of them ex- 
pressible rationally in terms of the sn, en and dn of x and of the sn, 
en and dn o£ y; and in fact reducing itself to the system of the 
circular functions in the particular case k = 0. But there is the 
important difference of form that the expressions for the sn, en and 



30 EEPOKT — 1883. 

dn of X + y are fractional functions having a common denominator : this 
is a reason for regarding these functions as the ratios of four functions 
A B C, D, the absolute magnitudes of which are and remain indeter- 
minate (the functions sn, en, dn are in fact quotients [©i, ©2, ©3] -^ ©4 of 
the four theta-functions, but this is a farther result in nowise deducible 
from the addition-equations, and which is intended to be for the moment 
disregarded ; the remark has reference to what is said hereafter as to the 
Abelian functions). But there is in regard to the functions sn, en, dn 
(what has no analogue for the circular functions), the whole theory of 
transformation of any order oi pi-ime or composite, and, as parts thereof, 
the whole theory of the modular and multiplier equations ; and this 
theory of transformation spreads itself out in various directions, in 
geometry, in the Theory of Equations, and in the Theory of Numbers. 
Leavinf the theta-functions out of consideration, the theory of the proper 
elliptic functions sn, en, dn is at once seen to be a very wide one. 

I assicn to the Abelian functions the date 1826-1832. Abel gave 
what is called his theorem in various forms, but in its most general 
form in the 'Memoire sur une propriete generale d'une classe tres- 
etendue de Fonctions Transcendentes ' (1826), presented to the French 
Academy of Sciences, and crowned by them after the author's death, 
in the following year. This is in form a theorem of the integral 
calculus, relating to integrals depending on an irrational function y 
determined as a function of x by any algebraical equation F(«, y) = 
whatever : the theorem being that a sum of any number of such integrals 
is expressible by means of the sum of a determinate number p of like 
inteo-rals, this number p depending on the form of the equation ¥(x, ?/) = 
which determines the irrational y (to fix the ideas, remark that con- 
sidering this equation as representing a curve, then p is really the deficiency 
of the curve ; but as already mentioned, the notion of deficiency dates only 
from 1857) : thus in applying the theorem to the case where y is the 
square root of a function of the fourth order, we have in effect Legendre's 
theorem for elliptic integrals F^ -f- F;^ expressed by means of a single 
inteo-ral F/i, and not a theorem applying in foi'm to the elliptic functions 
sn, en, dn. To be intelligible I must recall that the integrals belonging 
to the case where y is the square root of a rational and integral function 
of an order exceeding four are (in distinction from the general case) 
termed hyperelliptic integrals : viz., if the order be 5 or 6, then these are 
of the class p = 2 ; if the order be 7 or 8, then they are of the class p = 3, 
and so on ; the general Abelian integral of the class p ^ 2 is a hyper- 
elliptic integral : but if j5 = 3, or any greater value, then the hyper- 
elliptic integrals are only a particular case of the Abelian integrals of 
the same class. The further step was made by Jacobi in the short but 
very important memoir ' Considerationes generales de transcendentibus 
Abelianis,' Crelle, t. ix. (1832) : viz. he there shows for the hyperelliptic 
integrals of any class (but the conclusion may be stated generally) that the 
direct functions to which Abel's theorem has reference are not functions of a 



ADDRESS. 31 

single variable, such as the elliptic sn, en, or di],but functions ofp variables. 
Thus, in the case p = 2, which .Tacobi specially considers, it is shown that 
Abel's theorem has reference to two functions /\(w, v), Xi(ic, v) each of two 
variables, and gives in effect an addition-theorem for the expression of 
the functions X(u + u', v + v'), Xi(u + u', v + v') algebraically in terms 
of the functions \(u, v), Xi(u, v), \(u', v'), Xi(w', v'). 

It is important to remark that Abel's theorem does not directly give, 
nor does Jacobi assert that it gives, the addition-theorem in a perfect 
form. Take the case jj = 1 : the result from the theorem is that we have a 
function X(ii), which is such that X(u + v) can be expressed algebraically 
in terms of X(u) and X(v). This is of course perfectly correct, sn(M-f v) 
is expressible algebraically in terms of sn u, sn v, but the expression 
involves the radicals \/l — snhi, \/l — ]c^snhi,, >/l — sn^y, V 1 — Ic'^snh ; 
but it does not give the three functions sn, en, dn, or in anywise amount 
to the statement that the sn, en and dn u otti + v are expressible rationally 
in terms of the sn, en and dn of « and of v. In the case ^ = 1, the rio-ht 
number of functions, each of one variable, is 3, but the three functions 
sn, en and dn are properly considered as the ratios of 4 functions ; and so 
in general, the right number of functions, each of 2^ variables, is 4p — 1, 
and these may be considered as the ratios of 4? functions. But notwith- 
standing this last remark, it may be considered that the notion of the 
Abelian functions of p variables is established, and the addition. theorem 
for these functions in effect given by the memoirs (Abel 1826, Jacobi 1832) 
last referred to. 

We have next for the case p = 2, which is hyperelliptic, the two ex- 
tremely valuable memoirs, Gopel, ' Theoria transcendentium Abelianarnm 
primi ordinis adumbratio l«va,' Crelle, t. xxxv. (1847), and Rosenhain, 
Memoire snr les fonctions de deux variables et a quatre periodes qui sont 
les inverses des integrales ultra-elliptiques de la premiere classe ' (1846), 
Paris, Mem. Savans Etrang. t. xi. (1851), each of them establishing on 
the analogy of the single theta-functions the corresponding functions of 
two variables, or double theta-functions, and in connection with them the 
theory of the Abelian functions of two variables. It may be remarked 
that in order of simplicity the theta-functions certainly precede the 
Abelian functions. 

Passing over some memoirs by "Weierstrass which refer to the o-eneral 
hyperelliptic integrals, i? any value whatever, we come to Riemann, who 
died 1866, at the age of forty : collected edition of his works, Leipzio-, 1876. 
His great memoir on the Abelian and theta-functions is the memoir already 
incidentally referred to, ' Theorie der Abel'schen Functionen,' Crelle, t. 54 
(1857) ; but intimately connected therewith we have his Inaugural Disser- 
tation (Gottingen, 1851), 'Grundlagen fiir eine allgemeine Theorie der 
Functionen einer veranderlichen Complexen-Grosse ' : his treatment of 
the problem of the Abelian functions, and establishment for the purpose 
of this theory of the multiple theta-functions, are alike founded on his 
general principles of the theory of the functions of a variable complex 



32 KEPORT — 1883. 

magnitude x + iy, and it is this whicli would have to be gone into for 
any explanation of his method of dealing with the problem. 

Riemann, starting with the integrals of the most general form, and 
considering the inverse functions corresponding to these integrals — that 
is, the Abelian functions of p variables — defines a theta-function of j3 
variables, or j5-tuple theta-function, as the sum of a ^J-tuply infinite 
series of exponentials, the general term of course depending on the 'p 
variables ; and he shows that the Abelian functions are algebraically con- 
nected with theta-functions of the proper arguments. The theory is pre- 
sented in the broadest form ; in particular as regards the theta-functions, 
the 4p functions are not even referred to, and there is no development as 
to the form of the algebraic relations between the two sets of functions. 

In the Theory of Equations, the beginning of the century may be re- 
garded as an epoch. Immediately preceding it, we have Lagrange's ' Traite 
des Equations Numeriques ' (1st ed. 1798), the notes to which exhibit the 
then position of the theory. Immediately following it, the great work by 
Gauss, the ' Disquisitiones Arithmeticse ' (1801), in which he establishes 
the theory for the case of a prime exponent «, of the binomial equation 
aj" _ 1 = : throwing out the factor aj — 1, the equation becomes an 
equation of the order n — 1, and this is decomposed into equations 
the orders of which are the prime factors of ii — 1. In particular, 
Gauss was thereby led to the remarkable geometrical result that 
it was possible to construct geometrically — that is, with only the ruler 
and compass — the regular polygons of 17 sides and 257 sides respectively. 
We have then (1826-1829) Abel, who, besides his demonstration of the 
impossibility of the solution of a quintic equation by radicals, and his very 
important researches on the general question of the algebraic solution of 
equations, established the theory of the class of equations since called 
Abelian equations. He applied, his methods to the problem of the divi- 
sion of the elliptic functions, to (what is a distinct question) the division 
of the complete functions, and to the very interesting special case of the 
leminiscate. But the theory of algebraic solutions in its most complete 
form was established by Galois (born 1811, killed in a duel 1832), who 
for this purpose introduced the notion of a group of substitutions ; and 
to him also are due some most valuable results in relation to another set 
of equations presenting themselves in the theory of elliptic functions — 
viz. the modular equations. In 1835 we have Jerrard's transformation 
of the general] quintic equation. In 1870 an elaborate work, Jordan's 
' Traite des Substitutions et des Equations algebriques : ' a mere inspec- 
tion of the table of contents of this would serve to illustrate my proposi- 
tion as to the great extension of this branch of mathematics. 

The Theory of Numbers was, at the beginning of the century, represented 
by Legendre's 'Theorie des Nombres ' (1st ed. 1798), shortly followed by 
Gauss's 'Disquisitiones Arithmeticse' (1801). This work by Gauss is, 



ADDRESS. 33 

throughout, a theory of ordinary real numbers. It establishes the notion 
of a congruence ; gives a proof of the theorem of reciprocity in regard to 
quadratic residues ; and contains a very complete theoi-y of binary quadratic 
forms (a, I, c)(x, yY, of negative and positive determinant, including the 
theory, there first given, of the composition of such forms. It gives also 
the commencement of a like theory of ternary quadratic forms. It con- 
tains also the theory already referred to, but which has since influenced 
in so remarkable a manner the whole theory of numbers — the theory of 
the solution of the binomial equation x'' — 1 = 0: it is, in fact, the roots 
or periods of roots derived from these equations which form the incom- 
measurables, or unities, of the complex theories which have been chiefly 
worked at ; thus, the i of ordinary analysis presents itself as a root of 
the equation a;^ — 1 = 0. It was Gauss himself who, for the develop- 
ment of a real theory — that of biquadratic residues — found it necessary 
to use complex numbers of the before-mentioned form, a + U (a and h 
positive or negative real integers, including zero), and the theory of these 
numbers was studied and cultivated by Lejenne-Dirichlet. We have thus 
a new theory of these complex numbers, side by side with the former 
theory of real numbers : everything in the real theory reproducing itself, 
prime numbers, congruences, theories of residues, reciprocity, quadratic 
forms, &c., but with greater variety and complexity, and increased diffi- 
culty of demonstration. But instead of the equation a;-* — 1 = 0, we may 
take the equation x^ — \ =Q: we have here the complex numbers 
a + 'bp composed with an imaginary cube root of unity, the theory 
specially considered by Eisenstein : again a new theory, corresponding 
to but different from that of the numbers a + li. The general case of 
any prime value of the exponent n, and with periods of roots, which here 
present themselves instead of single roots, was first considered by Kum- 
mer : viz. if ?i — 1 = e/, and r?,, j;, . . . »;,, are the e periods, each of them 
a sum of /roots, of. the equation .«" -1 = 0, then the comj^lex numbers 
considered are the numbers of the form a, »), + Wg J/a • • • + ajie 
(a,, a^ . . . a^ positive or negative ordinary integers, including zero) : 
/"may be = 1, and the theory for the periods thus includes that for the 
single roots. 

We have thus a new and very general theory, including within itself 
that of the complex numbers a-f-ii and a-l-6p. But a new phenomenon 
presents itself ; for these special forms the properties in regard to prime 
numbers corresponded precisely with those for real numbers ; a non-prime 
number was in one way only a product of prime factors ; the power of a 
prime number has only factors which are lower powers of the same prime 
number : for instance, if j9 be a prime number, then, excluding the obvious 
decomposition^, f-, we cannot have p^— a product of two factors A, B. 
In the general case this is not so, but the exception first presents itself for 
the number 23 ; in the theory of the numbers composed with the 23rd roots 
of unity, we have prime numbers^, such that jj^^^g Tq restore the 
theorem, it is necessary to establish the notion of ideal numbers ; a prime 

1883. D 



34 EEPORT — 1883. 

number j3 is by definition not the product of two actual numbers, but in the 
example just referred to the number p is the product of two ideal numbers 
having for their cubes the two actual numbers A, B, respectively, and we 
thus have jj^=AB. It is, I think, in this way that we most easily get some 
notion of the meaning of an ideal number, but the mode of treatment (in 
KummerV great memoir, ' Ueber die Zerlegung der aus Wurzeln der 
Einheit gebildeten Complexen-Zahlen iu ihre Primfactoren, Crelle, t. xxxv. 
1847) is a much more refined one ; an ideal number, without ever being 
isolated, is made to manifest itself in the properties of the prime number 
of which it is a factor, and without reference to the theorem afterwards 
arrived at, that there is always some power of the ideal number which is 
an actual number. In the still later developments of the Theory of Num- 
bers by Dedekind, the units, or incommensurables, are the roots of any 
irreducible equation having for its coefficients ordinary integer numbers, 
and with the coefficient unity for the highest power of x. The question 
arises, What is the analogue of a whole number ? thus for the very simple 
case of the equation a;'^ + 3=0, we have as a whole number the apparently 
fractional form i(l + (Vo) which is the imaginary cube root of unity, 
the p of Eiseustein's theory. We have, moreover, the (as far as appears) 
wholly distinct complex theory of the numbers composed with the con- 
gruence-imaginaries of Galois : viz. these are imaginary numbers assumed 
to satisfy a congruence which is not satisfied by any real number ; for 
instance the congruence a'- — 2=0 (mod 5) has no real root, but we assume 
an imaginary root i, the other root is then = — i, and we then consider 
the system of complex numbers a + hl (mod 5), viz. we have thus the 5^ 
numbers obtained by giving to each of the numbers a, h, the values 0, 1, 
2, 3, 4, succeisively. And so in general, the consideration of an irreducible 
congruence F(.i;)=0 (mod p.) of the order n, to any prime modulus j), 
gives rise to an imaginary congruence root i, and to complex numbers ■ 
of the form a + hi + cr-- +7a"~\ where a, h, ...Jc are ordinary integers 
each = 0, 1, 2, •• p—1. 

As regards the theory of forms, we have in tbe ordinary theory, in 
addition to the binary and ternary quadratic forms, which have been very 
thoroughly studied, the quaternary and higher quadratic forms (to 
these last belong as very particular cases the theories of the repre- 
sentation of a number as a sum of four, five or more squares), and also 
binary, cubic and quartic forms, and ternary cubic forms, in x-egard to all 
which something has been done ; the binary quadratic forms have been 
studied in the theory of the complex number., a + hi. 

A seemingly isolated question in the Theory of Numbers, the demon- 
stration of Fermat's theorem of the impossibility for any exponent X greater 
than 3, of the equation x'' + i/-^ = i\ has given rise to investigations of 
very great interest and difficulty. 

Outside of ordinary mathematics, we have some theories which must 
be referred to : algebraical, geometrical, logical. It is, as in many other 



AI1DUESS. 35 

cases, diflGicnlt to draw tlie line; we do in ordinary mathematics use 
symbols not denoting quantities, which we nevertheless combine in 
the way of addition and multiplication, a + l, and ab, and which may be 
such as not to obey the commutative law ah = ha, in particular this is or 
may be so in regard to symbols of operation ; and it could hardly be said 
that any development whatever of the theory of such symbols of opera- 
tion did not belong to ordinary algebra. But I do separate from ordinary 
mathematics the system of multiple algebra or linear associative algebra, 
developed in the valuable memoir by the late Benjamin Peirce, 
'Linear Associative Algebra' (1870, reprinted 1881 in the American 
Journal of Mathematics, vol. iv. with notes and addenda by his son, C. S. 
Peirce) ; we here consider symbols A, B, &c. which are linear functions of 
a determinate number of letters or units i, j, I; /, &c., with coefficients 
which are ordinary analytical magnitudes, real or imaginary (viz. the 
coefficients are in general of the form x + iij, where i is the before-men- 
tioned imaginary or V - 1 of ordinary analysis). The letters i, j, &c., 
are such that every binary combination i-, ij, ji, &g. (the ij being in 
general not =;7), is equal to a linear function of the letters, but under 
the restriction of satisfying the associative law : viz. for each combina- 
tion of three letters y.l is = i.jl; so that there is a determinate and 
unique product of three or more letters ; or, what is the same thing, the 
laws of combination of the units i,j, 1-, are defined by a multiplication 
table giving the values of P, ij, ji, &c. ; tlie original units may be replaced 
by linear functions of these units, so as to give rise, for the units finally 
adopted, to a multiplication table of the most simple form ; and it is very 
remarkable, how frequently in these simplified forms we have nilpotent or 
idempotent symbols {i^=0, or i^ = i as the case may be), and symbols i, j, 
such that ij=ji = ; and consequently how simple are the forms of the 
multiplication tables which define the several systems respectively. 

I have spoken of this multiple algebra before referring to various 
geometrical theories of earlier date, because I consider it as the general 
analytical basis, and the true basis, of these theories. I do not realise 
to myself directly the notions of the addition or multiplication of two 
lines, areas, rotations, forces, or other geometrical, kinematical, or 
mechanical entities ; and 1 would formulate a general theory as follows : 
consider any such entity as determined by the proper number of para- 
meters a, h, c, (for instance, in the case of a finite line given in magni- 
itude and position, these might be the length, the coordinates of one end, 
and the direction-cosines of the line considered as drawn from this end) • 
and represent it by or connect it with the linear function ai + lj + ck + &c. 
formed with these parameters as coefficients, and with a given .set of 
units, I, J, Jc, &c. Conversely, any such linear function represents an 
9ntity of the kind in question. Two given entities are represented by 
two hnear functions ; the sum of these is a like linear function representing 
m entity of the same kind, which may be regarded as the sum of the 
two entities ; and the product of them (taken in a determined order, when 

D2 



36 REPORT— 1883. 

the order is material) is an entity of the same kind, which may be re- 
garded as the prodact (in the same oi'der) of the two entities. We thus 
establish by definition the notion of the sum of the two entities, and that 
of the product (in a determinate order, when the order is material) of the 
two entities. The value of the theory in regard to any kind of entity 
would of course depend on the choice of a systeiii of units, i,j, Ic . . with 
such laws of combination as would give a geometrical or kinematical or 
mechanical significance to the notions of the sum and product as thus 
defined. 

Among the geometrical theories referred to, we have a theory (that of 
Argand, Warren, and Peacock) of imaginaries in plane geometry ; Sir W. 
R. Hamilton's very valuable and important theory of Quaternions ; the 
theories developed in Grassmann's ' Ausdehnungslehre,' 1841 and 1862 - 
Clifford's theory of Biquaternions, and recent extensions of Grassmann's 
theory to non-Euclidian space, by Mr. Homersham Cos. These different 
theories have of course been developed, not in anywise froni the point of 
view in which I have been considering them, but from the points of view 
of their several authors respectively. 

The literal symbols x, y, &c., used in Boole's ' Laws of Thought ' (1854),. 
to represent things as subjects of our conceptions, are symbols obeying the 
laws of algebraic combination (the distributive, commutative, and associative 
laws) but which are such that for any one of them, say x, we have x—x^=Of 
this equation not implying (as in ordinary algebra it would do) either 
x=0 or else a;=l. In the latter part of the work relating to the Theory 
of Probabilities there is a difficulty in making out the precise meaning of 
the symbols, and the remarkable theory there developed has, it seems to 
me, passed out of notice, without having been properly discussed. A paper 
by the same author, ' Of Propositions numerically definite ' (' Camb. Phil. 
Trans.' 18G9) is also on the borderland of logic and mathematics. It 
would be out of place to consider other systems of mathematical logic, 
but I will just mention that Mr. C. S. Peirce in his ' Algebra of Logic ' 
(American Math. Journal, vol. iii.) establishes a notation for relative 
terms, and that these present themselves in connection with the systems 
of units of the linear associative algebra. 

Connected with logic, but primarily mathematical and of the highest 
importance, we have Schubert's 'Abzilhlende Geometric' (1878). The 
general question is, How many curves or other figures are thei'e which satisfy 
given conditions ? for example, How many conies are there which touch 
each of five given conies ? The class of questions, in regard to the conic 
was first considered by Chasles, and we have his beautiful theory of the 
characteristics /.(, r, of the conies which satisfy four given conditions ; 
questions relating to cubics and quartics were afterwards considered by 
Maillard and Zeuthen ; and in the work just referred to the theory has 
become a very wide one. The noticeable point is that the symbols used 
by Schubert are in the first instance, not numbers, but mere logical 
symbols: for example, a letter jf denotes the condition that a line shall cut 



ADDRESS. 37 

a given line ; rj'^ that it shall cut each of two given lines ; and so in other 
cases ; and these logical symbols ai-e combined together by algebraical 
laws : they first acquire a numerical signification when the number of 
conditions becomes equal to the number of parameters upon which the 
figure in question depends. 

In all that I have last said in regard to theories outside of ordinary 
mathematics, I have been still speaking on the text of the vast extent of 
modern mathematics. In conclusion I would say that mathematics have 
steadily advanced from the time of the Greek geometers. Nothing is lost 
or wasted ; the achievements of Euclid, Ai-chimedes, and ApoUonius are as 
admirable now as they were in their own days. Descartes' method of co- 
ordinates is a possession for ever. But mathematics have never been culti- 
vated more zealously and diligently, or with greater success, than in this 
century — in the last half of it, or at the present time : the advances made 
bave been enormous, the actual field is boundless, the future full of hope. 
In regard to pure mathematics we may most confidently say : — 

Yet I doubt not tlirongh the ages one increasing purpose runs, 
And tlie thoughts of men are widened with the process of the suns. 



BEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



BEPOBTS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr.' Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomsox, Professor Ayrton, Mr. J. Perry, Professor 
W. Gr. Adams, Lord Kayleigh, Professor Jenkin, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, 
Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead {Secretary), Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor 
Schuster, Sir W. Siemens, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor Gr. F. 
Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. GtLAZEBROOK, and Professor Chrystal, 
appointed for the purpose of constructing and issuing practical 
Standards for tcse in Electrical Measurements. 

The Committee report that, in accordance with suggestions made at the 
last meeting of the British Association, arrangements have now been 
completed for testing resistance coils at the Cavendish Laboratory and 
issuing certificates of their value. These arrangements have been made 
by Lord Rayleigh and Mr. Glazebrook, and the report contains an account 
by the latter of the methods employed and the conditions under which 
the testing is undertaken, in order that those who use such coils may have 
a more exact estimate of the value of the test. 

The standards at the laboratoiy belonging to the Association, the 
values of which have been recently tested, are all single units. The best 
of these were all compared among themselves, originally by Hockin 
(' British Association Report,' 1867), and again by Chrystal and Saunder 
(Report, 1876), and more recently, at various tempei'atures between about 
0° C. and 25° C. by Mr. Fleming in 1879-1881, and a chart has been con- 
structed, from Avhich the resistance of any one coil at a given temperature 
between these limits can be determined. On this chart a curve is drawn 
for each coil ; the ordinates of the curve represent resistances, while 
the abscissae give the temperatures. The temperatures at which the 
various resistances were originally each one B. A. Unit are known for 
the respective coils. For these temperatures the ordinates of the curves 
drawn ought to be the same, and the corresponding resistance one B. A. 
Unit. Mr. Fleming finds, however, that this is not the case. The resis- 
tances of the eight coils examined at the temperatures at which they were 



42 



KEPOET — 1883. 



originally said to be correct are slightly different. The greatest difference 
is that between the coils marked C and G, and amounts to "0011 mean 
B. A. Unit. 

The mean of all these resistances at the respective temperatures is 
taken as the mean B. A. Unit, and is that to which the resistance coils sent 
for testing are referred. 



The 


coils examined 


are those marked as below in previous reports. 


A B 


C 


D 


E j F 

1 


G 


Flat 


1876 


2 


3 


58 


85 


36 29 


43 


Flat 


1867 



In comparing the single unit coils the form of resistance bridge devised 
by Mr. Fleming and described by hiin (' Proceedings of the Physical 
Society,' vol. iii.) is employed. 

The bridge, with battery, keys and a suitable galvanometer, is per- 
manently fitted up in a ground-floor room with a north aspect. The stan- 
dard coils are kept in a case in the same room, and the baths in which the 
coils are to be immersed are always ready filled with water, which is thus 
at the temperature of the room. 

When a coil is to be tested, a suitable standard is chosen, and the two 
are placed in the water baths and left at least three or four hours — more 
usually over night. The comparison is then made in the ordinary manner 
by Professor Carey Foster's method,' and the coils again left for sometime 
without being removed from the water. After this second interval another 
comparison is made. The temperatures of the water baths are taken at 
each comparison, and as a rule differ very slightly. 

We thus have two values of the resistance of the coil to be tested at 
two slightly different temperatures. 

The mean of these will be the resistance of the coil in question at the 
mean of the two temperatures. 

We are thus able to issue a certificate in the following form : — 
' This is to certify that the coil No. X has been compared with the British 
Association Standards, and that its value at a temperature of A° C. is 
P B. A. Units or P' R. ohms ; 1 B. A. Unit being -9867 R. ohms.' We 

further propose to stamp all coils in the future with this monogram ^^ 
and a reference number. 

One single unit coil by Messrs. Latimer Clark, Muirhead, & Co., three 
by Messrs. Elliott Brothers, for Professor Mascart, and one by Messrs. 
Simmons & Co., have been tested. 

It will be noticed that nothing is said about the temperature coeffi- 
cient of the coil or the temperature at which the coil is accurately 1 B. A. 
Unit. To determine this exactly is a somewhat long and troublesome 
operation, but at the same time it is one which every electrician, if he 
knows the value of the coil at one given temperature, can perform for 
himself with ordinary testing apparatus. It does not require the use of 
the standards. For many pui-poses the approximate value of the tem- 
perature coefficient obtained from a knowledge of the material of the 
coil will suffice ; we may feel certain that anyone requiring greater 
accuracy w'ould be quite able, and would prefer, to make the measure- 

' Journal of Soc. of Telegraph Engineers, 1874. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



43 



ment himself. "We can state with the very highest exactness that the 
resistance of the coil JI at a temperature A° C. is R. To obtain the tem- 
perature coefficient accurately requires an amount of labour -which may 
be quite unnecessary for the purpose for which the coil is to be used. 

But it is requisite to have standards of higher value than one unit, 
and part of the Association grant has been used in obtaining coils of a 
resistance of 10, 100, 10,00 and 100,00 units. Two of each value have 
been purchased, so that by frequent comparison of one with the other 
any accident to either may be checked. 

It remains, therefore, to describe how these coils are to be referred to 
the standards. For the 10 units two methods have been adopted. 

There are at the Cavendish Laboratory two five-unit coils. Each of 
these was compared with five single units placed in series, using Fleming's 
bridge to make the comparison, and the ten-unit coil was compared with 
these two in series. 

The values obtained by two observers at a temperature of 12° were : — 

9-98360 Lord Rayleigh. 

9-98893 R. T. G. 

For the second method, suppose we have three coils each of resistance 
about 3 units. Let there be 3 + ", 3 + /3 and 3 + y, then the resistance 
of the three in series is 9 + a + /^ + y, and in multiple arc, if we neglect 
terms like a^ -Jy; &c.,itis 1 -J- i (a + /3 4- y), thus neglecting tei-ms such 
as £(2 i, the resistance of the three in series is just 9 times that of the three 
in multiple ai-c. 

But the three coils in multiple arc are very nearly one unit, and can 
be compared with the standards. If then we combine in series with the 
same three one of the standards we have a resistance of approximately 
ten units, whose value is very accurately known, and with which any 
other ten-unit coil can be compared by the aid of Fleming's bridge. 
Lord Rayleigh has devised an arrangement of mercury cups, by means 
of which the changes indicated can be easily performed. 

The three 3-unit coils are wound on the same bobbin, and inclosed in 
the same case. The sis electrodes project in pairs, and their ends lie 
in a plane. The figure represents a piece of ebonite, through which, 
holes are cut as indicated by the letters a, b, &c. 



















a' 


c' e' 






A 


a 


c e 


















V 


d' 




f 


ff 


















B b 


d f 


h 













44 REPORT — 1883. 

On the under side of the ebonite, strong strips of copper, with their 
faces well amalgamated, are screwed, forming with the holes in the 
ebonite a series of cups, which are filled with mercury. 

The copper strips are cut, as shown in the figare, to make the 
necessary connexions. The distances between the holes is such that the 
electrodes of the three coils respectively fit into a b, c d, and ef, or into 
a'b\c' d',SLTiie'f'. 

Connexion is made with the bridge by means of the cups A, B, while 
the electrodes of the second single unit coil fit into g and h. In the first 
position the three coils are in multiple arc, as will be seen from the 
figui-e, and can be compared with a single unit, while in the second they 
are in series with the other single unit, and can be compared with the 
10 units. 

By this contrivance the 10 unit is referred to the single standard. 

To determine the value of a coil of 100 units, the three 3 units can be 
replaced by three 30 units, and the single units by tens. 

This, however, is not the most convenient method for the total re- 
sistance if the wire of the Fleming bridge in use is only -r}jj of a unit, thus 
affording too small a range for the ready comparison of large resistances. 

The following has been adopted: — Pour coils are arranged as in a 
Wheatstone's Bridge, one being the 100 units to be tested, two of the 
others in opposite arms, two known 10 units, and the fourth a known 
single unit. 

These coils are all arranged in the same circular trough of water and 
their electrodes dip into four mercury cups. 

If all the coils are correct no current will traverse the galvanometer. 
Of course in practice this condition is never realised. Either one of the 
ten units or the single unit is too great. Let us suppose it is the latter ; 
connect its two electrodes with the two electrodes of a resistance box and 
take out plugs from this till a balance is secured. Then if the resistance 
of the ten units be Q and R, that of the single unit S, and the shunt W, 

the resistance of the shunted arm is -— -, and that of the 100 

W + b 

Now, in practice, if Q, R, S are fairly accurate, W will be a large 
resistance, and an approximate knowledge of W will suf&ce. W may 
thus, for all we require, be taken from a resistance box by a good maker 
which has stood for some time in the room in which the experiments are 
conducted, the temperature being taken as that of the room. A box 
has been ordered from Messrs. Elliott Brothers, to be used for this and 
similar purposes. 

The same firm have also supplied a high resistance galvanometer for 
the testing. 

Of course if one of the ten unit coils is too great, then the shunt W 
must be put in with it. 

In accordance with the resolution of the Committee, a fee of 1/. Is. 
has been charged for testing single units, and of 11. lis. 6d. for others. 

The only coils the testing of which is regularly undertaken are single 
units and multiples of single units by some powers of 10. 

But though this is so, two standard ohms have been ordered, using 
for the value of the B. A. unit -9807 ohms., and when they arrive and have 
been tested, it will be easy to determine the value of coils which do not 



U.N MA.NUAUUj; KUU USE IN ELIiCTUICAL MEASUREMENTS. 45 

difiTer much from a real ohm. At present, without these standards — the 
coils actually used in the recent experiments at the Cavendish Laboratory 
have a resistance of about "1, 24, and 168 ohms — the operation is trouble- 
some. The simplest accurate method seems to be to combine in multiple 
arc the real ohm, and one of the 100 B. A. unit standards, and to compare 
the combination with a single unit. 

Dr. Muirhead also reports the completion of three air condensers as 
standards of capacity. 

The Committee are glad to learn that Lord Rayleigh is continuing 
his valuable researches at the Cavendish Laboratory with the view of 
obtaining an absolute unit of current. 

They would ask in conclusion that they may be reappointed with the 
addition of the names of Mr. H. Tomlinson and Professor W. Garnett ; 
and that a further grant of 1001. may be made to meet the expense of 
procuring standards of resistance in terms of the ohm. 



Sixteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Sir A. C. 
Eamsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor PREST^VICH, Dr. C. Le Neve 
Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. 
A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, JMr. E. Wethered, and JNIr. A. Strahan, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Rate of Incy^ease of Under- 
ground Temperature doivniuards in various Localities of Dry 
Land and under Water. Draxvn up hy Professor Everett 
{Secretary). 

Observations have been made in the artesian well at Southampton 
Common by Mr. T. W. Shore, of the Hartley Institution, assisted by Mr. 
J. Blount Thomas. 

The well was sunk to a depth of 1,31 7 feet many years ago, and has 
remained closed for thirty-two years. It has now been re-opened, with 
the view of being carried deep enough to obtain a supply of water which 
will rise to the surface. The brick portion of the well is 563 feet deep, 
with a diameter of 13 feet at the top and 7 feet at the bottom. A boring 
with a 7i-iuch auger was made 754 feet deeper, giving a total depth of 
1,317 feet. The water stands at 40 feet below the surface of the ground, 
and a tube about 7i inches in diameter extends from the bottom of the 
brick well to a few inches above the surface of the water. The thermo- 
meter (an inverted Negretti maximum) was lowered through this tube 
into the boring, and, to aid in carrying it past obstructions, it was 
enclosed in a perforated cylindrical case of zinc, to which was attached 
an elongated cylindrical weight, pointed at the lower end to enable it 
to penetrate mud. The result showed that these precautions were 
necessary, the zinc case and the lower part of the weight being deeply 
sc"atched. The obstructions were chiefly met with at a depth of from 
600 to 800 feet, in passing through the Upper Chalk. 

Tlie thermometer was lowered very gradually, its descent occupying 



46 heport— 1883. 

nearly 15 minutes, and it met with chalk mud at a depth of 1,210 feet 
from the surface of the ground. Here it Avas allowed to remain for 
30 minutes. It was then hauled up as slowly as it had gone down, and 
its indication was 69°"7 F. 

Observations wei'e next taken in the same manner at two smaller 
depths, the temperatures recorded being 57° F. at 400 feet and 65° '1 F. 
at 800 feet. 

The thermometer was then lowered again to the same depth as at 
first, and showed a temperature 2° '2 higher, but the lowering and raising 
on this occasion were hurried, as it was getting dai'k, and it is jDrobable 
that the 2° '2 of excess were owing to mercury which was shaken out of 
the bulb into the stem during the hauling up. 

These observations were made on January 18. After correspondence 
with the Secretary the thermometer was again lowered to the full depth, 
and allowed to remain there for a week. It was hauled up on February 1, 
and read 69°' 7 — exactly the same as in the first observation. 

By way of verifying the explanation above given of the 2°'2 of ex- 
cess observed on the second occasion, Mr. Shore has tested the effect of 
shaking the thermometer by hand, and finds that he can, hy a few jerks, 
cause a sufficient quantity of mercury to pass through from the bulb to 
make this difference. 

All these observations were taken before the water had been disturbed 
by any preparations for continiiing the boring, and the temperature 
69°'7 at 1,210 feet may be accepted as truly representing the temperature 
of the ground at this depth. 

The mean annual temperature of the air at Southampton, as calcu- 
lated by Mr. Shore from the daily observations at the Ordnance Survey 
Ofi&ce, for the ten years 1872-1881, is 50°-0 F. If we allow, in accord- 
ance with general experience, an excess of 1° in surface temperature of 
the soil, we have an increase of 18°' 7 in 1,210 feet, which is at the rate 
of 1° F. in 65 feet. 

Judging from past experience, not much reliance can bo placed on 
the temperatures at interinediate depths, as they are liable to be largely 
affected by convection. In the present case a comparison of the tem- 
peratures at 800 feet and 1,210 feet gives an increase of 1° in 89 feet, 
and a comparison of those at 400 feet and 1,210 feet gives 1° in 
64 feet. 

The temperature of the surface of the water on January 18 was 55°. 
This was only 40 feet below the surface of the ground, and the tempe- 
rature of the air at the time was 49°. The surface of the ground is 
140 feet above sea-level. 

The Council of the Mining Institute of Cornwall have undertaken a 
series of obseiwations on underground temperatui-e in Dolcoath mine. 
The thermometers (of the usual slow-action pattern) were supplied by 
our Secretary at the expense of the Mining Institute, and the observations 
were taken by Captain Josiah Thomas, the manager of the mine. It is 
the deepest mine in Cornwall, and observations have been taken at six 
points, at depths ranging from 252 to 2,124 feet. 

The deepest of these six observations was taken under very satis- 
factory conditions, being in clean granite, about 90 feet distant from any 
draught, and in newly-opened ground, only 24 feet from the end of the 
working. The temperature observed here — the thermometer having 
been left for some days in a hole bored for it — was 83° F., and the mean 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 47 



temperature of the air in ttie district for the past thirty-five years is 
given by Dr. Hudson, of Redruth, as 51°-4. Assuming 52°-5 as the mean 
temperature of the surface of the ground, we have an increase of 30°-5 in 
2,124 feet, which is at the rate of 1° F. in 70 feet. 

This determination seems to be worthy of all confidence. The other 
five observations were in places which had been for long periods exposed 
to the air. The six observations, in order of depth, are given in the 
following table. The last column shows the rate calculated by com- 
paring the depth in question with an assumed temperature of 52°-5 at 
the surface. 



Sliition 


Depth in feet 


Temp. Fnhr. 


Excess over 
surface 


Feet per degree 
of increase 


I. 


2.52 


64 


11-0 


22 


II. 


390 


65 


12-5 


31 


III. 


876 


67-8 


i.v:! 


57 


IV. 


U18 


6.5 


12 5 


89 


V. 


1884 


70 


17 -.5 


108 


VI. 


2124 


83 


;!o-5 


70 . 



Captain Thomas states that in the level where Station lY. was 
situated a cold current of air had been passing until quite recently ; also 
that the observation at Station Y. is of little value, beino- made in a 
narrow portion of rock left between two lodes which had been worked away. 

All the obervations were taken in holes bored in the rock, not in the 
mineral veins. The rock is granite, except for the first 800 feet, which 
consist of a compact slate-rock called 'killas,' up to within 20 or 30 feet 
of the surface. There was a large quantity of pyrites in the upper 
workings, but the lode in these places was worked away seventy or 
eigbty years ago. There is no pyrites in the deep workings, and no 
heating by chemical action has been noticed. The lode in the deepest 
part is chiefly composed of chlorite, quartz, and tin ores. All the holes 
in which observations were taken were dry. Water issues from the 
rock to the south of the lode at the bottom of the engine shaft (120 feet 
below the deepest of the six observations) at a temperature of about 90°. 
The mine has been worked for about 120 years, copper being obtained in 
the upper and tin in the lower portions. 

A second set of observations under the sea have been obtained by 
Professor Lebour ; this time from North Seaton Colliery, a few miles 
distant from Newcastle. A slow-action thermometer was employed, in 
the usual manner, and six readings were taken, all showing the same 
temperature, 61°. The point of observation was half a mile beyond low- 
water mark, and 660 feet below mean sea-level (Ordnance datum). The 
depth of water, according to the Admiralty charts, is from 5 to 6 
fathoms, and as these charts give the depth of low water of sprino- tides, 
the depth at mean tide may be taken as about 40 feet. The point of 
observation is, therefore, 620 feet below the sea-bottom. Assuming the 
mean temperature of the sea-bottom to be 48°, we have an increase of 
13" in 620 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 48 feet. 

Mr. E. Garside has taken another observation in Ashton Moss 
Colliery, 90 feet deeper than before. He finds a temperature of 84° at 
the depth of 2,880 feet, whereas he previously found 85° -3 at the depth of 
2,790 feet. The thermometer used was the same, but it was left forty- 



48 EEPORT — 1883. 

eight Lours in the hole, besides three hours allowed before insertion ; 
■whereas in the previous observation (1881 Report) it was only left six 
hours in the hole, with ten or fifteen minutes before insertion. Assuming, 
as before, a surface temperature of 49°, we have an increase of 35° in 
2,880 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 82 feet. 

Mr. Garside has also furnished the results of one year's observations 
of surface temperature at two stations in Ashtou-under-Lyne, in the 
immediate vicinity of the pits in which his observations have been taken. 
One station is Croft House, in the centre of the town, 345 feet above sea- 
level ; and the other is the District Infirmary, 501 feet above sea-level. 
In both cases the data furnished are the monthly means, for the year 
1882, of daily observations of the temperature of the soil at 4 feet deep 
and 1 foot deep ; also of the maximum and minimum temperatures of 
the air. The annual mean for the thermometer 4 feet deep is 47'"5 at 
Croft House, and 45°-9 at the Infirmary. For the thermometer 1 foot 
deep the numbers are 46°-2 and 45''-6 ; and for the half-sum of maximum 
and minimum 48° '4 and 46° 6. Unless the year 1882 was exceptionally 
cold, our assumption of a sm^face temperature of 49° would therefore 
appear to be in excess of the truth ; but further time must be allowed to 
settle this question. 

The Secretary has been consulted by the Trustees of the Lick 
Observatory, about to be erected on a mountain in Califoimia, as to the 
advisability of taking observations of underground temperature there, 
and the best method to be followed. He has recommended observations 
at various points for comparing the temperature at 3 feet deep with the 
temperature of the air. 

One inverted Negretti-maximum and two slow-action thermometers 
have been entrusted to Mr. T. W. Edgeworth David, Assistant Field 
Geologist to the Mining Department in New South Wales; and two 
slow-action thermometers have been supplied to the Engineering Depart- 
ment of the South-Eastern Railway, for observations in the Channel 
Tunnel. 

Since the publication of the ' Summary,' which accompanied last 
year's Report, the Secretary has received from Dr. Stapff a communica- 
tion which renders an important modification necessary in the results for 
the St. Gothard and Mont Cenis Tunnels. In the ' Snmma,ry ' a con- 
jectural correction was applied for the convexity of the mountain surfaces. 
Dr. StapflP's calculations lead to the conclusion that a much larger allow- 
ance must be made under this head. He deduces I'' F. in 85 feet as tlie 
actual average rate of increase from the surface overhead to the tunnel ; 
.and he calculates that at a depth below the tunnel sufficient to make the 
isothermal surfaces sensibly plane, the increase is 1° F. in 57-8 feet._ His 
method of calculation is very elaborate and laborious. He first divides 
the whole length of the tunnel into sections, and, assuming that the 
isotherms are parabolas, investigates the parabolic isotherm for each 
section. Then, by combining these, he deduces a general law for the 
whole length, and infers that at the depth at which the isotherms are 
flattened out into straight lines the rate of increase is 1° F. for 57-8 feet 
of descent. 

As a check upon this very elaborate method, the secretary requested 
Dr. Stapff to furnish him with the actual observations both above 
ground and in the tunnel, for that portion which passes under the plain 
of Audermatt. This Dr. Stapff has kindly done, and these observations 



ON THE RATE OF INCEEASE OF UNDEEGROUND TEUPEEATURE. 49 

strongly support Dr. Stapff 's deduction as against tbe deduction given in 
ilie ' Summary ; ' the actual increase from the surface to the tunnel in 
this part being at a much more rapid rate than 1° F. in 57'8 feet — 
namely, at 1° F. in 38 feet. 

As a guide for future estimates, it may be noted that the correcting 
factor for reducing 85 feet to 57 '8 feet is almost exactly | ; but if we 
compare the result merely with the observed increase beneath the crest of 
the mountain, which was 1° F. in 100 feet, the correcting factor to be 
applied to 100 feet is '58. 

If we assume 1° in 57'8 feet as the rate for the St. Gothard Tunnel, 
and also for the Mont Cenis Tunnel, instead of the rates assumed in the 
' Summary,' the efiect upon the general mean for all places will be to 
m.ake it 1° F. in 60 feet, instead of 1° F. in 64 feet. 

[Dr. Stapif's paper has been printed in extenso, with the Andermatt 
observations as an Appendix, in the Transactions of the North o\ England 
Mining Institute for 1883.] 



Report of the Committee consisting of Captain Abney, Professor 
Stokes, and Professor Schuster (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of determining the best Experirnental Methods that can 
be used in observing Total Solar Eclipses. 

The Committee has considered it advisable to adjourn its discussion 
until the results of the last total solar eclipse should be known. As the 
eclipse expedition which went out to observe that eclipse has returned 
only a short time ago, the Committee desires its reappointment without 
grant of money. 



Report of a Committee, consisting of Professors Gr. H. Dar-win and, 
J. C. Adams, for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations. 
Drawn up by G. H. Darwin. 

Preface. — Account of Operations. 

A COMMITTEE appointed for the examination of the question of the 
Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations practically finds itself en- 
gaged in the question of the reduction of Indian Tidal Observations ; 
since it is only in that country that any extensive system of observation 
with systematic publication of results ' exists. This at least has proved 
to be the case with our committee. On communication with General 
Strachey, it was found that the India Office was anxious to obtain 
advice as to the reduction of observations and publication of results, 
and that Major A. W. Baird, R.E., the officer in charge at Poona of the 
Tidal Department of the Survey of India, felt the desirability of instruc- 

' Indian Tide Tables, published by authority of the Secretary of State. 
1883. E 



50 EEPORT— 1883. 

tion witli regard to several points. More recently, in a resolution dated, 
Simla, June 1, 1883 : — ' The Government of India notices -with pleasure 
that the tidal observations, in addition to their practical value for the re- 
quirements of navigation, are now furnishing information which is found 
to be of much scientific value.' The resolution then refers to a paper on 
the rigidity of the earth, which was read at tte last meeting of the 
Association. 

During 1882 Major Baird M^as in Europe, and Sir William Thomson 
was kind enough to permit me to arrange a meeting with Major Baird, in 
December, at his house in Glasgow, in order to discuss the subject, in 
continuation of our previous correspondence. 

We then arrived at a general idea of the course of future procedure, and 
also came to some agreement as to the changes of notation which it was 
desirable to adopt. Subsequently, I proceeded to draw up a considerable 
part of this Report, had it printed, and submitted it to Major Baird. I was 
not at tliat time aware of the extent to which Mr. Roberts, of the Nautical 
Almanac office, co-operated in England in the tidal operations, nor did I 
know that he was not unfrequentl}' taking the advice of Professor Adams. 
It was not until Major Baird had read what I had written, and expressed 
his approval of the methods suggested, that these facts came to my 
knowledge; but it must be admitted that it was through my own care- 
lessness that this was so. I then found that Professor Adams decidedly 
disapproved of the notation adopted, and would have preferred to throw 
over the notation of the old Reports and take a new departure. The 
notation of the old Reports seems to me also to be unsatisfactory, but, 
seeing that Major Baird and his staff were already familiar with that 
notation, I considered that an entire change would be impolitic, and that 
it was better to allow the greater part of the existing notation to stand, 
but to introduce modifications. The fact that Major Baird, who was 
actually to work the method, approved of what had been written, and had 
already mastered it, went far to prejudge the question, and Professor 
Adams agreed, after discussion, that it would on the whole be best to 
allow the work to go on in the lines in which it had been started. 

It has seemed proper to give this account of our operations in order 
that Professor Adams may be relieved from responsibility for the ana- 
lytical methods and notation here adopted. I may state, however, that 
although the Report is drawn np in a form probably differing widely 
from that which it would have had if Professor Adams had been the 
author, yet he agrees with the correctness of the methods pursued. I 
have been in constant commtinication with him for the past eight months, 
and have received many valuable criticisms and suggestions. 

Mr. Roberts has been supervising the printing of a new edition of the 
computation forms ; they have undergone some modification in accord- 
ance with this Report. He has also computed certain new coefficients 
[Schedule Qj which are required in the reductions. 

Major Baird returned to India in the spring of 1883, and, as I learn, 
will shortly begin revising all the published results, so as to bring them 
to one uniform system — namely, that here recommended. Wo are now 
supplying Mr. Neison at Natal with a copy of this Report, and a few 
copies of the computation forms will be sent to him for the purpose of 
reducing the South African Tidal Observations. 

The general scope of this paper is to form a manual for the reduction 
of tidal observations by the Harmonic Analysis inaugurated by Sir 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSKKYATIONS 51 

William Thomson, and carried out by the previous Committee of the 
British Association.' 

In the present Report the method of mathematical treatment differs 
considerably from that of Sir Wilbam Thomson. ^ In particular, he has 
followed, and extended to the diurnal tides, Laplace's method of referring 
each tide to the motion of an astre ficfif in the heavens, and he considers 
that these fictitious satellites are helpful in forming a clear conception of 
the equihbrium theory of tides. As, however, I have found the fiction 
rather a hindrance than otherwise, I have ventured to depart from this 
method, and have connected each tide with an 'argument,' or an angle 
increasing uniformly with the time and giving by its hourly increase 
the ' speed ' of the tide. In the method of the astres fictlfs, the speed is 
the difference between the earth's angular velocity of rotation and the 
motion of the fictitious satellite amongst the stars. It is a consequence 
of the difference in the mode of treatment, and of the fact that the elliptic 
tides are here developed to a higher degree of approximation, that none 
of the present Report is quoted from the previous ones. 

The Report of 1876 was not intended to be a final production, and it 
did not contain any complete explanation of a considerable portion of the 
numerical operations of the Harmonic Analysis 

The present Report is intended to systematise the exposition of the 
theory of the harmonic analysis, to complete the methods of reduction, 
and to explain the whole process. 

A careful survey of the methods hitherto in use has brought to 
light a good many minor points in which improvements may be°intro- 
dnced, but it has seemed desirable not to disturb the system, which is in 
working order, more than can be helped. It has also appeared that the 
published results have not been arranged in a form which lends itself to 
a satisfactory examination of the whole method. This defect will, we 
hope, now be remedied ; and, as above stated. Major Baird will revise the 
Indian results. 

The first section refers to the notation, and contains a schedule of 
nomenclature by initials of the several tides under examination. The 
schedule is not, strictly speaking, in its proper position at the beginning, 
because it involves the results of subsequent analysis, but the advantage 
gained by having this list in a position of easy reference seems to out- 
weigh the want of logic. 

The forms for computation are privately printed for the India Office, 
and are therefore inaccessible to the public.^ The type has been broken 
up, and very few copies remain, but we shall be able to send copies to the 
Libraries of the following Societies, viz. : Royal Society, London ; the 
Academies of Science of Paris, Berlin, and Vienna, and the Coast Survey 
of the United States at Washington. 

G. II. DARWIN. 

■^ See especially the Reports for 1872 and 1876. 

- The present method of development is that pursued in a paper ia the Phil. 
Trans. R.S , Part II. 1880, p. 713. 

^ It may be useful to mention that I hope to publish an edition of the forms, repro- 
ducing them by photozincography. The price will be just such as to cover the expense. 



E 2 



52 



KEPORT — 1883. 



§ 1. The Notation ado])ted in the Tidal Reports. 

In considering the notation to be adopted, nauch weight should be given 
to the fact that a large mass of analysis and computation already exists 
in a certain form. We have not thus got a tahida rasa to work on, but 
had better accept a good deal that has grown up by a process of accre- 
tion. It is certainly unfortunate that a dual system should have been 
adopted, in which one set of letters are derived from the Greek and 
another from the English. 

The letters y, o-, ??, ot are appropriated respectively to the earth's 
angular velocity of rotation, to the mean motions of the moon, sun, and 
lunar perigee. They form the initial letters of the words yj/, csXi'/rj;, ijXwc, 
and perigee. There is also w, derived from the obliquity of the ecliptic. 
In another category we have M, S, E, for the masses of the moon, 
sun, and earth. It is unfortunate that the letter S should thus be con- 
nected with the moon in cr ; but it has not been thought advisable to 
change the notation in this matter. In this Report the already existing 
notation is adhered to, as far as might be without inconvenience; but it 
must be admitted that the notation is by no means satisfactory. 

■ It is a matter of great practical utility to have a symbol for indi- 
cating special tides. In the endeavour to meet this want initial letters 
were assigned in the former Reports to each kind of tide ; but, except in 
the case of M and S, for the principal ' moon ' and ' sun' tides, the initials 
had no connection with the tide. Although a new system of initials 
might be devised which would have a direct connection with the tides 
to which they refer, yet it has appeared best to adhere to the old initials 
and to introduce certain new initials for the tides of long period and for 
some tides now considered for the first time. 

In the old notation the L tide was simply the tide of .speed 2y — t — ■et. 
The values of this tide have probably been perturbed by another tide of 
speed 2y — rT + 'ar, and this tide is supposed also to be included in L. 

Where it is necessary to refer to any other tides than those contained 
in this schedule, it will be best to use the scientific nomenclature simply 
by speed. For example, there may be a compound tide 3y — 2^; ; and 
though this tide might be called SK, since 3y — 27; = 2(y — 17) + y, yet 
reference to such a tide will be so infrequent as not to make the short 
notation desirable. 

Both the old and the new initials are given in the following schedule. 

[A.] Schedule of Notation. 



Initials 


Speed 


Name of Tide 


Ml 

M2 
M3 
&c. 


y — (T — 'nr, and 

y — (T-)- -cj 

2(y-0 

3(y-<T) 
&c. 


Principal lunar series 


K, 


2y 


Luni-solar semi-diurnal 


N 


2y— 3<T + «r 


Larger lunar elliptic 


L 


2y — 0-— 'TO- and 

2y — (7 +'57 


Smaller lunar elliptic 




2y+.— 


1 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



53 



Initials 


Speed 


Name of Tide 


2N 


2y — 4^ + 2'nr 


Lunar elJiptic, second order 


V 


2y — 3(T — «a- + 2j/ 


Larger Innar evectional 


\ 


2y- (7 + ^-2^ 


Smaller lunar evectional 


(J 


y-2«r 


Lunar diurnal 


00 


y + 2<7 




K, 


r 


Liini-solar diurnal 


Q 


7 — S-T + tD- 


Larger lunar elliptic diurnal 




y (T — W 

included in M, 


Sn aller lunar elliptic diurnal 


J 


y -r T — izr 






y — 4.T + 21^r 


Lunar elliptic diurnal, second order 




7— 3(T— 1ST+27 


Larger lunar evectional diurnal 


S3 


2(y-„) 
3(y-,,) 


Principal solar series 


T 


2y-3;, 


Larger solar elliptic 


R 


2y- ,, 


Smaller solar elliptic 


P 


y-2„ 


Solar diurnal 


Mm 


IT -27 


Lunar monthly 


Mf 


2<r 


Lunar fortnightly 


Sa 


'/ 


Solar annual 


Ssa 


2v 


Solar semi-annual 


MSf 


2(T-„) 


Luni-solar synodic fortnightly 


MS 


4y_2,T-2»; 


) Compound tides 

/ 


/ior2MS 


2y-4(r + 2r, 


2SM 


2y + 2(T-4rj 


MK 


3y-2-T 


2MK 


37 — 40- 


MN 


4y 5(7 +■23- 




54 KtroKT— 1883. 

§ 2. Development of the Equilibrium Theonj of Tides ivith reference 
to Tidal Observations. 

TnE first step is the formation of the tide-generating potential of the 
moon ; that for the sun may then be written down by sjmmet?-y. 

For this purpose we require to find certain spherical harmonic func- 
tions of the moon's coordinate?, with reference to axes fixed in the 
earth. 

Let A, B, C (Fig. 1) be such axes, C being 
the north pole and AB the equator. 

Let X, Y, Z be a second set of axes, XY 
being the plane of the moon's orbit. 

Let M be the projection of the moon in 
her orbit. 

Let I=ZC,the obliquity of the lunar orbit 
to the eouator. 

Let x=AX=BCY. 

Let Z:=MX, the moon's longitude in her 
orbit, measured from X. 

Let 

jl/j =cos MA] 

,^ -wTj I the moon's direction-cosines ,-.•. 

^ ^~ 1 with reference to ABC. • ' ' \ / 

iU3=cos MCj 

Then , 

3/, = cos I cos X + sin I sin x cos I \ 

Mo= — cos I sin x + siii I cos x cos Jr. . . . . (2) 

il/3^ sin I sin I ' 

"We may observe that 31., is derivable from 3/, by putting x + i"" ^" 
place of X- 

Now for brevity let 

j)^cos h I, q^s'iu ^ I (3) 

Then (2) may be written 

i¥,= j>2 cos (x-O + T cos (x + Oj 

i/o=— i^^ sin (x- 0— 'i'^ sin (x+0 r (4) 

3/3= 2 pq sin I. J 

Whence 

iV,2-iV2-= p* cos 2(x-0 + V¥ cos 2x+(/ cos 2(x + 
— 23/, If 2 = t.he same with sines in place of cosines. 

MoMs = —phq cos (x — -0+2^2 iv'^ — 'f) cos x+p<f cos (x + '-^O K^) 
i/iil/3 = the same with sines in place of cosines. I 

^-3/32= X(^pi-j^f.,f + rf)+<HAfco%2l ' 

These are the required spherical harmonic functions of J/j, M^, M3. 

Let M denote the projection of the moon on the celestial sphere con- 
centric with the earth, and P that of any other point. 

Let r, p be the radins- vectors of the moon and of P respectively, and 
let I, Tj, i^ be the direction-cosines of P, with reference to the axes A, B, C. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



00 



Then pE, pr), p'C are the coordinates of P, and rM^, rMo, r'M^ those of M. 

If M be the moon's mass, and /u the attraction between unit masses at 
tmit distance apart, then by the usual theory the tide-generating potential 
F, due to the moon, of the second order of harmonics, at the point P, is 
given by 

F=|-^^p2(cos2PM-i) 



(6) 



But since cos PM — I J/, + '/ J/_> + 4 J/a, 



cos2 PM-^=2^r) J/,iV2 + 2 



i^2_,,2 ir 2_ ir 2 



+ 2r,iM,M.+2iZM,M, 



^ 3 £^ + 'i'' - 2; ^ l/i 2 + M.:^ - 2M^ 



(7) 



Now let c be the moon's mean distance, e the eccentricity of the 
moon's orbit, and let 



Then putting 



'-' c' 



X=\ '^^^—^--^M,, 



■-[ 



y=P-(i-'^')Tiz-,, z=l 



_\- c (1-e^ y 



"M, 



(8) 
(9) 




(l-e2)3 



p2=2£,,Xr+2 



'-,{' X^-Y 



+ 2nCYZ+'2l^XZ 



+ 



3£2 + ,,2_2;2 X2 + Y2-2Z2 

^ 3 3 



(10) 



A simple tide may be defined as a spherical hai-monic deformation of 
the waters of the ocean which executes a simple harmonic motion in time. 
Corresponding to this definition the expression for each term of the tide- 
generating potential should consist of a solid spherical harmonic, multi- 
plied by a simple time-harmonic. 

In (10) p*^?y, p2(i^— jj2), &c., are solid spherical harmonics, and in 
order to complete the expression for V it is necessary to develop the five 
functions of X, Y, Z in a series of simple time-harmonics. 

It will be now convenient to introduce certain auxiliary functions, 
namely 

.2>-l3 ^ 

cos {21 + a), 



^(„)^|-c(l--e^)-[ 



COS o, 



R=[^ll^] 



(11) 



Then from (5) and (9) we have 

Z^- Y2= ;j4^ (_2x)-F2pV* (2x) + 5''* (2x) 
2XY= the same with x + i"" for y^. 

XZ= the same with X"~i^ fo^" Y- 
1 (X^ + T^-2Z^)= i (p4_ 4^2,^2 + ,^<)R^ Op V'l' (0) 



(12) 



56 



EEPOBT 1883. 



Thus when the functions *, '4', R are developed as a series of time- 
harmonics, the further development of the X-Y-Z functions consists in 
substitution in (12). 

It will now be supposed that the moon moves in an elliptic orbit, 
undisturbed by the sun. The tides which arise from the lunar inequali- 
ties of the Evection and Variation will be the subject of separate treatment 
below. 

The descending node of the equator on the lunar orbit will henceforth 
be called ' the Intersection.' 

Let (T, be the moon's mean longitude measured in her orbit from the 
intersection, and ■m, the longitude of the perigee measured in the_ same 
way. It has been already defined that I is the moon's longitude in her 
orbit measured from the intersection. 

The equation of the ellipse described by the moon is 



ca-e') _, 
r 



(13) 



-1+e cos (l — sj,) 

r 

Hence 

^ (a)=Rcos(2;-f-o) 

= (l + ie2)cos(2^ + a)+#e[cos(3Z+a-'sr^)-t-COs(? + a + «,)] / ^l^) 
+ |e2[cos(4Z + a-2'a7j-}-cos(a-|-2^,)]+ . . . 

*(a) = R cos a 

By the theory of elliptic motion 

I=ff, + 2esm(,T-'B7^)+ie^Rm2(fT,-'m,)+ (1-5) 

In order to expand <l>, ^, R in terms of o-, (which increases uni- 
formly with the time), we require cos (2/ + n) developed as far as e^ ; 
cos (Sl + a — 'sr), and cos (Z-f-o + is-), as far as e ; and only the first term of 
cos (4Z + a— 2-07^. 

Substituting for I its value (15) in terms of cr„ it is easy to show that 

cos(2Z -j- f<) = (1 — 4e2) cos(2(T, + a) — 2e cos(o-, + u + ■ro-,) -f 2ecos(3T/ -f o — «r,) 
4-fe2cos(a-i-2^,)-l-Ve2cos(4rT,-t-a-2«7,)-|- . . . . 

cos (Sl + a — 'Z!T^) = cos (3(7, -fa — •TO-,) 

— 3ecos (2(r, + a) + 3ecos (4'r,H-a — 2'isr^)-F . . . . 

cos (Z4-a+ S7^) =C0S (<7, -f a4-'nr,)-feC0S (2(7, -1-fi)— ecos(a + 2'n7,) -1- . . . 
cos (4Z + a— 2tHr,)=:C0S (4ff^-f-a — 2'nr,)-f .... 

Substituting these values in (14) we find, 
* (a)~(l — ye2)cos (2^7, + ci) -y cos(<7, + a + OT,) 

4^eC0S (3<7/ + u — 'cr J -^ Ve- cos (4ff, + a — Scr J + . . . 

R=(l-|e2)-l-3ecos('7,-':rT,)-(-|e''^cos2((7,— ^,)+ .... 
■"p (a) = (1 — -^e-) cos « + 3e [cos (rr^ + a — ot,) -|- COS (t, — a — OT J ] 



+ |e2[cos(2T, + "-2w,) + cos(2(r, 



o„ _„_o 



2-,)]+ • 



(16) 



(17) 



HAllMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSEKVATIONS. 57 

Now substituting from (16) in (12), giving to o its appropriate value, 
we have 

.\2_Y2=(l-ye2-)^^4cos2(x-0+2'cos2(x + 0] 

+ (l-3-e2)2^Ycos 2x 

+ |e [p4cos(2x-3<7, + ^J + 2*cos(2x + 3<T,-i!r^)] 

- le [p* cos (2x-T-^,)+q^ cos (2x + (r,+^,)] 

+ -|e 2pV [cos (2x4-^-':;^,)+ cos (2x— t, + ^,)] 

+ Ve2[p4cos(2x-4^, + 2^,)+r/cos(2x + 4'r,-2^,)] 

+ |e222jY[cos(2x + 2T,-2^,)+cos(2x-2^,+2^,)] 

Clearly —2XY is the same as (17) with sines in place of cosines. 
Also since YZ is the same as X-— Y^ when x replaces 2x, —i^^q replaces 
1>*, pq(p^ — q^) replaces 2jj~q-, and pq'^ replaces q^, and since XZ is the 
same as YZ with sines in place of cosines, we have from (17) 

XZ=-a-\^e')lp^q sin (x-20-M'sin (x + 20] 

+ (1 — i]e2)j92 (p'^ — q-) sin x 

- ielp^q sin (x-S<r, + vT^)-pq3 sin (x + Sff.-zT^)'} 
+ ¥[P^isin(x-(r,-^,)-pq^sin(x + T, + ^,)] '^ (18) 

+ -iep2(i'^-2^)[sm(x-l-'^/--^/) + sin(x-^, + ':^,)] 

- ye2 [_^i32 sin (x-4rT, + 2'n7,)-_p23 siQ (^^4g.^_o^ )-| 

+ ^e^pq(p^-q'') [sin (x + 2a,-2^,) +sin (x-2^,, + 2^JJ 
Lastly, 
Xi^X^ + Y^-2Z')^^ (p*-4>pY + q')[a-?,e') + Secos (<7-^,) 

+ -Je'cos2(ff,-^,)] 
+2j3V[(l— ¥e^) co3 2ff^ + |ecos (3(t, --cr^) -le cos (o-^ + ^J 

+ ye-cos(4<T,-2^,)] . (19) 

Hitherto no approximation has been admitted with regard to I, the 
obliquity of the lunar orbit to the equator. 

The obliquity of the ecliptic is 23° 27'-3, and I oscillates between 
5° 8'-8 greater and 5° 8'-8 less than that value. The value of q or sin i J, 
when I is 23° 27'-3, is -203, and its square is -041, and its cube -0084. 
The eccentricity of the lunar orbit e=-0549 ; hence q"^ is a little smaller 
than e. 

The preceding developments have been carried as far as e-, principally 
on account of the terms involving ye^ which, as e is about ^'g, have 
nearly the same magnitude as if the coeflBcient had been l,e. 

It is proposed, then, to regard q'^ and 5^ as of the same oi-der as e, and 
to drop all terms of the order e^, except in the case where the numerical 
factor is large. This rule will be neglected with regard to one term for 
a special reason, which appears below ; and for another, because the 
numerical coefficient is just sufficiently large to make it worth retaining. 

Adopting this approximation, we may write (17), (18), (19), thus,— 



53 



HEPOET— 1883. 



(20) 



X^-Y^=(l - y e2) j3< cos 2 (x - <t,) + (1 -fe') Sj^^a- cos 2x 
+|ep^ cos (2x-3o-, + '=rJ 

-Ie2>2 [y2 cos (2x-o-/-'z^;)-622 cos (2x-'T, + '=r,)] 
+ yeV cos (2x-4(T, + 2^,) 
XZ= - (1 - y e2)[?>'!Z sin (x-2<r,) -^2^ sin (x + 2t,)] 

+ (l-ie'')p(Z (p^-q^) sinx— |ep3g-sin (x-3(7^ + -m) 
+ hepq [p^- sin (x-'^/-'^/) + 3 (p^-2^) sin (x-'^/ + '=^/)] 
+ f^M (jj2-'/) sin (x + "^z- -!=■/) -y^y 2 sin (x— 4ff, + 2w^) 

-;y (^2+ Y2-2Z2)=i (j>^-4jA/ + 24)^(l_3e2) + ;5^cos (s-^/)] 

+ 22)V[(l-ye^) C08 2^, + |eC0S (Str^-'sr,)]/^ 

The terms which have been retained in violation of the rule of 
approximation are that in X^—Y- with argument 2x— 0', + '=^/, and that 
in ^ (Z2 + Y2 - 2 ^2) with argument 3 <t, — -sr,. 

The only other term which could have any importance is 

-3e2pY cos {2x + <r-^,) in X-'- Y^. 

Before proceeding to consider the tides due to lunar inequalities it 
will be well to consider two pairs of terms in the expressions (20). 
First, in Z^— Y^ we have the terms 

— ^e^2 ^p2 cos (2x— (T; — wj — 632 cos (2x-'T; + w,)] 

The expression within [ ] may be written 

(p^ — 6q^ cos 2'nr/; COS (2x — (^/— 'J^^/) + 6^^ sin 2«7^ sin (2x — », — '=^,) 
=2^s/p^ — l2'f cos 2'nr^ COS (2x — »/ — '=^/ — -B) approximately; 

where 

tan i2=- 



I 



sm z-ET, 



^cot'-^ J— COS 2'nr, 

Thus this pair of terms may be written 

_iep4 ^ {1_12 tan2 iJcos 2«r,} cos (2x - ff/ - ■=^/ - B) 

Secondly, in XZ we have the terms 

+ 2«P2 [i^^ s^"^ (x-'^/-^/)+3 {p^-'f) sin (x-'^/ + '=^/)] 
This is approximately equal to 
+ \ep^(l [4 cos ■=7^ sin (x-'^/)+2 sin •or, cos (x-*^/)] 

= ejj3g n/II + I cos 2'=rj sin (x-ff^ + Q) . . 
-where tan Q=-\ tan «r, 



. (20') 
(20") 



. (20"') 
. (20*0 

The object of the transformations (20"), (20"), which may seem 
theoretically undesirable, is as follows : — 

The numerical harmonic analysis of the tides is made to extend over 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 59 

one year, and this period is not long enough to distinguish completely 
a tide whose argument is 2x— o-/ — w^, from one whose argument is 
'^X — '^/ + '^/) Jioi" one whose argument is x — o-^ — ®-, from one whose argu- 
ment is x — '^z + J^r In fact, the tida with argument 2 x — *^/ + ■=!■, (for 
which no analysis has been as yet carried out) will only produce an 
irregularity in that of argument 2x-'^/-'^„ called the smaller elliptic 
semidiurnal tide ; such irregularity has in fact been noted, but no expla- 
nation has previously been given of it. 

Again, the pair of terms with arguments X" '^,±'^/ '"'iH appear in the 
harmonic analysis with the single argument x~"n and the resultino- 
numbers will necesf arily appear very irregular, unless compared with the 
theoretical expression (20*"). 

We will now consider the terms introduced by the two principal lunar 
inequalities due to the disturbing action of the sun. 

The Evection. 

Let 6 be the moon's longitude in the ecliptic, 
s the moon's mean longitude. 
p the mean longitude of the perigee.^ 
h the sun's mean longitude. 
m the ratio of the sun's to the moon's mean motion. 

Then that inequality in longitude and radius vector is represented by 
6= s+\£me sin (s—2h+p) (21) 

— -=l+^g^mecos (s—2h+p) (22) 



If we neglect the distinction between longitudes in the orbit and in 
the ecliptic [which is in effect neglecting a term with coefficient 
sin2(ix5° 9')], we Have from (21), 

?=»■/+ Vme cos (s — 2h+p) ; 
whence 

cos(2Z+a)=cos(2flr^-j-a) + i55me [cos (2,r^ + s-2h+p + a) 

—cos (2(7^—s + 2h—p + a)] 

And from (22) and the definitions of R, ^, * in (11), 

^=\j — ^~-']=l + \^mecos(s-2h+p) (23) 

^(a)=cosa-|-4fTOe [cos(s-2^-j-j3 + a) + cos(s-27j+jj-o)] . . (24) 
* (a)=COS (2<T,-f-a)-f-'^5me cos (2a, + ,-2h+p + a) 

— ^mecos(2a^-s + 2h-p + a) . . (25) 
Then substituting from (23), (24), (25), in (12), and dropping the 

* p in this sense will easily be distinguished from the jo used to denote cos 1 1, 
which latter will, moreover, be shortly discarded. 



60 



REPORT 1883. 



terms whicli are merely a reproduction of those already obtained, and 
neglecting terms in cf' and 5^, we have 



X2 



-Y2=\o^>7He_2/ cos (2x-2<7,-s + 2/i-2.") \ 

— j^mep" cos (2x — 2(r, + s — 2^+^) 

XZ= - \^jPmep^q sin (x - 2<r, - s + 2/i -^O 

+-f|mej33g' siu (x — 2o-^ + s — 27i+p) 
+ ffijie295r(p2 — 2'^)[sin(x + s— 27i+^)+sin(x— s+2/i.— ^)] 



(25) 



.(Z2+r2-2Z2)=i (234-4jjY + (Z'*) *-ime cos (s-27i,+j5) 



; 



It must be noticed that ^^^ me arises by tlie addition of the coefficient 
of the Ejection in longitude to three halves of that in the reciprocal of 
the radius vector ; that {'^ me is the difference of the same two quantities ; 
and that */ one is three times the coefficient in the reciprocal of radius 
vector. When the development of the lunar theory is carried to higher 
orders these coefficients difi'er considerably from the amounts computed 
from the first term, which alone occurs in the above analysis. Hence, 
when these coefficients are computed, the fall values of the coefficients in 
longitude and reciprocal of radius vector must be introduced. According 
to Professor Adams, the full values of the coefficients are, in longitude 
•022233, and in c/r -010022. 

The ratio of the mean motions m is about -jJ^, and is therefore a little 
greater than e, hence me is somewhat greater than e*. Thus we may 
abridge (25), and write the expressions thus : — • 

X2-r2= i-rVw^ejo" cos (2x-2cT-s + 2h-p) 



(26) 



—{^mep* cos (2x—2iT/+s — 2h+p) 

XZ= — ^^hnep^q sin (x — 2iT^ — .s + 2h — p) 

^(X'^ + Y-^-2Z'-)= i(pi_4j5y + gi)*/mecos (s-2A+p) J 

The equations (26) contain the terms to be added to (20) on account 
of the Evection. 

The Variation. 

Treating this inequality in the same way as the Evection, we have 
7=a^ + ym2 sin2(s-7() 

^('l-g^) ^l^,„2 cos 2(s-h) 
r 

R=1 + 3)h2cos2(.s-70 
^(a)=COS a + |»n2 [cos (2(s-7t)+a)+cos (2(s-7i)— a)] 
$ (a)=cos (2(7, + r.) + ¥»*^ cos (2^, + 2s-2A + a) 

+ ^m2 cos (2(T, — 2s + 2h + a) 

Whence we have to a sufficient degree of approximation, 

X2 _ Y'i=y'mY cos {2x-2>T,-2s + 2h), XZ=0 



X(X'' + Y^-2Z^)=^(p*-4pY + q*) 3m2 cos (2s-2h) 



(27) 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 61 

In this case also the values of the coefficients are actually considerably 
greater than the amounts as computed from the fii'st terms ; and regard 
must be paid to this, as in the case of the Evection, when the values of 
the coefBcients in the tidal expressions are computed. According to Pro- 
fessor Adams, the full values of the coefficients are, in longitude •011489 
and in cjr -008249. 

We have now obtained in (20), (26), (27), the complete expressions 
for the X-Y-Z functions in the shape of a series of simple time-harmonics ; 
but they are not yet in a form in which the ordinary astronomical formulae 
are applicable. 

Further substitutions will now be made, and we shall pass from the 
potential to the he'ght of tide generated by the forces corresponding to 
that potential. 

The axes fixed in the earth may be taken to have their extremities as 
follows : 

The axis A on the equator in the meridian of the place of observation 
of the tides ; the axis B in the equator 90° east of A ; the axis C at the 
north pole. 

'Now i, t], 4 are the direction-cosines of the place of observation, and 
if \ be the latitude of that place, we have 

S=:cosX, »?=0, ^'=sin /\. 
Thus 

£--,y2=cos2,\, ^=0, ,/;=0, 2i;':=sin2,\, ^ ('' + r-2,=)=i-sin2A. 

Then writing a for the earth's radius, the expression (10) for V at 
the place of observation becomes 

F=-^^ [h cos'^X (X2-r2) + sin 2\XZ 

+ ^ (^-sin^A) i (X'^+Y^-2Z^)-] 

The X-Y-Z functions being simple time-harmonics, the principle of 
forced vibrations allows ns to conclude that the forces corresponding to V 
will generate oscillations in the ocean of the same periods and types as 
the terms in V, but of unknown amplitudes and phases. 

Now let X--W, -VZ:-, ^(Jl- + y--2Z,2) be three functions, having 
respectively similar forms to those of 



X^-Y^ XZ 



^" 3 7~^ IsTa » 



but diifering from them in that the argument of each of the simple time- 
harmonics has some augle subtracted from it, and that the term is 
multiplied by a numerical factor. 

Then if g be gravity, and h the height of tide at the place of observa- 
tion we must have 



ra^ 



h=--± [1 cos^A (,\2_||2) + gi„ 2A XZ 



+ t(i-sin2A)i(.t=' + l3'-22;2)] (28) 

The factor — may be more conveniently written ;] f - ) u, where 

9 ' E \cj 



62 REPORT— 1883. 

E is the earth's mass. It has been so chosen that if the equilibrium theory 
of tides were fulfilled, with water covering the whole earth, the numerical 
factors in the X-^-Z functions would be each unity. The alterations of 
phase would also be zero, oi*, with land and sea as in reality, they might 
be computed by means of the five definite integrals involved in Sir 
William Thomson's amended equilibrium theory of tides. ^ 

The actual results of tidal analysis at any place are intended 
(see below, § 5) to be presented in a series of terms of the form 
f H cos (V+u — k), where dVjdtov n, 'the speed,' is the rate of increase 
of the argument per unit time(say degrees per mean solar hour), and n, 
is a constant. We require, therefore, to present all the terms of the 
^-JI-2; functions as cosines with a positive sign. When, therefore, in 
these functions we meet with a negative cosine we must change its sign 
and add tt to the argument ; as the .V yL functions involve sines, we must 
add ^TT to arguments of the negative sines, and subtract ^tt from the 
arguments of the positive sines, and replace sines by cosines. The terms 
in the ^(.V^ + l^- — 2Z;') function require special consideration. The 
function of the latitude being ^ — sin^X, it follows that whenin the northern 
hemisphere it is high-water north of a certain critical latitude, it is low 
water on the opposite side of that parallel; and the same is true of the 
southern hemisphere. The critical latitude is that in which sin2X=^, or 
in Thomson's amended equilibrium (') theory, where sin^\=:^(l + iJ3). 
An approximate evaluation of ir, which depends on the distribution of 
land and sea, given in § 848 of the second edition of Thomson and 
Tait's ' Natural Philosophj-,' shows that the critical latitudes are 35° N. 
and S. It will be best to adopt a uniform system for the whole earth, 
and to regard high-tide and high-water as consentaneous in the equa- 
torial belt, and of opposite meanings outside of the critical latitudes. In 
this Report we conceive the function always to be written ^ — sin^A, so 
that outside of the critical latitudes hig-h.tide is low-water. Accordinoflv 
we must add tt to the arguments of the negative cosines (if any) which 
occur in the function g(A" + J3' — 2Z.). 

In continuing the development, the A'-^-Z- functions will be written 
in the form appropriate to the equilibrium theory, with water covering 
the whole earth ; for the actual case it is only necessary to multiply by 
the reducing factor, and to subtract the phase alteration k. As these are un- 
known constants for each place, they would only occur in the development 
as symbols of quantities to be deduced from observation. It will be under- 
stood, therefore, that in the following schedules ' the argument ' is that 
part of the argument which is derived from theory, the true complete 
argument being ' the argument ' — ».•, where k is derived from observation. 

Following the plan suggested, and collecting results from (20), (26), 
(27), we have 

a2-132=(l_:;e2)j,'' cos 2 (^-aj + (l+fe^) 2pV cos 2x 

+ lep^ cos (2x-3^,-t-^,) 
+ \eijW [1-12 tan4,/cos 2®-,}cos (2x-T,-'S7,-J? + :r) 
+ y^y cos (2x-4(r,-f 2wJ 
+ '^-^^'inex^ cos (2x— 2(t^ — s-|-2/i— |)) 
+ \%me'p^ cos (2.x — ~<r, + s-21i+xi + T:) 

-l-^-'mVcos (2x-2t,-2.s + 2/0 (29) 

' Thomson nml Tnit's Xat. Phil., or the lleport on Tides for 187G. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 63 

a:iZ = (l-#e2)[^3jCOS (x-2ff, + Itt) +JP2''' COS (x + 2^,-irr)] 
+ (l+§e^)pq (p'-q^) cos (x-^'^) 
+ ^ep^q cos (x — 3 'T, + •cr, + ^7r) 
+ ep^q-y (l+f cos 2ctJ cos (x—f^z + Q—W) 
+ ^epq (p^ — q^) cos (x + '^i — '^i — h^) 
+ ^ie^p^q cos (x— 4(r, + 2«r, + 4T) 
+ ij(n!,„ejj3y cos (x-2(7,— s + 2/i-^ + i7r) (30) 

^ (X' + g'-2Z^)=i (y_ 4^2^2 + 24) ^1 + 1,2 + 3, cos (t-^,) 

+ y'vie cos (A--2/i+p)+3«i2 cos (2.s-2/t)] 

+ 2p'2' [(l-{>e') cos 2(r, + |(> cos (3^,-^,)] (31) 
In these expressions 

tan B=-, — ^, \ r '''^' -> • ' ^^^ Q=^ *an -ar^ 

g-OOt'' ^y— cos ^-cr^ 

The next step is to express the angles \, (t,, <st,, each of which increases 
uniformly with the time, in terms of the sidereal houi'-angle or of the local 
mean time, and of the mean longitudes of the moon, and of the pericree. 




Let M be the moon in the orbit. A the extremity of the A-axis fixed 
in the earth. 

g be the sidereal honr-angle. 

A' the longitude of the node £3 . 

V the right ascension of the intersection I. 

i' the longitude ' in the moon's orbit ' of the intersection. 

i the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic. 

<o the obliquity of the ecliptic. 

s the moon's mean longitude. 

p the mean longitude of the perigee. ' 

Then(Fig. 2)g=Ar, r=Tl, £=r£3-Sl, -\=rg8. 

Now (ti and w, have been defined above as the moon's mean longitude 
and the longitude of the perigee, both measured in the orbit from the 
intersection I. 

' This j» will easily be .distinguished from the 7^ used above to denote cos ^ I. 



64 BEPORT — 1883. 

Since (Ti — -!^i is the moon's mean anomaly, we have 

s-p = <y, — '^, 

Let J)' be the longitude of the perigee, measured from T in the ecliptic. 
If P in Fio-. 2 be perigee, we have by the ordinary formula for reduc- 
tion to the ecliptic, 

S3P=p'-JV+^ sin2 i sin 2 (p'-N) 

But w,=IP=TS3 + £3P=r£3-^+aP 

=_p'_4 + l sin2 i sin2 (p'-JV) 

Now F=P' + k s^"^ '■ ^^^ 2 (p'~^)^ ^°d therefore 

, (32) 

whence w=s — s ' 



Asrain 



"■ft 



.=IA=AT-lr=g-«' (33) 



In this formula we suppose g to increase uniformly from the time 
when the tidal observations begin. 

Since in all the tidal observations local mean solar time is used, it 
■will be better to substitute for g in terms of local mean solar time 
and the sun's mean longitude. Let t be local mean solar time reduced to 
angle, so that at noon C=0°. Let h be the sun's mean longitude ; here- 
after we shall write ^, for the longitude of the sun's perigee. 

Then we have 

X=i + 7t— .' (34) 

We shall now substitute from (32) and (34) in the A*-^^-Z- functions 
(29), (30), (31) ; substitute from them in (28), and express the final result 
in the form of three schedules (pp. 18, 19, 20). 

The schedules are arranged thus. First, there is the genei'al coefficient 

^ _/'* ) a which multiplies every term of all the schedules. Secondly, 

there are general coefficients one for each schedule, viz. cos^X for the 
semi-diurnal terms, sin 2X for the diiarnal, and ^ — f sin^X for the terms 
of long period. These three functions of the latitude of the place of 
observation are the values at that place of three surface spherical har- 
monic functions, which functions have the maximum value unity, at the 
equator for the semi-diurnal, in latitude 4.5° for the diurnal, and at the 
pole for the terms of long period. 

First, in each schedule there is a column of coefficients, functions of 
I and e (and in two cases also of |)). 

In the second column is given the mean semi-range of the correspond- 
incr term. This is approximately the value of the coefficient in the first 
column when I=w. We forestall results given below so far as to state 
that the mean value is to be found by putting I=w in the ' coefficient,' 
and when the function of I is cos ^|7, sin Icos HI, sin Isin -^I, sin ^/(in 
B, iii.) multiplying further by cos *^{ ; and where the function of I is sin -I 
(in B, i.) sin Icos I, 1 — f sin ^J multiplying by 1— ^^sin^t". 

Thirdly, there is a column of arguments, linear functions of /, h, s, 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 65 

p, )', i. In B, i. 2t+(2h — 2i-), and in B, ii. t+{h—y), are common to all 
the arguments, and they are written at the top of the column of arguments. 
The arguments are grouped in a manner convenient for subsequent 
computations. 

Fourthly, there is a column of speeds, being the hourly increase of 
the arguments in the preceding column, the numerical values of which 
are added in a last column. 

Every term is indicated by the initial letters (see § 1) adopted for the 
tide to which it corresponds, except in the case of certain unimportant 
terms to which no initials have been appropriated. 

To write down any term : take the general coefficient ; the coefficient 
for the class of tides ; the special coefficient, and multiply by the cosine 
of the argument. The result is a term in the equilibrium tide (with 
water covering the whole earth). The transition to the actual case by 
the introduction of a factor and a delay of phase (to be derived from 
observation) has been already explained. 

The solar tides. 

The expression for the tides depending on the sun may be written 
down at once by symmetry. The eccentricity of the solar orbit is so 
small, being '01 679, that the elliptic tides may be omitted, excepting the 
larger elliptic semi-diurnal tide. 

The lunar schedule is to be transformed by putting s=7(, p'=Pi, 
s^i'=0, <T=ri, 1^(0, e=ei, •to-^ct,. In order that the compai'ison 
of the importance of the solar tides with the lunar may be complete, the 

same general coefficient #— ( *- ) a will be retained, and the special 

coefficient for each term will be made to involve the factor r^jr. Here 

ri=:# '-—, 8 being the sun's ma.ss. 

With EIM=81 5, 

The schedule [C] of solar tides is given on page 21. 

The subsequent schedules [D] and [E] give all the tides of purely 
astronomical origin contained in the previous developments, arranged 
first in order of speed, and secondly in order of the magnitude of the 
coefficient. As most of the observations of the tides are made at jilaces 
remote from the pole, the coefficients of the tides of long period are 
written down with a general coefficient 1 — 3 sin^Z in place of i — i} sin-/: 
that is to say, the spherical harmonic function has the value unity at the 
equator and two at the pole. In schedule [E] the tides K,, Iv2 originate 
both from the moon and sun, but the lunar and solar parts are also 
entered separately. 

The coefficients of the evectional and variational tides are computed 
from the full values to those inequalities. 

In the schedule [E] the tides are marked which occur in the ' Tide- 
predictcr ' of the Indian Government in its present condition. 



1883. 



66 



EEPOET — 1883. 




-— ntt 



.2 
'5 

m 

O) 

c 

o 






'yj. O 





CO 






















83 


03 


(M 


CD 


00 


00 


O 


-# 


^ 






^ 


1>~ 


Oi 


00 


^ 


CO 


lO 


00 


f. 




o 


CO 


05 


l>. 


iO 


00 


OI 


o 






(U —1 


I— 1 


l-H 


t^ 


^ 


CO 


lO 


o 


Ol 






'C' m 


-# 


CM 


OS 


00 


lO 


CM 


>jO 


00 








00 


00 


CO 


GM 


05 


r-H 


lO 


<r> 






•^ a 


Ci 


cp 


■^ 


lO 


(X) 


ip 


"f 


Oi 


*" 




rw ^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 





o 





o 






a; a> 


CO 


o 


00 


Oi 


IN. 


00 


O 


r^ 






ft a 


<M 


CO 


<?5 


cq 


(M 


CM 


CM 


CM 






'X 


















" 










& 


& 


OI 


oa 

+ 


Ol 

1 


CM 


• 




'C 


b 




+ 
b 

CO 
1 


1 


+ 


& 


& 


+ 






ft 


1 


CM 


b 
1 


t 
^ 


1 

b 


+ 

b 


b 


r- 




OS 


^•^■^ 




1 




1 


CO 


1 








■ (M 




N 


?-, 


1 


1 


^- 












(M 




OJ 


Ol 


CM 


CM 
















Yi 






N 






^ 










t= ^ 


1 I 

a, 




'■o 
OI 


+ 




(L 












+ 7 






1 


CO 






O 

it 








'S: 


1 w 


OI 

m 
o 


1 


1 


+ 


cc 

1 




'Si 


o 1 


1 




i 

Co 

T 


1 .S 


O 

•x> 

1 


1 

•-n 

(M 

1 


+ 

1 


S3 
1 

'^ 
1 


1 
»< 
CM 

+ 




c5 




1 




1 


+ 

1 


8 


1 

CO 


+ 


T 


1 

CO 




qS 








(M 

r 


J= 




Ol 


1 


JJX 


OI 

1 




S 








I 






cc 


1 


1 




"i) 










--( 


1 




1 






CS 










04 

1 ^ 

1 a) cj 




OI 

1 


'/3 

OI 






' '^ 










>~ 43 




1 


1 






CO 










o 






1 






-^ 










,a 






1 






^ 










^ 












K 






















^ 












-i- 


+- 


-i- 




>•;• 


lean 
lue oi 
fficiei: 


to 


Oj 


'LD 


t^ 


CO 


'^ o 


'-£> O 


CDtJI 






■M 


OI 


Ci 


o 


i>. 


cc o 


w CO 


CO Oi 




^ 


^ 


Ci 


i^ 


CM 


t— 1 


Ol !>. 


l-H CO 


t^O 






lO 


CO 


00 


>— 1 


r— 1 


r-i rH 


o o 


O f-i 




•A 




-^ 


o 


cp 


O 


Cp 


<p O 


cp cp 


O cp 




s 










-— — , 












c* 
































1 
















H 

r^lJ-1 




1-1 


CM 


H 




—in 


-.I'M 






-*^ 


'oo 


'S 


«iCT 


O 


-hITI 


C/3 


^ 


•V 










^|!M 


o 




o 


o 
o 


03 

o 
u 


8 






o 
o 
O 


T 


+ 


o 


CI 

-I'- Ol 

'^ 1 — 1 




s^ 












rH 


— 1 


-^loi 




, 


















^ 1 


-h|?) 




— ICl 


— I?l 








-Hie-" 


-,iTl 




*• 

-IT. X 




rH|Cl 




































04 


^ 


^^ 


CM 


- 


^ 


*^ 






t-H 





















o 

n 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



67 



CO 


















^^ o 


CO 


CO 


o 


Ci 


1—1 


CO 


iM 


-# 


lO 


I— 1 


CO 


o 


CM 


CO 


CO 


-# 


OC ;= 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


»o 


-# 


00 


1—1 


p— > • 


o 


l-H 


o 


CO 


o 


^ 


CM 


lO 


^ CCj 


CO 


Oi 


1—1 


00 


CN 


o 


-*1 


1—1 


£:! 


■^ 


CO 


-* 


Oi 


Oi 


CX) 


lo 


t^ 


t— p 


05 


I— 1 


p 


CO 


"? 


)0 


oo 


^ 


CJ '"' 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 


I-* 


S 9! 


CO 


CO 


1.0 


CO 


-* 


lO 


CM 


CO 


^ , , — 1 


1— 1 


1—1 


I— t 


I— 1 


I— I 


1— ( 


1— 1 


1— 1 


iX 


































c- 










^ 




& 


CM 


CM 

+ 


G-* 


b 
CM 






+ 


b 


1 


+ 


g 


a; 


1 


+ 


N 


b 

CO 

1 


1 


b 

+ 


K 

1 


1 

b 
CO 

1 


















ts 












^^^ 






H<N 












-jj 




fc 


+ 










fe 


1 




H?1 


X) 










r^lTl 


. ^ 




+ 


(M 




fc 

H"?" 






+ 




N 


-^ 


1 




+ 


1 


-pi 


1 


if„ 


7' 


? 

