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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

^ l K 



EEPORT 



OF THE 



FIFTY-FOUBTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



MONTREAL IN AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1884. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1885. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemarle Street, Londox, W. 



LONDON : PRINTED ]IV 

SPOTTIS1YOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

AND PARLIAMENT STREET 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxiii 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commenceuient xxxii 

Presidents and Secretaries of tile Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xxxix 

Evening Lectures liii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes lv 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Montreal Meeting lvii 

Treasurer's Account lix 

Tahle showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings lx 

Officers and Council, 1884-85 lxii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee lxiii 

Supplementary Report lxvii 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee for Additional Re- 
ports and Researches in Science lxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixxvi 

Places of Meeting in 1885 and 1886 lxxvii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes lxxviii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lxxxviii 

Address bv the President, the Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Professor of Experimental Physics in the 
University of Cambridge 1 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Professor 
A. W. Williamson, Mr. W.II.Preece, Mr. Barlow, and Mr. J.M.Thomson 
(Secretary), appointed to consider and advise on the best means for facilitat- 
ing the adoption of the Metric System of Weights and Measures in Great 
Britain 27 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart (Secre- 
tary), Professor Stokes, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Sir H. E. 
Roscoe, Professor Schuster, Captain Abney, and Mr. G. J. Symons, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of considering the best methods of recording the 

direct intensity of Solar Radiation 2$ 

\2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor 
W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Professor Jenkin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. 
John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Mutrhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert 
Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor 
Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, and Professor W. Garnett, appointed for 
the purpose of constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in 
Electrical Measurements 29' 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Robert H. Scott (Secretary), 
Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour 
Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Symons, appointed for the purpose of co-operating 
with the Meteorological Society of the Mauritius in their proposed publica- 
tion of Daily Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861. 
Drawn up hy Mr. R. II. Scott 32 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors G. H. Darwin and 
J. C. Adams, for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations. Drawn up 
by Professor G. H. Darwin 33 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart (Secre- 
tary), Mr. Knox Laughton, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. R. II. Scott, and Mr. 
Johnstone Stoney, appointed for the purpose of co-operating with Mr. E. 
J. Lowe in his project of establishing a Meteorological Observatory near 
Chepstow on a permanent and scientific basis 35 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown (Secretary), 
and Messrs. D. Milne Holme, John Murray, and Alexander Buchan, 
appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the Directors of the Ben 
Nevis Observatory in making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 36 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James N. Shoolbred (Secretary) and 
Sir William Thomson, appointed for the purpose of reducing and tabu- 
lating the Tidal Observations in the English Channel made with the Dover 
Tide°°-auge, and of connecting them with Observations made on the French 
coast "' 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Schuster (Secretary), 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professor A. S. Her- 
schel, Captain W.deW. Abney, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the practicability of collecting 
and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of considering the question of under- 
taking regular observations in various localities 38 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Williamson, 
Dewar Frankland, Roscoe, Crum Brown, Odling, and Armstrong, 
Messrs. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, J. Millar Thomson, H. B. Dixon 
(Secretary), and V. H. Veley, and Drs. F. R. Japp and H. Forster 
Morley reappointed for the purpose of drawing up a statement of the 
varieties of Chemical Names which have come into use, for indicating the 
causes which have led to their adoption, and for considering what can be 
done to bring about some convergence of the views on Chemical Nomencla- 
ture obtaining among English and foreign chemists 39 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 74 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 75 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, Professors J. Prestwich and 
G. A. Leboue, and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, 
James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, Fox Strang- 
ways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. 
Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Rance (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of Underground Waters in 
the Permeable Formations of England and Wales, and the Quantity and 
Character of the Water supplied to various Towns and Districts from those 
Formations. Drawn up by C. E. De Rance 96 

Fifth and last Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. C. Sorby, 
F.R.S., and Mr. G. R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on 
Fossil Polyzoa. Drawn up by Mr. Vine 97 

Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. Prestwich, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey (Secretary), Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. De Rance, H. G. 
Fordham, J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. H. 
Tlddeman, appointed for the purpose of recording the position, height 
above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks 
of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation 219 

Report upon the National Geological Surveys of Europe. By W. Topley, 
F.G.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E 221 

Report of .the Committee, consisting of Messrs. R. B. Grantham, C. E. D* 
Rance, J. B. Redman, W. Topley, \V. Whitaker, and J. W. Woodau, 
with Major- General Sir A. Clarke, Sir J. N. Douglass, Captain Sir F. O. 
Evans, Captain J. Parsons, Professor J. Prestwich, Captain W. J. L. 
Wharton, and Messrs. E. Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. Vernon 
Harcourt, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into the Rate of Erosion 
of the Seacoasts of England and Wales, and the Influence of the Artificial 
Abstraction of Shingle or other Material in that Action. Drawn up by 
C. E. De Rance and W. Topley, Secretaries 238 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. H. Green and L. C. 
Miall and Messrs. John Brigg and James W. Davis (Secretary), ap- 
pointed to assist in the Exploration of the Raygill Fissure in Lothersdale, 
Yorkshire .' 240 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan. Drawn up by the 
Secretary 241 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. 
Sclater, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Mar- 
shall, Professor A. C. Haddon, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at th« 
Zoological Station at Naples 262 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard 
Saunders, and Mr. Thiselton- Dyer (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Natural History of Timor Laut 263 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor de Chau- 
mont, Professor M. Foster, Professor Burdon Sanderson (Secretary), and 
Mr. W. North, appointed for the purpose of investigating the Influence of 
Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of Nitrogen (the experiments to be con- 
ducted by Mr. North). Drawn up by Mr. North 265 



A r l CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Cordeaux (Secretary), 
Professor Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. William Eagle Clarke, 
Mr. R. M. Barrlngton, and Mr. A. G. More, appointed for the purpose of 
obtaining (with the consent of the Master and Brethren of the Trinity 
House and the Commissioners of Northern and Irish Lights) observations 
on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightvessels, and of reporting 
on the same 266 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Lankester, and Professor Gamgee, appointed for the purpose of pre- 
paring a Bibliography of certain Groups of Invertebrata 270 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph Hooker, Dr. Gunther, 
Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. P. L. Sclater (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of exploring Kilima-njaro and tbe adjoining mountains of 
Eastern Equatorial Africa 271 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Canon Tristram, the Rev. 
F. Lawrence, and Mr. James Glaisher (Secretary), for promoting the 
Survey of Eastern Palestine '. 272 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Brabrook (Secretary), Mr. 
Francis Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, and Mr. C. Roberts, appointed for 
the purpose of defraying the expenses of completing the preparation of the 
final Report of the Anthropometric Committee 279 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Secretary), Mr. 
"William Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss Ltdia Becker, Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Crossket, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. James 
Heywood, and Professor N. Story Maskelyne, appointed for the purpose 
of continuing the inquiries relating to the teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools 283 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph Whitworth, Sir 
W. Thomson, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. Beck, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. E. Crompton, Mr. E. Rigg (Secretary), Mr. A. Le Neve 
Foster, Mr. Latimer Clark, Mr. H. Trueman Wood, and Mr. Buckney, 
appointed for the purpose of determining a Gauge for the manufacture of 
the various small Screws used in Telegraphic and Electrical Apparatus, in 
Clockwork, and for other analogous purposes 287 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Frederick Bramwell (Secre- 
tary), Professor A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. 
St. John Vincent Day, Sir F. Abel, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. E. 
H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, Mr. H. Trueman Wood, Mr. W. H. Barlow, 
Mr. A. T. Atchison, Mr. R. E. Webster, Mr. A. Carpmael, Sir John 
Lubbock, Mr. Theodore Aston, and Mr. James Brunlees, appointed for 
the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on Patent Legislation 293 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Park Harrison, General 
Pitt-Rivers, Mr. F. Galton, Professor Flower, Professor Thane, Dr. 
Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Dr. Muirhead, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Professor 
Macalister, and Dr. Garson (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
defining the Facial Characteristics of the Races and Principal Crosses in 
the British Isles, and obtaining Illustrative Photographs with a view to 
their publication 294 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Dewar and A. W. William- 
son, Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain ABNEY,Dr. Stoney, and Professors W. 
N. Hartley, McLeod, Carey Foster, A. K. Huntington, Emerson Rey- 
nolds, Reinold, Liveing, Lord Rayleigh, and W. Chandler Roberts 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting upon the present state 
of our knowledge of Spectrum Analysis 295 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. J. N. 
Lockyer, Professors Dewar, "Wolcott Gibbs, Liyeing, Schuster, and AY. 
N. Hartley, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of preparing a new series of "Wave-length Tables of 
the Spectra of the Elements 351 

On the Connection between Sunspots and Terrestrial Phenomena. By Pro- 
fessor Schuster, F.R.S 446 

On the Seat of the Electromotive Forces in the Voltaic Cell. By Professor 
Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc 464 

On the Archaean Rocks of Great Britain. By Professor T. G. Bonnet, D.Sc, 
LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. G.S 529 

On the Concordance of the Mollusca inhabiting both sides of the North Atlantic 
and the intermediate Seas. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys, LL.D., F.R.S 551 

On the Characteristics of the North American Flora. By Professor Asa 
Gray 555 

On the Theory of the Steam-Engine. By Professor Robert H. Thurston . . . 569 

Improvements in Coast Signals ; with Supplementary Remarks on the New 
Eddystone Lighthouse. By Sir James N. Douglass, M.Inst.C.E 584 

On American Permanent Way. By JosErH M. "Wilson, A.M., M.Inst.C.E. 593 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 

Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Page 
Address by Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S.L. 
& E., F.R.A.S., President of the Section 613 

1. On the Action of Lubricants. By Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. 622 

2. On Kinetic Elasticity as illustrating the Mechanical Theory of Heat. By 
Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S 622 

3. On the Vapour-pressure of a substance in the solid and liquid states at the 

same temperature. By Professor William Ramsay, Ph.D., and Sydney 
Young, D.Sc 622 

4. On the Law of Total Radiation at High Temperatures. By Professor J. 

Dewar, M.A., F.R.S 623 

5. On Loss of Heat by Radiatiou and Convection as affected by the dimen- 

sions of the cooling body, and on Cooling in Vacuum. By J. T. Bottom- 
ley, M.A., F.R.S.E 623 

6. On a Gyrostatic Working Model of the Magnetic Compass. By Professor 

Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 625 

7. Recent Improvement in Apparatus and Methods for Sounding Ocean Depths. 

By Rear-Admiral Daniel Ammen, U.S. Navy 629 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. The Seat of the Electromotive Forces in the Voltaic Cell. By Professor 
Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc 631 

2. Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 631 

3. On certain practical applications of a new Mechanical Principle. By Pro- 

fessor H. S.Hele Shaw 631 

4. On some Irregularities depending on Temperature in Baily's experiments 

on the Mean Density of the Earth. By Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A 632 

5. On Safety Fuses for Electric Circuits. Bv Professor Sir William Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S *. 632 

6. A Lecture Experiment on Induction. By Professor Lord Rayleigh, 
LL.D., F.R.S 632 

7. On Telephoning through a Cable. By Professor Lord Rayleigh, LL.D., 
F.R.S 682 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

8. On the Influence of Magnetism on the Discharge of Electricity through 

Gases. By Professor Arthur Schuster, F.R.S 633 

9. On a Galvanometer with Twenty Wires. By Professor Lord Rayleigh, 
LL.D., F.R.S 633 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On the Connection between Sunspots and Terrestrial Phenomena. By 
Professor Arthur Schuster, F.R.S 634 

2. On certain Short Periods common to Solar and Terrestrial Meteorological 
Phenomena. By Professor Balfour Stewart, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., 
and Wm. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, F.C.S 634 

3. Second Report of the Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Obser- 
vations 634 

4. Report of the Committee for reducing and tabulating the Tidal Observa- 
tions in the English Channel made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and of 
connecting them with observations made on the French Coast 634 

5. On the Importance of Tidal Observations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 

on the Atlantic Coast of the Dominion. By Professor Johnson. LL.D... 634 

6. Report of the Committee for considering the best methods of recording 
the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation 635 

7. Fourth Report of the Committee on Meteoric Dust 635 

8. On the Spot Spectrum from D to B. By the Rev. S. J. Perry, F.R.S.... 635 

9. On Recent Progress in PhotogTaphing the Solar Spectrum. By Professor 

H. A. Rowland 635 

10. On an Induction Inclinometer adapted for Photographic Registration. By 
Charles Carpmael, M.A 635 

11. On an Electric Control for an Equatorial Clock-movement. By the Earl 

oe Rosse, F.R.S 636 

12. On Polishing the Specida of Reflecting Telescopes. By the Earl op 
Rosse, F.R.S 637 

13. An Account of some preliminary Experiments with Biram's Anemometers 
attached to Kite-wires. By Professor E. Douglas Archibald, M.A 639 

14. On the recent Sun-glows and Halo in connection with the Eruption of 
Krakatoa. By Professor E. Douglas Archibald, M.A 641 

15. On Whirlwinds and Waterspouts. By Professor James Thomson, LL.D., 
F.R.S .. 641 

16. On the Formation of Frasil Ice. By G. H. Henshaw 644 

17. Note on the Internal Temperature of the Earth at Westville, Nova Scotia. 

By H. S. Poole, F.G.S 644 

18. On the Formation of Mackerel Sky. By Dr. H. Muirhead 644 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 
Subsection of Mathematics. 

1. Note on Newton's Theory of Astronomical Refraction, and on his Expla- 
nation of the Motion of the Moon's Apogee. By Professor J. C. Adams, 
F.R.S 645 

2. Historical Note on Continuity. By the Rev. C. Taylor, D.D 645 

3. On a Model of the Cylindroid, showing the Nodal Line. By Professor 
Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 646 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. On Solvable Irreducible Equations of Prime Degree. By Professor George 
Paxton Young 646 

5. The Tactinvariant of a Conical Section and a Cubic Curve. By Professor 

F. Lindemann, Ph.D 647 

6. On the ' Analysis Situs ' of Threedimensional Spaces. By Professor 

Waxthee Dtce, Ph.D 648 

7. On the Expression of the Co-ordinate of a Point in terms of the Potential 
and Line of Force at the Point. By Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A 649 

8. On the Pressure at a Point inside a Vortex-ring of Uniform Vorticity. By 

Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A 649 

9. Transformation of the Stereographic Equatorial Projection of a sphere by 

means of a certain form of the Peaucellier Cell. By Professor A. W. 
Phillips 649 

10. A Geometrical Theorem in connection with the Three-cusped Hypocycloid. 

By R. F. Davis 649 

11. On the Discriminating Condition of Maxima and Minima in the Calculus 

of Variations. By E. P. Culverwell, M.A 649 

12. On the Invariable Plane of the Solar System. By David P. Todd, M.A. 651 

Subsection of Physics. 

1. Report of the Committee for facilitating the adoption of the Metric 

System of Weights and Measures in Great Britain 651 

2. On the Colours of Thin Plates. By Professor Lord Ratleigh, LL.D., 
F.R.S : 651 

3. On Clark's Standard Cells. By Professor Lord Ratleigh, LL.D., F.R.S. 651 

4. On an Analogy between Heat and Electricity. Bv Professor G. F. Fitz- 

gerald, F.R.S 652 

5. The Telemeter System. By J. Urquhart Mackenzie 652 

6. The Influence of an Electric Current on the Thinning of a Liquid Film. 

By Professors A. W. Reinold and A. W. Rucker 652 

7. On the Diffusion of Metals. By Professor W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. 653 

8. On some Phenomena connected with Iron and other Metals in the solid 
and molten states, with notes of experiments. By W. J.Millar 653 

9. On the Velocity of Light of Different Colours. By Professor George 

Forbes ". 653 

10. On the Velocity of Light in Carbon Disulphide and the Difference in 

Velocity of Red and Blue Light in the same. By Albert A. Michelson 654 

11. On a Systematic Research for Stars with a Measurable Annual Parallax, 

and its Results. By Professor Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 654 

12. On an Electrodynamorneter, with extremely light moving coil, for the 

measurement of small alternating currents. By Dr. W. H. Stone 654 

13. On the Law regulating the Connection between Current and Intensity of 

Incandescence of Carbon Filaments in Glow Lamps. By W. H. Preece, 
F.R.S 654 

14. On the Equations of Dynamo-Electric Machines. By Professor Silvanus 

P. Thompson 655 

15. On Earth Currents. By E. 0. Walker 655 

16. Description of a Cylindrical Slide Rule or Calculating Apparatus. By 
Edwin Thacher 656 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

17. On the Inconveniences of the present Mode of quoting Scientific Journals. 

By Dr. H. Borns, F.C.S 656 

18. An Account of unusual coloured Bows ohserved in Fogs. By Philip 
Burton 656 

19. On the Temperature of the Interior of a Block of Melting Ice. By James 

B. Francis 657 

Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 659 

1. On Complex Inorganic Acids. By Professor Wolcott Gibbs 669 

2. On an Example of Chemical Equilibrium. By A. Vernon Harcourt, 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S 671 

3. On the Incomplete Combustion of Gases. By H. B. Dixon, M.A 671 

4. Spectroscopic Studies of Explosions. By Professors Liveing, F.R.S., and 

Dewar,F.K.S 672 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. On the Constitution of the Elements. By Professor Dewar, F.R.S 672 

2. On the Chemical Aspect of the Storage of Power. By Professor E. 

Frankland, D.C.L., M.D., F.R.S 673 

3. On the Magnetic Rotation of Compounds in relation to their Chemical 
Composition. By W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S 673 

4. On the present state of our Knowledge of Refraction Equivalents. By Dr. 

J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 674 

5. On the Diffusion of Metals. By Professor W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S. 675 

6. On some Phenomena of Solution illustrated by the case of Sodium Sul- 
phate. By Professor William A. Tilden, D.Sc, F.R.S 675 

7. A Theory of Solution. By W. W. J. Nicol, M.A., B.Sc 675 

8. On Evaporation and Dissociation. By Professor William Ramsay, Ph.D., 

and Sydney Young, D.Sc 675 

9. On Molecular Volumes. By Professor William Ramsay, Ph. D 676 

10. On Calcium Sulphide and Sulphocarbonate. By V. H. Veley, M.A., 
F.C.S 677 

11. On the Action of Sulphuretted Hydrogen upon Silver. By Professor 

F. P. DUNNINGTON 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Report of the Committee upon the present state of our knowledge of 
Spectrum Analysis 678 

2. Second Report of the Committee on Chemical Nomenclature 678 

3. On Coal-Tar Colouring Matters. By W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S 678 

4. On the Manufacture of Soda and Chlorine. By W. Weldon, F.R.S 679 

5. On the Chemistry of the Natural Silicates. Bv Professor T. Sterry 
Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S 679 



Ill CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. On the Liquefaction of Oxygen and the Density of Liquid Hydrogen. By 
Professor James Dewar, M.A., F.R.S 679 

7. On the Physical Constants of Solutions. By Professor W. L. Goodwin, 

D.Sc., and Professor D. H. Marshall, M.A., F.R.S.E 679 

8. On the Production of Permanent Gas from Paraffin Oils. By Dr. Steven- 

son Macadam, F.R.S.E 680 

9. On the Diamondiferous Deposits of South Africa and the Ash of the 

Diamond. By Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S 681 

10. On a Redetermination of the Atomic Weight of Cerium. By H. Robinson 681 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Chemical Changes in their relations to Micro-organisms. By Professor 

E. Fkankland, D.C.L., M.D., F.R.S 681 

2. On Nitrification. By R. Warington 682 

3. On the Assimilation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Plants. By Professor 
W. O. Atwater .". 685 

4. On some points in the Composition of Soils, with results illustrating the 

Sources of Fertility of Manitoba Prairie Sods. By Sir John B. Lawes, 
Bart, F.R.S., and Dr. J. H. Gilbert, F.R.S 686 

5. On the Velocity of Explosions in Gases. By H. B. Dixon, M.A 688 

6. On the Colour of Chemical Compounds. By Professor Thos. Carnellet, 
D.Sc 688 

7. Preliminary Notes on a Blue-colouring matter, found in certain wood, 
undergoing decomposition in the forest. By Professor G. P. Girdwood, 
M.D., and J. Bemrose, F.C.S 689 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S., Sec.G.S., F.R.G.S., President of 

the Section 691 

1. Results of past experience in Gold Mining in Nova Scotia. By Edwin 
Gilpin, Jun., A.M., F.G.S., F.R.S.C 711 

2. A Comparison of the Distinctive Features of Nova Scotian Coal-fields. 

By Edwin Gilpin, Jun., A.M., F.G.S., F.R.S.C 712 

3. On the Coals of Canada. By H. A. Budden 713 

4. On the Geology of Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia. By the Rev. D. 
Honeyman, D.C.L., F.R.S.C 714 

5. Gleanings from Outcrops of Silurian Strata in Red River Valley, Manitoba. 

By J. Hotes Panton, M.A 715 

6. The Apatite Deposits of the Province of Quebec. By G. C. Brown 716 

7. On the Occurrence of the Norwegian ' Apatitbringer ' in Canada, with a 

few notes on the microscopic characters of some Laureutian AmphiboUtes. 
By Frank D. Adams, M.Ap.Sc 717 

8. On the Acadian Basin in American Geology. Bv L. W. Bailey, M.A., 
F.R.S.C 717 

9. Pennsylvania before and after the Elevation of the Appalachian Mountains. 

By Professor E. W. Claypole, B.A., B.Sc.Lond., F.G.S 718 

10. On the Occurrence, Localities, and Output of the Economic Minerals of 
Canada. By William Hamilton Merritt, F.G.S 719 



CONTENTS. Xlli 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 29. 

Pa & e 

1 . Phases in the Evolution of the North American Continent. By Professor 

J. S. Newberry, M.D 719 

2. Marginal Karnes. By Professor H. Carvill Lewis, M. A 720 

3. Twelfth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland ... 720 

4. On Fluxion-Structure in Till. By Hugh Miller, A.R.S.M., F.G.S 720 

5. On the Glacial Origin of Lake Basins. By Alfred R. 0. Selwyn, LL.D., 
F.R.S 721 

6. On Points of Dissimilarity and Resemhlance between Acadian and Scottish 
Glacial Beds. By Ralph Richardson, F.R.S.E 722 

7. Upon the improbability of the theory that former Glacial Periods in the 
Northern Hemisphere were due to Eccentricity of the Earth's Orbit, and 
to its Winter Perihelion in the North. By W. F. Stanley, F.G.S., 
F.R.Met.Soc 723 

8. On Ice-Age Theories. By the Rev. E. Hill, M.A., F.G.S 723 

9. On the recent Discoveiy of new and remarkable Fossil Fishes in the Car- 
boniferous and Devonian Rocks of Ohio and Indiana. By Professor 

J. S.Newberry, M.D 724 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On the Fossil Reticidate Sponges constituting the Family Dictyospongidse. 

By Professor James Hall, LL.D 725 

2. On the Lamellibranchiata Fauna of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, 
Portage, Chemung and Catshill Groups (equivalent to the Lower, Middle 
and Upper Devonian of Europe) ; with especial reference to the Arrange- 
ment of the Monomyaria and the Development and Distribution of the 
Species of the Genus Leptodesma. By Professor James Hall, LL.D... 726 

3. On the Archaean Rocks of Great Britain. By Professor T. G. Bonney, 

D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.G.S 727 

4. The Eozoic Rocks of North America. By T. Sterry Hunt, LL.D., 
F.R.S 727 

5. First Impressions of some Pre-Cambrian Rocks of Canada. By Professor 

J. F. Blake, M.A., F.G.S 728 

6. On the Southward Ending of a great Synclinal in the Taconic Range. By 
Professor James D. Dana, LL.D 729 

7. Notice of a Geological Map of Monte Somma and Vesuvius. By H. J. 
Johnston-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S .'. 730 

8. Report on the National Geological Surveys of Europe 730 

9. The Value of detailed Geological Maps in relation to Water-supply and 

other Practical Questions. By W. Whitaker, B. A., F.G.S 731 

10. On the Mode of Occurrence of Precious Stones and Metals in India. By 

V. Ball, M.A., F.R.S 731 

11. What is a Mineral Vein or Lode ? By C. Le Neve Foster, B.A., D.Sc, 
F.G.S .'732 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Plan for the Subject-Bibliography of North American Geology. By 
G.K. Gilbert 732 

2. On some remains of Fish from the Upper Silurian Rocks of Pennsylvania. 

By Professor E. AV. Ceaypole, B.A., B.Sc. (Lond.), F.G.S 733 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On American Jurassic Mammals. By Professor 0.0. Marsh 734 

4. On the Geology of South Africa. By Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S '. 736 

5. On the more Ancient Land Floras of the Old and New Worlds. Bv 

Principal Sir W. Dawson, O.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S .".738 

6. On the Relative Ages of the American and the English Cretaceous and 

Eocene Series. By J. Starkie Gardner, F.L.S., F.G.S 739 

7. On the Structure of English and American Carboniferous Coals. By 

Edward Wethered, F.G.S., F.C.S .'. 741 

8. Second Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 741 

9. A preliminary Examination of the Silicious Organic Remains in the 
Lacustrine Deposits of the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada. By 
Alexander Howard Mackay, B.A., B.Sc 742 

1 0. Tenth Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters in the Permeable 
Formations of England, and the Quantity and Character of the Water 
supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Formations 742 

11. Fifth and last Report on Fossil Polyzoa 742 

12. Report on the Exploration of the Raygill Fissure in Lothersdale, Yorkshire 742 



WEDXESDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. The Geological Age of the Acadian Fauna. By G. F. Matthew, A.M., 
F.R.S.C 742 

2. The Primitive Conocoryphean. By G. F. Matthew, A.M., F.R.S.C 743 

3. Report on the Rate of Erosion of the Sea Coasts of England and Wales... 744 

4. Fourth Report on the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 744 

5. The Geology of Palestine. By Professor E. Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 744 

•6. Notes on Niagara. By P. Hallett, M.A 744 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by Professor II. N. Moselsy, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., 

F.Z.S., President of the Section 746 

1. On the Geographical Distribution of the Macrurous Crustacea. By 

C. Spence Bate, F.R.S 753 

2. On the Geographical and Bathymetrical Distribution of the Crinoidea. 

By P. Herbert Carpenter, D.Sc 758 

3. On the Origin of Fresh- Water Faunas. By Professor W. J. Sollas, F.G.S. 760 

4 On a Fish supposed to be of Deep-sea Origin, Bv the Rev. D. Honetman, 
D.C.L., F.R.S.C 761 

•5. On the Trapping of Young Fish by the Water Weed Utrindaria vulgaris. 
By Professor Moselet, LL.D., F.R.S '. 761 

6. On the Concordance of the Mollusca inhabiting both sides of the North 
Atlantic and the intermediate Seas. By J. Gwtn Jeffreys, LL.D., 
F.R.S 761 



CONTENTS. XV 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 

Page 

1. Fourth Report of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural 

History of Timor Laut 761 

2. Report of the Committee for the Exploration of Kilima-njaro and the ad- 
joining Mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa 761 

3. Report of the Committee for arranging for the occupation of a Table at 
the Zoological Station at Naples 761 

4. Report on the Record of Zoological Literature 761 

5. Report of the Committee for preparing a Bibliography of certain Groups 

of Invertebrata .' 762 

6. Report on the Migration of Birds 762 

7. On the Characteristic Features of North American Vegetation. By Pro- 
fessor Asa Gray 762 

8. On the Identity of the Animals and Plants of India which are mentioned 

by early Greek Authors. By V. Ball, M.A., F.R.S 762 

9. On the Classification and Affinities of Dinosaurian Reptiles. By Professor 

O. C. Marsh 763 

10. On the Rudimentary Hind-Limb of the Tay "Whale, Megaptera longimana. 

By Professor J. Strtjthers, M.D 766 

11. Note on the occurrence of Bacteria on the Surface of Coins. By Professor 
Louis Elsberg, A.M., M.D 766 

12. On the Comparative Variableness of Bones and Muscles, with Remarks on 

Unity of Type in Variation of the Origin and Insertion of certain 
Muscles in Species unconnected by Unity of Descent. By G. E. Dobson 
M.A., F.R.S ;. \ 767 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On the Value of Nerve-Supply in the Determination of Muscular Anomalies. 

By Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D 768 

2. On the Mutual Relation of the Recent Groups of Echinoderms. By Pro- 
fessor A. Milnes Marshall, M.D ;..,. 768 

3. On the Foetal Membranes of the Marsupials. By W. H. Caldwell 768 

4. On the Progress of his Investigations in Australia. By W. H. Caldwell 768 

5. An Attempt to exhibit Diagrammatically the several Stages of Evolution 

of the Mammalia. By G. E. Dobson, M. A., F.R.S 768 

6. On some Peculiarities in the Geographical Distribution of certain Mammals 
inhabiting Continental and Oceanic Islands. By G. E. Dobson M A 

ivr.s :....:..:: 770 

7. On the Geographical Distribution of the Laridae (Gulls and Terns), with 
special reference to Canadian Species. By Howard Saunders, F.L.S.... 771 

8. Result of the Investigations of Insular Floras. By W. B. Helmsley 772 

9. Some Observations on the direct descendants of Bos Primigenius in Great 

Britain. By G. P. Hughes 772 

10. On Natural Co-ordination, as evinced in Organic Evolution. By Dr. W. 
Fraser , 772 



xv i CONTENTS. 

Subsection of Physiology. 

Page 

1. On the Coagulation of Blood. By Professor H. N. Martin and W. H. 

HOWELL 

2 On the Blood of Limulus Polyphemus. By Francis Gotch, B.Sc, and 

Joseph P. Laws, F.C.S 'J* 

3. On Vaso-motor Nerves. By Professor H. P. Bowditch 776 

4 Demonstration of the Co-ordinating Centres of Kronecker. By T. Wesley 

Mills, M.A., M.D 7 ' b 

5 On the Cardiac Nerves of the Turtle. By Professor Hugo Kronecker 

and T. Wesley Mills, M.A., M.D 77b 

6 On the Functions of the Marginal Convolution. By V. Horsley, M.B., 
B.Sc, and Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S 777 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. On the Ova of Monotremes. By Professor II. N. Moselet, LL.D., F.R.S. 777 

2. Report on the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimination of 

Nitrogen 

3. Remarks on the Caldwell Automatic Microtome 777 

4. On Sensorv Nerve-sacs in the Skin of Amiurus (Siluridse). By Professor 

R. Ramsay Wright, M.A., B.Sc 777 

5 On the Function of the Air-hladder and its relationship to the Auditory 

Organ in Amiurua. By Professor R. Ramsay Wright, M. A ., B.Sc. ...778 

6 On the Jessop Collection, to illustrate the Forestry of the United States, 

in the New York Natural History Museum. By Albert S. Bickmore... 778 

7 On the Structure and Development of Loxosoma. By Sidney F. Harmer, 

' B.A.,B.Sc • •-.• 779 

8. On Anatomical Variations : (1.) Par-occipital Process occurring in Man. 
(2.) Secondary Astragalus. (3.) Persistence of the Left Duct of Cuvier 

in Man. By Professor Shepherd, M.D 779 

y On the Presence of Eyes and other Sense Organs in the Shells of the 

Chitonidffi. By Professor H. N. Moselet, LL.D., F.R.S 780 

10 On the Structure and Arrangement of the Feathers in the Dodo. Bv Pro- 
fessor H. N. Moselet, LL.D, F.R.S " 782 

11. On the Presence in the EnteropneuMa of a structure comparable with the 
Notochord of the Chordata. By William Bateson 782 

12. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Phytopti. By Professor 

P. McMtirrick 78:2 

13 On the Diatomaceous remains in the Lake Deposits of Nova Scotia. By 
A. H. Mackay 783 

Subsection of Physiology. 

1 On the Demonstration of an Apparatus for recording Changes of Volume. 
By Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S 783 

*> Remarks on the Problem of Aquatic Breathing. By Professor McKen- 
drick, M.D., F.R.S 783 

3 On the Biliary Concretions •, demonstrating a Uniformity in the Construc- 
tion of Concretions in the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms. 
Dy Dr. G. Harley, F.R.S 783 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

Page 

4. On the Secretion of Oxalic Acid in the Dog. By T. Wesley Mills, M.A., 
M.D 783 

5. On the Mechanism of Ahsorption. By Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. 783 

6. On a Method of studying the behaviour of the Germs of Septic Organisms 
under Changes of Temperature. By the Rev. Dr. Dallinger, F.R.S... . 785 

7. On a Vegetable Organism which separates Sulphur. By A. W. Bennett 785 

8. On the Physiology of Therapeutics of the Chloral Hydrate and Anaesthetics 
generally. By Dr. W. Alexander 785 

9. On the Growth of Children. By Dr. C. S. Minot 785 

10. On the Proteids of Serum. By W. B. Halliburton and Professor E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S 785 

11. On the Climate of Canada and its relations to Life and Health. By Dr. 

W. H. Hingston 785 

12. On the Production and Propagation of the American Trotter and Classifi- 
cation of the Spermatozoa and Ova. By Dr. W. McMonagh 785 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by General Sir J. II. Lefrot, C.B., K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S.,F.S.A., 

Vice-Pres. R.G.S., President of the Section 787 

1. A Communication on Mr. Joseph Thomson's recent Exploration in Eastern 
Africa. By General Sir J. H. Lefrot, C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S 802 

2. A Communication from Sir John Kirk on Mr. H. Johnston's Kilima-njaro 
Expedition. By General Sir J. H. Lefroy, (J.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S 802 

3. The latest Researches in the Mceris Basin. By F. Cope Whitehouse, 
M.A 802 

4. On Maps of Central Africa down to the commencement of the Seventeenth 
Century. By E. G. Rayenstein, F.R.G.S 803 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. The remarkable Journey of the trained Indian Explorer A. K. on the 
Frontiers of India and China. By Trelawney Saunders 803 

2. The First General Census of India. By Trelawney Saunders 804 

3. North Borneo. By E. P. Gueritz 805 

4. Mount Roraima, in Guiana. By Everard F. im Thurn, M.A 806 

5. Object Lessons in Geography. By E. G. Ratenstein, F.R.G.S 806 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Report of the Committee for promoting the Survey of Eastern Palestine... 807 

2. Comparison of the Climates of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. By 

Dr. J. Beaufort Hurlbert 807 

3. Some peculiar Storms on the North American Continent. By Dr. J. 
Beaufort Hurlbert 807 

4. On Dominion Surveys. By Trelawney Saunders 807 

1884. a 



XV111 CONTENTS. 

Page 

5. An Automatic Sounder. By James Dillon, M.Inst.C.E 807 

6. On the British Commercial Geographical Society about to he founded on 
the proposal of Commander V. Lov.ett Cameron, O.B. By Commander 

V. Lovett Cameron, O.B 808 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Arctic Experiences at Point Barrow. By Lieutenant P. II. Bay, U.S.A.. 808 

2. Recent Discoveries in Northern Greenland and in Grinnell Land. By 

Lieutenant A. W. Geeelt, U.S.A 808 

3. A Search in British North America for lost Colonies of Northmen and 

Portuguese. By R. G. Haliburton s l^ 

4. Note sur quelques bassins hydrographiques du Dominion Oriental. By the 
Rev. Abbe J. C. Laflamme, A.M.. 811 

5. On Surveys of the Dominion Lands— North- Western Territories of 

Canada. By Lindsay Russell 811 

6. On the former Connection between North America and the Eastern side 

of the Atlantic. By Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, M. A., F.R.S 812 

7. On Charles Wiauecke's Explorations in Central Australia, with Notes on 

the Employment of Camels. By J. S. OTIaxloran, F.R.G.S 812 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Address by Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., OLE., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.G.S., 

President of the Section 813 

1 . What makes the Rate of Wages ? By E. Atkinson 824 

2. The Post Office Savings Bank System of Canada. By J. Cunningham 

Stewart 834 

3. Dominion Savings Banks. By T. D. Tims 835 

4. Loans and Savings Companies. By W. .V. Douglas 835 

5. Irish Emigration. By S. Tuke 835 

6. The British Empire in North America and in Australasia. By W. West- 



garth 



835 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 



1. Media of Exchange : some Notes on the Precious Metals and their Equiva- 

lents. By John B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S 837 

2. National Debts. By Michael G. Mulhall 838 

3. Canadian Finance. By J. McLennan 841 

4. On the Production and Consumption of Meat in the United Kingdom. 

By Major P. G. Craigie, F.S.S., Secretary of the Central Chamber of 
Agriculture of Great Britain 84] 

5. British and Canadian Agriculture. By Professor J. P. Sheldon 847 

G. The Position and Prospects of British Agriculture. By Professor 
W. Fream, B.Sc, F.L.S., F.G.S 847 

7. The Agricultural Resources of Ontario. By John Carnegie 848 

8. On the Agricultural Resources of Nova Scotia. Bv Maior-General Laurie, 
D.C.I,." 840 



CONTENTS. x j x 

MO XI) AY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Eeport of the Committee for defraying the expenses of completing the 
final Report of the Anthropometric Committee , 851 

2. Report of the Committee for continuing the inquiries relating to the 
teaching of Science in- Elementary Schools ,., % 851 

3. The Interdependence of the several portions of the British Empire By 
Stephen Bourne, F.S.S g 5 j 

4. The Factory Acts. By R. Whately Cooke-Taylor 853 

5. The Phosphate Industry of Canada. By Robert C. Adams 853 

6. The Fisheries of Canada. By L. Z. Joncas 854 

7. On the Application of Scientific and Practical Arboriculture in Canada. 

By Professor Brown ' ogc 

8. The Distribution of Canadian Forest Trees. By A. T. Dru.unond 855 

9. The Forests of Canada. By Robert Bell, M.D., LL.D 856 

10. Forests— their Value Meteorologically and as National Reserves. Bv 
G.P.Hughes ■ uqq 

11. The Future Policy of Forest Management in the United States By 

F. B. Hough J gg, 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Internal Communication by Land and Water. By Cornelius Walford 
FSS 861 

2. Transport by Land and Water. By E. Wragge and Alexander 

MCDOUGALL gQi) 

3. On Land Laws. By Emile de Lavbleyh 862 

4. Female Emigration. By Miss Maria Rye 866 

5. Female Emigration. By Mrs. Burt 866 

6. Female Emigration. By Mrs. Joyce 866 

7. Population, Immigration, and Pauperism in the Dominion of Canada By 
J - LowE 866 

8. On the Probability that a Marriage entered into at any Age will be 
Fruitful, and that a Marriage which has been Childless for several years 
will subsequently become Fruitful. By T. B. Sprague, M.A... 866 



-9. On the relative Dangers of Coal and Metal Mining in the United Kino-dom 
By C. Le Neve Foster, B.A., D.Sc, F.G.S. ....! 



868 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER. 3. 

1. The Banking System of Canada. By H. J. Hague .868 

2. Prospective Prices in Europe, America, and Asia. By Hyde Clarke, 

V - RS - S 868 

3. Harmonies and Antagonisms in the Social Forces. By W H Douglass 

ba .'869 

i. Notes on Friendly Societies, with special reference to Lapses and Malinger- 
ing. By the Rev. G. Cecil White, M.A ° _ 869 

o. The Commercial Relations of Canada with Spain and her Colonies. By 
Don Arturo de Marcoartu gj-0 

•6. Forestry. By J. Beaufort Hurlbert, M.D., LL.D . 872 

7. The Forests of Canada. By J. Beaufort Hurlbert, M.D., LL.D 872 

a2 



xx CONTENTS. 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

Page 
Address by Sir F. J. Bramwell, LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.Inst.C.E., President of 

the Section 875 

1 . The Forth Bridge. By Benjamin Baker, M.Inst.C.E 884 

2. The Severn Tunnel Railway. By J. Clarke Hawkshaw, M.Inst.C.E.... 884 

3. On Single-Track Railways. By W. K. Muir 885 

4. On American Permanent Way. By Joseph Wilson, A.M., M.Inst.C.E. 885 

5. On the Canadian Pacific Railway. By Vernon Smith 885 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 29. 

1. On the Theory of the Steam-Engine. By Professor Robert II. Thurston 885 

2. Steam-Engine practice in the United States in 1884. By J. C. Hoadlet 886 

3. Pumping Machinery. By E. D. Leavitt, Jun 889* 

4. The Anthracite Burning Locomotive of America. By J. D. Barnett 890 

5. On English Locomotive Engineering. By A. McDonnell and J. A. F. 
Aspinall 890 

6. On the Construction of Locomotive Engines for the London, Brighton, and 

South Coast Railway. By W. Stroudley 890' 

7. On Valve Gear. By David Joy 890 

8. On Heating Buildings by Steam from a Central Source. By J. H. Bart- 
lett 891 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On the Lighthouse System of Canada. By Willtam Smith 891 

2. Improvements in Coast Signals ; with supplementary Remarks on the 
new Eddystone Lighthouse. By Sir James N. Douglass, M.Inst.C.E.... 893 

3. The Watt and Horse-Power. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 893 

4. Secondary Batteries. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 893 

5. Domestic Electric Lighting. By W. II. Preece, F.R. S 893 

6. The Portrush Electric Railway. By Dr. A. Traill 893 

7. Electric Tramways. By Holroyd Smith 893 

8. A New Volt-Meter. By Captain Cardew 893 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Report of the Patent Law Committee 894 

2. Report of the Screw Gauge Committee 894 

3. Report of the Sea-Coast Erosion Committee 894 

4. Some Points in Dynamo-Electric Machines. By Professor S. P. Thomp- 

son, D.Sc 894 

5. On the Heating of Conductors by Electric Currents. By Professor 

G. Forbes 894 

6. Automatic Sprinklers for Fire Extinction. By C. J. H. Woodbury 894 

7. On the Friction of Journals. By Professor Osborne Reynolds,. F.R.S... 895 

8. Grain Elevators. By V. C. Van Horn 895 



CONTENTS. Xxi 

Page 
D. On the Flow of Water through Turbines and Screw Propellers. By 
Arthur Rigg 895 

10. On the Ventilation of Ocean Steamships. By A. Lapthokn Smith, B.A., 
M.D 895 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. The Extent to which a Geological Formation is available as a Gathering- 

around for Water Supply. By W. Whitaker, B.A., F.G.S 896 

2. On Flood Regulators. By J. Dillon 896 

3. On Agricultural Implements. By D. Pidgeon 896 

4. On the Destruction of Town Refuse. By John Brown, M.D., B.Sc 896 

5. On the Prevention of Accidents at Sea. By Admiral J. E. Commerell 897 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 28. 

1. The Range of the Eskimo in Space and Time. By Professor W. Borc- 
Dawkins, F.R.S 898 

2. Notice of Exploration of a Group of Mounds in Ohio. By F. W. Putnam 899 

3. On the Classification of North American Languages. By Major J. W. 
Powell 899 

Address by E. B. Ttlor, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section ... 899 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 29. 

1. Instructions Anthropometriques Elementaires. By Dr. P. Topinard 910 

2. On Myths of the Modoc Indians. By J. Ourtin 910 

3. On the Nature and Origin of Wampum. By Horatio Hale 910 

4. Marriage Laws of the North American Tribes. By Major J. W. Powell 911 

5. Report of the Committee for defining the Facial Characteristics of the 
Races and Principal Crosses in the British Isles 914 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Remarks on the Customs and Language of the Iroquois. By Mrs. 
Erminte A. Smith 914 

2. On the Development of Industrial and Ornamental Art among the Zunis 

of New Mexico. By F. H. Cushing 914 

•3. The Huron-Iroquois, a typical race of American Aborigines. By Dr. 
Daniel Wilson 915 

4. Anthropological Discoveries in Canada. By C. A. Hirschfelder 915 

5. Observations on the Mexican Zodiac and Astrology. By Hyde Clarke 916 

"6. Facts suggestive of Prehistoric Intercourse between East and West. By 
Miss A. W. Buckland 916 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Report of the Committee for defraying the expenses of completing the 
preparation of the final Report of the Anthropometric Committee 917 

2. Notes on the Races of the Jews. By Dr. A. Neubauer 917 

-3. On a Skull from the Loss of Podbaba, near Prague, and a Skull found in 
alluvium at Kankakee, Illinois, along with a Tooth of the Mastodon. 
By Dr. Daniel Wilson 917 



XXII CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. Recent Excavations in Pen Pits, Somersetshire. By the Rev. H. H. 
Winwood 018 

5. On some doubtful or intermediate Articulations. By Horatio Hale ... 918 

6. On Food Plants used by the North American Indians. By Professor 
George Lawson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.I.C., F.R.S.C 918 

7. Exhibition of Photographs of Eskimo Relics. By Lieutenant A. W. 
Greely, U.S.A 919 

8. Habits and Customs of the Iuu of the Western Shore and Point Barrow. 

By Lieutenant P. H. Ray, U.S.A 919 

9. Customs and Religious Rites of the Blackfeet. By R. G. Haliburton ... 920 

10. Notes on the Astronomical Customs and Religious Ideas of the Choki- 
tapia or Blackfeet Indians. By Jean L'Hettreux, M. A 921 

11. Notes on the Kekip Sesoators, or Ancient Sacrificial Stone of theN.W. 
Territory of Canada. By Jean L'Heureux, M.A 921 

12. Race Elements of the Malagasy. By C. Staniland Wake, M.A.I 922 

13. Notes on Researches as to American Origins. By Hyde Clarke 922 

WEDXESDAT, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On the Lapidary Sculptures of the Dolmens of the Morbihan. Bv Admiral 

F. II. Tremlett 92a 

2. An Account of Small Flint Instruments found beneath Peat on the 

Pennine Chain. By R. Law and James Horsfall 924 

3. On the Primary Divisions and Geographical Distribution of Mankind. By 

James Dallas, F.L.S 924 

4. Notes on some Tribes of New South Wales. By A. L. P. Cameron 924 

Appendix I. Addresses presented to the Association in Canada 925' 

Appendix II. Foundation of a Medal at McGill University, Montreal, in com- 
memoration of the visit of the British Association to Canada 929 

Index 935 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I.— III. 



Illustrative of Professor Schuster's Communication, ' On the Connection between 
Sunspots and Terrestrial Phenomena.' 

PLATES IV. and V. 

Illustrative of Sir James Douglass's Communication, ' On Improvements in Coast 

Signals.' 

PLATES VI.— VIII. 

Illustrative of Mr. J. M. Wilson's Communication, ' On American Permanent Way.'' 

PLATE IX. 

Illustrative of Mr. G. E. Dobson's Communication, ' An Attempt to Exhibit 
Diagrammatically the several Stages of Evolution of the Mammalia.' 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different pai*ts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its pi'ogress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to 
become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to 
conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Conn- 
ed or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Associa- 
tion, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 



XXIV IIULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at 
any subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership 
after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a com- 

position for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a fur- 
ther sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 
1845, a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members ivlio have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced, or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publi- 

cation Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds 
as a composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum 
as a Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume 
for that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) 

any of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up 
to 1874, of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per 
volume. 1 
Application to be made at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, London, W. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 
1 A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIA1ION. XXV 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must 
be sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of 
the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. 1 Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees. 2 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections, 3 and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 

1 Ke vised by the General Committee, 1884. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

3 Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 



XXVI BULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members- 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees. ' 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease. 2 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees. 3 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 p.m., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, 4 Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 a.m., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly- 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 

ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees. 5 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 

before , addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Eeports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, 
before the eon elusion of the Meeting. «. 

1 Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 187'.». 

2 Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

3 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

4 The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at 
Sonthport, 1883. 

5 These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV11 

of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee. 1 The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed, At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxv), and will receive, 
on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state 
and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Com- 
mittees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 

1 This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



XXV111 RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received. 1 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting: nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto can be used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, 2 and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desrrable. 

1 Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 

- The meeting on Saturday may begin, if desired by the Committee, at any time not 
earlier than 10 or later than 11. Passed by the General Committee at Southport, 1883. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except tbose Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Corresponding Societies. 1 

(1.) ADy Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

(2.) Applications may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

(3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

(4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or 
before the 1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, 
1 Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

properly filled tip, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, and which will contain a request for such particulars with regard to 
the Society as may be required for the information of the Corresponding' 
Societies Committee. 

(5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognizance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

(6.) A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

(7.) The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

(8.) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

(9.) The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of Re- 
•commendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

(10.) It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Member's of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



ROLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting:. 



■"6* 



Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve bis right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXX IX 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

•Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 
1830. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. AVilliam Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Cullo'ch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof.' Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W..T.MacquornRankine,Prof.Smyth, 

l'rof . Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessv, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof 

Tyndall. 



xl 



REPORT — 1884. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Kev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W.J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. O. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S., 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A.. 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. P.. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodsje. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Loda-e, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton. Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpniael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 

Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 

MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xli 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



Secretaries 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY- 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 



1841. Plymouth.. 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. 
1855, 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861, 
1862. 



Liverpool 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 



1863. Newcastle 



1864. 
1865. 



Bath 

Birmingham 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R. S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D..F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D..F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

W.Odlin'g, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone,Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 



xlii 



REPORT — 1884. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1866. 


Nottingham 


H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 


J. H. Albert on, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 


1867. 


Dundee ... 


Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 


A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 






F.R.S.E. 


W. J. Russell. 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S.. 


Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 






F.C.S. 


sell, F. Sutton. 


1869. 


Exeter 


Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 


Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J, 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 


Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 






F.R.S., F.C.S. 


Dr. W. J. Russell. 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 


J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 


Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 


1873. 


Bradford . . . 


Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 


Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 


1874. 


Belfast... 


Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 


Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 






F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 


ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 


1875. 


Bristol 


A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 


Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 






F.R.S., F.C.S. 


Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 


W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 


Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 


1878. 


Dublin 


Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 


W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 






F.R.S., F.C.S. 


son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 


H. S. Beli, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 


H. B. Dixon, Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodg- 






F.R.S. 


kinson, P. Phillips Bedson, J. M. 
Thomson. 


1881. 


York 


Prof . A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 


P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
T. Gough. 






F.R.s. 


1882. 


Southamp- 


Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 


P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 




ton. 


F.R.S. 


J. L. Notter. 


1883. 


Southport 


Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R S 


Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 
Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 


Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 






LL.D., F.R.S. 


T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 



GEOLOGICAL (and. until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchisou, F.R.S. 



... j John Taylor. 

.... W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Jameson jProf. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie,. 

Rev. J. Yates. 



G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin | R. J. Griffith 



1836. Bristol, 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle. 



Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

Gcoqraphy, G. B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhope. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt, Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1839. Birmingham 


Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 


George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 




Geography, G.B.Greenough, 


land, Charles Darwin. 




F.R.S. 




1340. Glasgow ... 


Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geo- 


W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 




graphy, G. B. Greenough, 


Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 




F.R.S. 


Scoular, M.D. 


1811. Plymouth... 


H. T. De laBeche, F.R.S. ... 


W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 


1842. Manchester 


R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 






Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 


1843. Cork 


Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 


Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 




land. 


1844. York 


Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 
Geol. Soc. 


Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 






1845. Cambridge. 


Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 


Rev. J. C. dimming, A. C. Ramsay, 




F.R.S. 


Rev. W. Thorp. 


1846. Southamp- 


Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 


Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 


ton. 


graphy, G. B. Greenough, 


Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 




F.R.S. 


T. Beke. 


1847. Oxford 


Very Rev.Dr.Buckland, F.R.S. 


Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 
Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 


1848. Swansea ... 


Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 


Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 




F.R.S. 


Prof. Ramsay. 


1849. Birmingham 


Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 


J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 




F.G.S. 


A. C. Ramsay. 


1850. Edinburgh 1 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 


A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 




F.R.S. 


Prof. Nicol. 



section c {continued). — GEOLOGY. 
1851. Ipswich ..., WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S 



1852. 


ipswicii .... 

Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool . . 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 




1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 




1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



Lieut.- Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A .,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D. ; 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness,. 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright, 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott, 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt, 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T, 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 



Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 

1 At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved ' That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,"' for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xlviii. 



xliv 



REPORT — 188-i. 



Date and Place 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee , 

1868. Norwich , 



Presidents 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay. LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

1869. Exeter Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

1870. Liverpool... Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 
Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .., 



R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 



Secretaries 



W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorb}', W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 

son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. "Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 
F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 

R. H. Tiddeman. 
L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 
J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 

Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford ,'Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 

1833. Cambridge 1 Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 

1834. Edinburgh. Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow [J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 



1 At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xlvii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



1838. Newcastle 

1 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen,. 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King,. 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



section d (continued). — ZOOLOGY and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xlvii, xlviii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1840. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

11860. Oxford 
1861. Manchester 
1 
1 



1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



18G4. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart.,F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W.E.Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E.. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1884. 



section D (continued). — biology. 



Date and Place 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth. 



Presidents 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Bcp., Prof. 

Humphry,' M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Bcp., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bcp. of Zool. and Bat., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bcp. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S 
— Bcp. of Bat. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — Bcp. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,Txoi.M 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Bcp 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D. 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Bot. and 
.£«>£., Prof. WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol, 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Bcp. of 
A nat.and Ph i/siol,Fiot. Ru- 
therford, MJ).— Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.B.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.B.—Bcp. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Fres.'R.S.— Bep. of An- 
throp.,8fr W.R.Wilde. M.D. 

P. L. Sciater, F.E.S.— Dep.of 
Anat.andPhysiol.,Vioi.Cle 
land, M.D., F.S.S.— Bep. of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel AVallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S.— Bcp. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Bcp. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S.— Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Prof. Macalisler, 
M.D. — Bcp. of Anthropol., 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
Kins. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dver,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smitb, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lam pre} - . 

W.T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Xab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunninaham, Dr. C. A. Hinaston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 



I Francis Galton, M.A..F.R.S. 

1 At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved : — 'That the title 
flf Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," in the 
rules f or conrl net ingthebusiness of the Sect ions, the word "Department" be substituted.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



1878. Dublin . 



Presidents 



J 879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 






1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. Montreal 2 ... 



Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 

Dep. of Anthropol., Prof. 

Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dep. 

of Anat. and Physiol., R. 

McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. St. George Mivart, 

F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pve-Smith. 

A. C. L.Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Dip. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. P.alfour, M.A., 
F.E.S.— Dep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.B,.S.—Dep.of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol.,"Piot.J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
-Dep. of Zool. and Dot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S.— Dep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R S. 



Prof. H. 
F.R.S. 



N. Moseley, M.A. 



Secretaries 



Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 






1833. Cambridge 
1831. Edinburgh 



Dr. Haviland jDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Abercrombie iDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (UNTIL 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844 York 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D.. F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fnge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



1 By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

2 By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology was made a separate 
. section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. liii. 



xlviii 



report — 1884. 



SECTION E. — PHTSIOLOGT. 



Date and Place 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 1 ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

jprof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. . 



Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
| Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 

1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Aberdeen.. 
Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



Birming- 
ham.- 



PHTSIOLOG1CAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart.. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof. G. Rolleston, M.D., 

F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D.. 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett.Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 

Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward 

Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C r 
p. xlii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Dr. Pritchard Dr. King. 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. ... Prof. Buckley. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast... 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 



Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, G. C.St. S., 

F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Calla- 

ghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 



Wright. 

1 By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology' (see p. xlv). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to- 
Geography. 2 Vide note on page xlvi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlix 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1859. 


Aberdeen . . . 


Rear - Admiral Sir James 


Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 






Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


ton Shaw. 


1860. 




Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 


Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 






F.R.S. 


Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 


1861. 


Manchester 




Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 








ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 


1862. 


Cambridge 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. 
Wright. 


1863. 


Newcastle 


Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 


C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 






F.R.S. 


C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 


1864. 


Bath 


Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 


H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 






1865. 


Birmingham 


Major-General Sir H. Raw- 


H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 






linson, M.P.,K.C.B., F.R.S. 


R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 


1866. 


Nottingham 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 


H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 






LL.D. 


H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 
D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 


1867. 


Dundee . . . 


Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 


H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N.. 


T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 






F.R.S. 


Markham, T. Wright. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1884. 



section e (continued). — geography 
K.C.B., 



Sir Bartle Frere, 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm.SirE. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.L.&E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R. A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
Clements R. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev. AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance, 
c 



REPORT — 1884. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 



Date and Place 



1833, 
1834. 



Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Prof. Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., 



Secretaries 



J. E. Drinkwater. 

Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 



1838 
1839, 

1840. 

1841 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851. 
1852. 

1853, 
1854. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool.., 



1855. Glasgow 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. .. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Chesbire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



section f (continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham ' Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



1857, 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 



Dublin 'His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Leeds Edward Baines 



Aberdeen... i Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. 
Oxford j Nassau W. Senior, M.A. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S.Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



li 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich.... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 
1871. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 



William Newmarch, F.B.S.... 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Roarers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. ... 



Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt, Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 

Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S. 
Pres.S.S. 



David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 

H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 

T. Donbleday, Edmund Macrory, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 



Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 
F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I.,! A. M-Neel Caird,T.G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

M.P. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

Rt, Hon. the Earl Fortescue W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 

M.R.I.A. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 
S.S. Molloy. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 

Rt. Hon. M. E.Grant Duff,!C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 



M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., P.R.G.S. 



Moss 

G. Baden Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 
Prof. J. Watson. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1843. Cork. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatlield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 

c2 



lii 



REPORT 1 884. 



Date and Place 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



John Taylor, F.E.S 

George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., 

F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W.J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 



Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 

William Betts, jun., Charles Manby, 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison,. 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, ML 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart, 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw^. 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T.. 

Wood. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



liii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1879. Sheffield ... 


J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 


A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 




Eng. 


H. T. Wood. 


1880. Swansea ... 


James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 
O.E., F.R.S.E. 


A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 


1881. York 


Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 
L.L.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 


A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 
H. T. Wood. 




1882. Southamp- 


John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 


A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 


ton. 




Wood. 


1883. Southport 


James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 
Pres.Inst.C.E. 


A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 


1884. Montreal... 


Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 


A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 




V.P.Inst.C.E. 


Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 



1884. Montreal , 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ...| G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 



List of Evening Lectures. 






Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Lecturer 

Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S... . 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the jEgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosses Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (D-idus inept us). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. ' 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 



liv 



REPORT 1884. 



Date and Place 



1851. 
1852. 



Ipswich . . 
Belfast 



1853. Hull , 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Lecturer 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 




1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 




1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867, 

1868 
1869. 



Bath. 



Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

Colonel Portlosk, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Birmingham 



Nottingham 
Dundee , 



Norwich 
Exeter .. 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A.. F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. .. 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J.Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Distinction between Plant s and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



lv 



Date and Place 



1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 



1881. York. 






1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool... 
1872. Brighton ... 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Kankine. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.A.Abel, F.R.S 



E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
Prof. W.' K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.R, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

Sir Wyville Thomson, F R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Odling, F.R.S. 



Prof. 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S. 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S.... 



W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. O. J. Lodge., D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The Challenger Expedition. 

The Physical Phenomena connected 
with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 

The new Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvani and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 



lvi 



REPORT — 1884. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877 Plymouth... 
1879. Sheffield 


C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 
W H. Preece 


Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 
A Piece of Limestone. 
A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 
Electricity as a Motive Power. 
The North- East Passage. 
Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 


W E. Ayrton 


1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 


H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L. Treas. R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S.. 


1882. Southamp- 

ton . 

1883. Southporl 

1884. Montreal ... 


flakes. 
Unwritten History, and how to 

read it. 
Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 
Comets. 



lvii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

MONTREAL MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 
F.R.S.L. & E., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor J. C. Adams, F.R.S. ; Professor R. S. Ball, 
F.R.S. ; Professor J. B. Cherriman, M.A. ; J. W. L. Glaisher, 
F.R.S. ; Professor O. Henrici, F.R.S. ; Professor S. Newcomb. 

Secretaries — Charles Carpmael, M.A. ; Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A. ; 
Professor A. Johnson, LL.D. ; Professor Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc. ; D. 
MacAlister, M.D. (Recorder). 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Dewar, F.R.S. ; Professor Wolcott Oibbs ; 
Professor B. J. Harrington, Ph.D. ; W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., Pres.C.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; H. B. 
Dixon, M.A. ; T. McFarlane ; Professor W. H. Pike, M.A. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S., Sec.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor J. Geikie, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Hall, LL.D. ; 
Major J. W. Powell; Professor T. Rnpert Jones, F.R.S.: A. R. C. 
Selwyn, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— F. Adams, B.Ap.Sc. ; Professor E. W. Claypole, B.Sc. ; W. 
Topley, F.G.S. (Recorder) ; W. Whitaker, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President.— Professor Moseley, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— G. E. Dobson, F.R.S. ; Professor George Lawson, 
LL.D. ; William Carrnthers, F.R.S. ; Professor A. Milnes Marshall, 
D.Sc. ; Professor Schafer, F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Professor W. Osier, M.D. ; Howard Saunders, F.L.S. 
(Recorder) ; A. Sedgwick, M.A. ; Professor R. Ramsay Wright, B.Sc. 



lviii report — 1884. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— General Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Vice-Pres. R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Colonel Rhodes; P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Rev. Abbe Laflarame ; J. S. O'Halloran; J. Eraser Torrance, 
B.A. ; E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. (Recorder). 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., CLE., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S.; Professor J. Clark Murray, 
LL.D. 

Secretaries. — Professor H. S. Foxwell, F.S.S. (Recorder) ; J. S. McLennan, 
B.A. ; Professor J. Watson, LL.D. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Sir F. J. Bramwell, LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor H. T. Bovey, M.A. ; E. P. Hannaford ; V. C. 
Van Horn ; J. F. LaTrobe Bateman, F.R.S. ; W. H. Preece, F.R.S. ; 
Professor Thurston ; Herbert Wallis ; Sandford Fleming. 

Secretaries. — A. T. Atchison, M.A. (Recorder) ; W. B. Dawson ; J. 
Kennedy, C.E. ; H. T. Wood, M.A. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Boyd Da-whins, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor 
Daniel Wilson, LL.D., F.R.S.E. ; Major J. W. Powell ; Sir W. 
Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, F.L.S. (Recorder) ; Walter Hurst, B.Sc. 



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REPORT — 1884. 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 




Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 


1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept, 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept, 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 ... 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept, 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 

1875, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept, 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 ... 

1881, Aug. 31 ... 

1882, Aug. 23 ... 

1883, Sept. 19 ... 

1884, Aug. 27 ... 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 

The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 

H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 

WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 

Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 

The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir John Hawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart,, F.R.S. 

1 Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

1 Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
[ Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. ... 


169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 

184 

144 

272 

178 

203 

235 


65 

169 

28 

150 

36 

10 

18 

3 

12 

9 

8 

10 

13 

23 

33 

14 

15 

42 

27 

21 

113 

15 

36 

40 

44 

31 

25 

18 

21 

39 

28 

36 

27 

13 

36 

35 

19 

18 

16 

11 

28 

17 

60 

20 




Cambridge 




Dublin 


Bristol 




Newcastle-on-Tyne 








Cork 


York 










Ipswich 


Belfast 


Hull 






Dublin 


Leeds 


Aberdeen 


Oxford 




Cambridge 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bath 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 


Dnndp.fi .... 


Norwich 


Exeter 


Liverpool 


Edinburgh 


Brighton 


Bradford 


Belfast 


Bristol 


Glasgow 

Plymouth 


Dublin 


Sheffield 


Swansea 


York 





ATTENDANCE AND EECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

it Annual Meetings of the Association. 



lxi 





Attended by 








Amount 


Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 

Purposes 




Old 
Annual 

Members 


Ne 

Ann 

Mem 


, Asso- T 
ual La 

ciates 
bers 


dies 


For- 
eigners 


Total 


received 

during the 

Meeting 


Year 




•• 




•• 


... 


353 






1831 
1832 














•• 




•• 


•• 


... 


900 
1298 






1833 
1834 
1835 






£20 
167 








•• 




'.' 1 


100* 


... 


1350 
1840 
2400 




435 
922 12 6 
932 2 2 


1836 
1837 
1838 






• • • 






31 

37 

18 

19 

2 

3 

4l 


7 


•• 


60* 
531* 
L60 
260 
L72 
196 
203 


34 
40 

28 

35 
36 
53 


1438 

1353 

891 

1315 

1079 

857 

1320 




1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

831 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 


1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 






46 




75 


5 33f : 

5 

) 9f i 

2 407 : 

i 270 

) 495 i 




71 




45 




94 




65 




197 




54 


2 


> 376 ] 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


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* ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

t Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Honorary Members for this Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1884-85. 



PRESIDENT. 
The Eight Hon. LORD RAYLEIGH, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Excellency the Governor-General of Canada, 

G.C.M.G., LL.D. 
The Right Hon. Sir Johx Alexander Macdonald, 

G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., M.P., 

Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E, F.C.S. 
The Hon. Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt, G.C.M.G. 
The Hon. Sir Charles Tupper, K.C.M.G. 
Chief Justice Sir A. A. Durion, C.M.G. 



Principal Sir Willum Dawson, C.M.G., M.A.. 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
The Hon. Dr. Chauveau. 
Professor Edward Frankland, M.D., D.C.L., 

LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. HXNGSTON, Esq., M.D., D.C.L., L.R.C.S.E. 
Thomas Sterry Hunt, Esq., M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
The Right Hon. SIR LYON PLAYFAIR, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E., F.C.S. 



His Grace the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, 

K.G., D.C.L., Chancellor of the University of 

Aberdeen. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen, LL.D., 

Lord-Lieutenaut of Aberdeenshire. • 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Crawford and Bal- 

carres, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
James Matthews, Esq., Lord Provost of the City 

of Aberdeen. 



Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D.. 

F.R.S. L.&E., F.R.A>. 
Alexander Bain, Esq., M.A., LL.D., Rector of the 

University of Aberdeen. 
The Very Rev. Principal Pirie, D.D., Vice-Chan- 

cellor of the University of Aberdeen. 
Professor \V. H. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

Pres.Z.S., F.G.S. , Director of the Natural History 

Museum. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
J. \V. Crombie, Esq. Dr. Angus Frassr. Professor G. Pirie, M.A. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
John Flndlater, Esq. Robert Lumsden, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Abxey, Captain W. de W., F.R S. 
Adams, Professor W. G., F.R.S. 
Ball, Professor R. S., F.R.S. 
Batemax, J. F. La Trobe, Esq., F.R.S. 
Bramwell, Sir F. J.. F.R.S. 
Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd, F.R.S. 
De La Rue. Dr. Warren, F.R.S. 
Dewar, Professor J., F.R.S. 
EVANS, Captain Sir F. J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Flower, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Gladstoxe, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H., F.R.S. 
Hawkshaw, J. Clarke, Esq. F.G.S. 
Hkxrki, Professor 0., F.R.S. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK.. F.G.S. 
Moseley, Professor H. N., F.R.S. 
Omm axxey, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Perkin, Dr. W. H., F.R.S. 
Prestwich, Professor, F.R.S. 
Sclater-Booth, The Right Hon. G., F.R.S. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C, F.R.S. 
Temple, Sir R., G.C.S.I. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 

A. G. VERNON Harcourt, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, Oxford. 

SECRETARY. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.', F.S.A., Pres. G.S., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir John Lubeock, Bart.. M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonsliire, E.G. 
Sir G. B. Airy, K.CB., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll. K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 



Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., Sec. R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Pres. R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



; Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 

Dr. T. Andrews. F.R.S. 

Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir A. C. Ramsay. LL.D., F.R.S. 
| Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
i Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 



F. Galton Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr.T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Dr. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. I P. L. Sclatcr, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

I George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S.' 



■George Griffith, Esq.,M.A., F.C.S. 



AUDITORS. 
John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



W. Huggins, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



lxiii 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the year 1883-84, presented to the General 
Committee at Montreal, on Wednesday, August 27, 1884. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the meeting at Southport, Dr. P. Lindemann and Dr. Ernst 
Schroder have been elected Corresponding Members of the Association. 

The present meeting of the British Association, the fifty-fourth in 
number, is likely to be long memorable in its annals ; as the first held 
beyond the limits of the United Kingdom. It marks a new point of 
departure, and one probably never contemplated by the founders of the 
Association, although not forbidden by the laws which they drew up. 
The experiment was doubtless a hazardous one, but it seems likely to be 
justified by success ; and it may be hoped that the vigour and vitality 
gained by new experience may ultimately compensate for the absence 
from this meeting of not a few familiar faces among the older members • 
there will, however, be as large a gathering of members of more than one 
year's standing as is usual at a successful meeting in Great Britain, and 
the efforts which have been made by our hosts to facilitate the coming of 
members, and render their stay in Canada both pleasant and instructive 
call for the warmest acknowledgment. 

The inducements offered to undertake the journey were indeed so 
great that the Council felt that it would be necessary to place some 
restriction upon the election of new members, which for many years past, 
thongh not unchecked in theory, has been almost a matter of course in 
practice. Obviously these offers of the Canadian hosts of the British 
Association were made to its members, not to those on whom they might 
operate as an inducement to be enrolled amongst its members. The 
Council, therefore, before the close of the Southport meeting, published 
the following resolution : — ' That after the termination of the present 
month (September 1883), until further notice, new members be only 
elected by special resolution of the Council.' Applications for admission 
under these terms were very numerous, and were carefully sifted by the 
Council. Still, although the Council, as time progressed and the number 
augmented, increased the stringency of their requirements, it became 
evident that the newly-elected members would soon assume an unduly 
large proportion to those of older standing, so that on May 6, after electing 
130 members under this rule, it was resolved to make no more elections 
until the commencement of the Montreal meeting, when it would be safe 
to revert to the usual practice. 

The details of the arrangements made for the journey have already 
been communicated to the members, so that it is needless to make any 



lxiv REPORT — 1884. 

further special reference to them ; but the Council have to acknowledge 
the great liberality of the Associated Cable Companies in granting, under 
certain restrictions, free ocean telegraphy to the members of the Associa- 
tion during the meeting. 

The death of Sir "William Siemens has deprived the Association of one 
of its most earnest supporters and friends. It was during his presidency 
at Southampton that the invitation to Montreal was accepted, and he was 
appointed at Southport a Vice-President for this meeting. The Council 
nominated Sir J. D. Hooker a Vice-President, but he was unfortunately 
obliged, for domestic reasons, to resign the nomination in the early part 
of the summer. 

It has been the custom at meetings of the Association to invite the 
attendance of distinguished men of science from all parts of the world ; 
but the Council considered that on the present occasion it would be well 
to offer a special welcome to the American Association (of which also 
several eminent Canadian men of science are members) ; they have 
accordingly issued an invitation to the Standing Committee and Fellows 
of that Association to attend the meeting at Montreal on the footing of 
Honorary Members. 

The Council were informed some time since that the General Treasurer 
would be prevented from attending the meeting at Montreal. They 
decided accordingly on the present occasion (as the usual assistant to the 
General Treasurer could not be present) to appoint a Deputy Treasurer 
and a Financial Officer ; the latter to undertake the duties discharged by 
the assistant, together with some of those which usually fall upon the 
Treasurer. To the former office they have nominated Admiral Sir 
Erasmus Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S. ; to the latter, Mr. Harry Brown, 
Assistant Secretary of University College, London. 

Four resolutions were referred by the General Committee to the 
Council for consideration, and action if desirable : — 

(1) That the Council be empowered, if they think fit, to form a sepa- 
rate section of Anthropology, and to give to the section of Biology the 
title ' Section D. — Biology (Zoology, Botany, and Physiology).' 

The Council, after consideration, resolved to form a separate section 
of Anthropology, with the title ' Section H. — Anthropology,' but con- 
sidered that it was better to continue to designate the section of Biology 
by the simpler title ' Section D. — Biology.' 

(2) That application be made to the Admiralty to institute a Physical 
and Biological Survey of Milford Haven and the adjacent coast of 
Pembrokeshire, on the plan followed by the American Fisheries Commission. 

The Council, after appointing a Committee to consider the necessary 
details, duly made application, and have been informed by the Lords of 
H.M. Treasury that they regretted to be unable to institute such a survey, 
as the Admiralty had no vessels available for this service. 

(3) That the Council of the British Association be requested to 
consider the report of the Committee of Section A respecting the suppres- 
sion of four of the seven principal observatories of the Meteorological 
Council, and to forward a copy of the same to the Meteorological CounciL 

The Council, after consideration of the above report, communicated 
with the Meteorological Council as directed. A reply was duly received, 
and in view of the statements therein made, and of supplementary 
information that arrangements had been made whereby three out of the 
four observatories relinquished by the Meteorological Council would be 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixv 

continued, though on a somewhat different footing, it was considered 
needless to proceed further in the matter. 

(4) That the Council of the British Association be requested to com- 
municate at the earliest opportunity with the Executive Committee of the 
International Fisheries Exhibition, in order to urge upon that body the 
appropriation of a sufficient sum out of the surplus funds remaining in 
their hands at the close of the Exhibition, to found a laboratory on the 
British Coast for the study of Marine Zoology ; and to point out, as a 
reason for such appropriation, the great value to science, and to the 
prosperity of the fisheries industries, of such an institution. 

A communication was duly made to the Executive Committee of the 
International Fisheries Exhibition, but there does not seem any prospect 
of such an appropriation of the surplus funds. 

The Council have been informed that, through an inadvertence, the 
resolution of the Sectional Committee recommending the reappointment 
of the Committee on Screw Gauges was not transmitted to the Secretary 
in time to be considered by the Committee of Recommendations, and so 
did not receive the sanction of the General Committee. The Council, 
having regard to the importance of the work carried on by that Com- 
mittee, have requested them, through their Secretary, to continue their 
labours and make a report as if duly appointed. The Council ask that 
this action of theirs be sanctioned, and that the above-named report be 
received and printed among the reports of the committees duly appointed. 

The report of the Committee on Local Scientific Societies, mentioned 
in the report of the Council presented at the Southport meeting, has been 
printed in the volume for 1883 ; and the Council, believing that the sug- 
gestions made therein will be for the advantage of the Association, have 
considered the alterations which their adoption would make necessary in 
the rules. It is proposed to reserve the consideration of this question by 
the General Committee for the meeting to be held in London in November. 
The following are the alterations which will lie necessary : — 

No. I — In Bales, General Committee, Class B. — Temporary Members. 
To replace the first clause (The President .... representing 
him) by the following : ' Delegates nominated by the Correspond- 
ing Societies under the conditions hereinafter explained.' 

No. II. — To insert in Rules, between the sections headed respectively 
Committee of Recommendations and Local Committee, the following 
sections : — 

Corresponding Societies. 

' (1 .) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

' (2.) Applications may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the first of June preceding the annual meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

' (3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the Genei-al Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 

1884. d 



lxvi REPORT — 1884. 

themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding' 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

' (4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or 
before the 1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule r 
properly filled up, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, and which will contain a request for such particulars with regard to 
the Society as may be required for the information of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee. 

' (5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the past twelve months which contain the results of the 
local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only being included 
which refer to subjects coming under the cognizance of one or other of 
the various Sections of the Association. 

' (6.) A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the annual meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time a 
member of the General Committee. 

' Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

' (7.) The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

4 The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each annual meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any member or associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

' The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to the 
Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommendations 
forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of Corresponding 
Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates 
shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend the meetings 
of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their objects and of the 
precise way in which they would desire to have them carried into 
effect. 

' It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar with 
the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results.' 

The vacancies in the Council to be declared at the General Committee 
meeting in November will be Lord Rayleigh, who has assumed the Presi- 
dency, together with the following who retire in the ordinary course :. 



KErORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



lxvii 



Mr. F. Darwin, Mr. Hastings, Dr. Huggins, and Dr. Burdon Sanderson; 
and the Council will recommend for re-election on that occasion the other 
ordinary Members of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose 
names are distinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



*Abney, Captain W. de W. 
Adams, Professor W. G. 
*Ball, Professor R. S. 
Bateman, J. P. La Trobe, Esq. 
Bramwell, Sir P. J. 
Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd. 
De La Rue, Dr. Warren. 
Dewar, Professor J. 
Evans, Captain Sir F. J. 
Flower, Professor "W. H. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H. 
Glaisher, J. W. L., Esq. 
God win- Austen, Lieut.- Col. H. H. 



Hawkshaw, J. Clarke, Esq. 
Henrici, Professor O. 
Hughes, Professor T. McK. 
Jeffreys, Dr. J. Gwyn. 
*Moseley, Professor H. N. 
*Ommanney, Admiral Sir E. 
Pengelly, W., Esq. 
Perkin, Dr. W. H. 
Prestwich, Professor. 
Sclater-Booth, The Right Hon. 

George. 
Sorby, Dr. H. C. 
*Temple, Sir R. 



In accordance with the decision arrived at by them at Southport, the 
General Committee will meet on Tuesday, 11th November, at 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon, in the Theatre of the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, 
London, W., for the transaction of the following business, viz. : — 

To elect the President, Officers, and Council for 1884-5. 

To fix the date of meeting for 1885. 

To appoint the place of meeting for 1886. 

To consider the alteration of rules necessary to give effect to the 
recommendations of the Committee on Local Scientific Societies. 



Supplementary Report presented to the General Committee at the Meeting 
held at the Royal Institution, London, November 11, 1884. 

During the Meeting of the British Association at Montreal, a pro- 
posal was made to commemorate the first visit of the British Association 
to the Dominion of Canada, and the reception at Montreal, by founding 
a Gold Medal in the McGill University, as a permanent memorial of the 
Meeting. 

There are at present five Gold Medals in the Faculty of Arts of the 
McGill University. Two of the five are for Science subjects, but for the 
special Faculty of Applied Science there is only one Silver Medal. 

Although the final decision as to the details of the award would be 
left to the authorities of the University, it was suggested that the Medal 
should be given annually to the Graduating Class in the Faculty of 
Applied Science, any surplus income to be expended in prizes in that 
Faculty. 

In support of this proposal private subscriptions from Members and 
Associates at Montreal were paid or promised to the amount of nearly 
500Z., and it is believed that many Members of the Association who were 
unable to attend the Meeting, or who hart left Montreal before the close 
thereof, will be glad to contribute to the fund. 

d2 



lxviii report — 1884. 

The Council are of opinion that this commemoration of a Meeting 
which was held under such exceptional circumstances, and which proved 
so eminent a success, should not be wholly left to individual Members 
to carry out, but should also bear the impress of being the act of the 
Association ; they would therefore suggest to the General Committee 
that their sanction be given to the Council to obtain, at the expense of 
the Association, a die suitable to the occasion, and that the General 
Treasurer of the Association take the necessary steps to receive the fund 
from the Treasurer of the Committee which was formed at Montreal, and 
transmit it in a suitable manner to the authoi'ities of McGill University. 



lxix 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Montreal Meeting in August and September 1884. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That Professor Balfour Stewart (Secretary), Mr. Knox Laughton, Mr. 
G. J. Symons, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Mr. Johnstone Stoney be reappointed 
a Committee, with power to add to their number, for the purpose of co- 
operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of establishing a Meteoro- 
logical Observatory near Chepstow on a permanent and scientific basis, 
and that the unexpended sum of 25?. be again placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert H. Scott, Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Symons be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of co-operating with the Meteorological 
Society of the Mauritius in their proposed publication of Daily Synoptic 
Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861 ; that Mr. R. H. Scott be 
the Secretary, and that the still unexpended sum of 501. be again placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. James N. Shoolbred and Sir W. Thomson be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of reducing and tabulating the Tidal Obser- 
vations in the English Channel made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and of 
connecting them with observations made on the French coast ; that Mr. 
Shoolbred be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. Stokes, Sir "William Thomson, 
Mr. James Glaisher, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of calculating certain tables in the Theory of 
Numbers, connected with the divisors of a number ; that Mr. J. W. L. 
Glaisher be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100L be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Crum Brown, Mr. Milne-Holme, Mr. John Murray, 
and Mr. Buchan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society, in making meteoro- 
logical observations on Ben Nevis ; that Professor Crum Brown be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Schuster, Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor Stokes, 
Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Abney, and 
Mr. G. J. Symons be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of con- 
sidering the best methods of recording the direct intensity of Solar Kadia- 
tion ; that Professor Schuster be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



lxx REPORT — 1884. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, 
Professor Sir H. B. Roscoe, Professor A. S. Herschel, Captain W. de W. 
Abney, Professor Bonney, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the practica- 
bility of collecting and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of considering the 
question of undertaking regular observations in various localities ; that 
Mr. Murray be the Secretary, and that the sum of 701. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Tilden and Ramsay, and Mr. W. W. J. Nicol be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the subject of Vapour Pressures 
and Refractive Indices of Salt Solutions ; that Mr. W. W. J. Nicol be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors Williamson, Dewar, Fi'ankland, Roscoe, Crum Brown, 
Odling, and Armstrong, Messrs. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, J. Millar 
Thomson, H. B. Dixon, and V. H. Veley, and Drs. F. Japp and H. Forster 
Morley be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of drawing up a 
statement of the varieties of Chemical Names which have come into use, 
for indicating the causes which have led to their adoption, and for con- 
sidering what can be done to bring about some convergence of the 
views on Chemical Nomenclature obtaining among English and foreign 
chemists ; that Mr. H. B. Dixon be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
51. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Ramsay, Tilden, Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating certain Physical Constants 
of Solution, especially the expansion of saline solutions ; that Professor 
W. L. Goodwin be the Secretaiy, and that the sum of 20Z. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. H. Bauerman, Mr. F. W.Rudler,and Mr. H.J. Johnston -Lavis 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Volcanic Phenomena 
of Vesuvius ; that Mr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. H. Green, Professor L. C. Miall, Mr. J. Brigg, and 
Mr. J. W. Davis be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of report- 
ing upon the Raygill Fissure, Lothersdale ; that Mr. J. W. Davis be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 151. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. T. Gray, and Professor J. Milne be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Earthquake 
Phenomena of Japan ; that Professor J. Milne be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 751. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. R. Jones 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks ; that Professor T. R. Jones be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. W. T. Blanford and Mr. J. S. Gardner be a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting upon the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and 
Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom ; that Mr. Gardner be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. W. Car- 
ruthers, F. Drew, R. B. Newton, F. W. Rudler, W. Topley, E. Wethered, 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxxi 

and W. Whitaker be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of carrying 
on the Geological Record ; that Mr. W. Whitaker be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. R. B. Grantham, C. E. De Ranee, J. B. Redman, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker, J. W. Woodall, Major-General Sir A. Clarke, 
Admiral Sir B. Ommanney, Sir J. N. Douglass, Captain Sir F. J. O. 
Evans, Captain J. Parsons, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, Professor J. 
Prestwich, and Messrs. E. Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. Vernon 
Harcourt be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into 
the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the 
Influence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or other Material in that 
Action ; that Messrs. C. E. De Ranee and W. Topley be the Secretaries, 
and that the sum of 107. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, Fox 
Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden- Wright, E. 
Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Ranee be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable Formations of England, and the Quality 
and Quantity of the Waters supplied to various towns and districts from 
these formations; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 10Z. be plaeed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy Sladen be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples ; that Mr. Percy Sladen be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 1001. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. E. C. Rye be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological 
Literature ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 100Z. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Cordeaux, Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, Professor Newton, 
Mr. R. M. Barrington, Mr. A. G. More, Mr. J. Hardy, and Mr. W. 
Eagle Clarke be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of obtaining 
(with the consent of the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity 
House and of the Commissioners of Northern Lights) observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting 
upon the same at the meeting of 1885 ; that Mr. Cordeaux be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of SOI. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Giinther, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. 
Sclater be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of exploring Kili- 
ma-njaro and the adjoining mountains of Equatorial Africa ; that Mr. 
Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their 
•disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. C. Sorby and Mr. G. R. Vine be a Committee for 
the purpose of reporting on Recent Polyzoa ; that Mr. Vine be the 
.Secretary, and that the sum of 10Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Cossar Ewart, Professor Alleyne 
^Nicholson, Professor Mackintosh, Professor Young, Professor Struthers, 



lxxii report — 1884. 

and Professor McKendrick be a Committee for the purpose of promoting 
the establishment of a Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland ; 
that Mr. John Murray be the Secretary, and that the sum of 1001. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Huxley, Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard Saunders, Mr_ 
Thiselton Dyer, and Professor Moseley be a Committee for the purpose 
of promoting the establishment of Marine Biological Stations on the 
coast of the United Kingdom ; that Professor Moseley be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 150?. be placed at their disposal for the -purpose. 

That General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Lieut.-Colonel Godwin-Austen, 
Mr. W. T. Blanford, Mr. Sclater, Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Thiselton Dyer, 
Professor Struthers, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Mr. H. W. Bates, Lord Alfred 
Churchill, Mr. F. Galton, and Professor Moseley, with power to add to 
their number, be a Committee for the purpose of furthering the Explora- 
tion of New Guinea, by making a grant to Mr. Forbes for the purposes 
of his expedition ; that Mr. H. W. Bates be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 200Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That General Sir J. H. Lefroy, the Rev. Canon Carver, Mr. F. 
Galton, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Moseley, Dr. E. B. Tylor, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, and Mr. H. W. Bates be a Committee 
for the purpose of furthering the scientific Examination of the country 
in the vicinity of Mount Roraima in Guiana, by making a grant to Mr. 
Everard F. im Thurn for the purposes of his expedition ; that Mr. H. W. 
Bates be the Secretary, and that the sum of 1007. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Frederick Bramwell, Professor A. W. Williamson, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Sir F. Abel, Captain 
Douglas Galton, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrory, Mr. H. Trueman 
Wood, Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. A. T. Atchison, Mr. R. E. Webster, Mr. 
A. Carpraael, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. Theodore Aston, and Mr. James 
Brunlees be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of watching and 
reporting to the Council on Patent Legislation ; that Sir Frederick 
Bramwell be the Secretary, and that the sum of 51. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. 
Daniel Wilson, Mr. Horatio Hale. Mr. R. G. Haliburton, and Mr. George 
W. Bloxam be a Committee for the purpose of investigating and publish- 
ing reports on the physical characters, languages, industrial and social 
condition of the North- western tribes of the Dominion of Canada; that 
Mr. Bloxam be the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Park Harrison, General Pitt-Rivers, Professor Flower, 
Professor Thane, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Dr. Muirhead, Mr. F. W. 
Rudler, and Dr. Garson be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
defining the Physical Characteristics of the Races and Principal Crosses 
in the British Isles, and obtaining illustrative Photographs with a view 
to their publication ; that Dr. Garson be the Secretary, and that the sum. 
of 10Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not involving Grants of Money. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh,, 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxxiii 

Professor Jenkin, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muir- 
head, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Pro- 
fessor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Professor Chry.stal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, and Professor W. 
Garnett be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of constructing 
and issuing practical Standards for use in Electrical Measurements ; and 
that Mr. Glazebrook be the Secretary. 

That Professor G. Forbes, Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, Lord Rayleigb, Mr. 
Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon Har- 
court, and Professor Ayrton be a Committee for the purpose of 
reporting on Standards of Ligbt ; and that Professor G. Forbes be the 
Secretary. 

That Professor Sir "William Thomson, Mr. W. H. Barlow, Professor 
A. W. Williamson, Mr. W. H. Preece, and Mr. J. M. Thomson 
be a Committee for the purpose of promoting arrangements for 
facilitating the use of Weights and Measures in accordance with the per- 
missive clauses of the Weights and Measures Act, 1878 ; and that 
Mr. J. M. Thomson be the Secretary. 

That Professors A. Johnson, Macgregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. J. 
Bovey and Mr. C. Carpmael be a Committee for the purpose of pro- 
moting Tidal Observations in Canada ; and that Professor Johnson be 
the Secretary. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of calculating Tables of the 
Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms ; and that Professor Cayley 
be the Secretary. 

That Professor G. H. Darwin and Professor J. C. Adams be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations ; 
and that Professor Darwin be the Secretary. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart and Sir W. Thomson, Sir J. H. 
Lefroy, Sir Frederick Evans, Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor G. 
Chrystal, Professor S. J. Perry, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, and Professor 
Schuster be a Committee for the purpose of considering the best means 
of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations ; and that Professor 
Balfour Stewart be the Secretary. 

That Professors Everett and Sir W. Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
and Mr. A. Strahan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature down- 
wards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water ; and that Pro- 
fessor Everett be the Secretary. 

That Professors W. A. Tdden and H. E. Armstrong be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene 
Derivatives ; and that Professor H. E. Armstrong be the Secretary. 

That Professors Dewar and A. W. Williamson, Dr. Marshall Watts, 
Captain Abney, Dr. Stoney, and Professors W. N. Hartley, McLeod, 
Carey Foster, A. K. Huntington, Emerson Reynolds, Reinold, Liveing, 
Lord Rayleigh, and W. Chandler Roberts be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of our knowledge 



lxxiv REPORT — 1884. 

of Spectrum Analysis ; and that Professor W. Chandler Roberts be the 
Secretary. 

Tbat Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, 
Liveing, Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, Captain Abney, 
and Dr. Marshall Watts be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
preparing a new series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 
Elements ; and that Dr. Marshall Watts be the Secretary. 

That Professor J. Prestwich, Professor T. McK. Hughes, and Mr. 
W. Topley be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of assisting in the 
preparation of an International Geological Map of Europe ; and that Mr. 
W. Topley be the Secretary. 

That Professors J. Prestwich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. 
De Ranee, H. G. Fordham, J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. 
Plant, and R. H. Tiddeman be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking 
measures for their preservation ; and that Dr. H. W. Crosskey be the 
Secretary. 

That Sir L. Playfair, Professor Moseley, Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, 
Mr. P. L. Sclater, and Mr. A. Sedgwick be a Committee for the purpose 
of preparing a report on the aid given by the Dominion Government and 
the Government of the United States to the encouragement of Fisheries 
and to the investigation of the various forms of marine life on the coasts 
and rivers of North America ; and that Mr. Sedgwick be the Secretary. 

That the Rev. Canon Tristram, the Rev. F. Lawrence, and Mr. 
James Glaisher be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of pro- 
moting the Survey of Palestine ; and that Mr. James Glaisher be the 
Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Gladstone (Secretary), Mr. 
Wm. Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss Lydia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir Richard Temple, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. 
James Heywood, and Professor Story Maskelyne be reappointed a Com- 
mittee on Science Teaching in Elementary Schools. 

That Mr. Mollison be requested to report on the present state of our 
knowledge of the Mathematical Theory of Thermal Conduction. 

That Mr. R. T. Glazebrook be requested to draw up a Report on 
recent progress in Physical Optics. 

That Mr. J. J. Thomson be requested to draw up a Report on 
Electrical Theories. 

That Mr. W. Topley be requested to continue his Report upon 
National Geological Surveys. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual 
Report of the Association. 

Professor Schuster's paper, opening the discussion on the Connection 
of Sunspots with Terrestrial Phenomena. 

Professor O. J. Lodge's paper, opening the discussion on the seat of 
the Electromotive Force in the Voltaic Cell. 

Professor Bonney's paper ' On the Arcluean Rocks of Great Britain.' 



KECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lxXV 

Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys' paper, entitled ' The Concordance of the Mollusca 
inhabiting both sides of the North Atlantic' 

Professor Asa Gray's paper, entitled ' Remarks on the Characteristic 
Features of North American Vegetation.' 

Professor Thurston's paper ' On the Theory of the Steam-engine.' 

Sir James Douglass's paper ' On Improvements in Coast Signals,' 
with such diagrams as may be found indispensable. 

Mr. J. M. Wilson's paper ' On American Permanent Way,' with the 
necessary diagrams. 



Resolutions referred to the Council for Consideration, and Action if 

desirable. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to' communicate 
with the Government of the Dominion of Canada in order (1) to call the 
attention of the Government to the absence of trustworthy information 
concerning the tides of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the adjoining 
Atlantic coast, and to the dangers which thence arise to the navigation ; 
(2) to urge upon the Government the importance of obtaining accurate 
and systematic tidal observations, and of tabulating and reducing the 
results by the scientific methods elaborated by Committees of the 
Association ; and (3) to suggest the immediate establishment of a sufficient 
series of observing stations on the coast of the Dominion. 

That the Council be requested to examine the feasibility of instituting 
a scheme for promoting an International Scientific Congress, to meet at 
intervals in different countries, and to report thereon to the General 
Committee at the next meeting of the Association. 

That the attention of the Council be drawn to the advisability of 
communicating with the Admiralty for the purpose of urging on them 
the importance of the Employment of the Harmonic Analysis in the 
Reduction of Admiralty Tidal Observations. 

That the Council memorialise the Canadian Government as to the 
nrgent necessity of encouraging investigation and publication of reports 
with respect to the physical characters, languages, social, industrial, and 
artistic condition of the native tribes of the Dominion. 

That, in the event of that part of the Report of the Council concerning 
■Corresponding Societies being accepted by the General Committee at their 
next meeting, the Council be empowered to form the Committee therein 
mentioned (see Report, Corresponding Societies, Section 3). 



lxxvi REPOKT — 1884. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Montreal Meeting in 
September 1884. The Names of the Members who are entitled 
to call on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants 
are prefixed. 



Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 
*Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Meteorological Observations 

near Chepstow 25 

•Scott, Mr. R. H.— Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean 50 

•Shoolbred, Mr. J. N.— Reduction of Tidal Observations 10 

*Cayley, Professor — Calculation of Mathematical Tables 100 

*Brown, Professor Crum. — Meteorological Observations on 

Ben Nevis 50 

* Schuster, Professor. — Solar Radiation 20 

•Murray, Mr. John.— Meteoric Dust 70 














































Chemistry. 

Tilden, Professor. — Vapour Pressures aud Refractive Indices 

of Salt Solutions 25 

*Williamson, Professor. — Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Ramsay, Professor.— Physical Constants of Solutions 20 



Geology. 

Bauerman, Mr. H.— Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius !l5 

•Green, Professor A. H.—Raygill Fissure 15 

*Etheridge, Mr. R.— Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 75 

*Etheridge, Mr. R.— Fossil Phyllopoda of the Paleozoic 

Rocks 25 

Blanford, Mr. W. T.— Fossil Plants of British Tertiary and 

Secondary Beds 50 

•Evans, Dr. J. — Geological Record 50 

*Grantham, R. B.— Erosion of Sea-Coasts 10 

*Hull, Professor E.— Circulation of Underground Waters ... 10 



Carried forward £635 0> 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. lxxvii 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 635 

Biology. 

*Lankester, Professor Ray. — Table at the Zoological Station 

atNaples 100 

*Stainton, Mr. H. T.— Record of Zoological Literature 100 

*Cordeaux, Mr. J. — Migration of Birds 30 

*Hooker, Sir J. — Exploration of Kilima-njaro and the adjoin- 
ing Mountains of Equatorial Africa 25 

Sorby, Dr. H. C— Recent Polyzoa 10 

Murray, Mr. J. — Marine Biological Station at Granton 100 

Huxley, Professor. — Biological Stations on Coast of United 

Kingdom 150 

Geography. 

Lefroy, General Sir H. — Exploration of New Guinea 200 

Lefroy, General Sir H. — Exploration of Mount Rorahna 100 

Mechanics. 
*Bramwell, Sir F. J. — Patent Legislation 5 

Anthropology. 

Tylor, Dr. E. B. — Investigation of Characteristics, physical 

and otherwise, of North-Western Tribes of Canada 50 

*Harrison, Mr. J. Park. — Physical Characteristics of Races in 

the British Isles 10 

£1515 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1885. 
The Meeting at Aberdeen will commence on Wednesday, September 9. 

Place of Meeting in 1886. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Birmingham. 



lxxviii 



report — 1884. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions ••• 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology . . .105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Kain-Gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 





















1 





13 

















6 






£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of ) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances ( Preservation of )... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments ,-.. 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 






1 
12 


6 

3 






10 
K) 


6 


o 

7 

5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, <kc 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



s. d. 

2 

18 6 

11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 






7 8- 
2 9 




£1595 11 O 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations. 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 







8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxix 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of ) 17 19 6 ' 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 > 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 I 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 1 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments. . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannia 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil" Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of)... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 







£ s. d. 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 (t 

Whewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 O 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 O 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10' 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 O 

£1565 10 2 



Ixxx 



EEPORT 1884. 



£ g. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

•Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
JEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall..^. 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anopl ura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



11 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 1 49 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1 843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



5 






































7 















1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 1 1 

Anemometers" Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 O 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 



8 19 8 







1847. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5~~4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxi 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159~19~6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

±'345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850).. 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Hap of Ireland .. . 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates...-. 10 

~£304 6 7 



£ *. d. 
1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 
of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 !) 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 J 

" £734 13 d 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



1884. 



lxxxii 



report — 1884. 



£ g. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredoino- near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidfe 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of .South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 

I860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15' 

Inquiry into the Performance 
of Steam-vessels ,. ]24 

Explorations in the Yellow 
Sandstone of Dura Don ... 20 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Eocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituent s 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

~~£766 19 6 

1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 / 1Jl 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



£1111 































5 10 

5 10 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance ■ 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxiii 



£ 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo- Electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 



s. 


a. 














10 


















16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium S 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and Distri- 
bution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Kocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 

sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Kain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£12 89 15 8 

1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida.... 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7~10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 



lxxxiv 



EEPOET — 1884. 



£ s. d. 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fun d... 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. ' 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c, Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee ]20 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series '25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall . . 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ *. d. 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 
1869. === 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

CastLron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcon Quatries Fossils ... 20 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxv 



£ 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat ^ 50 

£1572 

J871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observat ions 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf- Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals .,, 



s. d. 





































































2 


6 

























































2 6 






















































































































... 25 





n 






£1285 









£ *. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 60 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



lxxxvi 



REPOfiT — 1884. 



£ s. d. 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 150 4 2 

British' Rainf all 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Eecord 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels .... 



... 5 








£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipt erocarpas, Report on 20 



£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record ;.... 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c •■• 15 

£1128 9 7 











18 






















1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks ■ 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxxxvii 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Eecord of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 1 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers. . . 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat , 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 



£ 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North L-eland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 6 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 



s. 


d. 




































































7 


7 





























Q 

























































1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 60 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

Electrical Standards 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

£476 3~1 

1882. 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

L-eland 20 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

British Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Migration of Birds 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 















1 


11 



















































lxxxviii 



REPOKT — 1884. 



£ s. d. 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Photographing Ultra-Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Exploration of Raygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Geological Record 100 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

£1126 1 11 

1883. 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 















i) 




















(1 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 25 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 

1884. 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

International Geological Map 20 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Ultra- Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 

Tidal Observations 10 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

£1173 4 

































(1 







































































4 












General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 27, at 8 p.m., in the Queen's Hall, Professor Cayley, M.A., 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. (represented by Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., 
D.C.L., F.R.S.), resigned the office of President to Professor Lord Rayleigh, M.A., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for 
which see page 1. 

On Thursday, August 28, at 8 P.M., a Soiree took place in the McGill University. 

On Friday, August 29, at 8.30 p.m., in the Queen's Hall, Professor Oliver J. Lodge, 
D.Sc, delivered a Discourse on 'Dust.' 

On Monday, September 1, at 8.30 p.m., in the Queen's Hall, the Rev. W. H. 
Dallinger, LL.D., F.R.S. , delivered a Discourse on 'The Modern Microscope in 
Researches on the Least and Lowest Forms of Life.' 

On Tuesday, September 2, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Skating Rink. 

On Wednesday, September 3, at 2.30 P.M., the concluding General Meeting took 
place in the Queen's Hall, when the Proceedings of the General Committee and the 
Grants of Money for Scientific purposes were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Aberdeen. [The Meeting is appointed to 
commence on Wednesday, September 9, 1885.] 



PEE SIDE NT'S ADDRESS. 



1884. 



ADDEESS 



BY 



THE EIGHT HON. LOED EAYLEIGII, 

M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Professor of 'Experimental Physics in the 

University of Cambridge, 

PRESIDENT. 



It is no ordinary meeting of the British Association which I have now 
the honour of addressing. For more than fifty years the Association has 
held its autumn gathering in various towns of the United Kingdom, and 
within those limits there is, I suppose, no place of importance which we 
have not visited. And now, not satisfied with past successes, we are 
seeking new worlds to conquer. When it was first proposed to visit 
Canada, there were some who viewed the project with hesitation. For my 
own part, I never quite understood the grounds of their apprehension. 
Perhaps they feared the thin edge of the wedge. When once the principle 
was admitted, there was no knowing to what it might lead. So rapid 
is the development of the British Empire, that the time might come when 
a visit to such out-of-the-way places as London or Manchester could no 
longer be claimed as a right, but only asked for as a concession to tho 
susceptibilities of the English. But seriously, whatever objections may 
have at first been felt were soon outweighed by the consideration of the 
magnificent opportunities which your hospitality affords of extending 
the sphere of our influence and of becoming acquainted with a part of 
the Queen's dominion which, associated with splendid memories of the 
past, is advancing daily by leaps and bounds to a position of importance 
snch as not long ago was scarcely dreamed of. For myself, I am not a 
stranger to your shores. I remember well the impression made upon me, 
seventeen years ago, by the wild rapids of the St. Lawrence, and the 
gloomy grandeur of the Saguenay. If anything impressed me more, it 
was the kindness with which I was received by yourselves, and which I 
doubt not will be again extended not merely to myself but to all the 
English members of the Association. I am confident that those who 
•have made up their minds to cross the ocean will not repent their 

b 2 



4 K13P0KT — 1884. 

decision, and that, apart altogether from scientific interests, great 
advantage may be expected from this visit. We Englishmen ought to 
know more than we do of matters relating to the Colonies, and anything- 
which tends to bring the various parts of the Empire into closer contact 
can hardly be overvalued. It is pleasant to think that this Association 
is the means of furthering an object which should be dear to the hearts 
of all of us ; and I venture to say that a large proportion of the visitors 
to this country will be astonished by what they see, and will carry home 
an impression which time will not readily efface. 

To be connected with this meeting is, to me, a great honour, but also 
a oreat responsibility. In one respect, especially, I feel that the Associa- 
tion mio-ht have done well to choose another President. My own tastes 
have led me to study mathematics and physics rather than geology and 
biology, to which naturally more attention turns in a new country, pre- 
senting as it does a fresh field for investigation. A chronicle of achieve- 
ments in these departments by workers from among yourselves would 
have been suitable to the occasion, but could not come from me. If you 
would have preferred a different subject for this address, I hope, at least, 
that you will not hold me entirely responsible. 

At annual gatherings like ours the pleasure with which friends meet 
friends again is sadly marred by the absence of those who can never more 
take their part in our proceedings. Last year my predecessor in this 
office had to lament the untimely loss of Spottiswoode and Henry Smith, 
dear friends of many of us, and prominent members of our Association. 
And now, agaiD, a well-known form is missing. For many years 
Sir W. Siemens has been a regular attendant at our meetings, and to few 
indeed have they been more indebted for success. Whatever the occasion, 
in his Presidential Address of two years ago, or in communications to the 
Physical and Mechanical Sections, he had always new and interesting 
ideas, put forward in language which a child could understand, so great 
a master was he of the art of lucid statement in his adopted tongue. 
Practice with Science was his motto. Deeply engaged in industry, and 
conversant, all his life, with engineering operations, his opinion was never 
that of a mere theorist. On the other hand, he abhorred rule of thumb, 
striving always to master the scientific principles which underlie rational 
design and invention. 

It is not necessary that I should review in detail the work of Siemens. 
The part which he took, during recent years, in the development of the 
dynamo machine must be known to many of you. We owe to him the 
practical adoption of the method, first suggested by Wheatstone, of 
throwing into a shunt the coils of the field magnets, by which a greatly 
improved steadiness of action is obtained. The same characteristics are 
observable throughout — a definite object in view and a well-directed 
perseverance in overcoming the difficulties by which the path is usually 
obstructed. 



ADDRESS. 5 

These are, indeed, the conditions of successful invention. The world 
knows little of such things, and regards the new machine or the new 
method as the immediate outcome of a happy idea. Probably, if the 
truth were known, we should see that, in nine cases out of ten, success 
depends as much upon good judgment and perseverance as upon fertility 
of imagination. The labours of our great inventors are not unappreciated, 
but I doubt whether we adequately realise the enormous obligations 
under which we lie. It is no exaggeration to say that the life of such a 
man as Siemens is spent in the public service ; the advantages which he 
reaps for himself being as nothing in comparison with those which he 
confers upon the community at large. 

As an example of this it will be sufficient to mention one of the 
most valuable achievements of his active life — his introduction, in con- 
junction with his brother, of the Regenerative Gas Furnace, by which 
an immense economy of fuel (estimated at millions of tons annually) 
has been effected in the manufacture of steel and glass. The nature 
of this economy is easily explained. Whatever may be the work to 
be done by the burning of fuel, a certain temperature is necessary. 
For example, no amount of heat in the form of boiling water would 
be of any avail for the fusion of steel. When the products of com- 
bustion are cooled down to the point in question, the heat which they 
still contain is useless as regards the purpose in view. The importance 
of this consideration depends entirely upon the working temperature. 
If the object be the evaporation of water or the warming of a house, 
almost all the heat may be extracted from the fuel without special 
arrangements. But it is otherwise when the temperature required is not 
much below that of combustion itself, for then the escaping gases carry 
iway with them the larger part of the whole heat developed. It was to 
leet this difficulty that the regenerative furnace was devised. The pro- 
lucts of combustion, before dismissal into the chimney, are caused to 
jass through piles of loosely stacked fire-brick, to which they give up 
their heat. After a time the fire-brick, upon which the gases first 
impinge, becomes nearly as hot as the furnace itself. By suitable valves 
the burnt gases are then diverted through another stack of brickwork, 
which they heat up in like manner, while the heat stored up in the first 
stack is utilised to warm the unburnt gas and air on their way to the 
furnace. In this way almost all the heat developed at a high temperature 
during the combustion is made available for the work in hand. 

