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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



FIFTY- SIXTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADYANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



BIRMINGHAM IN SEPTEMBER 1886. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1887. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemakle Street, Loxdon, W. 



PMNTED BY 

s^oTT^s^vooDI3 and co., xew-stkeict SQUAnk 

LUNDUX 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxxv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xliii 

Evening Lectures Ivii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ix 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Birmingham Meeting Ixi 

Treasurer's Account Ixiii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixiv 

Officers and Council, 1886-87 Ixvi 

Report of the Council to the General Committee livii 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee for Additional 

Reports and Researches in Science Ixx 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxix 

Places of Meeting in 1887 and 1888 Ixxx 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes Lxxxi 

Arrangement of theGeneral Meetings xcii 

Address by the President, Sir J. William Dawson, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S., Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University, Mon- 
treal, Canada 1 



EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), 
Captain Abket, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor 
G. C. Foster, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. Pkeece, Professor Schustek, Professor 
Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt, Professor Atrxon, and Sir James 
Douglass, appointed for the purpose of reporting on Standards of Lio-ht. 
Drawn up by Professor G. Forbes 39 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. H. Darwin, Sir W. 
Thomson, and Major Baied, for preparing instructions for the practical 
■work of Tidal Ohservation ; and Fourth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professors G. H. IDarwin and J. C. Adams, for the Harmonic 
Analysis of Tidal Observations. Drawn up by Professor G. II. Darwxn ... 40 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crtjm Brown (Secretary), 
Mr. Milne Home, Mr. John Murray, and Mr. Buchan, appointed for the 
purpose of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making 
Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 58 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Professor Stokes, Professor Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professor Sir H. E. IloscoE, Captain Abney, and Mr. G. J. 
Stmons, appointed for the purpose of considering the best methods of re- 
cording the direct Intensity of Solar Radiation 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. W. Lant Carpenter, Mr. C. H. 
Carpmael, Mr. W. H. M. Christie (.Astronomer Royal), Professor G. 
Chrxstal, Staff Commander Creak, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
William Ellis, Sir J. H. Lefrot, Professor S. J. Perry, Professor 
Schuster, Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. G. M. Whipple, appointed for the 
purpose of considering the best means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic 
Observations. Drawn up by Professor Balfour Stewart 64 

First Report on our Experimental Knowledge of the Properties of Matter 
with respect to Volume, Pressure, Temperature, and Specific Heat. Bj'- 
P. T. Main, M.A 100 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Knox L.iUGHToN, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. R. 11. Scott, 
and Mr. Johnstone Stoney, appoioted for the purpose of co-opei-ating with 
Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of establishing a Meteorological Observatory 
near Chepstow on a permanent and scientific basis 139 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. AValker, Sir W. Thom-« 
SON, Sir J. H. Lefroy, General R. Strachey, Professor A. S. Herschel, 
Professor G, Chrystal, Professor C. Niven, Professor A. Schuster, and 
Professor J. H. Poynting (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inviting 
desiijrns for a good Differential Gravity Meter in supersession of the pendu- 
lum, whereby satisfactory results may be obtained at each station of obser- 
vation in a few hours, instead of the many days over which it is necessarj' 
to e.ttend the pendulum observations 141 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir W. 
Thomson, Professor J. Perry, Professor Ayrton, Professor W. G. Adams, 
Lord Rayletgh, Dr. 0. J. Lodse, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Mr. AV. H. Prbece, Mr. H. Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schus- 
ter, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Professor 
W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, and Mr. W. N. Shaw, appointed 
for the purpose of constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in 
Electrical Measurements 145 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson (Secre- 
tary), J. G. MacGregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. T. Bovey and Mr. C. 
Carpmael, appomted for the purpose of promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 150 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James N. Shoolbred (Secre- 
tary) and Sir William Thomson, appointed for the reduction and 
tabulation of Tidal Observations in the English Channel, made with the 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Dover Tide-gauge, and for connecting them with Observations made on the 
French Coast 161 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir H. E. RoscoE, Mr. 
LocKTEE, Professors Dewak, Livehtg, Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 
WOLCOTT GiBBS, Captain Abnet, and Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of preparing a new series of Wave-length Tables 
of the Spectra of the Elements 167 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Tilden, Professor W. 
Ramsat, and Dr. W. W. J. NicoL (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the subject of Vapour Pressures and Refractive Indices of 
Salt Solutions 204 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Ramsat, Tilben, 
Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
investigating certain Physical Constants of Solution, especially the Expan- 
sion of Saline Solutions 207 

Report (Provisional) of the Committee, consisting of Professors McLeod and 
W. Ramsay and Messrs. J. T. Ctindall and W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), 
appointed to investigate the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity 
on Oxygen and other Gases 213 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and Armstrong 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene 
Derivatives 216 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. McK. Hughes, Dr. H. 
HiCES, and Messrs. H. Woodwarb, E. B. Luxmoore, P. P. Pennant, 
and Edavin Morgan, appointed for the purpose of exploring the Caves of 
North Wales. Drawn up by Dr. H. Hicks, Secretary 219 

Fourteenth Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. Prestwich, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonnet, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey (Secretary), and Messrs. C. E. De Range, H. G. Fordham, 
J. E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengellt, J. Plant, and R. H. Tidde- 
MAN, appointed for the purpose of recording the position, height above 
the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks 
of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation 223 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Bauerman, Mr. F. W. 
Rudler, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Dr. Johnston-Lavis, for the Investi- 
gation of the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood. 
Drawn up by H. J. Johnsion-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S. (Secretary) 226 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. .- 

Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil ^ 

Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 229 

Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, Dr. 
H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, Professors J. Prestwich 
and G. A. Lebour, and Messrs. James Glatsher, E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, Fox- 
Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Stmons, VV. Toplet, Tylden-Wright, 
E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Range (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of Underground 
Waters in the Permeable Formations of England and Wales, and the 
Quantity and Character of the Water supplied to various Towns and Dis- 
tricts from these Formations. Drawn up by C. E. De Range 235 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. T. Blahfoed, Professor 
J. W. JuDD, and Messrs. W. Oarruthees, II. Woodward, and J. S. 
Gardner (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil 
Plants of the Tertiai-y and Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom 241 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendkick, Professor 
Cleland, and Dr. McGregor-Robertson (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of Investigating the Mechanism of the Secretion of Urine 250 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendeick, Professor 
Struthers, Professor Young, Professor McIntosh, Professor Alletne 
Nicholson, Professor Cossar Ewart, and Mr. John Mtjrray (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of promoting the establishment of a Marine 
Biological Station at Granton, Scotland 251 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Rat Lankester, Mr. P. L. 
ScLATER, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Mae- 
shall, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy 
Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occu- 
pation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 254 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Cordeaux (Secretary), 
Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Haevie-Brown, Mr. William Eagle 
Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, appointed for the 
purpose of obtaining (with the consent of the Master and Brethren of the 
Trinity House and the Commissioners of Northern and Irish Lights) 
observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightvessels, 
and of reporting on the same 264 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cleland, Professor McKen- 
DRiCK, Professor Ewart, Professor Stirling, Professor Bower, Dr. Cleg- 
horn, and Professor McIntosh (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of continuing the Researches on Food-Fishes and Invertebrates at the 
St. Andrews Marine Laboratory 268 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, General Sir 
J. H. Lefeoy, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Mr. Alex. Buchan, Mr. J. Y. 
Buchanan, Mr. John Murray, Dr. J. Rae, Mr. H. W. Bates (Secretary), 
Captain W. J. Dawson, Dr. A. Selwyn, and Mr. C. Carpmael, appointed 
to organise a Systematic Investigation of the Depth of the Permanently 
Frozen Soil in the Polar Regions, its Geographical Limits and relation to 
the present Pole of greatest cold 271 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, General Sir 
J. H. Lefeoy, Professor Sir "William Thomson, Mr. Francis Galton, 
]\Ir. Alex. Buchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Dr. John Murray, Mr. H. W. 
Bates, and Mr. E. G. Ravenstein (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of taking into consideration the Combination of the Ordnance and Admiralty 
Surveys, and the Production of a Bathy-hypsographical Map of the British 
Isles 277 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph D. Hooker, Sir George 
Nares, Mr. John Murray, General J. T. Walker, Admiral Sir Leopold 
McClintock, Ml-. Clements Markham, and Admiral Sir Er.asmus 
Ommanney (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of drawing attention to 
the desirability of further research in the Antarctic Regions 277 

Report of the .Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Secretary), 
Professor Armstrong, Mr. William Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss 
Lydia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Crossket, Sir Richard 
Temple, Bart., Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. James Heywood, and Professor 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 
N. SxoKT Maseeltne, appointed for the purpose of continuing the inquiries 
relating to the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 278 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sibgwick, Professor Fox- 
well, the Rev. W. Cunningham, and Professor Munro (Secretary), on 
the Regulation of Wages by means of Sliding Scales 282 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Baklow, Sir F. J. Bram- 
WELL, Professor J. Thomson, Captain D. Galton, Mr. B. Baker, Professor 
W. C. Unwin, Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, Mr. C. Barlow, Mr. A. T. 
. Atchison (Secretary), and Professor H, S. Hele Shaw, for obtaining in- 
formation with reference to the Endui-auce of Metals under repeated and 
varying stresses, and the proper working stresses on Railway Bridges and 
other structures subject to varying loads 284 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson, Mr. Pengelly, Mr. F. W. 
Rttdler, and Mr. G. W. Bloxam (Secretary), for investigating the Pre- 
historic Race in the Greek Islands 284 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. Daniel Wilson, Mr. R. G. 
Halibitrxon, and Mr. George W. Bloxam (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating and publishing reports on the physical cha- 
racters, languages, and industrial and social condition of the Xorth-westeru 
Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 285 

Report to the Council of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting 
of Mr. Francis Galton (Chairman), Professor A. W. ^^■ILLIAMSON, 
Captain Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Raavson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola 
(Secretary), Mr. VV. Whitakee, Mr. G. J. Symons, and General Pitt- 
Rivees -^^ 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Armstrong and Lodge 
(Secretaries), Sir William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, Professors Schuster, 
PoYNTiNG, J. J. Thomson, Fitzgerald, Crum Brown, Ramsay, Frank- 
land, Tilden, Hartley, McLeod, Carey Foster, Roberts-Austen, 
RtJCKER, Reinold, and S. P. Thompson, (Japtain Abney, Drs. Gl.vbstone, 
Hopkinson, and Fleming, and Messrs. W. X. Shaw, II. B. Dixon, J. T. 
Bottomley, W. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, and J. Laemor, appointed 
for the purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis in its Physical and 
Chemical bearings. Edited by Oli^-eb Lodge 308 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheeidge, Mr. Thomas 
Geay, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed lor the purpose 
of investigating the Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. Drawn up by the 
Secretary 413 

The Modern Development of Thomas Young's Theory of Colour-vision. By 

Dr. Arthur Konig 431 

On the Explicit Form of the Complete Cubic Differential Resolvent. By the 

Rev. RoBEET Habley, F.R.S 439 

On the Phenomena and Theories of Solution. Bv Professor W. A. Tilden, 

F.R.S '^ -i^^ 

On the Exploration of the Raygill Fissure in Lothersdale, Yorkshire. By 

James W. Davis, F.G.S 469 

An Accurate and Rapid Method of estimating the Silica in an Igneous Rock. 

By J. 11. Player ^^1 



\n\ COXTENTS. 

Page 
On some points for the Consideration of English Engineers with reference to 
the Design of Girder Bridges. By W. Shelpoed, M.lnst.C.E., and 
A. H. Shield, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 472 

The Sphere and EoUer Mechanism for Transmittingtower. By Professor 

IIiLE Shaw and Edwaed Shaw 484 

(>n Improvements in Electric Safety Lamps. By J. Wilson Swan, M. A, ... 496 

On the Birmingham, Tame, and Eea District Drainage. By WiLLLiii Till... 499 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Page 
Address by Professor G. 11. Darwin, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.R.A.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 511 

1. Communication from the Grenada Eclipse Expedition. By Donald 
MacAlistee, M.A., M.D., B.Sc 518 

2. First Report on our Experimental Knowledge of the Properties of Matter. 

By P. T. Main, M.A 518 

3. On the Critical Mean Curvature of Liquid Surfaces of Pievolution. By 
Professor A. W. Ruckee, M.A., F.R.S 518 

4. A Mercurial Air-pump. By J. T. Botiojilet, M.A., F.E.S.E 519 

5. On the Cutting of Polarising Prisms. By Professor Siltanus P. Thomp- 
son, D.Sc 520 

6. On a Varying Cylindrical Lens. By Tempest Anderson, M.D., B.Sc. ... 520 

7. On the Law of the Propagation of Light. Bv Professor J. II. Potkting, 
M.A., and E.F. J. Love, B.A ." 521 

8. On a new form of Current-weigher for the Absolute Determination of the 
Strength of an Electric Current. By Professor James Bltth 521 

9. On the Proof by Cavendish's Method that Electrical Action varies inversely 

as the Square of the Distance. By Professor J. H. Potnting, M.A 523 

10. On the Electrolysis of Silver and Copper, and its Application to the 
Standardising of Electric Current- and Potential-Meters. By Thomas 
Geat, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 524 

11. Description of a new Calorimeter for lecture purposes. By T. J. Baker 525 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On the Physical and Phvsiological Theories of Colour- Vision. By Lord 
Ratleigh, D.C.L., LL.b., Sec.R.S 526 

2. The Modern Development of Thomas Young's Theory of Colour-vision. 

By Dr. Arthur Konig 526 

3. On the Physical and Physiological Theories of Colour-vision. By Pro- 
fessor Michael Foster, M.D., Sec.R.S 526 

4. On Hering's and Young's Theories of Colour-vision. By John Tennant 526 

5. Second Report of the Committee on Standards of Light 527 

6. Thermopile and Galvanometer combined. By Professor George Forbes 527 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. On the Intensity of Reflection from Glass and other Surfaces. By Lord 
Raxleigh, D.C.L., LL.D., Sec.R.S ". 527 

8. A Note on some Observations of the Loss which Light suifers in passing 

through Glass. By Sir John Coneot, Bart., M.A 527 

9. On an Experiment showing that a Divided Electric Current may be greater 

in both branches than in the mains. By Lord Raxleigh, D.C.L., LLD., 
Sec.R.S ". 527 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Report of the Committee for preparing instructions for the practical work 

of Tidal Observation 527 

2. Fourth Report of the Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 
Observations 528 

3. Report of the Committee appointed to co-operate with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 528 

4. Third Report of the Committee appointed to co-operate with Mr. E. J. 
Lowe in his project of establishing on a permanent and scientific basis 

a Meteorological Observatory near Chepstow 528 

■6. Second Report of the Committee for considering the best me^s of Com- 
paring and Reducing Magnetic Observations 528 

6. Third Report of the Committee for considericg the best methods of Record- 
ing the direct Litensity of Solar Radiation 528 

7. The peculiar Sunrise-Shadows of Adam's Peak in Ceylon. By the Hon. 

Ralph ABERCROirBX, F.R.Met.Soc 528 

8. On the Distribution of Temperature in Loch Lomond and Loch Katrine 

during the past Winter and Spring. By J. T. Morktsox, M.A 528 

9. On the Distribution of Temperature in the Firth of Clvde in April and 

June 1886. By J. T. Moerisox, M.A ' 529 

10. On the Temperature of the River Thurso. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc. 
F.R.S.E., F.C.S ". 530 

11. On the Normal Forms of Clouds. By A. F. Osler, F.R.S 530 

12. On a new Sunshine Recorder. By W. E. AVilson 533 

13. Second Report of the Committee for promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 534 

14. Report of the Committee for inviting designs for a good Differential 
Gravity Meter 534 

15. Description of a Differential Gravity Meter founded on the Flexure of a 

Spring. By Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 534 

16. Comparison of the Hai'court and Methven Photometric Standards. By 

W. Stepnex Rawsox, M.A 535 

17. Fuel Calorimetry. By B. H. Thwaite, F.C.S 536 

18. On Secular Experiments in Glasgow on the Elasticity of Wires. By 

J. T. BoxTOMLEx, M.A., F.R.S.E 537 

Mathematical Sub-Section. 

1. Report of the Committee for Calculating Tables of the Fundamental 

Invariants of Algebraic Forms 538 

2. On the Rule for Contracting the Process of Finding the Square Root of a 

Number. By Professor M. J. M. Hill 538 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

3. On the Explicit Form of the Complete Cubic Differential Resolvent. By 

the Rev. K. Haeley, F.R.S 538 

4. On a Geometrical Transformation. By Professor R. W. Genese, M. A.... 538 

6. On the Sum of the ?!th Powers of the Terms of an Arithmetical Pro- 
gression. By Professor R. AV. Genese, M.A 540 

6. On a Form of Quartic Surface with twelve Notes. By Professor Catlet, 
LL.D., F.R.S 540 

7. On the Jacobian Ellipsoid of Equilibrium of a rotating Mass of Fluid. 

By Professor G. H. Darwin, F.R.S 541 

8. On the Dynamical Theory of the Tides of Long Period. By Professor 

■ G. H. Daewin, F.R.S 541 

9. Note on Sir "William Thomson's Correction of the Ordinary Equilibrium 

Theory of the Tides. By Professor J. C. Adams, LL.D., F.R.S 541 

10. On the Determination of the Radius Vector in the Absolute Orbit of the 
Planets. By Professor Gteden 642 

11. Note on the Orbits of Satellites. By Professor Asaph Hall 542 

12. Diagi'ammatic Representation of Moments of Inertia in a Plane Area. 

By Aleeed Lodge, M.A 543 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Report of the Committee for reducing and tabulating Tidal Observations 

in the English Channel, made with the Dover Tide-gauge, and for 
connecting them with Observations made on the French coast 544 

2. Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 544 

3. Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 544 

4. On an Electric Motor Phenomenon. By W. M. Moedet 544 

6. On Electric Induction between AVires and Wires. By W. H. Peeece, 
F.R.S 546 

6. On a Magnetic E.x;periment. By W. H. Peeece, F.R.S 546 

7. On a new Scale for Tangent Galvanometer. By AV. H. Peeece, F.R.S., 
and H. R. Kempe 546 

8. On Stationary AVaves in Flowing AA'^ater. By Sir AVilliam Thomson, 

LL.D., F.R.S 546 

9. Artificial Production and Maintenance of a Standing Bore. By Sir 
AViLLiAM Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 547 

10. A'elocity of Advance of a Natural Bore. By Sir AA'illiam Thomson, 
LL.D., F.R.S 547 

11. Graphical illustrations of Deep Sea AVave-groups. By Sir A\'illiam 
Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 547 

12. Sir AVilliam Thomson's Improved AVheatstone's Rheostat. Bv J. T. 
BoTTOMLET, M.A., F.R.S.E '. 547 

13. Description of Experiments for determining the Electric Resistance of 
Metals at High Temperatures. By J. T. Botxomlet, M.A., F.R.S.E 548 

14. On a new Standard Sine-Galvanometer. By Thomas Geat, B.Sc, 

F.R.S.E 549 

15. On Magnetic Hysteresis. By Professor G. Foebes, M.A 550 

16. On a new System of Electrical Control for Uniform-motion Clocks. By 

Howard Geubb, F.R.S 552 



Xll CONTENTS 

Page 
17. Design for working' the Equatorial and Dome of 'Lick' Observatory, 

California, by Hydraulic Power. By Howard Gkubb, F.R.S 553 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. The Advantages to the Science of Terrestrial Magnetism to be obtained 
from an expedition to the region within the Antarctic Circle. By Staff 
Commander EiTPacK W. Creak, R.N., F.R.S 553 

2. On Lithanode. By Desmond G. Fitz-Gerald 553 

3. Draper Memorial Photographs of Stellar Spectra exhibiting Bright Lines. 

By Professor Edward C. Pickering 553 

4. An Apparatus for determining the Hardness of Metals. By Thomas 
Turner, A.R.S.M 554 

5. On Star Photography. By Isaac Roberts, F.R.A.S., F.G.S 555 

6. Exhibition and Description of INIiller's portable Torsion Magnetic Meter. 

By Professor James Bltth 556 

7. On the Protection of Life and Property from Lightning. By W. 
McGregor 556 

8. An improved Form of Clinometer. By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 557 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Addi-ess by William Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S., President of the Section ... 558 

1. On the Absorption Spectra of Uranium Salts. By W. J. Russell, 

F.R.S., and W. Lapraie, F.C.S 576 

2. The Air of Dwellings and Schools, and its relation to Disease. By 
Professor T. Carnellet, D.Sc ' 577 

3. On some probable new Elements. By Alexander Pringle 677 

4. On the Action of Bromine on the Trichloride of Phosphorus. By A. L. 
Stern 577 

5. Dissociation and Contact-action. By the Rev. A. Irving, B.Sc, B.A. ... 577 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Second Report of the Committee on Vapour Pressures and Refractive 

Indices of Salt Solutions 578 

2. Second Report of the Committee on certain Physical Constants of Solu- 
tion, especially the Expansion of Saline Solutions 578 

3. On the Phenomena and Theories of Solution. By Professor W. A. Tilden, 

F.R.S 578 

4. Water of Crystallisation. By Dr. Nicol 578 

5. On the Magnetic Rotation of Mixtures of Water, and some of the Acids 
of the Fattv Series with Alcohol and with Svilphuric Acid, and Observa- 
tions on Water of Crystallisation. By W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S. ... 579 

6. On the Nature of Liquids. By William Ramsay, Ph.D., and Sydney 

Young, D.Sc 579 

7. On the JS'ature of Solution. By Professor Spencer U. Pickering 581 



CONTENTS. Xlll 



SATUBDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 

1. On the Fading of Water-colours. By Professor W. N. Hartley, F.R.S. 581 

2. On the Distribution of the Nitrifying Organism in the Soil. By R. 
Wakington, F.R.S 582 

3. On the Action of Drinking-water on Lead. By Dr. C. Metmott Tidy ... 683 

4. Micro-organisms iu Drinkiug-'water. By Professor Odling, F.R.S 583 

MONDA T, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Influence of the 

Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 583 

2. On the Preservation of Gases over Mercurv. By Haeold B. Dixon, 
M.A., F.R.S .' 583 

3. On the Methods of Chemical Fractionation. By William Crookes, 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S ■. 583 

4. On the Fractionation of Yttria. By William Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 586 

5. On the Colour of the Oxides of Cerium and its Atomic AVeight. By H. 
Robinson, M.A 591 

•6. On the Determination of the Constitution of Carbon Compounds from 
Thermo-chemical Data. By Professor Armstrong, F.R.S 591 

7. On the relative Stability of the Camphene Hydrochlorides CjqHjjCI ob- 
tained from Turpentine and Camphene respectively. By Ernest F. 
Ehbhardt 591 

■8. On Derivatives of TolidLn and the Azotohdin Dyes. By R. F. Ruttan, 
B.A., M.D 591 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. On the Treatment of Phosphoric Crude Iron in Open-hearth Furnaces. 

By J. W. Wailes 592 

2. On the Basic Bessemer Process in South Staffordshire. By AV. 
Hutchinson 593 

3. On the Production of Soft Steel in a new type of Fixed Converter. By 
George Hatton 593 

4. The Influence of Remelting on the Properties of Cast Iron. By Thomas 
Turner 594 

5. Silicon in Cast Iron. By Thomas Turner 595 

■6. The Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Iron and Steel. By Thomas 

Turner 597 

7. On the Estimation of Carbon in Iron and Steel. By Thomas Turner . . . 597 

WEBXESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report of the Committee on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 598 

2. Report of the Committee for preparing a new series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 598 

■3. On the Chemistry of Estuary Water. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E., F.C.S 598 

4. The Essential Oils: a Study in Optical Chemistry. By Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone, F.R.S 599 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

5. An Apparatus for maintaining Constant Temperatures up to 500°. By 

G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D 599 

6. On a new Apparatus for readily determining the Calorimetric Value of 

Fuel or Organic Compounds by Direct Combustion in Oxygen. By 
William Thomson, F.R.S.E 599^ 

7. On Some Decompositions of Benzoic Acid. By Professor Odling, F.R.S. 599 

8. The Crystalline Structure of Iron Meteorites. By Dr. O. W. Hunting- 
ton 599' 

Section C— GEOLOGT. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address by Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., 

President of the Section 601 

1. On the Geology of the Birmingham District. By Professor C. Lapwokth, 
LL.D., F.G.S. ., 621 

2. On the Discovery of Rocks of Cambrian Age at Dosthill in Warwick- 
.shire. By W. Jerome Hakkison, F.G.S 622 

3. Tlie Cambrian Rocks of the Midlands. By Professor C. Lapwoeth, 
LL.D., F.G.S 622 

4. On the Petrography of the Volcanic and associated Rocks of Nuneaton. 

By T. H, Waller, B.A., B.Sc. 625 

5. On the Rocks surrounding the Warwickshire Coalfield, and on the Base 
of the Coal-measures. By Aitbeey Strahan, M.A., F.G.S. With an 
Appendix on the Igneous Rocks of the Neighbourhood, by F. Rutley, 
F.G.S : 624 

6. On the Halesowen District of the South Staffordshire Coalfield. By 

AViLLiAM Mathews, F.G.S 625 

7. Notes on the Rock between the Thick Coal and the Trias North of Bir- 

mingham and the Old South Staffordshire Coalfield. By Frederick G. 
Meacham, M.E., and II. Insley 626 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Fourteenth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 627 

2. On the Glacial Phenomena of the Midland District. By Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey, F.G.S 627 

3. On the Glacial Erratics of Leicestershire and Warwickshire. By the 

Rev. W. Tuckwell 627 

4. The Fossiliferous Bunter Pebbles contained in the Drift at Moseley, &c. 

By A. T. Evans 627 

5. Surface Subsidence caused by Lateral Coal Mining. By Professor W. E. 
Benton, Assoc.R.S.M 628 

6. Exhibition of some Organisms met with in the Clay-Ironstone Nodules 
of the Coal-Measures in the neighbourhood of Dudley. By H. Wood- 
ward, LL.D., F.R.S., and R. Etheridge, F.R.S 62& 

7. Notes on the Discovery of a large Fossil Tree in the Lower Coal-measures 

at Clayton, near Bradford. By S. A. Adamson, F.G.S 628 

8. On the Discovnrv of Fossil Fish in the New Red Sandstone (Upper 
Keuper) in Warwickshire. By the Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.G.S. ... 629 

9. On the Range, Extent, and Fossils of the Rhfetic Formation in Warwick- 
shire. By the Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.G.S 629 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

10. On a Deep Boring for Water in the New Eed Marls (Keuper Marls) near 
Birmingham. By W. Jerome HAEpasoN, F.G.S 630 

11. Notes on a Smoothed and Striated Boulder (exhibited) from a Pretertiary 

Deposit in the Punjab Salt Range. By W. T. Bianfoed, LL.D., F.R.S., 
Sec.G.S ■ 630 

12. On a Striated and Facetted Fragment from Chel Hill Olive Conglo- 
merate, Salt Range, Punjab. By A. B. Wtnne, F.G.S 631 

SATURBAT, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. Report on the Exploration of the Caves of North "Wales 632 

2. On the Pleistocene Deposits of the Vale of Clwyd. Bv Professor T. 

McKennt Hughes, M.A., F.G.S .1 632 

3. Comparative Studies upon the Glaciation of North America, Great 
Britain, and Ireland. By Professor H. Caevill .Lewis, M.A., F.G.S. ... 632 

4. On the Extension and probable Duration of the South Stafibrdshire Coal- 
field. By Henry Johnson 636 

MONBAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Relations of the Geology of the Arctic and Atlantic Basins. By 

Sir J. William Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 638 

2. On the Rocky Mountains, with special reference to that part of the Range 

between the 49th parallel and the headwaters of the Red Deer River. 
By Geoege M. Dawson, D.Sc, F.G.S 638 

3. On the Coal-bearing Rocks of Canada. By Feank D. Adams, Geological 

Surveyor of Canada 639 

4. On the Coal Deposits of South Africa. By Professor T. RurBET Jones, 
F.R.S., F.G.S.. 641 

5. On the Kerosine Shale of Mount Victoria, New South Wales. By Pro- 
fessor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S 643 

6. On the Character and Age of the New^ Zealand Coalfields. By Sir 

Julius von Haast, K.O.M.G., F.R.S., F.G.S 643 

7. On the Geysers of the Rotorua District, North Island of New Zealand, 

By E. W. Bucke 644 

8. Note accompanying a Series of Photographs prepared by Josiah Martin, 
Esq., F.G.S., to illustrate the Scene of the recent Volcanic Eruption in 
New Zealand. By Professor J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Pres.G.S 644 

9. On the Geology of the newly discovered Goldfields in Kimberley, 

Western Australia. By Edwaed T. FIaedman, F.R. G.S.I 645 

10. Statistics of the Production and Value of Coal raised within the British 
Empire. By Richard Meade 646 

11. The Relations of the Middle and Lower Devonian in West Somerset. 

By W. A. E. Usshee, F.G.S 649 

12. Supplementary Note on Two Deep Borings in Kent. By W. Whitaeee, 
B.A., F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E 649 

13. On the Westward Extension of the Coal-measures into South-eastern 
England. By Professor W. Boyd Daweins, F.R.S 050 



1. 



TUESBAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

Report on the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and Secondary Beds of the 
United Kingdom 05]^ 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

2. On Canadian Examples of supposed Fossil Algse. By Sir J. William 

Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 651 

3. On Bilobites. By Professor T. McKennt Hughes, M.A., F.G.S 653 

4. Ou recent Researches amongst the Carboniferous Plants of Halifax. By 
Professor W. C. Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S 654 

5. Note on the recent Earthquake in the United States, including a tele- 

graphic dispatch from Major Powell, Director of the United States 
Geological Survey. By W. ToPLEr, F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E., Geological 
Survey of England 656 

6. Sixth Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 657 

7. Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu\-iu3 and its neighbourhood... 657 

8. On the Heat of the Earth as influenced by Conduction and Pressure. 

By the Rev. A. Irving, B.Sc.,B.A.., F.G.S 657 

9. A Contribution to the Discussion of Metamorphism in Rocks. By the 

Rev. A. Irving, B.Sc, B.A., F.G.S 658 

10. Ou the Influence of Axial Rotation of the Earth on the Interior of its 

Crust. By John GuNN, F.G.S , 660 

Geology Sub-Section. 

1. Notes on some of the Problems now being investigated by the Officers of 

the Geological Survey in the North of Ireland, chiefly in Co. Donea-al. 
By Professor E. Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 660 

2. Notes on the Crystalline Schists of Ireland. By C. Callaway, D.Sc, 
M.A., F.G.S 661 

3. The Ordovician Rocks of Shropshire. By Professor C. Lapworth, LL.D., 
F.G.S 661 

4. On the Silurian Rocks of North Wales. By Professor T. M'Kenny 
Hughes, M.A., F.G.S 063 

5. Notes on some Sections in the Arenig Series of North Wales and the Lake 

District. By Professor T. M'Kenny Hughes, M.A., F.G.S 663 

6. On the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks near Settle. By J. E. 3Iarr, M.A., 

F.G.S .' 663 

7. Note on a Bed of Red Chalk in the Lower Chalk of Suffolk. By A. J. 

Jukes-Browne, B.A., F.G.S 664 

8. On Manganese Mining in Merionethshire. By C. Le Neve Foster, D.Sc. 665 

9. On the Exploration of Raygill Fissure in Lothersdale, Yorkshire. By 
James ^Y. Davis, F.G.S 665 

WEDXESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. On the Basalt of Rowley Regis. By C. Be ale 665 

2. On the Mineral District of Western Shropshire. By C. J. Woodward, 
B.Sc 665 

3. The Anorthosite Rocks of Canada. By Frank D. Adams 666 

4. On a Diamantiferous Peridotite and the Genesis of the Diamond. By 
Professor H. Carvill Lewis, M.A., F.G.S ".. 667 

5. On the Metamorphosis of the Lizzard Gabbros. Bv J. J. H. Teall, M.A., 

F.G.S ." 668 

6. Introduction to the Monian Svstem of Rocks. By Professor J. F. Blake, 

M.A., F.G.S .' .669 



CONTENTS. XVll 

Page 

7. On the Igneous Rocks of Llyn Padarn, Yr Eifl, and Boduan. By Pro- 
fessor J. F. Blake, M.A., F.G.S G69 

8. On an Accurate and Rapid Method of Estimating the Silica in Igneous 
Rocks. By J. H. Player 670 

9. On a new Form of Clinometer. By J. Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S 670 

10. On Concretions. By H. B. Stocks 670 

11. On a Scrobicularia Bed, containing Human Bones, at Newton Abbot, 
Devonshire. By W. Pexgelly, F.R.S., F.G.S 670 

Geology Sub-Section. 

1. The Comdon Laccolites. By W. W. Watts, M.A., F.G.S 670 

2. Fourth Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 671 

3. On the Discovery of Diprotodon Australia in Tropical Western Australia 

(Klmberley District). By Edwaed T. Haedman, F.R.G.S.I 671 

4. Twelfth Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters 672 

5. On the Stratigraphical Position of the Salt-Measures of South Durham. 

By Professor G. A. Lebottr, M.A., F.G.S 673 

6. On the Carboniferous Limestone of the North of Flintshire. By G. H. 
Morton, F.G.S 673 

7. On the Classification of the Carboniferous Limestone Series : North- 
umbrian Type. ByHuGHMiLiER,F.R.S.E., F.G.S 674 

8. The Culm Measures of Devonshire. By W. A. E. Ussher, F.G.S 676 

9. Denudation and Deposition by the Agency of Waves experimentally con- 
sidered. By A. R. Hunt, F.G.S 676 

10. Third Report on the Rate of Erosion of the Sea Coasts of England and 
AVales 677 

11, On Deposits of Diatomite in Skye. By W. IvisoN Macadam, F.O.S., and 

J. S. Grant Wilson, F.G.S 678 

Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address by William Caeeuthers, Pres.L.S., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of 

the Section 679 

1. Report of the Committee for arranging for the Occupation of a Table at 

the Zoological Station at Naples 685 

2. Report of the Committee for continuing the Researches on Food-Fishes 
and Invertebrates at the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory 685 

3. On the Value of the ' Type System ' in the Teaching of Botany. By Pro- 
fessor Bayley Balfour, F.R.S 685 

4. Remarks on Physiological Selection, an Additional Suggestion on the 
Origin of Species, by G. J. Romanes, F.R.S. By Henry Seebohm, 
F.L.S 685 

5. On Provincial Museums, their Work and Value. By F. T. Mott, 
F.R.G.S ' 686 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On some Points in the Development of Monotremes. By W. H. Cald- 
well, M.A 686 

2. On the Morphology of the Mammalian Coracoid. By Professor Howes, 
F.L.S 686 

3. On Rudimentary Structures relating to the Human Coracoid Process. 

By Professor Macalisier, F.R.S 687 

1886. a 



XVlll CONTENTS. 



Sub-Section Phtsiology. 

Page 

1. Discussion on Cerebral Localisation 687 

2. On the Connection between Molecular Structure and Biological Action. 

By James Blaee, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.O.S 687 

3. Supplement to the Paper ' On the Causes and Results of assumed Oycloidal 
Rotation in Arterial Red Discs.' By Surg.-Major R. W. Woollcojibe... 687 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. Report on the Migration of Birds 688 

2. Report of the Committee for promoting the Establishment of a Marine 

Biological Station at Granton .*..... 688 

3. Report on the Record of Zoological Literature 688 

4. Report of the Committee for investigating the Mechanism of the Secretion 

of Urine 688 

6. On the Flora of Ceylon. By Dr. Teimen 688 

Sub-Section Aniaial Morphology. 

1. On Man's Lost Incisors. By Professor Windle, M.A, M.D., and John 
HuMPHKEYs, L.D.S.1 688 

2. On the Nervous System of Myxine and Petromyzon. By Professor 
D'Aegy Thompson 691 

3. On the Vestigial Structures of the Reproductive Apparatus in the Male of 
the Green Lizard. By Professor Howes, F.L.S 691 

4. On the Development of the Skull in Cetacea. By Professor D'Aect 
Thompson 691 

5. On some Abnormalities of the Frog's Vertebral Column. By Professor 
Howes, F.L.S 692 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Brain of an Aboriginal Australian. By Professor Macalistee, 
F.R.S 692 

2. On Heredity in Cats with an Extra Number of Toes. By E. B. Poulton, 
M.A 692 

3. On the Artificial Production of a Gilded Appearance in certain Lepi- 

dopterous Pupte. By E. B. Poulton-, M.A 692 

4. Some Experiments upon the Protection of Insect3 from their Enemies by 
means of an unpleasant taste or smell. By E. B. Poulton, M.A 694 

5. On the Nature and Causes of Variation in Plants. By Patrick Geddes 695 

6. The Honey Bee versus Darwinism. By the Rev. T. Miles 695 

7. On the Biological Relations of Bugio, an Atlantic Rock in the Madeira 

Group. By Dr. Geabham 695 

8. On some new Points in the Physiology of the Tortoise. By Professor 
Hayceaft 696 

9. Preliminary Account of the Parasite Larva of Halcampa. By Professor 
Haddon 696 

10. Notes on Dredging off South-West of Ireland. By Professor Haddon ... 696 

11. Points in the Development of the Pectoral Fin and Girdle in Teleosteaus. 

By Edwaed E. Prince .- 697 



CONTENTS. Xix 

Page 
12. Some Remarks on the Egg-Membranes of Osseous Fishes. By Robert 
ScHAKPF, Ph.D., B.Sc 698 

TUESDAY, SEPTE3IBER 7. 

1. On Humboldtia laurifolia as a Myrinekophilous Plant. By Professor F. 0. 
Bower 699 

2. On Positively Geotropic Shoots in Cordyline australis. By Professor F. 0. 
Bower 699 

3. Note on Apospores in Pohjstichum angvlare, Yar. pulcherrimum. By Pro- 
fessor F. 0. Bower 700 

4. On the Formation and Escape of the Zoospores in Saprolegnise, By Pro- 
fessor Hartog ,., 700 

5. On the Germination of the Spores of Phjtoiihthora infestans. By Pro- 
fessor Marshall Ward, M.A 700 

6. Two Fungous Diseases of Plants. By W. B. Gkove, B.A 700 

7. Preliminary Notes on the Autumnal Fall of Leaves. By Professor W. 
HiLLHOusE, M.A., F.L.S 700 

8. On an Apparatus for Determining the Rate of Transpiration. By Pro- 
fessor W. HiLLHOusE, M.A., F.L.S , 701 

9. On the Cultivation of Beggiatoa alba. By Professor W. Hillhouse, M.A.. 
F.L.S : .'701 

10. On Heterangium Tilioides. By Professor W. 0. Williamson-, LL.D., 
F.R.S ; [ 702 

11. The Multiplication and Vitality of certain Micro-organisms, Pathogenic 
and otherwise. By Percy F. Frankland, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.C.S 702 

12. The Distribution of Micro-organisms in the Air of Town, Country, and 
Buildings. By Percy F. Frankland, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.C.S 704 

13. Note on the Floral Symmetry of the Genus Oypripedium. By Dr. Max- 

well T. Masters, F.R.S 7O6 

14. On the Culture of usually aerobic Bacteria under anaerobic conditions. By 
Professor Marcus M. Harto& and Allan P. Swan .'. 706 

15. On Cortical Fibrovascular Bundles in some species of Leajthidea and Bar- 
ringtoniem. By Professor Marcus M. Haktog 706 

16. On the Growing Point of Phanerogams. By Percy Groom 707 

17. On the Cultivation of Fern prothallia for Laboratory purposes. By. J. 
Morley 707 

18. Life Cycles of Organisms represented diagrammatically and comparatively. 

By D. McAlpine 7O8 

19. A Re-arrangement of the Divisions of Biology. By D. McAlpine 708 

S (IB- Section Animal Morphology. 

1. On the Theory of Sex, Heredity, and Reproduction. By Patrick Geddes 708 

2. Notes on Australian Ccelenterates. By Dr. R. Von Lenbenfeld 709 

3. On a Sponge possessing Tetragonal Symmetry, with Observations on the 
Minute Structure of the Tetractinellidae. By Professor Sollas, LL.D.... 710 

4. The Anatomy of Necera. By Professor Haddon 71C 

6. The Nervous System of Sponges. By Dr. R. Von Lendeneeld 710 

6. The Function of Nettle-cells. By Dr. R. Von Lenbenfeld 710 

a,2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. Note on a peculiar Medusa from St. Andrews Bay. By Professor 
McIntosh, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 710 

8. Note on Helopeltis Antonii, Sign., in Ceylon. By Henet Trimen, M.B., 
F.L.S 711 

9. On Marsupial Bones. By Professor Thompson 711 

10. On the Sense of Smell. By Professor Hatcraft 711 

11, On Young Cod, &c. By Professor McIntosh, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 711 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address by Major-General Sir F. J. Goldsmid, K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S., 
President of the Section 712 

1. Notes on the Extent, Topography, Climatic Peculiarities, Flora, and 

Agricultural Capabilities of the Canadian North-west. By Professor 
John Macoun, M.A 726 

2. The Canadian Pacific Railway. By Alexander Beg G 727 

3. A new Trade Route between America and Europe. By Hugh Suther- 
land 727 

4. Proposed new Route to the Great Prairie Lands of North-west Canada, 

via Hudson's Strait and Bay. By John Rae, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S 728 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On tbe Place of Geog-raphy in National Education. By Douglas W. 
Freshfield, M.A., F.R.G.S 729 

2. Can Europeans become acclimatised in Tropical Africa ? By Robebt W. 
Felkin, M.D., F.R.S.E 729 

3. Further Explorations in the Raian Basin and the Wadi Mdileh. By 

Cope Whitehouse 730 

4. Recent Exploration in New Guinea. By Captain Henry Charles 
Everill 730 

5. The Fiji Islands. By James E. Mason 731 

6. New Britain. By the Rev. George Broavn 731 

7. The Connection of the Trade Winds and the Gulf Stream with some West 

Indian Problems. By R. G. Haliburton 731 

MO^^'BAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Remarks on a Curious Album. By H. Beaugrand 731 

2. Report of the Committee for drawing attention to the desirability of 
further research in the Antarctic Regions 731 

3. Telegraphic Enterprise and Deep Sea Research on the West Coast of 
Africa. By J. Y. Buchanan 731 

4. River Entrances. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.C.S 73) 

5. Configuration of the Clyde Water System. By Hugh Robert Mill, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.C.S 732 

6. British North Borneo. By W. B. Prtsr 73.S 



CONTENTS. Xxi 

Page 

7. The River Systems of South India. By General F. H. Rtjndall, C.S.I., 

RE 734 

8. On the Afghan Frontier. By Charles Edward D. Black 734 

9. On Preshevalski's Travels in Tibet. By E. Delmar Morgan 734 

10. North China and Corea. By J. D. Rbes 734 

11. Universal Time : a System of Notation for the Twentieth Century. By 
Sandford F. Fleming, O.M.G., LL.D 735 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. A Journey in Western Algeria, May 1886. By Colonel Sir Lambert 
Platfair, K.C.M.G 735 

2. Recent French Explorations in the Ogowai-Congo Region. By Major 

R. de Lannot de BissT 736 

3. River Niger and Central Sudan Sketches. By Joseph Thomson 736 

4. Recent Explorations in the Southern Congo Basin. By Lieutenant R. 
KuND 736 

6. A Trader on the West Coast of Afi-ica and in the Interior. By Robert 
Capper, F.R.G.S 736 

6. Bechuanaland. By Captain Conder, R.E 736 

7. The Panama Canal. By F. de Lesseps 736 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address by John Biddtjlph Martin, M.A., F.S.S., F.Z.S., President of the 
Section 737 

1. On Manual Training. By Sir Philip Magnus 748 

2. Technical Instruction in Elementary Schools. By William Ripper 749 

3. Technical Education. By the Rev. H. Solly 751 

4. Economic Value of Art in Manufactures. By Edward R. Taylor 751 

5. Imperial Federation, or Greater Britain United. By Robert Grant 

Webster, LL.B., M.P 752 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Boarding-out as a method of Pauper Education and a Check on Here- 
ditary Pauperism. By Miss Wilhelmina L. Hall, F.R.Met.Soc 753 

2. Small Holdings and Allotments. By F. Impey 755 

3. Peasant Properties and Protection. By Lady Verney 755 

4. Co-operative Farming. By Bolton King, M. A 757 

5. The Results of an Experiment in Fruit-farming. By the Ven. Archdeacon 

Lea , 757 

6. Colonial Agriculture, and its Influence on British Farming. By Professor 
W. Fream, B.Sc, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.S.S 758 

7. The Public Land Policy of the United States. By Worthington C. 
Ford 761 

8. The Effect of Aspect on Wheat-yields. By Dr. A. Haviland 762 



XXll CONTENTS. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 

1. Working Men's Co-operative Organisations in Great Britain. By A. H. 

Dyke Acland, M.P 762 

2. On the Economic Exceptions to Laisser Faire. By Professor Sidgwick, 
Litt.D 764 

3. On Allotments. By Lord Onslow 765 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. One-pound Notes. By Professor J. S. Nicholson 766 

2. The Causes affecting the Reduction in the Cost of Producing Silver. By 
Htbe Claeke 767 

3. On some Defects in English Railway Administration. By J. S. Jeans ... 768 

4. Canals. By Marshall Stevens, F.S.S 770 

5. Canal Communication. By Samfel Lloyd 771 

6. The Birmingham Canal. By E. B. Marten 772 

7. The Stourbridge Canal. By E. B. Marten 773 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Report of the Committee for continuing the Inquiries relating to the 
Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 773 

2. The Character and Organisation of the Listitutions for Technical Edu- 
cation required in a large manufacturing town. By Dr. Crosskey 773 

3. Report of the Committee on the Regulation of Wages by means of 

Sliding Scales 774 

4. Sliding Scales and Hours of Labour in the Northumberland Coal Industry. 

By Ralph Young 775 

5. Remarks on the Principles applicable to Colonial Loans and Finance. By 

Htde Clarke 776 

6. The Mathematical Theory of Banking. By F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S " i : : 777 

7. The Definition of Wealth. By H. D. McLeod 779 

8. The Cost of Shipbuilding in II.M. Dockyards. By Frank P. Fellows, 
KtS.J.J., F.S.S., F.S.A 779 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Proportional Mortality. By Baldwin Latham, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S. ... 780 

2. The State of the Poor in 1795 and 1833. By Geo. Herbert Sargant ... 781 

3. The Insufficient Earnings of London Industry, and specially of Female 
Labour. By William Westgarth 781 

4. London Reconstruction and Re-Housing. By William Westgarth 782 

5. On the Application of Physical Science to Economics. By Patrick 
Geddes 783 

6. The Resources and Progress of Spain during the last Fifty Years of 
Representative Government in connection with the British Empire. By 
Don Arttjro de Marcoartu 784 



CONTENTS. XXIU 

Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Page 
Address by Sir James N. Douglass, M.Inst.O.E., President of the Sectioa ... 786 

1. On some points for the Consideration of English Engineers with reference 
to the design of Girder Bridges. By W. Shelfoed, M.Inst.O.E., and 

A. H. Shield, Assoc.M.Inst.O.E 798 

2. Louisville and New Albany Bridge, By T. 0. Clake^) and 0. Mac- 

DONALD 799 

3. Freezing as an Aid to the Sinking of Foundations. By 0. Eeichenbach 799 

4. On the Laffitte Process of Welding Metals. By William Anderson, 

M.Inst.O.E 800 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Furnaces for the Manufacture of Glass and Steel on the Open-hearth. By 

John He.vd, F.G.S 800 

2. On American and English Railways in reference to Couplings, Buffers, 
and Gauge, with a suggested Improvement in Couplings. By William 

P. Maeshall, M.Inst.O.E 802 

3. Hydraulic Attachment to Sugar Mills. By Duncan Stewart 805 

4. Forced Draught. By J. R. Foxhergill 805 

5. The Domestic Motor, By Henry Davey, M.Inst.O.E 806 

6. The Compound Steam Engine, By J. Richaedson 807 

7. On a new High-speed Steam or Hydraulic Engine. By Arthur Rigg... 808 

8. A new Method of Burning Oil for Lighthouse Illumination, By John R, 

WiGHAM 809 

9. A new Form of Light'for Lighthouses. By John R. Wigham 809 

10. A new lUuminant for Lighthouses. By John R. AVigham 809 

11. A new Method of Arranging the Annular Lenses used for Revolving 
Lights at Lighthouses. By John R. Wigham 809 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. On the Manufacture of Metal Tubes. By James Robertson 810 

2. On the Blackpool Electric Tramway. By M, Holeoyd Smith 810 

3. Automatic Pumping of Sewage by High-pressure Water. By Baldwin 

Latham, M.Inst.O.E., F.G.S 810 

4. On the Birmingham, Tame, and Rea District Drainage Board, By AV, S, 
Till 811 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Electric Illumination of Lighthouses. By J, Hopkinson, M.A,, D.Sc, 

F.R.S 811 

2. Multiplex Telegraphy. By W, H. Peeece, F.R.S 812 

3. A portable Electric Lamp, By W. H. Peeece, F.R.S 812 

4. On Improvements in Electric Safety-Lamps. By J. AVilson Swan, M.A. 813 

5. Primary Batteries. By A, Rene Upwaed 813 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. The recent Progress in Secondary Batteries. By Bernakd Drake and J. 

Marshall Gorham 813 

7. Electric Lighting- at Cannock Chase Collieries. By A. Sopwith 814 

8. Dynamos for Electro-Metallurgy. By Professor George Forbes, M.A.... 815 

9. On Distributing Electricity by Transformers. By Charles Zipernowsky 816 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Reportr of the Committee on the Endurance of Metals under repeated and 
varying Stresses 817 

2. The Water Supply of Birmingham. By C. E. Mathews, F.R.G.S 817 

3. The Manufacture of Slack Barrels by Machinery on the English and 

American Systems. By A. Ransome 817 

4. The Sphere and Roller Mechanism. By Professor H. S. Hele Shaw and 
Edward Shaw 818 

5. On a new System of Mechanism for Imparting and Recording Variable 
Velocity. By W. Worbt Beaumont, M.lnst.C.E 818 

6. On Balanced Locomotive Engines. By T. R. Crampton 819 

WEDNESDAT, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. On recent Improvements in Sporting Guns and their accessories. By 

Samuel B. Allport 820 

2. Recent Improvements in the Manufacture of Rifle Barrels. By Arthur 
Greenwood, M.lnst.C.E 821 

3. The Birmingham Compressed-air Power Scheme. By J. Sturgeon 822 

4. The Welsbach System of G as-lighting by Incandescence. By Conrad W. 
Cooe:e ^ 823 

6, Boiler Explosions. By E. B. Marten 823 

6 South Staffordshire Mines Drainage : 

(1) Surface Works. By E. B. Marten 824 

(2) The Drainage of the Tipton District. By E. Terry 824 

(3) The Drainage of the Old HiU District. By W. B. Collis 825 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDA Y, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Address by Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S., 

President of the Section 826 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On the Native Tribes of the Egyptian Sudan. By Sir Charles Wilson, 
K.C.B., F.R.S 833 

2. On the Dutch in South Africa. By Miss F. S. Alliott 834 

3. On the Celtic and Germanic Designs on Runic Crosses. By Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.xl 834 

4. Notes on Natives of the Kimberley District, AVestern Australia. By 
Edward T. Hardman, F.R.G.S.I 835 



CONTESTS. XXV 

Page 

5. Observations on Four Crania, from Kimterlev, West Australia (Mr, 
Hardman's Collection). By P. S. Abeaham, M.A., M.D., B.Sc, 
F.R.O.S.1 836 

6. The Scientific Prevention of Consumption. By G. W. Hambletow 837 

7. Dragon Sacrifices at tlie Vernal Equinox. By Geokge St. Claib,F.G.S. 838 

MOXDAT, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Evidence of Pre-e-lacial Man in North Wales. By Henry Hicks, M.D., 
F.R.S 839 

2. On the recent Exploration of Gop Cairn and Cave. By Professor 
BoTB Dawkixs, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A 839 

3. On the recent Exploration of Bowls's Barrow, By W, Cuiinington ... 841 

4. On Crania and other Bone-s, from Bowls's Barrow, in Wiltshire. By J. G, 

Gaeson, M.D 841 

5. On a Scrobicularia Bed containinor Human Bones, at Newton Abhot, 

Devonsliire. By W\ Pengellx, F.Pt.S., F.G.S 841 

6. Papuans and Polynesians. By the Rev, G. Beown, F.R.G.S 842 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. WTiat is an Aryan ? By Sir Geoege Campbell, K.C.S.I 842 

2. The Influence of Canadian Climate on European Races, By Professor 

W, H, HiNGSTON, M.D., D.C.L 843 

3. Traces of Ancient Sun Worship in Hampshire and Wiltshire, By T. W. 

Shoee, F.G.S 843 

4. The Life History of a Savage. By the Rev. Geoege Beown, F.R.G.S. 844 

5. Note on Photographs of Mummies of Ancient Egyptian Kings, recently 
unrolled at Boulak. By Sir J. William Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 845 

6. On the Anatomy of Aboriginal Australians. By Professor A, 

Macalistee, F,R.S 845 

7. Notes on a Tau Cross on the Badge of a Medicine Man of the Queen 

Charlotte Islands, By R. G. Halibueton 845 

8. Remains of Prehistoric Man in Manitoba. By Chaeles N, Bell, 

F,R.G.S 845 

9. Report of the Committee for investigating and publishing reports on the 
physical characters, languages, and industrial and social condition of the 
North-western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 846 

10. Report of the Committee for investigating the Prehistoric Race in the 

Greek Islands 846 



Appendix. — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. R. B. 
Geantham, C. E. De Range, J. B. Redman, W. Toplet, W. Whitakee, 
and J. W. WooDALL, Major-General Sir A. Claeke, Sir J. N. Douglass, 
Admiral Sir E. Ommannet, Capt. Sir G. S. Nakes, Capt. J. Paesons, 
Professor J. Peestwich, Capt. W. J. L. Whaeton, and Messrs. E. Easton, 
J. S. Valentine, and L. F. Veenon Haeoouet, appointed for the pur- 
pose of inquiring into the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England 
and Wales, and the Influence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or 
other Material in that Action. (C. E. De Range and W. Toplet, 
Secretaries.) The Report edited by W. Toplet 847 

Index 863 



XXVI LIST OF PLATES. 



LIST OP PLATES. 



PLATES I., II., AND III. 

Illustrating the Report of the Oommittee for Considering the hest means of Com- 
paring and Reducing Magnetic Observations. 

PLATES IV. AND V. 

Illustrating the Report of the Committee for Constructing and Issuing Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical Measurements. 

PLATE VI. 

Illustrating the Report of the Committee for the Reduction and Tabulation of 
Tidal Observations in the English Channel, made with the Dover Tide-gauge, 
and for connecting them with Observations made on the French Coast. 



PLATE VII. 

Illustrating the Report of the Committee on the Fossil Plants of tlie Tertiary and 
Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom. 

PLATE VIII. 

Illustrating the Report of the Committee on the Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. 

PLATES IX. AND X. 

Illustrating Professor Hele Shaw and Mr. Edward Shaw's Communication, ' The 
Sphere and Roller Mechanism for Transmitting Power.' 

PLATE XI. 