'■-o 


CM 

+ 


s^ 


1 


1 


Co 


ill 


-^^ 


Ol 


"^ 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 




« 


'JO 


1 


1 


1 


1 

"-0 


1 


I 


1 


+ 




1 


1 - 
■jo - 

1 


+ 


■■■'J 

1 


+ 










^—^ 


' 2 






1 




■ 






1 






<M 

1 


1 

1 


.M 


















ew c: 










* 






-!- 


pj O Q 


o 


C-l 


lO 


I— t 


CM C5 


lO 


1^ 


CM 00 


P3 C* *0 


LO 


f— 1 


•—1 


iO 


CM '^ 


00 


CO 


1—1 O 


||£ 


O) 


00 


I-l 


CO 


»J0 CO 


-# 


-^ 


i-O t^ 


CO 


o 


00 


CO 


•— ^ —1 




o 


o o 


>-| 


T— I 


o 


1—1 


p 


p p 


p 


p 


p p 




t-s 


^H 
















rfpl 


r-lT-l 


H 




•^J 




l-H 


l-l 




^v 


CI 




H 


1 






rHpl 


,ti 


to 

o 




o 


rt]Tl 


1 


a; 




CI 

JO 

O 


,3 
'3 

o 
o 








■Ji 

O 






o 


CJ 

i/3 


O 




» 






^ j: 


J. 

— I?] 

t;j 








1 


"{' 


+ 


1-71 


'- > 




:i- 


C_|^ 




t— 1 


t-~t 


^-^ 




t'x 

1 








^ 




) 




1 










;^ 


o 


o 
o 


m" 


c? 




i-s 






•—1 























0) 


-ij 




^ 


(11 




^ 








-♦J 




T3 


o 




m 
03 


(1) 










0) 


a. 




a 


a. 




c3 


CS 




> 


'Xi 




^_, 


fl 




:3 


o 




«« 


CJ 






(U 




OJ 


t/J 




A 


« 




-i-> 








.f^ 




cS 


1 




o 


b 
1 




-fci 
o 


r^ 




> 


« 




p^ 


T-i 










a> 


■*J 




-ja 


O 




-H> 


^ 




ca 


■*J 






tw 






O 




-4^ 


■4J 




a 


F3 




a) 


a> 




o 


o 




Fi 


fed 




<D 


OJ 




O 


o 




o 


CJ 




ffl 


o 




,^3 


^ 




-U 


-M 




a 






m 


o 






CD 




^ 








CS 




3 


t* 




cS 


fl 




P> 


cS 






Oi 




© 


g 


6 


J3 


0) 


+ 

b 


en 


73 


1 


bD 




?. OT 




TS 


CD 


,0 


n 


a 


S 


rt 


&c 




en 


P 


ti 




n 




o 


o 


1 
b 


is 








-^ 


1 


0) 


<a 


?- 


s >. 


cu 


£3 


•5 g 


-iJ 


n 


O) 


-(- 


rH 


=«-i -d 


tn 


-rH 


'^H 


u 


T-! 


Sh , 






S. a 


fl) 


o 


o *— ^ 




u- 


-a © 


H 


id 


H -a 




o 




* 


o 


o 




?i" 



68 



EEPOIIT — -1883. 



P3 



CO 






C5 



Pi 

5 





s 












CO 


3 












<D r3 


ri 


t^ 


1— ( 


00 


o 


t^ 




c 


^ 


1 — 1 


lO 


o^ 


I^ 


cS 


I>. 


fM 


as 


CO 


O 


rrt • 




CO 


o 


00 


o 


^ 


^ tfi 


f-> 


^ 


r-H 


lO 


00 


C^ 


d ■ 


&4 


^ 


I^ 


1—1 


C5 


■^ 


^ ^ 


Ip 


-^1 


o 


^— ' 


o 


^ St 


-# 


o 


O 


o" 


(3 


o 


eft 


CO 


o 


O 


1—1 


1—1 


i—l 


aD 


O 

o 

I-H 


















fe 








■Ti 




e 


+ 


s- 







ft 

!/3 


^- 


1 


1 


1 
b 


b 


1 
b 

CO 




.2^ 




^ 










-^ 2 




(M 






Joj 




^ c 




1 






1 


-W5 

a 


-2 fco 


^ 


1 

+ 


7 


J.IJ 
1 


1 

CO 

CM 


g> 


-5 a 
.5 o 


1 




CO 


OJ 


+ 


tH 






•^^ 




C<l 


^— N 


<! 


S « 




I 


ca 


S-i 








1 






1 

cc 




Oj<' 




1 








-fcj 














o; a 


* 












a 0) 


* 




■4- 


■4- 






13'3 


-# 


CD 


O ^ 


(M ^ 


!>. 


CO 


>5a 


00 


CO 


00 o 


Ol Ol 


fM 


l-H 


CO 


*— H 


o r^ 


-* o 


00 


o 


S-9 


lO 


-* 


o o 


o o 


t^ 


1—1 




(^1 


<P 


o o 


CD CD 


o 


o 


-=s 
















Q 














(M 


Q 


C4 


Q 


t-< 




















CO 




CO 








<o 


1 






;-'»j 




_a 


•rt 






I 




H'>* 




o 


1—1 




1 


1 




CO 


e 




1 


,__, 


1 


„. — ^ 


^jci 


s 


Hm 


1—1 


^-^ 


.-H 


(T) 


o 


CI 


Hn 


Hn 


-ti?: 


T' 


1-|M 




e^^ri 


• 


Qi 


C4 


1—1 






+ 


CO 


= 


--J 


' 






i-H 






CO 
































"ci 


§1 




3 






c^ 


i 




^ 


g « 

^'^ o 


* 






o 






w a 






HI 



!>-. 




■ — ; 


-4-1 




c2 


cS 






Fi 










a> 


M 






O 




-4^ 


;h 






a. 




0) 


CL, 




> 


cS 




a 


CD 












-u 




a 


^ 




o 


c3 






P^ 




eg 


o 




• 1-1 


,£! 




L^* 


Is 




> 


b 






ce 




Ti 


>■ 




s 


« 




cS 


,s 






-4^ 




a 


n:3 




o 


a 




-u> 


c« 




o 


(M 




> 


II 




0) 




-a 


' _^'' 




-f^ 


3 






CI 




el 








CQ 




M 


1 






r-( 




O 


^-' 




sa 


* -C.^ 




<D 


CI 




o 


£3 




o 








Cfi 




03 


1 






1-H 


fei 




c» 


CO 

o 


^ 


en-ii 


o 


o 


+ 


00 


'S 


1-H 


CO 


> 


N...^ 


::> 




« rH|eO 




<u 


1 


rS 






-t! . 


-f^ 'r^ 


II 


«^ >> 




> O 


go 

P.5fi 


ID 

o 
o 


CD 5 




3 

CO 




O 


^^ 


Sfas 
eof t 


3 
g 




^4 


■^ 


^> 


O 


o S 

C4-f 


n3 a 


CJ 




Oi Qi 




TO >-< 


o -i-. 


O <B 




ID 




.-— s 


aj •rS 


1— 1 . 


Ki3 




* 
* * 


+ 





IIARMO.NIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



69 



^N 






5» 



d ^ ^ 









05 




















2 g 




o 


c^ 


T— 1 




I-H 


00 






bc2 




o 


CO 


CO 




CO 


^ 




CO 




o 


. — 1 


o 




o 


o 




1-H 


^ X 




o 


<>] 


00 




00 


1—1 




CM 


S • 




o 


00 


iiO 




1(0 


^ 




00 


•" a 




o 


o 


Ci 




05 


o 




o 


'^ ^ 






o 


o 




o 


o 






S,^ 




o 


o 


Oi 




'^t 


■o 




o 




CO 


CO 


C<1 




I— 1 


1—1 






cc 












































c 




ET 












o 




1 




00 

1 




CI 

1 


N 




ca 


C/j 


CI 

V) 

o 


(M 




(M 


CI 


^- 










II 








-i. 






1 












CO 












g 






^_^ 


II 






II 




-^3 

s 

1 




CI 


Si 

+ 

CM 


1 

1 


HO 

o 


+ 
1 


i-. 

1 

+ 


o 


c^ 


<; 








CM 


g 


■f^ 




O 

to 






% 








C5 






C5 






^ 








.^ 






• »\ 




"S s 


E-^ 


r^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 

03 


lO 


t^ 




CO 




CO 


CI 


^ 


t^ 


O 


■"s 


Tf 


CJ o 


r-o 


I— 1 


oo 


ca 


.^ 


r* 


-^ 


S 


'~0 


= H= 


e 


r— 1 


I— 1 


t— ( 


Eh 


00 


00 


CO 


>5 




<N 


o 


tp 


1 


o 


cp 


1 


cp 




•3 


3 




t 1 


3 
to 


3 

CO 

o 


s 


3 




i — 1 


(/} 








o 


o 


. 








o 


.5 

03 






u 
3 


3 


''-' , 








rtpl 




aj 






d 












HtC 


o 




d 


01 




^IC-l 


o 






c^ 






CQ 


«|M 




(N 


SE 








^ 




rt|N 






«5 


o 




1 


KJM 


l-(M 






(M 




l-|T» 


o 




1 

(—1 


+ 

1— 1 


.h|I-1 






+ 




1 

1— 1 






."! ►- 


c\ •- 


C\ I- 




1 

1—1 


U-1 '- 




C\^ 






















:| 






IN 


: H 




P-> 


m" 




c3 
02 


t— 1 





















70 



riKrour — 1883. 



t§ 



o 
^ 






(=^ 













t^ 


o 


00 


i^ 




CI 
















CO 


lO 


-T< 


1—1 


In. 












ir! 


o 


CO 


o 


I-^ 


Ol 


CO 












C 


-* 


o 


CO 


22 


iO> 


1—1 












p, 


<M 


CO 


>o 


-* 


r-H 


o■^ 










w 


'X: 


'^ 


Oi 




~T 


t^ 


00 










o 




cp 


p 


p 


ifO 


^ 


p 










•^ 




o 


d 


o' 


o 


O 


d 










H 




T— I 


l-H 


l-H 


O 


O 


O 










13 
























o 
























■7- 
















































o 
























Py 
























bD 
















































o 
















• 








l-H 













^ 
















& 


._ 


1 


- rJ 


+ 


e5 














1 


u-f 


1 




c- 


C/j 












j^ 


b 


r^ 


te 


!5 


03 


CC 












^-1 


CO 




^^^ 




1 




















CM 




b 
















o 


CO 


O 


Tfl 




:d 


'^ 


Ci 


IM 








l-H 


Ci^ 


00 


r-H 


Ol 


o 


'^ 


o 


CO 








o 


-* 


o 


CO 


o 


00 


1—1 


o 


00 






"^ 




-ri 


o 


as 


o 


o 


>o 


-JS 


C^l 






o 


Ci 


>o 


f— 1 


QC 


s^ 


CO 


r-H 


00 


'^l 






p 


ot 


CO 


-# 


i-O 


C5 


-^ 


I>. 


C5 


JlO 






X 


r-H 


o 


p 


Ci 


-^t* 


p 


-* 


CO 


CO 








o 


o* 


d 


o 


o 


d 


d 


d 


o 




X 




O 


lO 


i-O 


-* 


-*< 


CO 


00 


CO 


oq 




CJ 




--H 


rH 


1—1 


1—1 


I— 1 


1—1 


I-H 


l-H 


l-H 




H 
























■— • 
























ct 
























;-< 
























^ 
















































« 
















(M 




CM 




















+ 








"Is 


o 
o 


l-t, 


^4 


Ph 


^ 


o 


1 
b 


G? 


+ 

b 






hH 














CO 

1 




1 








CI 




-^ 


CO 


-Jl 


en 


o 


o 


'^ 


00 






1^ 


o 




00 


>o 


■^ 


CO 


o 


00 


^ 






Oti 


o 


to 


r^ 


CI 


o 


cc' 


C<1 


o 


i-O 




'iJ 


T— 1 


o 


o 


^ 


>'^ 


1 — 1 


lO 


I^ 


C1 


CO 




0) 


(M 


o 


00 


00 


>o 


-^ 


CI 


o 


CO 


lO 






00 


o 


o 


OJ 


lO 


00 


l-H 


•-r^ 


^ 


a> 


en 


cp 


p 


o 


o 


^ 


p 


i-O 


-f 


p 


CO 


CP 




o 


d 


o 





o 


d 


6 


o 


d 


o 


13 




O 


o 




ct 


o 


00 


CO 


CO 


r^ 


r^ 


H 




CO 


Crj 


0-i 


Oi 


CN 


C3 


Cl 


G^ 


<M 


Cl 


,__, 
























C3 






















































































































'i3 
























• M 
























a 
























o 
























t>Q 


r^ 
























.2 






r-i 


-:] 


^ 


IN 

1^ 


~ 


^ 


3- 


CM 































■-:} 




fl 




. o3 




1?«3 




-5g 




^ cq 




be 00 




O 0) 




fl ^13 








<D -*^ 




-^^ 




t>>0 




CS CS 




a ° 




-^ a 




.2 o 




J " 




^ 2 








o*^ 




CO 2 




o ^ 




<^ >> 








-* <B 




o > 








->^ 




o o 




II ^ 










rn 




N-? 




CM S 








Oi o 




^s 




« §^" 


rH CO 




-1-3 


y/» 


■%^ 


s 






« o 




-^ S^ 


^-1 


H-> 


.2 '"^ 


o 

o 












-4^ 


■" b 




0) ^-^ 


o 


-73 CJ 




the ti 
I and 


o 

B 
o 
o 




o 


■^ M 
O 


is 


S:^ 


CI 


O) ^ 


o 


J2 I 


^ 


-^^ C3 


[i 


(11 n 




S o 


a 


(D .r-l 




rfi i^ 


(H 


is .g 


bn 


ai H 


cS 


<u cS 


u 


ra > 





'm oj 


O 


(D J 




WH 





HAEMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



71 



H 












'S^ 






00 



Coefficient 
in terms of 


CD 

o 

CO 


o 

CO 

CO 
o 


C5 
CO 
C-l 

CO 

p 


CO 

IN. 

cp 


CO 
CM 

o 


CM 

00 

»o 

C>3 

P 


00 

o 

CM 

p 


00 
00 
In. 

1 — ( 

p 


CO 

1—1 

p 


C5 

1—1 
p 


o 

1—1 

p 


CO 
00 

o 
p 


CO 
CM 

o 
p 


00 
CO 

o 
p 




'o 

6 


o 

1—1 
o 


'^ 

CO 
I-H 

o 


00 

-# 

1—1 
cp 


r^ 

o 

CM 

1—1 

p 


CO 
CM 

1—1 
p 


CO 

I— 1 
I— 1 

p 


o 
1—1 

p 


CM 

1—1 
00 

o 
p 


CO 

o 
p 


00 

o 

o 
p 


In. 

00 

o 

p 


00 

CO 
o 
o 


o 

CO 

CO 
o 

p 


CO 
O 
p 




.■§ 

£ 

a 

•5 

a 


~ 


1 


^ 


h:i 


' 


I 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


<<: 




3 

•i-H 

a 




^ 


l-» 


h^ 


H 


CM 


Is 
c 

'-t-3 


O 
C 


1 

b 

CO 


c5 

+ 
1 

b 

CO 

1 


+ 

b 

1 


+ 

1 

b 


r 

b 
CI 

□ 

CS 

1 

> 


^ 




Coefficient 
in terms of 


o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


oc 

CO 

00 


1—1 
CO 


o 

1—1 


1 — 1 
00 

00 

CO 


CO 
CO 
CO 
Ci 
1—1 


IN. 

' — 1 

CO 
1—1 


( — 1 

In 

o 

o 

00 
1—1 


CM 

CO 
CO 

1—1 


1 — 1 

CO 

00 

p 


CO 

1—1 

CO 
00 

p 


CO 

o 

00 

p 


(M 

p 


CO 
1—1 
o 

p 


1—1 
1— 1 

P 


'3 
56 

<D 

5 




CM 

CO 

(>1 


r^ 

CO 

r— 1 

1—1 


CO 

CO 

00 
1—1 


1—1 
00 


CO 
Ci 

r^ 

00 

p 


00 

p 


00 

p 


CM 

IN. 

p 


O! 

CO 

p 


1—1 

CO 
p 


1—1 

o 

CO 

CO 

p 


00 
CO 

o 

CM 

p 


CO 

00 
1— { 

p 


•?3 
(M 

00 
1—1 

p 


1 


w 

s 


w" 


m 


O 


• 


^ 


CLi 


• 


M 


• 


' 


O'. 


1 




Is 
3 

3 


3 

'S 

h-l 




m" 




O 


c3 

S 

1 — 1 


^ 


PM 


'o 




M 


\ 


a> 


a 


M 

"o 


CO 



72 REPORT— 1883. 

A tide of greater importance than some of those retained here is that 
referred to where the approximation with regard to 7 was introduced, 
viz. with speed 'iy + T — ■ro-; the value of its coefficient is •00323. There 
is also the larger variational diurnal tide, which has been omitted : it 
would have a coefficient '00450 ; also an evectional termensual tide, 
Y'/me ^ sin^ I cos (35 — 2/i+p), with coefficient of magnitude '00292. 
All other tides in a complete development as far as the second order of 
small quantities, without any approximation as to the obliquity of the 
lunar orbit, would have smaller coefficients than those comprised in the 
above list. Such a development has been made by Professor J. C. Adams, 
and the values of all the coefficients computed therefrom, in comparison 
with the above. 

Besides the tides above enumerated, the predicter of the India 
Office also has the over-tides M4 and Mg, of speeds 4 (y — (t), 6 (7 — o"), and 
the compound tides 2MS, 2SM, MS, of speeds 2y— 4/T + 2f;, 27 + 2<t— 4»;, 
47 — 2o- — 2»/, and the meteorological tides S,, Sa, of speeds y — ?;, »/. 

If this schedule is worth anything, it seems probable that the India 
Office predicter would do better with some other terra substituted for A. 

If further examination of the tidal records should show that the tide M, 
is in reality regular, it should be introduced. 

§ 3. Tides Depending on the Fourth Poiver of the Moon's Parallax. 
The potential corresponding to these tides is 

F=^p3 (5 (,os3 PM-f cos PM). 

Wc may obviously neglect the eccentricity of the lunar orbit, and it 
will appear below, when the principal terms are evaluated, that the 
declinational tides may be safely omitted. 

By these approximations we may put r=r, and J/j—O, and neglect 
the terms in j/i, J/j which involve q-. Following the same plan as in 
the previous development of § 2, we have, when M^-=0, 

+ i (I'n + 'y'-4/j;2) (il/,2M2 + iU^) 

The four functions of t, »;, :, in this expression are surface spherical 
harmonics of the third order, and therefore, corresponding to these four 
terms, there will be four tides of the tj'pes determined by those functions. 
Now, we have approxiraately 

ili"i =jj2 cos (x-l), M.2= -X'~ sin (x - • 
From which we have 

3/,3_3j/,jj/^2^^6 cos 3(x-0 
3/1^+ M^M^^=f cos (x-0 
When 7,=0; 43-3,V=cos3X, ^^•» + $.,2-4s^;2=cos X (1-5 sin^A). 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 73 

Then, following the same procedure as before, we have for the height 
of tide 

+tV cos X (1-5 sin^A) .y cos (x-l)] • (35) 

Now, COS X(5 sin^ X — 1) hasits maximum value —y^when cosX= j?^\/ 15 : 
that is to say, when \=58° 54' ; thus we may write (35) 

/i=^^Qya.rcos3X.-r\y^') cos6iI.cos [3< + 3(/i-i')-3 (s-^)] 

+ ^^N/15cosX(l-5sin-'A)^^^/15Qyos6iIcos[f+(/<-,)-(^,--i)]"|(36) 

In this expression observe that there is the same ' general coefficient ' 
outside [ ] as in the previous development ; that the spherical harmonics 
cos^X, j\^ 15 cos X (5 sin^ X — 1) have the maximum values unity, the first 
at the equator and the second in latitude 58° 54'. The ' speeds ' of these 
two tides are respectively 3 (y — o-) or 43°-4761563 per mean solar hour, 
and y — <7, or 14°492052i per mean solar hour. 

The coefficient of the tide 3(y — o-), which is comparable with those in 
the previous schedules [B], [C], [E], is 



^^f^cos^I, 



and the mean value of this function multiplied by cos 3 (i — i) is "00599 ; 
also the coefficient of the tide (y — »■), likewise comparable with previous 
coefficients, is 



T^VlSg^COsHJ, 



and the mean value of this function multiplied by cos (>' — s) is '00165. 

The expression for the tides is written in the form applicable to the 
equatorial belt bounded by latitudes 26° 34' N. and S. (viz. where 
sin Z=iV5). Outside of this belt, what may be called high tide, will 
correspond with low water. The distribution of land on the earth will 
probably, however, seriously disturb the latitude of evanescent tide. 

It must be noticed that the y — <t tide is comparatively small in the 
equatorial belt, having at the equator only f- of its value in latitude 
58° 54'. 

Referring to the schedule [E] of theoretical importance, we see that 
the ter-diunml tide M3 would come in last but four on the list, and the 
diurnal tide M, (with rigorous speed y — a) would only be about a half 
of the synodic fortnightly variational tide. 

It thus appears that the ter-diurnal tide is smaller than some of the 
tides not included in our approximation, and that the diurnal tide should 
certainly be negligeable. 

The value of the M3 tide, however, is found with scarcely any trouble, 
from the numerical analysis of the tidal observations, and therefore it is 
proposed that it should still be evaluated. 



74 REPORT — 1883. 

§ 4. Meteorological Tides, Over-tides, and Compound Tides. 

Meteorological Tides. 

A rise and fall of water due to regular day and night breezes, 
prevalent winds, rainfall and evaporation, is called a meteorological tide. 

All tides whose period is an exact multiple or sub-multiple of a mean 
solar day, or of a tropical year, are affected by meteorological conditions. 
Thus all the tides of the principal solar astronomical series S, with speeds 
y — Tj, 2 (y — ';), 3 (y — >;), &c., are subject to more or less meteorological 
perturbation. Although the diurnal elliptic tide, S, or y — >?, the semi- 
annual and annual tides of speeds 2rj and >), are all probably quite insens- 
ible as arising from astronomical causes, yet they have been found of 
suflBcient importance to be included on the tide-predicter. 

The annual and semi-annual tides are of enormous importance in 
some rivers ; in such cases the ter-annual tide (3»/) is probably also 
important, although no harmonic analysis has been as yet made for it. 

In the reduction of these tides the arguments of the S series are t, 
2f, St, &c., and of the annual, semi-annual, ter-annual tides are /;, 2h, Bh. 
As far as can be foreseen, the magnitudes of these tides will be constant 
from year to year. 

Over-tides. 

When a wave runs into shallow water its form undergoes a progres- 
sive change as it advar.ces ; the front slope generally becomes steeper 
and the back slope less steep. The most striking example of such a 
change is when the tide runs up a river in the form of a ' bore.' 

A wave which in deep water presented an approximately simple 
harmonic contour departs largely from that form when it has run into 
shallow water. Thus in rivers the rise and fall of the water is not even 
approximately a simple harmonic motion. From the nature of harmonic 
analysis we are, hovrevcr, able to represent the motion by simple 
harmonic oscillations, and thus to give the non-harmonic rise and fall of 
tide in shallow water it is necessary to introduce a series of ovcr-tides 
whose speeds are double, triple, quadruple the speed of the fiiudaraental 
astronomical tide. 

The only tides, in which it has hitherto been thought necessary to 
represent this change of form in shallow water, belong to the principal 
lunar and principal solar series. Thus, besides the fundamental astro- 
nomical tides Mo and S.,, the over-tides M4, M^, M,^, and S^, S5 have 
been deduced by harmonic analysis. 

The height of the fundamental tide M2 varies from year to year, 
according to the variation in the obliquity of the lunar orbit, and this 
variability is represented by the coefficient cos"* ^ I. It is probable that 
the variability of M4, Mg, M^, will be represented by the square, cube 
and fourth power of that coefficient. 

The law connecting the phase of an ovei'-tide with the height of the 
fundamental tide is unknown, and under these circumstances it is only 
possible to make the argument of the over-tide a multiple of the argu- 
ment of the fundamental, with a constant subtracted. If that constant 
is found to be the same from year to year, then it will be known that the 
phase of an over-tide is independent of the height of the fundamental tide. 

The following schedule gives the over- tides which must be taken into 
consideration, the notation being the same as before : — 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



( O 



Schedule of Over-tides. 



Tide 
M4 


Coefficient 


Argument 


ISfjeed 


Speed iu degrees 
per m. s. hovir 


(ens'' L If 


4^ + 4(/,_,,)_4(s_^f) 


47 — 4cr 


57°-9682082 


Mo 


(cos-' i 1)3 


6i + 6(/j-r)-6(s-i) 


6y-6.7 86°-9523126 


Ms 
S4 


(cos* i 1)4 


8f + 8(7i-i)-8(s-i') 


8y — 81T 


115°-9364164 


1 


4f 


4y-4»; i 6(j°-0000U00 


Se 


1 


6/ 


67 — 6); 


90° -0000000 



It will be urderstood that here, as elsewhere, the column of argu- 
ments only gives that part of the argument which is derived from theory, 
and the constant to be subtracted from the argument is derivable from 
observation. It is necessary to have recourse also to observation to 
determine whether the suggested law of variability in the magnitude of 
the M over-tides holds good. 

Compound Tides. 

When two waves of different speeds are propagated in the same 
water the vertical displacement at the surface is generally determined 
^with sufficient accuracy by summing the displacements due to each wave 
separately. If, however, the height of the waves is not a small fraction 
of the depth of the water, the principle of superposition leads to inaccuracy, 
and it becomes necessary to take into consideration the squares and pro- 
ducts of the displacements. 

It may be shown that the result of the interaction of two waves is 
represented by introducing two simple harmonic waves, whose speeds are 
the sum and the difference of those of the interacting waves. When 
the interacting waves are tidal these two resultant waves may be called 
compound tides. They are found to be of considerable importance in 
estuaries. 

A compound tide being derived from the consideration of the product 
of displacements, we may form an index number, indicative of the 
probable impoi-tance of each compound tide by multiplying together the 
semi-ranges of the component tides. 

Probably the best way of searching at any station for the compound 
tides, which are likely to be important, would be to take the semi-ranges 
of the five or six largest tides at that station and to form index numbers 
of importance by multiplying the semi-ranges together two and two. 
Since these index numbers have no absolute magnitudes, we may omit 
the decimal point in forming them. Having selected as many of these 
combinations, in order of importance as may be thought expedient, the 
arguments of the compound tides are to be found by adding and sub- 
tracting the arguments of the components taken in pairs. 



76 



REPORT 1883. 



S 

O 

O 



1 — I o 

d 2^ 






■CQ 











i 


-^ 










-J ^ 




3- C- 






c- c- 


1 1 




1 i 


4! -=? 




1 1 


1 1 


^ 


b to 


1 1 


1 


b b 


+ 1 


x" 


G<1 (M 


1 1 


1 


CM (M 


b b 




1 + 


O CO 




1 + 


CO CO 

1 -f 




CO oq 






lO CO 


O <M 












^^ 






cc 


r^ 2- 


en 


felJ 








C<I c^ 










b IS 


1 + 




ty 


s" 


1 


1 b 


b b 

1 1 


l^l 


1^ 1 






o 1 


1 1 


lO 1 


N 






CO 




>- 

CO 










^ 








+ 1 


&§ 


1 oT 


&^" 






^ + 

1 fc 


& 1 


+ ^ 




'A 


1 ^ 


J 


b ^ 


1 




N 1 




1 

1 '^ 


n't 






-* t 


CO 1 


' CO 


CO 1 








?^ 


N 

^ 


N 








,^ 


S- B- 






O 


b '—- 


1 ^"^ 


(M <M 

1 1 
b b 


1 


1 


c^^ 


1 + 


1 


1 






CM 


CO 








sr 












(M ^ 












1 oT 


CM v-' 








M 


b 1 


1 -^ 


1 


1 


1 


CO 


CM 1 




1 


1 


1 




N 

^ 


?- 






















bO 












1 Ol ~— ' 










, w" 


1 •= 

CO 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




(M 


M 




O 

1 


1 



d 03 02 



« 
^ 



o aj 03 

= ^- 

CO 



-1-3 

3 
fe '^ - 

•a o '^ 

«, O rj 

t. c3 . 

-a .2 0' 



3 
c 



S f3 « 

O 3 , 

.2 += ^ 

03 P S 



o S o 
•^ o -" 
■-3 "Ti ^ 

P3 CS r— 1 
O 03 03 

at,- 

<^ ^ ^ 

•^ 03 1^ 






be 5 
c > 

^ o 



d - 
.2^ 



03 



^ 






03 Z 



O ,03 

-U 03 03 

C3 ^ 
• ii 03 T3 



s >^^ 

(K 5 bOJS 
^ '-- =- 03 






03 

•73 



03 
03 



03 



03 ' 



03 -ts 



03 



3 

H S 
03 '73 
•^3 ■- 
C - -' 3 

3 



O 






?: o 



-2^ . 

en a: ^ 



P O' 



!l 



o 

3 
O 

2 -*^ 

O 03 

P- e3 

"" a 03 
03 O ^ 
« O -P 

03 ew l*j 

03 -»J CO 

03 ;::; 3 
a 03 

03 ^ 03 
^ O o 
-4J c*^ 03 

►5 -^ -^ 

3 =4-1 

S3 O 



r-= -P 03 

^ s ^^ 

05 -tJ 3 
o . d . 

Or ^ 

03 "n O 

-S OJ C« CD 

O 0) f-; r-l 

03 '^ 5^ 

^ 03 o3 S it 
O , 1 03 ^ ^ 

- 03 0) tti _ 

r''^ 0; c3 3 



fe, 



■ w <^ ^ t* s 

S 03 =4-1 .^ .S 

t "" '« a I 

^03 »•",£! 

S _a .-" 03 5; 

'T3 OJ ^^ p 

"^ d C4H 03 

03 ^ O PU 



HARMOmC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSEEVATIONS. 



The schedule [G] contains 36 speeds of compound tides : 9 of these- 
fall into the category of astronomical or meteorological tides, 2 are re- 
peated twice, and of the remaining 25 we need only consider, say, the 
twelve most important. 

If either or both the component tides are of lunar origin, the height 
of the compound tide will change from year to year, and will probably 
vary proportionally to the product of the coefficients of the component 
tides. 

For the purpose of properly reducing the numerical value of the com- 
pound tides, we require not merely the speed, but also the argument. 

The following schedule gives the index of importance, argument and 
speed of the compound tides. 

The coefficients are the products of the coefficients of the two tides to 
be compounded. 

[H.] 

Schedule of Compound Tides. 



Index of 
Importance 


Initials 


Arguments 
combined 


Speed 


Speed in degrees 
per m. s. hour 


1205 


MK 


M4-O 


^ 3y-2<T 


44°-0251728 


960 


' MS 


M. + S^ 


4y — '2(T—2i] 


58°-9841042 


060 


MSf 


S2-M2 
M, + 

m;-k, 


2>T-2n 


1°-0158958 


857 


2MK 


3y-4<r 1 


42°-9271398 


oGl 


— 


S2+K, 


3y-2„ 


45°-0410686 


400 


MN 


M. + N 


4<y — 5(T -{■ '07 


57°-4238338 


399 


— 


S2 + O 
S2-O 


3y-2<T-2», 


43°-9430356 


399 


— 


y + 2^-2»; 


16°-0569644 


— ■ 


2SM 


S4-M2 


2y + 2r7-4n 


31°0158958 


— 


— 


M2 + S4 


6y — 2(T — 4i] 


88°-9841042 


— 


2MS 


M4-S2 

M4-1-S2 


2y- 4(7 + 2/7 


27°'9682084 


. — 


— 


6y—4(7—2t] 


87°-9682084 



As in the case of the over-tides, the law of variability of the amplitudes 
of compound tides in various years is only to be tested by observation. 

It will be noticed that in two cases an over-tide of one speed arises 
in more than one way, and accordingly different parts of it have different 
arguments and coefficients. In these cases the utilisation of the results of 



78 EEPOKT— 1883. 

one year for prediction in future years can only be made by dividing up 
the compound tide into several parts, according to its theoretical origin. 
In order to do this it is necessary that the law should be known which 
connects the heights of a summation and a difference compound tide. A 
like difficulty arises from the fact that MSf and 2SM are also variational 
tides. 

In practice, however, the compound tide will generally be so small 
thatkwe may pi'obably treat it as though it arose entirely in one way : 
and accordingly it is proposed to treat the tides 3y — 2o- or MK, and 
•3y— 4fr or 2MK, as though tbey arose entirely from Mg + K,, M4 — Kj 
respectively, and MSf and 2SM as though they were entirely compound 
tides. 

§ 5. The Method of Reduction of Tidal Observations. 

The printed tabular forms on which the numerical harmonic analysis 
of the tides is carried out are arransred so that the series of observations 
to be analysed is supposed to begin at noon, or 0**, of the first day, and 
to extend ibr a year from that time. It has not been found practicable 
to arrange that the first day shall be the same at all the ports of 
observation. 

Supposing n to be the speed of any tide in degrees per mean solar 
hour, and t to be mean solar time elapsing since 0"^ of the first day ; then 
the immediate result of the harmonic analysis is to obtain A and B, two 
heights (estimated in feet and tenths) such that the height of this tide 
at the time t is given by 

A cos nt + B sin. nt. 

The question then arises as to what further reductions it will be con- 
venient to make, in order to present the results in the most convenient 
form. 

-n 

First, let us put R=v/(A^ + B-), and tan 4=-t, then the tide is repre- 

sented by 

R cos (?!<— 4). 

In this form R is the semi-range of the tide in British feet, and if is 
an angle such that ;'/*/ is the time elapsing after 0'' of the first day until 
it is high-water of this ]iarticular tide. 

It is obvious that 4 may have any value from 0° to 3G0°, and that the 
results of the analysis of successive years of observation will not be com- 
parable with one another, when presented in this form. 

Secondly, let ns suppose that the results of the analysis are to be pre- 
sented in a number of terms of the form 

fHcos (F+h-k). 

Here F is a linear function of the moon's and sun's mean longitudes, 
the mean longitude of the moon's and sun's perigees, and the local mean 
solar time at the place of observation, reduced to angle at 15° per hour. 
F increases nniformly with the time, and its rate of increase per mean 
solar hour is the w of the first method, and is called the ' speed ' of the 
tide. 

It is supposed that u stands for a certain function of the longitude 
of the node of the lunar orbit at an epoch half a year later than 0** of the 



HAEMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERYATIONS. 79 

first day. Strictly speaking, ti should be taken as the same fimction of 
the longitude of the moon's node, varying as the node moves ; but as the 
variation is but small in the course ot' a year, « may be treated as 
a constant and put equal to an average value for the year, which average 
value is taken as the true value of n at exactly mid-year. Together 
V+u constitutes that function which has been tabulated as 'the argu- 
ment ' in the schedules B, C, F, H. 

Since V+u are together the whole argument according to the 
equilibrium theory of tides, with sea covering the whole earth, it follows 
that (./» is the lagging of ths tide which arises from kinetic action, 
friction of the water, imperfect elasticity of the earth, and the distribution 
of land. 

It is supposed that H is the mean value in British feet of the semi- 
range of the particular tide in question. 

f is a numerical factor of augmentation or diminution, due to the 
variability of the obliquity of the lunar orbit. The value of f is the 
ratio of ' the coefficient ' in the column of coefficients of the preceding 
schedules to the mean value of the same term. For example, for all the 
solar tides f is unity, and for the principal lunar tide M2, f is equal to 
cos'' ^Ij cos* iw cos'* y ; for as we shall see below, the mean value of this 
term has a coefficient cos^ ^a> cos** i^i. 

It is obvious, then, that, if the tidal observations are consistent from 
year to yeai', H and k should come out the same from each year's reduc- 
tions. It is only when the results are presented in such a form as this 
that it will be possible to judge whether the harmonic analysis is pre- 
senting lis with satisfactory results. This mode of giving the tidal 
results is also essential for the use of the tide-predicting machine. 

We must now show how to determine H and (.- from R and 4. 

It is clear that H=R/f, and the mode of determination of f from the 
schedules has been explained above, although the proof has been deferred. 

If Va be the value of V at 0^ of the first day, then clearly 

So that 

Thus the rule for the determination of c is : Add to the value of C the 
valve of the argument at 0^ of the first day. 

It is suggested that it will henceforth be advisable to tabulate R and iT, 
so as to give the results of harmonic analysis in the form R cos (7it — ; 
and also H and k, so as to give it in the form f H cos (V+n — ic), when 
the results will be comparable from year to year. 

A third method of presenting tidal results will be very valuable for 
the discussion of the theory of tidal oscillations, although it is doubtful 
whether it will at present be worth while to tabulate the results in this 
proposed form. This method is to substitute for the H of the second 
method FK, where F is the mean value of the coefficient as tabulated in 
the column of coefficients in the schedules — for example, in the case of M2 
we should have F=i (1— le^) cos'' ^10 cos" ii', and in the case of Sj we 

should have F=^ . 1 cos" | w. When this process is carried out it will 

enable us to compare together the several K's corresponding to each of 
the thpee classes of tides, but not the several classes hiter se. 



80 REPORT— 1883. 

It migbt perhaps be advisable to proceed still further and to purify 

K of the coeflScient #— T-^ a, and of the function of the latitude, viz. 

' U \cj 
cos^X, sin 2\, i,-% sin^X, as the case may be. Then we should simply 
be left with a numerical factor as a residuum, which would represent the 
augmentation above or diminution below the equilibrium value of the 
tide. This further reduction may, however, be left out of consideration 
for the present, since it is superfluous for the proper presentation of the 
results of harmonic analysis. 

I'or the purpose of using the tide-predicting machine the process of 
determining H and k from R and 4 has simply to be reversed, with the 
diflerence that the instant of time to which the argument is to refer is 0^ 
of the first day of the new year, and we must take note of the different 
value of u and f for the new year. Thus supposing F, to be the value of 
V at 0'^ of the first day of the year to which the predictions are to apply, 
and Ml, f 1, the values of u and f half a year after that 0**, we have 

R=fiH 

This value of R will give the proper throw of the crank of the tide- 
predicter, and ^ will give the angle at which the crank is to be set. Mr. 
Roberts states, however, that the subtraction, in the predicter of the 
India OSice, of Fi + tt, from k is actually performed on the machine, one 
index being set at t: and the other at Fi +«!• 

"We learn also from him that one portion of the term m, has been 
systematically neglected up to the present time: namely, that part which 
arises in the form r — £ or its multiples. If in the schedules above we 
were to write i=)' throughout we should arrive at the rule by which the 
tide-predicter has hitherto been used. 

The above statement of procedure is applicable to nearly all the tides, J 
but there are certain tides, viz. K,, Kj, which have their origins jointly I 
in the tide-o-enerating forces of the moon and sun ; also the tides L and '| 
M, which are rendered complex from the fact that the tidal analysis only 
extends over a year. 

Treatment of the Sidereal Diurnal and Sewi-diunial Tides K,, K,. — 
The expression for the whole K, tide of luni-solar origin must, as we 
see from the schedules B and C, § 3, be of the form 

Mcos (t + h-h--r-K) + 8cos (t + h-hTT-K) . .(39) 



If now we put 



, , Sin I' 

tan v'= 



(40) 



cos )' + S/M 

these two terms may be written 

R cos (< + /i-^n— )''-k). 

If 7(o be the sun's mean longitude at O^' of the first day, t+h — h^ is 
equal to yt, where t is now mean solar time measured from that O*' and 
7iot reduced to angle. 

Hence if we write 

C-ZC + iTT-^.+ v' (41) 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OP TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 81 

the two terms become 

E. cos (yt—^). 

But this is the form in which the results of harmonic analysis for the 
total Ki tide is expressed in the first method. 
From (41) we have 

,=i;+(h^-^^)-r' (42) 

In this formula Ji^ — ^tt is V^ for the solar K, tide, and i' is a complex 
function of the longitude of the moon's node, to be computed (as 
explained below) from the second of (40). 

We must now consider the coefficient f. 

If Mo be the mean value of the lunar K] tide, then we know that its 
ratio to M should according to theory be given by 

M sin I cos I 

Mo sm o) cos oj(i — f sin- 1) 

The ratio of M to S should also according to theory be given by 

M_ r(l + 4e^) sin I cos I 
S Ti(l-f- ifei''^) bin u> cos w 

We must therefore put the coefiScient 
f= ^ — 



1 + -^^ 
M„ 



w 



here 



Mo r(i+f«2^ (i-fsin^O 

S So sin o) cos (0 (1 — f sin^ i) 

M M„ sin / cos 1 



(43) 



J 



f is clearly a complex function of tlie longitude of the moon's node to be 
computed as shown below. 

The reversal of the process of reduction for the use of the instrument 
for prediction is obvious. 

In the case of the Ko semi-diurnal tide, if we follow exactly the same 
process, and put 

tan 2r"= ^^"^'; .. \ 



cos 2i H-y/M 



{1 + 



f=- 



M 



+ -1>r COS 
M 



2,.}* 



1 + 



M. 



■where 


So_m(1-H:>,'^). 1 


1883. 


Mo r(i+^e^J (i-^siu=*t) 

S S„ sin- 0) (1— ir sin'^'-) 

M Mo sin^ i 
G 



(44) 



82 REPORT — 1883. 

tlie ai'gumeQt of the Kj tide is 2t + 2h — 2r", and f is the factor for 
reduction. 

S 
The numerical value of -^ both for K, and K., is •46-407. 

^^° 
It appears that in using the tide-predicter ^Er. Roberts has been 

hitherto using a process which is obviously incorrect, although the incor- 
rectness has probably only led to very small errors. He has divided the 
R of the Ki tide into two parts proportional to the O and P tides 
respectively, as deduced for the same year by the harmonic analysis for 
those tides. This process is incorrect in one respect, and not absolutely 
satisfactory in another. It is incorrect, because] it is equivalent to the 
treatment of r as zero in the formula 

R2=M2 + S2 + 2MS cos r; 

and it is unsatisfactory, because the theoretical ratio of to P is 

r (1— 5e^) sin I cos- ^J 
Tj (I — {it'i'^j sin (o cos'^ ^w' 

■whereas the ratio of the lunar to the solar ^\[}S 

7(l + ae-) sin 21 



r, (l+|e,2)sin2 



(J) 



Again, he has divided R of K., into two parts proportional to thej 
^I., and S2 tides. This is again incorrect. The incorrectness arises from| 
a similar treatment of r as zero, and because the ratio of Mj to So is 

^i(l-oei2;cos'»ia>' 
whereas the ratio of the lunar to the solar Ko is 

7,(l + i|p,=') sin'^ w" 
Moreover, the S2 tide is probably liable to meteorological disturbance. 

The Tide L. 

Reference to the theoretical development in § 3 shows that this tide 
requires special treatment. 

In schedule B (i.) it appears that it must be proportional to 

cos^ llN/l-12tan2 ^1 cos 2('p-C) 

xcos[2t + 2(?i-r)-2(s-i) + (s-2i)-li + 7r'] . (51) 
■where 

tani?= ^'"^0'-') • 

tV cot''^ ^ i— cos 2 (p-i) 

In this expression vi-o must deem E to form a part of the function n, 
for which a mean value is to be tnki n. This is, it must be admitted, not 
very satisfactory, fcince j) ir^crtascs by nearly 41° per annum. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 83 

Suppose, then, that P be the longitude of the perigee at mid-year, 
measured from the intersection, and that we compute B from the formula 

, T) sin 2P ,»,-,. 

tan Ii=:.-. -,-,-^ -^ (o2) 

^ cot^ ^ J- cos 2P ^ "^ 

Then the treatment will be the same as in all the other cases, if the 
argument V+ u be taken as 2t + 2 (/t — r) — 2 (s — i) + (s —j)) — R + ir. 
The factor f in this case is equal to 

— ,''°^'^^, , . ^/ {1 - 12 tan2 ij cos 2P] . 



COS' t w cos' ft 

The Tide 'M:^. 

Reference to schedule B (ii.) shows that this tide must be propor- 
tional to 

4sinIcos2iIV{f + fcos2(^-^^)} x cos[; + (/i- r)-(s-;) + Q-iT](52') 

where tan Q=^ tan (2? — £). 

We must here deem Q to form a part of the function u, for which a 
mean value is to be taken ; but as in the case of the L tide, this course is 
not very satisfactory. 

If P as before denotes the longitude of the perigee at mid-year, 
measured from the intersection, and Q be computed from 

tanQ = itanP (52") 

then the argument V+u will be 

t + (h-,')-(s-E) + Q-l-. 

And the factor f is 

■ '^° vr''^4i- ^(^+'«°S"^) • • • (52'") 

sm (0 cos'' io) cos* ^i 

It has been shown that the tide Mi, in as far as it depends on the 
fourth power of the moon's parallax, is too small to be worth including 
in the numerical analysis. 

§ 6. On the Method of Computing the Arguments and Coefficieids. 

In performing the reductions of the preceding sections a number of 
numerical quantities are required, which are to be derived from the 
position of the heavenly bodies. 

FormulcG for Computing I, >■, ^. 
From Fig. 2, § 3, we see that 

cot (JV— $) sin JV=;cos N cos I'+sin i cot <o \ 

cot J' sin ^^cos iV cos w + sin w cot i > . . . (53) 

cos J=cos i cos w — sin / sin w cob NI 
If /3 be an auxiliary angle defined by 

tan /3=tan i cos N . . . ■. . . . . . (54) 

G 2 



84 EEPORT- 1883. 

Then ' 

cos J:=cos i sec /3 cos (w + /3)] 

sin i'=sin I cosec Jsin JV h . . . . . (55) 

sin {N—l)=-s,va. w cosec I sin N ) 

The formnlfB (53) also lead to the rigorous formulfe 



, „ Pin I cot-, (.» sin N (1 — fan i? tan oi cos N)\ 

tan t.— — -— : i --^ — . ., , . :r^ 

cos'' ii + sm t cot w cos A' — siiy' ^i cos MSi 

, tan i cosec w sin jV^ 

tan )'=- 



1 + tan i cot w cos JV 

But, if we treat i as small, (53 ) may be reduced to 

1 — 7 sin^ oj 



(53') 



tan ^=1 cot w sin N—^,i^ sin 2A'^ 



tan >'=:i cosec w sin N—hi"^ sin 2A'' — ^ 



(53") 



bill" O) 



cos J-=(l — ^i^) cos w — i sin w cos iV" 



A table of values of E, >■, I, for diffei-ent values of iV^ with oj=23° 27''3, 
1^5° 8''8, may be computed either directly from (53) or from (55). 

We give below in § 12 a table for J, r, '£ for every 2° of N, computed 
from (55) under the Buperintendence of Major Baird, at Poona. 

The approximate formulee (53") will be of service hereafter. 

On the Mean Values of the Coefficients in Schedules [B.]. 

In the three schedules [B] of lunar tides, ' the coefficients' are certain 
functions of /, and there are certain terms in the arguments which are 
functions of r and E- We may typify all the terms by J cos (T+ u), where 
J is a function of I, and u of r and £. If we substitute for / and u in terms 
of w, i, N, and develop the result, we shall obtain a series of terms of 
which the one independent of N is, say, Ji cos T. Then /, is the mean 
value of the semi-range of the tide in question. Such a development 
may be cairied out rigorously, but it involves a good deal of analysis to 
do so ; we shall therefore confine ourselves to an approximate treatment 
of the question, using the formulss (53") for ^ and i'. 

It may be proved that in no case does / involve a term with a sine of 
an odd multiple of N, and the formula (54) or (55) show that in every 
term of sin ?t there will occur a sine of an odd multiple of N ; whence it 
follows that J sin u has mean value zero, and Ji is the term independent 
of N in J cos ti. 

It may also be proved that in no case does cos u involve a term in ccs iV, 
and that the terms in cos 2N ai-e all of order i^ ; also it appears that J 
always involves a term in cos ^V, and also terms in cos 2iV" of order /-. 

Hence to the degree of approximation adopted, /, is equal to J^ cos u^, 
where J^ is the mean value of J, and cos u^ the mean value of cos u. 

In evaluating cos u^ from the formulae (53"), we may observe that 
wherever sin- iV occurs it may be replaced by h ; for sin^ A'=:J— i cos 2N, 
and the cos 2^^ has mean value zero. 



HARMONIC ANALISIS OF TIDAL OBSEEV AXIOMS. 85 

The following are the values of cos u^ thus determined from (53 ') : — 

. . ^, ... , .0 /l — cos 0)\^ 

(a) cos 2(r-i)„ = l- t'^ ) 

^ ^ v. siu to y 

1 



(/3) cos2r„=l-i 

/ ^ /ot ^ 1 1 ^/l— 2 cos (oy 
(•y) cos (2^->')o=l-4^ ■■ 

^ -^ ^ \ SIU (1) J 

/SN /or, ^ 1 1-2/^1+2 cos o)\ 2 

(^) cos (2H-»')o=l-i^ ■- ) 

^ ' V sin (0 y 

(t) cos .■o=l-:^i^— — - 

sin^ <D 

(;) cos 2|o=l — i- cot'^ o) 

The suffix o indicatiug the mean value. 

Similarly the following are the /^'s or mean values of / : — • 

, ,, . y ^ i 1 fi ■ 1 -2 sin^ ^w — cos (ul 

(a') cosHI.=COsHa.[l+i^^ ^^ ^ J 

(/3') & (D Sin^ Jo=siB^ 0, [1 +z^ ^";jj^" ] 

/ /N ■ T ■> 1 T • 2 1 fi , 1 -2 /^cos 2w 2 cos (0\"] 

(7') sm Jo cos- ^,7„=sin w cos-* ^to 1 + ii'' -r-s — — — ^-r- I 

/=-/\ • T • 9 1 T • ■ •> 1 r 1 , 1 •2/'cos 2oi) 2 cos cu\~| 

(c') sin J. sm^ U.=sin «> sm- f.co 1 -hji ( -^-7, — +- ■ ,1 
^^ ° - "L Vsni'' oj sin'' iwy J 

(e') sin Jo cos Jo=sin w cos w [l + ji* (cot- w — 5)] 

On referring to schedules [B], it appears that (a) multiplied by (a') is 
the mean value of the cos-* ^Z cos 2(i' — i) which occurs in the semidiurnal 
terms ; and so on with the other letters, two and two. Performing these 
ranltiphcations, and putting \ — \ii^ in tbe results as equal to cos" U. and 
\—%i^ as equal to 1 — -3- sin^ i, we'find that the mean values are all uniiy 
for the following functions, viz. : 

cos" Ucos 2fr-£) sin^ Jcos2.' sin J cos^ U cos (2£-»-) 

s" ^u) cos" ^i ' sin^ CO (1— I sin"-^ i)' sin w cos'-^ ^co cos" ^i 



cos' 



sin J sin'^ ^J cos (2i'+ r) sin J cos J cos v sin- J cos 2E 

sin CO sin''^ ^co cos" ^i ' sin co cos co (1 — f sin^ /)' sin^ co cos" Vi 

Lastly, it is easy to show rigorously that the mean value of 

1-f sin^ J 

(1-f sin2 ^-^ (l-lsin^O 
is also unity. 



86 REPOET— 1883. 

If we -write 

TO-=cos |w cos ^i — sin |co sin iie'*' 

fc=sin ^<D cos ^i' + cos ^w sin ^ie'^'- 

wliere i stands for \/ — l; and let t<7,, k-j denote the same functions with 
the sign of X changed, then it may be proA-ed rigorously that 

cos* UCOS 2(r-s^) = l(ta4 + 'E7i4) 

sin2 /cos 2,'=2(^2^-i2 + ^,V) 



1 "^1 



sin I cos'^ i/ cos (2^ — r) = '7^^K + -u7 
sin Jsin'^ ^Jcos (2i'+r) = OTk-'* + 'uri'-^ 



'i"i 



sin J cos I cos )' = ('Erk-i +'nri(v) ('CT'Cri — K/v-i) 

sin^ J cos 2i'=2(©V + OTi\-,2) 
1 — ;} sin- J=':3-^'iB-|- — 4!i<7'ro-iA:;.-i +c^(>'l~ 

The proof of these formula^, and the subsequent development of the 
functions of the -ro-'s and k's, constitute the rigorous proof of the formuljB, 
of which the approximate proof has been indicated above. The analogy 
between the •cr's and k's, and the ^j, q of the earlier developments of this 
Report, is that if i vanishes 'm='m^=jj, K=K]=q. 

[See a paper in the Phil. Trans. B.S. Part 11. 1880, p. 713.] 
This investigation justifies the statements preceding the schedules 
[B] as to the mean values of the coefficients. 

FormulcB for comjnding f. 

In the original reduction of tidal observations we want 1/f ; in the 
use of the tide-predicter f is required. 

On looking through the schedules [B.], we see that the following values 
of 1/f are required. . 

^-.N cos* \u) cos* lii fn\ sin^ w (1 — 4 sin^i) .^n sin w cos^ \u) cos* \i 
^^ ' cos^J ■' ^^ '^^i ' ^^ sUriTos^ U ' 

-•-V sin u) sin- ^oj cos* ^/ ,~-. sin co cos w (1—^ sin- i) 
^ ^ W/sin'-'U ""' sin i cos J ' 

ff,-. sin- (0 cos* \i .~^ (1 — ^- sin^ co) (1 — # sin^ i) 
^^ sm-^ 1 ' ^'^ ' (l-fsin^/) ~' 

And in the case of the over-tides and compound tides (schedules 
[F], [H]), powers and products of these quantities. 

A table of values of these functions for various values of 1 is given in 
§ 12. 

The functions (2) and (5) are required for computing f for the K, 
and K2 tides. 

In this list of functions let us call that numbered (2) ^2> ^^^ ^^at 
numbered (5) Z;, ; Z.-2 and ^, being the values of the reciprocal of f which 
would have to be applied in the cases of the Kg and Kj tides, if the sun 
did not exist. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 87 

On referring back to the paragraph in § 5 m which the treatment of 
the Ko and Kj tides is explained we see that for Kg 

^- = •46407 X 7^0, 
M 

and therefore from (44) we see that for Kg 
1 1-46407 



f |l + (U-4b4U7xA-2)^ + U-tt28i4/.'2 cos 2,-] = 
sin 2 1' 



tan 2.'"= 



cos 2)' + -4640/ Ic, 



(56) 



And for Ki the similar formulae hold with Ic^ in place of ho, and r in 
place of 2 1'.' 

Tables of 1/f and v', 2i'" for the K, and K.^ tides may be formed from 
(56). 

The angle I ranges from 18° 18'-5, when it is w-i, to 28° 3G'l, when 
it is w + i. 

Then for any value of N we first extract I, and afterwards find the 
coefficients from the subsequent tables. 

The coefficients for the over-tides and compound tides may be found 
from tables of squares and cubes and by multiplication. 

Formulce for s, p, h, pi, N. 

The numerical values may be deduced from the formula3 given in 
Hansen's Tables de la Lune. Tbe following are reduced to a more con- 
venient epoch, and to forms appropriate to the present investigation. 

s=150°-0419 + [13 X 360°+ 132°-67900] T+ 13---17G4 D 

+ 0°-549016.5 H 



(57) 



p=240°-6322+ 40°-G9035 r+0°ail4I> + 0°-0046418 fl 
/i = 280°-5287 + 360°-00769 T+0°-9856 D + 0°-0410G86 E 

i3,=280°-874S+ 0°-01711 T+0°-000047 D 

:^^=285°■9569- 19°-34146 r-0°-0529540 D 

Where 

T is the number of Julian years of 365^ mean solar days, 
ID the number of mean solar days, 
H the number of mean solar hours, 

after 0** Greenwich mean time, January 1, 1880. 
From the coefficients of H we see that 

a=0°-5490165, ^=0°-0046418, »j=0°0410686 . . (58) 
whence 7=15°-0410686. 

' This method of treating these tides is due to Professor Adams. I had proposed 
to divide the K tides into their lunar and solar j)arts. — G.H.D. 



88 REPOiiT— 1883. 

For the purposes of nsing the forms for harmonic analysis of the tidal 
observations, these formulse may be reduced to more convenient and 
simpler forms. 

The mean values of ^and p, are required, and for the treatment of 
the L and M, tides the mean value of ^j — s, denoted by P. For deter- 
mining these three quantities, we may therefore add half the coefficient of 
T once for all, and write 



^=276°-2861-0°-0:;295 D-19°-34146 T 

i;i=280°-8833-l-0°-00005 B+ 0°-01711 T 

P+$=261°-0 +0°111D +40°-69!r - 



(59) 



where T is simply the number of years, whether there be leap-years or 
not amongst them, since 1880, and D the number of days from Jan. 1, 
numbered as zero up to the first day of the year to be analysed. 

Now, suppose d to denote the number of quarter days either one, two, 
or three in excess of the Julian years which have elapsed since 0** Jan. 1, 
1880, up to C* Jan. 1 of the year in question ; let D denote the same 
as before ; and let L be the East Longitude of the place of observation in 
hours and decimals of hours. 

Then for s^, p^, h^, the values of s, p, h at C' of the first day, we have 

So=150°-0419 + 132°-67900r+3°-29410d-fl3°1764Z)-0°-54902i) 
Po=240°-6322 + 40°-G9035T+0°-02785£i[4- 0°-1114D-0°-00464L (60) 
/(„=280°-5287+ 0°-00769T+0°-24641(7+ 0°-9856D-0°-04107 i. 

In these formulae Tis an integer, being the excess of the year in ques- 
tion above 1880, and d is to be determined thus : — if the excess of the 
year above 1880 divided by 4 leaves remainder 3, c? is 1 ; if remainder 2, 
it is 2 ; if remainder 1, it is 3 ; and if remainder zero, it is zero. For 
example for 1895, r=15, d=l ; because from 0'' Jan. 1, 1880 to 0*> Jan. 1. 
1895, is 15 Julian years and a quarter day. For all dates after Feb. 28, 
1900, one day's motion must be subtracted from s^, p^, Jioj Pu -P + ^- and 
one day's motion added to N. 

The terms in L may be described as corrections for longitude. 

The 13 X 860° and 360° which occurred in the previous formulae for 
s and h are now omitted, because T is essentially an integer. 

If it be preferred, the values of s^ and iV" may be extracted from 
the Nautical Almanac, and li^ is (neglecting nutation) the sidereal time 
reduced to angle. We may take f^ from a formula given by Hansen at 
p. 300 of the Tallies de la Lune. This latter course is that which is. 
followed in the forms for computation. 

§ 7. Summary of Initial Arguments and Factors of Eeduction. 

The results for the various kinds of tide are scattered in various parts 
of the above, and it will therefore be convenient to collect them together. 
In order to present the results in a form convenient for computation, 
each argument is given by reference to any previous argument which con- 
tains the same element. In the following schedule Arg. M2 and Fac. M^ 
(for example) mean the argument and factor computed for the tide Mj^ 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



89 



Schedule of Arguments at 0^ of the first day, and Factors for Ensuing Year. 
Initial Arguments. 



V^ + u 



Factors for Reduction. 

1 

f 



S3 
S4 



T 



M, 



M, 



M, 



M4 



M. 



M« 



K, 



K, 



N 



2N 



zero 



-K+h 



-(h-P,) 



(K-r)-(s,-E)-i-Q-W 
where tan Q=h tan P 



2(A„-,0-2(.„-i) 



f Arg. M2 



2 Arg. Mj 


3 Arg. M2 


4 Arg. M2 


m 



27^„-2r' 



wheretan2»'"=- 



sin 2i' 



cos 2j/ + -4t)4 x^ 



K- 

where tan >- = 


■'-h 


sin r 


cos 


-l--4G4xA; 


Arg. M2 


-(^•0 


-Po) 


Arg. N- 


-G^o 


-Po) 



Arg. M2 + (s,, -|; J _ ii + TT 



where tan B = - 



sin 2P 



icot.Hl-cos2P 



Arg. M2 + (.9,-_p„) + 2;i„-2s„ 



unity 



unity 



unity 



Fac. O-rVli + f cos2P) 



/cos ^w cos ^1 
V COS ^ 



1V\4 



COS iiA 



(Fac. M2)i 



(Fac. Mj)^ 



(Fac. M,)3 



(Fac. M,)^ 



1-46407 



V [i + (-464 X Z.-)^ + -928 /v cos 2i'] 

1 7 sin^ w (1— -ij- sin^ 

where ic=- \ 

sm'' i 



1-46407 



^/ (1 + (-464 X 1:)'^ + -928 Ic cos >■} 

, , sin 2ii>(l— ^ sin'^ i') 

where /c= ^ . ^ 

sin 2/ 



Fac. Mo 



Fac. M, 



Fac. M,^n/1-12 tan2 U cos 2P 



Fac. M, 



90 



EEPORT 1883. 



Initial Arguments. 



Factors for Reduction. 
1 

r 






(/.,-r)-2(.,-i-)+i- 


sin 0) cos- \b) CDS'* ^i 
sin I cos^ \I 


00 


(/.„-,') +2(s,-i-)-i7r 


sin (.( sin^ \o) CDS'* ^i 


sin J sm^ ii 


Q 


Arg. 0-(so-2)o) 


Fac. 


J 


(/'o-'') + (-^o-Pc)-i^ 


sin 2w(l— f sit|2 i) 


sin 2i 


MS 


Arg. Mo 


Fac. Ma 


2MS 


Arg. M4 


Fac. M4 


2SM 


27r— Arg. Mq 


Fac. Mo 


MK 


Arg. M2 + Arg. K, 


Fac. MjXFac. Ki 


2MK 

MN 
MSf 


Arg. M^-Arg. K^ 


Fac. M4 X Fac. Kj 


Arg. M, + Arg. IST 


Fac. M.2 X Fac. N 


27r-Arg. Mo 


Fac. M2 


Mm 


(So-Po) 


(l-l-sin^w) (l-fsin^i) 
1-1 sm=^/ 


Mf 


2(.„-£) 


sin^ w cos* \i 


s\n^ I 


Sa 


K 


nnity 


Ssa 


2K 


unity 



There are two tables, numbered I. and II., given at pp. 304 and 305 
of the Report for 1876 of tbe Committee of the British Association on 
Tidal Observations. The columns headed £ give functions which, when 
their signs are reversed, are the arguments at the epoch. To show the 
identity of these expressions with those in the above schedule [I], we 
must put 



/=-/'< 



-^'o, l=So + t' — l, Q=K, '^'=Po + *' — i, 'Br=Pi 



For the sake of symmetry these tables contain several entries which 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 91 

we have omitted from our schedale, because of the sinallness of the tides 
to which they refer. The entries of the tides of long period, Nos. 3 and 
4, are given with the opposite sign from that here adopted ; • thus those 
entries require alteration by 180° to bring them into accordance with our 
schedule. 

The following corrections have to be made in Table II. : No. 8, for 
2r read Zv ■ No. 15, add 4;- ; Nos. 17 and 19, add 2(.'-^) ; Nos. 18 and 

20, subtract 2(r-0- 

The K,, Kg tides, Nos. 9 and 16 of both tables, are entered separately 
as to their lunar and solar parts. The two parts of the M, tide, Nos. 7 
and 11, are entered separately. Also No. 14 only gives one part of the 
tide here entered as L. 

The reader is warned that the definition of e on p. 293 is incomplete, 
and incorrect for proper reference to the equilibrium theory of tides. 
The definition of ot' on p. 302 is incorrect. 



§ 8, On the Beducfions of the PuhlisJied Results of Tidal Analysis. 

In the Tide Tables pablished by the Indian Government, it is stated 
that each tide is expressed in the form R cos (ni — s), where H is the 
semi-range in feet, n the speed of the tide, and tjn is the time in mean 
solar hours which elapses, after an epoch appropriate to the tide, until the 
next high-water of that tide. Tables are then given for E, and e at each 
station for each j^ear. 

The mode of tabulation is the same as that followed in the Tidal 
Reports of the British Association for 1872 and 1876. 

It is advisable that all the results should be reduced according to one 
system, such that the observations of the several years and the values 
for the several speeds of tide may be comparable infer se. 

In § 5 it has been proposed that the tide should be recorded in the 
form 

fHcos (F+«-K-)- 

It appears from the statements in the Reports for 1872 and 1876 and 
from an examination of the reductions of the published results that the 
f. of the tables is equal to k—u, and that the R of the tables is equal to 
f H. Thus in order to reduce the published results to proper forms, com- 
parable inter se, it is necessary to add to e the appropriate u, and to divide 
R by the proper f. Following this process we obtain at once the following 
additive corrections to the e's to obtain the (c's. The values of 1 /f by which 
the R's are to be multiplied to obtain the H's, are those given in the pre- 
ceding schedule [I]. 

For all tides not mentioned here, /c is identical with e, and H with R. 

' See the passage in §2 between equations (28) and (29). 



92 



REroKf — 1S83. 



[J.] 
Schedule for Meducing PuhlisJied Results. 



Tide 


Coirection to 
e to tind k 


Tides 


Correction to 
6 to tind K 


M,, N, y 


-2(..-i) 


0. Q 


-r + 2i + U 


M, 


-(<— sO + Q-^T 


J 


— v — ^ir 


M3 


-S(,'-i) 


P 


+ i^ 


M, 


-4(.'-^^) 


T 


+Pi 


Me 


-6(.-i) 


R 


--Pl+TT 


Mg 


-8 (,'-£) 


MS 


-2(.-c) 


K2 


-2r" 


2MSor/x 


-4(.-0 


K, 


-,'-i. 


2SM 


+ 2 (.'-£) 


L 


-2 (y-t.)-Ii+7r 


Fortnightly 


-2? 


X 


-2(.-s^) + :r 


Synodic 
Fortnightly 


+ 2(.-0 



In a paper by Captain Evans and Sir William Thomson, read before 
the British Association in 1878, certain tidal results are given -which 
require a slightly different treatment in order to reduce them to the system 
now in view. It appears that for these results, schedule [J] is applicable 
if we erase all the ^tt's and tt's that occur therein, except in the single 
case of the tide M,. 



§ 9. Description of the Numerical Harmonic Analysis for the Tides of 

Short Period. 

It forms no part of the plan of this Report to give an account of the 
instruments with which the tidal observations are made, or of the tide- 
predicting instrument. A description of the tide-gauge, which is now in 
general use in India and elsewhei-e, and of the tide-predicter, which is at 
the India Store Department in Lambeth, and of designs for modifications 
of those instruments, has been given in a paper by Sir William Thomson, 
read before the Institution of Civil Engineers on March 1, 1881,' and 
to this paper we refer the reader. Our present object is to place on 
record the manner in which the observations have been or are to be 

' ' The Tide Gauge, Tidal Harmonic Analj'ser, and Tide Predicter,' Froc. Inst. 
C.E. vol. 45, part iii. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 93 

henceforth treated, and to give the requisite information for the sub- 
sequent use of the tide-predicting instrument. 

The tide-gauge furnishes us with a continuous graphical record of the 
height of the water above some known datum mark for every instant of 
time. 

It is probable that at some future time the Harmonic Analyser of 
Professors James and Sir William Thomson ' may be applied to the tide- 
curves. The instrument is nearly completed, and now lies in the Physical 
Laboratory of the University of Glasgow, but it has not yet been put into 
use. The treatment of the observations which we shall describe is the 
numerical process used at the office of the Indian Survey at Poena, under 
the immediate superintendence of Major A. W. Baird, R.E. The printed 
forms for computation were admirably drawn up by Mr. Edward Roberts, 
of the ' Nautical Almanac ' Office ; but they have now undergone certain 
small modifications in accordance with this Report. The work of compu- 
tation is to a great extent carried out by native Indian computers. The 
results of the harmonic analysis are afterwards sent to Mr. Roberts, who 
works out the instrumental tide-predictions for the several ports for the 
ensuing year. The use of that instrument requires great skill and care. 
The results of the tidal reductions have hitherto been presented in a 
somewhat chaotic form, and we believe that it is only due to Mr. 
Roberts' knowledge of the manner in which the tidal results have been 
treated that they have been correctly used for prediction. It may be 
hoped that the use of the methods recommended in the present Report 
will remove some of the factitious difficulties in the use of the instru- 
ment. 

The first operation performed on the tidal record is the measurement 
in feet and decimals of the height of water above the datum at every 
mean solar hour. The period chosen for analysis is about one year, and 
the first measurement corresponds to noon. It has been found im- 
practicable to make the initial noon belong to the same day at the several 
ports. It would seem, at first sight, preferable to take the measurements 
at every mean lunar hour ; but the whole of the actual process in use is 
based on measurements taken at the mean solar hours, and a chano-e to 
lunar time would involve a great deal of fresh labour and expense. 

If T be the period of any one of the diurnal tides, or the double period 
of any one of the semi-diurnal tides, it approximates more or less nearly 
to 24 m. s. hours, and if we divide it into 24 equal parts, we may speak 
of each as a T-hour. We shall for brevity refer to mean solar time 
as S-time. 

Suppose, now, that we have two clocks, each marked with 360°, or 
24 hours, and that the hand of the first, or /S-ciock, goes round once in 24 
(S-hours, and that of the second, or T-clock, goes round once in 24 T-hours, 
and suppose that the two clocks are started at 0° or 0*> at noon of the 
initial day. For the sake of distinctness, let us imagine that a T-hour is 
longer than an ,S-hour, so that the T-clock goes slower than the /S-clock. 
The measurements of the tide-curve give us the height of water exactly 
at each S-hour ; and it is required from these data to determine the 
height of water at each T-hour. 

For this end we are, in fact, instructed to count T-time, but are only 
allowed to do so by reference to S-time, and, moreover, the time is 
always to be specified as an integral number of hours. 

' See Appendix, Thomson and Tait's iXat. PMI. 2n6. ed. 1883. 



94 EEPORT— 1883. 

Beginning, then, witli O'' of the first day, we shall begin counting 0, 1, 
2, &c., as the T-hand cotnes up to its hour-marks. But as the /S'-hand 
gains on the T-hand, there will come a time when the T-hand, being 
exactly at the p hour-mark, the S-hand is nearly as far as p + h- When, 
however, the T-hand has advanced to the p + 1 hour-mark, the S-hand 
will be a little beyond j;-F1 + -|- : that is to say, a Httle less than half an 
hour before jj-f 2. Counting, then, in T-time by reference to 8-lime, we 
shall jump from p to p + 2. The counting will go on continuously for a 
number of hours nearly equal to 2p, and then another number will be 
dropped, and so on throughout the whole year. If it had been the T-hand 
which went faster than the S-hand, it is obvious that one number would 
be repeated at two successive hours instead of one being dropped. We 
may describe each such process as a ' change.' 

Now, if we have a sheet marked for entry of heights of water accoi'd- 
ing to T-hours from results measured at S-hours, we must enter the 
fiJ-nieasurements continuously up to p, and we then come to a ' change,' 
and dropping one of the S-series, we go on again continuously until 
another ' change,' when another is dropped, and so on. 

Since a ' change ' occurs at the time when a T-honr falls almost 
exactly half way between two S-hours, it will be more accurate at a 
' change ' to insert the two S'-entries which fall on each side of the truth. 
If this be done the whole of the ,S-series of measurements is entered on 
the T-sheet. Similarly, if it be the T-hand which goes faster than the 
/S-hand, we may leave a gap in the T-sei'ies instead of duplicating an 
entry. For the analysis of the T-tide there is therefore prepai'cd a sheet 
arranged in rows and columns ; each row corresponds to one T-day, and 
the columns are marked 0*^, !•*,... 23^ ; the O'^'s may be called T-noons. 
A dot is put in each space for entry, and where there is a change two 
dots are put if there is to be a double entry, and a bar if there is to be 
no entry. Black vertical lines mark the end of each /S-day. These 
black lines will of course fall into slightly irregular diagonal lines across 
the page, and such lines are steeper and steeper the more nearly T-time 
approaches to S-time. They slope downwards from right to left if the 
T-hour is longer than the iS-hour, and the other way in the opposite case. 
The ' changes ' also run diagonally, with a slope in the opposite direction 
to that of the black lines. 

We annex a diminished sample of a part of a page drawn up for the 
entry of the M-series of tides, in which jT-time is mean lunar time. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



95 



o 

1 


o 


T— 1 

CO 


<?5 


"5 


CO 






•• 






'^1 1 ' .„ . 






^ 
^M 












O 












T— 1 

00 










• ■ 














r— 1 
















1 

1 


1 — 1 


• • 






















5j 

1—1 










1— 1 

T— 1 








O 
























00 




1 


i 


F. 






1 
1 


X 


1 








1 




















CO 










•• 










pJ 


1 








o 












1—1 


C5 


CO 


-^ 


o 



o 
-3 



o8 



IN. 

o 


00 


JN. 


1—1 

CO 

In. 


1—1 

r— ( 
IS. 


CO 

oco 








^ 
!■>. 














CO 

IN. 








1 


S 


1 

i 


1 


1 CO 

1 '^ 


I 


1 i- ■ 




CO 

IN. 




■ i 


1>^ 


"0 

CO 

I^ 












CO 




1 


s 






•• 


t 

1 






1 








rt 













CO 










CO 


y 


- 




f2 

)-0 










CO 

tN 












CO 










CO 












CO 




.. 1 

1 








-* 

t^ 






















CO 












CO 


r^ 

o 


cc 




o 
1-^ 


1—1 


3 

72 


d 



96 BEPORT— 1883. 

In the form actually prepared for the computers, the horizontal lines 
between the successive days are absent, and the place for each single 
entry is indicated by a single dot. 

The incidence of the hours in the computation forms for the several 
series was determined by Mr. Roberts. 

Since the first day is numbered 1, and the first hour 0*^, it follows that 
the hourly observation numbered 74'' IP is the observation which com- 
pletes a period of 73'' 12'^ of mean solar time since the beginning ; in fact, 
to find the period elapsed since 0'' of the first day we must subtract 1 from 
the number of the day and add one to the number of the hour. The 
73'' 12'' of m. s. time, inserted at the foot of the form, is very neai-ly equal 
to 71 days of mean lunar or M-time. For each class of tide there are five 
pages, giving in all about 370 values for the height of the water at each 
of the 24 special hours ; the number of values for each hour varies slightly 
according as more or less ' changes ' fall into each column. 

The numbers entered in each column are summed on each of the five 
pages; the five sets of results being summed, the results are then divided 
each by the proper divisor for its column, and thus is obtained the mean 
value for that column. In this way 21 numbers are found which give 
the mean height of water at each of the 24 special hours. 

It is obvious that if this process were continued over a very long time 
•we should in the end extract the tide under analysis from amongst all the 
others, but as the process only extends over about a year, the elimination 
of the others is not quite complete. 

The elimination of the effects of the other tides may be improved by 
choosing the period for analysis not exactly equal to one year. For sup- 
pose that the expression for the height of water is 

A, cos «ii + Bi sin n^t + Ao cos Woi-I-Ba sin n.2t . , . (61) 

where v. 2 is nearly equal to n^, and that we wish to eliminate the M2-tide, 
so as to be left only with the 7ii-tide. 
Now, this expression is equal to 

{A, f-A, cos (?i,— ■rej)^ — B., sin O'l — «■.>)<] cos iiii) ,^^. 

4- {B,+A2 sin (»! — 5(.o)^ + Bo cos (»i — "2)'') sin n^fi 

That is to say, we may regard the tide as oscillating with a speed Hj, but 
with slowly-varying range. Now we want to find the mean semi-ranges 
Ai, Bi of such an o-scillation, and these will be found if we take the 
average semi-ranges estimated over a good many periods 27r/(ni — Wo). 
It will be best to stop exactly at the termination of such a period, so that 
the number of positive errors may be as nearly as possible equal to the 
number of negative ones. 

It is of course impossible to choose for each tide iiy a period which 
shall minimise the effects of more than one of the tides of short period 
•K2 ill vitiating the values of mean semi-ranges of the tide w,, and accord- 
ingly the periods have been chosen so as to minimise the effect of the 
principal solar semi-diurnal tide Sq upon the principal lunar semi-diurnal 
tide M2, and of the Mj-tide upon the others. 

If »i| be a diurnal tide and n^ a semi-diurnal one, it does not seem 
■worth while to choose any particular pei'iod for the averaging process, 
because the coefficients will go through so large a number of oscillations 
(about 350) in the course of the year. Nevertheless, special periods for 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSEllVATIONS. 



the evalaation of the diurnal tides have been chosen, and the reason for 
the choice, alleged in the Report to the British Association for 1872, 
seetQS to be to minimise the effect of the .M2-tide on the diurnal tide. 
The period intended to be chosen (for the arithmetic seems to have been 
incorrectly worked out), will, it is true, minimise the effect of the Mj-tide ; 
the M,-tide is, however, so small that it appears to the writer that there 
was no advantage gained by the choice. 

The computation forms show the following periods. 

[L.] 

Periods over ivMch the Harmonic, Analysis extends in the several series of 

Tides of Short Feriod. 



Tide 

S 

M 

O 

K 

P 

J 

Q 
L 

N 



Period in 


S days 


d 


h 


. 369 


3 


. 369 


3 


. 369 


3 


. 369 


3 


. 869 


3 


. 370 


5 


. 370 


5 


. 369 


31 


or 358 


6) 


. 369 


3) 


or 358 


6) ■ 


. 349 


22) 


or 369 


3) 


. 349 


22 


or 369 


3 


. 369 


3 


. 369 


o 
O 


. 369 


3 


. 369 


3 


. 369 


3 



Teriod in special days 



d 


h 


. 369 


3 


. 356 


15 


. 343 


3 


. 370 


3 


. 368 


3 


. 384 


16 


. 330 17 


363 


8) 


or 352 


15f 


349 


22) 


or 339 


15 


343 


14 


or 362 


1(; 


332 


14 1 

20) 


or 350 


344 


3 


369 


15 


368 


15 


362 


21 


381 


15 



R 
T 

MS . 
2SM . 

The computation forms for the L, N, X, i- tides have been drawn up 
in alternative forms, so that the computer may stop at the shorter period 
if desirable. 

It is proposed to drop the reduction of the tides \ and R, and to add 
cortain new tides which have been denoted 2^, MK, 2MK. These last 
have been made to extend over a period of 369'^ 3'\ This period was chosen 
because if we put »,=2(y — o-), ii2 = 2(y — r]), we have »2~^i=2((7 — »/) ; 
and 369'^ 3^ 11°' is equal to 25 periods of an angular velocity 2(cr — //). 

Again, if we put iii=2y — 3rr + tj or 2y — a — 'm, and ??2 = 2(y— o-) we 
have «, — ?i,, or Wi — »/., equal to a — ^m; and 358*^ o'^ 1™ is equal to 13 
periods of an angular velocity a — 'tsr. The 358'^ 6^ which occurs in the 
computation forms is a mistake for 358'^ 5**. 

Next, if weputni=2y — 3(7 — •5r + 2(;or2y — (T + 'cr-2r;, andw2=2(y — ff) 
we have n^ — n^, or ?!,— «2 equal to 2((7 — jy) — ((T-'to-) ; and 349"^ 22^ 21»" 
is equal to 11 periods of an angular velocity ff + ra-— 2/j. 

Lastly, if we put «i=y — S^ + 'ra- or -/-l-cr — to-, and iu^^y — G we have 
v^ — ii] or )ii— »<2 equal to 2<7— ■ar; and 370'^ 9'' 46'" is equal to 27 periods 
i>f an angular velocity 2ar — «r. The 370"^ S'^ which occurs in the computa ■ 
tion forms is a mistake for 370'' 10''. 

1883. u 



98 EiiPOBT— 1883. 

"We may here remark that there does not seem to be any advantage in 
the choice of 369'' o^ as the period, excepting in the analysis for the 
M-series and S-series. At the same time there is no harm in that choice, 
and therefore the computation forms may be used as they exist. The 
choice of a special period for the diurnal tides J and Q also appears to be 
useless, and therefore they may be safely used for the period of 370"^ 5** 
based on erroneous arithmetic. It may perhaps be worth while to cut off 
the last entry in the L and N forms, and thus bring the period to its 
correct value. 

Let ur now return to our general notation, and consider the 24 mean 
values, eacu pertaining to the 24 T-hours. We suppose that all the tides 
excepting the 2-tide are adequately eliminated, and, in fact, a computation 
of the necessary corrections for tlie absence of complete elimination, which 
is given in the Tidal Report of 1872, shows that this is the case. 

It is obvious that any one of the 24 values does not give the true 
height of the T-tide at that T-hour, but gives the average height of the 
water, as due to the T-tide, estimated over half a T-hour before and half 
a T-hourafter that hour. We must now consider the correction necessary 
on this account. 

Suppose we have a function 

/i=Ai cos + Bi sin fl + Ag cos 2tf + B2 sin 26 + 

+ A,. cos rS + 'B,. s'lu rd+ .... 

Then we see by integration that the function 

7i'=Ai' cos fl + B/ sin O + A^' cos 23 + Bo' sin 2.9+ ... 

+ A,.' cos rt) + B,' sin rd+ ... ., 
where 



V^^'^R^ • . A/^5/^sin i2a . A^=B,'^smJm _ 

Aj Bi ia" ' A., B2 i2u ' ■ ■ ■ A, B, h-u '■•••' 

is derivable from h by substituting for the h, corresponding to any value 
of 6, the mean value of h estimated over the interval from ^-t-^a to 

e-u. 

Thus when harmonic analysis is applied to the 24 T-honrly values, 
the coefEcients which express that oscillation which goes through its 
period r times in the 24 T-hours must be augmented by the factor 
■^ra /sin -gro. Thus we get the following expressions for the augmenting 
factors for the diurnal, semi-diurnal, ter-diurnal oscillations, &c., viz. : — 

Computing from these we find the following augmenting factors. 

[M.] 
Augmenting Factors. 



For A„ B, 
Aj, Bj 
A3, B3 
A„B, 
Afi, B, 
Ag, Bg 



100286 
1-01152 
1-02617 
1-04720 
1-11072 
1-20920 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 99 

In the reduction of the S-series of tides, the numbers treated are the 
actual heights of the water exactly at the S-hours, and therefore no aug- 
menting factor is requisite. 

We must now explain how the harmonic analysis, which the use of 
these factors presupposes, is carried out. 

If t denotes T-time expressed in houi-s, and n is 15°, we express the 
height h, as given by the averaging process above explained, by the 
formula 

7t:=Ao + Ai cos ni + Bi sin nt + X.^ coa 2nt + 'B., sin '2nt+ .... 

where f is 0, 1, 2 ... . 23. 

Then if S denotes summation of the series of 24 terms found by attri- 
buting to t its 24 values, it is obvious that 

' A<, = oV-^' ; Ai=yV-^'' cos nt ; Bi = yV2/i sin nt : 

A., = -i.T~Jt cos '2nt ; B2 = ^\^Ji sin 2ut ; &c., &c. 

Since ii is 15° and t is an integer, it follows that all the cosines and 
sines involved in these sei-ies ai'e equal to one of the following : viz. 
0, ± sin 15°, ± sin 30°, ± sin 45°, ± sin 60", ± sin 75°, ±1. It is 
found convenient to denote these sines, as 0, +8^, ±8-2, ±8^, ^8^, ±8r„ 
+ 1. The multiplication of the 24 h's. by the various S's, and the sub- 
sequent additions may be arranged in a very neat tabular form. 

We append the form for the reduction of the M-tides, filled in for 
Karachi 1880-81, but abridged by the omission of some of the decimals. 
The columns marked M ai-e the multipliers appropriate for each series. 

The columns I. and II. contain the 24 hourly values to be submitted 
to analysis. The subsequent operations are sufficiently indicated by the head- 
ings to the columns, and it will be found on examination that the results 
are in reality the sums of the several series indicated above. We believe 
that this mode of arranging the harmonic analysis is due to Archibald 
Smith, who gives it in the Admiralty manual on the Compass. The 
arrangement seems to be very nearly the same as that adopted by Everett 
(Trans. Boy. 8oc. Edinb. 1860) in his reductions of observations on under- 
ground temperature. 

In most cases it is not necessary to deduce moi'e than the tide of the 
speed indicated by astronomical theory, but we give the full form by 
which the over-tides are deducible. If we want only a diurnal tide, thee 
the only columns necessary ai'e I. to VII. add IX. and X. ; if only a semi- 
diurnal tide, the columns to be retained are I., IT., III., XII., XIII., XV., 
XVI., XVII. 



100 



REPOBT — 1883. 



oc 
o 

00 

00 






s 

o 



CD 





ex. 


■<* 


o 


on 


CO 


^ 


o 


oa 


>o 






i-H 


(Tl 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


CO 




l-< >-l 


















o 




X X 
























+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 

II 

< 












CC 




p; 










1— 1 


m 


o 


CO 
1 


1 


1 


o 


Ol 

T—l 






Oi 


CO 


(M 


on 


1—1 


1— 1 


o 


00 


i-O 




y. 


rH 


CO 


OJ 


cp 


o 


o 


cp 


1^ 


CO 

o 






+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


+ 


+ 

II 




S 


r— 1 




m 






m 


o 


01 

1—1 




j>! 


c; 


•« 


i-O 


rH 


CO 


lO 


<M 




M 1 


1—1 


CO 


(M 


1—1 


o 


o 


o 








+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


! 


1 








1-H 






















t-H* 


o 


T? 


00 


lO 


o 


1—1 


01 


00 


o 




>-;t-' 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


-H 


1— 1 




hH > 


• 




• 












o 




■— ' V 






















>^ 




+ 


+ 


+ 




1 


+ 


+ 


+ 




f^ 


















II 
















y^ 








" 


c 




1—1 




o 


1 


1 


1—1 


^3 






^ 


1—1 


^ 


uO 


»o 


1— 1 


(M 


^ 


oi 






o 


o 


cp 


<p 


cp 


o 


cp 


1—1 


I— 1 
o 




r5 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


■t- 


1 


+ 


+ 
II 




a 


o 


x£ 






cc' 




1— 1 


I— I 




> 


Cj 


>-0 


en 


IN. 


o 


T— 1 


01 




H + 


1 — 1 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 








^> 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4- 


+ 


1 








t— I 






















u .■-« 


. 


'rf 


Ci 


fM 


'^ 


CO 


• 




V. 

Lowe 

half 

of IV 

evers 


• 


r-l 
'l 


o 
'l 


O 
'l 


o 
+ 


cp 

+ 


■ 








-^ 
























C; 


o 


CO 


o 


1— (' 


(01 


Ol 


X -* 


Cl 


O Tf 




I— t 


CI 


I— t 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 


o 


, ' 1—* 


^ 1 
























+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


+ + 


1 


1 1 


1— 1 




















' 


V— I 


o 


^ 


^ 


1-71 


00 


o 


1—1 


o CO 


lO 


X CO 




^ 


o 


00 


05 


di 


l'^ 


»-o 


?a o 


o 


~. r— ' 




I— ( 


1— 1 


1—1 


I— 1 


1— 1 


r-H 


r-l 


—I r-< 




1 — 1 


hH 
























C-. 


»— ( 


1—1 


r^ 


o 


CO 


O 


^o CO 


I^ 


~ —. 




(•"■ 


00 


~, 


O 


CI 


00 


r>. 


O lO 


-* 


Lt 1-0 


1— ' 






















(-H 
























-1M 


'^-^ 


-^ 


o 


o 


r-« 


■00 


Ji o 


T—l 


^1 ^« 




r^ 


1—1 


r-l 


'"' 


1—1 


t— 1 


1—1 


— 1 Ol 


01 


01 CI 




I— I 


OO 


CO 


00 


CO 


00 


O ' 


■o CO 


t^ 


=-.. t^ 




I^ 


00 


Gi 


Ci 


Ci 


00 


t^ <■ 


O lO 


rrf- 


^ >o 


HH 




















1 




^O 


1—1 


Ol 


CO 


'^ 


o 


O I 


■^ 00 


c. 





HAKMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSEUVATIOKS. 



101 









^^^ 
xl 






>1 

X I. 









hH ^ 2 



o 00 o -^ 
I + 



+ 



o 



+ 



r-l O 



O rH O 



O CO O O o p 
JO ■ o ■ -i 



+ 



+ 



O r-f 



O r-H 



S -^ 



<M 



Ci O 1> <^1 



I + 



+ 



xfi xn. 



I I 



o ri 00 o c^ p 

r^ o O 00 CO 

+ + + + + 



00 00 p -f p 
cc i'-^ o o "-b 

+ + + + + 



I— 1 


o 


o 


o 


i-l 


(M 


o 

CM 


oi 


5i 


(M 


as 





— I p O lO 00 p 

O ^I O Ci O r^ 



•^ o CO o 
oc o o i'-^ 



CM 

o 



m 



CO 



CO 





o 


00 


^ 


Ci 


(M 


CM 




+ 


+ 



'^ 02 CC '-' Oj «2 — ( 



m 



*rH 




Cl 


o 


1—1 


^0 CO o 


'mS- 




■X) 


o 


1—1 


o cn> o 






a) 


o 


IN. 


'-0 ^ o 


^ 12 




»o 


o 


o 


.^ CO o 


a; cu 




oi 


lO 


IN. 


00 as o 
















r^ 7^ 


o 










rH 


>'x. 


II 


11 


II 


II 


II 


!l II 


3 


o 


.-/T 




7C 


aJ -^" ^ 


r^ 














■ t> 










, — 1 


o 


sp 




>— 1 


1—1 


f— 1 


^ — ' 


o 


^^ 




00 


o 

(M 


C-i 






^J^ 




+ 


! 


1 


+ 




<5 












II 

OD 







yi' 


yi' 1 


CM 


<i 


r=. 




\ 


1 1 


'"' 














(M 










CM 


O 


•— ' ». > 




CO 


-* 


o 


O 


>p 


O 


o 


o 






yy- 


lO 


lO 






M '^ 




4- 


1 


1 


1 


























•-< 


o 


M 


1 


■^1 

r—l 


II 

00 

pq 












>■ ><; 


1—1 


— I 


rH 






<<; + 


-X: 


X 


00 






^vi 


o 


o 


lO 






X 












HH 












. I-H 


oo 


^^ 


'T. 


'C 


1— 1 


-^ X 


r— 1 


' — J 


o 


Ol 


CM 


ai 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


s 












fcr-< 


1—1 




1 


1—1 


II 


. I-H 










^ 


mx 


o 


Ol 


^ 


t-~ 




i-i >> 




o 


r-t 


1—1 


o 






1 


1 


1 


1 


f^ ^ 












<5 
















-1" 


•^ 


^1 


II 


s 


o 


cc 


M 


r-t 




I— i 










X 


00 


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■» 






tix 


1—1 


o 


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y. 1 


+ 


I 


1 






!^ 












<4-l . 