As it is now several years since your presidential chair has been occu- 
pied by a professed physicist, it may naturally be expected that I should 
attempt some record of recent progress in that branch of science, if indeed 
such a term be applicable. For it is one of the difficulties of the task that 
subjects as distinct as Mechanics, Electricity, Heat, Optics and Acoustics, 
to say nothing of Astronomy and Meteorology, are included under Physics. 



6 REPORT— 1884. 

Any one of these may "well occupy the life- long attention of a man of 
science, and to be thoroughly conversant with all of them is more than 
can be expected of any one individual, and is probably incompatible with 
the devotion of much time and energy to the actual advancement of 
knowledge, Not that I would complain of the association sanctioned 
by common parlance. A sound knowledge of at least the principles of 
general physics is necessary to the cultivation of any department. The 
predominance of the sense of sight as the medium of communication with 
the outer world, brings with it dependence upon the science of optics ; 
and there is hardly a branch of science in which the effects of temperature 
have not (often without much success) to be reckoned with. Besides, the 
neglected borderland between two branches of knowledge is often that 
which best repays cultivation, or, to use a metaphor of Maxwell's, the 
greatest benefits may be derived from a cross fertilisation of the sciences. 
The wealth of material is an evil only from the point of view of one of 
whom too much may be expected. Another difficulty incident to the task, 
which must be faced but cannot be overcome, is that of estimating rightly 
the value, and even the correctness, of recent work. It is not always that 
which seems at first the most important that proves in the end to be so. 
The history of science teems with examples of discoveries which attracted 
little notice at the time, but afterwards have taken root downwards and 
borne much fruit upwards. 

One of the most striking advances of recent years is in the production 
and application of electricity upon a large scale — a subject to which I have 
already had occasion to allude in connection with the work of Sir W. 
Siemens. The dynamo machine is indeed founded upon discoveries of 
Faraday now more than half a century old ; but it has required the pro- 
tracted labours of many inventors to bring it to its present high degree of 
efficiency. Looking back at the matter, it seems strange that progress 
should have been so slow. I do not refer to details of design, the elabo- 
ration of which must always, I suppose, require the experience of actual 
Avork to indicate what parts are structurally weaker than they should be, 
or are exposed to undue wear and tear. But with regard to the main 
features of the problem, it would almost seem as if the difficulty lay in 
want of faith. Long ago it was recognised that electricity derived from 
chemical action is (on a large scale) too expensive a source of mechanical 
power, notwithstanding the fact that (as proved by Joule in 1846) the 
conversion of electrical into mechanical work can be effected with great 
economy. From this it is an evident consequence that electricity may 
advantageously be obtained from mechanical power ; and one cannot help 
thinking that if the fact had been borne steadily in mind, the develop- 
ment of the dynamo might have been much more rapid. But discoveries 
and inventions are apt to appear obvious when regarded from the stand- 
point of accomplished fact ; and I draw attention to the matter only to 
point the moral that we do well to push the attack persistently when we 



ADDRESS. 7 

can be sure beforehand that the obstacles to be overcome are only diffi- 
culties of contrivance, and that we are not vainly fighting unawares against 
a law of Nature. 

The present development of electricity on a large scale depends, how- 
ever, almost as much upon the incandescent lamp as upon the dynamo. 
The success of these lamps demands a very perfect vacuum — not more than 
about one-millionth of the normal quantity of air should remain, — and it 
is interesting to recall that, twenty years ago, such vacua were rare even 
in the laboratory of the physicist. It is pretty safe to say that these 
wonderful res alts would never have been accomplished had practical 
applications alone been in view. The way was prepared by an army of 
scientific men whose main object was the advancement of knowledge, and 
who could scarcely have imagined that the processes which they elaborated 
would soon be in use on a commercial scale and entrusted to the hands of 
ordinary workmen. 

When I speak in hopeful language of practical electricity, I do not 
forget the disappointment within the last year or two of many over- 
sanguine expectations. The enthusiasm of the inventor and promoter 
are necessary to progress, and it seems to be almost a law of nature that 
it should overpass the bounds marked out by reason and experience. 
What is most to be regretted is the advantage taken by speculators of 
the often uninsfcructed interest felt by the public in novel schemes by 
which its imagination is fired. But looking forward to the future of 
electric lighting, we have good ground for encouragement. Already the 
lighting of large passenger ships is an assured success, and one which will 
be highly appreciated by those travellers who have experienced the tedium 
of long winter evenings unrelieved by adequate illumination. Here, no 
doubt, the conditions are in many respects especially favourable. As 
regards space, life on board ship is highly concentrated ; while unity of 
management and the presence on the spot of skilled engineers obviate some 
of the difficulties that are met with under other circumstances. At present 
we have no experience of a house-to-house system of illumination on a 
great scale and in competition with cheap gas ; but preparations are 
already far advanced for trial on an adequate scale in London. In large 
institutions, such as theatres and factories, we all know that electricity is 
in successful and daily extending operation. 

When the necessary power can be obtained from the fall of water, 
instead of from the combustion of coal, the conditions of the problem 
are far more favourable. Possibly the severity of your winters may 
prove an obstacle, but it is impossible to regard your splendid river 
without the thought arising that the day may come when the vast powers 
now running to waste shall be bent into your service. Such a pi'oject 
demands of course the most careful consideration, but it is one worthy of 
an intelligent and enterprising community. 

The requirements of practice react in the most healthy manner upon 



S REPORT- -1884. 

scientific electricity. Just as in former days the science received a 
stimulus from the application to telegraphy, under which everything 
relating to measurement on a small scale acquired an importance and 
development for which we might otherwise have had long to wait, so 
now the requirements of electric lighting are giviDg rise to a new deve- 
lopment of the art of measurement upon a large scale, which cannot 
fail to prove of scientific as well as practical importance. Mere change 
of scale may not at first appear a very important matter, but it is sur- 
prising how much modification it entails in the instruments, and in the 
processes of measurement. For instance, the resistance coils on which 
the electrician relies in dealing with currents whose maximum is a 
fraction of an ampere, fail altogether when it becomes a question of 
hundreds, not to say thousands, of amperes. 

The powerful currents, which are now at command, constitute almost 
a new weapon in the hands of the physicist. Effects, which in old days 
were rare and difficult of observation, may now be produced at will 
on the most conspicuous scale. Consider for a moment Faraday's great 
discovery of the ' Magnetisation of Light,' which Tyndall likens to the 
Weisshorn among mountains, as high, beautiful, and alone. This judg- 
ment (in which I fully concur) relates to the scientific aspect of the 
discovery, for to the eye of sense nothing could have been more insignifi- 
cant. It is even possible that it might have eluded altogether the pene- 
tration of Faraday, had he not been provided with a special quality of 
very heavy glass. At the present day these effects may be produced 
upon a scale that would have delighted their discoverer, a rotation of the 
plane of polarization through 180° being perfectly feasible. With the aid 
of modern appliances, Kundt and Rontgen in Germany, and H. Becquerel 
in France, have detected the rotation in gases and vapours, where, on 
account of its extreme smallness, it had previously escaped notice. 

Again, the question of the magnetic saturation of iron has now an 
importance entirely beyond what it possessed at the time of Joule's early 
observations. Then it required special arrangements purposely contrived 
to bring it into prominence. Now in every dynamo machine, the iron of 
the field-magnets approaches a state of satui'ation, and the very elements 
of an explanation of the action require us to take the fact into account. 
It is indeed probable that a better knowledge of this subject might lead 
to improvements in the design of these machines. 

Notwithstanding the important work of Rowland and Stoletow, the 
whole theory of the behaviour of soft iron under varying magnetic con- 
ditions is still somewhat obscure. Much may be hoped from the in- 
duction balance of Hughes, by which the marvellous powers of the 
telephone are applied to the discrimination of the properties of metals, as 
regards magnetism and electric conductivity. 

The introduction of powerful alternate-current machines by Siemens, 
Gordon, Ferranti, and others, is likely also to have a salutary effect 



ADDRESS. 9 

in educating those so-called practical electricians whose ideas do not 
easily rise above ohms and volts. It has long been known that when 
the changes are sufficiently rapid, the phenomena are governed much 
more by induction, or electric inertia, than by mere resistance. On this 
principle much may be explained that would otherwise seem paradoxical. 
To take a comparatively simple case, conceive an electro-magnet wound 
with two contiguous wires, upon which acts a given rapidly periodic 
electro-motive force. If one wire only be used, a certain amount of heat 
is developed in the circuit. Suppose now that the second wire is brought 
into operation in parallel — a proceeding equivalent to doubling the section 
of the original wire. An electrician accustomed only to constant currents 
would be sure to think that the heating effect would be doubled by the 
change, as much heat being developed in each wire separately as was 
at first in the single wire. But such a conclusion would be entirely 
erroneous. The total current, being governed practically by the self- 
induction of the circuit, would not be augmented by the accession of the 
second wire, and the total heating effect, so far from being doubled, would, 
in virtue of the superior conductivity, be halved. 

During the last few years much interest has been felt in the reduction 
to an absolute standard of measurements of electro-motive force, current, 
resistance, etc., and to this end many laborious investigations have been 
undertaken. The subject is one that has engaged a good deal of my 
own attention, and I should naturally have felt inclined to dilate upon 
it, but that I feel it to be too abstruse and special to be dealt with 
in detail upon an occasion like the present. As regards resistance, I will 
merely remind you that the recent determinations have shown a so greatly 
improved agreement, that the Conference of Electricians assembled at 
Paris, in May, have felt themselves justified in defining the ohm for 
practical use as the resistance of a column of mercury of 0° C, one square 
millimetre in section, and 106 centimetres in length — a definition differing 
by a little more than one per cent, from that arrived at twenty years ago 
by a committee of this Association. 

A standard of resistance once determined upon can be embodied in 
a ' resistance coil,' and copied without much trouble, and with great 
accuracy. But in order to complete the electrical system, a second standard 
of some kind is necessary, and this is not so easily embodied iu a permanent 
form. It might conveniently consist of a standard galvanic cell, capable 
cf being prepared in a definite manner, whose electro-motive force is once 
for all determined. Unfortunately, most of the batteries in ordinary use 
are for one reason or another unsuitable for this purpose, but the cell in- 
troduced by Mr. Latimer Clark, in which the metals are zinc in contact 
with saturated zinc sulphate aiid pure mercury in contact with mercurous 
Gulphate, appears to give satisfactory results. According to my measure- 
ments, the electro-motive force of this cell is 1*435 theoretical volts. 

We may also conveniently express the second absolute electrical 



10 KEPOItT— 1884. 

measurement necessary to the completion of the system by taking- 
advantage of Faraday's law, that the quantity of metal decomposed 
in an electrolytic cell is proportional to the whole quantity of elec- 
tricity that passes. The best metal for the purpose is silver, deposited 
from a solution of the nitrate or of the chlorate. The results recently 
obtained by Professor Kohlrausch and by myself are in very good 
agreement, and the conclusion that one ampere flowing for one hour 
decomposes 4'025 grains of silver, can hardly be in error by more than 
a thousandth part. This number being known, the silver voltameter 
gives a ready and very accurate method of measuring currents of 
intensity varying from -jL- ampere to four or five amperes. 

The beautiful and mysterious phenomena attending the discharge of 
electricity in nearly vacuous spaces have been investigated and in some 
degree explained by De La Rue, Crookes, Schoster, Moulton, and the 
lamented Spottiswoode, as well as by various able foreign experimenters. 
In a recent research Crookes has sought the origin of a bright citron- 
coloured band in the phosphorescent spectrum of certain earths, and 
after encountering difficulties and anomalies of a most bewildering kind, 
has succeeded in proving that it is due to yttrium, an element much 
more widely distributed than had been supposed. A conclusion like this 
is stated in a few words, but those only who have undergone similar ex- 
perience are likely to appreciate the skill and perseverance of which it is 
the final reward. 

A remarkable observation by Hall of Baltimore, from which it 
appeared that the flow of electricity in a conducting sheet was disturbed 
by magnetic force, has been the subject of much discussion. Mr. 
Shelford Bidwell has brought forward experiments tending to prove 
that the effect is of a secondary character, due in the first instance to the 
mechanical force operating upon the conductor of an electric current when 
situated in a powerful magnetic field. Mr. Bidwell's view agrees in the 
main with Mr. Hall's division of the metals into two groups according to 
the direction of the effect. 

Without doubt the most important achievement of the older genera- 
tion of scientific men has been the establishment and application of the 
great laws of Thermo- dynamics, or, as it is often called, the Mechanical 
Theory of Heat. The first law, which asserts that heat and mechanical 
work can be transformed one into the other at a certain fixed rate, 
is now well understood by every student of physics, and the number 
expressing the mechanical equivalent of heat resulting from the experi- 
ments of Joule, has been confirmed by the researches of others, and 
especially of Rowland. But the second law, which practically is even 
more important than the first, is only now beginning to receive the full 
appreciation due to it. One reason of this may be found in a not un- 
natural confusion of ideas. Words do not always lend themselves readily 



ADDRESS. 11 

to the demands that are made upon them by a growing science, and I 
think that the almost unavoidable use of the word equivalent in the 
statement of the first law is partly responsible for the little attention that 
is given to the second. For the second law so far contradicts the usual 
statement of the first, as to assert that equivalents of heat and work are 
not of equal value. While work can always be converted iuto heat, heat 
can only be converted into work under certain limitations. For every 
practical purpose the work is worth the most, and when we speak of 
equivalents, we use the word in the same sort of special sense as that in 
which chemists speak of equivalents of gold and iron. The second law 
teaches us that the real value of heat, as a source of mechanical power, 
depends upon the temperature of the body in which it resides ; the hotter 
the body in l'elation to its surroundings, the more available the heat. 

In order to see the relations which obtain between the first and the 
second law of Thermo- dynamics, it is only necessary for us to glance at 
the theory of the steam-engine. Not many years ago calculations were 
plentiful, demonstrating the inefficiency of the steam-engine on the basis 
of a comparison of the work actually got out of the engine with the 
mechanical equivalent of the heat supplied to the boiler. Such calcula- 
tions took into account only the first law of Thermo-dynamics, which deals 
with the equivalents of heat and work, and have very little bearing upon 
the practical question of efficiency, which requires us to have regard 
also to the second law. According to that law the fraction of the total 
energy which can be converted into work depends upon the relative 
temperatures of the boiler and condenser ; and it is, therefore, manifest 
that, as the temperature of the boiler cannot be raised indefinitely, it is 
impossible to utilise all the energy which, according to the first law of 
Thermo-dynamics, is resident in the coal. On a sounder view of the 
matter, the efficiency of the steam-engine is found to be so high, that 
there is no great margin remaining for improvement. The hi°-lier 
initial temperature possible in the gas-engine opens out much wider 
possibilities, and many good judges look forward to a time when the 
steam -engine will have to give way to its younger rival. 

To return to the theoretical question, we may say with Sir W. 
Thomson, that though energy cannot be destroyed, it ever tends to be 
dissipated, or to pass from more available to less available forms. No 
one who has grasped this principle can fail to recognise its immense im- 
portance in the system of the Universe. Every change — chemical, thermal, 
or mechanical — which takes place, or can take place, in Nature, does so 
at the cost of a certain amount of available energy. If, therefore, we wish 
to inquire whether or not a proposed transformation can take place, the 
question to be considered is whether its occurrence would involve dissipa- 
tion of energy. If not, the transformation is (under the circumstances of 
the case) absolutely excluded. Some years ago, in a lecture at the Royal 
Institution, I endeavoured to draw the attention of chemists to the import- 



12 BEPORT— 1884. 

ance of the principle of dissipation iu relation to their science, pointing 
out the error of the usual assumption that a general criterion is to be 
found in the development of heat. For example, the solution of a salt in 
water is, if I may be allowed the phrase, a downhill transformation. It 
involves dissipation of energy, and can therefore go forward ; but in 
many cases it is associated with the absorption rather than with the 
development of heat. I am glad to take advantage of the present 
opportunity in order to repeat my recommendation, with an emphasis 
justified by actual achievement. The foundations laid by Thomson 
now bear an edifice of no mean proportions, thanks to the labours of 
several physicists, among whom must be especially mentioned Willard 
Gibbs and Helmholtz. The former has elaborated a theory of the 
equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, wide in its principles, and we 
cannot doubt far-reaching in its consequences. In a series of masterly 
papers Helmholtz has developed the conception of free energy with very 
important applications to the theory of the galvanic cell. He points out 
that the mere tendency to solution bears in some cases no small pro- 
portion to the affinities more usually reckoned chemical, and contributes 
largely to the total electro-motive force. Also in our own country Dr. 
Alder Wright has published some valuable experiments relating to the 
subject. 

From the further study of electrolysis we may expect to gain improved 
views as to the nature of the chemical reactions, and of the forces concerned 
in bringing them about. I am not qualified — I wish I were — to speak to 
you on recent progress in general chemistry. Perhaps my feelings towards 
a first love may blind me, but I cannot help thinking that the next great 
advance, of which we have already some foreshadowing, will come on this 
side. And if I might without presumption venture a word of recom- 
mendation, it would be in favour of a more minute study of the simpler 
chemical phenomena. 

Under the head of scientific mechanics it is principally in relation to 
fluid motion that advances may be looked for. In speaking upon this 
subject I must limit myself almost entirely to experimental work. Theo- 
retical hydro-dynamics, however important and interesting to the mathe- 
matician, are eminently unsuited to oral exposition. All I can do to 
attenuate an injustice, to which theorists are pretty well accustomed, is 
to refer you to the admirable reports of Mr. W. M. Hicks, published under 
the auspices of this Association. 

The important and highly practical work of the late Mr. Froude in 
relation to the propulsion of ships is doubtless known to most of you. 
Recognising the fallacy of views then widely held as to the nature of the 
resistance to be overcome, he showed to demonstration that, in the case 
of fair-shaped bodies, we have to deal almost entirely with resistance 
dependent upon skin friction, and at high speeds upon the generation of 



ADDRESS. 13 

surface waves by which energy is carried off. At speeds which aro 
moderate in relation to the size of the ship, the resistance is practically 
dependeut upon skin friction only. Although Professor Stokes and other 
mathematicians had previously published calculations pointing to the 
same conclusion, there can be no doubt that the view generally enter- 
tained was very different. At the first meeting of the Association which 
I ever attended, as an intelligent listener, at Bath in 1864, 1 well remember 
the surprise which greeted a statement by Rankine, that he regarded skin 
friction as the only legitimate resistance to the progress of a well-designed 
ship. Mr. Froude's experiments have set the question at rest in a manner 
satisfactory to those who had little confidence in theoretical prevision. 

In speaking of an explanation as satisfactory in which skin friction i3 
accepted as the cause of resistance, I must guard myself against being 
supposed to mean that the nature of skin friction is itself well understood. 
Although its magnitude varies with the smoothness of the surface, we have 
no reason to think that it would disappear at any degree of smoothness 
consistent with an ultimate molecular structure. That it is connected 
with fluid viscosity is evident enough, but the modus operandi is still 
obscure. 

Some important work bearing upon the subject has recently been pub- 
lished by Professor 0. Reynolds, who has investigated the flow of water 
in tubes as dependent upon the velocity of motion and upon the size of the 
bore. The laws of motion in capillary tubes, discovered experimentally 
by Poiseuille, are in complete harmony with theory. The resistance varies 
as the velocity, and depends in a direct manner upon the constant of 
viscosity. But when we come to the larger pipes and higher velocities with 
which engineers usually have to deal, the theory which presupposes a regu- 
larly stratified motion evidently ceases to be applicable, and the problem 
becomes essentially identical with that of skin friction in relation to ship 
propulsion. Professor Reynolds has traced with much success the passage 
from the one state of things to the other, and has proved the applicability 
under these complicated conditions of the general laws of dynamical 
similarity as adapted to viscous fluids by Professor Stokes. In spite of 
the difficulties which beset both the theoretical and experimental treat- 
ment, we may hope to attain before long to a better understanding of 
a subject which is certainly second to none in scientific as well as practical 
interest. 

As also closely connected with the mechanics of viscous fluids, I 
must not forget to mention an important series of experiments upon the 
friction of oiled surfaces, recently executed by Mr. Tower for the Insti- 
tution of Mechanical Engineers. The results go far towards upsetting 
some ideas hitherto widely admitted. When the lubrication is adequate,, 
the friction is found to be nearly independent of the load, and much 
smaller than is usually supposed, giving a coefficient as low as 1 J . 
When the layer of oil is well formed, the pressure between the solid 



14 REPORT — 1884. 

surfaces is really borne by the fluid, and the work lost is spent in 
shearing, that is, in causing one stratum of the oil to glide over another. 
In order to maintain its position, the fluid must possess a certain 
•degree of viscosity, proportionate to the pressure ; and even when this 
condition is satisfied, it would appear to be necessary that the layer 
should be thicker on the ingoing than on the outgoing side. We may, 
I believe, expect from Professor Stokes a further elucidation of the pro- 
cesses involved. In the meantime, it is obvious that the results already 
obtained are of the utmost value, and fully justify the action of the 
Institution in devoting a part of its resources to experimental work. 
We may hope indeed that the example thus wisely set may be followed 
by other public bodies associated with various departments of industry. 

I can do little more than refer to the interesting observations of 
Professor Darwin, Mr. Hunt, and M. Forel on Ripplemark. The processes 
concerned would seem to be of a rather intricate character, and largely 
dependent upon fluid viscosity. It may be noted indeed that most of the 
still obscure phenomena of hydro-dynamics require for their elucidation a 
better comprehension of the laws of viscous motion. The subject is one 
which offers peculiar difficulties. In some problems in which I have 
lately been interested, a circulating motion presents itself of the kind 
which the mathematician excludes from the first when he is treating of 
fluids destitute altogether of viscosity. The intensity of this motion 
proves, howevei-, to be independent of the coefficient of viscosity, so that 
it cannot be correctly dismissed from consideration in consequence of a 
supposition that the viscosity is infinitely small. The apparent breach 
of continuity can be explained, but it shows how much care is needful in 
dealing with the subject, and how easy it is to fall into error. 

The nature of gaseous viscosity, as due to the diffusion of momentum, 
has been made clear by the theoretical and experimental researches of 
Maxwell. A flat disc moving in its own plane between two parallel 
solid surfaces is impeded by the necessity of shearing the intervening 
layers of gas, and the magnitude of the hindrance is proportional to the 
velocity of the motion and to the viscosity of the gas, so that under 
similar circumstances this effect may be taken as a measure, or rather 
definition, of the viscosity. From the dynamical theory of gases, to the 
development of which he contributed so much, Maxwell drew the 
startling conclusion that the viscosity of a gas should be independent of 
its density, — that within wide limits the resistance to the moving disc 
should be scarcely diminished by pumping out the gas, so as to form a 
partial vacuum. Experiment fully confirmed this theoretical anticipation, 
— one of the most remai'kable to be found in the whole history of science — 
and proved that the swinging disc was retarded by the gas, as much 
when the barometer stood at half an inch as when it stood at thirty 
inches. It was obvious, of course, that the law must have a limit, that 
at a certain point of exhaustion the gas must begin to lose its power ; and 



ADDRESS. 15 

I remember discussing with Maxwell, soon after the publication of his 
experiments, the whereabouts of the point at which the gas would cease 
to produce its ordinary effect. His apparatus, however, was quite un- 
suited for high degrees of exhaustion, and the failure of the law was 
first observed by Kundt and Warburg, as pressures below 1 mm. of 
mercury. Subsequently the matter has been thoroughly examined by 
Crookes, who extended his observations to the highest degrees of ex- 
haustion as measured by MacLeod's gauge. Perhaps the most remark- 
able results relate to hydrogen. From the atmospheric pressure of 760 
mm. down to about ^ mm. of mercury the viscosity is sensibly constant. 
From this point to the highest vacua, in which less than one-millionth of 
the original gas remains, the coefficient of viscosity drops down gradually 
to a small fraction of its original value. In these vacua Mr. Crookes 
regards the gas as having assumed a different, ultra-gaseous, condition ; 
but we must remember that the phenomena have relation to the other 
circumstances of the case, especially the dimensions of the vessel, as well 
as to the condition of the gas. 

Such an achievement as the prediction of Maxwell's law of viscosity 
has, of course, drawn increased attention to the dynamical theory of gases. 
The success which has attended the theory in the hands of Clausius, 
Maxwell, Boltzmann, and other mathematicians, not only in relation to 
viscosity, but over a large part of the entire field of oui- knowledge of 
gases, proves that some of its fundamental postulates are in harmony with 
the reality of Nature. At the same time, it presents serious difficulties ; 
and we cannot but feel that while the electrical and optical properties of 
gases remain out of relation to the theory, no final judgment is possible. 
The growth of experimental knowledge may be trusted to clear up many 
doubtful points, and a younger generation of theorists will bring to bear 
improved mathematical weapons. In the meantime we may fairly con- 
gratulate ourselves on the possession of a guide which has already 
conducted us to a position which could hardly otherwise have been 
attained. 

In Optics attention has naturally centred upon the spectrum. The 
mystery attaching to the invisible rays lying beyond the red has been 
fathomed to an extent that, a few years ago, would have seemed almost 
impossible. By the use of special photographic methods Abney has 
mapped out the peculiarities of this region with such success that our 
knowledge of it begins to be comparable with that of the parts visible 
to the eye. Equally important work has been done by Langley, using 
a refined invention of his own based upon the principle of Siemens' 
pyrometer. This instrument measures the actual energy of the radia- 
tion, and thus expresses the effects of various parts of the spectrum 
upon a common scale, independent of the properties of the eye and of 
sensitive photographic preparations. Interesting results have also been 



16 EEPORT — 1884. 

obtained by Becquerel, whose method is founded upon a curious action 
of the ultra-red rays in enfeebling the light emitted by phosphorescent 
substances. One of the most startling of Langley's conclusions relates 
to the influence of the atmosphere in modifying the quality of solar 
light, By the comparison of observations made through varying 
thicknesses of air, he shows that the atmospheric absorption tells most 
upon the light of high refrangibility ; so that, to an eye situated out- 
side the atmosphere, the sun would present a decidedly bluish tint. It 
would be interesting to compare the experimental numbers with the law 
of scattering of light by small particles given some years ago as the result 
of theory. The demonstration by Langley of the inadequacy of Cauchy's 
law of dispersion to represent the relation between refrangibility and 
wave-length in the lower part of the spectrum must have an important- 
bearing upon optical theory. 

The investigation of the relation of the visible and ultra-violet spectrum 
to various forms of matter has occupied the attention of a host of able 
workers, among whom none have been more successful than my colleagues 
at Cambridge, Professors Liveing and Dewar. The subject is too large 
both for the occasion and for the individual, and I must pass it by. But, 
as more closely related to Optics proper, I cannot resist recalling to your 
notice a beautiful application of the idea of Doppler to the discrimination 
of the origin of certain lines observed in the solar spectrum. If a vibrating 
body have a general motion of approach or recession, the waves emitted 
from it reach the observer with a frequency which in the first case exceeds, 
and in the second case falls short of, the real frequency of the vibrations 
themselves. The consequence is that, if a glowing gas be in motion in the 
line of sight, the spectral lines are thereby displaced from the position 
that they would occupy were the gas at rest — a principle which, in the 
hands of Huggins and others, has led to a determination of the motion 
of certain fixed stars relatively to the solar system. But the sun is itself 
in rotation, and thus the position of a solar spectral line is slightly 
different according as the light comes from the advancing or from the 
retreating limb. This displacement was, I believe, first observed by 
Thollon ; but what I desire now to draw attention to is the application 
of it by Cornu to determine whether a line is of solar or atTnospheric 
origin. For this purpose a small image of the sun is thrown upon the slit 
of the spectroscope, and caused to vibrate two or three times a second, in 
such a manner that the light entering the instrument comes alternately 
from the advancing and retreating limbs. Under these circumstances 
a line due to absorption within the sun appears to tremble, as the result 
of slight alternately opposite displacements. But if the seat of the ab- 
sorption be in the atmosphere, it is a matter of indifference from what 
part of the sun the light originally proceeds, and the line maintains its 
position in spite of the oscillation of the image upon the slit of the spec- 
troscope. In this way Cornu was able to make a discrimination which 



ADDRESS. ] 7 

can only otherwise be effected by a difficult comparison of appearances 
under various solar altitudes. 

The instrumental weapon of investigation, the spectroscope itself, 
has made important advances. On the theoretical side, we have for our 
guidance the law that the optical power in gratings is proportional to the 
total number of lines accurately ruled, without regard to the degree of 
closeness, and in prisms that it is proportional to the thickness of glass 
traversed. The magnificent gratings of Rowland are a new power in 
the hands of the spectroscopist, and as triumphs of mechanical art seem 
to be little short of perfection. In our own report for 1882, Mr. Mallock 
has described a machine, constructed by him, for ruling large diffraction 
gratings, similar in some respects to that of Rowland. 

The great optical constant, the velocity of light, has been the subject 
of three distinct investigations by Cornu, Michelson, and Forbes. As 
may be supposed, the matter is of no ordinary difficulty, and it is there- 
fore not surprising that the agreement should be less decided than could 
be wished. From their observations, which were made by a modification 
of Fizeau's method of the toothed wheel, Toung and Forbes drew the con- 
elusion that the velocity of light in vacuo varies from colour to colour, to 
such an extent that the velocity of blue light is nearly two per cent, 
greater than that of red light. Such a variation is quite opposed to 
existing theoretical notions, and could only be accepted on the strongest 
evidence. Mr. Michelson, whose method (that of Foucault) is well suited 
to bring into prominence a variation of velocity with wave length, informs 
me that he has recently repeated his experiments Avith special reference 
to the point in question, aud has arrived at the conclusion that no varia- 
tion exists comparable with that asserted by Young and Forbes. The 
actual velocity differs little from that found from his first series of experi- 
ments, and may be taken to be 299,800 kilometres per second. 

It is remarkable how many of the playthings of our childhood give 
vise to questions of the deepest scientific interest. The top is, or may be 
understood, but a complete comprehension of the kite and of the soap- 
bubble would carry us far beyond our present stage of knowledge. In spite 
of the admirable investigations of Plateau, it still remains a mystery why 
soapy water stands almost alone among fluids as a material for bubbles. 
The beautiful development of colour was long ago ascribed to the inter- 
ference of light, called into play by the gradual thinning of the film. In 
accordance with this view the tint is determined solely by the thickness 
of the film, and the refractive index of the fluid. Some of the phenomena 
-are however so curious, as to have led excellent observers like Brewster 
to reject the theory of thin plates, and to assume the secretion of various 
kinds of colouring matter. If the rim of a wine-glass be dipped in 
soapy water, and then held in a vertical position, horizontal bands soon 
begin to show at the top of the film, and extend themselves gradually, 
•downwards. According to Brewster these bands are not formed by the 

1884. c 



18 REPORT— 1884. 

* subsidence and gradual thinning of the film,' because they maintain 
their horizontal position when the glass is turned round its axis. The 
experiment is both easy and interesting ; but the conclusion drawn from 
it cannot be accepted. The fact is that the various parts of the film 
cannot quickly alter their thickness, and hence when the glass is rotated 
they re-arrange themselves in order of superficial density, the thinner 
parts floating up over, or through, the thicker parts. Only thus can the 
tendency be satisfied for the centre of gravity to assume the lowest 
possible position. 

When the thickness of a film falls below a small fraction of the length 
of a wave of light, the colour disappears and is replaced by an intense 
blackness. Professors Remold and Riicker have recently made the re- 
markable observation that the whole of the black region, soon after its 
formation, is of uniform thickness, the passage from the black to the 
coloured portions being exceedingly abrupt. By two independent 
methods they have determined the thickness of the black film to lie 
between seven and fourteen millionths of a millimetre ; so that the- 
thinnest films correspond to about one-seventieth of a wave-length of 
light. The importance of these results in regard to molecular theory is- 
too obvious to be insisted upon. 

The beautiful inventions of the telephone and the phonograph, although 
in the main dependent upon principles long since established, have imparted 
a new interest to the study of Acoustics. The former, apart from its uses- 
in every-day life, has become in the hands of its inventor, Graham Bell, and 
of Hughes, an instrument of first-class scientific importance. The theory 
of its action is still in some respects obscure, as is shown by the compara- 
tive failure of the many attempts to improve it. In connection with some 
explanations that have been offered, we do well to remember that molecular 
changes in solid masses are inaudible in themselves, and can only be 
manifested to our ears by the generation of a to and fro motion of the 
external surface extending over a sensible area. If the surface of a solid 
remains undisturbed, our ears can tell us nothing of what goes on in the 
interior. 

In theoretical acoustics progress has been steadily maintained, and 
many phenomena, which were obscure twenty or thirty years ago, have- 
since received adequate explanation. If some important practical ques- 
tions remain unsolved, one reason is that they have not yet been definitely 
stated. Almost everything in connection with the ordinary use of our 
senses presents peculiar difficulties to scientific investigation. Some 
kinds of information with regard to their surroundings are of such para- 
mount importance to successive generations of living beings, that they 
have learned to interpret indications which, from a physical point of 
view, are of the slenderest character. Every day we are in the habit of 
recognising, without much difficulty, the quarter from which a sound 



ADDRESS. 1 9 

proceeds, but by what steps we attain that end has not yet been satis- 
factorily explained. It has been proved that when proper precautions 
are taken we are unable to distinguish whether a pure tone (as from a 
vibrating tuning fork held over a suitable resonator) comes to us from 
in front or from behind. This is what might have been expected from 
an a priori point of view ; but what would not have been expected is 
that with almost any other sort of sound, from a clap of the hands to 
the clearest vowel sound, the discrimination is not only possible but easy 
and instinctive. In these cases it does not appear how the possession of 
two ears helps us, though there is some evidence that it does ; and even 
when sounds come to us from the right or left, the explanation of the 
ready discrimination which is then possible with pure tones, is not so easy 
as might at first appear. We should be inclined to think that the sound 
was heard much more loudly with the ear that is turned towards than 
with the ear that is turned from it, and that in this way the direction 
was recognised. But if we try the experiment, we find that, at any rate 
with notes near the middle of the musical scale, the difference of loudness 
is by no means so very great. The wave-lengths of such notes are lono- 
enough in relation to the dimensions of the head to forbid the forma- 
tion of anything like a sound shadow in which the averted ear might 
be sheltered. 

In concluding this imperfect survey of recent progress in physics, I 
must warn you emphatically that much of great importance has been 
passed over altogether. I should have liked to speak to you of those far- 
reaching speculations, especially associated with the name of Maxwell, in 
which light is regarded as a disturbance in an electro-magnetic medium. 
Indeed, at one time, I had thought of taking the scientific work of 
Maxwell as the principal theme of this address. But, like most men of 
genius, Maxwell delighted in questions too obscure and difficult for hasty 
treatment, and thus much of his work could hardly be considered upon 
such an occasion as the present. His biography has recently been pub- 
lished, and should be read by all who are interested in science and in 
scientific men. His many-sided character, the quaintness of his humour 
the penetration of his intellect, his simple but deep religious feeling, 
the affection between son and father, the devotion of husband to wife, 
all combine to form a rare and fascinating picture. To estimate 
rightly his influence upon the present state of science, we must regard 
not only the work that he executed himself, important as that was, 
but also the ideas and the spirit which he communicated to others. 
Speaking for myself as one who in a special sense entered into his 
labours, I should find it difficult to express adequately my feeling of 
obligation. The impress of his thoughts may be recognised in much of 
the best work of the present time. As a teacher and examiner he was 
well acquainted with the almost universal tendency of uninstructed minds 

C2 



20 REPORT — 1884. 

to elevate phrases above things : to refer, for example, to the principle 
of the conservation of energy for an explanation of the persistent rotation 
of a fly-wheel, almost in the style of the doctor in 'Le Malade Imaginaire,' 
who explains the fact that opium sends you to sleep by its soporific 
virtue. Maxwell's endeavour was always to keep the facts in the fore- 
ground, and to his influence, in conjunction with that of Thomson and 
Helmholtz, is largely due that elimination of unnecessary hypothesis 
which is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the science of the 
present day. 

In speaking unfavourably of superfluous hypothesis, let me not be 
misunderstood. Science is nothing without generalisations. Detached 
and ill-assorted facts are only raw material, and in the absence of a 
theoretical solvent, have but little nutritive value. At the present time 
and in some departments, the accumulation of material is so rapid that 
there is danger of indigestion. By a fiction as remarkable as any to be 
found in law, what has once been published, even though it be in the 
Russian language, is usually spoken of as ' known,' and it is often for- 
gotten that the rediscovery in the library may be a more difficult and 
uncertain process than the first discovery in the laboratory. In this 
matter we are greatly dependent upon annual reports and abstracts, 
issued principally in Germany, without which the search for the dis- 
coveries of a little-known author would be well-nigh hopeless. Much 
useful work has been done in this direction in connection with our 
Association. Such critical reports as those upon Hydro-dynamics, upon 
Tides, and upon Spectroscopy, guide the investigator to the points most 
requiring attention, and in discussing past achievements contribute in 
no small degree to future progress. But though good work has been 
done, much yet remains to do. 

If, as is sometimes supposed, science consisted in nothing but the 
laborious accumulation of facts, it would soon come to a stand-still, 
crushed, as it were, under its own weight. The suggestion of a new 
idea, or the detection of a law, supersedes much that had previously been 
a burden upon the memory, and by introducing order and coherence 
facilitates the retention of the remainder in an available form. Those 
who are acquainted with the writings of the older electricians will under- 
stand my meaning when I instance the discovery of Ohm's law as a step 
by which the science was rendered easier to understand and to remember. 
Two processes are thus at work side by side, the reception of new 
material and the digestion and assimilation of the old ; and as both are 
essential, we may spare ourselves the discussion of their relative impor- 
tance. One remark, however, should be made. The work which deserves, 
but I am afraid does not always receive, the most credit is that in which 
discovery and explanation go hand in hand, in which not only are new 
facts presented, but their relation to old ones is pointed out. 

In making oneself acquainted with what has been done in any subject, 



ADDRESS. 21 

it is good policy to consult first the writers of highest general reputation. 
Although in scientific matters we should aim at independent judgment, 
and not rely too much upon authority, it remains true that a good deal 
must often be taken upon trust. Occasionally an observation is so simple 
and easily repeated, that it scarcely matters from whom it proceeds ; but 
as a rule it can hardly carry full weight when put forward by a novice 
whose care and judgment there has been no opportunity of testing, and 
whose irresponsibility may tempt him to ' take shots,' as it is called. 
Those who have had experience in accurate work know how easy it would 
be to save time and trouble by omitting precautions and passing over 
discrepancies, and yet, even without dishonest intention, to convey the 
impression of conscientious attention to details. Although the mo3t 
careful and experienced cannot hope to escape occasional mistakes, the 
effective value of this kind of work depends much upon the reputation of 
the individual responsible for it. 

In estimating the present position and prospects of experimental 
science, there is good ground for encouragement. The multiplication of 
laboratories gives to the younger generation opportunities such as have 
never existed before, and which excite the envy of those who have had to 
learn in middle life much that now forms part of an undergraduate course. 
As to the management of such institutions there is room for a healthy 
difference of opinion. For many kinds of original work, especially in 
connection with accurate measurement, there is need of expensive 
apparatus ; and it is often difficult to persuade a student to do his best 
with imperfect appliances when he knows that by other means a better 
result could be attained with greater facility. Nevertheless it seems 
to me important to discourage too great reliance upon the instrument 
maker. Much of the best original work has been done with the homeliest 
appliances ; and the endeavour to turn to the best account the means 
that may be at hand develops ingenuity and resource more than the most 
elaborate determinations with ready-made instruments. There is danger 
otherwise that the experimental education of a plodding student should 
be too mechanical and artificial, so that he is puzzled by small changes of 
apparatus much as many school-boys are puzzled by a transposition of 
the letters in a diagram of Euclid. 

From the general spread of a more scientific education, we are war- 
ranted in expecting important results. Just as there are some brilliant 
literary men with an inability, or at least a distaste practically amounting 
to inability, for scientific ideas, so there are a few with scientific tastes 
whose imaginations are never touched by merely literary .studies. To 
save these from intellectual stagnation during several important years of 
their lives is something gained ; but the thorough- going advocates of 
scientific education aim at much more. To them it appears strange, and 
almost monstrous, that the dead languages should hold the place they do 
in general education ; and it can hardly be denied that their supremacy is 



22 bepobt — 1884. 

the result of routine rather than of argument. I do not, myself, take up 

the extreme position. I doubt whether an exclusively scientific training 

would be satisfactory ; and where there is plenty of time and a literary 

aptitude I can believe that Latin and Greek may make a good foundation. 

But it is useless to discuss the question upon the supposition that the 

majority of boys attain either to a knowledge of the languages or to an 

appreciation of the writings of the ancient authors. The contrary is 

notoriously the truth ; and the defenders of the existing system usually 

take their stand upon the excellence of its discipline. From this point of 

view there is something to be said. The laziest boy must exert himself 

a little in puzzling out a sentence with grammar and dictionary, while 

instruction and supervision are easy to organise and not too costly. But 

when the case is stated plainly, few will agree that we can afford so 

entirely to disregard results. In after life the intellectual energies are 

usually engrossed with business, and no further opportunity is found 

for attacking the difficulties which block the gateways of knowledge. 

Mathematics, especially, if not learned young, are likely to remain 

unlearned. I will not further insist upon the educational importance of 

mathematics and science, because with respect to them I shall probably 

be supposed to be prejudiced. But of modern languages I am ignorant 

enough to give value to my advocacy. I believe that French and German, 

if properly taught, which I admit they rarely are at present, would go 

far to replace Latin and Greek from a disciplinary point of view, while 

the actual value of the acquisition would, in the majority of cases, be 

incomparably greater. In half the time usually devoted, without success, 

to the classical languages, most boys could acquire a really serviceable 

knowledge of French and German. History and the serious study of 

English literature, now shamefully neglected, would also find a place in 

such a scheme. 

There is one objection often felt to a modernised education, as to 
which a word may not be without use. Many excellent people are afraid 
of science as tending towards materialism. That such apprehension 
should exist is not surprising, for unfortunately there are writers, speak- 
ing in the name of science, who have set themselves to foster it. It is 
true that among scientific men, as in other classes, crude views are to be 
met with as to the deeper things of Nature ; but that the life-long beliefs 
of Newton, of Faraday, and of Maxwell are inconsistent with the 
scientific habit of mind, is surely a proposition which I need not pause to 
refute. It would be easy, however, to lay too much stress upon the 
opinions of -even such distinguished workers as these. Men, who devote 
their lives to investigation, cultivate a love of truth for its own sake, and 
endeavour instinctively to clear up, and not, as is too often the object in 
business and politics, to obscure a difficult question. So far the opinion 
of a scientific worker may have a special value ; but I do not think that 
he has a claim, superior to that of other educated men, to assume the 



ADDBESS. 23 

attitude of a prophet. In his heart he knows that underneath the 
theories that he constructs there lie contradictions which he cannot recon- 
cile. The higher mysteries of being, if penetrable at all by human intel- 
lect, require other weapons than those of calculation and experiment. 

Without encroaching upon grounds appertaining to the theologian 
and the philosopher, the domain of natural science is surely broad enough 
to satisfy the wildest ambition of its devotees. In other departments of 
human life and interest, true progress is rather an article of faith than a 
rational belief ; but in science a retrograde movement is, from the nature 
of the case, almost impossible. Increasing knowledge brings with it in- 
creasing power, and great as are the triumphs of the present century, we 
may well believe that they are but a foretaste of what discovery and 
invention have yet in store for mankind. Encouraged by the thought 
that our labours cannot be thrown away, let us redouble our efforts in the 
noble struggle. In the Old World and in the Hew, recruits must be 
enlisted to fill the place of those whose work is done. Happy should I 
be if, through this visit of the Association, or by any words of mine, a 
larger measure of the youthful activity of the West could be drawn into 
this service. The work may be hard, and the discipline severe ; but the 
interest never fails, and great is the privilege of achievement. 






REPORTS 



OX THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



BEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson. Pro- 
fessor A. W. Williamson, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Barlow, and 
Mr. J. M. Thomson {Secretary), appointed to consider and advise 
on the best means for facilitating the adoption of the Metric 
System of Weights and Measures in Great Britain. 

Tour Committee have held several meetings daring the past year. 

They wish to take this opportunity of expressing their very deep 
regret at the loss which the Committee has sustained in the death of 
their colleague, Sir William Siemens, F.R.S., since the last meeting of 
the British Association. Sir William Siemens had taken a very pro- 
minent part in the formation of this Committee, and had himself under- 
taken personally much of the business of the Committee, and his 
colleagues farther regret that his sadden and unexpected death has 
prevented them hearing from him more particulars of the results of the 
inquiries which he had undertaken to make. 

Your Committee have been in correspondence with the Board of Trade 
on the subject of the introduction and wider employment of the metric 
system in Great Britain ; but the answer received has not been so favour- 
able to the general adoption of the system as they could have wished. 

After due consideration, your Committee determined to memorialise 
Her Majesty's Government on the subject, and endeavour to induce the 
English Government to become members of the ' Bureau International 
des Poids et Mesures.' 

Understanding that the Royal Society had already entered upon 
negotiations with the Government, and wishing to proceed upon the 
same grounds, your Committee put themselves in communication with the 
Society. 

From the Royal Society your Committee learn that the former has 
been, and is still, in communication with the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and that the chief difficulties in the way of the Government joining the 
Bureau are (1) the expense, especially the arrears of payment, and (2) 
the question of being able to contribute to the Bureau without joining 
the Metric Convention, Her Majesty's Government — they are given to 
understand — regarding this latter step as committing this country to the 
metric system, which they are unwilling to do, as being opposed, in their 
judgment, to the public opinion of the country. 



28 report— 1884. 

On receipt of this information from the Royal Society your Com- 
mittee, taking into consideration, not only the late period of the present 
Session of Parliament, bnt also the &hort time that remains before the 
dissolution of the present Parliament, have determined that it will be- 
more advantageous to defer approaching Government on the subject till a 
later period. 

Your Committee still wish to hold the matter under further considera- 
tion, and they therefore ask that the Committee be reappointed without a 
grant of money. 

Note. — Since the above Report was drafted the Government have- 
agreed to join the ' Bureau International des Poids et Mesures ' 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Professor Stokes, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor 
SirH. E. Roscoe, Professor Schuster, Captain Abney, andMr. G. J. 
Symons, appointed for the purpose of considering the best methods 
of recording the direct intensity of Solar Radiation. 

This Committee, acting on a suggestion made by General Strachey, have 
chiefly devoted their attention to the subject of a self-recording actino- 
meter. 

The self-recording actinometer of Mr. Winstanley would not be 
suitable, 1 because it is influenced by radiation from all quarters. Other 
actinometers require manipulation on the part of the observer which would 
make it almost impossible to make them self-recording. It was suggested 
by Professor Balfour Stewart that a modification of his actinometer might 
be adapted to self-registration by taking for the quantity to be observed, 
not the rise of temperature of tbe enclosed thermometer after exposure for 
a given time, but the excess of its temperature when continuously exposed 
over the temperature of the envelope. After making some calculations 
as to the behaviour of such an instrument, Professor Stokes came to the 
following conclusions : 

(1) The enclosure should be of such a nature as to change its tem- 
perature very slowly, and of such a material that the various portions of 
the interior should be at the same moment of the same uniform tempera- 
ture. For this purpose an arrangement somewhat similar to that used in 
Prof. Stewart's actinometer is suggested ; the outside to consist of polished 
metallic plates, then a layer of some non-conducting substance, such as- 
felt, then a thick copper interior which need not be polished. Into this 
copper is to be inserted a thermometer which will give the temperature- 
of the copper interior from moment to moment. 

(2) In the middle of the enclosure is to be placed the thermometer, 
upon which the heat of the sun is made to fall by means of a hole in the 
enclosure, either with or without a lens. This thermometer should be so 

1 ' This is the case at present, but there would not be any great difficulty in 
modifying it so as to act as required. It is quite a matter worth consideration 
whether a differential air- thermometer would not be very suitable, one bulb silvered 
and the other blackened or of green glass, as I suggested to the Meteorological Council 
some years back. By this means only one reading would be necessary, whilst in the 
plan suggested two would have to be recorded, and the measurements would be 
more difficult.' {Note hi/ Captain Abney.) 



ON DIRECT INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION. 29 

constructed as to be readily susceptible of solar influences. It is proposed 
to make it of green glass (a good absorber and radiator), and to give it 
a flattened surface in the direction perpendicular to the light from the hole. 

Such an instrument should be so adjusted as to receive the sun's b>ht 
continuously through the hole, and the objects of record would be the 
simultaneous heights of the two thermometers, the one givino- the tem- 
perature of the enclosure, and the other of the central thermometer. There 
are two conceivable methods by which the necessary adjustment with 
regard to the sun's light might be secured, namely, («) the enclosure 
might be subject to an equatorial motion so as to follow the sun, or (/3) 
the enclosure might be kept at l-est and the solar rays kept upon the hole 
by a heliostat. Captain Abney is of opinion that the latter arrangement 
is, mechanically, much preferable to the former. 

As the direction of the earth's axis may be chosen as that into which 
the sun's light is to be reflected, a heliostat of a very simple construction 
will suffice ; and as the angle of incidence on the mirror of such a heliostat 
changes only very slowly with the season, there is no difficulty in applying 
the small correction required for the change in the intensity of the reflected 
heat consequent on the change in the angle of incidence. It is assumed 
that the mirror of the heliostat is a speculum. 

It has been remarked by General Strachey that some such instrument 
as this now suggested, even if not made self-recording, would have the 
advantage of giving an observation without the objectionable necessity of 
putting the light on for a given time and then shutting it off, operations 
only suitable for trained observers. We think that it would be desirable 
to construct an enclosure with its two thermometers such as herein 
recorded. In all probability the loan of a heliostat and of an actinometer 
might be obtained. By aid of the heliostat the sun's light might be kept 
continuously upon the hole of the enclosure. The two thermometers 
would be read, and the results compared with the simultaneous reading 
of an ordinary actinometer. By such means it is believed that the best 
method of constructing such an instrument and observing with it might 
be found. 

We would therefore ask for a continuance of our Committee, with the 
sum of 30Z. to be placed at our disposal for the purpose herein specified. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomson, Prof.ssor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. Gr. Adams, Lord Eayleigh, Professor Jenkin, Dr. 0. 
J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. K. 
T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
son, and Professor W. Garnett, appointed for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in Elec- 
trical Measurements. 

The Committee report that during the year the construction and testing 
of standards of electrical resistance has been proceeded with. The 
coils of 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 B.A. units, mentioned in the last 
Keport, have been compared with the standard unit coils. An account 



30 REPORT — 1884. 

of the comparison made by the Secretary and Mr. H. M. Elder, with a 
table of the values arrived at, is given in Appendix I. Further ex- 
periments on the temperature coefficients of these coils are in progi'ess. 
During the year, twelve coils have been compared with the B. A. 
standards, and certificates of their values issued by the Secretary. A 
Table of the values found is given in Appendix II. 

At the Southport meeting of the Association a grant was made to 
defray the expense of procuring standards of resistance in terms of the 
ohm. At a meeting of the Committee held in March, 1884, it was 
decided to defer the purchase of these till after the meeting of the Paris 
Congress, and a resolution was passed to the effect that ' In the event of 
the Paris Congress adopting any definite standard of resistance, 
standards be ordered for the Committee in accordance with that value.' 

The Paris Congress adopted as a standard, to be called the ' legal 
ohm,' the resistance at 0°C. of a column of a mercury 106 centimetres 
long, and one square millimetre in section. The standard resistances at 
present in use being B.A. units, it became necessary to assume a relation 
between the B.A. unit and the legal ohm, in order to construct coils whose 
resistance should be one legal ohm. This relation has been determined 
by various observers with slightly different results, and a meeting of the 
Committee was held on June 28 to consider the question. At this meet- 
ing the following resolution, proposed by Professor W. G. Adams, 
seconded by Lord Rayleigh, was carried : — ■' That, for the purpose of 
issuing practical standards of electrical resistance, the number of B.A. 
units adopted as the resistance of a column of mercury 100 cm. in length, 
1 sq. mm. in section, at 0°C, be - 9540. 

Taking this number, then 

1 legal ohm=l-0112 B.A. units. 
1 B.A. unit=-9889 legal ohms. 

Coils having respectively a resistance 1, 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 
legal ohms have been ordered, two of each value, so that, by frequent 
comparison of one with the other, an accident to either may be checked. 
These standards are to have their correct values at temperatures near 
15° C. 

The two 1-ohm coils have been sent by the makers, and their testing 
is being proceeded with. When this is complete the Committee will be 
in a position to test and certify to the values of coils in terms of the 
legal ohm. 

They propose that the certificate should run as follows : — 

' This is to certify that the resistance coil X has been tested by the 
Electrical Standard Committee, and that its value at a temperature of 
4° centigrade is P legal ohms. 

' It has been assumed, for the purposes of this comparison, that 1 legal 
ohm is equal to l'0ll2 B.A. units.' 

The coils will be stamped with the monogram ^ and a reference 

number. 

A portion of the grant has been expended in some additions to the 
wire bridge belonging to the Committee, which have added greatly to its 
utility, while two thermometers for the testing room have been purchased. 

The Committee would ask, in conclusion, that they may be reappointed, 
with the addition of the name of Mr. W. N. Shaw, in order to continue 
the work of issuing standards of resistance. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



31 



Appendix I. 

On the values of the B.A. standards of resistance greater than 1 B.A. unit. 

The coils of approximate value 10 B.A. units marked Elliott Bros., 
No. 66 and No. 67, or ffi? 20 and 21 respectively, were compared with the 
B.A. standards by the method described in the last report, 1 with the results 
given in the following table : 



1 

Marie of coil 


Date 


Value fount! in Ii.A.U. 


Temperature 


Elliott No. C6 
^ No. 20 


July 5 
July 7 


10-0065 
10-0043 


19°-1 
18°-3 


Elliott No. 67 
^ No. 21 


July 5 
July 7 


10-0060 

10004:; 


19°-1 

18°-3 


Elliott No. 68 
^ No. 22 

Elliott No. 69 
^ No. 23 


July 24 

August 11 


100038 
100- 115 


16°-7 
19°-9 


July 24 
August 11 


100-024 
100-097 


10°-7 
19°-9 


Elliott No. 70 
^ No. 24 


July 26 
August 11 


999-79 
1000-78 

999-81 

1000-79 


15°-8 
19°-9 


Elliott No. 71 


July 26 
August 11 


15°-S 
19°-9 


Elliott No. 72 
^ No. 20 


August 11 


10006-2 


li)°-8 


Elliott No. 73 
^ No. 27 


August 11 


10006-9 


19°-8 



The coils were immersed in the water bath, the temperature of which 
remained constant during each observation, for some days before the 
measurements were made. 

The values thus found were used for the determination of the coils of 
higher resistance, the methods of the last report - being employed in this 
case also. The insulation of the various parts of the apparatus was tested 
carefully. Each result given in the table is the mean of two or more 
determinations at the same temperature. The readings of the thermo- 
meter used were compared with those of a standard instrument. 

1 B. A. Eeport 1883, p. 43. 

2 B. A. Eeport 1883, p. 44. 



32 



REPORT 1884. 



Appendix II. 
Table giving the values of the Coils tested for the Committee in 1883-4. 



Mark of Coil 


Certificate 
value 


Temperature 


Destination 


Elliott Bros., No. 95 


•99936 


13°-9 




CU5 3^ 51 


1-00337 


15° 


Prof. Stuart. 


CU 3J^ 52 


100237 


15°-5 


Prof. S. P. Thompson. 


Warden, 456 3^ 53 


•99920 


15° 


Mason College, Birmingham. 


Elliott, 19 ^ 51 


•99937 


17°-7 


Cavendish Laboratory. 


Elliott, 41 3JT, 55 


•99950 


13°- 8 


Messrs. Elliott Bros. 


Elliott, 56 3^ 56 


•99949 


13°-8 


» 


Elliott, 113 3jj^ 57 


1 00000 


13°-8 


Prof. Adams, King's College. 


Simmons, 4 -ill/. 58 


1-00101 


16°-3 


Messrs. Simmons. 


Elliott, 92 3|L 59 


100109 


18° 


Philadelphia Exhibition. 


Elliott, 3J£, 60 


1-00067 


18°-1 


»» 


Elliott, 3JE, 61 


10-0163 


19°-8 


>» 



Heport of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Kobert H. Scott 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. G-. J. Symons, appointed 
for the purpose of co-operating tvith the Meteorological Society of 
the Mauritius in their proposed publication of Daily Synoptic 
Charts of the Indian Ocean from the year 1861. Drawn up by 
Mr. R. H. Scott. 

.As no application Las been made for any portion of the grant placed at 
their disposal, the Committee ask that they may again be reappointed, 
with a continuance of the grant. 

The present condition of the proposed publication may be learned 
from the following extract from a letter Irom Dr. Meldrum, dated 
Mauritius Observatory, July 9, 1884 : — 

' Oar synoptic charts from Januai-y and March, 1861, have been 
lithographed by Messrs. Johnston, so far as the winds and weathers are 
concerned, and all that is wanted to complete them are the isobars. I 
regret that I have been unable to complete them for the meeting. The 
tracks of the cyclones for the Indian Ocean for each year since 1847 are 
ready.' 



ON THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 33 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors G. H. 
Darwin and J. C. Adams, for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 
Observations. Drawn up by Professor Gr. H. Darwin. 

Diking the past year Major Baird Las been engaged in the transformation 
of the tidal constants for the several Indian ports, as deduced from the 
observatiors of previous years, to the form recommended in our first 
report (1833). He also intends to treat the European tidal results, pub- 
lished in previous Reports of the Association, in the same manner. 
Under his superintendence auxiliary tables have been prepared and 
printed in India for the use of the computers ; a portion of these tables 
was given at the end of the Report of 1883. The current work at 
Poona is now being carried out in accordauce with our suggestions. 
Forms have been prepared by Mr. Roberts for the rednction of the new 
compound tides MK, 2MK, ALN (see Schedule H., Report of 1883) ; but 
I have not heard whether the range of any of these tides has been found 
to be sufficiently great to make it desirable that the reductions should be 
continued. The recommendations with regard to the tides M[ and L have 
not been yet sufficiently tested, but the procedure is certainly theoretically 
correct. 

An unexpected delay has occurred in the preparation of the new 
forms for the tides of long period, bat they are to be complete by the 
beginning: of November. 

It has been found expedient to depart somewhat from the form 
recommended in Schedule R for the entry of the diurnal means from 
which these tides are reduced. The table is now divided into two parts ; 
the rows marked 'change ' are put together, and form the second half of 
the table. In the case of the tide MSf, to which Schedule R applies, 
the mode of the entry in the new forms will be thus. The values for 
days 0, 1, 2, 3, are entered from left to right in the first half ; then, in 
the second half, entries 4, 5, 6, 7 are inserted from right to left, and 8, 9, 
10, 11 from left to right; then we ascend to the first half again, and 
enter two rows, namely, 12, 13, 14 from right to left, and 15, 16, 17, 18 
from left to right, and so on alternately. In both halves of the table the 
positive entries are put to the left and the negative to the right. The 
summations are carried out independently in the two halves, and the signs 
in the sums of the lower half are changed, before the final sums of both 
halves are formed. 

In the preface to the Report of 1883 the intention was expressed of 
sending copies of the computation forms to certain public libraries, and a 
grant of money was made by the Association for the purchase of these 
copies. Complete copies have not, however, been as yet obtainable, on 
account of the delay in the preparation of the forms for the tides of long 
period. 

Up to the present time the forms have been privately printed for the 
Indian Government, and as they have not been on sale, this method of 
harmonic analysis has been inaccessible to the public. To meet this want 
I have been making arrangements for producing an edition for sale. In 
the course of a month or two the copies will be on sale, 1 at a price not 
yet determined on. I have received much assistance towards the ex- 

1 By the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Companv, St. Tibbs' Eow, Cambridge. l 
1884. d 



34 nEroiiT — 1884. 

penses of publication, and therefore the price will be considerably less 
than that which would pay for the printing. The printers for the India 
Office still had about fifteen pages in type, and permission was obtained 
through General Strachey to have copies struck off from these and from 
the sheets of the long period forms as they were ready. The remaining 
eighty pages of the work have been copied by photo-zincography at the 
office of the Ordnance Survey at Southampton. Mr. Roberts kindly 
corrected a few errata with the pen before sending the originals to be 
photographed. I have to thank the officers of the Royal Engineers in 
charge, and especially Major Bolland, R.E., for the attention which was 
bestowed on the matter. 

It was through the exertions of General Strachey that permission 
was obtained to have this work done at Southampton ; and in consequence 
of a correspondence between the India Office, the Board of Works, and 
the Treasury this part of the work has been done free of charge, on the 
condition of my supplying a certain number of copies to the Admiralty. 
I am also assisted in the publication by a grant from the fund admini- 
stered by the Royal Society. 

It is to be regretted that notwithstanding this requisition for compu- 
tation forms it appears that the Admiralty is satisfied with the old method 
of tidal reduction, and has no intention of making any contribution to 
our tidal knowledge by instituting harmonic analysis of tidal records. 

Dr. C. Borgen, of Wilhelmshaven, informs me, in a letter, that the 
tides of the North German Sea are now being reduced according to the 
harmonic method, presumably for the Imperial Admiralty, and he writes: 
'It is intended to publish the results for the German coast in exactly the 
same manner as you propose for the English, so that they may be strictly 
comparable. The calculation for Heligoland, 1882, is begun and will be 
completed in about a month or so (from the end of June 1884).' 

I learn from M. Bouquet de la Grye, of the Bureau des Longitudes, 
that he has been engaged for some time past in the reduction of a large 
mass of tidal observations according to an harmonic method devised by 
himself, and that the work approaches completion. 

Mr. Neison, now in charge of the Natal Observatory, expresses his 
intention of reducing the tidal observations at Natal according to oar 
methods, and I shall supply him with computation forms. 

Mr. Gill, Astronomer Royal at the Cape, will also undertake the 
reduction of the tides of the Cape Colony, and will be supplied with 
forms. 

There seems to be a possibility that some of the Australian Colonies 
may be induced to take up the matter. 

Major Baird will probably undertake to draw up a manual of practical 
instructions for the erection of continuous tide-gauges, and the practical 
experience of one who has supervised so much work of the kind will prove 
of great value. 

The fate of the tide-gauge ei'ected by the Portuguese Government at 
Madeira affords a proof that it is not of much use to direct the establish- 
ment of a tide gauge, unless the work bo placed in the hands of some one 
who has had experience in the matter. It is said that the tube which 
was sunk into the sea from the Loo Rock at Madeira was open at the 
bottom, and that the platinum wire attached to the float was broken at 
©nco by the pumping up and down of the water. I believe that nothing 



ON T1IE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 35 

has been done to remedy this defect, and that the instrument has remained 
unused during several years. 

On the whole we may congratulate ourselves on the amount of activity 
which is being displayed in the matter of tidal research, and we may 
hope that in a few years we shall be in possession of a large mass of tidal 
information, arranged in a form which will lend itself satisfactorily to 
theoretical examination. 

As we already have a considerable amount of data with regard to India, 
extending over several years, I have requested Major Bairdlo supply me 
with the values of mean water-mark for a series of years, and I am in 
hopes that au examination of these results will give us the amount of 
the nineteen-yearly tide, if not with great precision, at least with some 
degree of accuracy. The result will be of much interest for the purpose 
of evaluating the degree of elastic yielding of the earth's figure. 

A few errata have been detected in the Report of 1883, but only one 
of them has any importance, viz., that in Schedule [I], as noted below. 
The corrections to be made are as follows : — 

1. First of (40), for R 2 read R. 

2. First of (43) and second of (44), multiply the expressions on the 

right by — 
jj . 

3. First of (5G), multiply the numerator by h 2 . 

4. Schedule [I], entries K 2 , K,, third column, multiply the numera- 
tors 1-46407 by 1c. This important error arises from the mistakes (2) 
aud (3). 

5. After (67), in the next transformation, the Vs which occur before 
Oi + l 2 )i and (l\—h)i, are to be deleted; the subsequent analysis is 
correct. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Mr. Knox Laughton, Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Mr. R. H. 
Scott, and Mr. Johnstone Stoney, appointed for the purpose of 
co-operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of establishing 
a Meteorological Observatory near Chepstow on a permanent and 
scientific basis. 

Me. R. H. Scott and Professor Balfour Stewart have been in corre- 
spondence with Mr. Lowe, and the former has seen the site of the 
proposed observatory, which appears to him to be good. Professor 
Stewart purposes visiting the site at the end of July, and reporting the 
result of his visit to the other members of the Committee. Meanwhile it 
is proposed that the Committee be reappointed, with power to add to 
their number, but without any further sum bein£ placed at their 
disposal. 



D2 



36 RETORT 1884. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Croi Brown 
(Secretary) and Messrs. D. Milne Home, John Murray, and 
Alexander Buchan, appointed for the purpose of co-operating 
xviih the Directors of the Ben Nevis Observatory in making 
Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. 

A grant of 50?. was made to the Committee by the British Association 
in 1888 to aid the Directors of the Ben Nevis Observatory in making 
meteorological observations on Ben Nevis during the summer months of 
1883. The observations were in continuance of those made by Mr. Wragge 
in 1881 and 1882. As Mr. Wragge was unable to make the observations 
in 1883, owing to a contemplated visit to Australia early in the autunm, 
the observations were made by Messrs. Whyte and Rankin, who had been 
assistants to Mr. Wragge in 1881 and 1882. The observations began 
on June 1, and were continued to October 31, 1883, with scrupulous 
regularity and accuracy. 

The observations included two series at The Lake (1,840 feet high), 
one on ascending and the other on descending the mountain, and five on 
the top, at 8, 8.30, 9, 9.30, and at 10 a.m. ; and, with these, simultaneous 
observations near sea-level at Fort William, to which one series was 
added on starting for the mountain at 4 a.m., and another on returning 
at 2 p.m. 

In the meantime the building of the permanent observatory was 
pushed forward with such success that the observatory was formally 
opened on October 17th. Shortly thereafter Mr. R. T. Omond, superin- 
tendent, and Messrs. Rankin and Duncan, the assistants, went into 
residence, and the regular observations began in the end of November. 
These consist of hourly eye-observations by night as well as by day. The 
Committee have much gratification in reporting that from November to 
the present date (July 25), the barometric observations have been made 
without the break of a single hour, and, since May 7, all the observations 
have been made without intermission. The omissions of the thermometric 
and other outside observations were mostly in winter and during the 
night, when the stormy state of the weather rendered it unsafe to venture 
out. Not unfrequently the observations were made by two of the 
observers, and sometimes all the three, roped together for safety. The 
Directors are making arrangements, by additions to the buildings and 
the introduction of new instruments, to secure, for the future, a more 
continuous record. 

In connection with the Ben Nevis observations, Mr. Colin Livingstone 
makes eye-observations at Fort William at 8 and 9 a.m., 2, 6, 9, and 
10 P.M., these being the hours at which observations are chiefly made in 
the British Islands. Mr. Livingstone is also furnished with a barograph 
and a thermograph, by which extremely valuable data have been contri- 
buted. Normals for temperature and atmospheric pressure at Ben Nevis 
Observatory have been calculated from the simultaneous observations 
made there and at the sea-level station at Fort William for five months 
for each of the years 1881, 1882, and 1883, from June to October, and 
seven months, from December 1883 to June 1884. 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 3< 

The following Table gives the normal monthly temperature and 
pressure at sea-level at Fort William, taken from Mr. Buchan's 'Papers 
on the Climate of the British Islands ' (' Journal of Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society,' vol. vi. pp. 4—40), and the calculated normals for the 
Ben Nevis Observatory : — 



Mean temperature 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. Nov. 


Dec. 


Tear 


Fnrt William . . 
Ben Nevis Obser- 

i Mean Pressure — 

Fort William . . 
Ben Nevis Obser- 
vatory. . . . 


o 
38-9 

ins. 

29-747 

25-141 


o 
38-9 

ins. 
29-814 

25-194 


o 
41-0 

23-4 

ins. 
29-800 

2.3-19C 


o 
455 

27-5 

ins. 
29-878 

25-29i; 


o 
49-8 

32-7 

ins. 
29-934 

25-380 


o 

55-7 

38-7 

ins. 

29914 

25-4K 


57-8 

41-3 

ins. 
29-884 

25-400 


o 
57-0 

41-1 

ins. 
29-8SJ 

25370 


o 
52-8 

37-4 

ins. 
29-825 

35-314 


o 
47-5 

32-3 

ins. 
29-78( 

25-241 


o 
41-2 

2G-2 

ins. 
29-841 

S5-239 


o 
39-8 

24-9 

ins. 

29-793 

25-189 


o 
47-2 

30-9 

ins. 
29-838 

25-281 



These normals for pressure at the Ben Nevis Observatory have been 
arrived at from a table of corrections for the height (4,406 feet) which 
has been prepared directly from observations of the High and the Low 
Level Stations, the observations at the latter being reduced to sea-level. 
The approximate corrections have been calculated for each tenth of an 
inch of the sea-level pressui'e, and for each degree Fabr. of the mear. 
temperature of the stratum of air from sea-level to the top of the 
mountain. The arithmetical mean of the temperatures at the base and 
the top has been assumed as the mean temperature of the intervening 
stratum. 

The results of these observations will shortly be published, in detail, 
in the ' Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society.' Thereafter a 
more complete examination of the observations at both stations will be 
resumed, and comparisons made of the two sets of observations, more 
especially as regards the relations of the varying results to the changes 
of weather which have preceded, accompanied, and followed them. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James N. Shoolbred 
(Secretary) and Sir William Thomson, appointed for the pur- 
pose of reducing and tabulating the Tidal Observations in the 
English Channel made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and of 
connecting them xcith Observations made on the French coast. 

The Committee beg leave to report that the tidal curves of the self-register- 
ing tide-gauge at Dover for the years 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1883 have 
been kindly placed at their disposal by the Board of Trade, for reduction 
and tabulation ; and that the Belgian Government has been good 
enough to present to the Committee copies of the tidal curves at Ostend 
during the same period of four years. 

The reduction and tabulation of the high and low water registers of 



38 REPORT — 1 884. 

these two sets of tidal curves has progressed satisfactorily, and will be 
shortly completed. 

It is hoped also that a like reduction will be soon commenced with 
other self-registering tidal cnrves during the same period at several other 
points, both on the English and the French coasts. 

The Committee request to be allowed to transmit to the Board of 
Trade, and to the Belgian Government respectively, the thanks of the 
Association for their assistance and donations in furtherance of this 
inquiry. 

The Committee request to be reappointed, with a grant of ten pounds 
to defray the expenses of reduction, &c. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Schuster 
(Secretary), Sir William Thomson, Professor Sir H. E. Eoscoe, 
Professor A. S Herschel, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. K. H. 
Scott, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone, appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the practicability of collecting and identifying 
Meteoric Dust, and of considering the question of undertaking 
regular observations in various localities. 

During the past year a grant of 20Z. has been spent in constructing a 
new instrument for collecting continuously any cosmic dust, volcanic 
dust, or other impurities mechanically suspended in the atmosphere. The 
essential part of the instrument consists in a series of filters of fine 
platinum wires through which the air is continuously drawn by an 
aspirator. 

This instrument is being experimented with at the Marine Station for 
Scientific Research at Grantou, and a complete description of the instru- 
ment and dust collected will be given in next year's Report. Large 
carboys furnished with glass filters, fourteen inches in diameter, have been 
arranged for collecting the dust carried down by rain on the top of Ben 
Nevis, Lord MacLaren's residence in Rossshire, Inch Mickry in the Firth 
of Forth, and at the Scottish Marine Station. 

The dust from these different points and elevations will be carefully 
compared with that collected by the new instrument, by Messrs. Murray 
and Renard and by members of the Committee. 

A full report will be furnished to the next meeting. 

^he Committee also consider it to be of great importance to collect 
dust on the island of Bermuda and on another coral island in the Pacific, 
say Longalubon, and hope to obtain a sufficient grant of money to enable 
them to carry out their intention. 



OX CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 39 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors William- 
son, Dewar, Frankland, Eoscoe, Crum Brown, Odling, and 
Armstrong, Messrs. A. Gr. Vernon Harcourt, J. Millar Thom- 
SON, H. B. Dixon (Secretary), and V. H. Veley, and Drs. F. E. 
Japp and H. Forster Morley, reappointed for the purpose of 
drawing up a statement of the varieties of Chemical Names which 
have come into use, for indicating the causes which have led to 
their adoption, and for considering what can be done to bring 
about some convergence of the views on Chemical Nomenclature 
obtaining among Eiiglish and foreign chemists. 

CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

Historical Notes. 

Ur to about the year 1780 no systematic attempts were made to give to 
chemical substances names in any way indicating their composition. 
The names used were derived for the most part in three ways : either 
they were relics of the nomenclature of the alchemists, who named the 
common metals after the known planets ; or the substances bore the name 
of their discoverer ; or lastly, chemists, adopting, as Dumas said, tbe 
language of the kitchen, gave names to substances on account of sligbt 
external resemblances with bodies in common use — e.g. oil of vitriol, 
butter of antimony, milk of lime, and cream of tartar. Lavoisier ascribes 
to Macquer the credit of being the fh'st to classify substances under 
generic names, by introducing the terms vitriol and nitre, to indicate the 
classes of sulphates and nitrates respectively. 

The term salt was applied in the writings of tbe alchemists to any 
substance which could be dissolved in water, and which affected the sense 
of taste. So bodies as different in nature as sal-ammoniac, sal-petra?, 
and sal-nitricnm (HNCv,) came to be classed together. In the eighteenth 
century the three most distinctly marked classes of soluble substances — 
namely, those which are now commonly called acids, salts, and bases — were 
distinguished as salia acida, salia media, and salia alkakna. The salia 
media were also known as salia salsa or neutral salts, a name which sur- 
vived long after the separation of the acids and alkalies from the salts. 

The foundation of the present ideas as to salts is to be found in two 
papers presented to the French Academy in 1744 and 1754, by G. F. 
ftouelle. He excludes the alkalies and acids from the class of salts and 
defines a neuiral salt as the product of the action of an acid on any body 
which can act as a base. This is the first definition of a salt based on its 
chemical properties. 

The first complete attempt to devise a system of inorganic nomen- 
clature was made in 1782, simultaneously and independently by Bergmann l 
and Guyton de Morveau. 2 The names proposed by the two are nearly 
identical, and resemble to some extent the names still in use. De Mor- 
veau lays down five principles to be observed in the choice of names for 
chemical substances : — 

1. A phrase is not a name : the name ' l'alkali Prussien ' is therefore 

1 r.ergmann, Obxerv. de St/stemate Fossilium, Xaturali. 

■ Journal de Physique, vol. xix. April, 1782 ; also as C'it. Guyton, Ann. Cliim. vol. 
xsv. p. 205. [1798.] 



40 DEPORT — 1884. 

to be preferred to the other name in vogne at that time — viz., ' liqueur 
alkaline saturee de la matiere colorante du bleu de Prusse.' 

2. The name should be as far as possible in real correspondence with 
the object. As corollaries to this rule he lays down that where a name is 
made up of an adjective and a substantive the more essential and unalter- 
able constituent should bear the substantive form ; also that the names of 
discoverers, since they stand in no essential connection Avith the bodies 
they discover, should find no place in the system. 

3. If the constitution of a body is unknown, it is better to give it a 
name which conveys no meaning, than one which conveys a wrong one. 
Hence he prefers to call the body of unknown composition which we now 
know as potassium ferrocyanide, ' alkali Prussien,' rather than ' alkali 
phlogistique.' 

4. In the choice of new names it is advisable to derive them from 
roots in the best-known dead languages. 

5. Names must be adapted to the structure and natm*e of the different 
languages in which they are to be used. 

De Morveau applies these principles to the nomenclature of 474 sub- 
stances, belonging to the four classes, earths, alkalies, acids, and metals, 
and the products of their union. In the naming of salts he forms words 
for all the acids known to him, on the analogy of the terms vitriol and 
nitre introduced by Macquer, so that the salts BaSo.„ CaCl 2 , acetate of 
iron, are called respectively vitriol barotique, muriate calcaire, and acete- 
martial. He also tries to fix one name for carbonic acid gas, and calls it 
acide mephitique, and its salts muphites. The principal advance which we 
find in De Morveau is, then, that acids receive names with uniform 
terminations, and salts receive names indicating their being compositions 
from acid and base. 

In 1787 Lavoisier and De Morveau, 1 with the assistance of Berthollet 
and Fourcroy, prepared and laid before the French Academy a scheme of 
chemical nomenclature based on the dualistic hypothesis, and their 
proposals form the basis of the nomenclature still in use. A system of 
nomenclature is necessarily bound up with a classification of known 
substances, and so we find that Morveau and Lavoisier give a table of all 
the substances to which they assign definite names arranged according tc- 
their relationships one with another. The elements retain their ac- 
customed names, except that the names oxygen, hydrogen, and azote are 
introduced. The term oxide is introduced for the first time, and oxides 
are looked on as substances in a state intermediate between the element 
and its acid. Thus tney call the two oxides of arsenic oxide d'arsenic 
(white arsenic) and acid arsenique ; and the two known oxides of 
molybdenum, oxide de molybdene and acide molybdique. The corre- 
spondence of the terminations '-ate ' and '-ic,' '-ite ' and '-OU3 ' in acids and 
salts is introduced for the first time. The nomenclature of salts thus 
came to be nearly identical with that now used. In this classification the 
French chemists do not distinguish by generic names between higher and 
lower basic oxides. 

The views thus developed by Lavoisier and Morveau found acceptance 
all over Europe. Girrtanner translated the French names into German, 
and several English chemists, such as Dickson and Kirwan, Chevenix and 
Thomson, 2 adopted the system in its main outlines. Additions w r ere made 

1 Gom.pt. Bend., translated by George Pearson, M.D. 1794 ; 2nd ed. 1793. 
• System of Chemistry, ed. 1802. 



ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 41 

to it from time to time, such as that of Thomson, 1 who distinguished the 
different metallic oxides as protoxides, deutoxides, &c. 

Berzelius 2 made a more exact classification of salts, and added some 
new forms of names. He laid down the rule that the names of the 
simplest compounds should be formed by adding to the name of the one 
element the termination ' -ide ' or ' -ure ; ' to that of the other, the termi- 
nation • -eux ' or ' -ique,' with the further provision that the more 
electro-negative of the two constituents should have the substantive form. 
Instead of the terms protoxide, &c, he adds the terminations ' -ous ' and 
' -ic ' to the name of the other constituent — e.g. ferrous oxide. Among 
the compounds of elements with oxygen he separated the compounds 
with electro-negative elements — the acids — from the other oxides, with- 
out thereby implying the existence of any fundamental difference between 
them. The halogen compounds of hydrogen he calls hydracids. In the 
investigation of salts he was the first who made clearer distinction 
between neutral, acid, and basic salts ; instead of these terms he used the 
terms supersalts and subsalts. 

From time to time systems of chemical nomenclature have been pro- 
posed which entirely discard the arbitrary names given even to the best 
known substances, and introduce artificial words, each of whose vowels 
or consonants means either a substance or a number. Thus Gmelin 3 pro- 
poses a system in which the different vowels and diphthongs represent the 
numbers from 1 to 9, and the elements are described by monosyllables 
with the vowel a, thus: — K = Pate, Mn = Ganne, &c. In combining 
the names of the elements the vowel is altered according to the number of 
atoms of the element to be denoted. Thus, if O = Ane, and Fe = Mart, 
then Fe. 3 3 = Mertin, and Fe 3 4 = Mirton. Laurent attempted a system 
of the same sort but found it unworkable. For organic substances New- 
lands 4 has devised a series of names, some of which might be useful. 

Laurent 5 enters into an elaborate comparison of the qualities of the 
compounds of hydrogen, zinc, gold, silver, and platinum, and shows 
that in respect of crystalline structure, behaviour on heating, and power 
of entering into chemical combinations the corresponding compounds 
of hydrogen and zinc — i.e. the hydrogen salts and the zinc salts — show 
a closer analogy with each other than the zinc salt does with those of 
the other metals. He concludes that if hydrogen were not gaseous and 
its oxide were not volatile, no one would hesitate to place it among 
the metals. He therefore looks on the acids as belonging to the same 
chemical type as their salts, as being, in fact, hydrogen salts. Laurent 
proceeds further to show that there is no essential distinction to be drawn 
between acids and salts and oxides. The differences between hydrogen 
and other metallic salts are as a rule not greater than the differences 
between the salts of two such metals as platinum and potassium, or two 
such bodies as a chloride and a carbonate. The reactions of the hydrogen 
salts are not always more energetic than those of the other metallic 
salts : thus, sulphate of hydrogen attacks metallic oxides just as the 
sulphates of gold and platinum do. The distinction which has been made 
between them is due to the non-metallic appearance of hydrogen, and the 

1 System of Chemistry, ed. 1804, 1807, 1810, &c. 

a Journal dc Physique, vol. lxxxiii. p. 253 : also in Lehtrvcli der Ckemie. 

3 Handbook, vol. vii. p. 149. 

4 Chem. News, 1861. 

4 Metliode de Chemie. 



42 retort — 1884. 

readiness with which it can be removed from a componnd in the form of 
water. Laurent thus concludes that oxides, hydrogen salts, and other 
salts may with perfect propriety be classed together. 

Acid and Basic Salts. 

Houelle was the first to call attention to the fact that a given acid 
and base can combine in different proportions. He prepared the salt 
now known as KHS0 4 from potassic sulphate (tartre vitriole), and in- 
vestigated its properties. He distinguished three different classes of salts. 

1. He calls 'neutral salts with an excess or superabandance of acid,' 
salts which, besides the amount of acid which makes them quite neutral, 
have an additional quantity of acid combined with them, and he knows 
that this excess of acid has its point of saturation. Such salts, he says, 
are as a rule more soluble thau the corresponding salts of his third class. 

2. What we call neutral salts he calls ' sels neutres parfaits,' or ' sels sales.' 

3. The third salts he calls ' neutral salts with the smallest possible 
quantity of acid.' At first sight these classes seem to correspond with 
what we now call acid, neutral, and basic salts, but Rouelle's examples 
show that this is not the case. The only acid salts which he seems to 
have known is the hydric potassic sulphate which he was the first to 
prepare, and he puts in the same class with it mercuric chloride and other 
persalts, while calomel is given as the typical instance of a salt with the 
smallest possible amount of acid. This confounding of hydrogen double 
salts with salts containing as largo an amount of acid as the base can 
saturate continued up to the end of the century. 

1787. — In course of time, however, more salts of the two abnormal 
classes were discovered. In the 'Morveau-Lavoisier' nomenclature, salts 
of the acid class were called acidulous salts, thus: KHSO.j=sulphate 
potassique acidule, while salts with an excess of the basic constituents 
were called alkaline, or supersaturated salts. Salts generally are called 
neutral salts. These terms were translated directly into English in 
Pearson's translation of 1794. 

In an essay on ' Chemical Nomenclature,' published in 1796 by 
Stephen Dickson, he proposes to denote the predominance of acid and 
base respectively by prefixing the prepositions ' super-' or ' sub-' to the 
adjective the name of the acid. 

Thus:— 

KHSO.[=supervitriolated vegetable alkali. 
Cu 2 C] 2 =submuriated copper. 

1809. — In Murray's ' System of Chemistry ' we find that a distinction 
is at last made between the relation of K 2 S0 4 to KHSO„ and that of 
HgCl 2 to Hg 2 Cl 2 . He says that submuriate is net a good name for this 
last salt, as it contains enough acid to make it neutral. He does not, 
however, propose a systematic name for this substance, but calls it mild 
muriate of mercury. Similarly, he rejects the name of super-sulphate of 
iron, and distinguishes the two sulphates as red and green sulphates. 

1810. — In the fourth edition of Thomson's treatise, we find yet 
another method of naming these salts. Thomson, following Lavoisier's 
theory of oxygen acids, considers that the difference between calomel and 
cox-rosive sublimate is that in the latter the mercury is in a more highly 
oxidised condition. He therefore calls HgCl 2 oxymuriate of mercury. 
This leads to a confusion with chlorate of mercury, then called by some 



ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 43 

chemists oxy-, by others hyperoxyniuriate. Thomson also calls 
mercuric nitrate, oxynitrate, and says that on adding hot water to it an 
insoluble subnitrate and a soluble supernitrate are formed. 

1811.— In Klaproth and Wolff's ' Dictionary of Chemistry' (French 
trans.), we find the names sulphate acide de potasse, sulphate de fer 
oxidule (=FeS0 4 ) ; for the two potassium carbonates, the names carbonate 
sature and nonsature. 

1811. — Berzelius l uses entirely distinct means of denoting the two 
classes of salts with which we have been dealing. To mark the degree 
of oxidation of the base of a salt, he adds the termination -ous, or -ic, 
to the name of the metal — e.g. nitras mercurosus and nitras mercaricus., 
To denote the degree of acidity or basicity of a salt, he prefixes super- 
or sub-, to the name denoting the acid. From his language, it seems 
as though he had invented this method independently. In the cases 
where more than one acid or basic salt is found, he denotes the most acid 
salt by the adjective supremus, and the most basic by infimus, e.g. — 

Superoxalas kalicus supremus. 
Subnitras plumbicus infimus. 

1829. — In his later works — e.g. in the French edition of his Treatise, 
1829 — ho makes a difference in the nomenclature between haloid and 
amphid salts. In the case of acid haloids, he adds the word acid to the 
name of the salt, e.g. — 

Fluorure potassique acide. 

Basic salts of this class are named thus : — 

Chlorure plombique bibasique. 

,, „ tribasique, &c. 

In the case of acid amphid salts, he drops the word acid ; but prefixes to 
the name of the acid a suffix indicating the number of acid molecules, 
e.g.— 

Bisulphate sodique. 

Zweif'ach phosphorsaures natron. 

Basic salts are named thus : — 

Sous-sulphate trialuminique. 

1827. — A somewhat similar system is adopted by Thenard. 2 He 
introduces into the name of each salt the full name (according to 
Thomson's system) of the oxide supposed to exist in it, thus: — 

Sous-sulphate de deutoxide de mercure. 

All these attempts at naming acid salts were founded on a false idea 
of their composition, inasmuch as it was not known that hydrogen is a 
constituent of bisulphate of potash. Thus in Turner's ' Chemistry ' we 
find the formulas : — ■ 

Sulphate of potassa, KO + S0 3 . 
Bisulphate „ KO + 2S0 3 . 

1 Journal de Physique, vol. lxxii. p. 26G. 

2 Traite, 5th ed. 1827. 



44 HEronT — 1884. 

Graham seems to have been the first to maintain that hydrogen existed 
in these salts otherwise than as water of crystallisation. 

1847. — It was Gerhardt ' who first clearly stated that the three sub- 
stances, hydric sulphate, hydro-potassic sulphate, and potassic sulphate, 
stand to one another in the relations represented by the formula? H 2 S0 4 , 
KHS0 4 K-oSOj- He called salts of the type K 2 S0 4 , which correspond 
to acids formed by the direct combination of water with an 'anhydride,' 
equisels ; while for acids and basic salts he used the old names, sur-sels 
and sous-sels. 

TABLE I. 

In this table of the nomenclature of the oxides of carbon, it is seen that 
the names carbonic oxide and carbonic acid, Kohlenoxyd and Kohlensaiire, 
oxide de carbon and acide carbonique, have been solely used by English, 
German, and French chemists for the two oxides of carbon from the time 
of their identification until twenty years ago. In Miller's ' Elements of 
Chemistry' we find the term carbonic acid used in the two first editions, 
in the Liter editions the term carbonic anhydride is introduced. In 
Fownes' Manual we find the term carbonic acid used from the fourth 
edition to the ninth ; in the tenth and eleventh editions we find both the 
terms carbonic dioxide and carbonic oxide applied to the higher oxide, 
and the terms carbon monoxide and carbonous oxide applied to the 
lower ; in the thirteenth edition we find the terms carbonic anhydride and 
carbon dioxide applied to the higher, and carbonic oxide and carbon 
monoxide applied to the lower. So that in different editions of the same 
manual we have the term carbonic oxide first applied to the lower, then to 
the higher, and again to the lower oxide. In Watts's Dictionary (1863) 
the lower oxide is called carbonic oxide, the higher carbonic anhydride ; 
in the first Supplement (1872) the lower oxide is called carbon monoxide 
and carbonous oxide, the higher oxide carbon dioxide and carbonic anhydride. 
In France and Germany the terms oxide de carbon and Kohlenoxyd, 
acide carbonique and Kohlensaiire, have continued to be used almost 
universally to the present day. Among English and American chemists 
of the present day there is a diversity of practice : carbonic oxide and 
carbon monoxide being most generally used for the lower oxide, and 
carbonic acid, carbonic anhydride, and carbon or carbonic dioxide for the 
higher. 

TABLE II. 

In the nomenclature of the oxides of nitrogen, we find the names oxide 
azoienx and oxide azotique, applied to the first and second oxides of nitro- 
gen by the French Committee in 1787, have been employed by many 
chemists to the present day. In the first edition of Thomson's ' System 
of Chemistry ' (1802) we find the terms nitrous and nitric oxide used ; in 
a later edition (1817) he introduced the terms protoxide of azote and 
deutoxide of azote, calling the third oxide hyponitrous acid, and the fourth 
nitrous acid. In Brande's ' Manual ' (1819) we have the term nitrous acid 
given to the third oxide, but most chemists adopted Thomson's nomen- 
clature. In Berzelius (French edition, 1829) we find gas oxide nitreux, 
gas oxide nitrique and acide nitreux for the three lower oxides, and the 
term acide nitroso nitrique for the fourth. In Graham's ' Elements ' (1842) 

1 Journal de Pharmacie, vol. xii. p. 57. 



OS CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 45 

we find the terms Injpointrlc acid and peroxide of nitrogen applied to the 
fonrth oxide, the other oxides being called nitrous and nitric oxides, nitrous 
and nitric acids. 

In the earlier edition of Fownes' ' Manual,' the terms protoxide and 
binoxide of nitrogen are applied to the lower oxides, nitrons acid to the 
third, hyponitric and nitric acids to the fourth and fifth. In the tenth 
edition the terms nitrogen monoxide and dioxide are adopted for the two 
lower and tetr oxide for the fourth oxide; the terms nitrous oxide and nitro- 
gen trioxide are given to the third, and the terms nitric oxide and nitrogen 
pentoxide to the fifth. The terms nitrous and nitric oxides here applied 
to the fourth and fifth oxides had previously only been applied by chemists 
to the fh'st and second. 

TABLES III.-V. 

The older chemists were agreed in designating the two oxides of 
sulphur the sulphurous and the sulphuric acids respectively. In Fownes' 
'Manual,' ed. 1863, the alternative names sulphur di- and trioxide are first 
introduced, which, among the later writers, have gradually superseded 
the former names. 

In a memoir in the ' Jahresbericht,' 1842, Berzelius recommends the 
introduction of the names Di-, Tri- and Tetrathionic acids. This nomen- 
clature has superseded the older names hyposulphuric, monosulphyposul- 
phuric, &c, acids, though some few of the later writers retain the term 
hyposulphuric acid. 

The discovery of the true hyposulphurous acid by Schiitzenberger 
caused the acid, hitherto known by that name, to be designated thlosul- 
phuric acid, as derived from sulphuric acid, by the replacement of one 
atom of oxygen by sulphur. Hydrosulphurons acid, the name originally 
proposed by Schiitzenberger for his acid, seems to be retained only by the 
French writers. 

TABLES VI.-VII. 

The oxides of chromium afford an instance of change of names owing 
to the discovery of another member of a series of compounds. Thus the 
green oxide of chromium was designated the protoxide, until the isolation 
of an oxide containing one atom of oxygen to one of the metal. The 
latter compound was then called the protoxide, while the name of the 
former was altered to sesquioxide. 

The potassium and lead salts of chromic acid afford a good example 
of the want of unamimity of nomenclature among the older writers in 
those cases in which there are derived from one acid two salts, the one 
neutral, containing one equivalent of basic to one equivalent of acid oxide, 
the others containing an excess of either of the oxides. Thus the acid or 
red potassium chromate is called indifferently potassium di or bichromate, 
but the former prefix is equally applied to the basic lead chromate. The 
later writers have avoided this confusion of prefixes by introducing the 
di or hi before the name of the acid or metal according as the salt con- 
tains excess of the acid or the basic oxide, respectively, thus : — 

Potassium t7/chromate, but tf/plumbic chromate. 



46 REroRT — 18S4. 



TABLES VIII.-X. 

From the above tables it -will be seen that many names have been used 
in more than one sense. Thus the terms phosphoric acid, phosphorous 
acid, and hypophosphorous acid were formerly exclusively employed to 
denote the oxides, bat are now chiefly used to denote the hydrogen salts. 
Graham's researches were published in 1833, and previous to this date 
chemists made no distinction between anhydrous and hydrated phosphoric 
acid, but called one phosphoric acid, the other a solution of phosphoric 
acid ; hence, when it was necessary to explain the differences between 
ortho- and pyro-phosphates, this was clone by ascribing them to differences 
in the arrangement of atoms in the group P 2 5 . When, therefore, the 
older chemists speak of the different varieties of phosphoric acid, it is the 
anhydrous acid that they mean. For instance, Berzelius's u, (3, and y 
phosphoric acids are all three regarded by him as anhydrous. The term 
phosphoric oxide is applied to anhydrous phosphoric acid in the editions 
of Fownes edited by Watts ; this term was formerly used to denote a sup- 
posed lower oxide of phosphorus, P 4 0. (Gmelin, edited by Watts, 1849). 

The term 'neutral phosphate of soda' has been applied both to trisodic 
phosphate and Lydrodisodic phosphate. Diphosphate of soda has been 
applied to trisodic and hydrodisodic phosphates, and biphosphate to 
dihydrosodic phosphate, so that the three phosphates have had almost 
identical names. 

The term ' acid phosphate of soda' has been applied to both hydro- 
disodic and dihydrosodic phosphates. 

The term ' phosphorchlorid ' has been applied to both chlorides of 
phosphorus. (Cf. Liebig and PoggendorfT.) 

It appears that when a numerical prefix is employed, the number ought 
to be understood as multiplying the word to which it is prefixed and not 
some other word. This rule has often been violated : thus trisodic phos- 
phate has been called ' triphosphate of soda,' also ' diphosphate of soda ' 
and ' sesquiphosphate of soda ; ' in all these cases the prefix is intended 
to indicate the number of molecules of soda to one molecule of phosphoric 
acid. So Turner calls hydrodisodic phosphate and dihydrosodic phos- 
phate, 'triphosphate of soda and basic water' and 'acid triphosphate of 
soda and basic water ' respectively. 

It is to be observed, however, that in the older form of nomenclature 
ambiguity was avoided in the case of compounds containing double the 
usual amount of acid or of base by using the prefix : 

bi- to multiply the acid. 

di- to multiply the base. 
Thus : 

!Na,0.2Si0 2 , bisilicate of soda. 
2]SFa 2 O.Si0 2 , disilicate of soda. 

The prefixes ' ter-' and 'tri-,' ' quater-' and ' tetra-' might have been 
employed in the same way, e.rj. : — 

Na 2 0.8Si0 2 , tersilicate of soda. 
3Na 2 O.Si0 2 , trisilicate of soda. 
Ca 4 H(P0 4 ) 3 , tetracalcic terphosphate. 
Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 , calcic triphosphate. 

But satisfactory evidence that they were so used has not been found. 

(Continued on p. 73.) 



ON CJIEMICAL SOMENCLATrKK. 



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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



55 




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ON CHEMICAL, NOMENCLATURE. 



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60 



REPORT — 1884. 



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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



6L 



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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



63 



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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE, gy 



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REPORT — 1884. 



I 

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Acide meta- 

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Metaphosphoric 

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Metaphosphoric 

acid 
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acid 
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a 

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=^.H 

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Monobasio hy- 
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phone acid) 

Hydrate of mon- 
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phoric acid 

Hydrate of mon- 
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phoric acid 

Hydrate of mon- 
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phoric acid 

Hydrate of mon- 
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phoric acid 

Hydrate of mon- 
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phoric acid 

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Monobasic hy- 
drate of phos- 
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eg 

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to 


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OX CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 




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ON CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. 73 

The employment of such terms as ' Phosphorsuperchloriir,' ' iuter- 
mcdiarer Cblorphosphor ' for the trichloride, and the corresponding 
' Phosphorsuperchlorid,' ' Chlorphosphorsepim maximum ' for the penta- 
chloride, is explained by the fact that a solution of phosphorus in the 
trichloride was formerly supposed to be a lower chloride of phosphorus, 
' Phosphorcbloriir,' ' Chlorphosphor iin minimum.' 

The following observations relate to the prevalence of certain names at 
different periods : — 

1. Anhydrous Phosphorous Acid was formerly called phosphorous acid ; it 
is now usually called phosphorous anhydride, and to a le c s extent phos- 
phorus trioxide. 

2. Hydric Phosphite was called (when obtained from trichloride of 
phosphorus and water) a compound of phosphorous acid and water. 
From 1840 till 1800 it was called hydrate of phosphorous acid or hydrated 
phosphorous acid. It is now called phosphorous acid. The term hydric 
phosphite has been very seldom used. 

3. Anhydrous Phosphoric Acid was originally called phosphoric acid ; it 
is now usually called phosphoric anhydride, and to a less extent phos- 
phorus pentoxide. The term anhydrous phosphoric acid has been fre- 
quent^' employed. 

4. Hydric Phosphate was called hydrate of phosphoric acid or hydrated 
phosphoric acid till 1800 ; it is now called phosphoric acid. The term 
hydric phosphate has been seldom used. 

5. Trichloride of Phosphorus. — The terms protochloride of phosphorus 
and phosphorous chloride (or Phosphorcloriir) were of equal prevalence 
till 1868, when the former expired. Trichloride of phosphorus is the 
name now chiefly used. 

6. Similar remarks apply to peniachlorule of phosphorus, except that the 
term perchloride of phosphorus has been more largely used than phos- 
phoric chloride, although it expired in 1808. 

TABLE XI. 

In this table we find that the names 'chloride of copper,' ' dichloride 
of copper,' and ' protochloride of copper,' have all been applied to the 
lower chloride, and the names 'chloride of copper,' ' deutochloride,' 
'bichloride,' and 'protochloride of copper,' have all been applied to the 
higher chloride. Th. Thomson introduced the names proto- and deuto- 
chloride for the 1st and 2nd chloride respectively, but later on he adopted 
the names subchloride and chloride. Brande, in the first edition of his 
' Chemistry,' calls the two bodies chloride and bichloride of copper, but 
in his 6th edition we find the names dichloride and protochloride, signify- 
ing that the first has two atoms of copper and the second one. Some 
chemists have followed this rule, others the system of Thomson, so that 
while Brande, Watts, Regnault, and Bernays apply the name protochloride 
to the higher body, Thomson, Thenard, Gay-Lussac, Naquet, and Har- 
court apply the same name to the lower body. 

General Remarks on the Preliminary Report. 

The usefulness of any system of nomenclature rests mainly on its 
permanence. 

The tables in this Report, summarising the history of the nomen- 
clature of certain typical chemical compounds, clearly indicate the 
conditions most essential for permanence. Names have been given to 
bodies expressing particular opinions on their ultimate constitution, whilst 
other names have been given expressing no theoretical views, but simply 



74 • report — 1884. 

stating experimental facts which admit of no dispute. These tables 
bring prominently forward the fact that those names have endured which 
express no particular opinion on the ultimate constitution of the bodies 
to which they were applied. Where the names have expressed such 
opinions the ndvance of knowledge has necessitated change. Sixty 
years ago the names ' Bi-chloride of phosphorus ' and ' Perchloride of 
phosphorus ' were both applied to the higher chloride of phosphorus. 
The former name has not lasted because it expressed a particular view 
as to the number of atoms in the molecule, which view is no longer 
accepted. The other name has endured because it merely expressed the 
experimental fact that the compound contained more chlorine than the 
lower chloride. To secure permanence for the future this principle 
should be acted on. As a general rule those names are to be preferred 
which have shown the most vitality and have led to no ambiguity. 
Where there are hvo compounds composed of the same elements the terminations 
OUS and ic should be employed. These terminations have been used in the 
same sense by the great majority of chemists since Lavoisier. The 
terms 'cuprous chloride,' ' chlorure cuivreux,' ' Kupferchloriir ' for the 
lower chloride of copper, and the terms ' cupric chloride,' ' chloimre 
cuivrique,' ' Kupferchlorid ' for the higher chloride have been used by 
English, French, and German chemists consistently and without ambiguity. 

The prefixes proto, deuto, &c, introduced into chemical nomenclature 
by Thomas Thomson, were not intended by him to indicate the number 
of atoms in a molecule, but to mark the first, second, or third compound 
of a series. Thus he styled the lower and higher chlorides of copper 
' protochloride ' and ' deutochloride ' respectively; but other chemists 
have styled the higher chloride the protochloride, thereby indicating that 
the molecule contained one atom of copper, and the lower chloride the 
dichlori.de, thereby indicating that the molecule contained two atoms of 
copper. Where the prefixes proto, deuto, &c, are retained they should 
always be applied in the sense used by Thomson as indicating the first, 
second, &c, compound of a series. 

A name once given to a particular body should not be taken from 
that body and applied to another without the gravest reasons for the 
transfer — reasons accepted by the majority of chemists. The name 
carbonic oxide has been regularly used to denote the lower oxide of 
carbon from the time of its discovery. Until quite recently, the name 
' carbonic oxide ' served without ambiguity to indicate a particular 
compound. This name has lately been applied by certain chemists to the 
higher oxide of carbon, and a new name has been given to the lower 
oxide. On account of this transfer the name has become ambiguous. 
A return to the common nomenclature would involve less change, and 
would, therefore, be preferable to the adoption of two new names to avoid 
this ambiguity. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and 
Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 

Tiie Committee have to report that some steps have been taken towards 
commencing the work ; but, owing to the unfortunate fire at the London 
Institution, whereby much of the material was destroyed, and the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Armstrong to the Chair of Chemistry at the Central Technical 
Institute, the results are not yet in a state fit for publication. 



ON TIIE FOSSIL rilYLLOrODA OF THE I\U..KOZOIC ROCKS. 



75 



[Two other Reports read in Section B, having been unavoidably delayed, 
will be found immediately before the Papers printed in extensoJ] 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), 
on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks. 

In our former Report (1883) we offered a Synopsis of the known genera 
of the Fossil Phyllopods, and we have not found reason to modify the 
classification there proposed, as far as the univalve genera are concerned, 
except (1) that the term 'flat-shield' is incorrect for a group in which 
several forms are slightly convex or subconical ; (2) that one (Dip- 
terocaris) is bent along the back in a ridge-like manner; (3) possibly 
Pinnocaris is really bivalved, without a rostral piece, and not merely 
sutured along the back ; (4) probably Crescentilla may be placed near 
Pteroearis and Dipterocaris. Last year we ofl'ered observations on some 
genera that have bent or folded carapaces (Hymenocaris), and on some 
that are bivalved (Caryocaris and Idngulooaris) ; but we have now to take 
up the flat-shielded or subconical forms, excepting the Dithyrocarides. 

Examining all the species of which specimens or figures are within 
reach, we find the following genera and species ; and we have briefly 
described or re-described them on one uniform plan, so that comparison 
may be the more easily made. 



List of the Secies of the Fossil Univalved Phyllopoda 

(EXCEPTING DlTHYKOCARls). 
I. Shield not sutured along the had-. 



1. Posterior margin entire. i 2. 

1. Discinocaris, H. Woodward, 1866. 

1 . Browniana, H. W. | 6. 

2. dubia, F. A. Roeiner. 
::. lata, H. W. 

4. triasica, Reuss. 

5. sp. nov. 
(i. congener, Clarke. 
7. ? gigas, H. W. 