Illustrating Professor Asaph Hall's Communication, * Note on the Orbits of 

Satellites.' 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with tlie ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

RULES. 
AdTYiission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to 
become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to 
conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subsckibers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that a/nd 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 



XXYlll EDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Ponnd. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a conlposition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership 
after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members ivlio have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memlers' Prices, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a composi- 
tion for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. Qd. per volume.' 
Application to be made at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, London, W. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Meetings. 
The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Committee, 
The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 

Class A. Permanent Membees. 

1. Members of tlie Council, Presidents of tte Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, witli Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sul- 
mitting new claims under this Bute fo the decision of the Council, they must 
be sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of 
the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Tempokaet Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Eule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before tJie opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Orgayiizing Sectional Committees.'^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

Prom the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 
thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees."* 

' Revised by the General Committee, 1884. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections befoi-e the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in tlie published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 
before , addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, 
before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

* Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 



XXX KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION, 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the fii'st members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease.' 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.'^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entei'ed daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 



-"&•- 



Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,^ Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 
2 No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 
Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 
ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.* 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

' Eevised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 
2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at 
Southport, 1883. 

■• Tliese rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 

' This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



EULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. ytyi 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio tem- 
porary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxix), and will receive 
on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at precedinc 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be do7ie, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 
can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.' 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 
Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
• Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



XXXll RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

entrnsfced by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Sleeting; nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of tbe Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, 
London, W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Booms and approaches thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhihitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
d-elivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 

' The meeting on Saturday may begin, if desired by the Committee, at any time not 
earlier than 10 or later than 11. Passed by the General Committee at Southport, 1883. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XSXlll 

Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 

Secretary. 
3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association ■whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 
To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recoiin/mendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Corresponding Societies} 

(1.) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investio-a- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

(2.) Applications may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

(3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated hj the Council and appointed by the Genei-al Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

(4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
up, which will be issued by the Se'cretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 
' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 

1886. b 



XXxiv nULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(6.) A Corresponding Society shall liave the right to nominate any- 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

(7.) The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

(8.) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or moi'e meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

(9.) The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

(10.) It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions beai'- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the OflBcers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 
A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 
In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 
The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 
The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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I— I 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., P.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Wliewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 



Leeds 

Aberdeen... 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 



Rev. William WTiewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S..., 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F R S 
Prof. M'bulloch, M.R.LA. , 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. , 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A. 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Wliewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof.' Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevellj^ 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof, 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull, 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J.S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 



xliv 



REPORT — 1886. 



Date and Place 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 

1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 

1885. 
1886. 



Brighton . . . 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 

York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 



Presidents 



Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G, G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Riae, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G . C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. O.Henrici.Ph.D., F.R.S., 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A.. 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev, T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly, 
Prof, R. B. Clifton, Prof, H. J, S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly, 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof, H, J, S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly, 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof, Stevelly, Rev, C. T. Whitley. 
Prof, Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N, Hutchinson, F, Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S, Smith, 

J. M, Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H, J,S, Smith, 

Rev, S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof, G. C, Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan, 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R, Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev, W, Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J, D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L.Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell, 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landou. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J, 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr, 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A, 

Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr, D. 

MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof, 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 



PBESIDENTS ANiJ SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



Date and Place 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 
laSi. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



.John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



Secretaries 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1S35, Dublin. 
1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 

1S39. Birmingham 
1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 
1832. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottinp-ham 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. "William Whewell,F.R. S . 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. ^y. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.MiUer, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon PIayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.MilJer, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 

W.Odling, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Jolmston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M, 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Plaj-fair, R. Hunt", J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof- 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone,Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worslej^ Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. ■V"ernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing,. 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A."V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 

A. "V". Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1886. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.., 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .., 
1S80. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

188i. Montreal ... 
188.5. Aberdeen... 
1886. Birmingham 



M.D., A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Ru.ssell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., Prof . A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell. Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thoi-pe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrons:, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Ti'lden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, "VV. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

Prof . Maxwell Simpson, M.D., W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 

F.R.S., F.C.S. son. Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 

I M. Thomson. 
Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D.,1 H. B. Dixon, Dr. W. R. Eaton Hodg- 
F.R.S. kinson, P. Pliillips Bedson, J. M. 

Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B 

Dixon, H. Foredson, H. 
Prof. P. Phillips B of W. E.Dixon, 
T. McFarlane, Pr H. Pike. 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., Prof. P.Phillips Bedson. H. B. Dixon, 
F.R.S., Sec. C.S. | H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J.Simpson. 

W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 
I J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 



Prof. T. Anderson 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Dr. H.' Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 



F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... . 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 



Prof . A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



18:?2. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 
1831. Edinburgh. 



183.5. Dublin. 
1836. Bristol . 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Pliillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



1837. Liverpool... 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

R.J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

6'^0(7ra/7^y,G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
r/raplnj, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 



TBESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



1838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 

1S40. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 
1S42. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea .. 

1 849. Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh' 



Presidents 



C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhope. 
Eev. Dr. Biickland, F.R.S.— 

Geogra-pUy, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— fi^eo- 

grapMj, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Henry Warbiu'ton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Homer,F.R.S. — Geo- 

grnphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Secular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury, 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsaj'. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool . . 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


186L 


Manchester 



SECTION c (continued). — geologt 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,r.R.S 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S... . 

Prof. A! C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
1862. Cambridge |J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cimningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Lonemuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 



Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 
Jones, H. C. Sorby. 

' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved * That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,'" for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page lii. 



xlviii 



REPORT — 1886. 



Date and Place 



1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir B. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



Secretaries 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. "W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

P s 
Prof. .T. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 



E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 
Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rov. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawncy, W. Top- 
ley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tiddc 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. li. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 
SECTION D.' — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



J 835. Dublin. 
1836. Bristol. 



Dr. Allman 

Kev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

] 839. Birmingham 
1840. Glasgow ... 

3 841. Plymouth... John Richardson, M.D.,F.R.S. 

1842. Manchester Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 

I bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork ' William Thompson, F.L.S. . 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. li.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1 849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
1886. 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C, C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.E.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S. ... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan, 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr.W. E.Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. . 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



KEPORT — 1886. 
SECTION D (continued). — BIOLOGY.' 



Date and Place 



1866. Nottingham 



Presidents 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol .... 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth. 



1867. 


Dundee . . . 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 


Exetet 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 

1S73. 


Edinburgh 
Briffhton ... 



Secretaries 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Bcp., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Dep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. K.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physiolof/y, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bcp. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tj'lor. 

Prof.G.Rolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.lj.a. — Bcp. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,I'ioi.'^l 
Foster. M.D., F.L.S.— Bcp. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— Z>(7;. of Bot. and 
.2yoZ.,Prof.WyviileThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

SirJ.LiTbbock,Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burden Sanderson, 
¥.^.S.—Bep. of Anthropol, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman. Y.Vi.S.—Bep. of 
Anat.and Physiol. jTiof.Rn- 
therford, M.D. — Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, W.T>.—Bcp. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— J9p/;.o/^M- 
throp.. Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, Y.n.S.—Bep.of 
Anat.andPhi/siol,Viof. Cle 
land, M.D., F.U.S.—Bep.of 
Anthropol, Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Phys-iol, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffre3^s,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Bepi. of Anthropol, 
Francis Galton, M.A.,F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. P'elkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
Kin?. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 



• At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved: — 'That the title 
of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word " Department" be substituted.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



li 



Date and Place 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield 



Presidents 



1880 


Swansea ... 


1881 


York 


1882. 


Southamp- 
ton. 


1883. 


Southport ' 


1884. 


Montreal 2... 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birmingham 





Prof. "W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 

Bep. of AnthrojwL, Prof. 

Huxley, Sec. n.^.—Bep. 

of Anat. and Physiol., R. 

McDonnell, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. St. George Mivart, 

¥.B,.Q.—Bep. of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Be2>. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bip. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Z)e/?. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

¥.B..E.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.— Z>ej!;. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S.— Z>ej(;. of Anthropol., 
Prof. "W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S.— i)e/A of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E.- 



Secretaries 



W. Carmthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J, B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler, 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, "W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. MarshaU Ward. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge I Dr. Haviland I Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie iDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 
Dr. Symonds. 
Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Bees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 
Reid. 

' By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

' By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology was made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ivii. 

c2 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Telloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



lii 



BEl'ORT — 1886. 
SECTION E. — PHTSIOLOGT. 



Date and Place 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844 York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birming- 

ham.^ 



Presidents 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 
Sargent. 

Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 
Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.RoUeston.M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. xlvi.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Dr. King. 

Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 
SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT AND ETHKOLOGT. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

lime, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Haitland, W 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. ilix). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. ' Vide note on page L 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast... 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 



H. 

R. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., P.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. J3. H. Richards, E.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempri&re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W.Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geogkapht. 



1869, 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 

1881. 
1882. 
1883. 



Exeter 

Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 
Brighton .. 
Bradford .. 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth.. 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea .., 

York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I.Murchison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.L.&E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B.,K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B.. F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buclian, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 
Rye. 



liv 



REPORT — 1886. 



Date and Place 



1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Presidents 



. Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G.. F.E.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., E.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 
K.C.S.I., G.B., F.E.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Kev. AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 
E. G. Eavenstein, J. F. Torrance 

J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'HaUoran, E. G. 
Eavenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic, 
E. G. Eavenstein. 



1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS. 

Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.E.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart | Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool.., 



1838. 
1839. 

1840, 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 

1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork . 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea 
Birmingham 



1850, Edinburgh 



1851. 

1862. 

1853. 
1854. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool. . 



1855, Glasgow 



Charles Babbage, F.E.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.E.S. 

Rt, Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.E.S 

Henry Hallam, F.E.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M,P,, 

F.R.S. 
Lieut,-Col, Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P,, F.L.S, ,.. 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut, - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G, R, Porter, F,R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.E.S, .,. 
Rt, Hon, Lord Lj'ttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.E.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart, . . . 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P,, F,R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof, Longfield. 

Rev. J, E. Bromby, C, B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler, 
W, Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, E. W. Eawson, Dr. W. C, 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, E. W, 

Eawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Eev, R, Luney, R, 

W. Eawson. 
Rev, R. Limey, G, W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler, 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr, W, 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G, 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F, G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr, J. 

Stark. 
J, Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H, 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W, New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



Rt, Hon, Lord Stanley, M,P. 



1857. Dublin His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A, 

1858. Leeds Edward Baines 



Rev, C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr, 

W, N, Hancock, W, Newmarch, W, 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W, 

Newmarch, 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang, 



PRESIDENTS ANI> SECBETAEIES OF TKE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Cambridge 
Newcastle , 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Dublin 



1879. Sheffield .. 



1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 



Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal .. 

Aberdeen.. 

Birmingham 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.E.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.E.S. . 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.E.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D,, 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Eogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Et. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Et. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Et. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Heywood, M.A., F.E.S. 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 
Et. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.E.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S S 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Et. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.E.S. 
Et. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.E.S. 
E. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.E.S. 

Sir Eichard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., P.E.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Kev. Prof. J. E. T. Eogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. E. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Eev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Eogers. 

H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 
E. Macrory. 

E. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 
Macrory. 

Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Eev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. E. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neei Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, E. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Eev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Eev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. JlcCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Eev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S. i T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson | Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

E. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 
Webster. 



Charles Babbage, F.E.S. . 



Ivi 



KEPORT 1886. 



Date and Place 



1839. Birminghaii) 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1850. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. ISewcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee... 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter ... 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast. 



Presidents 



Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Kobt, 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Kobinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S, 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S, 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S, 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson , 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

Jolm Walker, C.E., LL.D. 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Reimie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. MacqiTorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



I Prof. James Thomson, LL.D. 
C.E., F.R.S.E. 



W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J, 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster, 
Rev. W. T. Kiugsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson, 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeflfery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F, Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECHETAKIES OF TUE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plj-mouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberdeen.. 

1886. Birmingham 



Presidents 



W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.K.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Fasten, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 
C.E. 



. Secretaries 



W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg,H. T.Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. 
1885. 



Montreal . 
Aberdeen. 



1886. Birmingham 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 
M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S. 



Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S., 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 



Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W, R. Grove, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinomis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgeaxi Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

PropertiesoftheExplosivesubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 



Iviii 



EEPORT 1886. 



Date and Place 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich 



1852. Belfast. 



1853, Hull, 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenliam 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



Lecturer 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.K.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.E.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.E.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 



G.B.Airy,F.E.S.,Astron. Eoyal 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.E.S, 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E. S., 
F.G.S. 

EobertHunt. F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson .. 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson 



1864. Bath. 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.E.S. ... 
Eev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S. ... 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, E.N". 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.E.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.E.S.,Astron. Eoyal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Eoscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Didiif incjrtus). 
Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Eecent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Eailways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and 
Animals, and their changes of 
Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Eecent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Eecent discovery of Eock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babj'lonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, witli the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Phj^sical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 



LIST OF EVENING LECXUEES. 



lix 



Date and Place 


1865. Birmingham 


1866 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. 

1874. 

1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Bradford .. 
Belfast 



Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 
1880. 



Sheffield 
Swansea 



1881. York. 



1882. 
1883. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Lecturer 



J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S. 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.K.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herscliel, F.K.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.E.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.E.S. 
J. Norman Lockj'er, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tjdor, F.E.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

Prof. W." K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Willfamson, F.R.S, 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,r.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.E.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.E.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

G. J. Eomanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. E.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. E.S. 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.E.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McJKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 



Subject of Discourse 



Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archffiology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien^ 

tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The H3-pothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarized Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The CJiallenffcr Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvani and Animal Electricity. 



Ix 



EEPORT — 1886. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 


Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. DaUinger, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 


Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins, 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 



LECTUEES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



1867. 
1868, 
1869 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 
Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool. 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 



Brighton 
Bradford 
Belfast . . , 
Bristol .., 
Glasgow 



Plymouth 
Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayr ton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L. Treas. R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen. 
F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages, 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North- East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 



M 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
BIRMINGHAM MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— ProieasoT G. H. Darwin, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir R. S. Ball, F.R.S.; Professor Cayley, F.R.S. ; 
Donald MacAlister, M.D. ; Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S. ; Professor 
Stokes, Pres.R.S. ; Rev. H. W. Watson, F.R.S. " 

Secretaries. — R. E. Baynes, M.A. (Recorder); R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S. ; 
Professor J. H. Poynting, M.A. ; W. N. Shaw, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

Preside7it.—Wimam Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Thomas Carnelley, D.Sc. ; Dr. "W. H. Perkin 
F.R.S. ; Professor H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H, Gladstone,' 
F.R.S. ; A. G. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. ; Sir Henry E. Roscoe' 
F.R.S. ; Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S. ; Professor W. A. Tilden, FR S • 
Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; H. B. 
Dixon, F.R.S. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. ; W. W. J. Nicol D Sc •" 
C. J. Woodward, B.Sc. ' • • . 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

Presif^ewl— Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. H. W. Crosskey, LL.D. ; Sir Julius von Haast 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S. ; Professor E. Hull, F.R.S. ; Professor C. Lap-' 
worth, LL.D. ; W. Mathews, M.A. ; Dr. A. R. Selwyn C M G 
F.R.S. ; H. Woodward, F.R.S. ' " "' 

Secretaries. — W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S. ; J. J. H. Teal! F G S • W 
Topley, F.G.S. (Eecorc?er) ; W.W. Watts, F.G.S. ' ' ■ •' 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 
President.— Wimam Carruthers, Pres.L.S., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor E. A. Schjifer, F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater F.R.S • 
Professor Michael Foster, Sec.R.S.; Professor Alfred Newton F.R.S '• 
Dr. Henry Trimen ; Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor T. W. Bridge, M.A. ; Walter Heape (Recorder) • 
Professor W. Hillhouse, M.A. ; W. L. Sclater, B.A. ; Professor H 
Marshall Ward, M.A. 



Ixii ' KEPORT — 1886. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Major-General Sir F. J. Goldsmid, K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — H. "W. Bates, F.R.S. ; Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S. ; Major-General Sir Lewis Pelly, K.C.B., M.P. ; Colonel 
Sir Lambert Playfair, K.C.M.G. ; General J. T. Walker, C.B., 
F.R.S. ; Captain W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., F.R.S. ; Colonel Sir 
Charles Wilson, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — F. T. S. Houghton, M.A.; J. S. Keltie ; E. G. Ravenstein 
(^Recorder') . 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S., F.Z.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — G. W. Hastings, M.P. ; Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I.. M.P. ; Sir Rawson W. Rawson, K.C.M.G., C.B. ; Hyde 

Clarke, F.S.S. 

Secretaries. — F. F. Barham ; Rev. W. Cunningham, D.Sc. (^Recorder) ; 
Professor H. S. Foxwell, M.A. ; J. F. Moss. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir James N. Douglass, M.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — W. Anderson ; Professor H. T. Bovey, M.A. ; Sir 
Frederick Bramwell, F.R.S.; W. P. Marshall; Professor R. H. 
Smith ; Edward Woods, Pres.Inst.C.E. 

Secretaries. — Conrad W. Cooke ; J. Kenward ; W. Bayley Marshall ; 
Edward Rigg, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S. ; Colonel Sir Charles Wilson, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A. (Recorder) ; J, G. Garson, M.D. ; 
Walter Hurst, B.Sc. ; R. Sanndby, M.D. 



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Ixiv 



REPORT — 1886. 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipt^ 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27 . 

1832, June 19 . 

1833, June 25 . 

1834, Sept. 8 . 

1835, Aug. 10 . 

1836, Aug. 22 . 

1837, Sept. 11 . 

1838, Aug. 10 . 

1839, Aug. 26 ., 

1840, Sept. 17 ., 

1841, July 20 ., 

1842, June 23 ., 

1843, Aug. 17 ., 

1844, Sept. 26 .. 

1845, June 19 ., 

1846, Sept. 10 ., 

1847, June 23 ., 

1848, Aug. 9 .. 

1849, Sept. 13 .. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 .. 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20 .. 

1855, Sept. 12 .. 

1856, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, June 27 .. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13 .. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 

1867, Sept 

1868, Aug. 

1869, Aug. 

1870, Sept. 14 . 

1871, Aug. 2 . 

1872, Aug. 14 . 

1873, Sept. 17 . 

1874, Aug. 19 . 

1875, Aug. 25 . 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15 . 

1878, Aug. 14 . 

1879, Aug. 20 . 

1880, Aug. 25 ., 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23 .. 

1883, Sept. 19., 

1884, Aug. 27 ., 

1885, Sept. 9 .. 

1886, Sept. 1 .. 



22 
4 

19 
18 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

PljTnouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham .... 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh .... 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton . 

Southport , 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D 

The Marquis of Lansdowne . . . 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland 

The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 

The Marquis of Breadalbane... 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S." 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L.. .. 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S...... 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. ... 

Sir Lyon Playf air, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G.,F.R S 



Old Life 
Members 



169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 

184 

144 

272 

178 

203 

235 

225 

314 



New Life 
Members 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. IxV 

Innual Meetings of the Association. 

Attended by 



New 

Annual 

Members 



317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

' 42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 



Asso- 
ciates 



33t 

'"'9t 

407 

270 

495 

376 

447 

610 

244 

510 

367 

765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
826 

1053 

1067 



Ladies 



1100* 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 



For- 
eigners 



34 

40 

28 



35 
36 
53 
15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45J 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26&60H. 

6 
11 



Total 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 



Amount 


received 


during the 


Meeting 


£707"o"o 


963 


1085 


620 


1085 


903 


1882 


2311 


1098 


2015 


1931 


2782 


1604 


3944 


1089 


3640 


2965 


2227 


2469 


2613 


2042 


1931 


3096 


2575 


2649 


2120 


1979 


2397 


3023 


1268 


2615 


1425 


899 


2689 


1286 


3369 


1538 


2256 


2532 



Sums paid 


on 




Account of 




Grants for 


Year 


Scientific 




Purposes 











1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 










£20 





167 








1835 


435 








1836 


922 


12 


6 


1837 


932 


2 


2 


1838 


1595 


11 





1839 


1546 


16 


4 


1840 


1235 


10 


11 


1841 


1449 


17 


8 


1842 


1565 


10 


2 


1843 


981 


12 


8 


1844 


831 


9 


9 


1845 


685 


16 





1846 


208 


5 


4 


1847 


275 


1 


8 


1848 


159 


19 


6 


1849 


345 


18 





1850 


391 


9 


7 


1851 


304 


6 


7 


1852 


205 








1853 


380 


19 


7 


1854 


480 


16 


4 


1855 


734 


13 


9 


1856 


507 


15 


4 


1857 


618 


18 


2 


1858 


684 


11 


1 


1859 


766 


19 


6 


1860 


nil 


5 


10 


1861 


1293 


16 


6 


1862 


1608 


3 


10 


1863 


1289 


15 


8 


1864 


1591 


7 


10 


1865 


1750 


13 


4 


1866 


1739 


4 





1867 


1940 








1868 


1622 








1869 


1572 








1870 


1472 


2 


6 


1871 


1285 








1872 


1685 








1873 


1151 


16 





1874 


960 








1875 


1092 


4 


2 


1876 


1128 


9 


7 


1877 


725 


16 


6 


1878 


1080 


11 


11 


1879 


731 


7 


7 


1880 


476 


3 


1 


1881 


1126 


1 


11 


1882 


1083 


3 


3 


1883 


1173 


4 





1884 


1385 








1885 


995 





6 


1886 



,,» Lndies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 

.* Including Ladies. 8 Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Honorary Members for this Meeting. 

,186. d 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 188G-87 



PRESIDENT. 

SIR J. WILLIAM niWSOX, C.M.G., il.A.., LL.D., F.R.S. P.G.S., 

Principal and Vice-Chauoellor of JIcGill University, Montreal, Canada. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Br.idford, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Shropshire. 

The Right Hon. Lord Leigh, D.C.L., Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Warwickshire. 

The Right Hon. Lord Nortox, K.C.M.G. 

The Rigat Hon. Lord Wrottesley, Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Staffordshire. 



The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Worcester, D.D 
Thomas Martineau, Esq..i[ayor of Birniiueham. 
Professor G. G. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Pres.R.S. 
Professor W. A. Tildex, D.Sc, F.R S., F.C.S 
Rev. A. R. Vardy, M.A. 
Rev. H. W. Watson, D.Sc., F.R.S 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
SIR H. E. ROSCOE, M.P., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
His Grace the Duke of Devox.shihe, K.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.. F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Df.rby, K.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.K.G.S. 
The Right Rev. the Loiin Bishop of M.ancuester, D.I). 
The Right Rev. the BISHOP OK Salford. 
The Right Worshijiful the Mayor of Maxchester. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor of Salford. 
The VirE-CHAXCELLOR of Victoria University, Manchester. 
The Principal of Owens College, Manchester. 
Sir William Roberts, B.A., M.n., F.R.S. 
Thomas Ashtox, Ksq., J.P., D.L. 
OLIVT.R Heytvood, Esq., J. P.. D.L. {notninnted bv the Council). 
J.4MES Prescott Joule, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 
F. J. Faraday, Esq., F.L.S., F.S.S. I Professor A. Mii.XEs Marshall, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S 

Chables Hopkixsox, Esq., B.Sc. | Professor A. H. YouXG, M.B., F.R.C.S. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT /MANCHESTER 
Alderman Joseph Thompson J.P. 



ORDINARY 
Abxey, Cipt. W. de'W., F.R.S. 
Ball, Professor Sir R. S.. F.R.S. 
Barlow, W. H.. Esq., F.R.S. 
Blaxford, W. T. Esq., F.R.S. 
Bramtvell, Sir F. J., F.R.S. 
Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwix, Professor G. H.. F.R.S. 
Dawkixs, Professor W. Boyd, F.R.S. 
De La Rue, Dr. Warrex, F.R.S. 
Dewar, Profes;or J., F.R.S. 
Flower, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
GoDWiN-AusTEX, Lieut.-Col. H. H., F.R.S. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Hawkshaw. J. Clarke, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hexrioi, Professor 0., F.R.S. 
Jl-dd. Professor J. W., F.R.S. 
M'Leod, Professor H., F.R.S. 
Mautin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 
MosELEY, Professor H. N.. F.R.S. 
Om.maxxey, Admiral Sir E , C.B., F.R.S. 
Pexgelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
RoBERTSArsTEX, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
Temple, Sir R., Bart., G.C.S.I. 
Thiseltox-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., 

Fl!.'^. 
Thorpe, Professor T. E., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Douglas G.u.t.5X, C.B., D.C.L.. LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 

A. G. Vbsxon Harcourt, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, Oxford. 

SECRETARY. 

Arthur T. Atchison, Esij., M.A., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor A. W. Williamsox, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 

Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 

the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 

Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyox Playfair, K.C.B., MP., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OP FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir WUliam R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 



Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sh- Wm. Thomson, LL.D. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 



Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.P. 
Sir John Lubbock, BBrt.,F.R.£. 
Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Ravleigh, D.C.L.. Sec.R.S. 
Sir Lyou Piayfau-, K.C.B. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Dr. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. I P. L. Selater, Esq.. Ph.D., F.R.S. 

I George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S. | Prof. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. | 



AUDITORS. 
Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. 



I W. H. Preece, Esq., T.U.S. 



Ixvii 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Be;port of the Council for the year 1885-86, presented to the General 
Committee at Birmingham, on Wednesday, September 1, 1886. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the Meeting at Aberdeen the following have been elected 
Corresponding Members of the Association : — 

Professor Putnam. I Dr. Max Schuster. 

Rev. Dr. Renard. | M. Jules Vuylsteke. 

As Professor Huxley was unable to accept the office of a Vice-President 
for the present meeting, the Council have nominated in his stead Professor 
Stokes, Pres.R.S. 

The Council have received a letter from Sir Charles Tapper, Hio'h 
Commissioner for the Dominion of Canada, enclosing important com- 
munications from the Government of that Dominion, in reference to the 
record and preservation from obliteration of such traces as still remain 
of tbe indigenous characteristics of the native races of America, which 
subject, the General Committee will recollect, was mentioned in the 
Report of the Council at the Aberdeen Meeting. Copies of this corre- 
spondence will be communicated to the Sections interested in the subject. 

Invitations have been received from Bath and from Sydney for the 
year 1888 ; and the invitation from Melbourne, given at Montreal, has 
been renewed. 

The following resolutions were referred by the General Committee to 
the Council for consideration, and action if desirable : — 

(a) ' That the Council be requested to consider the desirability of 
admitting ladies as OiEcers of the Association, or as Members of the 
General or Sectional Committees.' 

The Council, after careful consideration of the question, are of opinion 
that the time has not yet come when it would be for the advantage of the 
Association to depart from the established custom. 

(l) 'That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of 
rendering the special Reports of the Association more accessible to the 
scientific public by placing them on sale in separate form.' 

(c) ' That the printed Reports on Special Subjects be offered for sale 
to the general public at the time of the Meeting, or as soon afterwards as 
possible.' 

There are several matters of detail, requiring careful consideration, in 
the subject of these two resolutions, and the Council, owing to exceptional 
circumstances during the past year, have not been able to come to a 
decision regarding them. They recommend that the question should be 
referred to the next Council. 

d2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1886. 

(fZ) ' That the Council be requested to so modify the Rules of the 
Association as to permit of a Sectional Meeting being held at an earlier 
hour than eleven, and the Sectional Committee previously, due notice 
being given to the Section on the previous day.' 

The Council have considered this recommendation, and think it un- 
desirable to alter the general rules, the resolution passed at Southport 
three years ago meeting the particular case of Saturday. 

(e) ' That a memorial be presented to H.M. Government requesting 
them to enlarge the existing Agricultural Department of the Privy Council, 
with the view of concentrating all administrative functions relating to 
Agriculture in one fully equipped Board and Department of Agriculture.' 

The Council, after a full consideration of this difficult and intricate 
question, are not at present prepared to memorialise the Government on 
the subject of the enlargement of the Agricultural Department of the 
Privy Council. 

(/) ' That the Council be requested to consider and take steps, if they 
think it desirable, to memorialise the Government to undertake the more 
systematic collection and annual publication of Statistics of Wages, and a 
periodical industrial census.' 