-■1^ 


o 


rH 


CM 






'r<l"'>.i 


OS 


OS 


OS 








CM 


Ol 


•>i 






M O 












e+-i . 










^■'^- 


CM 


o 


o 






^:^*^ 


CS 


as 


Oi 






><i w 


C^l 


CM 


Ol 


















"r" O 

























102 



KEPOKT — 1883. 



The A'a and B's having been thas deduced, we have R=\/(A* + B2). 
R must then be multlpHed by the augmenting factors which we have 
already evaluated (Schedule [M]). We thus have the augmented R. 
Next the angle whose tangent is B/A gives i. The addition to 4^ of the 
appropriate V^ + u (see Schedule [I]) gives k, and the multiplication of 
R by the appropriate 1/f (see Schedule [I]) gives H. The reduction is 
then complete. 

The following is a sample of the form used. 

[0.1 
Form for Evaluatio)) of i^, R, »>•, H. 

log B = 

logA = 

log tan ; = 



B2= 

A2= 

R2 = " 

R =^ 

Augtn.= 
Augd. R=~ 
l/f=- 
H= 



A form similar to [O] serves for the same purpose in the treatment 
of the tides of long period, to the consideration of which we now pass ; 
it will be seen, however, that for these tides there is no augmenting 
factor, and that the increase of n for 11^ hours has to be added to C- 

§ 10. On the Harmonic Analysis for the Tides of Long Period. 

For the purpose of determining these tides we have to eliminate the 
oscillations of water-level arising from the tides of short period. As the 
quickest of these tides has a period of many days, the height of mean 
water at one instant for each day gives sufficient data. Thus there will 
in a year's observations be 365 heights to be submitted to harmonic 
analysis. In leap-years the last day's observation must be dropped, 
because the treatment is adapted for analysing 365 values. 

To find the daily mean for any day it has hitherto been usual to take 
the arithmetic mean of 24 consecutive hourly values, beginning with the 
height at noon. This height will then apply to the middle instant of 
the period from 0^ to 23^: that is to say, to lli» 30™ at night. We 
shall propose some new modes of treating the observations, and in the 
first of them it will probably be more convenient that the mean for the 
day should apply to midnight instead of to ll^ 30™, For finding a 
mean applicable to midnight we take the 25 consecutive heights for O** to 
24'', and add the half of the first value to the 23 intermediate and to the 
half of the last and divide by 24. It would probably be sufficiently 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



103 



^V('^o + ^'l + . 


• ■ +/'23) 


... (i) 


A(i''o+/'i+ • 


• • +A.23 + y'24) 


... (ii) 


MK+^'i+ ■ ■ 


■ +^'23 + ^*24) ••• 


... (iii) 



accurate if we took ^^^ of the sum of the 25 consecutive values, if it is 
found that the division of every 24th hourly value into two halves mate- 
rially increases the labour of computing the daily means. The three 
plans for finding the daily mean are then 



• (04) 



And they will be denoted as methods (i), (ii), (iii) respectively. It 
does not, however, seem very desirable to use the third method. Major 
Baird considers that the use of method (i) is most convenient for the 
computers. 

The formation of a daily mean does not obliterate the tidal oscillations 
of short period, because none of the tides, excepting those of the prin- 
cipal solar series, have commensurable periods in mean solar time. 

A correction, or ' clearance of the daily mean,' has therefore to be 
applied for all the important tides of short pei'iod, excepting for the solar 
tides. 

Let R cos (nt—'C) be the expression for one of the tides of short 
period as evaluated by the harmonic analysis for the same year, and let 
o be the value of nt—'C at any noon. Then the 25 consecutive hourlv 
heights of water, beginning with that noon, are — 

E. cos o, R cos (7i + (r), R cos (2)i-l-a) . . . 

R cos (23«.-|-o), R cos (24nH-a). 

In the method (i.) of taking the daily mean it is obvious that the 
' clearance ' is 

, -r, sin 12)i , , 1 1 1 \ \ 

— 54^1— ; — COS (a-f m?t) 

sin i?i 



In the method (ii) it is easily proved to be 



, -r, sm 12h , , io \ 

— ttVR COS (a-|-12*i) 

tan iit 



and in method (iii) it is 



(65) 



_5i.-R^l^i^'cos(a-Hl2») 
^ ■" sm hi / 

The clearance, as written here, is additive. 

It was found practically in the computation for these tides that only 
three tides of short period exercise an appreciable effect, so that clearances 
for them have to be applied. These tides are the Mo, N, O tides. It was 
usual to compute these three clearances for ever^^ day in the year, and to 
correct the daily values accordingly.^ But in following this jilan a gi-eat 

' In 1882 a mistake was noticed in the Tidal Report for 1872 in the instructions 
for reducing the tides of long period. It was supposed both by Mr. Roberts and by- 
Major Baird (then in England) that this mistake had been acted on. Accordingly a 



104 EEPOET— 1883. 

deal of unnecessary labour has been incurred, and when a simpler plan is 
followed it may perhaps be worth while to include more of the short- 
period tides in the clearances. 

Professor J. C. Adams suggests the use of the tide-predicting machine 
for the evaluation of the sura of the clearances, and if this plan is not 
found to inconveniently delay operations in India, it may perhaps be 
tried.' 

In explaining the process we will suppose that method (i) has been 
followed ; if either of the other plans be adopted it will be easy to change 
the formulae accordingly. 

It is clear that R cos (a + llAw) is the height of the tide ?i at llh 30™ ; 
and the same is true for each such tide. Heuce if we use the tide- 
predicter to run oflP a year of fictitious tides with the semi-range of each 
tide equal to -J^ sin 12H/sin hi of its true semi-range, and with all the 
solar series and the annual and semi-annual tides put at zero, the height 
given at each ll'' 30™ in the year is the sum for each day of all the clear- 
ances to be subtracted. The scale to which the ranges are set may of 
course be chosen so as to give the clearances to a high degree of accuracy. 

In the other process of clearance, which will be explained below, a 
single correction for each short-period tide is applied to each of the final 
equations, instead of to each daily mean. 

We next take the 365 daily means, and find their mean value. This 
gives the mean height of water for the year. If the daily means be un- 
cleared, the result cannot be sensibly vitiated. 

We next subtract the mean height from each of the 365 values, and 
find 365 quantities c h giving the daily height of water above the mean 
height. 

These quantities are to be the subject of the harmonic analysis ; and 
the tides chosen for evaluation are those which have been denoted above 
as Mm, Mf, MSf, Sa, Ssa. 

Let 

ch= A cos ((T — 'CT)t +B sin (rr — ■ro-)i 



-)-Ccos2(7i -fDsin2(7< 

+ C' cos 2(,T-r,)t + 'D' sin 2((7-7,)i 
-j-E cos 7/i -l-F sin r)t 

+ Gcos2r)t -l-Hsin2/j< 



(66) 



where t is time measured from the first 11'' 30™. 

Now suppose /,, Z2 are the increments in 24 m. s. hours of any two of 
the five arguments (<7-«r)/, 2(Tt, 2(a-r])t, r)t, 2i] t, and that A,, B, ; 
A2, B2, are the corresponding coeflScients of the cosine and sine in the 
expression for ^ h . 

Then if 3 7/; be the value of ch at the (t-M)*'' ll'' 30™ in the year, 
we may write 

^/ij=A, cos lyi + Bi sin Zji + Aa cos I^l + B^ sin J.^i+ . . . (67) 

paper was presented in 1882 to the British Association by the writer of this Ecport 
upon the supposed mistake and its consequences. On his return to India, however, 
Major Baird found that the correct procedure had always been followed. 

' Major Baird has sent three years of results to England in order that the method 
may be tested in competition with the numerical process. 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 105 

And therefore 

?7i, co3Zii= ^A2{cos^(h + h)i+cos^(li -1.2)1} 

+ iB2{sin i(?i + /2)i-sini(/.-?2)0+ • • • 
Bhi sin lii= lAzlsin -^(Z, + /.)/ + sin Uh-h)i] 



Now let 



K^)=i 



sin TjX 



so that 



,n -u7 ^ — 1 si n-g-( ^ ±^2) 



"We may observe that 

0(.,)=0(.-aO, aiid</.(0) = 1821 

If therefore 2 denotes summation for the 365 values from i=0 to 
i=364, we have 

::87tcosZ,i=[</)(Zi + ?2)cosl82(?, + /2) + <?'('i-?2)cosl82(Z,-Z2)]A.2 

+ [<^(/, + 72)sinl82(Z, + /2)-</'(/i-?2)sinl82(Z,-Z2)]Bo + . . 

sa/i sin/,j:=[^(Z, +72) sin 182(7, + ?2) +<?'(?i -^2) sin 182(7,- 73)] A2 

+ [-</^('i + y cosl82(Z, + 72)+.^(7i-72)cosl82(7,-Zo)]B2 + .. 

In these equations there is always one pair of terms in which 72 is 
identical with 7,, and since <(> (7, — 7,)=182|, and cos 182 (7, — 7,)=!, it 
follows that there is one term in each equation in which there is a coeflB- 
cient nearly equal to 182-5. In the cosine series it will be a coefficient 
of an A ; in the sine series, of a B. 

The following are the equations (copied from the Report for 1872) 
with the coefficients inserted, as computed from these formulae, or their 
equivalents : — 



(68) 



106 



EEPORT — 1883. 



.o 

s 
o 



:« 



CO 

CM 



fe< 



l^-l 


Oi 


o 


c~. 


!>. 


CO 


CO 


o 


o 


o 


tN 


o 


CD 


CD 


I— ( 


I— H 


oi 


CM 


o 


o 


o 


lO 




O 


O 


6 


o 


o 


o 


6 


o 


o 


CI 

00 


o 




















1— ( 


O 


1 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


e+H 


o 


00 


1 r^ 


CD 


o 


IN 


^ 


o 


CO 


o 


'-' 


Ci 


00 


O 


O 


IN. 


Ol 


1—1 


o 


"* 


o 


St: ^ 
o 


-^ 


CO 


1—1 


CO 


rH 


do 


o 


o 


CI 

00 


6 


o 


















I— I 




O 


+ 


+ 


I 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


+ . 


+ 


+ 


t+H 


-# 


tP 


o 


00 


>— 1 


o 


o 


tN 


o 


o 


o 


03 


CO 


1—1 


o 


T— 1 


1— 1 


o 


ftl 


o 


o 




O 


o 


o 


o 


6 


6 


6 


CM 

00 


o 


o 


o 
















1— f 






o 


1 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


! 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


<^i-i 


00 


o 


o. 


iO 


00 


i-O 


00 


o 


^ 


o 


o 


GO 


00 


o 


o 


CD 


CM 


-* 


o 


1— ( 


o 




'^ 


CO 


r-t 


CO 


rH 


CO 


CI 

00 


o 


o 


o 


o 














1—1 








o • 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


'4H 
O 


^ 


t^ 


oa 


lit 


tN. 


1—1 


"0 


o 


r^ 


CO 


p 


o 


Ci 


1^ 


Ci 


OD 


c^ 


r-H 


CM 


■M 


0) 


o 


f-H 


o 


6 


o 


1— i 

00 


CO 


6 


CO 


o 


o 












rH 










i; 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


CM 

o 


t^ 


o 


1—1 


Ol 


Oi 


IN. 


00 


rH 


o 


CO 


I-N. 


en 


CD 


OS 


rH 


Cj 


1p 


I— 1 


In 


CI 


O 


o 


-^ 


O 


o 


CO 

'00 


o 


1—1 


6 


rH 


o 










rH 












a 


+ 


1 


4- 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


e*H 


Oi 


<M 


CO 


Ol 


(M 


lO 


lO 


00 


CD 


IN 


O 


<M 


O 


00 


00 


Oi 


IN 


o 


o 


o 


r— 1 


^Q 


-^ 


^H 


O 


00 


6 


6 


CO 


o 


CO 


6 


o 








1—1 














o 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


' + 


1 


+ 


1 


CM 

o 


CO 


O 


00 


00 


1— 1 


Cl 


o 


o 


r-i 


Oi 


IN. 


I— 1 


1—1 


00 


CD 


o 


Ip 


1—1 


lO 


r— 1 




o 


'^ 


CO 


6 


6 


o 


1— 1 


6 


1— 1 


o 


O 






1— ' 
















a 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


CM 

o 


-# 


lO 


>o 


01 


o 


r^ 


o 


-* 


00 


CI 


f— 1 


Oi 


I— t 


o 


o 


o 


00 


CO 


cp 


CD 




CI 


00 


^ 


1— 1 


-^ 


rH 


CO 


6 


CO 


o 


o 




1—1 


















o 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


O 


o 


-* 


CO 


en 


t^ 


-? 


00 


-* 


CD 


Oi 


o 


T—l 


i^ 


<M 


IN 


p 


00 


CO 


Oi 


CD 


£< 

o 


CO 
00 


CI 


O 


-^ 


o 


lO 


^ 


6 


^ 


o 


o 


1—1 




















O 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ • 


1 




II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


Jl 


II 


II 


II 


II 












-i^ 














/— \ 


,-^\ 






,-— V. 


^.—^ 












& 


fe 






1 


I 












1 

fc 


1 

b 


b 




1 

b 


1 

b 


-^^ 


-«. 


•.^ 


•^ 








CM 


CM 


(M 


CM 


sr 


sr 


c5 


CM 








O 
O 




o 
o 




c 


CO 


8 


■B 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




CO 






















H 





















HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 107 

If the daily means have been cleared by the use of the tide-predicter as 
above described, these ten equations are to be solved by successive 
approximation, and we are then furnished with the two component semi- 
amplitudes, say Ai, B, of the five long-period tides. But the initial 
instant of time is the first 11** 30™ in the year instead of the first noon. 
Hence if as before we put R^^Ai^ + Bi'^, and tan 4i=Bi/Ai, we must, in 
order to reduce the results to the normal form in which noon of the first day 
is the initial instant of time, add to 4fi the increment of the corresponding 
argument for 11^ 30™, according to method (i), or for 12 hours accord- 
ing to methods (ii) or (iii). 

If, however, the daily means have not been cleared, then before solu- 
tion of the final equations corrections for clearance will have to be applied, 
which we shall now proceed to evaluate. 

For this process we still suppose method (i) to be adopted. 

Let n be the speed of a short-period tide in degrees per m. s. hour, 

and let \p («)=^— ; — - — . Then we have already seen that the clearance 

to S^,-, the mean height of water at 11'^ 30"" of the (;'-l-l)*^ day, will be 

-;//(«)R cos lu{24<i+lU} -4']. 

If we write m=24?i (so that m is the daily increase of argument of the 
tide of short period), and/3:=n x 11-| — 4, this becomes 

— (//(m)II cos (mi + l3). 

Hence the clearance for c h^ cos li is 

—^\P(n)'R{cos l(m+iyi+ft] + cos [(m - !){ + p]} , 
and for c 7t,- sin li is 

— lv|.(n)R[sin \_(in + J)i + 13] -sin [(m-Z);+/3]}. 

Summing the series of 365 terms we find that the additive clearance 
for 20 h cos li is 

-'RxP(n){<p(m + l) cos [I82(m+l)+i3'] + <f>(m-l) cos [I82(m-1)+ij]}, 

where as before 



sin 



3fi; 



,^(.,)=i»_^fL^ (09) 

sin ^x 

Jf An denotes the increase of the argument nt in 182"^ ll** 30™, this 
may now be written 

-Rxj,(n){ff>(m + l) cos [An + 182l-Q + cl>{m-l) cos [An - 1821 -Q], 

If therefore R cos 4= A, R sin 4=B, so that A and B are the component 
semi-ranges of the tide n as immediately deduced from the harmonic 
analysis for the tides of short period, we have for the clearance to 
SS h cos li 

-[xP(n)(t>(m+l) cos (^u+182l) + ^P(7l)^p(m-l) cos (.ln-182Z)]A 
-[4^(n)<p(vi+l) sin {An + l82l) + ^l^(n)fOn-l) sin (An-182l)]B 



108 REPOiiT— 1883. 

In precisely the same manner we find the clearance for ^.ch sin U to be 
-[■'P(,n)<l>(iu + l) sin (An + 182/)-4'(n)^(rrt-/) sin (^n-182Z)]A 
+ l^{7i)f(m + I) cos (AH + lS2/)-i.(»)^0»-/) cos (An-'iS2l)]B 

These coefficients may be written in a form more convenient for com- 
putation. For 

^^ ^ 2sin^()«±0 

=lcosl82(m±Z) + i sinlS2(;)i±Z) cot{,(»i±Z) . . (70) 

Then let 

K{n,I) = i,(in + ])+<i>(m-1) | 

Z(n,])^<j>(ja + ])-<!>(m-I) ) 



(71) 



Also let 



^(n) cos AM=v,'i- ''-- — j^ cos Aii=C(;/) 
bin !-,iL 

\{/(n) sin An =:S(n) 



(72) 



The functions K(h, /), Z(/;, /), C(//), S(h) may be easily computed 
from (70), (71), (72). 

Then if we denote the additive clearance for 2t /t cos U by 

[A, n, I, cos]A + [B, ■«, I, cos]B, 
and that for ^hh sin li by 

[A, n, I, sin]A+[B, ?i, 1, sin]B. 
We have 

[A, n, I, cos] = -C(70K(h., /) cos 182l + S(n)Z(n, ?) sin 182^ 
[B, n, I, cos]^ -S(«)K(«, cos 182l-C(n)Z{n, /) sin 182Z 
[A, n, I, sin] = -S(H)Z(«, cos 182Z-C(«)K(h, 1) sin 182? 
[B, n, I, sin]= C{H)Z(n, I) cos l82l-S(n)K(n, 1) sin 182Z 



rl73) 



We must remark that if ^(m + l)=o60°, fim + l) is equal to 182-5. 

This case arises when I is the tide MSf of speed 2(o-— »>), and m the 
tide Mj of speed 2(y-<7), for m + l is then 24x 2(y--r;)=720°. 

The clearance of the long-period tide I from the effects of the short- 
period tide n requires the computation of these four coefficients. For 
the clearance of the five long-period tides from the effects of the three tides 
M2, N, O, it will be necessary to compute 60 coefficients. 

If it shall be found convenient to make the initial instant or epoch for 
the tides of long period different from that chosen in the reductions of 
those of short period, it will, of course, be necessary to compute the 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



109 



values which A and B would have had if the two epochs had been 
identical. A and B are, of course, the component semi-ranges of the tide 
of short period at the epoch chosen for the tides of long period ; to 
determine them it is necessary to multiply R by the cosine and sine of 
V+n—K at the epoch. 

[Q.] 

Schedule of Coefficients for Clearance of Daily Means in the Final Eqiiations. 



2{<r-7,) 



(M.,) w=2(y-<7)- 



[A,7?, ?, cos] 
[B, n, I, cos] 
[A,«,?, sin] 
"B, Ji, ?, sin] 



-0-05557 
-0-17036 
-0-17075 
+0-04410 



+ 0-00302 
-003773 
+ 0-04170 
+ 0-01052 



+ 5-7393 
-2-9228 
-2-8400 
-5-7271 



-0-10410 
-0-07525 
-0-0017G 
+ 0-0047G 



-0-01465 
-0-07546 
-000353 
+ 0-00958 



(N) w=2y-3<7 + 'ffl-. 



"A, n,l,cos] 
B,», ^,cos] 
A, n, I, sin] 
B,n, ?,sin] 



-0-05884 
-0-07758 
-0-02059 
+ 0-11381 



+ 0-03680 
-0-22337 
-0-15245 
-0 08544 



+ 0-02938 
-0-19384 
-0-12210 

-0-08081 



-0-01760 
+ 000254 
+ 000020 
+ 0-00007 



-001760 
+ 0-00254 
+ 0-00041 
+ 000015 



(0) 7i=y-2<7. 



[A, n, I, cos] 
[B, »?, Z, cos] 
[A,?), ?, sin] 
[ B. n, I, sin] 



-0-06485 
-0-34765 
- 0-34523 
+ 0-04052 



+ 0-01673 
-0-07788 
+ 0-08418 
+ 0-03379 



+ 0-01582 
-0 08158 
+ 0-08748 
+ 0-03295 



-0-19240 
-0-18260 
-0-004CO 
+ 0-00897 



-0-19340 
-0-18311 
-0-00026 
+ 0-01802 



It may happen from time to time that the tide-gauge breaks down for 
a few days, from the stoppage of the clock, the choking of the tube, or 
aorae other such accident. In this case there will be a hiatus in the 
values of S7i. Now, the whole process employed depends on the 
existence of 365 continuous values of ch. Unless, therefore, the year's 
observations are to be sacrificed, this hiatus must be filled. If not more 
tliiin three or four days' observations are wanting, it will be best to plot 
out the values of ? h graphically on ench side of the hiatus, and filling 
in the gap with a curve drawn by hand, use the values of ch given by the 



110 REPOKT— 1883. 

conjectural curve. If the gap is somewhat longer, several plans may be 
suggested, and judgment must be used as to vvhicli of them is to be 
adopted. 

If there is another station of observation in the neighbourhood, the 
values of ch for that station may be inserted. 

The values of o h for another part of the year, in which tbe moon's 
and sun's declinations are as nearly as may be the same as they were 
during the gap, may be used. 

It may be, however, that the hiatus is of considerable length, so that 
the preceding methods are inapplicable : as when in 1882 the tidal record 
for Vizagapatam is wanting for 67 days. The following method of treat- 
ment will then be applicable : — 

We find approximate values of tbe tidal constituents of long period, 
and fill in the hiatus, so as to complete the 365 values, with the com- 
puted height of the tide during the hiatus. 

To find these approximate values we form ^Ih cos It and Sc/isinZi 
for the days of observation ; next, in the ten final equations of Schedule 
P we neglect all the terms with small coefficients, and in the terms whose 
coefiBcients are approximately 182"5, we substitute a coefficient equal to 
IS'i'o diminished by half the number of days of hiatus. For example, 
for Vizagapatam in 1882 we have 182'5— -^x 67 = 149, and, e.g., 
2c /t cos (tr — «r) i = 149 A approximately. After the approximate values 
of A, B, C, D, &c., have been found, it is easy to find the approximate 
height of tide for the days of the hiatus. This plan will also apply where 
the hiatus is of short duration. 

It may be pursued whether or not we are working with cleared 
daily means ; for if the daily means are uncleared, as will hence- 
forth be the case, we import with the numbers by which the hiatus is 
filled exactly those fictitious tides of long period which are cleared away 
by the use of the " clearance coefficients," in preparing the ten final 
equations for solution. 

Other methods of treating a stoppage of the record may be devised. 
If the stoppage be near the beginning of the year, or near the end, we 
may ueglect the observations before or after the gap, and compute afresh 
the 100 coefficients of Schedule P, and the clearance coefficients of 
Schedule Q for the number of days remaining. If the gap is in the 
middle we might compute the values of the coefficients of Schedules P 
and Q as though the days of hiatus were days of observation, bearing 
in mind that the formuliB are to be altered by the consideration that time 
is to be measured from the initial 11** 30™ of the year, instead of from 
the initial lli^ 30™ of the days of hiatus. 

The so computed coefficients are then to be subtracted from the 
values given in Schedules P and Q, and the amended final equations and 
amended clearance coefficients to be used. 

It must remain a matter of judgment as to which of these various 
methods is to be adopted in each case. 

§ 11. Method of Equivalent Multipliers for the Harmonic Analysis for the 

Tides of Long Period. 

Up to the present time the harmonic analysis for these tides has been 
conducted on a plan which seems to involve a great deal of unnecessary 
labour. If I be the speed of any one of the five tides for which the 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. Ill 

analysis has been carried out, in degrees per m. s. day, the values of cos It 
and sin It have been computed for i=0, 1, 2 . . . 364, so that there are 
730 values for each of the five tides. These 730 values have then been 
multiplied by the 305 cli's corresponding to each value of <, and the 
summations gave 'Zcli cos U and 2 c/i sin It, the numerical results being 
the left-hand sides of one pair of the ten final equations explained in 
§ 10. Now, it appears that this labour may be largely abridged, without 
any substantial loss of accnraey. 

The plan proposed by Professor Adams is that of equivalent multi- 
pliers. The values of cos U may be divided into eleven groups, according 
as they fall nearest tol'O, -9, -8, 7 ... . -2, "1, 0. Then, as all the values 
of ch are to be multiplied by some value of cos It, and that value of cos It 
must fall into one of these groups, we collect together all the values of 
c li which belong tc one of these groups, sum them, and multiply the sum 
by the corresponding multiplier, I'O, "9, -8, &c., as the case may be. 
Since there are as many values of cos It which are negative as positive, 
we must change the sign of half of the c h's. This changing of sign may 
be effected mechanically as follows :— In the spaces for entry of the ch's, 
those 2 ^'s whose sign is to be unchanged are to be entered on the left side 
of the space if positive, and to the right if negative ; when the sign is to 
be altered this order of entry is to be reversed. Thus in the column 
corresponding to each multiplier we shall have two sub-columns, on the 
left all the c h's which, when the signs are appropriately altered, are -f , 
and on the right those which are -. The sub-columns are to be 
separately summed, and their difference gives the total of the column, 
which is to be multiplied by the multiplier appropriate to the column. 
The treatment for the formation of 28/; sin It is precisely similar. 

The annexed form [Schedule R] is designed for entry for deter- 
mination of I.C h cos (a — T])t. 

The entries of ih are to be made continuously in the marked squares 
from left to right, and back again from right to left. The numbers in 
the squares, which in the computation forms are to be printed small and 
put in the corner, indicate the days of observation. The rows are 
arranged in sets of four corresponding to each complete period of 2(<T—r]). 
In the middle pair for each period the -|- values of Sh are to be written 
on the right, and in the rest on the left. The word ' change ' opposite 
half the rows is to show the computer that he is to change the mode of 
entvy. Each column, excepting that for zero, is to be summed at the 
toot of the page, and multiplied by ihe multiplier corresponding to its 
column. A pair of forms is required for each tide of long period; they 
are very easily prepared from the existing forms, in which the values of 
the multipliers are already computed. 



112 



BEPORT 1883. 



Form for Beductioti of the Tide MSf. 







+ — 
10 


+ — 
•9 


+ - 
•8 


+ — 
•7 


+ — 
•G 


+ — 
•5 


+ — 
■i 


+ — 


+ — 


4- — 
•1 


4 

o; 






4— 





1 




2 


— 




3 












7 




6 




5 








4 




change 


i 


8 




9 






10 






11 


chan^q:e 


\ ^ 


14 






13 




12 












— y 
<— 


15 


16 






17 








18 




2 , 


oo 


21 






20 




25 




19 






change 




23 




24 












26 


change 


V ■<- 


29 




28 






27 






33 






<- 
—> 

u 

/ 
— > 


30 


36 


31 


35 




32 












3 ( 








— 


34 

40 


41 




change 




37 


OS 






39 


47 






change 




a 


43 






42 










45 




46 


















4 ( 


51 


50 








49 








48 


change 




52 


53 




54 


-- 






55 






change 




53 
60 






57 




56 












59 




61 








62 










5 


66 
G7 
74 




63 
GS 


"2 


64 




63 




change 








GO 


71 

x-4 






70 


en 


change 




73 














Total + . 
Total - . 




&C. 








&C. 






&C. 




Total . . 
Multiply . 


xl-C 


X -9 


x-8 


X -7 


xG 


X "5 


x-3 


x-2 


x-1 


x-0 




Kesults 
























Sum 


l;vt,tr 


ally 




i:: /, t 




n 1 1 
rr - 1 


jT_ 




6UL 


11 f - 


- = 





HAEMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERYATIONS. 



113 



§ 12. AuxiLiARr Tables drawn up under the superintendknce op 

Major Baird, R.E. 

Values of N (Long. Maori's Ascending Node) for 0^ Jan. 1, G.M.T. 

Value at 0" G M.T. Jan. 1, 1880 = 285°-95r)863. 

Motion per Julian year in. 1880= 10°-31146248. 

Motion for 365 rfflj's= 19°-32822387, and for 1 <Zay = 0°-052954. 



Year 


N 


Year 


N 


Year 


n 


Year 


N 


I860 


3127861 


1875 


22°6509 


1890 


92^5158 


1905 


162°4335 


1 


293-4019 


6 


3-3227 


1 


73-1875 


6 


143-1053 


2 


2740767 


7 


343-9415 


2 


53-8593 


7 


123-7771 


3 


254-7485 


8 


324-6133 


3 


34-4781 


8 


104-4489 


4 


235-4203 


9 


305-2851 


4 


15-1499 


9 


85-0677 


1865 


216-0391 


1880 


285-9569 


1895 


355-8217 


1910 


65-7395 


6 


196-7109 


1 


266-5757 


6 


336-4935 


1 


46-4112 


7 


3 77-3826 


2 


247-3475 


7 


317-1123 


2 


27-0830 


8 


158-0544 


3 


227-9192 


8 


297-7841 


3 


7-7018 


9 


138-6732 


4 


208-5910 


9 


278-4558 


4 


348-3736 


1870 


119-3450 


1885 


189-2098 


1900 


259-1271) 


1915 


329-0454 


1 


100-0168 


6 


169-8816 


1 


239-7994 


6 


309-7172 


2 


80-6886 


7 


150-5534 


2 


2204712 


7 


290-3360 


3 


61-3074 


8 


131-2252 


3 


201-1429 


8 


271-0078 


4 


41-9792 


9 


1118440 


4 


181-8147 


9 


251-6795 



Decrement of N since 0^ Jan. 1 nj:) to midnight of certain days of the year. 

In leap year, for all days after Feb. 28-Marcli 1, use a mean value betv/een that 
for the particular day and for the day follo-wlng. 

[Note. — The reason for choosing midnight is because half a year after O*" of the 
first day under analysis falls at midnight, and the mean value of N to he used in the 
tidal reductions is taken as the value of N at that date. — G. H. I).] 



Jan. 1- 2 


0-0265 


May 1- 2 


6-3810 


Sept. 5- 6 


131061 


5- 6 


-2383 


5- 6 


•5928 


10-11 


•3709 


10-11 


•5031 


10-11 


•8576 


15-16 


•6357 


15-16 


-7678 


15-16 


7-1223 


20-21 


■9005 


20-21 


1-0326 


20-21 


-3871 


25-26 


14-1652 


25-26 


•2974 


25-26 


•6519 


30-31 


-4300 


30-31 


•5621 


30-31 


•9166 


Oct. 1- 2 


•4829 


Feb. 1- 2 


-6681 


June 1- 2 


80225 


5- 6 


•6948 


5- 6 


•8799 


5- 6 


•2344 


10-11 


•9595 


9-10 


•0917 


10-11 


•4991 


15-16 


15^2243 


10-11 


2-1446 


15-16 


•7639 


20-21 


•4891 


15-16 


•4094 


20-21 


9-0287 


25-26 


-7538 


20-21 


•6742 


25-26 


•2934 


30-31 


16-0186 


25-26 


•9390 


30-31 


•6582 


Nov. 1- 2 


-1245 


Mar. 1- 2 


3-1508 


July 5- 6 


•8230 


5- 6 


■3363 


5- 6 


•3626 


10-n 


10-0878 


10-11 


•6011 


10-11 


•6274 


15-16 


•3525 


15-16 


•8659 


15-16 


•8921 


20-21 


•6173 


20-21 


17-1307 


20-21 


4^1569 


25-26 


•8821 


2.5-26 


•3954 


25-26 


•4217 


30-31 


11-1468 


30-31 


•6602 


30-31 


•6864 


Aug. 1- 3 


•2527 


Dec. 1- 2 


•7131 


31-32 


•7394 


5- 6 


-4646 


5- 6 


•9250 


Apr. 5- 6 


5 0042 


10-U 


•7293 


10-11 


18-1897 


10-11 


•2689 


15-16 


•9941 


15-16 


•4545 


15-16 


■5337 


20-21 


12^2589 


20-21 


•7193 


20-21 


•7985 


25-26 


•5236 


25-26 


•9840 


25-26 


6-0632 


30-31 


•7884 


30-31 


19-2488 


30-31 


•3280 


Sept. 1- 2 


•8943 


31-32 


-3018 



1883, 



114 KEPORT— 1883. 

Vahies of pi (Mean Long, of Solar Perigee) for 0^ Jan. 1. 

Value at 0" Jan. 1, 1880= 280°-874802. 
3fotion per Julian year =0°01710693. 
Motion fnr 365 days = 0°01709295. 



Year 


P, 


Yeai- 


Pi 


Tear 


P. 


Year 


P, 


1860 


280°5327 


1875 


280°7893 


1890 281 


0459 


1905 


281°3024 


1 


•5499 


6 


•8064 


1 


0630 


6 


•3195 


2 


•5669 


7 


•8235 


2 


0801 


7 


•3366 


3 


•5840 


8 


•8406 


3 


0972 


8 


•3537 


4 


■6011 


9 


•8577 


4 


1143 


9 


•3708 


5 


•6183 


1880 


•8748 


~> 


1314 


1910 


•3879 


6 


•6354 


1 


•8919 


6 


1485 


1 


•4050 


7 


•6525 


2 


•9090 


7 


1656 


2 


•4221 


8 


•6695 


3 


•9261 


8 


1827 


3 


•4393 


9 


•6867 


4 


•9432 


9 


1998 


4 


•4564 


1870 


•7038 


3 


•9604 


1900 


2169 


5 


•4735 


1 


•7209 


6 


•9775 


1 


2340 


6 


•4906 


2 


•7380 


7 


•9945 


2 


2511 


7 


•5078 


3 


•7551 


8 


281-0116 


3 


2682 


8 


•5249 


4 


•7722 





•0288 


4 


2853 


9 


•5420 



Increment of p, since Qi^ Jan. 1 for certain days of the year. 
Motion for 1 rf(/y = 0°00004683. 



Date 




Date 




Date 




Date 




Jan. 10 


000042 


Apr. 10 


000464 


July 9 


000885 


Oct. 7 


001307 


20 


■00089 


20 


•0O51O 


19 


•00932 


17 


•01353 


30 


•00136 


30 


•00557 


29 


•00979 


27 


•01400 


Feb. 9 


•00183 


May 10 


■00604 


Aug. 8 


•01026 


Nov. 6 


•01447 


19 


•00229 


20 


•00651 


18 


•01072 


16 


•01494 


Mar. 1 


•00276 


30 


■00698 


28 


■01119 


26 


•01541 


11 


•00323 


June 9 


•00745 


Sept. 7 


•01166 


Dec. 6 


•01588 


21 


•00370 


19 


•00791 


17 


•01213 


16 


•01634 


31 


•00417 


29 


•00838 


27 


•01260 


26 


•01681 



















HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



115 



Table of I, r, I, for different Values of N. 



X 


/ 


V 


f 


N 


I 


V 


f 


o 


O / // 


o / /. 


O / // 


o 


o / // 


o 


/ // 


O / // 





28 36 6 








90 


23 58 55 


12 


45 2 


11 40 58 


2 


35 57 


22 29 


20 13 


92 


48 20 




49 59 


45 53 


4 


35 28 


44 57 


40 26 


94 


37 42 




54 4 


50 11 


6 


34 42 


1 7 23 


1 37 


96 


27 1 




67 17 


53 36 


8 


33 36 


29 47 


20 46 


98 


16 17 




59 37 


56 11 


10 


32 12 


52 7 


40 52 


100 


5 32 


13 


1 2 


57 67 


12 


30 29 


2 14 22 


2 55 


102 


22 54 46 




1 30 


58 52 


U 


28 28 


36 32 


20 52 


104 


44 




1 


58 54 


16 
18 


26 9 
23 31 


58 35 
3 20 32 


40 45 
3 32 


106 
108 


33 15 


13 


59 32 

57 2 


58 2 
56 13 


22 33 




20 


20 34 


42 19 


20 11 


110 


11 61 




63 33 


53 24 


22 


17 20 


4 3 58 


39 44 


112 


1 14 




49 


49 33 


24 


13 48 


25 26 


59 7 


114 


21 50 40 




43 24 


45 4 


26 


9 58 


46 44 


4 18 22 


116 


40 12 




36 43 


39 15 


28 


5 51 


5 7 49 


37 27 


118 


29 49 




28 57 


32 34 


30 


1 26 


28 41 


56 21 


120 


19 33 




20 4 


24 48 


32 


27 56 44 


49 19 


5 15 4 


122 


9 25 




10 4 


15 66 


34 


51 44 


6 9 42 


33 33 


124 


20 59 25 


11 


58 57 


6 5 


36 


46 28 


29 49 


51 49 


126 


40 35 




46 41 


10 55 6 


38 


40 56 


49 39 


6 9 52 


128 


39 56 




33 17 


43 


40 


35 7 


7 9 11 


27 39 


130 


30 28 




18 43 


29 50 


42 


29 3 


28 24 


45 12 


132 


21 12 




3 1 


15 37 


44 


22 41 


47 17 


7 2 24 


134 


12 9 


10 


46 10 


20 


46 


16 6 


8 5 48 


19 22 


136 


3 21 




28 10 


9 43 54 


48 
60 


9 14 


23 58 


35 58 


138 


19 54 48 
46 31 


9 


9 2 
48 46 


26 24 
7 50 


2 8 


41 43 


52 16 


140 


52 


26 54 48 


59 5 


8 8 14 


142 


38 32 




27 23 


8 48 10 


54 


47 14 


9 16 


23 50 


144 


30 50 




4 56 


27 30 


56 


39 25 


32 30 


39 2 


146 


23 28 


8 


41 23 


5 46 


58 


31 23 


48 31 


53 49 


148 


16 24 




16 49 


7 43 6 


60 


23 9 


10 4 3 


9 8 14 


150 


9 41 


7 


51 15 


19 27 


62 


14 42 


19 5 


22 12 


152 


3 21 




24 4] 


6 54 49 


64 
66 


6 3 

25 57 12 


33 35 
47 33 


35 44 
48 46 


154 
156 


18 57 24 


6 


67 10 
28 48 


29 16 
2 56 


51 47 


68 


48 9 


11 58 


10 1 15 


158 


46 37 


5 


59 33 


5 35 43 


70 


38 56 


13 47 


13 17 


160 


41 50 




29 32 


7 46 


72 


29 33 


26 


24 47 


162 


37 28 


4 


58 46 


4 39 7 


74 


20 1 


37 34 


35 47 


164 


33 32 




27 20 


9 49 


76 


10 19 


48 30 


46 10 


166 


- 30 4 


3 


55 17 


3 39 54 


78 


28 


58 46 


55 56 


168 


27 1 




22 43 


9 29 


80 


24 50 29 


12 8 21 


11 5 4 


170 


24 25 


2 


49 40 


2 38 37 


82 


40 22 


17 13 


13 32 


172 


22 17 




16 13 


7 22 


84 


30 10 


25 19 


21 32 


174 


20 38 


1 


42 26 


1 35 48 


86 


19 50 


32 41 


28 39 


176 


19 27 




8 26 


4 


88 


9 25 


39 16 


35 10 


178 


18 44 





34 15 


32 2 


90 


23 58 55 


12 45 2 


11 40 58 


180 


18 18 30 












Note. — When N is negative, I has the same value as when N ie positive j 
hut V and i, change sign with JV^. 



I2 



116 



REPORT— 1883. 



,CO oooooooooooooooocosooooooo 

°r-H rH C'l (M (M 





^^ 


O CO C-l 03 


lO 


t- 


o 


CO 


o 


cn 


o 


CO 


cm 


m 


I^ 


-H 


r^ 


rr> 


to 


CO 


to 


on 


IC 


^ 


t- 00 




!M 


t^ 


(>) 


l 1 


to 


o -* 


CO 


^H 


-^ 


r^ 


o 


CM 


^* 


to 


tr) 


c^ 


o 




!M 


<M 


<M 


0-1 


5-J 


r— ' 


o 




r-* 


o 


r^ 


CO O o 


CO 


o 


lO 


IM 


00 


-f 


f-H 


t^ 


CO 


ra 


in 


1 — 1 


'/) 


M- 


O to ■M 


GO 


*t* 


CJ 


to 




CO 


'O 


IM 


IM (N 


f-H 


1— ( 


O O O 05 C5 C5 


no 


CO 


r^ 


t- t- 


to 


to 


to 


lO 


m 


-t< 


•* 


^ 


CO 




»— f 


















o 




































t— t 


















T— ( 



































GO crs o 



■h'S 



irst— 00C5O— <cc-^ot—ci — cr^i.r^t^c^i'^cooGO'-Hc^^ociC^ii^co 

CO t^ CO C5 



lO -^^ CO (M 1-H 



O O IG 

-t^ t- -^ 

_ ^i,^ l"-- Vjrj V.^ IjM ^T" »."" V ' ^T' CO O^ t"~ 

C.10000-*0'li-IC5t>>0-#0]OCJt- 
(M i-H O 



'fe" 









^^OtOXCOOC50COCOtOLO^^-^"rH-— '»ntO-t*QOOOOCO-fCOGOO 

r^ t^ ^ lo s: CO to o c-1 lO i^ c; — H "M CO -*< -*" ■* -n CO CO rt O CO to CO -H 
cot''^OOcoc^to<Moo^Of^coc^»0'-Ht~coc^iO^Hr^c-i:»-t<0 

'MC^CO-i<-t<10lOtOt:^l^COOC5 0'-llMI-1COCO'*<10'-OtO — l^CO 
00 o 

6 o 



OOtO<M10tO»0^-*^?-1tOtOO~7'100'+<^H^^COt-COOC100^H 

lOi-HOOtOtOOOtMt ^olN-HO-Ht^-^HIMiMCOiOOOCOOii-OCOC^CO 

C500COC50 — C0-#tO00O<M-*f-05!MlO00i— (-^t^.— IrfCOCqtOO 
OOa50000l:~t010-<tlC<3CO(M-HOCnC300t-t-tO>0»0-*COCON(N 



-IS 
II 



t0^^^O'#^^C-lt0C0»0--*^-i0-HCCt0a500(M^Ht0t^C0t0>nO0a 

-t>-*ootoo;oa5ioco-*t~sqoocoootoi>.Oioco-*i:^coc^co 

l-Ot^O-*t^— 'Oa5-*05-*C5>0--l^COC5tOCO^COtO-*3<l-HOa> 
C000C>-l(M-*<OtOC0O^0^-*it0t-03OC<l'*t0t-CS-HC0>0t-00 

-t< »o to l~ CO 

o o o o o 



iMiOCO^lCOCri^-'Ml^l^OO-t^rit^'^tOt^COO'+^COOlOCO^^tOtO 

CitotOiO'Mtocoior — t^LOOt-t^c;c-ito^toO'*t^ooooco^H-^ 
o^^i>-»o»otoci-t-ocoi^a)Cio^toc-»cotO':t<^*<-^iob-0'^a5'^ 

10iOGi^C--t'aitO^-tOC-lX)-^^^t^-^Ot^-^'-HODIOG^Ot^'^CM 
OC300I;- too ^ CO <>) -^ 

<j) — -^-^ ,ll,lw ^ ,1- ,ll ,1^ 






CO-^COiMt— -— l-t-iC-f^Ht^— nCO^Ht^'M-:t<iO'^0»OC2dCitO^H 

tOtOCOOtOCOCiiO.— ir^C-lcCCOCOCOt^tMtOO-^OOt-H-^t^OCOtO 
»OtOCOOtOCOC5tOCOCitO(MC5"OC<IOOJO^HOO'fOt^COCitOC'lCO 
OOrtC)C^COCOti<OiOtOl^t^aOC5CnOrHrt(MCOCO^-*<lOtOtO 
rrs — 



Ci 

o 



tOr-i^Cftt-eotot — tioooocO'tiOiCsco-HC^t^-^^tootocOi— (r-( 

(Mt^iO-^tOOlOCl-J-JCOt-C-lCOtotOt-OlI^t^eOOOODOT^-* 

r--c:jC^oaiOO^-*c<ico-^»oc-ccoc-j'*itoci'-H-»ft^aiC<»»oo5<M 
-+ico;mi— (005icoi-to<o-*coi^i>i^0moooot-to»oio-*coco 



lO— ItOOOCClCOlQ^-^tOt^lOCOOO^CO^-ISSiaOSOOtOi— I-^IO 

-i*^HO-i'^oo^Htoo]CitO'+<roco-^»oco^Htoa5»oi-Ha5t^io»c»oto 

O C-1 CO -f> m t- 00 O " CO UO l:~ O — CO "O CO O IM lO CO O CO to Ci (M lO 
COCO-*>OtOt-OOOi— lO-lCO-illOt-COC^OlMCOTttOt-OOOOCMCO 
to b- CO CS 

o 6 o o 



b-.OCi?cit0C0»0t0G0OC5C0--O0C0C0-tir;t0»0-:t<'— It^OtOCO 

^Hai»oa5^toootoa5tooc;cocMiO'i*^i- — ntoiMiMtoco-HC-t^ 

tOr-i-+^t^^-itO'MCO-^'— I^COtOtOtOtOt^COOcMlOGO^HlOCJCOOO 
COCOlO<MOt^»0!MOOOlOCO^C;t-iOCOrtOCOtO-*COrt0200tO 
lO -^ CO (M f-H O 




•*OMCO-*<-*COOCO-*.-ltOC3COtOaDCimcOt^"0<MC5^C3COl:~ 
OOt^l^t^t^t^t^t'tOtOtOO^^+^CO C-lrHOOOOt^tO-et^CO^HOCO 
t^t^tOin-^fCOIMi— IOCiC0t*t0»0^C0lMrHC^00l.-^t01Cit^C0C<JO 
CO <M — I 

pop 

f^ r^ r^ 

-!j<t^COOCOO^t^CO^C5COa30M100iiQ^COtO»010tOCO>-(10 
lOtOiOO-tHCOCOT-llMCMi— i^-^^ClC-IC-»tMCO^-it^.*OtO(>OOC^^H(M 

coco-^iOtot^coc-Oi— ii^co-<f»otot^ooGiOt— icqco-^intococi 

to t- 00 



^oo ocoooooooooooooooooooooooo 

fHG-ICO^r'O rHC<IC0'^lO --^CMCO-^lO i— I(MCO-^10 i-tCMCO 

oCT C5 O -J «-T 



HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSEUVATIONS. 117 



000000000000000000000000000000000000:0 

-ii iCt r-i!M^^-^lO ,-HCqC<^^lO ^(NCC'^O i-»C^lCC-tiC: 1— iG^rO-TfO — ig^tcc^^ 

CC "^ »0 O b- CO 00 

<M G^ 01 C^l (M OJ C^ 



b-coact-HOcoccooO'-'-THco-— ccco-— •c^'iOX>i-t'»-or^C"^r:tro-+(0»ot-GC^i---'*'C:c^l 
0<XlOlOC<70col^c^lC^ccolco-+'0»c--^--oo-^•coI^^l:tc:■<^^loco^Hroo^-r;.— ic^ico 
.-^ b- CC c^ irt. ^ o ri fx CO o tc O' ^ ^1 t-^ re CO -f ". *.:: o '^ -^ o — 1— c>) 1-- ro co cc ;/:■ cc cr^ -^ i— i 

CC C^ C^ t-H .— < ^ O O C"j C~. QO CO ^' t- 1-- C^ ^ O O '^ ^t< -^ C-: CO C^4 C^l --H r-H O O CS O GO QO c- t^ t^ 
Gi 00 CO 

6 6 6 



!M C<1 t-- O CC -* O-l »0 -t^ 'n O CO' G^ -— 1 CO ^H ^ t- O O 00 CO iO 10 T1 CO ^- O) -^ O 10 O' -t^ 'O CO CO C^ 

O c: CO 00 c; O >J -r t-- o 10 :r. to 1— I r^ »o CO .— I .— ' ^^ 1— t CO 1^ a;' C'l cc (M co 10 ■>> — < ■— 1 -^ (M -:t* i--- o 
c:!(MOO-^c:coi-- — cc^O-n" -^oocoGOcocococccoxcor-.-fC-io— ii-ror~. lo — t-cot- 
ot--t-oOGOoo<r. ~. OO'^-— ir-(i>ic^cccC'+':t^ioir:ocr;t-i>cooc;oO'-^'— ic^»cocO'^':H 

o ,-H ^ 



a:,-^:ocD"^cooc::OC^Ococc-+--i^o---Hococ^oi>.t--0'i-:t^c<ic£>oo-t'a:'oor"i^t^--t'C:' 

rHCO»OCOC^O<Mt^'+<— ■OX'COGOOOCOOCi^CO-t^Ot^lOCCCM'— 'T— <(>)COiOCO.-HlO'C^CO 

,_,-^j^O"^^-'-H-HGO<>»OC::COt-^^COO-ttCOCCI>'?ll>-^H<:0--0--HO.— <CO<— "OC'"»l--C'lG^1 

'^u30GOC50t»CC'*Ol>'COOrHCC'+'Ot^COOi-HCO'^«Dl-^C10C^JCOiaOcOCJ^-M'*tiO) 

O >— I (>4 CO -* 'Tf* 



00-+<C^<-HOCO*^COCOOt-^CO-+iOO-t'CC-t^lCOGOC:C:cO'-t'COC5l--.— lOOtOi— t--<lOC-"lCCC'~J 
'^OOOOGOCCC<JCCl>-'^COOC:»:^-+<iOCOCCOCiOCCQOOCOCOlOCi':t^OcOCOC:)r— iOO»C 
(^ir^CCOSiOMCiOCOi— •Csr^iO'rt^cCG^i— l^^r-tOi— I'-H.-HGS^CC'^tOOCOO'— 'CCIOGOOCCCO 
CD^CCi-H005t^CO«5-^(NrHOC5COt^COt:5'^COC<|i-HOCiOOt--CD4jO'*-^COC^'— lOOCSOO 
C5 CO b- CO 

6 o c> 6 



cO'^'0'^o^I-HOcoioco^-■Xllooc^oooo-+flO'*loc^^--OOocoooot^'-Hc:i'+'iO(^^ 

t>.-r^OtO.— It— f— lOO^t— OCOtOt-C-Oi— (C-1G^|(M'-hOOOOOCOOL— ^OlOi— i»oo-^— ^ 

. ,. — O^CO.-(COC^t*C<3l— (Mt— CqcOr-tO — OOtOO-^CSCOCOfMlO 

-rt<iOli55DOt-t»OOCOCiCiOO'— 'rH(MC^CCCC'<^'*<'^iaiC^CD 



t.-~ -TTI \,„^ ^t/ t— 1 ■ — I 1 ^.4./ ^_' ^T" 1. "- ^^ 

OOCSOOOrHi-HUCfJCO *-" 



(N -h 


1^ 


t~ CO 


GTj 


t- CO 


CO 


CO CO 


>0 CO 


-^ 


i-H 


10 


CO 





.— 1 


lO 


10 


IN 


b- t^ -^ 


CO 


00 -^ 


CO 


10 


m 


03 -+I 


CO 


CO 


>n 


00 


-* CO 


-n. 


CO 


00 


■^ 


.— * 


05 


00 


r~ 


OU 


Ci 


i-H 


'^ 


00 (M 


1^ 


CO 


t^ >o -t< 


CO 


CO 


-^ 


10 


t- 


CO 


f- 


,— 1 





O) 


r/1 


LO 


IN 


(N 


-*< 00 


(M 


t^ 




CD 


1— 1 


»o 


"O 


10 


f-4 


CO 


^ 


►^ oq 


X) ^ 


C5 


10 


f— 1 


l^ 


CO 


m 


»n 


»— t 


Cf) 


-r+^ 





>^ 


CO 


CO CO 


CO 1 


.-1 05 


C5 


00 


00 t- t~ CO 


to 


«J 


-* 


^ 


CO 


CO 


N 


O) 


t— ( 


r-^ 


T— 1 


00 


m 


OJ 


C5 


CO 


CO 


00 


r- 


>^ 


1^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 









Ci 










































C/J 
























00 













































































00 


t^ CO 


t^ 00 t- ^ 





»— ( 


^ 


00 -* CO N -* >Q 


m 


CO 


>a 


OH 


f— 1 


o 


00 


-tl 


CO 


IN 


C5 


t- CO 


CO 


t^ 00 


(N 


•0 


tr- CO 


C*» -* 


05 


CO 


CO 





iO 


CO 


>o 


Ci 


CO 





CO 


CO 


IM 


CO 


1^ 


-f 


-H 


t^ 


CO 


O-I 


CO 00 


CO 


r^ 




►^ 


1^ 


C' 


CO 


in 


t^ 


CO 


-H 


00 OS 


00 


00 


CC) 


C5 


.— ( 


CO 


10 


t- 


c^ 


10 


00 01 


CO -* 


C2 


'tl 


Ci 







t^ CO t- lO 


IN 





C5 


t- CO 


in 


10 


CO 


0^1 -tH CO 


00 





CO 


>o 


t- 


r—i 


CO 


CO 


CO CO 





00 IM 


10 (^ CO 


10 


OtJ 


T— 1 


CO 


CO 


C5 


Ol 


-H 


1^ 


< — ; 




CO 


CO 


Ci 



















7—* 








<>) 








CO 








-H 








lO 








CO 






t- 






t- 











^^ 










.— i 








y—i 








I— 1 








^H 








t— 1 








1— 1 






— 






-1 


t-».lOCOOlMMOO<M 


10 


CO -tl 


t^ -* 


•* 


-)< -* 


CO 


C5 





t~ 00 


1— 1 


CO 


i-H 


^ ,-1 CO CO C5 


1^ 


t^ 


^_ 


r^ 


^-< 


-* -H 


1.0 


1^ 


t— ( 


-* 


0^ 


CO 


ira 


Ci 


Cf) 


0-1 




•^ 


IN 


^ 







-* 




CO 


t^ 


in 


r^ 




tT3 


(Tl 




-rs 


on 


OS 


-f 


r~, 






-t^ 


b- 


t- 


-r 


!M 


.— i 


000 


^H 


!M 


•^ 


l^ 


CO 


t^ 


1—i 


CO 


.— 1 


CO 


(N 


CO 


-^ 


.-H 


GO 


CO 


CO 




CO 


►^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


10 


CO 


coo 1 


t- CO 


l-H 


C3 


t~ "O 


CO 


t—i 


Ci 


t~ ■* 


o\ 


r~t 


Ci 


00 


CO 


10 


CO' 


IN 


1 — 1 


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(N 



118 EEPORT— 1883. 



Report of the Gommittee, consisting of Mr. Egbert H. Scott 
{Secretary), Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor Gr. Gr. Stokes, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. Gr. J. Symons, appointed 
for the purpose of co-operating with the Meteorological Society 
of the Mauritius in their proposed publication of Daily Synoptic 
Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861. 

The Committee, appointed at the York meeting in 1881, and reappointed 
at Southampton in 1882, have to report that, in his latest letter from the 
Mauritius, dated June 21, 1883, Dr. Meldrum informs them that, ' owing 
to an increase of routine work, the synoptic charts have not made much 
progress since March. However, one month's charts are in the hands of 
Messrs. A. and K. Johnston, and others will be so soon. The isobars 
have entailed much labour, and they have not yet been finished. 

' If we cannot present any of the charts to the British Association at 
its next meeting, we cannot help it. For my own part I have worked 
hard, but I am short of assistance.' 

Under these circumstances the Committee have not thought them- 
selves justified in applying for any portion of the grant of 501. placed at 
their disposal by the General Committee, inasmuch as none of the charts 
have as yet appeared. 

They would, however, request reappointment, with a second renewal 
of the gi'ant, inasmuch as the work is actually in an advanced stage of 
preparation. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor 
Gr. Gr. Stokes, Sir William Thomson, Mr. James GtLaisher, a7id 
Mr. J. W. L. G-laisher, on Mathematical Tables. 

In the Ueport for 1881 it was stated that the Factor Table for the sixth 
Million had been completed and stereotyped. The Introduction to this 
Million, which relates to enumerations and comparisons extending over 
the whole nine millions, was completed during the present year, and the 
volume has been published by Messrs. Taylor and Francis. The gap of 
three millions between the third million and the seventh million, is there- 
fore now filled in, and the tables extend from unity to 9,000,000. The 
, dates of publication of the nine millions are — second, 1814; third, 1816; 
I first, 181-7; seventh, 1862; eighth, 1863; ninth, 1865; fourth, 1879; 
fifth, 1880 ; sixth, 1883. 

The results of the enumeration of the primes in the sixth million 
were given in the Report for 1881. 

The Introduction to the Sixth Million, which occupies 103 pages, con- 
tains a detailed account of the enumeration of the primes in the first nine 
millions, with a comparison of the results with the values given by 
Legendre's, Tchebychefi''s, and Riemann's formulae. 

The number of primes is given in each successive group of 1000 
numbers from unity up to 9,000,000, and there are also similar tables for 
groups of 10,000 ; 100,000 ; 250,000, and 500,000. The enumeration 
according to centuries is also given in a series of ninety tables, showing 
the numbers of centuries which contain no prime, one prime, two primes, 
three primes, &c., in each group of 10,000 numbers ; and there are similar 



fc)N MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



119 



tables for groups of 100,000 and for the complete millions. There are 
also tables giving sequences of 100 or more consecutive composite num- 
bers in the nine millions. 

A short account of the results of this enumeration was given in th.e 
Eeport for 1881 (pp. 305-308), and ib is perhaps worth while to supple- 
ment that account by giving the following list of sequences exceeding 
130 in the whole nine millions, arranged in the order of their length. 

to 9,000,000. 
Sequences exceeding 130. 



Lower Limit 


Upper Limit 


Sequence 



4,652,353 


4,652,507 


153 


8,421,251 


8,421,403 


151 


2,010,733 


2,010,881 


147 


7,230,331 


7,230,479 


147 


6,034,247 


6,034,393 


145 


7,621,259 


7,621,399 


139 


8,917,523 


8,917,663 


130 


3,826,019 


3,826,157 


137 


7,743,233 


7,743,371 


137 


6,371,401 


6,371,537 


135 


6,958,667 


6,958,801 


133 


1,357,201 


1,357,333 


131 


1,561,919 


1,562,051 


131 


3,933,599 


3,933,731 


131 


5,888,741 


5,888,873 


131 


8,001,359 


8,001,491 


131 



The three formulae which have been proposed for the approximate 
representation of the number of primes inferior to any given number 



X are : — 



(i.) Legendre's formula — 



log X - 1-08366 
(ii.) Tchebycheff's or Gauss's formula — 

n 



' log X 

(iii.) Niemann's formula — 

li a; — ^ li a; " — ^ li a; 3 — ^ li a; s + i li a; i — &c., 

1 

in which the general term is -' li « " , where n denotes any namber not 

divisible by a squared factor, namely, any number of the form ah c . . . 
where a, i, c, . . . are different primes ; the sign of the term is positive 
when the number of the prime factors a, &, c, . . . is even, and negative 
when it is uneven. 

The Introduction contains comparisons between the numbers of primes 
counted and the values given by these three formulas, and also by the 
formulae 

X 



(iv.) 



(v.) 



log a; — 1 — 



log X 



log X 



120 



REPORT — 1883. 



at intervals of 50,000 ujd to 9,000,000. The comparisons are also given 
for the separate groups of 50,000. The deviations are given in separate 

tables. 

Table I., which is abridged from the more extended tables given in 
the Introduction, shows the numbers of primes counted and the numbers 
given by the formulae (i.), (ii.), (iii.), at intervals of 100,000 up to 
9,000,000. Table II. shows the deviations in the case of the three 
formulae. 

Table I. 



X 


Xumber of Primes 


Counted 


Calculated by 












Riemann's 


Tchebycheflr's 


Legendre's 






formula 


formula 


formula 


100,000 


9,593 


9,587 


9,630 


9,588 


200,000 


17,985 


17,982 


18,036 


17,982 


300,000 


25,998 


26,024 


26,087 


26,024 


400,000 


33,861 


33,852 


33,923 


33,854 


600,000 


41,539 


41,530 


41,606 


41,533 


600,000 


49,099 


49,091 


49,173 


49,096 


700,000 


56,544 


56,557 


56,645 


56,565 


800,000 


63,952 


63,945 


64,037 


63,955 


900,000 


71,275 


71,266 


71,362 


71,279 


1,000,000 


78,499 


78,528 


78,628 


78,543 


1,100,000 


85,715 


85,737 


85,841 


85,756 


1,200,000 


92,940 


92,899 


93,007 


92,921 


1,300,000 


100,021 


100,019 


100,130 


100,045 


1,400,000 


107,124 


107,100 


107,214 


107,129 


1.500,000 


114,152 


114,146 


114,263 


114,179 


1,600,000 


121,125 


121,159 


121,279 


121,195 


1,700,000 


l'J8,140 


128,141 


128,264 


128,181 


1,800,000 


135,072 


135,095 


135,221 


135,139 


1,900,000 


142,029 


142,022 


142,150 


142,070 


2,000,000 


148,9.')2 


148,924 


149,055 


148,976 


2,100,000 


155,806 


155,802 


155,936 


155,858 


2,200,000 


162,663 


162,658 


162,794 


162,718 


2,300,000 


169,512 


169,492 


169,631 


169,557 


2,400,000 


176,303 


176,307 


176,448 


176,376 


2,500,000 


183,073 


183,102 


183,245 


183,175 


2,600,000 


189,882 


189,878 


190,024 


189,956 


2,700,000 


196,647 


196,637 


196,785 


196,720 


2,800,000 


203,363 


203,380 


203,530 


203,467 


2,900,000 


210,109 


210,106 


210,258 


210,197 


3,000,000 


216,817 


216,816 


216,971 


216,913 


3,100,000 


223,493 


223.512 


223,668 


223,613 


3,200,000 


230,210 


230,193 


230,351 


230,299 


3,300,000 


236,901 


236,961 


237,021 


236,971 


3,400,000 


243,540 


243,514 


243,677 


243,629 


3,500,000 


250,151 


250,155 


250,319 


250,275 


3,600,000 


256,726 


256,784 


256,950 


255,908 


3,700,000 


263,397 


263,400 


263,568 


263,529 


3,800,000 


269,987 


270,004 


270,174 


270,139 


3,900,000 


276,611 


276,597 


276,769 


276,737 


4,000,000 


283,146 


283,179 


283,352 


283,323 


4,100,000 


289,774 


289,750 


289,925 


289,899 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



121 



Table I. {continued). 



X 


Number of Primes 


Counted 


Calculated by 












Pliemann's 


Tcliebychers 


Legendre's 






formula 


formula 


formula 


4,200,000 


296,314 


296,311 


296,487 


296,465 


4,300,000 


302,824 


302,861 


303,039 


303,020 


4,400,000 


309,335 


309,402 


309,582 


309,566 


4,500,000 


315,948 


315,933 


316,114 


316,102 


4,600,000 


322,441 


322,454 


322,637 


322,628 


4,700,000 


328,964 


328,965 


329,150 


329,145 


4,800,000 


335,439 


335,469 


335,655 


335,653 


4,900,000 


341,993 


341,963 


342,151 


342,153 


5,000,000 


348,515 


348,449 


348,638 


348,644 


5,100,000 


354,973 


354,926 


355,117 


355,126 


5,200,000 


361,409 


361,395 


361,588 


361,601 


5,300,000 


367,902 


367,856 


368,050 


368,067 


5,400,000 


374,364 


374,310 


374,505 


374,525 


5,500,000 


380,802 


380,755 


380,952 


380,976 


5,600,000 


387,204 


387,193 


387,391 


387,419 


5,700,000 


393,608 


393,624 


393,823 


393,855 


5,800,000 


399,995 


400,047 


400,248 


400,284 


5,900,000 


406,431 


406,463 


406,666 


406,706 


6,000,000 


412,851 


412,873 


413,077 


413,121 


6,100,000 


419,248 


419,275 


419,480 


419,528 


6,200,000 


425,650 


425,671 


425,878 


425,930 


6,300,000 


432,075 


432,060 


432,268 


432,324 


6,400,000 


438,412 


438,443 


438,652 


438,712 


6,600,000 


444,759 


444,819 


445,030 


445,094 


6,600,000 


451,161 


451,190 


451,401 


451,470 


6,700,000' 


457,499 


457,554 


457,767 


457,839 


6,800,000 


463,874 


463,912 


464,126 


464,203 


6,900,000 


470,285 


470,263 


470,479 


470,560 


7,000,000 


476,650 


476,610 


476,827 


476,912 


7,100,000 


483,019 


482,950 


483,169 


483,258 


7,200,000 


489,325 


489,285 


489,505 


489,598 


7,300,000 


495,673 


495,615 


495,835 


495,933 


7,400,000 


501,972 


501,938 


502,160 


602,263 


7,500,000 


508,273 


508,257 


508,480 


608,687 


7,600,000 


514,578 


514,570 


514,794 


514,905 


7,700,000 


520,925 


520,878 


521,103 


521,219 


7,800,000 


527,170 


527,180 


527,407 


627,527 


7,900,000 


533,534 


533,478 


533,706 


533,830 


8,000,000 


539,808 


539,771 


540,000 


540,128 


8,100,000 


546,058 


546.058 


546,289 


546,422 


8,200,000 


552,359 


552,341 


552,573 


552,710 


8,300,000 


558,642 


558,619 


558,852 


558,994 


8,400.000 


564,927 


564,892 


565,126 


565,273 


8,500,000 


571,172 


571,161 


671,396 


571,547 


8,600,000 


577,498 


577,425 


577,661 


577,817 


8,700,000 


583,779 


583,684 


683,921 


584,082 


8,800,000 


590,078 


589,939 


590,178 


590,342 


8,900,000 


596,298 


596,190 


596,429 


596,599 


9,000,000 


602,568 


602,436 


602,676 


602,850 



122 



REPORT — 1883. 



Table II. 







Difference between numbers counted and calculated hy\ 


X 


Number 
of primes 












counted 


Eiemann's 


TchebychefFs 


Legendre's 






formula 


formula 


formula 


100,000 


9,593 




- 6 


+ 37 


- 5 


200,000 


17,985 


- 3 


+ 51 


- 3 


300,000 


25,998 


+ 26 


+ 89 


+ 26 


400,000 


33,861 


- 9 


+ 62 


- 7 


500,000 


41,539 


- 9 


+ 67 


- 6 


600,000 


49,099 


- 8 


+ 74 


- 3 


700,000 


56,544 


+ 13 


+ 101 


+ 21 


• 800,000 


63,952 


- 7 


+ 85 


+ 3 


900,000 


71,275 


- 9 


+ 87 


+ 4 


1,000,000 


78,499 


+ 29 


+ 129 


+ 44 


1,100,000 


85,715 


+ 22 


+ 126 


+ 41 


1,200,000 


92,940 


-41 


+ 67 


- 19 


1,300,000 


100,021 


- 2 


+ 109 


+ 24 


1,400,000 


107,124 


-24 


+ 90 


+ 5 


1,500,000 


114,152 


- 6 


+ 111 


+ 27 


1,600,000 


121,125 


+ 34 


+ 154 


+ 70 


1,700,000 


128,140 


+ 1 


+ 124 


+ 41 


1,800,000 


135,072 


+ 23 


+ 149 


+ 67 1 


1,900,000 


142,029 


- 7 


+ 121 


+ 41 


2,000,000 


148,932 


- 8 


+ 123 


+ 44 


2,100,000 


155,806 


- 4 


+ 130 


+ 52 


2,200,000 


162,663 


- 5 


+ 131 


+ 55 


2,300,000 


169,512 


-20 


+ 119 


+ 45 


2,400,000 


176,303 


+ 4 


+ 145 


+ 73 


2,500,000 


183,073 


+ 29 


+ 172 


+ 102 


2,600,000 


189,882 


- 4 


+ 142 


+ 74 


2,700,000 


196,647 


-10 


+ 138 


+ 73 


2,800,000 


203,363 


+ 17 


+ 167 


+ 104 


2,900,000 


210,109 


- 3 


+ 149 


+ 88 


3,000,000 


216,817 


- 1 


+ 154 


+ 96 


3,100,000 


223,493 


+ 19 


+ 175 


+ 120 


3,200,000 


230,210 


-17 


+ 141 


+ 89 


3,300,000 


236,901 


-40 


+ 120 


+ 70 


3,400,000 


243,540 


-26 


+ 137 


+ 89 


3,500,000 


250,151 


+ 4 


+ 168 


+ 124 


3,600,000 


256,726 


+ 58 


+ 224 


+ 182 


3,700,000 


263,397 


+ 3 


+ 171 


+ 132 


3,800,000 


269,987 


+ 17 


+ 187 


+ 152 


3,900,000 


276,611 


-14 


+ 158 


+ 126 


4,000,000 


283,146 


+ 33 


+ 206 


+ 177 


4,100,000 


289,774 


-24 


+ 151 


+ 125 


4,200,000 


296,314 


- 3 


+ 173 


+ 151 


4,300,000 


302,824 


+ 37 


+ 215 


+ 196 


4,400,000 


309,335 


+ 67 


+ 247 


+ 231 


4,500,000 


315,948 


-15 


+ 166 


+ 154 


4,600,000 


322,441 


+ 13 


+ 196 


+ 187 


4,700,000 


328,964 


+ 1 


+ 186 


+ 181 


4,800,000 


335,439 


+ 30 


+ 216 


+ 214 


4,900,000 


311,993 


-30 


. +158 


+ 160 


5,000,000 


348,515 


-66 


+ 123 


+ 129 


5,100,000 


354,973 


-47 


+ 144 


+ 153 


5,200,000 


361,409 


-14 


+ 179 


+ 192 


5,300,000 


367,902 


-46 


+ 148 


+ 165 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



123 



Table II. (coniimied). 







Difference between numbers counted and calculated bv 


X 


Number 
of primes 
















counted 


Riemann'a 


Tcheljycheff's 


Lesendre's 






formula 


formula 


formula 


5,400,000 


374,364 


-54 


+ 141 


^ 161 


5,500,000 


380,802 


-47 


+ 150 


+ 174 


5,600,000 


387,204 


-11 


+ 187 


+ 215 


5,700,000 


393,608 


+ 16 


+ 215 


+ 247 


5,800,000 


399,995 


+ 52 


+ 253 


+ 289 


5,900,000 


406,431 


+ 32 


+ 235 


+ 275 


6,000,000 


412,851 


+ 22 


+ 226 


+ 270 


6,100,000 


419,248 


+ 27 


+ 232 


+ 280 


6,200,000 


425,650 


+ 21 


+ 228 


+ 280 


6,300,000 


432,075 


-15 


+ 193 


+ 249 


6,400,000 


438,412 


+ 31 


+ 240 


+ 300 


6,500,000 


444,759 


+ 60 


+ 271 


+ 335 


6,600,000 


451,161 


+ 29 


+ 240 


+ 309 


6,700,000 


457,499 


+ 55 


+ 268 


+ 340 


6,800,000 


463,874 


+ 38 


+ 252 


+ 329 


6,900,000 


470,285 


-22 


+ 194 


+ 275 


7,000,000 


476 650 


-40 


+ 177 


+ 262 


7,100,000 


483,019 


-69 


+ 150 


+ 239 


7,200,000 


489,325 


-40 


+ 180 


+ 273 


7,300,000 


495,673 


-58 


+ 162 


+ 260 - 


7,400,000 


501,972 


-34 


+ 188 


+ 291 


7,500,000 


508,273 


-16 


+ 207 


+ 314 


7,600,000 


614,578 


- 8 


+ 216 


+ 327 


7.700,000 


520,925 


-47 


+ 178 


+ 294 


7,800,000 


527,170 


+ 10 


+ 237 


+ 357 


7,900,000 


533,534 


-56 


+ 172 


+ 296 


8,000,000 


539,808 


-37 


+ 192 


+ 320 


8,100,000 


546,058 





+ 231 


+ 364 


8,200,000 


652,359 


-18 


+ 214 


+ 351 


8,300,000 


658,642 


-23 


+ 210 


+ 352 


8,400,000 


564,927 


-35 


+ 199 


+ 346 


8,500,000 


671,172 


-11 


+ 224 


+ 375 


8,600,000 


577,498 


-73 


+ 163 


+ 319 


8,700,000 


583,779 


-95 


+ 142 


+ 303 


8,800,000 


590,078 


-139 


+ 100 


+ 264 


8,900,000 


596,298 


-108 


+ 131 


+ 301 


9,000,000 


602,568 


-132 


+ 108 


+ 282 



The mean deviations for the three formulae are respectively — 
- 9, + 163, + 171. 

The great superiority of Riemann's formula is at once apparent; it is 
more accurate than Legendre's even for the smaller values of x, and it 
represents the numbers of primes over the whole nine millions most satis- 
factorily. It seems scarcely possible that a continuous formula not involv- 
ing periodic terms could more accurately represent numbers which exhibit 
such great irregularities. 

_ It may be remarked that Legendre's and TchebycheflP's formulse are 
coincident for x = 4,850,000 : beyond this point they steadily diverge. 

In the second and third volumes of the ' Mathematische Annalen ' 
(1870 and 1871), Meissel has determined the numbers of primes inferior 



124 



EEPOET 1883. 



to 10,000,000 and to 100,000,000, by a metliod which is equivalent to 
actually counting them, so that his numbers should be exact. Hargreave, 
also, in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for 1854, had obtained by means of 
a similar process the number of primes inferior to 10,000,000. In the 
case of 10,000,000 Meissel's number is 664,580, and Hargreave's 
664,633 ; for 100,000,000 Meissel's number is 5,761,461. Meissel is so 
accurate a calculator that his results are entitled to be accepted with 
confideiice ; and, taking his numbers to represent the actual numbers of 
primes counted, we have the following results : — 



X 


Number of Primes 


Counted by 
Meissel 


Calculated by 


Eiemann 


Tchebycheti' 


Legendre 


10,000,000 
100,000,000 


664,580 
5,761,461 


664,667 
5,761,531 


'664,918 
5,762,209 


065,140 

5,768,004 



X 


Deviations of the three formultE from Meissel's counted numbers 


Eiemann 


Tchehycheflf 


Legendre 


10,000,000 
100,000,000 


+ 87 
+ 90 


+ 368 

•1- 748 


+ 560 
+ 6,543 



The great accuracy with which Riemann's formula represents the 
number of primes, both at 10,000,000 and 100,000,000, is very remark- 
able. At 100,000,000 the function li x still affords a good apf)roximation ; 
and its superiority to Legendre's formula, which gives a result differing 
widely from the truth, is very apparent. 

Assuming a formula of the form '- , and supposing the con- 
log X — A 

stant A to be determined by making the value given by this formula agree 

with the actual number of primes counted for a given value of x, it would 

follow that Legendre's value — viz. A = 1 •08366 — was determined from 

X = 1230.' The Introduction contains a table showing the variations 

in the value of A, according as it is determined from x = 50,000, 

X = 100,000 .... and so on, at intervals of 50,000, up to a; = 9,000,000, 

and also certain results connected with the value of A. The diminution 

of the value of the constant as x increases is very slow, as it only varies 

between 1-090 and 1-072 in the whole nine millions. Taking Meissel's 

values for the numbers of primes counted, it is found that the value of A, 

as determined from x = 10,000,000, is 1-07110 ; and, as determined 

from X = 100,000,000, is 1-06397. 

Denoting by (,r) the number of primes inferior to x, it was shown 

by Tchebycheff that if log x '-— have a limit when x is infinite, that 

limit must be unity. It follows, therefore, that if the number of primes 



be represented by a formula of the form 



log X — A 



, the limiting value of 



A is unity. It appears from the results just given that the approach of 

' It is not unlikely, however, that Legendre assigned the value 1'08366 to the 
constant in order to represent, as nearlj' as possible, the results of the entire enume- 
rations that he had then made. 



ON MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 125 

A towards its limiting value is very slow. The formxila (v.) was calcnlated 
for the reason just mentioned — viz. because it is the limiting form of the 
general expression which includes Legendre's formula. 

If A be determined so that '- = li x, then it is found that 

log: X — A 



13 

log a; (log.f;)^ ' (log.r)^ 



^ = 1 + T7^. + TTTfrr. + 771^3 + &«- 



to which J. = 1 + is a first approximation. It was for this reason 

log a! 

that the formula (iv.) was calculated. For the smaller values of o; the 

deviations are greater than in the case of Legendre's formula, but there 

is not much difference between them for values of x near 9,000,000. 

When X = 100,000,000, the deviation is less than one-half of that shown 

by Legendre's formula. 

A portion of the Introduction relates to the calculation of the loga- 
rithm integral li x, which occurs both in Tchebycheff's and in Riemann's 
formulfe. The methods of calculation adopted are explained, and certain 
values of the function Ei (x) are given, and also some corrections to 
Bessel's values of li x. 

The convergence of Riemann's formula is very slow, and the con- 
cluding sections of the Introduction are devoted to a discussion of the 
magnitudes of the successive terms. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Bkowh 
{Secretary), and Messrs. Milne-Home, John Murray, and 
BucHAN, appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the 
Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Obser- 
vations on Ben Nevis. 

A GKANT of 50Z. was made to the Committee by the British Association 
in 1882 ' for the purpose of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological 
Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis.' 

These observations were on a much more extensive scale than those 
of the summer of 1881. In 1882 six additional stations were established 
at different altitudes between the two principal stations on the top of Ben 
Nevis and at Fort William. These stations were so placed that observa- 
tions could be made at regular intervals of half an hour during the ascent 
and descent ; and simultaneously with these, half-hourly observations 
were made at Fort William. The number of observations made daily at 
Fort William was twenty- one, and on the top of Ben Nevis five, the latter 
being from 9 to 11 a.m. 

In addition to the usual instrumental observations, special attention 
was given to noting wind, cloud, and other weather changes, and it may 
be added that these eye observations were carried out by Mr. Wragge 
with an ability and an enthusiasm worthy of the highest praise. 

Owing to the excessive labour in copying these elaborate and volu- 
minous observations from the note-books, the observations only began to 
be received at the Society's office in June and thereafter from time to 
time in July and August. On this account little more than a beginning 
has been made with their discussion. 

From the half-hourly observations beginning with 5 A.M., the diurnal 



126 REPORT — 1883. 

curves for atmosplieric pressure, temperature, and humidity have been 
calculated for Port William. These curves are interesting and valuable 
as showing the eminently insular character of the climate of the region 
round the base of Ben Nevis from which the air is drawn which ascends 
its slopes on a summer's day. The curves of pressure, temperature, and 
humidity for the top of Ben Nevis from 9 to 11 a.m. are also highly 
interesting and important, especially when compared with the curves for 
these hours at Fort William. The degree of saturation of the atmo- 
sphere and its persistency on the top of Ben Nevis during these hours of 
the day is perhaps the most important meteorological feature of the 
climate of this elevated region : and this feature is all the more pro- 
nounced when a cyclone is advancing from the Atlantic. 

This type of weather prevailed, with few and short-continued inter- 
ruptions during the whole season of 1881. But in 1882, isolated periods 
of fine weather and well-marked anticyclones occurred in Scotland, when 
the atmosphere at the top of Ben Nevis passed from a state of saturation to 
a state of extreme dryness — a dryness indeed greater than could be found 
anywhere nearer than the region of the Sahara. These violent contrasts 
are often separated from each other by exceedingly short intervals of time 
and of space. It is to be noted that the extremest cases of dryness have 
only been observed at the very top of the mountain and were in every 
case accompanied by a very high temperature for that height. This 
peculiarity marks the Ben Nevis Observatory as admirably suited for the 
prosecution of some hygrometric and other physical inquiries which are 
so urgently called for in the present state of meteorology. 

It is expected that the discussion of these observations will be com- 
pleted by Mr. Buchan, and the results published, in the ' Journal of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society,' early next year. A copy of the ' Jour- 
nal ' will be sent to the British Association. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Schuster (Secre- 
tary), Sir William Thomson, Professor H. E. EoscoE, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. E. H. Scott, 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and Mr. J. B. N. Hennessey, appointed 
for the purpose of investigating the practicability of collecting 
and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of considering the question 
of imdertaking regular observations in various localities. 

The work of the Committee during the past time consisted chiefly in the 
examination of some solid residues of Himalayan ice. The ice was boiled 
down according to instructions of one of the members of the Committee 
(Mr. J. B. N. Hennessey) by a surveying party, who forwarded to the 
Secretary three specimens. One of these came from the Gamukdori 
Pass, on the watershed between the Indus and the Kishenganga (lat. 35° 5', 
long. 74° 13'), at an altitude of 13,400 feet; and two from the Shokari 
Pass (lat. 35° 0', long. 74° 38', altitude 14,700 feet). There is no human 
habitation near either of these places. The amount of snow boiled down 
was about 25 cubic feet, and the solid residue was about the same in all 
three cases, weighing a little over "1 gramme. It consisted chiefly of 
organic matter, due principally to birds, but a quantity of magnetic 
particles was also found in them. The magnetic matter in great part is 
due to ferruginous rocks, and must have been brought by the wind to the 



ON MUTEORIC DUST. 127 

place where it was found ; but all the specimens also contained (1) spherical 
particles of magnetic oxide of iron, and (2) small particles of iron, partly 
metallic, of the shape given in last year's Report. These are probably of 
a meteoric origin. The Committee is still pursuing the work for which 
it was appointed. 

Report of the Oominittee, consisting of Captain Abney (Secretary), 
Professor W. Gr. Adams, Professor Gr. C. Foster, Lord Eayleigh, 
Mr. Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. Vernon 
Harcourt, and Professor Ayrton, reappointed for the piirpose 
of fixing a Standard of White Light. 

The Committee have received the draft of a report from their Secretary. 
As the subject has recently received much attention from different sides, 
and as the Committee hope to increase the value of their report by an 
extension and further discussion of the experiments, they prefer to defer 
the publication of their full report until next year. To carry out the 
intention of the Committee a grant of 201. will be required. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Williamson, 
Frankland, Roscoe, Crum Brown, a^id Odling, a7id Messrs. J. 
]\IiLLAR Thomson, V. H. Veley, and H. B. Dixon {Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of drawing up a statement of the 
varieties of Chemical Names which have come into use, for in- 
dicating the causes xchich have led to their adoption, and for 
considering what can he done to bring about some convergence 
of the views on Chemical Nomenclature obtaining among Eng- 
lish and foreign chemists. 

The Committee have been as yet unable to complete their report on 
Chemical Nomenclature. A large part of the work of drawing up in 
tabular form the varieties of chemical names which have come into 
general use in England and abroad has been accomplished, but the Com- 
mittee wish to extend the work before making their report, and for this 
purpose desire to be reappointed for another year, with the addition of 
the names of Mr. Japp, Professor Dewar, Mr. Vernon Harcourt, and Mr. 
Forster Morley. 



Report of the Com,mittee, consisting of Professors Odling, 
Huntington, and Hartley (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating by means of Photography the Ultra- 
violet Spark Spectra emitted by Metallic Elements, and their 
combinations under varying conditions. Drawn up by Pro- 
fessor W. N. Hartley. 

The disappearance of sJiort lines. — It was shown in a former Report of this 
Committee (Southampton Meeting) that the spectra of metallic solutions 
were the same as those from metallic electrodes line for line, in most 
cases even short and weak lines being reproduced. The principal differ- 
ence observable in the two spectra was a lengthening of the short lines 



128 EEPOET— 1883. 

when spectra were taken from solutions, so that discontinuous lines 
became long or continuous lines. 

A few instances of short lines disappeai^ing have also been noticed, 
but such disappearances occur only when the lines are so short, mere dots 
in fact, that no solution can contain a quantity of the metal sufficient to 
yield an image of them, unless the rest of the spectrum be greatly over- 
exposed. Certain very short lines in the spectrum of zinc are an example 
of this. Very short lines in the spectrum of aluminium were not repro- 
duced by solutions of the chloride unless the solutions were highly con- 
centrated. It may thus be seen that the quantity of metal present in the 
compound thus determines the presence of the lines. 

The lengthening of short lines. — It was remarked that in certain cases 
metallic electrodes showed a different spectrum according to whether the 
spark was passed between dry or wet electrodes. Thus it was pointed 
out that when iridium electrodes are moistened with calcium chloride, 
discontinuous lines which are very numerous in this spectrum became 
continuous, and on further examination into this matter it has been found 
that even moistening with water has the same effect. Hence the supposi- 
tion, of which there seemed some possibility but no proof, that a chloride 
of the metal was formed was found to be untenable. The very short lines in 
the spectrum of zinc were lengthened by the action of water upon the elec- 
trodes. It has now been proved beyond doubt that this peculiar varia- 
tion in the spectra is caused by the cooling action of the water upon the 
negative electrode, which in effect is the same as a strengthening of the 
spark, since by heating the electrodes a reverse action is the result. 

Alterations in the spectrum of carbon. — As already stated in the previous 
Report, graphite electrodes have been generally employed for the purpose 
of producing spark specti-a from solutions. A portion of the work in 
connection with this subject included an investigation of the effect of 
water and of saline solutions in varying the spectrum of carbon. It will 
of course be readily seen that, as carbon is capable of combining with 
oxygen and nitrogen, different spectra might be obtained by making 
one or other of those gases the atmosphere surrounding the electrodes, 
but it is not so easy to explain why graphite points should give two dif- 
ferent spectra in air when dry and a third spectrum when moistened 
with water, the same spark conditions being maintained. Three such 
spectra have been photographed, but without the aid of maps their 
peculiarities are not capable of exact description. The maps which were 
drawn were presented to the Royal Society together with a communi- 
cation on this subject, three months since, so that they are not at present 
available. It may be said, however, that the difference between the 
spectra taken from dry electrodes in air consists in the omission of a 
certain number of the less refrangible lines, which have undoubtedly 
been identified with carbon. 

Spectra of the non-metallic constituents of salts. — A long series of expe- 
riments has been made with the object of determining the non-ruetallic 
elements which are capable of yielding spark spectra when in combina- 
tion with the metals. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulphides, nitrates, 
sulphates, selenates, phosphates, carbonates, and cyanides yield nothing. 
On the other hand, solutions in hydrochloric acid of arsenites, arseniates, 
and antimoniates yield spectra of arsenic and antimony respectively. 
Borates and silicates in solution yield very characteristic spectra of the 
non-metallic constituents ; but if the solutions be prepared from sodium 



THE ULTBA-YIOLET SPARK SPECTRA. 



129 



salts, the lines of the metal do not appear in the case of borates, and only 
the strongest line of sodium (,\=3301) can be observed in the spectrum 
of silicates, even when concentrated solutions are used. These are the first 
spectra of boron and silicon obtained from metallic salts. Their lines are 
the following : — 

BoEON. Silicon. 

Wave-lengths Wave-lengths 

34501 28810 

2497-0 2631-4 

2496-2 2541-0 

2528-1 
2523 5 
2518-5 
2515-5 
2513-7 
2506-3 
2435-5 

In Messrs. Liveing and Dewar's map of the carbon spectrum,' and in 
the list of the carbon lines, and in the map of the iron spectrum,^ a 
number of lines are given which are absent from the photographs of the 
spectrum of graphite published in the Transactions of the Royal Dublin 
and in the Journal of the Chemical Society.^ Many hundreds of spectra 
taken between graphite poles have failed to show a trace of these lines, 
and as the spectra have been photographed under varying conditions it is 
scarcely likely that the lines in question are really carbon lines. They 
have now been identified with the spectrum of silicon. The following 
are their wave-lengths : — 



Lines frosi the Carbon Spectra 


Sii.icfix 


(Liveing and Dewar) 


(Hartley) 


Spark 


Arc 


Spark 


— 


. 28811 . 


. 2881-0 


25410 


— 


. 2.5410 


2528-2 


. 2528-1 . 


. 2528-1 


2523-6 


. 2523-9 . 


. 25235 


2518-7 


, 2518-8 . 


. 2518-5 


2515-8 


. 2515-8 . 


. 2515-5 


2514-0 


. 2514-1 . 


. 2513-7 


2506-3 


. 2506-6 . 


. 25063 


— 


. 2478-3 . 


— 


— 


. 2434-8 . 


. 2435-5 



From this it appears that in the spectrum of the arc, carbon yields 
but one line in the ultra-violet, wave-length 2478-3. 

The spectrum of heryllium. — The researches made for the purpose of 
this Report have been useful in furnishing evidence leading to a determi- 
nation of the probable position of beryllium among the elements. It has 
been proved that the spectra of metallic solutions are identical with 
those of the metals themselves, and it is therefore obvious that charac- 
teristic spectra may be obtained from concentrated solutions of nitrates 
or chlorides when metallic electrodes are not procurable, just as is the 
case with visible spectra. It was resolved to photograph the spectrum of 
beryllium as obtained from its chloride, in order to observe the character 
of its lines and the manner of their grouping. The following w«re the 
I ines observed : — 

' l^roc. Roy. Soc. vol. 33, p. 103. ' Phil. Trans, vol. 174, Part I. 1883. 

" Transactions, vol. 41, p. 90. 
1883. K 



130 EEPOKT— 1883. 

Spectrum of Beryllium. 



Wave-lengtlis 


Description 


3320-1 . 


. Strong sharp 


3129-9 . 


. Very strong, extended 


26i9-4 . 


. Strong sharp 


2493-2 , 


. Strong sharp 


2477-7 . 


. Strong sharp 



The first t-wo numbers differ sliglitly from those given in the ' Journal 
of the Chemical Society,' ' but they are believed to be the more accurate. 
The previous measurements of the Hues of beryllium were two given 
by Thalen^ with wave-lengths 4487 and 4575, and two lines very close 
together given in Cornu's map of the solar spectrum, wave-lengths 3130 
and 3130-4. It will be observed that in the spark spectrum there is 
only one line coi-responding to the first of the latter, with wave-length 
3129"9. There is pi-obably a difference in this case between the arc and 
the spark spectrum, because there is no difficulty in distinguishing be- 
tween two lines differing by 0-4, and under various conditions two lines 
have never been observed at this point in the spark spectrum. On the 
other hand such differences are by no means unusual. 

Regarding the views held by Emerson Reynolds, Nilson and 
Pettersson, and Brauner on the subject of beryllium, there may be a 
-want of harmony in detail, but they at least agree in assigning a 
value, not greater than 13-8 and not less than 9-2, to its atomic weight. 
The former number implies that the metal is a triad, the latter that 
it is a dyad. In the former case it must belong either to the series of 
elements of which aluminium, gallium, and iridium are members, or to a 
sub-group of rare earth metals to which yttrium and scandium belong-. 
In attempting to accommodate the element with a position in either 
series we are met by a serious difficulty — viz., that not only is the atomic 
weight not in keeping with the periodic law (a point which cannot be 
discussed here), but its spectrum is altogether different from the spectra 
typical of either class. There is a periodic variation in the spectra of 
the elements as well as in their atomic weights and chemical properties, 
and we cannot put the j^eriodic law out of mind in considering the position 
of beryllium. Now the spectra typical of the triad group, of which alu- 
minium and indium are the first and third terms, consist of three pairs of 
lines harmonically related, the intei'vals between the individuals of each 
pair increasing with increased refrangibility of the rays in each spectrum, 
while the intervals between the individuals in each pair in different spectra 
increase with the increase of atomic weight. The interval between each 
pair of lines contains an isolated ray. As the atomic weight of beryllium 
is less than that of aluminium, it should have a spectrum in which the 
same grouping appears, but the intervals between the pairs of lines should 
be shorter, and the individuals of each pair should be closer together. 
The lines of beryllium are not characteristically grouped like those of 
aluminium and indium, it cannot therefore belong to this series of 
elements. If we attempt to classify beryllium in a manner which accords 
with Nilson and Pettersson's views,^ the elements scandium and yttrium, 
with atomic weights 44 and 89 respectively, must yield spectra typical of 
the series, and the similarity between the spectra of the two metals, 

> June, 1883, p. 316. "- WaU's Index of Spectra. 