2. Spathiocaris, Clarke, 1882. 

1. Emersonii, Clarke. 

2. vmgulina, Clarke. 

3. Fholadocaris, H. Woodward, 1882. 

1. Leeii, H. W. 

2. sp. nov. 

4. Lisgocaeis, Clarke, 1882. 

1. Lutheri, Clarke. 8. 

5. Ellifsocaris, H. Woodward, 1 8S2. 

1. Dewalquei, H. W. \ 0. 

2. sp. nov. 



Posterior margin, truncate, indented, 
or slightly notched. 

Cardiocaeis, H. Woodward, 1882. 

1 . Roemeri, H. W. 

2. tripartita, H. W. 
.'!. Veneris, H. W. 
4. Koeneni, Clarke. 

3. Posterior margin deeply notched. 

Dipterocaeis, Clarke, 1883. 

1. pes-cerva3, Clarke. 

2. vetusta, d'Arch. & de V. 

3. procne, Clarke. 

4. penn;e-daedali, Clarke. 

5. Etberidgei, nobis. 
Tterocaeis, Barrande, 1872. 

1 . boliemica, Barr. 
Ckescentilla, Barrande, 1872. 
1. pugnax, Barr. 



REPORT 1884. 



II. Sutured along the hack. 



1. Nuchal suture angular. 

10. Aptvchopsts, Barrande, 1872. 

1. prima, Barr. 

1A. var. secunda, now 

2. Wilsoni, II. Woodward. 
:•>. Lapworthi, H. W. 

4. glabra, II. W. 

5. sp. nov. 

6. sp. nov. 

7. Salteri, 11. W. 

8. sp. nov 



2. Nuchal suture rounded. 

11. Peltocaris, Salter, 1863. 

1. aptychoides, Salter. 

2. ? anatina, Salter. 

3. sp. nov. 

4. sp. nov. 

5. ? Harknessi, Salter. 

3. Possibly truly Involved, without 
a rostral piece. 

12. PiNNOCAitis,E. Ethcridgo, Jun. 1878. 

1. Lapworthi, K. E., Jr. 



Before we proceed with the comparative descriptions, we may remark 
that some specimens of these little fossil carapaces were noticed long ago 
by palaeontologists, before their Crustacean characters were recognised. 
Their general likeness to the opercula of Ammonites ' led some observers 
to suggest that these little fossils may have belonged to Goniatites, an 
' Ammonitidal ' cephalopod found occasionally in strata of the same forma- 
tion (Devouian) as that in which certain of these Aptychus-like fossils 
occur. 2 Many of the species, however, occur in beds in which Goniatites 
are unknown. Only one specimen has as yet been found in close asso- 
ciation with a Goniatite; 3 and nothing is yet known for certain of any 
real opercula of Goniatites. Herr Kayser found and noticed the occurrence 
of a ' Spathiocaris ' in the body-chamber of a Goniatites intumescens from 
the Devonian of Nassau. Small fossils are very commonly met with in 
a similar position in the body-chambers of Goniatites and other Cephalo- 
pods, as also iu the cavities of various shells. 

Of the Phyllopodous forms under consideration we have some, like 
Discinocaris, which could not, on account of their shape in general, and 
the presence of the frontal piece in particular, have belonged to any 
Cephalopod, much less to Goniatites, even if it possessed an operculum, 
which is by no means proved. Next we have a large series of forms 
which occur in beds wherein no Goniatites have been found. Lastly, as 
is the case with specimens from Nassau, the Eifel, Hartz, and Petschora- 
land, some occur in beds containing Goniatites, but their outlines do 
not, even in these instances, correspond exactly with the apertures of 
the shells of such Cephalopods. 

As other Phyllopods, such as Estheria, are imbedded in Devonian 
rocks, it is not strange that these Phyllocarida should be there also. 

Whilst, however, we are far from denying that some forms, now 
associated with undoubted shield-bearing Fhyllopoda, may hereafter be 
shown to be Molluscan, we are certain that some have no relation to 
Mollusca ; and with regard to such cases as those in which there is any 
possibility of doubt, the oims probandi must rest with those who are dis- 
satis6ed with and do not accept our views regarding their affinities. 

We are the more strengthened in our opinion of the affinities of these 
palaeozoic Crustacean shields, because their ornamentation agrees Avith 
that of known Phyllopod carapaces, both in the minute, ridge-like, con- 

1 Calcareous and bipartite, Aptyehus; corneous and undivided, Anaptychus. 

"- See, for instance, Herr Dames' remarks in the Neues Jahrb.fiir Min. &c, 1884, 
vol. i. pp. 275-279. 

3 See Kayser, Zeitseh. d. deutseh. fjeol. Ges. xxxiv. 1S82 pp. 818, 819; and von 
Koenen, Nines Jahrb.fiir Min. &c, 1881, vol. i. pp. 45, 4(i. 



ON THE FOSSIL PIIYLLOPODA OF THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS. 77 

centric lines of growth, and, in some cases, in the delicate surface orna- 
ment between them. 

Another objection to the supposed Aptychus nature of many of these 
circular and ovate shields arises from the fact that they were not origi- 
nally flat discs or plates, as may be seen by examining a series from 
various localities. 

Thus Discinocaris Broivniana was in some degree convex, with a 
low conical apex ; Aspidocaris triasica was evidently conical, as may 
be seen by the split state of the outer rim, caused by the flatten- 
ing of the whole shield ; others, as Spathiocaris Emcrsonii and 
Lisgocaris Lutheri, had elevated subconical carapaces. Aptychopsis not 
unfrequently exemplifies the same condition and similar breakage. A 
median mark, caused by the depression of the central portion in 
Cardiocaris bipartite/, and 0. Koeneni, is also the result of flattening in a 
toughish subconical shield. Again, some of these carapaces were bent 
like a low ridge along the dorsum, as shown by Mr. J. M. Clarke's de- 
scription and tigure of Dipterocaris procne— all which conditions are com- 
patible with the nature of Phyllopods. 

Phyllopodoiis Shields figured by early observers (1832-1850). 

1. 1832—48. — One of the above-mentioned little fossils has been re- 
corded as ' Aptychus Icvvigatus (Goldfuss) ' in von Dechen's Gorman 
translation of De la Beche's ' Manual of Geology,' ' Handbuch der 
Geognosie,' 1832, p. 529 ; and it was entered in Bronn's ' Index 
Palaeontologicus,' 1848, vol. i. p. 90. As we know of no figure, we cannot 
offer an opinion as to its generic relationship. 

2. 1842. — The ' Aptychus vetustus ' of d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 
' Transactions Geol. Soc. London,' ser. 2, vol. vi. 1842, p. 343, pi. 26, f. 
9, found in the Devonian beds of the Eifel (rare), is one of these little 
apparently bivalved but really tripartite carapaces, with a front notch, 
and an open split at tlie hinder part of the median suture. If this latter 
feature be an original condition, as it seems, the species is referable to 
Dipterocaris. 

3. 1846.- — In 1846 A. von Keyserling gave figures and descriptions of 
some small Aptychus-like fossils in the ' Wissenchaft. Beobacht. Pets- 
chora-Land, Geogn. Beobacht.' p. 286, pi. 13, f. 3-7. These he referred 
to as being probably the Aptychi of Goniatites. The figures show no median 
line of suture ; and therefore, instead of looking like the more common 
Aptychopsis, they resemble the allied Discinocaris, with an undivided shield, 
and with a rounded or elliptical nuchal or cephalic notch. If this latter 
feature be real, we have a form here which comes near Ellipsocaris. One of 
his figures in particular (fig. 3) reminds us of this genus. 1 

4. 1850.— In the ' Palseontographica,' vol. iii. p. 28, pi. 4, fig. 18, 
F. A. Roemer described and figured his Aptychus dubius, from the Upper 
Devonian beds of the Hartz (Goniatite-limestone of the Kelwasserthal). 
M. Barrande in 1872 was inclined to refer it to Aptychopsis (' Syst, Sil. 
Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl. p. 456) ; Mr. J. M. Clarke thought it might be a 
Spathiocaris ; but we regard it as a Discinocaris. 

5. 1850. — In the same volume of the ' Palasontographica, ' iii. p. 88, 
t. 13, f. 13, P. A. Romer also illustrated what he regarded as an Aptychus 

1 We are informed that unfortunately these Kussian specimens cannot now bo 
found at St. Petersburg-. 



8 



KEFOliT — 1884. 



of a Goniatite, from the Goniatiteu-Kalk of Altenau, in the Hartz. In 
general appearance the figure ajDproaches Pholadocaris. 



Synoptical Plan op the Discinocapjda. 



Shield without a median 
dorsal suture. 
(Type, Discinocaris.') 

1. Posterior margin") 
entire and rounded. 
i. Cephalic notch | 
( = nuchal suture) j- 
angular 

1. Shield not. ridged | 

nor furrowed J 

2. Shield having ^ 

radiate furrows and .- 

ridges . . . ) 

ii. Cephalic notch ) 

rounded. . . I 

2. Posterior margin"] 
angular ; shield | 
with radiate ridges, j. 
Cephalic notch [ 
rounded . . ) 

S. Posterior margin in- \ 
dented ; cephalic 
notch angular . ) 

A. Posterior marginal 
deeply notched ; 
cephalic notch, 
angular . . . )■ 
A. Concentrically 
striate, like Disci- \ 
nocaris, &c. . .J 
b. Not concentrically 
striate. 

1. Test with radiate 

ornament 

2. Test smooth ; mi- 

nute 



notch broad 

i. DISCINOCARIS 



notch narrow 
ii. Spathiocabis 



iii. Piioi.Ai>oc.Yi:is 
iv. Elijpsocabis 

V. LlSGOCARIS 

vi. Cakdiocakis . 
vii. DirTEnocARis 



Shape or outline of Shield 
Species, (complete, and measured 

outside the notches). 
Brmrniana, duhia, lata circular. 



triasica 

s|i. now 

congener • . 
Emersonii 

V small form 

ungulina . 

Leeii . • • 
sp. nov. 

Dewalquei . . 
sp. nov. . . 

Lutltcri m • 



Itnemeri, hipariita 
Veneris, Koeneni 



pes-cervm, vetusta 
procne . • 
permm-dsedali . 
Etheridgei . 



oval. 

obovate. 

oblong. 

oblong. 

obovate. 

oval. 

cuneiform, 
obovate. 

oval, 
suboblong. 



subpentagonal. 



narrow obovate. 
broad obovate. 



obovate. 

subquadrate. 

suboblong. 

oval. 



viii. Pterocaris 
ix. Crescentilla 



bohemicu 
pugnax 



obovate. 
oblate. 



As in all other natural groups, it is difficult or impossible to arrive 
at a perfectly linear arrangement ; the order, therefore, in this plan of 
the Discinocarids does not quite correspond with that in the foregoing 
list of genera and species, which is followed in the descriptions. 

I. Discinocaris, H. Woodwai-cl, 18G6. 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxii. p. 503 ; and ' Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. 1866, p. 72. 

This Pliyllopod has a round, oval, ovate, or oblong shield, slightly 
•conical, without a median suture, but crossed anteriorly by an angular 
nuchal suture, often leaving a corresjjonding notch. Concentrically 
striate, like its congeners. 

1. Discinocaris Broivniana, H. Woodward, 1866. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxii, p. 504, pi. 25, figs. 4 and 7, andf. 5 side view, &c. ' Geol. 
Mag.' vol. iii. 1866, p. 72. 'Catal. W.-Scot. Fossils,' 1876, p. 7. 'Catal. 
Cambr. and Silur. Foss. Pract. Geol. Museum,' 1878, p. 28. ' Proceed. 
Belfast Nat. Field-Club,' 1877, Appendix, p. 122, &c, pi. 7, f. 25 a and 
25 c. 

This is a circular shield, 15 mm. in diameter. Slope of nuchal 
euture, 60° ; diameter of disk-shaped carapace, 7 lines ; width of nuchal 



ON THE FOSSIL FHYLLOrODA OF THE 1'AL.EOZOIC ROCKS. 79 

portion nearly one-sixth of the entire circumference. A larger specimen 
folded together probably measured 14 lines in diameter, ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxii. p. 504. 

Found in the Anthracitic Shales of the Moffat district, at Dobbs Linn, 
Dumfriesshire, and Garpoolburn, Moffat ; and in equivalent Silurian beds 
at Coalpit Bay, co. Down, Ireland. 

2. Discinocaris dubia (F. A. Roemer), 1850. Aptyhus dubius, F. A. 
Roemer ('Palfeontographica,' vol. iii. part 1, p. 23, t. 4, f. 18). Spathio- 
cans dubia, J. M. Clarke, ' Neues Jahrb. fiir Min.' &c, 1884, vol. i. pp. 
129 and 183. 

Nearly circular when perfect, but somewhat narrowed posteriorly, 
thus becoming short-obovate. Notch rather shallow. Originally about 
25mm. long, 24 mm. at the widest; slope of nuchal suture, 30°. Con- 
centric lines wide apart, as preserved, and otherwise obscure at the 
centre. This is referred by Mr. J. M. Clarke to his genus Spathiociiris. 

Roemer's specimen was found in the Goniatite-limestone of the 
Kelwasserthal, in the Hartz. 

3. Discinocaris lata (H. AVoodward), 1882. Cardiocaris lata, H. Wood- 
ward, ' Geol. Mag.,' Dec. 2, vol. ix. p. 388, pi. 9, fig. 13. Spathiocaris 
lata, Clarke,' Neues Jahrb. fiir Min.' &c, 1884, vol. i. p. 181, pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Shield broadly obovate, nearly circular, with broad and deep cephalic 
notch; not indented behind. If complete, it would be about 22 mm. 
loug, 18 mm. wide. Slope of notch-sides about r 45°. As far as the 
fig. 13 shows, this may be a Discinocaris. 

From Budesheim, in the Upper Devonian of the Eifel. 

In Mr. Clarke's paper this appears as having a round shield, slightly 
broader anteriorly than behind; with a wide notch reaching to the centre. 
Length (complete) about 19 mm. according to the figure, width 19 mm. 
Slope of notch uncertain, probably about 50°. 

Not rare in the Upper Devonian, at Bicken, near Herboi-n, in Nassau. 

4. Discinocaris triasica (Reuss), 1867. AspidocarU triasica, Reuss, 
'Sitzungsb. k. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' math.-nat. CI., vol. lv. 18G7, 
pp. 1 et seq. pi. O, f. 1-5. 

As Dr. Woodward has already intimated ('Geol. Mag.,' Dec. 2, vol. ix. 
p. 386), there is apparently no real difference between the late Dr. A. E. 
von Reuss's genus here mentioned, and Discinocaris, to which Reuss 
thought it to be closely allied. Reuss's specimens indicate, however, a 
different species. It was oval in outline, when perfect, and had a wide 
and deep notch, with its apex near the centre of the test. The dimen- 
sions of the fossils are somewhat increased by forcible depression of their 
original somewhat conical form : fig. 2, length about 36 mm., width 
about 29 mm. ; fig. 3, length about 25 mm., width about 19 mm. The 
slope of the nuchal suture is 40° in the fossils, but Dr. Reues was pro- 
bably right in restoring it at 50° (fig. 4). 

From the Raibl beds, near Hallstadt. 

5. Discinocaris sp. nov. 

In the Cambridge Museum we notice a PhyJlopodous test, broadly 
sagittate, or sharp-shovel-shaped, in its present state, the cephalic portion 
being absent. Originally obovate, with a narrow pointed posterior 
margin, it has been truncated in front by a nuchal suture of slight 
angularity, which has left a broad shallow re-entrant angle, with its apex 
reaching back about one-third of the shield's original length, and its 
sides reaching the margin almost before they run into the curve of- the 



80 REPORT— 1884. 

front border. Original length about 24 mm., width 15 nam. Slope of 
nuchal suture 30°. 

From the Coniston mudstone (Upper Silurian) of Skelgill Beck, 
near Ambleside, Westmoreland (at the lower foot-hridge). Collected by 
Mr. J. E. Marr, F.G.S. 

6. Discinocaris congener (Clarke), 1884. Spatlnoca.ris {Carcliocaris?) 
congener, Clarke, 'Neues Jahrb. fiir Min.' &c, 1884, vol. i. p. 183, pi. 
4, i. 5. 

This also seems to be a Discinocaris. Shield, when complete, elliptical- 
oblong ; in the fossil state deeply notched at the anterior end, leaving on 
each side a narrow tapering projection. Mr. Clarke says that the fossil 
is 14 mm. long and 8 mm. broad. The slope of the notch seems to be 
about 65°. 

From the Upper Devonian, at Bicken, near Herborn, Nassau. 

7. Discinocaris? gigas, H. Woodward, 1872, ' Geol. Mag.,' vol. ix. 
p. 564 ; ' Report Brit. Assoc' for 1872, 1873, p. 323. 

A sub-triangular fragment of a Phyllopodous shield, showing delicate, 
concentric, parallel lines, was referred in 1872 by Dr. H. Woodward to a 
Discinocaris, possibly ' 7 inches in diameter.' This was from the Moffat 
Graptolitic shale at Dobbs Linn, Dumfriesshire. It is in the British 
Museum ; also an oblong fragment with fine parallel lines. Some relics 
of body-rings, 45 mm. in transverse width, and varying from 5 to 10 mm. 
fore and aft, from the same beds at Ettrickbrigend, Selkirkshire, are 
in the same collection. 

At Cambridge two fragments of the same large kind of carapace are 
in the University Museum, from the Conistone mudstone of Skelgill 
Beck. Collected by Mr. J. E. Marr, F.G.S. 

Discinocaris. 

Discinocaris Browniana .... Lower or Middle Silurian. 

„ dubia (in Goniatite beds) . Upper Devonian, Hartz. 

„ lata „ . Upper Devonian, Eifel and Nassau. 

„ triasica Trias, Hallstadt. 

„ sp. nov. ..... Upper Silurian, Westmoreland. 

„ congener (in Goniatite beds) . Upper Devonian, Nassau. 

„ ? gigas Lower and Upper Silurian. 

II. SpATHioCARts, J. M. Clarke, 1882. • American Journ. Science,' ser. 3, 

vol. xxiii. p. 477, and vol. xxv. p. 120, and pp. 124, 125. ' Neues 

Jahrb. fiir Min.' Ac, 1884, vol. i. p. 181, &c. 

Judging from Mr. Clarke's description and figures, this Phyllopod 

seems to have an oblong or obovate, snbconical, patelloid shield, with a 

narrow anterior or cephalic notch (referred to as being posterior, loc. cit., 

but apparently as anterior in the 'Neues Jahrb.' loc. cit.), reaching back 

halfway along the shield, ornamented with concentric lines, and, in some 

specimens, with delicate radii also. In essential particulars this agrees 

with Discinocaris l (if regarded as described above) ; but its notch is 

peculiar, being very narrow. 

1 Mr. Clarke, at p. 478, comparing this form with Discinocaris, speaks of the wedge- 
shaped cleft as being analogous to the notch of the latter, but says that there is here 
no 'rostrum or plate acting as another valve to cover the cleft,' and he evidently 
regarded the notch as abdominal, somewhat like the posterior hollow in the shield of 
Ajnts, to allow of the protrusion of the abdomen {see also ' Amer. Journ. Science/ 
ser. 3, vol. xxv. p. 124). In the 'Neues Jahrb.' 1884, however, Mr. Clarke refers to 
the notch as being anterior, but figures it downward in the plate. 



ON THE FOSSIL THYLLOrODA OF THE PALEOZOIC EOCKS. 81 

1. Sp. Emersonii] Clarke, 1882. Op. cit. p. 477, pi. 0. fig. 1. 

This is elliptical-oblong, or elegantly oblong with rounded ends, one 
of which is parted by a narrow cleft. Length 42 mm. ; width 27 mm. by 
the figures. 

1a. Sp. Emersonii ('?), he. cit. f. 2. 

This is referred to as being a young form of the foregoing, but it i3 
obovate l (not oblong), and may be specifically distinct. Length. 12 mm. ; 
width 8 mm. 

Id. Sp. Emersonii (?), loc. cit. f. 3. 

This shows an elliptico-triangular shape, which may be due to im- 
bedment in the matrix, and resembles a lateral portion of an Aptychopsis, 
but it is regarded by Mr. Clarke as a folded Spathiocaris. 

(If belonging to the former, the shield, when complete, would have 
been about 40 mm. long and 40 mm. where widest; in shape obovate, 
with narrow, pointed posterior; and with a relatively shallow nuchal 
suture, sloping at 20°, and cutting off a broad cephalic portion.) 

Mr. Clarke has found many examples of Spathiocaris folded laterally 
(see 'Amer. Journ. Sci.' ser. 3, vol. xxv. p. 124). 

Spathiocaris Emersonii, as described in the 'Amer. Journ. Sci.' for 
June 1882, has been found by Mr. Clarke abundantly in some of the 
Devonian strata of New York State. In 1882 he had already obtained 
thirty specimens from a layer only a few inches thick ; they varied much 
in size, from a length of 4 mm. to GO mm. ; aud a fragment of a large 
individual, probably 80 or 90 mm. long, was met with. 

They occurred in these beds : — 

Chemung Group. — Chemung proper, Naples, Ontario co. ; Lower 
Chemung Sandstone, Canadice, Ontario co. 

Portage Group.— Upper Portage Sandstone, Wyoming co., Portage- 
ville ; Upper Black Band, Naples, Ontario co., and elsewhere ; Lower 
Black Band, Bristol, Ontario co. 

In the lower muddy shales the associates are the common fossils of the 
Portage rocks, including Goniatites complanatus, H. &c. In the bituminous 
shales of the ' Upper Black Band,' they occur with fish-remains (Palceo- 
niscus, &c), conodonts, annelidan teeth, plant-remains, and sporangia of 
cryptogams ; in the Chemung, in the lowest horizon, with Leiorhynchus 
mesacostalis, Hall : and in the upper only with Crustaceans allied to 
Spathiocaris, namely, Bipterocaris (op. cit. p. 121, &c.) 

2. Spathiocaris ungulina, J. M. Clarke, 1884. ' Neues Jahrb. fur Min.' 

&c, 1884, vol. i. p. 182, pi. 4, f. 4. 
An oval shield ; length (complete), judging by the figures, would be 
about 34 mm. ; width 26 mm. Cephalic notch narrow and deep, reaching 
nearly to the centre ; slope about 75°. Rare, Upper Devonian, from 
Bicken, near Herborn. Very closely allied to Biscinocaris. 

Spathiocaris. 

r Upper Devonian, New York State. 
Spathiocaris Emersonii A Wit T h T out Goniatites in the Chemung and 



' 1 Upper Portage Groups. 

It- 



_With Goniatites in the Lower Portage Group. 
ungulina, (in Goniatite bed) Upper Devonian, Nassau. 

If looked at, according to our plan, with the anterior end upwards. 

1884. _ 

it 



82 retort — 1884. 

III. Pholadocaris, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. ix. 

p. 388. 

The shield of this Phyllopod is peculiar, and is described in careful 
detail, Joe. tit. Its main features are that two furrows radiate from the 
centre backwards, enclosing a narrow triangular space, marked with 
parallel radiating lines. Radiating and concentric lines ornament the 
lateral portions of the cai-apace. In front of the centre two slightly 
raised elliptical ridges enclose a small space behind the apex of the large 
V-shaped nuchal suture, and in the fig. 16 remind us of the two forward 
ridges iu Lisgocaris ; whilst the two furrows behind feebly represent its 
posterior ridges. 

1. Pholadocaris Lceii, H. W\, 1882. Loc. tit. pi 9. f. 16. 

The only specimen described with the above characteristics has a 
triangular-obovate, or nearly cuneiform shield ; broadly rounded in front 
(when complete) ; narrow and rounded behind. Complete, about 34 mm. 
long ; 16 mm. broad at the widest part. Rostral piece about 10 mm. 
long, and 10 mm. wide in front ; slope of notch about 60°. From the 
Upper Devonian of Biidesheim in the Eifel. 

2. Pholadocaris, sp. Aptyclms of a Goniatite, F. A. Roemer. ' Palaeon- 
tographica,' vol. iii. 1850, p. 88, pi. 13, fig. 13. 

This neat figure of an obovate, notched, concentrically marked, black, 
filmy fossil from the Goniatiten-Schichten of Altenau, in the Hartz, would 
serve for some Discinocaris, if it were not that the posterior portion is 
marked with a dark (sunken) elongate-triangular space, beginning behind 
the centre and widening out slowly to the posterior margin. Altogether 
we may take the figure to represent an ill-preserved Pholadocaris, neatly, 
but possibly not quite correctly, drawn. 

Pholadocaeis. 

Pholadocaris Lceii, (in Goniatite bed) .... Eifcl. 



sp- 



Hartz. 



IY. Lisgocakis, J. M. Clarke, 1882. 'Amer. Journ. Science,' ser. 3, 
vol. xxiii. p. 478, pi. O, fig. 5 ; vol. xxv. p. 124. 

This also belongs to the group of fossil Phyllopods which have 
shields without a median dorsal suture. It has concentric lines of 
growth also, following the marginal contour of the test. 

The difference between this and Discinocaris is that it has a rounded 
or elliptically cut cephalic notch (if looked at as we regard it, instead of 
posterior or abdominal, as at p. 478, op. cit.) Its outline is symmetrically 
subpentagonal. Three ridges leave the apex or centre of the shield, one 
central and one on each side, and radiate to the hinder margin, which 
they stretch out, as it were, into three points, with two intervening 
concave spaces. In front two low ridges pass away obliquely forward 
and outward from the centre, and between them is the long, narrow, 
round-ended cephalic notch, the shape of which is distinctive. 

1. Lisgocaris LutJieri, Clarke, 1882 (he. cif.), is the only described 
species, and exhibits the features above-given. Its figure is about 40 mm. 
long and 30mm. wide; cephalic notch 10mm. wide at its entrance, 
17 mm. long, and not narrowing very much before it begins to curve 
round at its apex. 



ON THE FOSSIL niYLLOPODA OF THE PALJEOZOIC HOCKS. 83 

From the base of the ' Hamilton Group' of strata, in Ontario County, 
Western New- York State. 

Subsequently Mr. Clarke expressed his wish to include Lisgocaris 
with Spathiocaris {op. cit. p. 124), because he was certain they agreed in 
having no median suture ; and he thought that neither of them had the 
rostral piece so often present in Discinocaris and Peltocaris — we may add 
Aptychopsis and Gardiocaris also. In this view we do not coincide ; and 
we think that Spathiocaris and Lisgocaris, owing to the form of the 
cephalic notch, may be distinct from each other and from Discinocaris, as 
far as the value of that feature goes, but that, having no median suture, 
they are very closely allied to that genus. There are Goniatites in the 
'Hamilton Group' of strata from one of which Lisgocaris was obtained. 

V. Ellipsocaeis, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Annales Soc. Geol. Belgique,' 
vol. viii. 1882, Memoire No. 4, p. 45 ; ' Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. ix. 
1882, p. 444. 

Shield or carapace without a median suture, and with a curved nuchal 
suture. As Discinocaris corresponds with Aptychopsis in having an 
angular nuchal suture, so Ellipsocaris corresponds with Peltocaris in 
its rounded nuchal suture. See the remarks and woodcuts figs. 1-4, 
loc. cit. 

1. Ellipsocaris Deivalquei, H. Woodward, 1882. Loco citato and 

woodcut fig. 4. 

Shield elongate-oval ; nuchal suture semi-oval, not reaching to the 
centre of the shield ; the lateral projections bordering the rostral piece 
in front are necessarily curved, tapering, and sharp, like flat horns. 
Complete, the carapace would be a.bout 52 mm. in length ; width 24 mm. 
The rostral piece may have been about 15 mm. long, by 12 mm. wide. 

A most interesting feature of this species is its ornament, not con- 
sisting merely of numerous fine concentric lines of growth, but retaining 
the delicate interlinear cross-bars and minute transverse wrinkles seen 
in Esther ia, ' Geol. Mag.' loc. cit. p. 445. 

From the Upper Devonian of Comblain-la-Tour, Province of Liege. 

2. Ellipsocaris, sp., 'Opercula of Goniatites,' A. von Keyserling ; 'Wissen- 
schaftliche Beobachtungen auf einer Reise in das Petschora-Land 
in Jahre 1843 ; ' ' Geognostische Beobachtungen,' 184G, p. 286, pi. 13, 
figs. 3-7 (see above, p. 3). 

Figs. 3, 5, and 7 have a more or less oval outline, which, with the 
rounded notch, is suggestive of Ellipsocaris Dewalquei. Figs. 4 and 
are more obovate in their complete outline. Fig. 3 is 19 mm. long, by 
12 mm. wide ; fig. 7, 7f mm. by 4 - 8 mm. ; fig. 4, 11 mm. long by 9 mm. 
wide. 

In the Devonian (Domanik) beds of Petschora-land. 

Ellipsocaeis. 

Ellipsocaris Deivalquei (with Goniatites ?).... Belgium. 

„ sp. (in Goniatite beds) .... Petschora-land-. 

YI. Caediocaris, H. Woodward, 1882. 'Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. ix. 

p. 386. 

Shield obovate, usually elongate, sometimes short ; contracted in the 

g 2 



84 kepokt— 1884. 

posterior third, notched deeply in front in the fossil state by loss of the 
rostral portion; more or less truncate, and often indented posteriori}-. 
This modification of the posterior extremity is regarded by Mr. J. M. 
Clarke as of only specific value ; but with us it constitutes the difference 
between Cardiocaris and Diseinocaris, and the indentation leads us to the 
cleft posterior margin of Dipterocaris. 

1. Cardiocaris Boemeri, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Geo!. Mag.' Dec. 2, 
vol. ix. p. 386, pi. 9, figs. 1-7. 

Shield long-obovate, slipper-like. Cephalic portion narrow-triangular, 
about 15 mm. long in a shield 40 mm. long. Good specimen 35 mm. long 
(about 45 mm. when complete), 20 mm. in greatest breadth. Fragment 
of larger shield, probably once 65 mm. long and 40 mm. wide. Another 
may have been 50 mm. broad and 30 mm. wide. Some small (young) 
forms, one of them not more than 6 mm. long and 4 mm. broad, are also 
figured. Slope of nuchal suture at about 60°. In one small specimen 
the cephalic portion is preserved in place (op. cit. p. 387 and f. 5). The 
presence of this little frontal piece is quite antagonistic to the adaptability 
of Cardiocaris as an operculum to a Goniatite. 

Upper Devonian oi the Eifel, at Budesheim, between Gerolstein and 
Priim. 

2. Cardiocaris Upartita, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, 
vol. ix. pp. 383, 388, pi. 8, figs. 14 and 15. 

One of those (f. 14) is much like C. Boemeri in shape, but is said to 
have a dorsal sutui'e, in which case it ought to be placed in or near 
Aptychopsis ; probably, however, the dorsal line was merely the mark of 
an imperfect fold or break along the middle (as in Mr. Clarke's figure of 
Spathiocaris Koeneni, ' Neues Jahrb.' 1884 v °l *■ pi- 4, f. 1). The side- 
margins are rather less convex than in C. Boemeri, and the hinder end, 
which is indented, is proportionally broader. Complete, it may have been 
27 mm. long, by 15 mm. wide. Angle of nuchal notch, 60°. 

In shape, f. 15 (which is imperfect posteriorly) differs from f. 14 ; it 
seems to be more oval, and is certainly more deeply notched in front 
than f. 14. It was probably 32 mm. long, when complete ; 17 mm. wide. 

Both the specimens were found in the Upper Devonian at Budesheim, 
between Gerolstein and Priim, in the Eifel. 

3. Cardiocaris Veneris, H. Woodward, 1882. ' Geol. Mag.' 1882, p. 387, 

pi. 8, figs. 8-12. 
Shield relatively broader and shorter than C. Boemeri, and consider- 
ably wider in front than behind. The cephalic notch is also relatively 
broader. Dr. Woodward gives the following measurements : — 

Length (complete), about 30 mm. ; greatest breadth, 23 mm. 

20 „ „ 15 

j> » 1 J » )> 10 

The angle of the slope of the nuchal furrow is uncertain ; it varies in 
different specimens, according to the result of pressure and disturbance, 
40° and 45°, 45° & 55°, and 60° and 65°. 

4. Cardiocaris Koeneni (Clarke), 1844. 

Spathiocaris Koeneni, Clarke, ' Neues Jahrb. fiir Min.' &c, 1884, vol. i. 
p. 182, pi. 4, f. 1. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOrODA OF THE TAL.EOZOIC ROCKS. 85 

A broadly obovate shield, when complete and looked at -with an- 
terior margin placed upwards. The fossil is broadly cordate in its 
present condition, having a wide and rather shallow cephalic notch. It 
is truncate behind, along the middle of the posterior margin, with a line 
(sinuons by unequal pressure probably) equal in length to half the 
width of the carapace. The figured specimen has the dorsum bent in 
along a median line, but not sutured. According to the figure the 
length (complete) would be about 48 mm. ; width where broadest 49 mm. 
Nuchal suture sloping at 40°. Five specimens, Upper Devonian, Bicken, 
near Herborn. The largest example (Mr. Clai-ke says) measures 45 mm. 
from the apex of the notch to the posterior margin, and 55 mm. broad. 
The fossils mostly measure about 33 mm. long, and about 45 mm. broad. 
He regards Spath. Koeneni as a link between Spathiocaris and Cardiocaris ; 
but the truncation of the posterior margin puts it with Cardlocaris, and 
its wide notch is strange to Spathiocaris. 

Cardiocaris. 

Cardiocaris Roemeri ~\ f Biideslieim"| 

,, tripartita \ ■ n . ... . , J Biidesheim , T ^ . _ 

r/ . > in Goniatite oecls •< r, .. ! , ■ >Lpper Devonian. 
„ venerrs I Budesheim ( 1 1 

„ Koeneni J (^Bicken J 

VII. Dipterocaris, J. M. Clarke, 1883. 'Amer. Journ. Science,' ser. 3, 

vol. xxv. f. 121. 

A variety of fossil Phyllopodous shields, oval or orate in general 
outline ; but this is interrupted by two notches of varying width and 
depth, one in front and one behind. The anterior or nuchal notch is 
angular, and analogous to that in Discinocaris, Aptychopsis, Sfc. ; the other 
varies from a mere split to a broad open A-shaped notch. The shield 
seems to consist of one piece, and was probably ridge-like to some extent, 
but occasionally pressure has caused the median line to be specially 
depressed, or otherwise affected, so as to look like the place of a suture. 
The shields have concentric lines of growth for ornament. 

1. In Dipterocaris pes-cervce, J. M. Clarke, op. cit. p. 123, figs. 4, 5, 
the front notch is open, with its outer width almost equal to one of its 
sides. The hinder notch is very narrow, and reaches up half the length 
of the shield. Lower Chemung sandstone ; Canadice, Ontario co., New 
York State. 

2. Aptychus vetustus, dArchiac and de Yerneuil, 1842, ' Trana. Geol. 
Soc' ser. 2, vol. vi. p. 343, pi. 26, f. 9, from the Devonian rocks of the 
Eifel, is a Dipterocaris, with a very broad, angular frontal notch, and a 
narrow hinder split. 

3. Dipterocaris procne, J. M. Clarke, op. cit. p. 122, figs. 2 & 3, has the 
two notches both wide and deep. It is ridgelike in its dorsal bend. 

Middle Chemung (sandstone) ; Hoskinsville, Ontario co., New York 
State. 

4. D. pen7i03-dcedali, J. M. Clarke, op. cit. p. 123, f. 1, has the notches 
large and deep and nnequal, leaving only a small isthmus near the 
centre to unite the lateral portions. Lower Chemung ; Dansville, Living- 
stone co., New York State. 

5. These characters — small isthmus, deep notch, and large latei-als, are 
present also in figure 21, of Plate 14, in the ' Fossils of Girvan,' 1880, 
and regarded as an undetermined Phvllopod at p. 212. The specimen 



8G REPORT 188-1. 

was from the Lower Silurian of Penwhapplc Burn, near Grirvan, Ayr- 
shire ; and we wish to give it the name of Dipterocaris Etkeridgei, in com- 
pliment to Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., who has worked so well among the 
palaeozoic Phyllopods and other fossils. 

Whether or no the hinder cleft in Dipterocaris was ever occupied by 
a triangular piece, lost after death, we cannot say. No direct evidence 
supports the idea that there was a portion of the test filling in this 
posterior notch ; but the elongate triangle defined by the radiating 
furrows in Pholadocaris Leeii, and by ridges (?) in Ph. sp. (F. A. 
Roemer's 'Aptychus'), seems to be an analogous feature. On the other 
hand, the posterior notch in Dipterocaris may have had reference to the pro- 
trusion of the abdominal somites, as suggested by Mr. J. M. Clarke, ' Amer. 
Journ. Sci.' 3, vol. xxv. p. 124. Mr. Clarke, Joe. cit., considers it pro- 
bable that the anterior cleft was also permanently open, for the convenient 
protrusion of the cephalic appendages ; bat analogy with other Phyllo- 
carida, and especially the abrupt termination of the concentric lines of 
growth on the edges of the notch (as if the lines were continued on a 
cephalic piece, as in allied forms), are our reasons for retaining the 
views we have already expressed. 

DlPTEROCAEIS. 

JDvpterocaris pes-cervai Without Goniatites. Upper Devonian, New York State. 

„ vetusta With „ „ „ Hartz. 

„ proene "1 f „ „ New York State. 

„ pe/mce-desdaU l Without „ < „ „ ,, ,, 

„ Etheridgei J |_ Lower Silurian, Scotland. 

VIII. PTEEOCAEIS, Barrande, 1872. PL bohemica, Barr. ' Syst. Silur. 
Boheme,' vol. i. Supplem. p. 464, pi. 25, figs. 25, 26. 

A single specimen (a cast) of this interesting form has been carefully 
described by M. J. Barrande in detail. Its apparent relationship to 
Aptychopsis and other fossil Phyllopods is pointed out ; its anterior, 
triangular, apparently fixed, rostral piece, and its open and deep posterior 
cleft, are described and figured, together with the radiate ornament of 
the lateral pieces of this cast. The fossil is flat. Broadly obovate in 
outline (outside the notch). Length 12 mm., width about 12 mm. 

In general shape Pterocaris corresponds with Dipterocaris, and indeed 
exhibits the cephalic or rostral piece, which has been lost from the other 
specimens known. The ornamentation, however, as preserved on the 
cast (apparently of the inner or lower side) is peculiar, being strice 
radiating from a straight line which reaches along the greatest length of 
each wing or lateral piece, and is parallel to the median line of the 
isthmus ; or rather the striae look as if they would converge centrally on 
the isthmus, if they were not interrupted by the longitudinal line on each 
wing. In Dipterocaris the ornamental lines are concentric with the 
isthmus. 

From the quartzite of D d 2 (Lower Silurian = Llandeilo and 
Caradoc) at Mount Drabow, with Gary on bohemicum, Zonozoe, 2 spp., 
and Cytheropsis testis. 

The last-mentioned fossil is an internal cast apparently, as M. 
Barrande suggests, of some half-shut Entomostracan bivalve ; side-view 
elongate, subelliptical, with a straight dorsal edge and neatly rounded 



ON THE FOSSIL PIIYLLOrODA OF TI1E PALAEOZOIC ROCKS. 87 

cuds. The edge-view of (lie cast is like a half-opened bivalve carapace, 
with a definite strong anterior notch and a small weak posterior indenta- 
tion between the ends of the valves. 

Cytheropsis is not a good generic term ; but we cannot offer any 
additional information on this peculiar form. 

Zonozoe complexa and Z. Braboivensis (op. cit. p. 554, &c.) may 
possibly prove to be symmetrical opercula of some shells. 

M. Barrande's Cryptoearis ( op. cit. pp. 459, &c.) was placed by him 
next to Aptychopsis with considerable doubt. We incline to the belief 
that most of the examples of this little form correspond with opercula of 
Gasteropods, and thns are comparable with such fossils as Peltarion, 
which is now known to be the opercule of a N&ritopsis, We may suggest 
also that some of the forms referred to Cryptoearis have a distant like- 
ness to the opercula of such Corals as GfoniophyUwrn, &c. 

IX. Crescextilla, Barrande, 1S72. Crescentillapugnax,Ji9,Tr. ' Syst. Sil. 

Boheme,' vol. i. Supplem. p. 507, pi. 26, figs. la-i. 

Placed among the doubtful Entomostracan forms by our late friend 
Barrande, this curious little fossil seems to us to fall into its natural 
grouping near Pterocaris and Dipterocaris, for it is open behind, and, 
though found in separate pai-ts, it was also found with sides united, and 
it may have been sutured along the very short line of junction which the 
shape of its laterals allowed. 

If we look at M. Barrande's fig. 1 b in a position reversed (upside 
down) to that in which it is di*awn, we shall readily observe that the two 
reniform lateral pieces, meeting at their convex borders, have the charac- 
teristic triangular cephalic piece at one end, and an open notch at the 
other, just as in Pterocaris. The shape, however, of the nearly semi- 
circular or short-reniform laterals, with their outside crescent points, 
makes them markedly distinct. The test, apparently smooth, and faintly 
convex, has been replaced by iron-oxide. It is minute, being only a little 
more than 1 mm. in fore and aft measurement, by about 2 mm. across. 
Specimens were found in Etage d ; some in d 2, near Trubsko ; most in 
d 3, near Trubin : a few in d 4, near Chrustenitz, and d 5, near Koenigshof . 

' Thus,' says M. Barrande, ' this species ranges nearly throughout the 
Quartzites D, c to d of the Faune seconde.' 

X. Aptychopsis, Barrande, 1872. ' Syst. Sil. Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl. 

pp. 436, 455 ; and H. Woodward, 1872, ' Greol. Mag.' vol. ix. 
p. 564 ; « Report Brit. Assoc, for 1872, 1873,' p. 323. 

A circular or elliptical, slightly convex, tripartite shield or carapace ; 
divided by a median ' dorsal ' suture extending from the posterior margin 
forward to within half, or a third, or a fifth, of the length of the test, accord- 
ing to the shape of the latter, and then meeting the apex of a symmetrical 
V-shaped suture, which extends to the front margin at different angles in 
different species. This angular (' nuchal ') suture forms a line of much 
weaker resistance than the longitudinal suture ; and the carapace has 
very frequently given way after the death of the animal, and allowed the 
triangular (' rostral ' or ' cephalic ') portion to be removed, together with 
the anterior limbs and soft parts of the animal, as suggested by Dr. H. 



88 EEroRT— 1884. 

Woodward. 1 Thus an angular notch is often present in the forepart of 
the fossil carapace. The median suture has often been pressed inwards, 
but more frequently it has parted, leaving the two larger parts of the test 
separate. These remain as subtriangular plates, straight-edged but 
angular on the inner margin, and either elliptically curved or almost 
semicircular on the outer or free borders. They occur usually as black 
carbonaceous films on the bed-planes of the strata ; but sometimes they 
have a somewhat corneous or chitinous appearance. 

A concentric linear ornament covers the whole shield ; numerous 
delicate ridges and furrows, following the curve of the outer margin, 
converge and are concentric at the point where the dorsal and nuchal 
sutures meet, at or in front of the centre of the test. The style of orna- 
ment is similar to that of the bivalve Estheria, which shows a neat 
arrangement of raised lines of growth, concentric with the umbones. 
In the case of Elli-psocaris, even the interlinear sculpturing is present. 
(' Geol. Mag.' Oct. 1862, p. 4i5.) If the two valves of Estheria be laid 
open, their surface would represent the shield of Aptycltopsis ; the open 
angle then formed by their anterior margins would be analogous to the 
nuchal notch ; and for that of their hinder margins we may find an 
analogue in the split posterior border of Dipterocaris and other forms 
allied to Discinocaris and Aptychop>si$. 

1. Aptychopsis prima, Barrande, 1872, and var. Secunda. ' Parallcle 
entre la Boheme et la Scandinavie,' 1856, p. 62. ' Svst. Sil. 
Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl. 1872, p. 457, t. 33, figs. 1-21. Roemer, 
'Leth. Geogn.' 1876, t. 19, f. 3a, Zb (after Barrande). 

This includes, according to M. Barrande, both round and somewhat 
obovate forms of the tripartite shield-like test, which both Barrande and 
H. Woodward termed Aptychojms independently in the same year (1872). 

Among the figures on plate 33 of Syst. Sil. Boheme,' vol. i. Supplem. 
circular forms are represented by figs. 1-8, 12-18, 20, and 21 ; and more 
or less obovate tests by figs 9-11 and 19. 

In the British Museum (Natural History) are some specimens labelled 
by M. Barrande many years ago, as ' Aptychus ? primus ' and ' Aptychus ? 
secundus.'' The former were decidedly obovate forms, when perfect, with 
the two lateral moieties and the frontal (cephalic or rostral) in place ; and 
the latter (when perfect) were nearly or quite round. Evidently our 
deceased friend had decided to group the two kinds together, by the time 
he published the Supplemental volume of his great work treating of these 
Phyllopods. The circular shields found in Bohemia are chiefly from the 
schistose or slaty mudstone of Borek, with some from Litohlow and 
Kozel — all in Etage 'Eel'; and the ovate or obovate forms come from 
the same geological origin, but in limestone at other localities, as 
Butowitz, Slawick, and Wohrada, and rare at Kozel. 

We think that it will be advisable to distinguish the two forms, by 
regarding one of them as varietal. Keeping M. Barrande's specific term 
Aptycliopsis prima, because his extensive series of specimens gave him 
reason to regard the majority as being rather longer in the fore and aft 
diameter than in the transverse direction, and therefore not essentially 
circular, we may look upon the elongate and decidedly obovate forms as 

1 Quart, Jour. Geol. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 504 ; and Geol. Mag. Dec. 2, vol. is. p. 387. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOrODA OF THE PAL-EOZOIC ROCKS. 89 

typical, and know them as AptijcJwpsis prima, about 25 mm. long by 
20 mm. in width ; and with the nuchal suture at an angle of 50°. Two 
specimens in the British Museum (Natural History) in limestone from 
Butowitz, and labelled ' Aptychus ? primus,' belong to this form ; also figs. 
9-11 and 19 in pi. 33 of the ' Sil. Syst. Boheme,' &c. ; and two small 
round individuals labelled ' Aptychus ? secundus ' (15 mm. in each 
diameter ; nuchal suture with slope of 40°), in shaley mudstone from 
Borek, belong to the varietal form, Aptychopsis prima, Barrande, var. 
secunda. 

M. Barrande included with doubt another form in this genus — namely, 
his Apiychopsis ? ivjiata, ' Syst. Sil. Bohem.' vol. i. Suppl, p. 459, pi. 33. 
figs. 22, 23. But this seems to be an Entomis, and may stand as Entomis? 
■inilata (Barrande), from the hills between Lodenitz and Bubowitz, 
Etage E e 2. 

There are no Goniatites in ' Etage E,' representing the lower part of 
the ' Fauna III.,' which is equivalent to the Upper Silurian. There are, 
however, some Goniatites (five species), rather higher up, in ' Etage F,' 
which is in the middle part of ' Fauna III.' 

M. Barrande's careful and elaborate account of what was known of 
Apiychopsis up to 1872 is almost sufficient in every respect. See the 
' Syst. Sil. Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl. 1872, p. 455. 

In the Sixth Report on Fossil Crustacea to the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, in 1872, Dr. Henry Woodward defined 
some Phyllopodous species and grouped them under the same name (inde- 
pendently arrived at) as M. Barrande proposed in the same year (see 
above). See also Dr. H. Woodward's note on Peltocaris, Discinocaris, and 
Apiychopsis in Nicholson and Etheridge's ' Fossils of the Girvan District,' 
1880, pp. 210, 211. 

M. Barrande (op. cit. p. 455) states that Aptychopsis had been found 
by Professor Angelin in Dalecarlia and Gothland in Upper Silurian strata 
at about the same horizon as that in which they occur in Bohemia. We 
cannot, however, learn of the existence of any Scandinavian specimens. 

2. Aptychopsis Wilsoni, H. Woodward, 1872. ' Sixth Report on Fossil 
Crustacea — Report British Association for 1872, 1873,' p. 323 ; 
' Geo!. Mag.' vol. ix. 1872, p. 565. 

This species has a discoidal shield, and was briefly described, in 1872, 
as having a straight (not circular) nuchal suture (making a triangular 
cephalic plate) and a well-marked median or dorsal suture, and as mea- 
suring Hmck in length, by If inch across. There are three specimens 
of Aptychopsis Wilsoni in the British Museum, and they would probably 
be almost round in outline if quite perfect. They are from the Riccarton 
beds (Upper Silurian), at Shankend, Slitrig Water, near Hawick; Gad's 
Linn, near Hawick ; and Elliottsfield, near Hawick, Dumfriesshire. 

We may add that the cephalic notch is not so deep as in some allied 
forms ; its apex was about one-third of the length of the median suture 
from the front edge of the shield. The usual concentric lines are apparent 
on some specimens. 

One large specimen would measure 40 mm. in each diameter if com- 
plete ; its nuchal suture slopes 40°. Another specimen (imperfect) 
measures 30 mm. across, and has a nuchal slope of 60°; difference of 
pressure has caused this discrepancy. 



90 REPOBT 1884. 

3. Aptychopsis LapwortJd, H. Woodward, 1872. ' Sixth Report on 
Fossil Crustacea,' in 'Report Brit. Assoc, for 1872, 1873,' p. 323; 
' Geol. Mag.' vol ix. 1872, p. 565 ; ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. 
xxxiv. 1878, p. 331. 

This Pbyllopod shield was also briefly described by Dr. H. Woodward 
at the same time and in the same Report with the foregoing. It is oval, 
8 lines long by 7 broad (1 line = -jVinch). It is concentrically striate in 
most of the examples preserved, and in one case it retains the cephalic 
plate. The best specimen has this plate in place, but the several parts 
and the edges of the notch have been slightly damaged and disturbed by 
pressure, so that its angularity is somewhat modified. This is from the 
Birkhill Shales in Eldinhope Burn on the Yarrow, Selkirkshire. This 
division of the upper part of the Moffat Shales ' is regarded as equivalent 
to the lower part of the Middle Silurian (Lower Llandovery). Another 
specimen in the British Museum is from the Birkhill Shales at Sund- 
liope Burn, in the same neighbourhood, and another from the Grieston 
Shales of the Gala Group, at Inverleithen, above the Moffat Group, and 
equivalent to the upper part of the Middle Silurian. A good specimen 
measures 17 mm. long by 14 mm. broad. Another appears to have been 
23 mm. long by 18 mm. wide. The angle of the nuchal suture may have 
been about 50°. 

A specimen of Aptycliopsis very similar to, if not identical with, 
Aptychopsis Lapworihi, is in the University Museum, Cambridge, from 
the Lower- Wenlock beds of Rebecca Hill, Ulverstone. It is labelled 
' Peltocaris anatina, Salter,' and is referred to under that name in the 
'Catal. Cambridge Fossils, &c.,' 1873, p. 93. The frontal notch is 
angular, the median sutural line is raised along the depressed shield, and 
concentric stria? are present. 

In another specimen in the same Museum, the test has been narrowed 
by lateral pressure, acting obliquely across the long axis of the shield, as 
is indicated by imperfect cleavage-planes crossing the modified test at 
an angle of about 60°. The frontal notch has been narrowed, its sides 
made unequal, and its apex somewhat rounded. 

This specimen is from Skelgill Beck ; collected by Mr. Marr, F.G.S. 

What seems to be a similar example or a modified Aptychopsis, 
squeezed into an even narrower and more lanceolate shape, has been 
figured by Mr. James Dairon in the ' Transactions of the Geological 
Society of Glasgow,' vol. vii. pi. 7, fig. 35, and referred to in the 
Explanation of the plate as ' Discinocaris Broivniana, var. ovalis, Dairon.' 

All the little Phyllopod tests figured in this plate 7 are termed 
' Discinocaris Broivniana ' by Mr. Dairon ; but they appear to belong to 
other genera. Fig. 29 looks like Peltocaris aptychoides. Figs. 31 and 
34 are round shields of probably A. glabra, H.W. Fig. 35 seems to be 
a specimen of either A. Lapivorthi or A. glabra much narrowed by 
pressure ; but it may be otherwise. Figure 32 is a discoidal Aptychopsis, 

1 The classification of the successive formations in the Moffat district and vicinity 
has been worked out by Frofessor Lapworth, see Geol. Mag. vol. ix. 1874, pp. 533-530 ; 
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. 1878, pp. 240-34G ; aud Proceed. Belfast Xat. 
Field-Club, ser. 2, vol. i. part 4, Appendix IV. 1878; also Catal. Western- Scottish 
Fossils, by Armstrong, Young-, and Robertson, 1876, p. 24. Although numerous 
Phyllopod shields have been met with, no Goniatites have been recorded from these 
beds. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC EOCKS. 91 

bat it is rather wider than long (oblately circular), and it has a very 
wide and deep notch. 

4. Aptychopsis glabra, H. "Woodward, 1S72. ' Sixth Report on Fossil 
Crustacea, Report Brit. Assoc, for 1872,' p. 323 ; ' Geol. Mag.' vol. x. 
(1872) p. 565. 

This is an almost circular shield when perfect, ' about 7 lines ( , 7 _, 
inch) in diameter,' with a wide and deep notch, and concentricallv 
marked. It is like A. Wilsoni in general appearance, but is smaller and 
different in proportions, having a relatively larger notch. It is also near 
to the discoidal forms of A. prima, Barrande (var. secunda). It is from 
the Buckholm beds of the Gala group, Meigle, Galashiels, Dumfries. 
About 18 mm. in diameter ; nuchal suture sloping at an angle of 50°. 

It may be the same as Gucullelia angulata, Baily, ' Explan. Sheet 135, 
Geol. Surv. Ireland,' 1860, p. 13, fig. 4 (woodcut). From the Lower 
Silurian; Cloncannon, co. Tipperary. 

Specimens closely resembling A. glabra have been noticed and figured 
by Mr. Dairon in the ' Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow,' vol. vii. (1883), 
p. 177, pi. 7, figs. 31 and 34, from the Moffat Shales. 

5. Aptychopsis, sp. 

A single lefthand portion of the shield of an Aptycliopsis in black 
shale is preserved in the British Museum, unfortunately without locality, 
which may belong to a distinct species. It has the usual elliptico- 
triangular shape of these separate moieties, but it is relatively broad in 
front, with its anterior angle rounded, and the slope of the nuchal suture 
is at about 35°, which makes a low wide cephalic notch. It has delicate 
concentric lines, and very delicate radiating rugula? (besides radiate lines 
due to breakage under pressure). It measured, when perfect, about 27 
by 25 mm. 

6. Aptychopsis, sp. 

In the Museum of Practical Geology, London, are five specimens of an 
Aptychopsis, from the Cambrian slaty or schistose strata (known as 
Tremadoc Slates) at Garth, near Portmadoc, North Wales. They consist 
of elliptico-triangular moieties of an ohovate Aptychopsis shield in different 
states of preservation. The apex of the notch is above the centre of the 
test (unless altered bj pressure), and its slope is at about 50°. The out- 
line of the whole tripartite shield would be broad-obovate. Concentric lines 
are faintly marked. The shape was probably (when perfect) broader than 
the long forms of Barrande's A. prima. It approaches A. Lapivorthi also 
in outline, but it is not quite so full in the posterior curve, though larger 
altogether — probably 32 mm. long by 30 mm. broad. 

7. Aptychopsis Salter!, H. Woodward, 1882. 'Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, 

vol. ix. p. 389, t. 9, fig. 17. 

This distinctly marked species had an ovate outline when perfect, 
broadest in the hinder half: nuchal suture sloping at about 45°, its apex 
reaching back a little more than a fourth of the whole length of the test. 
Length about 35 mm., width 26 mm. 

Upper Silurian (Wenlock Shale), at Pencarreg, Caermarthenshire, 
South "Wales. 



92 REPORT— 1884. 

8. Aptychopsis, sp. 

In the University Museum at Cambridge is a small discoidal Aply- 
chopsis (labelled ' A. anatina '), which is subcircular or oblately circular 
(that is, transversely oval, with a broad elliptical contour). It is rather 
convex ; the sutural line remains raised along the somewhat depressed 
surface ; and perhaps the test is now rather broader than at first, but not 
far from the original size and shape. Concentric parallel lines ornament 
the surface ; nuchal suture at an angle of about 60° ; the notch occupying 
about a third of the length of the shield, which was 20 mm. long by 
26 mm. in width. 

Collected by Mr. Marr, F.G.S., in the Brathny (Lower Coniston) 
Flags, at Nanny Lane, Troutbeck, Windermere. 

A similar form from Moffat has been figured by Mr. James Dairon in 
the ' Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow,' vol. vii. part 1, 1883, pi. 7, f. 32. 

There is a somewhat similar oblately circular Aptychopsis in the British 
Museum, from the Gala Group, Gala Hill, Galashiels ; but it is smaller, 
and has a relatively larger notch. It seems to have been 9 mm. in length 
(fore and aft), and 12 mm. wide. The slope of the nuchal suture is 
about 50°, and the notch reaches half-way down the test : this, however, 
has suffered considerable vertical pressure. 







Geological 




Shape 


horizon 


Aptychopsis. 






1. A. prima, Barrande 


Obovate 


Upper Silurian 


1*. A. prima, var. seounda . 


Hound 


Upper Silurian 


2. A. Wilsoni, H. W. 


Hound 


Upper Silurian 


3. A. Lajm-orthi, H. W. 


Oval 


Middle Silurian 


4. A. glabra, H. W. . 


Hound 


Upper Silurian 


5. A. sp. 


Obovate 


? 


6. A. sp 


Obovate 


Tremadoc Slates 


7. A. Salteri, H. W. . 


Ovate 


Upper Silurian 


8. A. sp 


Oblate 


Upper Silurian 



No Goniatites have been found with any of the above. 
[N.B. — The new species will receive names when they are figured.] 

XL Peltocaris, Salter, 1863. Dithyrocaris, Salter, 1852, ' Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. viii. p. 391 ; Ceratiocaris, Salter, 1860, ' Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist.' ser. 3, vol. v. p. 161 ; Peltocaris, Salter, 1863, ' Quai't. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. p. 87. 

This Phyllopod has a discoidal, round or oval, tripartite shield, with 
a straight median dorsal suture, and a curved nuchal suture, which, giving 
way after death more easily than the other, has left in some instances a 
rounded, elliptical, or semi-oval cephalic notch in the shield. The separate 
lateral pieces of the test have an inner concave curve meeting the convexity 
of the outer margin, instead of a straight sloping inner edge as in Apty- 
chopsis. These two lateral moieties, however, are not so frequently found 
separate as is the case with Aptychopsis. In some instances a smaller 
notch appears at the bottom or apex of the curved notch, sometimes with 
a little escutcheon peculiar to it ; but this feature requires much more 
attention. The shield is concentrically striate as in Aptychopsis. 

1. Peltocaris aptychoides, Salter, 1852, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. viii. 
1852, p. 391, pi. 21, f. 10; this figure shows a specimen oblately circular, 
and probably squeezed obliquely. 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' i860, I. c. 



ON THE FOSSIL rilYLLOPODA OF THE TAL.EOZOIC ROCKS. 93 

' Quart. Jour. Geo!. Soc' vol. xix. 1863, p. 88, f. 1 (woodcut) gives a cir- 
cular form ; but at p. 90, f. 4 (woodcut) gives an oval outline. 

In I860 (' Quart, Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxii. p. 504, pi. 25, f. 6) Dr. 
H. Woodward gave a careful figure of this species from a good specimen 
(measuring 12^ mm. in length and 10 mm. in -width l ), giving it its true 
oval outline, rather blunt at tbe ends, the rostral piece making a distinct 
curve of its own at the front (Moffat). A distorted specimen is figured 
in the 'Proc. Belfast Nat. l< y ield Club,' 1877, Appendix, pi. 7, f. 24a, by 
Messrs. Lapworth & Swanston, from Tieveshilly, nenr Portaferry, Co. 
Down, Ireland. This is from either the top of the Middle Silurian or the 
base of the Upper Sihman (op. cit. p. 122). H. Woodward's figure is 
reprodnced in illustration here, fig. 24& ; and again by Mr. J. Dairon, 
'Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow,' 1883, pi. 7, f. 29, for a Moffat specimen. 

Some specimens in the Museum of the Geological Survey are oval. 
One (D^), almost perfect, is a pyritous film, with the rostral piece in 
place, and with obscure concentric lines ; from the Llandeilo formation ; 
locality unknown. Specimen D-/ T is a black film; the shield has been 
oval, but one half is modified by pressure. Upper Llandeilo ; Duff- Kennel, 
Dumfries. 

In the Museum at Jermyn Street there is also an imperfect Peltocaris 
(D ? 4 ff , from Moffat), of relatively large size, length ?, width 24 mm., very 
delicately and regularly concentric in its linear ornament ; and it seems 
to show what Mr. Salter intimated at p. 88, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. 
— namely, that the umbones, or angles at the front end of the median 
sutures, may come away by the weakness of a small curved sutural line 
bounding them and concentric with the strias. See also Mr. Salter's 
drawing of the notch in 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. viii. pi. 21, f. 10. 

In the British Museum, a specimen (from the Grieston beds, Gala 
Group, Rotten Gair, Inverleithen), slightly modified by pressure, was 
probably almost oval in outline, 15 by 14 mm. Another, also broadly 
oval when perfect, length about 19 mm , width 1G mm., has somewhat 
sinuous sides to the notch, that is, it widens in the middle and then con- 
tracts, forming a small notch at its apex. Something like this, but not 
quite the same, is seen in .the figures of the natural size and enlarged at 
p. 88, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xix.; it more closely resembles 
fig. 10, pi. 21, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. viii. 

2. Peltocaris anatina, Salter, 1873. 

In the ' Catal. Palasoz. Fossils Cambridge,' 1873, at p. 93, Mr. Salter 
mentions this species, but it is not figured. The diagram annexed to it, 
and given in illustration of the generic type, is P. aptychoides. That a 
Peltocaris was intended here is evident from the words, ' its semi-oval 
rostrum is seldom found-; ' but the specimen (from Rebecca Hill) labelled 
with this name, in the Cambridge Museum is an Aptijchopsis (with angular 
notch). Mr. Salter's intended species cannot therefore be recognised at 
present. 

In this Museum there is an oval Phyllopod shield, with a semi-oval 
notch, but it has been somewhat narrowed by lateral pressure, and the 
notch may have been modified by the same cause. The suture, however, 
cannot be made out : if it be absent, the specimen belongs to another 

1 The statement that the figure is magnified three times seems to be a mistake in 
the explanation of the plate. 



94 KEroitT — 1884. 

genus, of course. Length (as it is) 23 mm., width 12 mm. This fossil 
was collected by Mr. Mair, F.G.S., at Long Sleddale in a Graptolitic 
mudstone of the Coniston series, and has been thought to be such as 
Salter intended for his P. anatirta. 

3. Peltocaris, sp. 

In the British Museum, two specimens of a small Peltocaris in the 
Moffat Anthracitic shale from Wasthope Barn, at St. Mary's Loch, shows 
an obovate outline, broad and round anteriorly (when perfect), narrowed 
and pointed behind ; almost cordate. A portion of the front plate 
remains in the semioval notch of one of the specimens. Length probably 
14 mm., width 10 mm. 

4. Peltocaris, sp. 

In shape much like Aptycltopsis No. 8, page 18 ; small, oblate or 
transversely oval, but with a very wide semicircular notch. In the 
British Museum ; from the Moffat anthracitic shale of Belcraig, Annan- 
dale (either the Birkhill or Hartfell series = Lower Llandovery, or 
Caradoc-Bala). Length fore and aft (shortened by pressure) probably 
9 mm. ; transverse (rather increased) 13 mm. 

In the Cambridge Museum is a similar but still smaller Peltocaris, 
shortened and widened by the mudstone having been squeezed horizon- 
tally. Fore and aft diameter probably mm., transverse (increased by 
squeeze) 9 mm. Collected by Mr. Marr, F.G.S., in the Coniston 
Mudstone at Skelgill Beck, near Ambleside. 

5. Peltocaris? Harlcncssi, Salter, 1863. 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xix. p. 89, fig. 2 (woodcut). 

Shape indeterminate ; it may be a piece of any large species, and the 
author was uncertain as to its alliance. Anthracite beds (of Llandeilo 
age), Dumfriesshire. 

Geological horizon 
f Lower and Middle 
1_ Silurian. 

1 

Lower Silurian. 
f Lower or Middle and 
\ Upper Silurian. 

Lower Silurian. 

No Goniatites have been found with any of these. 

XII Pinnocarts, R. Etheridge, Jun., 1878. 'Proc. B. Phys. Soc. 

Edinb.' vol. iv. 1878, p. 167 ; Nicholson & Etheridge, Jun., ' Fossils 

of the Girvan District ' (1880), p. 207. 
Carapace bent and probably sutured along the back. Lateral pieces, 
found apart, in outline like the valves of a Pinna ; dorsal margin straight ; 
front edo-e rounded (in some cases semicircular, in others elliptically 
rounded) ; ventral margin sinuous, fully convex anteriorly, sloping and 
sometimes partly concave posteriorly. Concentrically striate, with 
delicate lines following the contour of the margin and centering on a 
kind of umbo situate at about a third of the length of the valve from its 
front edge. 





Peltocaris. 




Shape 


1. 


Peltocaris iqrtijclwtdca, 


Salter 


. Oval 


2. 
3. 


P. anatina, Salter? . 
P. sp. ... 


. 




'. Oblate 


4. 


P. sp. ... 


• 


. Oblate 


5. 


P. ? Hnrhiessi, Salter. 


• 


1 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALJEOZOIC KOCKS. 95 

Where the front edges are elliptically ronnded, there would he a 
slight notch in the same position as that in Aptychopsis ; hut there is no 
evidence of any cephalic or rostral piece having occupied it, On the 
contrary, the genus may have heen truly- hi valve, like Estheria and other 
such Phyllopods. This genus is known in the Lower and Upper Silurian. 

I. Pinnocaris Lapworthi, R. Etheridge, Jun. ' Prcc. R. Phvs. Soc. 
Edinb.' vol. iv. (1878), p. 169, pi. 2, tigs. 3-5; 'Fossils of Girvan,' 
&c.' p. 280, pi. 14, figs. 17-20. 

Figs. 18, 19, and 20 have the postero-ventral edge of the valve much 
more contracted than fig. 17 (imperfect) would have if completed accord- 
ing to the contours of its remaining lines of growth. Possibly a variety 
is here indicated. Moreover, the front edge of fig. 17 is much more 
rounded (more semicircular) than the others, admitting of little or no 
cephalic piece. These are from the Lower Silurian at Balcletchie, 
Girvan, Ayrshire. A specimen of the form or variety shown by fig. 17- — ■ 
that is, witli the hinder portion less pinched in — is in the British Museum, 
from the Upper Silurian of Kendal. 

The shield is triangular-obovate, if the two lateral pieces be laid out 
together. 

Length Greatest width of different examples 

mm. nun. 

32 12 

30 10 

28 8 

!No Goniatites accompany these specimens. 

Caudal Appendages. 

From the analogy of allied forms, we should expect that these 
Apudiform Crustaceans had more or less extended abdominal segments 
and caudal spines. With regard to this part of their organism we have 
not much to remark, except that a few such styles or stylets as are 
attached to the telson in known forms have been found in strata containing 
Discinocaris, Peltocaris, or Aptychopsis. Thus, at the Skelgill Beck, 
Ambleside, in the Coniston (Upper Silnrian) nmdstones, in which 
Discinocaris and Peltocaris occur, Mr. J. E. Marr found a small tapering- 
caudal spine, 15 mm. long, and delicately striate (now in the Cambridge 
Museum). This may have belonged to one of the forms just mentioned. 
So, also, there is a small thin spine, 35 mm. long, and apparently dotted 
with the bases of minute prickles, in the British Museum, from the 
Riccarton (Upper Silurian) beds of Shankend, near Hawick ; and two 
(probably the remnant of a set of three), one 35 mm long and fluted, 
and the other 20 mm. long, from the Buckholm beds (Upper Silurian) of 
the Gala group, Meigle Hills, Galashiels. These are lai'ge enough for 
Ceratiocaris, but only Aptychopsis and Peltocaris are known in these 
strata. 

We may add that a few small caudal spines, 20 mm. long, have been 
found by Mr. Marr in the Upper Arenig Slates at theNantlle tramway, 
Pont Seiont, near Caernarvon. Here they are associated with Caryocaris. 
See ' First Report on the Palasozoic Phyllopoda.' 



96 retoet — 1884. 

Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey. Captain Douglas Galton, Professors J. 
Prestwich and G. A. Lebour, and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. 
Marten, Gh H. Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, 
I. Roberts, Fox Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, 
W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, 
and C. E. De Rance (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Circulation of Underground Waters in the 
Permeable Formations of England and Wales, and the Quantity 
and Character of the Water supplied to various Towns and 
Districts from those Formations. Drawn up by C. E. De Rance. 

The Chairman and Secretary of your Committee are both unavoidably 
obliged to be absent at the Montreal meeting, which is a source of regret 
to themselves ; the more so that, this being the case, it has been thought 
advisable to delay presenting their final Report on the Circulation of 
Undersrround Waters in South Britain until next year, when the Com- 
mittee will have been twelve years in existence. During these years 
particulars have been collected of the sections passed through by a very 
large number of wells and borings ; a daily record has been obtained 
of the height at which water stands in many of these wells ; investigations 
have been carried out as to the quantity of water held by a cubic foot 
of various rocks, by Mr. Wethered ; and as to the filtering power of 
sandstones, and the influence of barometric pressure and lunar changes 
on the height of underground waters, by Mr. I. Roberts. During the 
present year the attention of the Committee has been directed to the 
remarkable influence of the earthquake which visited the east and east- 
central counties of England, in March last, in raising the levels of the 
water in the wells of Colchester and elsewhere. 

More detailed information is still required as to the proportion of actual 
rainfall absorbed by various soils, over extended periods representing 
typical dry and wet years. Information on these heads and on other points 
of general interest bearing on the percolation of underground waters, 
referring to observations made in Canada or the United States, would be 
gladly welcomed by the Committee, and would be incorporated in their 
eleventh and final report to be presented next year. 



Appendiv — Copy of Questions circulated. 

1. Position of well or shafts with which you are acquainted .' Xa. State date at 
which the well or shaft was originally sunk. Has it been deepened since by sinking 
or borin.tr ? and when ? 2. Approximate height of the surface of the ground above 
Ordnance Datum (mean sea-level) .' 3. Depth from the surface to bottom of shaft 
or well, with diameter. Depth from surface to bottom of bore-hole, with diameter? 
3a. Depth from the surface to the horizontal drift-ways, if any ? What is their 
length and number .' 4. Height below the surface at which water stands before, and 
after pumping 1 Number of hours elapsing before ordinary level is restored after 
pumping ? 4a. Height below the surface at which the water stood when the well 
was first sunk, and height at which it stands now when not pumped ? 5. Quantity 
capable of being pumped in gallons per day of twenty-four hours ? Average quantity 
daily pumped ? 6. Does the mater-level vary at different seasons of the year, and to 
what extent 1 Has it diminished during the last ten years ? 7. Is the ordinary 
7vatcr-level ever affected by locnl rains, and, if so, in how short a time ? And how 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 97 

docs it stand in regard to the level of the water in the neighbouring streams, or sea ? 

8. Analysis of the water, if any. Does the water possess any marked jjeculiaritu 1 

9. Section, with nature of the rock passed through, including cover of Drift, if any, 
with thickness ? 9a. In which of the above rocks were springs of water intercepted ? 

10. Does the cover of Drift over the rock contain surface springs 1 11. If so, are 
these land springs kept entirely out of the well ? 12. Are anv large faults known 
to exist close to the well 1 13. Were any brine springs passed through in making 
the well ? 14. Are there any salt springs in the neighbourhood ? 15. Have any 
wells or borings been discontinued in your neighbourhood in consequence of the 
water being more or less brackish? If so, please give section in reply 10 query No. 9. 
16. Kindly give any further information you can. 



Fifth and last Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. C. 
Sorby, F.R.S., and Mr. G. E. Vine, appointed for the purpose of 
reporting on Fossil Polyzoa. Draivn up by Mr. Vine. 

The classification which has been adopted in this Report is that 
formulated by the Rev. Thomas Hincks for his work on British Marine 
Polyzoa, which seems to be in the main accepted by Mr. A. W. Waters 
for his various papers siuce the publication of Hincks's work. 

The classification of D'Orbigny > was based upon certain characters 
which, as Mr. Hincks says, had one good feature at least : his family 
groups had a wide range, and embraced many diversities in the mode of 
growth. ' His genera, on the other hand, are often founded on utterly 
trivial features, and have been multiplied indefinitely to represent every 
insignificant variation of habit.' Mr. Waters, in his paper on the 
'Bryozoa from the Pliocene of Bruccoli,' says that the classification was 
based upon many characters by D'Orbigny, without his ' understanding 
their zoological signification, and the consequence was that some form's' 
could actually belong to several genera .... D'Orbigny attached much, 
greater importance to the form of the cell than to the mode of aggregate 
growth, and in some cases signified the form of a colony by an° affix, so 
that there was Eschara and liept-esclmra, the first erect and the second 
mcrustmg.' His knowledge, however, ' of Poljzoan form is perhaps 
unsurpassed, and by his clear diagnosis and splendid plates he has given 
us a new revelation of the structural variety and beauty of the class/ 2 

« We owe to Professor Srnitt the first serious attempt to substitute a 
natural system for the purely artificial arrangement hitherto in use 
He has aimed at a genealogical classification, starting with the proposition 
that the variations of species follow the line of their development and 
may be in a great measure explained by it.' In dealing, however with 
this question Mr. Hincks points out how difficult to the mere systematist 
the attempt to classify upon genealogical principles would be—' if it 
should ever be feasible '—and if this would be difficult in dealino- with 
living, the difficulties would be innumerable in dealing with fossil species 
in spite of this, then, there is another important feature in Professor 

bmitts system that is far more practicable 'the place 

which he assigns to the Zooecium in the construction of families and 
genera. The mere mode of growth he treats as a perfectly subordinate 
character, and bases his divisions chiefly on the essential element of the 
structure of the cell. In practice, this principle applies chiefly to the 

i oo f al Fmnq - Ter - CrH - TOL v - ' Hincks, op. cit. p. cxx. 

a. 



98 eepoet — 1884. 

Cheilostomata — but the revolutionary step involves the breaking np of a 
large proportion of the older genera and the wide dispersion of forms 
hitherto most closely associated . . . . The variations of habit, which have 
been made the criteria of genera, may occur within the limits of a species. 
It is not the mode in which the cells combine, but the cell itself that is 
the true test of relationship and the essential basis of a natural group.' l 

With the Cyclostomata we have an increase of difficulties when dealing 
with the cell alone, and it is almost impossible to suggest or carry out a 
natural grouping of forms belonging to this sub-order. Yet even here we 
have many special features in cell structure and cell arrangement that 
may be advantageous to the systematist, and it is to be hoped that my 
endeavours to keep certain groups intact may not be wholly illusory. 

With regard to the second and third divisions of my Report, a few 
words will, I think, suffice for the general student at least. At the 
present time it is almost impossible to obtain a copy of the works, or 
even lists of the species, alluded to or described by many very successful 
labourers in my own special line of research, and, even if it were possible, 
the descriptive text is as a matter of course found only in books published 
in the mother tongue of the describers. Thus we have works on Fossil 
Polyzoa published in the Swedish, Dutch, German, Italian, and French 
languages, but very few, until quite recently, in the English. I now 
reproduce, for the benefit of others, these almost inaccessible treasures, and 
for the first time, I believe, have furnished to the palaeontologist, if not 
complete, very nearly complete lists of all known Polyzoan forms, from the 
Upper Cretaceous epochs to the latest of the Glacial beds of Scotland. 

It may be well to address a few words to special workers on this 
group. I shall be glad to exchange material from Silurian, Carboniferous, 
Jurassic, and Miocene beds of North Italy, for material from any horizon, 
not so much for the purpose of the mere possession of forms, but for the 
higher purpose of making a critical examination of the whole of our 
Fossil Polyzoa. In the exchanges — if any follow my request — I shall 
regard of greater importance fewer forms if the strata whence obtained are 
carefully noted. In the work on which I am engaged it will be evident 
to all that specimens indifferently selected, or whose horizon is unknown, 
are of but small value in a palnsontological study like the present one. 2 

Sub-order I. Cheilostomata, Busk. 

Family I. AETEiDiE. 

Aetea, Lamouroux. 

Family II. EucKATiiDiE. 
Euceatea, Lamouroux. Huxleta, Dystcr. 

Gemellaeia, Savigny. Beettia, ,, 

Sceupaeia, Hincks. 

Family III. Cellulaeiice. 
Cellulaeia, Pallas. Sceupocellaeia, Van Beneden. 

Menipea, Lamouroux. Cabeeea, Lamouroux. 

Family IV. Bicellaeiid.e. 
Bicellaeia, Blainville. Beania, Johnston. 

Bugula, Oken. 

1 Hincks, op. eit. pp. cxxi. and cxxii. 

3 Address, G. K. Vine, Attercliffe, Sheffield. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 99 

Family V. NotamiiDjE. 
Notamia, Fleming. 

Family VI. Cellaeiidj:. 
Ceelaeia, Lamouroux (part). 

Family VII. Flusteid2E. 
Flustea, Linnaeus. 

Family VIII. Membeaniportce. 
Memceanipoea, Blainville. Megapoea, Hincks. 

Family IX. Microporidj:. 
Miceopora, Gray. Setosella, Hincks. 

Steganopoeelba, Smitt. 

Family X. Ceibeilinid^i. 
Ceibeilixa, Gray. Membraniporella, Smitt (part). 

Family XI. Miceopoeellidj:. 

Miceopoeella, Hincks. Choeizopoea, Hincks. 

DirOEULA, Hincks. 1 

Family XII. Porinim:, D'Orb. (part). 

Poeina, D'Orbigny. Lagenipora, Hincks. 

Anarthropora, Smitt (part). Celleporella, Gray. 

Family XIII. Myriozoid.e. 

Schizopoeella, Hincks. Schizotheca, Hincks. 

Mastigophoea, Hincks. Hippothoa, Lamouroux. 

Rhynchopora, Hincks. 

Family XIV. Escharid.e. 

Lepralia, Johnston (part). Phylactella, Hincks. 

Umbonula, Hincks. Muceonella, „ 

Poeella, Gray. Palmicellaeia, Alder. 

Escharoides, Smitt. Retepoea, Imperato. 
Smittia, Hincks. 

Family XV. Cellepoeidj;. 
Cellepoea, Fabricins (part). 

Sub-order II. Cyclostomata, Busk. ' 

Family I. Ceisiid.e. 
Ceisia, Lamouroux (part). 

Family II. Tubuliporid.e. 

Stomatopoea, Bronn. Entalophora, Lamouroux. 

Tubulipoea, Lamarck. Diastopoea, Lamx. (part). 
Idjionea, Lamouroux. 

1 In the body of the work I have inserted from his writings on Foreign Cheilo- 
stomata, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., another family — Monopoeellid.£ — founded by Mr. 
Hincks. In this family, in the genus Monoporella, seven fossil species are described 
by Mr. Waters. 

H2 



100 BEPOKT— 1884. 

Family III. Hoeneeid.e. 
Hoenera, Lamouroux. 

Family IV. Lichexopokidje. 
Licuenopoea, Defrance. Domopora, D'Orbigny. 

Class POLYZOA. 

= Betozoa, Ehrenberg, Reuss, Roemer, Manzoni, "Waters, &c. 
= Bnjozoa in part of American writers on Palaeozoic Polyzoa. 

Sab-class Holobeanchia, E. Ray Lankester. Group a. Ectopeocta, 

Nitsohe. 

Order Gymxolemata, Allman. 

Poltptaeia Infuxdibulata, Gervais, ' Ann. des. Sc. Nat.' 1837. 
Polyzoa Infundibulata, Busk, ' Brit. Mus. Catalogue.' 

Sub-order, Cheilostomata, Busk. 

= Cellepoeina, Ehrenberg. 

' Orifice of the zocecium closed by a movable opercular valve. Ova 
usually matured in external marsupia (ova-cells). Avicularia and vibra- 
cula (appendicular organs), frequently present.' — Hincks' ' Brit. Mar. 
Polyzoa,' vol. i. p. exxxvi. 

Family I. Aeteid.e, Hincks, Smitt. 

In Mr. Busk's classification which prefaces the ' Crag Polyzoa ' Mono- 
graph, published in 1850, the genus Aetea is one of the genera of the 
group Hippatkoidce. But Smitt and also Hincks place the species of 
Aetea in a family by themselves. Mr. A. W. Waters says, 1 ' the difficulty 
is very great as to the position of Aetea, as it has relationships with the 
Cheilostomata, and also with Ctenostomata, in having a collar, as seen in 
the Naples specimens, and which Smitt pointed out in 1867 ; and 
whether it will have to be placed in anew sub-order — Stolonata, Cams, or 
Stolonifera, Eblers — is yet problematic' Mr. Hincks, however (op. tit. p. 
2), admitting that the Aeteidaz constitute a peculiar group, agrees ' with 
Smitt in ranking them as a family distinguished by the Ctenostomatous 
cast of its structure. On the other hand, it must be noted that they are 
allied to Eucratea through the character of the polypide and in some 
other points.' 

The family contains a single genus, and so far as my knowledge goes 
I have but few notices of fossil species ; nevertheless, in making a full 
record of the whole of the fossil Polyzoa, it appears to me nnwise to pass 
over those genera of which we have few fossil representatives, especially 
as one of the objects of this Report is to furnish the student with as full 
a list of synonyms, both of genera and species, as the means at my disposal 
will allow. 

1 ' Bryozoa of the lay of Naples,' Ann. Maj. Xat. Hist., February 1879. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 101 



Genus Aetea, Lamouroux. 

1812. Aetea, Lamx , Busk, Smith. 1812. Anguinaria, Lamk (with- 
out character), Johnston. 1815. Falcaria, (3, Oken. Cercaripora (for 
Aetea truncata, 8fc), Fischer. 

Generic character. Zocecia calearpous, tubular, erect, with a mem- 
branous area on one side ; distributed along a more or less adherent, 
creeping fibre, dilated at intervals ; orifice terminal. Occcia none. 
Hincks (op. cit. p. 3). 

Mr. A. W. Waters (' Bryozoa Nap.' op. cit. 1879, p. 115) says : ' I have 
noticed in the Brit. Mns. Collection that the Aeteidce dissolved the shells 
on which they grew, and thus a permanent record is left. It is known 
that several Bryozoa have this power ; and the idea suggests itself that 
some of the phenomena mentioned by Fischer l are of this kind, and it 
may not be useless to point out that in many cases it is impossible to 
distinguish fossil Aetea from Hippothoa.' I am glad to give currency to 
these hints, because in the Palaeozoic rocks of Cincinnati there is a 
species described by E. 0. Ulrich, which he named Ropalonaria venosa, 
Ulrich, which the author describes as being related to Hippothoa (which 
I question) 'but in the form and arrangement of the cells they differ 
widely ' (' Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist. A.p.' 1879;. I have in my possession a 
specimen of this species incrusting the Coral Sireptelasma comiculum, 
Hall, and wherever the cells are broken the former existence of the 
fossil may be traced by the method of ' dissolving ' referred to by 
Mr. Waters. Two species of Aetea are recorded by Manzoni : — 

1. Aetea eecta, Hincks=? R. sica, Couch: Manzoni = Hippothoa 

sica, Conch? (See Hincks's note, p. 7, 'Brit. Mar. Pol.') = 
Stomatopora gallica, D'Orb., 'Pal. Franc. Terr. C ret.' v. 836= 
A. sica, Norman, 'Quart. Jour. Micr. Soc' n. s. viii. 216= 
A. anguina, B, forma recta, Smitt (see ref. in Hincks) =-1. sica, 
Couch, Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 6, pi. vii. fig. 69. 2 

2. Aetea ANGUINA, Hincks (Busk, Heller, Smith, Norman). A. an- 

guina, Hincks. (Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 6, pi. vii., pi. vi. 
fig. 70.) 
Both these species are described as ' frequent ' by Manzoni at Castro- 
caro, and also living. 

A long list of synonyms of this species is given by Hincks, ' Brit. 
Mar. Pol/ p. 4. 

Family II. Euceatiim:, Hincks. 

This family embraces the genera Eucrafea, Lamx. ; Gemellaria, Savigny ; 
Scruparia, Hincks ; Hu.deija, Dyster, and Bretlia, Dyster, and the whole 
of the Family Gemellaripje, Busk, except the anomalous genus Notamia 
(Dimetopia and Calwellia). Didgmia is distinguished by a different 
type of cell. 

Genus Eitckatea, Lamx., 1812. 

1812. Eucrafea, Lamx., Johnston, Smitt. 1813. Scruparia, Oken, 
Busk ; Sertularia, (pt.) Linn. ; CeUnlaria, (pt.) Pallas ; Cellaria, (pt.) Ellis 
and Sol. 1830. Unicellaria, (pt.) Blainv. 1850. Catenaria, (pt.) D'Orb. 

1 Ilypoplwrdla expansa, ' Ein Eeitr. zur Kenntn. der minirenden Bryozoen, 
von Eblers, Kon. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. Gottingen, 1867. 

2 Alecto parasita, Heller : Manzoni in Index to Plates, p, 63, 'Castrocaro.' 



102 REPORT 1884. 

Genus Gemellaria, Savigny, 1811. 

Gemellaria, Van Ben., Johnston, D'Orbigny ; Busk, 'Brit. Mus. Cat.' ; 
Smitt. 1815. Scruparia, 8, Oken. 1820. Semicellaria, Blainv. Lon- 
caria, Lamx., and Crista, sp. Lamx. 1828. Notamia, Flem. 1830. Lori- 
cula, Cuvier. 

Neither these nor the other genera accepted by Hincks contain, so far 
as I am aware, fossil species. 

Family III. Cellularum, Busk, 'Brit. Mus. Cat.' 

Cellularidce, (part) Johnston ; Cellulariadee and Cabereadce, Busk, 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Cellulariece, (f>art) Smitt. 

' Zoozcia, in two or more series, closely united and ranged in the same 
plane ; avicularia and vibracula, or avicularia only, almost universally 
present, sessile. Zoarium erect, dichotomously branched.' — Hincks, op. 
cit. p. 30. 

Genus Cellularia, Pallas. 

' Zoarium jointed. Zooecia in two or three series, many in each inter- 
node, contiguous; dorsal surface perforated. Avicularia and vibracula 
usually wanting: occasionally an avicuiarium on a few of the cells in an 
internode.' — Hincks, op. cit. p. 33. 

Ibid. Busk, Smitt, part ; Bugula, part Gray. 

3. Cellulaeia Peachii, Busk (See Hincks, p. 34, vol.i. pi. v. figs. 2-5, 

vol. ii. 1880) = C f . neritiud var., Johnst. ' Brit. Zoop.' p. 340=; 

Bugula neretina, var. b, a, c, d, e, 'Brit. Mus. Cat.' 
This is the only recent British species of this genus. Mr. Hincks says 
that in some points of the structure there is an approach to the genus 
Nellia, Busk, op. cit. p. 35. 

4. Cellulaeia Peachii, Busk, ' Cat. West Scotch Fos.' p. 134, ed. 1876. 
This form is present in minute fragments in the Garvel Park beds, 

but the form differs slightly in the shape of the cells — less elongated — 
from recent forms. In the Miocene Beds of Montecchio, North Italy, 
there are small fragments of a form similar to the Garvel Park specimens, 
but I cannot satisfy myself that these are really allied to Cellularia as 
here defined. 

Post-Tertiary formation : Scottish Glacial beds, Garvel Park. 
(?) Miocene : Montecchio Maggiore beds, North Italy. 

Genus Menipea, Lamx. 

1812. Ibid. Lamx. and part Crisia, Lamx. ; Menipea, Lamx., Busk, 
Wyville Thomson ; Tricellaria, Flem. ; Cellularia, (part) Johnst., Smitt. 
1849. Cellarina, (part) Van Ben. ; Emma, Gray, Busk. 

' Zoo.'cia oblong, widest above, attenuated and often elongated down- 
wards ; imperforate behind, with a sessile lateral avicuiarium (often 
wanting), and usually one or two avicularia on the front of the cell.' No 
vibracula. Zoarium jointed.' — Hincks, op. cit. p. 36. 

The type of the genus is M. cirrata, Lamx., a large species with six 
cells in the internode, and is described as found in the Indian Ocean, and 
also in the Mediterranean Sea. The genus has a wide geographical 
range, but I find hardly any records of the existence of fossil species. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 103 

One of the two British recent examples is M. Jeffreysii, Norman, and of 
this minute fragments only were obtained in the Shetland dredsrino-s 
by Mr. Jeffreys and Mr. Norman, particulars of which are given in 
former reports by these authors. 

5. Menipea ternata, Ell. & Sol., var. Norman (?) = Gellaria ibid., 

Ell. & Sol. (See Hincks, p. 3S). 
Post-Pliocene : Glacial beds, Garvel Park. 

The fragments found in the Garvel Park beds are very minute. 'Cat. 
West Scot. Foss. 1876.' 

6. Menipea ixnocua, Waters. ' The front surface corresponds very 

much with M. Jeffreysii, Norman, but the dorsal surface is 
different.' — Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxviii. 
p. 261, pi. ix. f. 24. 
Miocene : Mt. Gambier, South Australia. 

Genus Scrupocellaria, Van Beneden. 

Bicellaria sp., Blainv. ; Gellaria sp., Johnst. & Srnitt; Cellaria sp., 
Ellis & Sol., Lamk. ; Scrnparia sp., Oken ; Canda sp., Busk. 

' Zoarium, jointed. Zocecia numerous in each internode, rhomboid ; 
aperture with or without an operculum ; a sessile avicularium placed 
laterally at the upper and outer angle, and a vibraculuni in a bend or 
sinus on the lower part of the dorsal surface ; frequently an avicularium 
on the front of the cell.' — Hincks, p. 43, op. cit. 

Post-Glacial deposits ; Coralline Crag. 

7. Scrupocellaria scruposa, Linn. ; Yan Ben., Busk= Bicellaria ibid. 

Blainv. = Cellularia ibid. Waters. 

8. Scrupocellaria elliptica, Rcuss (range in time from recent to 

Up. Ohgocene) = Bactridium ellipticum, Reuss, 'Foss. Bry. Ost.- 
-angBLT.'=Bactridium elbpticum^Heuss, 'Pal. Stud. Alt. Tert.Alp.' 
= Canda elliptica, D'Orb., ' Pal. Franc.' v. p. S72= Bactridium 
granuliferum, Reuss ' Ost.-ung.'p. 56=Cauda granulifera, D'Orb. 
' Pal. Franc.' v. p. 332 = Canda granulifera, Rcuss, ' Foss. 
Fauna Steinsalz ' = Bicellaria granulifera, Reuss, ' Zeits. 
Deutsch., etc' — Scrupocellaria, inermis, Norman, ' Quart. Jour. 
Micr. Soc' n. s. viii. 215, 1868. 
9. Scrupocellaria Hagenouii, Reuss, Miocene = Bactridium ibid. 

10. Scrupocellaria schizostoma, Reuss. Miocene = Bactridium ibid. 

' Ost.-ungar.' p. h<5 = Ganda schizostoma, D'Orb. 'Pal. Franc.' 
v. p. 332. 

11. Scrupocellaria scabra, Van Ben. (Glacial deposits, Scot. 

Miocene, Australia). For synon. see Hincks 'Brit. Mar. Pol.' 
p. 48; Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. 

12. Scrupocellaria reptans, Linn. 

13. Scrupocellaria scabra, Van Ben. Glacial deposits, Scot. : Dun- 

troon, Paisley. 

14. Scrupocellaria scabra, var. eloxgata, Smitt. Glacial deposits, 

Scot. : Garvel Park. 

15. Scrupocellaria (Canda) fossilis, Waters. Mt. Gambier, Australia. 

Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 322 ; ' near 
Canda arachnoides, Lamx.' — Waters. 

Mr. Waters, in other papers, cites different localities. 

The identification of fossil Scrupocellaria is difficult, because, the 



104 REroRT — 1884. 

fragments of species being minute, the characters have to be made out 
very cautiously. 

Genus Caberea, Lamouronx. 

= Cellaria sp., Lamk. ; Fhisfra sp., Flem., Johnst. ; Selbia, Gray; 
Flabellaria, Gray ; Canda sp., D'Orb. 

1 Zoarium not articulated. Zoceeia in two or more series, sub- 
quadrangular or ovate, with a very large aperture. Sessile avicularia on 
the side and front of the cells, the lateral avicularium minute. Vibra- 
cular cells very large, placed in two rows, stretching obliquely downwards 
across the back of the Zoceeia, which they almost cover, to the median 
line, notched above and traversed through a great portion of their length 
by a shallow groove. Seta? usually toothed on one side.' — Hincks, 
' Mar. Polyz.' p. 57. 

Fossil Caberea are, like the Scrupocellaria previously described, also 
difficult of specific identification ; but the genera being so cosmopolitan, it 
would be surprising indeed if fragments were not distinguishable. The 
size of the vibracula is one of the peculiar features of Caberea, and the 
many characters of the genus given by Mr. Hincks ought to make the 
study of species peculiarly attractive. But much of our knowledge 
concerning fossil forms is furnished by Mr. A. W. Waters in his series of 
Papers on Australian Bryozoa. Even he, however, has had to depend in 
one instance on a single row of cells, while in others the ' opercula,' and 
the large erect avicularium have helped in the determination of specific 
forms. 

16. Caberea Ellisti, Fleming ( Hincks, p. 59.) = Flustra ibid., 

Flem. ; F. cefacea, Flem., Johnst.; Cellularia Hookeri, part, 
Johnst. ; Bicellaria Hooheri. Blainv. ; Caberea Hookeri, Busk, 
Gosse ; Flabellaria setacea, Gray. Glacial and Palaeolithic. 

17. Caberea Boryi, Audouin, Waters = Crista Boryi, Aud. = Selbia 

zelanica, Caberea ibid., Gray, Busk ; Caberea Boryi = C. 
patagonica, Busk=Canda Boryi, D'Orb, ' Pal.' ; Glacial, British ; 
Miocene, Australia. 

18. Caberea rudis (?), Busk. Glacial, British; Australia, Miocene. 

Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., vol. xxxviii. 

19. Caberea graxdis, Hincks. Glacial, British; Australia, Miocene. 

Waters. 

20. Caberea lata, Busk. Australia, Tert. Poly. Etheridge, jun., 

' Synopsis.' 

Family IV. Biceblarupje, Busk, Smitt. 

Genus Bicellaria, Blainville. 

In his remarks on the family Bicellariids Mr. Hincks says: 'The 
zoarium assumes two very different and strongly contrasted conditions 
within the limits of this family ; and it is only after carefully examining 
the entire series of forms included in it that we recognise the close 
affinity of such divergent genera as Bicellaria and Bugula. The two are 
connected and linked together by the genus Bugula and the genus 
Biachoris, of which latter we have no representatives on our coast.' — 
1 Brit. Mar. Pol.' 64. We have no fossil Bicellaria, and only one, I believe, 
of Bugula. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 105 

Genus Bugula, Oken. 

There has been a variety of names for species of this genus, the most 
distinctive of which are Ornithopora and Ornithoporiiia, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.,' 
and Acliamarclvis, Lamx. 

' Zoarium erect, phytoid. Zocecia boat-shaped or subquadrangular, 
elongate, united in two or more series; aperture occupying a large pro- 
portion (occasionally the whole) of the front, not turned upwards or 
oblique. Avicularia in the form of a bird's head, pedunculate and 
jointed, usually one on each cell.' — Hincks, 'Brit. Mar. Pol.' p. 73, and 
for synonyms, &c. 

21. Bugula turbinate, Alder. = Cellularia avicularia, Pallas. Scotch 
Glacial beds, Duntroon. 

Genus Beania, Johnston. 
No fossil representatives known to me. 

Family V. NoTAMIIDa;, Hincks. 
Genus Notamia, Fleming. 
No fossil representatives known to me. 

Family VI. Flustrid.e, Smitt. 

In the placement of this family I have put it before rather than after 
Cellaeiid.-e — Fam. VI. of Hincks — more for convenience sake than for 
the desire of alteration by any suggestive change. The Flustridje is 
Fam. VII. of Hincks, but as my real work upon fossil species will begin 
with the Cellariid*, and as I have no record of fossil forms which 
belong to this family consisting of a single genus, Flustra, Linn., I wished 
to prevent a further break in what will follow. 



(CatenicellidjE, Busk — ' Crag Polyzoa.') 

Mr. A. W. Waters, in his papers on 'Australian Fossil Bryozoa,' has 
given a list, with details and descriptions, of sixteen species of fossil 
Gatenicella, but as the classificatory position of this group is not as yet 
decided upon, I can do no more than give the names of the various 
species and then refer the reader to the papers of the author, already 
fully referred to in this Report. In the paper on 'Fossil Bryozoa,' &c, 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 1883, Mr. Waters has given diagrams of the 
'globolus' of Gatenicella and the names of the various morphological 
structures. The following are the species of Mr. Waters which he 
considers as new : — 



1. 


Catenicella 


CRIBRIFORMIS, 


10. 


Catenicella 


alata, Thomson. 






Waters. 


11. 


M 


Harveyi, ,, 


2. 


)1 


FLEXUOSA, ,, 


12. 


>> 


ELEGANS, Busk; 


3. 


)! 


MARGINATA, ,, 


13. 


)> 


,, var.BusKii, 


4. 


)1 


AMPLA, „ 






Thorn. 


5. 


>» 


SOLIDA, „ 


14. 


11 


ventricosa, Busk. 


6. 


!> 


INTERXODIA, „ 


15. 


11 


HASTATA, „ 


7. 


>l 


LiEVIGATA, ,, 


16. 


u 


TAURINA, „ 


8. 


i» 


LONGICOLLIS, „ 








9. 


M 


CIRCUMCINCTA, ,, 









106 REPORT — 1884. 



Family VII. CellariiDjE, Hincks. 

= Salicornariad-E, Busk ; and Reuss (part) ; ? Vincdlartam:, Busk ; 

CellarievE, Smitt. 

' Zocecia usually rhomboidal or hexangular, disposed in series round 
an imaginary axis, so as to form cylindrical shoots. Zoarium erect, 
calcareous, dichotomously branched.' 

In this diagnosis Mr. Hincks (op. cit. p. 103) says : ' I have not 
included the jointed condition of the zoarium, as it must be accounted 
more than doubtful whether this chai'acter is of sufficient importance to 
warrant the relegation of such closely allied forms as Cellaria and 
Vincularia, Defrance, to different family groups.' .... In a portion of 
his work ('Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Feb. 1881, p. 155), 'Contributions 
towards a General History of the Marine Polyzoa,' Mr. Hincks appro- 
priates the genus Vincularia, Defrance, in part, as a genus of the family 
Miceoporid^ — referred to further on — remarking onVincularia abyssicola, 
Smitt, that the ' Zooecial character of this generic type' is 'essentially 
Membraniporidan,' Acting upon this hint, and in accordance with the 
general thoroughness of his work, Mr. Waters, in several of his suggested 
changes of generic names, places many forms, which other authors 
may regard as Vincularia, among the Membranipora, with the remark, 
' Vincularia forma.' As the name is likely to linger in our lists, but 
without any genuine generic fixity — or, in other words, without generic 
meaning in Mr. Hincks's classification — it may be as well to give as full 
a history of the fossil group as possible under present circumstances. 

Defrance says (' Diet. d. Sc. Nat.' tome 58, p. 214) : 'We have given 
the generic name of Vincularia to little quadrangular bodies which are 
scarcely the size of a horse-hair, and which we find in a layer of the 
Calcaire Grossier (= our Bracklesham beds) in the environs of Pai'is. 
The}"- are two or three lines long, but they are not obtained perfect to 
their terminations. . . . They have small grains on the four sides of the 
little cells, the end one of which seems to be a sort of very small hole.' 
Defrance gives several localities where the genus has been found, but one 
particular form which he names V. fragilis is briefly described and 
figured in the ' Vilnes du Mus.,' and the author infers that bis Vincularia 
may have had some relationship to Flustra (? F. fistulosa, Linn., 'Fauna 
Suec' ii. 2234), which Hincks gives as a synonym of Cellaria fistulosa, 
Linnaeus. 

The next considerable addition to our knowledge of so-called Vincu- 
laria — in this country, at least — is furnished by M'Coy (' Carb. Foss. of 
Irel.' 1844). M'Coy says he accepts the genus of Defrance 'for those 
species without lateral branches, and having more than two rows of 
pores. I have not separated those specimens which have the pores all 
round from those having them on one side only, as it seemed impossible 
to separate generically such species as V. parallela (Flustra ? parallela, 
Phillips) from V. raricosta, M'Coy.' Since M'Coy wrote the above the 
species have again had to submit to changes, but both the species of 
Vincularia given by him were transposed to D'Orbigny's genus Sulco- 
retepora. 

M. d'Eichwald, in his ' Palasontology of Russia,' as well, I believe, 
as in his other writings, adopts Defrance's genus Vincularia, and he gives 
Glauconome, (part) Miinster, as a synonym. He describes several new 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 107 

species — V. muricata, omata, and raripora. Through the kindness of 
Prof. Ferd. Roemer, of Breslau, I have received tracings and descriptions 
of D'Eichwald's species. The author says that ' the Polyzoary is micro- 
scopically cylindrical or angular, with from four to twenty corners, fixed 
by the base, simple or ramose, and that the branches are of the same as 
the principal stem. The genus is rarely found in the Greywacke, in the 
Carboniferous limestone, and is more frequent in the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary strata.' ' Vincularia muricata is very much like M'Coy's 
V. megastoma, and V. omata appears to be the more perfect form of 
V. muricata — all allied to, if not identical with, Ehabdomeson (Millepora) 
gracile, Phillips. V. raripora, D'Eich, is different from the others, but 
the horizon (Carboniferous) is the same. The author says : ' This very 
graceful polyzoon is in fragments of two lines long by a quarter of a line 
in width. It is cylindrical, bi- and tri-furcating. The cells elongate, 
oval, rather deep, almost flat ; there are from three to four in a trans- 
verse row, separated from each other by a sufficiently wide space, which is 
sometimes of the width of the cells themselves.' I know of no British 
Carboniferous fossil that would answer wholly the description of 
D'Eichwald. In the peculiar mode of branching and bifurcating the 
nearest approach to it is the Eypltaxmopora of Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun., 
but in this fossil there are so many peculiar features that, if these had 
been seen by D'Eichwald, he would have directed attention to them. 

In his various writings Dr. A. E. Reuss adopts the genus Vincularia, 
Defrance, for certain forms having a peculiar ' Escharidean character,' and 
one characteristic of Vincularia, of Reuss, is that the cells are arranged 
round ' an imaginary central axis ' ; but Dr. Reuss honestly states 
('Pakeon. Stud.') that he is unable to distinguish between Vincularia 
and the JEscharido3. 

As, however, other authors may have some doubts about the Gellariidce 
character of some of the species of Vincularia of the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary epochs described by Hagenow and Reuss, I shall for the present 
keep the genus distinct, placing against the described forms those 
synonyms which seem to be the most likely to be correct, or otherwise 
giving the references and restrictions furnished by the authors them- 
selves. Mr. Hincks, however, upon reconsideration," suppresses the name 
T utcularia as a distinct genus for recent species. I merely retain the 
name for fossil species for the convenience of future workers, and because 
many of the forms described are not in my cabinet 

Genus Vincularia, Defr. = Glauconome, (part) Goldfuss. 

Division Urceolata, Haorenow. 

Maestricht Beds. 

22. Vincularia areolata, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 12, 'Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

23. Vincularia bella, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 13, 'Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

24. Vincularia canalifera, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 14, ' Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

25. Vincularia procera, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 15, 'Die Bryozeen 

der Mastrich. &c.' 1851. 

26. Vincularia Goldfussii, Hagenow, Tab. VI. fig. 15 = Cellaria 

ibid., Hag. 

1 Zethtva conica, pi. 2. 



108 report— 1884. 

Miocene. 

27. Vincularia cucullata, Reuss, he. cit. p. 60, ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ungar.' 

(p. 72, Eschara costata); Eschara Reussi, Stol. (Rss. 'Faun, 
deutsch. Oberoligociin.' ii. p. 36) ; Vincularia Haidivcjeri, Rss. 
('Pal. Stud. Alt, Tert. Alp.' ii.). 

28. Vincularia binotata, Reuss. 

29. Vincularia geometrica, Reuss, pi. 33, fig. 16, ' Pal. Stud. Alt. 

Tert, Alp.' 