The Council, in view of the recent promise of the late President of the 
Board of Trade in Parliament as to the collection of Statistics of Wages, 
are of opinion that it is inexpedient at present to memorialise H.M. 
Government on the subject, but they empowered a committee of their 
members to communicate, if necessary, with the Department engaged in 
the collection of Statistics of Wages, with the view of eliciting informa- 
tion as to the method proposed to be employed, and to make such sug- 
gestions as appear to be expedient. 

(g) ' That a memorial be presented to H.M. Government in favour 
of the establishment of a National School of Forestry.' 

A Committee was appointed to consider this subject, but has made no 
report to the Council. 

The General Committee will remember that the question of the feasi- 
bility of instituting a scheme for promoting an International Scientific 
Congress, described in the Report of the Council presented at Aberdeen, 
was in effect referred back to the Council to consider whether it would be 
possible to devise such a scheme. The question has been further con- 
sidered during the past year, and the Council are of opinion that the 
difficulties and objections foreseen by several members of the Association 
have not been met in any of the communications which have been laid 
before them, and are, in their judgment, so great that they cannot at 
present recommend any further steps being taken in the matter. 

In accordance with the regulations the five retiring Lfembers of the 
Council will be — 



Mr, J. W. L. Glaisher. 
Professor T. McK. Hughes. 

Mr. J. F. La Trobe Bateman 



Dr. H. C. Sorby. 
D. W. H. Perkin. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distin- 
guished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



EEPOnT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixix 



Abney, Capt. W. de W., F.R.S. 
Ball, Sir R. S., F.R.S. 
*Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Blanford, W. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Bramwell, Sir F. J., F.R.S. 
Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Darwin, G. H., F.R.S. 
Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd, F.R.S. 
De La Rue, Dr. Warren, F.R.S. 
Dewar, Prof. J., F.R.S. 
Flower, Prof. W. H., F.R.S. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
Godwin-Austen, Lient.-Col. H. H., 
F.R.S. 



Hawkshaw, J. Clarke, Esq., F.G.S. 
Henrici, Prof. 0., F.R.S. 
*Judd, J. W., F.R.S. 
Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 
M'Leod, Prof. H., F.R.S. 
Moseley, Prof. H. N., F.R.S. 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
* Roberts- Austen, Prof. W. C, F.R.S. 
Temple, Sir R., Bart., G.C.S.I. 
Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., 

C.M.G., F.R.S. 
*Thorpe, T. E., F.R.S. 



IXX REPOET — 1886. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Birmingham Meeting in September 1886. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart, Schuster, and Stokes, Mr. G. John- 
stone Stoney, Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Abney, and Mr. G. J. 
Symons be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of considering the 
best methods of recording the direct intensity of Solar Radiation ; that 
Professor Balfour Stewart be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee consisting of Pi'ofessors Armstrong, Lodge, and 
Sir William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, Professors Fitzgerald, J. J. Thom- 
son, Schuster, Poynting, Crum Brown, Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, 
Hartley, S. P. Thompson, McLeod, Roberts-Austen, Riicker, Reinold, 
and Carey Foster, Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and 
Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, 
J. T. Bottomley, and H. B. Dixon, with the addition of the names of Messrs. 
R. T. Glazebrook, J. Brown, B. J. Love, and .John M. Thomson, be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the purpose of considering the subject of Elec- 
trolysis in its Physical and Chemical bearings ; that Professor Armstrong 
be the Chemical Secretary and Professor Lodge the Physical Secretary, 
and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Crum Brown, Mr. Milne- Holme, Mr. John Murray, 
Mr. Buchan, and Lord McLaren be reappointed a Committee for the 
purpose of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in 
making meteorological observations on Ben Nevis ; that Professor Crum 
Brown be the Secretary, and that the sum of 751. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. Forbes, Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. 
Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon Har- 
court, Professor Ayrton, Sir James Douglass, and Mr. H. B. Dixon be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting on Standards of 
Light ; that Professor G. Forbes be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
lOl be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. H. Darwin, Sir W. Thomson, and Major Baird be 
a Committee for the purpose of preparing instructions for the practical 
work of Tidal Observation ; that Professor Darwin be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 151. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Balfour Stewart (Secretary), Mr. Knox Laughton, Mr. 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxi 

G. J. Symons, Mr. R. H. Scott, and Mr. .Jolinstone Stoney be reappointed 
a Committee, with power to add to their number, for the purpose of co- 
operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of establishing a Meteoro- 
logical Observatory near Chepstow on a permanent and scientific basis, 
and that the unexpended sum of 20Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart and Sir W. Thomson, Sir J. H. 
Lefroy, Professors G. H. Darwin, G. Chrysta), and S. J. Perry, Mr. C. H. 
Carpmael, Professor Schuster, Mr. G. M. Whipple, Captain Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, Professor W. G. Adams, and Mr. 
W. Lant Carpenter be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of con- 
sidering the best means of comparing and reducing Magnetic Observa- 
tions ; that Professor Balfour Stewart be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 40Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, 
Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
Chrysta], Mr. H. Tomlinson, Professor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. 
Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of making experiments for improving the 
construction of practical Standards for use in Electrical Measurements ; 
t^hat Mr. Glazebrook be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors McLeod and Ramsay, Mr. J. T. Cundall, and Mr. W. A. 
Shenstone be a Committee for the further investigation of the Influence 
of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on oxygen and other gases ; that 
Mr. W. A. Shenstone be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Captain Abney, General Festing, and Professors W. N. Hartley 
and H. E. Armstrong be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds ; that Professor Armstrong be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 40Z. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors Williamson, Armstrong, Tilden, Reinold, J. Perry, 
O. J. Lodge, Stirling, Bower, D'Arcy Thompson, and Milnes Marshall, 
and Messrs. A. V. Harcourt, Dixon, Crookes, and E. J. Love be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of considering the desirability of combined action 
for the purpose of Translation of Foreign Memoirs and for reporting 
thereon ; and that the sum ^of 51. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors Tilden and W. Ramsay and Dr. W. W. J. Nicol be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Nature of Solution ; 
that Dr. W. W. J. Nicol be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Tilden and W. Chandler Roberts- Austen, and Mr. T. 
Turner be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Influence of 
Silicon on the Properties of Steel ; that Mr. T. Turner be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 301. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. H. Bauerman, F. W. Rudler, J. J. H. Teall, and H. J. 
Johnston-Lavis be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood ; that 



Ifixii REPORT — 1886. 

Dr. H. J. Jolinston-Lavis be the Seci'etary, and that the sum of 20Z. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. T. Gray, and Professor John Milne be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Volcanic 
Phenomena of Japan ; that Professor J. Milne be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor T. McK. Hughes, Dr. H. Hicks, Dr. H. Woodward, 
and Messrs. B. B. Luxmoore, P. Pennant, and Edwin Morgan be re- 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of exploring the Cae Gwyn Cave, 
North Wales ; that Dr. H. Hicks be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
201. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors J. Prestwich, W. Boyd Dawkius, T. McK. Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, and Messrs. C. E. De Eance, 
H. G. Pordham, J. B. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and 
E.. H. Tidderaan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of record- 
ing the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and 
origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures 
for their preservation ; that Dr. Crosskey be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. R. Jones 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palteozoic Rocks; that Professor T. R. Jones be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor W. C. Williamson and Mr. Cash be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Carboniferous Flora of Halifax and its 
neighbourhood ; that Mr. Cash be the Secretary, and that the sum of 25Z. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Professor J. F. 
Blake be a Committee for the purjjose of investigating the Microscopic 
Structure of the older Rocks of Anglesea ; that Professor J. F. Blake be 
the Secretary, and that the suxu of 101. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. H. Woodward, Mr. H. Keeping, and Mr. J. Starkie Gardner 
be a Committee for the purpose of exploring the Higher Eocene Beds of 
the Isle of Wight ; that Mr. J. S. Gardner be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, 
Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, Fox 
Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Toplej^ Tyl den- Wright, E. 
Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. B. De Ranee be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable Formations of England, and the Quality 
and Quantity of the Waters supplied to various towns and districts from 
these formations ; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 5Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. R. B. Grantham, C. B. De Ranee, J. B. Redman, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker, and J. W. Woodall, Major- General Sir A. Clarke, 
Admiral Sir B. Ommanney, Sir J. N. Douglass, Captain Sir George 
Nares, Captain J. Parsons, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, Professor J. 
Prestwich, and Messrs. E. Baston, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. Vernon 



llECOMMENnATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxiii 

Harconrt be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 'of inquiring into 
the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the 
Influence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or other material in that 
Action ; that Messrs. De Ranee and Topley be the Secretaries, and that 
the sum of 15/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reporting upon the ' Manure ' Gravels of 
Wexford ; that Mr. A. Bell be the Secretary, and that the sum of 10/. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Valentine Ball, Mr. H. G. Fordham, Professor Haddon, 
Professor Hillhonse, Mr. John Hopkinson, Dr. Macfarlane, Professor 
Milnes Marshall, Mr. F. T. Mott, Dr. Traquair, and Dr. H. Woodward 
be a Committee for the purpose of preparing a report upon the Provincial 
Museums of the United Kingdom ; that Mr. Mott be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of 51. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Schafer, Michael Foster, and Lankester, and Dr. 
W. D. Halliburton be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Physiology of the Lymphatic System ; that Professor Schafer be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 25/. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy Sladen be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples ; thait Mr. Percy Sladen be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 100/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, Mr. 
A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
Moseley, and Mr. Percy Sladen be a Committee for the purpose of making 
arrangements for assisting the Marine Biological Association Laboratory at 
Plymouth ; that Mr. Percy Sladen be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
50Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors McKendrick, Struthers, Young, Mcintosh, A. Nichol- 
son, and Cossar Ewart and Mr. John Murray be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of aiding in the maintenance of the establishment of a 
Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland ; that Mr. John Murray 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of 751. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. McLachlan be re- 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoo- 
logical Literature ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 100/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Thiselton Dyer, Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, 
and Mr. Forbes be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the prepa- 
ration of a report on our present knowledge of the Flora of China ; that 
Mr. Thiselton-Dyer be the Secretary, and that the sum of 751. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Sclater, Mi-. Seebohm, Mr. Carruthers, and Mr. R. Trimen 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Fauna and Flora of 
the Cameroon Mountains ; that Mr. Sclater be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 75/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. John Cordeaux, Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie- 
Brown, Mr. W. E. Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1886. 

be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent 
of the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and the Commis- 
sioners of Northern and Irish Lights) observations on the Migration of 
Birds at Lighthouses and Light-vessels, and of reporting on the same ; 
that Mr. John Cordeaus be the Secretary, and that the sum of 30Z. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Canon A. M. Norman, Mr. H. B. Brady, Mi-. W. Carruthers, 
Professor Herdman, Professor Mcintosh, Mr. J. Murray, Professor A. 
Newton, Mr. P. L. Sclater, and Professor A. C. Haddon be a Committee 
for the purpose of considering the question of accurately defining the 
term ' British ' as applied to the Marine Fauna and Flora of our Islands, 
and bringing forward a definite proposal on the subject at a future meet- 
ing. The Committee to be called the ' British Marine Area Committee.' 
That Professor A. C. Haddon be the Secretary, and that the sum of bl. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That General J. T. Walker, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Alexander Buchan, Mr. J. T. 
Buchanan, Mr. John Murray, Mr. H. W. Bates, and Mr. E. G. Raven- 
stein be a Committee for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
combination of the Ordnance and Admiralty Surveys, and the production 
of a Bathy-hypsographical Map of the British Isles ; that Mr. E. G. 
Kavenstein be the Secretary, and that the sum of 25Z. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That General J. T. Walker, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Professor 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. Alexander Buchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, 
Mr. John Murray, Dr. J. Rae, Mr. H. W. Bates, Captain W. J. Dawson, 
Dr. A. Selwyn, and Professor C. Carpmael be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting upon the Depth of permanently Frozen Soil 
in the Polar Regions, its geographical limits, and relation to the present 
poles of greatest cold ; that Sir Henry Lefroy be the Reporter and Mr. 
H. W. Bates the Secretary, and that the sum of bl. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Sidgwick, Professor Foxwell, the Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Professor Munro, and Mr. A. H. D. Acland be a Committee for the purpose 
of further inquiring into the Regulation of Wages under the Sliding 
Scales and under the Lists in the Cotton Industry ; that Professor Manro 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of \0l. b3 placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Dr. Garson, Mr. Pengelly, Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Mr. G. W. 
Bloxam be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
the Prehistoric Race in the Greek Islands ; that Mr. Bloxam be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. Pengelly, Dr. John Evans, Sir John Lubbock, Professor 
Alexander Macalister, Mr. W. Cunnington, and Dr. Garson be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of exploring Ancient Barrows in Wiltshire ; that 
Dr. Gai'son be the Secretary, and that the sum of 20/. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. 
Daniel Wilson, Mr. R. G. Haliburton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating and publishing 
reports on the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social 
condition of the North- Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada; that 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IxXV 

Mr. Bloxam be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50L be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. F. Galton, General Pitt-Rivers, Professor Flower, Professor 
A. Macalister, Mr. P. W. Rudler, Mr. R. Stuart Poole, and Mr. Bloxam 
be a Committee for the purpose of procuring, with the help of Mr. 
Flinders Petrie, Racial Photographs from the Ancient Egyptian Pictures 
and Sculptures ; that Mr. Bloxam be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
201. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That General Pitt- Rivers, Dr. Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. Francis 
Galton, Dr. E. B. Tylor, and Dr. Garson Ise a Committee for the purpose 
of editing a new edition of 'Anthropological Notes and Queries,' with 
authority to distribute gratuitously the unsold copies of the present 
edition ; that Dr. Garson be the Secretary, and that the. sum of 101. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not involving Grants of Money. 

That Professor Cayley, Sir William Thomson, Mr. James Glaisher, 
and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher (Secretary) be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of calculating certain tables in the Theory of Numbers 
connected with the divisors of a number. 

That Professor G. H. Darwin and Professor J. C. Adams be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations ; 
and that Professor Darwin be the Secretary. 

That Professors Everett and Sir William Thomson, Mr. G.J. Symons, 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. B. Wethered, 
and Mr. A. Strahan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature down- 
wards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water ; and that Pro- 
fessor Everett be the Secretary. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Caylej^ and Professor Salmon be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of calculating Tables of the 
Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms ; and that Professor Cayley 
be the Secretary. 

That Professors A. Johnson, MacGregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. T. 
Bovey and Mr. C. Carpmael be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of promoting Tidal Observations in Canada ; and that Professor Johnson 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, 
the Abbe Renard, Mr. A. Buchan, the Hon. R. Abercromby, and Dr. M. 
Grabham be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
the practicability of collecting and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of 
considering the question of undertaking regular observations in various 
localities ; and that Mr. John Murray be the Secretary. 

That Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, 
Liveing, Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, Captain Abney, 
and Dr. Marshall Watts be a Committee for the purpose of preparing 
a new series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements ; 
and that Dr. Marshall Watts be the Secretary. 

That Professors W. A. Tilden and H. E. Armstrong be a Committee 



hxvi REPORT — 1886. 

for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives ; and 
that Professor H. E. Armstrong be the Secretary. 

That Professors Dewar and A. W. Williamson, Dr. Marshall Watts, 
Captain Abney, Dr. Johnstone Stoney, Professors W. N. Hartley, McLeod, 
Carey Foster, A. K. Huntington, Emerson Reynolds, Reinold, and Live- 
ing, Lord Rayleigh, Professor Schuster, and Professor W. C. Roberts- 
Austen be a Committee for the purpose of reporting upon the present 
state of our knowledge of Spectrum Analysis ; and that Professor W. 
C. Roberts-Austen be the Secretary. 

That Professors Ramsay, Tilden, Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating certain Physical Constants 
of Solution, especially the expansion of saline solutions : and that Pro- 
fessor W. L. Goodwin be the Secretary. 

That Professors Tilden, McLeod, Pickering, and Ramsay and Drs. 
Young, A. R. Leeds, and Nicol be a Committee for the purpose of re- 
porting on the Bibliography of Solution ; and that Dr. Nicol be the 
Secretary. 

That Dr. J. Evans, Professor W. J. Sollas, Dr. G. J. Hinde, and Messrs. 
W. Carruthers, R. B. Newton, J. J. H. Teall, F. W. Rudler, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker, and E. Wethered be reappointed a Committee for the pur- 
pose of carrying on the Geological Record ; and that Mr. W. Topley be 
the Secretary. 

That Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. W. Carruthers, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. J. S. Gardner be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and 
Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom ; and that Mr. J. S. Gardner be 
the Secretary. 

That Professor Hillhouse, Mr. E. W. Badger, and Mr. A. W. Wills 
be a Committee for the purpose of collectiug information as to the Dis- 
appearance of Native Plants from their local habitats ; and that Professor 
Hillhouse be the Secretary. 

That Professor Milnes Marshall, Dr. Sclater, Canon Tristram, Dr. 
Muirhead, Mr. W. R. Hughes, Mr. E. de Hamel, and Professor Bridge be 
a Committee for the purpose of preparing a report on the Herds of Wild 
Cattle in Chartley Park and other parks in Great Britain ; and that Mr. 
W. R. Hughes be the Secretary. 

That Professor M. Foster, Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Professor Bower, Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. Car- 
ruthers, and Professor Hartog be a Committee for the purpose of taking 
steps for the establishment of a Botanical Station at Peradeniya, Ceylon ; 
and that Professor Bower be the Secretary. 

That Professor McKendrick, Professor Cleland, and Dr. McGregor- 
Robertson be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Mechanism of the Secretion of Urine ; and that Dr. McGregor-Robertson 
be the Secretary. 

That Sir Joseph Hooker, Captain Sir George Nares, Admiral Sir 
Leopold McClintock, Mr. Clements R. Markham, General Sir Henry 
Lefroy, General J. T. Walker, Professor Flower, Professor Huxley, Sir 
William Thomson, General Strachey, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. John 
Murray, and Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of drawing attention to the desirability of further 
research in the Antarctic Regions ; and that Admiral Sir Erasmus Om- 
manney be the Secretary. 



EECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxvii 

That the Rev. Canon Carver, the Rev. H. B. George, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Professor Bonney, Mr. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Professor T. 
McKenny Hughes, the Rev. H. W. Watson, the Rev. E. P. M. McCarthy, 
the Rev. A. R. Vardy, Professor Alfred Newton, the Rev. Canon Tris- 
tram, Professor Moseley, and Mr. E. G. Ravenstein be a Committee for 
the purpose of co-operating with the Royal Geographical Society in 
endeavouring to bring before the authorities of the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge the advisability of promoting the study of Geography by 
establishing special chairs for the purpose ; and that Mr. E. G. Raven- 
stein be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. B. Martin, Mr. P. Y. Edgeworth, Mr. S. Bourne, Pro- 
fessor H. S. Poxwell, Professor Marshall, Professor Nicholson, Mr. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, and Professor Sidgwick be a Committee for the 
purpose of investigating the best methods of ascertaining and measuring 
Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard ; and that Mr. F. T. 
Edgeworth be the Secretary. 

That Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Professor Armstrong, Mr. William Shaen, 
Mr. Stephen Boui^ne, Miss Lydia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Dr. 
H. W. Crosskey, Sir Richard Temple, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. James 
Heywood, and Professor N. Story Maskelyne be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating to the teaching of 
Science in Elementary Schools ; and that Dr. J. H. Gladstone be the 
Secretary. 

That Mr. W. H. Bai low. Sir P. J. Bramwell, Professor J. Thomson, 
Captain D. Galton, Mr. B. Baker, Professor W. C. Unwin, Professor 
A. B. W. Kennedy, Mr. C. Barlow, Mr. A. T. Atchison, and Professor 
H. S. Hele Shaw be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of obtain- 
ing information with reference to the Endurance of Metals under repeated 
and varying stresses, and the proper working stresses on railway bridges 
and other structures subject to varying loads; and that Mr. A. T. Atchison 
be the Seci'etary. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Dr. John Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
Dr. R. Munro, Mr. Pengelly, Dr. Hicks, Mr. J. W. Davis, and Dr. Muir- 
head be a Committee for the purpose of ascertaining and recording the 
localities in the British Islands in which Evidences of the Existence of 
Prehistoric Inhabitants of the Country are found ; and that Mr. J. W. 
Davis be the Secretary. 

That Professor J. J. Thomson be requested to continue his Report on 
Electrical Theories. 

That Mr. Glazebrook be requested to continue his Report on Optics. 

That Mr. P. T. Main be requested to continue his Report on our 
experimental knowledge of the Properties of Matter with respect to 
volume, pressure, temperature, and specific heat. 

That Mr. Mollison be requested to report on the present state of our 
knowledge of the Mathematical Theory of Thermal Conduction. 

That Professor Armstrong be requested to prepare a Report on the 
Relation of Physical Properties to Chemical Constitution. 

Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual 
Heport of- the Association. 

Dr. A. Konig's paper ' On the Modern Development of Thomas 
Young's Theory of Colour- Vision.' 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1 886. 

Mr. Harley's paper containing the explicit form of the Complete Cubic 
Differential Resolvent. 

Professor Tilden's report ' On the Nature of Solution.' 

Mr. J. "W. Davis's paper ' On the Ray gill Fissure.' 

Mr. J. Player's paper ' On a Rapid Method of Estimating Silica in 
Rocks.' 

Messrs. W. Shelford and A. H. Shield's paper ' On some Points for 
the Consideration of English Engineers with reference to the Design of 
Girder Bridges.' 

Professor Hele Shaw and Mr. Edward Shaw's paper ' On the Sphere 
and Roller Mechanism for Transmitting Power ' (with the necessary 
diagrams) . 

Mr. J. Wilson Swan's paper ' On Improvements in Electric Safety 
Lamps.' 

Mr. W. S. Till's paper ' On the Birmingham District Drainage.' 

Resolutions referred to the Council for Consideration, and Action if 

desirable. 

That the Council be requested to consider the question of rendering 
the Reports and other papers communicated to the Association more 
readily accessible to the members and others by issuing a limited number 
of them in separate form, or in associated parts, in advance of the annual 
volume. 

That the Council be requested to consider whether a memorial should 
be presented to Her Majesty's Government, urging them to undertake 
and supervise Agricultural Experiments, and to procure further and 
more complete Agricultural Statistics. 

That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of calling 
the attention of the proprietor of Stonehenge to the danger in which 
several of the stones are at the present time from the burrowing of 
rabbits, and also to the desirability of removing the wooden props which 
support the horizontal stone of one of the trilithons ; and in view of the 
great value of Stonehenge as an ancient national monument to express 
the hope of the Association that some steps will be taken to remedy these 
sources of danger to the stones. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONET. Ixxis 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to ScientifiG Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Birmingham Meeting 
in September 1886. The Karnes of the Members entitled to 
call on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are 
prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

* Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Solar Radiation 20 Q 

*Armstrong, Professor. — Electrolysis 50 

*Brown, Professor Crum. — Ben Nevis Observatory 76 

*Forbes, Professor G. — Standards of Ligtt 10 

*Darwin, Professor Gr. H. — Tidal Observations : Instructions 15 
*Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Chepstow Meteorological Ob- 
servatory '. 20 

* Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Magnetic Observations 40 0" 

*Foster, Professor G. Carey. — Electrical Standards 50 

Chemistry. 

*M'Leod, Professor. — Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Abney, Captain.^ — -Absorption Spectra 40 

Williamson, Professor A. W. — Translation of Foreign 

Records 5 

Tilden, Professor.— Nature of Solution 20 

Tilden, Professor. — Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 



Geology. 

*Bauerman, Mr. H. — Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 60 

*Hughes, Professor T. McK. — Exploration of Cae Gwyn Cave 20 

*PreRtwich, Professor J. — Erratic Blocks 10 

Etheridge, Mr. R.— Fossil Phyllopoda_ 20 

Williamson, Professor W. C. — Carboniferous Flora of Halifax 25 
Bonney, Professor. — Microscopic Structure of the Rocks of 

Anglesey ;.... 10 

Woodward, Dr. H.— Eocene Beds of the Isle of Wight 20 

*Hull, Professor E. — Circulation of Underground Waters ... 5 

* Grantham, Mr. R. B. — Erosion of Sea Coasts 15 

Etheridge, Mr. R.— ' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Ball, Mr. Valentine. — Provincial Museum Reports 5 

Carried forward £605 



I 



♦ 



Eeappointed. 



IXXX EEPOET — 1886. 

£ s. d. 

Bronglit forward 605 

Biology. 

Schafer, Professor. — Lymphatic System 25 

*Lankester, Professor Ray. — Naples Biological Station TOO 

Lankester, Professor Ray. — Plymouth Biological Station ... 50 

*McKendrick, Professor. — Granton Biological Station .. 75 

*Stainton, Mr. H. T.— Zoological Record 100 

Thiselton-Dyer, Mr.— Flora of China .'... 75 

Sclater, Mr. — Flora and Fauna of the Cameroons 75 

*Cordeaux, Mr. J.— Migration of Birds 30 

Norman, Canon A. M. — British Marine Area 5 



Geograplttj. 

* Walker, General J. T. — Bathy-Hypsographical Map 25 

*'Walker, General J. T. — Depth of Permanently Frozen Soil... 5 

Economic Science and Staiistics. 

*Sidgwick, Professor. — Regulation of Wages 10 

Anthropology. 

*Garson, Dr.-:— Prehistoric Races of Greek Islands 20 

Pengelly, Mr. — British Barrows 20 

*Tylor, Dr. E. B.— North-Western Tribes of Canada 50 

*Galton, Mr. F. — Racial Photographs : Egyptian 20 

Pitt- Rivers, General. — Anthropological Notes and Queries... 10 



£1300 



* 



Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1887. 
The Meeting at Manchester will commence on Wednesday, August 31. 

Place of Meeting in 1888. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will bo held at Bath. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxi 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientiftc Purposes. 



s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossillchthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-Gauges 9 13 

Kefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£■435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12. 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast L-on (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides .50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Elvers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land .--nd Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam vessels 100 

Meteorolosrical Committee ... 31 9 5 



£932 



1839. 

Fossillchthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 

1886. 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants ..." 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in E.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 60.: 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrouglit Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



s. d. 

2 

18 6 

11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 






7 8 
2 9 




£1.595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heai-t Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs ... 1 12 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 

Actmometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

e 







8 











7 
























Ixxxii 



KEPORT 1886. 



£ 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 3S 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations 

at Piymouth — 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britannise 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gaseson Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 
Questions on Human Race ... 7 

£1449 



s. 


a. 


12 


8 








18 


6 








5 





19 


6 



































6 


1 





12 











18 


8 














1 


10 


6 


3 














10 


11 


11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 
























8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 



2 



£ 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs 
Furniture, and Sunthies ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 

Exiseriments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


d. 














12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 









5 




8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxiii 



£ s. d. 
184i. 
Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

oftheLowerTertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 II 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

Mgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

±■981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at, Inverness 30 IS 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation .". 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgli 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura ... 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£831 gT^ 



5 






































7 


















14 8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 


6 


3 









1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 .50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



e 2 



Ixxxiv 



REPORT 1886. 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 1) 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 i^"8 



1840. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 
metrical Observations 13 9 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 



18 






















£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- . 

mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

~£30l W~7 



£ s. d. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 
Maintaining the Establi.sh- 

ment at Kew Observatory 

(including balance of 

former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Ii-on 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Bloon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Qiieries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

~£480~16 "i 



I 1856. 

] Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ „- 

1855 £500 0/ °'° ^ " 

Strickland's Ornithological 

SjTionjnns 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

P'henomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734~l;r~9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



GENEBAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxv 



£ s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Slada- 

Kascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidaj 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

^£684 11 i 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 
of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 
Sandstone of Dura Don ... 20 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

^766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 "1 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 16 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 









2 











































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 1.50 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 110 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



Ixxxvi 



REPORT— 1886. 



£ 

Dredoing the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 



s. 


d. 