^ Proc. Roy. Soo. 1880, vol. 31, p. 37. 



THE ULTRA-VIOLET SPAEK SPECTRA. 131 

beryllium and scandium, must be as close as that between scandium and 
yttrium. Now Thalen's spectra of scandium and yttrium, though, both 
totally unlike the spectrum of any other element, have many characters in 
common ; ' both spectra contain highly characteristic groups of lines in 
the orange and yellow regions, the lines or bands degrading towards the 
red, and the number of lines which have been measured are no fewer 
than 103 and 90 respectively. From these two spectra, that of beryllium 
is entirely different, as well in the character and grouping as in the 
number of the lines. Of the remaining rare earth-mctals at present known, 
cerium is a tetrad, didymium is a pentad, and lanthanum a triad ; their 
spectra are quite dissimilar from that of beryllium. In consideration of 
these facts it is impossible to classify the spectrum of beryllium along 
with the spectra of the rare earth metals of the triad group. 

Let us now consider the question of the dyad groups. On the assump- 
tion that beryllium has an atomic weight of 9'2, there is no difficulty 
in placing it at the head of the second series of elements in which position 
it stands in the same relation to the sub-groups — magnesium, zinc, 
cadmium, and calcium, strontium, barium — that lithium occupies with re- 
gard to sodium, potassium, rubidium and copper, silver, mercury. 

Its position is also similar to that of boron and of carbon in relation 
to the triad and tetrad- metals. The spectra belonging to magnesium, 
zinc, cadmium, have a very definite constitution ; they consist of — 1. A 
single line ; 2. A pair of lines ; 3. Three to four groups of triplets ; 4. 
A quadruple group ; and 5. A quintuple group of lines. The intervals 
between the individual lines in the diflerent groupings increases with the 
increase in the atomic weights of the elements. In fact these spectra 
present a considerable addition to the body of evidence in support of the 
view that elements whose atomic weights differ by an approximately 
constant quantity, and whose chemical properties are similar, are truly 
homologous bodies, or in other words ai'e the same kind of matter in 
different states of condensation. Their particles are vibrating in the 
same manner, but with different velocities. 

In the spectra of the metals calcium, strontium, and barium, succes- 
sive pairs of lines are a strong feature, in addition to which there are 
some other groups in the spectrum of barium. The individuals of each 
pair are separated by smaller intervals the more refrangible the lines and 
by longer intervals the higher the atomic weights. It cannot be said 
that the spectrum of beryllium is similar in constitution to either of 
these groups of elements, which it should be if it stt'ictly belonged 
to one of them. There is some slight resemblance in character to the 
spectrum typical of the calcium group, beryllium having two pairs of 
lines, the individuals of the first or less refrangible pair being separated 
by a greater interval than those of the second pair. It is a spectrum 
analogous to that of lithium, having but few lines and no striking re- 
semblance to the elements which follow in the series because it stands at> 
the head of two sub-groups. Hence it has been concluded that beryl- 
lium is the first member of a dyad series to which probably calcium, 
strontium, and barium are more strictly homologous than magnesium, 
zinc, and cadmium. It is to be understood that this is a conclusion 
drawn from one view only, and is open to correction or modification 

' Kongl. Svcnslia Aliademiens Handlingar, vol. xii. p. 4, also Cumptcs Eendus 
vol. 9J, p. 45. 

k2 



132 EEPOKT— 1 883. 

■when fresli facts sliall have been discovered, bub so far, the views of 
Professor Emerson Reynolds and Dr. Brauner are maintained by these 
spectrum observations, for beryllium is shown to be quite out of place 
among the triad elements, including those belonging to the rare earths. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors "W. A. Tildex 
and H. E. Armstrong {Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 

Since the appointment of the Committee, the investigation has been 
prosecuted mainly in three directions : — 1. A careful study has been made 
of Betanaphthol and especially of the sulphonic acids derived therefrom ; 
and peculiarities have come to light which confirm the view that the 
behaviour of Betanaphthol is in many respects different from that of the 
phenols which have hitherto been investigated. 2. The isomeric naphtha- 
lenedisulphonic acids have been farther examined and much has been 
done towards establishing the nature of the conditions under which they 
are formed. 3. The isomeric naphthalenedisulphonic acids have been 
converted into corresponding Dichloronaphthaleues and Dihydrosynaph- 
thalenes and the comparative study of the latter has been commenced. 

As, however, it is not desired to describe individual compounds, but to 
study comparatively the behaviour of several members of certain classes 
of isomeric naphthalene derivatives, and as much remains to be done be- 
fore a connected account can be given of the results of the investigation, 
the Committee consider it desirable to postjDone their report until next 
year, when, it is hoped, it will be possible to carry out their intention ; 
and therefore ask to be reappointed. The grant placed at their disposal 
has been entirely expended in the purchase of material. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Valentine Ball, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. J. Evans, Mr. Gr. H. Kinahan, 
and Mr. Eichard J. Ussher (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of carrying out Explorations in Caves in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the South of Ireland. 

During the past year your Committee have aimed at the exploration of 
Shandon Cave, near Dungarvan, which yielded remains of extinct post- 
Pleiocene mammalia in 1859 and in 1875. The exploration conducted 
in the latter year by the late Professor A. Leith Adams was discontinued 
by him in consequence of the danger presented by the loose impending 
rocks forming the roof, some of which have sunk down upon the ossiferous 
beds. The first step to the exploration has been the removal of this 
dangerous roof, which tended to fall away in shelves. 

During the latter part of 1882 circumstances rendered it unadvisable 
to move in the matter of Shandon Cav^e; but in January last your 
Committee entered into an arrangement with the occupier of the ground 
to quarry away a specified portion of the cliff over the cave's mouth, first 



ON EXPLORATIOJ<S IN CAVES IN CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE. 133 

removing the fence and the soil above it. Two or more men were kept 
almost constantly at this work from February during the spring and 
snmmer months, and the large amount of stone quarried has been carted 
away. But though little now remains to be done to put the cave into a 
fit state for exploration of its ossiferous deposits, it has not been possible 
hitherto to commence the latter operation. 

The work done has been inspected by Mr. DufBn, the county sur- 
veyor. The Committee have applied 5/. in payment for this, and retain 
5?. for current expenses, the balance of the grant — namely, 101. — remain- 
ing undrawn. The Committee beg leave to apply for a fresh grant of 
501., to reap the fruits of what has been done and to explore the por- 
tions of the cave thereby laid bare. They hope before the next meetino- 
of the Association to report upon the examination of the ossiferous beds 
that have hitherto been inaccessible without the preliminary work of 
removing the roof, and also to explore any other Carboniferous Limestone 
caves that they may have an opportunity of examining in Ireland, 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. H. Green, 
Professor L. C. ]Miall, ISIr. John Brigg, and IMr. James W. 
Davis (Secretary), a2opointecl to assist in the Exploration of 
Raygill Fissure, Yorkshire. 

The fissure occurs in an anticlinal of limestone in Lothersdale, near 
Skipton. It was formerly open to the surface, and from thence extended 
in a southerly direction, and with only a slight inclination fi-om a vertical 
line. During repeated operations of quarrying it has been from time to 
time cut across on the face of the qu.arry, each exposure being at a lower 
level and exhibiting some new feature in the character of the clays and 
sands which have been carried into it. In December 1879 the Council 
of the Toi'kshire Geological and Polytechnic Society decided that it was 
desirable that steps should be taken to secure a thorough investigation of 
the fissure and its contents, and appointed a Committee, consisting of 
Professors Green and Miall and of Messrs. Brigg and Davis, to carry out 
the exploration. The Committee decided to apply to the members of the 
society for subscriptions to enable them to carry on the work, and a fund 
of 60?. was obtained, separate from the ordinary income of the society, 
and operations at the quarry were commenced in June of the following 
year. Mr, Spencer, the proprietor, and Mr. Todd, his manager, placed 
men skilled in the class of work required at the disposal of the Committee, 
and Mr. Todd kindly undertook the management of the work.' The 
fissure opened into the face of the quarry towards the north, the limestone 
dipping at a sharp angle into the hill southwards. The opening of 
the fissure when the operations were commenced was 27 feet G inches 
from top to bottom, and about 9 feet across. It was situated about 
60 feet below the surface of the ground, and the same distance above the 
floor of the quarry. The section exposed in the opening showed the fol- 
lowing beds : — 



o 



> At the meeting of this Association at York a grant of 201. was made towards 
the work of exploration. 



ft. 


in 


9 





LI 


6 


7 






134 KEPORT — 1883. 

Limestone roof 

1. Laminated clay 

2. Sand, with layers of sandy clay, and numerous 

angular and subangular stones 

3. Sandy clay with rounded stones 

The uppermost stratum was composed of fine unctuous laminsB of 
bluisli clay, which turns a brown colour by exposure to the atmosphere ; 
between each lamina of clay there is a minute layer of very fine sand, by 
means of which thiu sheets of clay can be removed of considerable size. 
The middle stratum of sand contains numerous boulders of stone, mostly 
subangular in form. These, so far as the Committee have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining them, are composed principally of limestone and 
grit rock. No bones have been found in this bed. The third or lowest 
stratum is a brown sandy clay, containing numerous well-rounded water- 
worn pebbles of limestone and sandstone, appai'ently derived fi'om rocks 
occurring in the neighbourhood. Intermixed with these, especially near 
the base of the section, are numerous bones and teeth. The sands and 
clays surrounding or forming the matrix of the bones are cemented 
together, forming a hard mass enclosing the animal remains. The bones, 
for the most part, when newly exposed, are very soft and friable, and 
being cemented in the hard matrix, it rarely happens that a bone can be 
secured which retains its original form ; they split and break in any 
direction with the matrix, and remain imbedded in it. Both the pebbles 
and the external surface of the bones are of a dark chocolate colour. 

The material was removed from the base of the quarry backwards, 
and a considerable number of bones were found in the lowest stratum 
exposed. After penetrating for a distance of 15 feet, the fissure was 
terminated in this direction by a vertical wall of limestone, well I'ounded 
and waterworn ; and from this point the fissure descended almost vertically 
for a distance of about 27 feet. The limestone, which formed a wall 
between the fissure and the face of the quarry, constantly increased in 
thickness as the work of excavation proceeded. It had to be removed, 
and at 27 feet below the lower surface of the opening, at the commence- 
ment, the fissure extended 19 feet into the limestone. The vertical 
fissure is filled up for a portion of its depth by bone-earth, similar in 
character to No. o iu the section given above, but towards the bottom 
there is in front a large mass of yellow clay with large angular blocks of 
limestone. The space betwixt this clay and the southern wall is filled 
with bone-earth. At a dej^th of 3 or 4 feet below the level of the fissure, 
or 31 feet from the top of the opening, there was found the broken pieces 
of a large tusk of an elephant ; a portion is missing and could not be 
found. Along with the tusk were numerous other bones of the elejihant, 
including several large teeth. There were also bones, well-preserved 
teeth and tusks of the hippojaotamus, the latter mostly in fragments, only 
two specimens being found which were perfect. Teeth of the hyasna were 
numerous, and in most instances seemed to be those of adult animals, 
the points being well worn. Examples of Hhinoceros leptorliinus and 
the broken horn of a roebuck ( Cervus capreolus) were found in the upper 
part of the cave. Except the teeth, which are generally in a good state 
of preservation, the remaining bones were nearly all fragmentary, and so 
imbedded in the hard cemented matrix that it is almost impossible to 
ascertain to what animal they belonged. Below the point indicated above 
the fissure branches in two directions. One pi'oceeds eastwards, and is 



THE EXPLORATION OF BAYGILL FISStJEE. 135 

nearly horizontal ; it is sufficiently open for a man to creep along a 
distance of 25 feet, where a mass of fallen limestone prevents further 
progress, but beyond this mass an additional distance could be distin- 
guished of about 12 or 14 feet. The second branch extends in a southerly 
direction, and appears to fall rapidly. It is only accessible for a distance 
of 3 or 4 yai'ds. Where the roof and sides of the fissure are exposed 
they show signs of erosion ; the surfaces are smoothened and the corners 
of the limestone rounded off by running water. There is very little 
appearance of stalagmite having been found. 

The following section will serve to explain the relative position of 
the beds hitherto worked upon. It represents a section across the fissnre 
in a north and south direction : — 

1. Laminated clay. 

2. Sand and sandy clay with boulders, without stratification. 

3. Brown sandy clay, with rounded stones blackened, and numerous 
bones of animals, unstratified (bone-earth). 

4. Stiif yellow clay, with large masses of angular limestone. 

The stiff yellow clay at the lower part of the excavated portion occupied 
a large area in front of the fissure, the bone-earth being behind. Mr. Todd 
states that in the uppermost portion of the fissure, near the surface, there 
was a considerable amount of similar yellow clay. The excavation was 
continued for a short distance into the horizontal branch of the fissure, 
proceeding in an easterly direction. The opening is large, and, as stated, 
contains a quantity of material reaching almost to the roof. A number 
of bones and teeth have been found, similar to those obtained from 
bone-earth at a higher elevation. In this jDart of the fissure, in addition 
to the remains of elephas, hyena, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, bear, the 
bones of some smaller animal, probably fox, and the bones of a bird, 
there were found teeth of the lion. 

The work had now proceeded so far that it was thought desirable 
to postpone the operations of your Committee, to enable Mr. Spencer to 
quarry the limestone in front of the fissure, and during the jiast year a 
great mass of limestone has been removed. Whilst quarrying the lime- 
stone above the site of the fissure a branch was found to extend in a south- 
westerly direction almost vertically to the surface, forming with the 
excavated one a Y-shaped junction. It was filled up with clay and sand, 
and a few bones were found. The bones were much decomposed, and 
broke into fragments while the attempt was being made to extricate them. 

Your Committee hope that during the coming winter the proprietor of 
the quarry, Mr. Spencer, will be able to remove all the limestone which 
still impedes the entrance to the fissure and the continuance of the work, 
and that the excavation may be resumed during the early part of next 
spring. 

In conclusipn we cannot too heartily express our indebtedness to 
Mr. Spencer and to Mr. Todd for the kind and generous manner in which 
they have assisted in the excavation. 



136 EEPORT— 1883. 



Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. 
Prestwich, W. Boyd Dawkixs, T. McK. Hughes, and T. Gr. 
Bo^•XEy, Dr. H. W. Ckosskey, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. 
De Raxce, H. Ct. Fordham, J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, \Y. 
Pengelly, J. Plant, and E. H. Tiddemax, for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological charac- 
ters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, 
and Ireland, repjorting other matters of interest connected with 
the same, o.nd taking measures for their preservation. Draion 
up hy Dr. Crosskey, Secretary. 

The Committee is able to record many additional facts respecting erratic 
blocks, in its report for the present year. The Committee continue to 
confine their work to recording the observations made, and do not 
attempt to oiFer theoretical explanations. The information collected 
will enable the distribution of the erratic blocks to be mapped with con- 
siderable accuracy, and it is ultimately intended to tabulate the results 
obtained. 

This work, however, must necessarily be delayed in consequence of 
the constant discovery of fresh groups of erratic blocks. 

So many new facts are reported to the Committee year by year from 
difEerent parts of the country, that it would lead to mistaken generalisa- 
tions to make any attempt at complete classification. 

Yorlcsldre. — The Committee have received from Mr. James E. Westby, 
of Sheffield, the subjoined report on erratic blocks found at Crosspool : — 

Crosspool is about one and a half miles west of Sheffield, on the 
rising ground to the left of the Sheffield and Glossop turnpike road, and 
lies on shales underlying the Middle Rock (Gannister Series) of the 
Lower Coal Measures. 

To the east the ground slopes towards Sheffield ; to the west it begins 
to slope to the Rivelin N^alley. To the north-east the Middle Rock 
sandstone forms a bold escarpment ; while the land from Crosspool rises 
quickly to the south-west up to Sandygate. 

The heights of the various points above sea-level are : Lydgate, 
800 ft. ; River Rivelin, 350 ft. ; Crosspool, 730 ft. ; Sandygate, 850 ft. 

To the west of a line drawn from Sandygate, through Crosspool to 
Lydgate, the drainage and fall is towards the River Rivelin, while on 
the eastern side of the same line the rainfall is ultimately drained into 
the River Porter, both of which streams are tributaries of the River Don. 
Lying on the high land forming the outer edge of the drainage area of 
the River Porter, on its north side, there is a triangular patch of flat 
ground, now very uneven, having been worked for brick-making, over 
which lie scattered blocks and boulders of various sizes, which have been 
exposed and left in their present position by the workmen, who have 
generally got all the available clay. 

In the sections exposed the clay containing these blocks varies from 
2 ft. down to 10 and 12 ft. in depth, differing much from the ordinary 
surface-clays of the district, which are generally the decomposed coal- 
measure shales. 



ON THE ERIIAIIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 137 

On tbe local blocks, which vary from lai'ge masses weighing 3 or 
4 tons, down to small pebbles, there are irregular scratches, but several 
of the erratics, which are scarce — probably constituting but ^^j^oth part of 
the coarser materials — have the strias finely and regularly marked alono- 
the longer axis of the stone in decided grooves. 

There do not appear to be any erratics on the neighbouring highlands, 
and the adjoining fields have not been worked so as to reveal sections. 
It is probable, however, that a much larger area than the one here 
detailed once existed, for a large felstone boulder was found in the Porter 
valley, near Ecclesall Road, Sheffield, a distance of 1^ miles S.W. 
from Crosspool, and 600 feet lower in level, in composition and appear- 
ance identical with several of the Crosspool boulders. 

With the exception of the erratics catalogued, the large boulders 
consist either of millstone grit or coal-measure sandstones, which arc 
local rocks ; the millstone grit series appearing only ^ mile to the west, 
while the grit series crops out in the Rivelin valley. 

Petrol ogically, however, many of these boulders differ from the rocks 
in the immediate neighbourhood, although they have evidently been 
derived from the same measures. 

Some of the gannister, e.ij., is compact, fine-grained and nearly white, 
but its identity is shown by a new fracture revealing traces of stigmaria. 

The following is a list of the principal ei'ratics : — 

The specimens have been named by Professor Bonney. 

Although the size of some of the specimens is much less than that of 
those usually catalogued as boulders, yet their peculiarities render the 
list of value. 

1. A small well-rounded boulder, rather flat, fine scratches on all 
sides in the direction of the longer axis. Porphyritic tuff, 6 in. X 31 in. 
X 2 in. . " 

2. Eoughly rectangular, smoothed angles little rounded. Felstone, 

1 ft. 2 in. X 9 in. X 9 in. 

3. Irregular shape, ends rounded. Quartz-felsite with hornblende, 

2 ft. 6 in. X 2 in. x 1 in. ; 30 in. x 24 in. x 20 in. 

4. Sabtriangular, rounded, and smoothed. Felstone, 7 in. x 7 in. 
x6 in. 

5. Rounded ends, surfaces nearly flat. Felsite, 1 ft. 1 in. x 7 in. 
x4 in. 

6. Rhomboidal, with sharp angles and flat faces. Indurated tuff, 
8 in. x4 in. x4 in. 

7. Rounded, flattish oval. Tuff" much decomposed, 6 in. x4 in. 
x2 in. 

8. Subangular, angles well rounded. Quartz-felsite with a little horn- 
blende, 7 in. X 4 in. x 3 in. 

9. Rectangular, angles sharp. Grey magnesian limestone, 4 in. x 

3 in. x3 in. 

10. Subtriangular, rounded and smooth. Cherty magnesian lime, 
7in. X C in. x 4 in. 

11. Long roughly triangular, ends rounded, much decomposed. 
Felstone, 1 ft. x 4 in. x 4 in. 

12. Roughly rectangular, somewhat rounded at one end. Felstone 
and vein stutl', 2 ft. x 1 ft. x 10 in. 

13. Rounded oval boulder, smoothed. Quartz-felsite. 8 in. X 5 in. . 
x5 in. 



138 EEPOET— 1883. 

14. Plat disc, rounded edges. Ice scratched on both sides. Indurated 
tuff, 6 in. X 4 in. x 1 J in. 

15. Rounded, somewhat oval, smooth, and with ice scratches in the 
direction of the longer axis. Felstone, 8 in. x 5 in. x 3 in. 

16. Wedge-shaped, one side rounded as if from a large boulder. 
Quartz-felsite, 10 in. x 6 in. x 3 in. 

17. Irregular rounded. Compact dark felstone, 1 ft. 2 in. X 10 in. 
x7 in. 

18. Smooth boulder. Ice-scratched felstone, 7 in. x 4 in. x 4 in. 

19. Rectangular, angles sharp. Slaty rock, G in. x 4 in. X 4 in. 

20. Rounded and worn. Sandstone, Avith imperfect casts of brachiopods. 

9 in. X 6 in. x 6 in. 

21. Rounded and smoothed, somewhat oval. Felstone, without 
quartz, 10 in. x 6 in. x 4 in, 

22. Rounded pebble. Quartzose, 2 in. X 1^ in. x 1 in. 

23. Prismatic flat, smooth face, angles worn. Porphyritic tuff, 

10 in. X 6 in. x 3 in. 

24. Rounded pebble. Vesicular felsite, 1^ in. x 1 in. x f in. 

25. Wedge shape, one face flat, the other rounded, as if from a large 
block. Porphyritic quartz-felsite, 1 ft. X 8 iu. x 4 in. 

26. Rectangular block, angles sharp. Magnesian limestone, 1 ft. 4 
in. X 8 in. X 6 in. 

27. Irregular, subangular. Rbyolite, 6 iu. x 4 in. x4 in. 

28. Flat, sides and angles worn. 'Porphyritic ' tuff, 10 in. x 8 in. 
x3 in. 

29. Rhomboidal, angles sharp. An altered rock, 9 in. x 4 in. x 4 in. 

30. Subangular and irregular. An altered Silurian grit ? 8 in. x 
5 in X 3 in. 

31. Smooth rounded pebble. Quartzose, 3 in. X 2 iu. x 2 in. 

32. Prismatic, triangular and smooth. Rhyolite, 4 in. x 2 in. x 2 in, 

33. Smooth pebble. Probably from Buuter. Quartzite, 2 in. x 2 in. 
Xl in. 

34. Rough pebble, decomposed. Chert (Carboniferous), 2 in. x 2 in. 
X 1^ in. 

35. Smoothed, worn and rounded. A cherty rock, magnesian lime- 
stone, 4 in. X 3 in. X 2 in. 

36. Cubical, and angles slightly rounded. Porphyrite, 4 in. x 4 in. 
X4 in. 

37. Rounded and smooth, much decomposed. Tuff, 7 in. x 5 in. 
X 4 in. 

38. Angular and smooth. Felstone, 5 in. x4 in. x 3 in. 

39. Smooth rolled, subangular pebble. Black chert. Carboniferous, 
1^ in. X 1 in. x 1 in. 

40. Cubical and smooth. ' Porphyritic ' ash. 10 in. x 8 in. x 4 in. 

41. Subangular, faces smoothed. Felstone, 9 in. X 6 in. X 4 in. 

42. Small pebble, smoothed, subangular. Tuff, 1^ in. x 1 in. x|^ in. 

43. Rhomboidal, subangular. Magnesian limestone, 8 in. x 6 in. 
X 5 in. 

More specimens of magnesian limestone than ai-e named in this list 
have been found, together with numbers of boulders of a red sandstone 
differing from any local rock, and like some of the New Red Sandstones 
of Lancashire and Cheshire. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 139 

The probable sources of three-fourths of the erratics which have been 
identified are to the north-west. 

Slate rocks and tuff, from Borrowdale volcanic series of the Lake 
districts. 

Carb. limestone and chert, from North Lancashire or North-west 
Yorkshire. 

New red sandstone, from North Lancashire. 

Millstone grits and gannister series, from Pennine hills and borders, 
across South-west Yorkshire to Crosspool. 

Several of the specimens were probably derived from the east lowlands 
of Scotland, while the magnesian limestones are from the north-east of 
England. 

Midland Counties. — From Professor T. G. Bonney, M.A., F.R.S., the 
Committee lias received the following report : — 

Erratic blocks are so rare on or near the northern edge of Cannock 
Chase, in the vicinity of the Trent, that the following instances are worth 
recording. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Rugeley I only know of one 
erratic ; as a rule one does not hesitate to refer all pebbles to the Bunter 
conglomerate, directly or indirectly. That formerly stood in an open 
part of a street on the south side of the town, where the name ' Crossley 
Stone ' is still a record. Some years since it was broken up, and the 
fragments removed to the neighbourhood of a canal wharf on the opposite 
side of the town. There are now two fragments, partly buried in the 
ground: the larger measures 4 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft., and is at the thickest 
part 1 ft. 2 in. ; the other piece is a little smaller. The first two dimen- 
sions, as far as I can remember, represent the area of the original stone. 
The rock is a compact grey felstone, a typical example of a boulder of the 
' Arenig dispersion.' 

In the village of Colton, about one mile from the Trent, and on its 
left bank, boulders appear to be more common. Four are used as guards 
at the angle of a little bridge near the church ; one is rudely triangular, 
each side being about 2 ft. 6 in., and the thickness about 1 ft. 3 in. ; a 
second is about 3 ft. x 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; a third ratlier smaller. 
These are a grey granite, like that from Criffel. The fourth boulder is 
rather oval, its longest diameter being about 3 ft. This is a moderately 
coarse syenite, consisting of pinkish felspar and green hornblende, with a 
little quartz — I believe, a Scotch rock ; these, of course, are not in situ, 
but cannot have been brought from far. Built into walls, used as steps, 
or lying about in or near the village, are several other boulders of smaller 
size, commonly not exceeding 1 ft. 6 in. in longest diameter. The grey 
granite (CriSel) is the commonest rock ; but I noticed two of the 'Arenig' 
felstone, one also of a greenish-grey felspathic grit, some of the (not 
numerous) quartz grains being of a bluish colour — probably from Wales — 
and one (at the crossing of two roads in the village) a minutely crystal- 
line syenite or hornblendic granite, reddish felspar being the predominant 
mineral. I have seen the rock before in collections of erratics. I believe 
it is Scotch, though I think there is a rock something like it in the Carrock 
Fell region. It is certainly of northern origin. 

The following boulders in the Midland Counties are recorded on the 
authority of Mr. Horace Pearce, of Stoui-bridge : — 

Boulder (10 ft. in circumference, 2 ft. x 10 in. in height) in parish of 



140 EEPORT— 1883. 

Clent, Worcestersliire, at junction of road from Stourbridge to Broms- 
grove, with by-road to Clent Hills. Felbtone. Another block of felstone 
is on the opposite side of the road. 

Boulder (11 ft. 7 in. in circumference) just beyond the north-west 
corner of Highgate Common, Staffordshire, near a large Spanish chesnut- 
tree. Granite. 

Group of boulders near Claverly, Shropshire, and between there and 
Bridgnorth, comprising blocks of granite and felsite. 

Boulder (9 ft. 4 iu. in circumference) near Waystone, Abbot's Castle 
Hill, in boundary road between Staffordshire and Shropshire. Felsite. 

Boulder (5 ft. in circumference) on boundai'y road near Halfpenny 
Green, Salop. Vein quartz. 

Group of boulders near Gospel Ash, Staffordshire, comprising blocks 
of hornblendic granite poor in quartz, and said by Professor Bonney to 
be indistinguishable from specimens from Buttermere, and compact fel- 
site and mica syenite. 

SJiropsMre. — The group of erratic blocks near Clun has been further 
examined by Mr. Luff, who reports that he has this year tracked the lai'ge 
Plinlimmon boulders lying in the Clun district eastwards from Black 
Hill over the Twitcheu valley on to Clunbury Hill, and westwards to 
Beguildy, on the Radnorshire side of the Teme, i.e. for a distance of 
about 10^ miles. Southwards they dot the country here and there as far 
as Llanvair Waterdine, about five miles distant. Smaller fragments lie 
in a pretty continuous stream right up to Keriy Hill in Llontgomery- 
shire. None have as yet been found north of the Clun valley. Though 
they are most plentiful on the top of the ridge of hills south of Clun, 
they are by no means confined to high levels. 

The highest boulder is upon Black Hill. It is a grit from Rhayader, 
23 miles W.S.W., and has an elevation of something over 1,400 ft. 
Standing on Black Hill by this boulder, and looking westwards, the 
mountains of Radnorshire and Montgomeryshire are seen rising in trans- 
verse ridges across the line of sight, mass above mass in gradual stages, 
the hills in the near front being 1,200 to 1,400 ft. high ; the Radnorshire 
Beacons, 1,796 ft. ; Rhydd Hywell, 1,919 ft. ; up to the Plinlimmon 
range itself, twenty to thirty miles distant. 

At present there appears to be no intermixture on this horizon of 
erratics from any other direction but the west. Granite boulders occur 
on the north flank of the Longmynd, i.e. within about sixteen miles. The 
hills on the north of Clun, it may be noted, are not so high as those on 
the west. In addition to those recorded in the last report the following 
boulders have been observed : — 

'The Fairy Stone,' on the south-west corner of Clunbury Hill, pebble 
grit from the neighbourhood of Rhayader. Size, 3 ft. X 2 ft. 3 in. X 
2 ft. 6 in. Exact position, 52° 24' 35" N., 2° 55' 20" W. Subangular. 

Llanvair Hill Boulder, 3 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. and 2 ft. deep. Sub- 
angular. Grit from district as above. 

Burfield Flagstone, about half a mile west of the ' Great Boundary 
Stone ' described last year, and, like it, from near Machynlleth. 7 ft. 9 in. 
long, 6 ft. broad ; deeply buried in the ground, from which one end rises 
2 ft. 6 in. 

The Beguildy ' Stone,' 52° 24' 10" N., 3° 10' 30" W. Height above 
ground, 3 ft. 6 in. ; breadth, 4 ft. 3 in. ; thickness — very irregular — from 



ON THE EKRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 141 

12 in. to 24 in. Thoroughly rounded at every angle. Many unsuccessful 
attempts have been made to remove this stone, for, standing in the midst 
of a field, it is an obstruction to agricultural operations. At a depth of 
4 ft. it is said to spread out to a much greater thickness. Tt also is a 
Llandovery grit, and its parent rock is in the Rhayader district, though 
it is commonly believed to have travelled from a diflerent direction ; for 
the popular legend says the devil threw it from the Graig Don rocks, 
near Knighton, at Beguildy church, and as a proof the marks of his hand 
are still pointed out upon it. One of these marks is a bowl-like depression 
on its upper surface 12 in. diameter and 5 in. deep. 

Leicestershire. — Mr. J. Plant ' continues his reports upon the Leicester- 
shire groups of boulders : — 

A. Isolated Bouldees. 

Hallaton, near Tlxjpinijlmm, Leicestershire, south-east. — On the roadside 
at Hare Pie Bank is a large erratic block, 7 ft. X 6 ft. x 3 ft. Fine striae 
cover the upper surface. The block is said to have been moved some 
twenty yards, from an adjoining field, some fifty years ago. It was found 
lying in the upper boulder clay, which is very thick over this district (in 
some places over 80 ft. deep), and contains boulders of all sizes, including 
very large flints. Many of the boulders are covered with scratches. 
Height above the sea between 500 and 550 ft. 

The erratic looks like a calcareous sand.stone of the marlstone rock, 
which is found below the drift in the immediate neighbourhood. No 
outcrop of this rock occurs in the neighbourhood rearer than Tilton, 
some six miles to the north-west.^ 

Numbers of erratics, but of smaller dimensions, are found in the 
village itself, forming the foundations of old farm-houses, walls, &c. 
Many of these are millstone grit, mountain limestone, and sandstone froiQ: 
the coal measures. 

Boad from Lozighborotigh to Ashbij, Leicestershire. — A large erratic, 
size 3 ft. X 3 ft. X 2 ft. ; not known to have been moved. It is of mill- 
stone grit, and must have come at least thirty miles' distance from the 
north. No strife are visible. Height above the sea, about 250 feet. 

B. Groups of Boulders. 

Saxe-Cohurg Street, Leicester. — Two more large boulders have been 
uncovered here in excavating for the foundations of houses; size, each 
about 3 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. They are of Mount Sorrel granite, 
distant about seven miles north. They are rounded and subangular. 
No striae seen. They were found lying about 6 ft. deep in the boulder 
clay. Height above sea, about 260 ft. 

' A curious annual custom is observed at Hare Pie Bank, which may be connected 
with the boundary of the jjavish. A large meat pie is made, and is placed, with a 
wooden bottle, in a large hole, in the presence of representatives from certain 
villages. The meat pie is distributed, but a struggle takes place for possession of 
the wooden bottle with the representatives from the adjoining villages. This confers 
upon the village obtaining possession of the bottle certain privileges for the year. 
Whether this remarkable ceremony has any connection with the large erratic as 
marking the boundary could not be ascertained. 



142 EEPORT — 1883. 

Leicester Forest and Kirhy Muxloe. — On the road from Leicester to 
Hinckley, about 4i miles from the former place, is a large boulder in an 
orchard, showing only a small piece about 2 ft. square. On being un- 
covered it was found to be 6 ft. X 4ft. X 4 ft. 6 in. This block has never been 
moved, and is lying in the drift ; the longer axis is in the direction of the 
north. No strice are visible. It is of the coarse-grained Markfield syenite, 
distant about four miles north-west. The block is angular, some angles 
as sharp as if recently quarried. 

In an adjoining field on the west side of this orchard are two large 
blocks ; size, each about 8 ft. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. each. Some edges are 
rounded, others very sharp and angular. They are of Markfield syenite, 
distant about four miles. They are said to have been moved about four 
yards from a depression in the ground. No strias are seen. 

Not many yards to the north of the above spot is a group of four 
blocks, two of them about 4 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. ; the others are 
irregular cubes of about 2 feet. 

A further group occurs not many yards from this group ; average 
size, 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. These are lying on the surface. Both 
these groups are of Markfield syenite, distant about four miles. 

The mean height at which all these boulders are found may be taken 
at about 290 to 300 ft. 

On the turnpike road from Leicester to Hinckley, near the fifth mile- 
stone, is a group of three blocks, the largest 3 ft. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. This 
group is of Markfield syenite, distant about 3^ miles north-west. N.B. 
In these irregular-shaped blocks, the longest side each way is always 
measured. 

On the footpath from the Hinckley road to Kirby Muxloe, is a large 
erratic buried in the drift, the top of which only is exposed. Size 4 ft. 
6 in. X 3 ft. -, being buried in the drift the depth is not known. 

A recent bench-mark has been carved on this stone, the height of which 
can be fiveu wheia the new Ordnance map of this district is published. 

This block is also of Markfield syenite, distant about three miles 
north-west. No strite are seen. 

Near a farm-yard in the next field to this bench-marked block, is a 
group of three blocks, one 3 ft. x 3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. ; the others smaller. 
These are also of Markfield syenite. 

Kirly Muxloe.- — In the village of Kirby Muxloe is a group of seven 
blocks. Average size 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. They are of Markfield 
syenite. No striae observed. 

In another part of the village is a group of four blocks, from the same 
locality. Size 2 ft. x 2 ft. X 1 ft. 

I counted more than a hundred blocks, of sizes varying from 2 ft. 
6 in. to 1 ft., built into old walls and foundations of houses, which must 
formerly have been lying in the drift about the village. 

In a cottage garden in the village is an isolated block ; size 4 ft. X 
2 ft. X 2 ft., of Markfield syenite. There are three distinct grooves in 
this block. 

In the Manor House garden is another block, 4 ft. x 4 ft., partly 
buried in the ground, but estimated to be 5 ft. deep. It is of Markfield 
syenite. 

Numerous other boulders lie scattered in the fields, with only portions 
exposed, of the same character of rock. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 143 

One mile from Kirbj Muxloe, on the road to Newton Unthank, 
is an isolated block bj the road-side. Size 4 ft. X 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
This fine block, witli sharp angular sides, has never been known to 
have been moved, and is of the Avhifce variety of syenite from Markfield. 

The whole of these isolated and groups of boulders, described under 
this head, are spread over an area of about two miles long by half a 
mile wide, the longer direction being south-east of Markfield, from 
whence they are supposed to have been derived. Some are entirely 
exposed, others are partly bui-ied in the drift, which lies very thick in 
the valleys, but on some of the uplands is not many inches deep. From 
observations made some miles further to the south-east, there would 
appear to be a continuous line of these erratics from the syenitic rocks 
round Markfield and Groby. There must still be many thousands buried 
in the drift, as in any comparatively shallow excavation made over this 
area, erratic blocks are sure to be met with. 

Hertfordshire. — Mr. H. G. Fordham contributes records of erratics and 
notes referring to several parishes in the north of Hertfordshire, in con- 
tinuation of his former Report on that district. 

Kelshall. — The village of Kelshall is situated about 500 ft. above sea- 
level on the ridge of the chalk outcrop bounding the watershed of the 
Thames on the north, and dividing it from that of the Cam or Rhee. 
This ridge, with the country to the south within the watershed of the 
Thames, is covered with boulder clay ; on the north, in the valley of 
the Rhee, and to the north-west, in the district draining into the Ivel, 
some of the more prominent hills and transverse ridges are capped with 
patches of boulder clay (as at Ashwell, Report, 1881, p. 207 et seq., and 
at By grave). The two following boulders, when they were examined in 
September 1880, were lying together in a grass field, near the end of a 
cart-shed, on the north side of the road leading into the village from the 
west, and about 100 yards north of the church, upon the ridge already 
referred to, just on the dividing line or water-parting between the Thames 
and Rhee. 

1. Smoothed, with five fiat, or nearly flat, facets on the top and sides 
as it now stands. Mr. J. Vincent Elsden, F.G.S., describes the material 
from a small specimen as : — ' Very much decomposed throughout. The 
interior shows traces of an original dark crystalline rock, containing 
much magnetite which has weathered reddish-brown. Felspar crystals 
(probably plagioclase) are distinguishable. Probably dolerite.' 3 ft. 
4 in. X 2 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 

2. Roughly I'homboidal, much worn, and the upper surfaces, and to 
some extent the sides, furrowed by atmosphei'ic action. Compact lime- 
stone : mountain limestone. 2 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 

Bijgrave. — Bygrave adjoins Ashwell on the south-west. The church 
and a few houses and cottages, hardly amounting to a village, stand on 
the summit of a low isolated hill, within the area draining into the Ivel. 
The whole of the higher part of this hill is covered with boulder clay, 
its highest elevation being about '320 ft. above sea-level (bench-mark on 
church 314 ft.). The only boulder of any size lies on the top of the hill, 
on the side of the road, about 70 yards west of the church : — 

Yellowish, compact sandstone. About 3 ft. X 2 ft. X 2 ft. 



144 REPORT— 1883. 

Eitchin. — The town of Hitchin, on tlie Hiz, a tributary of tbe Ivel, 
lies at an elevation of about 220 ft. above the sea-level (bench-mark 
on church 21G ft.). On the vrest and north-west of the town are 
hills capped by thick beds of glacial gravel. From one of these, in 
ancient workings for gravel, the boulders now lying near in the stable- 
yard at The Hermitage have, no doubt, been obtained. They now lie 
about 212 ft. above sea-level, but if derived from the adjacent hill they 
m.ay be estimated to have been originally deposited at a level perhaps 
50 ft. higher. In the large excavations for chalk adjoining the Hitchin 
Railway Station, a good section of sand and gravel is exposed above the 
chalk. Large boulders have been obtained from this gravel, and some 
of these now lying on the floor of the pit are described below. Their 
original elevation above sea-level may be estimated at 240 to 280 ft. 

Boulders lying in the stable yard, The Hermitage. 

1. Long, irregular, rounded, .in shape fairly rectangular ; top irregu- 
lar, but in general outline smooth and flat ; one end flat, the other un- 
even ; whole snrface slightly eroded. It is used as a mounting-block. 
Yellow sandy limestone, containing numerous large helemnites, and some 
ostrece or gryphcem (?). Most probably lias marlstone. 5 ft. x 2 ft. 

5 in. X 2 ft. 

2. Smooth, slightly pyramidal in shape. Hard, compact sandstone, 
weathering iron-red. 2 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. Itj in. 

3. Rounded, smoothed, and upper surface scratched (?). Compact 
limestone, containing fragmentary fossils — ? spiriferce : probably carbo- 
niferous or Silurian limestone. 1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 1 in. 

4. Irregular, smoothed. Same material as 2. 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. x 9 in. 
In addition to the above, about 200 smaller boulders, varying from 

6 in. long up to nearly 1 ft. and 1 ft. 6 in., are used to mark the margin 
of the road. There is also amongst them a block of Hertfordshire 
Pudding Stone, about 2 ft. x 1 ft. 9 in. x 6 in., angular and apparently 
unworn. 

Boulders lying in chalk pit adjoining railway station. 

5. Rhomboidal, surface smoothed and angles rounded. Faces, par- 
ticularly one of the sides, flat. Brown, compact sandstone. 4 ft. x 2 ft. 

X 1 ft. 10 in. 

6. Rounded and worn, one end broken off. Hard, grey, crystalline 
limestone. 2 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 

7. Very much worn and rounded, one side nearly flat. Hard, dark, 
crystalline limestone. 2 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. x ? 

8. Irregular, but little worn fragment. Compact, veined, light-brown 
sandstone. About 1 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. x 6 in. 

9. Irregularly shaped, worn and rounded, with all angles rounded 
and the surfaces smoothed, hollowed or rounded ; no scratches, upper 
surface nearly flat and decomposed, otherwise very hard. Yellowish- 
brown, somewhat ci'ystalline limestone, containing fragments of fossils (?). 
Probably inferior oolite or lias marlstone. 5 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 2^ in. x 
2 ft. 6 in. 

10. Irregularly shaped, somewhat worn and rounded ; some parts of 
surface much worn, very hard, and rather inclined to split on lines of 



ON THE EKRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 145 

bedding. Apparently same material as 9. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. x 
1 ft. 5 in. . 

11. Irregularly cuboidal, but little worn, sections of fossils in sui-- 
face (?gryph£e£e). Material similar to 9 and 10. 1 ft. X 10 in. y 7 in. 

12. Rounded slab, surface easily scratched, shallow, rough grooving 
on. one side, probably of recent origin. Light yellow concretionary mass, 
fracture conchoidal. Possibly from the Oxford clay. 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 
3 in. X 5 in. 

13. Flattish, rounded. Hard, dark blue basalt, 1 ft. 3 in. x 11 in. 
X 6 in. 

14. Broken fragment, rounded and worn. Hard, dark-brown, cry- 
stalline limestone. 1 ft. X 10 in. x 6 in. 

15. Angular fragment. Crystalline, fossiliferous, brownish-yellow 
limestone, with cavities lined with small calcite crystals ; small pecten 
and other fragmentary fossils. Oolite, probably. 9 in. x 9 in. x 5^ in. 

16. Rounded, broken end of what appears to have been originally 
a flat, oval boulder. Iron-stained, reddish-brown limestone, contained 
numerous fossils. Section across both valves of a gryphcea arcuata on 
upper surface. Lias. 1 ft. 1 in. x 9 in. x 4^- in. 

17. Flat, but little worn. Same material as 9, 10, and 11. Contains 
small pecten. 10 in. X 9^ in. x 4^ in. 

18. Irregular surface, worn. Hard crystalline, shelly limestone. 
Much like Purbeck marble in character, but probably an older rock. 
11^ in. X 8 in. X 4| in. 

19. Broken concretion, similar to 12. 

20. Subangular, polished and scratched on all its faces, angles 
rounded. Short scratches and little grooves on all parts of the surface, 
on concaved as well as convexed faces. Hard, dark, crystalline lime- 
stone. 81 in. X 5^ in. x 4^ in. 

21. Flat-topped, irregularly- shaped slab. Top and two of the sides 
decomposed and soft from atmospheric action, perhaps also somewhat 
broken. The other sides and a small part of the upper surface hard, 
smooth and worn. Crystalline, fossiliferous limestone. 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 
8 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. 

22. Regular rhomboidal, with uneven but worn and smoothed surface, 
polished in places, and with scratches well marked in several places. 
Hard, compact, crystalline limestone. 1 ft. 1 in. x 9^ in. X 6 in. 

23. Long, irregular-shaped broken fragment, one side only worn. 
Hard, dark, crystalline limestone. 1 ft. 2 in. x 8 in. x 6 in. 

_ 24. Rectangular, edges rounded, and surface smoothed. 2 ft. x 1 ft. 
6 in. X 10 in. 

25. Broken, rounded fragment. Grey, fossiliferous, crystalline lime- 
stone. 11 in. X 8 in. X 4^ in. 

26. Roughly cuboidal in shape, slightly worn. 8 in. X 8 in. X 6^ in. 

27. Angles worn, sides flat. Iron-stained sandstone. 1 ft. 10 in. x 
10 in. X 7 in. 

28. Irregularly shaped, broken piece, not much smoothed, but on one 
side scratched deeply. 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft, 2 in. x 7 in. 

29. Roughly rectangular slab, angles rounded, sides flat. 1 ft. 6 in. 
X 1 ft. 4 in. X 9 in. 

30. Long slab, subangular, scratched and smoothed. 1 ft. 9 in. x 
1 ft. X Sin. 

1883. 



146 REPORT— 1883. 

31. Sabangular, worn. Sandstone. 1 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. X 11 in. 

32. Rounded and worn. Iron-stained, coarse-grained sandstone. 
1 ft. X 1 ft. X in. 

The evidence at present collected goes to show that in the district 
referred to the erratics are generally distributed over the country without 
reference to its elevation, and reaching a height of more than 500 ft. 
above sea-level — the highest hills being capped with boulder clay con- 
taining large boulders. It is also clear that as a rule the boulders of all 
sizes, up to the largest known, are derived from the oolites and lias, pro- 
bably of the Midland Counties, but that in addition there is a fair sprink- 
ling of older rocks from further north. Carboniferous limestone and 
millstone grit supply here and there a boulder of large size. Dark blue 
basalt is also not uncommon, and is occasionally found in blocks of a fair 
size. Granites are rare — two specimens only having been noted. 

ISTOXE. — The large boulder at Boyston, referred to in the 5th Report, 
1877, p. 84, has heen tnore fully described in the ' Transactions of the Wat- 
ford Nat. Hist. Society,' vol. ii. p. 249. 

Anglesey. — Professor Bonney, F.R.S., sends the following report: — 
A visit to the district south-west of Ty Croes enables me to add 
to the number of picrite boulders already recorded ('Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 137, and vol. xxxix. p. 254). From Ty Croes station 
a road runs south-west. Taking tirst turn to the right, after crossing a 
field, I found in a field to right of the lane a fragment of a boulder 
(measuring by estimate about 2 ft. x 1^ ft. X 1^ ft. of picrite of the ordinary 
type described in the above papers. About half-way between this spot 
and a farm-house seven fragments of a large boulder are built into the 
wall by the roadside : three of these are quite 2 ft. in diameter, the rest 
smaller. Outside the buildings of a second farm along the same lane are 
two fragments of picrite, the larger about Sh ft. X 2h ft. X 1^ ft. ; the longest 
diameter of the other being about 2^ ft. On the sandy shore at Forth 
Noble, some distance to the north of the boulder described in the second 
of the above papers, lies a large subangular boulder of the usual picrite, 
measuring about 4 ft. X 4 ft. X 2 ft. On my return by the Frondwl specimen 
I found fragments of another picrite boulder about 80 yards nearer the 
church, built into the base of the wall (vegetation will generally conceal 
these). On looking again at the boulders in the Cromlech Barclodiad-y- 
gawras I felt some doubt as to the correctness of my former identification 
of picrite ('Loc. Cit.' vol. xxxix. p. 254), but without injuring the stones 
it is difficult to be sure. It is, however, evident that, at any rate in this part 
of Anglesey, boulders of hornblende-picrite are rather common. I may add 
that during a stay of a few days at Penmaenmawr I did not see a single 
picrite boulder, though erratics are abundant, as there is boulder drift on 
the lower ground. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDKRGROUND WATERS. 147 



Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas G-alton, Professors 
G-. A. Lebour and J. Pkestwich, and Messrs. James GtLaisher, 
H. Marten, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, W. Pengelly, James 
Plant, James Parker, I. Egberts, Thos. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, 
W. Topley, E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Eance 
{Secretary) appointed for the purpose of investigating the Cir- 
culation of Underground Waters in the Permeable Formations 
of England, and the Quantity and Character of the Water 
sitpjAied to various Towns and Districts from these Formations. 
Dratun tip by G. E. De Eance. 

Ten years having elapsed since your Committee was appointed at Belfast, 
they think this a fitting opportunity to review the results so far obtained, 
and to point out where they consider additional information is still required, 
in the hope that they may receive assistance in their investigations from 
the various local societies or from individuals who may be disposed to 
aid in the work. 

Composition of the Committee.— The Chairman of the Committee, 
Professor Hull, F.R.S., and the Secretary, Mr. De Ranee, F.G.S., 
were appointed in 1874 ; the nine reports have been drawn up by the 
latter. Of the original Committee, Professor Prestwich, P.R.S., Messrs. 
Morton, J. Plant, W. Whitaker, and the Rev. Dr. Crosskey also still 
serve. The Committee have lost by death Professor Harkness, F.R.S., 
Mr. Binney, F.R.S., Mr. Charles Moore, F.G.S., and Mr. W. Molyneux, 
all of whom have rendered important assistance, as have the following, 
who have retired from the Committee : Messrs. Mellard Reade, C.E., 
Tylden Wright, H. H. Howell, Fox-Strangways, and Lowe, F.R.s! 
General assistance has been given by the following, who have since 
retired from the Committee: Sir Frederick Bramwell, F.R.S the Rev 
W. S. Symons, and Mr. R. W. Mylue, F.R.S. 

The members of the Committee who took charge of districts and have 
carried out the heavy work of the inquiry, were in the Midlands, Mr. James 
Plant, Mr. W. Molyneux, and Mr. H. Marten; in the south-west of 
England, Messrs. Pengelly, Moore, and Stooke (the latter has obtained 
also much information in Shropshire and Cheshire) ; in Lancashire the 
work has been done by Messrs. Binney, Morton, and De Ranee, supple- 
mented by very valuable special reports by Messrs. Mellard Reade and 
I. Roberts ; m Gloucestershire Mr. Wethered has done good work, and 
contributed a report of great value on the quantity of water held by rocks 
of various ages ; in the north-east of England the work has been done by 
Professors Green and Lebour, and Messrs. Howell and Fox-Strangways. 
_ The work entrusted to your Committee was twofold— first, to^inquire 
into the circulation of underground waters in permeable formations; 
secondly, to ascertain the quantity and quality of the water supplied 
to towns and districts from these formations. The information obtained 
occupies nine reports ; the eight already published fill up no less than 
163 pages of the annual volume of the Association, and contain a record 
of upwards of 500 wells and borings. 

Your Committee believe that° the publication of these results, by 

L 2 



148 EEroRT — 1883. 

directing public opinion to the value of such supplies, and by the pre- 
servation of the records of those carried out, has given an impetus to water 
of this class being generally adopted for domestic consumption in districts 
where gravitation supplies are unsuitable or unattainable. 

As regards the first head of inquiry — the circulation of underground 
■waters — much remains to be learnt, especially as to the influence of 
variation of barometrical pressure on the volume of springs. Indepen- 
dent investigation is now being carried on by Mr. Baldwin Latham, but 
it is exceedingly desirable that numerous observations should bo taken 
in different classes of rocks, the quantity of water a rock is capable of 
holding being no measure of the quantity of water it is capable of yield- 
ing. The difference of the period of time in which two rocks will absorb, 
and give off by gravity, the same quantity of water is governed by the 
difference of their chemical composition. 

The chemical composition of two rocks being identical, their facility 
of discharge of water is in direct relation, to the amount by which they 
are traversed by planes of joints and fissures, and the extent these may 
run parallel or at right angles to the valleys which cut into and expose 
the water-bearing beds. 

The proportion of the annual rainfall that is absorbed by different 
classes of rocks is a subject that requires further examination. The 
quantity is largely regulated by the quantity stored from previous years. 
After a succession of dry years the permanent water-level is reduced to 
minimum figures, and the water gradient becomes nearly flat and springs 
cease to flow. The first heavy rains will be nearly wholly absorbed, until 
the maximum water-gradient is reached and the rocks are stored with 
the largest amount of water they can hold. After they are once charged, 
all excess of rainfall runs off in floods, and the amount absorbed is prac- 
tically nil. Spread over the twelve months, the annual amount absorbed 
is probably never more than 15 inches, and the average ranges from 
5 inches in chalk countries to 10 inches in new red sandstone areas. 
In millstone grit districts about 8 inches are absorbed, but the permeable 
beds are thin, and the water is thrown off again in numerous springs, as 
a rule in the same drainage basin, giving permanence to the dry- weather 
flow of the streams traversing them. Except in WaterivorJcs drainage 1 
areas but few observations exist as to the actual volumes run off daily 
by the rivers of this country, and data on this subject are much required, 
as well as a permanent record of the height to which floods rise in the 
various river-basins. 

Further observations are required as to the action of faults in acting 
as ducts, along the face of which water is constantly passing, and barriers 
separating districts into distinct drainage areas. The facts so far obtained 
point to faults traversing thick permeable sandstone and limestone, having- 
these formations on both sides of the dislocation, as offering no obstacle 
to the free passage of waters, which, even if locally obstructed by the- 
hardened face or slickenside jointing of the fault, invariably finds its way 
through cracks extending across the width of the fault. In faults traversing 
thick shales and clays of any age, the fissure, be it wide or narrow, always, 
appears to have been filled with the impermeable material forming the 
sides, and in some cases, when porous rocks have been immediately over- 
lain hj impermeable material since denuded, the fissure of the fault has 
been filled from above at a time when the fault had an upward prolonga- 
tion, destroyed with the above-mentioned denuded material. 



ON TUK CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



149 



The daily registi-ation of the heights of the streams might easily be 
made on gauges, painted on the county bridges, but the organisation 
necessary to carry this out is entirely beyond the scope of the British 
Association, and should be carried out at the national charge, being of 
the highest importance to the country. 

The determination of the number of cubic feet of water, carried down 
at selected points on the English rivers, particularising whether it repre- 
sents dry-iveather, avei-age, or flood-flow, would be of very high value, and 
mi^ht well be undertaken by the Association. Such observations, stating 
the run off per square mile of drainage area and the geological character 
of the area drained, would have more than a local value. 

Permeable rocks below the permanent water-level of a district may be 
regarded as a reservoir of which the cubic content is limited by the size 
of the spaces between the grains, and the width of the fissures and cracks 
by which the rock may be traversed. The quantity of water such rocks are 
■capable of storing, has had much light thrown upon it by the investigations 
of 'Mr. Wethered, published in the fourth appendix to the eighth report. 

The following figures give an abstract of his results as to some of the 
most typical rocks examined by him : — 









Gallons of w 


iter absorbed 


Rock 




Locality 


jiei/square 


nch of rockj 




•i'Cubic foot of 
rock 


3 feet tliick 


Old Red Sandstone . 




Bristol . 


•642 


53,754,000 


Old Red Flags . 




Caithness 


•08(j 


7,254,000 


Old Red Conglomerate . 




Gloucestershire 


1172 


98,000,000 


Carboniferous Limestone 




Clifton . 


•010 


887,000 








•049 
•058 


4,122,000 
4,853,000 


Millstone Grit . 




Bristol . 


If i» • • • 




r South Wales (very \ 
\ coarse) . J 


•355 


28,747,000 


H J, • • . 




Forest of Dean 


1119 


93,625,000 


Pennant Grit . 




Bristol . 


— 


— 


Coal Measure Grit (Pennant ^ 
type) . . . . / 


>» ... 


•112 


9,446,000 


Coal Measure Grit (Millstone \ 
Grit type) . . . f 


„ ... 


•273 


22,910,000 


Bunter Sandstone . 




Heidelberg 


•838 


70,889,000 


Magnesian Conglomerate 




Clifton . 


•133 


11,168,000 


„ Limestone 




f% ■ . . 


1044 


87,363,000 


Great Oolite (hard) . 




Bath 


1473 


123,268,000 


(soft) . 




,, > • . 


2157 


180,415,000 


Inferior Oolite (Building stone) 


Cheltenham . 


1496 


125,147,000 


„ (Pisolitic) 




,. 


•146 


12,264,000 






Mr. "Wethered draws attention to the chemical analysis of the top-bed 
of the filter-beds of the Chelsea Waterworks, which corresponds with the 
;analysis of the Millstone Grit and of Pennant Grit. In both cases there 
is nothing in the chemical composition of the filtering medium which can 
osidise the organic impurities of water passing through. The oxidation 
in the filter is eS'ected by air between the grains of sand, and in the rocks 
by air collected in the interstices ; and he points out that with water 
yielded through fissures and joints in the strata, as is the case with the 



150 



REPORT — 1883. 



water derived from the Carboniferous Limestone, whicli does not per- 
colate, it is a question whether the purifying process would be always 
satisfactory. 

Appendix I. — Information obtained in 1882-3. 

By C. E. De Range. 
Information collected hy G. E. De Bance, F.G.S. 
Underground Water in the Oolites at Birdlip, near Gloucester. — The 
escarpment overhanging the Vale of the Severn, near Gloucester, consists 
of the following sequence of oolitic rocks at Leckhampton Hill : — ■ 
Great Oolite 



20 feet. 
264 „ 

28 „ 
202 „ 



Fuller's Earth . 
Inferior Oolite , 
Lias Sands 
Upper Lias Clay 

The Great Oolite and the upper part of the Fuller is permeable, and 
the water is supported by the very impermeable layer occurring at the 
base of the Fuller's Earth. Water traverses the Inferior Oolite freely, 
especially through the numerous joint planes by which it is traversed, and 
descends into the Lias Sands, which constitute an important underground 
reservoir, supported by the lias clays, which throw out numerous springs. 
The dip of all the beds is eastwards, or from the escarpment into the hill ; 
for the dip of the rocks forming the actual scarp is directly modified by 
a slip caused by the drag of the hill, the dip being toward the plain 
beneath. This has an important influence on the direction of the water- 
flow, the position of which has been determined with much accuracy at 
Birdlip in a series of borings made by the Gloucester Corporation AVater- 
works, for the journals of which I have to thank Mr. T. H. Fryer, Town 
Clerk of Gloucester. 



Bore holes 


Surface 
level 


Water 
level 


Level at 
bottoiu of 
bore-hole 


Difference 
of water-level 


Remarks 


No. 3 
No. 4 

No. 2 
No. 1 


22 2-. 5 7 
437-54 

425-22 
395-93 


177-57 

257-68 

249-22 
235-93 


147-07 
133-54 

150-72 
92-43 


80-11 1 


^ 


Rose 9 feet, or 
Rose 10 iu 24 

hours. 
Rose 10 feet in 1 

hour. 
Rose 12 feet iu 1 

hour. 
Rose to 35 feet. 


8-46 
13-29 


21-75 



The dip between No. 1 and No. 2 is 1 in 26. 

These oolitic rocks are traversed by numerous small faults, ranging 
about W. ION., mostly with downthrows to the north. It does not 
appear to be certain whether they act as barriers or not to the passage of 
undergi'ound waters. 

South-ivest Lancashire. — A boring has recently been made at Hall 
Wood, about six miles east of Liverpool, by JSIr. Timmins, of Runcorn, 
for the Cheshire Lines Railway Committee, in search of water. The 
boring has reached a depth of 414 feet, the whole of which was carried 
thiough stifi" reddish-brown clays, samples of which have been kindly 
forwarded by Mr. A. Timmins, Stud. Inst. C.E., the upper portion of 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDEEGROUND WATERS. 



151 



-whicli appears to be referable to the boulder clay, but as to the age of 
the lower part there appears to be much uncertainty. No Glacial Clay 
is known to occur in the district at so great a depth. The Keuper 
Marls cannot be present unless they are let in by unknown trough faults, 
and if present can only occupy a very small area ; while the Permian 
Marls, and the Clay beds of the Upper Coal measures, do not attain in 
this area the great thickness observable in this boring ; nor does the sur- 
face evidence afforded by the surrounding country support the view of 
their being referable to either of those formations. In the hope that 
some light might be thrown on the problem by microscopical examination, 
I submitted the samples to Mr. J. A. Phillips, F.R.S., who has kindly 
examined them, and reports as follows : — 

' The plastic red specimen (395 feet) is a fine clay, strongly coloured 
by oxide of iron, and apparently contains patches of greyish boulder clay. 
After being attacked by hydrochloric acid it became perfectly colourless, 
and this white residue consists of clay containing fragments of angular 
quartz, with a substance which is probably kaolinite, resulting from the 
decomposition of felspars. 

'The coarser sample (Hall "Wood, 4*14 feet) is like the former, but 
with a larger proportion of angular quartz, in fragments varying from 
ToVo to TFiT iiich in diameter. The clay does not appear to contain any 
particle of boulder clay.' 

Surrey. — A very interesting boring is now going on at Richmond ; it 
has penetrated the chalk and greensand, and has reached beds of red 
marl and hard red sandstone, with partings of pyrites, at 1,266 feet, 
specimens of which have been kindly forwarded by Messrs. Mather and 
Piatt, of Salford Ironworks. 



Information collected by Mr. Fox-Strangways, F.0.8. 

1. At Irton, near Scarborough, la. Finished August 1882. 2. 94 feet. 3. 
70 feet, 10 feet diameter ; 28 feet, 25 inches diameter ; 152 feet, 20 inches diameter ; 
189i- feet, 12 inches diameter : total depth 439^ feet. 3a. None. 4. 4«. 5. Flows out 
at the surface at the rate of about IJ million gallons per 24 hours. 6. The level 
does not vary, but the quantity increases after heavy rain. 7. See previous answers. 
8. Analysis not made since the deep boring completed. 



9. Clay and Soil 
Gravel . 
Clay 

Sand and Gravel 
Marl 

Sand and Gravel 
Marl 

Sand vpith Boulders 
Gravel with Boulders 
Warp 

Brown Marl . 
Kimmeridge Clay . 
Kock 





ft. in. 1 


. 2 3 1 




17 




. 2 9 




9 




1 




2 9 




8 6 




4 9 




3 




5 9 




5 3 




44 3 




21 





ft. 


in. 


Very hard rock 


25 


6 


Light compact rock 


9 





Hard rock .... 


34 


6 


Dark-coloured hard rock 


9 





Open rock with hard bands 


19 





Hard rock .... 


94 





Soft or shaly rock 


8 





Hard rock 


86 





Kock mixed with tough bind 


4 


6 


Close rock mixed with shale and 






sand 


14 


6 


Blue clayey shale 


16 


6 


Total depth 


. 439 


6 



lO. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 



152 



REPORT — 1883. 



Information collected hy 0. E. Be Bance, from Mr. T. W. Shore. 

1. Southampton artesian well at the S.W.R. terminus, la. 1840. 3. 64 
feet to bottom of shaft. From the surface to the bottom of the bore-hole 220 feet. 

ft. in. 
9. New-made soil of mud with shingly gravel . .80 

Whitish clay and stones 2 

Whitish clay ^ 

Gravel with claj' [ . . . . . .50 

Yellow gravel J 

Green sand with water . . . . . .50 

Blue sand with Venericardia and Turritella . . 10 

Blue sand like indigo 5 

Blue sand 5 

Slate-coloured sand 5 

Bluish green sand with shells and water . .10 

Slate-coloured clay 5 

Ditto with sand 4 

Blue clay 6 

Dark blue clay 10 

Ditto with sand . , 2 

Bluish sand with water . . . . . .10 

Clay with sand 35 

Bluish sand with water 3 

Black sand with water 2 

Green sand witb water . . . . . .50 

Blue clay with sand . . . . . . 10 

Light bluish clay with sand 23 

Light blue clay with little sand . . . .50 

Blue clay 2 6 

Dark blue sand 2 6 

Dark blue coarse sand with water . . . .20 
Coarse white sand with water . . . . 38 



220 



Information given by Mr. T. W. Shore. 

1. Southampton Docks artesian well. 3. 63 feet to bottom of shaft ; 374 feet 
from the surface to the bottom of the bore-hole ; bore-hole 9 inches in diameter. 

ft. in. 

9. From surface ? 30 

Blue clay 10 

Sand 10 

? 58 

Very hard blue clay 27 

Dark green sand ....... 5 

Fine whitish running sand, with water . . . 16 

A mass of stone "* '>8 

Light brownish clay, with sand, with ' occasional 

fragments of stone 110 

Ditto, bluish 5 

Hard blue clay, with very slight mixture of sand . 15 

Ditto, with broken shells 10 

Hard lead-coloured clay, with very slight mixture 

of s md 34 

Hard blue clay, with a slight mixture of sand . 5 
Hard bluish clay, without sand . . . .50 
Hard lead-coloured clay, with pyrites . . .50 
Very hard, dense, lead-coloured clay . . .50 

Hard clay, with pyrites 2 

Haid dense clay, with nodular fragments . .40 



ox THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



153 



Hard clay 

Layer of stone ..... 

Dense hard clay ..... 

Fine dense sand ..... 

Black rolled pebbles .... 

Fine hard sand, with slight mixture of clay 
KoUed black pebbles .... 

Hard light-coloured sand 

Sandy clay ...... 

Hard sand, with clay .... 

Clay with sand ..... 

Clay . . . . . 

Sandy clay 

Clay without sand ..... 



ft. 


in 


24 








6 


12 


6 


3 





2 





3 





1 





9 





7 





3 





9 





3 





2 





19 






374 



Information collected by G. E. T)e Ranee, from Messrs. Le Grand and 
Sutcliff, 100 Bunhill Bow, London, E.O, 

Nature of Strata bored through at Melton Mowbray. 



Feet 


Nature of Strata 


2 


1 to 2 


Soil. 


6 


3 „ 8 


Loamy sandy gravel. 


2 


9 ,, 10 


Yellow clay and sand. 


1 


11 


Yellow clay. 


3 


12 to 14 


Sandy gravel, with water. 


23 


15 „ 37 


Blue clay and stone. 


26 


38 „ 63 


Blue clay. 


36 


64 „ 99 


Blue shale and stone. 


168 


100 „ 267 


Blue lias clay and stone. 


17 


268 „ 284 


Dark shaly clay and stone. 


24 


285 „ 308 


Grey marl and stone. 


61 


309 „ 369 


Ked marl and gypsum. 


1 


370 


Grey keuper sandstone. 


3 


371 to 373 


Grey marl and gypsum. 


35 


374 „ 408 


Red marl and gypsum. 


1 


409 


Grey sandy marl and gypsum. 


3 


410 to 412 


Red marl and gj'psum. 


1 


413 


Red sandstone. 


4 


414 to 417 


Red marl and gypsum. 


1 


418 


Red sandstone. 


1 


419 


Red marl. 


6 


423 to 425 


Grey sandstone, red marl, and gypsum. 


50 


426 „ 475 


Red marl and gypsum 


1 


476 


Grey sandstone. 


24 


477 to 500 


Shaly red marl, sandstone, and gypsum. 


14 


501 „ 514 


Red marl stone, grey sandstone, and gypsum. 


4 


515 „ 518 


Grey sandstone. 


11 


519 „ 529 


Red marl stone, grey sandstone, and gypsum. 


1 


530 


Grey sandstone. 


1 


531 


Red marl stone. 


1 


53? 


Grey sandstone. 


532 


532 



154 



REPORT— 1883. 



Information collected hij Mr. James "Plant, F.G.S.,from the Local Board, 

Melton Mowbray. 

1. Scalford Road, near Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, la. Boring commenced 
1882; finished March 1883. 2. About 250 feet. 3. Depth 556 feet; diameter 
about 4 inches. 4. No pumping, but water stands at 120 feet from the surface. 
6. Not observed. 8. No analysis yet made. 

9. Brown drift clay with large boulders . 
Brown sandy drift clay .... 

Lower lias clay with thin bands of limestone 

Rhcetic 

Keuper red marl with gj'psum bands . 
Grey mottled sandstone . . 

It is supposed this latter is the Upper Keuper sandstone, and it proves the existence 
of the Triassic rocks five miles further to the east than the known boundary in this 
county. 9a. Several gypsum bands yielded water as well as the sandstone. 12. 
A large fault distant about two miles to the N., bringing up the middle beds of the 
lias. This fault runs due E. and W., and is about thirty miles long. 14. None 
known. 16. Further operations are contemplated. 



Depth of rocks 


Total depth 


Feet 


Feet 


. lOi 


104 


. 45 


149 


. 212 


361 


. 26 


387 


. 130 


517 


. 40 


557 



Information collected hij Mr. Jawes Plant from the Local Board, HincJcley, 

Leicestershire. 

1. Hinckley AVharf . la. Boring of 10 inches diameter ; commenced November 
1881. 2. 313 feet. 

3. Depth of well 12 feet. 

„ 10-inch bore 150 „ 

»j ^»> )> • • • • ••'■I'l.j) 

)J u^ ,, „ . . . , .to „ 



Total . . 754 ,, 

4. The mean heiglit at wliich the water stands in tlie bore-hole is 654 feet. 5. 
Many thousands of gallons have been pumped out wliile testing the water, and tlie 
supply always rises to within 70 feet of the surface. 7. Water-level is above the 
bed of tlie river Anker, distant about two miles S.W. of the bore-hole. 8. Several 
analyses have been made by different analysts. The following is tlie average : — 
In 100,000 parts there are — 

Lime 

Soda 

Magnesia 

Sulphuric acid 

Carbonic acid 

Silicic acid 

Chlorine 

' Total . . . 664-78 



67-31 


202-50 


19-00 


295-00 


16-67 


2-00 


61-70 



The above constituents are considered to be combined in the water as follows :— 



Sodium chloride .... 


. 101-67 


Sodium sulphate .... 


. 340-39 


Calcium sulphate .... 


. 163-47 


Magnesium sulphate 


. 11-.50 


Magnesium carbonate . 


. 31-85 


Silicic acid 


2-00 




6.50-88 


Add oxygen equal to chlorine 


. 13-90 



Total 



664-78 



ON THE CIKCDLATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



155 



The specific gravity of the water (1-0060) is very great. The water is quite clear and 
limpid to the eye, and has a brackish taste, but contains not the slightest organic 
impurity. By continuous pumping for some weeks the solids in solution have been 
reduced from 650 (parts in 100,000 parts) to 465, and it is fully expected that further 
pumping will greatly reduce this quantity. 9. See Report for 1882 for description 
of rocks down to 705 feet 2 inches. 

Depth 

ft. 

Mottled sandstone, red and grey . . .12 

Red sandstone, coarse ..... 7 

Grey sandstone 15 

Grey sandstone, conglomerate, pebbles size of~l _ 

peas J 

Red sandstone, fine-grained .... 6 



of rocks 
in. 

6 
10 




Total depth 
ft. in. 
717 8 
725 6 
740 6 


6 


748 





754 



9a. From sandstone rocks only. 
Reports. 



lO to 16. For replies to these questions see former 



Information collected hy Mr. Be Bance, from the Cromer Waterworlcs 

Company, Limited. 

Analysis of Water. 

County Analyst's Office and Laboratory, London Street, Norwich, 

November 11, 1880. 

Grains per galloQ 
Total dissolved solids . 
Free ammonia 



Ammonia from organic matter 

Nitrogen as nitrates or nitrites 

Chlorine ..... 

Equal to common salt . 

Lime ..... 

Magnesia .... 

Sulphuric anhydride 

Equal to gypsum . 

Oxygen required to oxidise organic matters 

Natural hardness 

Hardness after boiling 



21-2800 

•0050 

-0028 

none 

2-2400 

3-7100 

7-2800 

-6050 

1-4400 

2-4500 

•0760 

5 degrees 

3-8 „ 



Remarlis. — This water is undoubtedly to be ranked as a water of high-class purity, 
and in all respects is admirably adapted for dietetic purposes. The organic impurity 
is practically nil, and the mere trace which is found to be present is unquestionably 
mainly derived from vegetable sources of a perfectly harmless description. The 
hardness is also very moderate, and well within the limits which have been practi- 
callj' found conducive to health ; at the same time it is quite sufficient to prevent 
any absorption of lead from metal pipes. By simple boiling the hardness is reduced 
to one-fourth of its original amount. I consider it an admirable water, both for 
domestic and general purposes. 

(Signed) Francis Sutton. 

Mr. G. H. Ogston, of 22 Mincing Lane, London, in his Report of January 11, 
1881, after confirming the above analysis, goes on to say : — 

' The sample sent me from the Cromer Reservoir has been analysed. It is clear 
and bright, and has a good appearance in addition to a brisk and agreeable taste. 

' The analysis indicates that it is free entirely from pollution, and in my opinion 
it is an excellent water for drinking and for general use.' 

Information collected hy Braintree and Bocldng Microscopical arid 
Natural History Club. 

1. Belonging to Messrs. S. Courtauld & Co., situate at Booking Church Street. 
Essex. Xa. July, 1865. No. 2. 137-07 feet. 3. 40 feet deep, 5 feet diameter; 
244 feet deep, 8 inches diameter. 3a. None. 4. No pumping required, fta. When 
first sunk it stood about 8 feet above surface of ground. Not ascertained. 5. Capa- 



156 



EEPORT — 1883. 



bilities not known. About 16,000 gallons is allowed to flow out of well. 6. Under 
the peculiar circumstances of the case we cannot at present say. Have kept no 
record for this time. 7. Cannot say at present. About 10 feet above stream. 8. 
Analysis of one imperial gallon : — 



Oxidisable organic matter 
Oxide of iron and alumina 
Carbonate of lime 

„ of magnesia 

Sulphate of lime . 
Chloride of magnesium 

„ of sodium 
Soluble silica . 



■22 1 

.,, > Actual (saline) ammonia '0350 grain. 



15-19 "( Organic (albuminoid) '^ 
8-25 / . ammonia / 

7-67 
9-34 
3-87 
119 



0028 



Total solid constituents . 45-87 grains 

Superficial Drift. 

^0. Feet 
>. 1. Made ground ••........ 6 

2. Sandy clay g 

Tertiary. 

3. London clay ' ... 46 

4. Clay stone and cement stone, with small vein of sand yielding 'I 

water r' *♦ 

5. London clay, with stones and shells 17 

6. Cement stone li 

7. London clay 31 

8. Dark sandy clay, nearly all sand, slight traces of shells . . o' 

9. Sandy clay, a little lighter in colour than above .... 4 

10. Loose sand 2 

Lower London Tertiary. 

11. Dark sand, slight trace of clay and shells 7 

12. Pebbles and London clay li 

13. Loose sand, light brown colour 151 

14. London clay and stones 3 

15. Loose sand . 7 

16. Mottled clay 'i, 

17. „ „ and sand 4 

18. „ „ 8 

19. „ sand, with slight mixture of clay 4 

20. Light-coloured sand 14 

21. Dark sand, very smooth, almost like mud 21 

22. Green sand vi 



Secondary. 
23. Chalk, in which an additional bore of 57^ feet was made 
Total 



57^ 
244 ft. 



9a. 
No. 



In Nos. 4 
15. No. 



and 



23. 10. None near. 12. Do not know of anJ^ 13. No. 14. 

16. At first (July 1865) the well supplied about 9,000 gallons of 
■water per hour above the surface of ground. July 1867. The well up to this time 
had been allowed to run to waste night and day, and it was found that the quantities 
supplied had diminished to 2,000 gallons per hour. Since then it has been econo- 
mised, and it is found now that at any particular time it will supply about 5,000 
gallons per hour. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



157 



Weekly Record of the Level of Water in Messrs. Samuel Courtauldand Co.'s 
well, Baching, Braintree, Essex. Ohservations made at 6 a.m. on Monday 
mornings. No ivater is drawn from well on Sunday. 



Dat 




Abov 


e surface 


Below 


Rainfall 
for 




e, 




of 


surface of 


Remarks 


188 


o 


gi 


ound 


ground 


previous 
week 




Jan. 


1 


16 


inches 


_ 


1-10 




)) 


8 


12i 


jj 


— 


•40 




)> 


15 


18 


)> 


— 


•67 




)) 


22 


lU 


»> 


— 


•13 




If 


29 


16" 


j» 


— 


•94 




Feb. 


5 


lU 


)» 


— 


•72 




J» 


12 


IS- 


>» 


— 


1-84 


A very general heavy fall throughout 
the county. 


»> 


19 


IS 


)» 


— 


•73 




)» 


26 


10^ 


»> 


— 


•03 




Mar. 


5 


lU 


J) 


— 


•22 




?» 


12 


16" 


)» 


— 


•97 




)» 


19 


15 


>» 


— 


•66 




» 


26 


19 


»j 


— 


Nil 


Easter. No water used on the 23rd, 
24th, or 25th. 


April 


2 


13 


>» 


— 


•27 




)> 


9 


12 


>» 


— 


Nil 




)» 


16 


13i 


>f 


— 


Nil 




J) 


23 


IH 


»> 


— 


■47 




»» 


30 


16 


»» 


— 


1^12 




May 


6 


15 


» 


— 


•02 




>» 


15 


14 


>» 


— 


•90 


Whit Tuesday. No water used on the 
16th. 


j> 


21 


13 


)? 


— 


Nil 




»» 


28 


13i 


j> 


— 


•59 




June 


4 


18 


» 


— 


Nil 




ii 


11 


12i 


)» 


— 


•04 




J» 


18 


14" 


)> 


— 


•81 




)» 


25 


15 


>> 


— 


1-31 




July 


2 


13 


)» 


— 


•97 




)> 


9 


15 


>» 


— 


•24 




j> 


16 


13 


>» 


— 


•89 




»» 


23 


14 


J) 


— 


•83 




)> 


30 


15 


ft 


— 


•27 




Aug. 


7 


14 


jj 


— 


— 


Tuesday. No water used on the 6th. 


>' 


13 


12 


)j 


— 


— 





Note. — The rainfall is taken from the record kept at Fennes, Braintree (observer, 
Mr. S. Tabor), which is about one mile from well. 



Collected hy Mr. Thos. S. StooJce, G.E. 



1. The well is situated at the Wem Pumping Station, near the village of Preston 
Brockhurst, about Z\ miles to the south-east of the town of AVem. The works for 
utilising the supply are in course of construction. \a. A trial boring was put down 
in March 1882, and the well was sunk in the same year. 2. Approximate height 
above mean sea-level is 270 feet. 3. The well is 66J feet in depth, and 6 feet in 
diameter. The bore-hole is 90 feet in depth, and three inches in diameter. 4 and 
4a. No pumping has taken place since the drift-way was finished on December 15, 1882. 
Three days afterwards, i.e. : — Feet 

On December 18, the water-level was . . 32^ from surface. 
„ February 6, „ „ . . 3H „ 

.. May 23, „ „ . . SOJ „ 

" July 2, „ „ . . 30 „ 



158 REPORT— 1883. 

At this latter level it remains. 5. The quantity of water capable of being pumped 
at the time of completing the operations was 150,000 gallons in the twenty-four 
hours, being more than four times the quantity required for the present supply of the 
town of Wem. 6. The water-level due.5 not appear to be aSected by local Tains, 
and it stands (7) about 24 feet under the level of water in the neighbouring water- 
course. 8. The analysis and remarks by Dr. Franklin, F.R.S., are as follows : — 

'November 28, 1882. — Results expressed in parts per 100,000. 

< Total solid matter IS'SO 

Organic carbon -126 

Organic nitrogen -025 

Ammonia .......... 

Nitrogen as nitrates and nitrites ...... "079 

Total combined nitrogen ....... '104 

Previous sewage or animal contamination .... 

Chlorine 1-4 

Temporary hardness 4-8 

Permanent hardness ........ 60 

Total hardness 10-8 

' RemarJis. — Slightly turbid, palatable, no poisonous metals. This water, although 
slightly turbid, contains but a moderate amount of organic matter, and chiefly of 
vegetable origin. It is of good qualitj^ for drinking, and being fairly soft, it is also 
well suited for washing and all other domestic uses.' 

9. The section is as follows : — 

Soil and clay 8 feet 

Fine red sand 2 feet 

Lower soft variegated sandstone 80 feet 

lO and 11. There was a little surface water finding its way through the 2 feet of sand, 
but it is entirely kept out of the well, and also out of the bore-hole. 12. The well 
is situated about 600 yards from the outcrop of the marl measures on the west. 13 
and 14. There are no salt springs known to exist in the neighbourhood. 15. No 
wells have been discontinued in the neighbourhood in consequence of the water being 
brackish. 

Collected ly Mr. TJiomas S. StooJce, C.E. 

1. The ' Mine Well,' in the parish of ' The Clive,' Shropshire, la. The well was 
sunk in 1868, and has not been deepened since. 2. The well is about 373 feet above 
mean sea-level. 3. The depth of well is 183 feet ; diameter, 8 feet. There is a 
bore-hole, but depth has not been ascertained. 3a. There is one drift- way at bottom 
of well, about 40 feet in length. 4. The water-level is 142i feet from the surface. 
4«. The level of water has not varied since the bore-hole was put down. 5. The 
quantity of water capable of being pumped is considerable. The water is at present 
only drawn by means of a windlass, for the use of adjoining houses. 6. The water- 
level has not varied. 7. The water-level is not affected by local rains, and stands 
about 233 feet above mean sea-level. 8. Analvsis by Dr. Voelcker, dated September 
10,1869:— 

Organic and volatile matter . 

Oxide of iron and alimiina and fine suspended clay 

Silicious matter .... 

Carbonate of lime .... 

Sulphate of lime .... 

Carbonate of magnesia . 

Chloride of sodium 

Total residue per gallon . 

Remarks. — ' I have carefully examined this water, and, am very glad to say, found 
it free from any traces of copper. It is a good and soft v/ater, and, in my opinion, a 
perfectly wholesome drinking water.' 9. The well is sunk in the Bunter series of 
the new red sandstone, the dip of the strata being north-north-west. lO. There are 
no surface springs. 12. The marl measures outcrop about 500 yards to the north. 
13. No salt springs. 14. No salt springs known in the neighbourhood. 15. No 
wells have been discontinued on account of the water being brackish. 



, 


. , 


1-96 


Den 


ded clay 


1-05 
1-75 
4-26 
3-31 
1-44 
2-48 






16-25 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATEKS. 159 

Collected by Mr. Thomas . StooTce, from Mr. G. J. Butter, Borough 
Surveyor, Shrewsbury. 

1. Conduit Head, near Crow Meole. la. 1556. «. 236 feet. 3. Depth, 6 feet ; 
diameter, 4 feet. No bore-hole. 3a. No drift-ways. 4. Stands about 1 inch lower 
at uight than morning. 5. Estimated daily consumption, 50,000 gallons. 6. Lower 
in autumn than spring. No. 7. I think it is to a slight extent, within a few days. 



Total solid impurity .... 
Organic carbon ..... 

„ nitrogen 

Ammonia ...... 

Nitrogen, as nitrates and nitrites 

Total combined nitrogen 

Previous sewage or animal contamination 

Chlorine 

Temporary hardness .... 
Permanent „ .... 

Total „ .... 



38-48 
•040 
■016 
■001 
•449 
■466 
4^180 
2-30 

20^4 

10-9 

31 3 



7ic;«ar/;s.— Clear. Results of analyses expressed in parts per 100,000. 9. New red 
sandstone. 

Collected hy Mr. Thomas S. SfooJce, from Mr. W. J. Wyley. 

1. Wellington Workhouse, Salop. Xa. 1876. No. 3. 81 feet; diameter, 5 feet. 
No bore. 3a. None. 4. 69 feet. Water flows in as fast as pumped, say 1,500 
gallons per hoiir. 4a. 77 feet for about two first years, as far as present experience 
goes. 5. 2,000 gallons per hour may be pumped continuously. Water flows out of a 
crack in the rock. About 2,000 gallons per day. 6. No. Increased the last four 
years. 7. No. 8. When boiled, forms strong lime incrustation in the boilers ; 
when cold, oxidises the lead and eats away lead tanks. 9. New red sandstone. 11. 
Yes. 12. Is on the fault between the new red and C'aradoc sandstones. 13, No. 
14. Yes; within three miles. 15. No. 

Appendix II. — List of Queries Circulated. 

1. Position of well or shafts -with which you are acquainted ? la. State date at 
which the well or shaft was originally sunk. Has it been deepened since by sinking 
or boring? and when? 2. Approximate height of the surface of the ground above 
Ordnance Datum (mean sea-level) ? 3. Bei)th from surface to bottom of shaft or 
well, with diameter ? Bepth from surface to bottom of bore-hole, with diameter ? 
3a. Depth from the surface to the horizontal drift-ways, if any ? What is their 
length and number? 4. Height below the surface, at which water stands before 
and after pumping. Number of hours elapsing before ordinary level is restored after 
pumping ? 4a. Height below the surface at which the water stood when the well 
was first sunk, and height at which it stands now when not pumped ? 5. Quantity 
capable of being pumped in gallons per day of twenty-four hours ? Average quantity 
daily pumped ? 6. Does the water-level vary at different seasons of the year, and 
to what extent ? Has it diminished during the last ten years ? 7. Is the ordinar}^ 
icater-level ever affected by local rains, and, if so, in how short a time ? And how 
does it stand in regard to the level of the water in the neighbouring streams, or 
sea ? 8. Afiahjsis of the water, if any. Does the water jDOssess any marked pecu- 
liarity ? 9, Section with nature of the rock passed through,- including cover of Drift, 
if any, with thicJiness ? 9a. In which of the above rocks were springs of water 
intercepted? lo. Does the cover of Drift over the rock contain surface springs? 
11. If so, are these land .•springs kept entirely out of the well ? 12. Are any large 
faults known to exist close to the well ? 13. Were any Ijrine spri^igs passed through 
in making the well ? 14. Are there any salt springs in the neighbourhood ? 15. 
Have any wells or borings been discontinued in your neighbourhood in consequence 
of the water being more or less hracMsh, ? If so, please give section in reply to query 
No. 9. 16. Kindly give any further information you can. 



160 EEPOIiT — 1883. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. William- 
son, Mr. Thos. Hick, and Mr. W. Cash (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of investigating the Fossil Plants of Halifax. 

We regret to have to state that our efforts to investigate the Fossil 
Carboniferous Flora of Halifax have been less successful this year than 
in the previous one. The reason for this is sufficiently obvious. All the 
more abundant objects characteristic of the locality are now well under- 
stood. The gaps that need to be filled are connected either with the 
rarer forms, or with unusual conditions of the more common plants. 
Nevertheless we have not been wholly -without success. We have 
obtained clear evidence of the existence of at least two new types of 
Rachiopteris — which are most probably stems or petioles of ferns. A 
third one is a curious stem, in which the vascular bundle approaches 
that of a Lepidodendrbn in its defined cylindrical form, surrounding a 
cellular pith, a condition rarely seen amongst ferns. But we have found 
no traces of leaves attached to it, as is always the case with the young 
twigs of Lepidodendra. 

Another stem is an undoubted Lepidodendron of a very interesting 
type. Its central vasculo-medullary axis corresponds closely with that of 
Lepidodendron selaginoides, except that the barred or reticulated medul- 
lary cells of that species are absent from the new plant. Like L. selagi- 
noides the new form has a secondary exogenous vascular zone of barred 
vessels, but of a primitive type that is intermediate between the perfect 
condition of that zone in L. selaginoides, and its extremely rudimentary 
form in L. Harcourtii. In the transverse section the zone appears more 
perfectly and regularly developed than in L. Harcourtii, which plant it 
also resembles in the extremely small size of its vessels ; but its most 
characteristic feature is shown in the longitudinal section, in which we 
find these numerous secondary vessels meandering as they ascend 
through a mass of cellular tissue, so that in such sections cells and vessels 
appear to be intermingled without order or special arrangement. 

We have obtained a series of roots or rootlets which have much of the 
general aspect of those of Stigmaria. But they possess the very dis- 
tinctive feature of giving off secondary rootlets in perfect verticils, a 
very unusual feature in fossil root-organs. We have also obtained further 
illustrations of the presence of tylose-cells in the interior of the tissues 
of other plants. For some time we were only acquainted with these 
curious growths in the interiors of the vessels of ferns. But we have 
now obtained them in the vessels of a Lepidodendron stem, and also in 
the cortical cells of some ferns, as well as in those of the Lyginodendron 
Oldhamsinm. We may further add that new fragments continue to 
be met with, showing the existence in these beds of strange forms of 
plant- life, of the nature and general morphology of which we are wholly 
ignorant. Snch fragments are like a few scattered grains of gold at 
some new ' dig^jings.' They afford a strong stimulus to further research, 
•since they at'e proofs that unrevealed treasures continue to be hidden in 
these Yorkshire and Lancashire carboniferous nodules. 



I 



ON FOSSIL rOLTZOA. 161 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. C. Sorby 
and Mr. G. E. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on 
Fossil Polyzoa. Drawn %ip by Mr. Vine (Secretary). 

Part I. 
Cretaceous Polyzoa. British area only. 

The Polyzoa of tLe Cretaceous epoch, especially in foreign localities, liave 
been closely studied by Paleontologists, and many valuable memoirs 
published by foreign authors. In his ' Petrifacta Germanise,' Goldfuss 
described and figured nearly fifty species. Hagenow, in his Palieonto- 
logical works, accepts many ol: those previously described by Goldfuss 
and other authors, renames some, and adds to them nearly two hundred 
species besides. D'Orbigny also adds considerably to the number of 
Cretaceous species, discovei-ed in the beds in the neighbourhood of Paris, 
and his admirable figures of some of these have increased very largely our 
knowledge of their varied forms. The rich Cretaceous beds of America 
have been partly investigated by Mr. Ulrich and by other American 
authors, but only a few species are, as yet, fully described, and many of 
the species are still undescribed. 