30. Vincularia exarata, Reuss, pi. 34, fig. 1 = Cellaria ibid., 'Pal. 

Stud. Alt. Tert. Alps.' 

31. Vincularia ijipressa, Reuss, pi. 34, fig. 2, ' Pal. Stud. Alt. Tert. 

Alp.' 

Lower Oligocene. 

32. Vincularia escharella, Roemer, Tab. I. fig. 1, 'Polypar. Nord- 

deutscb. Tert. Gebirgs.' 

33. Vincularia porina, Roemer, Tab. I. fig. 2. (Tbe other species of 

Roemer are referred to Goldfnss's types.) 

Genus Cellaria, (part) Lamouroux. 

Cellaria, (part) Solander, Lamouroux ; Salicornaria, Cuvier, Busk ; 
Farcimia, Fleming ; Salicomia, Schweigger. 

' Zoarium jointed at intervals, the internodes connected by flexible 
horny tubes. Zocecia depressed in front and surrounded by a raised 
border, disposed in quincunx. Avicularia immersed, irregularly dis- 
tributed, situated above a cell or occupying the place of one. Ooecia 
immersed.' — Hincks, op. cit. p. 104. 

' The genus Cellaria reaches back as far as the Cretaceous epoch at least, 
during which they formed a very small group, while at the same period a 
large number of the allied group Vincularia flourished .... and the 
genus ranges from shallow to A-ery deep water. Sir Wyville Thomson 
found forms referable to the family which were obtained during the "Chal- 
lenger" voyage at depths between 2,000 and 3,000 fathoms.' — p. 106. 

Mr. A. W. Waters, in the first of his very valuable contributions 1 on 
the Fossil Bryozoa of Australia, gives some very technical points which 
came out in a rather prolonged study of recent Cellaria, and confirmed 
by him in the closer study of fossil forms. As some of his observations 
will be of extreme value as a check in the creation of new species out of 
forms belonging to one or other of the few known types, it may be 
well to reproduce some of his remarks, especially as Mr. Waters has 
been compelled to found at least two new species in the course of his 
investigations. 

Mr. Waters says : ' The shape of the cell is so variable that it is 
perfectly useless as a character .... then the bordering rim, which is 
a character of C. Johnsoni, Busk, is sometimes found on one part of a 
colony of C. fistulosa and absent in other parts ; next I found the shape 
of the ovicellular opening equally unsatisfactory — for in most undoubted 
specimens of C. fistulosa from Naples it occurs in some cells as a minute 
orbicular opening, then it is elongate oval, and in other apparently 
older ovicells a broad semicircular line is formed, which changes to 
a transversely oval opening, resembling that figured by Hincks as a 

1 Quart. Jottr. Geol. Soe. August 1881, pp. 319, 320. 



OS FOSSIL POLYZOA. 109 

character of C. sinuosa. In the same specimen, before any ovicells are 
formed, the aperture is very near the top of the zooecium ; but afterwards 
its position is near the centre. Having found the position of the aperture, 
the shape of the ovarian opening, the shape of the zooecium and of the 
bordering rim unsatisfactory characters, there only remained the avicu- 
laria ; and in all the specimens I have examined I have found one form 
constant. The 0. fistulosa from the Mediterranean has its rounded 
avicularium above the zooecium ; the C. sinuosa has a diagonal aviculariuin 
pointed downwards, with the lower part raised ; the C. Johnsoni, from 
Rafallo, Italy, and New Guinea, has a zocecial avicularium with a project- 
ing hood above, as figured by Hincks. I find my observations on the recent 
species entirely confirmed by the examination of a large number of fossil 
forms.' It is very evident from this, that of the whole of the synonyms 
given below from Reuss and others, many still merit re-examination, and 
it must be remembered that in giving them from these respected authors, 
I give them upon their authority only. Of course Mr. Waters's synonyms 
may be taken as evidence of work along the lines which he himself has 
laid down. 

34. Cellaria fistulosa, Linn., Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Poly z.;' Reuss, 'Foss. 

Bry. Ost.-ungar.' ? = Salicornaria farciminoides, Johnst., Busk, 
Reuss (for other recent forms as synonyms see Hincks, p. 146) 
— S. farciminoides, Stoliczka, 'Foss. Bry. Tert.' Griinsand, 
Orakei Bay = Glauconome marginala, Miinst., Goldf. ' Petrefac. 
Germ.' p. 100 = Cellaria marginata, Reuss, ' Wien. Tertiar.' 
p. 59 = Salicornaria marginata, Stol. loc. cit. p. 150= Vincu- 
laria marginata, Roem. ' Pol. d. Norddeutsch. Tert.' p. 105 = 
Vincularia submarginata, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. CO = Vincularia 
Eeussi, D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 60 = Vincularia Reussi, D'Orb. 
'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 60 = Glauconome rliombifera, Miinst., Goldf. 
' Petrefac' p. 100 = Salicornaria rhombfera, Reuss, ' Fauna 
deutsch.' ii. p. 15 = Cellaria aj)inis, Reuss, ' Sitzungsber. alt. 
Wiss.' 1855, p. 259 = Vincularia rhombifera, Roem. loc. cit. 6 
= Salicornaria crassa, S. W. ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' xiii. p. 7 
= Salicornaria crassa, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 22. 
Localities. — Living, widely distributed. Fossil : Mount Gambier, 
common ; and also from the Pliocene and Miocene of Europe. ' But as 
we cannot be quite sure of the descriptions of Reuss and others, that 
Salicornaria jarciminoides does not include other species, it is best to 
refrain from giving localities.' — Waters. 

35. Cellaria malvinensis, Busk = Salicornaria ibid., Busk, 'Mar. 

Poly.' p. xviii. pi. lxiii. figs. 1,2 = Cellaria ibid., Waters, 
Bryoz. S. Victoria, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 321, 
pi. xiv. fig. 3. 
Localities. — Living : Falkland Island, South Patagonia (Darwin). 
Fossil : Mount Gambier. 

36. Cellaria ovicellosa, Stol. = Salicornaria ibid., Stol. 'Foss. Bry. 

Orak.' p. 151, pi xx. figs. 9, 10 = Cellaria ibid., Waters, op. cit. 
p. 321, pi. xiv. figs. 4, 5, 6 ; pi. xvii. fig. 62. 
Localities. — Orakei Bay, New Zealand (Stol.), Mount Gambier. 

37. Cellaria globulosa, Waters, op. cit. p. 321, pi. xiv. figs. 16, 17. 

Differs from Cellaria (Eschara) aspasia, D'Orb., and also from 
Melicerita angustiloba, Busk, which are near allies. 
Localities. — Yarra Yarra, Victoria. 



110 REPORT 1884. 

38. Cellaria perampla, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii. p. 260. 
Locality. — Mount Gambier. 

39. Cellaria angtjstiloba, ~Busk= Melicerita ibid., Busk, 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' xvi. p. 261 = Melicerita ibid., T. Wood, ' Geo. Obser. 
South Aust.' p. 73 = Melicerita ibid., 'Foss. Bry. Orak.' p. 155, 
p. xx. figs. 15, 18 = Gellaria angustiloba, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 260, pi. ix. fig. 28, 29, 30. 
Localities. — Mount Gambier (Woods), Orakei Bay (Stol.), Bairns- 
dale, Muddy Creek. 

Related probably (as Cellaria') to Melicerita Chart esivorthii, M.-Ed. ; 
Eschar inella elegans, D'Orb. ; Membranipora stenostomata and Eschara sp., 
described by Hagenow. 

40. Cellaria slnuosa, Hassall (see Hincks, p. 109) = Farcimia ibid. 

Hassall, ' Ann. N. H.' vi. 172, pi. vi. figs. 1, 2 = Farcimia spathu- 
losa, Hassall, ibid. xi. p. 112 = Salicoruaria sinuosa, Johnst., 
Busk, Alder. = Salicornariafarciminoides var., Busk, ' Brit. Mus. 
Cat.' = Salicornariafarciminoides, ? Manzoni, 'Bry. Foss. Ital.' 
pt. iv. pi. i. fig. 1, 2 (fide Hiucks). 
Locality and Range. — Eng. Crag, Busk ; Ital. Pliocene Quaternary, 
Livorno (Manzoni). Near Mt. Gambier, South Austral. (Rev. J. E. Wood). 

41. Tubucellaria cereoides, Ell. and Sol. (Onchopiora, Busk) = Cel- 

laria Michelini, Reuss, 'Foss. Pol. d. W. Tert.' p. 61, pi. viii. 
figs. 1,2 = Tubucellaria opuntioides, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 336 
= Cellaria Michelina, Stol. ' Foss. Bry. Orak. Bay : ' Reuss, 'Pal. 
Stud. alt. Tert.' p. 47 ; ' Foss. Fau. Steinsalz.' p. 96. 
Locality. — Eocene, Grignon ; Oligocene, Miocene, many localities in 
Austria and Hungary; Pliocene and Recent Seas. 

Family VIII. Membraniporip-E, Smitt. 

Celleporida', (part) Johnst. ; Flustrellaridm, (part) D'Orb. ; and in part 

Escharidce, Escharellinidce, Flustrellidai and Electrinidce of D'Orbigny, 

' Pal. Fran. T. Cret ; ' Membraniporidce, (part) Busk. 

' Zoarium calcareous, or membrano-calcareous, incrusting (and erect). 

Zocecia forming an irregular continuous expansion, or in linear series, 

with raised margins, and more or less membranaceous in front.' — Hincks, 

p. 126. 

The family Membraniporice represents, says Mr. Hincks, an earlier 
sta^c of zocecial development as compared with the two which follow — 
the Microporidos, and the Cribrilinidce — in that the calcification of the 
cell is always more or less imperfect. In a large proportion of cases the 
whole of the front is merely closed in by a membrane. — Op. cit. p. 126. 

Genus Membranipora, Blainville. 

Eschara, (part) Pallas ; Flustra, (part) Linn., Lamarck, Fleming, 
Lamx., Audouin ; Discopora, (part) Lamk. ; Cellepora, (part) Hagenow, 
Reuss, D'Orbigny (for species with a calcareous lamina) ; Annulipora sp., 
Conopeum sp., Callopora sp., and Amphliblestrum sp., Gray; Marginaria 
and Dermatopora sp., Hagenow. 

' Zoarium incrusting. Zooicia quincuncial, or irregularly disposed, 
occasionally in linear series ; margins raised, front depressed ; wholly or 
in part membranaceous.' — Hincks, p. 128. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. !]]_ 

42. Membranipora Lacroixii, Audouin = Flustra Lacroixii, Savi°-n Y 

Egypte, pi. x. fig. 9, Hincks = Flustra distans, Hassall, 'A. N°H ' 
vii., 1841, p. 369 = Flustra Peachii, Couch, ' 9th Rep. Cornw 
Polytech. Soc' 81 = Membranipora Peachii, Couch, ' Cornwall 
Fauna,' iii. 120 = ? Membramipora membranacea, Johnsfc. ' B. Z ' 
2nd ed. pi. lvi. fig. 11-12 = Conopeum reticulum, Gray, ' B. M. 
Had.' 108 = Membranipora Lacroixii, ' Brit. M. Cat.' ii. p. GO 
= Membranipora reticulum, Reuss, ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wiener 
Tertiarbeck.' 98, pi. xi. fig. 25 = Biflustra Lacroixii, Smitt 
'Flor. Bryoz.' pi. ii. 18, p. iv. figs. 85, 86. Reuss gives 
= Membranipora Savartii, Busk, « Crag Pol.' p 31. 
Locality and Range.— Cov&Wine and Red Crag ; (part) Mid. Pliocene • 
Palaeolithic (A. Bell) ; Austro-Hungarian Miocene and Pliocene deposits' 
Vienna Basin (Reuss) ; Italian Pliocene beds, Volterra (Manzoni) • Post- 
Pliocene (Dawson). . ' 

43. Membranipora moxostachys, 'Brit. Mus. Cat.' ii 61- ' Crao- 

Poly.' p. 31, pi. ii. fig. 2; Hincks, 'Devon Cat. Brit. Mar 
Polyz. p. 131, pi. xvii. fig. 3-4; pi. xviii. fig. 1-4 = Flustra 
distans, Landsb. = ? Flustrellaria pustulosa, D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc 
Terr. Cret.' v. 526= ? Membranipora nobilis, Reuss' 'Foss 
Polyp, d. W. Tertiarb.' 98. ' 

Locality and Range.— Red Crag, Vienna Basin, Reuss. 

44. Membranipora catexularia, Jameson, Hincks, p. 134 = Pvrhora 

ramosa, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. 539. 
Locality and Range.— Palaeolithic, Red Crag, and Cor. Crao- Scotch 
Glacial Dep., Post-Pliocene dep. Canada (Dawson); Italian Pliocene 
Calabria (Manzoni) ; Pliocene of Bruccoli, Sicily (Waters) 

45. Membraxipora pilosa, Linnaeus, Hincks, p. 137 = Reptelectrina 

ibid., D Orb., and R. dentata, D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret ' 
v. 334. 

Locality and Range.— Cor. Crag, Palaeolithic (A. Bell) ; Australia. 
(Waters). 

46. Membraxipora membranacea, Linn. (H. p. 140) = Reptoflustra 

telacea, D'Orb., 'Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret.' v. 328. 
Eavge. — Coralline Crag, Palaeolithic (Bell) 

47. Membranipora lineata Linn. (H. p. 143) = Repledrina ibid., 

D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret.' 334. 
Range.— Italian Pliocene and Miocene dep. (Manzoni) ; S W Victoria 
Australia (Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii p 3?3) 

48. Membranipora craticcla, Alder (H. p. 147), Scotch Glacial den 

(Geikie). 1 

49. Membranipora unicornis, Flem. (H. p. 154), Scotch Glacial dep 

(Geikie) l ' 

50. Membranipora Dumerilii, And. (H. p. 156) = M. Pouilletii, 

Busk, Crag Pol.' p. 32 ; Scotch Glacial dep. 

51. Membranipora Flemingii (H. p. 162). 

Range —Pliocene Castrocaro (M.) ; Scotch Glacial beds (Geikie)- 
Palaeolithic; Clays of Western Scot. (Bell). ^ J ' 

52. Membranipora var. gregaria, Heller, ' Brv. Bay Nan ' ' A M 

KH.' Feb. 1879 = M. ibid., Heller, 'Die Bry. des^driat'. ' = 
M. aperta, Manzoni, 'Bri. del PI. di Castrocaro,' p 9 pi i fin- 
4 = ? M. aperta, Busk, ' Cra<? Pol.' p. 34. ' * ' S ' 

Range.— Pliocene ; Eng. Crag ; Castrocaro. 



]12 REPORT 1884. 

53. Membranipora Roselli, Aud. (H. p. 166), ? fossil. 

54. Membranipora teifolihm, S. Wood (H. p. 167), Busk, < Crag 

Polyz.' 32, pi. iii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 9 (part). 
Range.— Cor. Crag, Red Crag (A. Bell). 

55. Membranipora angulosa, Reuss (Waters, B. Nap. Bry., A. M. 

N. H. p. 122) ; Reuss, ' Bry. Ost.-ungar.' p. 93 = Cellepora ibid. 
Reuss D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. 398 = Eschara excavata, Reuss, 
'Foss. Pol. W. B.' p. 72 = Eschara subexcavata D'Orb. I.e. 
p. 103 = ? Membranipora deplanata, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. W. T.' 
p. 72, pi. viii. 6, 36 = ? Hemeschara trapezoidea, Reuss, ' Bry. v. 
Crosaro,' pi. xxix. fig. 14. 

Range. Abundant in the Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, from many 

localities in Austria, Hungary and Italy; Rhodes (Manzoni). Living : 
Florida, ? Mollia antiqua, Smitt ; ? Membranipora antiqua, Busk, ' Quart. 
Jour. Micr. Soc' vol. vi. p. 262. 

56. Membranipora cylindeifoemis, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 

vol. xxxvii. p. 323, pi. xviii. fig. 74. 
Mt. Gambier, Australia. 

57. Membranipora macrostomia, Reuss (Vincularia forma), ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 323, pi. xiv. figs. 18-19 = 
Cellaria macrostvma, Reuss, « Foss. Pol. d. Wien. Tert.' p. 64 
Bifiustra macrostoma, Reuss, ' Die Foss. Anth. u. Bryoz. der Sch. 
von Crosaro, p. 274 = Flustrellaria macrostoma, Manzoni, ' I Bri. 
Foss. del Miocene d' Aust.' &c, p. 67 = ? Biflustra papillata 
Stol., ' Foss. Bry. Orak. Bay,' p. 154 = ? M. loxopora, Rss. 
Bairnsdale (Eschara forma), Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxviii. p. 504. 
Locality and Range.— Oligocene (Bartonia), Val di Lonte ; Miocene, 
Nussdorf ' (Manz.) ; Orakei "Bay (Stol.); Mount Gambier, Australia 

(Waters). , .. i .. 01 , 

58. Membranipora argus, D'Orb., Waters (op. at. vol. xxxvii. p. d'J4, 
pi. xiv. fig. 20, 21) = Vincularia argus, D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc' p. 253, 

Range.— Cretaceous : Mcudon, SW. Victoria, Australia (Waters). 

59. MEMr.RANirORA concameeata Waters (Vincularia forma), op. cit. 

p. 324-, pi. xiv. figs. 22-23 = ? Vincularia gracilis, D'Orb. 
' White Ch. France.' 
_R aH|7e _Cretaceous ? : S. W. Victoria, Australia. 

60. Membranipora lusoria, Waters, (Vincularia forma), op. cit. p. 324, 

pi. xiv, fig. 14, pi. xviii. fig. 82 ? allied to Nellia simplex, Busk, 
Quadricellaria sp., D'Orb., M. lusoria var. coarctata, Waters, 
'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. p. 434; allied to Cellaria 
cactiformis, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' pi. 561, figs. 1-4. 
Range.— S.W. Victoria, Busk ; variety, Waurn Ponds. 

61. Membranipora maorica, Stol. (Waters), (Vincularia forma), 

' Quart. Jour. Geo!. Soc' vol. xxxvii. p. 325, pi. xiv. fig. 69 = 
Vincidariaid. Stol., 'Foss. Bry. Orak. Bay,' p. 153 = Vincularia? 
maorica, Hutton, 'On some Australian Poly.' p. 23 =Vinc2daria 
maorica, T. Wood, ' Corals and Bryz. of the Neozoic Period, N. Z.' 
Range.— hiving : Tasmania (Hutton). Fossil: Orakei Bay; Hutchin- 
son's Quarry, Oamaru ; Up. Eocene of New Zeal, geologists. _ j 
62 Membranipora geminata, Waters, op. cit. p. 325, pi. xvi. fig. 5«> 
(S. W. Victoria, Aust.), H. W. Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 262, pi. ix. fig. 25. . 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 1 I 3 

63. Memeranipora confluens, Reuss = Esclarina confluens, Reuss, 

' Vei-stein. der bohm. Kreid,' p. 68 = Membranipora confluens, 
Reuss, M. pedunculata, Hincks. For remarks on allies of the 
above, see paper of A. W. Waters, ' Quart, Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxviii., p. 262. 
Range.— Living : Ceylon. Fossil (Cretaceous), Hundorf and Strehlen, 

Schillinge, near Bilin (Cenomanian) ; (Pliocene), Castel Arquato ?, 

S. W. Victoria, Mt. Gambier. 

64. Membranipora ovalis, D'Orb. op. cit. p. 262. Mt. Gambier. 

65. Membranipora tripunctata, Waters, pi. i. fi^. 35, op. cit p 262 

Mt. Gambier. • t>- - 

66. Membranipora eadicifera, Hincks, pi. ii. figs. 26, 27, op. cit. p. 262. 

Mt. Gambier. Living : Bass's Straits. 

67. Membranipora dentata, D'Orb. op. cit. p. 263, pi. viii. fig. 14 = 

Flustrellaria dentata, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' p. 525 = Membranipora 
annulus, Manzoni, ' Bri. Foss. Ital.' 4ta. cont. Castrocaro, n 12 
pi. i. fig. 9. 
Range. — Cretaceous (Senonian) ; Pliocene (Manz) ; Helvetian, Zan- 
clean, Astian and Sicilian beds. Mt. Gambier, Aust. (Waters). 

68. Mempranipora articulata, Waters (Vincularia forma), op. cit. 

p. 264, pi. viii. figs. 15-16. 

69. Membranipora perversa, Waters (Vincularia forma), op. cit 

p. 264, pi. ix. fig. 32. 
Range. — Mt. Gambier. 

70. Membranipora appenpiculata, Reuss (Eschara forma) ; Waters, 

' Quart, Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 504, pi. xxii. figs. 2 
to 5 = Cellepora ibid., Rss. 'Foss. Polyp, d. Wien. Tert.' p. 96 
= Membranipora ibid., Rss. ' Die Foss. Bry. des Osfc.-ung.' p. 41 
= Membranipora Cyclops, Busk, 'Mar. Poly.' p. 61. 
Range. — Fossil : Miocene, Europe ; Upper Oligocene, Astrupp ; Mid. 
Oligocene, Mt. Gambier, Australia. Living : New Zealand. 

71. Membranipora roborata, Hincks, ' Gen. Hist, of Mar. Poly.,' ' Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. v. vol. viii. p. 69, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 433. 
Range. — Fossil : Waurn Ponds, Australia. Living (bilaminate) : New 
Zealand. 

72. Membranipora oculata, Busk (Waters) op. cit. p 434, pi. xii. fig. 

22 = Nellia oculata, Busk, Smitt, Macgillivray. 
JRaw<7e. —Living, widely distributed ; fossil, Waurn Ponds, Australia. 

73. Membranipora Arethusa, D'Orb. (Waters), op. cit. p. 434, pi. xii. 

fig. 19 = Eschara ibid., E. actcea ; E. gallica, D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc.' ; 
and allied to Semieschara dispariiis, D'Orb., as well as many 
other sp. of D'Orb. 
Range.— Cretaceous, France ; Muddy Creek, Australia. 



Genus Megapora, Hincks. 

' ° nl 7-7?x e Hving s P ecies of this g enus is g^en by Hincks (' Brit. Foss. 
; P '„ 171 )' wln ch is Megapora ringens = Lepralia ibid., Busk. I know 
n no fossil forms. 

1884. 



P 



i 



114 REPORT — -1884:. 

Family IX. Microporid^i, Smitt. 
Hincks, op. cit.J). 172. Membraniporiclce, (part). Busk. 
'Zocecia with the front wall wholly calcareous; margins elevated.' 
— Hincks, p. 172. 

This family group is a very important one, as it entirely eliminates 
from the series all those forms that have a membranous area in the front 

of the cell. 

Genus Micropora, Gray. 

= Bept eschar ell ina, D'Orb. 

' Zoarium incrusting. Zocecia with prominent raised margins ; front 
depressed, wholly calcareous ; orifice semicircular, or suborbicular, 
enclosed by "a calcareous border.' — Hincks, p. 173. 

74. Micropora complanata, Norman (Hincks, p. 175) = Lepralia 

ibid., Norman, « A. M. N. H.' Jan. 18G4, p. 84, pi. x. fig. 4 == 
Membranipora Smiiti, Manzoni, 4th Contr. ' Ital. Foss. Bryoz.' 
Range. — Living, but of unknown locality : Italian Pliocene deposits. 

75. Micropora hippocrepis, Goldf. (' Petrefac' i. p. 26 ; tab. 9, f. 3) ; 

Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 264 = Gellcpora 
ibid., Reuss, ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wien. Tert,' p. 94 ; Hagenow, ' Die 
Bry. Maest. Kreideb.' p. 91, pi. vi. fig. 17 = Membranipora 
Helens, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 34, and ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xvi., p. 260 = Membranipora Bosselii, Manzoni, ' Bri. Foss. 
Ital.' 4th Contr. p. 11 = Membranipora Helens, Rss. ' Die Foss. 
Bry. Ost.-ungar.' p. 43; Manzoni, 'Bri. Castrocaro,' p. 15; 
Waters, ' Bry. from Bruccoli.' ' Tr. Manchester Soc' vol. xiv. 
Range. — Fossil : Cretaceous, Maestricbt ; Miocene ; Pliocene Cor. 

Crag, Castrocaro ; Bruccoli, Sicily. Living, only at Capri, from the coral 

fisheries (A. W. W.). 

76. Micropora oudinata, Waters (Eschara form), Waters, op. cit., 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 435. No figures. 

77. Micropora cavata, Waters (Eschara form), Waters, op. cit., 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 435. No figures. 
Bange. — Miocene ; Australia, Waurn Ponds. 

Genus Steganoporella, Smitt. 

Membranipora, (part) auctt. ; Beptescharellina, (part) D'Orb. ; Smitt, 
'Flor. Bry.' Steganoporella. 

' Zoarium incrusting or (occasionally) rising into foliaceous expan- 
sions. Zocecia with the external characters of Micropora, but having an 
inner chamber occupying the whole of the cavity below, and above 
narrowed into a tubular passage, which either communicates directly with 
the orifice or opens into a second chamber immediately beneath it.' — 
Hincks, p. 176. 

78. Steganoporella Smittii (Hincks, p. 178) = Membranipora Ande- 

gavensis, Busk, 'Crag Pol.' p. 35, pi. ii. figs. 5 and 9. 
Bange. — Coralline Crag. 

79. Steganoporella patula, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., pi. ix. fig. 31, p. 265 (Micropora patula, Waters), loc. 
cit., Aug. 1881. 

80. Steganoporella magxilabris, Busk (' B. Mus. Cat.' p. 59), ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 265 = Steganoporella elegans, 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 115 

Smitt, ' Flor. Bry.' p. 15, pi. iv., figs. 96 and 101 = Escharel- 
lina sp., D'Orb. (Smitt) = Membranipora magnilabris, Busk, 
' Mar. Poly.' p. 62, pi. lxv., fig. 4. 

81. Steganoporella magnilarris, Busk (Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 506, pi. xxii., figs. 7 and 7a, "Waters = 
Lepralia firma, Reuss ; Biflustra crassa, Haswell ; Vincularia 
neozelanica, Busk; Steganoporella magnilabris, Hincks, Mac- 
Gillivray. 
Range. — Fossil : Mount Gambier & Victoria, Australia ; Mt. Gambier, 
Busk. Living : Florida, Smitt. 

82. Stegaxoporella Rozieri, Aud. ; var. indica, Hincks, ' Gen. Hist. 

Mar. Pol.,' ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' ser. v. vol. iv. p. 339, 8180 ; 
Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 505 = Eschara 
ignobilis, Reuss = Vincularia Novas Mollandice, Haswell, loc. cit. 
p. 505 = Vincularia steganoporides, Goldstein. 
Range.— Living : India and several other localities. Fossil : Miocene, 
Solingen. 

83. Stegaxoporella perforata, MacG. ; var. claicsa, Waters = Mem- 

branipora, ibid., ' Zool. of Victoria,' decade iii. and decade iv. 
Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 505=? Mono- 
porella lepida, Hincks. 

Genus Setosella, Hincks. 
No record of as a fossil. 

Family X. Cribrilinid.e, Hincks. 

1 Zoarium adnate, forming an indefinite crust, or erect. Zooecia 
liaving the front wall more or less fissured, or traversed by radiating 
furrows.' — Hincks, p. 182. 

Genus Cribkilina, Gray. 

Reptescharella, D'Orbigny; Escliaripora, Smitt, ' Oefv. Kongl. Vet. 
Ak. Fdrhandl.' 1867, Bihang. Cellepora, (part) Fabr. ; Lepralia, (part) 
Johnst., Busk. 

Zoarium incrusting. Zoaxia contiguous, having the front more or 
less occupied by transverse or radiating punctured furrows ; orifice 
semicircular or suborbicular.' — Hincks, op. cit., p. 184. 

84. Cribrilina radiata, Moll., Hincks, p. 185 = Eschara radiata, Moll, 

' Seerinde,' 63, pi. iv., fig. 17 = Lepralia innominata, Couch, . 
Busk, ' Crag,' p. 40, pi. iv. fig. 2 = Lepralia innominata, Man- 
zoni, ' Pliocene Ital.' 1st Contr. 8, pi. ii., fig. 13 = Lepralia 
muUiradiata, Reuss, ' Oberburg,' 31, pi. x., fig. 5, ' Pakeon. St.' 
= Lepralia scripta, Rss. ' Sitzungsb. K. Akad. d. Wissen., pi. xv. 
f. 63 = Lepralia scripta, Rss., Manzoni, ' Supp].' &c 5, pi. i. fig. 
6 = Lepralia pretiosa, Rss., ' Bryoz. d. deutsch. Septarienth.' 
= Lepralia calomorpha, Rss., loc. c. 62, pi. xi. fig. 10 = Lepralia 
raricostata, Rss., ' Bry. Ost.-ungar.' p. 26, pi. i., fig. 8 = Lepralia 
Endlicheri, Rss., loc. cit. p. 31, pi. i., fig. 9 =? Reptescharella 
pygmea, D'Orb., ' Pal. Ft. Ter\ Cret.' v. 468 = ? Reptescharella 
radiata, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr. Ter\ Cret.' v. 468 = Cribrilina 
radiata, C. innominata, Smitt, ' Flor. Bry.' = ? Lepralia cribri- 
lina, Manzoni, ' Bri. di Castrocaro,' p. 27, pi. iii., fig. 40 = Le- 
pralia elegantissimi, Seguen za[ (_/icZe Waters), 'Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 265 = Lepralia megacephala, Rss., 'Polyp. 

12 



116 EEPOKT — 1884. 

d. Wien, Tertiar.' p. 83, pi. x. fig. 5. Smitt says these species 
should be placed very near to present one. — Semiescharipora 
fragilis, D'Orb., 'Pal. Ter. Cret.' v. p. 480; Semiescharipora 
brevis, D'Orb., ' Pal. Ter. Cret.' v. p. 485 ; Semiescharipora 
oralis, D'Orb., p. 488 (fide Smitt, « Bry. Florida,' Ac). Some of 
Reuss's species are described as Cellepora. 
Range. — Eng. Chalk : Vine, ' B. Assoc. Rep.' 1883. Miocene : several 
localities in Austria and Hungary ; Mount Gambier, Australia : Plio- 
cene, Post-Pliocene. I have also in my collection a specimen similar to 
our own Cretaceous form, from the Yellow Limestone (Cretaceous), 
Timber Creek, K". America. Living: rather widely distributed. 

85. Ceibrilina punctata, Hassall (Hincks, p. 190) = Lepralia ibid., 

Hass., Johnst., Busk, ' Crag Pol.' 40, pi. iv., fig. 1. 
Range. — Coralline Crag. Recent, very widely distributed. 

86. Ceibrtlixa annulata, Fabric. (Hincks, p. 193)= Cellepora annulafa, 

Fabr. = Reptescharella Heermannii, Gabb & Horn, ' Monog. 
Polyz.' = Escharipora annulata, Fabr. (Smitt, ' Florid. Bry.'). 
Range. — Scotch Glacial deposits. Living: Brit. Seas; Florida 
(Smitt) ; Gabb & Horn's sp., Santa Barbara; Miocene (?). 

87. Cribrilina figularis, Johnst. (not C, ibid. ; Smitt, Florid. Bry.). 

Allied forms, Escharella Arge, D'Orb. (See Hincks, p. 197) 
= Lepralia JJngeri, Renss, ' Ost.-ungar.' Seems to be a con- 
necting form between C. figularis and G. radiata. Lepralia 
Haueri, Reuss, closely allied to present form. 
"Range. — ? Cretaceous, D'Orb. sp. ; Miocene, Reuss sp. ; Lower Coral- 
line Crag (Bell). 

88. Cribrilina terminata, Waters (Hemeschara form), 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii, p. 326; ibid. vol. xxxviii., p. 507; ibid. 
vol. xxxix., p. 436, pi. xii. fig. 17. 
Allied forms, Lepralia scutulata, Busk. 

The marginal cells of the American Cretaceous Eschar a digitata, Lonsd. 
have their surfaces punctured below the orifice in a very similar manner 
to G. ferminata, Waters, only not so thickly. The other cells are quite 
plain. 

Range. — S. W. Victoria; Bairnsdale (Gippsland) ; Muddy Creek, 
Australia. 

89. Cribrilina dentitora, Waters (Bactridiiform), ' Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 326, pi. xv. f. 33. 
Range. — S.W. Victoria, Australia. 

90. Ceibrilina suggerens, Waters. (Eschara form), op. cit. vol. 

xxxvii., p. 327, pi. xvii. fig. 75. 

' This is a most curious and instructive form, in which we are at the 
outset met by a difficulty as to its generic position ; for, looking at the 
aperture, we find it might belong to Cribrilina or Mucronella. With 
the latter, however, in other respects there is little in common ; but 
with Cribrilina we find the radiating character of the pores, and 
although no known species has such a bristling surface, yet in C. Gattyce, 
C. cribrosa, Heller, C. figularis, &c. there is a row of slightly raised pores 
round the edge of the cribriform area.' — Waters. 

Range. — S. W. Victoria, Australia. 

91. Cribrilina tubulifera, Hincks. Waters, op. cit., vol. xxxix., 

p. 436. 
Range. — Living, Bass Straits, Hincks ; Fossil, Muddy Creek, Australia. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 117 

92. Cribrilina moxoceros, Busk (non Reuss) = Lepralia ibid., Bask, 

' Mar. Poly.' p. 72 = Lepralia ibid., MacGill., ' Zool. Vict,' 
decade iv. p. 32 = Cribrilina, Hincks, ' Proceed. Lit. & Phil. 
Soc. Liverpool,' April, 1881 ; ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' July, 1881. 
Range. — Living : Bass's Straits. Fossil : Baimsdale (Gippsland). 

Genus Membeaxiporella (part), Smitt. 

Rerenicea, (part) Flem. ; Lepralia, (part) Johnston, Gray, Busk ; 
Membranipora, (part) Smitt. 

' Zoarium incrustiug, or rising into free, foliaceous expansions, with a 
single layer of cells. Zooecia closed in front by a number of flattened 
calcareous ribs more or less consolidated.' — Hincks, 199. 

93. Membraniporella nitida, Johnst. (Hincks, p. 200) = Escharoides 

ibid., Milne-Ed. =Rerenicea ibid., Flem. ; M. nitida, Waters. 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxix., p. 436 ; Lepralia eximia, 
Seguenza, ' Le Form. Terz. R. Accad. dei Lincei ; (?) Pliophlcea 
sacjena, Gabb & Horn, Monogr. (Cret. Bry. New Jersey). The 
authors give the following synonyms for this species = Flustra 
sagena, Morton, ' Synopsis, 'p. 79, pi. 13, fig. 7; Escharina ibid., 
Lons. ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. i. p. 71 ; Reptescharinella 
ibid. D'Orb, ' Pal. Ft.' v. p. 429. 
Range. — (?) Cretaceous, Timber Creek, New Jer. ; Waurn Ponds, 

Australia (Waters) ; Zanclean Calabria (Seg.). Living: Northern Seas ; 

Capri, 225 fathoms (Waters) ; New Zealand (Hutton). 

Family XI. Microporellim, Hincks. 

Celleporidce, (part) Johnst.; Membraniporidce, (part) Busk; Porinida} 
(part) D'Orb. ; Eschariporidce, (part) Smitt. 

• Zoaicia adnate and incrusting- or forming: erect and foliated or 
dendroid zoaria ; orifice more or less semicircular, with the lower margin 
entire; a semilunate or circular pore on the front wall.' — Hincks, p. 204. 

This important family group is founded upon well-marked structural 
features, one of which is the ' semilunate or circular pore,' in the front 
wall, given in the diagnosis. Mr. Hincks indeed says, ' We do not know 
the physiological import of this definitely shaped opening .... but 
the character which is constant may be fairly accounted of considerable 
importance, and taken in combination with the form of the aperture is a 
good diagnostic mark,' (I. c. p. 205). Further particulai-s of this mark 
are given by Mr. Waters (' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxvii., p. 313). 
He says, ' In studying both recent and fossil forms, I have often been 
impressed with the frequency with which open pores are replaced by 
avicularia, and think that it is a matter worthy of most careful examin- 
ation.' Mr. Waters says, however, that the 'genus Microporella must be 
extended ; for we are able to trace relationship from M. violacea with a 
round pore to the variety jissa with an elongated pore (fig. 7'S). Then 
we have M. Yarranensis with two or three denticulated pores in the 
depression, and, in this way on by M. coscinopora and var. armata to 
M. symmetrica (fig. 83).' The fossil Microporellidce are well represented 
in the Australian deposits, and the necessarily reduced number of generic 
features in the group has increased the number of synonymous names ; 
but in spite of this, the three genera which Mr. Hincks includes in the 
family, in his ' Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' are well marked and easily 
identified. 



118 REPORT— 1884. 



Genus Microporella, Hincks. 

Escliara (part), Pallas; Cellepora, (part) Linn., Audouin ; Flustra, 
(part) And. ; Berenicea, (part) Flem. ; Lepralia, (part) Johust. ; Escharina, 
(part) M.-Edw., Gray ; Ilerentia (sp.), Gray; liepitoporina, (part) D'Orb. ; 
Forma and Porellina, Smitt (non D'Orb.). 

' Zoarium incrusting. Zocecia with a semicircular aperture, the lower 
margin entire, and a semi-lunate or circular pore below it.' 

94. Microporella ciliata, Pallas (Escliara ibid., Pal.) = Eschar a 

vulgaris, var. /3, Moll., ' Seerinde,' G2, pi. iii. tig. 11 = Berenice* 

utnculata, Flem. ' Brit. Anm.' 533 = Lepralia ciliata, Johnst., 

Busk, Brit. M. C. ; Crag Pol. 42, pi. vii. tig. 6 = Reptoporellina 

subvulgaris, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr. Terr. CreV v. 477 = Lepralia 

lunata, MacGil., ' Tr. Phil. Inst. Victoria,' iv. 1860, p. 159 = 

Cellapora crenilabris, Rss., ' Foss. Poly. Wien. Tertiiirb.' 88, pi. x. 

fig. 22 = Cellipora pAeuropora, Rss. ' Foss. Poly. Wien. Tertiiirb.' 

p. 86, pi. x. fig. 21 = Lepralia utriculus, Manzoni, ' Bry. Pliocene 

Ital.'=? Lepralia glabra, Rss. smooth var., 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-nng.' 

17, pi. iv. fig. 3. 

Range. — English Coralline Crag ; Middle Pliocene beds (Bell) ; 

Vienna Basin (Reuss) ; Italian Pliocene beds (Manzoni) ; Sicilian 

Pliocene, Bruccoli (Waters) ; Australian Miocene, Mt. Gambier (Waters). 

Living, widely distributed. 

95. Micropoeella Malusii, Aud. (Cellepora ibid.) = Reptoporina ib., 

D'Orb. ' Pal. Franc. Cret.' v. p. 443= Lepralia ib., Busk, ' Crag 
Pol.' 53, pi. viii. fig. 3. 
Range. — English Coralline Crag ; Pliocene, Italy ; Australia, frag- 
ments (Waters). Living, widely distributed. 

96. Micropoeella impressa, Aud. (Flustra ib.) = Lepralia piriformis, 

Busk, ' Crag Poly.' 51, pi. v. fig. 3. 
Range. — Eng. Crag. Living : British seas, rather widely distri- 
buted, &c 

97. Microporella violacea, Johnst. = Lepralia plagiopora, Busk, 

' Crag Pol.' p. 44, pi. iv. fig. 5 ; Lepralia violacea, ' Crag Pol.' 
43, pi. iv. fig. 3. Manzoni, ' Brioz. Plioc. Ital.' 1st Contrib. 
5, pi. i. fig. 9 ; Lepralia diversipora, Reuss, ' Foram. Anthoz. 
n. Bryoz. d. Deutsch.' 

98. Microporella violacea, var. fissa, Hincks. Waters, ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 329. 
Range. — Eng. Crag. ; Ital. Pliocene ; S.W. Victoria, Australia, Mt. 
Gambier. 

99. Microporella ferrea, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. 

xxxvii., p. 330, pi. xvii. p. 72. Mt. Gambier. 
99.* Microporella ferrea, var. perforata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 267, pi. viii. fig. 4. Mt. Gambier. 

100. Microporella elevata, T. Wood, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxviii., p. 267, pi. vii. fig. 63-64 ; pi. xviii. fig. 90. Mount 
Gambier. = Escliara ibid., T.Wood. 

101. Microporella Yarraensis, Waters, (/. c, vol. xxxvii., p. 331), 

pi. xv. figs. 27-28. 

102. Microporella coscinopora, Reuss, var. armata, Waters (/. c, 

vol. xxxvii., p. 331), pi. xv. fig. 25. Mt. Gambier. 



ON FOSSIL TOLYZOA. 119 

103. Microporella .enigmatica, Waters (Z. c. vol. xxxvii., p. 331), 

pi. xv. figs. 29-30. Mt. G-ambier. 

104. Microporella symmetrica, Waters (I. c. vol. xxxvii., p. 331), 

pi. xviii. fig. 83. Mt. Gambier. 

105. Microporella clavata, Stol. (/. c. vol. xxxvii., pi. xviii. fig. 

%4< = Flustrella, ibid., Stol. Toss. Bry. Orak. Bay,' p. 139. 
Mt. Gambier (?) Eschar a tetrastoma, Reuss, ' Sitz. Ak. W. 
Wien,' 1864. Mt. Gambier. 

106. Microporella macropora, Stol. (Lepralia forma). (Waters, 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 267) = Lepralia ibid., 
Stol. ' Olig. Bry.' 
Range. — New species : Waters, Mt. Gambier, Victoria (S.W.) ; Bairns- 
dale, Australia. 

107. Microporella decorata, Reuss (Cellepora id.), Waters, 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 508, pi. xxii. fig. 1 = Cellepora 
ibid., Rss. 'Foss. Pol. Wien. Tert.' p. 89, pi. x. fig. 25 = 
Lepralia ibid., Manzoni, ' Bry. Foss. 2nd Cont. Bry. Castrocaro ' 
= Lepralia ibid. Seguenza = Lepralia Stori, Rss. ' Bry. Ost.- 
ung.' = Lepralia formosa (?), Seguenza. 
Range. — Miocene, Hungary; Australia Bairnsdale; Pliocene, Castrocaro 
(Manzoni). Living, Madeira (30 iath.). 

108. Microporella cellulosa MacGil. (forma Adeona), Waters 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 437 = Lictyopora ibid., 
Mac G., 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Vic' 1868 = Adeona ibid., Kirchen- 
pauer. 
Range. — Fossil: Muddy Creek, Australia (Waters). Living: Queens- 
cliffe. 

109. Microporella introyersa, Waters, loc. cit., vol. xxxviii., pi. ix. 

figs. 33-34. This would be Diporula, Hincks. 
Range. — Mt. Gambier, South Australia. 

Genus Diporula, Hincks. 

Distinguished from Microporella by the structure of the orifice. The 
genus is founded upon a single species, Diporula (Eschara) verrucosa, 
Peach. Mr. Hincks cites as a synonym E. lunaris, Waters. 

110. Diporula lunaris, Waters, ' Bryoz. from Pliocene of Bruccolo, 

Sicily,' 'Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc' 1878= ? Porellina 
labiata, Roemer — ' I believe this is the same,' Waters. 
Range. — Living : Sicilian Pliocene, Waters ; Oberoligocan, Lattorf, 
Roemer. 

Genus Chorizopora, Hincks. 

Flustra, sp. Audouin : Lepralia, sp. Johnst. and Busk ; Mollia, pt., 
D'Orb. 

' Zotpcia more or less distant, connected by a tubular network ; the 
orifice semicircular, with the inferior margin entire; the special pore 
wanting.' — Hincks, p. 222. 

This peculiar genus is founded upon the Flustra Brongniartii of 
Audouin. In his description of Lepralia Brongniartii, And. (' Bay of 
Nap. Bry,' p. 35, 'Ann. M. N. Hist.') Mr. Waters says the 'connections 
between the zooecia are short tubes as shown in Savigny's fig. . . . 
This is interesting as showing the first step towards more widely 
separated cells, like Diachoris : and Hutton calls a form closely allied to 



120 REPORT — 1884. 

this Diachoris BusJcii.' It is very evident tbat the tubular processes 
cannot be relied upon as generic guides ; both in the genus CJwrizopora 
and also in Diachoris as now understood these tubular processes vary 
considerably, as bas already been pointed out by Mr. Waters in the de- 
scription of the species D. patellaria, var multijuncta (Bry. Bay Nap.). 

111. Ciiokizofoea Bro.vgxiaktii, Aud. = Lepralia ibid. Busk, ' Crag 

Poly.' 40, pi. vi. fi°r. i. ; Manzoni, ' Bry. Foss. Ital.' 2nd cont. 7, 

pi. ii. fig. 9 = Mollia tuberculata and Brongniartii, D'Orb. 

' Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret.' = ? Reptescharallinella rliomboidalis, 

D'Orb. = Lepralia capitata, Rss. 'Bry. d. Ost.-ung.' 21, pi. iv. 

fig. 7. 

Mange. — Coralline Crag; Pliocene, Volterraand Castrocaro (Manzoni); 

Austro-Hungarian Miocene (Reuss). Living, widely distributed in Brit. 

seas. 

Family MicROrORELLiD^;. 

Genus Monoporella. 

General character. — Zocecia destitute of a membranous area or 
aperture, and of raised margins ; orifice arched above, with the lower lip 
entire ; no special pores. 

This group is formed for species with a Microporellidan orifice, but 
destitute of tbe median pox-e, which is so striking a character of tbe 
genus Microporella. It is difficult to believe that this structure has 
no special significance ; it is afc least a much better clue to affinity than 
mode of growth. If this be so, the Microporellidan form from which it 
is absent may well be set apart as a distinct group. 1 

Family XII. Moxoporellidje. 
Monoporella, Ilincks. 

Provisionally at least it will be better to keep the genus Monoporella 
apart from the Microporellida3. If (as seems probable) the special pore 
of the latter is represented by the oral sinus of the Myriozoida?, Micro- 
porella will have closer affinity with such forms as Schizoporella than 
with the present. 

As yet the species of Monoporella described are but few, and we 
have hardly material for a thorough study of the type. — •' Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist.' ser. 5 vol. ix., p. 123. 

M. lepida "1 

M. nodulifera VAnn. & Mag. Nat. Hist.,' Feb. 1882, Hincks. 

M. albicans J 

112. Monoporella crassicaules, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxviii., p. 270, pi. viii. fig. 23. 

113. Monoporella crassatixa, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxviii., p. 270. pi. viii. fig. 23. 

114. Monoporella hebetata, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. 271, pl.vii. fig. 11. 

1 Smitt's genus Escliaripora (as far as I understand it) is founded for Micro- 
porellidan forms with more than a single pore. But the physiological significance is 
the same, whether there be one or many, and the distinction seems to be unimpor- 
tant ; so also are differences in the shape of the pore. — Ann. ,)'• Mag. Nat. Hist. 
July, 1881. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 121 

115. Monoporella oblonga, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. 

xxxviii., p. 271, pi. vii. fig. 9. 
"Range. — Miocene, Australia (Waters). 

116. Monoporella sexangularis, Goldf. = EscJiara ibid., Hagenow, 

'Maestr. Kreid,' p. 81, pi. x. figs, 345 = Eschara Clarlcei, T. 
Woods, 'On some Tert. Australian Polyzoa,' &c.= Monoporella 
sexangularis, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. p. 
435. 
Range. — Cretaceous, Maestricht (Hagenow) ; Miocene, Aush*alia 
(Waters). 

117. Monoporella albicans, Hincks, ' Contrib. towards Gen. Hist, of 

Mar. Poly.,' 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Feb. 1882, ser. 5, vol. ix. p. 

123, pi. v. figs. 5, 5a, 5b = Cellepora albicans, Waters, ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 512. 
Range. — Miocene, Bairnsdale, Australia (Waters) ; Living, Australian 
seas (Hincks). 

In certain remarks on tbe above species Mr. Waters says (loc. cit. p. 
512), ' I have already pointed ont that Cellepora sardonica, Waters ("Bay 
of Nap. Bry.," A. M. N. H. March 1879, p. 196) ; C. Yarraensis, W. ; 
C. intermedia, MacG ; C. compressa, Busk ; and C. fossa, Hasw., should 
be formed into a sub-genus ; and the present form should be added to 
the list. I am not, however, inclined to think that they will ultimately 
find their place with Monoporella, Hincks.' These forms, as Mr. Waters 
is inclined to leave them with Cellepora provisionally, will be found 
further on. This form after due consideration I place in the genus 
Monoporella. Mr. Hincks describes other forms besides tbe one given, 
but of which I have no fossil record. Monoporella was originally placed 
as Haploporella in the family Microporellidce. 

Family XIII. Porinidj; (part), D'Orbigny. 
Membraniporida?, (part) Busk ; Escharoporidce, (part) Smitt. 

' Zoarium incrusting, or erect and ramified. Zooicia with a raised 
tubular or snbtubular orifice, and frequently a special pore on the front 
wall.'— Hincks, p. 226. 

In the absence of the special pore, and also the ovicell, it would be 
very easy to mistake fossil specimens of Porina lubulosa for Biastopora, 
or even Bidiastopora — but the special characters ought to be sufficient to 
keep the genera distinct ; and although I have met with fossil specimens, 
which I place fearlessly with Biastopora, yet in some of the zocecia there 
are faintly indicative structural peculiarities that cannot be accepted as 
normal features of Cyclostomatous Polyzoa. These, however, should be 
closely studied and noted. In some of the PorinidcB described by Mr. 
Waters, the characters are still very difficult to understand or identify ; 
yet, notwithstanding the apparent anomaly in his synonyms, I think that 
we cannot but be thankful to him for the labours he has bestowed upon 
the group, especially so when we look over synonymous genera given 
below from Hincks. 

Genus Porina, D'Orbigny. 

EscJiara, (part) auctt. ; Bidiastopora, (part) D'Orb. ; Pustulipora, 
(part) Sars ; Bepralia, (part) Busk ; Onchopora, (part) Bask ; Quadri- 



122 report — 1884. 

cellaria, Sars. (not D'Orb.) ; Anarthropora, (part) Smitt ; Tessaradonia 
(part), Norman ; Cylindroporella, sp. Hincks. 

' Zocecia tubular or subtnbular above, with a terminal circular orifice ; 
a median pore on the front wall. Zoarium incrusting, 1 or erect and 
ramose.' — Hincks, p. 227. 

118. Porina tobulosa, Norman = Lepralia tubulosa, Norman — see 

Hincks, p. 230. 
Range. — Scotch Glacial deposits (Geikie) ; Palaeolithic, A. Bell. 
Living, Shetland. 

119. Porina coronata, Reuss (Cellaria ibid., Rss.) ; Waters, 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 338, pi. xvi. fig. 571 = Cellaria 

coronata, Rss., 'Foss. Polyp, des Wien. Tert.' p. 62, pi. viii. 

fig. 3 = Eschara conferta, Rss., he. cit. p. 71, pi. viii. fig. 32 = 

Acropora coronata, Rss., ' Foss. Anth. & Bry. d. S. von Crosara ' 

= Spiroporina vertebralis, Stol. ' Foss. Bry. Orak.' p. 106 = 

Spiroporina vertebralis, T. Woods, ' Cor. & Bry. Neozoic 

Period,' p. 23 = Porina Dieffenbachiana, Stol. (loc. cit. p. 135) 

= Porina Dieffenbachiana, T. Wood (loc. cit. p. 135) = Eschara 

Bushii, T. Wood, ' On some Tert. Aust. Poly.' = Pustulopora 

angulata, T. Wood, ' Tert. Aust. Poly.' 187(5, p. 150 = Myrio- 

zoum australiense, Haswell, ' On some Aust. Poly.' 

Range. — Foss.: Bartonian; Valdi Lonti; Monteccho Maggiore, Vienna; 

Hutchinson Quarry and Oamaru, New Zealand (Lower Eocene of New 

Zealand Geologists) ; Mount Gambier, S.W. Victoria, Australia. Living: 

Queensland. 

120. Porina cltpeata, Waters ; Waters, op. cit. vol. xxxvii., p. 332, 

pi. xvii. fig. 67. 
Eange. — Foss. : S. W. Victoria; Mt. Gambier. 

121. Porina ? columnata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 

p. 334. pi. xviii. fig. 88. 
Probably related to Eschara heterostoma, Rss. ; Escliara duplicaia, Rss. 
For interesting particulars see paper as above. 
Range. S. W. Victoria, Australia, 

122. Porina larvalis, MacGill. ; Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxviii. p. 2G9, pi. viii. fig. 10 (fig. bad) = Lepralia ibid., 
MacG. ' Nat. Hist, of Vict.,' decade iv. p. 30. 
Range. — Fossil : Bairnsdale, Mt. Gambier (Waters). Living: Victoria 
and Bondy Bay, New South Wales. 

Genus Celleporella, Gray. 
See Hincks, p. 413. (No fossil species recorded.) 

Genus Anarthropora, (part) Smitt. 
Hincks, p. 232. (No fossil species recorded.) 

Genus Lagenipora, Hincks. 
Hincks, p. 235. (No fossil species recorded.) 

Family XIV. MTRiozoiDiE, (part) Smitt. 
Celleporidce, (part) Johnston; Porinidce, (part) D'Orb.; Membrani- 
poridce, (part) Busk. 

1 In the British species. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 123 

' Zoarium incrusting, or rising into foliaceous expansions, or dendroid. 
Zocn.cia calcareous, destitute of a membranous area and raised margins ; 
orifice with a sinus on the lower lip.' — Hincks, p. 237. 

Genus Schizoporella, Hincks. 

Lepralia, (part) Johnst. and Busk ; Escharina and Reptoporina, (part) 
D'Orb. ; Escharella, Mollia, Hippothoa, (part) Smitt. 

' Zocucia with a semicircular or suborbicular orifice, the inferior margin 
with a central sinus. Avicularia usually lateral, sometimes median, with 
an acute, or rounded, or spatnlate mandible, occasionally wanting. 
Zoarium incrusting or forming foliaceous expansions.' — Hincks, p. 237. 

123. Schizoporella unicornis, Johnst. (see Hincks, p. 238) = Lepralia, 

ibid. Johnst., Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 45, pi. v. fig. 4 = Lepralia, 
spinifera, var. unicornis, Manzoni, ' Bry. Plioc. Ital.' Prima 
Contrib. p. 7, pi. xi. fig. 11 = Lepralia ansata, Johnst., Reuss, 
'Bry. Ost.-ung.' pi. i. p. 18, pi. vi. fig. 12 = Lepralia ansata, 
Manzoni, ' Bryz. Foss. It.' Contrib. iii. p. 9 = Lepralia tetragona, 
Rss. ' Foss. Polyp, d. Wiener Tert.' p. 78, pi. ix. fig. 19, forma 
unicornis, Manz. 'Bry. Foss. Plioc' Contr. iii. = Lepralia 
ansata, var. tetragona and var. porosa, Reuss. ' Ost.-ungar.' = 
Eeptoporina tetragona, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Ter. Cret.' v. 442. 
Range. — Form unicornis, Cor. Crag, Vienna Basin, Austro-Hung. 

Miocene ; Italian Pliocene ; Scotch Glacial ; Palaeolithic. Form ansata, 

Cor. Crag ; Vienna Basin ; Ital. Pliocene ; Palaeolithic. 

124. Schizoporella vulgaris, Moll. (Eschar a) = Cellepora otophora, 

Reuss, ' Polyp, d. Wien. Tert.' p. 90 = Lepralia cognata, Rss. 
' Bry. d. deutsch.' p. 62 = Lepralia intermedia, Rss. ' Bry. d. 
Ost.-ung.' p. 269 = ? Lepralia tumida, Manz. ' Bryozoa di 
Castro.' p. 25. 
Range. — Vienna Basin, Rss. ; Aust.-Hung. ; Pliocene dep. Bruccoli. 
Living. 

125. Schizoporella linearis, Hassall = Lepralia tenella, Rss. ' Bry. 

d. Ost.-ung.' p. 23. 

This species in a living state varies very much, and it will be well to 
refer to both Mr. Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Poly.' and Mr. Waters's paper on 
Bry. Bay Nap., before describing new fossil species or varieties. 

Range. — Austro-Hung. Miocene ; Pliocene beds, Calabria ; Australia 
(Waters). 

126. Schizoporella biaperta, Michelin (Escliara) = Lepralia ibid. 

Busk, ' Crag P.' p. 47 ; Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 21 = Eepto- 
porina ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Ter. Cret.' 
Range. — English Crag ; Castrocaro ; Miocene, Done, France. Form 
eschariformis, Sicil. Plioc. Bruccoli (Waters). 

127. Schizoporella auriculata, Hassall : Foss. Australia, Waters, 

' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 273. 
• Var.-LEONTiNiENSis, Watei-s, ' Bry. Pliocene, Bruccoli ; ' Waters, ' Man- 
chester Geol. Soc. Trans.' vol. xiv., p. 468, 1878. 
Range. — Sicilian Pliocene. 

128. Schizoporella sinuosa, Busk (see Hincks). 
Range. — Canadian Post-Pliocene, Dawson. Living. 

129. Schizoporella crdenta, Norman = Lepralia violacea var. omenta. 

Busk (Scotch Glacial). 



12 i REPORT— 1884. 

130. Schizoporella HTALiNA, Linnams = Cellepora and Lepralia of 
authors. 

Range. — Scotch Glacial ; Post-Pliocene, Canada ; Coralline and Red 
Crag. Living, very widely distributed. 

131. Schizoporella venusta, Norman ?= Lepralia obvia, Manz. ' Cas- 

trocaro.' 
Range. — Scotch Glacial ; ? Pliocene, Manzoni. 

132. Schizoporella vigilans, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxvii., p. 328, pi. xiv. fig. 13. 

133. Schizoporella phymatopora, Rss. (Eschara ibid.), ' Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 328, pi. xv. fig. 31, 32. 

134. Schizoporella ventricosa, ? Hass. (Onchopora ibid.), 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 328. 

135. Schizoporella fenestrate, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 339. 

136. Schizoporella cubmersa, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 340, pi. xviii. fig. 85. 

137. Schizoporella conservata, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 340, pi. xviii. fig. 81. 

138. Schizoporella spiroporina, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 340. 

139. Schizoporella excubans, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 341, pi. xvi. fig. 56; pi. xviii. fig. 80. 

140. Schizoporella amphora, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. 

xxxvii., p. 341. 

141. Schizoporella australis, T. Woods, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 341, pi. xiv. fig. 15 = Tetraplaria ibid. T. Woods. 

142. Schizoporella Cecilii, And. (Flustra ibid.), ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 272. 

143. Schizoporella corneta, Gabb and Horn, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 272, pi. vii. fig. 5 = Reptescharelliua 
cornuta, G. & H. ' Foss. Pol. of Second and Tert.' 

144. Schizoporella romeycixa, Waters (op. cit. p. 274, Waters), 

pi. ix. fig. 36. 

145. Schizoporella marginipora, Reuss (op. cit. p. 274, Waters), 

pi. vii. fig. 2 = Cellepora ibid. Rss. ' Foss. Polyp. Wien. Tert.' 
= Beptescharelliua prolifera, Gabb & Horn (op. cit.). 

146. Schizoporella acuminata* Jdincks (op. cit. p. 274, Waters). 

147. Schizoporella filifobmis, Waters (Vincularia forma), op. cit. 

p. 274, Waters, pi. vii. fig. 12. 

148. Schizoporella schizosto.ma, MacG. (Lepralia ibid.), op. cit. p. 274 ; 

Waters, and vol. xxxix. p. 439. 
Range. — The whole of the above seventeen species of Schizoporella are 
given on the faith of Mr. A. W. Waters. They are nearly all Australian 
fossil forms, one or two doubtfully related to European and American 
forms. Very full particulars — especially of the new species — are given 
by Mr. Waters iu the various published papers already quoted. 

Genus Mastigophora, Hincks. 

' Zooecia with a semicircular orifice, the inferior margin straight, with 
a central sinus : furnished with lateral vibracula. Zoarium incrusting.' 
—Hincks, p. 278. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 125 

149. MastigophoraDutertrei, And. (Flustra ibid) =Lepr alia Woodiana 

Busk, ' Crag Poly. ' p. 42, pi. vii., figs. 1 and 3=Lepralia 
aurita, Reuss, ' Bryoz. d. deutseb. Septarien.' p. 62=Lepralia 
otophota, Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 23 (non L. olophora, Rss.). 
Range. — Cor. Crag, Mitteloligociin (Rss.), Older Pliocene, Castrocaro. 
Living. 

Genus Rhyxchopora, Hincks. 1 

No fossil species recorded. See Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Poly.' p. 385. 

Genus Schizotheca, Hincks, p. 283. 
No record of fossil species. 

Genus Hippothoa, Lamouroux. 

Catenicella, (part) Blainv. ; ? Terebripora, D'Orb. ; Mollia, (part) 
Smitt. 

' Zocecia distant, caudate, connected with one another by a slender 
prolongation of the lower extremity, so as to form linear series ; brancbes 
given off from the sides of tbe cells ; orifice subterminal, suborbicular, 
with the lower margin sinuated or produced. Zoarium adherent.' — 
Hincks, p. 286. 

150. Hippothoa divaricata, Lamx=H". patagonica, Busk, ' Crag,' 
p. 24, pi. i. fig. 5 ; H. longicaudia, Fischer=jff. patagonica, 
Busk. 

Range. — Pliocene, Castrocaro, rare (Manzoni) ; Scotch Glacial ; 
Palaeolithic ; var. patagonica, Cor. Crag ; Hippurite Limestone, St. 
Gregoire (Michelin). 

151. Hippothoa expansa, Dawson (see Hincks for description, op. tit. 

p. 291). ' The species is distinguished from II. divaricata by its 
large size.' — Hincks. 
Range. — Post- Pliocene. Beaufort and Rivi6re-du-Loup, Canada 
(Dawson). Living, Shetland. 

152. Hippothoa flagellum, Manzoni, ' Bryoz. Foss. Ital.' 4th Contrib. 

6, p. 1, f. 4. 
Range. — Pliocene, Calabria ; Castrocaro (Manzoni). 

Family XY. Escharidje, (part) Smitt. 

This is by far the most important family group founded by the Rev. 
Thomas Hincks in his work on the ' Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' and the 
description of the genera and species occupies over 100 pages of the 
work. So far as the different genera have been worked, the grouping 
appears to be perfectly natural ; but at the same time, as our knowledge 
increases of the foreign Recent as well as Fossil forms, some of the 
genera might require modification. Under present circumstances it is 
best to adopt the family as it is. 

' Zoarium calcareous, incrusting, or erect and lamellate, or ramose. 
Zooccia without a membranous area, or raised margins: («) with a 
simple primary aperture, horseshoe-shaped, or semielliptical, or subor- 
bicular ; or (/3) with an elevated secondary orifice inclosing an avicu- 
lariutn ; or (y) with a primary orifice having a dentate lower margin, 
and a secondary orifice channelled in front or entire ; or (£), with the 

1 This genus is wrongly placed among the Escliaridcc. It belongs to the family 
Myriozoidie. 



126 EEroRT — 1884. 

lower margin elevated into a mucro ; in all cases destitute of a true sinus 
and special pores.' — Hincks, p. 295. 

Mr. Hincks gives (p. 296) a brief synopsis of this group, made up of 
three divisions : — 

I. Species -with a simple primary orifice. Genera: Lepralia, Um- 
bomrta. 1 

II. Species with a secondary orifice differing in form from the primary. 
Genera : Porella, Escharoides, Smittia, Phylactella. 

III. Species with a mucronate elevation of the peristome. Genera : 
Mucronella, PalmiceUaria, Rhynchopora. 2 

I. With a simple primary orifice only. 
Genus Lepealca, Johnston (part). 

' Zoo'cia usually ovate, with the orifice more or less horseshoe-shaped, 
arched above, contracted at the sides, and with the lower margin entire 
and generally slightly curved outwards. Zonrium incrusting, or rising 
into foliated expansions, composed of one or two layers of cells.' — P. 297. 

153. Lepralia Pallasiana, Moll. (Eschafa). Busk, 'Crag Poly.' 
pi. is. fig. 7; Waters, ' Bruccoli Paper.' 

Range. — -Pliocene : Bruccoli, Sicily, Crag. Living : Scandinavia, 
British. 

154. Lepralia foliacea, Ellis and Sol. ; Manzoni, ' Brioz. Foss. Ital.' 

4th Contr. p. 18, pi. i. f. 4 ; pi. iv. f. 24. Waters, ' Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 268, pi. vii. fig. 3. ' There is a slight, 
difference in the placement of the avicularia in the Australian 
form.' — See paper by Mr. Waters. 
Range. — Bairnsdale, Australia ; Italian and Sicilian Pliocene ; Bruc- 
coli (Waters). Living, various localities. 

155. Lepealia peetdsa, Esper (Cellepora). 

Range. — Fossil: .Scotch Glacial; Pateolithic (A. Bell); Australia 
(Waters). 

156. Lepealia adpressa, Busk=Le2J?vJwt lata, Manzoni, ' Bri. Plio. 
Ital.' 1st Contr., pi. iii. f. 2. 

Range. — Fossil : Italian Pliocene, Manzoni. Living. 

157. Lepralia hippopus, Smitt. 

Range. — Post- Pliocene, Canada (Dawson). Living. 

158. Lepralia edax, Busk {Cellepora, ibid.), ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 59, 
pi. ix. fig. 6, pi. xxii. tig. 3 = Gumulipora anguloAa, V. 
Munst., Rss. ' Septarien.' p. 63, pi. viii. fig. 12=L. edax, Waters, 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 270. 

Range. — Fossil: Australia, Mt. Gambier; Sellingen (Reuss.) ; Crag 
(Busk). Living. 

159. Lepralia corruoata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxvii., p. 335, pi. xvii. fig. 60. S. W. Victoria. 

160. Lepralia monilifera, M.-Ed., var. annata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 335, pi. xv. fig. 24. S. W. Victoria. 

161. Lepralia spatulata, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 
p. 335, pi. xviii. fig. 87. S. W. Victoria. 

162. Lepralia oleldostoma, Smitt, var. rotunda, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 335, pi. xviii. fig. 92. S. W. Victoria. 

1 T'mhonclla in text, pp. 296 and 316. 

- The genus Rhynchopora, is not given by Mr. Hincks in the introduction. I have, 
however, included it : see p. 3. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 127 

163. Lepralia Borlingtoniensis, Waters (Vincularia forma), ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 270, pi. vii. f. 6. Bairnsdale. 

164. Lepralia depressa, Busk, var., ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. 509. 

165. Lepralia Bairnsdalei, "Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxviii., p. 509. 

166. Lepralia Gippslandii, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 

xxxviii., p. 509, pi. xxii. f. 12. 
Ttange. — The whole of the above are fossil species and varieties, 
described by Mr. Waters as occurring in his 'Australian Miocene' ? Material. 

Genus Umeonula, Hincks (see Brit. M.P. p. 316). 

167. Umbonula verrucosa, Esper (? Gellepora ibid.). 
Mange. — Scotch Glacial ; Palaeolithic (Bell). Living. 

II. With a raised secondary orifice. 

Genus Porella, Gray. 

' Zooicia with a primary orifice, semicircular ; secondary (or adult) 
orifice elongate, inversely sub-triangular or hoi'seshoe-shaped, inclosing 
an avicularium usually with a rounded mandible. Zoarium incrusting or 
erect ; foliaceous, with a single layer of cells, or ramose' — Hincks, 
p. 320. 

168. Porella concinna, Busk (Lepralia ibid.) = Lepralia Belli, Dawson 

' Rep. Geo. Surv. Canada.' Porella concinni, Waters, ' Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 271. 
Range. — Scotch Glacial ; Palaeolithic ; Post-Pliocene, Canada ; 
Miocene? Mt. Gambier, Australia (Waters). 

169. Porella minuta, Norman (Lepralia, ibid.) = ? Lepralia cldlopora, 

Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' 32, pi. iv. f. 51. 
Range. — Older Pliocene, Castrocaro (Manzoni), ' If I am right in the 
identification' (Hincks). Living: only a few British localities — Shet- 
land, Hastings (Jelly). 

170. Porella emendata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 
p. 336, pi. xvii. fig. 69. 

171. Porella denticdlata, Stol. (Waters), ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxvii., p. 936, pi. xvii. fig. 7Q=Flustrella ibid. (Stol.), 
' Foss. Bry. Orak.' p. 183, pi. xx. fig. 2. 

172. Porella marsupiuji, MacG. (Waters), op. cit. vol. xxxix.,p. 437= 

Lepralia ibid., MacG. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict.' 1868. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia (Waters) ; MacGillivray. 

Genus Escharoides, Smitt. 
No fossil record. See Hincks, ' Brit. M. Pol.' p. 336. 

Genus Smittia, Hincks. 

' Zooicia with the primary orifice suborbicular, the lower margin entire 
find dentate ; peristome elevated, and forming a secondary orifice, which is 
channelled in front ; generally an avicularium below the sinus. Zoarium 
cither incrusting, or erect and foliaceous, the cells in a single or double 
layer.' — Hincks, p. 340. 



128 report— 1884. 

173. Smittia Landsborvii, Johnst. ; Lepralia ibid. See Hincks for 

minute particulars, pp. 341-346. 

174. Var. cryslallina, Norman. 

Range. — Geikie records the variety as occurring in Scotch Glacial beds. 
Living. 

]7-3. SMITTIA RETICULATA, Mac G. (Leprcdia ibid.); Waters, 'Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc.'vol. xxxviii. ; Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Pol.' p. 340, 
pi. xlviii. figs. 1-5. 
Range. — Fossil: Bairnsdale, Australia. Living: Northern Seas, Brit., 
Australia. 

170. Smittia cheilostoma, Manzoni = Lepralia ibid., ' Bry. Foss.' 

3rd contrib. p. 13, pi. iv. fig. 22. 
Range. — Italian Pliocene. Living, abundant, South coast. 

177. Smittia trispinosa, Johnst. = Discopora ibid., Johnst. ; see Hincks, 

p. 353 = S. trispinosa, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Gcol. Soc.' vol. 
xxxviii., p. 272, pi. viii. fig. 20. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia (Waters, Mt. Gambier) ; Post-Pliocene, 
Canada (Dawson). Living: Very widely distributed. 

178. Smittia centralis, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 

p. 337. S. W. Victoria. 
170. Smittia centralis, var.' laevigata, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 337, pi. xiv. figs. 7 and 8. S. W. Victoria. 
18C. Smittia Tatei, T. Woods. (Eschara ibid. T. W.) 'Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 337, pi. xvii. fig. 65. Mt. 

Gambier = Eschara porrecta, T. Wood, ' On some Tert. Aust. 

Pol.' 

181. Smittia anceps, MacG. (Liepralia ibid.) Waters, 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 337, pi. xviii. fig. 94. 

182. Smittia bi-ixcisa, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol, Soc' vol. xxxviii., 

p. 272, pi. vii. fig. 1. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia (Waters). 

183. Smittia seriata, Reuss = Ltpralia ibid. Reuss, ' Die Foss. Bry. 

des. Ost.-ung.' p. 32, pi. ii. fig. 12 = Smittia ibid. Waters, 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 272, pi. viii. fig. 17. 
Range. — Miocene, Baden (Rss.) ; Australia, Mt. Gambier, Waters. 

184. Smittia Napieri, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., 

p. 438, pi. xii. fig. 14. 
Range. — Miocene, Napier ; New Zealand ; Waurn Ponds, Busk. 

185. Smittia top.rita, Smitt = Lepralia ibid.. Sm., ' Floridan Bry.' 

p. 05, pi. xi. figs. 220-228= 8. turrita, Sm., Waters, 'Quart, 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 438. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia. Living, Florida. 

Genus Puylactella, Hincks. 
Lepralia sp., auctt. Alisidota sp., Busk. 
' Zoo?cia with the primary orifice more or less semicircular, the lower 
margin usually dentate ; peristome much elevated, not produced or chan- 
nelled in front. No avicularia. Zoarium incrusting.' — Hincks, p. 350. 
185a. Phylactella, collaris, Norman (Lepralia ibid.) = Smittia collaris 
var., Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 438, pi. 
xii. fig. 10. 
Mr. A. W. Waters, in his remarks on Smittia collaris, Nor., given 
above, says : ' I have always found the greatest difficulty in distinguishing 



ON FOSSIL TOLTZOA. 129 

between Phylactella and Smittia, and have always expressed my doubts 
as to the advisability of using the shape of the peristome as a generic 
character ; and the present form, which is closely allied to, if not identical 
with, V.collaris, Norman, has decided me to only use the name Smittia 
for what are looked upon as belonging to these two genera.' 

Range. — Miocene, Australia, Waurn Ponds and Waurn Quarry 
(Waters). Living, Brit, localities. 

186. Phylactella labrosa, Busk = Ahjsidata ibid., 'Crag Pol.' p. 26, 

pi. xxii. fig. 7. 
Range. — Red Crag. Living, several Brit, localities. 

III. With a mucronate peristome. 

Genus Mucronella, Hincks. 

' Zocecta with a suborbicular or semicircular orifice ; the peristome 
elevated in front into a more or less prominent mucro. Zoarium in- 
crusting.' — Hincks, p. 360. 

187. Mucronella Peachii, Johnst. = Lepralia ibid., Busk, ' Crao- 

Pol,' p. 48, pi. v. figs. 6, 7, 3 ; pi. vi. fig. 4. 
Range- — Coralline Crag, abundant ; Mid. Pliocene beds, Suffolk Crao- ; 
Upper Pliocene; Palaeolithic (A. Bell) ; Scotch Glacial (Geikie). 

188. Mucronella ventricosa, Hassall = Lepralia ibid., Busk, ' Crao- 

Pol.' p. 49, pi. vi. figs. 3 and 6 = Lepralia ibid., arrecla, Rss. 
'Bry. Ost.-ungar.' p. 24, pi. ii. fig. 11. 
Range. — Coralline Crag ; Aus. Mid. Pliocene, Palasolithic (Bell) ; 
Miocene, Austro-Hung. (Reuss). Living, rather widely distributed. 

189. Mucronella VARIOLOSA, Johnst. = Lepralia ibid., Busk, ' Crao- 

Pol.' p. 48, pi. iv. fig. 6 (? fig. 8), and pi. viii.fig. 8 = Lepralia 
serrulata, Rss., 'Bry. Ost.-ung.' p. 27, pi. ii. figs. 2 and 3 = 
Lepralia tenera, Rss., ibid. p. 27, pi. ii. fig. 4. 
Range. — Miocene, Austro-Hungary (Reuss) ; Mid. Pliocene; Coralline 
and Red Crag. Living : Northern Seas. 

190. ? Mucroxella microstoma, Norman (Hincks, p. 370). Waters, 

'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 265. 
Range. — Doubtfully, Australia, Mt. Gambier. Living, Shetland. 

191. Mucronella coccinea, Johnst. (Hincks, p. 271) = Lepralia ma- 

millata, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 46, pi. vi. fig. 5 = Lepralia 
mamillata, Manzoni, 2nd Cont. p. 6, pi. ii. fig. S = Lepralia 
pteropcra, Reuss, ' Pol. Wien. T.' p. 81. pi. ix. fig. 26 = Le- 
pralia pteropora, Manzoni, ' Bry. Foss. Ital.' 3rd Cont. p. 1, 
fig. 3 = Distans escharellina, ibid., D'Orb., ' Pal. Franc ; ' 
Lepralia peregrina, Manzoni, loc. cit. p. 6, pi. i. ficr. 5 = 
? Lepralia fulgurans, Manzoni, loc. cit. p. 7, pi. i. fig. 6 ; Lepralia, 
quadricornuta, Dawson, ' Canad. Naturalist,' 1857; Lepralia 
resupinaia, Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 20, pi. ii. fig. 26 ; Lepralia 
re'supinata, Waters, 'Bry. Bruccoli,' loc. cit. p. 474; Mucronella, 
coccinea, Johnst., Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii 
p. 266. 
Range. — Fossil : Eocene ; Miocene, Europe ; Miocene, Australia, Mt. 
Gambier; Pliocene, Crag ; Quaternary, Livorno, Manzoni. Living. 

192. Mucronella mucronata, Smitt = Escliaripora ibid., ' Floridan 

Bry.' p. 24, pi. v. figs. 113-115 = ? Eschara Licersidgii, T. 
1884. g 



130 REPORT— 1884. 

Woods, 'Tert. Ausfc. Pol.' 1876, p. 3 = M . inuoronata, Waters, 
' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 328, p. xvii. fig. 60. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia. Living: Florida (S mitt). 

193. Mucronella duplicata, Waters (Vincularia form), 'Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc.' vol. xxxvii., p. 328, pi. xvi. fig. 54. 

194. Mucronella elegans, MacG. (var. ?), ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

vol. xxxvii., p. 329, pi. xviii. fig. 91 = ? Eschara elegans, 
MacG., ' Aust. Poly. Trans. R. Soc' Victoria. 

195. Mucronella nitida, Verrill = Discopora ibid., Ver., • Amer. 

Journ. Sc' vol. ix. p. 415, pi. vii. fig. 3, 1875 = Lepralia re- 
ticulata, var. inaiqnalis, Waters, ' Bry. of Naples ' = Mucronella 
nitida, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., p. 507. 
Range. — Miocene, Australia. Living. M. elegans and nitida. 

196. Mucronella porosa, Hincks, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 

(Addendum, p. 512) vol. xxxviii. = Hincks, ' General Hist, of 
Mar. Polyzoa; ' 'Ann. M. Nat. Hist.' ser. 5, vol. viii. p. 124, 
pi. i. fig. 4. 
Range. — Fossil : S.W. Victoria, Australia. Living : Curtis II'., Singa- 
pore, Tasmania. 

Genus Palmicellaria, Alder. 
' Zooecia with tlie primary orifice orbicular, or ranging from semi- 
circular to semielliptical ; the peristome elevated around it, so as to form 
a secondary orifice, and carried out in front into a projecting palmate or 
mucronate process with an avicularium on its inner aspect. Zoarium erect 
and ramose, or lamellate.'- — -Hincks, p. 378. 

197. Palmicellaria Skenei, Ell. and Sol. (Millepora ibid.) = Lepralia 

hicornis, ' Crag Pol.' p. 47, pi. viii. figs. 6 and 7 ; ' Brit. Mar. 
Poly.' p. 380 = P. Skenei, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxviii., p. 511. 
Range. — Fossil : Crag (Mr. Waters puts ?) ; Bairnsdale, Australia 
(Waters). Living: Northern Seas. 

Genus Retepora, Imperato. 
See Hincks, op. cit., for special details, pp. 388 to 397. 
' Zocecia disposed on the front surface of an erect and ramose zoarium, 
the branches of which usually inosculate and form a reticulate expansion ; 
orifice semicircular or semielliptical, with a pi'ominent rostrum on the 
lower margin, bearing an avicularium. Zoarium adherent by means of 
an incrusting base, composed in great part of aborted cells ; avicularia 
developed on both the back and front of the zoarium.' — Hincks, p. 388 
(op. cit.). 

198. Retepora Beaniana, King (' B. M. Pol.' p. 391), ibid. Busk, 

' Crag Pol.' p. 75, pi. xii. figs. 2, 5, 6, and 7 ; Waters, ' Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix., p. 439. But Mr. Waters doubts 
whether the species described by Stoliczka is really R. Beaniana. 
— ? Lepralia lobata, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 50, pi. vi. fig. 7 ; pi. 
xxii. fig. 4, the young state. 
Range. — Fossil: Coralline and Red Crag; Miocene, Australia ; Waters. 
Living. 

199. Retepora Couchii, Hincks (op. cit., p. 395) = R. cellulosa, var. 
Beaniana, Manzoni, ' Bry. Foss. Ital.' 4th Contrb. p. 19, pi. v. 
fig. 26. 

Range. — Italian Pliocene beds, Manzoni. Living. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 131 

200. Retepora maesuputa, Smitt (' Floridan Bryozoa ') = Philodophora 

lab lata, Gabb & Horn, ' Polyzoa of Second and Tert. Form, of 
N". America,' p. 138, pi. xix. fig. 21 ; Waters, • Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc' vol. xxxvii., p. 342, pi. xv. figs. 34-36 figs. 59-61, 76, 77. 
Range. — Miocene, S. Barbara, Amer. (G. & H.) ; Mt Garabier, Aus- 
tralia (Waters). Living : Floridan seas (Smitt) ; Teneriffe (Bnsk). 

201. Retepora rimata, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvii., 
p. 343, pi. xvi. figs. 48, 35. 

202. Retepora deserta, Waters, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii., 
p. 511. 

Range — S.W. Victoria; Mt. Gambier, R. rimata; Bairnsdale, R. 
deserta. 

Genus Cellepora, (part) Fabricius. 

Celleporaria, Lamk. : Reuss, D'Orb. (for branched species). Spongites, 
Oken: Reptocelleporaria (sp.), D'Orb. (for incrusting species). 

' Zueecia arceolate, erect or sub-erect, heaped together, or irregularly 
disposed ; the orifice terminal, with one or more ascending rostra in con- 
nection with it, bearing avicularia. Zoarium incrusting, often composed 
of many layers of cells, or erect and ramose.' — Hincks, p. 398. 

203. Cellepora pumicosa, Linnaeus. (See Hincks, op. tit., p. 399.) 

? Manzoni, 'Ital. Plioc Foss.' 
Range. — Scotch Glacial (Geikie) ; Ital. Pliocene ? (Manzoni) ; G. 
licosa, Busk (non Linn.) ; Australia (Waters, op. tit., vol. xxxviii., 
p. 514). Living, generally distributed. 

204. Cellepora ramulosa, Linn. (Hincks, p. 401, op. tit.) ; Busk, 

' Crag Poly.' p. 58, pi. ix. fig. 2 ; Manzoni, ' Bri. Foss.' 4th 
Contr. p. 12, pi. v. figs. 29, 29', pi. vi. figs. 30, 30', 30". 
Range. — Coral Crag ; Ital. Pliocene. Living, widely distributed. 

205. Cellepora tdbigera, Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 60, pi. ix. figs. 8 
& 10; Manzoni, 'Bri. Foss.' 4th Contr., p. 14, pi. iv. fig. 
25 (?). 

Range. — Coral Crag ; ? Ital. Pliocene (Manzoni). Living. 

206. Cellepora Costazii, Aud. (Hincks, op. cit. p. 411) = Cellepora 
Hassallii, 'Brit. Mus. Cat.;' Manzoni, 'Bri.' 4th Contr. p. 17, 
pi. iv. fig. 22. 

Range. — Italian Pliocene (Manzoni). Living. 

207. Cellepora tarraensis, Waters, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. 
xxxvii., p. 343. See 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 
512, pi. xxii. fig. 8. 

208. Cellepora fossa, Haswell (Waters), ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' 
vol. xxxvii., p. 343, pi. xviii. fig 89 = Splueropora, ibid., Hass., 
' On some Poly, from the Queensland Coast.' 

Range. — Miocene, Australia (Waters), and Mt. Gambier. Living (C. 
> : Holborn Is., Queensland. 

Sub-order II. Cyclostomata, Busk. 

Cijclostomata, Smitt ; Tuhdepnrina, Milne-Ed., Johnst. ; Aidoporina 
and Myrioporina, (part) Ehrenb. ; Cerioporina, (part) Bronn ; 
Centrifuginea, (part) D'Orbigny. 

' Zocp.cia tubular, with a plain inoperculate orifice ; marsupia and 
appendicular organs wanting.' — Hincks, p. 139. 

k2 



132 rei>okt— 1884. 

Group I. Kadicellata, D'Orbigny, Smitt. 
Articulata s. radiata, Bask, ' Crag Polyzoa.' 
' Zoarium erect, articulated, attached by radical tubes.' 

Family I. CbisiIM, Johnston. 

' Zoarium, dendroid, calcareous, composed of segments, united by 
corneous joints. Zooicia tubular, disposed in one or two series.'— Hincks, 

p. 417. 

Genus Unicrisia, D'Orb. 

Type Unicrisia viadobonensis, D'Orb. 

lam not familiar, otherwise than by figure, with D"Orbigny's species, 
but the form described and figured by Reuss in his ' Val di Lonti 
Bryozoa,' is present also in the Bryozoa material from Montecchio 
Maggiore, North Italy, though not given iu the lists of the author. 
The zoarium is uniserial, but unlike any other uniserial Crisia known to 
me. The zooscia are borne upon a kind of stolon, out of which the cells 
are developed, and these are pyriform ; the proximal part of the cell 
contracting and the distal protruding from the stolon. 

1. UxiCRiSfA tenerrima, Reuss = ? Unicrisia vindolonetisis, D'Orb., 
' Palaaontol. Ter. Cret.' = Crista vindobonensis, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. 
d. WieD. Tert.' 

llange. — Miocene, Val di Lonti ; Montecchio Maggiore, K Italy. 

Genus Crisia, (part) Lamouroux. 

' Zoo:-cia iu a single series, or in two alternate series.' — Hincks, p. 418. 

I have no knowledge of Fossil Crisia of the type Crisia cornnia, Linn. 
The only unicellular form known to me is the one already described, and 
this is .so unlike any Crisia known to occur in a recent state, that. I place 
• it in the group out of deference to Reuss and D'Orbigny, and because the 
fragments are too small to allow of proper location in this or in any other 
group. The following, however, are true Crisice but I am not certain 
that all the identifications of authors are correct. Anyone who has 
studied this genus in large masses must be convinced that the characters 
upon which species are founded vary considerably. These characters are, 
for the most part, the number of cells to each iuternode and the positions 
from which the branches arise. Thus we find that C. eburaea, 1 C. denticu- 
lata, C. acropora, C. eburneo-denticulata, and C. margaritacca have, so far 
as features are concerned, a common likeness. In C. elongata and C. 
sinclarensis we have another special feature, especially so in the crowded 
state of the minute foramina of the cells. In C.fistidosa, C. tubulosa, and 
C. Holdsivorthii, we have different characters again ; while in C. Ed- 
ivardsiana and C. eonferta we have two additional types of zooccia and also 
zoarium. In a fossi'l state, it would be difficult indeed to distinguish 
specific characters in the first group, but not so difficult with the other 
groups. In the following list, then, so far as I have a personal knowledge 
of the forms, I will distinguish the first as Group a. The others are 
sufficiently characteristic to allow of proper identification in the fossil 
state. 

1 See Brit. Mus. Catalogue, pt. iii. ; ' Marine Tolyzoa,' Busk, and rlates. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 133 

Group a. 

2. Crisia eburnea, Linn. 3. Crisia denticulata, Lamk. = Crista 
subcequalis, Reuss, ' Paliiont. Stud.' = Crisia gracilis, Roemer, 
' Norddeutsch. Tert. &c.' p. 23, tab. iii. 3 = Crisia, undescribed, 
'Australian Bryozoa '=Crisia, undescribed, 'Australian Bryozoa,' 
C. elongata type = Crisia denticulata ? Busk, ' Crag Polyz.' p. 
93, pi. i. fig. 8. 

J2a»j/e.— Scotcb. Glacial ; Post-Pliocene, Montreal (Dawson) ; Suffolk 
Crag, Palaeolithic (Bell) ; Miocene, Australia, undescribed, 1 but 
in my cabinet; Anstro-Hungarian Miocene, Reuss. I see no 
reason for separating from the above group the North Dutch 
species of Roemer, or the North Italy species of Reuss. 

4. Crisia fistulosa, Heller (non Busk), ' Bry. Bay of Naples, Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist.' Ap. I860, p. 268 = C. Haueri, Rss., ' Foss. Polyz. 
des W. Tertb.' p. 54, pi. vii. fig. 22-24 = ? 0. eburnea, Manzoni, 
' Bri. Foss. del Mioc. Aust.-Ungh.' p. 3, pi. i. fig. 1. 
Range. — Miocene, Nassdorf ; Berchtoldsdorf and Wieliczka, Pliocene ; 
Rhodes (M.). Living, Naples. 

5. Crisia elongata var. angustata, Waters, 'Bry. Bay Nap.' he. tit., 

p. 269, pi. xxiii. fig. 4 = ? 0. Edwardsii, Reuss, ' Die Polyp. W. 
T.' p. 53, pi. vii. fig. 20 = ? C. Edwardsii, Manz. ' I Bri. Foss. 
Aust. ed Ungh.' The above are the suggested identifications 
by Mr. Waters. 
Range. — Miocene, Austro-Hnng. Living, Naples. 
I have a fragment of a species with ovicell like C. conferta, Busk 
(' Brit. Mus. Catalogue,' pi. vi. A, pt. iii. p. 7), among my material from 
Montecchio Maggiore. I would be glad if local students would search 
for and describe the form. 

The following are given by Reuss in bis ' Foss. Pol. des W.' as occur- 
ring in the Marine Limestone of Nussdorf and Eisenstadt. 

Crisia Edwardsii, Reuss ; C. Homesii, R. ; C. Haueri, 2 Rss. ; Crisidia 
vindobonensis (Unicrisia) . 

Group II. Incrustata, D'Orbigny. 

' Centrifugenes empalees a cellules non operculees,' D'Orb. (pars) ; 
' Inarticulate seu adfixte,' Busk, ' Crag Pol.' ; Inckttsta, D'Orb., Smitt. 

Zoarium continuous, calcareous, not divided by corneous joints, or 
furnished with radicle tubes ; erect and attached by a contracted base, or 
recumbent and immediately adnate, either wholly or in part. 

In my last ' Brit. Assoc. Report on Foss. Polyzoa ' (Southport, 1883), 
I felt compelled to found the Family Stomatoporichn for the inclusion 
of peculiar Palaeozoic and Massozoic forms. In this grouping I took 
Stomatopora as the type of the family, The Recent Stomatojporce are, 
however, so multiform in habit that it seems to me unwise to increase the 
difficulties by placing in the way of the student any ill-digested or 
unnatural associations. But the case may be stated thns : the_ Stomato- 
pora? of the older rocks differ in many points from those existing in our 
present seas. The simple forms such as 8. granulata, Bdw., agree with 

1 Since this was written Mr. Waters has sent his promised paper on the 
Australian Cyclostomata to the Geol. Soc. (read June, 1884), and it will be found in 
vol. xl. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. (G. R. V.) 

- C Haueri, Rss. ; similar to C. eburnea Lamx., Rss. 



134 report— 1884. 

many of the Cretaceous and Jurassic species in their unicellular character, 
and Stomatopora major, except in the want; of fenestration, seem to be 
allied to forms described by Prof. Nicholson from the Cincinnati rocks of 
America, but my own uniserial forms differ from the Jurassic. 1 

Family II. Tubuliporid^;. 

Zoarium entirely adherent, or more or less free and erect, multiform, 
often linear, or flabellate or lobate, sometimes cylindrical. Zooecia 
tubular, disposed in contiguous series, or in single lines. Ocecium an 
inflation of the surface of the zoarium at certain points or a modified cell. 

In Busk's ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 91, the Tubuliporidse include the three 
genera — Mesenteripora,~B\a,inv., Tubidipora, Lamk., and Alecto (Stomato- 
pora) Lamx. In the ' III. Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Polyzoa,' p. 23, Alecto, 
Stomatopora and Tubidipora only are included. The Mesenteripora is 
relegated to the Diastoporidse. In Mr. Hincks' ' Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' 
the Tubuliporida? include the genera — 

Stomatopora, Bronn. Entalopjiora, Lamx. 

TuBULiPORA, Lamk. Diastopoea, (part) Lamx. 

Idmonea, Lamx. 

Genus Stomatopora, Bronn. 

1821, Alecto, 2 Lamx. ; 1825, Stomatopora, Bronn.; 1S26, Aulopora, 

Goldfuss (part). 

Zoarium repent, wholly adnate, or free at the extremities, or giving off 
erect processes, simple or branched ; branches more or less ligulate. 
Zoo ria in great part immersed, arranged in a single series or in several, 
which take a linear direction or are very slightly divergent. — Busk, 
'Brit. Mus. Cat. III.' p. 23 ; Hincks, ' Brit, Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 424. 

Of my own knowledge I have but little to furnish respecting Tertiary 
Stomatopora below the ' Crag.' My continental material, both Eocene 
and Miocene, has only yielded to me a few very minute fragments of two 
species. In his work on the ' Bryozoa of Castrocaro ' (Pliocene), Manzoni 
describes three species of Stomatopora (Alecto) as found by him. One 
species of very frequent occurrence is named by him Alecto. Gastrocarensis, 
Manzoni. It is a very fine example of this type. The large and peculiar 
character of the cells is noted by the author (' Brioz. Castro.' p. 40, pi. vi. 
figs. 71, 71'). Thezocecice are granulose and punctate, but except that he 
speaks of the grand dimensions of the cells we are left in entire ignorance 
of their natural size. Besides this beautiful form Manzoni describes and 
figures two other Stomatoporce — S. (Alecto) repens, 3 Wood, and S. (Alecto) 
parasita, 4 Heller. 

In the ' Crag Polyzoa' (p. 112, pi. xx. figs. 5, 8, and ibid. figs. 6, 7) 
Mr. Busk describes and figures A. repens, S. Wood, and A. dilatans, W. 
Thomson. I cannot regard — so far as I may be allowed to express an 
opinion by comparing the figures in the absence of specimens of Manzoni's 
type — the A. repens of Busk, and the A. repens of Manzoni as one and the 
same species. The Crag specimens in my cabinet show very well the 
characters of Busk's species, but none of the cell characters of Manzoni's. 

1 See ' Silurian Uniserial Stomatoporae and Wenlock Polyzoa ' (ruihi\ Quart. 
Jovr. Gcol. Soc, Aug. 1881, Feb. 1882. 

- Name previously used for a group of Echinoderms by Leach (1814). 
* Ibid. tav. vi. fig. 72. 4 Tav. vii. fie. B9 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 135 

In his ' Bryozoa of the Bay of Naples ' (p. 273, op. cit. Ap. 1879), Mr. 
Waters associates with A. repent!, Wood, the Diastopora echinata, Rss., and 
D. repi. ns, Smitt, and describes, but does not figure, a variety of ^4. repens, 
Wood, as A. repens, var. vitriensis (habitat on Terebratula vitrea). Mr. 
Hincks, however ('Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 427), gives the following 
synonymy : Stomatopora major, Johnston = Tubulipora repens, S. V. Wood 
= Alecto repens, Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' pi. 112, fig. 8 (not fig. 5). 

6. Stomatopora granulata, M.-Edw., Hincks, p. 425, pi. lvii. figs. 1, 2; 

Busk, ' Brit. Mus. Cat. III.' p. 23, pi. xxxii. fig. 1 = 8. granulata, 
D'Orb ; S- incrassata, D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' = ? Alecto parasita, 
Heller, ' Bry. Adr.' p. 40, pi. iii. fig. 10 =? Alecto parasita, 
Manzoni, ' Castrocaro,' p. 41, pi. vii. fig. 69 = ? Stomatopora. 
minima, Roemer, 'Bry.' woodcut, p. 22, pi. iii. fig. 2. 
Range. — Hincks says, ' Gres vert inferieur, France ; Norddeut. Tert. 

Oligocan' (Roemer, 8. minima) ; Castrocaro (Manzoni). Living: Adriatic 

and Brit. Seas. 

7. Stomatopora rugulosa, Rss. ; Axdopora ibid. Rss. ' Foss. Pol. dos 

Wiener Tert.' Marine Limest. 

8. Stojiatopora divaricata, Rss. ; Aulopora, ibid. Rss. ' Foss. Pol. de3 

Wiener Tert.' Marine Limest. 

9. Stomatopora regularis, Gabb & Horn ; Alecto ibid., G. & H. ' Mon. 

Foss. Pol.' Cretaceous, New Jersey. 
I give the above on the authority of the authors rather than suppress 
the names. 

10. Stomatopora major, Johnst. ; Hincks, ' Brit. M. Pol.' p. 427, 

pi. lviii. and pi. Ixi. fig. 1 = ? Tubulipora repens, S. Wood; 
Alecto ibid., Busk, ' Crag Poly.' p. 112, pi. xx. fig. 8 (not 5) = 
Tubulipora fimbriata, ? Michelin (Busk, loc. cit. p. U2) = Idmonea 
ramosa, D'Orb. p. 632, figs. 1, 2 (Busk, loc. cit. p. 112) ; Waters, 
' Bry. Bay Naples,' loc. cit. p. 273, as Alecto repens, Wood. Syn. 
Waters, iJiastopora echinata, Rss. ' Foss. Polyp, des W. T.' p. 52, 
pi. vii. figs. 14, 15 ; IJiastopora repens, Smitt, ' Krit. Fort.' p. 395, 
1866. 
Range. — Miocene, Eisenstadt (Rss.) ; Pliocene, Crag, Castrocaro 

(Manzoni — as S. major, Hks.), Coralline and Red Crag. Living: Several 

localities, Brifc. Seas ; Naples. 

11. Stomatopora dilataxs, Johnst.; Hincks, 'B. M. Poly.' p. 420, 

pi. lvii. figs. 3, 3a = Alecto ibid., ' Crag Polyz.' p. 112 (A. 
ililatans, W. Thomson, pi. xx. figs. 6, 7) = ? Alecto repens, 
Manzoni, 'Castrocaro,' p. vi. fig. 72 (Hincks) = (Syn. Busk) 
Diastopora echinata, Rss. ; Idmonea divaricata ?, T. depressa (?), 
I. cenomana (?), I. clegons (?), D'Orb. Compare the synonymy 
of 8. major and 8. dilatans. Hincks gives ? Proboscina ramosa 
= Idmonea cenomana — as syn. of Stomatopora expansa, Hincks, 
' Brit. M. Poly.' p. 432, pi. lxii. fig. 1. 
Range. — English Crag (Busk) ; Miocene and Pliocene (remains for 
closer comparison). Living, Brit. Seas. 

12. Stomatopora incrassata, Smitt (sub-genus Proboscina, Smitt), 

Hincks. ' Brit. M. Poly.' p. 436, pi. lix. figs. 2, 3 = Filisparsa 
ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' p. 817. For other synonymy see Busk, 
' B. M. Cat.' pi. iii. p. 24. In a fossil state it is almost impossible 
to correlate, with any degree of positive exactness, these and 
recent forms. The relationship which these synonyms are 



136 EEPOitT— 1884. 

supposed to indicate are only in a certain sense correct. The 
older forms may, upon examination, give characters not found 
in recent species — and vice versa. Thus Smitt (' Scandinavian 
Bry.') gives Busk's Ahcto repens as Diastopora ibid., with the 
following additional synonyms — Proboscinia dichotoma, D'Orb.; 
P. Tuucasiana, D'Orb. 
Range. — (?) 

Genus Tubulipora, Lamarck. 

Ceriopora, (pt.) Hagenow ; PhalangeUa (sp.), Gray ; Obelia (sp.), 
Lamx. ; Reptotubigera, D'Orb. 

Zoarium adnate or decumbent or suberect, forming a variously shaped 
expansion, either entire or lobate, or branched. Zoacia tubular, par- 
tially free and ascending, arranged in divergent series. — Hincks, p. 443 ; 
Busk, 'Cyclostomata,"Brit. Mus. Cat.' pi. iii.p. 24; ' Crag Poly zoa,' 110. 
For additional synonyms, Busk, ' Cyclos,' ' B. Mus. Cat.' 

This genus I referred to briefly in my 4th Brit. Assoc. Report on 
Fossil Polyzoa, as being one of those genera very poorly represented, 
if at all, below the Tertiary rocks. After carefully studying some very 
tine forms of the Tubulipora, found amongst the Crag Potyzoa, and com- 
paring these with recent forms, I can fully endorse the remarks on the 
<^euus made by the Rev. T. Hiucks (' Brit. Marine Polyzoa,' p. 443), 
that the colony of Tubulipora originates in a discoid body, and that the 
after development from this primary stage is by a ' second cell,' usually 
beut in the opposite direction ; ' followed by an increasing number of 
series which diverge more or less on each side. In some cases a simple 
flabellate crust is thus formed ; in others it divides into lobes, which 
again subdivide.' Although in some respects Tubulipora may resemble, 
on the one hand Diastopora, and on the other Stomatopora, there is a 
distinct facial character in the group which, under present circumstances 
at least, keeps the genera distinct. It would be folly, however, not to 
recognise that in the Mesozoic rocks some of the Diastopora preserve 
the flabellate character until the colony is considerably advanced, but 
these, instead of following the line of colonial development as found 
in Tubulipora, ultimately assume the normal discoid habit and not the 
branching and rebranching of typical Tubulipora. The beautiful species 
described as Tubulipora flabeUaris, (?) Pal. (sp.) by Mr. Busk in ' Crag 
Polyzoa," p. hi., and figured pi. xviii. tig. 3, pi. xx. fig. 9, is given by 
Mr. Hincks as T. fimbria, Lamk. ('Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, 'p. 44S). I have 
before me a very fine example of Busk's species figured in pi. xx. fig. 9, 
' Crag Polyzoa,' and I can therefore accept the strictures of Mr. Hincks, 
when he remarks (p. 449) that T. fimbria being distinguished by its flat, 
fan-shaped zoarium, differs from the zoarium of T. flabeUaris, in ' beinu; 
horizontal and destitute of the very tall sub-erect extremities.' The cells 
are not arranged in series, or at all connected together. There is, how- 
ever, an element of doubt in identifying the Crag form with the recent 
T. fimbria, for the reason that I have been unable to trace the ' trans- 
versely wrinkled ' aspects referred to by Mr. Hincks. I shall not there- 
fore differ from Mr. Hincks in his general appreciation of the types 
accepted by him, but follow him in his identifications, in the hope that 
further study will throw some light at least upon the doubtful points 
referred to. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 137 

13. Tubulipoka FLABELLAKIS, Fab., Hincks, 'Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' p. 

446 (Post-Pliocene Glacial deposits) ; Synon. = T. phalangea, 
Busk, "Crag Pol.' p. iii. fig. 6, pi. xviii. (Coralline Crag) = 
T. flabellaris (Manzoni) = Diastopora plumula, Reuss ('Miocene 
d' Austria,' Manzoni). 

14. Tubulipora fimbria, Lamk., Hincks, 'Brit. Mar. Pol.' p. 448 = 

T. flabellaris, Bask, 'Crag Pol.' p. iii. pi. xvii. ; fig. 3, pi. xx. 

fig. 9 (similar range in Time) = ? Proboscina latifolia, D'Orb. 

'Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' p. 847 (? Cretaceous). 
It will be seen by the above that the recent origin of this peculiar 
form is somewhat established insomuch as reliable observation and study 
reduce the Tubulipora to two well-marked types, both of which are 
recent. The figure of T. flabellaris given by Manzoni in ' Bryozoa of 
Castrocaro,' pi. vi. fig. 73, and briefly described in p. 43 of the same work, 
is identified as the same Northern form, fully described by Smitt, 
'Kritisk Forteckn. ofver Skand. Hafs-Bryozoer,' p. 401, tab. ix. fig. 6-8, 
and with Busk's figs, and references previously given. It will be seen, 
however, that this is referred to T. fimbria by Mr. Hincks. Notwith- 
standing the above, I give below a list of Tubulipora at present accessible 
to me. 

15. Tubulipora parasitica, Hagenow, ' Die Bryoz. der Mastrich. 

Kreid.' &c. tab. i. fig. 1. 
Range. — Up. Chalk, Maestricht. 

16. Tlhuupoka tbifabia, Roemer, ' Polyp. Nord-deutsch. Tert. Geb.' 

p. 22, tab. iii. fig. 2. 

17. Tubulipora echinata, Von Munst. (Cellepora), Goldf. ' Petrefac' 

tab. xxxvi., fig. 14; Roemer, loc. cit. p. 22. Diastopora echinata, 
R<s. ' Foss. Polyp, d. W. Tertiarb. 

Range. — Roemer gives Oligociin von Solingen ; for Goldf. sp. 
Oberoligociin ; Goldf. cites Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 

It will be seen from the above, against which I place (?), that 
Roemer identifies the Cellepora echinata, Goldf., as Tubulipora, whilst 
.1 ules Haime in his ' Jurassic Bryozoa ' speaks of the same species as being 
an example of Proboscina, and remarks that it is well placed between 
Stomatopora and Idmonea. In all probability, judging from the brief 
diagnosis given by Goldfuss, ' repens, ramosa, cellulis tnbulosis, ostiolis 
orbicularibus erectis,' Roemer is more correct in the identification. 

18. Tubulipoea phalangea, Couch (see note), Busk, 'Crag Poly.' p. 

iii. pi. xviii. fig. 6 (T. palmata, Wood). 