10 


















16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograpli 100 

Thermo-Electricily 15 

Analysis of Eocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

^1.608 _3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal B'ossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askliam's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 

18G5. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida.... 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amj'l Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterns 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches .30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeensliire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£ 1.59"r ~7 10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 60 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole ExiDloration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanjdesof Organic Radi- 
cals 29 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxvii 



£ 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irisli Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

iiJlTSO" 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committ ee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Eainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamsliip Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

'^1739^ 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 













13 



d. 







4 

































4 



0^0 
4 

















































£ 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£WW 
1869. *== 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Moimtain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record lOO 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes lo 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall loO 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 



s. d. 
























































































































































































































































































Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1886. 



£ s. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



J871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



















































2 


6 

























































1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

TidarCommittee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave- Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 






















































































































... 25 












£1285 









£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 
Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 
1874. -i-=^== 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mam-itius Meteorological Re- 
search ^ 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. '~~^~^"~ 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminoiis Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



GENERAL STATEMEMT. 



Ixxxix 



£ 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 100 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scot land 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



s. 


d. 























































































5 









£1092 4 


2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpas, Report on 20 

1886. 















11 


7 







































1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Undergroimd Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Eil'ect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels .... 






















£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red'Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 

plioric Acid, &c 15^ 

£1128 9 7 



8 


















1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Antliropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 

f 



xc 



EEPORT — 1886. 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Kxploration ... 100 

Kecord of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra .. . 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for oth and 6th Millions ... 150 

CiiTulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 80 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specitic Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 

%'ariants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polvzoa 10 



£ 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 



s. 


d. 




































































7 


7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... '50 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

Electrical Standards 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

£476 3 1 

1882. 
Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 1 11 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

British Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Conversion of Sedimentary 

Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Migration of Birds 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCl 



£ 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Photographing Ultra-Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Exploration of Raygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Geological Record 100 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

£1126 

1883. 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Zoological Literature Record 100 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma- n j aro 500 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 
Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 

1884. 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Mount Kill- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

International Geological Map 20 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 



s. 


d. 




































_0 

11 







i 











3 3 
























3 3 




















































£ s. d. 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 (i 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan ,.... 75 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseo- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Ultra-Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 

Tidal Observations 10 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

£1173 i 



1885. 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Vapour Pressures, Sec, of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Ro- 

raima 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Meteoric Dust 70 (I 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of PaliBozoic 

Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Geological Record 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Ra3'gill Fissure 15 

£1385 



xcii REPORT — 1886. 

1886. £ s. a. 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Re.searches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 

Electrical Standards 40 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Meteorological Observations 

onBenNevis 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 



£ s. d. 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Exploration of Caves in Nortli 

Wales 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Geological Record 100 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palieozoic 

Rocks 15 

Solar Radiation !l 10 6 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Tidal Observations 50 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granion 75 

Physical and C})emical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

.€995 S 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 1, at 8 p.m., in the Town Hall, the Right 
Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.L. & E., 
F.C.S., resigned the office of President to Principal Sir J. William 
Dawson, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 2, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Exhi- 
bition, Bingley Hall. 

On Friday, September 3, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Mr. A. W. 
Riicker, M.A., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Soap Bubbles.' 

On Monday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Professor 
W. Rutherford, M.D., delivered a Discourse on ' The Sense of Hearing.' 

On Tuesday, September 7, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Council House and Museum and Art Gallery. 

On Wednesday, September 8, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting took place in the Town Hall, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Manchester. [The Meeting i.s 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, August 31, 1887.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1886. B 



ADDRESS 



BY 



SIR J. WILLIAM DAWSON, 

C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Principal and Vice-Chancellor 
of McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 

PRESIDENT. 



Twenty-one years have passed away since the last meeting of the British 
Association in this great central city of England. At the third Birming- 
hana meeting — that of 1865 — I had the pleasure of being present, and had 
the honour of being one of the Vice-Presidents of Section C. At that 
meeting my friend John Phillips, one of the founders of the Association, 
occupied the Presidential chair, and I cannot better introduce what I 
have to say this evening than by the eloquent words in which he then 
addressed you : — ' Assembled for the third time in this busy centre of 
industrious England, amid the roar of engines and clang of hammers 
where the strongest powers of nature are trained to work in the fairy 
chains of art, how softly and fittingly falls upon the ear the accent of 
Science, the friend of that art, and the guide of that industry ! Here 
where Priestley analysed the air, and Watt obtained the mastery over 
steam, it well becomes the students of nature to gather round the stan- 
dard which they carried so far into the fields of knowledge. And when on 
other occasions we meet in quiet colleges and academic halls, how gladly 
welcome is the union of fresh discoveries and new inventions with the 
solid and venerable truths which are there treasured and taught. Long 
may such union last ; the fair alliance of cultivated thought and practical 
skill ; for by it labour is dignified and science fertilised, and the condition 
of human society exalted.' These were the words of a man who, while 
■earnest in the pursuit of science, was full of broad and kindly sympathy for 
his fellow-men, and of hopeful confidence in the future. "We have but to 
turn to the twenty Reports of this Association, issued since 1865, to see 
the realisation of that union of science and art to which he so confidentlv 
looked forward, and to appreciate the stupendous results which it has 

b2 



4 EEPORT 1886. 

aciiieved. In one department alone — that to which my predecessor in this 
chair so eloquently adverted in Aberdeen, the department of education in 
science — how much has been accomplished since 1865. Phillips himself 
lived to see a great revolution in this respect at Oxford. But no one in 
1865 could have anticipated that immense development of local schools of 
science of which your own Mason College and your admirable technical, 
industrial, and art schools are eminent examples. Based on the general 
education given by the new system of Board schools, with which the 
name of the late W. E. Forster will ever be honourably connected, and 
extending its influence upward to special training and to the highest 
university examinations, this new scientific culture is opening paths of 
honourable ambition to the men and women of England scarcely dreamed of 
in 1865. I sympathise with the earnest appeal of Sir Lyon Playfair, in his 
Aberdeen address, in favour of scientific education ; but visiting England 
at rare intervals, I am naturally more impressed with the progress that 
has been made than with the vexatious delays which have occurred, and am 
perhaps better able to appreciate the vast strides that have been taken 
in the direction of that complete and all-pervading culture in science 
which he has so ably advocated. 

No one could have anticipated twenty years ago that a Birmingham 
manufacturer, in whose youthful days there were no schools of science- 
for the people, was about to endow a college, not only worthy of 
this great city, but one of its brightest oi'naments.' Nor could any- 
one have foreseen the great development of local scientific societies, like 
your Midland Institute and Philosophical Society, which are now 
flourishing in every large town and in many of those of less magnitude.. 
The period of twenty-one years that has elapsed since the last Birming- 
ham meeting has also been an era of public museums and laboratories 
for the teaching of science, from the magnificent national institutions at 
South Kensington and those of the great universities and their colleges, 
down to those of the schools and field clubs in country towns. It has besides 
been an era of gigantic progress in original work and in publication,. 
— a progress so rapid that workers in every branch of study have been 
reluctantly obliged to narrow in more and more their range of reading and 
of efibrt to keep abreast of the advance in their several departments. 
Lastly these twenty-one years have been characterised as the ' coming of 
age ' of that great system of philosophy with which the names of three 
Englishmen, Darwin, Spencer, and Wallace, are associated as its founders. 
Whatever opinions one may entertain as to the safiiciency and finality of 
this philosophy there can be no question as to its infiuence on scientific 
thought. On the one hand it is inaccurate to compare it with so entirely 
diS'erent things as the discovery of the chemical elements and of the law 
of gravitation ; on the other, it is scarcely fair to characterise it as a . 

' It was in 1865 that' Sir Josiali Mason, was, quietly and without any public note, 
beginning to lay the foimdation of his orphanage at Erdington. 



ADDRESS. » 

mere ' confused development ' of the mind of the age. It is indeed a new 
attempt of science in its maturer years to grapple with those mysterious 
questions of origins which occupied it in the days of its infancy, and 
it is to be hoped that it may not, like the Titans of ancient fable, be 
hurled back from heaven, or like the first mother find the knowledge 
to which it aspires a bitter thing. In any case we should fully under- 
stand the responsibility which we incur when in these times of full-grown 
■science we venture to deal with the great problem of origins, and should 
be prepared to find that in this field the new philosophy, like those which 
have preceded it, may meet with very imperfect success. The agita- 
tion of these subjects has already brought science into close relations, 
sometimes friendly, sometimes hostile, it is to be hoped in the end help- 
ful, with those great and awful questions of the ultimate destiny of 
humanity, and its relations to its Creator, which must always be nearer 
to the human heart than any of the achievements of science on its own 
ground. In entering on such questions we should proceed with caution 
and reverence, feeling that we are on holy ground, and that though, like 
Moses of old, we may be armed with all the learning of our time, we are in 
the presence of that which while it burns is not consumed ; of a mystery 
which neither observation, experiment, nor induction can ever fully solve. 
In a recent address, the late President of the Royal Society called 
attention to the fact that within the lifetime of the older men of science 
of the present day, the greater part of the vast body of knowledge 
included in the modern sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, and 
geology, has been accumulated, and the most important advances 
made in its application to such common and familiar things as the rail- 
way, ocean navigation, the electric telegraph, electric lighting, the tele- 
phone, the germ theory of disease, the use of anesthetics, the processes 
of metallurgy, and the dyeing of fabrics. Even since the last meeting 
in this city, much of this great work has been done, and has led to 
general results of the most marvellous kind. What at that time could 
have appeared more chimerical than the opening up by the enterprise of 
one British colony of a shorter road to the East by way of the extreme 
west, realising what was happily called by Milton and Cheadle ' the 
new North-west Passage,' making Japan the next neighbour of Canada 
on the west, and ofiering to Britain a new way to her Eastern pos- 
sessions ; or than the possibility of this Association holding a successful 
meeting on the other side of the Atlantic ? To have ventured to predict 
such things in 1865, would have appeared quite visionary, yet we are 
now invited to meet in Australia, and may proceed thither by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway and its new lines of steamers, returning by 
the Suez Canal.* To-day this is quite as feasible as the Canadian 

' It is expected that, on the completion of the connections of the Canadian Pacific 
Eailway, the time from ocean to ocean may be reduced to 116 hours, and from London 
to Hong Kong to twenty-seven days. 



6 REPOET — 1886. 

visit would have been in 1865. It is science that has thus brought the once 
widely separated parts of the world nearer to each other, and is breaking 
down those geographical barriers which have separated the different por- 
tions of our widely extended British race. Its work in this is not yet 
complete. Its goal to-day is its starting-point to-morrow. It is as far 
as at any previous time from seeing the limit of its conquests, and every 
victory gained is but the opening of the way for a farther advance. 

By its visit to Canada the British Association has asserted its imperial 
character, and has consolidated the scientific interests of Her Majesty's 
dominions, in advance of that great gathering of the industrial products 
of all parts of the empire now on exhibition in London, and in advance of 
any political plans of Imperial fedei'ation.' There has even been a project 
before us for an international scientific convention, in which the great 
English republic of America shall take part, a project the realisation of 
which was to some extent anticipated in the fusion of the members of the 
British and American Associations at Montreal and Philadelphia in 1884. 
As a Canadian, as a past President of the American Association, and now 
honoured with the Presidency of this Association, I may be held to repre- 
sent in my own person this scientific union of the British Islands, of 
the various Colonies, and of the great Republic, which, whatever the 
difficulties attending its formal accomplishment at present, is certain 
to lead to an actual and real union for scientific work. In further- 
ance of this I am glad to see here to-day influential representatives 
of most of the British Colonies, of India, and of the United States. 
We welcome here also delegates from other countries, and though the 
barrier of language may at present prevent a larger union, we may enter- 
tain the hope that Britain, America, India, and the Colonies, working 
together in the interest of science, may ultimately render our English 
tongue the most general vehicle of scientific thought and discovery, a 
consummation of which I think there are, at present, many indica- 
tions. 

But, while science marches on from victory to victory, its path is 
marked by the resting-places of those who have fought its battles and 
assured its advance. In looking back to 1865 there rise before me the 
once familiar countenances of Phillips, Murchison, Lyell, Forbes, Jeffreys, 
Jukes, Rolleston, Miller, Spottiswoode, Fairbairn, Gassiot, Carpenter, and 
a host of others, present in full vigour at that meeting, but no more with 
us. These were veterans of science ; but, alas ! many then young and 
rising in fame are also numbered with the dead. It may be that before 
another Birmingham meeting many of us, the older members now, will 
also have passed away. But these men have left behind them ineffaceable 
monuments of their work, in which they still survive, and we rejoice to 
believe that, though dead to us, they live in that company of the great and 

' I should note here, in connection with this, the valuable volume of Canadian 
Economics, which was one of the results of the Montreal meeting. 



ADDRESS. 7 

good of all ages who have entered into that unseen universe where all 
that is high and holy and beautiful must go on accumulating till the time 
of the restitution of all things. Let us follow their example and carry 
on their work, as God may give us power and opportunity, gathering in 
precious stores of knowledge and of thought, in the belief that all truth 
is immortal, and must go on for ever bestowing blessings on mankind. 
Thus will the memory of the mighty dead remain to us as a power 
which — 

Like a star 
Beacons from the abode where the eternal are. 

I do not wish, however, to occupy your time longer with general or 
personal matters, but rather to take the opportunity afforded by this 
address to invite your attention to some topics of scientific interest. In 
attempting to do this I must have before me the warning conveyed by Pro- 
fessor Huxley, in the address to which I have already referred, that in our 
time science, like Tarpeia, may be crushed with the weight of the rewards 
bestowed on her. In other words, it is impossible for any man to keep 
pace with the progress of more than one limited branch of science, and 
it is eqaally impossible to find an audience of scientific men of whom 
anything more than a mere fraction can be expected to take an interest 
in any one subject. There is, however, some consolation in the know- 
ledge that a speaker who is sufficiently simple for those who are advanced 
specialists in other departments, will of necessity be also sufficiently simple 
to be understood by the general public who are specialists in nothing. 
On this principle a geologist of the old school, accustomed to a great variety 
of work, may hope so to scatter his fire as to reach the greater part of the 
audience. In endeavouring to secure this end, I have sought inspiration 
from that ocean which connects rather than separates Britain and America, 
and may almost be said to be an English sea — the North Atlantic. The 
geological history of this depression of the earth's crust, and its relation 
to the continental masses which limit it, may furnish a theme at once 
generally intelligible and connected with great questions as to the struc- 
ture and history of the earth, which have excited the attention alike of 
physicists, geologists, biologists, geographers, and ethnologists. Should 
I, in treating of these questions, appear to be somewhat abrupt and 
dogmatic, and to indicate rather than state the evidence of the general 
views announced, I trust you will kindly attribute this to the exigencies 
of a short address. 

If we imagine an observer contemplating the earth from a convenient 
distance in space, and scrutinising its features as it rolls before him, we 
may suppose him to be struck with the fact that eleven-sixteenths of its 
surface are covered with water, and that the land is so unequally dis- 
tributed that from one point of view he would see a hemisphere almost 
exclusively oceanic, while nearly the whole of the dry land is gathered in 
the opposite hemisphere. He might observe that the great oceanic area 



8 REPORT — 1886. 

of the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans is dotted with islands — like a shallow 
pool with stones rising above its surface — as if its general depth were 
small in comparison with its area. He might also notice that a mass or 
belt of land surrounds each pole, and that the northern ring sends off 
to the southward three vast tongues of land and of mountain chains, 
terminating respectively in South America, South Africa, and Australia, 
towards which feebler and insular processes are given off by the Ant- 
arctic continental mass. This, as some geographers have observed,' 
gives a rudely three-ribbed aspect to the earth, though two of the three 
ribs are crowded together and form the Europ-asian mass or double con- 
tinent, while the third is isolated in the single continent of America. He 
might also observe that the northern girdle is cut across, po that the 
Atlantic opens by a wide space into the Arctic Sea, while the Pacific is 
contracted toward the north, but confluent with the Antarctic Ocean. The 
Atlantic is also relatively deeper and less cumbered with islands than the 
Pacific, which has the higher ridges near its shores, constituting what 
some visitors to the Pacific coast of America have not inaptly called the 
* back of the world,' while the wider slopes face the narrower ocean, into 
which for this reason the greater part of the drainage of the land is 
poured.2 The Pacific and Atlantic, though both depressions or flattenings 
of the earth, are, as we shall find, different in age, character, and conditions ; 
and the Atlantic, though the smaller, is the older, and from the geological 
point of view, in some respects, the more important of the two. 

If our imaginary observer had the means of knowing anything of the 
rock formations of the continents, he would notice that those bounding 
the North Atlantic are in general of great age, some belonging to the 
Laurentian system. On the other hand, he would see that many of the 
mountain ranges along the Pacific are comparatively new, and that 
modern igneous action occurs in connection with them. Thus he might 
be led to believe that the Atlantic, though comparatively narrow, is an 
older feature of the earth's surface, while the Pacific belongs to more 
modern times. But he would note in connection with this that the oldest 
rocks of the great continental masses are mostly toward their northern 
ends, and that the borders of the northern ring of land and certain ridges 
extending southwards from it constitute the most ancient and permanent 
elevations of the earth's crust, though now greatly surpassed by moun- 
tains of more recent age nearer the equator. Before leaving this general 
survey we may make one further remark. An observer looking at the 
earth from without would notice that the margins of the Atlantic and 
the main lines of direction of its mountain chains are north-east and 
south-west, and north-west and south-east, as if some early causes had 

' Dana, Manual of Geology, introductory part. Green, Vesti-ges of a Molten Globe, 
has summed up these facts. 

^ Mr. Mellard Reade, in two Presidential addresses before the Geological Society 
of Liverpool, has well illustrated this point and its geological consequence. 



ADDRESS. 1' 

determined the occurrence of elevations along great circles of the earth's 
surface tangent to the polar circles. 

We are invited by the preceding general glance at the surface of the 
earth to ask certain questions respecting the Atlantic. (1) "What has at 
first determined its position and form ? (2) What changes has it expe- 
rienced in the lapse of geological time ? (3) What relations have these 
changes borne to the development of life on the land and in the water ? 
(4) What is its probable future ? 

Before attempting to answer these questions, which I shall not take 
up formally in succession, but rather in connection with each other, it is 
necessary to state as briefly as possible certain general conclusions re- 
specting th£ interior of the earth. It is popularly supposed that we 
know nothing of this beyond a superficial crust perhaps averaging 50,000 
to 100,000 feet in thickness. It is true we have no means of exploration 
in the earth's interior, but the conjoined labours of physicists and geo- 
logists have now proceeded sufficiently far to throw much inferential 
light on the subject, and to enable us to make some general affirmations 
with certainty ; and these it is the more necessary to state distinctly, 
since they are often treated as mere subjects of speculation and fruitless 
discussion. 

(1) Since the dawn of geological science, it has been evident that the 
crust on which we live must be supported on a plastic or partially liquid 
mass of heated rock, approximately uniform in quality under the whole 
of its area. This is a legitimate conclusion from the wide distribution of 
volcanic phenomena, and from the fact that the ejections of volcanoes, 
while locally of various kinds, are similar in every part of the world. 
It led to the old idea of a fluid interior of the earth, but this is now 
generally abandoned, and this interior heated and plastic layer is regarded 
as merely an under-crust. 

(2) We have reason to believe, as the result of astronomical investiga- 
tions,' that, notwithstanding the plasticity or liquidity of the under-crust, 
the mass of the earth — its nucleus as we may call it — is practically solid 
and of great density and hardness. Thus we have the apparent paradox 
of a solid yet fluid earth ; solid in its astx'onomical relations, liquid or 
plastic for the purposes of volcanic action and superficial movements. ^ 

(3) The plastic sub-crust is not in a state of dry igneous fusion, 
but in that condition of aqueo-igneous or hydro-thermic fusion which 

' Hopkins, Mallet, Sir William Thomson, and Prof. G. H. Danvin maintain the 
solidity and rigidity of the earth on astronomical grounds ; but different conclusions 
have been reached by Hennessy, Delaunay, and Airy. In America it was taught 
from 1858 by Sterry Hunt, and later by Shaler and Le Conte. 

" An objection has been taken to the eifect that the supposed ellipsoidal form of 
the equator is inconsistent with a plastic sub-crust. But this ellipsoidal form is not 
absolutely certain, or, if it exists, is very minute. Bormey has in a recent lecture 
suggested the important consideration that a mass may be slowly mobile under long- 
continued pressure, while yet rigid with reference to more sudden movements. 



10 REPORT 1886. 

arises from the action of heat on moist substances, and which may either 
be regarded as a fusion or as a species of solution at a very high tempera- 
ture. This we learn from the phenomena of volcanic action, and from 
the composition of the volcanic and plutonic rocks, as well as from such 
chemical experiments as those of Daubree and of Tilden and Shenstone.' 

(4) The interior sub-crnst is not perfectly homogeneous, but may be 
roughly divided into two layers or magmas, as they have been called : an 
upper, highly siliceous or acidic, of low specific gravity and light-coloured, 
and corresponding to such kinds of plutonic and volcanic rocks as granite 
and trachyte ; and a lower, less siliceous or more basic, more dense, and 
more highly charged with iron, and corresponding to such igneous rocks 
as the dolerites, basalts, and kindred lavas. It is interesting here to 
note that this conclusion, elaborated by Durocher and von Walters- 
hausen, and usually connected with their names, appears to have been 
first announced by John Phillips, in his ' Geological Manual,' and as a mere 
common sense deduction from the observed phenomena of volcanic action 
and the probable results of the gradual cooling of the earth. ^ It receives 
striking confirmation from the observed succession of acidic and basic 
volcanic rocks of all geological periods and in all localities. It would 
even seem, from recent spectroscopic investigations of Lockyer, that there 
is evidence of a similar succession of magmas in the heavenly bodies, 
and the discovery by Nordenskiold of native iron in Greenland basalts, 
affords a probability that the inner magma is in part metalHc.^ 

(5) Where rents or fissures form in the upper crust, the material of 
the lower crust is forced upward by the pressure of the less supported 
portions of the former, giving rise to volcanic phenomena either of an 
explosive or quiet character, as may be determined by contact with water. 
The underlying material may also be carried to the surface by the agency 
of heated water, producing those quiet discharges which Hunt has 

> Phil. Trans. 1884. Also Crosby in Proc. Boston Soo. Nat. Hist. 1883. 

2 Phillips says {3Ianval of 6eolo(/y, 1855, p. 493): 'If we regard them (the 
internal crystalline rocks) as acquiring solidification by cooling in zones parallel to 
the surface, we should have sheets of granitic and basaltic rocks generated below, 
the first uppermost, the last undermost, while above the several strata were produced 
in a series beginning at the bottom. In this sense the rocks of fusion may be called 
with Lyell liypogene. Certainly under particular areas of country are found evidence 
of the liquefaction of one set of igneous products after the solidification of others. 
Many dykes of basalt traversing granite show themselves to have been in fusion after 
the solidification of the granite.' In various forms Phillips returns to this idea, as at 
pp. 556 and 564, in that unpretending manner which was his wont. Dr. Sterry Hunt 
has kindly directed my attention to the fact of Phillips's right of priority in this 
matter. Durocher in 1857 elaborated the theory of magmas in the Annales des Mines, 
and we are indebted to Dutton, of the United States Geological Survey, for its 
detailed application to the remarkable volcanic outflows of Western America. 

3 These basalts occur at Ovifak, Greenland. Andrews has found small particles 
of iron in British basalts. Prestwich and Judd have referred to the bearing on 
general geology of these facts, and of Lockyer's suggestions. 



ADDBESS. 11 

named crenitic. It is to be observed here that explosive volcanic pheno- 
mena, and the formation of cones, are, as Prestwich has well remarked, 
characteristic of an old and thickened crust ; quiet ejection from fissures 
and hydro-thermal action may have been more comm.on in earlier periods 
and with a thinner over-crust. 

(6) The contraction of the earth's interior by cooling and by the 
emission of material from below the over-crust, has caused this crust to 
press downward, and therefore laterally, and so to effect great bends, folds, 
and plications ; and these modified subsequently by surface denudation 
constitute mountain chains and continental plateaus. As Hall long ago 
pointed out,* such lines of folding have been produced more especially 
where thick sediments had been laid down on the sea-bottom. Thus we 
have here another apparent paradox, namely, that the elevations of the 
earth's crust occur in the places where the greatest burden of detritus 
has been laid down upon it, and where consequently the crust has been 
softened and depressed. We must beware, in this connection, of exagge- 
rated notions of the extent of contraction and of crumpling required to 
form mountains. Bonney has well shown, in lectures delivered at the 
London Institution, that an amount of contraction, almost inappreciable in 
comparison with the diameter of the earth, would be suJ9&cient ; and that 
as the greatest mountain chains are less than y-Joth of the earth's radius 
in height, they would on an artificial globe a foot in diameter be no more 
important than the slight inequalities that might result from the paper 
gores overlapping each other at the edges. 

(7) The crushing and sliding of the over-crust implied in these move- 
ments raise some serious questions of a physical character. One of these 
relates to the rapidity or slowness of such movements, and the consequent 
degree of intensity of the heat developed, as a possible cause of meta. 
morphism of rocks. Another has reference to the possibility of changes 
in the equilibrium of the earth itself as resulting from local collapse and 
ridging. These questions in connection with the present dissociation of 
the axis of rotation from the magnetic poles, and with changes of climate, 
have attracted some attention,^ and probably deserve further considera- 
tion on the part of physicists. In so far as geological evidence is con- 
cerned, it would seem that the general association of crumpling with 
metamoi'phism indicates a certain rapidity in the process of mountain- 
making, and consequent development of heat, and the arrangement of the 
older rocks around the Arctic basin forbids us from assuming any extensive 
movement of the axis of rotation, though it does not exclude changes to 
a limited extent. I hope that Professor Darwin will discuss these points 
in his address to the Physical Section. 

' Hall (American Association Address, 1857, subsequently republished, with 
additions, as Contribttticms to the Geological History of the AvieHcan Contine7it)r 
Mallet, Kogers, Dana, Le Conte, &c. 

' See recent papers of Oldham and Fisher in Geological Magazine and PMlo- 
sojfhical MagaHne, July 1886. Also Leroche, Mevol. Polaires. Paris, 1886. 



12 HEPOET— 1886. 

I wisli to formulate these principles as distinctly as possible, and as 
the result of all the long series of observations, calculations, and discus- 
sions since the time of Werner and Hutton, and in which a vast number 
of able physicists and naturalists have borne a part, because they may be 
considered as certain deductions from our actual knowledge, and because 
they lie at the foundation of a rational physical geology. 

We may popularise these deductions by comparing the earth to a 
drupe or stone-fruit, such as a plum or peach, somewhat dried up. It has 
a large and intensely hard stone and kernel, a thin pulp made up of two 
layers, an inner more dense and dark-coloured, and an outer less dense 
and lighter-coloured. These constitute the under-crust. On the outside 
it has a thin membrane or over-crust. In the process of drying it has 
slightly shrunk, so as to produce ridges and hollows of the outer crust, 
and this outer crust has cracked in some places, allowing portions of the 
pulp to ooze out — in some of these its lower dark substance, in others its 
tipper and lighter material. The analogy extends no farther, for there is 
nothing in our withered fruit to represent the oceans occupying the lower 
parts of the surface or the deposits which they have laid down. 

Keeping in view these general conclusions, let us now turn to their 
bearing on the origin and history of the North Atlantic. 