Sir H. P. De la Beche, in his apology for the inti'oduction of the 
elaborate lists of organic remains in his 'Geological Manual,'' says: — 
' Considerable attention has certainly been paid to such catalogues, as the 
zoological character of certain rocks is now the subject of much research, 
and as the result of such investigations may be the knowledge of some 
of the principal conditions under which the fossiliferous rocks were pro- 
duced. Moreover, the author considered that, for practical purposes, 
there was no alternative between rendering them as perfect as his means 
of information wculd permit, and omitting them altogether. It must, 
however, be confessed that, though constructed from apparently the best 
authorities, these lists require severe examination, for, unfortunately, the 
study of organic remains is beset with two evils, which, though of an 
opposite character, do not neutralise each other so much as atiirst sight 
may be anticipated : the one consisting of a strong desire to find similar 
organic remains in supposed equivalent deposits, even at great distances ; 
the other being an equally strong inclination to discover new species, 
often, as it would seem, for the sole purpose of appending the apparently 
magical word nobis.' Between one and the other of these two extremes the 
Palajontologist is almost sure to slide ; and though the caution, with its 
quiet innuendo, may be old, it is none the less valuable in an inquiry like 
the present. 

The list of Cretaceous Polyzoa, given by De la Beche contains no 
fewer than about fifty-six or fifty-eight species. Many of these bear the 
name of Goldfuss, but it is impossible to say whether the author intended 
the list as a British, or merely as a Cretaceous one. In all probability it 
was the latter. In his ' Catalogue of British Fossils,' Professor Morris 
admits about eighty species, distributed amongst thirty-five genera, many 
of these bearing the names of French authors. Professor John Phillips, 

» Ed. 1832, Preface. 
1883. M 



162 REPORT— 1883. 

in his work on ' The Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames,' 
furnishes a list — about forty-eight species— of British Cretaceous 
Polyzoa. In Dr. Mantell's woi'ks, and also in Dixon's ' Geology of 
Snssex,' many species are partially described and figured. 

The best stratigraphical list of species known to me is the one 
furnished by Mr. Newton in the ' Catalogue of Fossils in the School of 
Mines — Cretaceous Division,' and as this is an account of actual speci- 
mens gathered from various horizons and from very wide localities in the 
British area, I shall make it the basis of this Report. As I have only 
partially examined the collection, I must depend upon the species in my 
own cabinet, and those lent to me by Miss E. C. Jelly, for furnishing 
the minute details necessary for this Report. It may be as well, however, 
to give the various horizons in which Polyzoa have been discovered and 
catalogued. 

Lower Greensand, Speeton Clay, &c., 20 species, 13 genera. 
Blackdown Series — Traces only. 

Upper Greensand Series . . 17 „ 16 ,, 

Lower Chalk . . . . 2 „ 2 „ 

Upper Chalk . . . . 13 „ 12 

Only some of these, according to Mr. Newton, range from the lower to 
the upper beds. 

As in my previous Repoi-t on Jurassic Polyzoa, I shall adhere as 
closely as possible to the classification of the Rev. Thomas Hincks, as 
given in the 'British Marine Polyzoa,' beginning with the Cyclostomata. 

Class Polyzoa. 

Sub-order Cyclostomata, Busk. 

Family I. Ceisiidje, Busk. 

No fossils, belonging to this family, are at present known to have 
existed in either the Jurassic or Cretaceous epochs. 

Family II. (1880). TuBULiPORiD^, Hincks. 

1. Stomatopora, Bronn. 4. Entalophoka, Lamx. 

2..TUBULIP0RA, Lamarck. 5.' Dustopoea, „ (pars). 

3. Idmonea, Lamouroux. 

Genus Stomatopoea, Bronn, 1825. 
= Alecto, Lamx. 

^ Zoarimn repent, -wholly adnate, or free at the extremities, or giving 
off erect processes ; simple or branched ; branches more or less ligulate. 
Zooecia in great part immersed, arranged in a single series, or in several, 
which take a linear direction or are very slightly divergent.' — -'Brit. Mar. 
Poly.' p. 424.1 

The typical Stomatopora of the Cretaceous Rocks are of a very simple 
character. Only three species are given by Morris, three by Phillips, 
and one by Mr. Newton in his ' School of Mines Catalogue.' 

' The nearer we approacli the Cainozoic and recent types of Polyzoa, Ihe greater 
is the necessity for extreme caution in our grouping of the fossil forms. I have, 
therefore, in this Eeport adopted the generic characters of Hincks in his own words, 
and have endeavoured to limit the various groups accordinglJ^ 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 163 

Aledo (= Stomatopora) gracilis, Milne-Ed., Moms. 
,, „ ramea, Blainv. ,, 

,, ,, ramosa, Michelin ,, 

Phillips adds Aledo Calypso, D'Orb., and Mr. Newton Alecto reticulata, 
D'Orb. 

Stomatopoea geacilis, Milne-Ed.' 

Alecto gracilis, M.-Ed. (pars). Woodward's ' Geology of Norfolk ' (pars). 
Dixon's ' Foss. Sussex' (pars). 

Zoarium wholly adnate ; brandies linear, delicate, rarely, if ever, 
anastomosing. Zooecia in a single series, thick, or bulging at the nodes ; ^ 
orifice circular, with a thin peristome. Oo?cia, an inflated cell, with 
orifice depressed. 

Localities. — Up. Chalk, Wilts (Phillips). Beachy Head (Miss Jelly). 
Sussex (Dixon). 

I limit, as above, the typical 8. gracilis of Milne-Ed., for the very 
special reason that I find in the catalogues of collectors and others that 
the species is very loosely identified. In the specimen before me three 
cells occupj' a line and a half, but the cells vary in length, and the 
average may be taken as three cells to a line and a quarter, or a line and 
a half. Genei'ally the branching takes place at the distance of three cells 
apart, an inflated cell (ooscia) occupying the apex of a branch just below 
the node. Though distinct from, this species is more closely related to 
S. dichotomoides, D'Orb., than to any other of the Oolitic species ; the 
latter, however, are more bulky in the size of the cells. 

Stomatopoea eamosa, Mich. 

? Alecto ramea, D'Orb. Phill. ' Geo. of Oxford (Greensand Species).' 
Diastopora ramosa, Micheliu. Dixon, ' Geo. Sus.' 

Zoarium adnate, irregularly branching, occasionally anastomosing. 
Zooecia ranging from a single series to multi-serial in the same branch, 
dilated towards the nodes ; orifice circular, peristome slightly elevated, 
and occasionally rugose on the surface. Ooecia large, sometimes involving 
two cells, also riigose in front. 

Localities. — Upper Greensand, Warminster. Upper Chalk, Sussex 
(Dixon). Beachy Head (Miss Jelly). 

This species, like the first, is also confounded, but in the specimens 
before me, marked Diastopora ramosa, Mich. (Dixon, ' Sussex '), there is to 
some extent the same type of cell found in many of the Biastoporidoi. 
Still, as Mr. Hincks only includes in the adnate Diastopora ' discoid or 
flabellate' forms, I have removed the species to the genus Stomatopora on 
account of its closer resemblance to species of that genus. In all proba- 
bility the ^Zecio refo'cwZato, D'Orb. (Brit, specimens), should likewise be 
removed to this species as a synonym. 

Genus Tubulipoba, Lamarck. 

This genus is at present unknown to me as a Cretaceous fossil. 
Hagenow gives one species only, T. parasitica, Hagenow. 

^ ' In every case where my material admits of redescription, I make no apology for 
doing so, because I believe that this will be appreciated by workers. 

'■' I have used the word node to indicate the part just below the branching of the 
cells,_ or of the stem. At this part in the Zoarium there is frequently a knot or a 
bulging, and it is also frequently here that the Ooecia may be detected in species. 

M 2 



164 BEPOBT— 1883. 



Genus Idmonea, Lamx. 

' Zoarvum erect and ramose, or (rarely) adnate ; brandies usually 
triangular. Zooscia tubular, disposed on the front of the branches, rang- 
ing in parallel, transverse, or oblique rows on each side of a mesial line.' 
— Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 4-50. 

This ' world-wide ' genus is, so far as I am acquainted at present, 
very poorly represented in our British Cretaceous strata. Mr. Hincks 
(' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 451) says ' many charming forms occur in the 
Cretaceous deposits,' but these I have not seen. In the Chalk Marl of 
Charing we have a species very closely resembling Idmonea (Retepora) 
disticha, Goldf. It is only found in minute fragments, but it may be 
easily distinguished from the species of the next genus, by having the 
zooecia disposed on the fi'ont of the branches only. There are also traces 
of the delicate Idmonea Com-ptoniana, Mantell, but it is very rai'ely that 
specimens can be found even half the size of the specimen figured by 
Mantell. The author says : ' This delicate Polyzoou {coral, Mant.) is 
dichotomons, cylindrical with elongated distinct cells, disposed in triplets 
at regular distinct intervals on one side of the stem.' • Mantell also figures 
and describes a species which he calls Idmonea Dixonia, but I cannot 
identify the type. It ' is found in the chalk of Kent and Sussex, often 
forming a cluster of branches two or three inches in circumference. The 
surface of the stems is covered with minute pores, and the cells are 
distinct and placed in single rows on the margin.' It is very well 
illustrated in the ' Medals of Creation,' Lisrn., figs. 6 and 12, p. 284. 
. Many of the Idmonece (?) of the Cretaceous epoch described by 
D'Orbigny, Mr. Busk places doubtfully with Stomatopora as synonyms.^ 
A mere casual refei'ence to the synonyms of Idmonea atlantica, Forbes, 
will show how dangerous it would be to give specific names to the frag- 
ments described above. I have, however, given a list of British species 
described by Dixon and others. 

Idmonea Comptoni, Mantell. Up. Chalk, Chichester. 

„ cretacea, Milne-Ed. „ Sussex, Kent, Hamp- 

= I. Dixoni, Mantell (Morris). shire. 

„ gradata, Defr. 

= Betepora disticha, Goldf. 

In Mr. "Wiltshire's paper on ' The Red Chalk of England ' (Geologist, 
1859, p. 275), a list of Cretaceous fossils is given, and one species of 
Polyzoa is identified as Idmonea dilatafa, D'Orb.^ In the ' Catalogue of the 
School of Mines ' (Cretaceous), two species are given from the Up. Chalk : 

Idmonea cretacea, Milne-Ed., Up. Chalk. 
„ gradata ? Defr. 

Hagenow describes no fewer than fifteen species of Idmonea — breaking 
up Goldfuss's Betepora clatlirata and ii. disticha, out of which he makes 
seven species ; the rest are his own. One species — Betepora truncata, 
Goldf. — is taken with T.feUx, Hag., as types of a new genus, Truncatula, 
Hagenow. 

• Mcdali of Creation, p. 288 ; Lign. 6-t, fig. U. « Crag Polyzoa, p. 113. 

» See also Brit. Mvs. Catahgue, Pt. iii. (Busk), 1875, p. 15. 



ON FOSSIL POL\ZOA. . 165 



Genus ENTALOPnoRA, Lamouroux. 

Restricted by the Rev. T. Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa.' 
z=Fustidopora, Blainv , Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' 'Brit. Mus. Catalogue,' pt. 3. 

' Zoarium erect and ramose, rising h-om a more or less expanded 
base, composed of decumbent tubes ; branches cylindrical. Zooecia tu- 
bular, opening on all sides of the branches.' — 'Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' 
p. 455. 

The genus Entalopltora, as defined and limited by Mr. Hincks, will 
embrace a variety of species. The Spiroponi of both Jules Haime 
(Oolitic Polyzoa, ' B. A. Rep' iii.) and Professor Reuss maybe con- 
veniently included. There are, however, so many special features about 
the Spiropone described by these authors, that I have for a long time 
hesitated whether to continue with, or give up the further use of, the 
generic name. The clause in the above — ■' composed of decumbent tubes ' 
— may be applied with perfect safety to most of the Mesozoic species, 
and the adoption of the broader term will get rid of a number of genera 
and species that have been founded upon habit only, rather than upon the 
character and disposition of the cells in the zoar'mm. 

The following analysis of genera and species will enable the palaeonto- 
logist to appreciate more fully the varied character of the fossils which 
the genus Entalophora will cover. 

The first species of Spiropora, Lamx., described by Haime in his 
'Jurassic Bryozoa ' (1854), is S. elegans, Lamx., from the Great Oolite 
of Ranville. This species is ' cespitose ' with cylindrical branches which 
often coalesce. The same species is the Cricopora elegans of Blainville, 
Bronn, Milne-Edw., and Michelin ; D'Orb. describes it as Splropora. 
Another of the species of Lamouroux is S. ccespitosa, which, so far as the 
character of the cells may be taken as evidence, may with equal propriety 
be called (S'. elegans. Some specimens are rather more tufted, and the 
lateral cells are slightly produced. The species is synonymous with *S. 
capillaris, Lamx. This is also called by Blainville Cricopora, and Entalo- 
phorahj D'Orb. The Millepora straniinea of Phillips (' t^eol. of York ') is, 
by Haime, called ^piropora, by D'Orb. lutricaria (1850), Laterotuhigera 
(1853), and Entalophora (1854). Our British specimens of this species 
may, to some extent, justify the geneinc appellation lutricaria, Defranc, 
on account of the continuous inosculation of the bi-anches. I may almost 
affirm that the habit is an unvarying one as regards this species ; and a 
similar species found in the Haldon Hill Greensand inosculates in the same 
manner. But as I am following the Rev. Thomas Hincks in his classification, 
it is impossible to accept ' habit ' as a generic characteristic in this Report. 
The synonyms of the species are also very significant, and compel us to 
limit the types. I cannot, however, agree with Professor D. Brauns 
(' Bryozoa of the Middle Jura') that Ceriopnra verticillata is synonymous 
with Phillips's species. Other species, also described by Haime as 
Spiropora, are Entalophora, D'Orb. ; or Cricopora, Blainville. Amongst 
Cretaceous fossils a similar mixture of generic terms (founded upon 
habit chiefly) takes place, so that we may regard the terms Spiropora, 
Lamx. ; Intricaria, Defranc ; Cricopora, Blainv. ; Melicertites (pars) 
Roemer; Tuhigera, D'Orb. ; Stichopor a, -T)' Orh. ; Laterotuhigera, D'Orb.; 
Pustulopora, Blainv. ; Peripora, D'Orb., as synonyms only of Entalophora. 
It must not be assumed, however, that, in getting rid of a number of generic 



166 EEPOET— 1883. 

term ^ thus, we get rid of difficulties. Not a single genus has been, 
founded by these various authors, which may not, under a different system 
of estimating their value, have something said in favour of its continuous 
adoption. 

I have been supplied by Mr. J. M. Nickles, of Cinncinati, with a few 
of the Cretaceous Polyzoa from Arkansas in America, and, as these 
closely resemble species found in our own sti-ata — I may say identical with 
our own — I shall be able to give fuller details of our British Cretaceous 
fragments. 

Entalophoea gracilis, Goldfuss. 

Ceriopora gracilis, ' Petrif. Germ.' p. 35, tab. 10, fig. 11. 
Crico^ora „ Morris, ' Catalogue Brit. Foss.' 
Gerio'pora onammillosa (pars). 
„ ramulosa (pars). 

The variable character of this polyzoon renders identification very 
difficult indeed. The description and figures of Goldfuss are very good, 
especially the figures, but apparently, in the diagnosis, but little regard has 
been paid to growth. In the Lower Greensand of Farringdon the species 
is very characteristic, and in all probability two or three others may be 
reduced to mere synonyms of this well-marked type. The branches of 
some of the specimens that I have in my cabinet are a half of a line in 
diameter, whilst others are about y'^ of an inch in breadth ; yet the 
superficial characters of both are the same, only in the smaller specimens 
there is a less number of cells to the transverse section. The following 
may be accepted as the diagnosis of this species. 

Zoarium ramose, cylindrical, rounded at the apices, or growing ex- 
tremity; varying in diameter from tjj to -jL- of an inch. Zooecia con- 
tiguous, showing the orifices of the cells only, tubes rarely, if ever, ex- 
posed ; occasionally perfect, and, when this is the case, the surface of the 
branch is smooth, or the peristome of the cell slightly extended ; when 
worn, the cell-openings are oval, arranged in series across the branch, or, 
more coi-rectly speaking, arranged diagonally. 

Localities. — Lower Greensand, Farringdon. Upper Greensand, War- 
minster. 

Entalophora P0STULOSA, Goldfuss. 

Ceriopora imstuhsa, Goldf. 'Petrif. Germ.' p. 37, tab. 11, fig. 3. 
Pustulopora ,, Morris, ' Cat. Brit. Foss.' 

Ceriopora mammillosa, ? Roem. (pars) of authors. 

Zoarium variable, sometimes clavate, at other times branching, thick 
or bulgy towards the nodes. Zooecia arranged in series — spirally — around 
the branch, about six to the line in a diagonal, five to the line, in a longi- 
tudinal direction ; cells pustulose at the orifice, peristome raised ; crowded 
at the apices. When worn, the cell-openings are elongately oval, much 
larger than in the more delicate E. gracilis. 

Localities. — Lower Greensand, Farringdon. 

The above is the description of the species generally met with in the 
Greensand of Farringdon. In the Greensand of Haldon Hill, Devon, 
there is a species having a similar external pustulose character, but the 
interspaces are porous ; so also is an apparently similar species found in 
the Upper Chalk. 



ON iO;?SIL POLIZOA. 167 

Entalophoka inceeta, n. sp. 

Zoarium very delicate, erect and ramose, brauclies varyiug in their 
character, from subcylindrical to cylindrical, but bulging at the nodes. 
Zocecia tubular elongated, or depressed, partially decumbent, occasionally 
produced towards the distal extremity, opening on all sides ; cells 
punctured. Ocecia an inflation of the ::oariuni or an inflated cell. 

Locality. — Chalk detritus. Charing. 

This delicate species seems not to have been referred to by authors. 
From the Cretaceous rocks of Pulaski Co., Arkansas,' I have a very 
similar species to the above, and I have not the least doubt but that the 
British and American forms may be considered identical. 

Under the genus Pustulopora, Blainv., Hagenow describes from the 
Maestricht beds ten species, and under Cricopora, Blainv. = Spiropora, 
Lamx., two species, some of which bear his own name, othei's are either 
Ceriopora or Pustulopora species, of Goldfuss or Blainville. In the 
Cretaceous Catalogue of Species in the School of Mines, only one is 
referred to Eatalophora (^E. 7-amosi8sinia, D'Orb.), and one to Spiropora 
(*S. cenomana, D'Orb.). Besides the above. Professor Morris, and also 
Professor Phillips, add three others, none of which I can identify in 
my own collection. 

Genus DiASTOPOUA (Adnate), (part), Lamoui'oux. 

' Zoarium adnate and crustaceous (or foliaceous), usually discoid, or 
flabellate, less commonly irregular in form. Zooxia tubular, with an 
elliptical or subcircular orifice, crowded, longitudinally arranged, in great 
part immersed.' — ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' vol. i. p. 457. 

Our British Cretaceous Diastopora are, so far as I am aware, very 
limited in the number of species. In his ' Catalogue of Brit. Foss.' Professor 
Morris gives the names of several, but I am only able to identify two 
species in the Lower Greensand — D. congesta, D'Orb., and D. p)ap%jracea, 
D'Orb. D. Soii-erhii, Lonsdale, is not apparently a Diastopora, and D. ramosa, 
Mich., in Dixon's ' Geo. of Sussex ' is a Stomatopora. I do not know the 
D. Wetherelli of Morris. I have therefore described below a very fine 
species from the Upper Chalk of Beachy Head (Miss Jelly's collection) 
which I have provisionally named 

DiASTOPOKA CEETACEA (n. sp. ? ). 

Zoarium adherent with a nearly circular outliae, depressed in the 
central part, very much thickened at the edges by stunted (partially • 
grown) cells, but without basal lamina. Zoacla irregularly arranged, 
contracted towards the proximal and thickened at the distal extremities, 
separated by interspaces ; orifice circular with a thickened peristome. 
Ooseia an inflated cell. 

Locality. — Upper Chalk, Sufisex (Miss Jelly's Cabinet). 

The above is a true Diastopora, and specifically is very closely related 
to D.oolitica,Yine (' Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' August 1881), only that in 
the Cretaceous species the cells are less crowded than in the Oolitic. The 
cells and cell-orifices are similar, but the question with me is whether it 
would be wiser to extend the description of D. oolitica so as to embrace 
the more recent type, or whether we should keep the types of the two 

' Sent to me by my friend J. M. Nickles, of Cincinnati. 



IfiS HErouT— 1883. 

epochs distinct. At the present time, and undei" present circumstances, I 
think the latter would be the wiser course to adopt, and then, when our 
British Polyzoa are better known, a closer alliance of types can be made. 
Hagenow describes only one species of Diastopora, D. disciformis, Hag^. 

i" Diastopora Sowekbii, Lonsdale. Dixon's ' Sussex.' 

I am rather doubtful about this species. I have the generally recog- 
nised form in my cabinet, and for the present I allow the name to appear 
in this Report. 

Biserial Diastopora, Milne-Ed. 

^Mesenteripora , Blainv. ; Bidiastopora, D'Orb. : 3rd 'Brit. Assoc. Report.' 

Mihi. 1882. 

Diastopora reticulata (new sp. ?) 

Zoarium reticulate formed by narrow leaf-like bands, having a width 
of about -^\ of an inch, and a breadth varying in thickness from about ^^ 
to -^fj of an inch ; the leaf-like bands anastomose at irregular distances. 
Zooscia tubular, delicate, and ai-ranged in pretty regular, transverse lines 
across the width of the band, both on the exterior and interior surfaces 
of the zoarium ; about twenty cells occupy one of these transvei'se line.s^; 
the orifices of the rows of cells are turned slightly upwards, and the 
proximal parts are depressed, so as to form a kind of ridge-and-valley 
surface. Ocecia ? 

Locality. — Beachy Head, Hastings (Miss Jelly) ; and also in my own 
cabinet. 

I am unable, from the various works at my disposal, to identify 
this peculiar Cretaceous Polj-zoon. The habit of the species is unlike 
any other biserial Diasfopora known to me, both in the disposition of 
the zoo'cia and in the ribbon-like appearance of the zoarium. My own 
specimen is rather large, measuring one inch in length, and about a 
half-inch in breadth, but the section of the bands, when examined in a 
line, Avith the narrow back-to-back arrangement of the cells, shows the 
same biserial character as in some of the leaf-like but free (not reticulate) 
bands of the Oolitic epoch. There is a very striking likeness in this 
species to Idmonea fenestrata, Busk (' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 105, PI. xv. fig. G), 
but the bi'anches of that species are said to be sub-trigonal, and often 
angular behind. In Miss Jelly's collection it is named D. lamosa? 
Michelin. I cannot identify it as such. 

Family III. HoRNERiDiE, Smitt. 

= CrisinidcB (part), D'Orb.; Idmoneida\ Busk, Ci-ag. Polyzoa; 'Brit. 
Mus. Catalogue.' (See Hincks.) 

' Zooecia opening on one side only of a ramose zoarium, never adnate 
and repent.' — ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' vol. i. p. 467. 

Family IV. Hornerid.S!, Hincks. 

Genus Hornera, Lamouroux. 

Zoarium erect, ramose, sometimes reticulate. Zoa'cia tubular, opening 
on one side only of the branches, disposed in longitudinal series, the 
celluliferous surface often traversed by wavy anastomosing ridges. 
Oacium a distinct chamber (not a mere irregular inflation of the surface 
of the zoariiim), placed dorsally or in front. ('Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 467.) 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 169 

The type H. frondiculafa, Lamx., is a -well-marked species, and is 
admirably described and figured by Mr. Busk in Pt. iii. (Cyclostomata), 
'Brit. Mns. Cat.' p. 17, PI. xx. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. The genus is doubtfully 
represented in the Cretaceous epoch ; but as the Siphodictijum of Lonsdale 
very closely resembles some of the admitted Hornera of Miocene age 
in continental catalogues, it may be -well to admit it in ours also. Hagenow 
admits one species, JS. tuhulifera, Hag. 

HOKNEKA ? GRACiLE, Lonsdale. 
=SipJiodictyum gracile (Lower Greensand, 'School of Mines Catalogue'). 

Family V. LiCHENOPORiDiE, Smitt. 
Genus LiCHENOPOKA, Defiance. 

' Zoarium discoid, raised, simple, or composed of many confluent 
disks, entirely adnate, or partially free, and sometimes stipitate, developed 
on a thin lamina -which usually forms a border round it. Zowcia distinct 
or connate, in single radiating lines, or mnltiserial.' — ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' 
pp. 471-2. 

This genus will include the following genera of D'Orbigny, but species 
are not abundant in our British Cretaceous rocks. 

a. Confluent disks : Hadiopora, Unicavea (sp.), jDiscocavea (sp.). 

/3. Adnate with multiserial rays : Adinopora, Discoiuhigera. Mr. 
Hincks says : ' The genus is widely distributed both in space and time ; 
in the Cretaceous beds it is represented by a large number of beautiful 
forms.' 

' D'Orbigny has constrncted a large number of genera, which are 
merely arbitrary groups based on very trivial modifications of this well- 
marked type.' 

Genus Radiopoka, D'Orb. 

'Zoarium adnate, crustaceous, spreading irregularly, and composed 
of confluent disks like those of Discoporella ; surface reticulate or can- 
cellous ; cells disposed in serial lines, radiating from the centres of the 
constituent disks.'— Busk, ' Cyclostomata,' p. ?4. 

In the Lower Greensand and also in the Chalk we have species that 
are and may be referred to this genus. In Prof. Morris's, Cat. Brit. Poss.' 
two species are named — B. pjishdosa, D'Orb., and E. millepora, D'Orb. — 
both of which are before me, but there is a great difi'erence in the two 
types. A species from the Chalk (Freshwater Bay, Isle of Wight) very 
closely resembles one of the figures of Ceriopora diadema, Goldfuss. 

In retaining the genus Badiopora Mr. Busk remarks : ' In the majority 
of the fossil species referred by M. D'Orbigny to this genus, the zoaria are 
more or less rounded or bulbous, owing to the superposition of layer upon- 
layer of the confluent disks ; but in one, B. Francquana (1, c. p. 997, pi. 782, 
figs. 3-8 'Pal. Franc.') this superposition would seem to have taken 
place only to a very slight extent. In the two living forms I have re- 
ferred to the same genus there is no superposition at all ; but as the mode 
of growth is in other respects so exactly in accord with M. d'Orbigny's 
excellent description, I have not thought it expedient to institute another 
genus, or even subgenus, merely on that account.' 

Mr. Hincks (' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 473) does not make a separate 



170 REPOKT— 1883. 

genus o{ Badiopora, but includes species in the genus Lichenopora : (I.) 
' Colony simple, or composed of many confluent disks.' Certainly L. Ms- 
pida, Flem., var. memidrina, Peach, bears a close resemblance to one of the 
Lower Greensand species, but in the absence of the peculiar markings about 
the orifice of the zocecia in the fossil species I prefer to accept the 
authority of Busk rather than displace the species from the genus Badio- 
pora, for the present at least. 

Eadiopora PUST0LOSA, D'Orb. 'Pal. Franc' 
? = E. hulbosa, D'Orb. „ 

The Lower Greensand specimen is very large, frequently containing 
from twenty to thirty layers, and each layer composed of a number of disks, 
and the pe^iuliar radial character of each disk may be examined if a group 
of them are slightly rubbed. It appears to me, however, that one specific 
name will indicate the superficial character of the Greensand specimens. 

Locality. — Lower Greensand, Farringdon. 

Radiopoka millepora, D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc' p. 992. 
? B. heteropora, D'Orb. 

This species is very different from the above, both in the character of 
the zoaria and in their general arrangement ; but in the absence of 
sections showing the structure of the cells the superficial characters are 
comparatively useless in recent classifications. 

Locality. — Lower Greensand, Farringdon. 

Radiopoea diadema, Goldfnss. 

Ceriopora id. Goldfuss, ' Petrif. Germ.' p. 39, tab. 11, fig. 12, 2. 
Defrancia id. ,, Hagenow. 

?v I have specimens of this beautiful species from the Chalk (Fresh- 
water Bay). The zoarium is delicate and star-like, but I am unable to say 
anything about the structure of the cells. I merely refer to its existence 
as a British fossil in the hope that Palaeontologists living in the Isle of 
Wight may have their attention directed to this as well as other species 
of Polyzoa. 

Genus Domopora, D'Orb. 

' Zoarium massive, cylindrical or mammiform, simple or lobed, 
formed of a number of sub-colonies superimposed one upon the other, 
the whole surface porous. Zooicia. disposed in radiating lines, consisting 
of one or more series, on the free extremity of the stem or lobes.' 
Hincks, 'Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 481. 

In this genus Mr. Hincks includes Defrancia (pars), Ceriopora 
(pars), Goldf., and SteMipora (pars), Hagenow, and the first species 
described, in 'Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' is the beautiful Cretaceous fossil, 
D. stellata := Ceriopora id., Goldfuss. The one described is a recent 
species, nevertheless Mr. Hincks refers it to Goldfuss's type. I have 
never met with it as a British Cretaceous species. 

The geographical distribution and range in time are given by Mr. 
Hincks thus : 'Norway, from Bergea to Bejan, 40-60 fath. (Sars). In 
stratis arenoso-margaceis Westphalice, Goldf. ; Austro-Hungarian Miocene, 
Manaoni ; Vienna Basin, Reuss.' 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 171 

Family VI. Heteropokid^. 

In this familj, further on, I shall include the whole of the Fossil 
Polyzoa which have two sorts of openings on the surface, ' cells ' and 
'ostioles.' They are not a large group, but the species have distinct 
characters. 

I have already pointed out the varied sources of information re- 
.specting Seteropora (' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' mihi, 1882, Fossil Polyzoa), 
both recent and fossil. Since this was written Mr. Ulrich in his 
' American Palisozoic Bryozoa ' has published descriptions of Heteropora 
from the Chalk of Arkansas, and I have been furnished by Mr. J. M. 
Nickles with specimens of Mr. Ulrich's species, and I cannot help re- 
marking that there is a wonderfully close correspondence between the 
American and the British Cretaceous forms, so much so that it is diflBcnlt 
to distinguish between them. 



O' 



Genus Heteropora, Blainville. 

' Zoarium erect, cylindrical, undivided or branched, surface even, 
furnished with openings of two kinds ; the larger representing the 
orifices of the cells, and the smaller the ostioles of the interstitial canals or 
tubes.' — Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 120. (For synonyms see Busk.) 

Heteropora dichotoma, Goldfuss. 

= Ceriopora dicJiotoma,Goldi\xss, 'Petrifac. Germ.' p. 84, tab. 10, fig. 9 f. 
:= Heteropora dichotoma, Blainv. 'Man.' p. 417. 

,, „ Morris, ' Cat. Brit. Foss.' 

As Mr. Busk remarks (' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 126) : ' Thei-e are no 
means of judging correctly with respect to the Heteropora really intended 
by Goldfuss, except what are afforded by his very defective figures.' 
The several species described by Mr. Busk in the ' Crag Polyzoa' have 
the merit of being exact on minor details, and they are well illustrated, 
but there is one remark that I cannot resist directinor attention to before 
describing the British Cretaceous Heteropora. In speaking of H. re- 
ticulata, Busk (unfortunately no figure is given of this species), the author 
says (p. 125) : ' The peculiar characteristic of H. reticxiZata is the coarsely 
sulcate or I'eticulate aspect of the surface, which bears, in some respects, 
a strong resemblance to that of a Hornera, whence, as well as from the 
smallness of the interstitial pores and canals, this species may be regarded 
as intermediate between Hornera and Heteropora.' And Mr. Busk regards 
the species described as H. Icevigata ? D'Orb. ('Crag Polyzoa,' pp. 125-6) 
as a probable link between these two genera and Cricopora, ' and perhaps 
as affording an additional proof of the artificiality of the not very 
satisfactory classification we are at present compelled to adopt of these 
Polyzoa.' 

As I have carefully worked over the Heteropora oi. the Cretaceous 
epoch, I will give brief results of my investigations, reserving for future 
work more elaborate details. 

Heteropora reticulata. Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 121. 

Ceriopora dichotoma (pars), Goldf ' Petrif. Germ.' pi. x. fig. 9 c. 
Heteropora „ Hagenow (Busk as above). 



172 KEPORT— 1883. 

The minute details furnished by Busk in his diagnosis compel me 
to place this species here, temporarily at least. Is this, however, 
synonymous with Haime's species ? 

Locality. — Lower Greensand, Farringdon. 

Hetekopoka sp. 

As referred to previously there is present in the Greensand of 
Haldon Hill, Devon, a species very similar, in external characters, to 
Entalophora pustulosa, only that the orifices of the cells are smaller, the 
intermediate spaces are pitted, and the interstitial openings few in 
number. Eight cells occupy the space of a line in a longitudinal direc- 
tion. 

Locality. — Haldon Hill, Devon (collected by Miss Jelly). 

Heteropora tenera, Hagenow. 
= Ceriopora cryptopora (pars), Goldfuss, 

In the Lower Greensand, Farringdon, and also the Upper Greensand, 
Warminster, is a delicate species of Heteropora which Morris catalogues 
as H. tenera, Hagenow. There is but little difTerence in the structure of 
this species and the lai'ger H. crassa, Hagenow, which is selected by the 
author from Goldfuss's as his type. Goldfuss includes the large and 
the small in his G. cryptopora, but Hagenow divides the honours and 
founds two types upon the one form. It is best, however, to refer to the 
labours of Hagenow, because if 'form &c.' were a character on which 
species could be accepted, the labours of this distinguished Palaeontologist 
would prove of great advantage to the systematist. Hagenow's species 
are H. crassa, Hag., H. dichotoma, Goldf., H. undulata, Hag., H. tenera, 
Hag., H. Dumonti, Hag. 

In giving descriptions of American Cretaceous Heteropora, Mr. Ulrich 
remarks ('Amer. Palgeoz. Bryozoa ' (Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist. p. 143, 1882) 
that ' the species from Ai'kansas is nearly allied to Zonopora variabilis; 
D'Orb., from the Cretaceous of France.' The other species which the 
author describes and figures are H. consimilis, Ulrich, and H. attenuata, 
Ulrich. 

Sub-order Cheilostomata, Busk. 

Our British Cretaceous Cheilostomata are very limited in the number 
of species, but I believe that if a diligent search could be made our lists 
would be added to considerably. Prof. Moms in his ' Catalogue ' gives 
only thirteen species, and I am unaware of the existence of any further 
additions to this list by British authors. In his Division D, Urceolata, 
Hagenow catalogues five species of Vincularia, fifty-four species of 
LJschara, three species of Siphonella, Hag., thirty-three species of Celle- 
p)ora (Goldf. and Hag.), one species of Stichopora, Hag., two species of 
Lunulites, and five doubtful forms. A richness which we should be 
unable to boast of under the most careful reseai'ches — I fear so at least. 

Genus Membranipora, Blainville. 

^ Flustra (part); Cellepora (part), Hagenow; Marginaria (part), 
Roemer and Hagenow ; Lematopora (part), Hagenow. 

' Zoarium encrusting. Zocecia quincuncial or irregularly disposed, 
occasionally in linear series, margins raised, front depressed, wholly or in 
pai't membranaceous.' — ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 128. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 173 

It is impossible under present circumstances, and with the poor 
material at my disposal, to work out the Cretaceous Memhranipora. I 
will therefore give short notes of the species that have come under my 
own observation, in the hope that better materials will be forthcoming. 

Membeanipora Roemeri. 
? Marcjinaria lioemeri, Lonsdale, Dixon's ' Sussex.' 

This species is generally met with in small patches, and the cells are 
occasionally elongate and compressed towards the proximal extremity, at 
other times compressed so as to appear like the cells of If. angulosa. 
Reuss. 

Orifice of the cell semicircular, area depressed. 

Locality. — Upper Chalk, Sussex. 

In Miss Jelly's collection there is a small specimen marked Marginaria, 
but it does not appear to me to be a young colony of M. Roemeri. There 
is in the specimens the same semicircular mouth, but the front of the cell 
is raised not depressed, and smaller cells of the same character intervene 
between the lai'ger. 

Membranipoka inelegans. 
Flustm ? ineleijans, Lonsdale, Dixon's ' Sussex.' 

This species is found in large and small patches. In the general 
arrangement and character of the cells this seems to remind one of the 
recent M. Lacroixii, Audouin. The Cretaceous fossil is much more com- 
pressed in the colonial growth than I have ever seen in the recent species, 
but none of the areas of the cells are like M. Savartil, Aud., which Mr. 
Busk (' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 31) identifies with M. Lacroixii. 

Locality. — Upper Chalk, Sussex. 

Membeanipora sp. 
? Allied to M. Hooker!, J. Haime. 

Prof. Reuss, in his ' Alpine Tertiary Polyzoa,' figures a specimen of 
M. Hookeri which resembles so closely the Cretaceous specimen before 
me, that I can hardly assign to it any other name. There is a larger 
colonial growth in the Cretaceous specimen than in any of the Tertiary 
specimens in my possession, and the walls are thicker ; in other respects 
the resemblance between the Cretaceous and the Eocene species is 
remarkably close. With some little doubt, however, I place it as an 
allied form, rather than give to it a new name. 

Locality. — Upper Chalk, Sussex (Miss Jelly). 

Genus Cribrilina, Gray. 

' Zoariicm encrusting. Zooecia contiguous, having the front more or 
less occupied with transverse or radiating punctured furrows ; orifice 
semicircular or suborbicular.' — ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 184. 

Ceibrilina radiata, Moll. 
For references, &c., see Hincks (loc. cit. pp. 185, 190). 

I have no record of this species occurring in our British Cretaceons 
rocks. The forms are incrusting on fragments of Echinodermata from 



174 



BEPORT — 1883. 







Lower 


Upper 


Lower 


Upper 


Pages 


Genera and Species 


Synonyms 


G.S. 


G.S. 


Chalk 


Chalk 


in Cat. 






1 


2 


.5 


4 


5 


TUBULIPOEID^. 














Stomatopora, Broun. 


= Alecto, Lamx., 
Busk. . 










6 


retiotdata, D'Orb. . 




» 










Peoboscina, Subgen. . 














cormicopur, D'Orb. . 




* 








7 


ramom, D'Orb. 




* 










Idmonba. 














cretacea, M.-Ed. 










* 




gradata? Def. 










* 




triangularis, D'Orb. 


= Crisin'a tri- 
angularis 








* 




DiA,STOPORA(adherent) 














congeata, D'Orb. 




* 










papyracca, D'Orb. . 




^t 










? Somerhii, Lonsd. . 






« 








Uuhulus, D'O^h. 






» 








Entalophora, Lamx. 


= Spiropora . 












ramosrssima, D'Orb. 


— Diastopm'a 


» 


» 








Francquna, D'Orb. . 


= clausa Fran. . 




* 








? micropora, D'Orb. . 


= „ Micro. . 
r = LaterotuMgera, 
j Spiropora, Cri- 
t copora, . 




* 








cenomana, D'Orb. 
























ptistulosa, Goldf. 


= Pustulipora 








♦ 




LiCHENOPOEIDiE. 














Kadiopora. 














elcgans, Jlich. . 


= Actino2)ora . . 


* 










bulbom, D'Orb. 




* 










Jieteropora, D'Orb. . 




* 


* 








pust'idosa, D'Orb. 










* 




Neocomiens-is, D'Orb. 


= Discocarea 


» 










■jndclulla, Eom. 


= Midticresis 




* 








Heteroporid^. 














Heteropora. 














clavula, D'Orb. 




» 










limpar, Lonsd. 


= Choristopetalum 




» 








The following species, 














given under the name 














of Ceriopora, I can only 














indicate their position 














provisionally : — 














Ceriopora, Goldf. 














avellana, Mich. 




* 










cavernosa, Hag. 




* 










mammillosa, Kom. . 


= Multicresis 


* 










Michelini, D'Orb. 


)> 


* 










polymorpha, D'Orb. 




•» 


X 








Various : — 


r = Millepora di- 
•] chotoma, Man- 
L tell. 








* 




Holostoma, Lonsd. . 
























Homeosolon, Lonsd. 


f = Retepora flexxi- 
\ o»a, Mantell. 
Described by Lons- 
dale in Dixon's 
' Geol. of Sussex.' 













ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 175 

the Upper Chalk, both in my own and in Miss Jelly's collection. The 
patches are very small, but are not frequent. The Rev. Thomas Hincks 
(I.e. p. 190), in giving its range in time says: 'French Cretaceous 
deposits, D'Orbigny.' 

Locality. — Upper Chalk, Beachy Head (?). 

Associated with this is the Diastopora cretacea (?) previously described. 

Family Selanaeud^, Busk. 

' Zoarium free (?), orbicular or irregular, conical or depressed, 
convex on one side, and plane or concave on the other ; composed of a 
single layer of cells, usually of two kinds, which open in the convex 
surface only.' — ' Crag. Polyzoa,' p. 78. 

In this family Mr. Busk places the fossil species of Liiviilifes, which 
range from the Crag to the Crftaceous epoch. As Mr. Busk gives full 
particulars of the family and genera, and a really good list — forty-four 
species — many of them Lunulites, I refer the student to it with pleasure, 
rather than give even an abridgement of his admirable notes (' Cra" 
Polyzoa,' pp. 78-29). 

Lunulites ceetacea (?), Defranc (? D'Orbigny). So Busk. 

This is the only species known to me in the Chalk. Prof. Morris 
gives the following synonyms : — ■ 

= L. urceolata, Woodward ; = L. radiata, Mantell. 

Range from Lower Green sand to the Chalk. 

As the species of Polyzoa in the tabular list on p. 174 are given by Mr. 
Newton in his ' Catalogue of Specimens in the School of Mines,' I make no 
apology for classifying them for the benefit of students. Pages in the 
Catalogue on which appear lists of Polyzoa, 6, 7, 39-49, 83-95. 



Paet II. 

Classification of Ctclostomatous. Poltzoa, etc. 

From the Silurian to the Cretaceous epochs only. 

Professor Morris, F.G.S. 

1843. In his ' Catalogue of British Fossils ' Professor Morris adopted 
the following arrangement for the varied groups of Polyzoa found in our 
British rocks. 

Fam. I. EscHARipa; "l 
„ II. CELLEPORiDiE > =C^ei7osiomato, Busk. 

„ III. RETEP0RlD.aD J 

„ IV. Ckisid^ "I 

., V. MTRiAPOEiD.a! > = Gyclostomata, Busk. 

„ yi. tubulip0rid.s: j 

1844. Mr. Freueeick M'Cot. 

In M'Coy's works on British Palaeozoic Fossils,^ 1844, the Class Poly, 
zoa is divided into the following families : — 

Escharidce (with 17 genera). Asterodiscidce. 
TtibuUporidce. Ealcijonellidre. 

Myriaporidce. 

» SyTwpiis of the Carl. Fos?. of Ireland, 1844, and Brit. Palceozoic Foss. 



176 SEPORT— 1883. 

In the first family M'Coy placed Palteozoic genera — such as Ptilodidya 
and Berenicea, and in the third Phyllopora (Retepora), Glauconome 
= Fenneretepora, D'Orb., Acanfhodadia, King, and also Fenestella. With 
these were associated recent and fossil Polyzoa (not Palaeozoic), belong- 
ing to Cheilostomatous genera, which were not at that time so distin- 
guished by authors. 

1850. PnoF. William King. 

In the ' Annals and Mag. of Nat. History,' and also in the ' Mono- 
graph of Permian Fossils,' Prof. King established the following family 
grouping for the inclusion of genera and species founded by himself or 
by others. 

1849. FENESTELLiD.a;, King, ' Permian Fos.' p. 34. 

Genus Fenestella, Miller (type). 
,, Ptylopora, M'Coy. 
„ Polypora „ 
,, Synocladia, King. 1849. 
,, Phyllopora „ „ 

1849. Elasmoporidj:, King. 

Genus Elasmopora = Mlllepora cellulosa, Linn. (type). 
This family founded upon the above type is inadmissible as a Palaeo- 
zoic representative group. 

1849. Thamniscid^, King. 

Genus Thamniscus, King. 

? Syn. IchthyoracMs (pars), M'Coy. 

Genus Acanthocladia, King. . 

As some of the family and also the generic names will be retained in 
this Report, it may be advisable to direct attention to a few particulars 
furnished by the author. 

The sub-class in which the Permian Polyzoa are placed by Prof. 
King is the Ciliohrachiate of Farre, and the synonyms of the sub-class 
are given by him in the following order : — Polyzoa, J. V. Thompson ; 
Beyozoa, Ehrenberg ; Zoophyta Ascidoida, Johnston ; Polypes Tuniciens, 
Milne-Edwards. ' The divisions Infundihulata and Hippocrepia proposed 
by M. Gervais, as based chiefly on difference of . habitat, whether marine 
or fresh-water, appear so divested of the necessary structural in- 
dividualitj', and of so little value compared with the orders already 
noticed, that in place of adopting them it seems a m.uch safer plan to 
regard the Ciliobrachiates as resolvable into only one order, for which 
Ehrenberg's name Bryozoa may be very conveniently retained.' ' 

1846-1861. Hagenow, 

In the classification of the Cretaceous Polyzoa ^ by Friedrich V. 
Hagenow, the author adopts some of the genera previously established by 
Lamarck, Blainville, or Milne-Edwards, and also adds some few of his 
own. The genera adopted from Goldfuss and Lamouroux are redefined, 

' King's Permian Fossils, p. 32. 

' Die Bryozeen der Mastrichter Kreid, cfc, p. 51. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 177 

and many of the species of the Ceriopora of Goldfnss are redistributed. 
The following is his family grouping : — 

A. TuBULiPORiNA, Milne-Ed., with 9 genera 

B. Cerioporina, Bronn ,, 11 „ 

C. Salpingina, Hagenow ,, 2 „ 

D. Urceolata „ 6 „ 

The last family contains nearly ninety species, and is largely the 
equivalent of the Cheilostomata, Busk, the first two families representing 
the Ctclostomata of Busk. 

1852-1859. Mr. George Busk. 

' Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa ' (' Brit. Mus. Cat.' pt. i. and ii., 1852) ; 
' Monograph of the Foss. Polyzoa of the Crag,' 1859. 

One of the earliest and best classifications of the Polyzoa as a distinct 
group is that furnished by Mr. Bask in the second of these two works. 
As much, however, of the introduction and synoptical arrangements has 
more direct reference to a suborder that is very poorly represented in 
strata below and in the Cretaceous, I may be allowed to pass this over 
and confine my remarks to the second suborder, Cj/closiomafa, Busk. In 
the synoptical arrangement of this group Mr. Busk included genera 
belonging to the Mesozoic and Cainozoic epochs only ; except in a few 
rare cases, there was no provision made for Palseozoic genera or species. 
In speaking of his own labours Mr. Busk says : ' Owing to the great 
comparative simplicity and uniformity of conformation in the individual 
cells, and the absence for the most part of adventitious organs such as 
ovicells and vibricular or avicularian organs, our principal reliance in 
the distinction of genera and species must be placed on the general form 
of the zoarium ' and the mutual relation of the cells ; but as in many cases 
these vary very greatly in different portions of one and the same zoarium, 
it often happens, more especially in fossil forms, that it is almost im- 
possible to determine whether two apparently distinct things may not 
be referable to one and the same species. These observations apply more 
forcibly perhaps to Pustulopora, Idmonea, and Hornera, than to any other 
genera, but should be taken into account in several others also.' ^ 

Synoptical Arrangement of Ctclostomata. 
§ I. Articulatae s. radicatas. 

Family CRisiiDiE, Crisia, Crisidea. 
§ II. Inarticnlatse et adfixa3. 

a. Celldlis distinctis. 
Family iDMONEiDiE. 
Genus Hornera. Genus Gi/rtopora. 

„ Terebellaria. „ Idmonea. 

„ Gricopora. „ Pustulipora. 

Family Tubuliporid^. 

Genus Mesenieripora. Genus Alecto. 

,, Tuhulipora. 

' ' ^°^y^°^'"y'' Susk. 2 The Crag Polyzoa, p. 80. 

1883. If 



178 EEPORT — 1883. 

Family Diastoporid^, 

Genus Diastopora. Genus Discoporella. 

,, PatineUa. „ Defrancia. 

h. Cellulis indistinctis. 

Family Cerioporidj;. 

Genus StelUpora. Genus Alveolaria. 
„ Fungella. „ Spiropora. 

„ Heteropora. „ Seteroporella. 

„ Neuropora. 

Family THEONOiDiE. 

Genus Theonoa. Genus LopJiolepis. 

„ Fascicularia. „ Apseudesm} 

Family Frondipoeid^. 

Genus Frondipora. Genus Distichopora. 

„ Truncatula. „ Plethopora. 

To a large extent this synopsis has been accepted and followed hj 
many leading naturalists in their arrangement of this group at least. 
Professor Reuss, in his varions writings after the publication of the 'Crag 
Polyzoa,' adopted the arrangement with very slight modifications, and 
Dr. Manzoni followed Reuss, but Professor F. A. Roemer in his ' Poly- 
parien des Norddeutschen Tertiiir-Gebirges,' ^ divides the group thus: — 

Bryozoa, Ehrbg. 

A. Celhdata, D'Orb. = Cheilostomata, Busk. 

B. Tubuliporidce, M.-Ed. = Cyclostomata, „ 

C. Cerioporida\ D'Orb. = Cijclostomata, „ 

Many of the genera in this arrangement are those founded by 
D'Orbigny, some few are still retained in our scientific literature, four 
only are founded by Professor Roemer. 

a. Celldlata. 

Genus Cyclescliara, Roemer. Genus Discoescharites, Roemer. 
,, Porella. „ 

b. TCJBULIPORID*. 

Genus Escharites. 

It must not be supposed, because I pass over several authors who 
have laboured upon the Polyzoa, that I ignore their work. Although I 
am pretty familiar with the various classifications which have been issued 
since the publication of the ' Brit. Mus. Cat.' and the ' Crag Polyzoa,' many 
of the modifications that have been suggested apply more particularly to 
the Cheilostomata than to the Cyclostomata. 

In the former suborder there are many points of superficial structure 

' In my third Eeport this yenus is spelt as in the Crag Polyzoa, Apse?idesia ; I 
believe the proper spelling is with a v as above 
' Cassel, Verlag von Theodor Fischer, 1>J6;!. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 179 

that would be naturally sought after by those whose desire it is to arrange 
the various genera in a natural sequence, but iu the latter suborder there 
is but little variety except in the arrangement of the cells. In the later 
work of Mr. Busk,' in the writings of Professor Smitt, and in the 
' Brit. Marine Polyzoa ' (1880) of the Rev. Thomas Hincks, practically 
the original arrangement of the Cyclostomata is left untouched. In the 
work of Mr. Hincks there is a redistribution of genera in a very limited 
family arrangement ; but the work deals manifestly with recent species, 
and with species found only in the British area. 

In his Introduction to the Marine Polyzoa Mr. Hincks refers to the 
studies of Professor Smitt in the following terms: 'He (Smitt) has 
aimed at a genealogical classification, starting with the proposition that 
the variations of species follow the line of their development and may be 
in a great measure explained by it. The Polyzoa as compound animals 
offer great facilities for the study of the laws and causes of variation. 
The differentiation of the colony gives us a series of variations running 
from the early and simple states to the fully developed form which is the 
parallel of the series of differences amongst species. Thus the British 
species of Crisia represent the evolutionary stages of one and the same 
type, of which Smitt regards Grisia genicnlata, Mil.-Ed., as the first and 
simplest. The forms of this genus he would arrange according to the 
law of their evolution in a series, the members of which, springing from a 
common origin, will hold each its evolutionary grade.'^ This, on the whole, 
may be a sound working principle, though it may not be always appli- 
cable when investigating the PalfBozoic Polyzoa. I have not the least 
doubt but that some of the Graptolites aud some of the earliest types 
of Polyzoa had a common ancestral origin. I believe also that the 
uni- and multi-serial Sfomatopora represent evolutionary stages of a 
more primitive type ; but we are not able to show at what stage diver, 
gences or differentiation of the colony took place, for the simple reason 
that the simple and the compound colonies occupy the same horizon in 
the Lower Silurians of America. In this country we have only uniserial 
Stomatopora in the Wenlock Shales. We do not meet with multiserial 
Stomatopora until we reach the Lias. 

One of the chief difficulties the systematist has to encounter in classi- 
fying the Fossil Polyzoa is this : On what characters in the zoarium 
shall divisions be based ? If every variation of the zoaria is to be 
accepted, then there can be no limits set which shall be binding alike to 
all Palaeontologists, for the zoaria of species vary greatly in different 
localities and in different countries. Then, again, if — as the old workers 
have done — we accept the fenestrule, its size, shape, or character, as an 
element to guide ns in the structure of genera or species, we shall still 
be at fault, for in very many of the Fevestella, both in this country and in 
America, the fenestrule varies greatly, even iti the same zoarium. There 
is, however, one element that may be safely relied on, and this I have 
chosen for my guidance — that is, the structure and the arrangement of 
the cells in the branch, or in the colony ; all other characters, structural 
or superficial, are subordinate to this. 

This principle has been adopted by Mr. Hincks in his arrangement of 
Recent Polyzoa, and admirable results have followed. I shall not there- 

' Brit. Mm. Cat. pt. iii Cyclostomata. 
■ Brit. Afar. Polyzoa (Hincks), vol. i. p. cxx. 
N 2 



180 REPORT— 1883. 

fore be out of the pale of competent authority in thus seeking to extend 
the principle to Fossil Polyzoa. Before closing these remarks, however, 
I cannot help saying that to seek from the embryologist information that 
would help to dispel the cloud of doubt that surrounds the earlier history 
of the Palaeozoic Polyzoa seems to be somewhat fanciful. Yet, in the 
latest researches of Dr. Jules Barrois on the Embryogeny of Cyclosto- 
matous Polyzoa,' we are furnished with most important conclusions 
respecting the ancient group, as a result of researches on living forms. 
Barrois says : ' To conclude, we may put forward the hypothesis of the 
very ancient existence of a group of Frohryozoa, composed of swimming 
organisms, free, and possibly analogous to the Rotifera (at least as regards 
the aspect and general arrangement of the body), and of which the few 
larvae of Entoproda that we have nowadays represent the sole survivors ; 
from this group the existing Bryozoa are derived by adaptation to a new 
mode of life ; certain larvae have accustomed themselves to creep . . . 
upon their oral surface instead' of swimming freely through the water ; 
and hence the changes . . . which produce the Bryozoan form.' 

A very cursory examination of the Synopsis of Primary Division of 
the Polyzoa,^ formulated by Mr. Busk, will show that to a large extent 
these are founded upon recent types. The orders include both fresh- 
water and marine species, and being originally devised by Dr. Allman for 
his classification of the Freshwater Polyzoa, the order Gymnolemata was 
necessarily extended for the inclusion of the whole of the Marine Polyzoa 
as well. The three suborders of Mr. Busk — Cheilostomata, Cyclostomata, 
and Ofenostomata — are founded upon certain peculiarities of the mouth of 
the cell. In the first of these divisions the orifice, or mouth of the cell, 
is subterminal and of less diameter than the area of the cell. In the 
second the cell is tubular, and the orifice or mouth is terminal ; but as the 
third suborder has characters unknown to me in a fossil state, it may be 
conveniently dispensed with in this Report. The two divisions already 
alluded to are made to include the whole of the Fossil Polyzoa of the 
Crag, and also the whole of our Marine Polyzoa, British or foreign. At 
present I have no knowledge of any genus or species found within the 
European area at least, in either the Cainozoic or Mesozoic, that may not 
be included in the suborders of Mr. Busk, if slightly modified to meet a 
few rare cases. When, however, we get beyond the Mesozoic epoch, and 
pass into the Palaeozoic, the cases are very difiPerent. It is here that we 
meet with types evidently belonging to the class Polyzoa, in which the 
cell is devoid of either terminal or subterminal stomata. In making a 
superficial examination of these we find that the true or normal cell is 
deeply set in the branch, stem, or frond, and what we see of the superficial 
orifice is not the mouth of the cell, but what may be fittingly called the 
vestibule ; the true orifice is concealed. In many of the Palaeozoic types 
the vestibule is very large, and generally filled with matrix. The genera 
in which the concealed stomata may be casually observed — for sections 
are required to show the distinct features — are species of Ptilodietya, Area- 
nopora, and Bhahdomeson. Besides the mere stomata there are certain 
peculiarities of the grouping of the cells, and of the interspaces between 
cell and cell, that would afibrd good diagnostic characters ; but of them- 
selves they are not of sufficient importance for my purpose. It is very 

' Ann. Mag. Kat. Hist. Nov. 1882, p. 402. » Crag PiiJi/zoa, p. 9. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 181 

evident tliat types like these cannot be placed in existing suborders 
without doing violence to the original and generally accepted diagnosis 
of Busk, Smitt, and Hincks. 

To prevent confusion and to meet the difficulty, I have founded 
a new suborder, which, following the example of Mr. Busk, is framed 
with distinct reference to the cell-mouth. We cannot afford to abandon 
our hold upon the two divisions so familiar to students of Recent 
Polyzoa ; but in a synopsis of recent and fossil species and genera it 
is essential that every feature should be accurately described. 

Since a joint paper of mine and Mr. Shrubsole's was read before the 
Geological Society,' an abstract of which was printed in the Proceedings 
of the Society, a valuable memoir of the American Palajozoic Bryozoa 
has been published by E. 0. Ulrich * in the ' Journal of the Cincinnati 
Society of Natural History.' In this contribution a new suborder is 
proposed for the purpose of including groups some of which cannot 
possibly, for reasons presently to be explained, be included in this Report 
of Fossil Polyzoa. Mr. Ulrich says that his suborder Trepostomata ' is 
proposed for the reception of the majority of the Palaeozoic and many of 
the more recent Bryozoa. The principal distinguishing features are — 
(1) that the zoarium is composed of slender fasciculate tubes, which do not 
(as in the case of the Cyclostomata) gradually enlarge as they approach, 
the surface, but remain throughout nearly of the same diameter ; and 
(2), that, at a certain point in the course of the tubes to the surface, they 
bend outward more or less abruptly, and cJiange in character. Besides 
the following Palfeozoic families, the Gerioporidce should be referred to 
the Trepostomata.' 2 

The Palaeozoic families included in this new suborder are Ptilo- 
dictyonidce, Zittel emend. Ulrich ; StictoporidtB, Ulrich ; Moniicullporidce, 
Nicholson ; Fistuloporidce, Ulrich ; and Ceramoporidce, Ulrich. It is not 
now with me a question of priority, but a question of fitness. Accepting 
the diagnosis of Mr. Ulrich, which, for the things he includes in the new 
suborder, is very good, I ask, who that knows anything of recent Bryo- 
zoa or Polyzoa would be inclined to adopt the Monticuliporidce as defined 
and limited by Professor Nicholson,'* or even by Mr. Ulrich, as Polyzoa ? 
As to the Cerioporidce, if Busk's family is meant, only one genus in that 
family, Stellipora, could be placed, provisionally, in the suborder as defined 
by Mr. Ulrich. I have not the least wish to cast the slightest disparage- 
ment upon this piece of really good work, but having been forced to 
dissent from the classification of the Bryozoa of Mr. Ulrich, I will now 
give my reasons for doing so. 

In a former admirable Report published by the British Association,* 
there is one entitled the ' Third Report on British Fossil Corals,' by 
Professor Duncan. At p. 128 the author says : ' Jules Haime, when 
investigating the Oolitic Polyzoa, classified forms without septa and 
with tabulfe, like Chcetetes or Monticulipora, as Polyzoa, and the beautiful 
Stellipone were especially included. 

' Now the question arises, are there any recent Polyzoa, whose soft 
parts have been examined, that have tabulae ? From our knowledge of 
the recent Polyzoa, it is unsafe to answer this in the affirmative. There 
is a fresh-water species which is said to have tabulte, but the assertion 

' June 21, 1882. = October 1882. » Op. cit. p. 151. 

* Vide the genus Monticulipora. 

» Reports, 1871, pp. 116-137. By P. Martin Duncan, F.K.S., F.G.S. 



182 itEroET— 1883. 

requires confirmation. The classification, then, of these forms amongst 
the Polyzoa ranst be deferred, and I propose to decide against it now. 

' Bennmontui is distinguished by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime as follows : — " This genus is distinguished from all other Chaetetin^ 
by the formation of its tabulae, which ai'e irregular or vesicular, and it thus 
resembles MiclieJenia, belonging to Favositi7ice." The presence of septa 
belonging to three cycles is asserted by the same authors, and this fact 
must remove the genus quite out of the neighbourhood of septaless foi'ms. 

'The genera of the Choetetinse were formerly Chcetetes, Monticulipora, 
Dania, Stdlipura, JJekayio, Beaumoiitia, and Lahechia. It has been shown 
that SteUipora, Dekayia, and Lahechia are subgenera of Monticulipora, 
that Dania cannot be separated from Chcetetes, and that Beaumontia has 
no correct affinity with the others, and that it belongs to another family. 

' The genera should stand thus : — 

Ch*tetin.S!. 

Chcetetes. Subgenus, Dania. 
Monticidipora. „ SteUipora. 

„ DeJcayia. 

,, Lahechia. 

But the subgeneric names should be dropped. 

'This result is interesting because it eliminates Beaumontia, and 
makes a compact series, the affinities of which are not Polyzoan, but 
which may be Alcyonarian or Hydrozoan.' 

After the most careful study of species belonging to the several 
genera mentioned, and even after the study of the later investigations of 
Professor Lindstrom and Professor Nicholson, I cannot help but accept 
tliis early decision of Professor Duncan. I am not sufficiently versed in 
the necessary knowledge respecting the Actinozoa to assert anything 
about the Alcyonarian nature of the Ghcvtetince. Professor Duncan 
classifies the Alcyonaria, in the same Report, p. 135, thus : — Cha;tetes, 
Monticidipora, Dania, SteUipora, Lahechea, and he also gives a careful 
resume of the opinions of Professor Agassiz (pp. 132-3) respecting the 
Hydrozoan characteristics of the same group. 

There remains but little to add to the masterly way in which Pro- 
fessor Duncan (previous to the grouping of the Monticuliporidfe by 
Professor Nicholson) dealt with the question of the relationship which was 
supposed to exist between the Chcetetitice and the Polyzoa. Since that 
time several attempts have been made to revive the classification of Jules 
Haime already referred to by Professor Duncan, and the genus Heteropora 
has been often referred to as a probable link between the Polyzoa of the 
Mesozoic and the Chceteii71.ce of the Palaeozoic epochs. The Heteropora 
of the Oolites and of the Cretaceous I have carefully studied, but so far 
as I am acquainted with this genus, even including those species of the 
Crag, I cannot decide in favour of those who believe that there is a 
remarkable affinity between the two groups. The Heteropora may well 
puzzle the most painstaking of students, and a positive decision, either 
one way or the other, is a difficult matter. Still I cannot help believing 
that the species of this genus have nearer affinities with Polyzoa than 
with either Chcetetes or Monticulipora. 

It is at this point that the classification of E. O. Ulrich fails to con- 
vince me. I acknowledge with pleasure the care with which the author 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 183 

has approaclied his subject, and I shall not fail to accept several of his 
genera' for my own labours, but whenever I do accept them there must 
be clear evidence that I am dealing with the deserted homes of polypides 
and not with the remains of Alcyonarians. 

The following is the classification and family arrangement of the 
Palseozoic Bryozoa, with their included genera already referred to : — 

Order Gtmnolemata, Allman. 

Suborder Cyclostomata, Bask. 

Family Tubulipoeid^, Busk. 

Stomatopora, Bronn. Berenicea, Lamx. 

Prohoscinna, Audouin. Bapalonaria, Ulrich. 

Family Theonoid^, Busk. Scenellopora, Ulrich. 
,, Entalophobidj;, Reuss. Mitoclema „ 
,, Fenestellid^, King. 

Feiiestella, Lonsdale. Phyllopora, King. 

Polypora, M'Coy. Archimedia, Lesueur. 

Septopora, Front. Lyropora, Hall.' 
Fenestralia, „ 

Family AcANTHOCLADiDiE, Zittel. Penniretopora, D'Orb. 
= Glauconome, Lonsdale. 

Family Arthbonemid^, Ulrich. 
Arthronema, Ulrich. ArtJiroclem^a, Billings. ^'\ 

Suborder Treptostomata, Ulrich. 
Family Ptilodictyonid.e, Zittel. 

Ptilodidya, Lonsdale Bicranopora, Ulrich. 

Graptodictya, Ulrich. Clathropora, „ 

Arthropora, „ 

Family Stjctopokid^, Ulrich. 

Stictopora, Hall. Gystodictya, Ulrich. 

Stidoporella, Ulrich. PacJiydictya, „ 

Bhinodictya, ,, Phyllodidya, „ 
Phcenopora, Hall, 

Mr. Ulrich says in the last two families diaphragms (iahulce) are 
often developed ; and as the remaining three families, Monticuliporidce, 
Nicholson, Fistuliporidce, Ulrich, and Ceramoporidce, have diaphragms 
(tahulce) strongly developed, they cannot be admitted amongst the 
Polyzoa for reasons already given. The family GeramoporidcB contains 
one genus, Eridopora, some of the species of which closely resemble our 
own Carboniferous Geramopora megastoma, M'Coy, and Mr. M'Coy's 
genus Fistulipora (type F. minor) is in all probability only the m.ature 
growth of G. megastoma, M'Coy. ^ 

' Cwrinopora, Cryptopora, Nich., Ptilopcra, M'Coy, not examined, Ulrich. 
2 Mr. John Young, F.G.S., on Fistulipura minor, Ann. Maq. Nat. Hist. Dec. 1882, 
and Review of the Family Diastopm-idce, Vine, Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc. 1880, p. 356. 



184 REPORT— 1883. 

In the Suborder Chellostomaia, fam. Membranoporidce, Busk, Mr. 
Ulrich places one genus only, ? Palceschara, Hall, and he remarks (he. 
cit. p. 156) : ' A few American Palaeozoic genera of Bryozoa have been 
omitted from the above classification, because I have not yet been able 
to give them the attention required for a full elucidation of their characters 
and affinities.' 

Through the kindness of Mr. J. M. Nickles, of Cincinnati, I have been 
furnished with specimens of a great many of the so-called Bryozoa of the 
Cincinnati group, and the drawings and descriptions of Mr. Ulrich will 
enable me to give details, and weave in genera in the classification of the 
whole of our Fossil Polyzoa. 

For rather more elaborate details than I have been able to give in this 
report I have very great pleasure in referring the reader to the first 
chapter of ' The Genus Montlcnlipora,' ' entitled 'The General History of 
the Genus,' and also Chapter III. for the statement of the views of Dr. 
Lindstrom (extract from ' Ann. Nat. Hist.' ser. iv. vol. xviii. p. 5 et seq.), 
and to Mr. Bnsk, 'Mr. A. W. Waters, and Prof. Nicholson on the genus 
and species of Heteropora. 

Class Polyzoa. 

= Bnjozoa, Ehi-enb. Bri/ozoa (pars) of American authors. 
= Bryozoa, Reuss, Manzoni, Waters. 

Order Gtmxolemata, Allman. 

I. Suborder Cheilostomata, Bask, Hincks. 

' Orifice of the zoo:cinin closed by a movable opercular valve. Ova 
■usually matured in external marsupia. Appendicular organs (avicularia 
and vibricala) frequently pi'esent.' 

II. Suborder Cyclostomata, Busk, Hincks. 

Zoojcia tubular, with a plain inoperculate orifice. Marsupia and 
appendicular organs wanting. 

III. Suborder Cryptostomata, Vine. 

. Zoo^.cia tubular, sub-tubular, in section slightly angular. Orifice of 
cell surrounded by vestibule, concealed. 

Family I. Stomatoporid^. 

Zoarium entirely adherent, simple or branched. Zocecia arranged in 
a single series, or in several, which take a linear direction generally. 

Genus 1. Ascodictijon, Nicholson and Etheridge, jun.^ 
2. Stomatopora, Bronn.^ 

Subgenus Frohoscina, Smitt. 

In the above grouping I have taken the simplest type of cell with 
which I am acquainted; and, as these genera are well represented in our 
own Weulock Shales, which were evidently derived from an earlier series 
of rocks, they may be taken to represent the earliest adherent types of 

' Prof. Nicholson, (Blackwood & Sons) Edinburgh and London, 1881. 

- An7i. Mag. Nat. Hist. June 1877. 

' For references, see 2nd and 3rd Brit. Assoc. Reports on Foss. Polyzoa, 1881-82. 



ON BOS;IL POLYZOA. 185 

Polyzoa. In America, Stomatopora and Proloscina are found in the 
Trenton rocks, and are also abundant in the ' Cincinnati group ' of Ohio. 
"With the above the Bapalonaria of Mr. Ulrich (' Journal of Cincin. Soc. 
Nat. History,' April 1879) may be temporarily placed. We have no 
Bapalonaria, however, in our British Paleozoic rocks. 

ASCODICTTOX, Nicholson and Eth. jun. 

The genus Ascodictyon was originally founded by the authors for 
' anomalous types ' of fossils found in the Devonian rocks of America, 
and in the Carboniferous Shales of Scotland. By my own investigations 
I have been able to extend the range of some of the forms that were 
originally placed under the genus, to the Wenlock Shales at least. Sub- 
ject to future correction, I think I have sufficient evidence to prove that 
Stomatopora dissimilis, Vine, is the mature form of Ascodictyon radici- 
forme. Vine ; and because of this I associate this genus with the other two 
to form the family Stomatoporidce.^ 

I have previously drawn attention to Prohoscina (' Third Brit. Assoc. 
Rep. on Foss. Polyzoa,' 1882), and, although some authors regard it as of 
generic value, I think that it will be safer to allow the species that have 
heretofore been placed as Prohoscina (fossil types at least) to fall under 
Stomatopora. (For remarks on recent species see Hincks' ' Brit. Marine 
Polyzoa,' vol. i. pp. 436-7). D'Orbigny's Filesparsa incrassata (' Pal. Fr.' 
loc. cit. p. 817) is in all probability, says Mr. Hincks, the same as Smitt's 
Stomatopora incrassata (' Brit. M. Poly.' p. 437). 

Gen. Char.—^ Organism composite, adherent ; composed of calcareous 
cells or vesicles, the walls of which are perforated by microscopic foramina, 
but which possess no single large aperture. The cells united by short 
tubular necks, or disposed in clusters and connected with one another by 
hollow filamentous tubes.' — H. A. Nicholson and R. Etheridge, jun. (op. 
cit. p. 468). 



Wenlock Shales. 


A. stellatum ; var. siluriense, Vine. 


Shropshi 


>j 


A. radiciforme. Vine. 


» 


)» 


A. filiforme, Vine. 


» 


Middle Devonian. 


A. stellatum, Nich. and Eth. jun. 


Ontario. 


)> 


A.fusiforme, „ „ 


)i 


Carboniferous. 


A. radians, „ „ 


Scotland. 


)> 


A. stellatum, „ „ or var. 


2 



Stomatopora, Bronn. 
(See Hincks and Busk for Synon, &c.) 

Zoarium repent, adnate or free at the extremities, giving off erect 
processes (Proloscina) ; simple or branched ; branches more or less 
ligulate. Zooecia in great part immersed, arranged in a single series, or 
in several, which take a linear direction, or are very slightly divergent.' — 
Hincks, p. 424. 

' Silurian Uniserial Stomatopora and Ascodictya, Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc, Nov. 
1881. Wenlock Polyzoa, ibid. Feb. 1882. 
2 Ibid. 






J) 



186 EEPOET— 1883. 

Wenlock Shales.^ 8. disdviilis, Vine. Below "Wenlock Lim., 

Shropshire. 
,, ,, var. elongata, Vine. ,, ,, 

"Wenlock Limestone. ,, var. compressa, Vine. „ „ 

Permian. 8. Voic/iiana, King. Humbleton, Yorkshire. 

Lias. 8. montlivatiformis. Vine. (See ' Third Brit. 

Assoc. Rep. on Fos. Polyzoa/ 1882.) 
„ 8. antiqua, Haime. „ ,, 

Inf. Oolite. 8. clichotoma, Lamx. ,, „ 

Gt. Oolite and Corn- 
brash. 8. Waltoni, Haime. ,, „ 
Cornbrash. 8. dichoiomoides, D'Orb. ,, 
Cretaceous. 8. gracilis, Milne-Ed. (See 1st part present 

Report.) 
„ 8. ramea, Blainv. „ ,, „ 

„ 8. ramosa, Michelin. „ ,, „ 

Infra-Oolite. 8. (Proboscina) Jacquoti, Haime. (' Third Brit. 

Assoc. Rep.') 
Gt. Oolite. „ „ Davidsoni, Haime.^ „ ,, 

I have examined specimens of the whole of the above, with the 
exception of King's species, which I give upon his authority. 

Family II. Tubuliporid^. 

Zoarium adherent, more or less free, flabellate, lobate or cylindrical. 
Zocecia tubular, disposed in contiguous series. Ocecium an inflation of the 
surface of the zoarium at certain points, or a modified cell. (Hincks's 
' Brit. M. P.' 2)ars.) 

Genus 3. Diastopokella, Vine. Type D. consimilis, Lonsd. 
„ 4. DiASTOPORA, Lamx. „ D. diluviana, Lamx. 

„ (biserial) = Mesenteripora, pars.^ 

„ 5. TuBULiPORA, Lamarck. Type T.flabeUaris, Fabric. 
,, 6. Bntalophora, Lamx. 
,, 7. Idmonea ,, 

In any classification of Recent or Fossil Polyzoa, the grouping of 
suitable genera under this family name will be always difficult, and 
perhaps, to some, unsatisfactory. I have, however, followed very closely 
Mr. Hincks, but working as I am upon fossil species, with a pretty full 
knowledge of the recent, I have made a few alterations advisedly. 

The genus Diastoporella is the nearest approach to Mesozoic Diasto- 
pora that we have in the Pateozoic rocks. It is rare in the "Wenlock 
Shales — not so much so in the "Wenlock Limestone, but I have obtained 
the best results from the study, of a fine specimen presented to me by 
Professor Gustav Lindstrom, and upon this I found the present genus, 

' In the Lower Silurian Series, America, there are many beautiful forms of 
Stomatopora, and Proboscina range from these lower rocks upwards. See Ulrich, 
Am. Pal. Bryozoa. 

'^ In Mr. Walford's cabinet there are still many undescribed species which, if 
worked up, would increase the number and range. 

^ It may be well, by way of preventing a misconception, to refer to the genus 
Terebellaria. I cannot give it a place in the present classification, but having given 
an account of the development of the species in my ' Third Brit. Assoc. Eep.' 1882, 
I refer the student to that paper for further remarks. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 



187 



•whicli will be referred to again farther on. In America, Mr. Ulrich's 
Berenicea primitiva (^op. cit. p. 157, 'American Palseoz. Bryozoa''), 
which he says is rare in the Cincinnati group, is much closer related to 
Mesozoic Diastopora {Berenicea) than anything we have. The cells of 
his B. vesiculosa, XJlrich, resemble some of the cells of Oolitic ' Mesenteri- 
pora,' some of the species of which I do not place with the Cyclostomata 
in this Report. 

For the genus Diastopora — adherent forms — I take one of the species 
of Lamouroux, and also one for the biserial species that may be safely 
placed in the genus. For similar reasons, previously expressed by Mr. 
Hincks {op. cit. p. 443), I accept Tubulipora, Lamk., and allow it to follow 
in a natural sequence Diastopora ; species are partially adherent and 
partly free. With regard to Entalophora it may be well to say a word. 
Mr. Hincks allows the genus to follow Iclmonea, but I prefer that it should 
follow Tuhdipora for the reason given by the author (p. 455), that in its 
young state Entalophora ' consists of an adnate tubular crust.' There 
are, however, two types of this genus ranging from the Silurian rocks to 
the present seas — the Pustulopora type of Busk and the Spiropora type — 
and I have not as yet been abld to satisfy myself that the two had a 

DiASTOPOEELLA, Vine. 

(See ' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' ii. 1881 = D. consimilis {Aulopjora, Lonsd.)) 

Zoarium encrusting, irregular, rarely circular. Zocecia tubular, elon- 
gate, contiguous, arranged in regular series ; cell-mouths circular, with 
well-formed peristome, and occasionally slightly less than the diameter 
of the cell. 

Wenlock Shales and Limestone, Diastoporella corisimilis, Lonsd. 
Devonian Limestone (?) . . Diast(^orellaM'Coyii,Saiter. Padstow. 

DusTOPORA, Lamx. 
= Berenicea, Lamx., Jules Haime, and authors (pars). 

Zoarium adnate, usually discoid or flabellate, less commonly irregular 
in form. Zocecia tubular, with an elliptical or sub-circular orifice, crowded, 
longitudinally arranged, partly immersed. Ocecia an inflation of cell or 
cells. 

Lias . . . Diastopora stomatoporoides, Vine. (See paper as 
below 2), and 'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1882. 



Inf. Oolite to 

Cornbrash (?) 
Inf & Gt. Oolite 



Great Oolite 
Gt. Oolite and 

Cornbrash 
Cretaceous 



Diastopora diluviana, Lamx. 
,, ventricosa, Vine. 

,, oolitica, „ 

,, cricopora, ,, 

,, viicrostoma, Haime. 



,, Lucensis, „ 

„ Clavtda, D'Orb. 

,, papiyracea, ,, 

„ Wetherelli, Morris. 

,, cretacea (new species.) 
of present Report. 

„ . (?) „ Sowerbii, Lonsdale. Ibid. 

' Cincinnati Soc. of Nat. Hist. Oct. 1882. 

' Further notes on the DiastojJoridce, Bu.sk, Jour. Geo. Soc. Aug. 1881. 



J) 



Greensand. 

Chalk, Sussex. 
See first part 



188 



REPORT — 1883. 



DiASTOPORA (Biserlal) 
^ Mesenteripora, Blainv. and Busk. 



Inf. Oolite 


, , 


Diastopora 


Lamourouxi, Haime. 








(' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' on Fossil Polyzoa, pt. 


iii.) 


Inf. and Gt. 


Oolite 


Diastopora 


Waltoni, Haime. 




)> 


J> 




Wrigldii, „ 




j> 


)J 




scohinula, Michelin. 




99 


9) 




Michelini, Blainv. 




>» 


>> 




lamellosa, „ 




Gt. Oolite 


• • 




Endesana, Haime. 




)> 


• • 




Davidsoni, „ 




Cretaceous 


• 




reticidata (new species ?) See 
part of this Report. 


first 



= Spiropora, 



J) )) 

Lias 


>9 
• SI 


Inf. and Gt. Oolite „ 


>» 


99 99 


» 


>» 99 


91 


99 99 


Infra- Oolite 


99 99 
99 


>» 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


9> 


9> 


99 


• 99 


Cretaceous . 


9) 


)9 


99 


99 


99 



99 
99 



TaBULiPORA, Lamarck. (See Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 443.) 

Zoarium adnate, decumbent, or sub-erect, forming a variously-shaped 
expansion, either entire, loba:te, or branched. Zooecia tubular, partially 
free and ascending ; arranged in divergent series. 

Cretaceous . Tuhulipora Brongniartii, Milne-Ed. = Actinopora. 

Entalophora, Lamouroux. (Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 455.) 

= Spiropora. (' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' pt. iii. 1882.) 

' Zoarium erect and ramose, rising from a more or less expanded base, 
composed of decumbent tubes ; branches cylindrical. Zocecia tubular, 
opening on all sides of the branches.' 

Wenlock Shales . Entalophora regularis, Vine. 

intermedia, ,, 
liassica, Tate. 
straminea, Phill. 
ccespitosa, Lamx. 
Bagocensib-, D'Orb. 
cellaroides, Haime. 
rauiosis-iima, D'Orb. 
cenomana. „ ' 

costata, D'Orb. 
Meudonensis, D'Orb. 
Sarthacensis, „ 

ecliinata, Reuss. = Pustulopora sp. 
2)se7idospiralis, 

[Mich. = Peripora, D'Orb. 
gracilis, Goldf. = Ceriopora, Goldf. 
jmstidosa, „ 
incerta (new species). 
[(See first part of present Report.) 

Idmonea, Lamouroux. (' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 450.) 

' Zoarium erect and ramose, or rarely adnate ; branches usually tri- 
angular. Zooecia tubular, disposed on the front of the branches, 

' See list of species, Third Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1882. 



ON FOSSIL rOLTZOA. 189 

ranging in parallel, transverse, or oblique rows on each side of a mesial 
line.' 

Upper Chalk . Idmonea Comptoni, Mantell. 

„ cretacea, Milne-Ed. 
gradata, Defranc. 






Family III. Fenestbllidj). (Restricted.) 

Zoarium forming large or small fenestrated or non-fenestrated expan- 
sions. Zocecia arranged biserially in the branch, tubular, but slightly 
truncated at the distal extremity ; orifice circular, opening on one side 
only. Branches united by dissepiments, or free. 

Genus Fenestella, Miller & Lonsd. Accepted type, F.plehia, M'Coy. 
„ Ptilopora, M'Coy. „ P. pluma, M'Coy. 

„ Pinnatopora, Vine. „ P. elegans, Young & Young. 

In 1849 Professor King established this family for a very peculiar 
group of Palaeozoic Polyzoa. ' Considering FenesteUa as the type of the 
family, it is proposed,' says the author, ' to include in it all those reticu- 
lated genera agreeing -with this genus in having the cellules planted on 
a basal plate composed of vertical capillary tubes, as first discovered by 
Mr. Lonsdale. Besides FenesteUa this family embraces the Ptilopora 
and PoJypora of M'Coy ; also the genera Sijnocladia and PhyUopora.' ^ 

It is very evident that if we relied upon the above diagnosis it would 
be impossible to accept King's family name for the restricted group 
which I have placed under this head. As FenesteUa was taken by Pro- 
fessor King as the type, I prefer to use the name, and restrict the group 
to those species only in which the cells are arranged biserially in the 
branch. 

The genus FenesteUa has been so ably handled by Mr. Gr. W. Shrub- 
sole,^ and so recently, that I think it needless to enter upon any lengthy 
description here. Accepting Mr. Shrubsole's work, I will now give 
reasons for allowing this family to follow that of the Tuhuliporidce. 

If we take any ordinary FenesteUa, such as F. pleheia, M'Coy, we 
shall find that the branches bear two rows of cells, separated, apparently, 
by a median keel. A vertical section of the branch shows that the cells 
are arranged in a line, but that the proximal part of the cell is depressed, 
the distal portion rising upwards to the surface of the branch. A 
transverse section shows that the cells are alternately placed, that the 
keel is obliterated, and that the cells themselves are foraminated very 
similarly to the cells of recent Crisia, Stomatopora, or Tubulipora. There 
are also minute structures in these ancient cells, very similar to minute 
structures in recent species of Cyclostomatous Polyzoa. The capUlary 
tubes referred to by Mr. Lonsdale are also a peculiar feature in the 
zoarium of FenesteUa — that is, if I understand his reference aright — 
and are totally unlike any of the minute structures in Betepora, where, 
as Mr. Lonsdale says, ' capillary tubes are wanting.' In Mr. Busk's 
' Cyclostomata ' (p. 20), the following reference is made, for classifica- 
tory purposes, to FenesteUa : — ' Herr Kirchenpaur's genus Eetihornera 
would, from his description, include some Escharidan or Cheilostomatous 
forms approaching Retcporoi ; but among them his -B. dentata and plicata 

' Permian. Fes:. King, p. "A. 

2 Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc. May 1870, :\'ay 1880, May 1881. Three papers. 



190 EEPOKT — 1883. 

appear without doubt to be Cyclostomatous, and I have therefore ventured 
to appropriate his expressive appellation for the fenestrate forms of 
Hornera ; not regarding it, however, as impossible that the fossil genus 
Fenestella may have a prior claim after all.' 

Through the kindness of Miss Gatty I have been allowed to examine 
her collection of Polyzoa, amongst which is a beautiful specimen of 
B. foliacea, McGillivray. If this species may be taken as the type of 
Betihornera, none of the species of Fenestella known to me could be, even 
provisionally, associated with it. In some of the branches we have a 
triple and even a quadruple set of pores, and only in some rare cases are 
pores biserial in their arrangement. It may happen, however, when I 
come to treat of Tertiary fenestrate B^0)-7ie)-a, that these may be associated 
with the more ancient PJiyllo'pora in the family Polyporidce ; but even 
then I think that the group or groups should be kept distinct. 

Mr. Shrubsole ' has already pointed out the differences in the external 
characters of Silurian and Carboniferous Fenestellce. It only remains for 
me to show that the structural differences are very slight indeed. The 
cells in all Fenestellce are arranged bi-serially, and between the cells there 
are very delicate interspaces, the walls of the cells in the opposite sides 
of the branches being separate and distinct. Yet by means of this inter- 
space the whole of the cells of the colony appear to be linked together. 
Have we here the passages through which the endosarc passed from cell 
to cell ? If so, then the unity of the cells in the colony, and also the 
distinct surroundings of the cell by its own wall, and the purpose of the 
interspace, are easily explained . 

In Ptilopora, M'Coy, the arrangement of the cells is very similar to 
that of Fenestella, but it is difficult to obtain specimens for making sections. 
I purposely keep the genus distinct, subject of course to future correc- 
tion on account of its peculiar zoarial characters. Mr. Ulrich includes 
in his family Fenestellido} the following genera : — 

Fenestella, Lonsdale. Areliimedia, Lesueur. 

Polypora, M'Coy. Lyropora, Hall. 

Septopora, Prout. Carinopora, Nicholson. 

Fenestralia „ Cryptopora, „ 

Phyllopora, King. Ptilopora, M'Coy. 

I have been compelled to found a new genus for Carboniferous species 
formerly included in Glauconome, Goldfuss. I should, however, have 
preferred to adopt the old names of King — Acanthocladia, or Pennirete- 
pora, D'Orb. — but neither of these genera conveys a just idea of the species 
which have been discovered since these names were formulated. Acantho- 
cladia is a Permian fossil of the family Thamniscidce, and the type of the 
wenus, A. anceps, Schlotheim, has ' rows of cellules from three to six 
on the stems ' (op. cit. p. 48), and the type of D'Orbigny's Penniretepora 
is Glauconome disticha, Lonsdale. 

Fenestella. (Restricted.) 

' Zoarium a calcareous reticulate expansion, either flat, conical, or 
cup-shaped, formed of slender bifurcating branches, poriferous on one 
face, connected by non-poriferous bars, forming an open network. 
Zocecia immersed in the branches, and arranged in two longitudinal rows 

' Brit, Upper Sil. Fenestellido, Quart. Journ. Geo. Soc. 1880, p. 242. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 191 

(divided) by a central keel on which are often prominences. Cell-mouth 
small, circular and prominent when preserved.' — G. W. Shrubsole. 

Upper Silurian . Fenestella rigidula, M'Coy. 

reteporata, Shrubsole. 

lineata „ 

intermedia ' (a passage form). 

plebeia, M'Coy. (Synonyms below.^) 

crassa, ,, 

loohjporata, Phill. 

nodulosa, „ 

tuherculocnrinafa, Eth. jun. 

mevihranacea, ., 

HaUiinensis, Shrubsole.^ 

retiformis, Schlotheim. 



Carboniferous 



» 



Permian 



Ptilopoea, M'Coy. 
(See 'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' Foss. Polyzoa, No. 1, 1880.) 

We know but little of this genus, except that the zoarial characters 
are diffei'ent from those of Fenestella. There is a feather-like arrange- 
ment in the zoarium, a central stem giving off lateral branches, which 
are connected by dissepiments having oval fenestrules. The branches, 
however, rarely bifurcate. 

Carb. Limestone . Ftilopora phuna, M'Coy (type). 

„ Phillipsii, Vine. Castleton, Derbysh. 

PmNATOPOEA, n. gen. 

Zoarium pinnated ; with secondary branches, likewise pinnated ; but 
rarely fenestrated by inosculation of pinnse. Zocecia tubular, arranged 
biserially, originating immediately beneath, or in a line with, the keel. 
Carina feebly developed in some, well developed in other species, orna- 
mented with the bases of spines, or plain ; no secondary pores. Ooecia (?) 
an inflated cell. (For figure see p. 192.) 

Carboniferous . Pinnatopora hipinnata, Phillips ^ Glauconome of authors. 
? „ gracilis, M'Coy. 

? ,, grandis ,, 

? „ pulcherrima „ 

„ elegaus, Young and Young. 

= Gla2iconome, Y. and Y. 

„ aspera, Young and Young. 

„ flexicarinata „ 

„ retroflexa „ 

„ robusta „ 

f = G. elegantula, Eth. jun. 

'_ This name had been previously adopted by Mr. Prout for an American Car- 
boniferous species of Fenestella, closely related to F. Milleri, Lonsd. 
2 For synonyms see G. W. Shrubsole on ' Carb. Fenestellidae ' (oj?. ait.) 
^ There are still some few Carboniferous Fenestella left which may ultimately 
merit specific distinction. At present I cannot include in this list more species than 
those already given. 



192 



BEPOET — 1883. 




Fig. 1. — Pinnatopora elegams, Young and Young. Carb. Limst. Hairmyres, Scotland. 

1. Typical external features of species. 2. Foraminated reverse. 
3. Transparent section : typical structure of the genus. 



Family IV. Diploporid^. 

Zoarium fenestrated, or partly free and fenestrated. Zooecia arranged 
biserially in tlie branches, opening on one side only. Supplementary 
]jores, or foramina, in all the species of the various genera, but in one 
group the foramina ai'e fonnd on the reverse also. 

General BemarJcs on the Family. — In the present Beport I can only 
indicate the place that the family should occnpy in this classification. I 
have made a careful analysis of the generic and specific characters of the 
■whole of the carboniferous group of Polyzoa that may ultimately find a 
fitting resting-place here. In 1873, Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun., described ' 
a 'peculiar polyzoon,' under the name of Synodadia carhonaria, R. Eth. 
jun., taking King's genus for the placement of the species. Ultimately, 
in the descriptive part of ' Explanation of Sheet 23,' ^ p. 102, Mr. 
Etheridge places the Scotch specimen as a variety only of Synodadia 
iiserialis. Swallow ; var. Carhonaria, Eth. jun. In 1858, details of 
Swallow's species were published ('Trans. St. Louis Acad.' vol. i. p. 179), 
and in 1873, Mr. Meek referred Sejptojpora cestriensis, Prout,^ to Synodadia 

' Annals Si' Mag. Nat. Hut. " Geological Surrey of Scotland. 