10. TuBULiroiu flabellaris, (?) Fab. (sp.), Busk, 'Crag Poly.' p. iii. 
pi. xviii. fig. 3, pi. xx. fig. 9 = Discopora p>ahnata, Reuss = 
Diastopora vassiacensis, D'Orb. ' Ter. Cret.' p. dexxxv. p. 12 and 
13 = Diastopora plumula, Reuss, 'Foss. Poly. Wien. Tertiarb.' 
p. 51, pi. vii. fig. 11. 

Range. — Miocene ? Rss. ; Cor. Crag, Busk ; Living. 

As Phalangella, Gray (Tubulipora in this Report), Smitt in his 
Scandinavian Bryozoa gives the following species and synonymy : — 

20 Tubulipora palmata, Wood (sub-genus Phalanqella, Gray) = T. 
palmata; Wood, Busk = Aleclo dilatans, Busk, ''Crag Pol.' p. 112. 

21. Tubulipora fimbria, Lamk. = Proboscina serpens, D'Orb. 'Pal. 

Fr.' I.e. p. 847 — Tuhulipora flabellaria, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. iii. 

22. Tubulipoea flabellaris, Fab., Tubulipora verrucaria, D'Orb. 'Pal. 

Fr.' I.e. p. 832 = Tubulipora phalangea, Busk, ' Cr. Pol.' p. iii. 



138 repokt— 1884. 



Genus Idmonea, Lamouroux. 

I<hnonea, Lamx., Blainville, Milne-Ed., Jolinston, Reuss, D'Orbigny 
(part), Busk. ; Iietepora, (pt.) Goldfnss, Lamk. ;Diastopora, (pt.) Michelin, 
Tabulipora, (pt.) Lamk. ; Crisina, (pt.) D'Orb., Smitt ; Tubulipora, sub- 
genus Idmonea, Smitt. 

' Zoarium ei*ect and ramose, or (rarely) adnate ; branches usually 
triangular. Zocecia tubular, disposed on the front of the branches, 
ranging in parallel transverse or oblique rows on each side of a mesial 
line.' — See Hincks, p. 450 ; Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 104. 

This peculiar genus seems to have originated in early Mcsozoic times, 
but the species described by Lamouroux as I. triquetra, as occurring in 
the Jurassic rocks, especially in this country, is far less specialised than 
those forms found in the Cretaceous rocks of Maestricht, and in the 
Faxoe Limestone of Denmark. The unusual character of some of the 
species described by Goldfuss as Retcpora clathrata and B. disticha, 
induced Hagenovv to break up the forms grouped together by Goldfuss, 
out of which several new species were founded, described and figured. I 
do not say, after having studied the Faxoe material, that Hagenow was 
wrong in his redistribution, but I think that even he has given us more 
species than were needed or that the doubtful character of some of 
the forms warranted, but his beautiful figures have materially assisted 
the student in mastering the details of the group. Yet it seems 
to me a rather invidious practice, in the present state of our 
knowledge, to criticise unfairly the labours of other authors on this 
peculiar group of fossil forms. It is not a mere matter of opinion as to 
whether this and that form are identical, because unless there is a 
sufficiency of material to connect by intermediate links form and form, 
mere opinion in this direction is useless. I have hundreds of specimens of 
Beuss's Idmonea cjracUlima from the Montecchio Maggiore beds, and it is 
quite possible to erect two or more species out of the various specimens 
accordingly as we accept the young or the matured stages as types. As 
I have been able to trace this form from a single elongated cell on each 
side of the mesial line up to four and five cells on each side of the mesial 
line, I can on!}' say that mere growth is a fallacious factor in the deter- 
mination of a species. In the enumeration of the following I shall take 
into consideration other special features, leaving the number of cells in 
the branch for woi'kers to deal with separately, if they so desire. I shall 
take the species as I find them in the works of authors accessible to me. 
As my friend Mr. A. W. "Waters has gone over the Tertiary species for 
his work on the Bryczoa of the Bay of Naples, I shall take his references 
to fossil species as work accomplished, because he has had a fuller access 
to foreign works than I could possibly obtain. 

Before passing on to the numerous fossil forms described by authors 
it may be well to dispose of the two recent species which are now pretty 
well known to zoologists. 

23. Idmonea atlantica, Forbes, MS. See Busk, ' Cyclostomata ; ' 
Waters, ' Bay of Naples Bryozoa ;' Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Polyzoa.' 

' Zoarium. irregularly branched, branches triangular, cells oiie, four, 
five in each series, the, innermost the longest, dorsal surface of branch 
not perforate ' (Busk) ; ' dorsal surface, lineated and minutely punctate ' 
(Hincks) ; peristome entire .... The large tubular cells, mode of 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 139 

arrangement, triangular branches, and entire peristome are good features 
in this species. 

The abundance of specimens of this species in the Garvel Park 
deposits have enabled me to study the form in all its varying features. 
It is a peculiarly Northern type, whereas the Idmonea radians, Lamarck, 
its nearest ally, is as peculiarly Southern. The Fossil specimens from the 
Garvel Park beds are, I have no doubt, closely related to, if not identical 
with, the I. radians of Beneden ; and besides this, Mr. Busk and Mr. 
Hincks give as synonyms, though doubtfully, I. coronopis, Def., and 
I. mgustata, D'Orb.,as well. Mr. Waters (' Bay of Naples Bryozoa,' op. tit. 
p. 269) remarks of the J. gracillima of'Reuss, ' that specimens in his 
possession, from Val di Lonti, correspond with recent I. atlaniica. 

It is very possible that if the various specimens of this beautiful 
species were isolated, or found in different localities even of the same age 
as the Glacial deposits, they may be characterised as different species, 
but mingling with such abundance in these beds, all the gradations of 
variations may be traced, and it seems to me impossible to separate them. 
With regard to the I. gracillima of Reuss from the Miocene beds of Val 
di Lonti, and also from the Montecchio Maggiore beds of Northern Italy, 
although specimens resemble, in some cases closely so, recent Idmonea 
atlaniica, I should rather hesitate to put the one as a synonym of the 
other. It may be possible to establish a connection between the 
I. gracillima, Reuss (non Busk, ' Cyclostomata,' p. 14), and some of the 
still undescribed Cretaceous species, and it may also be possible to show 
gradations of type from J. gracillima to I. atlaniica. 

24. Idmonea serpens, Linnaeus = Tubipora ibid., Linn., ' Syst. Nat.' 

ed. 12, 1271. Tubulipora ibid., Flem., Couch, Johnst., Busk. 

Idmonea serpens, Van. Ben., Smitt (sub-genus), Hincks. (See 

for references, p. 453, 'Brit. Mar. Polyzoa,' vol. i. 1880.) 

This species, as a fossil, has a far more limited range than the above. 

I have specimens in the young state from the Glacial Beds of Scotland. 

A specimen, figured by Manzoni (' Bryozoa of Castrocaro,' p. 43, fig. 78, 

tav. vi.), Mr. Hincks accepts, on the authority— Pliocene, Castrocaro 

(Manzoni) ; Sicilian Pliocene (Waters). In his synonyms, Mr. Hincks 

also lvfers to this species — Tubulipora transversa, Lamk., and Idmonea 

ibid.. Milne-Edw. and D'Orb. In my own investigations I have not been 

able to place Idmonea serpens— type accepted by Hincks, Manzoni, and 

H aters — below the Pliocene beds. 

For fuller particulars, see Busk, ' Cvclostomata, Brit. Mus. Cat.' pi. 
in. pp. 25-26 ; and Hincks, 'Brit. Mar. Poly.' {he. tit. p. 453). 

25. Idmonea teiquetra, Lamx. (author's) (' Jura formation,' Ranville). 

Brit, locality, Juras. rocks under London — Professor Judd's 
material. 

Though not abundant, I have a few specimens of this species from 
the material referred to by Professor Judd. The species is evidently 
founded upon its peculiar triangular character rather than any special 
features m the cells. After a careful study of the British specimens, the 
following results have been obtained, which I give rather as a description 
than as a diagnosis. I. Zoarium triangular, zoaicia arranged in lines — 
sometimes flattened, some lines slightly produced ; the flattened cells are 
Lepraha '-like, with a semicircular orifice, with the area punctured ; the 



140 keport— 1884. 

produced cells are tubular, occasionally passing off into the Lepralia- 
like form of a cell. The general features are that of Idmonea, but the 
cell characters are abnormal, and one would incline to place the one form 
in two different genera. The same feature is noticeable in some of the 
cells of TercbeJlaria. Mr. Busk, in remarking on I. fenestrates (' Crag 
Poly.' p. 105), says that his species approaches 'in some respects the I. 
triquetra, Lamx., as well as a recent species met with in South Africa, 
which, if not identical with the Caen fossil, is undistinguishable from it.' 
The form referred to by Busk is before me, and there is certainly a like- 
ness between the Jurassic and the Recent form, but the Recent form has 
the advantage of being more highly specialised and also larger in both 
the cells and in the size of the zoarium. Mr. Busk, however, says that 
the branches of I. triquetra are very much thicker than the Recent form. 
This difference of opinion may arise from difference in size of fragments, 
but anyhow I cannot regard the 7. fenestrata, Busk, or the I. fenestrate/. 
(Busk), Smitt, ' Scanct. Bryozoa,' as being one and the same species. This 
being the earliest record that I have of Idmonea, I think it would be 
unwise not to keep the species separate. It will be well, however, if 
students will direct their attention to the several features referred to. 

Goldfuss, in his ' Petrefacta,' describes and figures what he gives as 
five species of Retepora — R. cancellata, G. ; R. clathrata, G., and R. 
lichenoides, G. ; R. truncata and R. disticha — all from the Chalk. It is 
very evident that Goldfuss neglected to sort out his species, and the 
consequence is that we have an assemblage of forms anything but satis- 
factory ; consequently the labour of Hagenow on the group is all the 
more appreciable, because he worked from fresh material, and, from 
what I understand from his text, with full access to the type species of 
Goldfuss. I also have been able to stndy the Faxoe Limestone material, 
already referred to ; and if I offer any remarks upon the species of 
Hagenow, it must be understood that I do so with specimens before me 
which seem to be the same or of near the same horizon as those of 
Hagenow's Maestricht beds. To prevent a repetition of Hagenow's and 
Goldfuss's works, I shall give the reference to the plate and fig. only of 
the two authors. 

•20. Idmonea MACULATA, Hag., H. Tab. IT., fig. 3. 

27. Idmonea clathrata, Goldfuss (Retepora), H. Tab. IT. fig. 2 

Gold., ' Pet.' Tab. IX. figs. 1-2 c and d. 

28. Idmonea yerrictlata, Goldfuss (Retepora), H. Tab. II. fig. 5 

Gold., 'Pet.' Tab. XXXVI. fig. 19 b. 
20. Idmonea lichenoides, Goldfuss (Retepora), H. Tab. II. fig. 6 
Gold., 'Pet.' Tab. XXXVI, fig. 13 a and b. 

30. Idmonea cancellata, Goldfuss (Retepora), H. Tab. II. fig. 7 = 

Idmonea ibid., Rss. 

31. Idmonea mactlenta, Hag. (Retepora), H. Tab. II. fig. 4. 

o2. Idmonea disticha, Goldf. (Retepora), H. Tab. II. fig. 8 ; Goldf., 
' Pet.' Tab. IX. tigs. 15 c, d = Retepora ibid., Goldf., Lamx., 
Blainv. = ? Retepora, Michelin, Reuss. 

33. Idmonea pseudo-disticha, Hag., H. Tab. II. fig. 9 ; Gold. ' Pet.' 

Tab. IX. fig. 15 a-b = Ii. disticha, G., in part. 

34. Idmonea dopsata, Hag., H. Tab. II. fig. 10 ; Goldf., 'Pet.' Tab. IX. 

figs. 15 g & n = Retepora disticha, G., in part. 

35. Idmonea geometrica, Hag., H. Tab. II. fig. 11. 

36. Idmonea sulcata, „ „ ,, 12. 



OX FOSSIL POLYZOA. 141 

37. Idmonea lineata, Hag., H. Tab. II. fig. 13 ; Goldf., ' Pet.' Tab. 

IX. figs. 15 c,/. = Retepora disticlia, G., in part. 

38. Idmoxea gibbosa, Hag., H. Tab. II. fig. 14. 

39. Idmoxea genicclata, Hag., H. Tab. III. fig. 5; Goldf., ' Pet.' Tab. 

IX. fig. 12 e, f = Retepora clatlirata, G., in part. 

40. Idmoxea tetkasticha, Hag., H. Tab. IV. fig. 3. 

Some of these Hagenow describes as found in the Maestrioht and 
Falkenberg beds. I cannot give the range of the species other than that 
given by the author. In my Faxoe material I have several Idmonece, and 
it would be quite possible out of the varied forms to construct a number 
of species, but I should be inclined to place the majouty in three species 
only of those described above — I. dorsata, I. lineata, or I. pseudo-disticha. 

Sub-genus Tecxcatcla, Hagenow. 

Out of the Retepora trwncaia, Goldfuss — with other species as allies — 
Hagenow constructs the sub-genus Truncatuia. Although the facial 
character at first sight appears to be like Idmonea, a closer study of the 
form shows certain features altogether different. The more prominent 
are these : — (1) On the different sides of the mesial line the cells are 
clustered together and not separate. This appears to be a normal 
feature. (2) The reverse of one species at least — R. truncata — is very 
peculiarly striated, or, speaking with more exactness, the lines of striae 
seems to be the line markings of the individual cells seen through a 
very delicate membrane which covers the reverse. It this be a correct 
description, founded upon observation of a limited number of specimens 
from the Faxoe Limestone material, then I cannot see the necessity for 
retaining the sub-generic term. 

41. Trttncatula filix, Hagenow, tab. iii. fig. 4. 

42. Telxoatula trlxcata, Goldf., Hag. tab. iii. fig. 2. Goldf., ' Pet,' 

tab. ix. fig. 14:. = Retepora ibid., Goldf.; Lamk. ; Milnc-Ed. 
= Idmonea ibid , Blainv. 

43. Tbuncatula repexs, Hag., tab. iii. fig 1. 
Range. — Hagenow cites Maestricht and Falkenberg. 

I have several lists of fossils from the Cretaceous beds of America, and 
a fine suite of fossils as well, many of which are undescribed as yet. 
Taking the order of the strata as given by Lyell, Emmons, and others, as 
L pper Cretaceous, the following species of Idinonece correspond to some 
extent with the Idmonece already given from Hagenow and Goldfuss. 

Idmoxea coxtortilis, Lonsdale, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' vol. i. p. G8= 
Grisisina and Idmonea ibid., D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr.' vol. ii. and vol. v. 
Locality. — Timber Creek, New Jersey. 

The Tertiary Idmonece, both of Europe and America, are of a very 
special character, and the facies of the several species would afford 
valuable details for the study of the Palaeontology of the group. There is a 
slight difference between some of the American and European forms ; 
but there is a wide diffei'ence in the facies of others. I know of no 
American Tertiary Idmonece similar in character to those described by 
Reuss from the North Italian deposits. The localities are those given by 
the several authors. 

44. Idmoxea maxillaris, Lonsdale, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol i. 

p. 523 = Crisisina ibid., D'Orb, Prod. 2, p. o97=Idmonea ibid. 



142 retort — 1884. 

Gabb and Horn, ' Mon. Foss. Poly. Sec. and Tert. Formations,' 

N. America. 
Locality. — Eocene (G. and H.), S. Carolina. 
45. — Idmonea commiscens, Lonsdale, lor. cit., p. 5%4<=Crisisina ibid., 

D'Orb. 
Locality. — Eocene ; Rock's Bridge. 

46. Idmonea californica, Gabb and Horn, loc. tit. 
Locality. — Miocene (G. and H), Santa Barbara, California. 

47. Idmonea carinata, Roemer, 1 Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. des Wiener Tert.- 

beck.' Marine Limestone. 

48. Idmonea pertusa, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. des Wiener Tert.-beck.' 

Marine Limestone. 
4'J. Idmonea compressa, Reuss (op. cit.). Marine Limestone. 
Range. — From the Tophaceous Chalk of Maestricht to Eocene. 

50. Idmonea foraminosa, Rss., {Crvssina) Stoliczka, ; Oligocene Bry. 

from Latdorf.' 

51. Idmonea Giebeli, Stol., (Tubigera) Stoliczka, 'Oligocene Bry. 

from Latdorf.' 

52. Idmonea *delicatuia, Busk, Stoliczka, ' Oligocene Bry. from 

Latdorf. ' 

53. Idmonea tenuisulca, Rss., Stoliczka, 'Oligocene Bry. from 

Latdorf.' 

54. Idmonea Hornesii, Stol., Stoliczka, ' Oligocene Bry. from Latdorf.' 

55. Idmonea reticulata, Reuss, ' Palasont. Stud. Tert. der Alpen,' 

pi. xxxiv. fig. 13. 
50. Idmonea gracjllima, Reuss, ' Palaaont. Stud. Tert. der Alpen,' pi. 
xxxv. fig. 1-2. 

57. Idmonea concava, Reuss, ' Palseont. Stud. Tert. der Alpen,' pi. 

xxxv. figs. 3-4. 
Localities. — Val di Lonti ; Montecchio Maggiore, N. Italy. 

58. Idmonea punctata, D'Orb., a-p.=Laterooava, D'Orb., pi. dcclxxii. 

figs. 11-12. Busk, ' Crag Pol.' pi. xv. fig. 5; pi. xvi. fig. 3. 
Range. — Cretaceous (D'Orb.) ; Crag (Busk). 

59. Idmonea fenestrata, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 105, pi. xv. fig. G. 

60. Idmonea *delicatula, ,, ., ,, p. 106, pi. xv. fig. 8. 

61. Idmonea inteicarta „ „ „ p. 106, pi. xv. fig. 7. 
Range. — Coralline Crag (Sutton). 

Genus Entalophora, Lamx. 

= Pustulop>ora, (pt.) Blainv., M.-Edw., Lamk., Busk; Spiropora, 

Lamx., J. Haime. 

' Zoarium erect and ramose, rising from a more or less expanded base, 
composed of decumbent tubes; branches cylindrical. Zoaicia tubular, 
opening on all sides of the branches.' 

I have already in my former Reports on Fossil Polyzoa, 1882 and 1883, 
given the history of this group, both as Entalophora and Spiropora, in 
strata of the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic ages. All that remains for the 
present report are the species described in the Upper Cretaceous and Tert. 
rocks of America and Europe. I cannot however furnish, from my own 
knowledge, a very detailed list ; excepting a few of the species described 

1 ' Quite agreeing with the specimens from the Maestricht beds of Fauquemont ' 
(Roemer). 



OX FOSSIL POLTZOA. 143 

by Reuss, Gabb and Horn, and Roemer. The list is therefore, for the 
present, a compilation rather than the result of special work, and it may 
in the future have to be modified. The recent species are very few, and 
their range is limited. In the British seas only one is recorded ; in the 
Mediterranean Mr. Waters records three species, and as these have fossil 
representatives as well as recent, I give Mr. Waters's list first — ' Bry 
Bay Naples,' 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' 1879. 

62. Entalophoea proboscidea, Forbes. See Busk, ' Cyclostomata,' 

p. 21, pi. xvii. A right ^.—E. attenuata, Rss., ' Die Foss. Anth. 
nnd Bry.' p. 74, pi. xxxvi. figs. 1-2. 
Range.— Miocene, Val di Lonti. Living : Shetland ; Bay of Naples, 
common; Madeira. 

63. Entalophora deflexa, Couch -—Pustulopora rfavata, Busk, ' Crao- 

Poly.' p. 107, pi. xvii. fig. 1. 
Range. — Pliocene ; Crag. Living. 

64. Entalophora rugosa, D'Orb=.E'. rugosa, 'Pal. Franc.' p. 795 = 

Pushdopora rugulosa, Manz., 'I Brioz. Foss. del Mioc. d'Aust.'= 
Pushdopora rugosa, Waters, 'Bry. from Pliocene of Bruccoli.' 

Range. — Chalk ; Miocene ; Pliocene ; Bruccoli. Living, Naples. 

The following are the identifications of Busk, ' Crao- Polvzoa ' 
pp. 107-108:— J ' 

05. Entalophora clavata, Bnsk= Pushdopora ibid.. Busk, ' Crag Pol.' 
p. 107, pi. xvii. fig. l=Pastulopora gracilis, M.-Ed.=Pusiulop>ora 
Roemeri, D'Orb. ; Michelin. Entalophora linearis, D'Orb. 

60. Entalophora palmata, Busk= Pushdopora ibid.. Busk, « Crao- Pol ' 
p. 108, pi. xviii. fig. 2. 

67. Entalophora subverticillata, Busk = Pustulophora ibid., Busk 

' Crag Pol.' p. 108, pi. xviii. fig. 1. 
Range. — Coralline Crag. 

Genus Diastopora, (part) Lamx. 

Berenicea, Lamx ; Mesenteripora, Blainv., Busk (for foliaceous 
bilaminate forms). Discosparsa, D'Orb. 

' Zoarium adnate and crustaceous, or foliaceous, usually discoid or 
flabellate, less commonly irregular in form. Zaiocla tubular, with an 
elliptical or subcircular orifice, crowded, longitudinally arrano-ed in 
great part immersed.'— Hincks, ' Brit. Mar. Pol.' p. 457. 

The Diastoporas of the Tertiary rocks, even as defined above, which 
include the foliaceous forms, are not abundant. So many different forms 
have been included in the group that it is difficult from the lists to say 
which are true Diastoporaa and which are not. The following, however 
are the identifications of two of our best workers on Recent and Tertiary 
Bpecies ; so the synonyms may be relied on as being; tolerably correct 

68. Diastopora latomarginata, D'Orb., 'Pal. Franc.' p. 827 pi 758 

figs. 10-12, Waters, 'Bry. Bay Nap.' ' Ann.' Mag. Nat Hist.'' 
18/9, p. 272 = ? Diastopora sparsa, Manzoni, ' Foss. Bri. d'Aust 
ed Ung.' 

69. Diastopora flabellum, Reuss, Waters, op. cit. p. 273 = Reuss 

'Die Foss. Polyp, der Wiener Tertb.' —Diastopora ibid., Manzoni 
(Pliocene) = Diastopora simplex, Busk (non D'Orb ) ' Crao- 
Poly.' p. 113. ° 

70. Diastopora patina, Lamarck (Hincks, p. 458) = Discosparsa 

marginata (proliferous form), ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. 822. 



144 KEror/r — 1884. 

71. Diastopora obelia, Johnst. (Hincks, p. 462), Post-Piiocene of 
Canada (Dawson). . 

72 Diastopora suboubiculakis, Hincks (Hincks, p. 404) = D. simplex, 
Bask, ' Cra2 Poly.' 113, pi. xx. fig. 10, not Diseosparsa simplex 
ofD'Orb (Hincks) = ? D.flahellum, Reuss (Hincks). 

The following are the identifications and descriptions of the different 

authors. . . . 

73. Diastopora lineata, Gabb and Horn (Cretaceous), -Approaches 

D. regularis, D'Orb.' (G. & H. op. n't.). 

74. Diastopora discifobmis, Hagenow (Cretaceous), op. cit. pi. i. 

fig. 7. 
74* Diastopora disciforms, Goldf , Up. Oligocene, Roemer, ' Polyp. 

Nord. d. Tert. Geb.' 
75 Diastopora minima, Reuss, 'Marine Limestone, Nussdorf.' ' Foss. 

Pol. d. W. Tert.' 
70 Diastopora rottla, Reuss, 'Marine Limestone, Eisenstadt, loss. 

Pol. d. W. Tert.' 

77 Diastopora sparsa, Reuss, 'Marine Limestone, Eisenstadt, 'loss. 

Pol. d. W. Tert.' , 

78 Diastopora flabelllm, Reuss, ' Marine Limestone, Eisenstadt, 

' Foss. Pol. d. W. Tert.' 
Two other species are given by Reuss— D. plumula, Rss., and D. 
echinata, (ioldf. These have already been referred to Tuhulipora. _ 

79. Diastopora patina, Lamk. ; Pliocene, Castrocaro, Manzoni, ' Bn. 

di Castrocaro,' p. 44. 

80. Diastopora striata, J. Haime ; Pliocene, Castrocaro, Manzoni, 

' Bri. di Castrocaro,' p. 44. 

81. Diastopora expansa, Manzoni; Pliocene, Castrocaro, Manzoni, 

' Bri. di Castrocaro,' p. 45. 
8° Diastopora meanduina, S. Wood, ' Crag;' Busk, ' Crag Pol. p. 10U 
= Mesenteripora ibid., Bask, pi. xvii. fig. 2; pi. xviii. fig. 4; 
pi. xx. fig. 2 = D. Eudesiana, M.-Edw. (?) = Vitaxm^ eompressa, 
(?) Goldf., Hagenow = Mesenteripora neocomiensis, D'Orb. ' Ter. 

The following synonyms of this species are given by Smitt, ' Scan- 
dinavian Bryozoa' : — . 

(Jeriopora eompressa, Goldf.; Polyfrema, D Orb. ; Ditaxia, Hag.; 
Mesenteripora, D'Orb.; Bidiastopora MicJielina, D'Orb. ; Mesenteripora, 
ibid., D'Orb. ; Bidastopora and Mesenteripora Eudesiana, D Orb. 

Family III. Hornerids, Smitt. 
' Zuurla opening on one side only of a ramose zoarium, never adnate 

and repent.' . 

The family Hoknemdje, as defined by the Rev. T. Hincks, is capable 
of very wide extension, and can be made to include the Polypondoe 
(' Brit Assoc. Rep. Foss. Poly.' 1883), in which I have placed the Poly- 
para and Phyllopora of the Palaeozoic Rocks. It may seem, however, a 
very questionable proceeding to include so many apparently diversified 
forms in one family group, especially as we have no gradational links by 
which we can unite the Polypora of the Palaeozoic with the well-denned 
Hornera of the Tertiary Rocks. But, irrespective of the peculiarity, 
I see no sufficient reason for keeping the group separate if we are to 
accept Mr Hincks's c 3 '^gliosis. The same remarks may apply to the 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 145 

Thamniscidfe as well. It is when we come to study the various genera 
that would, in all probability, form a natural group, that several doubts 
arise as to the wisdom of this arrangement. 1 

In his definition of Mornera (' Brit. Mar. Pol.' p. 467), Mr. Hincks 
says that the zooecia are tubular, and. this is well shown in the figure 
of H. lichenoides, fig. i. pi. 67, 'Brit. Mar. Pol.,' and also in H. violacea, 
fig. 6 of the same plate. Then, again, it is said that the ' oeecium (gonce- 
cium) is a distinct chamber — not a mere inflation of the surface of the 
zoarium, placed dorsally or in front.' These are elements of structure 
that indicate distinct characters, and though I have not been able to 
detect the gonoecium in any of the specimens found in the Crag, or in the 
Miocene described by Reuss, the tubular zocecia are, in many respects, 
similar to recent forms described by Mr. Busk (' Cyclostomata ') and Mr. 
Hincks. Then, again, the characteristic cell orifice, with its waving lines 
surrounding it — given by Mr. Busk ('Cyclostomata,' pi. xx. fig. 3)— is 
entirely unlike any cell-orifice known to me in any of the species of the 
genera named as found in the Pakeozoic rocks. I do not, however, set 
so much value upon the ' wavy anastomosing ridges ' indicated by Mr. 
Hincks in his diagnosis of his genus Homera ; nevertheless they are 
peculiar, and may merit some consideration in our definition of species. 
In the Pohjpora of the Carboniferous rocks there are wavy lines which 
seem to be merely ornamentations of the surface, yet these, too, may be 
analogous with the wavy ridges of the Homera of more recent times. 
The Messrs Young, of Glasgow, in their joint paper On New Carboni- 
ferous Polyzoa ('Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' May, 1875), describe as new a 
species which they provisionally name Thamniscus ? Banhini, Y. & Y. 
pi. ix. his, and in their remarks (he. cit. p. 336) they say, ' The generic 
position of the fossil is uncertain .... Meanwhile, though strongly 
disposed to regard the fossil as a true Earn era or a member of a closely 
allied genus, we think it safer to leave it in the Palaeozoic genus Thamnis- 
ats.' This species is certainly (superficially considered) more closely allied 
to Eornera than any Palceozoic species known to me ; yet it, too, lacks the 
peculiar cell orifices, though partaking somewhat of the tubular cell 
structure of true Homera. In the Mesozoic rocks — excepting a few 
doubtful forms in the Upper Chalk — I know of no Homera or allies of" 
the genus. 

In his ' Crag Polyzoa ' (p. 95), Mr. Busk says, ' Several fossil forms of 
Homera have been noticed, and some of them figured ; but from the 
want of precision in the details of the figures, and in the absence of 
any determinate specific characters in the descriptions, it is extremely 
difficult to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion respecting them. The 
best figures are those contained in Milne-Edwards's excellent memoir on 
the Crisiae, &c. ; but even these are by no means sufficiently precise to 
convey a correct idea of the specific differences or resemblances.' This 
cannot be said of the species figured by Mr. Busk in his ' Crag Polyzoa,' 
and I feel confident that I cannot do better than follow him in his 
synopsis of fossil forms. 

In characterising one of his forms in the ' Bay of Naples Bryozoa,' 
Mr. Waters draws attention to the very beaut iful species which he names 
Fdisparsa tuhulosa, Busk. This is, in all probability, a variety of the Homera 
violacea, var. tuhulosa, Busk; but, as Mr. "Waters points out (' Bay Nap. 

' Exception to this association has been taken by Mr. Ulrich in his contribution 

noo7 CWi- Jmrn - 2Vat ' ]Hst - A P ril 1884, and, according to his views, rightly so. 

1884. L 



146 report — 1884. 

Bry.,' ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' April, 1879, p. 275), after inspecting a 
Northern H. violacea from the cabinet of Rev. A. M. Norman, there 
is ' hardly anything in common ' with the two forms. He also remarks 
that ' the genns Filisparsa is, as pointed out by D'Orbigny, intermediate 
between Hornera and Idmonea. ... I am, however, somewhat in doubt 
as to whether the genus will permanently stand' (lor. cit. p. 275). Of 
this I am not so certain. Filisparsa Uibulosa, Bask and Waters, and 
F. various, Reuss, are neither Idmonea nor Hornera, and it seems to me to 
be far preferable to characterise an intermediate form by a generic name, 
rather than simplify too much our generic nomenclature. If, however, 
it can be found that, in dealing with fragments of species of the genus 
Hornera, the differences in character arise from differences of growth 
— like the Fenesfella of the Carboniferous rocks, then these remarks will 
have no weight ; but so far as I have been able to study species of the 
genus Hornera and Filisparsa they appear to me as distinct. 

There are a few fossil species of Hornera found in material from 
several localities in Australia, especially the Yarra Tarra district, but as 
these have not as yet been described it would appear rather invidious to 
anticipate Mr. Waters's work, the completion of which — Cyclostomatous 
Forms— has been -promised by him. 1 

Before concluding these remarks, it may be well to refer the student 
to Mr. Hincks' matured opinion of the genus Hornera (loc. cit. p. 467), 
because he includes in the one genus the true typical Hornera with its 
' wavy anastomosing ridges,' and the tubular H. violacea, Sars, which is 
destitute of the characteristic ' fibrous crust ' found in H. lichenoides, 
Linnreus. 

Genns Hobxera, Lamouroux. 

= Betepora, (pt.) Goldfuss ; Sipliodieiam, Lonsdale. 

Zoarium erect, ramose, sometimes reticulate. Zoa/cia tubular, opening 
on one side only of the branches, disposed in longitudinal series, the 
celluliferous surface often traversed by wavy anastomising ridges. 
Ocecium a distinct chamber, not a mere irregular inflation of the surface 
of the zoarium, placed dorsally or in front. 

The care with which Mr. Hincks has drawn up the above diagnosis 
ought to satisfy the ordinary critical student of Fossil Polyzoa, but the 
most valuable element of structure is the peculiar ocecium. In the 
absence of this, there are other elements which may serve as a guide and 
a check to overhasty identification. In his work on the ' Bryozoa of the 
Maastricht Beds,' &c, Hagenow gave a synopsis of the whole of the then 
known Hornera, ranging from the Recent to the Upper Silurian. In the 
last formation the Hornera orassa,* Lonsdale, is the sole representative; 
excepting this no true Hornera is given by the author below the ' Kreide- 
formation.' I reproduce below Hagenow's list, because in his work he 
only describes and figures one species. There are several Hornera 
described by Reuss and Busk, and there are still many undescribed forms 
among the Australian Polyzoa of Mr. A. W. Waters, and also in my own 
cabinet. 

B. Tertiarformation. 

S3. Hornera Hippoltta, Defrance. 
84. „ gracilis, Philippi. 

J See remarks ante. " This is not a Hornera, but a T/iamnisnts. 



86. 


)! 


87. 


11 


88. 


)> 


89. 


>» 


90. 


)» 


91. 


5) 


92. 


)) 


93. 


?> 


94. 


)) 


95. 


)) 


96. I 


lOEX 


97. 


j) 


98. 


!) 


99. 


?1 


100. 


)? 


101. 
102. 





ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 147 

85. HORNERA BISERIATA, Philippi. 
affinis, Milne-Ed. 
STRIATA, ,, 

andegavensis, Michelin. 
biloba, Reuss. 
terrucosa, Reuss. 

SERIATOPORA, ,, 

radians, Defrance (non Lamx.). 
CRISPA, ,, 

ELEGANS „ 

decipiens, Eichwald. 

C. Kreideformation. 
Langethali, Hagenow. 

OCULATA ,, 

COMPRESSA „ 

TRIGONOPORA ,, 

TUBULIFERA ,, 

(Idmonea) contortilis, Lonsd. 

CARINATA, ReUSS. 

In the same synopsis, Hagenow gives a list of eight species of Idmonea 
as belonging to his stage B, and twenty-seven belonging to the stage C, 
and only one, I. triquetra, Lamx., in the stage D or the Juraformation. 

Mr. Busk's list (' Crag Polyzoa') is valuable on account of the care 
with which he has worked the known species for comparison and identi- 
fication of the fossil forms described by him as found among his Crag 
Polyzoa. Busk describes eleven species, some of which he considers to 
be new, others are referable to forms previously described by authors ; 
these are given under the two divisions — - 

Fenestrate and Ramos.e. 

103. Hornera infundibulata, Busk (C. Crag), ' Crag Poly.' p. 97, 

pi. xiv. fig. 1. 

104. Hornera reteporacea, M.-Edw., „ „ p. 98, 

pi. xiv. fig. 2. 

105. Hornera canaliculata, Busk, „ ,, ,, 

pi. xiv. fig. 3. 

106. Horxera rhipis, Busk, ,, ,, p. 99, 

pi. xiv. fig. 4. 

107. Hornera humilis, Busk, „ „ p. 100, 

pi. xiv. figs. 5 and 6. 

108. HORNERA PERTUSA, Busk, „ ,, p. 101, 

pi. xiv. fig. 7. 

109. Hornera Hippolyta (?), Defrance. „ „ „ 

pi. xiv. figs. 8-9 = H. Hippolyta, hippolytlius, M.-Edw. and 
Defrance. 

110. Hornera lunata, Busk (C. Crag), ' Crag Toly.' p. 102, pi. xvi. 

fig. 4. 

111. Hornera frondiculata, Lamx. (C. Crag), 'Crag Poly.' p. 102, pi. 

xv. figs. 1-2, pi. xvi. fig. 6 = Retepora frondiculata, Lamx. = 
Millepora tubipora, Ellis & Sol. = Millepora lichenoides, Linn., 
Pallas, Esper =Hornem a^?H('s,M.-Ed. = Hornera andeyavensis, 
Michelin. 

l2 



148 KEroET — 1884. 

112. Hoeneea striata, M.-Edwards (C. Crag) ' Crag Poly.' p. 103, 

pi. xv. fig. 3 ; pi. xvi. fig. 5 = Hornera striata, M.-Edvv., 
Michelin. 

113. Hornera ehomboidahs (C. Crag), ' Crag Poly.' p. 104, pi. xv. 

fig. 4. 

The following forms Mr. Busk was unable to identify with the Crag 
forms (pp. 96-97) : — 

114. Hornera flabelliformis, Blainv. = Uetepora ibid., Blainv., Mi- 

chelin, ' Icon. Zooph.' p. 314 = ? Hornera Ferussacii, Mich. ? 
Eocene ; Miocene. 

115. Horneea scobixosa, Michelin = Retepora ibid., Mich. I.e. p. 31G; 

Miocene. 

116. Hornera affinis, M.-Edw. Upper Tert. of Sicily. 

117. „ Levis, „ /• c. p. 20. Miocene, Dap. 

Stoliczka gives the following list of Hornera in his ' Oligocene 
Bryozoa, from Latdorf.' 

118. Hornera hippolyta, Def. = Hornera gracilis, Philippi. 

119. M reteporacea, M.-Ed.= ,, zuhannulata, Philippi. 

120. ,, verrucosa, Reuss= „ seriatopora, Reuss. 

121. „ poeosa, Stol.= 

Under the family name of Mmonidce, Professor Reuss describes and 
fio-ares in his ' Bryozoa, Palason. Stud, fiber die alteren Tertiiir. der 
Alpen,' the following species of Hornera. Some of the species seem to 
be widely distributed in the Alpine Tertiaries, but are most abundant in 
the Val di Lonti and Montecchio Maggiore material. 

122. Hornera concatenata, Reuss ; op. clt. pi. 35, figs. 5 and G. 

123. „ trabeculars, „ „ „ fig. 7 = ? H. hippo- 

lithus, Def. 

124. „ aspeedla, „ „ „ figs. 8 and 9. 

125. „ sekrata, „ „ ,, figs. 10 and 11. 

126. „ d'Achiardii, „ „ „ fig. 12. 

Prof. Roemer, in his Monograph of the ' Polyparien des Norddeutsch. 
Tert.-Gebirges,' gives the following list of five Hornera as found in the 
Lower, and one in the Upper Oligocene : — 

127. Hornera bipunctata, Roemer, op. tit. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 4. 

Lower Oligocene. 

128. Hornera sulcopunctata, Roemer, op. clt. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 5. 

Lower Oligocene. 

129. Hornera tortuosa, Roemer, op. ait. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 6. 

Lower Oligocene. 

130. Hornera nitens, Roemer, op. clt. p. 23, Tab. III. fig. 7. Lower 

Oligocene. 

131. Horneea lamellosa, Roemer, op. clt. p. 24, Tab. HI. fig. 8. Lower 

Oligocene. 

132. Hornera gracilis, Philippi, Beitriige, Tab. I. figs. 7, 8, 9. Upper 

Oligocene. 



OX FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 149 



Family IV. LlCHEXOPOBIAS, Smitfc. 

= DiscoporiJiv, Busk, ' Brit. Cyclop.' ; Discnporettido?, Busk, ' Mr.s. Cat.' 
pt. iii. ; Gaveidm, (part) D'Orb. ; Tubigeridce, (part) D'Orb. 

' Zoarium discoid, simple or composite, adnate, or partially free and 
stipitate. Zooeela tubular, erect or suberect, disposed in more or less 
distinct series, which radiate from a free central area ; the intermediate 
surface cancellated or porous.' — Hincks, p. 471. 

Whether this family will remain intact as we get a more perfect 
knowledge of the structure of the fossil forms below the Tertiary rocks, I 
am, at present, unable to say. It would be unwise to displace the 
Tertiary forms that would naturally fall under this head, and the few 
Mesozoic species known to me may also find a resting-place here, for 
unless we knew more of the structure of the Jurassic species it would be 
also unwise to disturb the placement of these ; but when we come to the 
few disc-like forms of the Palaeozoic rocks, we meet with peculiarities of 
structure unknown to me in the more recent I&chenoporidce. Three 
species are described in the ' Silurian Sj-stem ' as Discopora, and figured 
in Plate 15 of that work (figs. 21, 22, 23) ; these are named : — 

Discopora antiqua, Milne- Ed. r — Cellepom antiqua, Goldf. 

Membranvpora ,, Blaiuv. 
„ sqitamata, Lonsdale 
,, ? favosa ,, = Cellepora favosa, Goldf. 

Within the last few years the affinities of these forms have been the 
subject of a good deal of controversy. Dr. Gustav Lindstrom ('Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist.' Ser. 4, vol. xviii. p. L and seqnel), in speaking of the 
development of Monticulipora petropolitana. Pander, says that — ' It 
begins .... as a Bryozoon, as a Discoporella, or, as what Hall has 
termed Ceramopora imbricata (' Pal. N. Y.' vol. ii., p. 169, pi. xl., figs, 
la-li). There can be no doubt that this is closely allied to the recent 
Discoporella. (See Fr. Smitt, 'Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forb. 1866,' p. 470, pi. xi. 
fig. 4).' This opinion has been contested by Prof. Nicholson in his 
work on the ' Tabulate Corals,' p. 283, wherein he says — ' I have en- 
deavoured to give a faithful account of the views Dr. Lindstrom ha-', 
published as to the development of the Monticulipora, and upon which he, 
in large part, bases his view that the fossils of this genus are really 
Polyzoa.' Since the publication of the works 'Monticuliporidaj ' and 
' Tabulate Corals ' of Prof. Nicholson, Mr. John Young, of Glasgow, has 
'discovei'ed specimens of another Biyozoon, or Polyzoon, as I prefer 
to name it ... . that is closely allied to the Silurian Ceramopora, 
and which I have been enabled to follow clearly in all its stages of 
growth until it becomes a true Monticulipora ' (' On the Identity of Cera- 
mopora megastoma,' &c, 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' Dec. 1882). The stages 
through which this form passes before it assumes the Monticulipora form, 
are similar to, or probably the same as, the stages indicated by Dr. 
Lindstrom — the Fistulipora and Thecostegates stages. Mr. John \'oung, 
however (Joe. cit. p. 430), does not commit himself to give an opinion on 
'the vexed question as to the zoological position of the organisms showing 
these changes, but only states that, as regards the Carboniferous form, one 
of two things seems certain, viz., that if Fistulipora minor (M'Coy) be 
held to be a tabulated coral of the Moniiculiporidce group, then Ceramo- 



150 REPORT — 1884. 

pora megastoma (M'Coy),is only its younger stage ; and if, on the other 
hand, the latter form be held to be a Polyzoon, then its later stage is only 
a further development of Polyzoal life, and Fistulipora minor, and the 
other forms indicated in Dr. Lindstrom"s paper in the " Annals," must of 
necessity be removed from the Tabulate Corals.' 

It is impossible to gainsay the logic of Mr. John Young, however we 
may be inclined to controvert the views of those who still hold the Polyzoal 
affinity of Silurian Biscopora. I do not, however, speak without a full 
knowledge of the whole of the forms previously referred to, and at present 
it would be better to defer any positive opinion in the face of the really 
honest work of Dr. Lindstrom, Smitt, Prof. A. Nicholson, or Mr. John 
Young. Yet I cannot forbear remarking that, so far as I can rely upon 
my own work, I cannot speak in favour of the views of those who hold 
the belief that any natural affinity exists between the Biscopora of the 
Silurian rocks, and the Biscoporella of present seas. In this review, then, 
I must except the Palaeozoic forms altogether, and I would prefer, for 
the present, to leave also the Mesozoic as well. 

Genus Lichenopora, Defranc. 

' Zoarium discoid, raised, simple, or composed of many confluent disks, 
entirety adnate, or partially free, and sometimes stipitate, developed on a 
thin lamina, which usually forms a border round it. Zooecia distinct or 
connate in single radiating lines, or multiserial.' — Hincks, p. 472. 

133. Lichenopora hispida, Flein. (Hincks,p. 47S)=Biscoporella Jiispida, 

Gray ; Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 115. Discocavea (Lichenopora') 
aculeata, D'Orb. r ' Reteroporella radiata, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' 
p. 127, pi. xix. fig. 2. 
Range.— ?Cor. Crag (S. Wood) ; Scotch Glacial Deposits (Geikie) ; 
Post-Pliocene, Canada (Dawson). Living. 

134. Lichenopora eadiata. Aud. (Hincks, p. 476)=Biscoporella sp., 

Manzoni, ' Bry. du Plioc. de Rhodes.' 
Range. — Pliocene; Rhodes (Manz.) ; Bruccoli, Sicily (Waters). 
Living. 

135. Lichenopora verrucaria, Linn. Fabr. (Hincks, p. 478) =Biscocavea 

and Unicavea, D'Orb. ' This in many respects resembles D. 
radiata. It is not the Discoporella verrucaria of Manzoni (' Bry. 
Foss. Ital.' 4th Contr. pi. vi. fig. 33), which may be Bia- 
stopora flabellum, Rss.' (Waters, 'Bry. Bay of Naples,' p. 271). 
Range. — Living. Fossil (?). 

136. Lichenopora crassjuscula, Smitt (Scand. ~Brjoz.)=Tubulipora 

Grignonensis, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 116. 
Range. — Crag (Busk). Living, Northern Seas. 
137." Lichenopora regularis, D'Orb. (Hincks, p. 470) ; D'Orb. ' Pal. 

Fr.' 
Range. — French Cretaceous beds. Living, Shetland. 

Genus Domopora, D'Orbigny. 

Bomopora, D'Orb., 1874, ' Prod, de Pal.,' Busk ; Befrancia, (part) 
Reus.?, Hagenow, Sars, Manzoni ; Ceriopora, (part) Goldfuss ; Stellipora, 
(part) Hagenow. 

' Zoarium massive, cylindrical or mammiform, simple or lobed, formed 
of a number of subcolonies superimposed one upon the other ; the whole 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 151 

surface porous. Zpcecia disposed in radiating lines, consisting of one or 
more series, on the free extremity of the stem or lobes.' — Hincks, p. 481. 

138. Domopora stellata, Goldf. ; Hincks, p. 481 ; Goldf. ' Petrefac' 

i. p. 39, pi. xxx. tig. 12 = Stellepora stellata, Hag. ' Bry. Maest.' 
p. 44 = Defrancia stellata, Reuss, ' Foss. Pol. Wien. T.' 37, 
pi. vi. fig. 2 ; Manzoni, ' Bri. Foss. Mioc. d'Aust.' 
Range. — 'In stratis arenoso-margaceis,' Westphalia? (Goldf.) ; Austro- 
Hung. (Manzoni) ; Vienna Basin (Reuss). 

139. Defrancia disticha, Hagenow (a with smooth interspaces), 

Tab. IV. fig. 1. 

140. Defrancia Michelini, „ ,, ,, ,, 

Tab. IV. fig. 5. 

141. Defrancia cochloidea, „ „ ,, „ 

Tab. IV. fig. 8. 

142. Defrancia diadema, Goldf. (/? with porous interspaces, Hag.), 

Tab. IV. fig. 23 =Oeriopora ibid., Goldf. 

143. Defrancta reticulata, Hag. (/? with porous interspaces, Hag.), 

Tab. IV. fig. 4. 

1 44. Defrancia cariosa, „ „ ,, ,, 

Tab. IV. fig. 6. 

145. Defrancia sellula, „ „ „ ,, 

Tab. IV. fig. 7. 

Range. — The first and fourth of Hagenow's species are found both 
at Maestricht and Falkenberg, the rest are Maestricht. Busk, ' Brit. Mas. 
Cat ' pt. iii. p. 35, gives D. truncata, Jameson, as a Recent Northern form, 
and he gives Geriupora stellata, Goldf., as a synonym. 

This is the end of the classification of the Cyclostomata, so far as 
Mr. Hincks gives any details. But Mr. Busk, in his ' III. Brit. Mus. 
Catalogue,' admits the following. 

Family VI. Frondiporidjj, Smitt. 

= Fascicidinece and Fascigerida, D'Orb.; Frondiporidce and Corymboporida;, 
Smitt ; Cerioporida;, Busk ; Gerioporina, Hagenow. 

' Zoarium massive, stipitate, simple or lobed, or ramose. Zocecia 
connate, aggregated into fasciculi, and continuous throughout the length 
of the fasciculus, at the extremity of which only they open ; walls of 
cells porous ; no intermediate pores or cancelli.' 

Fascictlipora, sp., are found in the Jurassic strata, and Frondipora 
also are probably as old as the Chalk ; but in this Report I can give no 
details respecting the species. 



Part II. — Historical Labours on the Group. 
Cretaceous Polyzca (Pt. ii. Foreign Species). 

See Cretaceous Polyzoa (Pt. i. Brit. Species), Brit. Assoc. Rep. Foss. 
Polvz. (mihi), 1883. 

It is impossible at the present time, and with our present knowledge, 
to comprehend the full meaning of the grouping of the Fossil Polyzoa by 
the older naturalists. The genera were few in number and not always 
well defined, so that the history of any special group is, comparatively 
speaking, the history of advancing knowledge — not, however, based upon 



152 BEroitx— 1884. 

structure, but upon external form only. Then, again, the form and liabit 
of an individual type served as a pretext for founding new genera and 
new species, without, in many cases, the least regard to structural 
peculiarities. I do not put tbis down as a reproach, but rather as one of 
the primary reasons why these time-honoured naturalists are disregarded 
by younger workers. For myself, I have no desire to ignore the help of 
early investigators, and I wish particularly, in this division of my Report, 
to give as full a history of the grouping of Fossil Polyzoa, together with 
as fall an account of the species, as possible. I do this in the interest of 
two different classes of workers. In the first place, I desire to give — - 
beginning with Goldfuss — the Pala?ontological history of the Polyzoa, 
ranging from the Cretaceous beds to the highest beds of the Tertiary ; 
and, in the second, to place in the hands of fellow students a full history 
of species described by the successive workers also from the time of 
Goldfuss to the pi'esent, giving, as far as I am able, the modern classifi- 
catory name. This part of ray Report may appear, to all but the two 
sets of workers named above, a tedious piece of labour. But when it is 
remembered that many of the works, papers, or monographs of the earlier 
workers are at the pi'esent day inaccessible — or almost inaccessible except 
to those who reside in the vicinity of large libraries — the tedionsness will 
be more apparent than real. I think it will be admitted by all, that the 
whole of the lists of species of Polyzoa must be accepted by the 
Palaeontologist — unless by carefully working over the old work many of 
the early names are reduced to synonyms. In many cases I know that 
this is their ultimate destiny. Until new students, then, are content to 
work along the lines fully elaborated — from the consecutive labours of 
the Rev. Thomas Hincks and Mr. A. W. Waters — in the earlier part of 
the jiresent Report — confused and ill-digested compilation must follow. 
I have been asked, over and over again, why not work along 1 the lines 
laid down by D'Orbigny in his grouping of the Polyzoa; or if not, give 
my reasons for neglecting him. I have no wish to do either. So far as 
D'Orbigny gave to us original work I am proud, and even glad, to follow 
him in his groupings ; but I do not believe that a dozen men exist who 
can adopt his method with any satisfaction to themselves. Professor 
Roemer adopted D'Orbigny's classification for his work on the Norddeutsch 
Bryozoa ; and so have the Messrs. Gabb and Horn for their monograph 
of the Secondary and Tertiary Polyzoa of North America ; and a pretty 
full digest of D'Orbigny's system is given in M. Pictet's work on 
Palaeontology, and also a goodly number of figures to illustrate the many 
divisions. 

In one of Professor Smitt's elaborate papers — ' Floridan and Scan- 
dinavian Bryozoa' — the author has given identifications and probable 
relationships of his own with some of D'Orbigny's genera and species, 
and I have availed myself of Smitt's valuable lists for the sake of syno- 
nymy alone. With regard to Hagenow, Reuss, Manzoni, Busk, Waters, 
and some few others, I think that no two opinions can exist as to the 
value of their special labours, and the very full list given from these 
authors will, I think, be fully appi'eciated by the working student at 
least. It may be well now to explain the principle by which I have been 
guided in compiling this part of my Report. In every case in dealing 
with an author's work I have not disturbed his grouping or arrangement 
— except where it was necessary to break up the list for the purpose of 
giving a stratigraphical arrangement. In an opposite column I have 



OK FOSSIL POLYZOA. . 153 

given, where I could, the modern and, to me, more acceptable names ; 
otherwise the work is practically that of the author named. 

At first I only intended to give the history and classification of 
Cyclostomatons Polyzoa, leaving for future work, or for others, the 
history, &c, of Cheilostomatous forms ; not because I had no desire for 
the complete task, but because of the limited time for the continuous 
application necessary for the success of the Report. In making my 
wants known to my ever constant friend — Miss E. C. Jell}' — her answer 
was prompt and welcome : 'The Cheilostomata must be done, and you 
can command my services to any extent in the work.' Of her labours I 
have gladly availed myself, and I owe to her the compilation of many of 
the elaborate lists given below ; the arrangement, however, is my own. 

It must not be supposed that what follows are mere barren names, 
which are easily written and as easily passed over. I have a fine suite 
of the Faxoe Limestone Polyzoa — almost equivalent to those of the Maes- 
tricht beds — and also of the Cretaceous rocks of America, and whenever 
I have made remarks on an author's work, I have onlj^ done so after a 
study of the species in my possession. The same remark will apply to 
the Australian forms described by Mr. Waters, and many of the species 
described in the works of Roemer, Reuas, and Manzoni. Of the Crag 
Polyzoa and Post-Tertiary species, I may say that it was the study of 
these forms that gave to me my first and longing desire to make myself 
as fully acquainted as possible witli the whole of our Fossil, as with our 
Recent Polyzoa, and, thanks to Miss E. C. Jelly and to Miss Gatty, my 
desire to a large extent has been gratified for Recent and Fossil forms. 
I am greatly indebted to Professor Roemer of Breslau, and to Mr. J. M. 
Nlckles of Cincinnati, for material from Cretaceous and Tertiaiy horizons 
which have been of great advantage to me in my varied labours on these 
Reports. 

For reasons that may be easily understood, I place Smitt's list as a 
preface to this part of my Report, rather than in the first part, where it 
ought to be placed. In it the student will find the fullest synonymy that 
I have yet met with from D'Orbigny, and this in itself is a fitting intro- 
duction to the works of Roemer and the Messrs. Gabb and Horn. 

F. A. Smitt, 'Floridan Bryozoa,' 1872-3 (Cheilostomata).— F. A. 
Smitt, 'Scandinavian Bryozoa,' 1864-68 (Cheilostomata), and Cyclo- 
stomata. 

In the above works of Professor Smitt, we have not only the author's 
systematic arrangement of genera and species, but a most elaborate 
synonymy, and the two works are evidently amongst the finest of original 
memoirs ever offered to the scientific public on this special group of 
animals. I have not thought it in any way necessary to alter or 
disarrange the text of the author. 



Scandinavian Cheilostomata. 

Cheilostomata. 

Sub-order Cellcxarina. 

1. Aetea anguina, Linn. ; ibid , D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. p. 41. 
-• ,, ,, (a) forma spathulata 

3. „ „ (/3) ,, recta = Stomatopora gallica, (?) D'Orb. 

I c. p. 836. 



154 report — 1884. 

Euceatea, Lamx. = Gatenaria, D'Orb. I. c. p. 43. 

4. Cellulaeia teenata, Sol. (Metdpea & Scrupocellaria, Hincks). 

5. „ («) foi'ma ternata = Menipea ibid. D'Orb. I. c. p. 47. 

6. ,, eeptans, Linn. = Cellularia, D'Orb. 1. c. p. 50. 

7. „ SCEUPOSA, „ „ „ 

8. Gemellaeia loeicata, ,, = Gemellaria, „ I. c. p. 46. 

9. Bicellaeia ciliata „ = Cellularia, „ „ p. 49. 

10. Bugtjla aticulaeia, ,, = Omithopora ,, „ p. 322. 

11. ,, forma flabellata = Oriiiihoporina avicularia, D'Orb. I. c. 
p. 322. 

12. Bugula forma fastigiata = Acamarchis, D'Orb. I. c. p. 324. 

13. „ Mueeatana, Sm. = Ornitlwporina dilata, D'Orb. I. c. 
p. 323. 

Sub-order Flustbina. 

14. Flustea hembeanacea, Linn. = Reptoflnstra telacca, D'Orb. I. c. 

p. 328. 

15. Flustea secueifeons, Pall. = Ibid. D'Orb. 1. c. p. 55. 

16. „ papteea „ = Semiflustrata carlasea, D'Orb. I. c. 
p. 326. 

17. Flustea fouacea, Linn. = Eschara ibid. D'Orb. I. c. p. 55. 

18. Cellabia fistdlosa, Linn. = Cellaria salicornia, D'Orb. 1. c. p. 28. 

(See ante for synonyms, Hincks & Reuss.) 

19. Membeanipoea lineata, Linn., forma craticula, Alder = Reptoflus- 

trella arctica, D'Orb. 1. c. p. 571. 

20. Meiibranipoba forma lineata = Reptelectrina ibid. D'Orb. I. c. 

p. 334= Membranipora sedecimdentata, D'Orb. 1. c. p. 542. 

21. Membeanipoea forma Sophia;, Busk = Reptoflustrina arctica, 

D'Orb. Z. c, p. 582. 

22. Membeanipoea forma americana, D'Orb. = Reptnflustrella ibid. 

D'Orb. 1. c. p. 571. 

23. Membeanipoea abctica, D'Orb. = Semiflustrellaria ibid. 

D'Orb. MS. 
21. Membeanipoea Flemingii, Busk, forma trifolium = M. trifolium, 
'B. Crag Pol.' p. 32 = M. Pouilletii, ' B.*Crag Pol.' p. 32. 

25. Membeanipoea pilosa, Linn, (typica) = Reptelectrina pilosa, D'Orb. 

1 Pal. Fr. Ter. C v. p. 334 = Reptelectrina dentata, D'Orb. I. c. 
p. 334 = Electrina lamellosa and cylindrica, D'Orb. /. c. p. 188. 

26. Membeanipoea forma monostachys, Busk = Flustrellaria pustulosa, 

(?) D'Orb. I. c. p. 526. 

27. Membeanipoea forma catenularia, Jameson (non Hippothoa 

catenularia, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fran.') = Pyripora ramosa, D'Orb. I. c. 
p. 539. 

28. Membeanipoea forma membranacea, Mull. = ibid., D'Orb. I. c. 

p. 542. 

Sub-order Eschaeina. 
Family Eschaeipoeid.e. 
Eschaeipoea, D'Orb. 

29. „ punctata, Hass. (' Crag Poly.' p. 40). 

30. ,, annulata, Fabr. = Reptescharella Heermannii, Gabb 
& Horn = Cribrillina, Hincks. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 155 

POEINA, D'Orb. 

31. „ Mallusii, Aud. = Repteporiiia ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. T. 
C V. I. c. p. 443 = Repteporina hexagona, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. T. C 
v. 1. c. p. 444. 

32. Porixa ciliata, Ball (Lepralia ibid., ' Crag Pol.' p. 42) = Pyriflus- 

trella arctica, D'Orb. I. c. p. 570. 

Eschaeella, D'Orb. 

33. Eschaeella Legextilii, Aud. = Gellepora ibid., D'Orb. (op. eit.) 

I. c. 401 = Reptoporina, D'Orb. = Reptescharella simulata, D'Orb. 
I. c. p. 465. 

34. Eschaeella Jacotixa, Aud. = Reptescharella Jacotina, D'Orb. I. c. 

p. 465 = Semieschara lamellosa, D'Orb. I. c. p. 366. 

35. Eschaeella ltxeaeis (forma typica) = Semiporina puletiella, 

D'Orb. I. c. 440 = SemiescharelUna oblonga, D'Orb. I. c. p. 450. 

36. Eschaeella lixeaeis forma biaperta = Reptoporina Uaperta, D'Orb. 

I. c p. 442. 

Mollia, Lamx. 

37. „ htalixa. 

38- ,, ,, forma divaricata, Lamx.=B"/jj^oi7ioa divaricata, 
D'Orb. ' P. P. T. C v. p. 383 = Hlppothoa catemdaria, D'Orb. ' P. 
F. T. C v. p. 383 = Hippothoa Savignyma, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C 
v. p. 383 = Hippothoa borealis, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 384 = 
Eippothoa mediterranea, D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C v. p. 384 = 
Hippothoa Robertina, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 384 = Hippothoa 
patarjonica, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 24. 

Myriozoum. 

39- „ CRUSTACEmr, Sm. = (?) Esehara incisa, M.-Edw., 
Micbelin = Esehara incisa, D'Orb., Busk, ' Crag Pol.' 

40. Myeiozouii subgeacilis, D'Orb. — Esehara inrisu, D'Orb. 'Pal. F. 

T. C l. c. p. 662. 

EsCHAEIDjE. 

41. Lepealia hippopus, Sm. = (?) Esehara Deshayesii, M.-Edw. 

42. „ ceevicoexis, Pall. = ibid. D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C /. c. p. 
344. L 

43. Lepealia elegaxtula, D'Orb. = ibid. D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C I. c. 

p. 101. 

Eschaeoides, M.-Edw. 

■W- „ Saesii, Sm. = (?) Esehara lobata, D'Orb. I. c. p. 101 

= (?) Esehara grandipora, D'Orb. 1. c. p. 345. 

Family DisCOPOEiM:. 

45. Discopoeacoccixea, Abbildg. == Lepralia variolosa, (pars) L. Peachii ; 

L. ventricosa, Busk, ' Crag Polyz., pp. 48 and 49. 

46. Discopoea forma ovalis, Hass. = L. variolosa, (pars) Busk, ' Cras 

Polyz.' p. 48. . ^ 

47. Discopoea Skexii, Sol. = L. bicomis, Busk, ' Crag Polyz.' p. 47. 



156 report— 1884. 

Sub-order Cellepoiuxa. 
Family Celleporid.ic. 

48. Cellepora eamulosa, Linn., forma tubtrosa = Reptocelleporaria 

tuberosa, D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C XI. (pars) p. 428 = Cellepora 
tubigera, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 60. 

Forma ramulosa = ibid. Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 58. 

49. Cellepoearia incrassata, Linn. = Ibid. D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C v. 

p. 419. 

Family Reteporimj;. 

50. Retepora cellulosa, Linn., forma notopachys («, forma tijpica) 

= Retepora notopachys, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 76. 

Floridan Cheilostomata. 

51. Meubranipora canariexsis, B., ' Sm. FI.' pi. ii. f. 10 = Cupularia 

ibid., Busk, ' Cr. Pol.' p. 87. 

52. Membranipokella Agassizii, Sm., ' Sm. Fl.' pi. ii. f. 11. Com- 

pare Escharipora fdiformis, D'Orb. /. c. p. 232. 

53. Cupularia umbellata, Def., ' Sm. FL' pi. ii. f. It = ibid. ' Bri. 

Plio. Ital.,' Manzoni, 1869, p. 26= ? Discoporella Uermtuliana, 
D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C p. 474 = ? Discoporella denticulata, Gabb 
& Horn. 

54. Cupularia doma, D'Orb., ' Sm. Fl.' pi. ii. f. 15. Discoflustrella 

ibid., D'Orb. 1. c. p. 561. 

55. Steganoporella ' elegans, M.-Edw., 'Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 15 = 

Escharellina, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C V. p. 44S. 
55*. Steganoporella Rozieri, And., ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. lG=Reptesehar- 
ellina, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. C v. p. 453. 

56. Biflustra Lacroixii, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 18=BiJlustra and Repfo. 

flustra ibid., D'Orb. 

57. Biflustra denticulata, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. ~\8=?Membranipora 

tuberculata, Busk, ' C. P.' p. 30= Ueptoflustra, D'Orb., 'P. F. 
T. C.'v. pp. 328-329. 

58. Biflustra Savartii, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 20- Mumbra-m'pora, D'Orb. 

/. c, p. 5i2=?Flustrellaria tubulosa, D'Orb., Z. c, p, 532 = 
?Membranipora Ligeriensis, D'Orb., I. c, p. 550 = ?Membr an ipor a 
Savartii, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 'Sl = ?ltiflustra delicahda, Busk, 
' Crag Pol.' p. 72. 

59. Cribrilina radiata, Moll, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 22, ' Very neartotbe 

present species, and its allies must be placed,' Semieschanpora 
fragilis, D'Orb. 'P. F. T. C V. p. 480 = Semiescharipora brevis, 
D'Orb. 'P. F. T.C v. p. 485 = Semiescharipora oralis, D'Orb. 
' P. F. T. C v. p. 488. 

60. Cribrilina innominata, Coucli, ' Fl. Bty.' pi. ii. f. 22=Lepralia, 

ibid.. Busk, ' C. P.' p. 40=? Reptescliarella ■pygmxa, D'Orb., 1. c, 
p. 468. 

61. Porellina ciliata (see Microporella, Hincks), ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. 

f. 26=Repioporellina subvulgaris, D'Orb., I. c, p. 477. 

62. Porina violacea (see Microporella, Hincks), 'Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 30 

=Lepralia ibid., Busk, ' C. P.' p. 43. 

63. Porina plagiopora, ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 30=Lepralia ibid., Busk, 

' C. P.' p. 44. 

1 Stegiwjwrella, Sm. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 157 

64. Mamillopora cupula, Sm., 'Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 32 = ?Conescharellina, 

D'Orb., Z. c, p. 446. 

65. Gemillipora eburnea, Sm., ' Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. B5=?Hippothod 

elegans, D'Orb., I. c, p. 384. 

66. Hippothoa Isabellina, D'Orb., 'Fl. Bry.' pi. ii. f. 44= Beptopo- 

rina, D'Orb. = ? Schizoporella unicornis, Hincks. 

67. Eschaeella sanguinea, Sm. = ?Cellepora subtorquata, D'Orb., I. c, 

p. 399 (Schizoporella, Hincks). 

68. Escharella pertusa, Esper = Cellepora, D'Orb. (Lepralia, 

Hincks). 

69. Escharella Audouinii= Cellepora, D'Orb.; C. A udouinii, D'Orb. 

=?C. ovoidea and 0. subovoidea, ' Pal. Fr. T. C p. 402 (Lepralia, 
Hincks). 

70. Lepralu inorn at a= Cellepora ibid., Gabb and Horn. 

71. Lepralia edax, Busk= Cellepora edax, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 59. 

72. Retepoea MAKSVPiATA=?Phidolopora labiata, Gabb & Horn. 

73. Discopora albieosteis (forma ty pica) = Cellepora ceratomorpha,~Rss., 

' Fos. Pol. W. TV p. 80= ''.Cellepora cucalina, Mich. ' Icon. Zoo.' 

p. 324. 
In giving these lists* of Cheilostomata from the Floridan and Scan- 
dinavian Bryozoa of Professor Smitt, I have not thought it necessary to 
curtail any of the synonyms, or alter into the more modern genera any of 
the forms described by the author. The student will see at a glance how- 
very different Smitt's and Hincks's genera are, and how readily the latter 
author has adopted from Smitt the generic terms that could be adopted 
with safety. It will be for those who take up the study of either Recent 
or Fossil Polyzoa to arrange their species after any author whomsoever 
they may choose to follow. I believe, however, that for the first time, 
both Paleontologists and those who take up the examination of Recent 
or living forms, have been, by the publication of the present Report, 
put in possession of lists which will facilitate research and prove 
advantageous to fulm-e scientific exposition. 

Smitt: Ctclostomata (Scandinavian). 

Tribe Infundibulata, Gervais. Order Ctclostomata, Busk 

( = Centrifugin a , D' Orb. ) . 

Sub-order Radicellata, D'Orb. (=Articulata, Busk). 

Family Crisped : Les Crisies (M.-Edw.) = Crisiadce, D'Orb. 

Crisia, Lamx. (=Crisia, Unicriski, Bicrisia, Crisidea, Filicrisia, D'Orb.). 

1. Ceisia coenuta, Itirm.=FiUcrisia, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Terr Cret ' v 

p. 604. 

2. Crisia /3 coumiA=Crisidia, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. Terr. Cret.' v. 653. 

3. Ceisia eburnea. Linn. = Crisia, D'Orb. „ „ „ „ |f r>98. 

4. Ceisia denticulata, Linn., Crisia, D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr. Terr"Cret 'v 

p. 599, and Busk, ' C. P.' p. 93. 

Sub-order Incrustata (= InarticuUta, Busk). 

I. Tubulinea, D'Orb. Family Diastoporid^e. 

Diastopora, Lamx. ; M.-Edw. 

5. Diastopora mnv^s-Alecto, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 112= Proboscina 

dichotoma, D'Orb. ' P. F. T. Cret.' v. p. 8A7=Proboscina Ton- 
D'Orb. (?) I. c, p. 856. 



158 REPORT— 1884. 

6. Diastopora simplex, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 113 — (non D'Orb.). 

7. Diastopora hyalina (o), D. obelia, Johnst.=Berenicea prominens, 

D'Orb. I, c„ p. 862. 

8. Diastopora hyalina (/3), latomarginata, J) , Orb.-=Biastopora ibid., 

D'Orb. I. c, p. 827. 

9. Diastopora patina (fi) forma typica = Biscosparsa marginata, D'Orb. 

I. c, p. 8'22=Beptomultispa7-sa congesta, D'Orb. (?) I. c, p. 878. 

10. Diastopora patina (y)forma,radiata=Pvadiotubigera, D'Orb. sp. ?= 

Patinella proligera, Busk, ' Crag P.' p. 104. 

Mesenteripora, Blainv. 

11. Mesenteripora meandrina, Wood; D'Orb. = Ceriopora compressa, 

Goldf. 'Petr.' vol. i., p. o7=Pohjtrema, D'Orb., 'Prod. Pal. 
Strat.' vol. ii., p. 279=Bitaxia, Hagenovv, ' Bry. Mast. Kreid.' 
p. o0=Bidiasto2)ora and Mesenteripora Miclielini, D'Orb., ' Prod. 
P. S.' = Bidiastop>ora and Mesenteripora Eudesiana, D'Orb. = 
Mesenteripora, meandrina Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 109 ^Mesenteri- 
pora neocomiensis, D'Orb. ' Pal. F. T. C p. 808. 

Family Tubuliporid.e. 
Tubulipora, Lamx. Sub-genus Idmonea, Lamx. 

12. Tubulipora atlaniica, Forbes, forma erecta= Idmonea coronopus, 

D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' I. c, p. 729=Idmonea angustata, D'Orb. 'Pal. 
Fr.' I. <:, p. 731. 

13. Tubulifora fenestrata (Busk?) (Idmonea) ' Crag Pol.' p. 105. 

14. Tubulifora serpens, forma ereeta= Idmonea dilatata, D'Orb. ' Pal. 

Fr. T. Cret.' p. 731. 

15. Tubulipora serpens, forma serpens = Beptotubigera tubulifera, 

D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T. Cret.' p. 7o2=Reptoitt,bigera confluens, 
D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr. T. Cret.' p. 752. 

(Sub-genus Phalangella, Gray.) 

16. Tubulipora palmata, Wood= Tubulipora ibid. Zoopb. Crag 'Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist.' xiii. p. 14<=Alecto dilatans, Busk, ' Crag 
Pol.' p. 102. 

17. Tubulipora fimbria, Lam. = Proboscina serpens, D'Orb. ' Pal. 

Fr. T. C p. 847 = Tubulipora flabellaris, Busk, ' Crag P.' 
p. 111. 
1H. Tubulipora flabellaris, Fab. = Tubulipora vernicaria, D'Orb. 
'P. Fr. T. C v. p. 832 = Tubulipora plialangea, Busk, 'Crag 
Pol.' p. 111. 

Sub-genus Proboscina, Aud. 

19. Tubulipora incrassata, D'Orb., forma erecta=Filesparsa incrassata, 

D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T. C p. 817 '= Filesparsa tubigera, D'Orb., ibid. 
TuBUHPORA incrassata, D'Orb., forma serpens = Stomatopora, 

D'Orb. (?) ibid. p. 386= Stomatopora incrassata, D'Orb. (?) ibid. 

=Stomatopora recticidata, D'Orb. (?) ibid. p. 841= Proboscina 

serpens, D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' Z. c, p. 847. 
21. Tubulipora penicillata, ¥&br. =Befrancia striatula, Busk, 'Crag 

Pol.' p. 117. 



20 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 159 

Family HOEXERiDiE. 
Horxera, Lamx. 

22. Horxera lichenoides, Linn. =Ecrn era borealis, Busk ' Crao- 

Pol.' pp. 95 and 103. 

Family Lichexopoeid;e. 
Discopoeella, Gray. 

23. Discopoeella vereucaeia, Linn., Fabr. =T)iscocavea, D'Orb. 'Pal. 

Fr. T. Cret.' v. p. 958=Unicavea convexa, D'Orb. 'Pal Fr T 
CreV v. p. 972. 

24. Discopoeella ceassiuscula, Sm.=Tubnlipora Grignouensis, Busk 

Crag Pol.' p. 116 ( non M.-Edw.) = Defranciarugosa, Busk (?) 
I. c, p. 118. 

25. Discopoeella hispida (Flem.) = Liclienopora mediterranean Mich. 

' Icon. Zoo.' p. 68=Unicavea, D'Orb., 'Pal. F. T. C p. 971 = Vis- 
cocavea acideata, D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' 7. c, p. 95B=Eeteroporella 
radiata, Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 127. 

II. Fascictlixea, D'Orb. Family Feoxdipoeid.e. 
Froxdipoea, Blainv. 

26. Froxdipoea (a) reticulata, Linn.= Frmdipora ibid., D'Orb ' Pal 
Fr. T. C v. p. 677. ' 

Froxdipoea (/3) reticulata, IAxm.= Froudmora verrucosa, D'Orb ' Pal 
Fr. T. C v. p. 678. ,' 

Family Cortmboporidj:. 
Coeymbopoea, Mich. 

27. Coeymbopoea fungiforms, Sm. = Fimgella proUfera, Hag. (?) 

'Mast. Kreid.' p. o7=Fasciculipora, D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr. T. C v. 
p. 668= Fimgella quadriceps, Busk (?), ' Crag Pol.' p. 119. 

Defeaxcia, Bronn. 

28. Defeaxcia luceexaria, Sa,v.=Discofascigera cupula, D'Orb. (?) 

I. c, p. 675. 

I would strongly advise the student of Fossil Cyclostomata to com- 
pare the species named, if in his power to do so, or contrast at least 
the lists given in this report from Hincks, Busk, Hagenow, and 
Reuss. It will be seen what different estimates are given of Zoarial 
characters by the different authors. The multiplication of species is un- 
avoidable if we take into consideration habit only. In Smitt's list given 
above, the author certainly deserves the thanks of workers for his 
endeavour to combine leading facial characters in his simple Family 
arrangements, and I think I may venture to say that Smitt's Generic 
combination embraces all, or nearly all, the structural features that may 
be found m the study of this peculiar sub-order of the Polyzoa. It may 
be, however, quite possible to give simplicity of arrangement too wide a 
scope. (See Hincks and Busk on the Cyclostomata). 

Dr. August Goldfuss, ' Petrefacta Germania?,' 1826. 
The ' Zoophytorum Reliquiae ' of Goldfuss were classed under fortv-five 
genera, and the genera Eschaea, Cellepoea, Betepoea, and Ceeiopoea— 



160 



BEroRT — 1884. 



all that concerns us in the present Report — are placed after the numbers 
14, 15, 16, and 20 in his cosmopolite list. It is useless to reproduce the 
definitions of these genera as given by Goldfuss, for the very simple 
reason that these names now used are much more restricted, and, com- 
paratively speaking, have a different meaning. With regard to the use 
of the generic name Ceriopora, I may say that authors differ in opinion 
as to the necessity of its further retention. Generally speaking I agree 
with those who desire the suppression of the word ; still, there are some 
forms given by Hagenow, which will be referred to further on, that may 
conveniently retain the name, but the genus Ceeiopoea, Goldfuss, embraces 
many typical forms that have been handed over to at least five distinct 
genera. The Cretaceous Retepora of Goldfuss, and also the Cellepora 
and Eschaea, are also placed in hostile relationship, which will be more 
apparent when I review the labours of Hagenow. I cannot attempt any 
suggestive arrangement of Goldfuss's genera and species, because by so 
doing I should anticipate work that will be done further on. I merely 
take the lists given by him as found in the Maestricht beds, and the 
Cretaceous rocks of Essen. 

Cheieostomata, Busk. 

Genus Eschaea, Lamarck. 

Type E. foliacea, Lamarck. Lepealia foliacea, Hincks. 

' Nearly stony, and not flexible, with depressed lamellary fragile expan- 
sions, extremely porous interiorly, entire or divided; cells of the polypi 
arranged in fives on both sides.' ' 

1. Eschara ctclostoma, Goldfuss, 'Petrefac,' Tab. VIIL, fig. 9, 
Maestricht. 



2. Eschaea pyrifoemis, ,, 

Maestricht. 

3. Eschara stigmatophoea, „ 

Maestricht. 

4. Eschara sexaxgularis, „ 

Maestricht. 

5. Eschara caxcellata, ,, 

Maestricht. 

6. Eschara arachxoidea, „ 

Maestricht. 

7. Eschara dichotoma, ., 

Maestricht. 

8. Eschara striata, „ 

Maestricht. 

9. Eschaea filograxa, ,, 

Maestricht. 

10. Eschara disticha, ,, 

Maestricht. 

11. Eschara substriata, Miinst., 

Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 

12. Eschara celleporacea, Miinst., 

Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 



Tab. XXXVI. 



10, 
11, 

12 ' 
13, 

14, 

15, 

16, 

17, 

18, 

9, 

10, 



Brown's Zoologist's Text-Book, p. 5G6, ed. 1833. 



7 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 161 

Genus Cellepora, Linn. 

= Cellepora and Dlscopora, Lamk. 

Discojtora, Lamarck, is now only a synonym of Membranipora, Blain- 
ville. 

1. Cellepora ornata, Goldfuss; ' Petrefac' Tab. IX. fig. 1, 

Maestricht. 

2. Cellepora Hippocrepis, ,, „ 3 

Maestricht. 

3. Cellepora Velamex, ,, 4 

Maestricht. 

4. Cellepora dextata, „ „ „ n 5> 

Maestricht. 

5. Cellepora crustulenta, „ ,, » , 6 

Maestricht. 
C. Cellepora bipunctata, „ 

Maestricht. 

7. Cellepora escharoides, „ „ Tab. XII. ,, 3 

Cret. Rocks, Essen. 

8. Cellepora urceolaris, „ ,, Tab. IX. 2 

Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 

9. Cellepora annulata, Miinst., „ Tab. XXXVI. „ 11, 

Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 
10. Cellepora tristoha, Goldfuss, „ , 12 

Tert. Merg. Astrupp. 

Ctclostomata, Busk. 

1. Ceriopora micropora, Goldfuss, 'Petrefac.' Tab. X. fig. 4, 

Maestricht, Essen. 

2. Ceriopora crtptopora, „ (Heteropora) ; 'Petrefac' Tab. X. 

fig. 3, Maestricht. 

3. Ceriopora anomatopora, ,, „ 

fig. 5, Maestricht. 

4. Ceriopora dichotoma, „ „ 

fig. 9, Maestricht. 

5. Ceriopora verticillata, „ (Entalophora) ; „ Tab. XL 

fig. 1, Maestricht. 

6. Ceriopora pustulosa, „ „ 

fig. 3, Maestricht. 

7. Ceriopora gracilis, „ „ „ Tab. X. 

fig. 11, Maestricht, Essen. 

8. Ceriopora milleporacea, Goldfuss, „ Tab. X. 

fig. 10, Maestricht, Astrupp. 

9. Ceriopora madreporacea, Goldfuss, ., Tab. XL 

fig. 12, Maestricht. 

10. Ceriopora tubiporacea, ,, 

fig. 13, Maestricht. 

11. Ceriopora compressa, Goldfuss (Diastopora), „ „ 

fig. 4, Maestricht. 

12. Ceriopora discifoemis, ,, „ 

Tab. XXXVII. fig. 4, Maestricht, Astrupp. 
188 L 3t 



162 



BEroitT — 1884. 



13. Ceriopora spiralis, fig. 2, Maastricht, ' Petrefac.' Tab. XI. 

14. Ceriopora vaeiabilis, Miinst. ,, 

Tab. XXXVII. fig. 6, Maestriclit, Astrupp. 

15. Ceriopoka venosa, Goldfuss, „ 

Tab. XXXI. fig. 2, Maestricbt. 

— Ceriopoka venosa, Goldfuss, ,, Tab. X. 

fig. 7, Maestricht. 

16. CeRIOPORA POLTMORPHA, ., ,, 

Tab. XXX. fig. 11, Essen. 

17. Ceriopora spoxgites, „ „ Tab. X. 

fig. 14, Maestricbt, Essen. 

18. Ceriopora stellata, Goldfuss, „ 

Tab. XXXI. fig. 1, Essen. 

19. Ceriopora Diadema, Goldfuss, „ 

Tab. XXXIX. fig. 12, Essen. 

— Tab. XXXVII. fig. 3. „ 

20. Ceriopora mitra, Goldfuss, „ 

Tab. XXX. fig. 13. 

21. Ceriopora cribrosa. ., „ Tab. X. 

fig. 16. 

1. Eetepora clathrata, Goldf. (Idmonea) „ Tab. IX. 

fig. 12, Maestricht. 

2. Retepora lichenoides, „ ., ,, „ 

fig. 13, Maestricht. 

3. Eetepora truncata, „ „ „ „ 

fig. 14, Maestricht. 

4. Retepora disticha, ,, ; , „ „ 

fig. 15, Maestricht. 

5. Retepora cancellata, ,-, ,, ,, 

Tab. XXXVI. fig. 17, Maestricbt. 

' Maestricht Beds,' Hagcnow. 

The most systematic work that has yet been published on the Cre- 
taceous Bryozoa (or Polyzoa) is that of Frederick V. Hagenow — ' Die 
Bryozeen der Miistricbter Kreidebildnng,' 12 plates, 1851. In this mono- 
graph the writer figures and describes about 200 species of Polyzoa, 
many of which are new, others are re-described, from Goldfuss chiefly; 
and, as Hagenow had access to the original specimens of Goldfuss, I 
think we may pretty safely rely npon his judgment in the redistribution 
of types. The classification of the author is very simple. For a portion 
of the Cyclostomata, Busk, Hagenow adopted the division A, Tebuli- 
porina, Milne-Edwards ; for another portion he adopted Bronn's division 
B, Cerioporina. His division C, Salpingina embraces only two doubtful 
genera — Escharites, Rom., and Inversaria, Hag. — which in one sense may 
be considered as passage forms ; still it is very doubtful whether some of 
the Salpingina do not belong rather to the Cyclostomata than to the 
Cheilostomata. The group D, Urceolata, Hag., are Cheilostomatous. 
Except that I shall begin with the latter groups — C and D — first, I shall 
not otherwise disturb the arrangement of the author ; but I have not 
thought it necessary to load my text with reference to all the plates, 
especially as the species are numbered. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



163 



■ Sub-order Cheilostomata, Bask. 

D. Urceolata, Hagenow. 

Foiypiaria memhranacea, Blainville ; Thallopodia, Ehrenberg. 

Vincularia, Def. = Glauconome, (pars) Goldf. 

1. V. areolata, Hageuow, Tab. VI. fig. 12. 

2. V. BELLA „ „ „ 13. 

3. V. CANALIFEEA „ ,, „ 14. 

4. V. PROCERA „ „ „ 15. 

5. V. Goldfussii „ ( Cellar! a). 



Eschara, Lamarck. 
A. Truncate. B. Ramosje. 
a. Interminatce. — In this division the cells are not bounded by distinct 
walls, and so far as I have been able to study species of the division it is 
certain that in the grouping there are a number of variations of cell 
character that would amply repay the special labour that could be 
bestowed upon them. This can be done, however, only by those who 
have access to material from the Maestricht beds. My own knowledge is 
derived from the Faxoe Limestone species, which are nearly akin to those 
of Hagenow. 

Eschara, Lamk. 
1. E. pusilla, H. 



2. E. QUINQUEPUNCTATA, H. 

3. E. VARIABILIS, H. 

4. E. G0NI0ST0MA, H. 

5. E. vicixalis, H. 

6. E. C0R0XATA, H. 

7. E. Kleini, H. 

8. E. Jussieui, H. 

9. E. Kondeleti, H. 

10. E. FILOGRAXA, Goldf. 

I?. Terminates. —In this division 
walls — a rather unnatural grouping, 
genera are mingled together. 

21. E. striata, Goldf. 

22. E. RHOMBEA, H. 

23. E. Sayigxyaxa, H. 

24. E. SCINDULATA, H. 

25. E. ICHNOIDEA, H. 

26. E. Edwardsiana, H. 

27. E. arachxoidea, Goldf. 

28. E. cancellata, H. 

29. E. Covieri, H. 

30. E. Lesueuri, H. 

31. E. Mulleri, H. 

32. E. MICROSTOMA, H. 

33. E. Lamocrouxii, H. 

34. E. STIGMATOPHORA, Goldf 

35. E. Lamarcki, H, 



11. E. foveolata, H. 

12. E. Petssonelli, H. 

13. E. semistellata, H. 

14. E. Desmaresti, H. 

15. E. POLTSTOMA, H. 

16. E. Peroni, H. 

17. E. Defraxcia, H. 

18. E. BORYANA, H. 

19. E. Archiaci, H. 

20. E. Verxeuili, H. 

the cells are bounded by distinct 
and, like the others, many types of 

36. E. Audouint, H. 

37. E. pyriformis, Goldf. 

38. E. cyclostoma, ,, 

39. E. dipunctata sp. Goldf. 
= Cellepora ibid., GoldE-= 

Membranipora ibid., Blainv. 
= Discopora ibid., Lamk. = 
Marginaria ibid., Bom. 

40. E. xaxa, H. 

41. E. Ellisi, H. 

42. E. Solaxdri, H. 

43. E. detrita, H. 

44. E. lepida, H. 

45. E. Nysti, H. 

46. E. dichotoma, Goldf. 

M 2 



164 



KEroitT — 1881. 



47. B. Blainyillei, H. 

48. E. PAPYRACEA, H. 

49. E. PEOPINQUA, H. 

50. E. SEXAXGULARIS, Goldf. 



51. E. Esperi, H. 

52. E. Quoziaxa, Bosquefc in litfc. 

53. E.GAUXAP.Di,Bosqaetinlitt. 

54. E. payoxia, H. 



Genus Siphonella, Hag. 

There are only three species described by the author ; they are delicate 
and beautiful forms, and I have similar, if not identical species from 
Faxoe, Denmark. 

1. S. cylindrica, H., Tab. VI. fig. 5. 

2. S. SUBCOMPRESSA, H. „ 6. 

3. S. ELEGAXS, H. „ 7. 

Genus Cellepora (Goldf.), Hag. 

With this group many diverse forms are placed, some of which have 
been redistributed by authors, and many others will have to be. Hagenow 
himself seems to have been puzzled as to how a natural division could be 



arranged, and failing this he 



the following synonymy of the 



1. Cellepora, Fabr., Lamk., 

1816. 

2. Celleporaria, Lamx., 1821. 

3. Diastopora, „ 1821. 

= Bosacilla, Rom. 1841. 

4. Berexicea, Lamx. 1821. 

5. Escharoides, M.-Ed. 1836. 

6. Escharixa, „ 1836. 

7. Discopora, Lamk. (non 

Roemer) 1816. 

8. Discopora, Roemer 1841. 

9. Marginaria, „ 1841. 

10. Membraxipora, Blainv. 1834. 

11. Cellulipoea, D'Orb. 1850. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 



C. SUBIXFLATA, 

C. (Escharoides) pusilla, 
,, pixGris, 

(Escharina) Lessoxi 

„ CORXUTA," 



H. 



0. 

C. 

c. 
c. 

0. 

c. 

c. 



plicatella, 
i.u;gaxtula, . 
Brongniarti, 
hippocrepis, 



(Discop.) 
Goldf. 

C. (DisCOp.) SUBGRAXULATA, H. 
C. „ MOHLI, „ 

C. „ BIDEXS, „ 

C. „ KIXGEXS, „ 



14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23! 
24. 
25. 
26. 



O. (Discop.) 

C. 

C 

C. (Margin.) 

C 

C 

c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 



28. C. 



29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 



C. 
O. 
C. 
C. 
C. 



IRREGULARIS, H. 
DEPRESSA, „ 

OWEXI, „ 

Graxti, „ 

Dl'CHASTELI, ,, 

yagixata, h. „ 
odoxtophora, „ 
Deshayesi, „ 
koxixckiaxa, „ 
camerata, „ 
subpiriformis, „ 

SIGXATA, „ 

Pallasiaxa, „ 

YELAMEN, 

Discopora ibid. 
M.-Edw. = Marginaria ib., 
Rom. 

(Margin.) crustulenta, 
Goldf. = Eschara ibid. 
Blainv. = Discopora ibid. 
M.-Edw. 

(Dermatop.) moxilifera,H. 
lyxa, 

„ ORXATA, Goldf. 

,, Faxjasi, H. 

„ DEXTATA, „ 

G. ibid. Goldf. = Membrani- 
pora ibid., Blainv. = Dis- 
copora ibid., M.-Edw. 



(Discop.) 
(Margin.) 
Goldf. = 



Genus Stictiopora, Hag. 
Stictiopoea clypeata, Hag., Tab. XII. fig. 14. 



ON. FOSSIL POLYZOA. 165 

Genus Lunulites, Lanik. 

«. CONCENTRIC.E. 

1. L. HAGENOWI, Bosquet in litt. Tab. XII. fig. 16. 

ft. Irregulares, Hag. 

2. L. Goldfussii, Hag. Tab. XII. fig. 15 = L. ibid., Hag. (op. cit. p. 

287, Tab. V. p. 10) = L. ibid., Rom. (' Kr. Geb.' p. 15, 1841) = 
L. ibid., ' Griin.' p. 624, 1846). 

Genus Cymbalopora, Hag:. 
C. RADfATA, Hag., Tab. XII., fig. 18. 

The C^lophyma, Rss., of Hagenow, appear to be ovicells (?) of 
this species. 

C. l^vis, Hag., Tab. II. fig. 15, on Truncilidina repens. 

C. constricta, Hag., Tab. II. fig. 16, on Idmonea tetrastlcha. 

C. graxu latum, Hag., Tab. II. fig. 16, or. „ lichenoides. 

Passage Forms. 

C. Salpingina, H. 
Escharites, Rom. 

1. E. distans, H, Tab. I. figs. 16 and 17. 

2. E. gracilis, sp. Goldf. = Geriopora ibid., Goldf. = Alveolites ibid., 

Blainv. = Meliceritites ibid., Rom. 

Inversaria, H. 

1. I. trigonopora, H., Tab. VI. fig. 8. 

2. I. tubiporacea, Goldf. = Geriopora ibid., Goldf. = Alveolites ibid., 

Blainv., Lamk. 

3. I. milleporacea, Goldf. sp. = Geriopora ibid., Goldf. = Alveolites, 

Blainv., Lamk. 

II. Cycxostomata, Busk— Hincks, Waters. 

As I have already described the Cyclostomata in a former division of 
this Report, there will be no necessity for enlarging upon them here. 
Belpw are the whole of Hagenow's species : — ■ 



A. Tubuliporina, M,-Edw 

Tubulipora, Lamk. 

„ parasitica, H. 

Diastopora, M.-Edw. 



Entalophora, Lamx. 

DISCIFORMS, H. 



>) 



Pustulipora, De Blainv. 

1. P. TUBULOSA, H. 

2. P. virgula, B.. = Oeriopora ibid., H. 

3. P. nana, H. 

4. P. RUSTICA, H. 

5. P. Benedeniana, H. 

6. P. pustulosa, Goldf. = Geriopora ibid., Goldf. = Pustulipora ibid. 

Blamv. = Pustulipora ibid., Lamk. = Pustulipora Qoldfussi, 
H6m.=Pustulipora pustulosa, Michelin. 



166 KEFORT^1884. 

7. P. madrepoeacea, sp. Goldf. =Ceriopora ibid., Goldf. ■=Pustuliporn- 

ibid., Blainv. =Pustulipwa ibid., Lamk. =Pustulipora ibid., 
Brown= Pustulipora ibid., Reuss. 

8. P. VARIABILIS, H. 

9. P. DUBIA, H. 
10. P. GEMTNATA, H. 

Ckicopoka, Blainv. (_= Spiropora, Lamx.). 

1. C. tebticillata, G. = Ceriopora ibid., Goldf. ■= Pustulipora ibid., 

Blainv., M.-Edw., K6m. — (??)Gricopora ibid., Micb. 

2. C. Reussi, H. = Geriopora annnlata, ~H.. — Cricopora annulata, Reuss. 

Otetopoka, Hagenow. 

,, ELEGANS, H. 

Terebellabia, Lamx. 

,, spiralis sp., Gold. s 

Hoenera, Lamx. 

„ TUBULIFERA, H. 

Idmoxea, Lamx. 

1. I. MACULATA, H. 

2. I. CLATHRATA, Goldf . Sp. 

3. I. verriculata, H.=Retepora clathrata, Gold., in part, pi. ix.,fig. 12 

c and d. 

4. I. lichenoides sp., Goldf. =Betcj)ora ibid., Gold. ; Lamk. pi. ix., 

fig. 13 a and b. 

5. I. cancellata sp., Goldf. =Betepora ibid., Gold., Lamk. pi. xxxvi., 

fig. 19 b.—?Idmonea ibid., Reuss. 

6. I. macilenta, H. 

7. I. disticha sp., Goldf. =Ueiepora, ibid., Goldf., Lamx., Blainv.= 

?JRetepora ibid., Micb., Reuss., pi. ix., fig. 15 c and d. 

8. I. PSEUDO-DISTICHA, H. = i?. disticha, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig. 15 

a and b. 

9. I. dorsata, H.=E. disticha, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig. 15 g and It. 

10. I. GEOMETRICA, H. 

11. I. SULCATA, H. 

12. I. lineata, H.=E. disticha, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig. 15 c and/. 

13. I. gibbosa, H. 

14. I. geniculata, H.=i2. clathrata, Goldf. in part, pi. ix., fig. 12 e and/. 

15. I. tetrasticha, H. 

Truncatula, Hagenow. 

1. T. FELIX, H. 

2. T. truncata sp., Goldf. = Retepora ibid., Goldf. = Retepora ibid., 

Lamx. =Retepora ibid., M.-Edw. =Iclmonea ibid., Blainv. 

3. T. repens, H. 

B. Cerioporina, Bronn. 
Fungella, Hagenow. Lopholepis, Hagenow. 

1. F. rROLIFERA, H. 1. L. RADIAXS, H. 

2. F. PLICATA, H. 2. L. ALTERNANS, H 

3. F. Dujardini, H. 3. L. irregularis, H. 



ON FOSSIL POLIZOA. 107 

Defrancta, Brorm («), with smooth interspaces. 

1. D. DISTICHA, H. 3. D. COCHLOIDEA, H. 

2. D. MlCHELINI, H. 

/3, with poi'ous interspaces. 



4. D. DUDEMA.sp. Goldf.=Cen'o- 

pora ibid., Goldf. 

5. D. RETICULATA, H. 



G. D. CAEIOSA, H. 
7. D. SELLULA, H. 



Stellipoea, Hagenow. 
S. Bosquetiana, H. 

Pletuopora, Hagenow. 



1. P. VERRUCOSA, H. 

2. P. pseudo-torquata, H. 



3. P. truncata, H. 



Heteropora, De Blainv. 

1. H. crassa, H.=Ceriop>ora anomalopora, Goldf.=C micropora, Goldf. 

= (?) C. cryptopora, Goldf. 

2. H. dichotoma, sp., Goldf. =Ceriopora ibid., Goldf.=iT. ibid., Blainv., 

Lamk. 

3. H. UNDULATA, H. 

4. H. tenera, ~H..-—Gcriopora cryptopora, Goldf. 

5. H. Dumonti, H. 

Neuropora, Bronn. 
N. cretacea. 

Ditaxia, Hagenow. 

1. D. anomalopora, sp. Goldf. =Ceriopora ibid., Goldf. =Hderopora 

ibid., Blainv., Lamk. 

2. D. COMPressa sp., Goldf. = Ceriopora ibid., Goldf., Blainv. 

Ceriopora, Goldf. 

1. C. SCHWEIGGERI, H. 5. C. THELOIDEA, H. 

2. C. polytaxis, H. 6. C. cryptopora, Goldf .= H ctero- 

3. C. cavernosa, H. pora ibid., Blainv. 

4. C. micropora, Goldf. 7. C. SESSILIS, H. 

Cavaria, Hagenow. 

1. C. RAMOSA, H. 3. C. micropora, H. 

2. C. PUSTULOSA, H. 

Ccelocochlea, Hagenow. 
C. torquata, H. 

' Cretaceous Polyzoa, North America,' Lonsdale ; and Messrs. 

Gabb & Horn. 

I have not been able to get access to the various works of Dr. S. G. 
Morton on the ' Cretaceous Rocks of New Jersey,' published at dif- 
ferent dates, from 1834 to 1842, in American scientific journals. The 
quotations and references in the following lists are from Lonsdale's papers 
in the ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. i., and from Messrs. Gabb & Horn's 
' Mono. Foss. Pol. of the Sec. and Tert. Formation of North America ' 
(' Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil.' vol. v. 2nd ser. pp. 111-179, 3 plates, 1862). 
Dr. Morton's ' Synopsis, Organic Rem. Cret. Group N. A.' was published 
in 1834. 



168 REPORT— 1884. 

Cheilostomata. 
Poltzoa (Polyparia, Lonsd.) from Timber Creek, New Jersey, N. America. 

1. Cellepoba tubclata, Lonsd., ' Quart. Jour. Geo]. Soc.' vol. i. 

— Cretaceous. 

2. Eschakina ? sagena, Lonsd. = Membraniporella nitida, Jolmst., 

Flustra, ibid., Morton, ' Quart. Jour. Geo!. Soc' vol. i. — 
Cretaceous. 

3. Eschaba digitata, Morton ? = Escliara dichotoma, Goldf. ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. i. — Cretaceous. 

Cyclostomata. 

4. TcBULiroEA megeea, Lonsd. ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. i. 

— Cretaceous. 

5. Idmoxea contoetilis, Lonsd. See ante, Hornera ibid. = ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' — Cretaceous. 
To this list of five species Messrs. Gabb & Horn add the following 
additional thirtv-five also from American Cretaceous rocks. 

Cheilostomata. 
Cellepoba, Fabr. 1780 (non Lamk. 1801). 

6. C. prolifica, G. & H. = C. bilahiata, G. & H. — Cretaceous, 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

7. C. pesuela, ,, „ 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

8. C. EXSEETA, „ „ 

Mallica Hill. 

9. C. Janewati, „ „ 

' 7 miles below Yara, Miss.' 

"Reptocellepoeaeu, D'Orb. 1851. 

10. R. aspeea, Gabb & Horn. — Cretaceous, Timber Creek and Mallica 

Hill. 

11. Eschaeipoea typica, Gabb & H. = Cellepora ibid., G. & H. 

— Cretaceous, Timber Creek, N. J. 

12. E. distaxs, Gabb & H, Cret. 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

13. E. mmeesa, Gabb & H., 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

14. E. Abbottii, Gabb & H, 

Mallica Hill. 

15. Repteschabtpora jiaeginata, Gabb & H., 

Mallica Hill. 

1G. Eschabpnella jiuealis, Gabb & H, 
Mallica Hill. 

17. Repteschaeellixa peolifeea, Gabb & H., 

Mallica Hill. 

Pliophljea, Gabb & Horn. 

18. ,, sagf.xa, G. & H. = MenibraniporeUa nitida, Johnst. 
(ante) = Flustra sagena, Mort. ; EscJtarina ibid., Lonsd. 



ON FOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



169 



19. BiFLUSTKA TOETA, Gabb & H. = Membra nipora ?, Cret. 

Timber Creek and Mallica Hill. 

20. B. disjuncta, Gabb & H. 

Timber Creek. 

21. Membeaxipoea aboetiva, Gabb & Horn, 

Timber Creek. 

22. M. PEEAMPLA, „ 

Mallica Hill. 

23. M. PLEBF.IA, 

Mallica Hill. 

24. Ptripoea irregularis, „ 

Timber Creek. 

25. ? Reptoflusteella heteropora, Gabb & Horn, 

Mallica Hill. 

Cyclosiomata. 

Retelea ovalis, Gabb & H., Cret 

Mallica Hill. 
Filifascigera Meg^era, D'Orb. == Tubidlpora ibid., Lonsdale, „ 

Timber Creek. 
Fascipora aueeicaxa, Gabb & H., 

Timber Creek. 
Spieopoka calamus, ,, = Entalophora, „ 

Timber Creek. 
Entalophoea quadeaxgulaeis, Gabb & H., 

Mallica Hill. 
Entalophora Coxradii, „ 

Mallica Hill. 
Idmonea contortilis, Lons. = Homeria ibid.— see ante, „ 

Timber Creek and Mallica Hill. 
Diastopoea lixeata, Gabb & H., ' apin-oaches B.renularis, D'Orb. r 

Cret., Timber Creek, N. J. 
Stomatopoea eegulaexs, Gabb & H., Cret 

Timber Creek, ST. J. 
Reticdlipoea sagena, „ 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

RETICaLIPOEA DICHOTOMA, „ 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

BlCElSINA ABBOTTI, „ 

Timber Creek, N. J. 
Reptomolticava CEPULAEIS, „ 

Timber Creek, N. J. 
Ceescis labiata, ,, 

Timber Creek, N. J. 

MULTICEESCIS ? PAEVICELLA „ 

Mallica Hill. 



20. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 



= Heterocrina ibid., G. & H. 
= Idmonea ibid., „ 

A doubtful form, 



I Lave tbougbt it best not to suppress a single form tbat Messrs. Gabb 
and Horn have catalogued. I have in my cabinet at least sixteen— pro- 
bably nineteen— of the so-called species from Timber Creek, New Jersey, 
and I find that that number at least may be allowed to stand ; but even 
the specific names of some of these may very safely be reduced to 
synonyms. In comparing them with European species I cannot detect 
any material difference between the American forms and those described 
by Goldfuss and Hagenow. 



170 REPORT— 1884. 

' Cretaceous Bryozoa of Bohemia,' Ottotnar Novi'ik (see Bibliography). 

This work I have not been able even to look at, and I am indebted to 
the ' Geological Record ' for 1878 for the information given below. In 
the work, Novak describes forty-five species, thirty-three of which bear 
new names ; and in a table he gives their range in (5) Cenomanian, 
(4) Turonian, and (6) Senonian times, which according to Lyall (' Ele- 
ments,' p. 266), are representatives of our (5) Upper Greensand and 
(4) Chalk Marl, in part. The list is therefore valuable for the purpose 
of establishing links between species of Polyzoa from Continental, British 
and American areas. I should like to possess a copy of the work, if any 
of my friends have one for sale. I give the list as in the Record, separating 
only the Cheilostomata from the Cyclostomata. 

I. Suborder Cheilostomata, Busk. 

1. HlPPOTIIOA LAB [ATA, Novak. 

2. „ desiderata, ,, 

3. Membranipora ctjrta, „ 

4. ,, peeispaesa, Novak. 

5. ,, SUBOVATA, „ 

6. „ TUBEBOSA, „ 

7. Lepralia euglypha, Novak. 

' 8. BlFLUSTRA PRAZAKI, ,, 

9. „ SOLEA, „ 

10. Semieschara teres, ,, 

11. Meliceetites docens, Novak, ? Cheilostomata. 

II. Suborder Cyclostomata, Busk. 

1. Beeenicea folium, Novak. 

2. ,, LACRIMOPORA, Noviik. 

3. ,, pilosa, Noviik. 

4. ,, RADIANS, ,, 

5. Diastopora acupuxctata, Noviik. 

6. Stomatopora simplicissima, „ 

7. pr0boscina bohem1ca, „ 

8. „ D1FLUEXS, ,, 

9. „ LIXGUATA, ,, 

10. ,, INTERMEDIA, ,, 

11. ,, Sl'ESSI, ,, 

12. Entalopitora anomalissima, Noviik. 

13. ,, fecunda, ,, 

14. „ kolinensis, „ 

15. Multelea orphanus, ,, 

Osculipoea Novak (? New Gen.). 

16. „ plebeia, Noviik. 

17. Truncatula tenuis, ,, 

18. Heteropora foramixulexta, Noviik. 

19. „ Koetcanensis, „ 

20. „ LEPIDA, „ 

21. „ magnifica, „ 

22. Petalopora seriata, „ 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 171 

This is the whole of the lists of Cretaceous Polyzoa that I have heen 
ahle to obtain. There are several species described by D'Orbigny and bv 
other authors, but their works were not accessible to me. It is to be 
hoped that in the monograph of Cretaceous Polyzoa promised to the 
Pahuontographical Society by Mr. Busk, that the whole of the Polyzoa of 
various horizons will be fully examined. In my fourth British Association 
Report I gave a fair digest of what is known of British species. 