Though the Atlantic is a deep ocean, its basin does not constitute so 
much a depression of the crust of the earth as a flattening of it, and this, 
as recent soundings have shown, with a slight ridge or elevation along its 
middle, and banks or terraces fringing the edges, so that its form is not 
so much that of a basin as that of a shallow plate with its middle a little 
raised. Its true permanent margins are composed of portions of the over- 
crust folded, ridged up and crushed, as if by lateral pressure emanating 
from the sea itself. We cannot, for example, look at a geological map of 
America without perceiving that the Appalachian ridges, which intervene 
between the Atlantic and the St. Lawrence valley, have been driven 
bodily back by a force acting from the east, and that they have resisted 
this pressure only where, as in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Catskill 
region of New York, they have been protected by outlying masses of very 
old rocks, as, for example, by that of the island of Newfoundland and that 
of the Adirondack Mountains. The admirable work begun by my friend 
and fellow-student Professor James Nicol, followed up by Hicks, Lap- 
worth, and others, and now, after long controversy, fully confirmed by 
the recent observations of the Geological Survey of Scotland, has shown 
ihe most intense action of the same kind on the east side of the ocean in 
the Scottish highlands ; and the more widely distributed Eozoic rocks of 
Scandinavia may be appealed to in further evidence of this.^ 

If we now inquire as to the cause of the Atlantic depression, we 

' Address to the Geological Section, by Prof. Judd, Aberdeen Meeting, 1885. 
According to Kogers, the Crumpling of the Appalachians has reduced a breadth of 
158 miles to about 60. 



ADDRESS. 13 

must go back to a time when the areas occupied by the Atlantic and 
its bounding coasts were parts of a shoreless sea in which the earliest 
gneisses or stratified granites of the Laurentian age were being laid 
down in vastly extended beds. These ancient crystalline rocks have been 
the subject of much discussion and controversy, and as they constitute 
the lowest and probably the firmest part of the Atlantic sea-bed, it is 
necessary to inquire as to their origin and history. Dr. Bonney, past 
President of the Geological Society, in his Anniversary address, and 
Dr. Sterry Hunt, in an elaborate paper communicated to the Royal 
Society of Canada, have ably summed up the hypotheses as to the origin 
of the oldest Laurentian beds. At the basis of these hypotheses lies the- 
admission that the immensely thick beds of orthoclase gneiss, which are 
the oldest stratified rocks known to us, are substantially the same in 
composition with the upper or siliceous magma or layer of the under- 
crust. They are, in short, its materials either in their primitive condition 
or merely rearranged. One theory considers them as original products 
of cooling, owing their lamination merely to the successive stages of the 
process. Another view refers them to the waste and rearrangement of 
the materials of a previously massive granite. Still another holds that all 
our granites really arise from the fusion of old gneisses of originally 
aqueous origin, while a fourth refers the gneisses themselves to molecular 
changes effected in granite by pressure. These several views, in so far 
as they relate to the oldest or fundamental Laurentian gneiss, may be 
arranged under the following heads : (1) Endoplutonic, or that which 
regards all the old gneisses as molten rocks cooled from without inward 
in successive layers.^ (2) I^xoplutonic, or that which considers them as 
made up of matter ejected from below the upper crust in the manner of 
volcanic action.^ (3) Metamorpldc, which supposes the old gneisses to 
arise from the crystallisation of detrital matter spread over the sea-bottom, 
and either igneous or derived from the decay of igneous rocks.^ (4) 
Chaotic or Tliermo-chaotic, or the theory of deposit from the turbid waters 
of a primeval ocean either with or without the aid of heat. In one form 
this was the old theory of Werner.* (5) Crenitic or Hydro-thermic, which 
supposes the action of heated waters penetrating below the crust to be 
constantly bringing up to the surface mineral matters in solution and 
depositing these so as to form felspathic and other rocks.^ 

' Naumann, Phillips, Durocher, McFarlane, <fcc. 
^ Clarence King, Tornebohm, Marr, kc. 
' Lyell, Kopp, Eeusch, Judd, &:c. 

* Scrope, De la Beche, Daubree. 

* Hunt, loo. cit. The following is Dr. Hunt's summary statement of this theory ; 
' The globe consolidating at the centre left, it is conceived, a superficial layer of basic 
silicates, which has yielded all the fixed elements of the earth's crust. This layer 
formed the first land and the floor of the primeval sea, the acid waters of which 
permeating and partially decomposing it, became thereby chemically neuDralised.. 
This last-cooled layer, mechanically disintegrated, saturated with water, and heated 



14 REPORT 1886. 

It will be observed, in regard to these theories, that none of them 
fsnpposes that the old gneiss is an ordinary sediment, but that all regard 
it as formed in exceptional circumstances, these circumstances being the 
absence of land and of sub-aerial decay of rock, and the presence wholly or 
principally of the material of the upper surface of the recently hardened 
crust. This being granted, the question arises, — ought we not to combine 
these several theories, and to believe that the cooling crust has hardened 
in successive layers from without inward ; that at the same time fissures 
were locally discharging igneous matter to the surface ; that matter held 
in suspension in the ocean and matter held in solution by heated waters 
rising from beneath the outer crust were mingling their materials in the 
deposits of the primitive ocean ? It would seem that the combination of 
all these agencies may safely be invoked as causes of the pre-Atlantic 
deposits. This is the eclectic position which I endeavoured to maintain 
in my address before the Minneapolis Meeting of the American Association 
in 1883, and which I still hold to be in every way probable. 

A word here as to metamorphism, a theory which, like many others, has 
been first run to death and then discredited, but which to the moderate de- 
gree in which it was oi-iginally held by Lyell is still valid. Nothing can be 
more certain than that the composition of the Laurentian gneisses forbids 
us to suppose that they can be ordinary sediments metamorphosed. They 
are rocks peculiar in their origin, and not paralleled unless exceptionally 
in later times. On the other hand, they have undoubtedly experienced 
very important changes, more especially as to crystallisation, the state of 
combination of their ingredients, and the development of disseminated 
minerals ; ' and while this may in part be attributed to the mechanical 
pressure to which they have been subjected, it requires also the action of 
hydi'othermic agencies. Any theory which fails to invoke both of these 
Tcinds of force must necessarily be partial and imperfect. 

by the central mass, was the source of mineral springs, holding in solution the silicates 
which built up the ancient gneisses and similar rocks. Granitic veins and zeolites 
are due to survivals of the process which generated the gneissic rocks. The hypo- 
thesis of their formation from materials brought to the surface by mineral springs 
from the primitive basic layer affords, it is claimed, the elements of a complete and 
intelligible exx^lanation of the origin of the Eozoic rocks. This upward lixiviation of 
the primitive mass, and the deposition over it of an acidic granite-like rock, would 
leave belovr a highly basic material, and the division of the mass thus established 
would con-espond to that of the trachytic and doleritic magmas, which have been 
conjectured to be the sources of two great types of eruptive rocks. Inasmuch, how- 
ever, as according to the present hj^pothesis these two layers of basic and acidic 
matters are the results of aqueous action, and not of an original separation in a 
ylntonic mass, as imagined by Phillips and Durocher, their composition would be 
subject to many local variations.' 

' The first of these is what Bonney has called Metastasis. The second and third 
come under the name Metacrasis. Mcthylosis, or change of substance, is altogether 
exceptional, and not to be credited except on the best evidence, or in cases where 
volatile matters have been expelled, as in the change of Hematite into Magnetite, or 
of bituminous coal into anthracite. 



ADDRESS. 15 

Bat all metamorphic rocks are not of the same character with the 
gneisses of the Lower Laurentian. Even in the Middle and Upper Lan- 
rentian we have metamorphic rocks, e.g., quartzite and limestone, which 
must originally have been ordinary aqueous deposits. Still more in 
the succeeding Huronian and its associated series of beds, and in the 
Lower Palfeozoic, local metamorphic change has been undergone by rocks 
quite similar to those which in their unaltered state constitute regular 
sedimentary deposits. In the case of these later rocks it is to be borne 
in mind that, while some may have been of volcanic origin, others may 
have been sediments rich in undecomposed fragments of silicates. It is 
a mistake to suppose that the ordinary decay of stratified siliceous rocks 
is a process of kaolinisation so perfect as to eliminate all alkaline matters. 
On the contrary, the fact, which Judd has recently well illustrated in the 
case of the mud of the Nile, applies to a great number of similar deposits 
in all parts of the world, and shows that the finest sediments have not 
always been so completely lixiviated as to be destitute of the basic matters 
necessary for their conversion into gneiss, mica-schist, and similar rocks 
when the necessary agencies of metamorphism are applied to them 
and this quite independently of any extraneous matters introduced into 
them by water or otherwise. Still it must be steadily kept in view that 
many of the old pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks must have been different 
originally from those succeeding them, and that consequently these last 
even when metamorphosed present different characters. 

I may remark here that, though a palaeontologist rather than a 
lithologist, it gives me great pleasure to find so much attention now given 
in this country to the old crystalline rocks, and to their study micro- 
scopically and chemically as well as in the field, a work in which Sorby 
and Allport were pioneers. Aa a pupil of the late Professor Jameson, 
of Edinburgh, my own attention was early attracted to the study of 
minerals and rocks as the stable foundations of geological science • and 
as far back as 1841 I had learnt of the late Mr. Sanderson, of Edinburo-h 
who worked at Nicol's sections,' how to slice rocks and fossils ; and since 
that time I have been in the habit of examining everything with the 
microscope. The modern developments in this direction are therefore 
very gratifying to me, even though, as is natural, they may sometimes 
appear to be pushed too far or their value over-estimated. 

That these old gneisses were deposited not only in what is now the 
bed of the Atlantic, but also on the great continental areas of America 
and Europe, anyone who considers the wide extent of these rocks repre- 
sented on the map recently published by Professor Hull can readily under- 
stand.2 It is true that Hull supposes that the basin of the Atlantic 
itself may have been land at this time, but there is no evidence of this 
more especially as the material of the gneiss could not have been detritus 
derived from sub-aerial decay of rock. 

' And I believe at Witham's also. = Tratu. Royal Irish Academy. 



16 REPORT— 1886. 

Let us suppose, then, the floor of old ocean covered with a flat pave- 
ment of gneiss, or of that material which is now gneiss, the next question 
is how and when did this original bed become converted into sea and 
land. Here we have some things certain, others most debatable. That 
the cooling mass, especially if it was sending out volumes of softened 
rocky material, either in the exoplutonic or in the crenitic way, and piling 
this on the surface, must soon become too small for its shell, is apparent ; 
but when and where would the collapse, crushing, and wrinkling inevit- 
able from this cause begin ? Where they did begin is indicated by the 
lines of mountain-chains which traverse the Laurentian districts ; but the 
reason why is less apparent. The more or less unequal cooling, harden- 
ing and conductive power of the outer crust we may readily assume. 
The driftage unequally of water-borne detritus to the south-west by the 
bottom currents of the sea is another cause, and, as we shall soon see, most 
effective. Still another is the greater cooling and hardening of the crust 
in the polar regions, and the tendency to collapse of the equatorial pro- 
tuberance from the slackening of the earth's rotation. Besides these the 
internal tides of the earth's substance at the times of solstice would exert 
an oblique pulUng force on the crust, which might tend to crack it along 
diagonal lines. From whichever of these causes or the combination of the 
whole, we know that within the Laurentian time folded portions of the 
earth's crust began to rise above the general surface in broad belts running 
from N.E. to S.W., and from N.W. to S.B., where the older mountains 
of Eastern America and Western Europe now stand, and that the subsi- 
dence of the oceanic areas allowed by this crumpling of the crust permitted 
other areas on both sides of what is now the Atlantic to form limited 
table-lands.' This was the beginning of a process repeated again and again 
in subsequent times, and which began in the Middle Laurentian, when 
for the first time we find beds of quartzite, limestone, and iron ore, and 
graphitic beds, indicating that there was already land and water, and 
that the sea, and perhaps the land, swarmed with animal and plant life 
of forms unknown to us, for the most part, now. Independently of the 
questions as to the animal nature of Eozoon, I hold that we know, as 
certainly as we can know anything inferentially, the existence of these 
primitive forms of life. If I were to conjecture what were the early 
forms of plant and animal life, I would suppose that just as in the 
Palaeozoic the acrogens culminated in gigantic and complex forest trees, 
so in the Laurentian the algae, the lichens, and the mosses grew to 
dimensions and assumed complexity of structure unexampled in later 
times, and that in the sea the humbler forms of Protozoa and Hydrozoa 
were the dominant types, but in gigantic and complex forms. The land 
of this period was probably limited, for the most part, to high latitudes, 

' Daubr6e's curious experiments on the contraction of caoutchouc balloons, partially 
hardened by coating with varnish, shows how small inequalities of the crust, from 
•whatever cause arising, might affect the formation of wrinkles, and also that trans- 
verse as well as longitudinal wrinkling might occur. 



ADDRESS. 1 7 

and its aspect, though more rugged and abrupt, and of greater elevation, 
must have been of that character which we still see in the Lauren- 
tian hills. The distribution of this ancient land is indicated by the 
long lines of old Laurentian rock extending from the Labrador coast 
and the north shore of the St. Lawrence, and along the eastern slopes of 
the Appalachians in America, and the like rocks of the Hebrides, the 
Western Highlands, and the Scandinavian mountains. A small but in- 
teresting remnant is that in the Malvern Hills, so well described by HoU. 
It will be well to note here and to fix on our minds that these ancient 
ridges of Eastern America and Western Europe have been greatly denuded 
and wasted since Laurentian times, and that it is along their eastern 
sides that the greatest sedimentary accumulations have been deposited. 

From this time dates the introduction of that dominance of existing 
causes which forms the basis of uniformitarianism in geology, and which 
had to go on with various and great modifications of detail, through the 
successive stages of the geological history, till the land and water of the 
northern hemisphere attained to their present complex structure. 

So soon as we have a circumpolar belt or patches of Eozoic i land and 
ridges running southward from it, we enter on new and more complicated 
methods of growth of the continents and seas, depending on the new 
conditions established by the elevation of the earliest continents and the 
consequent determination of ocean currents and of sedimentation along 
the continental margins. Portions of the oldest crystalline rocks, raised 
out of the protecting water, were now eroded by atmospheric agents, 
and especially by the carbonic acid, then existing in the atmosphere 
perhaps more abundantly than at present, under whose influence 
the hardest of the gneissic rocks gradually decay. The Arctic lands 
were subjected in addition to the powerful mechanical force of frost 
and thaw. Thus every shower of rain and every swollen stream would 
carry into the sea the products of the waste of land, sorting them into 
fine clays and coarser sands ; and the cold currents which cling to the 
ocean bottom, now determined in their courses, not merely by the 
earth's rotation, but also by the lines of folding on both sides of the 
Atlantic, would carry south-westward, and pile up in marginal banks of 
great thickness, the debris produced from the rapid waste of the land 
already existing in the Arctic regions. The Atlantic, opening widely to 
the north, and having large rivers pouring into it, was especially the 
ocean characterised, as time advanced, by the prevalence of these pheno- 
mena. Thus throughout the geological history it has happened that, while 
the middle of the Atlantic has received merely organic deposits of shells 
of Eoraminifera and similar organisms, and this probably only to a small 
amount, its margins have had piled upon them beds of detritus of immense^ 
thickness. Professor Hall, of Albany, was the first geologist who pointed 
out the vast cosmic importance of these deposits, and that the mountains. 

' Or ArchKan, or pre-Cambrian, if these terms are preferred 
1886. ■ _ 



18 EEPOBT 1886. 

of both sides of the Atlantic owe their origin to these great lines of de- 
position, along with the fact, afterwards more fully insisted on by Rogers, 
that the portions of the crust which received these masses of clebris^ became 
thereby weighted down and softened, and were more liable than other 
parts to lateral crushing.' 

Thus in the later Eozoic and early Palaaozoic times, which succeeded 
the first foldings of the oldest Laurentian, great ridges were thrown up, 
along the edges of which were beds of limestone, and on their summits 
and sides thick masses of ejected igneous rocks. In the bed of the central 
Atlantic there are no such accumulations. It must have been a flat, 
or slightly ridged, plate of the ancient gneiss, hard and resisting, though 
perhaps with a few cracks, through which igneous matter welled up, as 
in Iceland and the Azores in more modern times. In this condition of 
things we have causes tending to perpetuate and extend the distinctions 
of ocean and continent, mountain and plain, already begun; and of these 
we may more especially note the continued subsidence of the areas of 
greatest marine deposition. This has long attracted attention, and affords 
very convincing evidence of the connection of sedimentary deposit as a 
cause with the subsidence of the crust. ^ 

We are indebted to a French physicist, M. Faye,^ for an important 
suggestion on this subject. It is that the sediment accumulated along 
the shores of the ocean presented an obstacle to radiation, and conse- 
quently to cooling of the crust, while the ocean floor, unprotected and 
unweighted, and constantly bathed with currents of cold water, having 
great power of convection of heat, would be more rapidly cooled, and so 
would become thicker and stronger. This suggestion is complementary 
to the theory of Professor Hall, that the areas of greatest deposit on the 

' The connection of accumulation with subsidence was always a familiar con- 
sideration with geologists ; but Hall seems to have been the first to state its true 
significance as a geological factor, and to see that those portions of the crust which 
are weighted down by great detrital accumulations are necessarily those which, in 
succeeding movements, were elevated into mountains. Other American geologists, 
as Dana, Rogers, Hunt, Le Conte, Crosby, &c., have followed up Hall's primary sug- 
gestion, and in England, Hicks, Fisher, Starkie Gardner, Hull, and others, have 
brought it under notice, and it enters into the great generalisations of Lyell on these 
subjects. 

2 Button in Report of U.S. Geological Survey, 1881. From facts stated in this re- 
port and in my Arcadian Geology, it is apparent that in the Western States and in the 
coalfield of Nova Scotia shallow-water deposits have been laid down up to thicknesses 
of 10,000 to 20,000 feet in connection with continuous subsidence. See also a paper 
by Ricketts in the Geol. Mag. 1883. It may be well to add here that this doctrine 
of the subsidence of wide areas being caused by deposition does not justify the con- 
clusion of certain glacialists that snow and ice have exercised a like power in glacial 
periods. In truth, as will appear in the sequel, great accumulations of snow and ice 
require to be preceded by subsidence, and wide continental areas can never be covered 
with deep snow, while of course ice can cause no addition of weight to submerged 
areas. 

^ Revue Scientifique, 1886. 



ADDRESS. 19 

margins of fclie ocean are necessarily those of greatest folding and conse- 
quent elevation. We have thus a hard, thick, resisting ocean-hottom 
which, as it settles down toward the interior, under the influence of 
gravity, squeezes upward and folds and plicates all the soft sediments 
deposited on its edges. The Atlantic area is almost an unbroken cake 
of this kind. The Pacific area has cracked in many places, allowing the 
interior fluid matter to ooze out in volcanic ejections. 

It may be said that all this supposes a permanent continuance of the 
ocean-basins, whereas many geologists postulate a mid- Atlantic continent • 
to give the thick masses of detritus found in the older formations both in 
Eastern America and Western Europe, and which thin ofi" in proceeding 
into the interior of both continents. I prefer, with Hall, to consider these 
belts of sediment as in the main the deposits of northern currents, and de- 
rived from Arctic land, and that like the great banks of the American coast 
at the present day, which are being built up by the present Arctic current, 
they had little to do with any direct drainage from the adjacent shore. 
We need not deny, however, that such ridges of land as existed along the 
Atlantic margins were contributing their quota of river-borne material, 
just as on a still greater scale the Amazon and Mississippi are doing now, 
and this especially on the sides toward the present continental plateaus, 
though the greater part must have been derived from the wide tracts of 
Laurentian land within the Arctic Circle or near to it. It is further 
obvious that the ordinary reasoning respecting the necessity of continental 
areas in the present ocean basins would actually oblige ns to suppose 
that the whole of the oceans and continents had repeatedly changed 
places. This consideration opposes enormous physical difficulties to any 
theory of alternations of the oceanic and continental areas, except locally 
at their margins. I would, however, refer you for a more full discussion of 
these points to the address to be delivered to-morrow by the President of 
the Geological Section. 

But the permanence of the Atlantic depression does not exclude the 
idea of successive submergences of the continental plateaus and marginal 
slopes, alternating with periods of elevation, when the ocean retreated 
from the continents and contracted its limits. In this respect the Atlantic 
of to-day is much smaller than it was in those times when it spread 
widely over the continental plains and slopes, and much larger than it 

' Among American geologists, Dana and Le Conte, though from somewhat differ- 
ent premises, maintain continental permanence. Crosby has argued on the other 
side. In Britain, Hull has elaborated the idea of interchange of oceanic and conti- 
nental areas in his memoir in Trans. Dublin Society, and in his work entitled The 
Physical History of the British Islands. Godwin- Austen argues powerfully for the 
permanence of the Atlantic basin, Q. J. Geol. Society, vol. xii. p. 42. Mellard 
Eeade ably advocates the theory of mutation. The two views require, in my judg- 
ment, to be combined. More especially it is necessary to take into account the 
existence of an Atlantic ridge of Laurentian rock on the west side of Europe, of 
which the Hebrides and the oldest rocks of Wales, Ireland, Western France, and 
Portugal are remnants. 

c2 



20 REPORT— 1886. 

has been in times of continental elevation. This leads us to the further 
consideration that, -while the ocean-beds have been sinking, other areas have 
been better supported, and constitute the continental plateaus ; and that 
it has been at or near the junctions of these sinking and rising areas that 
the thickest deposits of detritus, the most extensive foldings, and the 
greatest ejections of volcanic matter have occurred. There has thus been 
a permanence of the position of the continents and oceans throughout 
geological time, but with many oscillations of these areas, producing 
submergences and emergences of the land. In this way we can reconcile 
the vast vicissitudes of the continental areas in difiFerent geological 
periods with that continuity of development from north to south, and 
from the interiors to the margins, which is so marked a feature. We 
have for this reason to foi-mulate another apparent geological paradox, 
namely, that while in one sense the continental and oceanic areas are 
permanent, in another they have been in continual movement. Nor does 
this view exclude extension of the continental borders or of chains of 
islands beyond their present limits, at certain periods ; and indeed the 
general principle already stated, that subsidence of the ocean-bed has 
produced elevation of the land, implies in earlier periods a shallower ocean 
and many possibilities as to volcanic islands, and low continental margins 
creeping out into the sea ; while it is also to be noted that there are, 
as already stated, bordering shelves, constituting shallows in the ocean, 
which at certain periods have emerged as land. 

We are thus compelled to believe in the contemporaneous existence 
in all geological periods, except perhaps the earliest of them, of three 
distinct conditions of areas on the surface of the earth. (1) Oceanic 
areas of deep sea, which always continued to occupy in whole or in part 
the bed of the present ocean. (2) Continental plateaus and marginal 
shelves, existing as low flats or higher table-lands liable to periodical 
submergence and emergence. (3) Lines of plication and folding, more 
especially along the borders of the oceans, forming elevated portions of 
land, rarely altogether submerged and constantly affording the material 
of sedimentary accumulations, while they were also the seats of powerful 
volcanic ejections. 

In the successive geological periods the continental plateaus when 
submerged, owing to their vast extent of warm and shallow sea, have 
been the great theatres of the development of marine life and of the de- 
position of organic limestones, and when elevated they have furnished 
the abodes of the noblest land faunas and floras. The mountain belts, 
especially in the north, have been the refuge and stronghold of land life 
in periods of submergence, and the. deep ocean basins have been the 
perennial abodes of pelagic and abyssal creatures, and the refuge of mul- 
titudes of other marine animals and plants in tim.e3 of continental eleva- 
tion. These general facts are full of importance with reference to the 
question of the succession of formations and of life in the geological history 
of the earth. 



ADDRESS. 



21 



So much time has heen occupied with these general views that it 
would be impossible to trace the history of the Atlantic in detail through 
the ages of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary. We may, however, 
shortly glance at tbe changes of the three kinds of surface already re- 
ferred to. The bed of the ocean seems to have remained on the whole 
abyssal, but there were probably periods when those shallow reaches of 
the Atlantic which stretch across its most northern portion, and partly 
separate it from the Arctic basin, presented connecting coasts or con- 
tinuous chains of islands sufficient to permit animals and plants to pass 
over.' At certain periods also there were not unlikely groups of volcanic 
islands, like the Azores, in the temperate or tropical Atlantic. More espe- 
cially might this be the case in that early time when it was more like 
the present Pacific ; and the line of the great volcanic belt of the Mediter- 
ranean, the mid-Atlantic banks, the Azores, and the West India Islands 
point to the possibility of such partial connections. These were stepping- 
stones, so to speak, over which land organisms might cross, and some of 
these may be connected with the fabulous or prehistoric Atlantis.^ 

In the Cambrian and Ordovician periods the distinctions, already 
referred to, into continental plateaus, mountain ridges, and ocean depths 
were first developed, and we find already great masses of sediment accu- 
mulating on the seaward sides of the old Laurentian ridges, and internal 
deposits thinning away from these ridges over the submerged continental 
areas, and presenting very dissimilar conditions of sedimentation. It 
would seem also that, as Hicks has argued for Europe, and Logan and 
Hall for America, this Cambrian age was one of slow subsidence of the 
land previously elevated, accompanied with or caused by thick deposits of 
detritus along the borders of the subsiding land, which was pi'obably 
covered with the decomposing rock arising from long ages of sub-aerial 
waste. 

In the coal-formation age, its characteristic swampy flats stretched in 
some places far into the shallower parts of the ocean.^ In the Permian 
the great plicated mountain margins were fully developed on both sides 
of the Atlantic. In the Jurassic the American continent probably ex- 
tended further to sea than at present. In the Wealden age there 
was much land to the west and north of Great Britain, and Professor 

' It would seem, from Geikie's description of the Faroe Islands, that they may be 
a remnant of such connecting land, dating from the Cretaceous or Eocene period. 

''■ Dr. Wilson has recently argued that the Atlantis of tradition was really America, 
and Mr. Hyde Clarke has associated this idea with the early dominance in Western 
Europe of the Iberian race, which Dawkins connects with the Neolithic and Bronze 
ages of archaeology. My own attention has recently been directed, through specimens 
presented to the McGill College Museum, to the remarkable resemblances, iu cranial 
characters, wampum, and other particulars, of the Guanches of the Canaries with 
the aborigines of Eastern America — resemblances which cannot be accidental. 

* I have shown the evidence of this in the remnants of Carboniferous districts 
once more extensive on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton {^Arcadian 
Geology). 



22 BEPOBT— 1886. 

Bonney has directed attention to the evidence of the existence of 
this land as far back as the Trias, while Mr. Starkie Gardner has 
insisted on connecting links to the sonthward as evidenced by fossil 
plants. So late as the Post-Glacial, or early human period, large tracts 
now submerged formed portions of the continents. On the other 
hand the internal plains of America and Europe were often submerged. 
Such submergences are indicated by the great limestones of the Paleo- 
zoic, by the chalk and its representative beds in the Cretaceous, by the 
Nummulitic formation in the Eocene, and lastly by the great Pleistocene 
submergence, one of the most remarkable of all, one in which nearl}^ the 
whole northern hemisphere participated, and which was probably sepa- 
rated from the present time by only a few thousands of years.' These 
submergences and elevations were not always alike on the two sides of 
the Atlantic. The Salina period of the Silurian, for example, and the 
Jurassic, show continental elevation in America not shared by Europe. 
The great subsidences of the Cretaceous and the Eocene wei'e proportion- 
ally deeper and wider on the eastern continent, and this and the direction 
of the land being from north to south cause more ancient forms of life to 
survive in America. These elevations and submergences of the plateaus 
alternated with the periods of mountain-making plication, which was 
going on at intervals at the close of the Eozoic, at the beginning of the 
Cambrian, at the close of the Siluro-Cambrian, in the Permian, and in 
Europe and Western America in the Tertiary. The series of changes, 
however, affecting all these areas was of a highly complex character, and 
embraces the whole physical history of the geological ages. 