' 'Descriptions of New Species of Bryozoa,' Trans. St. Louis Acad, of Set. Tliird 
Series, 1859. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 193 

— ' a form wliicli appears to differ from typical species of Synodadia by 
having from one to four rows of cell-apertures on the dissepiment sinstead 
of two.' Mr. Hiram A. Prout, neither in his description of the generic 
character of Septopora, nor in the species which he places in the genus, 
says anything about supplementary pores ; yet, in comparing specimens 
of Mr. Etheridge's Synodadia carbonaria with the beautiful figures of 
Prout, it appears to me that the ' medallion face,' with its irregular lines 
of pores on the dissepiments, only represents the full features now known 
to exist in carboniferous species (supplementary pores) which were only 
known as ' gemmuliferous vesicles ' when King described his Permian 
Synodadia. If, therefore, some of my American friends can examine 
Prout's species, or fragments of the same, this matter may be set at rest,. 
and in all probability the Scotch Carboniferous Synodadia (?), already 
described by Mr. Etheridge and Mr. John Young, may be placed here. 
Waiting, therefore, further investigations, I will place, temporarily at 
least, the species at present known to exist in our British rocks. 

Carboniferous, Septopora, (?) carhonaria, Eth. jun. 

„ „ scotica, Young & Young. 

J, „ fenestelliformis, J. Young. • 

Whatever generic name the above species may bear in the future, I 
do not think they can be more fittingly placed than in the present 
family. There is, however, an element of doubt in the adoption of 
Septopora, and, but that the Messrs. Young have associated the name 
Diplopora with an altogether different species, I would suggest that 
Septopora should be replaced by Diplopora. 

There are two or three more sjjecies that may be placed in the 
family, although the secondary pores are differently placed. They are : — 

Glauconome (^Diplopora) marginalis, Young & Young. 

„ (Acanthopora) stellipora „ 

Adinostoma fenestrata „ 

_ The element of structure in Acantliopora and Adinostoma are the rayed 
orifices of the Zooecia. A feature so prominent as this ought not to be 
under-estimated, but in the present state of our knowledge respectino' 
the operculate or non-operculate coverings of the cells of palteozoic species 
of Polyzoa, it would, perhaps, be unwise to fix any particular types for 
these genera. 

As subgeneric forms of the FENESTELLiDiE, the following peculiarly 
distinct types may in the future be favourably considered. At present,, 
it is impossible to localise the species in this classification on account of 
fictitious, or insufficiently described, characters. 

Genus, Fenestralia, Hiram A. Prout. Carb. Bryozoa.^ 
„ Sijnodadia, King. Permian species. 

1 am also unable at present to give a resting-place to Mr. Eobert 
Etheridge's type species, 

Goniodadia cellulifera. 

' This is a peculiar species, and I am not sure that I am right in placing it here. 

or ^?oo, ^ described by Mr. John Young, Proc. ISat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, January 
Zd, 1881. 

2 Transactions of St. Louis Acad, of Sci. First of a Series on ' Carboniferous 
Bryozoa.' H. A. Prout. Vol. I. 1858. 

1883. 



194 KEPORT— 1883. 

Family V. Poltporidje. 

Zoarium forming large or small fenestrated expansions. Zocecia con- 
tiguous ; witli three rows and upwards of cell-openings in a row, on one 
side only. Branches united by dissepiments or by anastomosis. 

Genus Folypora, M'Coy. Type P. denclroides, M'Coy. 
„ Phyllopora, King. „ P. Ehrenhergii, Geinitz. 

These two genera differ in the anastomosis of the branches, but in 
the arrangement of the cells in the branch there is a striking similarity 
between them. The Fenestella intermedia, Shrubsole, of the Silurian 
rocks, appears to be a kind of connecting link between the two groups, 
Fenestellidaj and Polyporidee. The F. intermedia occurs in the Niagara 
rocks at Lockport, as well as in our own Wenlock series. The branches 
are occupied alternately by two and by three rows of cells, so that it is 
ratber a difficult matter to decide to which family group it should be 
referred. 

In a recent paper on Phyllopora (' Quart. Journ. Geo. Soc' vol. xxxviii. 
p. 347) Mr. Shrubsole says that from the Devonian rocks (Palaeozoic 
Foss.) Phillips figures the Phyllopora with circular fenestras as Betepora 
prisca ; that with lozenge-shaped fenestras as Fenestella anthritica, and that 
with square fenestrse as Gorgonia ripisteria. As might be expected, there is 
considerable confusion of species in Phillips's delineation of the Devonian 
Polyzoa ; two or more varieties are included under one head {op. cit. 
p. SS-l). This is to be regretted, but, as Mr. Shrubsole says, it is almost 
impossible to make a revision of Devonian Polyzoa on account of the 
difficulty of obtaining material for the purpose. We are indebted to 
Professor Nicholson for much valuable information in his descriptions of 
Polyzoa in his paper on ' New Devonian Fossils ' in the ' Geological 
Magazine,' 1874. The various species of Polyzoa described by Nicholson 
are from the ' Devonian formation of Canada West.' 

POLTPORA, M'Coy. 

Zoarium a delicate or robust, reticulated calcareous expansion ; 
branches round, connected by thin dissepiments. Zooecia contiguous, 
with from three to five rows of cell-openings in a branch, on one side 
only ; marginal cells occasionally projecting. 

Carboniferous . Polypora dendroides, M'Coy. 

„ tuiercidata, Prout. 
„ laxa, Phill. 

Phyllopora, King (' Permian Fossils,' p. 40). 

Zoarium consisting of an infundibuliform or foliaceous expansion. 
Zooecia on one side only, and occupying the whole surface of the branch ; 
cells contiguous. Branches united by anastomosis, and not by dissepi- 
ments. 

Phyllopora 

sp. 



Lower Silurian 
Upper Silurian 
Devonian 
Carboniferous 
Permian 



>> 



prisca, Phillips. 

Ehrenhergii, Geinitz. 
muUipora, Shrubsole. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 195 

Family VI. Horneeid^. 

In founding this family Mr. Hincks says only : ' Zocecia opening on 
one side only of a ramose zoarinm never adnate and repent.' (' Brit. Slar. 
Polyzoa,' vol. i. p. 467.) 

Excepting tlie Sipliodictyum of Lonsdale, Eornera, as known to us in 
the Crags, is not represented — typically— below the Tertiaries. I cannot 
therefore accept the types of the recent family for Mesozoic or Palteozoic 
genera. 

Greensand . Sipliodidyum gracile, Lonsdale = Eornera (?). 

Family VIL Thamniscid^. 

Zoarium forming free dichotomising branches, or pinnated fronds. 
Zoo'cia on one side only, with from three to five (or more ?) rows of cell- 
openings in a branch, occasionally having a smaller opening above or 
below the peristome of the cell (base of spine ?).' 

Genus Tliamniscus, King. 

„ Acanthocladia, „ ? = IchthyoracMs, M'Coy. 

These genera, which have heretofore been loosely defined and as 
loosely accepted by some Palaeontologists, are now restricted. The genus 
Tliamniscus was founded by Professor King, and though he did not read 
aright all the characters which his specimens afforded for a complete study, 
still he gave a good general estimate of its varied features. Professor 
King says (' Perm. Foss.' p. 44) : 'I formerly placed the type of this 
genus in Lamouroux's Eornera ; but it is evident from Mr. Lonsdale's 
observations that this was an erroneous collocation.' The type — Tliam- 
niscus duhius, Schlotheim — is very well described by King, and also well 
figured, but it was not possible, at the time he wrote, to clear up satisfac- 
torily all the points raised by him. In the text, and also in the figures 
(pi. V. fig. 10), Professor King indicates that Tliamniscus simulates the 
character of Synocladia ; this was clearly an error, as has been pointed out 
by Mr. G. W. Shrubsole in his paper on ' Thamniscus : Pei'mian, Car- 
boniferous, and Silurian ' (' Quart. Journ. Geo. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 341). 
Of the other genus I may say that the typical Acanthocladia, King, and 
IchthyoracMs, M'Coy, appear to cover the same ground ; but it is impossible 
to include in the genus species so difi'erent in their structural characters as 
Glauconome pluma, PhilL, and G. hipinnata, Phill. I accept the dia- 
gnosis of Acanthocladia anceps, Schlot., and take it as the generic type. 

Thamniscus, King. 
Restricted by G. W. Shrubsole (oj). cit. p. 343). 

■ ^ Zoarium multiform. Branches free, round, frequently and regularly 
bifurcating; more or less in one plane. Zocecia on one side. Cells 
immersed, round, arranged in oblique lines. Reverse foraminated. 

Silurian Thamniscus crassa, Lonsdale =^ Eornera, Lonsd. 

»> _ » delicatula, Vine = Eornera, ? Vine. 

Carbonif. ,, ranlcinei, Toung & Young. 

), „ carhonaria. Vine. 

Permian „ duhius, King. 

* Foramina on the reverse iu one species. 
02 



196 EEPORT — 1883. 

ACANTHOCLADIA, King = ? ICHTHYOKACHIS, M'Coy. 

(A. Thamniscids], King.) 

Zoarium bilaterally branched more or less in one plane, rarely bifur- 
cating. In his description of A. a7iceps, King says: 'Rows of cellules 
from three to six on the stem.' 

M 'Coy's definition of Ichthyorachis is as follows : — 

' A straight central stem, having on each side a row of short simple 
branches or"pinna3, all in the same plane, obverse rounded, without keel ; 
each bearing several rows of small prominent oval pores, arranged in 
quincunx, reverse smooth or finely striated.' — ' Carb. Foss.,' pi. XXIX. 

fig. 8. 

The Ichthyorachis as described by M'Coy is peculiarly a Carboniferous 
type. I have met with it in the Carboniferous strata of Derbyshire, and 
I prefer that the name should remain, at least for the present. 

Carboniferous Ichthyorachis Newenhami, M'Coy. 

Permian Acanthocladia anceps, Schlot. (and King). 

Family VIII. Heteropouid^. 
Zoarium cylindrical or multiform, undivided or branched; surface 
even, furnished with openings of two kinds— the proper zooecia, and inter- 
zocecial openings ; occasionally encrusting. 

Genus Heteropora, Blainville. 

„ Byphasmapora, R. Etheridge, jun. 

The ' Geriopora ' of the Carboniferous epoch may be conveniently in- 
cluded in the genus Heteropora. Hyphasmapora, on account of certain 
structural peculiarities, must, I think, be kept as a distinct type. 

Carboniferous Eeteropora interporosa, Phill. = Ceriopora, Phill. 
„ „ similis, ,, = ,, » 

„ Hyphasmapora Bushii, R. Eth. Jun. 

Jurassic „ conifera, Lamx. (multiform type). 

„ piistulosa, Michelin, ranging into the ' Crag.' 

ji „ reticulata, Haime. 

Cretaceous „ dichotoma, Goldf. (See first part of present 

Report). 
„ reticulata, ? Busk „ >, 



„ „ sp. ,. » 



tenera, Hagenow „ „ 

Suborder Ceyptostomata. 
Zocecia tubular, subtubular, in section (occasionally) slightly angular. 
Orifice of cell surrounded by vestibule, concealed. 

I have already pointed out the peculiarities of this suborder when 
speaking of the one proposed by Mr. XJlrich. It will be well, therefore, 
to deal very fully with the genera and species that I propose to assign to 
this division of Palaeozoic Polyzoa. ^ 

Mr. Ulrich in his classification of ' American Palajozoic Bryozoa {op, 
cit. p. 151) proposes two family names for the grouping of species which 
have heretofore been loosely placed in one group only. The first is the 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 197 

family Ptilodicttonidj;, Zittel emend. Ulrich ; the second is Stictoporid^:, 

Ulrich. 

In the first of these families Mr. Ulrich places the following genera : — 

1. Ftilodidija, Lonsdale. 3. Arthropora, Ulrich. 

2. Gmptodictija, Ulrich. 4. Dicranopora, ,, 

5. Clathropora, Hall. 

As Ftilodidija, Lonsdale, is taken as the type of this family, I shall 
make no apology for working out the stractnral chai-acters of one, at 
least, of the forms upon which Lonsdale founded his genus. 

1839. Ptilodictta, nov. gen. (Lonsd.). 
Derivation — tt-iXov pluma, cIktvov rete. 

' Thin elongated expansions, having on each surface small quad- 
rangular cells, not convex, which penetrate the coral obliquely, and are 
arranged, with respect to the surface, along the middle of the specimen, 
parallel to the elongated direction of the coral, but in the sides obliquely 
from it. Surface a very thin calcareous crust, traversed by slightly 
raised ridges, marking the boundary of the cells ; towards the margins 
the crust thickens ; the indications of the cells are less distinct, and at 
the edges are invisible, but cells are traceable close to the margin where 
the crust has been removed ; opening of the cells small, transversely 
oval ? No indication of a central partition parallel to the surface.' — 
* Silurian Syst.' p. 675, pi. XV. 

Plilodidya lanceolata, Lonsd. p. 675, fig. 11 to 11 c. 

' Small fragments of probably young specimens of this species are 
occasionally found in the slabs of Wenlock Limestone. One of them is 
represented in pi. XV., fig. 11 h, 11 c' — Lonsdale. 

PriLODiCTYA LoxsDALEi, Vine. 

Notes on the Polyzoa of the Wenlock Shales, &c., ' Quart. Jour. Geo. 
Soc' Feb. 1882 ; Second Brit. Assoc. Report on Foss. Polyzoa, mihi, 1881, 
for information on the genus generally. 

I have already described, under the name Ptilodidi/a Lonsdalei, 
some of the ' young specimens ' referred to by Lonsdale. In that descrip- 
tion I spoke of certain peculiar structures in the species (p. 66) with a 
promise that ' I should retui'n to their discussion at some future time 
when other investigations were completed.' I now redeem the promise, 
in the hope that other Palaeontologists will examine the species in their 
own localities, and compare them with these type specimens of Lonsdale. 

I. Superficial characters of Ftilodidija Lonsdalei, Vine. If we take 
a number of the fragments of this species, which we shall find rather 
abundantly distributed in the Wenlock Shales, and submit them to a 
tolerable heat in the fire, plunging them immediately aftef into water, we 
shall soon getrid of the ' crust,' and some peculiar structures will be revealed. 
The ' small quadrangular cells ' referred to by Lonsdale will be seen to 
perfection, and according as the preservation of the zoarium is cal- 
careous or ferruginous, tlie walls will be either of a white or of a dark 
brown colour. The rows of cells in a longitudinal direction are separated 
by dividing ridges, or by slightly raised ridges also referred to by 



198 



EEPOET 1883, 




Fig. 2. — Ptilodictya Lonsdalei, Vine. 

1. Longitudinal section, transparent. 2. Transverse section, transparent. 

3. Longitudinal section, opaque. 

4. Two cells with their adjacent bars, from a charred specimen, opaque. 

The letters ai-e the same in all the figures, a. The true cells. b. The vestibule of 

the cell. c. Intervening bars. d. Imaginary axis. 

(Drawn by aid of camera lucida, magnified about -10 diameter^.' 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 199 

Lonsdale, narrow and compact in the central portion of the zoarium, 
rather wider and widely separated as the margin is reached. Within the 
' ridges ' or ' bars,' longitudinally, the cells are separated from each other 
by much thinner walls, and the apparently quadrangular character is now- 
seen to be oval, but two oval cells touching each other at their proximal 
and distal extremities leave small angular spaces at the base, laterally, of 
each cell, p. 198, fig. 2, No. 4. This angular portion is perforated, con- 
sequently each oval cell orifice is seen to be surrounded by four perforated 
angular spaces, or, in other words, the ' quadrangular cells ' are really 
oval orifices in outline, with the angular corners perforated ; and rows 
of these are separated by the raised ridges already referred to. 

II. Zoarium in section. A transverse section of the zoarium will show 
other points of structure referred to briefly by Lonsdale (p. 198, ficr. 2, 
No. 2). We now find that the zoarium is raised in the middle, thinning out 
wedge-like towards the margins. In the centre the cells are perpendicular 
on each side of, what it will be convenient to call, the axial region. The 
cells on the right and left of the middle cells are slightly bent towards 
the right and left borders, and the angle of this bending of the cell 
decreases as the margin is approached. This shows the cause of that 
obliquity in the direction of the cells on either side of the central row, 
noticed by Lonsdale in the diagnosis of the genus Ptilodictya. He also 
observes that the ' cells penetrate the coral obliquely.' Superficially ex- 
amined this appears to be the fact, but the extreme outer portion of the 
surrounding ' cell ' orifice is not the true orifice of the cell ; it is only the 
vestibule'(p. 198, fig. 2, No. 2, h). The true orifice is deeper down, and the 
area of the cell is comparatively small (ibid, a) when compared with the 
area of the vestibule. This will be better seen when I describe the longi- 
tudinal section. If a tangential section of Ptilodictya is made, we find 
crossing each area a bar, and at first sight this seems to be the homologue 
of the ' tabute ' referred to by Professor Nicholson in his diagnosis of 
Eeterodidya. They are not ' tabulse ' in P. Lonsdalei, but they°are sec- 
tions of the cells which are reached at different depths, and they look, 
especially in transparent sections, very much like tabulte. 

III. Longitudinal sections. These I have made and studied very 
carefully, and some of my sections reach the cells at different depths. If 
the student will refer to fig. 2, No. 3, p. 198, a good general idea of the cell 
and vestibule may be obtained. In this drawing I have given the outline 
of ten cells (drawn from an opaque section), five on each side of the axial 
region, but the axis as shown in the drawing is never found so sharp in 
section as it appears to be in the figure. Here the cells are angular and 
sub-opposite, so that two cells are almost triangular ; the base of the 
triangle is the true orifices, and the apex is the proximal extremities of 
the cells, and the spaces left vacant, on either side, at the distal portion 
of the cells are the vestibules.^ 

IV. The vestibules. In the transverse section (p. 198, fig. 2, No. 2) of 
the zoarium of Ptilodictya, in fig. 25, 1 have shaded the vestibules, while the 
cells are left white. The bars which separate the rows of cells are more 
deeply shaded, and when viewed in this aspect they appear to be club- 
hke, decreasing in thickness as their extremities reach the cell. In some 

• In thus alluding to the triangular character of the two cells, the student will 
understand my references better if the figiu-es be reversed. 



200 



KEroET — 1883. 



respects tbese ' clab-Iike ' partitions resemble tbe ' spiniform ' processes 
described as ' Spiniform Corallites ' ' by Professor Nicbolson, but they have 
nothing of the chai'actcr, as will be presently seen, of corallite structure. 
On the surfaces of the zoarium and in the transverse sections these bars are 
prominent characteristics of the Ptilodlctya of the Wenlock series of rocks 
at least, and, in a modified form, the bars in the Sulcoretepora of the 
Carboniferous rocks closely resemble them, but in none of tbe sections of 
the Montkuliportdoi given by Nicholson, or made by myself, are there 
any structures with which I can compare them. They appear to me to 
be unique both in character and function ; neither do they resemble any 
partitions known to me in Cyclostomatous Polyzoa, recent or fossil. 

V. Development of the zoarium of Ptilodicfi/a. In one of Mr. Uh-ich's 
earlier papers,^ the author describes and figures two remarkable and 





Fig. S.—Ptilodicfi/a Lonsdalei, Vine. 

1. Young .specimen just above the base (section). 2. Section of young 
liaving eight rows of cells ; two (a) central, and three (c, c) lattral on 
d. ' Xon-poriferoiis margins.' 



specimen, 
each side. 



minute fossils, which he named Cralertjwra. In his paper on ' American 
Palseozoic Bryozoa' (op. cit. p. 151) Mr. Ulrich refers to Craterijjora as 
being the ' attached bases of Ftilodictyonidce.' These Crateripora form 
expansions upon foreign bodies, in the centres of which are small cup-like 
•depressions. They are, as Mr. Ulrich says, the bases or rootlike por- 
tions of Ptilodictya, and though not common in the Wenlock Shales, I 
l:ave several of them in my possession. Sometimes they are found upon 
corals, sometimes upon the zoarium of Ptilodictya itself; they are small 
disks, and at this early stage they have none of the after-characters of 

' TJie Genus Monticulipora, p. 4.5. 

* Journal of tlie Cincinnati Sac. JVat. Hist. April, 1879. 



ON. FOSSIL POLTZOA. 201 

the genus. Above the base the stem for a slight distance appears to be 
delicately Anted, and at about one and a half lines from the base the 
fluted portion begins to obtain the normal character, and at about two or 
two and a half lines the normal character of the zoarium is reached ; 
and at this stage I give details of structure which repeats itself in the 
after-development of i\ie zoarium (p. 200, fig. 3, No. 1). The breadth at 
this particular point varies from about Jj to ^'^ of an inch. 

At a very early stage in the development two cells form the central 
division of the zoarium, and from these lateral cells, obliquely on opposite 
sides, are thrown oflP, and beyond these there is what I will call, for the 
want of a better term, the virgin margin : that is a margin partaking of 
the same virgin substance which forms the base and early basal develop- 
ment. At this stage there are only two, and then four cells, near to 
and just above the base. Because of the heterogeneous character of the 
specimens, it is impossible to make out how or in what manner the cells 
are developed ; consequently I have to resort to other transparent 
specimens for this information, and, to make my meaning more clear to 
the student of recent Polyzoa, I will describe briefly the process of de- 
velopment of the cells in the common Crisia, which can be easily verified 
by observation. Immediately above the flexible joint in Crisia denticulata,^ 
there are two cells, which expand in a right and left hand direction, 
which form the base of the branch, and within the angle formed by and 
near to the base of these cells the two immediately above originate, and 
so on throughout the whole development of the branch, a new flexible 
joint originating in a kind of bastard cell, laterally or from the centre. 
In C. cornuta a delicate ca3nicium is seen to cover the lines of cells, and 
within this dermal covering the cells of this species originate. In the 
younger portions of the zoarium of Ptilodictya, that is towards the margins, 
the bars already referred to are not solid (p. 200, fig. 3, No. 2, c c) until 
after a certain stage is passed. Here we find that the new cell originates 
within the bar, a portion of the previously formed bar which is a kind of 
dermal covering ; and as other cells are developed towards the margin, 
the bars, or rather walls, of the cells on the inner or more central portion 
of the zoarium become solidified. There are no bars on the outer portion 
of the zoarium. 

VI. The ' laminar axis ' of Ptilodictya. In all my palteontological 
labours I have been extremely anxious to do justice to previous authors, 
and I have never, so far as I am aware, either in these reports or in my 
other writings, taken advantage of other people's work without acknow- 
ledging its source. At times this desire to bow to authority has led me 
into error, which it may be well now to refer to. In my second ' Brit. 
Assoc. Report on Fossil Polyzoa,' 1881, like many other authors, I adopted 
M'Coy's diagnosis of the genus Ptilodictya instead of that of Lonsdale. 
In M'Coy's definition he refers to species having ' a thin, laminar, 
flattened, concentrically wrinkled central axis.' In consequence of 
this I referred to the ' axis ' always when speaking of Ptilodictya, and 
in speaking of Sulcoretepora (B.A. Rep. 1880) I fell into an error 
with regard to the axial region. This was poiuted out to me by Mr. 
John Young, but I have had no opportunity of correcting it until now, 
and reference has been made to the error when writing of Sulcoretepora. 

' See figures iu either Busk's Cyolostomata or Hmcks's Brit. Mar. Polyzoa. 



202 EEPORT— 1883. 

In spite, however, of all that has been written about this ' laminar axis "" 
in Polyzoa, I have always had my doubts about its existence, and I did 
not care to venture into the domain of mere disputation imtil I could 
give some tangible proof that my views were correct. I ventured to 
touch upon the question in my paper on the ' Wenlock Polyzoa.' In 
that paper I wrote (oj;. cit. p. 66), when speaking of Ptilodidya 
LonsdaleifYine : ' I refuse to say cells "separated by a thin laminar axis," 
because this is not so in this species at least. The " axis," if such it may 
be called, is formed by the bases of the cells, both in transverse and in 
longitudinal sections.' After giving the views of Mr. John Young of 
Glasgow, and also recording my own observations on the specimens in 
the School of Mines, and the observations of Prof. Nicholson, I pass on 
to say : ' This being a matter of extreme importance, I shall return to its 
discussion at some future time when other investigations which I am 
making are completed.' ^ I cannot say whether or not Mr. Ulrich has 
seen the above remarks. If he has not, I must then take his testimony as 
independent, but in October 1882,2 when criticising remarks made by 
Prof. Nicholson (' Monticulipora,' p. 196, 1881), Mr. Ulrich says : ' If I 
understand him (Nicholson) correctly, he believes that the axis is con- 
stituted by a definite structure from which the two layers of cells may be 
stripped. This impression is manifestly erroneous, nor do I know of a 
single double-leaved Bryozoon in which such a structure may be demon- 
strated. In Ptilodictija the facts are simply that we have two layers of 
cells which are grown together back to back by the adhesion of the 
epithecal lamina3 of each layer.' So far the observations of Mr. Ulrich 
agree with my own, but because of this I am not prepared to accept the 
further view that Monoirypa pavonia, D'Orb. (' Monticulipora,' p. 195), is a 
Ptilodidya (' American Pal. Bryozoa,' pp. 163-4).^ It is very evident that 
our Silurian rocks are remarkably poor in species of Ptilodictya, and it 
gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the varied labours of Mr. Ulrich 
and Mr. J. M. Nickles in working out what they prefer to call 
' Bryozoa.' 

VII. The endosarcal passages. If we are to accept the views of the 
leading writers on the development of Polyzoa, then some little attention 
should be given to what I venture to call ' endosarcal passages ' in the 
zoarium of fossil species. Whenever we examine with a high power the 
supposed contiguity of the cells, we generally find between the ' epitheca ' 
of cell and cell very delicate hollow spaces. In longitudinal sections of 
Ptilodictya the hollow spaces intervene all along the so-called ' laminar 
axis,' and the alternate cells at their bases appear to open into this tube- 
like hollow. In Fenestella, and also in various species of ' Pinnatopora,' 
I have detected similar hollows. In the Oraptolites the ' cellules ' of 
certain species open into what is called the ' canal,' a space intervening 
between the ' solid axis ' and the cellules, through which the ' organic 
pulp passed into the cells.' 1 have not the least doubt but that through 
these passages in the ancient zoaria of the Polyzoa the endosarc passed 
from cell to cell. It is not in every section that I have made that I have 
been able to detect the passages ; still they are found in some, and I have 

' Eead Dec. 1881. Pub. Quar.Jour. Geo. Soc. Feb. 1882. 
- American Palceozoic Srijozoa, p. 164. 

^ I have a specimen of Mmwtrypa 2}«'V07iia, D'Orb., from the Cincinnati beds, 
before me while I write. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 203 

no doubt bnt that other workers will find them if the sections are care- 
fully prepared. At the bases of some cells I have also detected circular 
openings, and as this would be the probable position of the funiculus of 
the polypide, this seems to me to be additional proof of the view I take. 
I have never been able to detect in any fossil specimens ordinary 
' rosettenplaten ' (communication pores, Hincks) other than the above, and 
I am unable to furnish better details than the one already given ; neither 
have I been able to detect in any of my numerous sections ' connecting 
foramina ' similar to, or in any way analogous with, the structure of the 
cell wall in PtilocUctya maculata, Ulrich, figured in the ' Am. Palseozoio 
Bryozoa,' pi. VI. fig. 17. 

VIII. The tabulaj. I have already said that I have not been able to 
detect ' tabulas ' in any well-accredited species of Fossil Polyzoa. In 
Ptilodicttja figured by me now, I have allowed a structure to appear which 
may be mistaken for tabute, but I think this would be an erroneous 
interpretation. I refer to the subject because Professor Nicholson 
describes tabulae in Heterodictya, and Mr. Ulrich refers to ' diaphragms ' 
in some of the ' robust cells ' of species of the genus. I have no desire to 
enter into controversy with other authors, but I hope that Professor 
Nicholson and also Mr. Ulrich will pardon me for making the following 
remarks on theii' labours. In ' The Genus Monticulipora,'' p. 89, Professor 
Nicholson furnishes particulars of Heterodictya gigantea, Nich., and he 
gives figures of minute structures of the type. In the sections tabulte 
are figured, and the walls are of a very peculiar character. This species, 
and in fact many of the American Ftilodidya, difier from the type already 
described. 

Mr. Ulrich (op. cit. p. 162) accepts the genus Ftilodidya, Lonsdale, in 
which he includes Heterodidya, Nicholson (' Geo. Mag.' 1875), but the 
characters which he gives as a diagnosis are not those of Lonsdale. I am 
obliged therefore to fall back very reluctantly upon my own labours,, 
which have now been carried on for a series of years ; and accepting 
Ftilodidya Lonsdalei as the type, I found the following family for the 
inclusion of a certain number of Pateozoic Polyzoa. 

Family Aecanopoeid^, Mihi. 

Zoarium multiform. Zocecia tubular, or semitubular, orifice of cell 
obscured by vestibule ; true orifice of cell unknown. 

Genus Ftilodidya, Lonsd. Type F. Lonsdalei, Vine. 

„ Arcano2yora, Vine. „ Flustra ? parallela, Phill. 

„ Glauconome, Goldf. „ O. disticha, Goldf. 

Ptilodictta, Lonsdale. 

Diagnosis of the genus already given. 

At present a revision of Ftilodidya seems to be impossible, but I may 
just indicate that the foundiDg of two family names by Mr. Ulrich,. 
Ftilodidyonidce and Stidoporidce, appears to be warranted by the peculiar • 
character of the cell orifice, as well as by the cell arrangement. The 
only American species that comes nearest to P. Lonsdalei, Vine, is some • 
specimens of Bhinodidya granulosa, James, supplied to me by Mr. J. M.. 
Nickles. These, however, differ from the species E. granulosa, James^. 



-204 EEroRT— 1883. 

embedded in Limestone, -which Mr. Nickles has also sent me. This 
appears to be tbe species which Mr. Ulrich renames R. NicJiolsoni, Ulrich. 
Under present circumstances I can only catalogue the following British 
■species : — 

Wenlock Shales Ptilodldija Lonsdalei, Vine. 
,, Limestone ,, Icmceolata, Lonsdale. 

Mr. J. M. Nickles has also pointed out to me that the species which I 
have calledP.wi/erporosff, Vine (Wenlock Polyzoa, 'Quart. J. G. Soc' p. 67), 
is not a Ptilodicfya at all, but that it closely resembles Stictoporella 
flexuosa, James. It certainly very closely resembles the delicate species 
of James, but it differs considerably from Mr. Ulrich's S. interstruda. I 
shall therefore adopt the generic, and retain my own specific name. 

Wenlock Shales. Stictoporella interporosa, Vine (:=Ptilodictya 

[interporosa). 

?j )) )? sp. 

There still remains P. scalpellum (Eschara), Lonsdale, which for the 
present must remain in abeyance. This also is not a Ptilodidija. 

Arcanopora, Vine. 

= Srdcoretopora, D'Orb. (pars) of authors. 
Type Fliostra? paralleJa, Phill. ' Geo. of Yorkshire.' 

Zoarium ? . Zocecia arranged in parallel lines on opposite sides 

•of tbe zoarium. 

Sulcoretepora was founded by D'Orbigny in 1847, and since then a 
variety of species of very different characters have been included in the 
genus. Professor Morris, in his ' Catalogue of Brit. Fossils,' places the 
genus in his family Reteporidce, a Gheilostomalous type, and it is un- 
certain how authors regard the character of the species placed in it. 
In the ' Catalogue,' Professor Morris includes the Flustra parallela of 
Phill., and the Vincidaria raricosta, M'Coy. As the definition given by 
D'Orbigny is evidently inapplicable to these species — ' Cells in series in 
furrows on one side cf simple depressed branches ' — the name ought to 
be dropped. At present I can only direct attention to the species already 
named, to which the Messrs. Young have added another — Sulcordepora 
Moherisoni, Y. and Y. I have not yet completed my investigations, but I 
have sufficient evidence to induce me to include the first two species in 
the present group. 

Glauconome, Goldfnss, restricted. 

' Stem stony, thiu, elongated oval, branched, cells disposed longi- 
tudinally, and alternately in rows over one half the surface, the other half 
striated longitudinally. Nature of the covering and opening of the cells 
unknown. Silurian System, pi. XV. fig. 12, and c (p. 675). 

The above is Lonsdale's description of this restricted genus, and as 
the type of Goldfuss and Lonsdale is the same species — 0. disticlia, 
Goldf. — it seems to me desirable that both the genus and species shonld 
be limited to the type, unless the earlier Bala species can be included in 
the same genus. It is very evident that the structural characters of the 
Carboniferous species that have heretofore been included in the genus are 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 205 

different, for Lonsdale says that G. disticha has ' four rows of long quad- 
rangular cells on one side ' of the zoarium. 

Wenlock Shales. Glauconome disticlia} Lonsdale's sp. 
„ Limestone. ,, ,, 

Family Rhabdomesontid^. 

Zoarium rod-like, branching. Zocecia opening on all sides of the- 
branch, tnbnlar, attached by their proximal extremities to a central rod. 
Orifice of cells obscured by vestibule ; wall of vestibule externally orna- 
mented by spines or not. 

RH.\BDOMESO^% Young & Young. 
(See ' Bibliography ' for references.) 

Although the Messrs. Young have written two papers on Blmhdome- 
son species, they have not, so far as I am aware, given other than brief 
descriptions of the genus. In their first paper (' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' 
May, 1S7-4), after reviewing the history of Ceriopora, they saj'- : ' The 
essential character of the fossil we are about to describe (Millepora gracilis, 
Phill.) separates it from all known Carboniferous forms ; we would 
suggest EJiahdomeson as the generic name, the axis being central, not 
lateral as in AUman's liliahdopleura. (See Hinck's ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' 
p. 577.) 

In describing one of these figures the authors speak of the ' vestibules ' 
of the cells being filled with matrix. I have satisfied myself by sections 
that these vestibules really exist in species, and I give below the two 
at present known to exist. 

Devonian and Carb., Uhdbdomeson gracile, 'Phill. = Millepora, Phill. 

„ :=Geriopora, Morris. 

Carboniferous, „ r1io'nibiferum^=Ceriopora, Phill. 



Part III. 

PSEUDO-POLYZOAN POEMS. 

^Bryozoans of American and other Authors (pars). 

I think it would be unwise to allow this Report to pass out of m j 
hands without directing the attention of the pateontologist to what I 
have ventured to call Pseudo-Polyzoan Forms, some of which are very 
common in the Wenlock Series of Rocks, but the types are described 
from the Cincinnati Rocks of America. 

Family Aetheonemid^:, Ulrich. 

' Zoarium dendroid, composed of numerous small sub-cylindrical seg- 
ments, carrying cells on one or both sides.' — ' Amer. Palaeoz. Bryozoa*^ 
{op. cit.), p. 151. 

' The so-called Glanconome disticha, of the Bala Beds, which has been described 
and figured by 5Ir. Kobert Etheridge, jun., as a variety of Toula's Itamipora, is being 
investigated by Mr. G. W. Shrubsole, F.G.S. 



206 REPORT— 1883. 

In this family, Mr. Ulrich places two genera, one of which he calls 
Artlironema, Ulrich, which from the figures and description appears to be 
a true Polyzoon. The other genus is Arfhroclema, Billings. In this 
genus the segments are cylindrical, with cell apertures opening on all 
sides. There are species in the "Wenlock Shales closely related to, if not 
identical with, the American forms, but I have no evidence of the further 
character given by ]\Ir. Ulrich : ' Zoarium composed of numerous seg- 
ments .... pointed more or less obtusely at both ends.' 

There is another species of a genus — Auxano'pora, Nickles MS. — 
closely related to Wenlock Shale species ; but as Mr. J. M. Nickles has 
not yet published details of the type, I am not at liberty to refer to it 
more pointedly at present. The type of the genus is Chiefetes minuta, 
James, No. 266 of Mr. Ulrich's Catalogue. (' Cat. of Foss. occurring 
in the Cincinnati Group of Indiana and Kentucky,' B. 0. Ulrich, 1880.) 

There are still several other fossils that would form a group here by 
themselves, for the whole of the Ceriopora of the Silurian Rocks may be 
conveniently reworked. 

Family Ceeamopoeid^, Ulrich. 

This is another of the families of Mr. Ulrich in which some of our 
Silurian and Carboniferous forms may ultimately be placed. They are 
not, however, in the strict sense of the term, Polyzoa. 

Genus Ceramojpora, Hall. Genus Crepiiiora, Ulrich. 

,, Ceramoporella, Ulrich. „ Eridopora „ 

„ GheiloporeUa „ 



Part IV. 
Bibliography. 

Bibliography of Paleozoic a,nd Mesozoic Polyzoa published in Great 
Britain, in vaiuous periodicals, since the publication of Professor Morris's 
' Catalogue of British Fossils,' 1854. 

B. W. Claypole, B.A., F.G.S. 

1883. On JlcUcopora latispiralis. A new Spiral Fenestellid from the Upp. Sil. 
Beds of Oliio, ' Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' May 1883. 

Prof. P. M. DuxcAN and Mr. H. M. Jenkins. 

186D. On PiiliTocoripie, from the Carb. Formation, ' Phil. Trans.' clix. p. 693. 

1873. On the Genus PalcBocoryne and its Affinities, ' Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' xxix. 

p. 412. 

1874. Eemarks on JMessrs. Young's paper on Palccocoryne, Quart. Jom-. Geo. Soc' 

XXX. p. 684. 

EOBEKT Etheeidge, F.E.S. 

1881. Anniversary Address. Analysis and Distribution of Brit. Palseozoic Fossils 

(Polyzoa), ' Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' Feb. 1881. 

1882. Second Presidential Address. Analysis and Distribution of Brit. Jurassic 

Fossils (Polyzoa), ' Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' May 1882. 

Egbert Etheeidge, jun., F.G.S. 

1873. Explanation of Sheet 23 Geo. Survey, Scotland. In the descriptive Palaeon- 
tology of this sheet Mr. Eobert Etheridge, jun., gives descriptions of 
New Carboniferous Polyzoa, CcLrinella celluUfera, FeticdellM hicellvlata, 
F. ttibercnlo-cm-inata, Pohj.i)ora {Tliamniscus) sp., Synocladia bwmalia. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 207 

Swallow, var. carbona/ria, Eth. jun., and Tlncttla7%a ? {lUiabdome- 
son ? sp.) 

1873. On Si/nucladia carljonaria '(leiexied to above), 'Ann. Mag. Nat. History,' 

1873. 
,, Description of Carinella, ' Geo. Mag.' Dec. 1, x. p. 443. 

1875. Observations on some Garb. Polyzoa, ' Proc. Geo. Assoc' vol. iv. No. 2, 

pp. 110-122 (plate) : On Sijnocladia, Polypora, and Thaviniscns ; Si/no- 
cladia Mserialis, var. carhonaria. 
„ Note on New Provisional Genus of Carb. Polyzoa, 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' 
ser. iv. vol. sv. pp. 43-45 (plate) : Hijijliasmapora, new genus ; H, Bnsldi, 
new species. 

1876. Carboniferous (and Post-Tertiary) Polyzoa, 'Geo. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. iii. 

pp. 522, 523. Proposes the name Gomocladia ( = Carinella, Eth. jun.) 

1877. Notes on Carb. Polyzoa, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. 4, vol. xx. pp. 30-37 

(plate). Describes Fcnestella scotica (new var. = F. tuhermdo-carinata, 
Eth. Jan. G.R.V.), and Glanconome clcfiantvla, Eth. jun. (= <r. laxa, 
Y. & Y. G.R.V.) Criticises Glanconome and TJiamniscus Ranldni, Y. & Y. 
Observations upon the genus Rlwmhopora. 

1878. Arctic Palajozoic Polyzoa, 'Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' 1878, June 1. 

1879. Remarks on the Genus Ramipora, Toula, and description of R. Hochstetteri, 

var. carinaia, Eth. jun. ' Geo. Mag.' 1879, p. 241. 

F. D. LoNGE, F.G.S. 

1881. On the relation of the Escharoid Forms of Oolitic Polyzoa, ' Geo. Mag.' 
Jan. 1881. 

In the following papers by Professor Nicliolson the author treats of 
American Pateozoic Polyzoa chiefly ; but as the papers have been pub- 
lished in this country as well as in America, their study should not be 
neglected. Those on the Devonians of America are especially valuable 
to the pala3ontologist. 

Professor H. Alleyne Nicholson, F.G.S. &:c. 

1874. New Devonian Fossils of Canada West, 'Geo. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. i. 

The description runs through several numbers, and the Polyzoa belong 
to the genera Tceniopora, Ptilodictija, ClatJiwpora, JBofryllopora, Gerio- 
pom ? , Pohjpora, Fhijllopora (Retepora of paper), and Fenestella. 

1875. Descriptions of New Species and a New Genus of Polyzoa from the Palaeo- 

zoic Rocks of North America, 'Geo. Mag.' Jan. 1875. Describes Ifetero. 

dictya, Ptilodiotya, Fenestella, Ccramo2iora, Phijllujwra Trentonens 

(Rctcpora of paper). 
1874. Descriptions of two New Genera and Species of Polyzoa from the Devonian 

Rocks of Western Ontario, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Feb. 1874. Describes 

Cryptopora and Carinopora. 
J875. Description of Species of HippotlLoa 1 and Aleeto from the Lower Sil. Rocks 

of Ohio, with description of Aulopora arachnoidea, Hall, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist.' Feb. 1875. Describes Aleeto (^IIij}potlwa of paper) inflata, aido- 

poroides, frondosa, and confusa. 
„ Description of New Si^ecies of Polyzoa from the Lower and Upper Sil. 

Rocks of North America, 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' March 1875. Describes' 

Ptilodietya, Fenestella, and Ceramopora. 
1877. On Ascodictyon, a New Provisional and Anomalous Genus of Palaeozoic 

Fossils (Nicholson and Etheridge, jun.), 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' June 1877. 

G. W. Sheubsole, F.G.S. 

1879. A Review of British Carboniferous Fenestellid^e, 'Quart. Jour Geo 

Soc' May 1879. 

1880. Review and Description of British Upper Silurian Fenestellid^, op. 

cit. May 1880. Describes three new species of Fenestella — F. reteporata, 
F. lineata, and F. intermedia, and accepts F. rigidula. 



208 REPORT— 1883. 

1881. Further Notes on Carboniferous Fenestellid^, oj). cit. May 1881. 

Eedefines the genus Fenestella, Lonsdale, and describes a new species, 
F. Halliinensis. 

1882. On the Occurrence of a New Species of PltyllojJura (P. multijiora) in the 
Permian Limestone, ojj. cit. Aug. 1882. 

„ ThamniscuS: Permian, Carboniferous, and Silurian, oj>. cit. Aug. 1882. 
Describes and figures P. erassus = Horncra crassa, Lonsdale. 

Professor Tate, F.G.S. 
1875. Description of Sjpiropwa, &c., ' Geo. Mag.' 1875. 

G. Pt. Vine. 

1877. Chapters on Carboniferous Polyzoa, 'Science Gossip,' 1877, pp. 108-110, 

152-156, 220-222, 271-274. 

1878. The Genus Fenestella : its History, Development, and Eange in Space and 

Time, ' Science Gossip,' 1878, pp. 217-250, 271-276. 

1879. Physiological Characters of Fenestella, oj). cit. pp. 50-54. 

„ On Pala'ocoryne, Duncan and Jenkins, &c., oj). cit. jsp. 225-229, 247-249. 
„ Polyzoa of the Carb. Epoch, Paper read before the Lit. and Philosophical 
Soc. Shef., Report of Soc. pub. 1880. 

1880. A Review of the Family Diastopoeid^, Busk, 1st paper, ' Quart. Journ. 

Geo. Soc' Aug. 1880. 
„ 1st Picport on Carb. Polyzoa, 'Brit. Association Reports,' Swansea, 1880. 

1881. Further Notes on the Family Diastopoeid^, Busk, 'Quart. Jour. Geo. 

Soc' Aug. 1881. Describes four new species of Oolitic Diastopora . 
„ Silurian Uniserial Stomatojiora and Afcodictija, ' Quart. Journ. Geo. Soc' 

Nov. 1881. Describes as new .S'. dissimilis and Ascodictya, sp. /,■ •■ / i 
„ 2nd Report. Silurian Polyzoa, ' Brit. Association Reports,' York, 1881. / 

1882. Notes on the Polyzoa of the Wenlock Shales, ^-c, ' Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' 

Feb. 1882. Describes several new species of Polyzoa. 

„ Notes on the Carb. Polyzoa of North Yorkshire, ' Trans. Geolog. and Poly- 
technic Soc. of the West Riding of Yorkshire,' March, 1S82. 

„ The DiASTOPOEiDvE, or the Natural History of a Family Type, ' Science 
Gossip,' April, July, and Nov. 

„ 3rd Report. Jurassic Polyzoa, Brit. Area only, ' Brit. Association Reports,' 
pub. Dec. 1882. 

1883. Notes on the Polyzoa of Derbyshire and Yorkshire, ' Trans, of the Geo-- 

logical and Polytech. Soc. of the West Riding of Yorkshire.' 
„ Fourth Brit. Assoc. Report on Fossil Polyzoa. Cretaceous Polyzoa and New 
Classiti cation. 

A. W. Waters, F.G.S. 

1878. Remarks on some Feiiestellida-, 'Transactions of Manchester Geo. Soc' 1878. 

Professor JoHK Young and Mr. John Young (Hunterian Mus. Glasgow). 

1874. New Carb. Polyzoa, 'Quart. Jour. Geo. Soc' vol. xxx. pp. 681-683 (2 plates). 
„ Actinostoma (n. gen.), A.fenestratum n. ,sp., Glavcoiwme stelU])ora. 

„ On Palaocoryti^ and other "Pdlyzdal Appendages, Hid. pp. 684-687 (plates). 
„ On a New Genus of Carb. Polyzoa, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. 4, vol. xiii. 

pp. 335-339 (plate). Bhahdomeson, Y. & Y. It. gracile (= Millejjora 

gracilis, Phill.). 
„ Note on the Occinrrence of Pohjpora tulerculata, Prout, in Scotland, ' Geo. 

Mag.' Dec 2, vol. i. pp. 258-9. 

1 875. On New Carb. Polyzoa, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. iv. vol. xr^-. pp. 333-336 

(plates). RliaMomesan = Ceriojiora rhomhifera, Phill. Also remarks on 
C. similis, Phill., and C. interjiorosa, Phill., and describes Thamniscus ?' 
Ranldni, Y. & Y. 

1876. New Species of Glauconome from Carb. Limest. Strata of West of Scot., 

' Proc Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow,' vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 325-335 (plates), fflau- 
conome inarginalis, G. elegam, G. asjjera, G. flexicai-inata, G. retroficxay 
and G, laxa. Subgenera proposed Biploiwra and Acantliapora. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 209 

1877. Notes on a New Method of fixing Fronds of Caib. Polyzoa on a layer of 

Asphalt, &c., 'Proc. Nat. Hist. 8oc. Glasgow,' vol. iii. pL H. pp. 207-210, 
and ' Science Gossip,' vol. xiii. No. 151, pp. 158-159 (Mr. John Ycung). 
„ A New Species of Sulcoretejwra (Carboniferous), 'Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Glasgow,' vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 166-168 (plate). Describes <S. Rohertsonii, 
T. &;"y. 

1878. On two New Species of Carb. Polyzoa, ' Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow,' vol. 

iv. pp. 354-356 (plate). Glauconome robnsta, Y. & Y. Synocladia ? gcotica, 
Y. & Y. 

1879. Notes on the Perfect Condition of the Cell-pores and other Points of 

Structure in certain Species of Carb. Polyzoa (Mr. J. Young), ' Trans. 
Geo. Soc. Glasgow,' Oct. 1879. 

1880. Notes on Carb. Species of Glaucoiwme (Mr. John Young, F.G.S.), ' Proceed.. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow.' 

1881. Remarks on the Genus Sijnodadia, and other allied forms, with description 

of new Species, Si/nocladia ? fcnestrellif minis, ' Proceed. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Glasgow,' Jan. 1881. 

1882. On the Identity of Ceramopora {Berenicea) Megast»ma, M'Coy, with 

FistitHjHira minor, M'Coy, ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Dec. 1882.' 

This report completes my labours for the present on British Fossil 
Polyzoa. The reports are not all that I could have wished, and in the 
earliest — the Carboniferous Report — there are many defects in the style, 
composition, and descriptive text that I, at present, lament, but the 
■whole wei'e unavoidable at the time. In the compilation of the various 
reports I have received from specialists much kindly help and attentive 
consideration — for all of which I return them my sincere thanks. To 
Professor P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S., and also to Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., 
names associated with mine as the Committee for the compilation of 
these reports, my thanks are also due for the extremely kindly manner 
in which they have given advice, and help by way of suggestion, when- 
ever solicited for the same. The General Committee of the British 
Association must also be remembered by me on account of their kindly 
consideration of ray humble efforts, and for their pecuniary help. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. 
Williamson and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed for the purpose 
of Investigating the Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland. 
Brawn tip by William Hellier Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S., 31. R.I. A. 
{Secretary). 

[Plate I.] 

The Secretarj- regrets the unavoidable delay which has occurred in sup- 
plying this report, which should have been presented at the last year's 
meeting of the Association. He has lately had an opportunity of" 
pursuing his researches on the Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland, 
and has been enabled to obtain some additional information as to tbe rela- 
tion of these deposits with that of other portions of the British Islands. 

Most important amongst these fossil plants is a second example of a 
fossil fern, which he believes to be identical with Lastrea Stiriaca (linger). 

' I shall be sorry if such is the case, but I may have overlooked some papers on 
Palaeozoic and Mcsozoic Polyzoa. If so, I hope authors wiU communicate with me. 
1883. p 



210 REPORT— 1883. 

This specimen, wliicli is figured on the plate accompanying this report, 
is in the collection of the Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., Rector of Brough- 
shane, who has aided considerably in these investigations. It is a 
portion of a pinnule, with about eight alternating leaflets on each side, 
on which the midrib and nerves are strongly marked, and not forked, 
except at their apex. 

With reference to this fern. Dr. Oswald Heer, in his description of 
the fossil flora of Bovey Tracey, Devonshire,' in alluding to the 
' Miocene ' formation of Bovey, says : ' Of fifty species of plants found 
in the lignite beds of Bovey twenty-one occur also on the Continent in 
the Miocene formation. The lignite of Bovey Tracey is, therefore, un- 
doubtedly Miocene ; and it is worthy of special remark that the species of 
Cinnamonium which are so characteristic of the Miocene, and so gene- 
rally distributed through it, make their appearance in Bovey precisely 
as in the lignites and molasse of the rest of Europe ; equally characteristic 
is the Lastrea Stiriaca, the fern of most universal distribution over 
Miocene Europe.' 

The importance of the discovery of this fern in the ironstone deposits 
of the North of Ireland cannot therefore be overrated after this expres- 
sion of oi^inion as to its value in determining the age of the strata in 
which it is found, on the authority of so eminent a fossil botanist as that 
of Professor Heer. 

Mr. J. Starkie Gardner, F.G.S., who has been for some time studying 
the Conifers, and lately visited this country for the purpose of examining 
these collections, has very kindly furnished me with a few notes on them. 
He thinks (as far as his observations lead him at present) there is but one 
or two species of jjine ; ' cones of Thuya (Cupressinse) abound ; cones of 
Sequoia are rarer ; Goniferce outnumber leafy trees by at least twenty and 
possibly one hundred fragments to one ; Magnolia fruits are as about one 
to five against pine cones.' He also states that ' he has seen (in these 
collections) several specimens of Nelumbium (a water-lily) ; ' all these 
names, as he obaerves, must at present be taken as provisional, except 
Pinus. ' There are two other conifers, both specimens unique, and both 
Greenland forms.' 

The Rev. Dr. Grainger was also fortunate enough to obtain a portion 
of a fossil fish, which was found in a drift boulder of red or ochrey 
marl (resembling that of some of the deposits at Ballypalady), at Culley- 
backey, near Ballymena. It consisted of twelve or more vertebra3, with 
their processes, above which are bones of the dorsal fin, and may have be- 
longed to a fresh-water fish of the Percid^, such as the genus Lates. 
This fossil is of considerable interest, as no remains of Vertebrata have, 
so far as we are aware, hitherto been found in British strata of this age. 

Explanation of Plate I, 

Fig. 1. a. Lastrea Stiriaca (Unger) pinnule, nat. size. 
„ 1. 5. ,, „ ,, portion enlarged 2 diameters. 

„ 2. a, h. Nyssa ornitliobroma (Heer) in ironstone, shore of Lough Neagh. a, Nat. 

size. 1). Enlarged li diameters. 
,, 3. ? Carpolithus sulcatulus (Heer) (same loc). 

„ 4. a, h. „ follicularis (Heer). a. Nat. size. h. Enlarged (same loc). 

„ 5. 1 Quercus Lyelli (Heer). Drift clay, shore of Lough Neagh. 
,, 6. ? Salix varians (Heer). ,, „ 

„ 7. Fish. ? Lates or Perca. 

' PhilusojjJiical Traiuactions, 1862, p. 1039 et seq. 



.53 ""•^ Report Brit .Assoc ims 



Plate 1 




WiLBaify- del. . SpUuwoodeACMhlorJon. 

basalt o/'tAeiVortk o/lreland. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 2ll 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. Etheridge, Mr. 
Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne {Secretary), appointed 
for the jncrpose of investigating the Earthquake Phenomena 
of Japan. 

•Owing to my absence from Japan, on a visit to Europe, during six 
months of the past year, and a complication of circumstances involving 
the removal of my seismological laboratory, over which I had no control, 
the work accomplished in actual observation has been small. 

While passing through America, and subsequently when in Italy, I 
■saw and learnt mnch respecting observations which may with advantage 
be amplified and repeated in Japan. 

When in England, I entered, in conjunction with Mr. Thomas Gray, 
into arrangements with Mr. James Wliite, of Glasgow, for the construction 
of a seismometer. This instrument, which gives a complete diagram of 
all the sensible vibrations of an earthquake in conjunction with the time 
of occurrence of these vibrations, was exhibited before the Geological 
Society of London, and is described in their ' Proceedings.' ' 

The instrument is now in Japan. By request it has been exhibited to 
His Imperial Majesty, the Mikado of that country, and very shortly it will 
be erected, in all probability, at the Meteorological Observatory in Tokio. 

One class of phenomena which I have been engaged in observing 
since my return to Japan, is earth-tremors. These microseismic move- 
ments of the soil I observed some years ago, with an instrument similar 
in principle to the apparatus used by Messrs. Geoi'ge and Horace 
Darwin, at the Cavendish Laboratory, when engaged in the attempt to 
measure the lunar disturbance of gravity. - 

The apparatus that I have employed during the last five months is 
similar to the Tromometer of Bertelli and Rossi. It consists of a weight 
suspended by a very fine wire, the whole being enclosed in a tube, for 
protection against currents of air. Projecting downwards from the 
weight there is a stile, which is observed with a microscope containing a 
micrometer scale. The whole, which is supported on an iron stand, rests 
on the head of a stone column. The column is about ten years old. It 
is inside a brick building, from the walls and floors of which it is com- 
pletely detached. 

Hitherto I have not had the time which is necessary to analyse the 
mass of observations which have already been accumulated, but the 
following points are very clear. 

1. It is but seldom, if ever, that the pendulum is completely at rest. 

2. A vertical motion is occasionally observed in the pendulum, the 
stile of which oscillates up and down with a rapid tremulous movement. 

3. At times the horizontal swing of the pendulum is very irregular, 
the oscillations being performed in short jerky swings which vary in 
amplitude. 

4. With sudden changes in the barometer, the motions of the pendulum 
are relatively very great. 

5. The pendulum does not always oscillate or hang over the same 
point. There is a change in the vertical. 

These results are similar to results obtained by Bertelli, Rossi, and 
other observers in Italy. 

' Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc. vol. xsxix. 8. 

= .See Rejjort, 1881, p. 93 ; 1882, p. 95. 
p2 



21 2 ; REPORT— 1883. 

The cause of these movements is unknowD. Rossi makes the suffffes- 
tlon that they may be due to a variation in volcanic activity beneath the 
surface of the ground, whicli increases with a barometrical depression. 
They may, however, be attributed to a complexity of causes acting on 
the surface of our earth. At the time of a high wind the movements of 
houses and trees may set the surface of a considerable area into a state of 
tremor. When they are observed without a wind they may occasionally 
be due to an irregularity in the increase or decrease in atmospheric 
pressure. In a typhoon I have observed the needle of a.n ordinary aneroid 
to move backward and forward through a range of from -jJ^ to ly^ of 
an inch. This motion was irregular, having a period of from one to ten 
seconds. Small but rajjidly succeeding variations in atmospheric pres- 
sure, even very much smaller than those just quoted, indicate that the 
surface of the ground is being subjected to and relieved from stresses, in 
every probability, comjietent to produce the oscillations observed in the 
pendulum. 

A second set of observations has been recording the motions of the 
bubbles of two delicate levels placed beneath glass covers on the same 
column with the tromometer. One of these is placed N. and S. and the 
other E. and W. The variation in temperature in the room seldom ex- 
ceeds 1° or 2° F. per day. These levels have shown continual movements. 
At present the N. and S. level has a diurnal backward and forward 
motion of about three divisions. One division equals about 2" of arc. 
As an example of the larger movements which have been recoi'ded, I may 
state that the bubble of the X. and S. level moved, from March 25 to 
May 4, through twenty-nine divisions. The direction of the deflection of 
the tromometer pendulum has a general correspondence witli these larger 
movements. A curious phenomenon which has been observed in the 
levels is that accompanying a barometrical depression — there is a slight 
surging in the bubbles. The surge, which has an amplitude of from '25 
to "5 of a division is irregular, having a period of from 1 to 5 or 6 seconds. 

This motion, inasmuch as it is different from the effects produced by 
alterations in temperature, and as it accords with the microseismic move- 
ments of the tromometer, I am inclined to attribute to a true earth- 
pulsation. 

Another phenomenon indicative of the existence of earth-pulsations 
— by which I mean motions which may have an amplitude equal to that of 
an earthquake, but which are not perceived on account of the slowness 
of their period — is the slow surge-like motion in a level, which continne.s 
for fully three or four minutes after all sensible motion of an earthquake 
has disappeared. This surging, as it dies out, closely accoi'ds with the 
surge observed at the time of a barometrical depression. 

This last observation is suppiementaiy to observations made on an 
earthquake with a seismograph. The records from a seismograph show 
that a moderately strong disturbance sometimes commences as a series of 
tremors with a frequency of from 4 to 6 per second. These movements 
are so small in amplitude that, unless an observer is f^ivourably situated, 
they are passed by unnoticed. While they continue, however, I haA-e 
heard pheasants scream, and it has been noticed that frogs cease their 
croaking. Immediately after the tremors we get the shock of the earth- 
quake, some of the vibrations of which have occasionally been performed 
so rapidly that I liave failed to measure their duration. It is not unlikely 
that this portion of an earthquake may take place so suddenly that rocky 
strata in the immediate vicinity of the origin haxo not time for elastic 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



213 



yielding. The effect is that of a sudden push. The area thus affected 
my colleague, Professor T. Alexander, has called the core of the earth- 
quake. The existence of an earthquake-core is one means of explaining 
the enormously high velocities of propagation which I and other observers 
have from time to time recorded. After the pu^Ji, or shock come the re- 
sulting irregular tremors. These continually slow down in their period 
■until, when they reach a period of two or three seconds, the seismograph 
ceases to act. The slow irregular surging of a level appears to be a con- 
tinuation of the record of a seismograph. 




In these respects the vibratory motions of an earthquake are analogous 
to a spectrum of light — there being two extremities which with ordinary 
instruments are usually unobserved — at one end because the vibrations 
are too quick, and at the other end because they are too slow. The 
accompanying diagram of the earthquake of March 11, 1882, shows the 
portion of an earthquake registered by an ordinary seismograph. 

A set of experiments which I am now engaged upon in Japan has for 
its object the determination of some true measure of the inteusity of an 
artificial disturbance produced by the explosion of a charge of dynamite 
as it radiates from its origin. Rather than estimate the intensity of an 
impulse at a point, by vague terms or by an arbitrary scale of degrees, I 
have attempted to measure the intensity of a shock by the stresses it is 



214 



EEroET — 1883. 



capable of producing in bodies on the earth's surface. One estimate of 
these stresses is the acceleration a body receives. 

Y2 

Intensity thus defined may be written — , where V is the maximum 
velocity of a vibrating particle, and a is its amplitude, or half a semi- 
oscillation. This quantity, — , is the maximum acceleration of an earth- 

a 

particle, assuming the motion to be simple harmonic, 

I have calculated — for the prominent vibrations of a number of 

disturbances, each disturbance being recorded at several stations. 

The results of these calculations show that as a disturbance radiates the 
intensity dies out, rapidlj' at first, but eventually very slowly. The results 
give a carve which is a rough approximation to an equilateral hyperbola. 

Trom these observations it would appear that by obtaining the curve 
of intensity for any given disturbance we may, by comparing with the 
curves obtained by the explosion of known charges of dynamite, approxi- 
raately obtain some absolute measures of earthquake energy. 

The accompanying diagram gives the mean of the results obtained in 
a series of experiments in which the surface of the ground was put into 
vibration by the explosion of charges of dynamite put into bore-holes 
about ten feet deep. The ordinatos give intensity, and the abscissa 
distance from the orio-in in feet. 



l-^ 5 




is 




BII0«BaBMHBHniB] 
■■^•■■■■■■■■■■■■j 

■■■■■KUiVUBBBHBHMH 

BHBBBBKBBBBBBBBBHB 
■■■■■■igBBBBBBBBBB 

MBflBBflBfiBBBBBBBBB 

HflBBBBBBIfinBBBiBBBi 
■■■■■■■BBBIiSflBniNBBI 

■■BBBBBBBBBBiiSiailflBI 
^BBBBBBiia9BI 
■BBBBBBBBBl 



Origin 



IBEB 

■BB 



lOU' 



20j' 3UU' 

Scale in feet 



400' 



Curve of Earthquake Intersity. 

The shocks which are usually felt in Tokio and Yokohama, as 
calculated from diagrams, have a maximum acceleration of from 20 to 
200 millimetres per second. When this exceeds 300 millimetres we may 
expect chimneys to be cracked, and slight damage of a like nature done 
to buildinofs. 

To complete this investigation I have the intention of comparing 
together the maximum velocity of an earth-particle, as computed from a 
diagram, with that calculated by the projection or overthrow of a body 
of known dimension — the impulse being given by the explosion of a 
charge of dynamite. 

An investigation which I described in my last report to the British 
Association was the determination of the existence of an earth-current at 
the time of an earthquake. I then stated that a strong current was 
produced in a land line connected with an earth plate which had been 
shaken. This confirmed the numerous records which we have of currents 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 215 

being prodnced at the time of earthquakes. Another set of records, which 
we are in possession of, indicate that many earthquakes have been 
preceded by earth-currents. 

If, as we have reason to believe, certain earthquakes are the result of 
a sudden breaking in the rocky crust of the earth, produced by bend-^ 
ing due, for example, to elevatory pressure, it would seem possible that, 
in consequence of the compressions and extensions to which the rocks are 
subjected prior to their collapse, electrical phenomena might be produced. 

To test the truth of this supposition Mr. T. Gray has undertaken a 
series of experiments which are not completed. Preliminary results of 
these experiments seem to indicate that a difference of potential is 
prodnced between the two sides of a slab of rock when it is bent. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Kupert Jones {Secretary), on the 
Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palmozoic Rochs. 

Of the collections known to contain many of the fossil Phyllopods, those 
in the British Museum and the Museum of Practical Geology, in London, 
that of the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, and of Owens College, 
Manchester, have been carefully examined ; and sketches have been made 
of the numerous specimens. Tracings of all the published figures have 
also been carefully made, to ensure ready collation of the many different 
forms. Information has been cheerfully communicated by Mr. Homfray, 
Mr. Valpy, Mr. Marr, and others, who have collected specimens at various 
times and places. 

Time has not yet allowed of our inspection of the Phyllopodous fossils 
at the Oxford University Museum, nor at the Ludlow, Glasgow, Edin- 
burgh, and other rich museums ; but from the type specimens preserved 
either in London or at Cambridge, we have been able to make the follow- 
ing observations on Hymenocaris, Caryocaris, and Lingulocaris, three of 
the oldest genera ; and the accompanying synopsis indicates our present 
opinion of the relationship and range of all the genera with which we are 
acquainted, either by personal inspection or by study of the illustrations 
and descriptions given by our fellow-workers in North America and else- 
where. 

During our study of Hymenocaris we found that ' H. ? major,'' Salter,' 
comprised a Ceratiocaris possibly matching the Tremadoc specimens 
assigned to the genus by Mr. Salter ; and we have therefore put it under 
the more authentic of the two Tremadoc species noticed by him. 

The Australian Eymenocaris Salteri, M'Coy, having been assigned by 
Mr. Salter to Caryocaris, when he was studying that group in 1862, we 
have regarded it as a member of the latter genus. 

With Caryocaris Marrii, Hicks, is a specimen associated under the 
same name in the Woodwardian Museum that proves to be an Entomidella ; 
as it differs somewhat from the known species of that genus, it is now 
named I]. Marrii. Of the other specimens named C. Marrii, some do 
not differ from C. Wrightii, Salter ; but one retains the specific name 
given by Dr. Hicks. 

Besides the Lingulocaris linguloecomes, Salter, some casts in the British 
Museum seem to warrant the adoption of a new name, L. siliquiformis, 
for a different but allied form. 



216 



EEPORT — 1883. 



Synopses of the Genera of the Fossil Phijllopods. 



Geolofcical 
Stage 



Genera 



Special character 



No. of 
exposed 
abdo- 
minal 
seg- 
ments 



I. Carapace Univalve. 

(I.) Flat Shield. 

1. Xeitlici' sutured nor Hdged along the hacli. 

(A.) Posterior border entire. (Entire behind.) 



Silur'an 



Eaibl beds 
(Trias, 
Hallstadt) 

Devonian . 
Devonian . 
Devonian . 
Devonian . 



Devonian 



iDuclnocaris, H.AV., 18C6 



Asjjidocaris, Reuss., 1807 

Spathncarh, Clarke, 1 882 
Phohidocnrls, H.W., 1882 
Ligf/ncaru, Clarice, 1882 
Un'ijisocaris, H. W., 1882 



Angular notch* 



Angular notcli* 

* Round shield. 
Angular notch t 
Sinuous notch t 
Oblong notch t 
Rounded notch t 
t These shields 
differ in shape. 



(B.) Posterior border slightly notched. 
Cardiocaris, H. W., 1882 . . 1 Front notch oblong 

(C.) Posterior border deeply notched. (Open behind.) 



I Silurian 



? Pterocaris, Barrande, 1872 



Lower Silu- 
rian and 
Devonian. Dijjterocaris, Clarke, 1883 , 



Both notches angular 
(test radiately 

marked) 



Both notches angular 



2. Ridged along tlie hack. (^Like Ajfus.) 



Carbonif. 
& De\on. 

Carboni- 
ferous 



Silurian 

Lower Silu- 
rian . 

Lower Silu- 
rian . 

Silurian 



Biihyrocaris, Scouler, 184.3. 
{Argas, Scouler, 183.5). 

Rachura, Scuclder, 1878 



Ridged and some- 
times prickled 

(Telson only known) 



A. AptiicliP2)sis, Barr. (& H. W.), 

1872. 

B. Peltocuris, Salter, 1 863 . 

C. Puimcaris, R. E. Jr., 1878 . 

D. ? Crescentilla, Barr., 1872 



3. Sutured along the bach. 

Angular notch 



Rounded notch . 

Slight notch : striaj 
concentric far back. 

Notched before and 
behind 



4? 



1,4, 
or C . 



4? 



Xo. of 
caudal 
spines 

Styles 
and 
stylets 
of the 
telson 



3? 



4 ? 



ON THE FOSSIL PHlfLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS. 217 

Synopsis of the Genera of the Fossil Phyllopods — continued. 



Geological 
Stage 



Genera 



Special character 



No. of 
expostd 
abdo- 
minal 
seg- 
ments 



No. of 
caudal 
spines 

Styles 
and 
stvlets 
of the 
telson 



(II.) Folded Shield, bent along the back (like Nehalia), so as to form two 
side-flaps or attached valves. 



Lingula- 
flags 

Silurian 

Silurian 

Uppermost 
Devonian 
or Lowest 
Carboni- 
ferous 



1. Hymcnocaris, Salter, 18.53 

2. Bid ijocaris, Salter, 1860 

3. ? (' Ci/tIierojJsi.s testis,') Barr., 

1872. 



Smooth 
Reticulate 



(Not well known) 



Arenig and 1 
Lingula- [ 1 



4. ? Protacaris, Daily, 1872 

II. Carapace Bivalve ; Valvf..s Hinged. 
(I.) Pod-like. 



8 or 9 
6? 



flags j 

Tremadoc, ] 
Silurian, & 1 
Devonian | 
(America). 
Silurian 
Carboni- 
ferous , 



Caryocaris, Salter, 1862 . 

•2. Ceratiocaris, M'Coy, 1849 

3. Physocaris, Salter, 1860 . 

4. CoZ/^ocam, Meek, 1872 . 



Devonian . 5. Echinocaris, Whitfield, 1880 

Silurian , 6. Aristozoe, Barrande, 1868 

Silurian . 7. Orozoe, Barr., 1872 . 

Silurian . 8. Callizoe, Barr., 1868 



Pod-like, smooth 



Subovate, subobloug, 
&c. . . . 

Round 

Subovate, strongly 
eraarginate at one 
end (posterior) 

Leperditioid 

Leperditioid 
Leperditioid 
Leperditioid 



5,6, 

or 7 

5or6? 



4 

(spiny) 



(II.) CONCHIFEEOIDAL ; probably enclosing all the abdominal segments. 



Tremadoc 
Carboni- 
ferous 



1. Lingulocaris, Salter, 1866 

2. Solenocaris, Meek, 1872 . 
L. Silurian. 3. Solenocaris, Young, 1869 



Silurian or 
Devonian ?' 4. Myocaris, Salter, 1864 



Carboni- 
ferous 

Silurian ? 

Devonian 

Carboni- 
ferous 

Triassic 

Rhfetic 

Jurassic 

Neocomian 

Tertiary ? 

Recent 



5. Leaia, Jones, 1862 



!-6. Estheria, Ruppel, 1838 



Modioloidand faintly 
ridged. 

Long and concentric- 
ally marked. 

Oblong, and obliquely 
ridged and concen- 
trically marked. 

Quadrangular and 
strongly ridged 
obliquely. 

Quadrangular and 
strongly ribbed 

obliquely, and con- 
centricallj' marked, i 

Like a bivalved mol- 
lusc, and concen- 
trically marked. 



6 

3? 



3? 



218 KEPOET— 1883. 

Hymenocaeis, Salter, 1853. 

This palaeozoic Phyllopod was first noticed and named by Mr. J. Wk 
Salter in the Report of the British Association (Belfast Meeting) for 
1852, ' Trans. Sect.' pp. 57, 58. Its very common species H. vermicauda 
■was more fully described, -with figures, by Salter in the ' Memoirs of the 
Geol. Survey Great Britain,' &c., vol. iii., 1866, p. 293 ; t. 2, f. 1-4 ; 
t. 4, f. 25. It has been found in the Lower Lingula-flags of North Wales. 

The terms of generic description are — 

* Carapace ample, semi-oval, narrowed towards the front, curved 
downward at the sides, but not angularly bent along the dorsal line ; no 
external eyes ; antennae ? ; abdomen as long as, or longer than, the cara- 
pace ; of nine transverse segments, the last with three pairs of unequal 
lanceolate appendages.' 

Hymenocans vermicauda, Salter, 1853, has its carapace folded or bent 
along the back, so as to form two symmetrical valve-like sides, somewhat 
resembling saddle-flaps, obliquely rounded or semi-elliptical below, and 
with a very slightly convex dorsal line. The curvature of the ventral 
edge varies in fulness and in obliquity with individuals, and is nearly 
always modified by the pressure to which the schist containing the fossils 
has been subjected. The specimens are all flattened ; some are lengthened, 
and some shortened, according to their position relative to the direction 
of the squeeze ; and nearly all are crumpled or ' plaited ' ' with parallel 
foldings, coarse or fine, at right angles to the line of lateral pressure. 

Some of the best preserved individuals measure ^^ inch, others 1 
inch, and others (imperfect otherwise) even more, along the back line. 
Those with the first two measurements are y^f inch in height ; and their 
angular length (from antero-dorsal to postero-ventral points) is 1 j^^ inch. 
Many smaller individuals occur. 

The carapace was thin (hence the name = ' membranous ') . No 
definite structure has been observed ; but Salter noted ' short wavy lines * 
on the carapace and the abdominal segments (oj]. cit. p. 294), and a mar- 
ginal furrow along the posterior border of the valves (p. 293). 

Owing to the compressed condition of the schists,- it is difiicult to 
define the original outline of the ends of the carapace. The fig. 4 in pi. 2, 
' Mem. Geol. Surv.' iii., is a restoration, and its truncate anterior end is 
a very doubtful feature. The outline given of a specimen shown in fig. 3,, 
loc. cit., is not supported by the specimen itself. The front angle, though 
often modified or suppressed by the imperfect cleavage of the schist, is 
sometimes perfect enough to show that it was much sharper than in the 
fig. 4 referred to above, in which the truncation is probably due to 
fracture of the specimen taken as the type. The posterior margin usually 
appears to have sloped downwards and outwards, with a bold ventral 
curve, but without the elegant sinuous (ogee) bend, under the dorsal 
angle, which Ceratiocaris usually exhibits. 

The relative position of carapace and body-segments has been sub- 
jected to much interference, between the death and the imbedment of 
the specimens, from the decomposition of the soft parts or connecting 
tissues, and the shifting of the harder relics ; yet Mr. Salter's determina- 
tion of the more truncate or wider (higher) end of the carapace being the 

' Salter, QuaH. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. x., 1854, p. 209; and Mem. Geol. Sun: iii. 
1866, p. 247, luite. 

- Throughout this Report the author denotes by the term schist an imperfectly 
cleaved mudstone, not a foliated rock. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALAEOZOIC EOCKS. 219' 

hinder margin seems to be well founded, whether the abdomen be still in 
apposition or not. 

The crumpled bed-planes of the schists frequently exhibit crushed' 
body-joints of the Hymenocaris ; but these relics of the abdominal portion 
vary much in the number of attached segments. Sometimes four or five, 
but not uncommonly six or seven, body -joints occur, with or without the 
telson being apparent. Eight or nine together are less frequent. In one 
instance (in the Owens College Museum) eleven segments can be counted, 
besides an obscure telson, in an unattached body lying on a slab contain- 
ing numerous specimens of carapaces and body-rings of Hymenocaris 
(from Carrig-felen, collected and given by Mr. D. Homfray). In this 
case, some (five or six), which appear to have been narrower and softer 
than the others, may have been within the carapace, for they differ from 
the others in size and distinctness of outline. The crushing and squeeze 
have rendered even the best and most promising specimens so obscure 
that much doubt still exists in the observations on this Phyllopod. Mr. 
Salter determined nine exposed body-rings (op. cit. p. 293 ; but only eight 
shown in t. 2, f. 4), with one pair of styles and two pairs of stylets 
attached to the last joint (op. cit. t. 5, f. 2). The abdominal joints vary 
from about y'V to -^ inch in height, sometimes to -{'q, very rarely to 
y\j- and -^-Q, but in one case to ^ inch, according to size of individuals 
and the accidental crush. 

Hymenocaris vermicaucla occurs in the Lower Lingula-flags, espe- 
cially ' in the upper portions of the true Lingula-flags ' (Salter, oj}. 
cit. p. 293, and ' Catal. Pal. Foss. Cambridge Mus.' p. 10), near Tre- 
madoc, Ffestiniog, Trawsfynydd, and Dolgelly. The particular localities ^ 
are : the railway-cutting near Wem, not far from Penmorfa ; Pentre- 
felen, west of Penmorfa ; Careg-felen ; Bryntwr Summerhouse ; and 
especially the hill descending to Penmorfa Church ; Moel-y-gest, the hill 
behind Portmadoc ; Borth cove or harbour near Portmadoc ; also at 
Ffestiniog; Grwen-barent (Gwern-y-barcud, op. cit. p. 294), Moel-hafod- 
owen, and other places near Dolgelly ; and doubtfully at Pont Seiont, 
Caernarvon. A specimen in the British Museum is from the ' Upper 
Tremadoc ' schist (or hard shale) of Garth, near Portmadoc. 

The rippled flagstones of the Lingula series near Tremadoc, at the 
village of Y-Felin-Newydd, and near Pentrefelen and Wern, on the 
Criccieth road, are marked with tracks referred, with good reason, by 
Mr. Salter to Hymenocaris vermicaucla (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. x., 
1854, pp. 208-211 ; and 'Mem. Geol. Surv.' vol. iii. p. 218 and p. 294, 
pi. 1). 

The foregoing observations apjDly to H. vermicatida. Mr. Salter noticed 
another fossil from the Linguia-fiags, which he referred to the same genus 
in 1873, having, however, designated it Sacocaris in 1867 (afterwards 
spelt Saccocaris correctly). 

In the ' Catal. Pal. Foss. Cambr.' p. 7, Mr. Salter entered the species 
as ' Hymenocaris {Saccocaris, Halifax Trans. ^ 1867) major, Salter, n.s. 
A large ovate carapace, strongly emarginate behind, and larger than 
H. vermicauda (see p. 10). Body-segments broad and short, at least in 

' Mr. David Homfray, who collected the larger portion of the kno-wn specimens 
of this genus, has favoured us with a note of the localities. 

2 This is a mistake for RtpoH Proceed. Geolog. Pohjtech. Soc. W. Riding, TorksMre,. 
for 1867 (Leeds, 1868). The reference is vol. iv. n. 588, ' On Sacocaris : a new genus 
of Phyllopoda, from the Lingula-flags,' by J. W. Salter, A.L.S., F.G.S. 



1. 



220 EEPOKT— 1883. 

seven of tlie anterior ones ; appendages not known; /;. 297. Caen[Caer]- 
y-coed, near Maentwrog [Losver Lingula-flags]. Mr. D. Homfray. b. 
297, body-segments of the same. Same locality and donor.' The figure 
appended in the outside column is H. vermicatula, given as a generic type. 
In the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge are three specimens, 
A/160 (two), and A/174, from the uppermost part of the Lower Lingula- 
flags at Caer-y-coed quarry, and labelled as belonging to H. / major, 
Salter. 

One of them [ -— j is a large oblong valve measuring 4^-y by 2 inches, 

truncate (with slight convexity of outline) at one end, and obliquely rounded 
at the other ; the greatest convexity of the broad (posterior ?) end being 
a very little above the median line of the valve, and that of the narrower 
end considerably above that line. This appears to be a right valve, gently 
hollow, showing its inside ; it is a mere film on the black schist, and is 
delicately plaited and gently undulate throughout, in lines parallel to the 
long axis of the valve, cleavage-pressure having compressed and corrugated 
the surface from edge to edge; and at the posterior (?) end of the valve 
the margin is barely perceptible, being fringed off by its extremely plaited 
state, or (in other words) frittered away in longitudinal shreds parallel 
with the plaiting of the schist, showing, probably, that this end was of 
thinner consistence than the rounded end. This condition often occurs 
with the ends of phyllopodous specimens in the Lingula-flags. There are 
also some irregular concentric lines in the antero-ventral area, caused by 
the depression of the convexity of the valve. By lateral pressure the 
specimen must have lost something in height, and has had its length 
exaggerated. This specimen is evidently the one refeiu-ed to in the ' Rep. 
Proc. Geol. Polytech. Soc. W.T.' iv. p. 589, which was at first thought 
to be a ' hollow oblong scute, after the manner of A'ptis ; ' but the ' three 
distinct ridges on the hinder border ' are not at all visible. Though of 
extraordinary size, this may be regai'ded as a Hymenocaris, after Salter's 
determination, in the absence of evidence to the contrary. The occurrence 
of single valves is not uncommon, though the carapace does not appear to 
have been sutured. 

A 

2. The second specimen in the Woodwardian Museum, also marked - — ■ , 

is of smaller size (3yV X to inch), narrower, and more silicular in 

shape ; and it has a distinctly emarginate posterior end, though this 

feature can be recognised in the black schist only by reflected light at a 

certain angle. It is coarsely plaited lengthwise, narrowed (contracted in 

height), and much lengthened. The emarginate or sinuous end is different 

from that of Hgrnenocaris, and similar to that of Ceratiocaris. Nevertheless, 

it may possibly (though not probably) have been produced by the strong 

tendency of the schist to take on a state of cleavage, crumpling up the 

posterior margin by pressure contrary to its direction. 

A \ 
On the other hand, a smaller specimen (marked —— j from Wern, near 

Portmadoc, in somewhat similar schist, but not ' plaited,' shows a definitely 
emarginate, sinuous, or ogee posterior margin, and thus presents a marked 
feature of Geratiocaris. This is a posterior moiety of a valve, ^"jj long x ^^j 
inch high. As the abdominal part of Geratiocaris ? latus, Salter, and the 
telson-spines of G. ^ insperatus, Salter (' Mem. G. S.' iii. pp. 294, 295) 
come from the Upper-Tremadoc schists, near Portmadoc, we may regard 



ON THE 1'0S->IL PJIYLLOPODA OF THE PALvEOZOIC ROCKS. 221 

A 

No. 2 from Caer-y-coed, and -^- from Wern, as belonging probably to Cera- 

tiocaris, and possibly belonging to either C. lahis or C. insijoraius (if, indeed, 
tbese be not parts of one species, as intimated by Salter). The latter being 
the more distinctly a Ceratiocaris, its name is here adopted for the three 
specimens. This No. 2 from Caer-y-coed has the emarginate border- 
mentioned in the ' Cambridge Catal. Pal. Foss.' p. 7, which is altogether 

■wanting in No. 1, — — . 

A . . 

3. The third specimen iji tlie Woodwardian Museum is - — , consisting 

of a set of 8 or 9 broad (yy inch high) abdominal segments, fi'om Caer-y- 
coed, and mentioned by Mr. Salter with the other two specimens from that 
locality. These seem to have been crushed laterally, like other specimens- 
that are definitely attached to oi'dinary Hymenocaris valves, and scarcely, 

A 

if at all, to exceed some of those in dimensions (for instance, — —-, Wood- 

161 

wardian Museum, -^ inch; and D J,, Mus. Pract. Geol., -^^ inch). It is 

A 

not large enough for -— H. major, and does not correspond with the body- 

sesment of Ceratiocaris. 

HYMEjrowKis ? (Caryocaeis, Salter) SALTEra, M'Coy, 1861. 

The references to this Australian species (from Redesdale, Victoria)- 
are given in full in the ' Catalogue of Au.stralian Fossils,' by R. Etheridge, 
Esq., Jun., 1878, p. 17. There is some iiucertainty, however, as to its 
generic relationshijo ; for in a paper written by Mr. Salter in 1862, and 
published in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. 1863, pp. 135, &c., 
after noticing that the Australian Graptolites sent to the International- 
Exhibition ia London (1862) were recognisable as belonging to the- 
Llandeilo series, as determined in the north of England, he adds in a 
footnote (p. lo9) : ' There is even a crustacean [from the same Australian 
beds], apparently of the genus Caryocaris, which M'Coy has done me the- 
favour to name Hymenocaris Salteri.' Thus it is evident that Salter saw 
one example, if not more, of this Australian sjsecies in 1862, and did not 
regard it as a Hymenocaris. 

Cafyocaris, Salter, 1863, 

This small pod-like palaeozoic phyllopod abounds in the Skiddaw slate - 
(Lower-Llandeilo or Arenig group), at many places near Keswick, as at 
Braithwaite Brow, where specimens are numerous on many bed-planes ;. 
and Mr. Salter mentions Causey Pike and Grassmoor, Cumberland (' Catal. 
Pal. Foss. Cambridge.' 1873, p. 21). H. Woodward mentions Barff and 
Longside, ' Cat. Brit. Crust.' p. 70. It has been collected by Mr. J. E. Marr, 
F.G.S., at the Nantlle tramway, Pont Seiont, near Caernarvon (Upper- 
Arenig group). See ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' xxxii., 1876, p. 134. The- 
tramway is here called the ' Wantlle railroad.' The ' phyllopod crustaceans ' 
mentioned at p. 135, and preserved in the Woodwardian Museum, Cam- 
bridge, are several specimens of Caryocaris, and some small caudal styles 
which may have belonged to Caryocaris, though they resemble somewhat 
those associated with the Upper- Silurian Peltocaris and Discinocaris in the- 
Coniston mudstone of Skelgill, also collected by Mr. Marr. 

Salter determined Caryocaris (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' xix. p. 139) as 



■222 REPORT— 1883. 

having a ' bivalved carapace (with distinct hinge-pits) , rounded anteriorly, 
■subtruncate behind, and with the back and front subparallel. The surface 
is smooth, or with only oblique wrinkles near the margins, but with no 
parallel lines of sculpture.' The body and abdominal appendages were 
unknown to Mr. Salter ; but he suggested, in a restoration (op. cit. p. 137, 
fig. 15), a short abdomen, with a lanceolate telson and stylet. Mr. Marr 
has found, in association with Ganjocaris, at the tramway bridge crossing 
the Seiont above mentioned, some small slender spines or pointed styles, 
from about y^^^ to |f inch in length, which do not contradict Salter's ideal 
"figure. 

Individuals of Cartocaris Wrightii, Salter, 1863 (op. cit. p. 137, 
■fig. 15, and p. 139), measure 1 X fV i^c^ (Brit. Mus.), il X ^ inch 
(Brit. Mus.), and |§ X t^ (A, Mus. Pract. Geol.). 

The test is smooth and thick, somewhat horny in ajDpeai-ance, often 
with light purplish tints, rarely black ; the ventral and anterior margins 
are thickened with a raised rim. The anterior moiety is not so much 
contracted as shown in Salter's illustrations, fig. 15, he. cit., and the 
figure at p. 21 ' Camb. Catal.' ; nor is there a rim to the dorsal margin, 
as in the first of those figures. The ' hinge-pits ' have also escaped our 
observation as yet. The most perfect specimens are suboblong and 
elongate, very slightly convex on the dorsal border ; more so on the 
ventral, which is elliptically curved, with the convexity slightly greater 
in its hinder than in its front moiety ; both ends truncate, one end 
•(posterior) rather higher than the other ; both vertical, angular at top, 
and neatly curbed below ; but sometimes modified in direction and form 
by compression. Owing to the relative solidity of the valves this fossil 
is not unfrequently preserved in shape, even when the ' plaiting ' or 
imperfect cleavage of the pressed schist crosses them at various angles. 
Hence these valves are not nearly so much altered in form in the Skiddaw 
slates as the Hijmenocarides are in the Liugula-flags ; yet occasionalh'', 
when they lie parallel with the superinduced grain of the schist, their 
ends are frayed out, or ' plaited ' into a mere fringe. A very much 
crumpled specimen was figured by Mr. Salter in the ' Geologist,' vol. iv. 
1861 , p. 74, before he described the genus and species in detail. 

Caryocaris Marrit, Hicks, 1876 (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 
vol. xxxii. p. 138). 

In the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, four specimens, from the 
Upper-Arenig schists on the Nantlle tramway, are labelled G. Marrii, 
Hicks. 1. One, with a black test, compressed, measures -{^^ x y\ inch, 
and this has been so squeezed that possibly it is now even nai'rower than 
it originally was ; but the front end is broken and the hinder end is 
fringed oS" with the ' plaiting ' of the schist. This seems to be C. Wrightii. 
It is somewhat thickened at the ventral edge. 2. A similar, but imper- 
fect, specimen, modified with oblique ' plaiting.' Ventral border thickened. 

3. Two imperfect specimens on one slab, one of which, probably 1 inch 
long, is only -f^- inch across (high), and has two obscure depressions 
across its middle. One end seems perfect ; the other is fringed out. 
This approaches most nearly to Dr. Hicks's description of G. Marrii. 

4. The other specimen is decidedly an Entomidella (f\ x ^^ inch), rather 
smaller than the Menevian E. hiiprestis (Salter), and thinner or sharper 
posteriorly in proportion. It may be named Entomidella Marrii (Hicks), 
A similar form occurs in the Skiddaw slate (-f^ Mus. Pract. Geol.). 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALAEOZOIC EOCKS. 223 

In the Museum of Practical Geology, London, there is a small specimen 
(DyV, P- 11 of the ' Catal. Cambr. Sil. Foss ' 1878), labelled ' Entomidella, 
Lin gula- flags, St. David's,' but it has no cross furrow, and resembles 
Caryocaris in outline. It measures iiy X -f ^ inch, and, though small, may 
be C. Wrightii. 

We have already remarked (see above, p. 7) that Mr. Salter recognised 
a Caryocaris among the Australian fossils exhibited at the International 
Exhibition at London in 1862. 

LiNGULOCAEis, Salter, 1866. 

This was determined and described as a pateozoic bivalved Phyllopod, 
from the Upper-Tremadoc schists of Tuhwnt-y-bwlch, Garth, Portmadoc, 
North Wales, by Mr. J. W. Salter, in the 'Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey,' vol. iii. (1866), pp. 252, 253, and 294. His description of the 
generic characters is as follows : — ' A thin bivalve crustacean shell, with 
a generic form like that of a Modiola or Mytilus, with scarcely prominent 
beaks, and no ? hinge-teeth ; the surface of the carapace is covered by 
fine raised concentric lines.' A description of L. lingulcecomes, Salter, 
follows, and this form is figured in pi. 10, figs. 1 and 2. See also the 
* Catal. of Cambrian and Silurian Fossils in the Geol. Mus., Cambridge,' 
1873, p. 16, with a figure. 

In the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge are two specimens of a 
bivalve ('A 273'), there labelled ' Hhjfilocuris llncjulcecomes, Salter,' from 
the above-mentioned locality, one of which, seemingly representing the 
outside, but somewhat crumpled longitudinally, approximates in its 
outline and size (1^^ X \ inch = 32 x 12 mm.) to Mr. Salter's restora- 
tion (?), fig. 1, pi. 10, and fig. in ' Cat. Cambridge Foss.' p. 16. The 
other is a less perfect internal cast. Otherwise we have not met with 
any corresponding specimen. 

In the British Museum are casts of the insides of two bivalves 
('48654' and another), labelled ^ Lingulocaris ' ; but, though probably 
Ijelonging to Mr. Salter's genus here mentioned, they differ much from 
its first species in outline. They are longer, sharper at one end, and 
more nearly resembling a pea-pod in shape. This species may be dis- 
tinguished as L. siliquiformis. One specimen (presented by the Rer. 1 1^' 
J. F. Blake) is from the Upper-Tremadoc schists at Garth Hill, Port- 
madoc, and the other ('48654') is from the Bale schist at Bvvlch-y- 
Gaseg, near Cynwyd, Corwen, collected by ' J. R.' 