1 Part III. — Tertiary Polyzoa, North America,' Lonsdale. 

_ In the first volume of the ' Quart. Jour, of the Geological Soc.,' Mr. 
William Lonsdale described twenty-six species of ' Polyparia ' from the 
' Eocene Tertiary ' of North America. Nine species are Anthozoa, seven- 
teen Polyzoa (six Cyclostomata, eleven Cheilostomata). In the same 
Journal he described ten species from the • Miocene Tertiary ' formation of 
N.A., three of which are Anthozoa, seven Polyzoa (only one of these 
a Cyclostoma). As the monograph of Messrs. Gabb & Horn is a later 
publication, many of the species of Lonsdale are rearranged or reduced to 
synonyms. 

1. ' Eocene Polyzoa,' Lonsdale ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' vol. i. 

2. ' Miocene Polyzoa,' Lonsdale ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' vol. i. 

1. Eschaeixa tumidcla, Lons. — Loc. Petersburg. 

2. Lunclites denticlxata, Conrad, « Silliman Journ.,' Oct. 1841 

(vol. iv.) — Loc. Williamsburg. 

3. Cellkpora informata, Lons. — Loc. Petersburg, Virginia. 

4. ., oibilicata, Lons.— Loc. Petersburg. 

5 - » Quadrangularis, Lons. — Locs. Williamsburg, Evergreen. 

6. „ similis, Lons. — Loc. Williamsburg. 

7. Heteropora ? tortilis, Lons.— Loc. Williamsburg, Petersburg. 

Cyclostomata. 

1. TcBiLii'OKA PRor.osciDEA ? — Loc. Rock's Bridge. 

2. „ — one imperfect specimen. — Eutaw. 

3. Idmonea maxillaris, Lons.— Loc. Wantoot, S. Carolina. Viewed in 

front, this coral resembled a Mastricht fossil,; considered by 
Goldf. as a young condition of Idmonea gradata (' Pet, Cor.' p. 
244. ' Retepora disticha,' p. 29), but it differs essentially from 
mature specimens of that species. 

4. I. commiscens, Lons.— Loc. Rock's Bridge. In the triangular form 

of the branches, this fossil resembled the Tertiary species of De 
France or Mil.-Edw. under the names of Idmonea gradata and I. 
coronopwt (' De F., Atlas des Sc. Nat.' pi. 46, f. 5. M.-Edw. 
' Rech. Polyp. Mem. sur les Cris.' pp. 24, 23.) 

5. Iemonea sp.— Loc. Rock's Bridge. 

6. Lichenopora sp. — Loc. Eutaw. 

Cheilostomata 

1. Farcimia sp.— Loc. Rock's Bridge, Eutaw, in S. Carolina. 

2. ViNCr/LARiA sp. — Loc. Rock's Bridge. 

3. Hippothoa tuberculum, Lons. — Loc. Rock's Bridge. • 

4. Eschara tubulata, Lons. — Loc. Wilmington. 

5. „ petiolus, Lons. — Loc. Eutaw. ° 



172 report — 1884. 

6. Eschara incumbers, Lons. — Loc. Rock's Bridge. 

7. ,, linea, Lous. — Loc. Eutaw. 

8. ,, viminea, Lons. — Loc. Eutaw. 

9. Lunulites sexangula, Lons. — Loc. Wilmington. 

10. ,, distans, Lons.- — Loc. Wilmington — Wantoot ? This 
resembles L. radiata and L. urceolata, Goldf. (Pet. 12 f. 6, 7). 

11. L. contigua, Lons. — Loc. Wilmington. 

' North American Tertiary Species, described by Messrs. Gabb & Horn.' 

I have already given selections from this monograph when dealing 
with Cretaceous Polyzoa, and now that I have to give the list of Tertiary 
fossils, I am confronted by a difficulty as to the horizon of the species. 
The authors speak of ' Miocene ' and ' Pliocene,' but in two foot-notes, one 
especially below Cellepora formosa, I find the following : ' In regard to 
the use of the terms " Pliocene " and " Miocene " in this country, it will 
probably be found on more careful examination that there is no real 
division existing between the two so-called formations ;' and at the end of 
the monograph is the following : ' Since the writing of this monograph, 
Mr. W. M. Gabb has been called to the post of Palaeontologist to the State 
of California. In regard to the Santa Barbara and the San Pechs deposit 
he writes, they are amongst the most recent deposits, almost all the 
species being still extant. Instead of Post-Miocene, they should be called 
Post-Pliocene.' 

In their identifications of species, the authors give many synonyms 
from D'Orb. and Lonsdale, but when Prof. Smitt wrote his ' Floridan 
Bryozoa,' he could only identify about three species as belonging to 
recent Polyzoa ; these are given in the text. I wish, however, to direct 
the attention of students towards the Fossil Polyzoa of North America, 
Cretaceous and Tertiary, for from what I have been able to judge of 
species sent to me I feel confident that a rich harvest of forms has yet 
to be described from many localities ; and it is to be hoped that future 
students will direct more special attention than has yet been given to the 
purely structural features so ably formulated by both Hincks and 
Waters, full details of which will be found in the former part of this 
report. In this monograph also I have adhered to the text and arrange- 
ment of the authors. As a piece of palreontological work I cannot speak 
very highly of this monograph. The creation of new names — both of 
genera and species — is much to be regretted. However, I have done as 
full justice to the work as was possible under these circumstances. 

Family Escharid.e, D'Orb. 1851. 
Order I. Cellulata, non Opebculata. 

Sub-Family Escharine. 

Eschara, Lamk. 1801. 

E. tubulata, Lonsd. (see ante), Eocene, Wilmington, Carolina, 
North. 
2. E. petioles, Lonsd. (see ante), Eocene, Entaw, Carolina, South. 
o. E. incumbens, „ „ „ Bock's Bridge. 

4. ? E. ? viminea, „ „ „ Entaw, ,, 

5. E. texta, Gabb & H, „ White Limestone, „. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 173 

6. E. ovalis, Gabb & H., Eocene, ? Claiborne, Ala. 

related in form of cells to E. Blandina and E. Eurita, D. Orb. 

7. ? E. ? fragilissima, G. & H. ' Miocene ! ' Maryland, St. Mary's 

river = ? Cellepora tumida, D'Orb. = 
Escharina ibid., Lonsd. 
LuNULiTES, Lanik. 1801. 

8. „ sexangulakis, Lonsd. (see ante) ' Eocene,' Wilmington. 

9. ,, distans, Lonsd. „ 

10. „ INTERST1TIA, G. & H. ,, ,, Claiborne, Ala. 

11. ,, contigua, Lonsd. ,, 

12. „ oblonga, Emmons ' Geo. Rep. N\ Caro.' 

p. 312, f. 2-52, 253. 
Semieschaea, D'Orb. 1851. 

13. „ tubulata. 'Eocene,' Claiborne, Ala ? 

Cellipora, Fabr. 1780 (not CclJepora, Lam.) Cellepora & Disco- 

pora, (pars) Lam. 1816. 

14. ,, ctcloris, G. & H. ' Eocene.' 

15. „ ixorxata, G. & H. Lepralia ibid. Smith, ' Florid. Bry.' 

p. 61, ' Eocene ' of Alabama. 

16. „ TUiiiDiLA, D , Orb= Escharina ibid. Do. Miocene, Peters- 

burg, Virginia. 

17. ,, Formosa, Tuorney & Holmes"] See head notes be- 

18. ,, tesselata ,, „ > ginning of this paper, 

19. „ depeessa „ ,, J ' Pliocene.' 

Giles Bluff & Goose Creek. 

20. ,, urceolata, G. & H., Miocene Marl, New Jersey. 

21. „ CALiFORXiEXSis „ Santa Barbara. 

22. „ Bellerophox „ „ 

Reptocelleporaria, D'Orb. 1881. 

23. ,, i ntormata, D'Orb. = Ccllepora informata, Lons. 

(see ante). 

24. „ quadraxgularis =Cellepora ibid. Lons. (see 

ante) . 

25. „ similis, D'Orb. =Cellepora ibid. Lons. (see 

ante). 

26. „ clomerata, G. & H. ' Eocene,' Vicksburg, 

Missip. 
Escharella, D'Orb. 1851. 

27. „ MfCROPORA, G. & H. ' Eocene.' 

Reptescharella, D'Orb. 1851. 

28. „ carolinexsis, G. & H. (rare), 'Eocene,' White 

Limestone, West of Charleston, S.C. 

29. „ Heeemaxxii, G. & H., Miocene Cal. Santa Barb. 

= Escharipora annulata, Smitt. 

30. ,, plaxa, G. & H. ? Cribrilina annulata, Hincks, 

same locality. 
Phidolopora, Gabb & H. 

31. ,, labiata, G. & H. = Retepora marsupiata, Miocene, 

Santa Barbara, Calif. 



174 report— 1884. 

Oligotresctm, G. & H. 

32. ,, yicksrurgensis, G. & H. = Lunulite8 ibid. = Upper 

Eocene, Vicksburg, Miss. 

EsChABINELLA, D'Orb. 

33. „ Plinea, G. & H., Eocene, S. Carolina. 

Exnallipora, G. & H. 

34. ,, ouadraxgularis, G. & H., Miocene, Petersburg. 

DlSCOPORELLA, D'Orb., 1851. 

35. „ DENTiCLLATA, G. H. = Luiiulites ibid., Con. 

Reptoporixa, D'Orb. 

36. „ i aeixata, G. & H., Santa Barbara. 

37. „ eustomata, „ 

MaLTiPOEiNA, G. & H. 

38. „ OMBILICATA, G. & H. = Cellepora ibid., Lonsd. 

Repteschabelltna, D'Orb. 

39. „ nispAKiLis, G. & H., Santa Barbara. 

40. ,, ? Heermannii, „ „ 

41. „ corxuta, „ „ 

FL0STEEL LABIA, D'Orb. ,, 

42. ., MULTIPORA, G. & H. ,, 

DlSCOFLUSTRELLAEIA, D'Orb. 

43. ,, Bowei, G. & H. = LunuUtes ibid., Lea. 

Cupularia, Lara. 

44. „ DISCOIDEA, Lam. = Orbitolltes ibid., Lea. 

Heteractis, G. & H. = ,, ,, 

45. ,, „ Di'Closii = Lunulites ibid., „ 

MeMBUANIPORA, Blainv. 

46. ,, sexpunctata, G. & EL, Horizon, doubtful. 

47. „ SPECIOSA, ,, „ „ 

48. „ CAEIFOBNICA, „ Santa Barbara. 

49. ,, babbaeewsis, „ „ ,, 

PvEIFLUSTBELLA. D'Orb. 

50. ,, ticerculum, D'Orb. = Ilippoihoa ibid., Lonsd. 

„ „ =Pyripora ., D'Orb. 

Order II. Ckxtrifugixata (Cyclostomata, Busk). 

Family Tubigerid^:. 
Ipmoxea. 

1. „ jiaxillaris, Lonsd. (See ante). 

„ ,, „ = Crisisina ibid., D'Orb. 

2. „ COMMISCENS, „ = „ 

3. ,, CALiFORXiCA, G. & H. (?), Santa Barbara. 

Semitcbigera. 

4. „ tuba, G. & H., „ „ 

EXTALOPHORA. 

5. ,, peoboscideoides, Lons. (Tubulipora ibid., Lous.). 

6. ,, puxctolata, G. & H., Santa Bai-bara. 



ON EOSSIL rOLYZOA. 



<o 



Crisixa. 

7. ,, serrata, G. & H., Santa Barbara. 

Cavea, D'Orb. 

8. „ prisca, G. & H. 

LlCHENOPORA, Def. 

',». ,, CALIFORXKA, „ „ 

MCXTICEESCIS, D'Orb. 

10. „ tobtilis, G. & H. = ? Heteropora ibid., Lonsd, 

'Tertiary Polyzoa,' Dr. August Goldfnss ('Petrcfacta Germanica'). 

The Tertiary Polyzoa described and figured by Goldfuss are few in 
number, but bis species have been adopted, re-described, or referred to by 
every author who has taken up the study as a speciality. 

Cheilostomata. 



1. 


Glaucon 


OME MARGIXARIA, 


Goldf. 


9 


Flustea 


C'OXTEXTA, Goldf. 






( Vincularia, or 


Jellaria 


10. 


SCYPHIA 


AETrCOLATA, ,, 






of authors) 


11. 


E.SC11ARA 


Si: STRIATA, „ 


2, 


)? 


RHOMEOPORA, 


Goldf. 


12. 


59 


celleporacea. 


:;.' 


?, 


TETRAGONA, 


„ 


13. 


Retepoea vibicata. 


4 


11 


IIEXAGOXA, 


5) 


14. 


Ll'MLlTI 


:s eadiata, Lamarck. 


5. 


Cellepora conglomerata 


5> 


15. 


» 


L'ECEOLATA, „ 


6. 


J? 


ANNCLATA, 


)> 


16. 


)) 


RHOMBOIDALIS, 


7. 


)> 


TRISTOHA, 


)> 






Miinster 


8. 


!> 


GRACILIS, 


5> 

Cyclosi 


17. 

omat 


5J 

a. 


pi:rfoeata, „ 


1. 


Retepoba fexestrata, Goidf. 


3. 


Cellepora eohinata, Miinster. 


2, 


>J 


CYATHIFORMIS, 


)> 









' Eocene Polyzoa, British.' 

The almost barren record of British Eocene Polyzoa has been remarked 
upon by previous authors, but I am afraid that we owe the barrenness to 
the want of research rather than to the scarcity of species. Mr. Busk 
describes three species from the London Clay at Highgate, found in the 
collection of Mr. Wetherell, 'Geo. Mag.' vol. iii., July 1866: — 

1. Membranifora Laceoixii? pi. xii. fig. 1. 

2. BtFLUSTRA EOCENA, Busk, pi. xii. fig. 2. 

3. Dittosaeia Wetheeelli, Busk, pi. xii. fig. 3 (Gejiellaeiad^:, Busk). 

The Membranipora described by Mr. Busk is rather more linear than the 
more recent form generally met with round our coast ; but some time 
since Professor Judd ' sent me a specimen of what I consider to be refer- 
able to the J\L Lacroixii, and this was from the oyster beds of Colwell Bay. 
It differed from Mr. Busk's figured specimen, but as the species varies 
very much in habit, this I considered of but small consequence. The 
value of the specimen sent was this. When the cells separated in the 
line with the side walls I was able to detect the ' Rosettenplatte ' or 
communication pores through which the endosarcal cord passed from 
cell to cell. These were three in number on the side walls, and they 

1 Discovered by his assistant. 



176 report — 1884. 

were well preserved ; otherwise the beautifully crenulated wall surround- 
in^ the orifice was sufficiently indicative of the normal type. 

°In the ' Catalogue of Tertiary Fossils in the School of Mines (18/8), 
the only species indicated from different horizons are as follows :— 

4 Flustra crassa, Desm., Thanet Sands, p. 7. 
5 _ s) S p. ? M Woolwich and Reading Beds, p. 10. 

6 ',', crassa, „ London Clay, Highgate, p. 14. 

7. Poiazoon, „ ,, Sydenham, p. 14. 

In Morris' ' Catalogue of British Fossils,' and also in the Palaeon- 
tological part of Jukes' ' Students' Manual of Geology,' the following 
species are indicated : — 

8 Eschara Brongniaeti, Lonsd., London Clay, Bracklesham Bay. 

9. Flustra ceassa, Desm., „ „ Primrose Hill. 

10. Cellepora petiolus, Lonsd., Mid-Eocene, Bracklesham. 

11. LUKULITES URCEOLATUS, Lam , „ „ 

= Coscinoporis pileolus, Phill. and Wood. 
- 12. Idjionea coroxofls, Defr., Mid-Eocene, Bracklesham Bay. 

Besides the above I have no further record, but I have some few 
fragments by me of undescribed forms from the Middle Eocene, British 
series It may be possible that there are still in the cabinets of collectors 
specimens of Polyzoa that are awaiting description ; if so, I shall be glad 
to hear of such. 

' Tertiary, Eocene and Miocene Polyzoa,' Professor A. E. Reuss. 

I In dealing with the following three works of Dr. Reuss I have 
been' careful to present his text with his own indications of synonymy. 
In the earlier work, published in 1847, the author described and figured 
no fewer than 120 species of Cheilostomata aud 49 species of Cyclosto- 
mata This work of course was published before Mr. George Bask issued 
bis ' British Museum Catalogue,' and also before Professor Smitt gave 
to the scientific world his principal writings on ' Classification, &c. ; yet 
in it we are surprised to find how this careful investigator was working 
towards a natural classification. ,„„„„. -d i a +i 

II In the second work, published in 18b9, Professor Reuss had the 
advantage of correcting much of his previous labours, and m the ' Palav 
ontological Studies' many of the species of < Fossil Polyparia were re- 
duced to synonyms. In this work, too, Reuss evident y had carefully 
studied both the classification formulated in the ' British Museum Cata- 
logue ' and also the ' Crag Polyzoa ' of Mr. Busk. Nearly every species 
described in this work I have carefully studied from the material supplied 
by Professor Roemer. . 

III In the third work— ' Miocene Fossil Bryozoa of Austria and 
Hungary ' 1884-5, which the author did not live to complete— we have 
such°a piece of work of which no author who has taken up the study of 
Fossil Polyzoa need to be ashamed. In this we have full revisions of former 
identifications— more species are reduced to synonyms— but, what I regret 
most the Cyclostomata are not touched. Dr. Manzoni completed the 
second part of this grand work, but, as would be expected, he did not 
give so many synonyms as Reuss would have done, had the work lett his 
hands in a complete form. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 177 

' Fossilen-Polyparien des Wiener Tertiarbeckens,' I., A. E. Reuss, 1847. 

Div. B. Cellarie^j, Blainv. 
Bactridium, Rss. 
1- » granuliferum, Rss. Marine Limestone. 

2. „ ELLIPTICUM, „ „ 

3. „ SCHIZOSTOMA, ,, „ 

4. „ Hagenowii, „ n 

LrxuLiiES, Lamk. 

5 - » Hatdingeri, Rss., similar to £. rhomoboidalis, Gold., 

and Z/. Vanderheclcii, Mich. 

Cellaria, Lamk. = Vincularia, Defr., Glauconome, Gold. 

6. „ marginata, Goldf. sp. Marine Limestone 

<■ „ Haidingeri, Rss. 

8. „ cucullata, Rss. ? = V. fragilis, Def. ," 

9. „ exarata, „ V. tetragona, Goldf. 

10. ,, POLYSTICHA, „ 

11. „ Michelini, „ ? = V. fragilis, Mich., similar to C. 

cereoides, Lamx. 

12. „ duplicata, Rss., similar to No. 11. 

13. „ CORONATA, „ 

14. ,, I.ABROSA, „ 

15. „ SCHREIBERSt, Rss. 

16. „ scrobiculata, „ 

17. „ Haueri, „ 

18. „ stenosticha, ,, 

19- n macrostoma, „ similar to Glaac. elliptica, Hag. No. i 



Div. C. Escharina, Ehr 
Eschara, Lamk. 

20. „ FISTULOSA, Rss. 

21. „ EXILIS, 

22. „ sulcimargo, „ 

23. „ 5IACROCHEILA, RsS. 

24. „ BIADRICULATA, „ 
25- „ AMPLA, „ 

26. ,, BIPUNCTATA, „ 
26*. „ ACICULARIA = Aci- 

cularia pavantina, 
D. Arch. 

27. „ TUBTJL1FERA, „ 

28. „ COSCINOPHORA, „ 



29. „ OBESA, 

oU. „ PAPILLOSA, „ 



31. EsCHARA SYRINGOPORA, RsS. 

32. „ TJNDULATA, „ 

33. „ PUNCTATA, Phill. 

34. „ BIBRICATA, Rss. 

35. „ LARVA, „ 

36. „ POLYSTOMEI.LA, RsS. 

37. „ VARIANS, „ 

38. „ CONFERTA, „ 

39. „ DIPLOSTOMA, 

40. 
41. 



„ POLTOMMA, 

„ TESSULATA, 



42. „ EXCAVATA, 



43 



„ COSTATA, 



44- „ CRENATIMARGO, 



VAGiNOroRA, Defrance = Escliarites and Meliceritites, Rom. 

45. ,, TEXTURATA, Rss 

46. „ POLTSTIGMA, „ 

1884 



47. YaGIXOPORA GEMIN1PORA, RsS. 

48. „ FISSURELLA, „ 

N 



178 



REPORT 1884. 



Div. D. Celleporixa, Ehrh. 

Cellepora, Lanik. = Cellepora, Blainv. ; Discopora, Lamk. and M.-Ed. 
Escharina and Escharoides, M.-Ed. and Rom. 



» 
>» 
>> 

55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
5) 
55 



55 

55 



5) 

55 



55 
>> 



55 
}> 



49. Cellepora globularis, Bronn. 

= Scyphia cellulosa, 

Goldf. 
foraminosa, Rss. 
prolifera, „ 
polythele, ,, 
polyphtma, „ 

ROSULA, ,, 

TETRAGONA, „ 
ANNULATA, Goldf. 
VERRUCOSA, R8S. 
CERATOMORPHA, „ 
MONOCEROS, „ 

CYLINDRICA, 
ARRECTA, 
PTEROPORA, ,, 

MEGALOTA, „ 

similar to G. ptero- 

pora. 
Endlicheri, Rss. 
semicristata, „ 

SCRIPTA, „ 

RARICOSTATA, ,, 

MEGACEPHALA, ,, 

PUPULA, ,, 

Haueri, „ 

Ungeri, 

magnifica, 

schizogaster, 

Heckeli, 

circumornata, 

serrulata, 

physocheila, 

scarab.eus, 

granulifera, 

tegulata, 

conciuna, 

goniostoma, 



50. 

51. 

52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
57* 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 



63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 



82. Cellepora raripunctata, Rss. 



83. 
84. 



85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 

102. 
103. 



112. 
113. 



55 



5> 
5» 



55 

55 



55 

55 



)' 
55 



IJ 

55 



55 


104. 


55 


55 


105. 


55 


55 


106. 


55 


55 


107. 


55 


55 


108. 


55 


55 


109. 


55 


55 


110. 


55 


55 


111. 


55 



TRIGONOSTOMA, „ 
PLEUROPORA, „ 
= Amphistegina 
Haueri, D'Orb. 

CRENILABRIS, Rss. 

DECORATA, „ 

PROTUBERANS, „ 

DUNKERI, ,, 

OTOPIIORA, 

OYOIDEA, 

PACHYDERMIA, 

PLATYSTOMA, 

CHEILOPORA, 

TERNATA, 

microstoma, 

entomostoma, 

Partschii, 

Barrandi, 

angulosa, 

stenostoma, ,, 

GRACILIS, Goldf. I. C. 

i. p. 102. 

minuta, Reuss. 
hippocrepis, Gold. 
I. c. i. p. 26. 

PAPYRACEA, RSS. 
TENELLA, 
QUADRATA, 
FORMOSA, 
LEPTOSA, ,, 

DEPLANATA, „ 
TRAPEZOIDEA, „ 
APPENDICULATA, Rss., 

near G. velamen, 
G. Miinst. 

FENESTRATA, Rss. 
LOTOPORA, „ 



55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
5> 



55 
55 
55 



114. Membranipora reticulum, Blainv., ' Man. d'Actin.' p. 44. 

115. „ NOBILIS. 

116. „ DIADEMA. 

117. C(ELOPHYMA GLABRUM, RsS. | 118. CffiLOPHYMA STRIATUM, RsS. 

Retepora, Lamk., removed from the Cyclostomata in the division 
C. Retepora. 

119, „ cellulosa, Lamk. 

120. „ Rubeschii, Rss. 



121. Retepora ? elegans, Rss. 



OX FOSSIL POLYZOA. 



179 



I. Scleropodia, Ehrh. = Cyclostomata, Bnsk. 
A. Ceriopoea, Goldf. = Geriojpora and Alveolites, Blainv. 



Ceriopora globulus, Rss. 
„ spongiosa, Phillip. 

„ CYLIXDRICA, Rss. 



4. Ceriopora areusculuii, 

5. ,, megalopora, 

6. ,, l'HLYCT.ENODES, 



Rss. 



Heteropora, Blainv. 

7. „ anomalopora, sp. Goldf. = Ceriopora ibid., G. 

8. „ STIPITATA, RSS. 

9. „ dichotoma, Gold. = Ceriopora ibid., G. 

10. „ STELLULATA, Rss. 

Defeaxcia, Brom. = Pelagia, Lamx. ; Lichenopora, Def. 

11. „ defoumis, Rss. 15. Defraxclv, socialis, Rss. 

12. „ FORMOSA, „ 

13. „ STELLATA, Goldf. = 

Ceriopora ibid., G. 

14. „ prolifera, Rss. 

Apseudesia, Lam. 
10. „ fascicclata, Rss. Similar to A. dianthus, Blainv. 

It unites in itself the charactei's of Defrancia and Chrysaora. 

Cricopora, Blainv. = Spiropora, Lamx. 

„ verticillata, Mich. | 21. Cricopora pulchella, Rss. 

Pustulopora, Blainv. 



1G. 


?! 


COROXULA, „ 


17. 


)? 


RIMIDIATA, ,, 


18. 


>> 


PLU1IA, „ 



20. 

22. 
23] 



26. 



„ CLAVULA, RSS. 

SPARSA, „ 

PRetepoea, Lamk., Goldf. 
Hounera, Lamx. 

., BILOBA, RSS. 

„ VERRUCOSA, Rss. 



24. Pustulopora axomala, Rss. 



27. HORXERA HIPPOLITHUS, Dcf. 

28. „ SERIATOPORA, Rss. 



Idmoxea, Lamx. 

CARIXATA, R6m. 

pertusa, Rss. Similar in habit to I. disticlta, G. 
disticha, Goldf. = Eetepora ibid., Goldf. 
compressa, Rss. 

caxcellata, Goldf. = Retepora ibid., Goldf. = Retepora, 
Three species placed under this head removed to 
Cheilostomata, Nos. 119 to 121. 

II. Thallopodia, Ehrb. 
A. Auloporixa, Ehrb. 



20. 


>> 


30. 


5) 


31. 


>» 


32. 


)> 


33. 


)> 




Lamk. 



34. 

35. 



38. 
39. 

40. 



Tubulipora, Lamk. 

COXGESTA, Rss. 
FOLIACEA, ,, 






36. TuBULiroRA stelliforjiis, Mich. 

37. ,, EC'HINULATA, Rss. 



DiASTOPORA, M.-Ed. = Diastopora, Mesenteripora, Berenieea. 






MIXIMA, RSS. 
ROTL'LA, ,, 
SPARSA, „ 



41. DlASTOPOEA FLAREIXU.M, RsS. 

42. „ ? PLUMULA, „ 

43. „ ? echinata, Mans. 

N 2 



180 REPORT — 1884. 

Aulopora, Goldf. 
44. „ rugulosa, Rss. I 45. Aulopora divaricata, Rss. 

Crisia, Lamx. 

46. ,, Edwardsii, "Rss. 48. Crisia Haueri, Rss. 

47. „ Hoenesh, „ 

Crtsidia, Edw. = TJnicellaria, Blainv. 

49. „ VINDOBONENSIS, RsS. 

In his ' Bryozoen : Palaontologische Studien iiber die iiltesten Tertiar- 
schichten der Alpen,' Prof. Reuss gives to us the results of studies of the 
Bryozoa from different localities from which he obtained material, some 
of which were remarkably rich in species. For myself, I cousider that 
this is one of the most important of his works, and in addition to mere 
opinion, I am more acquainted with the forms described from the several 
localities mentioned in this work than the others. From all the localities 
mentioned, it would be quite possible to add considerably to the number 
of species, but it will be better to deal with the work as left by the 

author. 

A. Bryozoa, Taff. von Sangonini. 

1. ESCHARA UNDULATA, RsS., pi. XXXli. fig. 6. 

2. ,, perforata, Rss., pi. xxiii. fig. 5. 

B. No Bryozoa. C. No Bryozoa. 

D. Crosara: a. Cheilostomata. 
Membranipora, Blainv. 

1. „ laxa, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 14. 

2. „ Hookeri, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. G-8. 

3. „ angulosa, Rss., pi. xxix. figs. 9, 11 = Gellipdra 
ibid., Rss. 

4. Membranipora oceani, D'Orb., sp.=Esc7mrina ibid. ' Pal. Fr. Tert. 

Cret. ; ' BepteschareUina ibid., D'Orb ; M. oceani, Busk, ' Crag P.' 
p. 35. 

5. Membranipora leptosoma, Rss. = Cellipora ibid., Rss. 

6. „ Munsteri, Rss. 

Lepealia (a). 

SQUAMOIDEA, RsS. 

Seguenzai, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 11. 

Grotiana, Stol. 

radiata- granulosa, Rss. = L. Homesi, Rss. 

MULTIRADIATA, Rss. 



7. 


>> 


8. 


>> 


9. 


)> 


10. 


}t 


11. 

T, 


I?T>T? Al 


JJ 

12. 


>> 


13. 


J) 


14. 


>> 


15. 


5> 


16. 


)J 



Suessi, Rss., pi. xxxvi. f. 17. 

EXCENTRICA, RsS. 
ANNULATA, Rss. 

MONOPORA, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 16. 
OL1GOSTIGMA, Rss., pi. xxxiv. fig. 10 = L. annulatct, V. M. 
sp. 

17. ,, PTEROPORA, RSS. = XXX., f. 4. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 181 

HirpOTHOiDEA = Ahjsidota, Bnsk. 
18. Alysidote prominens, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 8. 

Eschara, Ray. 
] 9. ,,, papillosa, rss. 

/?. Ctclostomata. 

Diastopoeid.e. 
Defrancia, Bronn. 

1. ,, interrupta, Rss., pi. xxxiv. f. 12 : pi. xxxv . f. 9. 

Stojiatopoka, Bronn. 

2. „ rugulosa, Rss. = Aulopora ibid., Rss. ' Foss. Pol.' 

Radiopora, D'Orb. 

3. ,, pileoeus, Rss., pi. xxxvi., fig. 12 = Domopora ibid. 

MlTLTITUEIGERA, D'Orb. 

4. ,, miceopora, Rss., pi. xxxvi. f. 15. 

E. Bryozoa, Schists, Val di Lonti. 

ClIEILOSTOMATA : a. ArTICULATA. 

Cellularid^. 
ScRurocELLARiA, Van Ben. 

1. ,, elliptica, Rss., pi. xxix., fig. 3 = Bactridium 

ibid., Rss. 

2. „ gracilis, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 4. 

SalICOENAEIDjE. 

Salicoenaeia, Cuv. 

3. ,, Reussi, D'Orb. sp., pi. xxix., fig. 5 = Cellaria mar- 

ginata, Rss. = Vincularia Reussi, D'Orb. 

Cellaeia, Lamx. 

4. „ Michelini, Rss. 

5. „ Scheeibeesi, Rss., pi. xxiv., figs. 5, C. 

/?. Inaeticulata. 
Membranipoea, Blainv. 

6. ,, HOOKEEI, RsS. 

7. ,, monopoea, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 7=M. appendiculata, 

Rss. 

8. ,, angulosa, Rss., pi. xxix figs. §-ll = Cellepora ibid., 

Ji,ss.=Eschara excavata, Rss. 
'.K ,, deplanata, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 12=CeUepora ibid., 

Rss. 

Lepralia 

LO. „ SPARSIPOEA, RsS., pi. XXX. fig. 1. 

11. ,, pteropora, Rss. pi. xxx. fig. 4 = Cellepora ibid., Rss. 
Celleporaria, Lamx. 

12. „ GLOBULAEIS, Bronn. = CW/e^ora ibid., Bronn. ; Repto- 
celleporaria ibid., D'Orb. 

13. Cellepoeaeia peoteifoemis, Rss., pi. xxx. figs. 2-6 = Eschara 

diplostoma, Rss. 



182 repout— 1884. 

Batopoba, Rss. 

14. „ MULTIEADIATA, RsS., pi. XXxi. figs. 1-4. 

Bacteidium, Rss. 

15. ,, Hagenowi, Rss., pi. xxxi. figs. 5-6. 

Retepoea, Imper. 

16. „ simplex, Busk, pi. xxxi. fig 7. 

17. ,, cellulosa, L., pi. xxxi. fig. 8. 

18. ,, tdbeeculata, Rss., pi. iii. fig. 9-10. 

Flush; ellaeia, D'Orb. 

19. „ teapezoidea, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 14 = Cellepora- 
ibid., Rss. 

Eschaea, Ray. 

20. „ syeingopoea, Rss., pi. xxxii. fig. 1. 

21. ,, papilloma, ,, pi. xxxi. figs. 11-17. 

22. „ stenosticha, ,, pi. xxxii. fig. 2 = Cellaria ib. Rss. 

23. „ poltsticha, ,, pi. xxxii. fig. B=Cellaria ib. Rss. 

24. ,, subchaetacea, D'Arcb. 

25. „ semiljsvis, Rss., pi. xxxii. fig. 7-8=E. larva, Rss. 

26. „ Suessi, „ „ „ 9. 

27. „ bisulca, ,, „ „ 10. 

28. ,, nodulifeea, ., „ „ 11-12. 

29. ,, miceodonta, „ ,, ,, 13. 

30. „ haueei, ,, „ „ 14-16= Cellaria ib., Rss. 

—Eschara crenatomanjo, Rss. 

31. „ piiymatopoea, Rss., pi. xxxiii. fig. 1. 

32. „ pakallela, „ „ ,, 2. 

33. „ slmitubulosa, „ „ „ 3. 

34. „ MINOE, „ ; , „ 4. 

35. „ Hoenesi, „ „ „ 6-7. 

36. „ deplicata, „ „ ,, 8-10 =Cellar la ib., Rss. 

37. „ heteeostoma, ,, xxvi. ,, 5. 

38. „ AX1FEEA „ xxxiii. ,, 11. 

Biflustea, D'Orb. 

39. „ waceostoma, Rss. pi. xxxiii. figs. 12-13= Cellaria ib., Uss, 

Vinculaeia, Def. 

40. „ Haidingeei, Rss.pl. xxxiii. fig. 14-15=CWZcmaib., Rss. 

41. „ geojieteica „ ,, „ 16. 

42. ,, exaeata „ pi. xxxiv. ,, 1 = Cellaria ib., Rss. 

43. „ 1MPKESSA. „ ,, 



o 



Aceopoea, Rss. 
14. „ coeonata „ pi. xxxiv. ,, 3-5=Cellaria ib., 

Uschara conferta, Rss. 

Selenaeidje. 
Cupulaeia, Lamx. 

45. „ BIDENTATA, Rss., pi. Xxix. fig. 1-2. 

Lunulites, Lamx. 

46. ,, qdadeata, Rss., pi. xxviii. fig. 18. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 183 

Cyclostomata, Busk. 

Cbisidje. 
Uxiceisia, D'Orb. 

1. texeerbia, Reuss, pi. xxxiv. fig. 7 = Unicrisia vindobon- 
ensis, D'Orb., 'Pal. Franc. Ter. Cr. ;' Crisia vindobonensis, Rss. 

Ceisia, Lamx. 

2. „ Edwaedsi, Rss. 

3. ,, sub-EQUALis, Rss., pi. xxxiv. fig. 8. 

Discospaesa, D'Orb. = Patixella, Gray. 

4. „ tenuis, Rss., pi. xxxiv. figs. 9-10. 

5. „ REGULAKIS „ „ „ 11. 

Defraxcia, Bronn. 

6. „ ixterrupta, Rss., pi. xxxiv. fig. 12 ; pi. xxxvi. fig. 0. 

Buskia, Rss. 

7. „ tebulifera, Rss. 

Idmoxea, Lamx. 

8. „ reticulata, Rss., pi. xxxiv. fig. 13 (=Crisina). 

9. „ gracillijia, „ xxxv. „ 1-2. 

10. „ CONCAVA „ „ „ 3-4. 

Horneea, Lamx. 

11. „ COXCATENATA, RsS., pi. XXXV. figS. 5-6. 

12. „ trabecularis, „ „ „ 1—E. hippoWnis,'Def., 

D'Arcb. 

13. „ ASPBEULA „ „ „ 8-9. 

14. „ serrata „ „ „ 10-11. 

15. „ d'Archiaedii „ „ „ 12. 

Filisparsa, D'Orb. 
1G. ,, VAEIANS, RflS. = PustuUyporq. anomala, Rss. = Hornera 

biloba, Rss. 

Extalophoea, Lamx. 

17. „ ATTENUATA, Stol., pi. XXXvi .figS. 1-2 = PustulopOra 

ib., Stol. ; Pustulopora anomala, Rss. 

Spieopoea, Lamx. 

18. „ CONFEETA, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 3 = Cricopora verti- 

cillata, Rss. 

19. „ pulchella, Rss., pi. xxxvi. figs. 4-5= Cricopora ib., Rss. 

20. „ TENUISSIMA, „ ,, „ 6. 

Heteeopoba, Blainv. 

21. „ subeeticulata, Rss., pi. xxxvi. fig. 7. 

Bryozoenschicbte von Monteccbio Maggiore. 

Salicoenaeia, Cuvier. Cellarla.. 

1. „ Reussii, D'Orb. J 2. „ Schreibersi, Rss. 



184 REPORT — 1884. 

Membsanipora. 

3. „ Hookeei, J. Haine. 

4. „ ANGULOSA, Rss. 

5. „ deplanata, „ 
Lepealia. 

6. „ MOLTIRADIATA, Rss. 

7. „ LABIOSA „ pi. XXX. fig. 5. 

CeLLEPORARIA. 

8. ,, PROTEIFORMIS, RSS. 

Eschara, Ray. 

9. ,, PAPILLOSA, RSS. pi. XXxi. f. 11-17. 

10. „ STRINGOPORA, Rss. 

11. „ POLTSTICHA ,, 
12 ,, BISULCA „ 
18. „ NODULIFERA ,, 

14. ,, duplicata ,, pi. xxiii. fig. 8-9. 

15. „ FENESTRATA „ pi. XXxiii. fig. 5. 
BlFLUSTRA, D'Orb. VlXCULARIA. 

16. „ macrostoma, Rss. 17. „ Haidikgeei, Rss. 

ACROPOEA. 

18. „ CORONATA, RSS. 

19. ,, DUPLICATA ,, pi. XXXIV. fig. 6. 

Cyclostomata. 
Entalophora. 

1. „ ATTENUATA, Stol. Sp. 

FlLISPAESA, D'Orb. Idmonea. 



2. ,, TARIANS, RSS. 

3. HORNERA CONCATENATA. Rss. 



4. „ GRACILI.IMA, Rss. 

5. „ CONCAVA. 



This is the complete list of species from this locality as given by 
Reuss, but from the material sent to me some years since by Prof. 
Roemer of Breslau, I have been able to find nearly the whole of the 
species described from Val di Lonti. 

Terebratularienschichte von Prabona. 

1. Membranipora angulosa, Rss = Polyeschara, Rss. 

2 „ gracilis, Rss., pi. xxix. fig. 13 = Cellepora ibid., 

Goldfuss ; Eschara andegavensis, Mich. ; Lepralia gracilis, Rss. ; 

Membranipora andegavensis, Busk. 

3. Lepralia sparsipora, Rss. 

4. ,, ANGISTOMA, pi. XXX , fig. 3. 

5. Cellepoearia conglomerata, Goldf. sp. 

6. „ circumcincta, Rss., pi. xxx. figs. 10, 11. 

7. Batopora multiradiata, Rss. 
■ 8. Eschara papillosa, Rss. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 185 

San Martino. 

1. Membkanipora angulosa, Rss. 

2. Celleporakia conglomerata, Goldf. 

3. LUNCLITES QUADRATi, Rss. 

(Cyclostomata) 
1. Radiopora boletiformis, Rss., pi. xxviii. fig. 27. 

San Vito di Brendola. 
Celleporaria conglomerata, Goldf. 

Bryozoenscbichten von Granella. 

1. CUPULARIA BIDENTATA, Rss. 

2. LUNULITES QUADRATA ,, 

This completes the whole of the lists given by Reuss from the several 
localities named. 

Prof. Ritter von Reuss : ' Die fossilen Bryozoen des Oesterreichisch- 
ungarischenMiociins' (Fossil Bryozoa of the Austro-Hungarian Miocene). 

In the brief notice of this memoir, the author said that some of the 
species described in a former memoir (the first of the three papers now- 
given as published in 1819) are now suppressed, and the notice intro- 
ductory to the present paper mentions 17 species of Membranipora, 75 of 
Lepralia, 2 of Scrupocellaria, and one of Salicornaria (' Geol. Record,' 
vol. i. 1854, p. 320). 

Bryozoa (Ehr.) 

Cheilostomata, Busk. 

„ ARTICULATA Rss. 

Salicorxaria (Cellaria of Hincks). 

1. „ farciminoides, Johnst. For synonyms see ante, 
Cellaria fistulosa, Linn. 

Cellaria, Lamk. 

2. ,, Cereoides, Ell. & Sol. ' 01igocan'=CW7aWa Michelini, Rss. I. c. 
p. 01,' Foss. P. Wien.' = Tuhucellaria opuntoides, D'Orb., Pal. Fr.' 
v. p. 336 = Cellaria Michelini, Stol. ' Foss. Bry. Orakei Bay ' = 
Cellaria Michelini, Rss., 'Pal. Stud. alt. Tert.' = Vincularia 
Michelini, D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 59 = Vincularia fragilis, Mich, 
(lion Def.). 

Scrupocellaria, v. Ben. 

3. „ elliptica, Rss. ' Ober Oligociiu ' = Bactridium ibid. 
Rss. I. c. 'Foss. P. W.' p. 56 = Bactridium ibid. 'Pal. Stud. alt. 
Tert.' = Canda ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 48 = Bactridium 
granuliferum, Rss. I. c. p. 56 = Canda granulifera, D'Orb. & Rss. 
= Bicellaria granulifera, Rss. 

4. S. schizostoma, Rss. = Bactridium ibid. Rss. /. c. p. 56 = Canda 

ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 333. 

Inarticulata, Rss. 

Membraniporidj:. 
Lepralia, 

5. ,, Ungeri, Rss. = Celleporia ibid., Rss. I. c. p. 14= Celleporia 

ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 398, Leithakalke. 



186 itEroirr — 1884. 

G Lepralia semicbistata = Cellepora ibid., Reuss. I. c. p. 92 = RepL 
escharella ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 453. ' Similar to L. 
variolosa,' Jobnst. 

7. Lepkalia binata, Rss. Toss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

8 „ Barrandii, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c p. 92 = 

Reptesclmrellina ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 452. 

9. Lepralia pleuropora, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. 1. c. p. 88 = 

Cellepora criuilahris, Rss. /. c. p. 88 = Reptescharellina pleuro- 
pora, D'Orb. .. 

10. Lepralia gastropoda, Rss. ' Mittel Oligociin. Ost.-ung. Similar to 

L. puiujens, Rss., ' Septarien.' and L. umbilicata, Rom. 

11. Lepralia inamcexa, Rss., ' Ost.-ung:. Bryozoa.' 

12. „ decoeata, Rss. (= Microporella, Hks.) = Manzom, 
' Bry. Foss. It.' ii. p. 4 = Cellepora decorata, Rss. I. c. p. 89. 

13. Lepralia megalata, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. p. 81 = 

Reptescharipora ibid., D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 490. 

14. Lepralia peesonata, Rss. ' Ost.-ung. Bry.' : ' approaches ' L. 

violacea, Jolinst.; L. pteropora, Rss. ; L. stenua, Manz. 

15. Lepralia coccinea, Jobnst. (= Mncronella, Hks.) = Cellepora 

pteropora, Rss. 1. c. p. 81 = Distans escharellina ibid., D'Orb. 
' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 451 = Lepralia ibid., Manz. ' Foss. It.' iii. p. 8 
= Lepralia mammillata, Manz., ' Foss. It.' ii. p. 4 = Oligocene of 
Crosara. 

16. Lepralia odontostojia, Rss. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

17. „ ARCEOLATA, RsS. „ „ 

18. ,, GLABRA, Rss. „ ,, 

19. ,. microstoma, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. 92 =Ilept- 
escharellina ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. 453, Leitbakalke. 

20. Lepralia cornigera, Rss. 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

21. „ entomostoma, Rss. Ober Oligociin = Cellepora ibid., 
Rss. I.e. p. 92. Eeptescharellina ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. 
p. 452. 

22. Lepralia axsata, Jolmst. (Sehi;:oporella unicornis, Hks.). 

22a. „ var. porosa, Ober Oligociin = Cellepora Dunheri, Rss. I. c. 
p. 90 = Reptescharellina ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 452 = 
Lepralia spinifera,Mtmz. ' Bry. Pli. It.' p. 7 = Lepralia unicornis, 
Bnsk, ' Crag P.' p. 45. 

22?;. Lepralia, var. tetrago»a, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. 1. c. p. /8 ; 
Lepralia ibid., Manz. ' Foss. Ital.' p. 6, and iii. p. 8 = Reptoporina 
ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 442. Mittel and Ober Obgocan ; 
Eng. Crag 

23. Lepralia Gonversi, Rss. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 
24 „ lima ,, ,, ,, ,, 

25. ,, intermedia, Rss. „ ,, „ 

26. „ ticina „ „ „ § 

27. „ capitata, Rss. (= Chorizopora Brongniartu), -toss. 
Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

28. Lepralia clavqla, Manz., 'Bry. Foss. It.' iii. p. 8. 

29 ;, schizogaster, Rss. = Cellepora ibid. Rss., ?. c. p. 84 == 

Mollia ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 388. 

30. Lepralia trigonostoma, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. I, c. i. p. 87 

= Reptoporina ibid., D'Orb., ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 442. 

31. Lepralia hypsostoma, Rss., 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' ; nearly allied to 

L. megalota, Rss. 



ON FOSSIL TOLYZOA. 187 

32. Lepkalia Sturi, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' ; nearly allied to 

L. megolata, Rss. 

33. Lepralia violacea, Johnst. (Microporella, Hks.) = Cellepora 

Eecleli, Rss., I. c. p. 85 = C. Heckeli, Manz., ' Bry. Pli. It.' 1869, 

p. 5. 
Reuss says, ' Perhaps this is the place for L. diversipora, Rss., from the 
Septarienthon.' 

84. Lepralia tenella, Rss. (Schizoporella, vide Waters) =lCellepora 

ibid., Rss. 1. c. p. 9-4; Reptoporiua ibid. D'Orb, ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 

442. ' L. rudis, Manz., from Castellarquato is very similar, if 

not identical with this sp.' — Rss. ' Much resembles L. subimmersa 

and anceps, MacGill., vide Waters.' 

35. Lepralia otophora, Rss. (Schizoporella vulgaris, Hks.) —Cellepora 

ibid., Rss. 1. c. p. 90. 

36. Lepralia pauper, Rss., 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

37. „ arrecta, „ = Cellepora ibid., Rss., 1. c. p. 81 = 
Cellepora ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 398. Similar to the 
Oligociin L. Grotriani, Rss. 

38. Lepralia scripta, Rss. (Cribrilina radlata, Hks.) = Cellepora ibid., 

Rss. I.e. p. 82 = Cellepora ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 398 = 
Cellepora megaeephala, Rss.,/. c. p. 88. Similar forms to this: L. 
iwiominata, Couch; L. annulata, Fabr. sp. ; L. multiradiata, 
Rss. Manzoni describes two forms : one from the Miocene of 
Turin, the other from the Pliocene. 

39. Lepralia rarecosta, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. /. c. p. 83 ; 

Mollia ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 388. 

40. Lepralia Auingeri, Rss., 'Fol. Bry. Ost.-nng.' 

41. „ Fuchsi „ „ ., similar to L. Gro- 
triani, Rss. ; L. Peachii, Busk, ' C. P.' 

42. Lepralia serrulata, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss., 1. c. p. 85 = 

Cellepora ibid., D'Orb., 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 389 = Cellepora crassi- 
labris, Rss., /. c. p. 40 ; Reptoporiua crassilabris, D'Orb. 

43. Lepralia tenera, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

44. ,, ternata, „ = Cellepora ibid., Rss., /. c. p. 91 ; Beptes- 
charellina ibid., D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 452. 

45. Lepralia regularis, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

46. „ incisa, 

47. „ chilopora, „ = Cellepora ibid., Rss. 7. c. p. 91. 

48. „ Partschi, ,, Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. p. 91 ; Repto- 
poriua ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 242. 

49. Lepralia complicata, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

50. ,, rugdlosa, ,, „ ,, (near to L. 
Brongniartii, Aud.). 

51. Lepralia venusta, Eichw., sp., Cellepora ibid., Eichw., 'Letha 

rossiac ' hi. p. 89 ; Cellepora ibid., Manz., 'Bry. PI. Ital.' ii. p. 8. 

52. Lepralia monoceros, Rss. ; Cellepora ibid., Rss., I, c. p. 80 ; 

Cellepora ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 465. 
52*.Lepralia Haueri, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. = Reptescharella 
id., D'Orb. 

53. Lepralia peltata, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

54. „ Manzonii, „ „ „ 

55. ,, Endltchert, Rss. {JJmbonula verrucosa, Esper) ; Cellepora, 
Rss. I. c. p. 82 ; Reptoporiua ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 442 ; 
? Cellepora orbicula, Eichw. 



188 report— 1884. 

50. Lepralia scarabjcus, Rss. ( Umbonula verrucosa, Esper) ; Cellepora, 
Rss. 1. c. p. 86, and D'Orb. 

57. ,, seriata, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

58. ,, granulifera, Rss. ; Cellepora ibid., /. c. p. 86, and D'Orb. 

' Pal. Fr.' 

59. ,, lata, Bask ; Manz. ' Bry. Foss. It.' p. 4. 

60. „ ASPERRI31A, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Osfc.-ung.' 

61. „ OGIVALIS, „ „ 

62. „ NUDA, „ ,, „ 

63. „ CINGOLATA, „ „ „ 

64. ,, circumornata, Rss. ; Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. p. 85 ; 

Beptescharella ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 455. 

65. „ aperta, Rss., ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

66. ,, ceratomorpha, Rss. ; Cellepora, Rss. /. c. p. 80 ; Eept- 

escharellina ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 429. 

67. „ CRASSA, Rss. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

68. ,, karepunctata, Rss. = Cellepora ibid. Rss., 1. c. p. 87, and 

D'Orb. 

69. „ GONIOSTOMA, Rss. = Cellepora ibid. Rss., 1. c. p. 87, and 

D'Orb. 
cyclocephala, Rss. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

TDRGESCEXS, „ „ ,, 

SULCIFERA, „ ,, „ 

INSIGNIS, ,, 

PLANICEPS, ,, 

GROSSIPORA, „ 

granoso-torosa, Rss. „ ,, similar to L.tenella, 

Rss. ; similar to L. rudis, Manzoni. 
anisostoma, Rss. 'Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

FILOCINCTA, ,, „ „ 

Membranipora, Blainv. 

78. ,, subtilimargo, Rss. ' Foss. Fauna deut. Oberoligo- 
ciin,' ii. p. 17 ; M. laxa, Rss. ' Alt. Terfc. Alp.' ii. p. 40. 

79. Membranipora elliptiga, Hag. sp. = Cellepora ibid., Hag. = Mar- 

cjinaria ibid., Rom. 
•80. Membranipora loxopora, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss., /. c. p. 97 
= lieptoflustrella ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 571. 

81. Membranipora fenestrata, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss., /. c. p. 97, 

and D'Orb. 

82. Membranipora Lacroixii, Sav., sp. = ill". Savartii, Busk, ' Crag P.' 

p. 31 ; Manzoni, ' Bry. Foss. It.' ii. p. 3 ; M. reticulum, Rss., I. c. 
p. 98 ; Mich. ' Icon. Zoo.' p. 74. In the Pliocene of Voltnra and 
in the Red Crag. 
82a.M. lacroixii, var. Diadema, Rss., 1. c. p. 98. 

83. Membranipora appendiculata, Rss. = Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. 

96 ; Reptoflustrella ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 571. 
' The nearly allied M. velamen, Goldf., differs in form of cell and 
absence of vibracula. Our species is very similar to many forms of the 
M. trifolium, Wood.' — Reuss. 

84. Membranipora semiaperta, Rss. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ung.' 

85. „ plattstoma, „ = Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. p. 91. 

86. „ incorrupta, ,, ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-un^,' 



70. 


)5 


71. 


51 


72. 


>> 


72*. 

T— . > 


5) 


73. 


)) 


74. 


)) 


75. 


)> 


76. 


>) 


77. 


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)> 


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)) 


11 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 189 

87. Membranipoea holostoma, S. Wood, sp.; Busk, ' Crag Pol.' p. 36 

= Flustra holostoma, S. Wood. 

88. Membranipora bidens, Hag., sp. ; Cellepora Mppocrepis, Rss. I a 

p. 94; G. subhippocrepis, D'Orb. 'Pal. Fr.' v. p. 398; C. bidens, 
Hag. 'Maest. Kreid.' p. 92; M. bidens, Busk, ' Cracr Polyzoa ' 
p. 34. J ' 

Range. — Tufaceous Chalk, Maestriclit ; Pencil Chalk, Riio-en • Eno-lish 
Crag. ' ° 

89. Membranipora mikuta, Rss. ; Cellepora ibid., Rss. /. c. p. 93 ; 

Beptescharella ibid., D'Orb. ' This species occupies, as it were, a 
middle place between M. gracilis and M. bidens.' — Reuss. 

90. Membranipora gracilis, V. Miin. sp. = Cellepora ibid' Goldf 

<Pefc. Germ.' 1826, p 162; Cellepora ibid., Rss. I. c. p.. 93; 
Eschara andegavensis, Mich. 'Icon. Zoo.' p. 329; Lepralia gracilis' 
Rss., 'Fauna Deutsch. Oberoligocen'; M. andegavensis, Busk,' 
'Crag Pol.' p. 35; M. andegavensis, Manzoni, 'Bry. Foss It ' ii' 
p. 2. 

91. Membranipora Formosa, Rss.; Cellepora ibid., Rss. I c p 95- 

Cellepora ibid., D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' v. p. 398. See M. trifolium 
Busk, 'Crag Poly.' J 

92. Membranipora papyracea, Rss. ; Cellepora ibid., Rss. lev 94 • and 

D'Orb. ' Pal. Fr.' p. 398. P ' 

93. Membranipora angulosa, Cellepora ibid., Rss. 1. c. p. 93; and D'Orb. 

' Pal. Fr.' ; Eschara excavata, Rss. /. c. p. 72 ; E. subexcavata 
D'Orb. p. 72. Rss., ' Pal. Stud. Alt.' and ' Foss. Foram. and 
Bry.' ' This is doubtless the place for M. deplanata.' — Reuss 

94. Membranipora stenostoma, Rss., Cellepora ibid., Rss 1 c r> 93 

and D'Orb. ' ' l ' 

Part II. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ungar Mioccn,' Manzoni. 
In the second part of this work Manzoni made fifty-two additions of 
species, so as to complete the list left unfinished by the lamented author 
Manzoni's arrangement differs considerably from that of Reuss, but in 
accordance with the general principle that I have heretofore been guided 
by, I give the arrangement of that author rather than interfere with the 
text. It is only necessary to give the catalogue of species, but it is 
greatly to be regretted that Reuss did not live to revise the whole of his 
species, as he has done in the first part of the work. '•— 

Brtozoa, Cheilostomata, Celleporid^e. 
Celleporaria, Lamx. 

1- „ verrucosa, Rss., loc. cit. 1 p. 79. 

2- „ globularis, Bronn ; Rss. loc. cit. p. 76. 

O- „ POLYTHALE, Rss. „ „ p. 77, 

4- „ crassa, Manzoni, ' Ost.-ungar.' 

5- „ AVICULIFERA, „ ,, 

Citmulipora, Miinster. 

6 - » transilvanica, Rss. ; Rss. in Mss., Upper Marl of 
Lapugy. 

Batopora, Rss. 
7. „ rosula, Rss., loc. cit. p. 78 ; ' Bry. deutsch. Oberoligocan ' 

tab. i. fig. 7 ; tab. ii. fig. i. Marl of Baden. ' 

1 Foss. Pol. Wien. Terticirleelt. 



190 



REPORT — 18S4. 



8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 

14. 

15. 

IS. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 

25. 



25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 
41. 

42. 
43. 

44. 



Hejiieschaea, Busk. 

„ gemixipora, Rss., 7. c. p. 74 ; ' Foss. Fauna Steinsalz,' 

,, pobosa, Rss. In Mss. [p. 102. 

,, marginata, Rss., ' Ost-ung.' Marl of Lapugy. 

„ Ftubigeea, Manz. „ 

Eschara, Ray. 

siacrochila, Rss. 7. c. p. 65. 

CHIKAGRA, ,, in Mss. 

Gotriana, ,, 'Fauna deutscli. Oberoligociin ;'' Biy. 

deutsch. Sept.' p. GG. 
expansa, Reuss, in Mss. 

SOLCIMARGO, ,, 7. C. p. 65. 

filisparsa, Manz., ' Ost.-ungar.' 

ampla, Rss., 7. c. p. GG. 

biauriculata, Rss. 7. c. p. 66. 

monilifera, M.-Ed., 7. c. p. 69, ' Crag Polyzoa.' 

stipitata, Rss., in Mss. Marl of Lapugj. 

imbricata, Rss., 1. c. p. 69. 

regularis, Rss., ' Deutsch. Septar.' p. 69; Manzoni, 

' Bry. Foss.' iv. 
undulata, Rss., 7. c. p. 68, ' Foss. Faun. Steinsalz.' 
cosc'inophora, Rss., /. c. p. G7 , ' Bry. deutsch. Septar. ; ' 

' Fauna deut. Oberoligocan,' p. 36 = MicroporeUa ibid., 

forma armata, Waters. 

POETSTOMELLA, Rss., 1. C. p. 70. 
POLTOMMA, „ ,, 71. 

TESSULATA, „ „ 71. 

CONFERTA, „ ,, 71. 

delicata, Manzoni, ' Ost.-ungar.' 
porosa, M.-Edw., ' Crag Poly.' p. GG. 
Formosa, Manzoni, ' Ost.-ungar.' 

MINAX, 

NFGLECTA, ,, ,, 

OCULATA, „ „ 

FLABELLARIS, ,, „ 

PATULA, „ „ 

Biflustra, D'Orb. 

„ CONTABULATA, 
,, EXCAVATA, 

Flustkellaria, D'Orb. 

,, texturatAjRss., 7. c. p. 73, ' Foss. Fauna Steinsalz,' 

p. 103. 

„ siacrostoma, Rss., 7. c. p. 64. 

,, autoctona, Manz., 'Ost.-ungar.' 

Retepora, Imp. 

,, cellulosa, Linn., Rss., 7. c. p. 48 ; ' Crag Poly.' p. 74. 
,, Rubeschii, Rss., „ ,, „ 

Vincularia, Defr. 

,, cucdllata, Rss., 7. c. p. 60 ; 7. c. p. 72, as Eschara 

costata; 'Fau. deutsch. Oberoligociin' as E. Reussi, Stol. ; 'Pal. 
Stud. Alt. Tert ,' Vincularia Haidinr/eri. 



Rss., in Mss. 
7. c. p. 72. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 191 

45. Vincularia binotata, Rss. Mss., ' Ost.-ungar.' 

Myriozoum, Donati. 
4G. „ punctatum, Phill., Ess. 7. c. p. 73 ; ' Faun, deutsch. 

Oberoligocan,' p. 50 ; ' Bry. deutsch. Sept.' p. 74. 

Cupularia, Lamx. 

47. „ Haidingeki, Rss., 1. c. p. 58. 

48. „ canadensis, Busk, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 87 ; Manzoni, 
' Bry. Foss.' i. p. 10. 

Lunulites, Lamx. 

49. „ Andkosaces, Alt., Manz. ' Bry. Foss.' i. p. 13. 

In an appendix Manzoni gives the following : 

50. ? Gemellaeia, Sav. 

Part III. ' Foss. Bry. Ost.-ungar.,' Manzoni. 

In the ' Geological Record ' for 1877, p. 315, Professor Nicholson 
gives a brief note on Part III. of the ' Fossil Bryozoa of the Miocene of 
Austria and Hungary.' This work I have not seen. It deals with 
species belonging to the Cyclostoinata. Tbe new forms described are : — 

1. Idmonea vibicata, Manz. i 6. Pustulopora proboscina, Manz. 

2. FlLISPARSA elegantissijia, ,, 7. Patinella CYATHIFORMIS, ,, 



3. „ ASTALIS, 

4. „ TYPICA, 

5. Pustulopora rugulosa, 



8. DlSCOTUBlGERA JNSIGNIS, 

9. „ ACTINOIDES, 



'Polyzoa (Bryozoa) from the Upper and Lower Oligocene,' 
Professor Roemer. 

Professor Roemer, in his ' Norddeutschen Tertiiir-Gebirges,' Cassel, 
ed. 1863, adopts a classification similar to that of Mons. Pictet in some 
respects, but with three divisions instead of two. Pictet ' divides the 
Polyzoa or Bryozoa thus : — 

A. Cellulata, D'Orbigny, have three families (Cheilostomata, Bask). 

I. Cetxarioides. 

II. ESCIIAROIDES. 

III. Flustrelloid.e. 

B. Centrifuginje, with three families (Cyclostomata, Busk). 
I. Radicell^. 

II. OPERCULINiE. 

III. Tubuliporid^:, Milne-Ed. 

Roemer adds another family — literally another division. 
C. CeriopoeiD/E, D'Orbigny. 

The 114 species given by Roemer as described in his monograph are 
distributed under 52 genera which, in the introduction that prefaces the 
descriptive part, has a rather elaborate synopsis. I have not broken tbe 
text of the author. 

1 Jukes' Manual of Geology. 



192 report — 1884. 

A. Cellulata = Cheilostomata, Busk. 
Cellaria, Lamk. 

1. ,, affinis, Reuss, Upper Oligocene. 

Viscularia, Defranc (Cellaria pt.). 

2. „ marginata, V. Miinst. Upper Oligocene. 

3. „ HEXAGONA, „ „ „ 

4. „ TETRAGONA, „ „ „ 

5. „ RHOMBIFERA, ,, „ „ 

6. „ escharella, Rom., Lower „ 

7. „ P0R1NA, „ „ ., 

Celleporaria, D'Orb. 

8. ,, ramdlosa, L. (= Cellepora ibid., Hineks), Upper 
Oligocene. 

Cycleschara, Rom. 

9. ,, marginata, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 

Eschara, Lamk. 

10. ,, HETEROPORA, ,, ,, 

11. „ SUBTERES, „ „ 

12. „ DEFORMIS, „ „ 

13. ,, spongiosa, „ Upper 

14. „ PUNCTULATA, „ ,, 

15. ,, ORNATA, „ „ 

16. „ GLABRA, „ „ 

Porina, D'Orb. (adopted by Hineks). 

17. ,, coxfluens, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 

18. „ quadrata, ,, „ „ 

19. „ dubia „ „ „ 

20. „ granulosa ,, „ „ 

21. „ occulata „ Upper „ 

Escharipora, D'Orb. 

22. „ substrata „ „ 

23. Escharella caudata, R. (' Might be united with E. affinis and in 

that case would be the only species occurring as well in the 
Upper as in the Lower Oligocene,' — Rom. p. 10). 

24. Escharella affinis, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

25. ., celleporacea, Von. Miinst. „ „ 

Porella, Rom. 

26. ,, MONOPS, Rom., „ „ 

Porf.llixa, D'Orb. 

27. „ Decameron, Rom., Lower „ 

28. „ labiata „ „ „ 

29. „ elegans „ „ „ 

Escharipora, D'Orb. 

30. ,, porosa, Phill. (r), Upper „ 
Biflustra, D'Orb. 

31. „ punctata, Rom., Lower ., 






ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. ] 93 

Cellepora, D'Orb. 

32. ,, mamillata, Phill., Upper Oligocene 

= Discnpora ibid., Phill. 

33. „ geojieirica, Rom. (Biinde) 

34. ,. tenella, Rom. Upper Oligocene. 

35. „ millepunctata, Rom. Lower ,, 

36. „ papteacea, Upper 

Reteporina, D'Orb. (Mieroporella? Hincks). 

37. ,, pertusa Rom. Lower Oligocene. 

38. „ umcilicata, Rom. Upper „ 

39. ,, capitata, „ ,, ,, 

40. „ asperelea, Rss. „ „ 

Reptescharellina, D'Orb. (Micropore/, pt. Hincks). 

41. „ triceps, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

42. „ RECTANGGLA, Rss. ,, ,, 

Repiescharella, D'Orb. (Gribrilina, pt. Hincks). 

43. „ ampullacea, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

44. „ COBNUTA, 

45. „ globulosa, (Hildesheim). 
4G. ,, coccixea, Rom., Biinde. 

47. „ ORNATA, ,, 

Repteporellina, D'Orb. 

48. „ plana, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 
4o. „ BELLA, „ ,, ,, 

Reptescharipora, D'Orb. 

49. ,, tristoma, Goldf., Biinde. 

50. „ tetrastoma, Roni , Upper Oligocene. 

51. ,, SUBPUNCTATA, ,, ,, „ 

52. „ TRIPORA, 

Membranipora, Blainv. 

53. ,, simples, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

54. „ ovata, 

55. „ Syltana, (Miocene, Isle of Sylt). 
Reptoflustrina, D'Orb. 

50. „ biauriculata, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

Cellulipora, D'Orb. 
^>7- „ annulata, V. Miin., Biinde. 

58. „ globus, R6m., Lower Oligocene. 
Cdmclipora, Von Miinster. 

59. ,, pumtcosa, Rom., „ ,, 
00. „ fabacea, „ „ „ 
61. „ favosa, „ Upper „ 

Stichopora, '. 
62 

Luni'lites, Lamk. 

03. ,, hemispilericus, Rom., Lower Oligocene/ 

04. „ poltporus, 

05. ,, sejitpeexus, Rss., 
1884. 



Stichopora, Hagenow. 
,, fragilis. 



191 REPORT — 188*4. 

66. Lunulites MICROPORES, Rom., Upper Oligocene. 

67. „ HIPPOCREPIS, L. ,, „ 

68. „ PERFORATUM, Goldf. „ „ 
DlSCOFLUSTRELLA, D'Orb. 

69. M Haidingeri, Rss. 

(= Cupularia ibid. Rss.) ]\[ioccne ? 

70. „ campanula, Rom., Miocene. 

DlSCOESCHABITES, F. A. R. 

71. mamillata, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 

72. „ irregularis, „ Upper „ 

B. Tuduliporidea = Cyclostomata, Busk. 

Stomatopora, D'Orb. (? Bronn). 

1. „ minima, Rom., Upper Oligoceue. 

Tubulipoea, M.-Echv. 

2. „ trifaria, Rom., Upper Oligoceue. 
3? „ ?echinata, Goldf., Upper Oligoceue. 

Diastopoea, Lamk. 

4. „ disciforms, Goldf., Upper Oligoceue. 

Crisia, M.-Edw. 

5. „ gracilis, Rom. ,, „ 
Hornera (no author's name) 

6. „ Bll'L'XCTATA, Rom. „ ., 

7. „ TORTUOSA, „ „ „ 

8. „ NITENS, „ „ „ 

9. „ lamellosa, ,, Lower „ 

10. „ gracilis, Phill. Upper „ 

Idmonea, Lmck. (? Lamx.). 

11. „ biseeiata, Phill. „ „ 

12. „ minima, R6m. Lower ,, 

BlDIASTOPORA, D'Orb. 
13? „ ? dentata, Rom. Upper ,. 

Mesenteripora, Blaiuv. 

14. „ CUSriDATA, „ „ 

Peripora, D'Orb. 

15. „ variabilis, Gold. (= Gerlpora ibid.) Upper Oligocene. 

Pustulipora, Edw. (? Blainv.) = Entalopora. 

16. „ ramosa, Rom. Upper Oligoceue. 

17. „ INCRASSATA, R5m. „ ■„ 

Escharites, A. Rom. 

18. „ injequalis, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 

19. „ PUNCTATA, „ 

Chisma, Lonsd. 

20. „ heteroporosum, R6m. „ ,, 
Echinopoea, D'Orb. 

21. „ sulcata „ „ 






ON FOSSIL FOLYZOA. 19,3 

Myeiozoum, Donati. 

22. „ lonc&vum, Rorn., Upper Oligocene. 
Retepora, Lamk. 

23. „ vibicata, Goldf. 
Reteporidea, D'Orb. 

24. „ gracilis, Phill. 

25. „ bilateealis, Rom. ; Upper Oligocene. 

The genera and species 18 to 25 have no right to be placed in this 
group. 

C. Cerioporidea. 
Tlreinia, Michelin. 

26. „ INFUNDIBULUM, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 
Pelagia, D'Orb. 

27. „ dkfranciana, Mich. 

Actinopora, D'Orb. 

28. „ simplex, Rom. „ „ 

29- „ PLANA, 

30. „ jicltipora „ Upper „ 
Stellipora, D'Orb. 

31. „ TRUNCATA „ 

Radiopoea, D'Orb. 

32. „ TUBCLIFERA ,, 

Plethopora, Hagenow. 

33. ,, .equiporosa, Rom. Upper Oligocene. 
34 „ brevis, „ Lower „ 

Heteropora, Blainv. 
35. „ PUNCTATA, Phil], sp. (Millepora). 

3, J- „ GRACILIS, „ „ (Cellaria), Upper Oligocene. 

37. „ ? sulcato-punctata, Rom., Lower Oligocene. 
Ceriopoea, Lamck. (?) 

38. ,, seminula, Rom., „ 

39. „ lunula, 

40. ,, incrassata, „ Upper 

41. „ INEQCALIS, „ 

42. „ AKBUSCULUS, „ „ 

' Oligocene Bryozoa from Latdorf.' — Stoliczka. 

Cheilostomata. 1 
Cellaria, Lamx. 

!■ „ Michelini, Rss., ' Pol. Wiss. Beck.' p. 61 = VincuJaria 

fragilis, Mich. ' Icon.' p. 175. 
-• „ Beyrichi, Stol., Latdorf. 

Lepralia, Johnst. 

3- „ Grotriana, Stol. „ 

4- „ PEDICULARIS, „ „ 

5- „ MACBOPOBA, „ 

' With this list Stoliczka places as Bidiastopora the Eschara tvbvMfera Kss 
Hoes the author regard this as a Cyclostomatous Polyzoon ?— G. R. V. 

o2 



10. 


)) 


11. 


>> 


12. 


jj 


13. 


?t 


14. 


>) 


15. 


>> 


16. 


9 


17. 


> 


18. 


5 


19. 


) 



196 report— 1884. 

MEM,BBAnriPOBA = Flustrellaria, D'Orb. 
G. „ ROBUSTA, Rss. 

MEMBBANIPORA = Semiflustrella, D'Orb. 

7. ,, Axhaltina, Stol., Latdorf. 
7.* Alveolabia Buski, Stol. 

8. Biflustea clathrata, Phill. (as Escliara) 

9. „ GLABRA „ „ 

Eschaba (= Escharifura, D'Orb.) 

MOKTESIGA, Stol., Latdorf. 
ORNATISSIMA „ ,, 

C REX U LATA „ 

SUBOVATA ,, (= Flustriita, D'Orb.) 

1'Li.chra ,, (= Porellia, „ ) 

monilifera, M.-Ed. (= Escharipora, D'Orb.) = E. 

punctata, Phill. 
PROTEUS, Rss. 

Reussi, Stol ? = E. costata, Rss. ' Pol. W. Beck.' p. 72. 
coscinophora, Rss. p. 72. 
POEULOSA, Stol. (= Forina, D'Orb.) 

20. Cellepoea globulabis, Bronn, Rss. ' Pol. "W. Beck.' p. 76. 

21. Oebitulipoba Haidingebi, Stol. 

22. Retepoea Rubetschi, Rss. ' Polyp.' p. 48. 

,, FASCIATA, Stol. 

23. Stichopoeixa Reussi, Stol. 

24. Lunulites subplana, Rss. 

25. „ LATDORFENSIS, Stol. 

Ctclostomata. 

1. PCSTULOPORA ALTENUATA, Stol. 

2. ,, POLCHELLA, Rss. = Oricopara id., 'Pol. W. Beck. 'p. 40. 

3. ,, EETIFEEA, Stol. (= Chlltsa). 

4. Hornera HIPPOLYTA, Def., Busk, Rss. 

5. „ reteporacjea, M.-Ed. 

6. ,, verrucosa, Rss., ' Zeit. deut. Gesell.' 1851. 

7. „ porosa, Stol. 

8. „ GRACILIS, Phill. 

9. ,, STJBANNULATA, Phill. (and = biseriata, Phill.) 

10. ,, seriatopora, Rss. = Id/mon'ea, D'Orb. 

11. Filisparsa tenella, Stol. 

12. IoMONEA FORAMINOSA, Rss. = Grislmi. 

13. ,, Gtebelt, Stol. = Tubigera. 

14. ,, DELICAT1 i.v, Bask ,, Crag Polyzoa. 

15. ., TKNUISULCA, Rss. ,, 

16. „ Hurnesi, Stol. ,, 

17. DOMOPOBA PROLIFERA, Rss. sp. ' Pol.' p. 37. 

18. Pavotubigera Axhaltina, Stol. 

19. Heteiiopoka similis, Stol. 

' Tertiary Bryozoa of N. W. Germany.' — Phillipi. 

1. Cellaria hexagona, V. M. = Glauconome ibid. 

2. ietragona, „ = ,, „ 



ON FOSSIL toltzoa. 197 

3. Ceu-abia marginata, V. M. = Glauconome. 

4. „ RH05IBIFEEA, „ = 

5. „ GRACILIS, Phillipi. 

6. ESCHARA GLABRA, Phill., allied to 
6A. „ TERETIUSCULA, Phill. 

7. „ PUNCTATA, „ 

8. ,, POROSA. „ 
'.'. „ CLATHRATA, „ 

10. „ DIPLOSTOMA, „ 

11. „ CELLEPORACEA, Goldf. 

12. DisCOPORA circumcincta, Phill. (Lepmlia, Johnst.). 

13. Retepora cellulosa, Lamk. 

14. Millepora truxcata, = Myriopora, Blainv. 

15. Li xn.riEs radiata, Lamk. 

Ctclostomata. 

1. HORXERA GRACILIS, Phill. 

2 „ nisEEiATA, „ (see Stoliczka). 

3. „ SDBAiraTJLATA, Phill. 

4. Ceriopora VARIABILIS, Goldf. 

5. „ STELLATA, „ 

6. „ SPIRALIS, ,, 

7. „ MIXITA, „ 

1 Bryozoa of the Neozoic Period, New Zealand.'— Rev. J. E T Woods 

F.G.S. 

As I have given a very full list of the Bryozoa from Australia when 
dealing with the Papers of Mr. A. W. Waters, I need only give the fol- 
lowing hst, without the elaborate but valuable details of Mr. Woods 
I think, however, that it would be unfair to the author not to give his 
views as to the horizon of the species. 

Cheilostomata. 
Eschara, Ray. 

!■ » moxilifera, M.-Ed. Miocene or Upper Eocene. 

2. „ AMPLA, T. Woods. Oamansu 

3. „ Buskii, 
Poeina, D'Orb., 1852. 

4. „ DlEFFENBACHIANA, Stol. 

Celleporaria, Lamx., 1821 = Oellepora, Busk. 
*>■ ,i gambierenbis, T. Woods. Upper Eocene. 

»• » papillosa, T. Woods. Napier. Upper Eocene. 

'■ „ nummularia, Busk. 

Salicorxaeia, Cuvier. 
8- „ imiiersa, T. Woods. 

Vixcularia, Defr., 1829. 

y - „ MAORICA, Stol. 

Cellaria, Ell. and Stol., 1787. 
10. „ punctata, T. Woods. 

Selenaria, Busk, 1852. 
n - » squamosa, T. Wood. Upper Miocene. 



198 report — 1884. 

Cyclostomata. 
Entalophora, Lamx., 1821. 

1. ,, zealandica, Man tell. 

2. „ nodosa, T. Woods. 

Spiroporina, Stol. 

3. „ VERTEBRALIS, T. Woods. 

4. „ IMMERSA, ,, 

FlJNGELLA, Hag. 

5. „ lobata, T. Woods. 
Idmonea, Lamx., 1821. 

6. „ alternata. 

7. Fasciculipora intermedia, T. Woods. 

8. „ RAMOSA, ? ,, 

'A Synopsis of the known Species of Australian Tertiary Polyzoa.' — ■ 

Robert Etheridge, jun. 

Previous to the publication of Mr. Waters's papers on Australian 
Polyzoa, Mr. Etheridge wrote the Synopsis now under review. It was 
read before the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1877, and I think that 
it would be unwise to pass it over. Much of the information is embodied 
in the fuller papers of Mr. Waters. The paper is especially valuable on 
account of the bibliography ; but as the new species, &c, are embodied 
from the MS. notes of Mr. Busk, many of these have been disregarded by 
Mr. Waters. Mr. Busk's notes were published in the ' Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soe.' 1803. I give the list from Mr. Etheridge. 

Cheilostomata. 

1. Oanda angulata, Busk. 

2. Onchopora pustulosa, Busk (MS.) 

3. „ VERTEBRALIS, Stoliczka. 1 

4. Salicornaria gracilis, Busk. 

5. „ Parkeri, „ (MS.) 

6. „ sinuosa, Hassell. 

7. „ tenuirostris, Busk. 

8. Caberea lata, Busk. 

9. Cellepora costata, Busk (MS.) 

10. „ ECH1NATA, Sturt. 

11. ,, gambierensis, Busk (MS.) =Esohara celleporiacea, Sturt. 

12. „ hemispHjERICA, „ „ = Cellepora escharoides, ,, 

13. „ spongiosa, „ 

14. „ tcbulosa, „ 

15. Cceleschara australis, Busk (MS. genus and sp.) 

10. ESCHARA ARCUTA, Busk (MS.) 

17. „ BIMARGINATA, Busk (MS.) 

18. „ hastigera, „ „ 

19. „ inornata, „ „ 

20. ,, oculata, „ ,, 

21. ,, papii.lata, „ ',, 

1 Sjnroporina, Stol., Mr. Busk considers to be, according to this list, a Cheilosto- 
matous and not a Cyclostomatous form. See Wood's list No 3, Cyclos. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 199 

22. BSCHAEA PIBIFOEMIS, Sturfc. 

' 23. „ simplex, Busk (MS.) 

24. „ sp. ind., Woods' ' Geol. Observations.' 

25. „ • sp. ind., Sturfc. 

26. „ cavernosa, T. Wood, from ' Rot. Soc. N.S.W.' vol. x. 

1877. 

27. „ porrecta, T. Wood. Mount Gambler. 

28. „ Clarkei, „ 

29. „ vekeucosa, „ 

30. ,, Rustica, „ 

31. „ ELEVATA, ,, (? = monolifera, Busk). 

32. ,, Liveesidgei, T. Wood. 

33. „ occlata, T. Wood. 
34 „ Tatei, „ 

35. „ Buskii, ,, 

36. Leprat.ia doliformis, Busk (MS.) 

37. „ Stawellensis, M'Coy. 

38. ,, subcarixata, Busk (MS.) 

39. „ sibmargixata, Busk (MS.) 

40. Lunulites, sp. ind., T. Woods. 

41. Meleceeita axgustilabra, Busk (MS.) 

42. Membraxipora appressa, Busk (MS.) 

43. „ bidexs, Hagenow. 

44. „ ctclops, Bask. 

45. „ STENOSTOMA, Busk. 

46. Psileschara pustulosa, Busk (genus and sp. MS.) 

47. „ subsuxcata, „ (MS.) 

48. Retepora disticha, Sturfc. 

49. „ M'Coyi, R. Ether, jun. 

50. „ moxilifera, McGil. 

51. „ yjbicata, Sturfc (non Goldfuss) ? = E. Beaniana, King. 

52. Scutulaeia PEIMA, Busk (genus and sp. MS.). 

Cyclostomata. 

1. Crisia ebuesea, Linn. ' Only one species has as yet been noted 

from the Australian Tertiaries ' (R. Etheridge). ' I have 
several species from the Yarra Yai'ra material ' (G. R.V.) 

2. HORXEIiA GAMBIEEENSIS, Busk. 

3. „ ecgulosa, ,, 

4. IDMOXEA LIG0LATA, Busk. MS. 

5. „ Mll.XKAXEA, D'Orb. 

6. Entalophoea distahs, Busk (Pastulopora, Eth.) 

7. ,, vngdlata, Woods. 

8. ,, COEEUGATA, „ 

9. Tdbulipoea gambieeehsis. (Mount Gambier. K"o author's name). 

Mr. George Busk. 

It seems to me to be almost out of place to make any elaborate remarks 
of the place which the masterly work of Mr. Busk, ' Fossil Polyzoa of the 
Crag,' occupies in the literary history of the Polyzoa as a distinct group. 
In this work the author not only described and figured all the then known 
Polyzoa from the Crag, but we owe to him the elaborate synopsis of tho 



200 report— 1884. 

Cheilostomata and Cyclostomata which prefaces the two groups of fossil 
forms. In addition to tbis we have another, a preface which deals with 
morphological details, which have been, and always will be, of supreme 
advantage to the Pakeontological student. I think that it may be said 
that the publication of this work inaugurated an epoch out of which later 
writers have emerged with difficulty. The work, however, of Mr. Busk 
dealt only with superficial details, and but very rarely with structure. 
It may be said, however, that tbe authors who gave to us the elaborate 
monographs which this report fully indicates by the lists given, dealt only 
with superficial characters ; and it was reserved for later writers to deal 
with and interpret the meaning of tissue and structure of the fossil by the 
study of living species. Hence the publication of the works of Mons. 
Joliet, Claparede, Nitsche, Barrois, and others, has given a new direction 
of thought in the study of fossil forms ; and, so far as superficial character 
can possibly indicate tbe relative positions species should occupy in a 
natural grouping, the cell and the cell-orifice famish us with details only 
dimly visible to authors who wrote previous to Professor Smitt, Mr. 
A. W. Waters and also Rev. T. Hincks. I have given to the student in 
the first part of this Report ample material by which Busk and others can 
be brought into harmony with the more modem classification. It is be- 
cause of this that I had no desire to alter the text. 

1 A Monograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Crag.' By George Busk, 

F.R.S., &c, 1859. 

Sub-Order I. Cheilostomata. 

Scrupocellaria, Van Ben., p. 19. 

1. „ SCRfPOSA ? Linn., pi. i. fig. 6, p. 19. 
Salicorxaria, Cuvier. 

2. ,, crassa, S. Wood (as Cellaria), pi. xxi. fig. 4-G. 

3. ,, siNCOSA, Hassall (as Farcimia), „ fig. 5. 

Hippothoa, Lamx. 

4. ,, patagonica, Busk, pi. i. fig. 5 = Alecto vesiculosa (?), 
Mich. 

5. Hippothoa abstersa, S.W., pi. xxii. fig. 6 = Lepralia ibid. S.W. 

= Griserpia pyriformis (?), Mich. 

6. HiproTHOA dentata, S.W., pi. i. fig. 7 = Catenaria ibid. S.W. 

Altsidota, Busk = Fhylactella, Hincks. 
. 7. ,, labrosa, Busk, pi. xxii. fig. 7 = Lepralia ibid. Busk. 

8. „ catena, S.W., pi. vii. fig. 7 = Lepralia ibid. S.W. 

Membranipora, Blainv. 

9. ,, tuberculata (?), Bose, pi. ii. fig. 1 = Flustra, 
ibid. Bose = F. membranacea, Esper = F. crassidentata, Lamk. 

10. Membranipora monostachys, Busk, pi. ii. fig. 2 = Flustra pustic- 

losa (?), D'Orb. = Memb. nobilis (?), Reuss. 

11. Membranipora Savartii, Aud., pi. ii. fig. G = Flustra ibid., Sav. 

= M. Licjeriensis (?), D'Orb. 

12. Membranipora dubia, Busk, pi. hi. Sg. 12. 

13. „ trifolium, S. Wood, pi. iii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 9. 

14. ,, Pouilletii, Aud., pi. iii. figs. 4, 5, 6 (as Flustra 
ibid. Aud.). 



24. 


>> 


25. 


»> 


26. 


)> 


27. 


>> 



ON FOSSIL POLV/OA. 201 

15. Membeakipoba Rynchota (Busk), pi. iii. fig. 7 = M. trifolium 
(?var.), S. W. 

10. Membranipoea apeeta, Busk, pi. iii. fig. 13. 

17. ,, oblonga, Busk, pi. ii. fig. 3, 

18. „ BIDENS, Hagenow, pi. ii. fig. 4 = Cellepora ibid. 
Hag. = C. hippbcrepis (?), Rss. 

19. Membeanipoba andegavensjs, Mich., pi. ii. fig. 5 = Eschara ibid. 

Mich. 

20. Membeanipoba fissueata, Busk (no figure), p. 35. 

21. „ oceani, D'Orb., pi. iii. fig. 8 = Eseharkxa (Cellepora 
ibid.), D'Orb. 

22. Membeanipoba holostoma. S. W., pi. iii. fig. 11 (as Flustra ibid.), 

S. W. 
Lepealia, Johnst. (Busk gives, p. 37, 16 synonymous genera for 
the old Lepralia.) 

I. Armat.e. 
(a) With oral spines. 

23. Lepealia punctata, Hassall, pi. iv. fig-, i. 

INNOMINATA, Coucll, pi. iv. fig. 2. 
PUNCTCBATA, S. W., pi. vi. fig. 2. 
Woodiana, Busk, pi. vii. figs. 1-3. 

? ciliata, Linn., pi. vii. fig. (? Microporella, Hincks) 
= Cellepora crenilabris, Rss. 

28. ,, Moerisiana, Busk, pi. vii. fig. 8 = Cellepora tristoma (?), 
Goldf. 

(b~) Without oral spines. 

29. Lepealia violacea, Johnst., pi. iv. fig. 3 (Microporella, Hincks). 

30. „ plagiopoea, Busk, pi. iv. fig. 5 = Cellepora Heckelii (? 

Rss.). Name suppressed by Busk. 

31. ,, Edwaedsiana, Busk, pi. v. fig. 2 = L. Milneana, Busk = 

Edwardsiana, ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 132. 

32. „ UNICORNIS, Johnst., pi. iv. fig. 4 = Cellepora teiragona, 

Rss. 

33. ,, ansata, Johnst., pi. vii. fig. 2 = Cellepora Dunkeri, Rss. 

= C. protuberans (?), Rss. 

34. ., Beongniaeti, And., pi. vi. fig. 1. 

35. „ mamillata, S. W., pi. vi. fig. 5 (as Cellepora). 

36. „ bicoenis, Busk, pi. viii. figs. 6, 7. 

37. „ ? biapeeta, Mich., pi. vii. fig. 5 = Eseliara ibid., Mich. 

Icon. 

II. Inaemat.e. 

(a) With oral spines. 

38. Lepealia vaeiolosa, Johnst., pi. iv. fig. 4, 8 ; pi. viii. fig. 8. 

39. „ Peachii, Johnst., pi. v. figs. 6, 7,8; pi. vi. fig. 4. 

40. „ venteicosa, Hassall, pi. vi. figs. 3, 6, 8. 

41. „ Boweebankiana, Busk, pi. vii. fig. 4. 

42. ,, lobata, Busk, pi. vi. fig. 7; pi. xxii. fig. 4. 

(&) Without oral spines. 

43. Lepealia pteifoemis, S. W., pi. v. fig. 3. 

44. „ hyalina, Linn., pi. v. fig. 1 (Cellepora ibid., Linn.). 



202 itEPOitT — 1884. 

45. Lepealia papillata, Busk, pi. V. f. 5. 

46. ,, Haimeseana, Busk, pi. viii. fig. 1. 

47. ,, Mallcsii, Aiid. (Eschara), pi. viii. fig. 3. 

48. „ Reussiaxa, Busk, pi. viii. fig. 2. 

49. ,, ixfuxdibulata, Busk, pi. viii. fig. 4. 

50. „ Pallasiaxa, Moll., pi. ix. fig. 7. 

51. „ jUecastoma, Busk, pi. viii. fig. 5. 

52. „ Milxeana, Busk (See ' Crag Pol.,' p. 132) = L. Ed- 

wardsiana, Busk, No. 31 above. 

Cellepoea (pars), O. Fab. 1780. 

(a) Bamose, not encrusting. 

53. Cellepoea coeonopus, S.Wood, pi. ix. figs. 1-3 = Scyphia cellulosa ? 

Goldf. 

54. „ eamllosa, Linn., pi. ix. fig. 2. 

55. ,, compeessa, Busk, pi. ix. fig. 4. 

56. ,, c.espitosa, Busk, pi. ix. fig. 5. 

(b) Enrruslinij, adnata, massive, 

57. „ edax, Busk, pi. ix. fig. 6 ; pi. xxii. fig. 3. 

58. „ tubigera, Busk, pi. ix. tig. 8-10. 
50. „ scri'posa, Busk, ,, ,, 9. 

60. ,, parasitica, Micb., ,, „ 11-13. 

61. „ i>extata, Busk, pi. ix. fig. 12. 

EsciuiiA, Ray. (a) Foliaceous. 

62. „ peetcsa, M.-Edw., pi. x. fig. 2. 

63. ,, ixcisa, „ „ „ 3. 

64. „ porosa, „ pi. xi. fig. 4. 

65. „ sinuosa, Busk, pi. x. fig. 6. 

66. ,, coenuta, ,, pi. iv. fig. 7 ; pi. x. fig. 5. 

(b) Lobate or ramose. 

67. „ Sedowickii, M.-Edw., pi. x. fig. 1. 

68. „ MONILIFEEA, „ pi. xi. figS. 1-23. 

69. ,, socialis, Busk, p. 131, pi. xxii. fig. 1. 
Melicekita, M.-Edw. 

70. „ Ohaeleswoethi, M.-Edw., pi. x. fig. 4 = Meliccrtina, 
ibid., Ehrenb. = Ulidium ibid., S. Wood. 

BiiLUSTEA, D'Orb. 

71. „ delicatula, Busk, pi. i. figs. 2 and 4; pi. ii. fig. 7. 

72. Flustea ? dubia, Busk, p. 132, pi. i. fig. 3. 

Retepoea, Imp. 

73. ,, cellulosa, Linn., pi. xii. figs. 1-7. 

74. ,, Beaniana, King, „ figs. 2, 5, 6, 7. 

75. ., xotopachts, Bask, „ fig. 4. 

76. „ simplex, „ „ fig. 3. 

Hejieschaea, Busk = Semieschara, Semiescharipora, Muliiescliari- 
pora, all D'Orb. 

77. Hemeschaea imbellis, Busk, pi. iv. fig. 6 ; pi. x. fig. 7 = Eschara 

pcrtusa (?), Micb. 



ON FOSSIL TOLYZOA. 203 

Family VII. Busk. Group Libera. 
Selenabims, Busk, 1853 = Escharidce, (pars) D'Orb ; Voltjpiers foraminte, 
Lamk. ; Cellcvricea, (pars) Blainv. ; MUleporees, (para) Lamx. ; Astero- 
discina, Lonsd. — Dixon, ' Geo. of Sussex.' 
' Zoarium free (?), orbicular or irregular, conical, or depressed, convex 
on one side, and plane or concave on the other ; composed of a single 
layer of cells, usually of two kinds, which open on the convex surface 
onlv.' — ' Crag Polyzoa,' p. 78. 

This family Mr. Busk comments upon very fully in the above work, 
and as he has had many more facilities of studying the group than I can 
ever hope to have, I gladly refer the student to the pages of the ' Crag 
Polyzoa' for the general remarks. The following is the synopsis _ of 
genera and also a full list of known fossil species below the Crag, which 
will be, I feel confident, acceptable to students who have not access to the 
author's works. 

Synopsis of genera (four admitted). 

1. Cupularia, Lanix. 

(a) Each cell with a vibracular chamber at its apex or distal 
extremity. 

2. Lunulites, Lamx. 

(h) The cells and vibracular chambers disposed or separate, 
usually alternate rows radiating from the centre. 

3. Selenarta, Busk. 

(f) Certain of the cells of a different conformation to the rest, 
furnished with a vibraculum. 
Stichopora, Hagenow. 

(d) No apparent vibracular chambers distinct from the true 

cell. 

4. CONESCHAREI.LINA, D'Orb. 

(e) Vibracula replaced by small avicularia; mouth of cell 

circular. 

Cretaceous genera and species. 

Selenaeia conica, D'Orb. = Lunulites ibid. Defr. 
Stichopoka clypeata, Hagenow. 

Cl'Pl'LARIA MUNSTEBI, 






LUNULITES PLANA, D'Orb. 
„ ROSACEA, „ 

„ PETALOIDES, D'Orb. 

„ REGIJLAEIS, „ 

„ PAPTRACEA, „ 

„ TUBERCCLATA, „ 

„ cretacea (? Defrance) 
(? D'Orb). 



LUNULITES BOURGEOISII, D'Orb. 
„ DOMA, „ 

,, CLTPEIFORMIS, „ 

,, HAGENOWi, Bosquet. 
,, Gqldfussi, Hagenow. 
jiitra, „ 

„ SEllILVXARIS, ,, 



,, spiralis, „ 

Eocene. 
Cupclarlv rhojiboidalis, Miinster. 



„ Haidingeri, Reuss. 

LUNULITES UECEOLATA, Lamk. 

(nonGoldf., Lamx.). 
„ RADIATA, „ 



Lunulites contigua, Lonsdale. 

,, DISTANS, „ 

„ SEXANGLLA, „ 



204 RETORT — 1S84. 

Miocexe, or more recent than Eocene. 

CUPULARIA DENTICULATA, Com'ad. 
„ INTERMEDIA, Michellotti. 

„ umcellata, Defrance. 

„ Vaxderbeckei, Mich. 
Lvjxulites Axdrosaces, Michellotti. 
,, Cuvieri, Defrance. 

coxica, ,, ' Crag.' 

PUNCTATA, Leymerie. 



)5 



Doubtful forms ; uncertain as to position or genus : — 

LrxiLiTES spoxgia, Morren. 

,, DuCLOiSlA, Lea ; Claiborne, Alabama. 

„ Bocei, ^ „ „ „ 

,, uepressa (?), Conrad. 

,, PINEA (?), Risso ; Defrance. 

„ QUINCUNCIALIS, Dujardin. 

Only two of the four genera admitted by Mr. Busk are represented in 
the Crag. 

(Crag Polyzoa — continued.) 

Cepularia, Lamx. = Lunulites (pars), Defr., Goldf., Blaiuville, 
Lonsdale, Deslongchamps = Lunulites spiralis, Hag., Geinitz., 
Grund., p. 623. 

78. Cupularia denticulata, Conrad, 'Crag P.' pi. xiii. fig. 1. 

79. „ CANAEIENSIS, Busk, pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

80. „ POROSA, „ „ „ 5. 

Lunulites, Lamx. 

81. ,, toxica, Defrance, pi. xiii. fig. 4 ■= var. a, depressa = 
Jj. urceolata, Goldf. 

Sub-Order II. Cyclostomata. 
Crisla, Lamx. 

1. „ DENTICULATA (?), Lamk. sp., pi. i. fig. 8 = Cellar ia ibid. 
Lamk. 

Horxera, Lamx. 

2. „ INPUNDIBULATA, Busk, pi. xiv. fig. 1. 
reteporacea, Milne-Ed., 
CANALICULATA, Busk, 
EHIP1S, „ 
HUJI1LIS, „ 
PERTUSA, ,, 

hippolyta (?), Defr., 

LUNATA, Busk, pi. xvi. fig. 4. 

froxdiculata, Lamx., pi. xv. figs. 1-2 ; pi. xvi. fig. G. 

striata, M.-Ed., pi. xv. fig. 3; pi. xvi. fig. 5. 

RHOJIBOIDALIS, Busk, pi. XV. fig. 4. 

Idmoxea, Lamx. 
13. ,, punctata, D'Oib. pi. xv. fig. 5 ; pi. xvi. fig. 3 = Latero- 

cava ibid. D'Orb. 



6. 


!> 


4. 


5) 


c 




o. 


)) 


(J. 


)> 


17 




/ . 


J) 


8. 


?) 


9. 


)) 


10. 


?) 


11. 


)) 


12. 


5, 



, „ 2. 




, w 3. 




, „ 4. 




, figs. 5- 


-6 


, fig. 7. 




, figs. 8- 


-9 



OX FOSSIL POLTZOA. 20.5 

14. Idmonea fexestrata, Bnsk, pi. xv. fig. 6. 

15. ,, DELICATULA, „ ,, ,, 8. 

16. ,, IXTRICAUIA, „ „ „ 7. 

PusTULOPORA, Blainv. 

17. „ clay ata, Busk, pi. xvii. fig. 1 = P. gracilis, Milne-Etl. 
= P. echinata , Ronier = Entalophora linearis, D'Orb. 

18. Pl'.STULOPORA TALMATA, Busk, pi. XVlii. fig. 2. 

10. „ SUBYERTICILLATA, Bask, pi. Xviii. fig. 1. 

Mesexteripoea, Blainv. 

20. ,, meaxdrixa, S. W., pi. xvii. fig. 2; pi. xviii. fig. 4; 
pi. xx. fig. 2 = Diastopora ibid., Wood = Z>. Eudesiana, M.-Edw. 
= Ditaxia compressa, Goldf., Hag. = Mesenteripora neocomiensis 
(?), D'Orb. 

Tit.ulipora, Lamlc. 

21. ,, PHALAXGEA, Couch, pi. xviii. fig. G. 

22. ., flabellaeis (?), Fab. sp., pi. xviii. fig. 3 ; pi. xx. fig. 9 
= Hiastopora vassiacensis, D'Orb. = D. plumula, Rss. 

Aeecto, Lamx. 

23. ,, repexs, S. Wood, pi. xx. figs. 5-8 = Idmonea ramosa, 
D'Orb. 

24. Alecto dilatans, "W. Tbomson, pi. xx. figs. 0-7 = Diastopora 

echinata, Rss. = Idmonea divaricata, depressa, Cenomana, elegan?, 
D'Orb. 

DiASTOrORA (Blastopores simples, M.-Ed.). 

25. ,, simplex, Bask, pi. xx. fig. 10. 
Patixeli.a, Gray. 

20. ., proligera, Busk, pi. xix. fig. 1 ; pi. xx. fig. 3. 

Discoporella, Gray. 
27 ., hispida, Johnst. (?), pi. xviii. fig. 5. 

28. „ grigxoxexsis (?), M.-Ed., pi. xx. fig. 4. 

Deiraxcia, Bronn. 
20. .. striatula, Bnsk. pi. xvii. fig. 5 ? = D. Michelinii, Hag. 

= Cretaceous Ceriopora diadema, Goldf. = Cretaceous D. Brong- 
niarti, M.-Edw. 

Fuxgella, Hagenow. 

30. ,, quadriceps, Busk, pi. xvii. fig. 3. 

31. ,, multifida, ,, ., ,, 4 — FrondiporaMarsillit, 
Midi. 

32. FUKGELLA IXFUXDIBULATA, Busk, pi. Xvii. fig. 6. 

Heteropora, Blainv. 

33. „ pl'stl'losa, Busk, pi. xx. fig. 1 ; pi. xix. fig. 6 = 
? if. tortilis, Lonsd. = ? Multizonopora ramosa, D'Orb. = ? H. 
intricata, Mich. = ? Entalophora irregidaris, D'Orb. 

34. Heteropora clay ata, Goldf. sp., pi. xix. fig. 7 = Ceriopora clavata, 

Goldf. = Heteropora anomolopora, Rss. = Ceriopora theleoidea ? 
Hag. 

35. Heteropora reticulata, Busk ; no fig = Ceriopora dichotoma, Goldf. 

= Heteropora dichotoma, Hag. 



20G report — 1834. 

36. Heteropoba laevigata, Bnsk (D'Orb. sp.), pi. xix. fig. 5 = Cerio- 

pora diehot. Goldf. = Zonopura laevigata, D'Orb. = Multizpnopora 
ligeriensis, D'Orb. 

Heteeopoeella, Bask = Beptomullicava (?), D'Orb. 

37. „ kadiata, Busk, pi. xix. fig. 2. 

38. „ parasitica, „ pi. xxii. tig. 5. 

Thkoxoidi:.e, Busk. 
' Zoarium massive, subglobose, or irregular ; cells contiguous, crowded.' 
—Busk, ' C. P.' p. 127. 

AlTEOIiAEIA, Busk. 

39. ., semiovata, Busk, pi. xix. fig. 4; pi. xxi. fig. 3, section 
= Blumeidiachium, Sowerby. 

Fascicularia, Milne-Ed. = Theonoa (sp.), S. Wood ; Meandiipora, 
D'Orb. ; Apsendesia, (pars) Blainv. 

40. Fascicularia tubipoea. Busk, pi. xxi. fig. 1. 

4,1. ,, aurantium, M.-Ed., pi. xxi. fig. 2 = Apsendesia cere- 

briformis?, Blainv. 

' Bryozoa (Polyzoa) from tlie Pliocene of Bruccoli (Sicily).' 

The following list of species is compiled from one of the earliest and 
most important papers of Mr. A. W. Waters, as published in the Trans- 
actions of the Manchester Geological Society, vol. xiv. p. 4G5, read May 
1878. In it Mr. Waters describes — some of which are figured — 43 species 
of Polyzoa, and besides the synonyms he has given some account of their 
rano-e in space and time. As the geological horizons of the Pliocene beds 
are almost or about the same horizon as our own English Crags, I look 
upon Mr. Waters's paper as a fit sequel to that of the work of Mr. Busk. 
I have not generally made any special point of dealing with the history or 
sequence of the geological horizons in which Polyzoa have been found, 
but it may perhaps be well just to give the section, as furnished by Dr. 
Fuchs, of these peculiar beds. They are given in descending order : — 

(a) Upper Pliocene sand, gravels and limestone, Foss. : Gerithium 

vidi/idum, G. scabrum, Murex truncuhts, liissoa, 'Turbo, Trochus, 
Monodunta, Ostrea. 

(b) Yellow sands without fossils. 

(c) Blue marl, Buceinum semi striatum., Dentalium elepJumtinum, &c. 

(d) Bryozoa beds, Corals, Brachiopoda, Pecten opercularis, Are. 

From the works of Seguenza it seems that the Bryozoa described by 
Manzoni from Sicily and Calabria, are also Lower Pliocene. I have 
civen the original arrangement of Mr. Waters, and as the work was com- 
pleted before the publication of Mr. Hincks's work, J have been more 
desirous to give Mr. Waters's opinion of the fossils rather than the mere 
identification and range of his species. 

CJteilostomata. 

1. Salicornaeia farciminoides, Ell. & Sol. = S. sinuosa, Hassall ; 
Vincitlaria and Cellaria marginata, Goldf. 

Ban^e from Bartonian : Up. Eocene, North Italy ; Oligocene, North 
Germany ; Miocene, Austria-Hungary. Pliocene : Italy — common in 



ON FOSSIL rOI.TZOA. 207 

Sicily, about 30 localities. Coralline Crag, England. Recent : generally 
distributed. Characters vary. 

2. Membraxipora p.idens, Hagenow= (JMlepora hippocrepis, Renss ? 

M. Eosselli, Manz. ' 4th Contr.' 
Range from Maestricht : Up. Miocene, Aust. & Hang., English Crag. 
2a. M. Lacroixii, Sav. : Miocene, Aust. and Hung. .V. SavarUi, 
allied, from En£. Cratr- 

3. M. andkgavensis, Mich., var. papyracea, Waters (fig. 3, plate), 

Bruccoli. 

4. M. angulosa, Rss. 

Range from Bartonian : Miocene ; Pliocene ; Living, Mediterranean. 
' There are probably a number of species which should be reduced to 
synonyms of this form, and it should be noticed that in the Chalk there 
are several so-called Esckara? described, which have cells like the above, 
but which would now be called Biflustra.' — Waters. Even the name 
Biflustra is now become obsolete. 

5. Lepralia ciliata, Pa\l.=C<'lleporn erenilabris, Rss. 

Range from Miocene: Pliocene. Living, widely distributed (fig. 
2, plate). 

(3. L. Morrisiaxa, Busk. 

Range from Pliocene : Cor. Crag ; Leghorn ; (Manzoni, ' 2nd Con- 
trib.'). Allied sp., L. pleuropora, inamaena?, Rss. 

7. Lepralia vulgaris, Moll. (fig. 22, plate) = Cellepora otnphora, Rss. 

Lepralia id., Rss. ? L. tumida, Manz. L. intermedia, Rss. 