We may note here that the unconformities caused by these move- 
ments and by subsequent denudation constitute what Le Conte has called 
' lost intervals,' one of the most important of which is supposed to have 
occurred at the end of the Eozoic. It is to be observed, however, that as 
every such movement is followed by a gradual subsidence, the seeming 
loss is caused merely by the overlapping of the successive beds deposited. 
We may also note a fact which I have long ago insisted on,^ the regn- 
lar pulsations of the continental areas, giving us alternations in each 
great system of formations of deep-sea and shallow- water beds, so that 
the successive groups of formations may be divided into triplets of shal- 
low-water, deep-water, and shallow-water strata, alternating in each 
period. This law of succession applies more particularly to the forma- 
tions of the continental plateaus, rather than to those of the ocean margins, 
and it shows that, intervening between the great movements of plication, 
there were subsidences of those plateaus, or elevations of the sea-bottom, 

' The recent surveys of the Falls of Niagara coincide with a great many evidences 
to which I have elsewhere referred in proving that the Pleistocene submergence of 
America and Europe came to an end not more than ten thousand years ago, and was 
itself not of very great duration. Thus in Pleistocene times the land must have been 
submerged and re-elevated in a very rapid manner 

* Arcadian Geology, 1865. 



ADDRESS. 23 

whicli allowed the waters to spread tbemselves over all the inland spaces 
between the great folded mountain ranges. 

In referring to the ocean basins we should bear in mind that there are 
three of these in the northern hemisphere — the Arctic, the Pacific, and 
the Atlantic. De Ranee has ably summed up in a series of articles pub- 
hshed in ' Nature ' the known facts as to Arctic geology, and I have 
myself been favoured with opportunities to study many of the collections 
brought home by the Arctic voyagers, and which are of much interest 
when viewed in connection with Canadian geology. From these sources 
we learn that this area presents from without inwards a succession of 
older and newer formations from the Eozoic to the Tertiary, and that 
its extent must have been greater in former periods than at present, 
while it must have enjoyed a comparatively warm climate. The relations 
of its deposits and fossils are closer with those of the Atlantic than with 
those of the Pacific, as might be anticipated from its wider opening into 
the former. Blanford has recently remarked on the correspondence of 
the marginal deposits around the Pacific and Indian oceans,' and Dr. 
Dawson informs me that this is equally marked in comparison with the 
west coast of America,^ but these marginal areas have not yet gained much 
on the ocean. In the North Atlantic, on the other hand, there is a wide belt 
of comparatively modern rocks on both sides, more especially toward the 
south, and on the American side ; but while there appears to be a perfect 
correspondence on both sides of the Atlantic, and around the Pacific 
respectively, there seems to be less parallelism between the deposits and 
forms of life of the two oceans as compared with each other, and less 
correspondence in forms of life, especially in modern times. Still in the 
earlier geological ages, as might have been anticipated from the imper- 
fect development of the continents, the same forms of life characterise 
the whole ocean from Australia to Arctic America, and indicate a grand 
unity of Pacific and Atlantic life not equalled in later times,^ and which 
speaks of contemporaneity rather than of what has been termed homo- 
taxis. 

We may pause here for a moment to notice some of the efiiects of 

* A singular example is the recurrence in New Zealand of Triassic rocks and fossils 
of types corresponding to those of British Columbia. A curious modern analogy 
appears in the works of art of the Maoris with those of the Haida Indians of the 
Queen Charlotte Islands, and both are eminently Pacific in contradistinction to 
Atlantic. 

- Journal of Geological Socitty, May 1886. Blanford's statements respecting the 
mechanical deposits of the close of the Palseozoic in the Indian Ocean, whether these 
are glacial or not, would seem to show a correspondence with the Permian conglome- 
rates and earth-movements of the Atlantic area ; but since that time the Atlantic 
has enjoyed comparative repose. The Pacific also seems to have reproduced the 
conditions of the Carboniferous in the Cretaceous age, and seems to have been less 
affected by the great changes of the Pleistocene. 

' Daintree and Etheridge, ' Queensland Geology,' Journal Geological Society, ka^st 
1872 ; R. Etheridge, Junior, ' Australian Fossils,' Trans. Phys. Soc. Edhi., 1880. 



24 REPORT — 1886. 

Atlantic growth on modern geography. It has given na rugged and 
broken shores composed of old rocks in the north, and newer formations 
and softer features toward the south. It has given us marginal moun- 
tain ridges and internal plateaus on both sides of the sea. It has pro- 
duced certain curious and by no means accidental correspondences of the 
eastern and western sides. Thus the solid basis on which the British 
Islands stand may be compared with Newfoundland and Labrador, the 
English Channel with the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Bay of Biscay with 
the Bay of Maine, Spain with the projection of the American land at 
Cape Hatteras, the Mediterranean with the Gulf of Mexico. The special 
conditions of deposition and plication necessary to these results, and their 
bearing on the character and productions of the Atlantic basin, would 
require a volume for their detailed elucidation. 

Thus far our discussion has been limited almost entirely to physical 
causes and effects. If we now turn to the life-history of the Atlantic, 
we are met at the threshold with the question of climate, not as a thing 
fixed and immutable, but as changing from age to age in harmony with 
geographical mutations, and producing long cosmic summers and winters 
of alternate warmth and refrigeration. 

"We can scarcely doubt that the close connection of the Atlantic and 
Arctic oceans is one factor in those remarkable vicissitudes of climate ex- 
perienced by the former, and in which the Pacific area has also shared in 
connection with the Antarctic Sea. No geological facts are indeed at first 
sight more strange and inexplicable than the changes of climate in the 
Atlantic area, even in comparatively modem periods. We know that in 
the early Tertiary perpetual summer reigned as far north as the middle 
of Greenland, and that in the Pleistocene the arctic cold advanced, until 
an almost perennial winter prevailed, half-way to the equator. It is no 
wonder that nearly every cause available in the heavens and the earth has 
been invoked to account for these astounding facts. 

It will, I hope, meet with the approval of your veteran glaciologist 
Dr. Crosskey, if, neglecting most of these theoretical views, I venture 
to invite your attention in connection with this question chiefly to the old 
Lyellian doctrine of the modification of climate by geographical changes. 
Let us, at least, consider how much these are able to account for.' 

' The late Mr. Searles V. Wood, in an able summary of the possible causes of the 
succession of cold and warm climates in the northern hemisphere, enumerates no 
fewer than seven theories which have met with more or less acceptance. These are :^ 

1. The gradual cooling of the earth from a condition of original incandescence. 

2. Changes in the obliquity of the ecliptic. 

3. Changes in the position of the earth's axis of rotation. 

4. The effect of the precession of the equinoxes along with changes of the eccen- 
tricity of the earth's orbit. 

5. Variations in the amount of heat given ofE by the sun. 

6. Differences in the temperature of portions of space passed through by the earth. 

7. Differences in the distribution of land and water in connection with the flow 
of oceanic currents. 



ADDRESS. 25 

The ocean is a great equaliser of extremes of temperature. It does 
ithis by its great capacity for heat and by its cooling and heating power 
■when passing from the solid into the liquid and gaseous states, and the 
reverse. It also acts by its mobility, its currents serving to convey heat 
to great distances or to cool the air by the movement of cold icy waters. 
The land, on the other hand, cools or warms rapidly, and can transmit its 
influence to a distance only by the winds, and tbe influence so transmitted 
is rather in the nature of a disturbing than of an equalising cause. It 
follows that any change in the distribution of land and water must affect 
climate, more especially if it changes the character or course of the ocean 
currents.' 

At the present time the North Atlantic presents some very peculiar 
and in some respects exceptional features, which are most instructive with 
reference to its past history. The great internal plateau of the American 
continent is now dry land ; the passage across Central America between 
the Atlantic and the Pacific is blocked ; the Atlantic opens very widely to 
the north ; the high mass of Greenland towers in its northern part. The 
effects are that the great equatorial current running across from Africa and 
embayed in the Gulf of Mexico, is thrown northward and eastward in the 
Gulf Stream, acting as a hot- water apparatus to heat up to an exceptional 
degree the western coast of Europe. On the otber hand, the cold Arctic 
current from the polar seas is thrown to the westward, and runs down 
from Greenland past the American shore. ^ The pilot chart for June of 
this year shows vast fields of drift ice on the western side of the Atlantic 
as far south as the latitude of 40°. So far, therefore, the Glacial age in that 
part of the Atlantic still extends ; and this at a time when, on the eastern 
side of the Ocean, the culture of cereals reaches in Norway beyond the 
Arctic Circle. Let us inquire into some of the details of these phenomena. 

The warm water thrown into the North Atlantic not only increases the 
temperature of the whole of its water, but gives an exceptionally mild 
•climate to Western Europe. Still the countervailing influence of the 
Arctic currents and the Greenland ice is sufficient to permit icebergs 
which creep down to the mouth of the Strait of Belle Isle, in the latitude 
•of the south of England, to remain unmelted till the snows of a succeed- 
ing winter fall upon them. Now let us suppose that a subsidence of land 
m tropical America were to allow the equatorial current to pass through 
into the Pacific. The efiect would at once be to reduce the temperature 
of Norway and Britain to that of Greenland and Labrador at present, 
■while the latter countries would themselves become colder. The northern 
ice, drifting down into the Atlantic, would not, as now, be melted rapidly 
by the warm water which it meets in the Gulf Stream. Much larger 

Von WcBickofE has very strongly put these principles in a review of CroU's 
Jecent book, Climate and Cosmology; American Journal of Science, March 1886. 

* I may refer here to the admirable expositions of these effects by the late 
Dr. Carpenter, in his papers on the results of the explorations of the Challenger. 



26 BEPORT — 1886. 

quantities of it would remain undissolved in summer, and thus an accu- 
mulation of permanent ice would take place, along the American coast 
at first, but probably at length even on the European side. This would 
still further chill the atmosphere, glaciers would be established on all the 
mountains of temperate Europe and America,' the summer would be kept 
cold by melting ice and snow, and at length all Eastern America and 
Europe might become uninhabitable, except by arctic animals and plants, 
as far south as perhaps 40° of north latitude. This would be simply a 
return of the Glacial age. I have assumed only one geographical change ; 
but other and more complete changes of subsidence and elevation might 
take place, with effects on climate still more decisive ; more especially 
would this be the case if there were a considerable submergence of the 
land in temperate latitudes. 

We may suppose an opposite case. The high plateau of Greenland 
might subside or be reduced in height, and the openings of Baffin's Bay 
and the North Atlantic might be closed. At the same time the interior 
plain of America might be depressed, so that, as we know to have been 
the case in the Cretaceous period, the warm waters of the Mexican Gulf 
would circulate as far north as the basins of the present great American 
lakes. In these circumstances there would be an immense diminution of 
the sources of floating ice, and a correspondingly vast increase in the 
surface of warm water. The effects would be to enable a temperate flora 
to subsist in Greenland, and to bring all the present temperate regions 
of Europe and America into a condition of subtropical verdure. 

It is only necessary to add that we know that vicissitudes not dis- 
similar from those above sketched have actually occurred in compara- 
tively recent geological times, to enable us to perceive that we can dis- 
pense with all other causes of change of climate, though admitting that 
some of them may have occupied a secondary place. ^ This will give us, 
in dealing with the distribution of life, the great advantage of not being 
tied up to definite astronomical cycles of glaciation, which may not 
always suit the geological facts, and of correlating elevation and sub- 
sidence of the land with changes of climate affecting living beings. It will, 
however, be necessary, as Wallace well insists, that we shall hold to that 
degree of fixity of the continents in their position, notwithstanding the 
submergences and emergences they have experienced, to which I have 
already adverted. Sir Charles Lyell, more than forty years ago, pub- 
lished in his ' Principles of Geology ' two imaginary maps which illus- 
trate the extreme effects of various distribution of land and water. In 
one all the continental masses are grouped around the equator. In the 

* According to Bonney, the west coast ofWales is about 12° above the average for 
its latitude, and if reduced to 12° below the average its mountains would have large 
glaciers. 

- More especially the ingenious and elaborate arguments of Croll deserve con- 
sideration ; and, though I cannot agree with him in his main thesis, I gladly acknow- 
ledge the great utility of the work he has done. 



ADDBESS. 27" 

other they are all placed around the poles, leaving an open equatorial 
ocean. In the one case the whole of the land and its inhabitants would 
enjoy a perpetual summer, and scarcely any ice could exist in the sea. 
In the other the whole of the land would be subjected to an arctic climate, 
and it would give off immense quantities of ice to cool the ocean. But 
Lyell did not suppose that any such distribution as that represented in 
his maps had actually occurred, though this supposition has been some- 
times attributed to him. He merely put what he regarded as an extreme 
case to illustrate what might occur under conditions less exaggerated. 
Sir Charles, like other thoughtful geologists, was well aware of the 
general fixity of the areas of the continents, though with great modifica- 
tions in the matter of submergence and of land conditions. The union, 
indeed, of these two gi-eat principles of fixity and diversity of the con- 
tinents lies at the foundation of theoretical geology. 

We can now more precisely indicate this than was possible when Lyell 
produced his ' Principles,' and can reproduce the conditions of our con- 
tinents in even the more ancient periods of their history. Some examples 
may be taken from the history of the American continent, which is more 
simple in its arrangements than the double continent of Europ-asia. 
We may select the early Devonian or Brian period, in which the magni- 
ficent flora of that age — the earliest certainly known to us — made its 
appearance. Imagine the whole interior plain of North America sub- 
merged, so that the continent is reduced to two strips on the east and 
west, connected by a belt of Laurentian land on the north. In the great 
mediterranean sea thus produced the tepid water of the equatorial current 
circulated, and it swarmed with corals, of which we know no less than 
one hundred and fifty species, and with other forms of life appropriate 
to warm seas. On the islands and coasts of this sea was introduced 
the Erian flora, appearing first in the north, and with that vitality and 
colonising power of which, as Hooker has well shown, the Scandinavian 
flora is the best modern type, spreading itself to the south. • A very simi- 
lar distribution of land and water in the Cretaceous age gave a warm and 
equable climate in those portions of North America not submerged, and 
coincided with the appearance of the multitude of broad-leaved trees of 
modern types introduced in the early and middle Cretaceous, and which 
prepared the way for the mammalian life of the Eocene. We may take 
a still later instance from the second continental period of the later Pleisto- 
cene or early Modern, when there would seem to have been a partial or 
entire closure of the North Atlantic against the Arctic ice, and wide exten- 
sions seaward of the European and American land, with possibly consider- 
able tracts of land in the vicinity of the equator, while the Mediterranean 

• As I have elsewhere endeavoured to show (^Report on Sihirian and Devonian 
Plants of Canada), a warm climate in the Arctic region seems to have afforded the 
necessary conditions for the great colonising floras of all geological periods. Gray 
had previously illustrated the same fact in the case of the more modern floras. 



28 REPORT— 1886. 

and the Gulf of Mexico were deep inland lakes.' The eflfect of such 
conditions on the climates of the northern hemisphere must have been 
prodigious, and their investigation is rendered all the more interesting 
because it would seem that this continental period of the post- Glacial age 
was that in which man made his first acquaintance with the coasts of the 
Atlantic, and possibly made his way across its waters. 

We have in America ancient periods of cold as well as of warmth. I 
have elsewhere referred to the boulder conglomerates of the Huronian, 
of the Cambrian and Ordovician, of the Millstone-grit period of the Car- 
boniferous and of the early Permian ; but would not venture to aflBrm 
that either of these periods was comparable in its cold with the later 
glacial age, still less with that imaginary age of continental glaciation 
assumed by certain of the more extreme theorists.^ These ancient con- 
glomerates were probably produced by floating ice, and this at periods 
when in areas not very remote temperate floras and faunas could flourish. 
The glacial periods of our old continent occurred in times when the 
surface of the submerged land was opened up to the northern currents, 
drifting over it mud and sand and stones, and rendering nugatory, in 
so far at least as the bottom of the sea was concerned, the effects of the 
superficial warm streams. Some of these beds are also peculiar to the 
eastern margin of the continent, and indicate ice-drift along the Atlantic 
coast in the same manner as at present, while conditions of greater 
warmth existed in the interior. Even in the more recent Glacial age, 
while the mountains were covered with snow and the lowlands sub- 
merged under a sea laden with ice, there were interior tracts in some- 
what high latitudes of America in which hardy forest trees and her- 
baceous plants flourished abundantly ; and these wei'e by no means 
exceptional ' interglacial ' periods. Thus we can show that while from 
the remote Huronian period to the Tertiary the American land occupied 
the same position as at present, and while its changes were merely 
changes of relative level as compared with the sea, these have so in- 
fluenced the ocean currents as to cause great vicissitudes of climate. 

"Without entering on any detailed discussion of that last and greatest 
Glacial period which is best known to us, and is more immediately con- 
nected with the early history of man and the modern animals, it may be 
proper to make a few general statements bearing on the relative import- 
ance of sea-borne and land ice in producing those remarkable phenomena 
attributable to ice action in this period. In considering this question it 
must be borne in mind that the greater masses of floating ice are pro- 
duced at the seaward extremities of land glaciers, and that the heavy 
field-ice of the Arctic regions is not so much a result of the direct freez- 
ing of the surface of the sea as of the accumulation of snow precipitated 

' Dawkins, Popular Science Monthly, 1873. 

2 Notes on Post-Pliocene of Canada. Hicks, ' Pre-Cambrian Glaciers,' Geol. Mag., 
1880. 



ADDRESS. 29 

on the frozen surface. In reasoning on the extent of ice action, and 
especially of glaciers in the Pleistocene age, it is necessary to keep thia 
fully in view. Now in the formation of glaciers at present — and it 
would seem also in any conceivable former state of the earth — it is neces- 
sary that extensive evaporation should conspire with great condensation 
of water in the solid form. Such conditions exist in mountainous 
regions sufficiently near to the sea, as in Greenland, Norway, the Alps, and 
the Himalayas ; but they do not exist in low arctic lands like Siberia or 
Grinnel-land nor in inland mountains. It follows that land glaciation 
has narrow limits, and that we cannot assume the possibility of great 
confluent or continental glaciers covering the interior of wide tracts of 
land. No imaginable increase of cold could render this possible, inas- 
much as there could not be a sufficient influx of vapour to produce the 
necessary condensation ; and the greater the cold, the less would be the 
evaporation. On the other hand, any increase of heat would be felt 
more rapidly in the thawing and evaporation of land ice and snow than 
on the surface of the sea. 

Applying these very simple geographical truths to the North Atlantic 
continents, it is easy to perceive that no amount of refrigeration could 
produce a continental glacier, because there could not be sufficient eva- 
poration and precipitation to afford the necessary snow in the interior. 
The case of Greenland is often referred to, but this is the case of a high 
mass of cold land with sea, mostly open, on both sides of it, giving, there- 
fore, the conditions most favourable to precipitation of snow. If Green- 
laud were less elevated, or if there were dry plains around it, the case 
would be quite different, as Nares has well shown by his observations on 
the summer verdure of Grinnel-land, which, in the immediate vicinity of 
North Greenland, presents very different conditions as to glaciation and 
climate.' If the plains were submerged, and the Arctic currents allowed 
free access to the interior of the continent of America, it is conceivable 
that the mountainous regions remaining out of water would be covered with 
snow and ice, and there is the best evidence that this actually occurred 
in the Glacial period ; but with the plains out of water this would be im- 
possible.* We see evidence of this at the present day in the fact that in 
unusually cold winters the great precipitation of snow takes place south of 
Canada, leaving the north comparatively bare, while as the temperature 
becomes milder the area of snow-deposit moves farther to the north. 
Thus a greater extension of the Atlantic, and especially of its cold ice- 
laden arctic currents, becomes the most potent cause of a glacial age. 

I have long maintained these conclusions on general geographical 
grounds, as well as on the evidence afforded by the Pleistocene deposits of 
Canada; and in an address the theme of which is the ocean I may be excused 
for continuing to regard the supposed terminal moraines of great continental 

' These views have been admirably illustrated by Von Wceickoff in the paper 
already referred to and in previous geographical papers. 



30 BEPOET— 1886. 

glaciers as nothing but the southern limit of the ice-drift of a period of 
submergence. In such a period the southern margin of an ice-laden sea 
where its floe-ice and bergs grounded, or where its ice was rapidly melted 
by warmer water, and where consequently its burden of boulders and other 
debris was deposited, would necessarily present the aspect of a moraine, 
which by the long continuance of such conditions might assume gigantic 
dimensions. Let it be observed, however, that I fully admit the evidence of 
the great extension of local glaciers in the Pleistocene age, and especially 
in the times of partial submergence of the land. 

I am quite aware that it has been held by many able American 
geologists ^ that in North America a continental glacier extended in tem- 
perate latitudes from sea to sea, or at least from the Atlantic to the 
Rocky Mountains, and that this glacier must, in many places, have 
exceeded a mUe in thickness. The reasons above stated appear, however, 
sufficient to compel us to seek for some other explanation of the observed 
facts, however difficult this may at first sight appear. With a depression 
such as we know to have existed, admitting the Arctic currents along the 
St. Lawrence Valley, through gaps in the Laurentian watershed, and 
down the great plains between the Laurentian areas and the Rocky 
Mountains, we can easily understand the covering of the hills of Eastern 
Canada and New England with ice and snow, and a similar covering of 
the mountains of the west coast. The sea also in this case might be 
ice-laden and boulder-bearing as far south as 40°, while there might still be 
low islands far to the north on which vegetation and animals continued 
to exist. We should thus have the conditions necessary to explain all the 
anomalies of the glacial deposits. Even the glaciation of high mountains 
south of the St. Lawrence Valley would then become explicable by the 
grounding of floe-ice on the tops of these mountains when reefs in the sea. 
In like manner we can understand how on the isolated ti'appean hill of 
Beloeil, in the St. Lawrence Valley, Laurentian boulders far removed from 
their native seats to the north are perched at a height of about 1,200 feet 
on a narrow peak where no glacier could possibly have left them. The 
so-called moraine, traceable from the great Missouri Coteau in the west, to 
the coasts of New Jersey, would thus become the mark of the«western 
and southern limit of the subsidence, or of the line along which the cold 
currents bearing ice were abruptly cut ofi" by warm surface waters. I 
am glad to find that these considerations are beginning to have weight 
with European geologists in their explanation of the glacial drift of the 
great plains of Northern Europe. 

Whatever difiiculties may attend such a supposition, they are small 
compared with those attendant on the belief of a continental glacier, 
moving withont the aid of gravity, and depending for its material on the 
precipitation taking place on the interior plains of a great continent. 

' Report of Mr. Carvill Lewis in Penmylvania Geological Survey, 1884; also 
Dana's Manual. 



ADDEESS. 31 

I have elsewhere endeavoured to show, on the evidence found in Canada, 
that the occurrence of marine shells, land plants, and insects in the glacial 
deposits of that country indicates not so much the effect of general 
interglacial periods as the local existence of conditions like those of 
Grinnel-land and Greenland, in proximity to each other at one and the 
same period, and depending on the relative levels of land and the distribu- 
tion of ocean currents and ice-drift.' 

I am old enough to remember the sensation caused by the delightful 
revelations of Edward Forbes respecting the zones of animal life in the 
sea, and the vast insight which they gave into the significance of the 
work on minute organisms previously done by Ehrenberg, Lonsdale, and 
Williamson, and into the meaning of fossil remains. A little later the 
soundings for the Atlantic cable revealed the chalky foraminiferal ooze of 
the abyssal ocean ; still more recently the wealth of facts disclosed by the 
Challenger voyage, which naturalists have not yet had time to digest, 
have opened up to us new worlds of deep-sea life. 

The bed of the deep Atlantic is covered for the most part by a mud 
or ooze largely made up of the debris of foraminifera and other minute 
organisms mixed with fine clay. In the North Atlantic the Norwegian 
naturalists call this the Biloculina mud. Further south the Challenger 
naturalists speak of it as Globigerina ooze. In point of fact it contains 
different species of foraminiferal shells, Globigerina and Orbulina being 
in some localities dominant, and in others other species, and these changes 
are more apparent in the shallower portions of the ocean. 

On the other hand there are means for disseminating coarse material 
over parts of the ocean-bed. There are in the line of the Arctic current 
on the American coast great sand-banks, and off the coast of Norway 
sand constitutes a considerable part of the bottom material. Soundings 
and dredgings off Great Britain, and also off the American coast, have 
shown that fragments of stone referable to Arctic lands are abundantly 
strewn over the bottom along certain lines, and the Antarctic continent, 
otherwise almost unknown, makes its presence felt to the dredge by the 
abundant masses of crystalline rock drifted far from it to the north. 
These are not altogether new discoveries. I had inferred many years ago, 
from stones taken up by the hooks of fishermen on the banks of New- 
foundland, that rocky material from the north is dropped on these banks 
by the heavy ice which drifts over them every spring, that these stones 
are glaciated, and that after they fall to the bottom sand is drifted over them 
with sufl&cient velocity to polish the stones and to erode the shelly cover- 
ings of Arctic animals attached to them.^ If then the Atlantic basin 
were upheaved into land we should see beds of sand, gravel, and boulders 
with clay flats and layers of marl and limestone. According to the 

' Notes on Post-Pliocene of Canada, 1872. One well-marked interval only has been 
established in the glacial deposits of Canada. 
" Notes on Post-Pliocene of Canada, 1872. 



32 EEPORT— 1886. 

Challenger Reports, in tlie Antarctic seas S. of 64° there is blue mud with 
fragments of rock in depths of 1,200 to 2,000 fathoms. The stones, some' 
of them glaciated, were granite, diorite, amphibolite, mica schist, gneiss, 
and quartzite. This deposit ceases and gives place to Globigerina ooze 
and red clay at 46° to 47° S., but even further north there is sometimes 
as much as 49 per cent, of crystalline sand. In the Labrador current a 
block of syenite weighing 490 lbs. was taken up from 1,340 fathoms, and 
in the Arctic current 100 miles from land was a stony deposit, some stones 
being glaciated. Among these were smoky quartz, quartzite, limestone, 
dolomite, mica schist, and serpentine ; also particles of monoclinic and 
triclinic felspar, hornblende, augite, magnetite, mica, and glauconite, the 
latter no doubt formed in the sea-bottom, the others drifted from Bozoic 
and Palaeozoic formations to the north.' 

A remarkable fact in this connection is that the great depths of the 
sea are as impassable to the majority of marine animals as the land itself. 
According to Murray, while twelve of the Challenger's dredgings taken 
in depths greater than 2,000 fathoms gave 92 species, mostly new to 
science, a similar number of dredgings in shallower water near the land 
gave no less than 1,000 species. Hence arises another apparent paradox 
relating to the distribution of organic beings. While at first sight it 
might seem that the chances of wide distribution are exceptionally great 
for marine species, this is not so. Except in the case of those which 
enjoy a period of free locomotion when young, or are floating and pelagic, 
the deep ocean sets bounds to their migrations. On the other hand the 
spores of cryptogamic plants may be carried for vast distances by the 
wind, and the growth of volcanic islands may effect connections which, 
though only temporary, may afford opportunity for land animals and 
plants to pass over. 

With reference to the transmission of living beings across the Atlantic, 
we have before us the remarkable fact that from the Cambrian age on- 
wards there were on the two sides of the ocean many species of inver- 
tebrate animals which were either identical or so closely allied as to be 
possibly varietal forms. ^ In like manner the early plants of the Upper 
Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous present many identical species ; but 
this identity becomes less marked in the vegetation of the more modei'n 
times. Even in the latter, however, there are remarkable connections 
between the floras of oceanic islands and the continents, which establish 
this conclusively. Thus the Bermudas, altogether recent islands, have 
been stocked by the agency chiefly of the ocean currents and of birds, 
with nearly 160 species of continental plants, and the facts collected 
by Helmsley as to the present facilities of transmission, along with the 
evidence afforded by older oceanic islands which have been receiving 

■ General Rejyort, ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

2 See Davidson's Monographs on Brachiopods ; 'Etheridge., Address to Geological 
Society of London; Woodward, Address to Geologists' Association; also Barrande's 



^ ADDRESS. 33 

animal and vegetable colonists for longer periods, go far to show that, 
time being given, the sea actually affords facilities for the migration of the 
inhabitants of the land, comparable with those of continuous continents. 