In Mr. Salter's figures of L. lingulcecomes the furrow (slight as it is), 
passing obliquely from the umbo backwards to the upper part of the 
posterior margin is a very interesting feature, being emphasised and 
duplicated in the oblong and angular Myocaris, Salter, from the palaeozoic 
pebbles of the Triassic conglomerate at Budleigh-Salterton in Devon. It 
is also repi'esented in the oblong Sohnocaris, J. Young, from the Llandeilo 
or Caradoc-Bala strata of Penwhapple in Ayrshire, but at a difi'erent 
angle, lower down on the surface, and accompanied with two other 
shallow furi'ows radiating from the umbo. These features ai-e not without 
homologies in another Phyllopod, the Carboniferous Leaia, where radiating 
ridges, equivalent to the convex boundai-ies of the furrows in the preceding 
forms, are characteristic of the carapace- valves. 



224 EEPORT— 1883. 



Third Re'port of the Covimittee, consisting of INIr. Sclateb, Mr. 
Howard Saunders, and Mr. Thiseltox-Dyer (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of 
Timor-laut. 

Your Committee was disappointed in the result of its application at 
the Southampton meeting for a further grant of lOOZ. in aid of Mr. 
Forbes's expedition. The sum of 50Z. which was placed at its disposal 
was practically only a re-vote of the grant made at Swansea, which had 
lapsed. In the meantime Mr. Forbes had been obliged to draw bills 
upon his fi'iends in London to meet the expenses he had incurred in 
preparing for the expedition, and the sum of 50Z. was, therefore, drawn 
as soon as possible and paid to Mr. Alexander Comyns, who had a power 
of attorney to act on Mr. Forbes's behalf in London. 

When your Committee last reported, it was only able to state that 
Mr. Forbes had reached Amboina in May of 1882, and was on the point 
of starting for the Tenimber Islands on the first practicable opportunity. 
He effected his departure after some delay, and in October following a. 
letter was received from him, from which the following is an extract : — 

' On board the s.s. "Amboina," at the Aru Islands : 
'July 12, 1882. 

' Dear Mr. Dyer, — I write you a note to state that to-morrow morning 
I hope to be deposited, bag and baggage, at Larat, the small island facing: 
the mainland of Timor-laut, on the E. side. 

' The steamer was delayed three weeks on its voyage prior to its 
arrival in Amboina, otherwise I should have been three weeks ago on the- 
island of my destination. 

' From all accounts received on the coast of Xew Guinea and at Ke, 
as well as here, the natives are very well disposed, and I am very sanguine 
of a successful termination to my journeyings there. I hope to despatch 
some part of my collections about the middle of September. 

' I am, yours very sincerely, 

(Signed) ' H. 0. FoKiiES.' 

In December following your Committee were gratified at receiving 
the following further letter from Mr. Forbes, stating that he had succeeded 
in a great measure in accomplishing his mission, though not without 
much difficulty and even serious sacrifice of health : — 

'Amboina: October 11, 1882. 

' Dear Mr. Dyer, — I have only just time to write you a line to inform 
you of my return from Timor-laut a couple of days ago, having been 
compelled to leave on account of sickness and of the hostility of the 
natives of the neighbouring villages, from whom nightly an attack was 
threatened. We all suffered greatly from fever, and even now I am 
writing in the midst of a severe attack. 

' Extended movements were impossible, so that my botanical collec- 
tions are not very extensive, but the ornithological and anthropological 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TIMOR-LAUT. 225 

parts are very good. I am now engaged in packing all up for despatch, 
and hope to send them off soon. 

' My intention is to return to Timor-laut in three days more, if my 
Health will permit, the Government steamer leaving then for the Tenimber 
Islands. I shall settle in some quieter spot than Ritabel. A full report 
of this interesting country will be sent to you by next mail. One of the 
singular facts I found is the immense herds of wild buffalo existing on 
the mainland of the island. They must have, of course, been introduced, 
but by whom and how long ago is an interesting question. I was unable 
to get a specimen, unfortunately. 

'My wife, who accompanied me, aided me greatly, so that, when I 
Tvas down with fever — and the fever is of extreme severity — work was 
Btill able to go on. 

• ••••••» 

' I am, yours very truly, 

(Signed) ' Henet 0. Forbes.' 

In the month of January following a box containing seventy bird- 
skins was received from Mr. Forbes, with the note, ' This first instalment 
of birds is a rough selection, which, probably, may contain new species.' 
The collection was examined by Mr. Sclater, who communicated an 
account of it to the meeting of the Zoological Society on February 20. 
The species were fifty-five in number, sixteen of which were described in 
the paper as new to science. ' The general facies of the avifauna, as thus 
indicated, was stated to be decidedly Papuan, with a slight Timorese 
element, evidenced by the occurrence of certain species of Oeocichla and 
Urythrnra, while the new one {Sirix sororcula) was apparently a diminutive 
form of a peculiar Australian species.' 

About the same time your Committee received from Mr. Forbes a 
detailed report of his proceedings in Timor-laut. This was an extremely 
interesting document, but dealt principally with ethnographical details. 
Your Committee, therefore, decided that it should be communicated at 
once to the Anthropological Institute; and this Mr. John Evans, Treasurer 
of the Royal Society and Vice-President of the Institute, very kindly 
undertook to do. The paper was read at the meeting on March 13, and 
has since been published in the ' Journal ' of the Institute. 

In February the bulk of Mr. Forbes's collections reached Kew in four 
cases. They contained an extremely complete ethnographical collection, 
a further collection of birds, a collection of twelve crania and specimens 
of human hair, and a miscellaneous zoological collection. Your Committee 
decided that a selection from the ethnographical collection should be 
handed to Mr. Franks, keeper of the Department of Ethnography in the 
British Museum ; that the additional birds should be examined by Mr. 
■Sclater, and that the miscellaneous zoological collections should be sent 
to the zoological department of the British Museum to be selected from. 
This was accordingly done. A series of the ethnographical specimens 
was sent to the meeting at the Anthropological Institute to illustn-ate the 
reading of Mr. Forbes's report, and a description of these drawn up by 
Mr. C. H. Read is printed as an appendix to the paper in the ' Journal ' of 
the Institute. Professor Flower, who presided on the occasion, also stated 
that ' the results of a cursory examination of the twelve crania which 
Mr. Forbes had collected were that eight were brachycephalic, and of 
decidedly Malay type; one was dolichocephalic, prognathous, and with 

1883. o 



226 EEPOET— 1883. ' 

large teeth, indicating Papuan or Melanesian affinities; and the other- 
three were more or less intermediate. This is what might have been 
expected on the border-land of two distinct races ; but the great pre- 
ponderance of the first-named was very marked. Nearly all showed signs- 
of artificial flattening of the occipital region.' 

At the meeting of the Zoological Society on April 17, Mr. Sclaterrefid 
a second paper on the additional birds collected by Mr. Forbes in the 
Tenimber group. ' The avifauna of the group, as indicated by Mr, 
Forbes's collection, contained fifty-nine species, of which twenty-two were 
peculiar to these islands.' 

At the meeting of the same society on May 1, Mr. W. F. Kirby 
reported on the small collection of Hymenoptera (five new species were 
described) and of Diptera sent home by Mr. Forbes. On June 5 a com- 
munication was read from Mr. A. G. Butler, containing an account of 
the twenty-three Lepidoptera. These comprised 23 species of Lepi- 
doptera ; the butterflies were well preserved, the moths in poor condition. 
Mr. Butler described 10 new species. Deducting wide-ranging forms 
tbe following is his analysis of the characteristic species : — ' Indo- 
Malayan, 2 ; Austro-Malayan, 10 ; Australian, 3. The only surprising 
thing in this distribution is the preponderance of Timor over Aru or 
New Guinea forms ; the species characteristic of that island being- only 
equalled by those from Aru, New Guinea, and Amboina combined.' Mr. 
Boulenger also reported, at the same meeting, upon the reptiles and 
batrachians. Two new species were described — the one a lizard of the 
Australian genus Lophognathus, and the other a snake of the Indian 
genus Simotes. ' The snake was of special interest, as no species of the 
genus Simotes had hitherto been previously known to occur eastward of 
Java.' 

Some discussion having taken place with Mr. Comyns, Mr. Forbes's 
representative in England, as to the way the Timor-laut collections should 
be dealt with, your Committee proposed to Mr. Comyns, as the condition 
upon which any grants of money made to it should be handed over to 
Mr. Forbes, that of the collections made by him, ' both zoological and 
botanical, the first complete set is to be placed at the disposal of the 
Committee.' To this Mr. Comyns agreed. He subsequently raised the 
question as to whether the ethnographical collections came within the 
terms of this agreement. Your Committee thought the point doubtful. 
At the same time they were very anxious that the fruits of Mr. Forbes's 
expedition should be accessible in public museums, and should not be 
dispersed in private hands. It was ultimately agreed that a selection 
from tbe ethnographical collection should be purchased for the British 
Museum ; and the Royal Society, at the instance of Mr. John Evans, very 
liberally voted the sum of 40Z., which was fixed by Mr. Franks as a 
reasonable price for the collection. A few objects were selected as suitable 
for the Museum of Economic Botany at Kew, and these were purchased 
from Mr. Comyns as a set-oS" against the expenses incurred for the 
freight of the whole collections. The duplicates of the ethnographical 
and other collections wei'e all duly handed over to Mr. Comyns. 

Mr. Forbes's botanical collections have not at present reached Kew ; 
but there is reason to fear, from a variety of circumstances beyond Mr. 
Forbes's control, that they will prove of inferior interest to the other 
collections made by him. 

Your Committee understand that the total expense of Mr. Forbes's 



ON THE NATUE.VL HISTORY OF SOCOTEA. 227 

expedition has amounted to 300Z. Towards this he has now received 
assistance from the British Association and the Royal Society to the 
amount of about 1901. He may to some moderate extent recoup himself 
further by the sale of duplicates. 

Your Committee, on reviewing what has been accomplished since its 
first appointment, are of opinion that the Association may fairly con- 
gratulate itself on the successful result of an expedition carried out in a 
most efiicient, but most economical way; it would probably not have 
been undertaken at all withoat its timely assistance. They believe that 
the scientific results obtained do not fall short of their original anticipa- 
tions. Timor-laut,^ as its name indeed implies, is the last link to the 
east of the Malayan insular chain, and the commingling of the forms of 
life belonging to the great geographical regions, the Malayan and the 
Papuan, which it exhibits, is of peculiar interest, and merits the most 
careful study. 

Your Committee believe that the Association would not wish that a 
scientific man like Mr. Forbes, who has carried out a task of so laborious 
and, indeed, perilous a kind should be dealt with in anything short of a 
reasonably liberal way. 

Having regard, therefore, to the fact that the botanical collections 
have still to be discussed, and the anthropological and ethnographical 
collections more fully worked out, your Committee ask for their re- 
appointment, and that a sum of lOOZ. should be placed at their disposal. 
The grant of 501. made at Southampton was, as already stated, prac- 
tically only a re-vote of the grant made at Swansea, which lapsed. 

Mr. Forbes will be present at the Southport meeting. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Lieut.-Col. Godwin-Austen, 
Dr. G, Hartlaub, Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Gunther, Mr. Seebohm, 
and Mr. P. L. Sclater (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Natural History of Socotra and the adjacent 
Highlands of Arabia and Somali Land. 

The balance left in the hands of the Committee last year was 143?. 13s. 2cl. 
Together with interest since accrued it now amounts to 145Z. Is. 10c?. 
There has been no further sale of the duplicates, but a few specimens 
of some of the land and fresh- water shells still remain on hand for 
disposal. 

Professor Bayley Balfour's labours on the botanical collection made 
in Socotra are nearly brought to a close, and the results will shortly be 
published in a volume of the ' Transactions ' of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. The value and completeness of this memoir will be much 
increased by the additional specimens subsequently obtained in Socotra 
by Dr. Schweinfurth, which have been lent to Professor Balfour by the 
collector. 

' ' Laut ' signifies 'eastward ' or ' seaward,' and refers to the position of Timor- 
laut in relation to Timor. 

Q2 



228 REPORT— 1883. 

The fresh-water shells collected by Professor Balfour have been 
■described by Lieut.-Col. Godwin-Austen, in a paper read before the 
iZoological Society of London in January last, and pablished in the first 
part of their ' Proceedings ' for the present year. 

The Diatomaccae have been examined by Mr. Kilton of Norwich, and 
described in a paper which will be read before the Linnean Society of 
London during their next session. 

These two papers have to be added to the list of papers on the 
natural history of Socotra resulting from Professor Balfour's expedition 
specified in the last report of the Committee. 

The Committee are of opinion that these contributions, along with the 
botanical memoir of Professor Balfour (on what was naturally the richest 
part of the collection, and on which most of his limited time in Socotra 
was spent), taken together have yielded a rich return for the several sums 
o£ money granted to them by the Association. When tlie aid of 
the Association was first asked for this purpose an almost absolute 
ignorance of the Fauna and Flora of Socotra existed. Now both Fauna 
and Flora are at all events generally known, and their relationships 
with those of the mainland and adjoining islands have been more or less 
accurately pointed out. Although a second expedition to Socotra would 
be desirable, and the exploration of the adjacent highlands in Arabia and 
Africa would certainly add much to our knowledge, there seems to the 
Committee little prospect of accomplishing these objects under the present 
state of circumstances in the East. The Committee have therefore 
repaid to the Treasurer of the Association the above-mentioned balance 
of 145Z. Is. lOd., less a small sum deducted for petty expenses. The pom- 
mittee, however, trust that this amount may be again placed at their 
disposal upon a future occasion should circumstances arise which would 
encourage them to undertake another expedition. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph Hooker, Dr. 
GtJNTHER, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. P. L. Sclater 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of exploring Kilimanjaro 
and the adjoining mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa. 

1. In November last Sir Joseph Hooker communicated with Dr. 
Schweinfurth, now residing at Cairo, informing him of the wish of the 
Committee, that he should be furnished with information respecting the 
projected expedition, and expressing a hope that he would volunteer to 
lead it. Dr. Schweinfurth replied to Sir J. Hooker on November 25 that 
he regretted to say his services were not available. 

2. Upon this Sir Joseph Hooker, as authorised by the Committee, 
wrote, on December 8, to Dr. Watt, of the Bengal Education Department, 
Calcutta, a traveller and collector in all parts of India, who had lately 
returned from accompanying, as botanist, a survey of Munnipore. Dr. 
Watt having professed his willingness to undertake the expedition, Sir J. 
Hooker wrote officially, on March 21, to the Secretaiy of State of India 
in Council, requesting that Dr. Watt's services might be placed at the 



ON THK MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 229' 

disposal of tlie Committee. This was granted on May 9, but on terms so 
prejudicial to Dr. Watt's interest as an officer in the Government service, 
that he could not avail himself of the commission. 

3. In the meanwhile Dr. Watt was appointed to duties in connection 
with the International Exhibition to be held in Calcutta in 1884. This, 
appointment would necessarily postpone Dr. Watt's departure to Africa 
until 1885. 

4. Considering the gi'eat probability of further obstacles arising to 
pi-event Dr. Watt from undertaking the conduct of the expedition, in 
case he should again come forward, we think that any reasonable hope of 
securing his services must be abandoned, and that further steps should be 
taken to secure a proper leader. 

5. With this object Sir J. Hooker has placed himself in communica- 
tion with Capt. Maloney, late Administrator of the Gold Coast, respecting- 
a medical officer in the Colonial Service, of whose ability and industry 
Capt. Maloney has spoken in very high terms, and who, we have reason 
to hope, will undertake the expedition. Should this not be the case we 
shall do our best to find another fit person for the purpose. 

6. Under these circumstances the Committee trust that the sum of 
500^., voted at Southampton, which has been returned to the Treasurer 
of the Association in accordance with the regulations, mav be revoted to- 
them at the present meeting. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Cordeaux 
{Secretary), ]\Ir. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. P. M, C. Kermode, 
Professor Newton, Mr. E. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, 
reappointed at Southampton, for the purpose of obtaining (xvith 
the consent of the Master and Brethren of the Trinity House, and 
the Commissioners of Northern and Irish Lights) observations 
on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and, 
of reporting on the same. 

The General Report ' of the Committee, of which this is an abstract,, 
comprises the observations taken at lighthouses and lightvessels, and a 
few special land stations, on the east and west coasts of England and 
Scotland, the coasts of Ireland, Isle of Man, Channel Islands, Orkney 
and Shetland Isles, the Hebrides, Faroes, Iceland, and Heligoland, and 
one Baltic station — -Stevns Fyr on Stevns Klint, Zealand, for which the 
Committee is indebted to Professor Liitken, of Copenhagen. Altogether 
196 stations have been supplied with schedules and printed instructions 
for registering observations, and returns have been received from about 
123 — a result which is very satisfactory, showing as it does the general 
interest taken in the work, and the ready co-operation given by the 
lightkeepers in assisting the Committee. 

The stations returning the best-filled schedules are : on the East 

' Report on the Migration of Birds in the Spring and Autumn of 1882. West,. 
Newman, & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, London, E.C. 



230 KEPOET— 1883. 

Coast of Scotland, the Pentland Skerries, nine, Sunbnrgli Head, fonr, 
Bell Rock, three, and Isle of May no less than nineteen ; on the east coast 
of England, Fame Islands, eleven, and after this Flamborough Head, 
Spurn Point, and several of the lightvessels off our south-east coast. 
On the Irish coast the best returns have come in from the Tuscar rock 
on the Wexford coast. This is the extreme south-eastern point of Ireland, 
and the nearest land to the Welsh coast, and seems vrell situated for 
observations. 

Taken as a whole, and comparing them with reports from the 
English coasts and elsewhere, it is evident that Ireland lies compara- 
tively out of the track of migrants, and its western stations are espe- 
cially poor. These have, however, much interest in themselves, in the 
notices of the movements and habits of the various seafowl frequenting 
that wild district. 

The entries in the schedules returned to us have, as might be ex- 
pected, special reference to the movements of various species of land- 
birds, yet many observations will be found in the general report, on the 
going and coming of seafowl, which dwell for a season on the cliffs, 
islands, and outlying rocks off our coasts, their mode of feeding, nesting, 
&c. These are valuable as made by those who actually live amongst 
the birds, and have ample opportunity and leisure to observe their habits 
and report thereon. Thus the presence of the gannet all around the 
coast of Ireland during the breeding season points to the conclusion 
that a considerable proportion of the birds seen do not breed. The 
Little Skellig rock, off the Kerry coast, is the only Irish breeding- 
place of this species, and when visited by Mr. Barrington in 1S80 
there were scarcely thirty pairs nesting there. 

As in preceding years, the line of autumn migration has been a broad 
stream from east to west, or from points south of east to north of west 
and covering the whole of the east coast. In 1880, to judge from the 
returned schedules, a large proportion of the immigrants came in at the 
more southern stations ; in 1881 they covered the whole of the east coast 
in tolerably equal proportions ; but in 1882 the stations north of the 
Humber show a marked preponderance of arrivals. Altogether a vast 
migration took place this year upon our east coast, the heaviest waves 
breaking upon the mouth of the Humber, Flamborough Head, the Fame 
Islands, Isle of May at the entrance to the Firth of Forth, and again, after 
missing a long extent of the Scotch coast, at the Pentland Skerries.^ The 
Bell Rock also came in for a share, although apparently a much smaller 
one than the Isle of May. The easterly winds prevailed all along our 
east coasts, generally strong to gales, and the succession of south-easterly 
and easterly gales in October, between the 8th and 23rd, occurring as 
they did at the usual time of the principal migration, brought vast 
numbers of land birds to our shores. From the Faroes in the north to 
the extreme south of England this is found to have been the case. 

Although migration — that is, direct migration — on our east coast, 
is shown to have extended over a long period, commencing in July and 
continuing, with but slight intermissions, throughout the autumn and into 

' The absence of returns, year by year, on the Scotch coast between the Bell 
Eock and Dunnet Head, embracing ten important lighthouses, is remarkable, not 
a single statistic of direct value as regards general migration having, so far, rewarded 
our inquiries. No communications, positive or negative, have been received from 
these stations, escept a brief return from Girdleness. 



ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 231 

the next year to the end of January, yet the main body of migrants 
appear to have reached the east coast in October, and of these a large 
proportion during the first fortnight in the month. From, the 6th to the 
8th inclusive, and again from the 12th to the 15th, there was, night and 
day, an enoi*mous rush, under circumstances of wind and weather which, 
observations have shown, are most unfavourable to a good passage. 
During these periods birds arrived in an exhausted condition, and we 
have reasons for concluding, from the many reported as alighting on 
fishing smacks and vessels in the North Sea, that the loss of life must 
have been very considerable. Large flights also are recorded as having 
appeared round the lanterns of lighthouses and light- vessels during the 
night migration. From the Gth to the 9th inclusive strong east winds 
blew over the North Sea, with fog and drizzling rain, and from the night 
of the 12th to 17th very similar weather prevailed. Mr. W. Littlewood, 
of the Galloper lightship, forty miles south-east of Orfordness, reports 
that, on the night of October the 6th, larks, starlings, tree-sparrows, 
titmice, common wrens, redbreasts, chaffinches, and plovers were picked up 
on the deck, and that it is calculated that from five to six hundred struck 
the rigging and fell overboard : a large proportion of these were larks. 
Thousands of birds were flying round the lantern from 11.30 p.m. to 
4.45 A.M., their -white breasts, as they dashed to and fro in the circle of 
light, having the appearance of a heavy snowstorm. This was repeated 
on the 8th and 12th, and on the night of the 13th 160 were picked up 
on deck, including larks, starlings, thrushes, and two redbreasts. It was 
thought that 1,000 struck and went overboard into the sea. It is only 
on dark rainy nights, with snow or fog, that such casualties occur ; when 
the nights are light, or any stars visible, the birds give the lanterns a 
wide berth. 

Undoubtedly the principal feature of the autumn migration has been 
the extraordinary abundance of the gold-crested wren. The flights 
appear to have covei-ed not only the east coast of England, but to have 
extended southward to the Channel Islands and northward to the 
Faroes (see Report, East Coast of Scotland). On the east coast of 
England they are recorded at no less than twenty-one stations from the 
Fame Islands to the Hanois, L.H., Guernsey, and on the east coast of 
Scotland at the chief stations from the Isle of May to Sunburgh Head 
{at which latter station they have rarely been seen in previous years). 
Mr. Garrioch, writing from Lerwick, says : ' In the evening of the 9th of 
October my attention was called to a large flock of birds crossing the 
harbour from the island of Bressay, and on coming to a spot on the 
shore where a number had taken refuge from the storm I found the 
flock to consist of gold-crests and a few fire-crests ' amongst them ; the 
gold-crests spread over the entire island and were observed in considerable 
numbers till the middle of November.' The earliest notice on the Bast 
Coast is August Gth, the latest November 5th, or ninety-two days ; they 
arrived somewhat spai'ingly in August and September, and in enormous 
numbers in October, more especially on the nights of October 7th and 12th, 
at the latter date with the woodcock. This flight appears to have extended 
across England to the Irish coast, for on the night of the 12th a dozen 
struck the lantern of the Tuscar Rock Lighthouse, and on the night of 

• The distinction between the two species had been clearly pointed out to Sir. 
Garrioch. 



232 KEPOKT— 1883. 

the IStli tliey were continually striking all night. During the autumn 
enormous numbers crossed Heligoland, moi'e especially in October. On 
the night from the 28th to the 29th Mr. Giitke remarks : ' We have had 
a perfect storm of gold-crests, perching on the ledges of the Tvindow- 
panes of the lighthouse, preening their feathers in the glare of the lamps. 
On the 29th all the island swarmed with them, filling the gardens and 
over all the cliff — hundreds of thousands. By 9 a.m. most of them had 
passed on again.' Not less remarkable was the great three days' flight 
of the common jay, past and across Heligoland, on the 6th, 7th, and 8th 
of October. Thousands on thousands, without interruption, passed on 
overhead, north and south of the island too, multitudes like a continual 
stream, all going east to west in a strong south-easterly gale. It would 
have been interesting if we had been able to correlate this migration of 
jays with any visible arrival on our English coast, but in none of the 
returns is any mention made of jays. Subsequently we have received 
numerous notices of extraordinary numbers seen during the winter in our- 
English woodlands. This seems especially to have been the case south 
of a line drawn from Flamborough Head to Portland Bill in Dorset. 
Additions and unusual numbers were also observed at Arden on Loch 
Lomond side. 

Immense numbers of the hedge- spaiTOw passed over Heligoland iir 
October, more especially on the Gth, 7th, and 8th. It is curious that on 
the 8th of the same month they swarmed in astonishing numbers both at 
Spurn Point and in North-east Lincolnshire. 

Woodcocks arrived on the east coast on the night of October 12th, 
or early morning of the 13th. Wind east, strong, fog and drizzling rain. 
On the morning of the 13th they are recorded from ten stations, covering- 
350 miles of coast, from the Isle of May to Orfordness. 

Some species which occur with tolerable regularity on the east coast,, 
have during the autumn of 1882 been remarkably scarce. Very few 
short-eared owls have been seen in England or Scotland. The common 
linnet and twite have also been very scarce, and the same remai-ks apply 
to Heligoland.' 

The returns show very clearly that the spring lines of migi-atioo: 
followed by birds ai'e the same as those in the autumn, but of course 
in the reverse direction — from W. and N.W. to E. and S.E. Another 
point worth noting is the occurrence of many species in spring at the 
same stations frequented by the species in autumn. Thus double records 
occur at the Mull of Galloway, Bell Rock, Isle of May, as well as at 
some English stations. 

As this is the fourth report issued by the Committee, we may perhajjs,, 
with the mass of facts at our disposal, be expected to draw deductions 
which, if they do not explain, may serve at least to throw some light on 
the causes influencing the migration of birds. We might reasonably reply 
that the work undertaken by us was not to theorise, or attempt explana- 
tions, but simply to collect facts and tabulate them ; this we have endea- 
voured to do, in the shortest and simplest manner consistent with accuracy 
of detail. There is, however, one circumstance which can scarcely fail to 
present itself to those who have gone carefully into the reports issued by 
the Committee, namely, the marvellous persistency with which, year by 

' There was a vast rush of the common linnet at the Isle of May from the 9th to. 
the 2;-Jrd of October. 



ON THE SCOTTISH ZOOLOGIC.VL STATION. 233 

year, birds follow the same lines, or great highways, of migration, when 
approaching or leaving our shores. The constancy of these periodical 
phenomena is suggestive of some settled law or principle governing the 
movement. It is clearly evident, from the facts already at our disposal, 
that there are two distinct migrations going forward at the same time, one 
the ordinary flow in the spring and ebb in the autumn across the whole 
of Europe. A great migratory wave moves to and from the nesting- 
quarters of the birds, in the coldest part of their range, north-east in the 
spring and south-west in the autumn. Quite independent of this there 
is a continual stream of immigrants, week by week and month by month, 
to the eastern shores of these islands, coming directly across Europe from 
E. to "W., or more commonly four points south of east to north of west, 
and the reverse in the spring. These immigrants are mainly composed 
of those common and well-known species which annually make these 
islands their winter quarters, and, as a rule, take the place of our summer 
birds. They come in one broad stream, but denser on some special lines 
or highways than others. Cutting the line of ordinary migration at 
nearly right angles, one flank brushes the Orkney and Shetland Isles, 
pouring through the Pentland Firth, even touching the distant Faroes ; 
the southern wing crosses the Channel Islands, shaping its course in a 
north-westerly direction to the English coast. 

In conclusion your Committee would take this opportunity of once 
more expressing their best thanks to the Master and Brethren of the 
Trinity House, the Commissioners of Northern Lights, and the Commis- 
sioners of Irish Lights, for their ready co-operation and assistance, through 
their officers and men, in the inquiry. 

Your Committee respectfully request their reappointment, and trust 
that the Association will enable them to continue the collection of facts. 



R&port of the Comviittee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor 
M. Foster, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpentek, Dr. Gmyn Jef- 
freys, Professor Kay Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. 
Percy Sladen (Secretary), appomted for the purpose of aiding 
in the maintenance of the Scottish Zoological Station. 

During the past year the station has been removed from Oban to the east 
coast of Scotland, where it is again erected upon the northern shore of 
the Moray Frith, within a few miles of the site which it occupied in 
1880-1 when the researches on the locomotor system of echinodermata 
were conducted. 

Owing to an unfortunate oversight on the part of Dr. M. Foster the 
grant of 40Z., which had been awarded to the station by the British Asso- 
ciation, was not applied for in due time, and in consequence when it was 
applied for was found to have lapsed. The researches which were con- 
templated when the station was again erected on the shore of the Moray 
Frith were for this and for other reasons unavoidably postponed. 
Hence the only work which has been can-ied on at the station during the 



:234 KEPOBT— 1883. 

past year has been that which was undertaken by Professor Schafer, on 
the perivisceral fluid of echinus, published in the ' Proceedings of the 
Royal Society.' 

Arrangements have now been made for the pi'osecution of several 
interesting lines of research, and there is no doubt that next year, should 
the British Association continue its pecuniary aid to the institution, a 
more satisfactory report will be issued. 



Meport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankester, 
Professor Newtox, Professor Huxley, 31i-. P. L. Sclater, Pro- 
fessor Allmaa', Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, and Mr. 
Percy Sladen (^Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arrang-. 
ing for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 

TouE Committee, in submitting their Report on the Zoological Station 
at Naples, have again the pleasure of drawing attention to the steady 
progress and continued prosperity of this excellently managed institution. 
That no diminution has taken place in its popularity amongst natui'alists 
is fully proved by the fact that a greater number have worked at the 
station during the past twelve months than in any pz'evious year. Since 
the presentation of the last report two additional tables have been engaged ; 
America, represented by the Williams CoUege, Massachusetts, having 
secured a permanent place by contract for several years ; whilst Belgium 
has taken a second table for a year, specially for the prosecution of 
botanical investigations. 

The Laboratory. — Amongst recent acquisitions in this department may 
specially be mentioned a large aerating apparatus capable of supplying 
about seventy small tanks and breeding aquaria simultaneously ; an 
adjunct which has already proved of great value in embryological and 
developmental investigations. The equipment of the tables keeps pace as 
heretofore with the requirements of the improved methods of scientific 
research. Several important improvements in this direction have been 
made by members of the staff of the station, as, for example, the already 
popular mode of manipulating serial sections detailed by Dr. Giesbrecht 
in the ' Zoologischer Anzeiger ' for 1881, and more recently the improve- 
ment of Jung's microtome, described in the last part of the ' Mittheilungen ' 
of the station. 

The Collecting Befartment. — This department has received an important 
adjunct in the acquisition of a second steamboat. The large original 
steam yacht is still employed, as formerly, for dredging and for more 
extended excursions, whilst the new and smaller steamboat is admirably 
suited for the purpose of visiting the boats of fishermen in the bay who 
are willing to collect specimens for the station on their own account. 
Fishermen employed in this way receive from the station the necessary 
glass or other vessels in which to preserve, until fetched away by the 
steamer, whatever they may capture likely to prove interesting to zoolo- 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 235 

gists. The new steamboat is also frequently used f oi' towing the rowing 
and the diving boats. 

In the course of next year the whole collecting department will be 
placed under the management of a scientifically qualified member of the 
staff, who will be especially engaged for this purpose. This official will 
direct his attention to the investigation of the fauna, and with this object 
in viev«- will resume the keeping of the various lists and records bearing 
on these enquiries, which have unfortunately been interrupted for some 
time, since the previous official by whom they were undertaken left the 
station. 

Preserved Specimens. — The number of prepared specimens sent out 
during the past year has considerably increased in comparison with the 
previous year. Experiments in new methods of preservation are continu- 
ally prosecuted, and most satisfactory results are constantly being attained. 
Mention may here be made that the station is represented in the Inter- 
national Fisheries Exhibition, now being held in London, by a collection 
of these preparations ; and of these it may be said impartially that never 
has a fauna furnished a more perfect, and at the same time more beautifully 
preserved, series of organisms. 

Microscopic Preparations. — The demand for microscopic preparations 
has diminished in comparison with last year. As this branch of the 
Institution has hitherto failed to a certain extent to fulfil the expectations 
originally entertained, the attitude of the Directorate in respect thereto 
is at present of a somewhat passive nature, and it will be a subject for 
enquiry and ultimate decision whether this department can be further 
developed, and, if still maintained, whether any reform is necessary to 
promote its efiiciency. 

The Aquarium. — The aquarium continues to be an important means 
of enlisting the sympathy and interest of the general public in behalf of 
the station and the biological sciences. To attain this end nothing is 
left undone which can be undertaken without prejudice to the establish- 
ment in general. 

During the course of the past year an English ' Guide ' has been 
added to those already existing in the German, French, and Italian 
languages ; and an atlas, comprising 250 figures of the most interesting 
animals, which will supplement the ' Guides,' is at present in the 
press. 

The number of visitors to the Aquarium is as great as in previous 
years. 

The Publications of the Station. — The various works undertaken by the 
station show steady progress. 

1. Of the ' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel ' the following 
monographs have been published : — 

For 1880. I. C. Chun, CtenopJwra, 313 pp., 18 pi. 

II. C. Emery, Fierasfer, 76 pp , 9 pi. 
For 1881. III. A. Dohrn, Pantopoda, 252 pp., 17 pi. 

rv. Graf Solms-Laubach, Corallina, 64 pp., 3 pi. 
For 1882. V. B. Grassi, Clietognati, 126 pp., 12 pi. 
VI. P. Mayer, CaprellidcB, 201 pp., 10 pi. 
VIII. G. Berthold, Bangiacvre, 2S pp., 1 pi. 



236 EEPOKT— 1883. 

For 1882 there are also allotted to be publlslied :^- 

VII. R. Valiante, Ci/sfoseire. 
IX. A. Andres, Attinie (parte Ima.) 

Both these monographs are in the press, and will appear in a few 
months. The last named is illustrated with thirteen coloured plates. 

For 1883 the following are allotted, subject, possibly, to some little- 
alteration : — 

W. Uljanin, Doliolum. 
A. Andres, Attinie (parte 2da.) 
A. Lang, Pohjcladtc (Planarife). 
P. Falkenberg, Itliodonulem. 
G. Berthold, Cryjrtonemiaccce. 

The plates of several of these monographs ai'e in the hands of the- 
lithographer, and the printing of the text of Dr. Lang's monogi-aph has 
already commenced. This latter will appear before the close of the year. 
The number of monographs announced for following years has increased, 
and besides those previously mentioned there are in preparation mono- 
graphs on Radiolaria, Spongia, Siphonophora, Gorgoniida3, Amphictenidae, 
Polygordius, Copepoda pelagica, Amphipoda. 

2. Of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoolotjischen Station ' there have 
been published vols, i.-iii., and vol. iv., parts i.-iii. ; part iv. is now in 
the press, and for vol. v. a series of works are announced. 

3. The ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht.' The division of the ' Jahres- 
bericht ' into four sections, which was adopted in 1880, has been retained 
for the 1881 'Bericht,' and the whole will occupy about the same bulk, 
— namely, over 1,200 jjp. The number of referees engaged in the work 
has been augmented ; and Professor J. V. Carus, who edited the vols, for 
1879-80, has made over the editing of the second section (Arthropoda) 
to Dr. P. Mayer. The first three sections of the ' Bericht ' for 1883 are in 
the press, and will appear in the course of some months. The whole 
' Bericht ' for 1 883 will be edited by the zoological station. 

The Lihrarij. — The library, as in previous years, has been augmented 
by presentations from authors, from several publishers, and from a 
number of scientific institutions, as well as by numerous purchases. 
Furthermore, a great number of new journals have been procured on 
account of the ' Jahresbericht.' 

The publication of a supplement to the library catalogue is deferred 
this year, as it will be desirable to issue a complete catalogue next year. 

The British Association Table. — During the past year the Association 
table has been used by Mr. J. T. Cunningham, Avhose occupancy extended 
over a term of six months, by special j^ermission of your Committee. 
The report which Mr. Cuuningliam has furnished of his investigations is 
appended beloAv. Tbe usual lists and detailed infoi-mation courteously 
supplied by the staS' of the zoological station are also apjaended. 

Two applications for the use of the table during the coming year have 
been received by the Committee, and from both of the applicants work 
of an important character may be anticipated. 

With the present facts before them, and every assurance of the con- 
tinued utility of the Association table, and of the advantages afforded by 
it to British naturalists, your Committee strongly recommend the renewal 
of the grant. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 237 



I. "Report on the Occupation of the Table l>j Mr. J. T. Cunningham. 

I arrived at Naples on Sunday, November 5, 1882. The Committee 
of the British Association had, in accordance Avith my request, kindly 
given me permission to occupy their table for six months. Everything 
was ready for me to commence work at once, and during the whole of my 
stay I had more and more cause to admire the perfection of the workino- 
arrangements of the station and the courtesy and care with which the 
staff provided for the wants of the numerous zoologists at work in the 
laboratory. 

I went to Naples with the intention of working out certain points in 
the anatomy of the Mollnsca, and if possible of obtaining some light on 
their phylogenetic history by a study of their organogeny. These 
matters occupied the greater part of my time, although I of course 
availed myself of the unique opportunities of the station for the study of 
marine forms in general, and of many cases of development. For 
example, I studied the artificial fertilisation and subsequent development 
of species of Echinoidea, and spent many hours over the Radiolaria, 
MedusEe, Siphonophora, and numerous larval forms which occur in 
bewildering profusion in the product of the surface-collecting, known in 
the station as ' Auftrieb.' 

I also took up to a certain extent the anatomy of the Gephyreans and 
of the Siphonostomata, in order to compare the former with the forms 
most nearly approaching them among the Chtetopoda. In the anatomy 
of Siphonostoma and of Stylarioides I found there were several interest- 
ing points for investigation, and I was sorry that I could not make my 
researches on them more complete. 

One of the points in molluscan anatomy which I succeeded in working 
out was the relation of the renal organs to the pericardium in Patella : I 
found that each renal organ had an independent opening into the peri- 
cardial cavity. I also studied the form, relations, and histology of the 
kidney (triangular gland) in the genus Aplysia, and prepared a descrip- 
tion of the organ for the * Mittheilangen ' of the station. 

For the development of the organs in Mollusca I took nearly all the 
material I could get, including the ova of the Cephalopoda. I found it 
extremely difficult to obtain satisfactory preparations which would clear 
up the doubtful points in the organogeny either of the Cephalopoda or 
the Gastei'opoda, which were the two groups I chiefly studied. Up to 
the time I left Naples I had not obtained any definite results. 

I gave up the table a few days before the end of April 1883 ; it is 
with much pleasure that 1 thank the Committee for the privilege they 
granted me ; the period of my occupation of the table was most agree- 
able and profitable to me. 

I must also express here my deep indebtedness to the kindness and 
friendly support which I received from Dr. Dohrn and all the other 
members of the staff of the station. I was permitted to accompany 
collecting expeditions and to become familiar with the "vthole organisation 
and working of the laboratory and aquarium. The station is an immense 
advantage to zoology in general and to all European zoologists, and the 
Association deserves the gi-atitude of English biologists for holding a 
table in its laboratory. 



238 



REPORT — 1883. 



II. A List of the Naturalists ivlio liave worJ^ed at the Station from the end 
of June 1882 to the end of June 1883. 



Num- 
ber on 
List 



210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
22.3 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 

2.30 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 

239 
240 
241 

242 
243 
244 
245 



Naturalist's Name 



Dr. Traustedt . 
Dr. C. Crety . 
Prof. F. Gasco . 
Prof. C. Emery 
Dr. Blochmann 
Stud. L. Hiltner 
Prof. Colasanti 
Dr. C. Chun . 
Dr. V. Lidth de Jeude 
Dr. E. Meyer . 
Dr. A. Korotnefl: 
Mr. J. T. Cunningham 
Dr. G. Matarazzo 
Miss E. Nunn . 
Dr. M. Sander . 
Dr. Ch. Julin . 
Sig. B. Stassano 
Dr. A. Garbini 
Mr. A. Shipley 
Sen. T. de Castellarnau 



Prof. Geza Entz 
Dr. A. Gravis . 
Cand. Th. Steeck 
Dr. J. Freuzel . 
Dr. H. Masquelin 
Dr. C. Fickert . 
Prof. H. Grenacher 
Dr. Th. Weyl . 
Prof. Graf Solms 

Laubacli 
Dr. B. Shaip . 
Prof. H. Fol , 
Mr. E. Wilson . 

Dr. P. Schiementz 
Dr. T. Perenyi . 
Prof. C. Emery 
Dr. T. van. AVyhe 



State or University 

■nhose Table was* 

made use of 



Duration of Occup.ancy 



Zoological Station 

Italy . 

Italy . 

Italy . 

Baden . 

Bavaria 

Italy . 

Saxony 

Holland 

Russia . 

Russia . 

British Association 

Italy . 

Cambridge . 

German Navy 

Belgium 

Italy . 

Italy . 

Cambridge . 

From the Spanish 

Government 
Huugarj' 
Belgium 
Switzerland 
Prussia 
Belgium 
Wiirtemberg 
Prussia 

Berlin Academy 
Prussia 

Bavaria 
Switzerland 
Williams College, 
JIass., America 
Prussia 
Hungary 
Italy . 



Arrival 



May 
July 



Aug. 
>j 

Sept, 

)> 

»> 
Nov. 

jj 

!> 

Dec. 

>> 
Jan. 



13, 1882 

10 „ 

12 „ 

24 „ 

14 „ 

24 „ 

26 „ 

1 „ 

9 „ 

23 „ 
6 „ 

6 „ 
9 „ 

22 „ 

8 „ 

24 „ 
2, 1883 

7 „ 

14 „ 

15 „ 



Departure 



„ 25 

„ 26 

„ 30 

Feb. 10 

» 11 

Mar. 5 

„ 10 
„ 10 
„ 16 

„ 19 
„ 23 
» 30 

April 13 
■^3 

June 15 
26 



July 15, 1882 

Oct. 2 „ 

Nov. 7 „ 

Oct. 30 „ 

)> 2 „ 

,. 13 ,: 

„ 22 „ 

Dec. 1 „ 



April 8, 
„ 24 
June 20 
May 1 
April 1 
Feb. 11 


1883 

>9 


June 9 


i> 


Mar. 8 


)? 


April 23 


J» 


„ 1 


yi 


Mar. 24 

April 16 

„ 26 

,, 5 


99 


May 26 
April 8 


if 


June 20 


» 


— 





III. A List of Papers whieli have heen published in the Year 1882 by the 
Naturalists tvho have occupied Tables at the Zoological Station. 



Dr. E. Jimg . 
Dr. W. Vigelius 

Dr. Th. Weyl . 
Prof. C, Emery 



De I'Action des Poisons chez les Mollusques. ' Archiv. des 

Scienc. phys. et nat.' 3 ser. t. 7, 1882. 
Vergleichend anatomische Uutersuchungen iiber das s.g. 

Pancreas der Cephalopoden. ' K. Akad. der Wissensch. zu 

Amsterdam,' 1882. 
Die Siinlenzahl im elektrischen Organ von Torpedo oculata. 

' Centralblatt fiir die medicin. Wissensch.' 1882. 
Contribuzioni all' Ittiologia. 'Mittheil. Zool. Station, NeapeV 

Bd. 3, 1882, 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



239' 



Prof. G. V. Koch , 

Dr. W. Giesbrecht- . 

Trof. A. Gotte . 

Dr. C. de Meresch- 
kowsky. 



Dr. J. van Wyhe 



Dr. A. Korotneff 
Mr. A. G. Bourne 



Dr. O. Hamann 
Prof. "W. Salensky . 



Prof. H. Ludwig 

Dr. W. Uljanin 
Dr. J. Kennel . 

Dr. C. Chun . 



Dr. 0. 'Whitman ■ , 
Dr. J. Carri&re 

Prof. E. Metchnikoff 

Prof. A. Haddon . 

Prof. L. V. Graff 
Dr. G. Berthold 

Mr. W. H. Caldwell 
Prof. C. Hoffmann , 
Dr. A. Foettinger 



Ueber die Entwickelung des Kalkskelets von Asteroides caly- 

cularis. 'Mittheil. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. 3, 1882. 
Mittheilungen iiber das Kalkskelet der Madreporaria. ' Mor- 

phologisches Jahrbnch,' Bd. 8, 1882. 
Vorlaufige Mittheilungen iiber die Gorgonien, &c. Ibid. 
Beitriige zur Kenntniss einiger Notodelphyiden. ' Mittheil. 

Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. 3, 1882. 
Abhandlungen zur Entw.-Gesch. der Thiere. I. Heft. Unters.. 

zur Entw.-Gesch. der Wiirmer. Leipzig, 1882. 
Eine neue Art der Blastodermbildung bei den Decapoden.. 

' Zoologisoher Anzeiger,' 1882. 
Les Suctocilies, nouveau groupe d'Infusoires, &c. ' Comptes 

Eendus,' 1882. 
Developpement des Spermatozoides dans la Meduse Cassiopea, 

Borbonica. ' Archives Zool. 6xperim.' t. 10, 1882. 
Structure et Developpement des Nematophores chez les- 

Hydroides. Ibid. 
Ueber die Mesodermelemente und die Entwickelung der 

Nerven des Selachierkopfes. ' NatunrkiTnd. Verb. Kon.. 

Akad. Amsterdam, Deel. 22, 1882. 
Zur Kenntniss der Siphonophoren.' ' Zoologisoher Anzeiger,' 1882. 
The Central Duct of the Leech's Nephridium. ' Quart. Journ. 

Microscop. Science,' vol. xxi. 1882. 
On Certain Methods of Cutting and Mounting Microscopical 

sections. Ibid. 
Der Organismus der Hydroidpolypen. ' Jenaische Zeitschr. 

fiir Katurwissensch.' Bd. 15, 1882. 
Beitriige zur Entw.-Gesch. der Anneliden. ' Biologisches 

Centralblatt,' 1882. 
Etudes sur le Developpement des Annelides. Premiere Partie. 

' Archives de Biologie,' t. 3, 1882. 
Neue Untersuchungen iiber die embryonale Entwickelung der- 

Salpen. 'Mittheil. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. 4, 1882. 
Entw.-Gesch. der Asterina gibbosa. ' Zeitschrift f. wissensch.. 

Zoologie,' Bd. 37, 1882. 
Ziu-NaturgeschichtedesDoliolum. 'Zoologisoher Anzeiger,' 1882. 
Ueber Ctenodrilus pardalis, Clap. ' Arbeiten Zoolog. Institut, 

Wiirzburg,' Bd. 5, 1882. 
DieGewebeder Siphonophoren.il. 'Zoologischer Anzeiger,' 1882. 
Ueber die cy-clische Entwickelung und die Verwandtsch. Verb. 

der Siphonophoren. ' Sitz.-Ber. Berliner Akademie,' Bd. 52, 

1882. 
A. Contribution to tlie Embryology, &c., of the Dicyemids. 

' Mittheil. Zool. Station, Neapel', Bd. 4, 1882. 
Die Fussdriisen derProsobranchier imd dasWassergefiisssystem 

der LameUibranchier, &c. 'Archiv f. mikrosk. Anatomic,'' 

Bd. 21, 1882. 
Vergleichend embryologische Studien. III. Ueber die Gastrula^ 

einiger Metazoen. ' Zeitschr. f . wissensch. Zoologie,' Bd. 37, . 

1882. 
Notes on the Development of MoUusca. 'Quart-. Journ. 

Microscop. Science,' 1882. 
Monographic der Turbellarien. I. Rhabdoccelida3. Leipzig, 1882.- 
Beitrage zur Moriihologie ;md I'hysiologie der Meeresalgen. 

' Pringsheim's Jahrbiicher fiir wiss. Botanik,' Bd. 13, 1882. 
Die Bangiaceen. Monographie CV^III.) der Fauna und Flora 

herausgegeben v. d. Zoolog. Station, Neapel, 1882. 
Preliminary Note on the Structure, Development, and Affinities 

of Phoronis.' 'Proceed. Royal Society,' 1882. 
Zur Ontogenie der Knochenfische, Fortsetzung. < '\'erh. Kon. 

Akad. von Wetens,' Dl. 23, 1882. 
Note sur la Formation du Mesoderme dans la Larve de Phoronis- 

hippocrepia. 'Archives de Biologic,' t. 4, 1882. 



■240 



REPOET 1883. 



.IV. A List of Naturalists to whom Specimens have been sent from the end 
of June 1882 to the end of June 1883. 

1882. 



1883. 



June 26 


Dr. Ed. Meyer, Bonn 


Polyopthalmus 


fr. c. 

13-25 


3) 


29 


Prof. F. Rous, Lausanne . 


Various 


70- 


J» 


29 


Trof. Waldeger, Strassburg 


Coelenterata . 


7210 


J» 


29 


Dr. E. Key, Leipzig . 


Various . 


48-85 


July 2 


Societil Tecnica, Florence . 


Various , . 


39-20 


it 


2 


Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 


Spongia, Corallia . 


22-85 


Aug 


. 10 


Gustav Schneider, Basel . 


Various 


. 1,298-65 




13 


Card. Traustedt, Herlufsholm . 


Various 


. 120-10 


jf 


17 


Dr. MacLeod, Gand . 


Pecten, Coelenterata 


39-30 


J) 


20 


Prof. Dames, Berlin . 


Heads of Fishes . 


3-25 


)9 


24 


L. Dreyfus, London . 


Various 


582-75 


7J 


31 


Prof. Claus, Vienna . 


Various 


. 346-15 


9t 


31 


Dr. Imhof, Ziirich 


Various 


34-40 


■Sept 


12 


J. C. Puis, Gand 


Vermes 


. 168-80 


if 


15 


Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 


Annelides 


12- 


yy 


16 


Societ;\ Tecnica, Florence . 


Various 


24-10 


J) 


20 


Prof. W. Leche, Stockholm 


Various 


. 180-35 


3> 


27 


Dr. H. Griesbach, Miilhausen . 


Pecten, Anojnia 


13- 


)} 


30 


Prof. Ehlers, Gtittingen . 


Various 


95- 


Oct 


4 


Prof. A. M. Marshall, Manchester 


Various 


. 444-95 


?« 


4 


Dr. Alb. Vogel, Bern 


Cephalopoda . . . 


6-50 


>) 


11 


Prof. C. Emery, Bologna . 


Various 


. 138-10 


■jj 


15 


Prof. F. Cohn, Breslau 


Alcyonium, Pennatula 


8-90 


J> 


23 


Prof. Moseley, Oxford 


Various 


58-15 


■»> 


25 


Dr. A. Vayssiere, Marseilles 


Tylodina 


6-25 


J9 


30 


Rev. A. M. Norman, Durham . 


Various 


340-20 


}) 


30 


Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 


Sycon, Larvs of Comatu 


la 18-50 


$« 


31 


Stud. E. A. Goeldi, Jena . 


Balistes 


8-75 


Nov 


7 


Prof. Ramsay Wright, Toronto, 










Canada ..... 


Copepoda 


18-75 


)» 


9 


Prof. R. Hertwig, Konigsberg . 


Various 


128-05 


j» 


9 


Friedrich's Collegium, Konigs- 










berg 


Various 


40-90 


•jj 


10 


Zoologisches Institut, Heidelberg 


Various 


225-80 


J) 


10 


Societi\ Tecnica, Florence . 


Crustacea 


4-85 


)> 


11 


Prof. G. von Koch, Darmstadt . 


Alcyonium . 


7*50 


5> 


12 


Prof. P. Pavesi, Pavia 


Coelenterata, Annelidas 
Pycnogonida 


168-40 


)> 


12 


Prof. !Moseley, Oxford 


Carinella 


— . 


■)• 


12 


Prof. Sochaczever, Berlin . 


Chiton . , 


4-45 


jf 


15 


Prof, du Plessis, Lausanne 


Various 


15-25 


]) 


16 


Prof. Traquair, Edinburgh 


Various 


499-80 


1 J 


16 


Dr. Hans Virchow, Wiiizbuig . 


Eyes of Fishes 


31-25 


Dec 


5 


Prof. J. C. Ewart, Edinburgh . 


All Classes . 


1,300-45 


5) 


G 


Prof. G. Majr, Vienna 


Various 


56-25 


J) 


10 


Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 


Annelidens, Medusaj 


33-40 


)> 


10 


Prof. Stcpanoff, Uharkoff . 


Various 


147-85 


9) 


10 


Prof. Freda, Naples . 


Various 


107- 


9) 


13 


Prof. E. Howarth, Sheffield 


Various 


98-65 


9} 


23 


Prof. B. Vetter, Dresden . 


AH Classes 


1,111-30 




29 


Dr. Brock, Gottingen 


MoUusca 


15-90 


)9 


29 


Dr. Spengel, Bremen . 


Cephalopoda, Anthozoa . 


101-10 


J» 


29 


Dr. E. Rey, Leipzig . 


Various 


13915 


]) 


31 


Prof. A. M. Marshall, Manchester 


BIysis, Rhyllosoma 


10-60 


Jan. 


7 


Prof. R. Kossmann, Heidelberg . 


Mollusca 


24-35 




7 


Prof. A. Weismann, Freiburg . 


Obelia . . . . 


7-75 




19 


J. R. Bradford, London 


Various 


68-30 


i) 


24 


Prof. Emery, Bologna 


Pterotrachea 


7-75 


9) 


28 


Prof. A. Haddon, Dublin . 


Various 


407-05 


99 


28 


19 )9 • • 


Chiton, Patella, Fissurell 


1 18- 


9} 


28 


Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva 


Bonellia 


2375 


•> 


31 


Dr. Aug. Miiller, Frankfurt a. M. 


Elementary collection . 


265-50 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



241 



1883. 



Jan. 


.SI 


■>» 


31 


Feb. 


6 


■>•» 


6 


9> 


9 


T* 


15 


?> 


15 


») 


26 


iJ 


28 


:\Iarch 13 


>J 


16 


»> 


16 


r» 


16 


J» 


17 


»J 


18 


?> 


22 


)) 


30 


April 2 


1? 


3 


*» 


3 




o 


if 


i> 


^t 


17 


i> 


18 


5) 


18 


t> 


23 


3> 


23 


^» 


2G 


i» 


26 


■w 


26 


:May 


5 


M 


5 


)» 


5 


?> 


8 


■?» 


9 


11 


9 


»J 


U 


H 


22 




22 



June 8 



„ 30 



Society Tecnica, Florence 
Dr. A. Batelli, Arezzo , 
Madame Vimont, Paris 
Prof. Salensky, Odessa 
Dr. Orley, Budapest . 
Prof. Moseley, Oxford 
Prof. R. Jloniez, Lille 
Conte de Pegouen, Toulouse 
Dr. P. C. Hoeck, Leyden . 
Joseph llinnbock, Vienna . 
Queen's College, Cork 
Madame Vimont, Paris 
E. E. Howol, Kochester 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 
Societib Tecnica, Florence . 
Zoologisches Institut, Wiirzburg 
Dr. Steck, Bern .... 
Domenico Candida, Naples 
Zoolog. Institut, Heidelberg- 
Prof. Gibelli, Bologna 
Anat. Dept., University, Camb. 
Anat. Dept., University, Camb. 
Irof. C. Emery, Bologna . 
Dr. van Bemmelen, Utrecht 
L. Dreyfus, Wiesbaden 
Dr. Virchow, Wiirzburg , , 

Fisheries Exhibition, London . 
Dr. W. J. Vigelius, Dordrecht . 
Herr van Emden, Dordrecht 
Prof. H. Fol, Geneva . 
Prof. Moseley, Oxford 
Prof. Grecacher, Halle a. S. 
Signora Marg. Boll, Rome 
Societa Tecnica, Florence 
Prof. W. Leche, .Stockholm 
Prof. Friant, Nancy . 
Madame Vimont, Paris 
H. Joos, Roehlitz 
Dr. Otto Hamann, Gtlttingen . 
Prof. G. von Koch, Darmstadt . 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna 



Various . . 

A''arious 

Various 

Salpa 

Various 

Various 

Various 

Various 

r'irripedia 

Various 

Various 

Various 

Terebratula . 

Calliactis 

A^arious 

Scalpellum . 

Various 

Vai'ious 

Jlollusca 

Algai 

Lacerta, Jul us 

Various 

Reptilia 

Chiton 

Various 

Electrical Organs of 

Torpedo , 
All c!iuie.'5 . 
Mollusck, Pisces 
Cephalopoda 
Various 

Squilla, Hadiolaria 
Various 
Patemonetes 
Various 

A''ernies, Bryozoa 
Various 
Various 
Various 
iSynajita 
Various 
A^arious 



fr. c. 
22-25 
13-45 
77-5 
7-75 
611-45 
115-85 
262-35 
20- 
21-40 
105-15 
448-20 
500-45 
4- 
17-50 
37-45 
4-75 
61-90 
6-10 
42-50 
5-90 
11- 
53-75 
11-75 
6- 
580-65 

7-75 

c,ooo- 

84-25 

20- 

98-50 

54- 
994-70 

12- 
213- 

44-15 
331-75 
1,091-5 

61- 
7-75 

23- 
170-85 

21,565-85 



T^. A List of Naturalists to ivhom Microscopic Preparations Tiave leen sent 
from the end of June 1882 to the &nd of June 1883. 



1882. 



June 29 
M 29 
„ 20 

Sept. 19 
„ 19 

Oct. 

Nov, 



1883. 



Dec. 
Feb. 
March 5 
„ 5 
April 3 
May 10 



Prof. F. Roux, Lausanne 

Prof. W. Leche, Stockholm . 

C. Baker, London .... 

Prof. W. Leche, Stockholm . 

Prof. Haddon, Dublin 

University of Wisconsin, Madison . ■ 

L. Dreyfus, London 

Prof. Ramsay Wright, Toronto 

Prof. Gasco, Rome .... 

Dr. Gustav Mayr, Vienna 

Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell, London . 

Prof. Ewart, Edinburgh 

Prof. W. Salensky, Odes.sa 

Trofessor Grenacher, Zool. Mus., Halle 

Prof. W. Leche, Stockholm . 



3 preparations 
13 
46 
19 
i4 

96 ., 

106 ., 

7 

19 
102 

.55 „ 

S4 



1883. 



fr. c. 

10- 

22- 

73-35 

40- 
101- 

60- 

38- 

;i81-25 

194-50 

8- 

29- 

197-50 

109- 

150- 

2- 

1,215-60 



242 EEPOET — 1883. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor 
DE Chaumont, Dr. M. Foster, and Dr. Burdon Sanderson 
{Secretary), reappointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Influence of Bodily Exercise on the EUiinination of Nitrogen 
(the experinients conducted by Mr. North). Drawn up by Mr. 
North. 

In my last Keport I stated tbat the work machine, for which I was 
granted 50Z. at the York meeting, had just been delivered by the makers, 
and expressed a hope that in my next report I might be able to give the 
results of experiments with it. I regret that unforeseen circumstances 
have prevented me from making trial of it in experiments upon the 
elimination of nitrogen, but that the whole of the past year has been 
spent in remedying defects, and materially altering the machine in many- 
ways. 

The principle on which the machine was constructed seems in every 
respect to be satisfactory, but several very serious difficulties have had to 
be overcome before it could in any sense be said to be complete and ready 
for work. 

Firstly, the original arrangement for supporting the body during the 
progress of the work was found to be unsuited to its purpose, and another 
arrangement was, after many trials, adopted. This appears to be satisfac- 
tory, and to give such a power of adjusting the position of the body with 
regard to the work as is required. 

Secondly, the buffer on to which the weight fell was found to require 
modification, the chief reason being the great noise which the sudden 
stoppage of the weight caused. After considering carefully various forms of 
buffer — air, hydraulic, and spring — I finally adopted the simple expedient 
of an iron anvil weighing 140 pounds, covered at the top with two inches 
of rubber. This serves two purposes — firstly, to deaden the sound, which 
it does to a very considerable extent ; and secondly, to give stability to 
the part of the machine in which it is placed. 

Thirdly, it was found necessary to raise the cam and pulley on an 
iron box, there not being otherwise sufficient room for the play of the 
weight. 

Fourthly, to strengthen and support the self-releasing gear by means 
of gun-metal guides. This was a most important improvement, and 
greatly added to the efficiency of the machine. 

Fifthly, to substitute a wire rope for the hemp one originally used, 
which broke at every trial, and when a heavier one was tried was found 
to stretch so much as to render the releasing gear useless, and ultimately 
to break. The use of a wire rope necessitated the ase of specially 
constructed ' strainers ' for adjusting it. After several apparently very 
satisfactory trials one of these broke, and from the great sti'ain upon it 
the recoil of the rope was nearly the cause of what might have been a very 
serious accident. A new one was constructed and fresh trials were made, 
with the result that the rope broke again two or three times, without any 
very apparent reason. I ultimately discovered that the momentum, 
imparted to the heavy cam by the sudden descent of the weight, caused 
a very great and very sudden strain to be put upon the rope in one 



ON THE ANCIENT EAKTHWORK IN EPPING FOREST. 243 

particular place, and that this was aggravated by its being at the same 
time and by the same means brought into very violent contact with the 
sharp edge of the pulley. This, after several operations, resulted in the 
rope being seriously damaged and so weakened that the next trial broke 
it. This diflSculty has been remedied by the introduction of a sort of 
self-acting brake, so that I hope the mechanical diflBculties are now 
overcome. 

In conclusion, whilst expressing my thanks for the assistance which 
has been afforded me in procuring what I believe to be a very necessary 
machine for investigations on the external work of the body, I ask that 
my Committee may be reappointed, without further grant of money, for 
the ensuing year. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Meldola, Greneral 
PiTT-EivERS, Mr. WoRTHiNGTON Smith, and Mr. William Cole, 
appointed to investigate the Ancient Earthivorh in Epping 
Forest, known as the ' Loughton ' or ' Coivpers ' Camp. 

[Plates II. and III.] 

In ancient times an immense forest probably covered the greater part of 
the county of Essex, and, as a remnant of this vast tract of woodland, 
the present Epping or Waltham Forest possesses very considerable interest 
to the naturalist and antiquary. Although in the progress of agriculture 
the county generally has become highly cultivated, the stringency of the 
old forest laws, and the various rights of cattle-feeding and wood-cutting 
in more recent times, have effectually combined to check enclosures and 
clearing, and to preserve to Epping Forest many of the characteristics of 
a primitive woodland. The soil in most of the woods has remained un- 
disturbed within historic times, except in a few spots where local gravel- 
pits have been opened. It is not surprising, therefore, that relics of 
former conditions of life should still exist in the forest, undefaced except 
through the action of natural agencies ; but until very recently the 
district has not received from archaeologists the attention it desei'ves, and 
it is more than probable that further traces of prehistoric occupation will 
yet reward the persevering explorer. At the present time the forest is 
known to '^ntain two ancient earthworks or camps, which are of more 
than ordinai_y interest, being perhaps the best preserved examples of such 
structures in the immediate neighbourhood of London. One, locally 
called ' Ambresbury,' ' Amesbury,' or ' Ambers ' Banks, is situated in the 
forest about 1^ miles south-west of the town or village of Epping Street, 
and about a hundred yards to the right of the road to Epping, which 
was made early in the sixteenth century. This position rendering it 
easy of discovery, the Ambresbury Camp has long been known, and the 
meagre and unsatisfactory details usually given of such remains are to be 
read in the local histories. In 1881 the Essex Field Club carried on 
some explorations at Ambresbury Banks, a report upon which, drawn up 
by General Pitt-Rivers, was read at the York Meeting of the British 
Association,' and published in extenso in the ' Transactions ' of the Club 

' Brit. Assoc. Report, 1881, p. 697. 
E 2 



■2-i-l REPORT — 1883. 

(vol. ii. p. 55), with plans of the camp constructed by Mr. D'Oyley, and 
coloured figures of the objects found. These relics, consisting of small 
fragments of very rude pottery and a few flint 'flakes,' determined the 
camp, in the opinion of General Pitt- Rivers, to be of British or Romano- 
British construction, but the data obtained were insufficient to fix the 
age of the entrenchment with greater precision. 

The second entrenchment, now called the ' Loughton ' or ' Cowper's ' 
Camp, remained unknown nntil it was discovered by the acumen and 
perseverance of Mr. B. H. Cowper. Mr. Cowper thus recounts the cir- 
cumstances attending his recognition of the camp : — ' In the course of my 
researches in the forest, I came, in the summer of 1872, into the neigh- 
bourhood of Loughton. There it was that I suddenly detected what 
appeared to be a portion of a moated enclosure. A short investigation 
was then all that I could make, but I was convinced of the reality of the 
conjecture. I made some inquiries, but failed to discover any record or 
local knowledge of a camp in that portion of the forest, and there the 
matter ended for the time. In 1875 I returned, and after several eSbrts 
managed to complete the circuit of the camp, which was a difficult 
operation. I gave as much publicity as possible to the discovery, and in 
addition went over all the ground between the Loughton Camp and 
Ambresbury Banks. Friends took an interest in the matter, and foremost 
among them was Mr. W. D'Oyley, who rendered the greatest service and 
accomplished a complete survey of both the ancient earthworks.' By 
means of this discovery Mr. Cowper rendered an important service to 
the knowledge of the archaeology of the forest district, and in his various 
papers on the subject, the titles of which are here recorded, he gave a 
careful description of the earthwork and its surroundings, and compared 
it with the neighbouring Ambresbury Banks. Mr. Cowper's writings on 
the subject are as follows : (1) ' Notes on an Entrenched Camp in Epping 
Forest, with plan by Mr. D'Oyley ; ' read at a meeting of the Royal 
Archfeological Institute, November 5, 1875 ; ' (2) ' Ancient Earthworks 
in Epping Forest ; ' * (3) ' Ancient Camps in Epping Forest, with plans 
by William D'Oyley, of Loughton,' a pamphlet published by the Com- 
mittee of the ' Epping Forest Fund ' in 1876, and now rare ; (4) 
'Epping Forest and its Ancient Camps,' (with woodcut).' We gladly 
acknowledge our indebtedness to these papers for many details. Mr. 
D'Oyley's labours in the delineation of the two camps call also for 
grateful recognition, inasmuch as they materially aided the explorations 
which were afterwards undertaken. 

The Loughton Camp is situated about a mile north of the village 
from whence it takes its name, and about two miles south-west of 
Ambresbury Banks. It is placed in the depths of the forest, the trees 
surrounding and covering it being principally beech and oak ; some very 
ancient specimens of the former tree actually grow upon the ramparts, 
and many old hollies are to be found both within and around the 
entrenchments. Its circumference is about 800 yards, giving a contents 
of between 11 and 12 acres ; the two known forest camps being very 
nearly of a size. The construction of the camp is also very similar to 
that of the Ambresbury entrenchment, an outer broad ditch having been 
dug, and the earth so obtained thrown up on the inside to form a rampart. 

' Archceological Journal, vol. xxxiii. p. 88. * Loc. cit. p. 245. 

' CasseU's FamUij Magazine, vol. iii. (1S77), p. 153. 



ON THE ANCIENT EAETHWOEK IN EPPING FOREST. 245 

In the report on the Ambresbury Banks allusion was made to the some- 
■what irregular lines of the fortification as contrasted with those of camps 
of known Roman origin. In the Loughton Camp strict symmetry of 
proportion has been completely disregarded by its constructors, and there 
are scarcely any defined angles (see Plate II.). The form of the camp 
is that of an imperfect oval, and the lines of the rampart appear to follow 
and to have been controlled by the natural contours of the ground. It 
has suffered to a much greater degree than Ambresbury Banks from 
the effects of age and denudation. In many places the burrowings of 
foxes and rabbits have caused much damage, increased possibly, in some 
instances, by foresters in digging out the animals, or even in removing 
sand in very modern times. In one place in particular, on the western 
side, the bank and trench have nearly disappeared, the soil having ap- 
parently literally tumbled down the slope of the valley, a result probably 
due to natural agencies, this being a very exposed part of the fortifica- 
tion. We are sorry to report that in the course of the construction of a 
recently designed ' Green Ride ' through the forest, a considerable portion 
of the western glacis has been cut away, and the original appearance of 
the rampart at that spot completely destroyed. 

The position of the camp is remarkable ; and, considered from a mili- 
tary point of view, it ^s perhaps the most advantageous in the whole 
forest district. It occupies the southern headlapd of an elevated plateau,, 
many parts of which are densely wooded. Prom the southern side of the 
camp an extensive view may be had looking towards the south-east, 
bounded by the Kentish hills beyond tbe Thames. The Lea Valley to 
the west is shut out by the long ridge forming High Beech, which is 
higher than the ground occupied by the camp. At the northern angle 
of the camp the elevation is about 310 feet above the Ordnance datum. 
The ground gradually trends away towards the southern rampart, and 
then suddenly dips down to Debden Slade, a low marshy valley distant 
about 1,000 feet to the south (Plate 11.), the level of which is only 
160 feet above datum, showing a fall of about 120 feet from the southern 
aspect of the camp, or 150 feet from the higher plateau-ground at the 
northern end. From the western side the ground descends even more 
abruptly, to form a smaller valley, the levels showing a fall of about 
70 feet. This valley falls to the south to join Debden Slade. From the 
north-west corner of the camp the higher ground forms a headland to this 
valley, and is continued for a distance equal to about half the length of 
the camp into a spur towards the south. This tongue of land, being 
some 10 feet higher than the western rampart, and running almost 
parallel with it, may possibly have been originally included in the plan 
of the fortification ; but any evidences of entrenchment have probably 
suffered so much from recent gravel diggings, that no safe conclusions- 
can be drawn therefrom. Mr. Cowper, however, thought he could trace 
a lower trenching round the head of the valley, continuing for some 
distance along the crest of the spur. 

The high plateau-ground from which this spur springs is continued 
round the northern and north-eastern corners of the camp. The ground 
then descends by the eastern side into a swamp at the south-east corner, 
and eventually trends away into the deep valley, Debden Slade, before 
mentioned, the rampart itself sweeping with a gentle curve until its 
outlines are lost in the slopes of the morass. 

This little ' morass ' (which is a piece of true bog-land, containing- 



246 REPOET— 1883. 

Sphagnum, Hypericum elodes, and other marsh-loving plants) occupies a 
small valley, which leads up into the interior of the camp. At the spot 
T?here the bog seems to originate is a small circular fit, which has every 
appearance of being a water-well of artificial construction. At present, 
however, we have no direct evidence to connect this well with the 
original makers of the camp. It is now choked with leaves, &c., but it 
still appears to supply water to feed the bog, the quantity being largely 
augmented in winter and spring by the surface drainage from the higher 
ground at the northern part of the camp. The ridge of ground on which the 
rampai't runs somewhat contracts the limits of the bog at the north-west 
corner of the camp, and a little outside the line of entrenchments a bank 
can easily be recognised running across the morass, leaving a narrow 
' gate ' or floodway towards the east. This bank is perhaps the remnant 
of an ancient dam, by which a head of water could have been retained in 
the interior of the camp for the use of the inhabitants, a constant supply 
being furnished by the artificial ' well ' before noticed. These statements 
must be put forward somewhat hypothetically ; no cutting has yet been 
made through the ' dam,' nor has the ' well ' been explored, and conse- 
quently the evidence is wanting which would conclusively prove these 
structures to be coeval with the canij) itself. But they are, nevertheless, 
very interesting, and cannot be passed over in any description of the 
place. 

Two well-defined, and perhaps old, entrances exist at the northern 
end of the camp, through one of which a ' driftway ' runs — a very hard 
and good path, which leaves the camji by an outlet at the southern slope 
to descend to Debden Slade, and so to Longhton. A good and old path, 
branching out from the first, runs outside the northern and eastern ram- 
parts also to Loughton. The three inlets to the camp appear to be 
ancient, but at present we have no means of fixing their age relatively to 
the ramparts. 

Several pits of varying size exist in the camp, and they are numerous 
on the high-level ground, stretching from the head of the little valley on 
the west round the northern aspect of the ramparts. It is possible that 
some of these pits may owe their origin to the exertions of sand-seekers ; 
but many of them must be of considerable antiquity, as they are densely 
overgrown with trees, and we are disposed to think that these at least 
may have been constructed by the occupiers of the camp, and have had 
some connection with their habits of life. The regular circular form of 
some of these pits, and the distance of the site of the camp from any high 
road (for the present Bpping New Road is, of course, very modern), by 
which vehicles could reach this densely-wooded district, are circumstances 
sufficient to throw grave doubt upon the suggestion that they were made 
by gravel-diggers. A cutting was made in one of the pits within the 
camp ; and in the silt, about 2 feet down, an artificial black flint flake, 
perfectly unweathered, was found (No. 38). It is hoped that some fur- 
ther examination of these pits may be made, pending which any hypo- 
theses as to their age or probable uses must necessarily be little more 
than guesswork. 

Mr. Cowper has called attention to some banks on the ground 
between the Ambresbury and Loughton Camps, and similar works have 
recently been detected on the high ridge by the ' King's Oak,' to the 
west of the Loughton Camp. Owing to the denseness of the forest, an 
accurate survey of these banks would be somewhat difficult, and it has 



53^-^Revort Brit Assoc. I<9&3 



Plate II 




opotiiswoodi /kC'Litn. LondoyK- 




'9. ^ 



^^^- 









© 
o 










f 



* 



*li?i 



.H> 






H.' 















f 



--<*>■ 



iS 



Itlu^traUnq thj' Repcii on tfw Jnrffnt_E{U'thttwh in Eppiiuf ±(iir.vt 



^ 



ON THE ANCIENT EARTUWORK IN EPPING FOREST. 247 

not yet been attempted. We are, therefore, not in a position to describe 
them more definitely, but they are certainly artificial, and would seem to 
deserve a thorough examination. Mr. D'Oyley also directed our attention 
to a somewhat remarkable configuration of the ground at one spot in the 
deep valley to the south-east of the camp. The footpath leading thither 
from the camp is, at almost its lowest point, flanked by several very 
* mound-like ' ridges of soil, densely covered with vegetation. A section 
was cut thi-ough one of these, but no signs of artificial construction were 
discoverable. It is probable that they are purely natural formations, caused 
by the erosive action of the surface water flowing down rapidly from the 
higher ground which the camp occupies in sufficient quantity and force 
to wear away the lighter soil, and so leave these ridges of denser clay 
standing boldly out above the general level. 

The above sketch comprises the information at present in our posses- 
sion concerning the external features and natural surroundings of the 
Loughton Camp, and we now proceed to detail the results of the diggings 
into the ramparts. The investigations were carried on under tlie auspices 
of the Essex Field Club by a sub-committee of that society including all 
the members of the present committee, the necessary funds being sub- 
scribed by members of the club, supplemented by a gi-ant of lOL from 
the Council of the British Association. Permission having been granted 
by the Epping Forest Committee of the Corporation of London, the work 
was commenced on May 29, 1882, and continued until June 14, the 
removal of the earth being very carefully watched by members of the 
joint committee, under the direction of the hon. secretary, Mr. W. Cole, 
Mr. W. D'Oyley also kindly giving his services as surveyor. The mode 
of working both in theory and practice was so fully explained by General 
Pitt-Kivers in his report upon Ambresbmy Banks,' that it is unnecessary 
to repeat the details here. Sections were cut through the rampart and 
ditch so as to expose the ' old surface line,' or the original floor of earth 
upon which the soil dug out in making the fosse was heaped by the con- 
structors of the camp to raise up the ramparts. The earth being generally 
of a more sandy nature than at Ambresbury Banks the sieve could be freely 
used, and each spadeful was sifted on its removal and carefully examined 
for relics, the position of each object found being registered on working 
drawings of the cuttings. The contract for the work was taken by Mr. 
Cuthbert, of Loughton, and a word of praise is due to our four workmen, 
who displayed great care and intelligence in the somewhat tedious and 
delicate tasks set before them. 

The position of the cuttings is shown on the plan of the camp. The 
first was 12 feet in width, and it was carried from the foot of the silting 
of the interior slope on for 80 feet through the rampart and ditch to the 
counterscarp. The camp at this part has suS'ered severely from denudation, 
owing to the light nature of the soil. As will be seen by an inspection 
of the plan of the cutting (Plate III.), the present height of the rampart 
is only about 5 feet 6 inches above the ' old surface line,' and the ditch is 
filled up with silt to the depth of about 6 feet. In this first section the 
silting was so similar in appearance to the undisturbed earth, that the 
outline of the fosse could not be followed out with any certainty, and 
even the escarp was very difficult to trace. 

The following is a catalogue of the objects found in the first cutting, 

' Tramactiom Essex Field Club, ii. p. 55, and Proc. ii. sxviiL 



248 KEroRT— 1883. 

the position of each being carefully indicated by numbers on the plan 
(Plate III., fig. 1). Tlie horizontal measurements Avere taken from a post 
driven into the ground at the point where the silting of the interior slope 
seemed to end (marked '0' in section), and the vertical positions from 
the present surface of the rampart ; everything being, of course, pro- 
jected on one vertical plane : — 

No. 1. A small black characteristic flint flake, -with good 'bulb of 
percussion' and three 'facets." Found beneath the silt at the foot of 
interior slope, with charcoal and burnt stones, a considerable quantity of 
which were turned up by the spades from the 'old-surface line' spit for 
about 20 feet from the commencement of the cutting. Near a deposit of 
charcoal three flint flakes (No. 2) and two ' cores' from which flakes had 
been struck ('H') were found. 

Nos. 3, 5, and 6. Five small fragments of pottery of very irregular 
shape, the largest about 2 inches by I'o inches and about 05 inch thick. 
They are dull red in colour, somewhat darker on the smoother or interior 
surface, and quite blackish in the middle of the paste, owing to imperfect 
firing. The te.x^ture is very coarse, the pottery containing angular pieces 
of quartz and coloured pebble of comparatively considerable size, with 
sand. It is decidedly hand-made, and probably of British manufacture. 
Found on or near old surface line, beneath the crest of the rampart, 
30-35 feet from foot of interior slope, with abundant traces of char- 
coal, &c. 

No. 4. Black flint flake, not weathered, with good ' bulb ' and two 
'facets.' Found with Nos. 3, 5, and G. 

No. 7. ' Outside ' flint flake near old surface line, beneath crest ci 
rampart. 

No. 8 (a, I). Two good flint flakes, unweathered ; the narrower one 
(&) showing distinct marks of use at both ends. Found beneath exterior 
fllope of rampart, about 2^ feet down. 

Nos. 9 and 10. Flint ' core ' and flake with many ' facets,' both un- 
"weathered ; found in extei-ior slope of rampart, about 2 feet down. 

No. 11. Flint ' core,' from which flakes have been struck ; found about 
oh feet down in the silt accumulated in the fosse. 

The indistinctness of the outlines of the ditch, and the paucity of the 
evidence above obtained, rendered another cutting necessary, and a new 
one, seven feet wide, was commenced on June 8 through the vallum near 
the south-west corner of the camp. The line of junction between the 
made earth, silt, and the original surface, was here more clearly traceable, 
and could be laid down with tolerable accuracy upon the plan, except the 
commencement of the escarp, concerning the exact angle of which some 
little doubt was felt. On clearing out the fosse, in which 6^ feet of silt 
had accumulated, its forra was found to be pointed, as was the case at 
Ambresbury, The soil at the bottom of the ditch was quite jieaty, and 
■water rose in the cutting for a foot or two. The rampart is now only 
about six feet above the old level of the earth, and its angles are so altered 
by severe ' weathering' that its original form is not recoverable. In this 
second section (Plate III., fig. 2) the following objects were found : — 

Nos. 12, 13, and 14. Tlu-ee good pointed flakes, showing good ' bulbs ' 
and several ' facets,' two of greyish, and one of reddish coloured fliiit,^ 
unweathered. Found with the following : — 

Nos. 15, 10, and 18. About two dozen flint flakes, with bulbs of per- 
cussion, and some exhibiting one or more ' facets,' all quite unweathered ; 



53^''- Report Bnt. Assoc, a 



Plate in 




]^.E. 



B.M. 285.14 




:^€^:v^; 






Pi^\ 3. 



H Section- longitudinal. 



MPARJI 




Surveyed for The Es 
By WD'OTLEY. 



W Cole, del. 



- 



orest: 



Spoltiswoode i: C Liih Londp-n 



SECTIONS THROUGH RAMPART 
PixnJin/i ,'f Objiri.i found pivicctcd cti<me lertunl plnnr 

First Section - North side of Camp 




• ^ "i^s-fH"^'* i^i^V^I?,' V 



*^ \ TV ' h i pp lUtri imt, reiiitlmr.arp 

^ Id ne 1 n tut/ anjt •trlaauy.} 



Second Section- South-west siDt of Gamp. 

ItAiWART 



N.E. 

R M 38fi.U 




Third Section - Southern side 



FOURTH SECTION- LONGITUDINAL 



Fig. 4. 




Vht.stratinq thiRe/icft on thr Annf^ii Lurthwovk m EppmiiFcn.^l 



ON THE ANCIENT EARTHWORK IN EPriNG FOREST. 249 

found with Nos. 12 and 13, and other flakes and chips, large quantities of 
charcoal, burnt stones, &c., near foot of intei-ior slope of rampart, about 
two feet from surface. There were evident signs of a large fire at this 
spot, around which the flakes were scattered. 

No. 19. Good black flint flake, unweathered ; found further in the 
rampart than the last, but also near abundant traces of charcoal, burnt 
stones and ashes. 

No. 20. Flint celt, somewhat roughly chipped ; about 5 inches long, 
and 1-5 inches broad, with worked chisel-like ends, and one side chipped 
into an acute edge, the other being obtuse. Perhaps not finished, but 
unweathei-ed. Found well beneath the body of the rampart, about 4 feet 
down (see infra, p. 250). 

Nos. 21, 22, and 23. Five flint flakes, with ' bulbs ' and two or more 
' facets,' found well under the crest of the rampart, and considerably above 
the old surface line. 

No pottery was found in the second section, although every possible 
care was taken that even the smallest fragments should not be passed over. 
General Pitt- Rivers examined the ground and the objects obtained, but 
he and the other members of the Committee were of opinion that further 
evidence should be sought for before any safe conclusion could be arrived 
at as to the period of the camp. A third cutting was therefore commenced 
on August 14, the spot selected being a good piece of rampart near the 
south-east corner of the camp. This cutting was 8 feet wide, but as the 
escarp was thickly covered with large trees, and the form of the ditch had 
been determined in the second section, it was not considered necessary to 
incur the expense of carrying the trench beyond the crest of the rampart, 
about 26 feet from the base of the interior slope. The old surface of the 
earth was readily recognised, and was found to take a deep downward 
slope, so that the ' made earth ' of the rampart, although externally 
apparently greatly denuded, was at least G feet thick at the deepest part. 
The following objects were found in this cutting (Plate III., fig. 3) : — 

Nos. 24 and 35. Flint ' core,' artificial splinter, and flake. °Found in 
interior slope of rampart, about 15 feet from commencement of cutting, 
and about 2 feet from the surface. 

No. 25. Flint ' core,' found in crest of ram25art, about 18 inches from 
the surface. 

Nos. 27 to 32. Twelve pieces of pottery, varying in size from 2-5 inches 
by 1-5 inches to quite small fragments, all being about 0-3 inch thick. 
This pottery is of superior quality to that found in No. 1 cutting. It is 
thinner, harder, and is formed of a sandy clay with no grains of quartz or 
pebbles in the paste. The colour is dull reddish-brown on the surface, 
but a blackish tint obtains in the centre, the result of imperfect firing. 
The curved form of most of the fragments shows that they belonged 
to circular vessels, and two of the pieces have ' rims,' somewhat rudely 
modelled, which project about 01 inch. There are no signs of lathe 
turning, and the pottery was doubtless handmade. A black flint flake 
was found near No. 30. All the pieces came from well within the interior 
slope, about 2^ feet from the surface of the rampart. 

No. 33. Two flakes, one with three or four ' facets ; ' and No. 34, a long 
slender flake, having good ' bulb ' and many facets ; all unweathered, and 
from well under the crest of the rampart. 

A fourth cutting was made longitudinally into the same piece of 
rampart, at the point where it slopes away into the morass, at the south- 



250 REPORT— 1883. 

east corner, above described. This trench was 6 feet broad, and about 
14 feet long (see Plate III., fig. 4) ; in it were only found — 

No. 36. A small fragment of pottery, seemingly a portion of the base 
of a rudely-made vessel, in qualitj' not distinguishable from Nos. 27- 
32. Near old surface, about 2 feet from surface of i-ampart. A small 
flint flake was found with it, and another (No. 37) further up the cutting, 
both unweathered. 

The number of flint flakes in the rampart of this camp is somewhat 
large in proportion to the amount of material excavated. Many flakes of 
a ruder class than those catalogued, artificial splinters of flint, and rude 
'cores,' have not been kept. 

The flakes are all as sharp as on the day they were struck off', only 
one showing signs of use (No. 8 b) ; they all have the ' cone of percus- 
sion,' are lusti'ous, and the flints from which they were made belonged to 
the local gi'avel deposits. Several exhibit small ferruginous concretions 
upon them. 

The discovery of a large number of flakes, and a quantity of burnt 
wood and burnt stones in one position in the second cutting (vide Nos. 
16-18) seems to point (as was first suggested by Mr. H. A. Cole who was 
watching the excavations at the time) to the presence of a camp fire at 
that spot, round which fire the occupiers sat and made their weapons and 
tools of flint. This idea was confirmed by the fact of several flakes 
Laving been manifestly struck off" from the same block of flint. After a 
hasty examination of the flakes from this position, Mr. Worthington 
Smith speedily replaced one flake on to a second somewhat larger one 
from which it had been originally struck : when replaced, a flat basal end 
belonging to the core was indicated by the truncated ends of the two 
flakes. 

Among the flakes was a rude but cleverly chipped flint chisel or 
celt (No. 20), not polished in any pai't, but exhibiting traces of the 
original ' crust ' or ' bark ' of the flint in one or two positions. This 
instrument is of somewhat remarkable form, one side edge being acute, 
and the other flat, and some doubt exists as to whether it was really 
intentionally chipped into its present shape, or whether it is simply un- 
finished on one side. Mr. Smith remarks, ' If this instrument is really 
a chisel meant to be held unmounted in the hand, and the broad end 
designed for use, the obtuse end makes it convenient for handling, as the 
thumb of the right hand naturally rests on that edge.' 

No other implements were found in the excavations, and this is not 
remarkable, as unless they were found in the bottom of the ditch they 
were hardly likely to be found in the rampart ; they could only get there 
by accident during its erection. 

The number, position, and unweathered condition of the flakes seems 
to indicate that they were struck off" at the time the camp was made, and 
that the makers of the structure used flint tools, but we put forward this 
suggestion with diffidence, as great caution is necessary in making deduc- 
tions from the evidence at present in our possession, and we beg leave to 
refer to General Pitt-Rivers' separate opinion on this point given here- 
•with. 

Flakes, of course, are the waste splinters of flint struck off in the manu- 
facture of tools, and were esteemed only as rubbish by the tool-makers. 
The question now is — Where are the finished tools which were produced 
'by the flaking ? Judging from what we know of other camps, and from 



on THE ANCIENT EARTHWORK IN EPPING FOREST. 251 

the fact that a body of men, who perhaps used stone weapons and tools, 
probably lived inside the camp, it is not nnreasonable to suppose that 
finished tools may be found within the space enclosed by the ramparts, if 
the original floor be exposed by the removal of a foot or two of the humus 
by which it is now covered. In this position celts, arrow-heads, ' scrapers,' 
'knives,' 'fabricators,' and other tools might be found, as we find them 
in the soil of other camps when the interior is disturbed by the plough. 

Although none of the specimens appear to precisely agree in quality 
and texture with those found in Ambresbury Banks, still, as in that earth- 
work, the pottery of the Loughton Camp may be divided into two classes. 
The first is of a very coarse manufacture, the clay containing fragments 
of quartz and pebble ; the other is thinner, of finer material, harder and 
closer in texture, and without the angular stony grains. Both classes 
are manifestly insufl&ciently fired, and all the specimens are hand- 
made. They have been submitted to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.R.S., of 
the British Museum, who points out the great difficulty of accurately 
estimating the age of 'rude pottery where no ornamentation is present 
to afibrd a clue, and where only small fragments are available for 
determination. He is, however, disposed to rank the potsherds found as 
of late Celtic age and manufacture. The pottery and flints have also been 
carefully examined by General Pitt- Rivers, who has written a report upon 
th&m, which we give in his own words : — 

' I regret much that the pressure of other business has prevented me, 
excepting on one occasion, from being present at the excavations of the 
Loughton Camp ; but I have examined the specimens found in the cut- 
tings, and very carefully preserved and ticketed by Mr. Cole. 

' The pottery found in the first section on the old surface line, and in 
the body of the rampart, is of the coarse kind, with some large grains of 
some foreign material intermixed, which is commonly found in the ram- 
parts of British camps. The pottery of the third and fourth cuttings is 
of a superior quality, without large grains, and apparently better baked ; 
but the vessels had small irregular rims, and tliere is, I think, sufficient 
evidence upon them to show that they were hand-made, and not lathe- 
turned. Pottery of these two qualities not unfrequently occur together 
in British camps. There is no ornamentation to positively identify any 
of the fragments as late Celtic ; but, judging from the results of other 
excavations, I see no reason why they should not be of that period. I 
should certainly consider them pre-Roman. 

' With respect to the flint flakes found in the body of the rampart 
and on the " old-surface line," I do not consider the presence of flakes in 
these positions to afford positive proof that they were in use at the time 
of the construction of the camp. There are many spots on the surface of 
hills in which, if a rampart were to be thrown up noio and explored at 
some future time, both the old surface line and the body of the rampart 
would be found to contain numerous flakes, the remains of earlier occu- 
pation by prehistoric man. I have also quite recently found the old 
surface line of a rampart thickly strewed with flakes, while other cuttings 
in the same rampart have shown evidence that the camp was of a more 
recent date than that in which flint tools were used. The comparative 
freshness of the flakes, however, although it may to some extent be attri- 
buted to the sandy nature of the soil, appears to me to favour the opinion 
that they were struck oS" and covered up soon after ; and the finding of 
several fragments fitting one another confirms this view, as noticed by 



252 REPORT— 1883. 

Mr. Worthington Smith. The discovery of a half-formed flint celt also 
appears to me to corroborate this opinion. 

' On the whole, therefore, judging from the specimens Mr. Cole has 
been good enough to show me, I think the evidence is suflBcient to iden- 
tify the camp as pre-Roman, and probably of very early period.' 