Range from Miocene : Aust. and Hung. ; Oligocene. Varieties : Pliocene, 
Castrocaro ; Living : Madeira ; Mediterranean. 

8. L. coccinea, Aud.=L. Ballii, Johnst. Miocene of Eisenstadt 

(Hungary), Pliocene. Living. 

9. L. innominata, Couch. Pliocene : rare at Castrocaro; Crag: 

Quaternary, A. W. W. 

10. L. abrecta, Rss. ; Cellepora id., and Lepralia id., Rss. Miocene : 

Eisenstadt. 

11. L. ansata, Johnst., var. porosa, ll<s.-=Lep. unicornis, ' Crag Pol.' 

Oberoligocene of Doburg ; Miocene, Aust. and Hung., Crag (as 
unicornis) . 

12. L. auricclata, Hass. One specimen, Bruccoli. 

13. L. „ var. Leontiniensis, Waters, (fig. 5, plate), Bruccoli. 

14. L. cupulata, Manz. (fig. 6, plate), ' 3rd Contribution.' Miocene, 

Pliocene. Living. 

15. L. Bowerpaxkii, Busk, ' Crag Pol. ; ' Manzoni, ' 1st Contr.' Coral. 

Crag, Eng. and North Italy. 

16. L. EEStPiXATA, Manzoni (fig. 7, plated. Pliocene, Castrocaro. 

17. L. scripta, Rss. = L. megaceplmla, Rss. Miocene, Hungary; 

Pliocene, Tuscany and Sicily. Living. 

18. L. Pallasiana, Moll. 

' Probably several fossil species are L. 1'allasiana, which have received 
other names.' — A. W. W. Known range, C. Crag, Sicily. 

10. Cellepora coronopus, S. Wood. Pliocene, C. Crag. Living. 
20. C. tubigera, Busk (figs. 20, 21, plate). Pliocene. Living, "Bri t. 
and Foreign Coasts, Mediterranean. 



B 



208 KEroRT — 1884. 

21. C. ramelosa, Linn, riiocene, Cor. Crag. Living: Scandinavia; 

Naples, 40 fatuoms. 

22. Hippothoa catexularia, Jameson. Pliocene. Living. 

23. Eschara LUNABIS, Waters (fig. 9, plate), Bruccoli. 

' I believe that it is the same as Porina labiata, Rom. The name is 
o-iven from the semilunar pore, which occurs frequently in Lepralia, but 
there are a few Eschara with it. This would be called Porellina ciliaia 
by Smitt.' — Waters. Pliocene. Living : Naples, 40 fath. 

24. Eschara cervicoenis, Ell. and Sol. Pliocene. Living. 

25. E. biaperta, Mich., forma Eschariformis, Wat. (fig. 8, plate), 

Brnccoli. 

26. E. pertusa, M.-Ed. (fig. 4, plate). Miocene, Doue. Pliocene: 

Crag. 

27. E. foliacea, Lam., var. fascial!*, Waters. Pliocene. 

28. Biflustra rynchota, Waters (fig. 1, plate), Bruccoli. 

20. Retepora cellelosa, Linn. Miocene, Pliocene. Living, ' having a 
wide range.' 

30. Mtriozoon trincatdm, Pall^Fa^'wopora polystigma, Rss. Myrio- 

zoon •pwnctatum, Rss. Miocene (as punctatum), Reuss. ; Pliocene, 
Manzoni. Living, Mediterranean, com. 

31. Cupularia Reus&IAKA, Manzoni= Cupularia doma, D'Orb. 

Cyclostomata. 

32. Diastopoea flABELI/TTM, Rss.=D. simplex, Busk (non D'Orb.). 

Miocene, Pliocene. 

33. Alecto major, Lonsd.=4. repens, S. Wood (Waters). Pliocene. 

Living, Arctic Sea. 

34. Pustulopora prodoscidea, M.-Ed. Bruccoli. Living: Shetland, 

Medit., Naples 30 fath. 

35. P. rugosa, D'Orb. = Entalophora, id , D'Orb.; Pustulopora rugulosa, 

Manz. Chalk, stage 22, as rugosa. Miocene. 

36. Discoporella Mediterranea, Blainv. (6gs. 11, 12, plate) = Liclien- 

opora id., Blainv. 

37. D. radiata, Aud. =Biscosparsa patina, Hellei'. 

38. Diastopora CUPOLA, D'Orb. (figs. 13, 14, plate) = Discospmrsa 

cupula, D'Orb. 

39. Frondipoka reticulata, Blainv., forma verrucosa, Waters, Bruccoli. 

40. Mesenteeipora, sp. (figs. 17 to 19, plate). 

41. Hornera frondiculata, Lamx.=B. affinis, Milne-Ed. =H. ande- 

gavensis, Michelin. Pliocene. Living : Naples, in the deeper 

dredgings. 
Of fig. 16, plate, Mr. Waters says :— ' This seems the same as Manzoni 
(' Bry. de Castrocaro ') has figured as Aetea sica, but 1 do not see from his 
fio-ure why he does not call it Alecto, and believe it is the same which 
usually grows with more cells along the line of growth, and which he 
figures as Alecto repens.' There is no doubt in my mind but that both 
the figures of Mr. A. W. Watei-s, and also of Manzoni, are indicative 
of true Stomatopora (Alecto), but I did not suppress the name out of 
deference to so good a worker, nevertheless I doubted the affinity in 
the first part of this Report (see Aeteidae). In his description of the 
plate vi. fig. 69 (fig. 5, plate vii.) Manzoni says 'JEtea sica, Couch=^lZecto 
parasita, Heller.' 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 



209 



' Italian Pliocene Bryozoa.' — Manzoni. 
In the earliest of Dr. Manzoni's writings, entitled 'Briozoi plioceni 
italiani,' the anthor describes seventy-four species of Cheilostomatous 
and three Cyclostomatous Polyzoa. The work was published in 1869 
and 1870, and was fully illustrated, as all Dr. Manzoni's works are. I 
have not these papers by me, and I can only give the list as supplied by 
Miss E. C. Jelly. Many of the names will be familiar to the student of 
the ' Crag Polyzoa,' but twenty-seven are new. I wish to preserve the 
divisions of the author, I., II., III., IV. 



I. Sub-Order Cheilostomata, Busk. 



10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



unicornis, 



19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 



Lepralia SPINIFERA, V. 
Johnst. 
„ utriculus, Manz. 

„ INNOMINATA, Couch. 

Cellepora scruposa ?, Bk. 
,, punctata, Manz. 

Cupularia umbellata, Defr. 

„ CANARIENSIS, Bk. 

„ Reussiana, Manz. 

Lunoxites Androsaces, All. 



p. 329. 



1. Membranipora Reussiana, Manz. 

2. Lepralia rudis, Manz. 

3. ,, umbonata, Manz. 

4. ,, Bowerbankiana ?, Bk. 
6. ,, lata, Bk. 

6. „ venusta, Eichwald. 

7. „ disjuncta, Manz. 

8. „ violacea, Johnst. 

9. „ tetragona, Rss. (Celle- 

pora), 'Fos. Pol. 
Wien. Beck.' p. 78. I 

II. 

Membranipora exilis, Manz. 

„ andegavensis, Mich., ' Ic. Zoo 

oceani, D'Orb., 'P. Fr.' 
„ Lacroixii, Sav. = M. Savartii, Aud. 

23. Biflustra delicatula, Bk. 

24. Lepralia decorata, Rss., 'Wien. Beck.' p. 89. 
Morrisiana, Bk. 

MAM [LL ATA, S. Wood. 

Brongniartii, Aud. 
unicornis, Johnsb. 

PERTUSA?, Auctt. 

Cellepora ststolostoma, Men. (Coll. del R. Museo di Sc. Nat 
Pisa). 

31. Cupularia intermedia, Michellotti. 

III. 

32. Lepralia scripta, Rss., ' Wien. Beck.' p 
p. 29; ibid. ' Deut. Septa.' p. 50. 

33. Lepralia pteropora, Rss., 'Wien. Beck, 
p. 45. 



di 



82; ibid. 'Deut. Oberol.' 
p. 81 ; ibid, von Crosara, 



34. Lepralia linearis, Hass. (He- 

ventia, Gray). 

35. ,, peregrina, Manz. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 



1884. 



FULGURANS, „ 
STRENUA, ,, 

PAPILLIFERA, „ 
CILIATA, Pall. 
TURGIDULA, Manz. 
ELEGANTULA, 



42. Lepralia delicatula, Manz. 

43. „ gibbosula, ,, 

44. ,, annulatopora, „ 

45. „ lucernula, ,, 

46. ,, cupulata, „ 

47. „ cheilostomata, „ 

48. ,, obeliscus, ,, 

49. ,, scorpioides, ,, 



210 EEPOET — 1884. 

IV. 

50 Salicornaria farciminoides, Johnst., Manz. ' Saggio di Conch. Foss. 
Subalp. 1868,' p. 69. 

51. Salicornaria cuspidata, Manz. 

52. Hippothoa catenulakia, Flem., D'Orb. ' Pal. h . p. o»«5. 

53. j; FLAGELLUM, Manz. 

54. Membranipora annulus, Manz. 

55_ )? pedunculata, Manz. 

kq " reticulum, Mich, (nou Blainv.). 

67 ; " angulosa, Rss., ' Wien. Beck.' p. 93 ; ibid. ' von 

Crosara,' p. 41. 
53_ M subtilimargo, Rss., ' Oberol.' p. 17. 

59. ,, LINEATA, Bk. 

60. „ Rosselii, And. 

61. |f Smittii, Manz. 

62! Lepralia ligulata, Manz. (= Cheilostoma) . 

63. Cellepora ramulosa, Linn. 

64. „ coroxopus, S. Wood ; Bask, ' Crag p. 57. 

65. „ TUBTGERA?, Busk. 

66. „ pumicosa, Linn. 

67. „ pulchra, Michellotti. 

68. „ PAUCIOSCULATA, „ 

69. „ Hassallii, Johnst. 

70. Eschara Hellerii, Manz. 

71. } , F0LIACEA, Lamk. 

72. Retepora cellulosa, Lamk. 

73. Lunulites quadrata, Rss., op. cit. p. 66. 

74. CUPULARIA BIDENTATA, Rss., Op. cit. p. 65. 

II. Sub-Order Cyclostomata, Busk. 

1. Stomatopora (Bronn), Taurinensis, Manz. 

2. Idmonea serpens, Linn. 

3. Discoporella verrucaria, Linn. = * Discorparsa patina, Lamk. 

' I. Briozoi del Pliocene Autico di Castrocaro,' Manzoni. 

ScrupOCELLARIA, V. Bened. 

1. „ elliptica, Rss., Tab. I. fig. 1. 

Salicornaria, Cul. 

2. „ farciminoides, Johnst., Tab. I. fig. 2. 

Myriozoon, Donati. 

3. if truncatum, Pallas, Tab. I. 3 to 3a. 

Hippothoa, Lamx. 

4. „ divaricata, Lamx., Tab. I. fig. 15. 

5. „ FLAGELLUM, Manz., Tab. I. fig. 14. 

Aetea, Lamx. 

6. ? „ sica, Coucb, Tab. VII. fig. 69. 

7. „ anguina, Hincks. Tab. VI. fig. 70. 

Terebripora, D'Orb. 

8. „ Archiaci, Fischer, Tab. VI. fig. 68. 

1 Is not this a mistake of the printer for Discosparsa ? 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 211 

Membranipora, Blainv. 

catenularia, Jameson, Tab. I. fig. 8. 

angolosa, Rss., Tab. I. fig. 14 =H. antiqua, Busk 

= Mollia antiqua, Smitt. 
aperta, Busk., Tab. I. fig. 4. 
trifolium, S. Wood, Tab. I. fig. 7. 
irregularis, D'Orb., Tab. I. fig. 5 = M. trichophora, 

Busk. 
lineata, Linn., Tab. I. fig. 6. 
Flemingii, Busk, Tab. II. fig. 21. 
annulus, Manz., Tab. I. figs. 9, 9a, 9b, 9c. 
calpensis, Busk, Tab. I. fig. 10. 
holostoma, S. Wood, Tab. I. fig. 12. 
Rosselii, Aud., Tab. II. fig. 15. 
bidens, Hag., Tab. II. fig. 16. 



decorata, Reuss, Tab. II. figs. 18a, 18b. 

coccinea, Johnst., Tab. II. fig. 19. 

fulgurans, Manz., Tab. II. fig. 20. 

strenuis, Manz., Tab. II. fig. 20. 

innominata, Coucb, Tab. VII. fig. 85. 

scripta (?), Reuss, Tab. II. figs. 25, 25a. 

surgens, Manz., Tab. II. fig. 22. 

ansata, Johnst., Tab. II. fig. 24-24a. 

resupinata, Manz., Tab. II. fig. 26. 

Broxgniartii, Aud., Tab. II. fig. 27 ; Tab. IV. fig. 54. 

biaperta, Micbelin, Tab. II. fig. 28. 

planata, Manz., Tab. III. fig. 29. 

micans, ,, Tab. III. fig. 32a. 

schizogaster, Rss., Tab. III. fig. 34. 

Marionensis, Busk, Tab. III. fig. 39. 

violacea, Johnst., Tab. IV. fig. 45a. 

otophora, Rss., Tab. III. fig. 30-30a. 

ciliata, Pallas, Tab. III. fig. 34. 

crassilabra, Manz., Tab. III. fig. 38. 

tumida, ,, ,, figs. 33 and 33a. 

ingens, „ Tab. IV. fig. 44. 

ANNULATOPORJ], „ „ fig. 42. 

Malusii, Aud., „ fig. 45. 

disjuncta, Manz., Tab. III. fig. 35a. 

CRIBRILINA, „ „ fig. 40. 

vascula, „ Tab. V. fig. 56. 

rarecostata, Reuss, Tab. VI. fig. 76. 
venusta, Eichwald, Tab. IV. fig. 50. 
Reussiana, Busk, Tab. VI. fig. 55. 
squamoidea, Reuss, Tab. IV. figs. 46 and 46a. 
obvia, Manz., Tab. VI. figs. 44-44a. 
Haueri, Reuss, Tab. V. fig. 55. 
linearis, Hassall, Tab. III. fig. 37. 
reticulata, Busk, Tab. III. fig. 36-36a. 
cucullata, Busk, Tab. IV. fig. 47. 
pertusa, Johnst., „ fig. 48. 

p2 



9. 




10. 




11. 




12. 




13. 




14. 




15. 




16. 




17. 




18. 




19. 




20. 




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21. 


EPRALL 


22. 


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23. 


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24. 


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25. 


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26. 


Jl 


27. 


)J 


28. 


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29. 


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30. 


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31. 


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212 REPORT — 1884. 

57. Lepralia systotostoma, Manz., Tab. IV. figs. 49-49a. 

58. „ chilopora, Rss., „ fig. 54. 

59. „ tuba, Manz., „ fig. 52-52a. 

Celleporella, Norman. 

60. „ Castrocarensis, Manz., Tab. V. fig. 57. 
Cellepoka. 

61. „ tubigera, Busk, „ fig. 60-61. 

62. „ ststolostomata, Manz., „ fig. 58. 

63. „ retusa, Manz., „ fig. 59. 

64. „ ramulosa, Linn., „ fig. 62. 

Eschara, Ray. 

65. „ foliacea, Lk., „ fig- 6Q. 

66. „ columnaris, Manz., „ fig. 65. 

67. „ lichenoides, Lamk., „ fig. 64. 

68. „ Sedgwickii, M.-Ed., „ fig. 63. 

69. ,, cervicornis ?, Lamk. 

Biflustra, D'Orb. 

70. „ Savartii, And., Tab. II. fig. 17. 

Retepora Imperato. 

71. „ ? sp., Tab. VII. fig. 84. 

Cupularia, Lamx. 

72. „ umbellata, Def. = C. intermedia, Mich., Tab. V. fig. 67. 

Cyclostomata. 

Alecto, Lamx. (Stomatopora). 

1. „ castrocarensis, Manz., Tab. VI. fig. 71. 

2. „ repens, S. Wood, „ „ „ 72. 

3. „ paiiasita, Heller, „ VII. „ 69. 

Idmonea, Lamx. 

4. ,, ixsidens, Lamx. „ VII. „ 78. 

5. „ serpens, Linn. ,, VI. „ 78. 

Hoenera, Lamx. 

6. „ frondicclata, Lamx. „ VII. „ 80. 

PusTULOPORA, Blainv. 

7. „ ?sp. „ VII. „ 82. 

Tubulipora, Lamk. 

8. „ flabellaris, Fabr. „ VI. „ 73. 

Diastopora, Lamx. 

9. „ patina, Lamx. „ VII. „ 77. 

10. „ striata, J. Haine (Berenicea), Tab. VI. fig. 74 ; Tab. 

VII. fig. 79. 

11. „ expansa, Manz., Tab. VII. fig. 85. 

Ceriopora, Goldf. 

12. ,, globulus, Reuss, „ VII. „ 81. 

Heteroporella, Busk. 

13. „ RADiATA ? Busk, Tab. VI. fig. 75. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 213 

' Post-Tertiary Polyzoa.' 

In the Catalogue of Western Scottish Fossils, compiled by James 
Armstrong, John Young, and David Robinson (Glasgow, 1876), the 
authors give a list of species found in the Glacial Beds of Scotland. The 
authors were assisted in this work by the Rev. A. M. Norman, whose 
valuable labours on the group, previously published in the Reports on the 
Shetland dredgings, prove how fit he was to help in this special work. 
There is still a large mass of material in the hands of Mr. David Robinson, 
placed there by my friend Mr. T. Steel, late of Greenock ; and it is to 
be hoped that if Mr. Robinson's remarks have not yet been, that they will 
soon be, published. These also were from the Garvel Park Beds. Unlike 
other lists, I have re-arranged the generic names so as to bring it into 
accord with the arrangement of the Rev. T. Hincks. 

Cheilostomata, Busk. 
Cellulakia, Pallas. 

1. „ Peachii, Busk. Post- Tertiary and Glacial deposits, 

Scotland ; Garvel Park. 
Menipea, Lamx. 

2. „ teenata, var. Ellis and Sol. Garvel Park. 
Schupocellakia, Van. Ben. 

3. „ reptans, Linn. Post- Tertiary and Glacial de- 

posits, Scotland ; Duntroon, Paisley. 

4. „ scruposa, Linn. Post-Tertiary and Glacial de- 

posits, Scotland ; Caithness 

5. „ scabra, Van. Ben. 

Var. elongata, Smitt. Garvel Park. 
Caberea, Lamx. 

6. „ Bllisii, Fleming. Garvel Park. 
Bugl'LA, Oken. 

7. „ avicularia, Pallas. Duntroon. 

Membranipora. 

8. „ Flemingii, Busk. Garvel Park ; Lochgilp. 

9. „ TUBERCULATA, ,, „ „ 

10. „ ? unicornis, Flem. Paisley ; Dalmuir ; Duntroon. 

11. ,, catenularia, Jamieson = Hippothoa of authors. 

Dalmuir ; Duntroon. 
Cribrilina, Gray. 

12. „ annulata, Fabr. Garvel Park. 
Porina, D'Orbigny. 

13. „ tubulosa, Norman. Garvel Park. 

SCHIZOPORELLA. 

14. ,, htalina, Linn. 

15. „ simplex, Johnst. Caithness, in Boulder Clay. 

16. „ spinifera, ,, Dalmuir. 

17. ,, croenta, Norman. Garvel Park. 

Hippothoa, Lamx. 

18. „ dtvaricata, Linn. Caithness, in Boulder Clay. 



214 report— 1884. 

Lepralia, Johnst. 

19. „ pertusa, Esper. Dalmuir. 
Umbonula, Hincks. 

20. „ verrucosa, Esper. Dalmuir ; Duntroon ; Garvel Park. 
Porella, Gray. 

21. „ concinna, Busk. Garvel Park ; Lochgilp. 

22. ,, struma, Norman. „ ,, 

Smittia, Hincks. 

23. „ crtstallina, Norman. Garvel Park. 
Mucronella, Hincks. 

24. „ Peachii, Johnsfc. Cumbrae College ; Caithness, in 

Boulder Clay. 

25. "Var. labiosa, Busk. Caithness, in Boulder Clay. 

Cellepora, Fabr. 

26. „ pumicosa, Linn. „ „ „ 

Ctclostomata, Bask. 

Crisia, Lamouroux. 

1. „ eburnea, Linn. Dalmuir, Lochgilp, Crinan, Duntroon, 

Paisley, and Garvel Park. 

2. „ denticulata, Linn. Caithness, in Boulder Clay. 

Idmonea, Lamx. 

3. „ Atlantica, Forbes. The most important of individuals 

in Garvel Park beds. 

Tubulipora, Lamk. 

4. ,, plabellaria, Fabr. Dalmuir. 

5. ,, phalangea, Couch. Dalmuir, Duntroon, Garvel Park. 

6. ,, ? serpens, Linn (Idmonea). Dalmuir, „ „ 

Diastopora, Lamx. 

7. ,, obelia, Flem. 
Discoporella, Gran. (Lichenopora) . 

8. ,, hispida, Flem. Paisley. 

9. „ Grignonensis, Busk. 

10. „ flosculus, Hincks = Lichenopora radiata. Garvel 

Park. 

11. ,, radiata, Busk. Garvel Park. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



It may be that the student, in casting his eye over the following brief 
bibliographical notes, may detect an absence of certain names which are 
generally included in a section like the present one. I did not, it is true, 
seek to give a full list of authors, but in selecting the works now given I 
had more regard for special work than for furnishing a list of names in 
which remarks on the Class Polyzoa may be found, but in which no 
special plan of working is adopted. It was to the simple memoirs, 
whether brief or exhaustive, that I desired to direct attention, and I am 
not aware that I have overlooked any special papers, or authors. If I 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 215 

have sinned on this score, I shall be glad if notice of the omission is given 
to me, and I hope also that authors will forgive me if I have neglected to 
furnish notes on their labours. I only profess to give a bibliography of 
works on species found in the Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks. 

George Busk. 

1852. Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British Museum. 
12mo. London. Parts I. and II. Containing references to fossil species. 

1859. Monograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Crag. Printed for the Palasonto- 

graphical Society. 
1866. Descriptions of Three Species of Polyzoa from the London Clay at Highgate, 

in the Collection of N. T. Wetherell, F.G.S., ' Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. No. 

XXV. July. 
1875. Cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Part III. Brit. Museum Catalogue. Contains 

references to Fossil species. 

Robert Etheridge, Jun., F.G.S. 

1875. On the Occurrence of a Species of Betepora allied to R. phcenicea, Busk, 

Tert. Beds, of Schnapper Point, Hobson's Bay, Victoria. ' Trans. R. Soc. 
Vict.' vol. xi. pp. 13, 14. 

1876. Post-Tertiary Polyzoa. ' Geol. Mag.' Dec. 2, vol. iii. Prof. Busk describes 

with a figure a new species from the Post-Tert. Clays, Carsl., Membrani- 
pora Etlwrulgii, Busk. 

1877. A Synopsis of the known Species of Australian Tertiary Polyzoa. Read 

before the Roy. Soc. New South Wales, Sept. 1877. Pp. 15, 8vo. Sydney. 

In this synopsis Mr. Etheridge gives very full references to the 
bibliography and species described by various authors up to date. I have 
given elsewhere a list of Mr. Etheridge's species as found in the synopsis. 
Some of the species have been described or referred to by Mr. Waters in 
his various papers on 'Australian Fossil Bryozoa (Polyzoa.).' 

J. W. Dawson. 

1869. Additional Notes on the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the St. Lawrence Valley. 
' Canad. Nat.' vol. vi. pp. 23, 39, with sixteen engravings. 

The author in the above describes and figures the Foraminiferse and 
Bryozoa of the Post-Pliocene deposits of Lower Canada. He enumerates 
six species of Polyzoa, of which Lepralia quadricornis is described as 
new. 

W. M. Gabb and G. H. Horn. 

1862. Monograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Secondary and Tertiary Formations 
of North America. ' Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.' vol. v. 2nd series, 
pp. 111-179; three plates. 

Friedrich v. Hagenow. 

1846. ' Bryozoen ' in Geinitz, Grundriss der Versteinerungs-Kunde. 8vo. Dresden. 
1851. Die Bryozoen der MaestrichterKreidebildung. Naturvvissensch. Von Fischer 
in Cassel. 

Rev. Thomas Hincks. 

1880. British Marine Polyzoa. London : John Van Voorst, two vols. — one text, 

the other plates. 
1879.1 Various Papers and Contributions to General History of the Polyzoa : 
1884. J Annals and Mag. Nat. History, vols, issued during these years. — Treat 
chiefly of Recent species, but contain references to Fossil also. 

P. H. MacGillivray, M.A., M.R.C.S. 

1860. Notes on the Cheilostomatous Polyzoa of Victoria, and other parts of 

Australia. ' Trans. Phil. Institute Victoria ' vol. iv. part ii., pp. 159-168. 
plates 2, 3. 



216 report — 1884. 

I860. On two New Genera of Polyzoa. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Victoria.' These 
are Diplopoea = Membranipora, and Densipora coerugata = 
Heteropora cervicornis, D'Orb and Waters. 

1881. 1 On some New Species of C'atenicella and Dictyopora ; and on Urceolipora ,. 
a New Genus of Polyzoa. ' Trans. Eoy. Soc. Victoria.' I refer to these 
papers because it will be possible to identify the recent with fossil species 
of Australian Polyzoa. 

William Lonsdale. 

1845. Account of twenty-six species of Polyparia, obtained from the Eocene 
Tertiary Formation of North America. ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. i. 
pp. 509-533. Seventeen engravings. Five Corals and eleven Polyzoa. 
„ Account of six species of Polyparia, obtained from Timber Creek, New 
Jersey. Five species of Polyzoa (Cretaceous), Op. cit. vol. i. pp. 
65-75. Six engravings. 
„ Account of ten species of Polyparia obtained from the Miocene Tert. 
Formations of North America. Op. cit. vol. i. pp. 495-509. Ten engra- 
vings. Seven species are Polyzoa. 

1850. Descriptions of Polyzoa in Dixon's ' Fossils of Sussex.' 

S. G. Morton. 

1834. Synopsis of the Organic Eemains of the Cretaceous Group of the United 
States. This book is referred to both by Lonsdale and Messrs. Gabb & 
Horn, in their descriptions of American Cretaceous Polyzoa. 

Dr. A. Manzoni. 

1869. Briozoi pliocenici italiani. Four contributions on Italian Pliocene 
Bryozoa, in which the author describes seventy-seven species and gives 
figures of many. Sitz. der K. Akad. d. Wissensch. 

1871. Supplemento alia dei Briozoi Medit. Fp. 1-10. Three plates. Op. cit. 

1875. I Briozoi del pliocene antico di Castrocaro. (Bryozoa of the Older Pliocene 
of Castrocaro, Bologna). This work is, I believe, now out of print. Pp. 
64. Seven plates, 4to. 

1877. I Briozoi Fossili del Miocene d' Austria ed Ungheria. Tarte ii. Celleporida;, 
Escharidre, Vincularidae, Selenaridoe. (Miocene Bryozoa, Austria and 
Hungary). Denkschr. K. Ak. Wiss. Wien, bd. xxxvii. abth. 2, pp. 
49-78. Seventeen plates. 

1878. 1 Fossil Bryozoa of Aust. and Hungary. Part HI. Cyclostomata. A continu- 
ation of the work of Reuss, which forms the first of this series. Op. cit. 
id., bd. xxxviii. pp. 1-24. Plates i.-xviii. 
„ ' Bryozoaries du Pliocene de l'lle de Rhodes.' Memoires de la Society 
Geolog. de France. Paris. 

Ottomar Novak. 

1877. Cretaceous Bryozoa of Bohemia (Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Bryozoen, &c). 
Denkschr. *K. Ak. Wiss. Wien, bd. xxxvii. abth. ii. pp. 72-126. Ten 
plates. ' Geological Record,' 1878. Pub. 1882. 

D'Orbigxy. 
1839. Voyage dans l'Amerique Merid. vol. iv. ; plate, Zoophytes. 
;?:!;' 1 Paleontologie Franeaise, Terr. Cretaces, v. 

1851. Zoological Researches, &c. 

Dr. A. E. Reuss. 

1845-6. Die Versteinerungen der Bohmischen Kreide-Formation. 
1847, Fossilen-Polyparien des Wiener Tertiarbeckens. 4to, Wien. 



1 Of this work I seem not to have furnished any account. See ante, brief note 
from Geol. Record. 



ON FOSSIL POLYZOA. 217 

Professor Hitter von Keuss. 

1874. Die fossilen Bryozoen, &c (Fossil Bryozoa of the Austro-Hungarian 
Miocene). Sitzb. K. Ak. Wiss. Math. Naturw. Classe, abth. i. bd. lxviii. 
hefte 3-5, pp. 219-222. A brief notice of memoir which was to appear 
in the Denkschriften. 
„ Paliiontologische Studien. (Paleontology of the Older Alpine Tertiaries.) 
„ Miocene Bryozoa of Austro-Hungary, Part I. Denkschr. K. Ak. Wiss. bd. 
abth. i. pp. 141-190 (plates 1 to 12). Describes ninety-five species, of 
which forty-one are new Zejjralue and two are new Membraniporee. (This 
work was completed by Dr. Manzoni, to whose name reference can now 
be made.) 

Friedrich Adolph Eoemee. 

1863. Die Polyparien des Norddeutschen Tertiar-Gebirges. Abdruck aus Palreonto- 
graphica. Cassel, Verlag von Fischer. 

Captain Charles Sturt. 

1833. Two Expeditions into the Interior of South Australia. London, 2 vols. 
8vo. ; vol. ii. pp. 253, 254 (plate 3). 

Tertiary Polyzoa in Australia were first collected by Sturt ; but ' the 
reference of his specimens to species at that time known as European . . . 
will not, I think, stand.' — ' Synopsis,' R. Etheridge, jun. 

Dr. Stoliczka. 

1864? Austrian Novara Expeditions to Australia. In one of the vols. Dr. Stoliczka 
describes ' Fossile Bryozoen aus dem Tertiaren Griinsandstein der Orakei 
Bay, Auckland,' pp. 87-158. 

A. William Waters, F.G.S. 

1877. Remarks on the Eecent Geology of Italy. ' Transactions of the Manchester 

Geological Society,' 1877. Paper read June 26. 

In this paper Mr. "Waters gives some account of the Bryozoa Limestone 
of Calabria, with lists and range of species. No descriptions or plates. 

1878. On Bryozoa. ' Proceedings of the Literary and Phil. Soc' vol. xvii. No. 10, 

1877 and 1878; Manchester Micro, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Paper read 
March 1878. 

In this paper Mr. Waters treats of the structure of the Polyzoa, more 
particularly of the character of the cell and the minute details in connec- 
tion with its structure, for the purpose of comparison and study of fossil 
species. 

1878. Bryozoa (Polyzoa) from the Pliocene of Bruccoli (Sicily). ' Proceed. Man- 
chester Geol. Soc' Paper read May 1878. 

In the Sicilian deposits the debris closely resembles that of the Crag. 
From the Bruccoli bed Mr. Waters describes forty-three species of Polyzoa 
— thirty-two species of Ckeilostomata and eleven of Cyclostomata. One 
plate of illustrations. 

1878. On the Use of the Opercula in the determination of the Cheilostomatous 

Bryozoa. 'Proceedings. Lit. and Phil. Soc' vol. xviii. No. 2, Sessions 
1878-9. Paper read Oct. 1878. One plate, thirty-seven figures. 

1879. Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of the Bay of Naples. 'Ann. Mag. Nat. History,' ser. v. 

vol. iii. 1879, Jan., plates viii. to xi. ; Feb. 1879, plates xii. to xv.; March, 
1879, plates in previous parts ; April, 1879, ' Cyclostomata ' plates xxiii., 
xxiv. 



2\g REPORT — 1884. 

Professor G. Sequenza. 
1879-80 'Bryozoa,' in his work entitled ' Le forrnazioni terziarie nelle provincia 
di Re-no' Ten of the species described as new by the Professor 
critically 'revised, and the new names are replaced by old and well- 
known forms, by Eev. T. Hincks. 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. April 1881. 
In this series of papers Mr. Waters not only refers his species to recent 
types, but identifies some of the Bay of Naples Polyzoa as recurrent 
species which date back to Miocene and Eocene times, and some tew to 
the Chalk. This is a valuable contribution to the history not only ot 
recent but of Fossil Tertiary species. 

1880. On the terms ' Bryozoa ' and ' Polyzoa.' ' Ann. Mag^ Nat Hist.' Jan. 1880 
1879 ? On the occurrence of Recent Heteropora. ' Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc. Paper 

read May 1879. 
In this paper Mr. Waters makes some reference to the zoological position 
of Heteropora, and refers D'Orbigny's Plethopora eermcornts, V Orb., to 
Heteropora. 

1881 On Fossil Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from South-West Victoria, Australia. 

Plates xiv., xviii. ' Quart. .Tour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxvn. p. 309. 
In this paper Mr. Waters describes seventy-two species or varieties of 
Polyzoa, many of which are new. As the whole of the species described 
may be found included in the lists in the first part of the present Report, 
it will not be considered as any slight to the author in only mentioning the 
titles now. 

1882 On Fossil Cheil. Bry. from Mount Gambier, South Australia, < Quart. Jour. 

Geol. Soc' vol. xxxviii. p. 257, plates vii. to ix. 
On Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from Bairnsdale (Gippsland), 'Quart. Jom. 

1883. Fossil Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from Muddy Creek, Victoria, &c, ' Quart. 

Jour. Geol. Soc' vol. xxxix. p. 423, pi. xii. 

In this paper Mr. Waters gives diagrams of the ' globolus ' of Catenicella, 

with a new nomenclature of the parts of the zovcia of species— a valuable 

addition to structural knowledge of these peculiar forms and will he p 

in the placement of the group. It is only recently that dossil Catenicella 

has been discovered. 

H. Watts. 

1865. On Fossil Polyzoa. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Victoria,' vol. vi. pp. 82-84. 

C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S. 
1864. Report on the Cape Otway District. Pp. 21-28. 

Reports of the Director of the Geological Survey of Victoria containing 
references to Polyzoa. As the reports contain very meagre references to 
fossil Polyzoa, it seems to be useless to multiply names of papers, &c. 
Mr. Robert Etheridge's (jun.) ' Synopsis,' referred to under his name, con- 
tains ample references to, I believe, every important paper, including and 
in addition to the Australian papers already given. 

Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods. 
1859. Remarks on a Tertiary Deposit in South Australia. ' Trans. Phil. Institute, 
Victoria,' vol. iii. . , . . . ,, 

1«60 On the Tertiary Deposits of Portland Bay, Victoria. Op. ctt. yol. iv. plate n. 
pp 169-172. In both these papers the author refers to Polyzoa. 
On Some Tertiary Rocks in the Colony of S. Australia. ' Quart. Jour Geol. 
Soc' London, vol. xvi. pp. 253-261. As an appendix to this work Mr. 
George Busk furnished a list of Fossil Polyzoa ; but as there were no 
descriptions, and as the names were in MS., but very few have been 
retained by Mr Waters. 



ON FOSSIL POLTZOA. 219 

1862. Geological Observations in S. Australia. London, 1863, 8vo. In this work 
Polyzoa are referred to — fifteen genera and thirty-seven species. 

1865. On some Tertiary Deposits in the Colony of Victoria, ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.' 

„ On some Tertiary Foss. in S. Australia. ' Trans. Roy. iSoc. of Victoria,' vol. 

vi. pp. 3-6 (plate). Both of these papers contain references to Polyzoa. 

1877. On some Tertiary Australian Polyzoa. ' Journ. Roy. Soc. New South Wales,' 
vol. x. p. 147. 

Searles Wood. 

1850. Descriptive Catalogue of the Zoophytes of the Crag. ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' 
xiii. p. 10, &c. 

S. Woodward. 

1833. Outlines of the Geology of Norfolk. 8vo, Norwich. Mentions a few species 
of Polyzoa. 



Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. Prest- 
wich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. Gr. Bonney, 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey (Secretary), Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. 

DE RANCE, H. Gr. FORDHAM, J. E. LEE, D. MACKINTOSH, W. 

Pengelly, J. Plant, and E. H. Tiddeman, appointed for the 
purpose of recording the position, height above the sea, litho- 
logical characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of 
England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of in- 
terest connected with the same, and taking measures for their 
preservation. 

This Committee is continuing its researches into the distribution, 
position, and general characteristics of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, and is preparing a connected account of the general 
results obtained, which it hopes to be able to submit at an early 
meeting of the Association. 

Meanwhile, the following details respecting newly observed erratic 
blocks are recorded. 

Essex : Newport. — Mr. George Linney, of Saffron Walden, has furnished 
an account of a large erratic now standing on the high road from 
Cambridge to Bishop's Stortford, about 225 yards south of the entrance 
to the Sholgrove demesne, on the side nearest to Newport, and about a 
mile from Audley End station. 

The dimensions above ground are, height 6 ft. ; width, at top 3 ft. 
6 in., at base 6 ft. ; thickness 2 ft. 

The general shape is irregular, but the sides are nearly flat. Height 
above the sea-level about 180 ft. 

It is composed of millstone grit. This boulder has no local history, 
except that a vague tradition exists that it was placed in its present posi- 
tion as a mark for a Lepers' Hospital, which was done away with by 
Henry VIII. 

Warwickshire. — Mr. Fred. Martin has drawn up the subjoined account 
of erratic blocks which have been exposed during the process of 
enlarging the West Suburban Railway, which runs from New Street, 
Birmingham, through Edgbaston to King's Norton, a distance of about 
5£ miles. 



220 bepokt— 1884. 

The cuttings generally are through drift, composed of varying propor- 
tions of sand, clay, and gravel, resting on a fairly regular surface of the 
New Red Sandstone rock of the district. Except near King's Norton, 
this drift, so far as it has been exposed by these excavations, is entirely 
free from erratic blocks, the largest stones not averaging more than 3 in. 
or 4 in. diameter. 

At a point on the railway near the village of Stirchley, about 4^ 
miles from Birmingham, the drift is composed of a tenacious marly clay 
unstratified, and with very sparsely scattered Bunter pebbles. A few 
erratic blocks (presently to be catalogued), averaging in size about 1 ft. 
6 in. x 1 ft. x 1 ft., were found, mostly of a felsitic rock. 

About 50 yards to the south of this point, the nature of the drift 
changes to a dark red clay with angular gravel, which gravel consists 
mostly of fragments of broken-up slate. This angular gravel overlies a 
dark red clayish gravel made up of Bunter pebbles, but having no angular 
fragments. 

Below these gravels is a band of pale-coloured loose sand, about 2 feet 
thick, and much contorted. 

Below this again is a sandy gravelly clay resting immediately upon a 
green shale or marl, the basal bed of the Keuper. All these gravels con- 
tain erratic blocks in large numbers. 

About a quarter of a mile from this point a few erratic blocks have 
been obtained from a matrix of very sandy clay, interstratified with beds, 
about two or three inches thick, of a more gravelly clay, and containing 
rounded pebbles, and angular fragments of coal shale, carboniferous grit, 
&c, besides small blocks of the basal rock of the Keuper above mentioned. 

At this point in a dell at the side of the railway is a large felsitic 
boulder (No. 2 in the subjoined list), measuring 6 ft. 3 in. x4 ft. 9 in. 
X 3 ft. 9 in. : only about one-third of it is visible above ground, the rest 
being buried in clay. The ground was dug away from it in order that a 
photograph might be taken, but was subsequently put back again 

Near the junction of the new railway with the main line to Gloucester 
is another laz-ge boulder (No. 1 in subjoined list), measuring 9 ft. x8 ft. 
X 3 ft., and is at the time of writing this paper lying in its original posi- 
tion, about 9 ft. below the surface. 

The earth being removed from round it to a depth of 6 ft., a very good 
photograph was obtained. 

The erratic blocks found in these gravels vary in cubic capacity from 
1 to 216 cubic ft., and include shales, slates, ashes, felsites, pure quartz, 
carboniferous sandstone and grit, though the majority of them are 
felsitic, and derived from the neighbourhood of the Arenig and Berwyn 
Hills of North Wales. 

A few of these blocks, more especially those derived from slate rocks, 
retain ice-markings and smoothing. 

The majority of them, however, have rough surfaces with no ice- 
markings of any kind. 

Subjoined is a list of the chief erratic blocks found in the above 
Stirchley gravels, which have been examined and identified by Dr. 
Lapworth. 

1. Rough, bluish-green, felspathic ash, with crystals of felspar ; no 
striaa, no smoothing. Size, 9 ft. x 8 ft. x 3 ft. 

2. Rough, amygdaloidal or brecciated green felstone ; no smoothing, ■ 
no stria?. Size, 4 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 221 

3. Coarse felsitic ash ; no stria?, no smoothing. Size, 4 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 
X 2 ft. 6 in. 

4. Pale felspathic rock, probably an altered ash or fault rock from 
Arenig ; no stria?, no smoothing. Size, 3 ft. X 2 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. 

5. Very coarse streaked volcanic ash, with crystals of felspar ; no 
stria?, no smoothing. Size, 3 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. X 2 ft. 

6. Dense felspathic ash with crystals of orthoclase ; no stria?, no 
smoothing. Size, 3 ft. x 2 ft. X 2 ft. 

7. Altered felspathic ash with crystals of orthoclase ; no stria?, no 
markings. Size, 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. x 1 ft. 9 in. 

8. Ironstained greenish grit with enclosures of shale. Size, 2 ft. x 
1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 

9. Rough felspathic rock with enclosures of grey felspar; no stria?, no 
smoothing. Size, 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. 

10. Felspathic ash ; altered, from Arenig ; no stria?, no smoothing. 
Size, 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 

11. Well-bedded striped mndstone flag, probably of Silurian age. 
Size, 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. x 3 in. 

12. Fragments of slate showing ice-groovings and smoothing ; 
probably Silurian blue mndstone from the Berwyn Hills. 



Report upon National Geological Surveys : Part I., Europe. By 
W. Topley, F.G.S., Assoc. Inst. G.E., Geological Survey of 
England and Wales. 

Introduction. 

In the following pages a brief account is given of the organisation and 
publications of the chief Geological Surreys ' in Europe. The statements 
are taken from official sources, or from an inspection of the publications. 

Information has been kindly supplied by the directors of the following 
surveys — Austro-Hungary, Bavaria, Belgium, Italy, Norway, Portugal, 
Saxony, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland ; most of these have since corrected 
the proofs of the parts of this Report referring to their respective surveys. 2 

In the preparation of this report my colleague Mr. W. H. Dalton 
has given me much assistance ; my thanks are also due to Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. "W. Rupert Jones, and Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

The libraries of the Geological Survey (Museum of Practical Geology), 
and of the Geological and Geographical Societies, contain a large collec- 
tion of the maps and other publications of the various surveys (see the 
* Catalogues ' of those libraries) . The more important publications are 
noted as they appear in the ' Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society ' 
(November number of each year), the ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society,' and in ' Petermann's Mittheilungen ' (Gotha). 
The ' Geological Record ' gives descriptions of maps published in and 
since 1874. 

The official title of the Survey is first given, with the place of the head 
office, which is also the place of publication unless otherwise stated. 

1 The exact equivalent of the English term ' Survey ' is not used on the Con- 
tinent ; it is that of Committee, Commission, Inquiry, Institute, or Service. 

1 Some corrections and additions, including those thus supplied, have been made 
since the Report was read at Montreal. 



222 



REPOET 1884. 



The mode of issue varies greatly, and therefore the exact titles of the 
publications are given, as far as possible. 

For information upon Topographical Surveys reference may be made 
to the ' Notes on the Government Surveys of the Principal Countries of 
the World,' prepared at the Intelligence Branch of the "War Office, 
London, and published in 1883 (price 6s.). This gives the scales of all 
the chief maps ; plates, with descriptions, of the various signs employed ; 
full tables of all measures of length and surface, with their English equi- 
valents. Brief mention is sometimes made of the Geological Surveys. 

In the following pages the natural scale of maps is given, this being 
the method almost universally adopted on the Continent. The following 
table gives the equivalents, in English inches, of the scales referred to : — 





Inches to 




Natural Scale. 


one Mile. 


Countries. 


1 : 10,000 


. 6336 


. Upper Silesia, Italy (part). 


1 : 10,560 


. 6000 


. United Kingdom (part). 


1: 20,000 


. 3-168 


. Belgium. 


1: 25,000 


. 2-534 


. Prussia, Saxony, Alsace-Lorraine, Italy 
(part) 


1 : 50,000 


. 1-267 


. Sweden (part), Italy (part). 


1: 63,360 


. 1-000 


. United Kingdom (part). 


1: 75,000 


. -845 


. Austria and Hungary. 


1 : 80,000 


. -792 


. France. 


1 : 100,000 


. -633 


. Italy, Norway, Switzerland, Bavaria. 


1:144,000 


. -440 


. Austria and Hungary. 


1 : 200,000 


. -317 


. Netherlands, Finland, Sweden (part). 


1 : 400,000 


. -159 


. Spain. 


1 : 420,000 


. -150 


. Kussia. 



The meridian adopted for the maps varies much. 1 As a rule it is that 
of the capital of the country. The exceptions to this are the maps of 
Germany and some of Norway, where the meridian is Ferro, and Switzer- 
land, where it is Paris. Paris has been taken as the meridian for the 
map of Europe, now being prepared by a committee of the International 
Geological Congress ; scale 1 : 1,500,000. This map, in 49 sheets, will 
be based upon those of the Geological Surveys hereafter described. 

The International Geodetic Congress at Rome in 1883 recommended 
the adoption of Greenwich as the universal meridian. The Congress 
met at Washington' in October 1884, when the provisional resolution 
passed at Rome was confirmed. 

On the Continent a large number of official and semi-official publica- 
tions have been made by Government mining engineers and others ; but 
these are not here included unless they form part of a systematic survey 
or give the main results of such survey. 

The earliest detailed survey is that of the United Kingdom, 1832. In 
all its essential characters this is now much the same as when left by its 
founder, Sir H. de la Beche, and probably no other survey yet rivals it 
in the variety and completeness of its publications. Many of the more 
important Continental surveys have been commenced during the last 15 
years. 

Much difficulty has been felt in deciding what small general maps 
should be mentioned. The Catalogues already referred to give the 
titles of many of them. For the most part those only are here mentioned 

1 The relations of the Meridians to that of Greenwich which are given in this 
Eeport, are taken from the Notes on Government Surreys referred to above. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 223 

which are official, or which are reductions of official maps ; and of these 
the notices are necessarily incomplete. 

Some interesting results come out from this investigation as regards 
the relative amount of work done by private and official geologists. In 
England the foundations of the survey, and in fact of all detailed field 
geology, were laid by private workers, and a very large proportion of 
English geological literature has always come from them. On the Conti- 
nent this has rarely been so ; nearly all the surveys are directly due to 
the Governments, and much of the geological literature comes from 
those connected with the surveys, or from official mining engineers. 
There, also, many professors of geology are connected with the surveys ; 
this is not now the case in England, although many of its professors have 
at one time served on the staff. 

The publications of the English Survey are confined to questions re- 
lating to its work and progress ; but this is not always the case abroad. 
The staffs of the Austrian and Prussian Surveys have always been active 
in working at the geology of districts outside their own special areas, 
which are by no means small. The best work of late years relating to 
the geology of Turkey and Greece has been done by officers of the 
Austrian Survey. 

Alsace-Lorraine. 

Commission fur die Geologische Landes-Untersuchung von Elsass-Lothringen 

(Strasburg). 

The director is E. Cohen. The map — ' Geologische Specialkarte von 
Elsass-Lothringen,' is on the scale of 1 : 25,000. 

The publications are ' Abhandlungen,' with atlas, dating from 1875 ; 
the first volume contains a Bibliography of the geology of Alsace-Lorraine, 
by E. W. Benecke and H. Rosenbusch, pp. 77. 

A map of the environs of Strasburg — ' Geologische Karte der Umge- 
gend von Strassburg,' by E. Schumacher, 1 : 25,000, 1883— gives special 
agricultural information, like the maps near Berlin (see p. 230). 



Austro-H dngary. 
Kaiserlich-Kdnigliche Geologische Reichsanstalt (Vienna). 

This Survey was established in 1849, withW. von Haidinger as director; 
he was succeeded in 1867 by F. Bitter von Hauer. 1 Dionys Stur has 
been vice-director since 1877. 

The field work of the survey, which is mostly done on the scale 
of 1 : 25,000, is at present divided into four sections : — (1) under G. 
Stache, in Tirol ; (2) under E. von Mojsisovics, in N. Styria ; (3) under 
C. M. Paul, in the Galician Carpathians ; (4) under E. Tietze, in the 
western and north-western parts. There is a large staff of assistant 
geologists and others. 

There are in all about twenty- three official topographical maps of 
Austro-Hungary or of parts of it, on scales from 1 : 12,500 downwards. 
These are all being absorbed in the ' Neue Special-Karte,' scale 1 : 75,000, 
on which the geological information is published ; the complete map 

1 Resigned early in 1885. 



224 



REPORT 1884. 



will be in 715 sheets, of which 270 are published with the geology, dating 
from 1870. 

The meridian is Ferro, 18° 9' W. of Greenwich. The heights are 
given in metres ; there are contour-lines at intervals of 50 metres. The 
sheets are not quite rectangular, the right and left edges being always 
meridian lines, 30' apart. 1 

The maps are denoted by a double system of numbering — Vertical 
(Golonne) (I to XXXV) and Horizontal (Zone), 1 to 37. 

The 270 sheets now published are thus grouped : — 

Upper and Lower Austria . . . . .38 sheets 



Moravia and Silesia 

TjTTOl . 

Illyria, Styria, and Salzburg 
Galicia and Bukowina . 
Hungary . . . . 
Bohemia . . . . 



30 

37 „ 

45 „ 

101 „ 

12 „ 

7 „ 

270 „ 

The prices vary from 1 to 8 fl. (2 to 16 sh.). 

A smaller map, scale 1 : 144,000, is also published, of which 158 
sheets are issued. This map is divided into various provinces. The 
sheets now published are as follows, the prices varying from 1 to 6 fl. : 

Austria above and below the Ems . . .29 sheets 
Salzburg . . . . . . . . 13 „ 

Styria and Illyria 36 „ 

Bohemia 38 „ 

Hungary 42 „ 



The following general maps are issued : — 

Hungary 

Lombardy and Venetia 

Transylvania 

Banat 

Slavonia and the Frontier 

Bosnia and Herzegovina 

Dalmatia 



158 


1> 


18 sheets 


4 


)» 


4 


tt 


4 


tt 


1 


tt 


7 


U 


2 





The publications of the survey, other than maps, are : — 

' Abhandlungen der k. k. geol. Reich.', of which ten volumes have 
appeared, dating from 1852, price, 23 to 70 fl. ; some cf these contain 
maps on a large scale; 'Jahrbuch,' from 1850; ' Verhandlungen,' from 
1867. A ' General-Register ' of the ' Jahrbuch ' is published. 

Numerous memoirs, stratigraphical and palosontological, from the 
' Abhandlungen ' are separately issued. 

Several semi-official memoirs, with large maps or special maps, are 
published by officers of the survey, the most important being : — 

V. Mojsisovics, ' Dolomitriffe von Siidtirol und Venetien,' 2 vols. 
1879, price, 19 fl. Map, in 6 sheets (1 : 75,000), separately issued. 

V. Mojsisovics, Tietze, and Bittner, ' Grundlinien der Geologie von 
Bosnien-Hercegovina, 1880, price, 12 fl. Map, 1 : 576,000. 

V. Haner, ' Geol. TJebersichtskarte der osterr.-ungar. Monarchic,' 12 
sheets, 1 : 576,000 ; 45 fl. 

V. Hauer, smaller map of the same, 1 : 2,016,000, 4th ed. 1884 ; 6 fl. 



1 This most conrenient arrangement is also adopted in the maps of Prussia and 
Saxony. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 225 

Bohemia. — This is a section of the Austrian Survey, under the control 
of Anton Fritsch ; the maps are those of the ' Neue Special- Karte,' scale 
1 : 75,000, referred to above. The text is included, as ' Geologische 
Abtheilung,' in ' Archiv der Naturw. Landesdurchforschung von Bohmen,' 
with plates and extra maps on various scales. 

Hungary. — This Survey was established as a section of the Austrian 
Survey in 1868, but was soon after made a distinct body under the title 
' Konigliche ungarische geologische Anstalt ; ' its head-quarters and the 
place of publication is Budapest. But it is still in connection with the- 
central institution at Yienna, and an abstract of its work appears in 
the Verhandlung. 

The first director was Max von Hantken, who was succeeded in 1882 
by Johann Bockh. The survey is done on the scale of 1 : 28,800. 

The publications date from 1871. These are in Hungarian, but a 
German version is given in ' Mittheilungen, aus dem Jahrb. k. n. geol. 
Anstalt,' dating from 1872. About 22 sheets of the map are published. 



Bavaria. 

Bureau der Geognostischen Untersuchung des Konigreichs Bay em (Munich). 

The survey was commenced in 1851, under C. W. von Giimbel, the 
present director. The publications date from 1858 ; they have been 
issued at Gotha, but in future will be published at Cassel. 

The field work is done on various scales, from 1 : 5,000 to 1 : 25,000 ; 
the publication is usually on the scale of 1 : 100,000, but in special 
cases 1 : 50,000. 

Two meridians are used on the maps — Ferro (18° 9' W. of Green- 
wich) and Munich (11° 36' E. of Greenwich). The maps are not con- 
toured. 

Explanations of separate sheets are not published, but the maps 
are grouped, for purposes of explanation, as follows : — 

1 ' Geognostische Beschreibung des bayerischen Alpengebirges und 
seines Vorlandes ' (southern frontier), 5 maps. 96 marks. 1861. 

2. ' Geog. Besch. des ostbayerischen Grenzgebirges ' (Bayreuth, 
Ratisbon, Passau), 5 maps. 108 marks. 1868. 

3. ' Geog. Besch. des Fichtelgebirges und Frankenwaldes ' (N. of Bay- 
reuth), 2 maps. 70 marks. 1879. 

There is no official general map ; but the director has published 
the following, without text : — ' Geog. Uebersichts- Karte des Konigreichs 
Bayern,' Munich, 1858, 1 : 500,000. Price 17'20 marks. 



Belgium. 

Service de la Carte Geologique de la Belgique (Brussels). 

This survey is conducted as a part of the ' Musee Royal d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Belgique ' (Brussels). The work is executed under the 
1 Commission de Controle de la Carte Geologique de la Belgique,' com- 
1884. Q 



226 bepoet — 1884. 

posed of five members of the Royal Academy of Belgium, with M. J. 
Stas as president. The surveying work is done under the direction 
of Ed. Dupont, with three ' conservateurs ' and eleven assistants. A 
peculiar feature of this survey is that each main division of the geological 
series is traced out completely by one man, so that an index map of 
progress is also a geological index map. 

The map is on the scale of 1 : 20,000, with contours at 5 metres 
interval on the left bank of the Meuse, and at 10 metres on the right 
bank. The map is in 72 main divisions (' planchettes ') ; each containing, 
when complete, 8 sheets (' feuilles ') ; in all there will be 430 sheets. 
The meridian is Paris, 2° 20' E. of Greenwich. Each sheet is accompanied 
by ' Texte explicatif.' 

The maps give the nature of the soil, and note, by dark shades of 
colour, the actual areas at which solid rock is exposed. Six sheets are 
published, dated 1882 and 1883. 

The memoirs issued by the Musee Royal (to which the Survey is 
now attached) are in two forms, dating from 1877 : — 

' Annales du Musee R. d'Hist. Nat. de Belgique,' in fob, each volume 
with atlas ; and ' Bulletin,' in 8vo. The former is divided into four series 
— palaeontology, lithology, stratigraphy, existing fauna. 



Before the establishment of the existing Survey another had been in 
existence, conducted by a Committee of which M. Jochams was president. 
It was founded, in 1878, under the control of the ' Ministere de l'in- 
terieur ; ' this is stated on each publication, which may thus be distinguished 
from the publications of the existing Survey, the latter being headed ' par 
ordre du Gouvernement.' 

About 20 maps were published (1879-81), each with text; 18 were 
by O. v. Ertborn and P. Cogels. Both Surveys have used the same 
topographical map. 

A general map — ' Carte Geologique dela Belgique, executee par ordre du 
Gouvernement,' scale 1 \ 160,000 — was prepared by Andre Dumont from 
1836 to 1854, and was published in 1854. A new issue of this was made 
in 1877, in two editions — soil and rock, price 40 francs each map. Tbis 
map was accompanied by Memoirs. Those on the ' Terrains ardennais 
et rhenan ' were published by Dumont in the Mem. Acad. Roy. Belgique, 
1847 and 1848 ; those on the ' Terrains cretaces et tertiaires,' prepared 
by Dumont and edited by M. Mourlon, are published in four vols. 8vo. 
1878-1882. 

A reduction (not official) of Dnmont's map, scale 1 : 380,000, show- 
ing the beds below the Hesbayen and Campinien, was published in 1877 
by Lelorrain and E. Henry. 



Finland. 

Finland's Oeologisha Under •sohiing (Suomenmaan Geologillinen Tuthimus) 

(Helsingfors). 

This survey was commenced in 1865, under the Department of the 
Administration of Mines, on the scale of 1 : 200,000 ; the director being 
K. Ad. Moberg. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS: EUROPE. 227 

The publication commenced in 1879 ; five sheets, in the neighbour- 
hood of Helsingfors, were issued up to 1882. There are descriptions 
('Beskrifning') to the sheets. All the superficial deposits are shown. 

The explanations on the maps are given in Finnish and Swedish ; 
the ' Beskrifning ' is in Swedish. 

The meridian is Helsingfors, 25° 12' E. of Greenwich. 



France. 
Service de la Carte Geologique detaillee de la France (Paris). 

The origin of this survey may be traced to the Paris Exhibition of 
1855, when, under the direction of Dufrenoy and Elie de Beaumont, 
twenty maps (scale 1 : 80,000), were coloured geologically in MS. and 
exhibited. These maps, with others, amounting in all to about sixty, all 
in the N. and N.W. of France, were again presented at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1867. 

The recognition of the value of such maps, and the fact that similar 
surveys were in progress in neighbouring countries, led to the establish- 
ment of the existing geological survey in 1868, with Elie de Beaumont 
as director. On his death, in 1875, M. Jacquot became director. 

The map employed is the ' Carte Topographique de l'Etat- Major,' scale 
1 : 80,000. The meridian is Paris, 2° 20' E. of Greenwich. The map 
of France is in 258 sheets; Corsica in sheets, 259-267. It has hill- 
shading without contours ; heights in metres. 

Each map is accompanied by an ' Explication ' printed on one side 
only, to be attached to the map if desired ; some sheets also by plates 
containing longitudinal and vertical sections and photographs. 

A very elaborate system of signs has been employed on the maps, for 
distinguishing minute varieties of rocks, soils, ores, mineral springs, &c. 
The number of these signs is 1,113. In addition to these many sub- 
ordinate signs have been devised, further explaining or modifying the 
others. 1 

As the work progresses it will be reduced and published on the scale 
of 1 : 320,000 ; this will be in 32 sheets ; Corsica in sheet 33. Each 
sheet of this map will include 16 sheets of the larger scale. 

The publication of the maps commenced in 1873, with sheet 48, Paris ; 
the explanation of this being ' Cahier I.' About 67 sheets are issued 
(to February 1885), chiefly in the north. 

In addition to the explanations of sheets there are ' Me moires ' ; No. 1, 
' Pays de Bray,' by De Lapparent, was published in 1873 ; No. 2, ' Minera- 
logie Micrographique,' by Fouque and Levy, in 1879. There are also 
special monographs on the coalfields — Brioude and Brassac, Langeac, 
and the Loire. 

The. foregoing statements refer only to the existing survey, but 
there were official publications of earlier date. 2 In 1822, incited thereto 

1 All these signs, &c, are fully explained in pamphlets issued in 1874, ' Generalites ' 
A, B, C, and D. See also De Chancourtois, Ann. Mines, ser. 7, t. v. 1878. 

2 A notice of the various geological maps of France was given, by Professor 
G. A. Lebour, in the Geograjrirical Magazine, vol. iii.p. 47, 1876. 

Q2 



228 report — 1884. 

by the publication of Greenougb's ' Geological Map of England and 
Wales' (1819-20), a survey was commenced by Dufrenoy and Elie de 
Beaumont, under tbe direction of Brocbant de Villiers. From 1822 to 
1825 tbe surveyors were studying field geology in England. In 1825 
tbe work was commenced in France, De Beaumont taking tbe east, 
Dufrenoy tbe west. Tbere were two assistants, and tbe survey was 
completed in 1830. 

The map, ' Carte Geologique de la France,' is in 6 sheets, scale 
1 : 500,000. It was published in 1840-42 ; the two volumes of ' Explica- 
tion ' in 1841 and 1848. 

A reduction of this map ('Tableau d' Assemblage '), scale 
1 : 2,000,000, was published in 1841. 

Tbere are a large number of maps and memoirs of Departments, 
of which great use is made by tbe surveyors. Some are by private geo- 
logists, but most are by official mining engineers. These maps are on 
various scales ; some, as that of the Pas de Calais (by Du Souich, 1851) 
on the full scale of 1 : 80,000. 

A Geological Map of France in 48 sheets, scale 1 : 500,000, is in 
preparation by C. Vasseur and L. Carez. 



Italy. 
Beale Comitato Oeologico d' Italia (Rome). 1 

This survey was commenced in 1868, when the capital was Florence. 
It was directed by a committee of Professors at Universities and 
Engineers of Mines. In 1873, when the chief office and place of publica- 
tion were transferred to Rome, tbe staff was reorganised ; the Comitato 
(with Professor Meneghini as president) retained mainly a consulting 
power, the real chief of the survey being F. Giordano, tbe present director. 
The staff consists of 7 geologists, 3 assistants, and a paleontologist. 

The systematic and detailed investigation of the country dates from 
1877, and was commenced in Sicily ; in 1879 the survey was extended to 
the Apuan Alps and tbe Roman Campagna. The scale adopted for the 
survey is usually 1 I 50,000 ; areas of special interest, such as those men- 
tioned above, are surveyed on the scale of 1 : 25,000. Recently some 
surveys have been made on tbe scale of 1 : 10,000— of Elba, Ischia, 
and the environs of Rome. 

A general map (1 : 1,111,111) was published in 1881 : another, on 
the scale of 1 : 500,000, is now in preparation, Sicily being published 

(1883). . ■? 

The systematic publication of the survey map will be on the scale of 
1 : 100,000, in 277 sheets, those of Sicily being nearly ready for issue. 2 

Districts of special importance will be published on the scale of 
1 : 25,000, with contours ; Elba, in two sheets, is now ready. 

In the topographical maps prepared by the Italian Government (of 
which there are 18, on various scales), the meridian is reckoned from 
Rome (Monte Mario), which is 12° 28' E. of Greenwich. Tbere is a 
topographical map, prepared by the Austrian Government, on the scale 
of 1 : 75,000, in which the meridian is reckoned from Ferro ; but this 
map is not used by the Geological Survey. 

1 For a fuller account of this Survey, see Nature, Nov. 24, 1881. 

3 Four sheets, with a sheet of sections, were published at the end of 1884. 






ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS :— EUROPE. 229 

The publications comprise the ' Bollettino,' (in 8vo.), dating from 1870, 
of which fourteen volumes are published ; and ' Memorie ' (in fol.), dating 
from 1871, of which two volumes are published. These volumes contain 
numerous maps, on various scales, and plates of fossils. Many of the 
authors of papers here published are not connected with the survey ; but, 
as a Geological Society was founded for Italy in 1881, the survey 
publications will probably in future be more purely official. 

Several semi-official maps are issued. Three are by Prof. Capellini, a 
member of the Comitate). These are — the Bolognese Apennines ; Leghorn 
(each 1 : 100,000) ; Gulf of Spezia (1 : 50,000). 



Netherlands. 
Commissie voor de Geologische Kaart van Nederland (Haarlem). 

An official survey of this country was made by W. C. H. Staring, and 
published (' Geologische Kaart van Nederland ') at Haarlem, in 27 small 
sheets ; 1858-67 with explanation. The scale is 1 : 200,000 ; the 
meridian Amsterdam, 4° 55' E. of Greenwich. The map shows 13 
varieties of alluvium, 8 of diluvium, 16 of Pliocene — Eocene, with other 
rocks down to Devonian. 

Another map (? not official) has been published by Kruijder, in six 
sheets, 1880. 



Norway. 
Geologislce Undersogelse (Christiania). 



The geological investigation of this country is in two parts. That of 
Southern Norway, under the direction of Th. Kjerulf, dates from 1858 ; 
that of Northern Norway, under the direction of T. Dahll, dates from 
1866, and was completed in 1878. For the former there are two assist- 
ants, with extra help during the summer. 

The surveying work is done on various scales — for the most part 
1 : 100,000, but some 20/, 50/, and 200,000. For the last the meridian 
is Ferro ; for the others it is Christiania, 10° 43' E. of Greenwich. 

The published map of Southern Norway, in rectangular sheets, is 
on the scale 1 : 100,000, with contours at 100 feet (1 Norwegian foot= 
12.35 English inches). Seventeen sheets are published, dating from 
1876. These are grouped as follows : Trondhjem and district, 8 sheets ; 
Bergen, 2 ; Hamar, 2 ; Christiania and Fredrickstadt, 5. Each sheet is 
priced kr. 160 (1 kr. = Is. l±d.). 

A general map of part of Southern Norway (Diocese of Christiania, 
Hamar, and Christiansand) was published in 1856-65, by Th. Kjerulf and 
T. Dahll ; scale 1 : 400,000 ; 10 sheets ; with explanatory pamphlet in 
French ; in this the meridian is Ferro. 

A general description of Southern Norway with atlas and map 
('Geologiske Oversigtskarte,' 1:1,000,000), was published by Th. 
Kjerulf in 1879. (German translation, by Dr. A. Gurlt, in 1880). A 



230 report — 1884. 

map of Northern Norway (' Geologisk Kart over det Nordlige Norge ') 
on the same scale, was published in 1879 by T. Dahll. 

There is no regular publication of memoirs and papers of the survey ; 
but they appear in ' Nyt magazin for naturvidenskab,' and in other 
journals, transactions, and University treatises. The collection made by 
the survey is at present deposited in the Mineralogical Cabinet of the 
University of Christiania. 



Portugal. 1 

Secqao dos Trabalhos Geologicos de Portugal (Lisbon). 

This survey was commenced in 1857 (as Commissao Geol. de Portugal). 
It was reorganised with the existing title in 1869, under the direction of 
Carlos Ribeiro ; he was succeeded, in 1883, by J. F. N. Delgado. 

The work is now done on the scale of 1 : 100,000 ; with occasional 
enlargements to double this scale. There are contours at intervals of 
25 metres. The map will be in 37 sheets, longitude reckoned from 
Lisbon, 9° 9' W. of Greenwich. The topographical map is not yet 
complete, and none of the sheets are published with the geology. 

Several memoirs have been published, dating from 1865 ; and also 
a general map — ' Carta Geologica de Portugal,' by C. Ribeiro and 
J. F. N. Delgado, scale 1 : 500,000 ; 1876 (now out of print). 



Prussia. 

Konigliche Geologische Landes-Anstalt und Bergakademie zu Berlin 

(Berlin). 

The publications of this survey date from 1870; the director is W. 
Hauchecorne. 

The map—' Geologische Special-Karte von Preussen und den Thurin- 
gischen Staaten 'is on the scale of 1 : 25,000 ; with hill-shading, and con- 
tours at intervals of 5 metres. 

It is divided into 88 ' Grad-Abtheilungen ; ' each subdivided into 60 
1 Blattern,' excepting on the frontier and sea-board, where some sheets are 
absent. Each complete ' Grad-Abtheilung ' contains exactly 1° of long, 
and 1° of lat. ; each ' Blatt ' contains 10' of long, and 6' of lat. ; the sheets 
are therefore not quite rectangular. The longitude is reckoned from 
Ferro, 18° 9' W. of Greenwich. 

The publication takes place in ' Lieferungen,' each containing from 
three to nine maps of the same district, though not always in the same 
' Grad-Abtheilung.' The ' Lieferungen ' vary in price according to the 
number of maps included, averaging 2 marks per map with its ' Erlau- 
terung.' The maps near Berlin are especially agricultural, minute 
variations of soil being indicated by signs ; these form a special set of 
maps, in 27 sheets. In the coal districts two editions are issued, one 
showing the edges of the coal-seams beneath the newer rocks. 

1 The first part of the serial publication of this Survey has just been issued — 
' Commnnicaqoes da Secqao dos Trabalhos Geologicos de Portugal,' torn. 1, fasc. 1, 1885 ; 
8vo. Lisbon. Some of the papers therein contained had been previously printed. 






ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 231 

About 26 ' Lieferungen ' are issued, containing 142 sheets ; which, for 
convenience of reference, may be grouped as follows : — 

Berlin, Potsdam, &c 27 

Wettin, Jena, &c. 84 

Wiesbaden, Frankfort, &c 13 

Saarbruck, &c 18 

142 

Although all maps fit into the complete system of 'Grad-Abth.' and 
* Blatt.' the earlier sheets published have a different set of numbers. The 
position of each map however, and its relation to the new system of 
numbering, can be seen from the index-map on each ' Lieferungen.' 

A descriptive test (' Erlauterung ') is issued with each map. 

There are also ' Abhandlungen,' dealing with special districts, palaeon- 
tology, &c. These date from 1872. They contain numerous plates and 
maps, the latter being sometimes separately issued. 

The ' Jahrbuch,' dating from 1880, contains shorter papers, reports &c. 

A reduction of the above-mentioned map — ' Geologische Karte der 
Provinz Preussen,' scale 1 : 100,000, is in course of publication. 

Numei'ous general maps of Germany or of parts of it are published, 
the most important of which is that of H. von Dechen — ' Geologische Karte 
der Rheinprovinz und der Provinz Westfalen,' in 35 sheets, scale 1 : 80,000. 
A continuation of this map, on the same scale, being a reduction of the 
new Prussian survey, is now being prepared. The Wiesbaden sheet 
(numbered 35) was issued in 1882. 



Geological surveys of some German States have been made on the 
scale of 1 : 50,000, not all directly by the Government ; but the great survey 
above described will probably absorb these, and will re-map the districts 
on the larger scale. 

Amongst these local surveys are the following : — - 

Baden, made by Zittel and. Sandberger. 

Hesse. ' Geologische Specialkarte des Grossherzogthums Hessen und 
der angrenzenden Landesgebiete.' This survey, under the direction of 
R. Ludwig, is in eighteen sheets, with text. It was made by the 
* Mittelrheinischer Geologischer Verein' (Darmstadt), and was published 
from 1856 to 1872. 

Upper Silesia. — A ' Specialkarte der Oberschlesischen Bergrevier.' 
scale 1 : 10,000, is published by the 'k Oberbergamt in Breslau ' ; in 
' Lieferungen,' of ten or more sheets. The price of each sheet is 1^ mark. 



Roumania. 

Biurouhu Geologicih Romanic (Buchurest). 

Established in 1882, under the direction of Gregoriii Stefaneseu, 
for the purpose of providing materials for the International Geological 
Map of Europe. One Report has been published (' Anuarulii Biuroului 
Geologicii,' anulii 1882-1883, JS T o. 1, pp. 114, 1*84). The rocks contained 
within the kingdom which are briefly described in this Report, are : — 
Crystalline Schists (Archaean), Jurassic, Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene and 
Quaternary. This Report contains descriptions, with analyses, of mineral 
springs. 



232 report — 1884. 



Russia. 



This survey l was commenced in 1882 ; the director is B. Cheresheff. 

The publications comprise Reports in 8vo., and Memoirs in 4to ; the 
latter are illustrated by maps and plates ; some of the Memoirs are descrip- 
tive of sheets of the maps, others of certain formations in various districts. 

The Reports are in Russian only ; the Memoirs have title in French 
(' Memoires du Comite geologique '), and a translation or precis in 
German. 

The map is on the scale of 1 : 420,000 ; to be completed in 154 sheets; 
3 sheets are published. The meridian is Pulkowa, 30° 19' B. of Greenwich. 

The map has explanations and title in Erench : — ' Carte geologique 
generate de la Russie d'Burope.' 



A map of the Urals, prepared by the mining engineers, has been 
published by A. Karpinsky — ' Geologische Karte des Ostabhanges des 
Urals,' 3 sheets, 1884. Scale 1 : 420,000 ; with enlarged parts of 
1 : 210,000. 

Saxony. 

Konigliclie Geologische Landesuntersuchung von Sachsen (Leipzig). 

This survey dates from 1872 ; the publications from 1877. 2 The direc- 
tor has from the commencement been Hermann Credner. There are 
eight assistant geologists. 

The scale for mapping and publication is 1 : 25,000 ; the meridian i» 
Ferro, 18° 9' "W. of Greenwich. The maps — ' Geologische Special- Karte 
des Konigreiches Sachsen,' are contoured at intervals of 5 metres on 
the lowlands and 10 metres on the hills. 

The division of the maps, as regards lines of latitude and longitude,- 
is the same as in the Prussian maps. The maps of Saxony have a special 
numbering of their own, but most of those now published would be con- 
tained within Grad-Abth. 58 and 72 of the large Prussian map. 

The maps show all the drift- deposits, the soils being sometimes noted 
and described in detail. In some cases a separate edition, showing only 
the solid rock, is issued. There are also special issues for certain mining 
districts. 

Much attention is paid to the petrological variations in the crystalline 
rocks, these being noted by letters and signs. 

Thirty-five sheets are published, all in the western part of Saxony, 
but those in the extreme south-west are not yet issued. The price of each 
sheet is 2 marks ; of the accompanying ' Erlauterung ' 1 mark. 

A general map has been published by the director, ' Uebersichtskarte 
des Sachsischen Granulitgebirges und seiner Umgebung,' scale 
1 : 100,000, 1884 ; price, with Erlauterung, 5 marks. 

1 For descriptions of this Survey, and of its publications, see Nature, vol. xxix. 
p< 93 ; xxx. p. 608 ; Geol. Mag., dec. iii. vol. i., p. 84, 1884. 

2 Detailed descriptions of the work and publications of the Survey of Saxony have 
been published by the director (H. Credner) in Mittheil, des Vereinsfiir Erdhunde zu 
Leipzig, 1877 and 1880. 



on national geological surveys : — europe. 233 

Spain. 
Comision del Mapa Geol6gico tie Espaiia (Madrid). 

The Commission was formed in 1849, with F. Luxan as director. At 
one time under the Statistical Department, it was, in 1870, placed with 
that of the Mining Engineers. The existing organisation and systematic 
publication date from 1873, when the present director, Manuel Fernandez 
de Castro, was appointed. * 

The Government topographical map of Spain is on the scale of 
1 :«50,000, with contours at 20 metres apart. This was commenced only 
in 1875, and few sheets are published ; it will be completed in about 1,080 
sheets ; this map is not used by the Geological Survey. Maps published 
by F. Coello on the scale of 1 : 200,000, are those usually employed in 
the field work of the survey. The longitude in all is reckoned from 
Madrid, 3° 41' W. of Greenwich. 

The staff of the survey since 1873 has usually contained six mining 
engineers and seven or eight assistants. 

The maps are issued on the scale of 1 : 400,000, with the reports on 
each province (see below). 

The publications of the survey consist of the ' Boletin,' dating from 
1874, and the ' Memorias,' dating from 1873. 

Each volume of the ' Memorias ' is devoted to the ' Description fisica 
y geologica ' of a single province ; mining is added in the title of some, 
and agriculture in others ; these latter being those written by Daniel de 
Cortazar. The volumes, of from 200 to 400 pages, contain plates of 
fossils, sections, &c, and also the maps (1 : 400,000) already referred to. 

The 'Boletin ' contains shorter descriptions of special districts, trans- 
lations of foreign memoirs on Spanish geology, &c. The maps here are 
on various scales. Altogether, since 1873, twenty-seven provinces have 
been described ; eleven of them with maps of 1 : 400,000. 

Descriptions of some provinces, with maps, were published before the 
reorganisation of the survey in 1873 ; some had maps of 1 : 400,000. 

The palseontological work of the survey is scattered throughout the 
various volumes, but this is now being collected and separately issued. 

The largest (and in some respects the best) general map of Spain and 
Portugal is that of De Verneuil and Collomb (1 : 1,500,000), published 
in Paris in 1864; and a 2nd edition, with text, in 1868 (now out of 
print). Another map (1 : 2,000,000) was published by F. de Botella, of 
the Spanish Survey, in 1881. The price of this is 15 francs ; there is 
no text. 

At the conclusion of the work of the survey, now approaching, a 
complete map of Spain, on the scale of 1 : 400,000, will be published, in 
sixteen sheets ; the first sheet will probably be published in 1885. 



1 A full account of this survey was published for the Mining Exhibition in 
Madrid, 1883 — Com. Mapa Geol. Esjmn., sw origen, vicisitudes y circunstancias acttiales, 
■with two index maps (Boletin, t. x.). An earlier publication — ' Memoria .... del 
Mapa Geol. JSspana.' 1876, Madrid, pp. 183, gives a fall account of the geological 
literature of Spain (in provinces) and its foreign possessions. 



234 retort — 1884. 

Sweden. 
Sveriges Oeologisha Undersokning (Stockholm). 1 

This survey was commenced in 1858 with Alex. Erdmann as director. 
In 1869-70 the director was A. E. Tornebohm ; he was succeeded in 
1871 by the present director, Otto Torell. 

The staff consists of twelve geologists, with some additional assistants 
during the summer months. x_-_x 

The survey is made on two scales ; in the more populous districts, 
1 • 50,000 ; in the mountainous districts, 1 : 100,000. In the former 
case the maps are published on that scale, in the latter the publication is 
on the scale of 1 : 200,000. 

The meridian is Stockholm, 18° 3' E. of Greenwich. The maps are 
not contoured, but numerous heights are given in Swedish and Nor- 
wegian feet (=12-35 English inches). 

The publications date from 1862. 

Of the sheets on the 1 : 50,000 scale (Ser. A, a) about 83 are published; 
these are numbered in the order of publication, irrespective of their 
relative positions. Each sheet is accompanied by a descriptive ' Beskrif- 
ningar.' The prices, for map and description, are 2 kronor) for the full 
sheets, 1 or 1| kroner for the coast sheets (1 kroner =ls. l\d ). 

Of the sheets on the scale of 1 : 200,000 (Ser. A, b) ten are published ; 
each with ' Beskrifhingar,' price H kroner. 

All the maps give the distribution of the superficial deposits, but a few 
are published with special reference to these and to agriculture. That 
of the environs of Skottorp, scale 1 : 4,000, shows by signs the nature 
and composition of the soil in great detail. There are also some special 
maps referring to mining, &c. ; these extra maps are in Ser. B. 

A general map of Southern Sweden (south of lat. 59° 45'), on the 
scale of 1 : 1,000,000, will probably be published with a description 
during this year (1884). 

In addition to the explanations of the maps there are memoirs in 
Ser. C (' Afhandlingar och uppsatsen ') in 8vo. or 4to., with or without 
plates or atlas. Eighty of these are published, dating from 1863, at 
various prices up to 8 kroner. They refer to palaeontology, stratigraphy, 
petrology, economic and theoretical geology ; mo3t are in Swedish, but 
a few are in French, German, or English. _ 

A map of the iron district of Central Sweden, though not an official 
publication of the survey, should be mentioned here. This was prepared, 
by A. E. Tornebohm, for the Board of Swedish Ironmasters (Jernkontoret). 
It is in nine sheets (1879-82) ; each, with description, price 4 kroner. 
Its title is ' Geologisk Ofversigtskarta ofver Mellersta Sveriges Bergslag ; 
the scale is 1 : 250,000. 

Another similar publication, also by Tornebohm, is ' Geologisk atlas 
ofver Dannemora Grufvor,' in 17 sheets, with description, 1878. 
All the publications referred to are issued at Stockholm. 



1 This survey is described in La Carte geologiaue de la Suede et ses envois a 
V Exposition Universelle de Pans en 1878, arecune description succinate des formations 
geologiques de la Suede. 8vo. Stockholm, pp. 57, 1878. 



on national geological surveys : europe. 235 

Switzerland. 

Beitrage zur Geologischen Karte der Schweiz (ALateriaux pour la Carte 
Geologique de la Suisse) (Berne). 

The present organisation dates from 1859, when the Federal Council 
offered to the Swiss Natural History Society a grant in aid of colouring 
geologically the topographical map (' Carte Dufour '). A geological com- 
mission of five members was then formed, with Bernhard Studer as 
president. 

The map is in 25 sheets ; three of the corner sheets are for title, 
index, &c. Eighteen sheets are published, those not yet issued being XIII., 
XIV., and XVIII., all in Central Switzerland. 

The scale is 1 : 100,000 ; the meridian is Paris, 2° 20' E. of Greenwich. 

The text, chiefly in German, but partly in French and Italian 
according to the locality described, is contained in ' Lieferungen ' 1-28, 
dating from 1862. Some of these desci'ibe one or more sheets of the 
map ; others describe special districts, with maps on the scale of 1 : 50,000 
or 1 : 25,000. 

A general map, ' Carte Geol. de la Suisse,' was published by B. Studer 
and A. Escher von der Linth in 1853, scale 1 : 350,000 ; with text — 
4 Geologie der Schweiz,' by B. Studer, 2 vols., 1851-53. 



United Kingdom. 
Geological Survey of the United Kingdom (London). 

The founder of this survey was H. T. De la Beche, who before 1832 
had coloured geologically the Ordnance one-inch maps of the South-West 
of England. In that year a small grant was made by the Government 
towards the cost of publishing these maps by the Ordnance Survey, but 
De la Beche also contributed money for the purpose. Subsequently De la 
Beche was definitely appointed to make a Geological Survey, under the 
direction of General Colby, then the head of the Ordnance Survey. The 
first result of this was the publication of the ' Report on the Geology of 
Devon, Cornwall, and West Somerset,' 1839, with the one-inch maps of 
the district. 

About 1832 other geologists were surveying various districts upon 
the one-inch maps of the Ordnance Survey — William Smith in many 
parts, 1 and W. Lonsdale near Bath. H. Maclauchlan and J. R. Wright 
(both of the Ordnance Survey) mapped the Forest of Dean and the 
country around Ludlow respectively, W. Logan surveyed part of 
S. Wales ; the information collected by these three observers was incor- 
porated in the official geological maps. 

In 1845 the Geological Survey was detached from the Ordnance Survey 
and was placed under the ' Office of Woods and Works ;' in 1854 it became 
a branch of the ' Department of Science and Art.' 

From about the year 1832 some officers of the Ordnance Survey in the 
N. of Ireland collected geological information, which was completed and 
published by Captain J. E. Portlock in 1843. 

1 Smith made a Geological map of Somersetshire upon the one-inch scale in 
1799. 



236 hepoet — 1884. 

The geological survey of Ireland was commenced in 1845, with 
Captain H. James as director, the subsequent directors being T. Oldham, 
1845 ; J. B. Jukes, 1850 ; E. Hull, 1869. 

The survey of Scotland was commenced in 1854, and was made a 
distinct branch of the geological survey in 1867, with Arch. Geikie as 
director, succeeded in 1882 by H. H. Howell. 

England, the original home of the Survey, was presided over by De la 
Beche as director till 1845, when A. C. Ramsay became director ; he was 
succeeded in 1872 by H. W. Bristow, now the senior director. 

The dates of appointment of the Directors- General are : H. T. De la 
Beche, 1845 ; Sir R. I. Murchison, 1855 ; A. C. Ramsay, 1872 ; Arch. 
Geikie, 1881. 

Until 1845 the Survey was known as that of Great Britain ; when the 
survey of Ireland was commenced, the original name was confined to that 
of Great Britain proper, the entire Survey being called that of the United 
Kingdom. In 1867 the title of Great Britain was discontinued entirely, 
this Survey being divided into those of England and Wales and Scotland. 
The total number of the staff of the Geological Survey is now fifty-seven, 
distributed as follows : one Director- General, three Directors, three 
District Surveyors, fourteen Geologists, twenty-five Assistant Geologists, 
four Naturalists and Paleontologists, four Fossil Collectors, three General 
Assistants. 

The survey of the greater part of England has been done on the 
1-inch Ordnance maps (1 : 63,360). In the North of England the 6-inch 
maps (1 : 10,560) have been used, and much of the ground has been 
published on this scale. In the South of Scotland the 6-inch maps have 
been used ; but in the North of Scotland the survey will be mainly on the 
1-inch scale. In Ireland the 6-inch maps have always been employed for 
field work. 

The contours on the 6-inch maps are usually at intervals of 100 feet 
up to 1,000 feet, above that at intervals of 250 feet. In the maps of 
Yorkshire the contours are more numerous. The old 1-inch maps, on 
which alone the geology is yet published, have no contours, but heights 
are marked in some districts. 

In Ireland the drift has always been shown upon the 1-inch maps by 
' stippling.' Originally no glacial drift was shown upon the English maps ; 
but in 1871 the publication of drift maps was commenced, and two editions 
of many of the maps are now issued — solid and drift. In the East of 
England only the drift maps are issued, very little being here known of 
the solid geology. 

At the end of 1883 the field survey of the original 1-inch map of 
England and "Wales was completed ; the survey of the drifts of the 
areas over which these are not yet mapped has been commenced. 

In Ireland and Scotland there is only one system of numbering the 
maps. In England some maps are in sheets, some are divided into quarter- 
sheets. In the new maps of the Ordnance Survey the system of dividing 
into quarter-sheets will be discontinued. The maps and their divisions 
in the North of England are the same in the old and the new series, the 
numbering only being different ; but in the South of England there is 
no relation between the boundaries of the old and the new maps. 

In addition to the maps there are ' Horizontal Sections,' on the scale 
(for heights and distances) of six inches to a mile. These are published 
at 5s. each ; many have ' Explanations,' price 2d. each. 



ON NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS : — EUROPE. 



237 



The details of Coal Measures, Cliff Sections, &c, are given on sheets 
of 'Vertical Sections,' 3s. 6d. each. 

An ' Index Map,' scale four miles to the inch (1 : 253,440) has been 
published of "Wales and the adjacent districts, in six sheets, price 3s. 6d. 
each. An Index Map of the whole of England and Wales, upon the 
same scale, is now in progress. 

In all maps of the United Kingdom the meridian is Greenwich. 

The publication of the Maps of England dates from about 1839, 
those of Ireland from 1855, of Scotland from 1859. 

The number of maps and sections published is shown in the following 
table > :— 





England 








'^^^ — 


and 
Wales 


Ireland 


Scotland 


Total 


1-inch map 1 










(1:63,360) | Solid. . . . 183~| 










(sheets or quar- ! Drift edition of solid 49 1 
ter-sheets in | map | 
England and j Drift only . 12 J 


244 


180 


33 


457 










Wales) J 










6-inch maps (1 : 10,560) .... 


216 


10 


128 


354 


Horizontal sections 


129 


30 


9 


168 


Total .... 


69 


1 


7 


77 


658 


221 


177 


1,056 



The prices of the 1-inch maps are from Is. 6d. to 8s. 6d. for Eng- 
land (a few detailed drift maps at higher prices) ; Is. 6d. to 3s. for 
Ireland ; 4s. to 6s. for Scotland ; of the 6-inch maps, 4s. to 6s. 

The 'Memoirs' of the Geological Survey date from 1845. Four 
volumes were consecutively numbered ; vol. 1 and vol. 2 (in two parts) 
contain several papers. The other two volumes and all later ' Memoirs' 
are each confined to one subject or district. 

Memoirs or Explanations of sheets of the map have been issued since 
1859 ; those published are — for England, 49 ; Ireland, 92 ; Scotland, 17. 

British fossils are described in ' Decades ' (thirteen published, from 
1849) and ' Monographs ' (four published, from 1859). 

'Mineral Statistics' were published annually from 1853 to 1882; 
but in 1883 the Mining Record Office, in which these were prepared, was 
removed to the Home Office, and the statistics are now issued as parts of 
the Reports of the Inspectors of Mines. 

No official general map has been issued by the survey, but the follow- 
ing maps, on scales varying from seven to eleven and a half miles to 
the inch, have been published by the directors of the respective surveys ; 
they are reductions of survey work to date : British Islands, by A. C. 
Ramsay, 1878 ; England and Wales, by A. C. Ramsay, 4th ed. 1879 ; 
Ireland, by J. B. Jukes, 1867 ; Ireland, by E. Hull, L878 ; Scotland, by 
A. Geikie, 1876. 

1 A Catalogue of the Publications of the Geological Survey of tlie United Kingdom 
to 1884 has been issued, with index maps, pp. 95, price 1*. 



238 report — 1884. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. R. B. Grantham, 
C. E. De Rance, J. B. Redman, W. Topley, W. Whitaker, and 
J. W. Woodall, with Major-General Sir A. Clarke, Sir J. N. 
Douglass, Captain Sir F. 0. Evans, Captain J. Parsons, Professor 
J. Prestwich, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, and Messrs. E. Easton, 
J. S. Valentine and L. F. Vernon Harcourt, appointed for the 
purpose of inquiring into the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts 
of England and Wales, and the Influence of the Artificial Abstrac- 
tion of Shingle or other Material in that Action. Draivn up by 
C. E. De Rance and W. Topley, Secretaries. 

The importance of the subject referred to this Committee for investigation 
is universally admitted, and the urgent need for inq uiry is apparent to 
all who have any acquaintance with the changes which are in progress 
around our coasts. The subject is a large one, and can only be success- 
fully attacked by many observers, working with a common purpose and 
upon some uniform plan. 

The Committee has been enlarged by the addition of some members 
who, by official position or special studies, are well able to assist in the 
work. 

In order fully to appreciate the influence, direct or indirect, of human 
agency in modifying the coast-line, it is necessary to be well acquainted 
with the natural conditions which prevail in the places referred to. The 
main features as regards most of the east and south-east coasts of England 
are well known ; but even here there are probably local peculiarities not 
recorded in published works. Of the west coasts much less is known. 
It has therefore been thought desirable to ask for information upon many 
elementary points which, at first sight, do not appear necessary for the 
inquiry with which this Committee is entrusted. 

A shingle- beach is the natural protection of a coast ; the erosion of 
a sea-cliff which has a bank of shingle in front of it is a very slow pro- 
cess. But if the shingle be removed the erosion goes on rapidly. This 
removal may take place in various ways. Changes in the natural distri- 
bution of the shingle may take place, the reasons for which are not 
always at present understood ; upon this point we hope to obtain much 
information. More often, however, the removal is directly due to arti- 
ficial causes. 

As a rule, the shingle travels along the shore in definite directions. 
If by any means the shingle is arrested at any one spot, the coast-line 
beyond that is left more or less bare of shingle. In the majority of cases 
such arresting of shingle is caused by building out ' groynes,' or by the 
construction of piers and harbour-mouths which act as large groynes. 
Ordinary groynes are built for the purpose of stopping the travelling of 
the shingle at certain places, with the object of preventing the loss of 
land by coast-erosion at those places. They are often built with a reck- 
less disregard of the consequences which must necessarily follow to the 
coast thus robbed of its natural supply of shingle. Sometimes, however, 
the groynes fail in the purpose for which they are intended — by collecting 
an insufficient amount of shingle, by collecting it in the wrong places, or 
from other causes. These, again, are points upon which much valuable 
information may be obtained. 



ON THE EATE OF EROSION OF THE SEA-COASTS. 



239 



Sometimes the decrease of shingle is dtie to a quantity being taken 
away from the beach for ballast, building, road-making, or other purposes. 

Solid rocks, or numerous large boulders, occurring between tide-marks, 
are also important protectors of the coast- line. In some cases these have 
been removed, and the waves have thus obtained a greater power over 
the land. 

To investigate these various points is the main object of the Committee. 

A large amount of information is already in hand, much of which has 
been supplied by Mr. J. B. Redman, who for many years has devoted 
special attention to this subject. Mr. R. B. Grantham has also made 
important contributions respecting parts of the south-eastern coasts. 

But this information necessarily consists largely of local details, and 
it has been thought better to defer the publication of this for another 
year. Meanwhile the information referring to special districts will be 
made more complete, and general deductions may be more safely made. 

As far as possible the information obtained will be recorded upon the 
six-inch maps of the Ordnance Survey. These give with great accuracy 
the condition of the coast, and the position of every groyne, at the time 
when the survey was made. 



Appended is a copy of the qnestions circulated. The Committee will 
be glad of assistance, from those whose local knowledge enables them to 
answer the questions, respecting any part of the coast-line of England and 
Wales. 

Copies of the forms for answering the questions can be had on 
application to the Secretaries. 



Appendix — Copy of Questions. 



1. What part of the English or Welsh 

Coast do you know well ? 

2. What is the nature of that coast 1 

(a) If cliff}', of what are the cliffs 

composed ? 

(b) What are the heights of the 

cliff above H.W.M. ? 
Greatest ; average ; least. 

3. What is the direction of the coast- 

line? 

4. What is the prevailing wind ? 

5. What wind is the most important — 

(a) In raising high waves ? 

(b) In piling up shingle 1 

(c) In the travelling of shingle ? 

<j. What is the set of the tidal currents ? 

7. What is the range of tide ? 

Vertical in feet. Width in yards 
between high and low water. 
At Spring tide ; at Neap tide ? 

8. Does the area covered by the tide 

consist of bare rock, shingle, sand, 
or mud ? 



9. If of shingle, state — 

(a) Its mean and greatest breadth. 
(ft) Its distribution with respect to 
tide-mark. 

(c) The direction in which it travels. 

(d) The greatest size of the pebbles. 

(e) Whether the shingle forms one 

continuous slope, or whether 
there is a ' spring full ' and 
' neap full.' If the latter, state 
their heights above the respec- 
tive tide-marks. 

10. Is the shingle accumulating or 

diminishing, and at what rate ? 

11. If diminishing, is this due partly or 

entirely to artificial abstraction ? 
{See No. 13.) 

12. If groynes are employed to arrest the 

travel of the shingle, state — 
(«) Their direction with respect 
to the shore-line at that point. 
(J) Their length. 
(?) Their distance apart. 



240 



REPORT 1884. 



(<Z) Their height— 

(1) When built. 

(2) To leeward above the shingle. 

(3) To windward above the 
shingle. 

(e) The material of which they are 

built. 
(/) The influence which they exert. 

13. If shingle, sand, or rock is being 

artificially removed, state — 

(a) From what part of the foreshore 

(with respect to the tidal range) 
the material is mainly taken. 

(b) For what purpose. 

(c) By whom — Private 

Local authorities, 
panies. 

Whether half-tide 
before such removal, acted as 
natural breakwaters. 

14. Is the coast being worn back by the 

sea ? If so, state — 

(a) At what special points or districts. 

(&) The nature and height of the 
cliffs at those places. 
At what rate the erosion now 
takes place. 

What data there may be for 
determining the rate from early 
maps or other documents. 
Is such loss confined to areas 
bare of shingle 1 



w 



individuals. 
Public com- 

reefs had, 



00 

GO 



15. Is the bareness of shingle at any of 
these places due to artificial causes ? 

N.B. — Answers to the foregoing questions will 
and valuable by sketches illustrating the points t 



(a) By abstraction of shingle. 

(&) By the erection of groynes, and 
the arresting of shingle else- 
where. 

16. Apart from the increase of land by 

increase of shingle, is any land being 
gained from the sea ? If so, state — 

(a) From what cause, as embanking 

salt-marsh or tidal foreshore. 

(b) The area so regained, and from 

what date. 

17. Are there ' dunes ' of blown sand in 

your district 1 If so, state — 

(«) The name by which they are 

locally known. 
(&) Their mean and greatest height. 
(e) Their relation to river mouths 

and to areas of shingle. 

(d) If they are now increasing. 

(e) If they blow over the land ; or 
are prevented from so doing by 
' bent grass ' or other vegetation, 
or by water channels. 

18. Mention any reports, papers, maps, 

or newspaper articles that have 
appeared upon this question bear- 
ing upon your district (copies will 
be thankfully received by the 
Secretaries). 

19. Remarks bearing on the subject that 
may not seem covered by the fore- 
going questions. 

inmost cases be rendered more precise 

•eferred to. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. H. Green and 
L. C. Miall and Messrs. John Brigg and ^ James W. Davis 
(Secretary), appointed to assist in the Exploration of the Ray gill 
Fissure in Lothersdale, Yorkshire. 
During the past year operations have been entirely suspended, to 
enable the proprietors of the quarry in which the fissure is situated to 
remove, by quarrying, a large mass of limestone, which greatly interfered 
with the work of excavation by your Committee. The removal of this 
limestone is now nearly completed, and it is hoped that in two or three 
months the examination of the fissure may be resumed. The importance 
of the work was sufficiently demonstrated in the report of last year, and 
your Committee suggest that the grant of 15?. should be renewed and 
increased to 202. They wish to express their sense of the kindness of the 
proprietors, Messrs. Spencer, who have, at considerable cost and no small 
inconvenience, greatly facilitated the work of the Committee, besides 
reducing the cost of its future explorations. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 241 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. K. Etheridge, 
Mr. Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne (Secretary}, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Earthquake 
Phenomena of Japan. Drawn wp by the Secretary. 

DrniNG the last year, that is, from Jane 1§83 to the end of May 18£4, 
only thirty-nine earthquakes have heen recorded in Tokio. In the three 
previous years during corresponding periods the number of records were 
75, 57, and 28. Not only have the shocks been few in number, but they 
have also been unusually feeble. At the time when the greatest shocks 
occurred, which was at the end of December and in January, I was 
absent from Tokio on a visit to the Takashima Colliery, near Nagasaki, 
with the object of establishing an underground observatory. 

Although, as these remarks indicate, my opportunities for the obser- 
vation of earthquakes have been small, I am pleased to state that I have 
been singularly fortunate in obtaining a series of most interesting records, 
and at the same time have had leisure to work up a portion of the nu- 
merous observations which during the last few years have been steadily 
accumulating. A few of the results which have been obtained have 
already been communicated to the Seismological Society. These, together 
with others which yet remain for publication, are briefly as follows : 

Determination of areas from which the shalcings so often felt in North Japan- 
emanate. 

In my report to the British Association in 1882, I stated that I had 
sent bundles of postcards to all the important towns within a radius of 
sixty to one hundred miles of Yedo, with a request that every week one 
of these cards should be returned to me together with a statement of the 
earthquakes which had been felt. Subsequently the boundary of the 
postcard area was extended until it covered the whole of Japan north of 
Tokio. I did not extend the area far towards the south, because I quickly 
discovered that it was seldom that earthquakes originated in that direction 
whilst disturbances travelling from the north towards the south quickly 
died out as they reached heavy mountain ranges which in that part of the 
country had a strike at right angles to the direction in which the dis- 
turbances were travelling. At the end of September 18S3, after exactly 
two years of observation, I ceased to supply my correspondents with 
postcards and commenced the arrangement and analysis of the accumu- 
lated material. From regular observers I found that I had received 
about 1,500 letters, whilst there were also a large number of others from 
casual correspondents. I also had the records of instruments placed in 
various parts of the country, and a very extensive series of diagrams and 
notes made by myself and others in Tokio and Yokohama. 

In the two years I refer to, in North Japan and Yezo 387 earthquakes 
had been noted. Of each of these I was enabled to draw a map showing 
the area over which it had been felt, and to indicate approximately its 
origin. In the determination of origins I was greatly assisted by the 
records of instruments and the time observations which had been checked 
by daily time signals sent by the Telegraph Department from Tokio. 
One hundred and twenty-five of these maps drawn on a small scale 

1884. R 



242 eepobt — 1884. 

I am glad to Lave it in my power to say are now being published by tlie 
Seismological Society. 

The results which these observations have given, although in certain 
cases only confirmatory of previous observations, may be epitomised as 
follows : — 

1. Out of the 387 shocks, 254 have been local, the area shaken in 
some cases not exceeding 50 square miles. The remaining 133 disturb- 
ances each shook an area with an average diameter of 45 miles. A few 
of the larger shocks shook an area the radius of which was at least 150 
miles. As the latter originated far out at sea their effects on the land 
were small. At least fifteen cases have occurred when an earthquake 
has been practically felt at the same time over two distant areas — obser- 
vers in the intermediate areas not having felt any disturbance. The 
distance between such areas has been as much as 150 miles. 

2. The area where the most earthquakes have been felt is along the 
line of the Tonegawa, especially near its mouth, which is one of the 
flattest parts of Japan. No less than eighty-four per cent, of all the 
earthquakes observed have originated beneath the Pacific Ocean, or on 
the land close to the sea-board. 

The volcanic regions of Japan and the mountainous districts are sin- 
gularly free from earthquakes. 

Unless an earthquake is very severe it invariably grows feebler as it 
approaches the mountains and then dies out without crossing them. The 
mountains referred to are broad ranges, having peaks from 6,000 to 
10,000 feet in height. 

In many respects the distribution of seismic activity in Japan holds a 
close relationship to the distribution in South America. In the centre of 
Japan we have high mountain ranges consisting of granite, metamorphic 
slates and limestones, and old volcanic rocks, perforated by the vents 
from which materials have been ejected to form modern volcanoes. 

The mountains to the eastward slope steeply beneath a deep ocean, 
whilst to the west there is a very gentle slope. The earthquakes chiefly 
originate on the steep slope beneath the deep ocean. In South America 
many of the destructive earthquakes appear to have had a similar origin. 

3. Of the 387 earthquakes, 278 occurred during the winter months 
and 109 during the summer months. If, for convenience, we consider the 
intensity of an earthquake as being proportional to the area shaken, then 
the seismic energy of the winter months to that of the summer months 
is in the I'atio of about 3:1. 

In the whole of Japan on the average there is at least one shock per 
day, possibly two or three. This is a number which European seismo- 
logists, basing their calculations on catalogues (which for Japan are ex- 
ceedingly imperfect), have given for the whole world. 

4. Takiug either the 387 earthquakes here referred to, or the records 
of earthquakes made during the last ten years in Tokio, by means of 
instruments working automatically, we find that their occurrence closely 
follows curves of temperature. A peculiarity is that the sinuses of the 
curves of mean monthly temperatures are generally a little in advance of 
the crests of the waves indicating the frequency of earthquakes. In con- 
nection with this observation attention may be drawn to the fact that the 
curves of temperature are those for the air, whilst many of the earth- 
quakes originated beneath the ocean, which gains temperature slowly and 
loses it slowly. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 243 

5. There has been no marked connection between the occurrence of 
earthquakes and the position of the moon. 

6. Earthquakes have been 11-2 per cent, more numerous at low 
water than at high water. It is frequently assumed that earthquakes are 
more frequent at one time rather than at another. I have spent much 
time m the tabulation of the earthquakes of Japan and other countries 
comparing together the frequency of earthquakes at certain phases of the 
moon, at particular seasons, during the day as compared with the night 
relatively to the state of the barometer and other meteorological changes' 
&c., with tne general result that there are no strongly marked periods 
when earthquakes may be expected, the exceptions to rules which may 
be formulated being almost as numerous as the cases which were the 
foundation for the rules. The most marked rule about earthquakes is 
that they chiefly occur during the cold months. 

7. With regard to the nature of earthquake motion as deduced from 
the numerous diagrams which have been obtained, I cannot say that 
they do more than confirm the results which I have already communi- 
cated to the British Association. The greater number of shocks had a 
duration of from twenty to sixty seconds, but some lasted more than four 
minutes. 1 he duration recorded depended on the situation of the 
observer, and on the nature of the instruments. Two observers, with 
similar instruments, two or three hundred yards apart, might con- 
siderably differ as to the length of time assigned for the duration of a 
disturbance. If one observer was situated on a marsh whilst the other 
was on hard ground, the former would record the longer time for the 
duration ot sensible motion. 

An instrument with a large multiplying index, and sensitive to small 
mt quick movements, will often commence to write a record before an 
^rument which has only a small multiplying power. Again, an instru- 
ment with very little friction, and susceptible to very slow movements 
•ill continue to write a record, after an instrument with considerable 
friction has ceased to move Strictly speaking it would appear that 
tne whole of an earthquake has never vet been recorded; many of the 
preliminary tremors at the commencement of a disturbance and the slow 
pulsations which bring a disturbance to a close being lost. 

I he preliminary tremors have an amplitude which is a small fraction 

of a millimeter, and a period of twenty-five seconds to sixteen seconds. 

I he tremors may be followed by a shock which consists of three or four 

v rapidly performed back and forth motions, having an amplitude of 

£m one to ten millimeters. The maximum acceleration during such a 

ZZtZ e l' C i Cn] ? e * on .* he assumption of harmonic motion, sometimes 

~ % I'- / red milhmeters P^ ^cond. Such a shock is on the 

Z g t i i ng - 1 f aT) S erous - In ordinary disturbances it is from ten to 

rreiukv ;^V m f rS Per ^^ After the shock we * et a serie * of 

moS »™ I 'J 6 ?/ P ! accom P amed h 7 other shocks. These irregular 
Swi , 1 CafcUreS m ° rdinar ^ disturbances, and the tremors 

wKf may -,r e abSGnt - The maxim ™ amplitude recorded is from a 

ive seco° I?/ 111 1 1 " 16 ' 61 ' t0 ?** £ tw0 millimeters. The period is from 
vrtrET, I ? Se "° UdS - Tbe direCti0n of motion of the * e ^regular 

conntZ Z SI aDtIy - Chan x? e f- The ^' d0 not a PP ear to ha ™ a "y direct 
drrStio^ Z I h t ha t 7 WhlCh tbe ea rtMuake is being propagated. The 
propagation ' howe7er » S ° CmS t0 C ° incide ™ fch the direction of 

e2 



244 report- -1884. 

As the disturbance dies out the period of these irregular movements 
increases, and waves with a period of two or three seconds have been 

recorded. 

For information respecting the velocity of propagation, I will refer 
to my report of 1881, where some general results were given. ^ I shortly 
expect to be able to give more definite information on this subject. 

Experiments on the Direction of Motion of a Point. 

Hitherto the only means that we have had at our disposal for de- 
termining the direction of motion of a point, has been either to combine 
the records of two rectangular components, or to trace a few of the more 
conspicuous curves in a record given by a seismograph writing on a 
stationary plate. Both of these methods can only be applied to prominent 
vibrations in a record, and each of them, unless under special circum- 
stances, is liable to error. The records given by seismographs with 
single indices writing on moving plates, are for several reasons also open 
to error, especially perhaps on account of the friction of the moving plate 
exerting a drag on the recording index. To partially overcome these 
difficulties, I have constructed a record receiver which works as follows : 

Shortly after the commencement of the disturbance, the smoked plate 

on which the index of a seismograph is writing, is suddenly^ dropped 
vertically out of range of the index. It is next pushed along horizontally, 
and then raised vertically back to its original level, so that it is again in 
contact with the recording point. 

This operation is quickly repeated twelve times, at intervals of every 
two seconds, so that twelve different diagrams are obtained on a strip of 
smoked glass, each one being written on a different part of the plate. In 
this way all effects of drag produced by the moving plate upon the pointer 
are eliminated. As I have thus far only obtained one set of diagrams, I 
must reserve a description of the results until a future occasion. 

The simultaneous observation of Earthquakes at three stations in 
Telegrajihic connection. 

The advantages to ba gained by the observation of earthquakes at three 
or more stations in telegraphic connection were first definitely pointed 
out by Professor J. A. Ewing, in a communication to the Seismological 
Society. A very similar method had, however, been previously followed 
by Mr. T. Gray and myself, in our observations on artificially produced 
disturbances. 

The method which I am now following is briefly as follows :— Near 
to my house I have established, at the corners of a triangle, the sides of 
which are each approximately 800 feet, similar instruments. These are 
fixed on the heads of stakes level with the surface of the ground. The 
records are written on smoked glass plates which at the time of an earth- 
quake are drawn by means of a falling weight beneath the writing indices. 
By means of electrical connections, these plates are simultaneously set in 
motion by the withdrawal of a catch. As they move along, time intervals 
are marked by levers deflected by electro-magnets every time a small 
pendulum passes a cup of mercury. The pendulum, which is usually held 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



245 



deflected, is set swinging by an automatic arrangement in my honse. Its 
first swing relieves the catches and sets the plates in motion. By means 
of the time ticks it is easy to compare the occurrence of any special 
vibration taken at the various stations within one hundredth part of a 
second. At the corner of my triangle, at Station Number I., the ground 
is moderately hard. Station IT. is situated on a small promontory leading 
out into a marsh and near a shallow pond. Station III., where the 
ground is moderately hard, is behind a heavy brick building whicb stands 
very near to the almost perpendicular face of a deep moat. The results 
which have hitherto been obtained, are briefly as follows : — 

1. The diagram extending over the longest period of time and showing 
the largest waves is always obtained from Station II. in the vicinity of 

'the marshy ground,- -the diagrams at the other two stations being much 
smaller. The smallest record is invariably that at Station III. near the 
deep moat. 

2. At Statious I. and II. waves which may be the same can oc- 
casionally be identified, but the identification of a wave at III., which is 
common to I. and II., is not only rare, but it is accompanied by great un- 
certainty. 

3. In a given earthquake we find that the frequency of waves at the 
different stations in given intervals of time is different. For example, the 
number of complete east and west vibrations during the first twenty 
seconds of time at the different stations during five earthquakes was as 
follows : — 



Frequency of Waves. 
Number of Waves in twenty seconds 



1884. 
Date of Earthquake 


Station I. 


Station II. 


Station III. • 


March 26 . 

March 31 . 

April 6 .... 

May 6 

May 11 


18 
23 
25 
61 
58 


14 

20 
21 
50 
50 


Not observed 
21 
20 
61 
04 



From the above table it is evident that the average period must be 
different at different stations. The small number of waves observed at 
Station III. in March 31 and April 6 is probably due to the smallness in 
amplitude of many waves, which, because the period of the earthquakes 
was long, have coalesced in the diagram to form a straight line. Speaking 
generally we may say that the average period is longest at Station II. 
near the marsh. 

At any given station, however, the period varies considerably during 
the same disturbance. Thus, in March 31, the period of the north and 
south motion near the commencement of the disturbance was '26 second. 
A few seconds later it was -4 second. 

A similar result is obtained by the analysis of the diagram taken at 
fetation II. Selecting the largest waves from the diagrams of the different 



246 



REPORT — 1884. 



eartliquakes which are seen to be in the north and south components of 
motion, their periods in seconds are as follows : — 

Periods in Seconds 











1884. 
Date of Earthquake 


Station I. 


Station II. 


Station III. 


March 26 . 


•66 


•66 


. 


March 31 . 


•26 


•28 


•33 


April 6 
May 6 
May 11 . 


■45 
•48 
•26 


•65 

■60 
•45 


•40 
■53 
•28 



The maximum amplitudes or half semi-oscillation in millimeters 
measured in the north and south components, are as follows : — 

Amplitudes in Millimeters 



1884. 


Station I. 


Station II. 


Station III. 


Date of Earthquake 








March 26 . 


■166 


•65 





March 31 






•062 


104 


•041 


April 6 






•16 


•8 


•08 


May 






•:: 


•I 


•08 


May 11 






■29 


•s 


•08 



On the assumption of harmonic motion the maximum velocities in 
millimeters per second calculated from the above periods and amplitudes 
are as follows : — 

Maximum Velocities in Millimeters per second 



1884. 


Station I. 


Station [I. 


Station II!. 


Date of Earthquake 








March 26 . 


1-6 


5-6 




March 31 , 


1-4 


2-2 


•75 


April 6 


2-2 


7-4 


1-2 


May 6 


37 


10 


1 '9 


May 11 . . . 


7 


10 


1-7 

1 



The maximum acceleration in millimeters per second calculated from 
the maximum velocities and amplitudes, is as follows : — 

Maximum Acceleration in Millimeters per second 



1884. 
Date of Earthquake 


Station I. 


Station II. 


Station IIL 


March 26 . 


1-4 


48-2 


_ 


March 31 




• • 


31-2 


46-r» 


13-7 


April 6 




• ■ 


302 


68-4 


18 


May 6 




• • 


45-6 


100 


101 


i May 11 




• 


203 


125 


361 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 247 

From this last table we see that, although the period of motion at 
Station II. is slow in consequence of the very large amplitude usually 
experienced at that station, the maximum velocity, and more markedly 
the maximum acceleration, which may be taken as a measure of the 
intensity or destructive power of a disturbance, have been much greater 
than at Stations I. and III. 

One of the most remai-kable earthquakes in the series was that of March 
26. Although the amplitude of this was sufficiently great to constitute 
a destructive shock, the period was so long that the disturbance almost 
escaped attention. Several persons observed lamps and pendulums 
swinging, and thought there might be an earthquake occurring, but I only 
found one or two persons who detected any motion of the ground or 
bnilding. 

Speaking generally about these observations, it may be said that had 
three independent observers been placed at the three stations which are 
only 800 feet apart, and each had been provided with similar instruments, 
they could not have failed in giving very different accounts of the same 
earthquake, both as to its period, its duration, and, I may add, its direc- 
tion. A result of practical interest that is dependent in the records which 
I have obtained, is the benefit to be derived by engineers and architects 
by making a systematic seismic survey of the ground, on which they 
intend to erect important structures in earthquake-shaken districts. 



Observations with the Gray-Milne Seismograph. 

As this instrument has been described and illustrated in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society of London ' (vol. xxxix. p. 218) , and in other 
publications, I will not describe the details of its construction. It consists of 
a pair of conical pendulum seismographs, which record upon the smoked 
surface of a drum, two mutually rectangular components of the horizontal 
motion of the earth. The drum is kept continuously in motion by clock- 
work. The vertical motion is described by a spring lever seismograph. 
At a certain part of the earthquake, a mark is made on the drum, simul- 
taneously with which time is recorded from a specially arranged time- 
piece. By this means the time can be calculated at which any particular 
vibration of an earthquake occurred. 

As the instrument is designed more for the systematic observation of 
earthquakes, rather than for experimental purposes, I entered into corre- 
spondence with the Meteorological Department of this country to admit it 
into their department as an instrument for regular observation. This 
Mr. Arai Ikunosuke, the director of the Meteorological Department, has 
kindly done. After repairing slight damage, which it suffered in its 
transit, it was exhibited to His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of this 
country. Since then a heavy brick column on a massive concrete foun- 
dation has been built for its instalment, and it has been put in charge of a 
regular observer. During the early part of this year, although several 
earthquakes were experienced, no results were obtained. This was due to 
the pointers of the conical or horizontal pendulums, which are extremely 
sensitive to slight changes in level, slowly wandering to the right and left 
of their normal position on the revolving drum. The consequence of 
this was, that instead of simply tracing in the smoked surface a single 
line, they made a path sometimes an inch in breadth, and when the earth- 



248 uepokt- 1884. 

quake came the smoked surface on which the record ought to have been 
written had been removed. 

Although I varied the adjustments of the instrument in a variety of 
manners, I was unable to destroy this tendency to wander. The only 
explanation which I can offer of the phenomena, is that it is either due to 
a settlement taking place in the column, which from the nature of the 
motion is unlikely, or that it was due to actual changes in the level of the 
soil. 

As a final resort the point of suspension of the conical pendulums was 
brought sufficiently forwards to give them a definitely stable position, 
since which all earthquakes which have occurred have been successfully 
recorded. Although I have in this manner destroyed the sensibility of 
the instrument, I may remark that it is sufficiently sensitive to give a 
daily record of the tiring of a time gun, situated more than 100 yards 
distant. The intervening ground is hard and full of excavations. 

Hitherto, I have not had time to analyse the various records which 
have been obtained, and am therefore compelled for the present to reserve 
any report upon them. Mr. Gray is, I am pleased to say, constructing 
two new seismographs. These are so arranged that they will record, 
either slow tips in the soil or earthquakes, the diagrams being made with 
ink on a strip of paper. 

Experiments on a Building to resist Earthquake motion. 

I have previously drawn attention to the great difference in the 
effects which moderately strong earthquakes have produced upon 
European and on Japanese types of buildings, the former being more or 
less shattered whilst the latter escape without any apparent damage. In 
the one case we have a building of brick and mortar firmly attached by 
its foundations to the shaking earth, whilst in the other we have a light 
wooden structure resting loosely on boulders. If the former is of a type 
for which patents have been granted, where iron hoops and tie rods 
together with all the devices which give strength and solidity have been 
employed, it certainly resists the effects of disturbances which have 
shattered buildings of ordinary construction. An important objection 
to dwellings of this order is their great expense. 

With the above considerations before one, and with a knowledge that 
the chief motion in the majority of earthquakes in this country is the 
horizontal component, I have erected for experimental purposes a small 
building resting on four cast-iron balls. 

The building, which measures 20 feet by 14 feet, is constructed of 
timber with a shingle roof, plaster walls and ceiling of laths and paper. 
The balls rest on cast-iron plates with saucer-like edges fixed on the 
heads of piles. Above the balls and attached to the building are cast- 
iron plates, slightly concave but otherwise similar to those below. From 
the records of instruments placed in the building, it would appear that at 
the time of the earthquake there is a slow back and forth motion, but 
that all the sudden motion or shock has been destroyed. Thus far the 
building or rather its foundations have proved successful in eliminating 
the destructive element of motion. 

I am now experimenting on the foundations by using fiat plate?, and 
by giving such frictional resistances to movement that the building may 
become astatic. If this is successful, as I trust it will be, although devices 



OX THE JUUTHQUAKE PHKNOMENA OF JAPAN. 249 

are yet required to destroy the vertical motion of earthquakes, .something 
of practical value will have been done to mitigate the serious results which 
accompany destructive earthquakes by the elimination of their horizontal 
movements. 

On the Establishment of an Underground Observatory. 

In December last year I visited the Takashima Colliery, near Nagasaki, 
with the object of making investigations preparatory to the establishment 
of an underground observatory. The phenomena which I had the inten- 
tion of observing were : — 

1. Earth-tremors. — It has been observed that these microscopic move- 
ments of the soil accompany barometric falls, and it is therefore probable 
that they may hold some relationship to the escape ot gas which in 
certain parts of the Takashima mine is a source of considerable danger. 
At this mine the gas escapes several hours before any marked changes 
take place in the barometrical column. Should it be found that the 
occurrence of tremors precedes barometric fluctuations the utility of the 
observations is obvious. 

The instruments to be used for observation are tromometers, like those 
employed by Bertelli and Rossi in Italy, and microphones in a telephonic 
circuit. During my short stay at the mine, I found that a microphone 
placed in an unworked part of the mine was at times very active. 

2. The observation of delicate levels for the purpose of recording any 
variations which may take place in the inclination cf the ground. Since 
I left the mine, Mr. John Stcddart, the chief engineer, who has under- 
taken these various investigations, writes me that he commenced 
observations with the levels on the surface of the ground. Owing to a 
gradual subsidence, due to the underground excavations, which is 
evidenced by numerous cracks on the surface, the changes in the levels 
are so great that it will be necessary to establish them underground. 

3. The measurement of the sinking of the underground excavations. 
As the mine, which is very large, extends a long distance beneath the 
ocean, it is not unlikely that some connection may be found between the 
movement of the roof and the tides. Mr. Stoddart tells me that the 
contrivance for indicating these effects yields such marked results that a 
number of similar apparatus are being made for distribution in different 
parts of the workings. 

4. The observation of earth-currents. Whilst I was at the mine, 
feeble currents were visible on a line only sixty yards in length. 

In consequence of a fire which broke out in the mine shortly after I 
left, it is only quite recently that Mr. Stoddart has had opportunity to 
turn his attention to these investigations. At a future period I trust 
that I may be able to report upon them. For facilities enabling these 
observations to be made, my thanks are due to the Mitsu Bishi Company, 
who are the owners of the mine. 

Earth-tremors and Earth-pulsations. 

For the present, the observations on earth-tremors in Tokio have 
been discontinued. The observations on changes in inclination of the 
ground, as shown by the movements in the bubbles of levels and in the 
position of the stile of a pendulum relatively to a point beneath it, are 



250 report— 1884. 

still going on. At the Imperial Observatory a special column 1ms been 
constructed for these latter observations, and a large series of records are 
being collected. To work up the observations already made on earth- 
tremors and earth-pulsations will require considerable time, and I 
therefore am compelled for the present to reserve any report on them. 

Notes in connection with Observations made in the Underground 

Observatory at the Talcaskima Colliery near Nagasaki. 

Observations with fixed Spirit Levels, 8fc. 

These levels have been tried both on the surface and below ground, but 
I find that, owing to the extensive underground workings, the move- 
ment in the whole mass of the island is so great as to entirely vitiate any 
record of the more minute earth-movements. 

The excess and irregulai'ity of the movement in the strata of the 
island is owing to the fact that we are working simultaneously three 
seams of coal of the aggregate thickness of 30 to 36 feet. The lowest 
seam (which is the only one in which we can hope to get a stable founda- 
tion) measures 18 feet in thickness, with a soft shale floor of great depth, 
on account of which it takes both ' creep ' and ' crush ' ; giving a con- 
stantly varying set of movements from which it is impossible to obtain 
any reliable statistics. 

The same reasons render the observations by the microphone and 
microseismometer totally unreliable. 

The lever microphone — with which we have been experimenting — 
when delicately balanced, registers an almost continuous rattle of sounds 
caused by the passage of coal-trucks, the ' falling ' of coal, and the 
' working' or crushing of the strata. 

Even when the delicacy of the balance is reduced, so that it does not 
render a single vestige of sound away from the colliery, it still continues 
to register intermittent sounds, which can only be attributed to these 
above-named causes when brought into the mine or on the island. 

The microseismometer also shows constant tremors going on, accom- 
panied by very considerable deflections, but without any periodicity or 
constancy of direction. 

In order to be sure that this irregularity was caused by the under- 
ground workings, I made a short series of experiments on the mainland 
at Nagasaki, nine miles distant, with such results as perfectly convinced 
me of the unreliableness of the observations at Takasima. 

I am, however, strongly of opinion that observations of considerable 
value in their application to the prediction of the out-flow of carburetted 
hydrogen in coal mines can be obtained from the microseismometer under 
the following conditions. 

1st. That it would need to be erected at a sufficient distance from the 
mines to insure its being unaffected by tremors caused by the under- 
ground workings. 

2nd. That it must be close enough to the mines to insure its being 
affected by the same earth-tremors as are likely to affect the coal strata. 

I am led to form the above opinion from the fact that in the brief 
experiments which I was able to make on the mainland, any increase in 
the intensity of vibration and amplitude of deflection seemed as a rule to 
precede a diminution of the barometrical pressure, and it also seems 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. ^51 

highly probahle that an increase of vibratory motion in the coal strata 
■would tend to facilitate the outflow of gases contained therein in even a 
greater ratio than would the diminution of atmospheric pressure. My 
personal experience in mining tends entirely to support this deduction, 
as I have invariably found that in places where tbe outflow of gas was 
fairly constant as a general rule, it always increased to a greater or less 
extent when what is technically called any ' working ' of the strata took 
place. 

For the purpose of obtaining more reliable statistics on this head, I 
have arranged with Mr. F. Ringer of Nagasaki to erect the microseis- 
mometer at his observatory on the mainland, eight miles from this island, 
and we shall be able, by making simultaneous observations, to connect his 
notes with those made at the observatory at the mine. Of course it 
would be preferable to have the mainland observatory situated at a point 
much closer to the mines than this one is, but there is no place nearer 
where we can be sure of having a reliable observer. 

Observations on Earth-currents, ijr. 

Owing to my inexperience in magnetic observation and the difficulty 
in getting suitable apparatus constructed or erected down here, I have 
only begun to make regular observations during: the current month. 
Previous to this, however, I have been making isolated experiments with 
such rough-and-ready apparatus as could be constructed on the spot. 

The results are briefly as follows: — 

With one wire connected with an iron bar fixed in the line of a 
fault below-groixnd, and the other end fixed to a similar bar inserted m the 
strata at a distance of about 100 yards, there was a considerable deflection 
in a home-made galvanometer. 

With both ends connected with the coal strata below ground, but 
away from the vicinity of any fault, the deflection was hardly perceptible. 

With one end fixed to the rod inserted in tbe fault below ground, and 
the other connected with the surface strata, the deflection was again con- 
siderable. I then erected the apparatus in my own house, connecting one 
end with a rod inserted in the line of a fault, at a short depth from the 
surface, and the other with the surface strata with the home-made gal- 
vanometer I got slight though perceptible deflections, and with the 
galvanometer which was received from Tokio I have since obtained 
deflections quite capable of registration. 

Owing to my own inexperience and the meagreness of the statistics 
which I have been able to collect, it would be altogether absurd to give 
any opinion, as yet. as to the connection (if any) between the movements 
of the galvanometer and the outflow of gas in the mine, and I think that 
it is preferable to collect at least one year's statistics before saying any- 
thing further on the subject, than to state that, so far as the experiments 
have progressed, they tend to render me sanguine that such a connection 
might be established, and also that I would be most happy to receive any 
advice or suggestions on the subject from people more experienced in the 
subject than myself. 

Tidal Observations. 

With regard to the observations to be made with a view to establish 
the connection (if any) between the crushing together of the roof and 
floor of the mine and the rise and fall of the tide, Mr. Stoddart writes: — 



2.52 report— 1884. 

"I have hitherto made but little progres3 with these experiments, 
owing to the difficulties I have had in constructing a tide-gauge to give 
a daily and hourly register of the rise and fall of the tide, and also in 
constructing an apparatus for registering the crush of the mine in a 
similar manner. 

" With the little machine which you designed when you were down 
here I have been able to demonstrate perfectly the most minute move- 
ments of the roof and floor in approaching one another, but it is impos- 
sible to be sure as to whether the approach is accelerated or retarded as 
the tide rises and falls until I have completed the construction of a clock 
register. 

" I think that it will be better, therefore, to refrain from remarking on 
this subject, further than to say that it is being worked at. 

" John Stoddaet, 

" To Johx Milne, Esq.. Takashima: 26th June, 1884. 

Kobu Dai Gakko, Tokio." 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Kay Laxkester, 
Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Seduwick, Pro- 
fessor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddox, and Mr. Percy 
Sladex (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for 
the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. 

Every year since their first appointment, your Committee have had the 
agreeable duty of recording the annually increasing success of the 
Zoological Station at Naples. On the present oceasiou they are able to 
report that at no previous period of its existence has the Institution been 
in a more flourishing condition than now. Forty-one naturalists have 
worked at the station during the past twelve months, which brings the 
number to nearly three hundred who have occupied its tables since the 
commencement in ] 873. Large though the establishment already is, it 
has for some time been desirable to make additions to the building in 
order to furnish the means for still further extending the general scope 
of the institution. From the very outset it has been the aim of the 
founder, Professor Dohrn, to develop the physiological as well as the 
morphological investigation of marine organisms, although the latter has 
necessarily hitherto been the chief concern of the station. It is now 
intended to erect a new building for a physiological laboratory, adjacent to 
the present station. For this purpose the municipality of Naples has 
voted 300 square metres of land ; and well-founded hopes are entertained 
that very considerable contributions towards this enlargement of the 
station may be expected from the Italian Government. 

Further assistance for Dr. Dohrn's undertaking is forthcoming from 
Germany, where a public subscription is now being organised throughout 
the country, in consequence of a meeting held in Berlin on June 26, for 
the purpose of presenting the Station with a larger seagoing steamei', 
which is to be fitted up as a floating laboratory ; and it is also proposed to 
endow the Station with a Pension and Reserve Fund. The meeting in 
question was attended by a number of eminent statesmen and scientists, 
the Minister of Public Instruction, together with the President and Vice- 






ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLE?. 253 

President of the Reichstag, taking a prominent part in the proceedings. 
A letter was also read from H.R.H. the Crown Prince to Dr. Dohrn, in 
which His Royal Highness expressed his interest in the station, and an- 
nounced his pleasure in supporting the movement. Worthy testimony 
was borne by the above-named members of the German Government to 
the services rendered to science by Professor Dohrn, and of the appre- 
ciation in which his many personal sacrifices in the establishment and 
maintenance of the station were held. The responsibility of the Govern- 
ment in fostering such an undertaking was also fully acknowledged. 

Since the last Report was presented additional tables have been taken 
by Italy and Prussia, supplementary to those previously engaged. These 
countries as well as Bavaria, Baden, and Cambridge, have also agreed to 
increase their subscription to 100Z. per annum for each table ; and similar 
negotiations are pending with other lessors. With reference to the ex- 
pected increase above indicated, in the income of the station, the Direc- 
torate wish to point out that it is to be entirely devoted to the purpose 
of increasing the present means of investigation, and of establishing a 
large physiological laboratory. The fulfilment of such anticipations 
would enable the station to conduct important and exhaustive investiga- 
tions on sea-fisheries, to develope their scientific basis, and to prosecute 
biological researches in the widest aspect on questions touching the 
habits, localities, etc., of marine animals and plants ; in short, to embi'ace- 
the whole field of organic research in the sea. 

The General Collections. — The Zoological Station has this year for the 
first time received a welcome addition in the form of a valuable series of 
foreign specimens. These consist of two large collections of well-pre- 
served animals and plants from the Atlantic, and the Eastern and Western 
coasts of South America, obtained by Captain Chierchia of the ' Vettor 
Pisani ' (Italian navy), an officer who had received instruction at the 
station during the winter of 1881-2 in the methods of preserving marine 
organisms. The various groups have been distributed amongst Italian 
and German naturalists for determination and investigation. Further col- 
lections are also expected shortly from other Italian and German ships. 

The Publications of the Station. — The following details will indicate 
the activity of this department of the Zoological Station. 

1. Of the ' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel,' the following 
monographs have been published since the last Report : — 

VII. R. Valiante, Cystoseirce, 30 pp., 15 pi. 

IX. A. Andres, Actinia (parte prima), 459 pp., 13 col. pi. 

X. B. Uljanin, Doliolvm, 139 pp., 12 pi. 

XI. A. Lang, Polycladce, (1. Halfte), 240 pp., 24 pi. 
XII. G. Berthold, Cryptonemiacece, 24 pp., 8 pi. 

Of the following list the first mentioned work is already in the press,, 
and the others are in course of preparation. 

A. Lang, Polycladce (2. Halfte), about 400 pp., 16 pi. 
J. Fraipont, Polygordiiis. 
G. v. Koch, Goryoniidm. 
I\ Falkenberg, liliodomelcce. 

2. Of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel,' 
vol. iv. has been completed, occupying 522 pp., with 40 plates ; and vol. v. 
— parts i. and ii. are already published. Several of the papers in this series 
of memoirs are written in English. 

3. The ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht ' for 1882 is published, and occu- 



254 BErOKT — 1884. 

pies 1,259 pp. ; it is divided into four sections, each with a separate alpha- 
betical index, in order that single sections may be sold separately. Of 
the 'Bericht'for 1883, sections 2 (Arthropoda), and 3 (Mollusca), are 
nearly ready, and will be published in September. The whole ' Bericht ' 
is now edited by the station, under the care of Drs. Paul Mayer and 
W. Giesbrecht. In future the arrangement of the various records will 
be more uniform, each group f animals being treated under the following 
heads: — a. Anatomy, Ontogeny, etc.; 6. Biology, Domestication, etc:; 
c. Classification and Faunal relations ; tl. Palaeontology. Special care 
■will be taken to render the section on the classification of a group intelli- 
gible to, and easy for consultation by, every zoologist whether he be a 
specialist or not — the new genera, species, varieties, and synonyms in 
every family being arranged in alphabetical lists. 

Extracts from the General Report, of the Zoological Station. — The usual 
lists of the naturalists who have worked at the station, and of the memoirs 
published by them, will be found appended, together with other details 
kindly furnished by the officers of the station. 

The British Association Table. — Your Committee have the pleasure to 
report that important researches have been successfully conducted on 
the table at their disposal during the past year ; and further that the 
table has been occupied during nearly the whole of the working season. 
The use of the table was successively granted to Mr. A. G. Bourne and 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, Mr. Bourne's period of occupation extending over 
a term of six months by special permission of the Committee. Both of 
these gentlemen have furnished reports concerning the investigations 
undertaken by them at the station, together with a summary of the 
results respectively arrived at ; and both are to be congratulated on the 
successful character of their researches. The reports in quest '.on are 
appended. 

With these gratifying assurances of the undeniable utility of the 
British Association table before them, your Committee confidently re- 
commend the renewal of the gi-ant ; and they would further specially 
recommend that the amount should be increased to 100/. (instead of 80/!. 
and 90?. as in previous years), in conformity with the arrangements made 
by the Directorate of the station with other countries. 

I. Report on the Occupation of the Table by Mr. A. G. Bourne. 

I occupied the table from November 1, 1883, until April 14, 1884. 

I devoted the creator portion of the time to a further investigation of 
the anatomy of the marine leech Pontobclclla, and, as far as material would 
allow, of Brand i ell ion. The results I obtained have been already pub- 
lished together with other matter in a paper entitled, ' Contributions to 
the Anatomy of the Hirudinea,' in the ' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical 
Science,' July 1884. 

The most important of these results consisted in a knowledge of the 
structure and relations of the nephridium in Pontobdella. This organ 
has been hitherto entirely misunderstood, some of its funnels being, 
indeed, the only portions of it known, these having been described by 
the French naturalist Vaillant, and stated by him to open directly to the 
exterior. 

I have found that there are a series of ten pairs of these funnels, and 
that they do not open directly to the exterior, but are connected v/ith a 



\ 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 2o5 

most elaborate network of tubules lying for the most part within the 
muscular layers of the body wall. Tins network is continuous, the 
portion lying on the one side of the body with the portion lying on the 
other side in the median ventral region, and is also continuous throughout 
the length of the body in the region in which it occurs— i e., from the ninth 
post-oral ganglion to the nineteenth. 

The tubules collect at certain spots, and pass down to open to the 
exterior without the intervention of any vesicle. There are 10 pairs of 
such apertures placed in somites 10-19 inclusive, upon the first annulus 
of each somite. The apertures are thus metamerically. related to the 
funnels, a pair of apertures corresponding with each pair of funnels. 

The organ in reality consists of a paired series of nephridia, each with 
a funnel to the interior, and a pore to the exterior, and these nephridia 
differ from those in llirudo, Cl&psine, etc., in that they remain continuous, 
those on the one side with those on the other, and each pair with those 
in front and behind. 

Supposing, as we are probably justified in doiug, that the organs 
have arisen by a hollowing of branching mesoblastic cells, we have here 
a structure which has only advanced upon this primitive condition in 
developing metamerically repeated funnels and apertures to the exterior. 

I obtained but very few specimens of Branchellion. I was, however, 
able to demonstrate the existence of a very similar nephridium in that 
genus, but I believe far simpler, in that it has not developed any internal 
funnels and has only a single pair of pores to the exterior, these corre- 
sponding to the most posterior pair in Pontobdella. : 

The commonest Pontobdella at Naples belongs to the species P. 
mwricata, but I obtained single specimens of perhaps two other species, 
and a specimen which must probably form a new genus ; but I should 
wish to become much more fully acquainted with all the varieties at 
present known before entering upon any toxonomic questions in a group 
which presents considerable difficulties in this respect, the characters of 
most value in forming a systematic arrangement— the number of annuli 
in a somite, etc. — being at present very inaccurately described. 

Since the discovery of Haplob ran elms, a new genus of Capitobran- 
chiate Annelids belonging to a small, but in many ways very interesting 
group, I have endeavoured to obtain as many members of the group 
as possible, in order to complete a comparative study of the group ; this 
I carried out further at Naples. I obtained species of Oria, Fabricia, and 
Am/pMglena, and obtained new results with regard to the structure of these 
forms. ^ I may state here that I have confirmed the observations of 
Claparede, which have lately been doubted, as to the arrangement of the 
modified pair of nephridia which serve as tubiparous glands, and the median 
position of their aperture to the exterior, in Amphiglena. 

At the request of Professor Laukester, I undertook the investigation 
of certain problems connected with the blood system of Mollusca and the 
supposed taking in and shedding out of water by these animals. I studied 
bolen legumen, and entirely corroborated the results previously obtained 
at Naples by F. G. Penrose, to the effect that ordinary blood does not exist 
in the pencardinm of that animal, and so probably of other Lamelli- 
branchs This I demonstrated by means of serial sections which show 
tne nucleated blood corpuscles lying in the ventricle, but absent from the 
pericardium. 

With regard to the supposed taking in of water, I kept various forms, 



256 report— 1884. 

Solen,, Solecurtus, Psammobia, Venus, and others, alive in sea- water, 
coloured by various bodies, botli in solution and finely particulate, and 
afterwards obtained sections of various regions ; but in no case was there 
any evidence of anything having been taken in. With iodine green in 
the sea-water, I found, however, that the colouring matter penetrated, 
but not from any particular spot, all through to a certain depth ; the 
tissues, in fact, became stained while living, a condition well known to be 
possible with some other anilin dyes — Bismarck brown, for instance. 

I mad3 some observations upon the ' Topfchen,' or ' ciliated pots,' which 
occur in the ccelomic fluid of Sipunculus. I find that they present two 
kinds of cilia — a bundle of central long cilia, and around these a circlet 
of shorter cilia ; and there may be seen groups of amoeboid corpuscles 
apparently breaking down — degenerating, surrounded by these ciliated 
pots which have their long cilia fixed into the mass and twirl themselves 
round, first one way and then the other, dragging upon the mass until 
they drag out that portion into which they have fixed their long cilia, and 
then swim off with it and, I am inclined to believe, digest it. I was, 
however, unable to arrive at any further conclusion as to their nature. 

I also examined the 'brown tubes,' the uterine pouches of Sipunculus, 
with regard to the position of their internal orifices. This I found to 
agree with a previous unpublished observation of Professor Lankester. 
It is a transversely elongated slit with ciliated lips lying close to the ex- 
ternal aperture, on or upon that surface of the gland. 

I extracted a quantity of the green colouring matter from the annelid 
Chcetopterus and brought it home in order to make a microspectroscopic 
examination. 

Lastly, I prepared sections, &c, of the suckers of various cephalopoda, 
in order to obtain facts for a comparison which I am about to make 
between these structures and the tentacles of Nautilus pompilius. 

II. Report on the Occupation of the Table by Professor A. Milnes 

Marshall. 

I reached Naples in the first week of April, and stayed there till the 
end of the month. I had originally intended to occupy myself with (or.) 
certain points in the development of the Alcyonaria, and (b) with a further 
study, in continuation of former researches, on the development of the 
muscles of the head and of the posterior cranial nerves of Elasmobranchs. 
For the former the weather and the season of year proved unfavourable; 
and of Elasmobranch embryos I was only able to obtain a limited 
number. I therefore devoted the greater portion of my time to other 
subjects, and chiefly to an experimental investigation of the nervous 
system of Antedon, with the object of deciding, if possible, the points 
of dispute between the Carpenters on the one hand, and on the other, the 
German morphologists headed by Ludwig. 

It is now nearly twenty years since Dr. Carpenter first suggested that 
the axial cords were really the nerves supplying the muscles of the arms 
of Antedon : since that time he has steadily maintained this view, and 
has supported it by a considerable mass of evidence, both anatomical and 
physiological. The same view is held by Dr. P. H. Carpenter, who has 
brought forward independent and very important evidence in its favour, 
chiefly histological and morphological. 

Ludwig, on the other hand, and the majority of the Continental writers 



ON TIIE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 257 

who hare discussed the question, maintain that the real nervous system 
of Autedon consists of the ' subepithelial bands,' which run along the 
ventral surface of the arms and disc, immediately beneath and in very 
close relation with the ciliated epithelium lining the ambnlacral grooves. 
Ludwig and those agreeing with him rely mainly on the close resem- 
blance, or actual identity, in histological structure and in relation to the 
overlying epithelium between these subepithelial bands and the ambn- 
lacral or radial ' nerves ' of the starfish, and hold that if the homology 
of these two structures bo admitted, it is extremely difficult to conceive 
that Crinoids can have in addition to thi3 normal Echinoderm' nervous 
system an additional one — i.e., the axial cords and the central capsnle 
from which they spring — which is altogether unknown and unrepresented 
in other Echinoderms. 

The Carpenters accept the nervous character of the subepithelial 
bands, but maintain that they form but a small and comparatively subor- 
dinate part of the entire nervous system. 

My own investigations consisted of an experimental examination of 
the functions, (a) of the central capsule, (b) of the axial cords, and (c) 
of the subepithelial bands. I employed both mechanical and chemical 
irritation as sources of stimulation, and limited the action of the irritants 
to the desired point by removal of the surrounding parts either mechanically 
or by means of strong nitric acid. 

Concerning the central capsule, I find that so long as this remains 
intact and in connection with the axial cords, the animal retains the power 
of co-ordinated movements of the arms, as shown by the normal swimming 
movements, and by the tendency to right itself when placed in a tank 
wrong way up — i.e., with the oral surface downwards. This power of co- 
ordinated movements is not affected by removal of the entire visceral 
mass, an operation which involves the complete isolation of the subepi- 
thelial bands of the several arms from one another. On the other hand, 
removal or destruction of the central capsule, if thoroughly performed, 
causes complete and permanent loss of the power of co-ordinated move- 
ments. I therefore conclude that the central capsule is the centre 
governing these movements. 

Concerning the axial cords, I find that irritation of them causes active 
flexion of the arm affected, and also of the other arms, provided the com- 
munications of the central capsule with the axial cords be intact. 

Division of the axial cord of an arm causes complete physiological 
separation between the parts on opposite sides of the injury, even though 
the subepithelial band be carefully preserved. From my experiments on 
the axial cords, which were very numerous and varied, I conclude that 
they are the real nerves, both motor and sensory, of the arms. 

Concerning the subepithelial bands, I find that, while certainly nervous 
in structure and presumably in function as well, they are of very sub- 
ordinate importance. The effects of irritation or destruction of them are 
almost confined to the tentacles bordering the ambulacral grooves, with 
which they are in very intimate relation. 

_ Concerning the morphological difficulty involved in the possession by 
Crinoids of an antambulacral, in addition to the normal ambulacral nervous 
system of Echinoderms, I would submit the following considerations. 
The nervous system of an Asterid is not confined to the radial ambulacral 
bands and their connecting oral commissure, but can be traced over the 
tube feet, and also over the dorsal or antambulacral surface of the animal. 

1884. s 



258 beport— iS84. 

It may, in fact, be described as a nerve-sheath extending practically over 
tbe whole animal and everywhere directly continuous with the external 
epidermis, of which, indeed, it forms the deepest and specially modified 
layer. Such a condition of the nervous system there is independent reason 
for regarding as a very primitive one ; and I regard it as the type from 
which the more specialized nervous systems of the other Echinoderms 
have been derived. This specialization consists chiefly in separation, more 
or less complete, of the nervous system from the epidermis, in exaggera- 
tion of the radial nerve bands with reduction of the intervening parts of 
the nerve sheath, and finally in sinking down of the radial nerve bands 
into and through the dermis so that they become separated from the 
external epidermis by a layer of connective tissue which may, as in 
Echinids and some Ophiurids, be firmly calcified. In Echiuids the nerve 
sheath still persists as the external nervous plexus outside the test first 
described and figured by Loven. 

I consider that in Crinoids the subepithelial bands most certainly are 
homologous with the radial or ambulacral nerves of a starfish : and I 
consider that they represent a part of a continuous nerve sheath which 
has retained permanently its primitive continuity with the epidermis. 
The axial cords, some of the branches of which can be traced into ex- 
tremely close proximity with the subepithelial bands, I regard as portions 
of the antambulacral nerve sheath which, like the radial cords of Echinids, 
Ophiurids, and Holothurids, have lost their primitive position and shifted 
into or through the dermis. 

On this view the nervous systems of all recent groups of Echinoder- 
mata can be reduced to one plan, and furthermore, an explanation is 
obtained of the histological similarity or identity between the axial cords 
and subepithelial bands, as well as of the very close relation, and pro- 
bably continuity, between the two sets of structures in Antedon. 

It must be noted, however, that while this enables us to reconcile the 
Crinoid with the other Echinoderm types of structure, it leaves the gap 
between the two groups an exceedingly wide one. Antedon, on this view, 
is very far indeed from being a primitive Echinoderm : it is, indeed, as 
regards its nervous system, the most highly differentiated of all recent 
Echinoderms. On the other hand, the starfish has retained an extremely 
primitive type of nervous system, which must probably be regarded as 
ancestral for all Echinoderms. 

A further point of interest concerning Antedon, that I observed during 
my stay at Naples, is that not only may the visceral mass be entirely 
removed from the living animal without causing death, or indeed, any 
apparent inconvenience, but that such specimens very speedily regenerate 
the whole visceral mass. I have obtained a series of specimens illustrating 
the various stages of this very remarkable and extensive regeneration, but 
have not yet had time to examine or describe them. 

I also devoted some time to an examination of fresh specimens of 
Amphioxus with the object of ascertaining whether the spinal nerves have 
single or double roots of origin. By following the methods described by 
Rohon, I have convinced myself of the accuracy of his description of 
the existence of anterior spinal roots in addition to the well-known and 
much more obvious posterior roots. Rohon's attempt, however, to 
homologize the anterior nerves of Amphioxus with certain of the cranial 
nerves of the more typical vertebrates seems to me entirely devoid of 
justification. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



259 



III. A List of Naturalists who have worJced at the Station from the end of 
June 1883 to the end of June 1884. 



Num- 




State or University 


Duration of 


Occupancy 


ber on 
List 


Naturalist's Name 


whose Table 
was made use of 








Arrival 


Departure 


216 


Prof. Gasco 


Italy 


July 20, 


1883 


Oct. 21, 1883 


217 


Prof. G. Parana. 


»» • • 


„ 31, 


» 


» -^» j> 


248 


Sig. E. Cercono . 


Italian Navy . 


Aug. 19, 


31 


Nov. 9, „ 


219 


Sig. F. Orsini . 


?» • • 


„ 20, 


»> 


Jan. 18, 1884 


250 


Dr. Crety . 


Italy 


„ 20, 


)> 


Nov. 1, 1883 


251 


Dr. C. Keller . 


Switzerland 


Sept. 4, 




Oct. 1 , ., 


252 


Dr. H. Schaninsland . 


Prussia 


„ 14, 


5? 


28 


251! 


Mrs. Dr. Boll . 


Italy 


„ 15, 


»> 


17 


254 


Dr. von Sehlen . 


Prussia 


„ 23, 


J» 


July 4,1884 


255 


Prof. N. Wagner 


Russia 


Oct. 1, 


J) 


April 16, „ 


256 


Dr. J. Walther . 


Saxony 


„ 18, 


)» 


Feb. 28, „ 


257 


Dr. M. Biisgen . 


Strassburo; 


„ 19, 


fl 


>> 1 • J 3J 


258 


Mr. A. G. Bourne 


British Association . 


Nov. 5, 


J) 


April 14, „ 


259 


Mr. John Beard 


Bavaria . 


„ 5, 




., 17, „ 


260 


Mr. W. B. Hansom . 


Cambridge 


„ ■">. 


J* 


'» Vf >) 


261 


Prof. E. Kossmann . 


Baden 


„ ' 5, 


?J 


Nov. 18, „ 


262 


Dr. G. Jatta 


Italy 


„ 26, 


»» 




263 


Dr. L. Oerley . 


Hungary . 


Dec. 9, 


Jl 


— 


204 


Prof. C. Vos,t . 


Switzerland 


12 


*» 


May 23, 1884 


265 


Mr. F. S. Harmer 


Cambridge 


90 


)» 


— . 


266 


Prof. H. Giercke 


Prussia 


,. 28, 


j* 


April 8, ,, 


267 


Sig. A. Colombo 


Italian Navy . 


Jan. 1, 


18S4 


12 


268 


Dr. van Bemmelen . 


Holland . 


1, 


J» 




269 


big. E. Stassano 


Italy 


„ 1, 


J) 





270 


Prof. F. Clarke . 


Williams Coll., U.S.A. 


,, 8, 


»» 


May 1, 1884 


271 


Dr. Albert . 


Prussia 


,, 9, 


7> 


June 17, „ 


272 


Prof. Fr. Schmitz 


,» • 


Feb. 27, 


1) 


April 12, „ 


273 


Prof. C. Eberth . 


,» ... 


„ 29, 


I> 


„ 14, „ 


274 


Dr. W. Uljanin . 


Russia 


March 5, 


») 


June 11, „ 


275 


Dr. G. Berthold 


Prussia 


„ 7, 


J> 


April 20, „ 


276 


Prof. C. Chun . 


19 ... 


„ 16, 




,, 30, „ 


277 


Dr. F. Riickert . 


Bavaria . 


,, 17, 


>» 




278 


Dr. G. Klebs . 


Wiirtemberg . 


,, 17, 


>J 


April 20, 1881 


279 


Dr. M. von Brunn 


Prussia 


„ 17, 


J) 


— . 


280 


Prof. A. M. Marshall. 


British Association . 


April 5, 


)> 


April 26, 1884 


2S1 


Dr. P. Fraisse. . 


Baden 


,, 14, 


)) 


— 


282 


Prof. Swaen 


Belgium . 


„ 1"', 


)> 


— , 


283 


Dr. Korotneff . 


Russia 


„ 25, 


J> 


June 12,1884 


284 


Dr. W. Kiikenthal . 


Prussia 


May 17, 


) J 





285 


Mr.W. Weldon. 


Cambridge 


June 21, 


)> 


— 


286 


Dr. M. Menzbier 


Russia 


„ 23, 


tf 


— 



IV. A List of Papers which have been published in the year 1883 by the 
Naturalists who have occupied Tables at the Zoological Station. 



Mr. B. A. Weldon 
Dr. Th. Weyl . 
Dr. R. Bergh . 



Note on the early development of Lacerta muralis. ' Quart. 

Journ. Microscop. Science,' 1883. 
Physiologische und chemische Studien an Torpedo. 'Arch. 

f. Anatomie und Physiologie,' 1883. 
Beitrag zu einer Monographie der Gattung Marionia. 

• Mittheil. Zool. Station,' Bd. IV., 1S83. 

s2 



260 



REPORT — 1884. 



Dr. C. Brandt . 



Sisrnor E. Stassano . 



Dr. G. Fritsch 

Dr. L. Oerley . 

Dr. C. do Merejkowsky . 

»» 
Dr. F. Blochmann . . 

>» 
Dr. O. Hamann 
Prof. A. Weissmann 
Dr. J. Frcnzcl . 



Dr. A. Delia Valle . 
Prof. C. Emery 
Dr. A. Korottneff . 

Dr. J. Brock . 

Mr. A. G. Bourne . 
Prof. A. C. Haddon 
Mr. E. Shipley 
Dr. von Sehlen 
Bar. R. Valiant c 

Mag. M. Traustcdt . 
Dr. G. Berthold 



Ueber die morpbolog. und physiol. Bedeutung des Chloro- 
phylls bei Thieren, 2. Artik'el. ' Mittheil. Zool. Station,' 

Bd. IV., 1883. 
Nouvelles Becherches physiologiques sur la Torpille. 

'Comptes Rendus,' No. 20, 1883. 
Contribuzione alia fisiologia degli spermatozoidi. ' Zoo- 
log. Anzeiger,' 1883. 
Ricerche sulla Sovraeccitabilita Nervosa- Motrice che si 

manifest a nei primi momenti dell' azione del Curaro. 

Estr. dal Giornale ' La Psichiatria,' Napoli, 1883. 
Bericht iiber die Fortsetzungen der Untersuchungen an 

electrischen Fischen. ' Sitz. der Berl. Akademie der 

Wissenschaften,' Berlin, 1883. 
A Zoologicai Allomasok us az Allattani Kutatasok Ujabb 

Mtidszerei, Budapest, 18S.">. 
Zoonerythrine et autres Pigments animaux. ' Bulletin 

Soc. Zoologique de France,' 1883. 
Developpement de la Meduse Obelia. Ibid. 
Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Entwickelung der Gastro- 

poden. ' Zeitschrift f. wiss. Zoologie,' Bd. 38, 1883. 
Ueber die Diiisen des Mantelrandes bei Aplysia und 

verwandten Forme n. Ibid. 
Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Mcdusen. ' Zeitschrift f. 

wiss. Zoologie,' Bd. 38, 1883. 
Die Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen, 

Jena, 1883. 
Ueber die' sogenannten Kalkzellcn der Gastropodenleber. 

' Biologischei Centralblatt,' 1S83. 
Neuer Beitrag zur mikroskop. Technik. ' Zoologischer 

Anzeiger,' 18S3. 
Ueber die Mitteldarmdruse (Leber) der Dekapoden. 

' Sitzungs-Ber. Berliner Akad. der Wissensch,' Bd. 42, 

18S3. 
Sui Copepodi che vivono nelle Ascidie composte del Golfo 

di Napoli. ' Reale Accademia dei Lincci,' 1882-3. 
Contribuzioni all' Ittiologia. ' Reale Accademia dei 

Lincei,' 1882-3. 
Zur Kenntniss der Siphonophoren. ' Zoolog. Anzeiger, 

1883. 
Entstehung der Gewebe. Udd. 
Untersuchungen iiber die iriterstitiellen Bindesubstanzen 

der Mollusken. ' Zeitschrift f. wiss. Zoologie,' Bd. 39, 

1883. 
On certain Points in the Anatomy of the Polynoina &.c. 

' Transact. Linnean Sue.,' 2nd Ser. Vol. ii. 1883. 
On Budding in Polyzoa. 'Quart. Journal of Microscop. 

Science,' Vol. xxiii. N. S. 1883. 
On the Structure and Development of Argiope. ' Mittheil. 

Zoolog. Station," Bd. IV. 1883. ' 
Mikrokokken bei Area Celsi] ' Fortschritte der Medicin,' 

No. 23, 1883. 
Die Cystoseiren. Monographie VII. der ' Fauna und 

Flora des Gblfcs von Neapcl,' herausgegeben von der 

Zoolog. Station, 1883. 
Die einfachen Ascidien des Golfes von Neapel. ' Mitth. 

Zoolog. Station,' Bd. IV. 1883. 
Die Bangiaceen. Monographie VIII. der ' Fauna und Flora 

des Golfes von Neapel,' herausgegeben von der Zoolog. 

Station 1883. 



on the zoological station at naples. 



261 



V. A List of Naturalists, etc., to whom Specimens hare been sent from the 
end of Jaw; 1883 to the end of June 1884. 

Fr. c. 
. 1315 



1883. July 4 
9 



Sept. 



Oct, 



Nov. 



14 
IS 

16 



9 

23 

28 

2!) 

14 

21 

24 

31 

3 

6 

7 

13 



»s 


10 


J> 


21 


»» 


23 


») 


27 


a 


20 


* a 


30 


Pec. 


6 


» 


7 


, » 


9 


11 


. 14 


■ J> 


18 


J> 


20 


»» 


21 


. )) 


22 


- J> 


.23 


- »> 


'28 


»1 


29 


1884. Jan. 


' 6 



Dr. Pietro de Vescoyi, Rome . 
. Prof. Geza Entz, Kiausenburg, 

for Zool. Inst. 
Prof. Geza Entz, Kiausenburg, 

for Museum 
College at Nagy:Enyed . 

,, „ Maros-Vasarhelz 
Prof. Geza Entz, Kiausenburg 
Oand. A. Appejlof, Kristine- 

berg, Sweden 
Prof. Nussbaum, Conn 

Mr. H. C. Chadwick, Manchester 

Prof. A. M. Marshall, „ . 

Morphol. Depart, Cambridge . 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, Oxford ■ 

Prof. W. A. Herdnian, Liverpool 

Prof. P. E. Schultze, Graz. 

Dr. A. v. Heider, „ 

Prof. P. W. Thomas, Auckland, 
New Zealand 

Prof. P. Strobed, Parma . 

Mr. J. Tempere,.Ston;ington . 

Dr. Andrea?, Naples. 

Prof, R. Hertwig, Bonn . 

Prof. Elders, Gottingen . 

Prof. Riidinger, Munich . 

M. G. Schneider, Bale 
. Prof. Kollniann, ., 
. Dr. L. Bger, Vienna 

Dr. O. Hamann, Gottingen 

Prof. Mcintosh, St. Andrew's U. j 

Dr. S. van Oye, Lille 

Soeieta. Tecnica, Florence 

Prof. A. C. Haddon, Dublin . 

Prof. C. Emery, Bologna . 

M. E. Marie, Paris . 

H.M. the Queen of Roumania . 

Trof. Hubrecht, Utrecht . 

Prof. Kowalewsky, Odessa 

Prof. W. Leche, Stockholm 

Prof. Yseux, U. Libre, Brussels 

Dr. P. H. Carpenter, "\Vindsor . 

Prof. W. J. Stephens, Sydney, 

N.S.W 

.Rev. A. M. Norman, Durham . 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, Oxford . 

Queen's College, Cork 
,Dr. F. Blockmann, Heidelberg 

Prof. Anderson, Queen's Coll., 
Galway 

M. E. Marie, Paris . 
.Prof. Grenadier, Halle 

Prof, llichiardi, Pisa 

Dr. Boas, Copenhagen 

Prof. Grassi, Catania 

Trof. P. Stepanoff, Charkoff 



Heads of Fishes 
Various . 



Collection 

Various . . . . 

Specimens for dissection 

Mollusca 

Electrical Organs of Tor- 
pedo . 
Various . . . . 
Specimens for dissection 

Various . 



Spongiaj . 

Mollusca 

Various . 

Echinod., Ccelent . 

Petromyzon . 

Collection 

Crustacea 

Various . 

Synapta . 

Various . 

Annelida, Nemertina 

Ccelenterata . 

Ccelent., Echinodermata 

Various . 

Spirographis . 
Small collection 
Balanoglossus . 
Various . 

Annelida, Comatula 
Collection 
Comatula 

Collection 

Various . 

Lame of Crustacea 

Holothuria, etc. 

Sepia 

Pennatula, Nereis . 

Eyes of Pterotrachea 

Collection 

Pteropoda 

Collection 



2S7- 

287- 
160- 
74-50 
100- 

3060 

6-50 
31- 

827-35 
421-30 
2S255 
131-10 
14-85 
6-45 

432- 

294 25 

12-50 

7-35 

38G-45 

184-20 

34-75 
2,229-50 

17- 

77-25 

8-65 

360-50 

9055 
108-40 

55-55 
250-55 

35-50 

23- 



51-85 
94-95 
1,080-35 
35- 

30020 

245-45 

54-55 

20-70 

112-75 

45-25 

47-90 

15-50 

702-70 

119- 
11660 



262 



REPORT 1884. 



1 884. Jan. 


12 


>) 


18 


*» 


21 




fc >r. 


J5 


w<> 


»> 


20 


»> 


30 


»» 


31 


Feb 


4 


»> 


8 


» 


in 


>> 


16 


»J 


21 


»» 


22 


1 i> 


2:; 


?» 


26 


>> 


28 


March 10 


>» 


17 


' 55 


19 


35 


20 


55 


18 


)3 


27 


55 


28 



April 



May 



10 

13 

18 
24 

I 



10 



19 

21 



>J 


28 


»» 


31 


June 


, 4 



Mr. A. S. Pennington, Bolton 
Mr. T. J Moore, Liverpool 
Dr. Dawson, Toronto, Canada 
Dr. Vigelius, Haag . 
Dr. Aug. Miiller, Frankfort-on 

Maine . 
Mr. Ch. J. Gatty, Liverpool 
Musee Zoologique, S t. Peters- 
burg .... 
M. R. Prendel, Odessa . 
M. J. C. Puis, Ghent 
Mr. E. P. Ramsay, Sydney 
M. Eug. Simon, Paris 
M. E. Marie, Paris . 
Prof. Friant, Nancy 
Prof. C. Emery, Bologna 
Prof. Geza Entz, Klausenburg 
Prof. J. Mahisz, Fiume . 
Dr. Zottau v. Eoboz, Kaposva: 
Prof. R. Leuckart, Leipzig 
M. Jules Maurice, Douai 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna 
Prof. R. Moinez 
Prof. C. Emery, Bologna. 
Dr. J. Kennel, Wiirzburg 
Instituto Froebel, Naples 
Prof. Anderson, Queen's Col 

lege, Galway 
M. K. May, Oschatz 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna 
Cav. S. Brogi, Sienna 
M. E. Polzam, Kasan 
Dr. L. Oerley, Budapest . 
M. E. Marie, Paris . 
Societa Tecnica, Florence 
Dr. H. Nussbaum, Warsaw 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna 
Exhibition, Turin . 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, Oxford 
Prof. G. Ciaccio, Bologna 
M. Marie, Paris 
Dr. Rawitz, Berlin . 
Mr. Bourne, London 
Prof. R. Leuckart, Leipzig 
M. Sang de Diego, Madrid 
Prof. Stepanoff, Charkow 
M. zur Miihlen, Dorpat . 
Mr. H. W. Holder, Stalybridgc 

Manchester . 
Zool. Kabinet, Kasan 
Museum der Acad, der Wis 
senschaften, St. Petersburg 
Prof. Riidinger, Munich . 
Prof. J. S. Blake, Nottingham 
Prof. Chun, KSnigsberg . 
M. Marie, Paris 
Societa Tecnica, Florence 
Prof. Emery, Bologna 
Prof. C. Eberth, Halle . 
Mr. A. S. Pennington, Bolton 
Musee d'Histoire Nat., Geneva 
Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva 
-Dr. Marshall, Leipzig . 



Collection 



Cassiopeia 

Collection 
Various . 

Collection 

Various . 

Echinodcrmata 

Collection 

Crustacea 

Various . 

Collection 



Serpula . 

Octopus, Eledone 
Chaetopterus, etc. 
Cecrops . 
Collection 
Hippocampus . 
Mollasca 
Small collection 

Collection 

Hclothuria, Ecbinod 

Cecrops . 

Mollusca 

Cestus veneris, etc 

Collection 

Salpas 

Collection 

Emys curopea. 

Collection 

Amphioxus, Lepas 

Sygnathus, etc. 

Salpaj 

Avicula, Lithodomus 

Collection 



Carcharias glaucus 

Corallinm, Salpa 
Collection 

Collection 
Embryos of sharks 
Collection 

>i • 

Petromyzon . 
Rhizostoma, etc. 
Ophiuridea 
Various . 
Collection 



Tethya l,yncurium 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES 



263 



1884. June 4 Prof. A. M. Marshall, Man 

Chester 
Mr. H. C. C. Chad wick . 
Mr. J. Gatty, Liverpool . 
Prof. Th. Margo, Budapest . 
Prof. Hubreeht, Utrecht . 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna 
M. L. Dreyfus, Wiesbaden 
Prof. Alb. del Prato, Parma 
Mr. R. Vallentin, Leytonstone 
Prof. F. B. Schultzc, Berlin 
M. Marie, Paris 

M. P. de Loriol, Chalet des Bois 
Prof. A. Agassiz, Harvard CoL 

lege, Cambridge, Mass. 



5 
16 



23 



30 



Collection 

Corallium rubrum 

Ascidia mentula 
Comatula 
Corallium rubrum 
Mollusca 
Ascidia . 
Collection 
Corallium 
Echinodermata 

Collection 

Total 



Fr. c. 

1,020-20 
150-60 

10- 

33-25 

31- 

4-35 
4475 
41-55 
10-00 
335- 
11-70 
23-25 

1,409- 



5,45055 



VI. A List of Naturalists to whom Microscopic Preparations have been sent 
from the end of June 1883 to the end of June 1884. 



1883. Sept, 4 



1884. 



cv ' 




t» 


15 


Jan. 


31 


Feb. 


24 



June 20 



Prof. Haddon, Dublin . . . . (iO preparations 
Prof. Herdman, Liverpool . . .12 
Prof. Thomas, Auckland, New Zealand . 
Prof. Yseux, Universite Libre, Brussels 
Prof. Packard, Brown Univ., Providence, 

E. I., U.S.A 

Prof. Mcintosh, St. Andrews University. 
Prof. L. Camerano, Turin 
Dr. A. Gravis, Brussels .... 
Zoological Laboratory, University, 

Charkow ...... 

Physiological Laboratory, University, 

Charkow ...... 

Zootomical Laboratory, University-, 

Charkow 2 

Dr. W. I. Vigelius, Haag ... 3 
M. Ch. I. Dupont, Beauvais S 

Laboratoire de Zoologie, Nancj r . . 7 
Zootomical Cabinet, University, Kasan . 61 



28 
30 



52 
50 
33 

14 

10 



Fi.c. 
100- 

20- 

CO- 

60- 

50- 
95- 

100- 
44- 

26- 

20-50 

4-50 
4- 
16- 

l.v 
100- 

TlV 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Mr. 
Howard Saunders, and Mr. Thiselton Dyer (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of 
Timor Laut. 

Since our last report was presented to the Association, Mr. Forbes's 
botanical collection — which, from the result of an unfortunate fire in the 
drying-house in which the Herbarium had to be prepared, was very- 
small, as he deplores — has been handed over to the Royal Herbarium at 
Kew. Of this collection Sir Joseph Hooker, at a meeting of the Royal 
Geographical Society on January 28, 1884, made the following remarks : 
* From that time [of the appearance of Professor Decaisne's Flora Timo- 
riensis] to this, the limits of the Australian flora, so long supposed to have 
been circumscribed with exactitude, have never been laid down, though it 



264 report— 1884. 

has been enormously enlarged to the north by the inclusion of the great 
island of Papua, which is to a great extent Australian in its biology, and 
by tbat of sundry other islets to the north-east and north-west. It is 
under this point of view that Mr. Forbes's collections are so important. 
It is true that for the most part they consist of what are generally 
known as coral-island plants. . . . But besides this there are some 
peculiar forms, and there are two plants of extraordinary interest which 
I would simply instance as being typical, one of the New Hebridean and 
one of the Australian flora. It so happened that these two plants 
belonged to unispecitic genera. . . . The existence of these plants 
pointed to some old communication between these particular islands.' ' 

An orchid brought home in a living state has flowered at Kew, and 
proves to be Dendwhium Phalcenopsis, Fitzg., hitherto only known from 
Queensland. 

No detailed nccount of the ethnographical collection has yet been 
published ; but as the collection has heen deposited in the British 
Museum, a description of the Timor Laut objects will doubtless appear in 
the catalogue of the Ethnological Department, while the more interest- 
ing will be fiouied in Mr. Forbes's forthcoming volume. At the last 
meeting of the Association at Southport, Dr. J. G. Garson (Report, p. 
•5GG) read a short account of the crania (now in the British Museum) 
brought from Larat by Mr. Forbes, which has been published in extenso 
in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XIII., and which 
concludes with the following remarks on the relation of the inhabitants 
of Timor Laut to those of adjacent countries: ' That the skulls just de- 
scribed are not those of a pure race is very evident. Two very distinct 
types can be made out — namely, the brachycephalic and the dolicho- 
cephalic, the former greatly predominating in number. Both from the 
information Mr. Forbes has given us as to their appearance, and from the 
skulls themselves, there is no difficulty in recognising a strong Malay 
element in the population. The male skull No. 4, and the female No. 6, 
are typically Malayan in their characters, especially in possessing large 
open, rounded orbits, and smooth forehead, the superciliary ridges and 
glabella being almost entirely absent. The other brachycephalic skulls, 
though not presenting such a striking affinity, agree more or less with 
this type, but give evidence of mixed characters. The dolichocephalic 
skull is, on the other hand, markedly of the Papuan type, and corre- 
sponds so closely as to be undistinguishable from two crania obtained 
twenty miles inland from Port Moresby, New Guinea, in the College of 
Surgeons' Museum, also from another from the Solomon Islands. Along 
with this form of skull, Mr. Forbes informs me, is associated frizzly hair 
and dark skin. The examination of the cranial characters of the inhabitants 
of Timor Laut, as illustrated by the skulls before us, shows that the peopling 
of this island is no exception to what is usually found in the various groups 
of islands in the Polynesian Archipelago. From its close proximity to* 
New Guinea, perhaps more of the Papuan element might have been 
expected.' 

In addition, the Coleoptera sent home have been examined and de- 
scribed in a recent paper by Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, published in the 
Zoological Society's ' Proceedings.' The number of species collected was 
twenty-nine ; of these the following deserve special notice on account of 

1 A detailed account was read at 1 lie Linnean Society, Nov. 6, 1884. 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TIMOR LAUT. 265 

their geographical distribution : Diaphceies rugosus, a new genus and 
species of Staphylinidce known from Java ; Gyphogastra angulicollis, only 
previously known from Banda ; C. splendens, a new species allied to the 
preceding ; Archetypus rugosus, belonging to a genus of Longicorns of 
which there was only one species previously known, which species occurs 
in Waigiou, Dorey, and Aru ; Nemophas forbesii a new Longicorn nearly 
allied to N. grayi from Amboina. Further, a new species of ground 
thrush (Gcocichla machihi) has been described by Mr. Forbes from addi- 
tional specimens brought home by himself on his return. So that our 
knowledge of the avifauna of this region has been increased by the 
addition of twenty-four new species, entirely collected on the few square 
acres to which the inter-tribal wars of the natives restricted Mr. Forbes's 
operations. 

At the presentation of our last report, Mr. Forbes, who had just 
returned to England, gave a short description of the region visited by 
him ; but at the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, to which we 
have referred above, he gave a more detailed account, which has been 
published, illustrated by a map, in their ' Proceedings ' for March, em- 
bodying the geographical observations made by him. 

The collections of Fishes, Crustacea, and Hydrozoa, though containing 
much that was of interest, added few species that were new to science. 

A statement in our last report, on page 2'27, that ' the total expense of 
Mr. Forbes's expedition has amounted to 300Z.' ought perhaps to be cor- 
rected, as we understand from Mr. Forbes that the total cost was more 
than double this sum. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Professor 
de Chaumont, Professor M. Foster, Professor Burdon Sanderson 
(Secretary), and Mr. W. North, appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Influence of Bodily Exercise on the Elimina- 
tion of Nitrogen (the experiments to be conducted by Mr. North). 
Drawn up by Mr. North. 

I have to report that, owing to various circumstances, I have been unable 
to prosecute my researches during the past year. An unforeseen difficulty 
has arisen with regard to the work machine ; this is that it is so large 
that it is difficult to find laboratory accommodation for it, and the noise 
and vibration caused by the sudden fall of the weight is so great as to be 
a cause of very serious annoyance to others. I have not yet been able to 
find a suitable place in which to set it up, but I hope before long to be 
able to do so. I enclose a copy of the abstract of a paper read before the 
Royal Society in October last, which gives the results of my researches 
up to that date, and for the continuation of which the work machine has 
been constructed. I desire that the Committee may be reappointed. 



266 RErouT— 1884. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Jorx Cordeaux (Secre- 
tary), Professor Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie-Browx, Mr. William 
Eagle Clarke, Mr. E. M. Barrixgtox, and Mr. A. Cf. More, 
appointed for the purpose of obtaining (ivith the consent of 
the Master and Brethren of the Trinity House and the Com- 
missioners of Northern and Irish Lights) observations on the 
Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightuessels, and of re- 
porting on the same. 

The General Report ' of the Committee, of which this is an abstract, 
comprises observations taken at lighthouses and lightvessels, as well as 
at several land stations, on the east coast of England, the east and west 
coasts of Scotland, the coasts of Ireland, also the Channel Islands, Orkney 
and Shetland Isles, the Hebrides, Faroes, Iceland and Heligoland, and 
one Baltic station on the coast of Zealand, for which the Committee 
is again indebted to Professor Liitken, of Copenhagen. Altogether 158 
stations have been supplied with schedules and letters of instruction for 
registering observations, and returns have been received from 102. 

The best thanks of the Committee are due to their numerous observers 
for the generally careful and painstaking manner in which they have 
filled up the schedules, and the very intelligent interest taken by them 
in the inquiry. Special thanks must bo accorded to Messrs. H. Giitke, 
Heligoland ; H. C. Mailer, Faroe ; and M. Thorlacius, Skykkesholm, 
Iceland, for the notes sent in from their respective stations ; also to Mr. 
J. H. Gumey, for having commenced on the south-east coast of England 
a similar system of inquiry, which, for a first trial, has worked well. In 
all doubtful cases of identity, where birds are killed against the lanterns, 
a wiug is cut off, and a label with the date attached. These have been 
forwarded in batches to Mr. Gurney for identification, and with most 
satisfactory results. 

The Committee regret that for the second year in succession they 
have received no report from the west coast of England. A late member 
of the Committee, Mr. Philip M. C. Kermode, having failed to make any 
returns, or to send the collected schedules, although repeated^ requested, 
to Mr. "W". E. Clarke, who had undertaken the work of tabulating and 
reporting on the same, provision has been made by the Committee for 
supplying the deficiency in any subsequent years. 

The observations taken on the east coast of Groat Britain in 1883 
have been snch as generally to confirm the conclusions arrived at in 
former imports, having reference to direction of flight and lines of 
migration. 

The winter of 1883-4 has been exceptionally mild, and there has been 
an almost entire absence of severe frosts and lasting snowstorms ; the 
prevailing winds in the autumn, west and south-west, such as obseiwation 
shows are most favourable for migrants crossing the North Sea and 
continuing their journey inland. Winds from opposite quarters to these 
tire out the birds and cause them to drop directly they reach land. 
Our land stations report a great scarcity both of land and sea birds ; 

1 Report on the Migration of Birds in the Spring and Autumn nf 1883. West, 
Newman & Co., 51 Hatton Garden, London, E.C. 



ON TUB MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 267 

this has not, however, been the case at sea stations — that is, light- 
vessels moored off the coast, at distances varying from five to fiftv 
miles. Here the stream of migration, so far from showing any abate- 
ment, has flown steadily on in a full tide : and, if we judge from the 
well-tilled schedules which have been returned, there has been a con- 
siderable increase in the visible migration, due perhaps in some measure 
to increased interest and improved observation. Mr. William Stock, of 
the Outer Dowsing lightvessel, remarks that he had never before seen so 
many birds pass that station ; the rush, also, across and past Heligoland in 
the autumn was enormous. Migration is more marked, as well as concen- 
trated there, than at any station on the English coast. There was a 
great movement of various species passing forward on the 6th and 7th of 
August, and again on the 14th, and more pronounced still on the 21st 
and 22nd, and on the 20th of August a similar movement was noticed at 
the Isle of May, at the mouth of the Firth of Forth. It was not, however, 
until September 21st and the two following days that the first great rush 
occurred on the English east coast, and a similar great movement or rush 
is indicated, at the same date, in Mr. Giitke's notes, as well as from the 
most distant of the lightships. The prevailing winds over the North Sea 
on September 21st were moderate north-easterly and easterly off the coasts 
of Denmark and Holland, blowing strong eastei-ly on to the coast north 
of the Humber, with southerly and south-westerly off the south-east 
coast, producing cross-currents over the North Sea. Whatever was the 
impulse, atmospheric or otherwise, which induced such a vast rush of 
various species at this time, it was one which acted alike, and with pre- 
cisely the same impulse, on the sea-eagle and the tiny goldcrest. 

The second great rush was on October 12th and 13th, a similar move- 
ment being recorded at Heligoland. Then, again, from the 27th to the 
;!lst, and somewhat less through the first week in November, the passage 
across Heligoland, as well as the rush on our east coast, was enormous. 
Speaking of the nights from the 27th to the 31st inclusive, Mr. Giitke 
says : ' This was the first move by the million ; for four nights there has 
been a gigantic feathery tide running.' During this time there were 
variable winds over the North Sea, but generally easterly and south- 
easterly on the Continent, strong west winds and squalls prevailing 
generally on November 5th and 6th. 

Again, with the outburst of some severe weather in the first week in 
December, a considerable local movement is indicated along the coast 
from north to south, culminating in the enormous rush of snow-buntings 
into Lincolnshire about the end of the first week in that month. A care- 
ful perusal of the report will show how generally the rushes across Heli- 
goland correlate with those on the east coast of England, although not 
always confined to identical species. 

A somewhat remarkable and very anomalous movement of migrants 
is recorded from lightvessels off the Lincolnshire and Norfolk coasts in 
the spring of 1883. In February, March, April, and May, birds passing 
the Leman and Ower, Llyn Wells, Outer Dowsing, Newarp and the Cockle 
lightvessels, were, as a rule, coming from easterly and passing in ivesterly 
directions. The entries show a great immigration of our ordinary autumn 
migrants from the east in the spring months, and on exactly the same 
lines and directions as are travelled by the same species in autumn. 
Had this movement been observed at one station only, we might perhaps 
have been induced to doubt the accuracy of the return, but the fact of 



268 hefout— 1884. 

five lightvessels, Laving no communication with each other, reporting the 
same circumstances, proves the correctness of the observations. 

On the east coast of Scotland Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown says that the 
autumn migration of 1883 was pronounced, culminating in a grand rush 
from October 28th to November 3rd. The heaviest rush of birds, as com- 
pared with other years, was observed at the Isle of May on October loth 
and 14th. This was with a south wind, although as a rule it is a south- 
east wind at that point which brings the greatest flights. 

In the autumn of 1882, on the east coast of Scotland, the bulk of 
immigrants are recorded at the southern stations; in 1883 these condi- 
tions were reversed, the bulk being recorded from northern stations. On 
the east coast of England, in 1883, birds appear to have been very equally 
distributed over the whole coast-line. It will be gathered from the General 
Report that the dates of the rushes on the east coast of Scotland were 
slightly later than those on the east coast of England, and that the 
migrations past the more northerly stations in Scotland were in propor- 
tion later than in the south, and also that the dates of the heaviest rushes 
on the east coast agree fairly with the dates from the west coast. 

From the coasts of Ireland Messrs. A. G. More and It. M. Barrington 
report a decided improvement in filling up the schedules, in some cases 
three or four being returned from the same station. Forty-two stations 
were supplied with schedules in the spring of 1883 and thirty- five in the 
autumn of the same year, returns coming in from thirty-four, one only 
failing. 

The number of migrants in the autumn seems to have been more than 
usual. A gi'eat rush of thrushes (including, probably, redwings), black- 
birds, and starlings, took place at the south-eastern and southern stations 
between October 25th and November 2nd — dates which agree with the 
great rush on the east coast of England. The migration was particularly 
marked at the Tuskar rock off the Wexford coast, which is proving itself 
the best Irish station, and no doubt mai'ks the line of the chief passage 
from the British coast. The bulk of the immigrants appear to arrive on 
the south-eastern coast of Ireland, excepting such birds as the bernicle 
goose and snow-bunting, which are mainly recorded from north-western 
stations, and rarely entered in schedules from the east or south coast. 

An interesting feature this year is the occurrence of several examples 
of the Greenland falcon on the west coast, no less than eight having been 
shot at various points from Donegal to Cork and one Iceland falcon at 
Westport. 

Independent of the ordinary notes on migration, the general remarks 
of the lightkeepers with reference to the nesting of sea-fowl on the islands 
or outlying skerries are of great interest, and no matter what results are 
arrived at from this special inquiry, it is satisfactory to be in correspond- 
ence with such a number of observers at isolated spots around the coast, 
and the information supplied cannot fail to be of much interest to future 
compilers. 

An interesting feature of the autumn migration is the occurrence of a 
flight of the blue-throated warbler (Cyanecida suecica). A single adult 
with bright-blue breast was observed at the Isle of May on the night of 
September 2-3rd. On the east coast, of England twelve were obtained, all 
being birds of the year, and of these nine on the coast of Norfolk, besides 
about twenty others seen by competent observers. Very few goldcrests, 
compared with the enormous flights of the autumn of 1882, have ap- 



ON TIIE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 269 

peareu, and the same scarcity is observable in the Heligoland returns. 
Curiously enough, the hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis), which migrated 
in immense numbers in the same autumn, has been almost entirely absent. 
About half a dozen are recorded at Heligoland, none on the east coast of 
England. 

Of the enormous immigration which crosses our east coast in the 
autumn, either to winter in these islands or merely on passage across 
them, a small proportion only appear to return by the same routes. 
Spring returns from lighthouses and lightvessels show birds then move 
on the same lines as in the autumn, but in the reverse direction. These 
return travellers do not, however, represent anything like a tithe of the 
visible immigrants which, week after week and month by month in the 
autumn, move in one broad stream on to the east coast. 

What is called the ' first flight ' of the woodcock arrived on the York- 
shire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk coasts on the night of October 21st. The 
'great flight,' or rush, which covered the whole of the east coast from 
the Fame islands to Yarmouth was on the nights of the 28th and 2'Jth. 
These two periods correlate with the principal flights of woodcock across 
Heligoland. 

But few woodcock were recorded from stations on the east coast of 
Scotland, although at the Bell Rock lighthouse, on the night from October 
31st to November 1st, Mr. Jack reports an enormous rush of vai-ious 
species, commencing at 7 p.m. Immense numbers were killed, pitching 
into the sea. ' What we thought were woodcocks struck with great force ; 
birds continued flying within the influence of the rays of light till the 
first streak of day, continually striking hai'd all night ; we believe a great 
number of woodcocks struck and fell into the sea.' 

Mr. Harvie-Brown records a very great spring migration of wood- 
cocks which appear to have crossed Scotland between the Clyde and the 
Forth on March Orb, 10th, 11th, and 12th, 1884. These were observed to 
be the small red Scandinavian bird, which are quite unmistakable and 
distinct from British-bred birds. 

The occurrence of Locusiella fluviatilis at the Stevns lighthouse at the 
entrance of the Oresund in Zealand is interesting, as it is the first recorded 
Danish example of this species. 

Altogether there has been a very marked absence on our British coasts 
of rare and casual visitants. The roller (Goracias garrula) occurred in 
October in two localities — one in Lincolnshire, the other in Suffolk. 

Two examples of the sooty shearwater (Paffinus griseus) were obtained 
in Bridlington Bay about the end of September. The island of Heli- 
goland retains its pre-eminence as the casual resting-place of rare 
wanderers from other lands ; and Mr. Giitke's list for 1883 includes 
Turdus varius, Pratincola rubicola, var. indica, Phylloscopus superciliosus, 
Hiipolais pallida, Motacilla citreola, Antlius cervinus, A. Richardi, Oriolus 
galbula, Lanius major, Muscicapa parva, Linota exilipes, Emberiza melano- 
cephala, E. cirlus, E. rustica, E. punlla, Pastor roseus, and Xema Sabiuii. 

It is well known that large numbers of European birds, presumably 
driven out of their course, are seen, during the autumn migration, far out 
over the Atlantic, alighting on the ocean-^oing steamers. It is proposed 
by Mr. Harvie-Brown to supply schedules to tbe principal lines of ocean 
steam-vessels for the better recording of these occurrences. It must be 
borne in mind that the immense and constantly-increasing traffic, which 
in these days bridges the Atlantic and unites the Old and New Worlds, 



270 keport — 1884. 

offers unusual chances for birds to break their night, and ultimately, 
perhaps, to reach the American coast. In the comparatively narrow seas 
between the European continent and Great Britain birds are frequently 
noted as alighting on the rigging of vessels and lightships, roosting in 
the rigffinsr during the night, to resume their flight at the first streak of 
dawn. 

It is a matter of congratulation that our American and Canadian 
fellow- workers have instituted a similar system of observation on the 
migration of birds. At the first Congress of the American Ornithologists' 
Union, held at New York City,* September 20-28, 1883, a Committee on 
the Migration of Birds was appointed. It is intended to investigate this 
in all its bearings, and to the fullest possible extent, not only in the 
accumulation of records of the times of arrival and departure of the 
different species, but to embrace the collection of all data that may aid in 
determining the causes which influence migration from season to season. 

Your Committee respectfully request their reappointment, and trust 
that the Association will enable them to continue the collection of facts. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton (Secretary), 
Professor Lankestek, and Professor GrAMGEE, appointed for the 
purpose of preparing a Bibliography of certain Groups of 
Invertebrata. 

The Committee beg leave to report that the work, compiled by Mr. D'Arcy 
W. Thompson, B.A., Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, though not 
yet completed, is in a forward state. The whole of the part relating to 
Protozoa, and nearly the whole of that relating to Spongida, have been 
printed off, while a large portion (Sections A to L inclusive) relating to 
Ccelenterata is in type, and the remainder is reported by him to be ready 
for press. 

The Committee cannot but regret the non-completion of the Biblio- 
graphy by the time originally expected ; but they are satisfied that the 
delay has been in great measure due to causes which will contribnte 
largely to the value of the work ; and the Committee have most thankfully 
to acknowledge the important services to this end kindly rendered by 
Mr. H. B. Brady, F.B.S., Professor Hackel, Professor Wyatt, of Boston, 
and Professor Alleyne Nicholson. 

The printing of the work has been liberally undertaken by the Press 
Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, and it will form a volume of 
about 800 pages. 

The Committee herewith transmit a copy of the portions already in 
type (five sheets and twenty-six slips), whence will be perceived the 
laborious nature of the work, as well as the effective way in which it has 
been done. 



OX THE EX n.O NATION OF KILIMA-NJARO. 271 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph Hooker, Dr. 
Gunther, Mr. Howakd Saunders, mid Mr. P. L. Sclater 
(Secretary), appointed for tlie pnipose of exploring Kilima-njaro 
and the adjoining mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa. 

1. The Committee have the satisfaction of announcing that they have 
made arrangements with Mr. H. H. Johnston (who has recently returned 
from the Congo) to undertake an exploration of Kilima-njaro, and that 
he is probably by this time encamped upon that mountain. 

2. The Committee have arranged with Mr. Johnston to undertake the 
whole cost of the expedition for 1,0007., without reference to personal re- 
muneration. It is believed that the necessary expenditure will not be 
covered by this sum, but Mr. Johnston has agreed to make good any 
deficiency. 

3. Towards this sum of 1,000?., the Committee have appropriated a 
sum of 500?., granted to them by the Association at their last meeting at 
Southport. The Committee have also received from the Government 
Grant, Committee of the Royal Society two sums of 250?. each, so that the 
whole amount of 1,000?. required for the expedition is already available. 

4. But looking forward to the risks of African travel, and to the 
expenditure likely to be incurred on the transport to this country, and 
on the working out of the collections obtained by Mr. Johnston, the 
Committee trust that a further sum of fifty pounds may be placed at their 
disposal. 

5. A copy of part of Mr. Johnston's last letter to the Secretary of 
the Committee, containing an account of the progress of the expedition, is 
annexed to this Report. 



Extracts from a letter from Mr. Johnston to Mr. Sclater, dated 
British Residency, Zanzibar, May 13, 1884 : — ■ 

'At last my expedition, thanks to the help of Sir John Kirk, is 
organised and ready to start. I have engaged thirty-two men here (at 
Zanzibar), and have sent them off to Mombasa in a daw to await my 
coming. I myself leave to-day for Mombasa in the mail. At Mombasa, 
through the Consul (Captain Gissing), I have engaged sixty more men, 
for it will need nearly a hundred porters to carry my goods and baggage 
to Chagga. I hope to leave Mombasa in a fortnight's time. I anticipate 
three weeks' easy travel to Kilima-njaro, and, as far as it is possible to 
foretell aught in Africa, no serious difficulties seem to stand in my way. 
The expedition, however, will prove much more costly than I had antici- 
pated 

' However, I think I shall be able to make both ends meet for six 
months on Kilima-njaro, and if 1 stay longer, or make a dash at Kenia, it 
will be on my own account. I shall probably make Taita or Teita (vide 
map) a half-way hou^e, and go backwards and forwards with collections 
and goods. I shall try to forward collections addressed to you by every 
mail if feasible. Then, if you judge of the value, and estimate that my 
share of the collections will realise a good amount, it will induce me to 
devote more time to the country. 

' My health, notwithstanding a much more trying climate than I have 
yet met with in Africa, has been very good, and I have not known an 



272 report — 188-1. 

hour's illness or indisposition. Sir John Kirk has shown me the utmost 
kindness and hospitality, and his help and his influence have smoothed 
away many difficulties. The expedition promises most favourably, as the 
present condition of the countries to be traversed is good and peaceful, 
food abundant, and provisions cheap 

'I have obtained the services of three of Dr. Fischer's bird-skinners, 
and have got one botanical collector, trained under Sir John Kirk, 
and acquainted with the mysteries of " soldering " and preserving 
in spirit. I have sent for rectified spirit from Bombay, and in the 
interval am using trade gin, The Sultan has given me three kegs of 
gunpowder to give as presents to chiefs, and has also furnished me with 
letters of introduction. 

' I am in excellent condition, and start to-day on my journey in the 
best spirits and with the strongest hopes of its success.' 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Eev. Canon Tristram, 
the Rev. F. Lawrence, and Mr. James Glaisher {Secretary), for 
promoting the Survey of Eastern Palestine. 

The Committee proceed to give an abridged account of the scientific 
results of the expedition conducted by Professor Hall, in the winter of 
1883-84. These, in fact, are the results of their labours since the last 
meeting of this Association. Professor Hull reports as follows : 

' The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in the summer of 
1883, resolved upon sending out an expedition to examine the geological 
structure of the Jordan valley and "Western Palestine, together with that 
of the valley of the Arabah, with a view to determine the mode of their 
formation and physical history. It was also intended to connect the 
triangulation of the district of Mount Sinai (Jebel Musa) with that of 
Western Palestine along the district of the Wadyel Arabah ; and to de- 
termine the elevation above the sea of the watershed (or " saddle ") of 
that valley, with reference to the practicability of the projected "Jordan 
Valley Canal Scheme." Several collateral objects were also kept in view 
—such as the investigation of the sites of Ezion-geber, Kadesh-barnea, 
and other localities connected with the Israelitish migration and history ; 
but in this place only the scientific aspects of the expedition will be 

referred to. j-f a. 

' Besides the author, who was put in command of the expedition, the 
other members were Major Kitchener, RE., and Mr. Armstrong (formerly 
Sero-eant-Major, R.E.), who joined us in Egypt ; Mr. H. C. Hart, Trim Coll., 
Dublin, who had been a member of Captain Nares' Polar Expedition, and 
now joined as botanist and naturalist ; Mr. Reginald Lawrence, Asso- 
ciate of the Royal College of Science, Dublin, who acted as meteorologist ; 
and Dr. E. Gordon Hull, Avho was appointed assistant and medical officer. 1 

' The arrangements for providing camels, tents, food, and supplies were 
undertaken gratuitously by the well-known firm of Messrs. T. Cook & 

' Mr Hart has considerably added to the recognised flora of the district traversed, 
and Mr. Lawrence has furnished a daily register of the temperature and aneroid 
readings. Dr. E. G. Hull brought home a large number of photographs. 



ON THE SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 273 

Ron, to whom it is only due to say that they did everything in their 
power lor the comfort and safety of the members of the expedition. A 
rendezvous of the whole part}', including conductor, dragoman, and Arabs 
of the Towara tribe, took place at Cairo on the 7th of November, 1883, 
and on Monday, the 11th of the same month, the party started for their 
desert journey from Moses' Wells (Ayun Musa), near Suez. 

' The route taken lay along the plain bordering the Gulf of Suez to 
Warly Gharandel, and thence by the Wadies Hamr, Suwig, and Nasb, 
Bark, Lebwey, Berrah, and Es Sheikh, to the base of Mount Sinai (Jebel 
Musa). Thence, after a few days, in a north-easterly direction by the 
Wadies Zelegah, Biyar, El Ain, Et Tihyah, and Has en Nakb to Akabah. 

' Here the Arabs of the Towara tribe who had conveyed the party thus 
far were dismissed ; and arrangements were entered into with the Sheikhs 
of the Alowins for a convoy along the Wady el Arabah to Petra, and the 
shore of the Salt Sea (Bahr Lut). This having been effected, the party 
left Akabah on the 3rd of December ; and after visiting Petra, Mount 
Hor (Jebel Haroun), and several of the branching valleys on either side, 
reached Es Safieh on the 17th of the same month, and camped by the 
-village of the Ghawarnebs, where they remained ten days, including 
Christmas Day. Horses and mules having at length arrived from 
Jerusalem, accompanied by a small escort of Turkish cavalry, the party 
crossed to the western shore of the Salt Sea, and after examining Khas- 
ham (or Jebel) Usdum (the salt mountain), ascended by the Wady 
Zaweirah towards the table-land of Southern Palestine, camping succes- 
sively at Wady el Abd, Tel el Melh, Bir es Saba (Beersheba), Tel Abu 
Hareireh, and reaching Gaza on the last day of the year. Here the party 
would have been obliged to remain in quarantine for fifteen days but for 
the friendly offices of Lord Dufferin, the British Ambassador at Constan- 
tinople, who procured their release on the morning of the fifth day. They 
then proceeded onw T ards by Jaffa to Jerusalem, whence excursions 
were made to the Jordan Valley, and other places around, and by which 
two complete traverses of Southern and Central Palestine were effected. 
The whole distance traversed was about 700 miles, of which 500 miles 
were on camel- back, the remainder on horseback. A final expedition 
through Northern Palestine was then arranged for, but was brought to an 
end by a heavy fall of snow, which covered the whole of the table-land of 
Palestine to a depth of two feet and upwards. The party left Jaffa on 
their return to England on Friday, January 25, Major Kitchener having 
previously returned to Egypt. 

' Scientific Results. — Before proceeding to give an outline of the scientific 
results of the expedition, the author desires to express his obligations to 
the writings of previous explorers in the same field, especially to those of 
Russeger, Fraas, Tristram, and of MM. Lartet and Vigues, of the expedi- 
tion carried out by the Due de Luynes. 

' 1. A complete trian^ulation of the district lying between the moun- 
tains of Sinai and the Wady el Arabah, including that of the Wady el 
Arabah itself, bounded on the west by the table-land of the Tib, and on 
the east by the mountains of Edom and Moab. An outline survey along 
the line of route was also made, and has been laid dewn in MS. on a map 
prepared by Mr. Armstrong on the same scale as the reduced Map of 
Palestine, viz. § inch to one statute mile, or T1TS Vnyxr- 

' 2. Some important rectifications of the borders of the Salt Sea, and 
of the Gulf of Akabah, were also made. 

1884. T 



274 eepoet — 1884. 

' 3. A geological reconnaissance along the line of route through the 
districts of Sinai, Akahah, and the Wady el Arabah, including the follow- 
ing particulars : — 

* (a) Collections of fossils from the Wady Nasb limestone, in addition 
to those already made by Mr. Bauerman and Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson. 
These fossils (which are being examined by Professor Sollas) go to show 
that this limestone is of carboniferous age : the Wady Nash limestone 
was found to continue over a considerable region north of Mount 
Sinai, and was again recognised amongst the mountains of Moab on the 
east side of the Salt Sea in the Wady el Hessi. As this limestone rests 
upon a red sandstone foundation, this latter may also be assumed to be of 
the same geological age, and therefore cannot be the representative of the 
" Nubian sandstone " of Russeger, which (as Professor Zittel has shown) 
is of cretaceous age. I propose to call this formation, thei*efore, " the 
Desert Sandstone." It forms with the limestone a strip along the borders 
of the ancient rocks of palaeozoic or archasan age, and is about 400 feet in 
average thickness : the base is generally a conglomerate. 

' (6) Above the Wady Nasb limestone is another sandstone formation, 
of which a large portion of the Debet er Ramleh is formed. It is laid 
open in the Wadies Zelegah, Biyar, &c, and along the mountains of Edom 
and Moab. Out of this rock have been hewn the ancient temples, tombs, 
and dwellings of Petra and the Wady Musa. It stretches along the 
southern escarpment of the Tih plateau, and forms the base of the 
limestone cliffs along the margin of the Wady el Arabah as far north 
as Neo-eb es Salni. This sandstone formation is soft, red, or beautifully 
variegated, and is in all probability of cretaceous age, and therefore the 
true representative of the " Nubian sandstone " of Russeger. It will 
thus be seen that there are two red sandstone formations, one below, the 
other above the carboniferous limestone of the Wady Nash. 

' (c) The geological structure of the Wady el Arabah was examined 
throughout a distance of 120 miles from south to north. That it has 
been hollowed out along the line of a main fault, ranging from the eastern 
shore of the Salt Sea to that of the Gulf of Akabah, was clearly deter- 
mined ; and the position of the fault itself was made out and laid down 
on the map ' in six or seven places, one being about ten miles north of 
Akabah, another near the watershed, in which places the limestone of 
the Tih (cretaceo-nummulitic) is faulted against the old porphyritic and 
metamorphic rocks. I give on the next page two sketch sections to illus- 
trate the structure at these points. 

' There are numerous parallel and branching faults along the Arabah 
Valley, but there is one leading fracture running along the base of the 
Edomite mountains, to which the others are of secondary importance ; 
this may be called " the Great Jordan Valley fault." The relations of 
the rocks in the Ghor and Jordan Valley have already been shown by 
Lartet, Tristram, Wilson, and others, to indicate the presence of a large 
fault corresponding with the line of this remarkable depression, and the 
author considers the fracture he has observed in the Arabah Valley to be 
continuous with that of the Jordan. 

' (d) The ancient rocks which form the floor either of the Desert or 
Nubian sandstone formations consist of granite, gneiss, porphyries, and 
more rarely metamorphic schistose rocks — together with volcanic rocks, 

1 The map used was an enlarged plan from Smith and Grove's Ancient Atlas 
(J. Murray). 



ON THE SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 



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276 report— 1884. 

consisting of agglomerates, tnffs, and beds of felspathic trap. The author 
is disposed to concur with Dr. Lartet in considering the gneissose and 
granitoid rocks to be of arcbcean (or Laurentiau) age, as they are pro- 
bably representative of those of Assouan in Upper Egypt, which Principal 
Dawson has recently identified with those of this age. The granites and 
porphyries are traversed by innumerable dykes of porphyry and diorite, 
both throughout the Sinaic mountains and those of Edom and Moab ; and 
the author considers it probable that the volcanic rocks which are largely 
represented along the base of Mount Hor, and of Jebel Somrah near Es 
Safieh, are contemporaneous with these dykes. As far as the author was 
able to observe, none of these dykes penetrate the Desert or Nubian 
sandstones, and if so, they may be considered of pre- carboniferous age. 
The upper surface of the ancient rocks was extremely uneven previously 
to the deposition of the Desert sandstone, having been worn and denuded 
into ridges and hollows ; over this irregular floor the sandstone strata were 
deposited. 

'4. The occurrence of terraces of marl, gravel, and silt, through which 
the ravines of existing streams have been cut at an elevation (according to 
aneroid determination) of about 100 feet above the level of the Mediter- 
ranean, was taken to show that the level of the Salt Sea (Bahr Lut) at 
one time stood about 1,400 feet higher than at present. These beds of 
marl were first observed at the camp at Ain Abu Beweireh ; they contain 
blanched shells of the genera Melanopsis and Melania. The beds of marl 
were observed to be enclosed by higher ground of more ancient strata in 
every direction except towards the north, where they gently slope down- 
wards towards the borders of the Ghor, and become incorporated with 
strata of the 600-feet terrace. 

' The author concurs with Dr. Lartet in thinking that the waters of the 
Jordan Valley did not flow down into the Gulf of Akabah after the land 
had emerged from the sea; the disconnection of the inner and outer waters 
was very ancient, dating back to Miocene times. 

' The occurrence of beds of ancient lakes, consisting of coarse gravel, 
sand, and marl, amongst the mountains of Sinai, and in the Wad}' el 
Arabah, where now only waterless valleys occur, taken in connection 
with other phenomena, have impressed the author with the conviction 
that the former climatic conditions of Arabia Petrsea were very different 
from those of the present day. Such terraces have been observed by Dr. 
Post in the Wady Feiran, and Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson in the Wady 
Solaf, and by the author in the Wadies Gharandel, Goweisah, Hamr, 
Solaf, and Es Sheikh or Watiyeh. It would appear that, at a period 
coming down probably to the prehistoric, a chain of lakes existed amongst 
the tortuous valleys and hollows of the Sinaitic peninsula. The gypseous 
deposits of Wady Amarah and of 'Ain Hawareh are old lake beds, and 
Mr. Bauerman has observed remains of fresh- water shells {Lijmnaa trun- 
catitla) and a species of Pisidiura in "lake or river alluvium" of the 
Wadies Feiran and Es Sheikh. 1 

' 7. The author considers it probable that these ancient Sinaitic lakes 
belong to an epoch when the waters of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea 
rose to a level considerably higher than at present, and when, consequently, 
there was less fall for the inland waters in an outer direction. The 
evidence of a submergence, to a depth of at least 200 feet, is abundantly 

1 Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xxv. p. 32. 



OX THE SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 277 

clear in the occurrence of raised beaches or sea beds with shells, corals, 
and crinoids of species still living in. the adjoining waters. The raised 
beaches of the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts have been observed by 
the officers of the Ordnance Survey, and by Fraas, Lartet, Schweinfurth, 
Post, and others. They were observed by the author at the southern 
extremity of the ^Y'ady el Arabah, and shells and corals were found round 
the camp of December 3 at an elevation of about 130 feet above the Gulf 
(if Akabah. 

' These ancient sea beds are represented in the Egyptian area by the 
old coast-line of 220 feet, discovered by Fraas along the flanks of tho 
Mokattam Hills above Cairo, and recently described by Schweinfurth. 1 
The period in which the sea rose to this level may be stated in general 
terms as the Pliocene, but it continued downwards till more recent times; 
and the author believes that at the time of the Exodus the Gulf of Suez 
reached as far as the Great Bitter Lake, 2 a view in which he is supported 
bj r Principal Sir W. Dawson. It is scarcely necessary to observe that, 
through the longer portion of this period of submergence Africa was dis- 
connected from Asia. 

' 8. The Miocene period is not represented by any strata throughout the 
district traversed by the expedition. The author considers that in this 
part of the world the Miocene period was one of elevation, disturbance, 
and denudation of strata, not of accumulation. To this epoch he refers 
the emergence of the whole of the Palestine, and of the greater part of the 
Sinaitic area from the sea, in which the cretaceo-nutnmulitic limestone 
formations were deposited. To this epoch also he considers the faulting 
and flexuring of the strata is chiefly referable ; and notably the formation 
of the great Jordanic line of fault, with its branches and accompanying 
flexures in the strata — which are very remarkable along the western sides 
of the Ghor. These phenomena were accompanied and followed by 
extensive denudation, and the production of many of the principal physical 
features of the region referred to. 

' i>. The evidences of a Pluvial period throughout this region are to be 
found (a) in the remains of ancient lake beds, (b) in the existence of 
teri'aces in the river valleys, (c) in the great size and depth of many 
valleys and gorges, now waterless except after severe thunderstorms, and 
((/) in the vastly greater size of the Salt Sea (or Dead Sea), which must 
have had a length of neai-ly 200 English miles from north to south at the 
time when its surface was at a higher level than that of the Mediterranean 
at the present clay. The author considers that this Pluvial period 
extended from the Pliocena through the post-Pliocene (or Glacial) down 
to recent times. As it is known, from the observations of Sir J. D. 
Hooker, Canon Tristram, and others, that perennial snow and glaciers 
existed in the Lebanon during the Glacial epoch, the author infers that 
the adjoining districts to the south of the Lebanon must have had a 
climate approaching that of the British Isles at the present day ; and 
that, in a region of which many parts are over 2,000 feet in elevation, 
there must have been abundant rainfall. Even when the snows and 
glaciers of the Lebanon had disappeared, the effects of the colder climate 
which was passing away must have remained for some time, and the 
vegetation must have been more luxuriant down to within the epoch of 

' Veber die geol. Schichtengliederiing d. Mokattam bei Cairo ; Zeitsch.d. Dent, geol. 
Geteli. 18S3. 

'-' Quarterly Statement, April 1884. 



278 EEroRT— 1884. 

human habitation. The author's views generally coincide with those of 
Theobald Fisher, as extended by him to a much wider area. 1 

' 10. The author considers that there are reasons for concluding that 
the outburst of volcanic phenomena in North-eastern Palestine in the 
region of the Jaulan and Hauran, &c, has an indirect connection with 
the formation of the great Jordan Lake of the Pluvial period. The 
presence of water in considerable volume is now recognised as necessary 
to volcanic activity, and the author submits that this interdependence was 
brought about when the waters of the lake stretched as far north as the 
little Lake of Huleh. These waters, under a pressure of several hundred 
feet, would tied their way into the interior of the earth's crust along the 
lines of the great Jordan Vallev fault and of its branches, and thus 
supply the necessary " steam-power " for volcanic action. The period 
when the volcanoes of the Jaulan and Hauran were in action appears tc- 
have ranged from the Pliocene through the post- Pliocene to the beginning 
of the recent ; when, concurrent with the falling away and partial drying 
up of the waters of the great lake, the volcanic fires became extinct, and 
the great sheets of basaltic lava ceased to flow. 

' If these views are correct, it would seem that daring the Glacial 
epoch Palestine and Southern Syria presented an aspect very different 
from the present. The Lebanon throughout the year was snow-clad over 
its higher elevations, while glaciers descended into some of its valleys. 
The region of the Hauran, tying at its southern base, was the site of 
several extensive volcanoes, while the district around, and the Jordan 
Valley itself, was invaded by floods of lava. A great inland sea, occupying 
the Jordan Valley, together with the existing comparatively restricted 
sheets of water, stretched from Lake Huleh on the north to a southern 
margin near the base of Sami'at Fiddan in the Wady el Arabah of the 
present day, while numerous arms and bays stretched into the glens and 
valleys of Palestine and Moab ou either hand. Under such climatic con- 
ditions, we may feel assured, a luxuriant vegetation decked with verdure 
the hills and vales to an extent far beyond that of the present, and 
amongst the trees, as Sir J. D. Hooker has shown, the cedar may have 
spread far and wide. 

' 11. The author has not thought it necessary to go into the question 
of the origin of the salinity of the Salt Sea, as this question is now fully 
understood. He is obliged to differ from Dr. Lartet in his view of the 
origin of the salt mountain, Jebel Usdum, 2 which he (the author) regards 
as a portion of the bed of the Salt Sea when it stood about 600 feet above 
its present level. This level exactly corresponds to that of the tei'races, 
both along the south and east of the Ghor, formed of lacustrine materials. 
The upper surface of Jebel Usdum was examined by Messrs. Hart and 
Laurence, of our party, but previous explorers have considered the sides 
inaccessible. 

' 12. The author concurs with previous writers in considering that the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary periods succeeded each other over this region (at 
least as far as the marine deposits are concerned) without any important 
physical disturbances ; in consequence of which the limestone formations 
of these periods are in physical conformity and are generally incapable of 

1 Stvdien iiber das Klima der Mediterrischcn Lander, reterman's Mittheilungcn, 
1870. 

- Lartet regards the strata of this mountain as belonging to the Numraulitic 
period. 



ON THE SURVEY OF EASTERN PALESTINE. 279 

separation. It seems probable, however, that while the Nummulitic 
limestones predominate in the Egyptian and Nubian areas, those of the 
Cretaceous period were more fully developed over the area of Arabia 
Petrsea and Palestine. 

' The scientific results of which the above is a summary are intended 
to be published in extenso by the Palestine Exploration Fund, together 
with a geological map of the whole district, and one on a larger scale of 
Wady el Arabah. The popular narrative of the expedition will appear 
before the close of the year.' 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Brabrook (Secretary), 
Mr. Francis G-alton, Sir Rawson Rawson, and Mr. C. Roberts, 
appointed for the purpose of defraying the expenses of complet- 
ing the preparation of the final Report of the Anthropometric 
Committee. 

The members of the Committee report : — 

1. That they have met and have applied the 107. voted to them in 
payment to Mr. J. Henry Young for his assistance in the calculation of 
the tables in the final report. 

2. That they have received from Dr. C. K. Ord, R.N., Dr. Power, 
of Her Majesty's Convict Prison at Portsmouth, and other gentlemen, 
additional information and suggestions of new branches of inquiry. Dr. 
Ord's observations have been published in the annual report of the "West 
Kent Natural History, Microscopical, and Photographic Society. Obser- 
vations on Eyesight, and a Scale of Physical Proportions, by Mr. Charles 
Roberts, are appended to this report. 

."!. That they have had brought under their notice from many quarters 
evidence of the interest which the work of the Anthropometric Committee 
has excited, and of the desire to follow it up. 

4. That they recommend, therefore, that a small committee should be 
reappointed for the purpose of continuing and promoting the collection 
of Anthropometric observations. 

Observations on Eyesight, contributed by Mr. C. Roberts. 

Much unnecessary alarm has been caused in this country by the 
publication of observations made in Germany on the deteriorating 
influences of certain occupations, and especially of school and college life, 
on the eyesight of children and young persons. The statistics collected 
by the Anthropometric Committee, though not so numerous as could be 
wished, show that no such deterioration occurs in England, but, on the 
contrary, that between ages 10 and 40 years a slight improvement takes 
place, a result which might be expected from the operation of the 
physiological law that the function of an organ increases with its use. 
As no English statistics of eyesight bearing on this subject have been 
published, the following may be acceptable. 

Observations were made by means of the Army test-dots on all classes 
of the population following town and country occupations. The test-dots 



Feet i< eet 


Per 


57-0 


cent. 


57-6 + 5 




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12-7 


50-8 - 6-7 = 


11-7 


4G-7 - 10-8 = 


18-8 


61-9- 5-6 = 


0-7