In conclusion, we may be permitted to point out that the whole 
evidence brought forward in this report agrees well with the theory of s, 
British origin of the camp. Its irregular outlines, and the way in which 
the ramparts were adapted to the form of the hill on which it is placed, 
are characteristics of British methods of castrametation. The V-shaped 
section of the fosse is, as was pointed out by General Pitt- Rivers in his 
Report on the Ambresbury Banks, a very noteworthy feature, and an 
exceptional one, in British camps, so far as our knowledge extends ; the- 
ditches in the camps at Cissbury, Cabnm, and Seaford were all flat- 
bottomed. The worn appearance of Loughton Camp, and the immense- 
amount of denudation apparent in many places, favours the idea that it 
may be of earlier date than Ambresbury Banks, although both are of 
British workmanship. Whether their constructors used flint tools in 
ordinary life cSn only be satisfactorily determined by means of further 
explorations, both in the ramparts and within the enclosures. The 
numerous pits in the Loughton Camp, and the ground around the sup. 
posed ' well,' also deserve attention. The extended examination of these- 
earthworks and the other prehistoric remains in the forest is a matter 
not only of scientific importance, but also of very considerable popular 
interest to all inhabitants of London and its environs, who have now, 
thanks to the Corporation, a sort of personal lien upon its many attrac- 
tions. No better or more permanently useful work can engage the 
energies of local scientific societies than an endeavour to gain and place 
on record some definite and accurate information respecting such pre- 
historic antiquities as may still exist in their neighboui'hoods ; and we 
hope that the Essex Field Club may soon be placed in a position to- 
continue the inquiry on the lines pointed out, which have already given 
such interesting results. 

The Committee has great pleasure in thanking the Corporation of 
London for permission to explore the camp, and Mr. D'Oyley, the hon- 
surveyor to the Essex Field Club, Mr. R. L. Barnes, Mr. W. H. Bird,. 
Mr. A. W. Franks, Captain McKenzie, Mr. J. Spiller, Mr. C. Thomas, 
and Keeper Pearce, and others, for kind aid afibrded during the progress 
of the work. 



Description of Plates. 

Plate II. 

Plan of Longliton Camp, showing the position of the excavations, and part of 
surrounding countrj'. 

Plate III. 

Figs. 1-4. Diagrams of the sections through the rampart. 



BEPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC C0M5IITTEE. 253 



FiTial Report of the Anthropometric Gomrnittee, consisting in 
1882-3 of Mr. F. Ctalton {Chairman), Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook 
{Secretary), Mr. Frank Fellows, ^Ir. James Heywood, Pro- 
fessor Leone Levi, Dr. F. A. Mahomed, Mr. J. E. Price, 
Lieut.-General Pitt-Eivers, Sir Kawson W. Kawson, and Mr. 
C Egberts. Associates, Dr. T. G-. Balfour, Dr. J. H. G-ladstone, 
Inspector-G-eneral Lawson, Dr. W. Ogle.' Drawn up by Mr. 
C. Egberts and Sir Eawson W. Eawson. 

[Plates IV.— X.] 

1. The Committee, oi-iginally appointed in 1875, and aided by succes- 
sive grants, of which it has expended 280Z., has made a Report in each of 
the five years 1878 to 1882, and now submits its final Report. 

2. Not that the work open to the Committee is exhausted, although it 
has to a great extent supplied what was pointed out in its Reports of 
1881 and 1882 as chiefly wanting, or that its conclusions are to its own 
mind complete and satisfactory. But it would require more time and 
larger funds than are at the disposal of the Committee to prosecute its 
inquiries, even with the materials now in its possession, to the end which 
it has had in view ; and the Committee is of opinion that the most useful 
course will be to bring before the Association the results of its past 
labours, indicating at the same time the conclusions which it considers to 
be sufficiently established by the facts ascertained, and the deficiencies, 
both of data and methods, which remain to be supplemented, either by 
individual exertion, or by the reappointment of a similar Committee at 
some future period under the auspices of the Association. 

3. In order to furnish a complete review of the information obtained, 
it will be necessary to refer to tables and data contained in previous 
reports. A list of these Reports is furnished in a note.^ 

Ohjects and Ojjerations of the Committee. 
4', The Committee was appointed for the purpose of collecting obser- 
vations on the systematic examination of the height, weight, and other 
physical characters of the inhabitants of the British Isles. 

5. Its operations in each year are described in the introduction to its 
Report of 1881. The description and amount of the statistics which it 
has collected, and the names of the persons to whom it is indebted for 
the collection, are detailed chiefly at the commencement of its several 
Reports from 1880 to 1882. 

6. Among the objects early aimed at by the Committee, and prose- 
cuted by it up to the year 1881, was the collection and comparison of 
photographs of the typical races of the United Kingdom ; but at the 
meeting of that year this inquiry was assigned to a separate Committee, 
upon whom will devolve the duty of reporting upon this branch of the 
general subject. 

' The late Dr. William Fan- was a member, and Chairman of the Committee from 
1875 to 1879. 

2 1, Report for 1878, 5 pp. (numbered pp. 182-6 in the Annual Report of the 
Association). 2, Report, 187i», 35 pp. ; ibid. pp. 175-209. 3, Report, 1880, 41 pp. ; 
ibid. pp. 120-59. i, Report, 1881, 48 pp. ; ibid. pp. 225-72. 5, Report, 1882, 3 pp. ; 
ibid. pp. 278-80. An Index to the Tables is given in Appendix C. 



254 EEPOBT — 1883. . 

7. The points to which the Committee has addressed its inquiries 
are — 

(1) Stature. 

(2) Weight. 

(3) Girth of chest. 

(4) Colour of eyes 1 ri i • 

(5) „_ 4ir}_^°°^P^^^^°^- 

(6) Breathing capacity. 

(7) Strength of arm. 

(8) Sight. 

(9) Span of arms. 

To these might have been added others, especially — 

(10) Size and shape of head. 

(11) Length of lower limbs as shown by the difference between 

the sitting and standing positions. 

(12) Girth, length, and breadth of other parts of the body. 

But the Committee was afraid of seeking to obtain more information 
than their contributors would be likely to furnish ; and experience has 
shown tha.t many of them have been unable to supply more than a por- 
tion of that which was requested. Few have furnished complete returns 
on all the subjects, but where one has failed another has succeeded, 
and sufficient data have been collected to give trustworthy statistical 
results on all the subjects of inquiry except those of breathing capacity 
and sight. An abstract of one of the complete returns will be given in 
its proper place, as exhibiting a good epitome of what the Committee 
has sought to obtain in all cases. (See Table XXIII.) 

8. The large body of observations on stature, weight, and complexion 
collected by Dr. Beddoe, and those on stature, weight, and chest-girth 
collected by Mr. Roberts, previously to the formation of the Committee, 
have been made use of; and the Committee has thus had observations 
made on a total number of about 53,000 individuals of both sexes and of 
all ages, from which to construct their tables and to base their conclusions. 

9. The statistics are unique in I'ange and numbers, and have_^ been 
obtained from a very large number of independent observers living in 
different parts of the country, without prejudice, and often in ignorance of 
the use which would be made of them ; and they have been analysed and 
tabulated in a perfectly impartial manner, irrespective of a,ll preconceived 
opinions. The Committee does not claim for them exemjstion from the 
liability to that amount of imperfection and probable error which must 
attach to all conclusions drawn from a disproportionate, and from a 
comparatively small number of observations. But great care has been 
taken in the examination and classification of all the returns to eliminate 
obvious errors, and to call attention in the body of the Report to any 
apparent discrepancies from faulty observation or deficient numbers.' 

' ' If an exceedingly large number of measurements, weights, &c. be taken — sup- 
posing no bias, or any cause of error acting preferably in any one direction to exist 
— not only will the number of small errors vastly exceed that of large ones, but the 
results will be found to group themselves about the mean of the whole always accord- 
ing to one invariable law of numbers, and that the more precisely, the greater the 

total number of determinations Rude and unskilful measurements of any 

kind, accumulated in very great numbers, are competent to afEord precise mean 
results. The only conditions are the continual auimiig mensiu-andi, the absence of 



KEPOBT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 255 



MetJwds. 

10. The forms and instruments used have been explained in the 
Reports for 1878 and 1880 ; but practical difficulties have been found 
to exist in obtaining trustworthy observations with regard to breathing 
capacity. Experience has also led the Committee to believe that the use 
of Snellen's test-types for sight, Nos. 1 and 10, is more convenient, 
and will yield more trustworthy results, than that of the army test-dots, 
which were adopted in its original circulars.' Since 1879, also, the Com- 
mittee has introduced the use of cards for recording the observations 
relating to single persons, which has been extensively adopted in Ger- 
many and the United States, and recently by the Investigation Com- 
mittee of the British Medical Association, and which offers great facilities 
in analysing and grouping the facts observed. The Committee appends 
copies of the forms of the cards and of the methods of measurement and 
observation which they have employed. (See Appendix A.) 

11. The difference between the average and mean of a number of obser- 
vations, and its importance in dealing with the subjects under considera- 
tion, has been pointed out and discussed by Mr. Roberts in the Report 
for 1881, at p. 23.3 ; ^ and the special sense in which Mr. Roberts employs 
the term mean, being that value in an arithmetic series of observed values 
of which the observations are the most frequent, has been adopted by 
the Committee.^ 

12. In connection with the question of the applicability of the expo- 
nential law of error to statistical results relating to anthropometry, 
Mr. Francis Galton has contributed a valuable series of tables, with 
remarks, on the range in height, weight, and strength, in which he 
introduces his method of the calculation of deciles, quartiles, and 
medians."* 

bias, the correctness of the scale with wliich the measures are compared, and the 
assurance that we have the entire range of error, at least in one direction, within the 
record.' — Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Udiii. Eer. vol. xcii. 

' See the Report for 1881 for a discussion of this subject by Mr. Lawson and 
Mr. Roberts. — — 

- Also in a note at p. 121 of the Report for 1880. 

' Mr. Roberts has followed Quetelet in the use of the word mean, and its differ- 
ence from an arera^ge is thus explained bj- Sir John Herschel. Speaking of Quetelet's 
honmie moyen he says : — ' Now, this result, be it observed, is a mean as distinguished 
from an average. The distinction is one of much importance, and is ver}^ properly 
insisted on by M. Quetelet, who proposes to use the word mean only for the former, 
and to speak of the latter (average) as the " arithmetical mean." .... An average 
may exist of the most different objects, as of the height of houses in a town, or the 
size of books in a library. It may be convenient to convej' a general notion of the 
things averaged, but involves no conception of a natural and recognised central 
magnitude, all differences from which ought to be regarded as deviations from a 
standard. The notion of a mean, on the other hand, does imply such a conceirtion, 
standing distinguished from an average by this very feature, viz., the regular viareh 
of the groups, increasing to a maximnm and then again diminisMng. An average 
gives us no assurance that the future will be like the past. A mean may be reckoned 
on with the most implicit confidence. All the philosophical value of statistical 
resiilts depends on a due appreciation of this distinction, and acceptance of its con- 
sequences.' — Edin. Rev. vol. scii. Mr. Galton, however, desires to state that con- 
sidering many statistical groups which are regular in their distribution are at the 
same time normally asymmetrical, he does not recognise the expressions of 'mean 
value' and ' the value most likely to be observed ' as strictly equivalent. 

« Report for 1881, p. 215. 



25G 



REPORT — 1883. 



Table I. — Showing the Stature, "Weight, Chest-girth, and StrengteII 

Kingdom, arranged accord 



STATURE I 


Height without 
slioes 


Scotland 


Ireland 


England 


Wales 


Total 


Weight with 
clothes 


Scotia 










to 








tn 

a 




a 








g 


luches 


Mfitres 












u 

1- 


1 


. 
-A 


»-.2 
6 > 




h 


■Si 


.0 

r-T 


Ite. 


kilos. 


= 1 


.- 


I 957 
1-931 
I •906 
I '881 


1 


1 






1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 





280 


127-3 


— 


70- 


4 


3 


. 




1 





— 


— 


5 


1 


270 


122-7 


— ■ 


75- 


6 


4 





— 


9 


2 


1 


1 


10 


2 


260 


118-2 


— 


74- 


15 


12 





— 


IG 


2 


1 


1 


32 


3 


250 


113-6 


4 


73- 


I 855 
I -830 
1-804 
1-779 
1-754 
—1-728— 
1-702 
1-677 
1-653 
1-626 


20 


20 


3 


8 


48 


8 


2 


3 


79 


9 


240 


109-1 


2 


72- 


09 


53 


10 


29 


117 


19 


6 


8 


202 


24 


230 


104-S 


4 


71- 


102 


78 


15 


44 


254 


41 


21 


28 


392 


46 


220 


100-0 


7 


70- 


115 


88 


25 


72 


473 


70 


33 


45 


646 


75 


210 


95-5 


14 


a Cfl- 


218 


167 


40 


110 


753 


122 


52 


70 


1063 


124 


200 


909 


24 


S-; G8— 


—210— 


—161^ 
101 L 


62 


179 


886 


143 


72 


97 


1230 


143 


190 


86-4 


67 


^ 07 


210 


—73— 


—211— 


—918— 


— 148t 
142 L 


1-28 


173 


—1329— 


—155— 


180 


81 -8 


125 


6C- 


139 


107 


58 


167 


881 


—145— 


—196— 


1223 


143 


170 


77-3 


108 ; 


C5- 
C4- 


109 
47 


84 
30 


33 
15 


96 
44 


740 
524 


119 

85 


108 
83 


146 
112 


990 
669 


115 

78 


160 
150 


72-7 


275 ; 


68-2 


255 ; 


03- 


I -601 


1!) 


14 


7 


20 


320 


52 


48 


65 


394 


46 


140 


636 


173 • : 


02- 


1-575 
I '550 


9 


7 


2 


6 


128 


20 


30 


41 


169 


20 


130 


59' I 


63 


01- 


2 


2 


2 


5 


70 


12 


9 


12 


83 


9 


120 


54-5 


22 


00- 


1-525 
1-499 


2 


1 


— 


— 


39 


6 


— 


— 


41 


5 


110 


50-0 


8 


59- 


— 


— 


1 


3 


12 


2 


1 


1 


14 


1 


100 


455 


1 


58- 


1-474 


1 


1 


— 


— 


3 


1 


— 


— 


4 


1 


90 


40-9 


— 


57- 


1-448 


— 


' ■ 




' 


1 


~ 


1 


1 


2 


~ 


~"~ 


~" 




Total 


1304 


1000 


346 


1000 


6194 


1000 


741 


1000 


8585 


1000 


Total . 


1212 


Avernge inclies 


08-71 


_ 


07-90 


_ 


07-30 





66-00 


. 


67-66 


, 


Average lbs. 


165-3 


,, mfitrcs 


1-746 




1-726 




I -712 


~ 


1-694 


" 


1-720 


~ 


„ kilos. 


75'1 


Mean inches . . 


08-5 


_ 


67-6 


_ 


07-5 


_ 


66-5 


_ 


67-5 


,_ 


Mean lbs. 


160-0 


„ metres . . 


1-741 


™ 


I-715 

-441 


— 


1-715 




1-690 


" 


I -715 




„ kilos. . 


72-7 


Heifflit-T- weight 


■416 


_ 


_ 


•435 


_ 


•421 





-428 





Weight-=-ligt. 


2-406 


inches per lb. 






















(lbs. per 




of weight) 






















in. of height) 





Note. — The factors in the bottom line give some means of ascertaining the 
most probable stature, weight, chest-girth, or strength of a man, when only one 
of these data is known. They also give modified values when the birthplace 
of the man is also known, whether it be in Scotland, Ireland, England, or 
"Wales. The results so obtained are based on the supposition that the pro- 
portion between the values of these qualities is constant, which is practically 
true for values that do not differ widely from the mean. 

The method of employing the factors is simple : thus, the first five of 
them are the number of inches in height divided by the number of pounds in 



EEPORT OV THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



257 



85 Adult IMales (age from 23 to 50) of the Population of the United 
Place of Birth. 



WEIGHT 


CHEST-GIRTH 


STRENGTH 


Wales 


England 


Ireland 


Total 


Empty 
chest-girth : 

military 
measurement 


Total : chiefly 
English 


Strength : 
drawing- 
power, as in 
drawing a bow 


Total: chiefly 
English 


> 
s 


S o 

'^ § 

o ^ 

I 
1 

3 

2 

11 

9 

19 

46 

138 

182 

-242-, 

207" 

92 

31 

13 

3 


^j 

1 

3 

<« 

10 

33 

62 

75 

174 

304 

492 

881 

1075 


Co 


a 
of 




1- 


to 

= '■§ 
?^ 




2 

a 


% 
a 


01 
of 






lbs. 


kUos. 


>■ 




ii 


I 

( 
t 


1 

2 

2 

6 

11 

13 

31 

55 

89 

158 

194 


1 
1 
8 
13 
25 
36 
51 


4 

4 

32 

53 

101 

146 

206 


1 

1 

8 
11 

16 

41 

85 

107 

263 

476 

787 

1326 

—1559— 

1623 

867 

390 

152 

34 

2 


I 

2 

2 

5 

11 

14 
34 
61 

102 

171 

—201— 

210 

112 

50 

20 

4 


45- 
44. 
43- 
42- 
41- 
40- 
39- 
38- 
37- 
—36— 
35- 
34- 
33- 
32- 
31- 
30- 
29- 
28- 
27- 


"4'3 

1117 

iog-2 

1066 

104- 1 

I0I-6 

900 

96-5 

939 

— gi-4— 

88-9 

863 

83-8 

8i-2 

78-7 

76-2 

73-6 

71-1 

68-5 


4 

7 

20 

57 

76 

128 

216 

330 

442 

—588— 

552 

541 

249 

117 

40 

33 

5 

1 

1 


1 
2 

6 

17 

22 

35 

63 

97 

130 

—173— 

162 

158 

75 

35 

12 

10 
2 


150 
140 
130 
120 

no 

100 
90 
80 
—70— 
60 
50 
40 
30 


68-2 
636 
591 
545 
500 

455 
40-9 

364 
—31-8— 

273 
227 
i8-2 
13^6 


4 

4 

2 

15 

18 

73 

226 

296 

—522— 

250 

69 

15 

3 


3 
3 

2 
10 

12 

46 
140 
184 g 

—387 y 1 

157 = 
43 
10 
3 


! 

i 

1 


1240 

694 

338 

133 

26 

2 


223 

125 

61 

24 

5 


57 

42 

7 

1 

5 


231 
170 

29 
4 

20 


i 


1000 


5552 


1000 


247 


1000 


7749 


1000 


Total . 


3407 


1000 


Total . 


1497 


1000 


•3 
9 


— 


153-0 
705 


— 


154-1 
yo'o 


— 


158-2 
71 "9 


— 


Average ins. . 
„ cm. . 


36-46 
92-6 


— 


Average lbs. 
„ kilos. 


79-6 
362 


~ 



5 


— 


150-0 
68-2 


— 


150-0 
68-2 


— 


155-0 
70-5 


— 


Mean inches . 
„ cm. 


36-50 
92-7 


— 


Mean lbs. . 
„ kilos. . 


77-5 
352 


— 


'5 


— 


2-301 


— 


2-270 


— 


2-323 


— 


Girth -=-hgt. 
Girth ^wgt. 


-542 
•235 


— 


Stngth.-^ht. 
Stngth.-^wt. 


1-182 
•513 


— 



■weight, in the five following cases, natives of Scotland, Ireland, England, 
and Wales, and in the British Isles generally. The factor for Scotland is 
0-416, consequently a Scotchman whose weight is 150 lbs. has most pro- 
bably a height of 150 X 0-416 inches, or 62-4 inches. Similarly, in the next 
group of pounds of weight divided by inches of height, the factor for Eng- 
lishmen is 2-301, consequently an Englishman 6Q inches in height should 
weigh 66 x 2-301 lbs., or 152 lbs. In the same way we may calculate the- 
other elements by the remaining factors. 
1883. s 



258 REroKT— 1883. 

Summary of Information Ohtained. 

13. The Committee submit in this, its final Report, a review of all the 
information which it has collected under the different heads of inquiry, 
giving references to those tables and conclusions which have been pub- 
lished in its previous Reports, and adding such others as it has been able 
to draw from the several sources at its command. 

14. The first object of the Committee has been to ascertain the prin- 
cipal characteristics of the adult population : — 

a. As to the stature, weight, chest-girth, and strength of the whole 
country and of each of its four provinces, shown in Table I., pages 256, 
257. 

h. The relative stature, weight, and strength of men and women. 
Table II., page 261. 

c. The stature, weight, and complexion (colour of eyes and hair) 
of men in different counties as indicating their racial origin, and the in- 
fluence of soil, climate, occupation, and other sanitary surroundings. 
Tables III. andjy., and Plates V.-IX., pages 262 to 205. I i 

d. The relative stature of men oY British origin, an^ that of other 
nationalities and races as far as they have been ascertained. Tables V. 
and VI., pages 268, 269. 

15. The second object the Committee has had in' view has been to 
ascertain the rate of growth and development of childi'en of both sexes 
under different conditions of life (media) ; the period cif the attainment of 
maturity ; and the influence of advancing age on the physical condition 
of the body. Tables XII. to XXV. 

Adult Population op the British Isles. 

a. Adult Males — Table I. 

16. Table I. shows the stature, weight, chest-girth, and strength of 
adult males of the ages from twenty-three to fifty years, the number of 
men at each measurement, and the ratio per thousand of the male popu- 
lation. 

17. The observations are grouped according to the place of birth in 
England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland ; and, with the exception of the 
Irish, they were chiefly derived from the division of the country under 
which they are entered in the table. The Irish returns are almost 
entirely those of men born in Ireland, but living in England, Scotland, 
or Wales ; and the Committee regrets that it has not been able to obtain 
more than one return direct from Ireland. The Scotch and Welsh by birth, 
living in England, have been entered under their I'espective nationalities. 
The columns are arranged in the order of the superiority of the average 
stature and weight. 

18. The general results indicated by this table may be summarised as 
follows : — In height the Scotch stand first (68*71 inches ; 1'746 metres), 
the Irish second (67'90 inches; 1"726 metres), the English third 
(67'36 inches ; 1"712 metres), and the Welsh last (66'6G inches ; l'69i 
metres), the average of the whole being 67'66 inches (1'720 metres). 
In weight the Scotch take the first place (165"3 lbs. ; 75'1 kilos.), 
the Welsh the second (158'3 lbs. ; 71-9 kilos.), the English the third 
(.156-0 lbs.; 70-5 kilos.), and the Irish the fourth (1541 lbs. ; 70-0 kilos.), 
the average weight of the whole being 158"2 lbs. (71'9 kilos.). Thus the 
Scotch are the tallest and heaviest, the English take the third place in 
both tables, while the position of the Welsh and Irish is reversed — the 



KEPORT OF THE ANTHB0PO3IETEIC COMMITTEE. 259 

Irish, occupying the second place in stature, come last in weight, and 
the Welsh, though lowest in stature, stand second in weight. For each 
inch of stature a Scotchman weighs 2'406 lbs., a Welshman 2'375 lbs., 
an Englishman 2-301 lbs., and an Irishman 2'270 lbs. 

19. The columns showing the number of individuals per thousand at 
each height, besides showing in a uniform manner the relative stature 
and weight of the different nationalities, will be useful to military sur- 
geons for determining the minimum stature of recruits for the army. 
From the run of the figures it is obvious that if each country has to 
•contribute its relative quota of soldiers, the minimum standard for Welsh 
recruits should be two inches lower, and for English and Irish recruits 
one inch lower, than for Scotch recruits. This difference in the relative 
stature is best shown by the black line running across the table, which 
marks the mean height — that is to say, the height at which the greatest 
number of observations occur in each nationality. 

20. It is probable that too much importance has been attached to 
stature in selecting recruits for the army in this country, and that a 
high standard does not necessarily produce men best fitted for military 
duties. In the Report for 1879 are given two tables of the stature and 
weight of the English, Scotch, and Irish recruits for the years 1862-3, 
when the minimum standard of height was C6 inches (1'677 metres), and 
in 1864-65, when it was reduced to 65 inches (1'626 metres) ; and the 
result of this change was to lower the general average stature of English 
recruits by only 0'17 inch, of the Scotch by 0'21 inch, and the Irish by 
0-25 inch, but in all three nationalities to increase the average weight — 
the English by 1-3 lbs., the Scotch by 67 lbs., and the Irish by 0-8 lb. 

21. Although the minimum standard was the same for all the 
nationalities, the influence of race is indicated by the difference in the 
average stature of the recruits. The English and Welsh recruits (who 
were not distinguished from each other) were shorter in stature than the 
Irish by 0'30 inch, and the Scotch by 0'44! of an inch-' 

22. The measurements of the chest given in Table I. are almost 
entirely those of Englishmen, and must be studied in connection with the 
English observations of height and weight ; and the same remark applies 
to the figures relative to strength. The chest-girths were taken by the 
method adopted in the British army, and the strengths by the spring- 
balance introduced by this Conimittee, and described in Appendix A. 

23. An examination of Table I. shows that an adult Englishman oi 
'typical proportions has a stature of 5 feet . 7^ inches ; a chest-girth of 

36^ inches ; a weight of 10 stones 10 lbs. ; and is able to draw, as in 
drawing a bow, a weight of 77^ pounds. These are the mean propor- 
tions. The averages give greater weight for height ; they are : — Height, 
5 feet 7^ inches; weight, 11 stones 1 lb. ; empty chest-girth, 36 "46 inches; 
and strength, 79'6 lbs. For every variation of an inch in stature above 
or below the avei-age, 2o01 lbs. weight, ••542 inch chest-girth, and 
1-182 lbs. strength must be added or subtracted to keep up the typical 
pi'oportions. This rule of proportion is, however, only approximately 
correct, as variations in the stature depend la,rgely on the length of the 
lower limbs, while the other qualities depend chiefly on the size of the 
trunk. In ascending the scale of height, therefore, the above figures are 
probably a little too great, while in the opposite direction they are barely 
sufiicient, but in either case they are suificieutly near for all practical 
' Furtlier tables relating to recruits are given in Appendix B to this Keport. 

s2 



260 



iJEi'OiiT — 1883. 



purposes.' A further development of this rule as applicable to both 
sexes and at all ages will be found in Table XX. 

24. Plate IV. shows the relative stature of the four British nationali- 
ties, traced from the columns in the table showing the number of men 
at each height per thousand. The curve of the English very nearly 
corresponds with that of the average for the whole kingdom. The Scotch 
curve is above the average, and from its irregularity it is evident that 
the obsei'vations on which it is based are not quite representative of that 
part of the kingdom. The Welsh curve is below the general average, 
and in a manner balances the excess of the Scotch, while the Irish 
curve is somewhat too acute, owing to the comparatively small number 
of observations on which it is based. 

h. Adult Males and Females — Table II. 

25. Table IT. shows the relative stature, weight, and strength of adult 
males and females in England, no returns for females having been received 
from other parts of the kingdom. The average stature of adult males is 
C7"36 inches (1'712 metres), and of females, t)2'Go inches (1'5'J2 metres)^ 
showing a difference of 4-71 inches ('120 metres), or nearly 4| inches. 
The average weight of males is 155'0 lbs. (70"5 kilos.), and that of 
females 122-8 lbs. (65-8 kilos.), showing an excess of 32-2 lbs. (147 
kilos.), or about 2^ stones on the side of males, the percentnge difference of 
weight being just threefold that of height. The ratio between the stature of 
men and women in England is as 1 to 0'930, or as 16 to 14'88, the difference 
being somewhat greater than in Belgium, where, according to Quetelet,. 
the ratio is as 1 to 0'937, or about 16 to 15 (strictly 16 to 14-99). The 
observations of the strength of females wete obtained from pupils in 
training institutions for schoolmistresses and from shop assistants, and 
the average is no doubt much lower than if the labouring classes were 
also represented. The difference of strength is 35 lbs., the females being 
little more than half as strong as males. In these tables, the age of the 
attainment of maturity is fixed at 23 years for males, and 20 years for 
females, the reasons for which will be explained in another part of the 
Report. 

' The following measurements show the diflference between the height of the 
body of men in the standing and recumbent positions, and the span of arms measured 
across the front of the chest. Also the difference between the height of the body in 
the standing and the sitting positions, showing the relative length of the trunk and 
of the lower limbs. The English figures are calculated from the American measure- 
ments of Dr. Hitchcock, taken in 1882. 



American 

Amherst 

College 
English 
Profes- 
sional class 

Difference 



Affe 
years 



21-5 



21-5 



No. of 
obs. 



327 



364 



A.merican 

English 





Standing 


Horizontal 


Span of 


Sitting 






height 


length 


arms 


height 


Length 


J metres 


1-729 


1-748 


r787 


0-907 ) 


1 inches 
) metres 


68-07 


68-82 


70^36 


35-71 


of 










L trunk 


1-746 


1-765 


1-804 


•915 


and 


j inches 
/ metres 


68-70 


69-45 


7101 


3604 


head 


— 


+ -019 


+ ■058 


- -822 ] 
-32-36 


Length 


1_ inches 


— 


+ •75 


+ 2-29 


of 


/metres 


+ •017 


+ •019 


+ -058 


-•831 


lower 


\^ inches 


+ •63 


+ •75 


+ 2-31 


-32^66 J 


limbs 



The ratio between the total height and the sitting height is 1 to 1^906. 



5.1 "^Reports 



Heigh f Nianbtr of 




JYtimber^ o, 
C. Aoberts. 



•^PtfrrtBnlMi'.' 



Iha^rani s/ittunt/ ihe (ihxrnrfi Stnfure vf\-lilult Mi/ce of Jin ash Jsir^ . 
Trac4^^ from ihi ccftumts ft' Tnhle 1. .shtmiriff tJte Tuirnher pa- JOOO . 




• 



KEPOllT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



261 



Table II. — Showing the Relative Stature, Weight, and Strength of 
Adult Males (23-50 years) and Females (20-50 years) of English 



Origin. 



Height 


Weight 


Strength 


Height 


Number of 


WeiEcht with 


Number of 


Strength, 


Number of 


without shoes 


observations 


clothes 


observations 


drawing- powei 


observations 


Inches 

77- 


Metres 


Males 


Females 


lbs. 


Kilos. 


Males 


Females 


lbs. 


Kilos. 


Males 


Females 


1-957 


1 





260 


118-2 


I 


— 





— 


— 


76- 


1-931 


1 


— 


250 


113-6 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7.')- 


1-906 


9 


— 


240 


109-1 


9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


74- 


1-881 


16 


— 


230 


104-5 


10 


— 


1.50 


68-2 


4 


— 


73- 


1-855 


48 


— 


220 


100-0 


33 


— 


140 


63-6 


4 


— 


72- 


1-830 


117 


— 


210 


95-5 


62 


— 


LSO 


59-1 


2 


— 


71- 


1-804 


254 


1 


200 


90-9 


75 


1 


120 


54-5 


15 


— 


70- 


1-779 


473 


— 


190 


86-4 


174 


— 


110 


50-0 


18 


— 


69- 


1-754 


753 


— 


180 


818 


304 


1 


100 


45-5 


73 


— 


68- 


1-728 


886 


3 


170 


77-3 


492 


— 


90 


40-9 


226 


1 


-67 


-1-702. 


—918. 


T 11 


160 


72-7 


881 


2 


80 


3 6-4 


296 


— 


66- 
65- 


1-677 
1-653 


881 
740 


22 
24 


150 


68-2 


1075 


14 
1 20 


60 


-31-8- 
27-3 


— 522# 
250 


-, 2 
5 


140 


63-6 


1240 


64- 


1-626 


524 


44 


130 


59 1 


694 


58 


50 


22-7 


69 


25 


63- 

62- 


1-601 
1575 


320 

128 


57 
—71- 


120 
110 


54-5 
50 


338 
133 


101 


40 
30 


18-2 
13-6 


15 
3 


101 


108 


98 


61- 


1-550 


70 


59 


100 


45-5 


26 


53 


20 


91 


— 


9 


60- 


1-525 


39 


37 


90 


40 9 


2 


10 


— ■ 


— 


— 




59- 


1-499 


12 


22 











■ — 


— 


— 




.58- 


1-474 


3 


17 










— 


— 


— 




57- 


1-448 


I 


6 










— 


— 







56- 


1-423 


— 


3 










— 










55- 


1-398 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


Total num-l 


















berofobser- }> 


6194 


379 


— 


6552 


368 




_ 


1497 


241 


vations 


J 




















Aver- / 


inches 


67-36 


62-65 


Aver- ^ lbs. 


155-0 


122-8 


Aver- 


ribs. 


79-6 


44-5 


age I metres 


1-712 


1-592 


age (^ kilos 


70-5 


55-8 

120-0 
54-6 


age 1 


L kilos 


36-2 


20-2 


Mean/i'^^^^ 
1_ metres 


67-60 
1-715 


62-5 
1-588 


Afoo Hbs. 
^^^^°\ kilos 


150-0 
68-2 


Meaii< 


fibs. 
^ kilos 


77-5 
35-2 


400 
18-2 



c. Distribution of AJult Males according to Stature, WeigJit,and Complexion. 
Table III, and Plates V.-'lX. (Maps Nos. 1 to 5). 

'26. Table III. exhibits the average stature, -weight, and complexion 
(colour of eyes and hair) of adult males born in the several counties of 
Great Britain and Wales and in each province of Ireland, arranged in 
the order of the greatest stature. The Committee is sensible that the 
number of observations in some of the counties is not sufficient to furnish, 
an average which may be fully relied upon ; but the results, as detailed in 
the remarks upon this summary, show that there is such a consistency 
between the data and the records of history as to justify a general trust 
in the conclusions to be drawn from the figures. 



262 



EEPORT — 1883. 





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Average 

weight, 

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clothes 


12 




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Average 
height 

without 
sheies 


3 






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c c =.;: o * o 
t>H 5c ij _; ?i a O 



RBPOKT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



263 






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'264 EEPOET— 1883. 

27. To save much detailed description, the Committee has thought it 

• desirable to illustrate Table III. by a series of shaded maps (Plates V.-IX.), 
which present at once to the eye the relative distribution of the stature, 
■weight, and complexion of the adult male population in the several 
counties of Great Britain and in each province of Ireland. 

Map No. 1 shows the distribution of the average stature (without 
shoes) of adult males, in degrees of half an inch each from G6 to 70 inches. 
The darkest shade represents the shortest stature. 

Map No. 2 shows the distribution of the average weight (including 
" the clothes) of adult males, in degrees of five pounds from 145 pounds to 
180 pounds. The darkest shade represents the lightest weight. 

Map No. 3 shows the distribution of adult males with fair complexion, 
i.e. blue and grey eyes with fair, light-brown, brown, and light- red hair. 
The darkest shade represents the lowest percentage of fair complexion. 

Map No. 4 shows the distribution of adult males with dark com- 
plexion, i.e. brown and black eyes, with brown, dark brown, dark red, 
and black hair. The darkest shade represents the highest percentage of 
dark complexion, or its greatest prevalence. 

Map No. 5 shows the distribution of adult males with mixed com- 
plexion, i.e. blue and grey eyes with dark brown and black hair. The 

• darkest shade represents the highest percentage, or the greatest prevalence 
of this complexion. 

28. As the observations were necessarily made on a limited number 
of individuals, and as doubts may exist as to whether the results can be 
accepted as representing the whole of the male population at the ages 
specified, the counties having similar statures have been grouped together, 
and the male population for each group ascertained from the Census 
returns of 1881.' The average stature worked out from these figures is 
67"58 inches, while that obtained from the actual observations on 8,585 
individuals, given in Table I., is 67'66 inches, the difference between 
the two being only 0"08 of an inch. Table IV. shows the grouping 
of the counties, having the same stature according to the Committee's 
returns, and the total male population of each group at the ages from 25 
to 55 years. 

' These returns for England and Scotland are not yet published, and the Com- 
mittee is indebted to tlie courtesy of the Registrars-General of those portions of 
the kingdom for manuscript copies of the returns. The ages of the men on whom 
the observations were made are not exactly the same as those obtained from the 
Census office, but they are sufficiently near for any practical purpose. The measure- 
ments were made on men from 23 to 51 years of age, while the Census returns are 
those of men from 23 to 5.5 years, but the four years above 51 will about compen- 
sate for the two years wanting below 25 years both in numbers and stature, in 
•consequence of losses by death. Both periods correspond with the best portion of 
men's lives, at least as far as stature is concerned. 



BEPOBT OF IHE , ANTHEOPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



265 



C. Roberts 



::XPLANAT10N 



II 


tflPtit Shcr.n 
inches 


3 1 


70 ufnva/fis 


az 


69\to 70 


33 


09 .. 69Ji 


14- 


6&)i,. €3 


35 


fiS „ 68>i 


36 


67^ „ 68 


S7 


67 „ 67X 


18 


6G\. 67 


19 


an . 66\ 




JUustruOnff the Mcport of t^w ^bithTvpomt-trir fom/iii/fe^. 



BEPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETllIC COMMITTEE. 



265 



C JtoherCS 




Illusfjytit/u/ fJit~ /ttfior-f oi' tJit .Inthn'pnT/utnt (iviUff{//rf 



BEPORT OF THE ANTHEOPOMETUIC COMMITTEE. 



265 



Table IV. — Showing the Number of Adalfc Males of the Ages above 25 
and under 55 years for each group of counties possessing the same 
Average Statcjee, and the ratio per 1,000. From the Census returns 
of 1881. 



Observed 

average stature 

without shoes in 

inches 



69^ and upwards 



09 to 69i 



681 to 69 



68 to 681 



67i to 68 



67 to 67^ 



66i to 67 



66 to66i 



Counties of the United Kingdom 



(■Kirkcudbright, Ayr, AVig^ton; Edin- ] 
J burgh, Linlithgow, Haddington, ■ 
( Berwickshire. J 

Sutherland, Ross and Cromarty, Skye, ] 
Perth, Stirling, Dumbarton, Fife, [ 
Kinross, Clackmannan ; Xorth and ( 
East Eidings of Yorkshire. j 

[Argyle, Bute, Arran, Dumfries, Rox-] 
J burgh, Selkirk, Peebles ; Northum- !■ 
i berland ; Connaught, Munster. j 

1 Caithness, Inverness, Aberdeen, Banff, 
Elgin, Jfairn, Forfar, Kincardine ; 
Lanark, Renfrew ; Cumberland, 
AVestmoreland ; Lincoln, Norfolk ; 
Ulster, Leinster. 
1 Shetland, Western Hebrides; Durham, 
Lancashire, Derby, Stafford ; Suf- 
folk, Essex, Kent ; Berkshire ; Corn- 
wall. 
(Nottingham, Leicester, Rutland, ] 
Northampton, Bedford ; Warwick, [ 
Worcester ; Flint, Denbigh ; Sussex, I 
Hampshire, Dorset, Devon. J 

London (66-92 inches). 
West Riding of Yorksliire, Chester; 
Carnarvon, Anglesea, Merioneth, 
Montgomery, Cardigan, Brecon, 
Radnor ; Cambridge, Huntingdon ; 
Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire. 
Hertford, Middlesex (ex. metrop.) ; 
Surrey (ex. metrop.) ; Shropshire, 
Hereford, Monmouth, Gloucester, 
Wiltshire, Somerset ; Glamorgan, 
Caermarthen, Pembroke. 



Adult male 

population 

age 2.')-5o 

vears 



125,103 
167,914 
4.59,055 

974,177 

1,326,292 

688,465 

667,118 

636,769 
573.774 



5,618,677 



Per 

1,U00 



300 

SI-7 

173-4 

2360 

122-6 

118-7 

113-3 

1021 



1000- 



Stature x Population 



Total male population 



_ J 67-58 inches, average stature of adult males (25-55 years 
of age) of the United Kingdom. 



29. Ethnology. — The variations in stature, weight, and complexion 
shown to exist in different districts of the British Isles by the maps, ap- 
pear to be chiefly due to difference of racial origin, and this influence pre- 
dominates over all others. ' We have reason to believe, from historical and 
antiquarian researches, that the ancient Caledonii, the BelgiB and Cimbri, 
and the Saxons and Frisians, as well as the Danes and Normans, were all 
people of great stature. On the other hand, the prehistoric (neolithic) 
race or races in Britain appear to have been of low or moderate 
stature. Accordingly the higher statures are found in the Pictish or 



'266 



REPORT 1883. 



Cimbro-Britisli districts of Galloway ; in the Anglo-Danish ones of 
North and East Yorkshire, Westmoreland and Lincolnshire, and in 
Cunaberland, whose people are ethnologically intermediate between the 
two. Lothian and Berwickshire are mainly Anglian, while the Perth- 
shire Highlanders are the most clearly identified as the descendants of 
the Caledonii. The high position of Norfolk in the list is due to a large 
admixture of Danish blood on the coast. There is a fringe of moderately 
high stature all round the coast from Norfolk to Cornwall, while the 
inland people, retaining more of the ancient British blood, yield lower 
averages. Middlesex and Hertfordshire, which stand very low, were 
later and less perfectly colonised by the Anglo-Saxon than the surround- 
ing counties, and nearly the same may be said of the counties around the 
Severn estuary and the Welsh border. Cornwall stands higher than the 
surrounding counties, and this is probably due to its having become the 
refuge of the military class of Southern Britain, in the main of Belgic 
origin. Flint and Denbigh owe their superiority to the other Welsh 
counties to the immigration of the Cumbrian and Strathclyde Britons.' 
— Dr. Beddoe. 

30. According to the Committee's returns, the western provinces of 
Ireland possess a high stature, similar to the Scotch Highlands, with 
which they may have a common racial origin, while the lower stature of 
the eastern provinces is probably traceable to the comparatively recent 
Scotch and English immigrations. The Irish returns are, however, too 
few to be relied on (although the closeness of the averages for all the 
provinces would suggest the absence of any errors of observation), and 
any conclusions drawn from them must be received with great reserve 
until they are confirmed by more extended inquiries. In some of the 
returns the county origin and birthplace was not recorded, which ac- 
counts for the difference between the totals for the whole of Ireland and 
those living in each province. 

31. The racial elements of the British population are best demon- 
strated by separating a few of the counties where there has been the least 
admixture of foreign blood, and comparing these together, thus : — 



Race 



Early British 
Saxon 
Anglian . 

Scandinavian 



District 



Cardigan, Radnor, and Brecon . 

Sussex, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire . 

Lothians, Northumberland, and Norfolk . 
f Shetland, Caithness, North and East York- "^ 
1^ shire, and Lincolnshire. J 



Stature 



6G-.59 
67-22 
68-73 

68-32 



Weight 



169-3 
155-8 
166-7 

162-7 



32. Geographical distribution. — The inhabitants of the more elevated 
districts possess a greater stature than those of alluvial plains. The 
counties forming the river valleys of the Severn and Wye, the Thames^ 
the Dee and Mersey, the Clyde, the Trent, and the fen district of Cam- 
bridge and Huntingdon, show a lower stature than the surrounding 
counties inhabited by persons of a similar racial origin. 

33. With respect to latitude and climate, the inhabitants of the northern 
and colder districts possess greater stature than those of the southern and 
warmer parts of the island ; those of the north-eastern and drier regions 
are taller than those of the south-western and damper climates. A similar 
disposition of stature has been found to exist in France and Italy, the 



REPOET OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 267 

inhabitants of both these counti-ies being taller in the northern than in the • 
southern provinces. The same rule applies to the whole of the countries 
of Europe, in their relation to each other, as will be seen in Table IV., con- 
structed to show the position held by the inhabitants of the British Isles 
relative to the stature of other European countries. The Committee 
regrets that it has not been able to obtain any information on this subject 
direct from the European countries (except some referring to conscripts,, 
which were not suitable for their purpose), and has beeii obliged to avail 
itself of the observations made in the United States of America on 
emigrants from European States. In reading this table it must be borne 
in mind that the statistics referring to the United Kingdom, collected by 
the Committee, and to the native-born population of the United States, 
refer to men of all classes ; while those collected by the military autho- 
rities of 1863-4 in the United States, referring to Canada and the other 
American countries, and to those of all Eurojae, refer to emigrants, 
who belong almost entirely to the labouring classes. The close accord 
between the average stature of the United Kingdom (67'66 inches) and 
that of the native white population of the United States (67-67 inches) 
is accounted for in this way ; and, on the other hand, the marked dif- 
ferences between the statures of the Scotch (68" 71), Irish (67"90), Eng- 
lish (67'36), and Welsh (66" 66 inches), as given by the Committee and 
those given by the United States Government (67-07, 6674, 66-58, and 
66-42 respectively) is explained. Some American writers on the subject 
have overlooked this important distinction, and, studying only the sta- 
tistics obtained in their own country, have concluded that the Anglo- 
Saxon race is of greater stature in America than in Great Britain. In 
the Report of the Committee for 1879 Mr. Roberts has given a paper, 
illustrated by a series of diagrams and statistical tables, of English and 
Americans, showing the close similarity which exists between the stature 
and weight of the two branches of our race, both in children and adults ; 
and the more extended observations of the Committee appear to confirm 
his conclusions. 

34. Occupation and sanitary surroundings. — The various industries of 
this country are not often so defined by the county boundaries as to show 
their eflEects on the physical development. It is probable, however, that 
the low stature in the West Riding of Yorkshire is due to the large 
manufacturing town population included in the returns, and the rela- 
tively low stature of Durham to the large mining population. Lanca- 
shire and Stafford, which contain similar industries to those of the West 
Riding and Durham, do not show any falling oif in stature, and it is 
probable that a large number of returns received from Sheffield have un- 
fairly lowered the West Riding. The very low position, lower than can 
be accounted for by their racial origin, taken by the home counties — 
Hertford, Middlesex, and Surrey — is no doubt due to their proximity to 
London ; the more vigorous men are attracted to the town by high 
wages, and the more feeble overflow into the surrounding districts. The 
counties which fringe the sea-coast possess a higher stature than those 
a,djoining them but lying further inland. This may be due to race, as 
has already been suggested ; but it may also be due to the more healthy 
situation or the fishing occupation. The lower stature of the river valleys 
would seem to imply that such situations are not favourable to physical 
development, especially as some of them were originally settled by the 
Scandinavian races. 



-268 



REPORT 1883. 



Table V. — Sbowins' the 



Average 



Stature of Adulfc Males in each 



Division of the United Kingdom, according to the returns collected by 
the Anthropometric Committee, compared with that of Adnlt Males of 
American and European Origin, who were examined for admission into 
the United States Army in the year 1863-4 ; the natives of European 
origin being arranged in the order of their average stature, showing also 
the medium stature, and the proportions above and below it, with the 
proportions of the extremes of high and low stature. (See ' Statistics, 
Medical and Anthropological, U.S. Army, 1875.') 









Percentage ] 


1 
iro- 


Extremes. 
Percentage 


Countries 


in ■ 

a 
o 


h 

0) U 


port 


ion ot total 
number 


proportion of 
total number 


S 


S 










O 
v.. 

o 




"o 


•9 


a 


a 








> 


»o 


Ci 


c. 


y-t 


CO 




d 


<; 


o 


o 


o 


o 


t~ 




t^; 




Ul 


o 


t*> 


u 


CD 








o 


*^ 


> 


a 


> 








•T3 




o 


•a 


O 











lO 


J3 


a 


.o 








t) 


CO 


< 


t) 


■< 


Observations of Anthropo- 
















metric Committee : — 
















Scotland .... 


l,30i 


68-71 


5-6 


.50-2 


44-2 


0-19 


2-13 


Ireland ..... 


346 


67-90 


6-7 


65-3 


28-0 


0-32 


0-00 


Eng-land .... 


6,194 


67-36 


17-8 


55-5 


26-7 


0-93 


0-43 


Wales 

Total, United Kingdom . 
Observations on Conscripts in 


741 


66-66 


22-8 


62-0 


15-2 


— 


— 


8,585 


67-66 


16-1 


5.5-7 


28-2 


" 


— 
















I'.S. America: — 
















United States. 
















White, native born 


315,620 


67-67 


15-3 


54-1 


30-6 


0-53 


2-02 


Coloured, of all degrees 


25,828 


66-63 


29-6 


51-9 


18-5 


1-79 


1-00 


Indians, N.A. tribes 

Tm )ii if/ra tt ts from — 


121 


67-93 


14-2 


52-0 


33-8 




008 
















Canada (chiefly French) 


21,645 


6701 


21-8 


.56-3 


21-9 


0-74 


1-01 


Mexico 


91 


6611 


25-2 


51-7 


13-1 


3-29 


1-09 


South America 


79 


65-90 


41-7 


40-4 


17-9 


2-13 




West Indies .... 


580 


66-31 


28-9 


56-4 


14-7 


0-86 


0-34 


Europe. 
















Norvva}^ ..... 


2,2£0 


67-47 


16-6 


57-0 


26-4 


0-74 


1-31 


Scotland 






3,476 


67-07 


20-4 


58-3 


21-3 


046 


103 


Sweden . 






1,190 


66-90 


21-3 


59-5 


19-2 


0-42 


0-76 


Ireland . 






30,557 


66-74 


23-2 


60-1 


16-7 


0-70 


0-49 


Denmark 






383 


6d-65 


25-1 


57-7 


17-2 


0-78 


0-26 


Holland 






989 


66-64 


26-6 


56-3 


171 


1-31 


0-50 


England 






16,196 


66-58 


25-9 


58-3 


15-8 


1-08 


0-56 


Hungary 






89 


66-58 


22-5 


58-4 


19-1 


3-37 


1-12 


Germany 






54,944 


66-54 


27-0 


57-0 


16-0 


1-31 


0-51 


Wales . 






1,104 


66-42 


29-3 


53-6 


17-1 


0-82 


0-63 


Russia . 






122 


66-39 


29-6 


54-0 


16-4 


3-28 


0-82 


Switzerland . 






1,302 


66-38 


29-5 


55-7 


14-8 


1-61 


0-44 


France . 






3,243 


66-28 


30-0 


56-5 


13-5 


1-85 


0-57 


Poland . 






171 


66-21 


32-1 


56-7 


11-2 


1-75 


1-17 


Italy 






339 


66-00 


37-8 


48-9 


13-3 


2-06 


0-29 


Spain 






148 


65-64 


43-3 


49-3 


7-4 


2-70 




Portuga 1 






81 


65-43 


39-5 


56-8 


3-7 


3-70 


— 



EEPORT OF THE AXTHROPOMETEIC COMMITTEE. 



269' 



d. British compared with other Eaces and Nationalities. 

35. Considering the large number of different races included in tlie- 
Britisli Empire, and the political and commercial relations of its people witln 
nearly every other country, the Committee think it will be interesting and 
useful to give a table showing the average stature of the different races 
and nationalities of the world, as far as it has been able to ascertain them* 
from published records. The list is very imperfect, and it is probable that 
many of the measurements need revision by more extensive observation- 
No nation is so favourably situated for revising and completing the list aa • 
our own ; and the Committee hope that the table will be instrumental in 
promoting further observations of the kind, especially by medical officer's- 
in the Navy and Army, and others practising in our numerous colonies andi 
dependencies. It is interesting to find that, with the exception of a kw 
imperfectly-observed South Sea Islanders, and whose actual numbers, if 
the measurements are correct, are very few, the English professional 
classes head the long list, and that the Anglo- Saxon race takes the chief 
place in it among the civilised communities, although it is possible it 
might stand second to the Scandinavian countries if a fair sample of their, 
population were obtained. 



Showing the Stature of Adult Males of the British Isles^ 



Table VI 

relative to that of other Races and Nationalities 



order of greatest Stature. 



arranged in the 



Race or Nationality 



Polynesians 



I' Samoa 
Tahiti and Pitcairn 
Marquesas 
I New Zealand 
Polynesians 
V Sandwich . 
English professional class 

PataMnians . 



l-8o3 
1-782 
1-763 
1-755 
1-753 
1-731 

/ 1-778 
\ 1-730 



Angamis of the Naga Hills 
Negroes of the Congo 
Scotch, all classes (recruits, 5 ft. 8-03) 
Amakosa Kaffirs, South Africa 
Iroquois Indians .... 

Todas of the Nilghh-ies . 
Negroes of Calabar 
North American Indians 
Irish, all classes (recruits, 5 ft. S'Ol) 
United States (whites, all classes) 
English, all classes (recruits, 5 ft. 7-71) 
f . . . 1-727 

\ immigrants to U.S. 1-717 
Zulus ....... 

English labouring classes 

Canadians, chiefly French immigrants, 

U.S. America 

Tajiks of Ferghana and Samarkand 
Swedes, immigrants to U.S. America 
Chipeway Indians . . . . . 
Kabyles, large race . , . . 



Norwegians 



Authority 



Com. 



} 



LapejTouse 

Garnot, Beechey 

Porter, Cook, &c 

Various 

Wilkes, AWa7-a 

Lesson, Rollin 

Anthropometric 

Musters 

D'Orbigny . 

Woodthoi-p 

Topinard . 

Anthropometric 

Sir A. Smith 

Gold . 

Marshall . 

Topinard . 

Baxter 

Anthropometric 

Baxter 

Antliropometric 

Beddoe 

Baxter 

Pioberts 

Anthropometric Com. 

Baxter 

Ujfalvy 

Baxter and Beddoe . 

Oliver 

Topinard . 



Com 



Com 



Com 



Metres 


Ft. in. 


1-762 


5- 9-33 


1-757 


5- 9-14 


1-754 


5- 9 00 


1-754 


5- 900 


1-752 


5- 8-95 


1-746 


5- 8-71 


1-741 


5- 8-50 


1-735 


5- 8-28 


1-727 


5- 7-95 


1-727 


5- 7-95 


1-726 


5- 7-93 


1-725 


5- 7-90 


1-719 


5- 7-67 


1-719 


5- 7-66 


1-719 


5- 7-66 


1-707 


5- 7-19 


1-705 


5- 708 


1-703 


5- 701 


1-705 


5- 7-10 


1-700 


5- 6-90 


1-700 


5- 6-90 


1-699 


5- 6-85 



270 



REPOET 1883. 



Table VI. {continued). 



Race or Nationality 


Authority 


Metres 


Ft. in. 


Welsh, all classes ..... 


Anthropometric Com. 


1-69.5 


5- 6-66 


Danes, immigrants to U.S. America 


Baxter 


1-694 


.5- 6-65 


Dutch „ „ 


Baxter 


1-693 


5- 6-62 


American* negroes of all degrees of 








colour 


Baxter 


1-693 


5- 6-62 


English immigrants to U.S. America . 


Baxter 


1-692 


5- 6-58 


Hungarians ,, >. . • 


Baxter 


1-692 


5- 6-58 


English Jews 


Anthropometric Com. 


1-692 


5- 6-57 


Germans, immigrants to U.S.America . 


Baxter 


1-691 


5- 6-54 


Swiss of Geneva 


Dunant 


1-688 


.5- 6-43 


Swiss immigrants to U.S. America 


Baxter 


1-687 


.5- 6-38 


Kussians ,, „ 


Baxter 


1-687 


5- 6-38 


Belgians 


Quetelet . 


1-687 


5- 6-38 


French immigrants to U.S. America 


Baxter 


1-683 


5- 6-23 


Poles „ „ 


Baxter 


1-682 


5- 6-20 


French upper classes .... 


De Quatrefages . 


1-681 


5- 6-14 


Germans ...... 


Korara, 


1-680 


5- 6-10 


jMexicans 


Baxter 


1-680 


5- 6-10 


Berbers of Algeria .... 


Topinard . 


1-680 


.5- 6-10 


Arabs 


Various 


1-679 


5- 6-08 


Usbeks of Ferghana and Samarkand 


Ujfalvy 


1-679 


.5- 608 


Javanese ...... 


Noi-ora 


1-679 


.5- 6-08 


Russians 


Shultz 


1-678 


6- 6-04 


Italians, immigrants to U.S. America . 


Baxter 


1-677 


5- 6-00 


South Americans „ „ 


Baxter 


1-675 


5- 6-90 


Australian Aborigines .... 


Various 


1-669 


5- 5-68 


Austrian Sclaves 


Korara 


1-669 


5- 5-68 


Galchas, Iranian Mountaineers 


Ujfalvy . 


1-668 


.5- 5-66 ■ 


Spaniards, immigrants to U.S. America . 


Baxter 


1-668 


5- 5-66 


Berbers of Algeria 


Topinard . 


1-666 


5- 5-62 


Portuguese immigi-ants to U.S. America 


Baxter 


1663 


5- 5-43 


Ainos ....... 


Rosky 


1-660 


5- 5-33 


Austrian Germans 


Novara 


1-658 


5- 5-27 


French working classes 


De Quatrefages 


1-657 


5- 5-24 


Esquimaux of North America 


Various 


1-654 


5- 5-10 


Hungarians (militar}' statistics) . 


Scheiber and Beddoe . 


1-652 


5- 5-04 


Caucasians 


Shortt 


1-650 


.5- 4-93 


New Guinea, various tribes . 


Various 


1-646 


5- 4-78 


Hindoos ...... 


Shortt 


1-645 


5- 4-76 


Bavarians 


Norara 


1-643 


5- 4-68 


Ruthenians ...... 


Majer and Kopernicki 


1-640 


.5- 4-54 


Dravidians 


Shortt 


1-639 


5- 4-50 


Cingalese ...... 


Davy 


1-6.38 


5- 4-48 


Austrian Roumanians .... 


No vara 


1-631 


5- 4-37 


Chinese 


Norara, 


1-630 


5- 4-17 


Italians (conscripts, 1-620) . 


An. di Statist., 1879 . 


1-626 


5- 4-00 


Fuegans 


Norara 


1-625 


5- 3-98 


Polish Jews 


Majer and Kopernicki 


1-623 


5- 3-88 


Poles . . . . • . 


Majer and Kopernicki 


1-622 


5- 3-87 


Finns (Beddoe, 5 ft. .5-81) . 


Nflvara 


1-617 


5- 3-60 


Papuans 


Various 


1-606 


5- 3-20 




Mrs. Ayrton 


1-604 


5- 311 


Aymaras Indians, Peru .... 


Forbes 


1-601 


6- 3-00 


Peruvians ...... 


D'Orbigny 


1-600 


5- 300 


Cochin- Chinese 


Finlayson . 


1-593 


5- 2-70 


Jlalays 


Raffles, Crawf m-d, &c. 


1-583 


5- 2-34 


Veddas of Ceylon 


Bailey 


1-536 


5- 0-42 



REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 

Table VI. {continued). 



271 



Race or Nationalit_v 


Authority 


Mfetres Ft. in. 


Lapps 

Andamanese ...... 

Aetas 

Semangs ...... 

Mincopese 

Bosjesmans (Bushmen and S. Africa) . 


Horch 

Man .... 

De Quatrefages . 
De Quatrefages . 
De Quatrefages . 
"Various 


1-500 4- 11-3 
1-492 4- 10-7 
1-482 4- 10-3 
1-448 4- 9-00 
1-43G 4- 8-53 
1-341 : 4- 4-78 


Difference between the tallest and shortest races 


•421 1- 4-55 


Average statitre of man according to the above . 


1-658 5- 5-25 



Special Subjects of Inquiry. 

36. In the sheet of instructions issued by the Committee observations 
were asked for to illustrate the physical differences of: — 
a. Persons engaged in different occupations. 
h. Pei'sons bred and living in towns, or country. 

c. Natives of parts of the British Isles differing ethnologically, geo- 
logically, or in climate. 

d. Boys and men -whose intellect and industry are above or below the 
average. 

e. The general characteristics of men noted for athletic power. 

/. The rate of growth in persons of both sexes bred in town and 
country, and engaged in different occupations. 

The following table shows some of the extreme variations in stature 
which occur, and which are associated with different occupations and 
conditions of life, illustrative of the above subjects of inquiry. 

Table VII.— Showing the Stature and Weight of Adult Males (age 
23-50 years) under different conditions of life. 



t 


Number 


Ft. in. 


lbs. 


Scotch Agricultural Population, Galloway 


75 


5 10-5 


173-6 


Metropolitan Police 


192 


5 101 


185-7 


Fellows of tlie Koyal Society .... 


98 


5 9-76 




Yorkshire Fishermen, Flambro' 


68 


5 8-71 


166-8 


Athletes (running, jumping, and walking) . 


89 


5 8-34 


143-7 


Scotch Lead-miners, Wenlockhead . 


92 


5 8-43 


163-9 


London Fire Brigade 


69 


5 7-40 


160-8 


Durham Coal-miners 


51 


5 6-38 


1.52-4 


Edinburgh and Glasgow Town Population . 


32 


6 6-35 


1 37-2 


Welsh Lead-miners, Cardigan. 


328 


5 6-30 


155-2 


Sheffield Town Population .... 


100 


5 5-80 


142-5 


Bristol Town Population .... 


300 


5 6-77 


142-4 


Lunatics, General Population .... 


1,409 


5 6-70 


147-9 


Criminals, General Population 


2,315 


5 5-60 


140-4 


Hertfordshire Labourers .... 


174 


5 5-.35 


145-0 


Idiots and Imbeciles 


19 


5 4-87 


123-0 



37. The influence of town life and town occupations on the physique of 
the population in districts in which the race differs little, and the climatic 



272 



REPORT — 1883. 



conditions ai'e the same, is seen bj compai-Ing the agricultural population 
of Ayrshire with that of Glasgow and Edinburgh, where the average 
difference in stature amounts to 4-15 inches, and in weight to 36-4 Ibs.^ 
in favour of the country folk. A similar, though not so great a difference, 
exists in Yorkshire, where the fishermen of Flamborough exceed the 
artisans of Sheffield in stature by 2-91 inches, and in weight by 24-3 lbs. 
On the other hand, the population of London exceeds that of the adjoining 
county of Hertfordshire in stature by 1-57 inches, and in weight by 
7'9 lbs. Quetelet observed the same condition in Belgium, where the 
towns showed a higher stature than the country districts ; and he con- 
cluded that the greater ease and better food attainable in towns were 
more favourable to physical development than the hard manual labour 
and poor fare of the agricultural districts. It is probable that Quetelet 
compared different classes together, or that the towns in Belgium hold an 
exceptional position, like London to the adjoining districts in England. 

38. As an example of the predominance of race over occupation, the 
stature and weight of the Scotch lead-miners of Wenlockhead, and the 
"Welsh lead-miners of Cardiganshire, are given in the table. The occupa- 
tion of lead-mining in both districts is in a great measure hereditary, and 
has probably been followed under similar conditions in Scotland and 
Wales for many generations, yet the Scotch exceed the Welsh lead- 
miners in stature by 2-13 inches, and in weight by 8-7 lbs. The stature 
and weight of the Durham coal-miners, and of the town populations of 
Glasgow, Sheffield, and Bristol, are given in this table, as they have been 
referred to above as influencing the averages of their respective counties, 
and placing them in an exceptional position as to the racial origin of 
their inhabitants. 

39. One of the objects the Committee has had in view lias been 'to 
ascertain the physical differences of boys and men whose intellect and 
industry are above or below the average ' ; but no returns of this kind 
have been received, except some referring to criminals and lunatics, and 
those have been introduced here as the most convenient place for their 
consideration : — 

Table VIII. — Showing the Statuke and Weight of Adult -Male Criminals 



and Lunatics, coj 


mpared with that of the General Population 


- 


Classes 

1 


Height 


Weight 


Ages 


Ages 


20 
to 
25 


25 
to 
35 


35 
to 

45 


45 
to 
55 


20 
to 
25 


25 
to 
35 


35 

to 
45 


45 
to 
55 


General — 

Average population 
Class 3: country 1 

labourers . J 
Class 4 : town arti-"l 

sans . . J 

Criminals 
Lunatics 


inches 

67-5 
67-2 

66-5 
65-2 


inches 

67-0 
67-5 

66-6 
65-6 


inches 

67-9 
67-5 

66-9 

65-7 


inches 

67-9 
67-8 

66-6 
65-8 


lbs. 

146-2 
149-5 

139- 
136-9 


lbs. 

156- 
157-4 

147-3 

140- 


lbs. 

162- 
161-2 

154-1 
141-4 


lbs. 

163-8 
166-4 

148-6 
143-4 


65-7 


147-9 



KEPOKT OF THE ANTHROPOMETIIIC COMMITTEE. 



273 



40. When compared with the general population, lunatics show a de- 
ficiency o£ stature of 1"96 inches, and of weight 10"3 lbs. ; and criminals 
of 2"06 inches and 17'8 lbs., indicating a deficiency of physical as well as 
mental stamina in both these unfortunate classes of society. In respect 
to complexion lunatics show an excess of 5 per cent, of light eyes with 
dark hair, and criminals of 10 per cent, of dark eyes with dark hair over 
the general population. 

Table IX. — Showing the Complexion of Adult Male Criminals and 
Lunatics, compared with that of the General Population. 







Xo. 
of 

obser- 
vations 


Ej-es light 


Eyes dark 


Eyes light brown, green, 

or exceptional, with hair 

light or dark 


Total 




Hair 

light 


Hair 
dark 


Hair 
red 


Hair 
dark 


Hair 
fair 


Hair 
red 




England — 
General . 
Criminal 
Lunatic . 

Total . 

Wales— 
General . 
Criminal 
Lunatic . 

Total . 

Scotland — 
General . 
Criminal 
Lunatic . 

Total . 

Ireland — 
General 
Criminal 
Lunatic 

Total . 

Total United"! 
Kingdom j 


5,669 
2,315 
1,409 


per 
cent. 

39-6 
40-1 
42-3 

40-1 


per 
cent. 

20-4 
13-6 
20-3 


per 
cent. 

40. 
11 
1-5 


per 
cent. 

29-9 

' 38-1 

31-8 


per 
cent. 

1-7 

•6 

1-8 


per 
cent. 

•7 
•6 
•4 


per 
cent. 

3-7 
5-9 
1-9 


100 




9,393 


18-9 


2-7 


32-2 


1-5 


•6 


4- 


— 




704 

46 

150 


344 

37- 

34-7 


19-9 
17-4 
27-3 


■9-8. 
30 


26-4 

45-6 
28-7 


4-7 

2- 


1-3 


3-5 
4- 


100 




900 


34-6 


21- 


8-2 _■ 


27-8 


4- 


1- 


3-4 


— 




1,261 
194 
342 


46-3 
44-3 
47-4 


24-5 
20-1 
30-7 


5-2 
2-6' 
1-4 


21-2 

30- 

17-3 


•9 

•5 

1-4 


1- 
1-5 

1-2 


•9 
1- 
•6 


100 




1,797 


46-3 


25-2 


4-2 


21-4 


1- 


11 


•8 


— 




285 

215 

29 


49-8 
44-2 
51-7 


18-2 
18-6 
24-1 


3-5 
•5 

7- 


23-5 
28-7 
17-2 


11 
•5 


1-8 
•5 


21 

7- 


100 




529 


47-4 


19- 


2-5 


25-3 


•7 


11 


4- 


— 




12,619 


41- 


19-8 


3-4 


30-1 


1-5 


•7 


3-5 


— 



41. As an example of the relation of high mental to physical qualities, 
the stature of ninety-eight Fellows of the Royal Society is given. Their 
average stature is slightly above (0-38 inch) that of the professional 
classes of this country, to which the majority of them belong. 
1883. T 



274 KEPORT — 1883.. 

42. As an example of high physical qualities as developed by training, 
the measurements of eighty-nine professional and amateur athletes are 
given. Their average stature exceeds that of the general population 
from which they are drawn by 068 inch, while their average weight falls 
short of that standard by 14'5 lbs. The ratio of weight to stature is, in 
the athletes, 2-100 lbs., and in the general population 2-323 lbs., for each 
inch of stature. Thus, a trained athlete whose stature is 5 feet 7 inches 
should weigh 10 stones, while an untrained man of the same height 
should weigh 11 stones. 

43. The statures of the Metropohtan Police and the London Fire 
Brigade are given as selected men of the working classes. The former 
exceed the criminal class, with whom they have to deal, in stature by 
4-5 inches, and in weight by 45-3 lbs. The men of the Fire Brigade are 
selected for their activity, and general fitness to meet sudden and trying 
demands on their physical and mental energies. The data referring to 
them may be accepted, therefore, as typical of the best physique which 
can be obtained for an English army, and of which our army should con- 
sist at its best. 

Complexion as determined hy the Colour of the Eyes and Hair. 

44. The difficulty of determining the prevailing complexion of a race^ 
or of the mixed population of a country or a district, by the colour of the 
hair, as is generally done, and of basing a classification on it, is greater than 
at first sight appears. Xot only do the various shades run imperceptibly 
into each other, but observers difi'er in their appreciation of the different 
shades when viewed under similar conditions, and the prevailing colour 
of a district determines the relative value of others. Thus a person 
living among a dark-haired race would consider brown hair as fair, 
while another person living among a light-haired people would consider 
it dark, or at any rate not fair in the same sense as the former would. 
Objections of this kind do not apply to the eyes, as the colour of the iris 
is due to tlie anatomical disposition of pigment in front of or behind 
that structure. In brown and the so-called black eyes a laj-er of brown 
pigment covers the front of the iris and hides the deeper structures, and 
itself determines the colour ; while in blue and grey eyes this layer of 
pigment is wanting, aud the colour is due to the dark pigment (the 
choroid) situated liehindthQ iris, the blue colour in various degrees re- 
sulting from the greater translucency of a thin, and the grey from a 
thick membrane. The marriage, moreover, of fair and dark persons 
often produces an intermediate shade in the colour of the hair in the 
children, but only occasionally produces an intermediate change in the 
colour of the eyes, the rule being that they are blue or brown like one of 
the parents. The cross between the blue and brown eye should properly 
be called green (the deeper blue showing tln-ough an imperfect layer of 
yellow brown pigment), but from popular prejudice to this term, eyes of 
this mixed colour are generally recorded as brown grey, light brown or 
light hazel.* 

45. For these reasons the classification adopted in this Report is based 
on the colour of the eyes, and with the object of more clearly defining the 
two prevailing shades of complexion in this country, namely the ' fair ' as 
characterised by light eyes and light hair, and the ' dark ' by dark eyes 

• See the Keport for 1880, p. 134, for a further discussion of this subject. 



B£PO£I OF THE ANTHBnpnMii"Pi»Tn n/%x»»n 



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Jl/t/sfj-iifi/tg thr Jicf/in-r ft' tJir A>u-hfopmtietnc Ccrnrmtt^c 



J 



BEPORT OF THE ANTHEOPOMETKIC COMMITTEE. 275 

and dark hair, the mixed or neutral eyes are eliminated, and the dark 
hair is separated from the former, and the light hair from the latter 
class. The combinations of blue eyes and light red hair, and of brown 
eyes and dark red hair, are given in separate columns, but the result is 
not satisfactory, as many cases of light red have doubtless been returned 
as fair hair, and of dark red as dark brown hair. 

46. In the instructions issued by the Committee observers were re- 
quested to return the colours of eyes as grey, light blue, blue, dark blue, 
light brown, brown, dark brown, green, and black ; and the colour of 
the hair as very fair, fair, golden, red, red brown, light brown, brown, 
dark brown, black brown, and black, and some chromo-lithographic 
sheets as tests ' for the colour of the hair were at first issued ; but 
the system was found to be too complicated for ordinary observers to 
follow, and they were left to record the colours of both hair and eyes 
accordmg to the popular meaning of the above terms. An examination 
of the returns shows that in many cases wide limits have been given 
to such words as fair, golden, and brown at one end of the scale, and of 
dark brown and black at the other, which has necessitated the concen- 
tration of the data to eliminate errors of observation, and what may be 
called the ' personal equation ' of the colour-sense in difierent observers 
In the Report of the Committee for 1880 a table is given of the colour of 
eyes and hair according to the above scale, of boys and men of the pro- 
fessional classes from ten to fifty years of age, but, apart from its 
including too wide a range of ages, it is not so well adapted for showing 
the relative i^revalence of complexions as the one now given. 

47. The following grouping of the counties according to the prevalence 
of fair complexion, or, what is the same thing, according to the degree of 
nigrescence, shows that certain large districts— much larger than the 
county boundaries— are occupied by inhabitants of similar racial origin, 
or who have been subject to conditions of life which have reduced them 
to similar shades of complexion. The division of the percentages into 

f aegrees is, of course, quite arbitrary, and sometimes two counties, 
only divided from each other by a decimal, and belonging therefore to the 
same group, may be represented by a difierent number. The exact per- 
centages are given in Table III. 

48. In this classification the men with dark eyes and light hair are 
combined with those having neutral eyes (green) and light or dark hair, 
because they are few in number, and because this peculiar complexion is 
probably due to crossing of the light and dark stocks, and the persistence 
ot one feature of the parent in the eyes and of the other in the hair. 
1 He tact that men with dark eyes and light hair are more frequently 
tound m the south-western counties of England, where the lic^ht and 
dark races meet and overlap each other, supports this view of their mixed 
origin, ihis complexion, moreover, is common in childhood, but dis- 
appears as age advances. According to Table XI. it diminishes in males 
trom 16 per cent., during the first five years of life to 1 per cent., at forty, 
hve years of age, and in females from 16-4 per cent, to 2 per cent, durino- 
the same period. '■re 

' These test-sheets proved not to be well suited for the purpose for which they 
^f '^ intended. The colours were not well graduated, and did not possess the sheen 
or gloss of the natural hair, on which so much of the variation of the colour depends 
Paris 3rd's"'T* ^'j^°^^-^cales, see the JSuUetins of the Society of Anthropology of 

T 2 



276 



BEPOKT — 1883. 



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EEPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMKTEIC COMMITTEE. 



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278 



EEPORT 1883. 



Table XI. — Showing the Colour of Eyes and Hair of both 
Males. 



Age 
last 
birth- 
day 


Num- 
ber of 
obser- 
va- 
tions 














Eyes 
neutral 














Eyes 


Hair 




eyes ugnc 

Light blue, blue, dark blue, 
light grey, grey, dark grey 


Green, 
brown- 
grey, 
light 
brown 


Brown, 


Eyes aark 

hazel, dark brown, 
black 


>> 
& 
2 

s 

i 

XI 

bo 

3 




& 
1 

to 
o 

t 

1 


u 

.2 

i 

i 

2 

w 

1 

M 
^J 

a 

a 


g 

s 

u 

'3 

1 


S 

.a 
bo 

3 


3 
3 

2 

PI 

1 

t 
a 


Very fair, 

fair, light 

brown, 

brown 


Haur 

Dark 
brown, 

black 
brown, 

black 


Golden, 
red 


Hair 

Very fair, 

fair, red, 

brown, 

black 


Brown, 
dark 

brown, 
black 

brown, 
black 


Hair 

Very fair, 

fair, 

light 

brown 


Red, 
auburn, 

red 
brown 






per cent. 


per cent. 


IJer cent. 


lercent. 


per cent. 


percent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


Birth 


40 


100 


— 


— 


— 








. 


100 








— 


— 


_ 




i 


29 


62 \ 




— \ 




— \ 


■2^^ 


— \ 


14\ 


— \ 




62 


24 


14 


76 


— 


— 




1 


5 


60 




20 




— 


20 


— 


— 


— 




80 


20 


— 


60 


— 


20 




2 


3 


— 


■56-0 


— 


-9-3 


-I-7-5 


— 1 15-0 


— 1 15-5 


— Ua-o 


— 


^-1-5 


100 


— 


— 


100 


— 


— 




3 


64 


50 




6 




8 


12 


16 


6 


o 




64 


12 


24 


56 


10 


22 




1 


101 


52, 




2 




7/ 


4J 


15, 


19, 






61 


4 


35 


71 


8 


17 







197 


52 ^ 


5\ 




''] 


7-, 




16n 




12\ 




1\ 


64 


7 


29 


64 


8 


21 




6 


222 


51 


5 




13 




19 




7 




1 


60 


13 


27 


58 


5 


24 




7 


265 


51 151-4 


5 


-5-6 


5 ,4-6 
5 


14 


-10-8 


17 


-19-2 


7 


.7-4 


1-1-0 


61 


14 


25 


58 


6 


22 




8 


270 


47 


6 




13 




22 




6 






58 


13 


29 


S3 


6 


28 




9 


340 


56/ 


7. 




2 


7, 




22. 




5, 




1, 


65 


7 


28 


61 


3 


29 




10 


251 


52 ^ 




^'1 




2v 


4-, 


24-, 


3n 


*1 




66 


4 


30 


55 


5 


36 




11 


265 


54 




11 




5 


4 


20 


5 






70 


4 


26 


59 


6 


31 




12 


352 


50 


■ 51-2 


14 


-12-8 


2l3-2 


11 U-2 


20 -21-4 


2 13-6 




-1-6 


66 


11 


23 


52 


3 


34 




13 


464 


48 




12 




4 


6 


23 


5 






64 


6 


30 


53 


6 


35 




14 


378 


52, 




15, 




3J 


6/ 


20, 


3J 


1. 




70 


6 


24 


55 


4 


35 




15 


253 


53-, 




14\ 




') 


10 




17* 




2\ 




1 




70 


10 


20 


55 


4 


31 




IG 


278 


43 




17 




5 




11 




20 




3 








65 


11 


24 


46 


6 


37 




17 


345 


40 


-43-8 


14 


-14-2 


4U-2 


12 


.11-2 


25 


-22-6 


4 


-3-2 




-0-8 


58 


12 


30 


44 


5 


39 




18 


448 


44 




13 




3 


11 




26 




3 




— 




60 


11 


29 


47 


3 


39 




19 


454 


39. 




13, 




6/ 


12 




25, 




4. 




1 , 




58 


12 


30 


43 


7 


38 




20 


331 


42 \ 




14-, 




6\ 


8v 




26 \ 




3\ 


1\ 


62 


8 


30 


45 


7 


40 




21 


281 


48 




18 




3 


6 




22 




2 


1 


69 


(i 


25 


50 


i 


40 




22 


257 


39 


-42-2 


15 


.16-4 


3l3-2 


9 


-8-6 


32 


-27-0 


1 ll-8 


1 U-8 


57 


9 


34 


40 


4 


47 




23 


261 


43 




17 




2 


9 




26 




2 




62 


9 


29 


45 


3 


43 




24 


236 


39. 




18, 




2 / 


11, 




29 




1/ 


/ 


59 


11 


30 


40 


2 


47 




25 


199 


41 \ 




17n 




5\ 


7. 


•27\ 


3', 


— N 




63 


7 


30 


44 


5 


44 




26 


183 


36 




20 




4 




6 


33 


1 







60 


6 


34 


37 


4 


53 




27 


189 


34 


K32-8 


20 


>-20'8 


2 l4-2 


8 U-O 


30 132-0 


3 -2-0 


3 


-1-2 


56 


8 


36 


37 


5 


50 




28 


179 


28 




37 




3 


4 


34 


2 


1 




58 


5 


37 


30 


4 


61 




29 


150 


25, 




20, 




7) 


o) 


36; 


l) 


O 




52 


9 


39 


26 


9 


56 




30-40 


900 


34 


26 


5 


6 


26 


2 


1 


65 


6 


29 


36 


6 


52 




40-50 


392 


33 


34 


6 


6 


20 


1 





73 


6 


21 


34 


6 


54 




50-^0 


85 


36 


22 


13 


7 


20 


1 


1 


71 


7 


22 


37 


14 


42 




60-70 


32 


53 


19 


6 


3 


19 


— 


— 


78 


3 


19 


53 


6 


38 




70- 






























J. 

















































REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 



279 



Sexes at all Ages of English and Welsh Origin. 

Females. 



Age 
last 

birth- 
day 



Birth 

1 

2 

3 

4 

3 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30-40 

40-50 

50-60 

60-70 

70- 



ITuin- 
berot 
obser- 
va- 
tions 



36 

34 

11 

15 

45 

119 

192 

229 

223 

178 

237 

281 

322 

298 

251 

265 

167 

110 

47 

64 

94 

125 

60 

53 

31 

20 



46 



27 



20 



Eyes light 

Light blue, blue, dark blue, 
■ light grey, grey, dark grey 



Hair 



Very fair, 

fair, light 

brown, 

brown 


Dark 
brown, 
black 
brown, 

black 


per cent. 


per cent. 


100 


— 


59 




6\ 




46 




— 




47 


^47-8 


— 


- 7-3 


47 




7 




40j 




9 




53 \ 




7\ 


51 




10 


53 


-52-6 


9 I 8-8 


53 




12 


53J 




6/ 


60 \ 




8\ 


52 




11 


47 


^.51-0 


15 -10-8 


47 




10 


49J 




10/ 


45 \ 




12, 


52 




17 


55 


l-47-O 


17 -150 


37 




15 


46 J 




14 j 


46 \ 




10\ 


38 




17 


51 


^45-0 


15-13-0 


45 




13 


45J 




loj 


38 


15 


44 


12 




30 




20 



Golden, 
red 



per cent. 



Eyes 
neutral 

Green, 

brown- 
grey, 
liglit 
brown 



Hair 



Very fair, 

fair, red, 

brown, 

black 



3-4 



3-8 



- 3-2 



15 



per cent. 



11 



10 



Eyes dark 

Brown, hazel, dark brown, 
black 



Brown, 
dark 
brown, 
black 
brown, 
black 



per cent. 



-21-4 



k20-2 



s23'8 



-23-8 



-24-0 



31 



25 



Hair 



Very fair, 

fair, 

light 

brown 



per cent. 



4-0 



Red, 
auburn, 

red 
brown 



Eyes 



Hair 



I 



60 

I 



per cent. 



7 1- 4-0 
2 

1 

3 

2 V. 1'3 

1 

2, 






1-8 



1-3 



— '- 1'5 



:) 



per cent, 



100 
05 
46 
47 
54 
58 
63 
66 
65 
63 
62 
72 
67 
05 
62 
62 
58 
70 
72 
52 
64 
53 
58 
68 
61 
CO 



55 



59 



63 



20 



9 

9 

9 

7 

4 

2 

4 

6 

6 

10 

9 

5 

7 

9 

9 

10 

10 

9 

10 

20 



10 



per cent. 



15 
54 
53 
42 
37 
28 
25 
20 
25 
34 
26 
29 
29 
32 
28 
33 
25 
21 
39 
27 
31 
32 
23 
29 
20 



37 



11 30 



71 
64 
60 
69 
57 
61 
56 
61 
56 
57 
63 

.57 
48 
51 
52 
49 
56 
59 
45 
48 

.51 
38 
55 
48 
45 



40 



44 



25 



30 15 



9 I 
36 
33 
25 
26 
26 
27 
25 
33 
34 
30 
33 
40 
37 
33 
39 
37 
34 
46 
38 
35 
47 
34 
39 
30 



46 



42 



45 



280 EEPOET— 1883. 

49. In connection with tliis subject Table XI., showing the colour 
of eyes and hair in both sexes and at all ages, should be studied, as 
it shows the comparative worthlessness of the method often resorted to on 
the Continent of determining the racial elements of a country by examin- 
ing the complexion of school childj»en of different ages. The first column, 
referring to males (light eyes and fair hair), shows the gradual darkening 
of the hair of fair-complexioned children from 56 per cent, at the first 
five years of life to 33 per cent, at forty-five years ; and the second column 
(light eyes with dark hair) increases during the same period at nearly a 
corresponding rate, the percentage of dark hair being 9'3 in the first five 
years and 34 at forty-five years of age. Thus, 56 -f 9'3 = 65-3, and 
33 + 34 := 67, or only 17 per cent, excess of dai'k hair received from 
other sources, or due to probable error of observation. In like manner 
the green and light-brown eyes of the middle column of the table decrease 
in number, or in other words become darker, and are transferred to the 
next column (dark eyes and dark hair) as age advances, from 15 per 
cent, at the first five years to 6 per cent, at forty-five years of age. The 
fifth column (dark eyes and hair) increases at the expense of the two 
adjoining columns from 15-5 per cent: at three and four years to 36 per 
cent, at twenty-nine years, after which age the percentage falls off very 
rapidly on account of the earlier accession of grey hair in the dark than 
the fair complexion of the first column, to which the higher percentages 
become transfen-ed. The low percentage of dark complexion at ages 
from forty to seventy years does not arise from the elimination of this 
complexion by advancing age, or by death, but from the fault of the ob- 
servers not having recorded the original colour of the hair before it became 
grey, which necessitated the rejection of all such returns in drawing up 
the table. 

60. The table referring to females shows that darkening of the hair 
and eyes takes place to a much less extent amongst them than among- 
males, and that there is little disposition for the dark hair to turn grey 
with advancing age. For corresponding periods to those applied to 
males, the fair-complexioned females in the first column lose 3"8 per cent. 
of their number, while the second column receives an accession of dark 
hair of 4'7 per cent. The dark-complexioned (dark eyes and hair) 
females in the fifth column increase by 8'6 per cent., at the sole expense 
of the sixth column, by the darkening of the hair. Unlike the males, the 
column showing the neutral eyes somewhat increases instead of de- 
creases ; and this increase appears to have come from the column con- 
taining the fair eyes and red hair, or it may be attributed to the difference 
in the ' colour equation ' of some of the observers — women being much 
more critical, and therefore less consistent, than men in the definition of 
colours. 



Note. — Dr. Beddoe proposes the use of indices of nigrescence for the classi- 
fication of the colour of hair and eyes. ' That for the hair is got bj' subtracting the 
fair and the red from the dark hair plus twice the black, leaving out the neutral 
browns, thus : — 

2 Black (N) + Dk. Br. - Fair - Ked = Index. 
The black hair is doubled, because its occurrence shows a much greater tendency tO' 
melanosity. The index for the eyes is got by subtracting the light from the dark 
and neglecting the neutral shades, thus : — 

Dark — Light = Index.' 



KEPOIJX OF THE ANTHROPOMETKIC COMMITTEE. 



281 



C. Roberta. 



N 




lUiuMutiri^ ill, /ttfiorl III' l/it Aiillirvpimittnr CmimUtK. 



REPOKT OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 281 



Children and Adults of both Sexes. 

51. A large portion of the statistics collected by the Committee refer 
to children, and these, together with those referring to the adults already 
considered in the early part of this Report, have been arranged in Tables 
XV. to XXV. to show the influence of age, sex, nurture, occupation, 
and sanitary surroundings on the physical development of the British 
population. The children are chiefly those of English parents, as few 
returns have been received from other parts of the kingdom. All classes 
of the community are represented, from the upper and professional classes 
whose children attend the Public Schools, like Eton, Marlborough, and 
Radley, to the poorest town population, whose children are found in the 
public elementary (or Board) schools, charitable institutions, and 
industrial schools. The adults also include all classes, from the Univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge, to town labourers and factory operatives. 

52. In deciding upon the arrangement for practical purposes of returns 
so vai'ied in their origin, and yet consisting in so large a proportion of 
information derived from special sources, the first consideration has been 
to establish a classification of the returns according to the media, or in- 
fluences which have been instrumental in diff'erentiating one class from 
another. The Committee has adopted the subjoined scheme, prepared by 
Mr. Roberts, and first brought before the Association in a paper read in 
the Anthropological Section in 1878. It is based on the principle of 
collecting into a standard class as large a number of cases as possible 
which imply the most favourable conditions of existence in respect to 
fresh air, exercise, and wholesome and suSicient food — in one word, nurture 
— and specialising into classes which may be compared with this standard 
those which depart more or less from the most favourable condition. By 
this means, in respect to social condition, the influence of mental and 
manual work ; in respect to nurture, the influence of food, clothing, &c.,. 
on development ; in respect to occupation, the influence of physical con- 
ditions ; and in respect to climate and sanitary conditions, the influence of 
town and country life may be determined. 

53. The classification has been constructed on the physiological and 
hygienic laws which are familiar to the students of sanitary science, and 
on a careful comparison of the measurements of difierent classes of the 
people, and especially of school children of the age of from eleven to 
twelve years. This age has been selected as particularly suited to the 
study of the media, or conditions of life, which influence the development 
of the human body, as it is subject to all the wide and more powerful 
agencies which surround and divide class from class, but is yet free from 
the disturbing elements of puberty and the numerous minor modifying 
influences, such as occupation, personal habits, &c., which in a measure 
shape the physique of older boys and adults. The data on which the 
classification has been based are given below. The most obvious facts 
which the figures disclose are the check which growth receives as we 
descend lower and lower in the social scale, and that a difference of five 
inches exists between the average statures of the best and the worst 
nurtured classes of children of corresponding ages, and of 3^ inches in. 
adults. 



•282 



REPOET 1883. 



'C4H 

o 

05 


i 

o 

<D 
•*^ 
O 


Class VI. 
Policemen. 
Fire Brigade. 

Soldiers. 
Recruits. 

Lunatics. 

Criminals. 

Industriiil. 
schools. 


i 
o 

cS 
g^ 

o 

o 

o 

1 
1 


o 

X 
C3 

o 
3 

o 

-§ 

1-3 




Industrial Classes 

(Scdentarv Trades) 

10-90 per cent. 


11 


CLASS V. 

Factory Opera- 
tives. 

Tailors. 

Shoemakers. 
&c. 


01 

c 


si 
.Is 

->< 


1— I ^ 


Class IV. 
Workers in 

„ Wood. 
„ Metal. 
„ Stone. 
„ Leather. 
„ Paper. 
&c. 
Engravers. 
Photographers. 
Printers. 
&c. 




s 

bo 

a 

1 

o 

-3 


§ E 


1^ 

-a a 

oo 


Class III. 
Labourers and 
Workers 

on Agricul- 
ture. 
„ Gardens. 
„ Roads. 
„ Railways. 
„ Quarries. 
Navvies. 
Porters. 
Guards. 
Woodmen. 
Brickmakcrs. 

Labourers, &c., 
on Water. 
„ Sailors. 
„ Fishermen. 
„ Watermen. 


Labourers, kc, 
in Mines. 
„ Coal. 
„ Minerals. 


-2 

t 

CO 

-3 

J3 


cj 

o 

to 

c 
'm 

3 
O 
.a 

C 
o 

1 

[a 


o 
o 


Commercial Class 

(Lower Mid. Classes) 

10-.36 per cent. 


li 


Class II. 
Teachers in Ele- 
mentary Schools. 
Clerks. 
Shopkeepers. 
Shopmen. 
Dealers in 

„ Drugs. 

„ Books. 

„ Wool. 

„ Silk. 

„ Cotton. 

,, Foods. 

„ Drinks. 

„ Furniture. 

„ Metals. 

„ Glass. 

„ Earthen- 
ware. 

„ Fuel, &c. 


-H 
O 

§ 


1 


Professional Classes % 

(Upper and Upper Middle Classes) 

4^4G per cent. 


'1 


1 

3S I. 

' Forces. 

ycrs. 

tors. 

ginecrs. 

;ects. 

ists. 

Civil Servants. 

Authors. 

Artists. 

Teachers. 

Musicians. 

Actors. 


Bankers. 
Merchants 
(Wliolesale). 


1. 

— 1 
>< 

« 

Eh 


o i 
■? a 

M 


Cla 

Country- 

gentlemen. 
Gentlemen - 

farmers. 
Officers of Army 
and Navy. 

Auxiliarj 

Clcrgj 

Law 

Doc 

Civil En 

Archi 

Dent 



o 
a 



43 I