In so far as plants are concerned, it is to be observed that the early 
forests were largely composed of cryptogamous plants, and the spores of 
these in modern times have proved capable of transmission for great 
distances. In considering this we cannot fail to conclude that the union of 
simple cryptogamous fructification with arboreal stems of high complexity, 
so well illustrated by Dr. Williamson, had a direct relation to the neces- 
sity for a rapid and wide distribution of these ancient trees. It seems 
also certain that some spores, as, for example, those of the Rhizocarps,' 
a type of vegetation abundant in the Palaeozoic, and certain kinds of 
seeds, as those named ^theotesta and PacJnjtheca, were fitted for flotation. 
Farther, the periods of Arctic warmth permitted the passage around the 
northern belt of many temperate species of plants, just as now happens 
with the Arctic flora; and when these were dispersed by colder periods they 
marched southward along both sides of the sea on the mountain chains. 

The same remark applies to northern forms of marine invertebrates, 
which are much more widely distributed in longitude than those farther 
south. The late Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, in one of his latest communications 
to this Association, stated that 54 per cent, of the shallow-water 
mollusks of New England and Canada are also European, and of the 
deep-sea forms 30 out of 35 ; these last of course enjoying greater 
facilities for migration than those which have to travel slowly along the 
shallows of the coasts in order to cross the ocean and settle themselves 
on both sides. Many of these animals, like the common mussel and 
sand-clam, are old settlers which came over in the Pleistocene period, 
or even earlier. Others, like the common periwinkle, seem to have been 
slowly extending themselves in modern times, perhaps even by the agency 
of man. The older immigrants may possibly have taken advantage of lines 
of coast now submerged, or of warm periods, when they could creep 
around by the Arctic shores. Mr. Herbert Carpenter and other natu- 
ralists employed on the Challenger collections have made similar state- 
ments respecting other marine invertebrates, as, for instance, the Bchino- 
derms, of which the deep-sea crinoids present many common species, 
and my own collections prove that many of the shallow-water forms are 
common. Dall and Whiteaves- have shown that some mollusks and 
Echinoderms are common even to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of 
North America ; a remarkable fact, testifying at once to the fixity of these 
species and to the manner in which they have been able to take advantage 
of geographical changes. Some of the species of whelks common to the 

Si>ecial Memoirs on the Brachiojiods, Cephalopods, S,-c.\ and B.a].\, Palceontology of 
New York ; Billings, Reports on Canadian Fossils ; and Matthews, Cambrian of New 
Brunswich, Trans. R.S.C. 

' See paper by the author on Palaozoic Khizocarps, Chicago Trans. 1886. 

- Dall, Report on Alaska; Whiteaves, Trans. R.S.C. 
1886. P 



34 REPORT— 1886 

Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Pacific are animals which have no special 
locomotive powers even when young, but they are northern forms not 
proceeding far south, so that they may have passed through the Arctic 
seas. In this connection it is well to remark that many species of 
animals have powers of locomotion in youth which they lose when 
adult, and that others may have special means of transit. 1 once found 
at Gaspe a specimen of the Pacific species of Coronula, or whale-barnacle, 
the G. regince of Darwin, attached to a whale taken in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, and which had probably succeeded in making that passage 
around the north of America, which so many navigators have essayed in 
vain. 

But it is to be remarked that while many plants and marine inverte- 
brates are common to the two sides of the Atlantic, it is different with 
land animals, and especially vertebrates. I do not know that any Palaeozoic 
insects or land snails or millipedes of Europe and America are specifically 
identical, and of the numerous species of-batrachians of the Carboniferous 
and reptiles of the Mesozoic all seem to be distinct on the two sides. 
The same appears to be the case with the Tertiary mammals, until in the 
later stages of that great period we find such genera as the horse, the 
camel, and the elephant appearing on the two sides of the Atlantic ; but 
even then the species seem different, except in the case of a few northern 
forms. 

Some of the longer-lived mollasks of the Atlantic furnish suggestions 
which remarkably illustrate the biological aspect of these questions. 
Our familiar friend the oyster is one of these. The first known oysters 
appear in the Carboniferous in Belgium and in the United States of 
America. In the Carboniferous and Permian they are few and small, 
and they do not culminate till the Cretaceous, in which there are no less 
than ninety-one so-called species in America alone ; but some of the largest 
known species are found in the Eocene. The oyster, though an inhabitant 
of shallow water, and very liniitedly locomotive when young, has sur- 
vived all the changes since the Carboniferous age, and has spread itself 
over the whole northern hemisphere.^ 

I have collected fossil oysters in the Cretaceous clays of the coulees of 
"Western Canada, in the Lias shales of England, in the Eocene and Cre- 
taceous beds of the Alps, of Egypt, of the Red Sea coast, of Judea, and 
the heights of Lebanon. Everywhere and in all formations they present 
ferms which are so variable and yet so similar that one might suppose all 
the so-called species to be mere varieties. Did the oyster originate 
separately on the two sides of the Atlantic, or did it cross over so 
promptly that its appearance seems to be identical on the two sides ? 
Are all the oysters of a common ancestry, or did the causes, whatever 
they were, which introduced the oyster in the Carboniferous act over 
again in later periods ? Who can tell ? This is one of the cases where 

> White, Report U.S. Geol. Survey, 1882-83. 



ADDRESS. 35 

■causation and development — the two scientific factors whicli constitute the 
basis of what is vaguely called evolution — cannot easily be isolated. I 
would recommend to those biologists who discuss these questions to addict 
themselves to the oyster. This familiar mollusk has successfully pur- 
sued its course and has overcome all its enemies, from the flat-toothed 
selachians of the Carboniferous to the oyster-dredgers of the present 
day, has varied almost indefinitely, and yet has continued to be an oyster, 
unless indeed it may at certain portions of its career have temporarily 
assumed the disguise of a Gryphasa or an Exogyra. The history of such 
an animal deserves to be traced with care, and much curious information 
respecting it will be found in the report which I have cited. 

But in these respects the oyster is merely an example of many forms. 
Similar considerations apply to all those Pliocene and Pleistocene mollusks 
which are found in the raised sea-bottoms of Norway and Scotland, on 
the top of Moel Tryfaen in Wales, and at similar great heights on the 
hills of America, many of which can be traced back to early Tertiary 
times, and can be found to have extended themselves over all the seas 
of the northern hemisphere. They apply in like manner to the ferns, 
the conifers, and the angiosperms, many of which we can now follow 
without even specific change to the Eocene and Cretaceous. They all 
show that the forms of living things are more stable than the lands 
and seas in which they live. If we were to adopt some of the modern 
ideas of evolution we might cut the Gordian knot by supposing that, as 
like causes can produce like eS"ects, these types of life have originated 
more than once in geological time, and need not be genetically connected 
with each other. But while evolutionists repudiate such an application of 
their doctrine, however natural and rational, it would seem that nature 
still more strongly repudiates it, and wQl not allow us to assume more 
than one origin for one species. Thus the great question of geographical 
distribution remains in all its force, and, by still another of our geologi- 
cal paradoses, mountains become ephemeral things in comparison with 
the delicate herbage which covers them, and seas are in their present 
extent but of yesterday when compared with the minute and feeble 
organisms that creep on their sands or swim in their waters. 

The question remains. Has the Atlantic achieved its destiny and 
finished its course, or are there other changes in store for it in the 
future ? The earth's crust is now thicker and stronger than ever before, 
and its great ribs of crushed and folded rock are more firm and rigid 
than in any previous period. The stupendous volcanic phenomena mani- 
fested in Mesozoic and early Tertiary times along the borders of the 
Atlantic have apparently died out. These facts are in so far guarantees of 
permanence. On the other hand, it is known that movements of elevation 
along with local depression are in progress in the Arctic regions, and a 
great weight of new sediment is being deposited along the borders of the 
Atlantic, especially on its western side, and this is not improbably con- 
nected with the earthquake shocks and slight movements of depression 

d2 



36 EEPORT— 1886. 

whicL have occurred in North America. It is possible that these slo-w 
and secular movements may go on uninterruptedly, or with occasional 
paroxysmal disturbances, until considerable changes are produced. 

It is possible, on the other hand, that after the long period of quiescence 
which has elapsed there may be a new settlement of the ocean-bed, 
accompanied with foldings of the crust, especially on the western side of 
the Atlantic, and possibly with renewed volcanic activity on its eastern 
margin. In either case a long time relatively to our limited human chro- 
nology may intervene before the occurrence of any marked change. On the 
whole the experience of the past would lead us to expect movements and 
eruptive discharges in the Pacific rather than in the Atlantic area. It is 
therefore not unlikely that the Atlantic may remain undisturbed, unless 
secondarily and indirectly, until after the Pacific area shall have attained 
to a greater degree of quiescence than at present. But this subject is one 
too mnch involved in uncertainty to warrant us in following it farther. 

In the meantime the Atlantic is to us a practically permanent ocean, 
varying only in its tides, its currents, and its winds, which science has 
already reduced to definite laws, so that we can use if we cannot regulate 
them. It is ours to take advantage of this precious time of quietude, and 
to extend the blessings of science and of our Christian civilisation from 
shore to shore until there shall be no more sea, not in the sense of that 
final drying-up of old ocean to which some physicists look forward, but 
in the higher sense of its ceasing to be the emblem of unrest and disturb- 
ance, and the cause of isolation. 

I must now close this address with a short statement of some general 
truths which I have had in view in directing your attention to the geo- 
logical development of the Atlantic. We cannot, I think, consider the 
topics to which I have referred without perceiviag that the history of 
ocean and continent is an example of progressive design, quite as much 
as that of living beings. Nor can we fail to see that, while in some im- 
portant directions we have penetrated the great secret of Nature, in refer- 
ence to the general plan and structure of the earth and its waters, and 
the changes through which they have passed, we have still very much to 
learn, and perhaps quite as much to unlearn, and that the future holds 
out to us and to our successors higher, grander, and clearer conceptions 
than those to which we have yet attained. The vastness and the might 
of ocean and the manner in which it cherishes the feeblest and most fragile 
beings, alike speak to us of Him who holds it in the hollow of His hand, 
and gave to it of old its boundaries and its laws ; but its teaching ascends 
to a higher tone when we consider its origin and history, and the manner 
in which it has been made to build up continents and mountain-chains, 
and at the same time to nourish and sustain the teeming life of sea and 
land. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes 
(Secretary), Captain Abnet, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Professor W. G. 
Adams, Professor Gr. C. Foster, Lord Katleigh, Mr. Preece, Pro- 
fessor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon .Harcourt, 
Professor Atrton, and Sir James Douglass, appointed for the 
pui^ose of reporting on Standards of Light. Drawn up hy 
Professor Gr. Forbes. 

The Committee on Standards of Light met repeatedly during last 
winter. It had been proposed in last year's report to carry on experi- 
ments on electrical standards in the hope of arriving at an absolute 
standard of light. One of the first steps was to discover a means of re- 
pK)ducing a definite temperature, and certain experiments were proposed 
for this purpose. At one of the first meetings of the Committee Captain 
Abney announced that he had already found a means of doing this in a 
different manner from that proposed in the Committee's report and de- 
pending only upon the change of resistance of the carbon filament. Under 
these circumstances the Committee left this part of the experimental in- 
vestigation to be reported upon by Captain Abney. His further researches 
have, however, led him to believe that the law which he had announced 
to the Committee does not hold with all qualities of carbon filament. He 
has, however, been engaged upon further experimental researches, which 
are almost ready for publication, and which have an important bearing 
upon the labours of the Committee. 

In last year's report attention was drawn to the value of the Pentane 
standard of Mr. Vernon Harcourt as a practical reproducible standard, 
and Mr. Rawson has been since then engaged in a further examination of 
this standard. Sir James Douglass has also made some experiments 
which are not quite completed, but have gone so far as to give great pro- 
mise. Some account of these experiments in this report had been ex- 
pected by the Committee, but the absence of Sir James Douglass on 
official business has interfered with this. 

At one of the first meetings of the Committee the Secretary showed 
what he had done in the way of improving thermopiles such as it was 
hoped would be of use in the investigations recommended in last year's 



40 EEPOKT— 1886. 

report ; and he was instructed by the Committee to proceed with the 
constmction of the instrument, which has been completed, and is placed 
before the Section and described in a separate paper. 

The Committee respectfully request to be reappointed, with a grant 
of 25Z. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr. H. Darwin, 
Sir W. Thomson, and Major Baird, for preparing instructions 
for the practical work of Tidal Observation ; and Fourth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Gr. H. Darwin 
and J. C. Adams, for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observa- 
tions. Draivn up by Professor G. H. Darwin. 

I. Record of Work during the past Tear. Datum Levels. 

Major Baird's manual of tidal observations is now printed, and will be 
sold by Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Fleet Street. 

The Indian tidal results of all previous years, and those given in the 
^^arious Reports to the British Association, have been reduced by Major 
Baird to the standard form recommended in the Report of 1883. To these 
have been added the results derived by the United States Coast Survey, 
and the whole has been published in the ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Society,' No. 239, 1885, in a paper by Major Baird and Professor 
Darwin. 

In the course of the Indian tidal operations a discussion has arisen as 
to the determination of a datum level for tide-tables. The custom of the 
Admiralty is to refer the tides to ' the mean low-water mark of ordinary 
spring tides.' This datum has not a precise scientific meaning, but, at 
ports where there ai'e but few observations, has been derived from a mean 
of the spring-tides available. At some of the Indian ports this datum has 
been found by taking the mean of all spring-tides on the tide diagram for 
a year, with the exception of those which occur when the moon is near 
perigee. The diurnal tides enter into the determination of tbe datum in 
an undefined manner. It follows that two determinations of this datum 
level, both equally defensible, might differ sensibly from one another. 

A datum level should be sufficiently low to obviate the frequent 
occurrence of negative entries in a tide-table, and it should be rigorously 
determinable from tidal theory. It is now proposed to adopt as the datum 
level at any new ports in India, for which tide-tables are to be issued, a 
datum to be called ' the Indian spring low- water mark,' and which is to 
be below mean sea-level by the sum of the mean semi-ranges of the tides 
Mg, S2, Ki, O ; or, in the notation used below, 

below mean water mark. 

This datum is found to agree pretty nearly with the Admii'alty datum, 
but is usually a few inches lower. The definition is not founded on any 
precise theoretical considerations, but it satisfies the conditions of a good 
datum, and is precisely referable to tidal theory. 

If, when further observations are made, it is found that the values of 
the several H's require correction, it is not proposed that the datum level 
e;hall be altered accordingly, but when once fixed it is to be always 
adhered to. 



ON THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 41 



II. On the Treatment of a Short Seriks of Tidal Observations and on 

Tidal Prediction. 

§ 1. Harmonic Analysis. 

Having been asked to write an article on the tides in a new edition of 
the ' Admiralty Scientific Manual,' now in the press, I thought it would 
be useful to show how harmonic analysis might be applied to the reduc- 
tion of a short series of tidal observations, such as might be made when a 
ship lies for a fortnight or a month in a port. 

The process of harmonic analysis, as applicable to a year of continuous 
observation, needs some modification for a short series, and as it was not 
possible to explain the reasons for the rules laid down within the limits of 
the article, it seems desirable to place on record an explanation of the 
instructions given. 

The observations to be treated are supposed to consist of hourly ob- 
servations extending over a fortnight or a month. In the reduction of a 
long series of observations the various tides are disentangled from one 
another by means of an appropriate grouping of the hourly observations. 
When, however, the series is short, the method of grouping is not suflB- 
cient in all cases. 

With the amount of observation supposed to be available, a determina- 
tion of the elliptic tides was not possible, and it was therefore proposed to 
consider only the tides Mj, Sg, K,, Kj, 0, P — that is to say, the principal 
lunar, solar, and luni-solar semidiurnal tides, and the luni-solar, lunar, 
and solar diurnal tides. The luni-solar and solar semidiurnal tides have, 
however, so nearly the same speed that we cannot hope for a direct 
separation of them by the grouping of the hourly values, and we must 
have recourse to theory for completing the process ; and the like is true 
of the luni-solar and solar diurnal tides. 

Also, the tides K, and P have very nearly half the speed of S2 ; hence 
the diurnal tides K; and P will appear together as the diurnal constituent, 
whilst S2 and Kg will appear as the semi-diurnal constituent, from the 
harmonic analysis of the same table of entries. 

It thus appears that three difierent harmonic analyses will suffice to 
determine the six tides, viz. : — 

First, an analysis for M2 ; second, an analysis for ; third, an analysis 

for S2, K2, K„ P. 

The rules therefore begin with instructions for drawing up three 
schedules, to be called M, O, S, for the entry of hourly tide-heights. 
Each schedule consists of twenty-four hour columns, and a number of 
rows for the successive days. In M and O certain squares are marked, 
in which two successive hourly entries are to be put. The instructions 
for drawing up the schedules are simply rules for preparing part of the 
first page of the series M, O, S of the computation forms for a year of 
observation. 

In order to minimise the vitiation of the results derived from the 
M sheet by the S2 tide, and vice versa, and similarly to minimise the 
vitiation of the results from the O sheet by the Kj tide, it is important to 
choose the proper number of entries in each of the three sheets. 

It was shown in Section III. of the Tidal Report to the British Asso- 
ciation for 1885 how these periods were to be determined. The equation 



42 REPORT — 1886. . 

by which, we find how many rows to take to minimise the efiect of the 
S2 tide on the Mj tide is there shown to be 

l°-01589582=14°-4920521r. 

If r=l, 2=14-26 ; and if r=2, q=28-5. 

From a reason similar to that given in 1885 we conclude that, in 
analysing about a fortnight of observation we must have 14 rows of 
values on the M sheet, and for a month's observation 29 rows of values. 

Similarly, to minimise the efiect of the Mj tide on the S2 tide the 
equation is 

l°-01589582=15°r. 

If r=l, 2=14-76; and if r=2, 2=29-5. 

Whence we must have 15 , rows of values on the S sheet for a fort- 
night's observation, and 30 rows of values for a month's observation. 

These two rules are simply a statement that on the M and S sheets we 
are to take a period equal to the interval from spring-tide to spring-tide, 
or twice that period. 

Similarly, to minimise the effect of the K, tide on the tide, the 
equation is 

l°-09803302=13°-9430356r. 

Ifr=l, 2=12-69; andifr=2, 2=25-38. 

Whence we mast have 13 rows of values on the O sheet for a fort- 
night's observation, and 25 rows for a month's observation. 

Lastly, to miniinise the effect of the O tide on the Kj tide, the equa- 
tion is 

l°-09803302=15°-0410686r. 

If r=l, 2=13-70 ; and if r=2, 2=26-4. 

Hence, in using the numbers on the S sheet for determining the 
diurnal tides, we must use 14 rows of values for a fortnight's observation, 
and 26 rows for a month's observation. 

Thus, on the S sheet we use more rows for the semidiurnal tides than 
for the diurnal — namely, one more for a fortnight and three more for a 
month. 

The rules for drawing up the computation forms then specify, in 
accordance with the above results, where the entries are to stop on the 
three sheets, and give directions for the dual use of the S sheet, according 
as it is for finding semidiurnal or diurnal tides. 

When the entries have been made, the twenty-four columns on each 
sheet are summed, and each is divided by the number of entries in the 
column. On the S sheet there are two sets of sums and divisions, one 
with and the other without the additional row or rows. 

The three sheets thus provide us with four sets of twenty-four mean 
hourly values ; the M sheet corresponds with mean lunar time, the hour 
being 15 -=-14-49 of a mean solar hour ; both the means on the S sheet corre- 
spond with mean solar time ; and the O sheet corresponds with a special 
time, in which the hour is 15-=-13-94 of a mean solar hour. 

The four sets of means are then submitted to harmonic analysis : the 
semidiurnal components are only evaluated on the M sheet ; the diurnal 
components are evaluated from the shorter series on S, and the semi- 
diurnal from the longer series ; and the diurnal components from the O 
sheet. We may also evaluate the quaterdiurnal components from the 
M and S sheets. 



ON THE HABMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 43 

It might, perhaps, be useful to evaluate the diurnal component on the 
M sheet, for if it does not come out small it is certain that the amount 
of observations analysed is not sufficient to give satisfactory results. 

In the article the harmonic analysis is arranged according to a rule 
devised by General Strachey, which is less laborious than that usually 
employed, and which is sufficiently accurate for the purpose. 



§ 2. On the Notation employed. 

It will be convenient to collect together the definitions of the prin- 
cipal symbols employed in this paper. 

The mean semi-range and angle of lagging of each of the harmonic 
constituent tides have, in the Tidal Report for 1883, been denoted gene- 
rically by H, c ; but when several of the H's and (.'s occur in the same 
algebraic expression it is necessary to distinguish between them. The 
tides to which we shall refer are Mg, Sj, N, L, T, R, 0, P, and K2, Kj ; 
the H and k for the first eight of these will be distinguished by writing 
the suffix letters ^, 5, „, &c., e.g., H„, k^ for the Mj tide. "With regard 
to the K tides, we may put H", k" , and H', k' . 

Again, the factors of augmentation f (functions of longitude of moon's 
node), as applicable to the several tides, will be denoted thus : — for M2, 
N, L, simply f ; for K2, Kj, f", f respectively ; for O, f^. 

The K2, K, tides take their origin jointly from the moon and sun, and it 
will be necessary in computing the tide-table to separate the lunar from the 
solar portion of K2. Now, the ratio of the lunar to the solar tide-generat- 
ing force is such that •683H" is the lunar portion and '31711" is the solar 
portion of H". 

In the Report of 1885 a slightly different notation was employed for 
the H's and /c's, but it is easy to see how the results of that Report are to 
be transformed into the present notation. 

As in the Report of 1883, we write t, h, s for local mean solar hour- 
angle, sun's and moon's mean longitude, and r, i,, v', 2i'" for functions of 
the longitude of moon's node depending on the intersection of the equator 
with the lunar orbit ; also y — //, t], a, tn are the hourly increments of t, h, s 
and longitude of moon's perigee, and e, e, the eccentricities of lunar and 
solar orbits. 

Let p, p, denote the cubes of the ratios of the moon's and sun's paral- 
laxes to their mean parallaxes ; 0, l^ the moon's and sun's declinations ; 
p' the value of p at a time tan ((>■„, — ^■'D)li'^ — '^)> orlOS'^'S tan (/.•„ — v^) 
earlier than i ; 0' the moon's declination at a time tan (//' — '<^m)/2c, or 
o2'^-2 tan (k"—k^) earlier than t. 

Let P, P^, P' be the cube roots of p, p^, p'. 

Let A, A, be declinations such that cos^A, cos-A^ are respectively the 
mean values of cos^?, cos-c^ : obviously A has a small inequality with the 
longitude of the moon's node. 

Let e be an auxiliary angle defined by 

Hn sin K„ — H-i sin Ki 

tan e = fj ^Ft * 

M^cos K^ — Mjcos /Cj 

Lastly, let 4/, ;/', be the moon's and sun's local hour angles. 



44 REPORT — 1886. 



§ 3. The Reduction of the Results of Harmonic Analysis. 

We now suppose the harmonic analysis of the hourly means on the 
'three sheets M, 0, S completed. 

The deduction of H^j, k^ and Ho, t:^ from the M and O sheets follows 
exactly the same rules as in a long series of observations, and the reader 
is referred to the Report of 1883 for an explanation. . 

With regard to the S sheet, the results of the harmonic analysis do not 
separate the Sj tide from the Ko tide, nor the K, tide from the P tide, and 
we have to employ theoretical considerations for effecting the separation. 

The semidiurnal tides will be taken first. 

The solar tide, as derived from a short series of observations, is of 
course affected by the sun's parallax, and as the sun changes his parallax 
slowly, the solar tide will follow the equilibrium law and vary as the cube 
of the sun's parallax. Thus the height of the purely solar semidiurnal 
tide as derived from our short sei'ies of observations will be p^H^ instead 
of Hs, and this will be fused with the luni-solar tide K2. 

The schedules of the Report of 1883 thus show that we shall have as 
the expression for this tide, compounded of S2 (with parallactic inequality) 
and K2, 

A2 = P/H,cos(2<-».-,)+f"H"cos(2i+2/i-2.'"-K") . . . . (1) 

The theoretical ratio of H" to H3 is (see Schedule E, 1883) that of 
•12662 to •45631, or 1 to 3'67 ; and the tides having nearly the same speed, 
we may assume k"=k^. 

Hence : 

;io=H, \y, cos (2t-K,) +3^ cos (2^+ 2/i- 2 1/"— (.•,)[ 

=R, cos (2i -/:, + ;//) (2) 

■where 

f^ sin 2(7.-. /Q 3-67p, + f^cos2(/.— /Q 

■^^'' '^-3-67 p, + f cos 2(A-./')' ^~ 3-67 cos;// ^' ' ^"^^ 

If, therefore, the harmonic analysis of the S sheet for semidiurnal tides 
has given the two components A2, B2 which are to define Rg, ^^ by the 
equations 

A2=Rs cos Cs, B2=R3 sin Cs ; 

and if we put for p^ its value at the middle of the fortnight or month 
as a mean value, and also put as a mean h^ @ , the value of the sun's mean 
longitude at the middle of the fortnight or month, we get 

n 3-67 cos;// _ 

^~3-67p, + f" cos 2( ©-,/')' ''~^''^^' 

f" sin 2(0 )'") 1 

^^''"*^^'^=3-^67M^F^^^2^^'=70' a"'lH"=3^7H„ ."=., . (4) 

AVe now turn to the diurnal tides derived from the S sheet. 
The schedules of the Report of 1883 show that we shall have as the 
.expression for the tide which is compounded of Kj and P 

7ii=f'H'cos(i + 7i-,''-i7r-K-')+HpCos(i-7; + ^7r-K-p) ... (5) 
The theoretical ratio of Hp to H' is (see Sched. E 1883) that of 19317 



ON THE HARMONIC ANAXTSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



45' 



to '58385, or 1 to 3, and the tides having nearly the same speed, we may 



assume iCp^/^',. Hence : 



^i=H{'f cos (t + h—i''-^—K')—^cos [t + h—7''—y—K' — {2h—p')]} 
=R' cos (t + h—r'—h7r—iy + (}>), 



where tan^^ 



sin(2/i— ^') 



Sf'-cos(2h-.') 
3f'-cos(2/i— .')' 3cos^ ^ 



(6) 



If, therefore, the harmonic analysis for diurnal tides has given the two 
components Ai, B^ which are to define R', ^' by the equations 

A, =R' cos 4', Bi =R' sin C' ; 

and if we write V=Ao — ''' — h^j where h^ is the sun's mean longitude at 
the beginning of the observations, and if we put for the value of the 
sun's mean longitude at the middle of the fortnight or month, we get 

Scosd) , , „ 



H' 

where tan f 



~3f'— cos(2©— I'O' 
_ sin (2©—.') 



and Hp=iH', *.-=».' . 



• (7) 



3f'-cos (2©-)'') 

In the article in the ' Admiralty Manual ' these rules are applied to 
a series of observations at Port Blair, Andaman Islands, commencing 
0'^ April 19, 1880, and extending over a fortnight. The observations are 
taken from a tide-curve registered by a gauge, and were supplied to me 
by Major Baird.' 

The result of the reduction is as follows : — 



Kesulxs of Hakmonic Analysis or 15 days' hourly observations at 
Port Blair, commencing 0^, April 19, 1880. 

Mean of Three Tears' 
Hourly Observation. 

A„ = 4-74 ft 4740 ft. 

H,,= 2-19 ft 2-022 ft. 



M 



S 



K 



K 



fH„=2-19 
Un, =280° 
r H, = 0-71 ft. 
\ ,.'3 = 314° 
r H"= 0-19 ft. 
2 1 k" = 314° 
/ H' = 0-46 ft. 
1 (/ = 327° 

p f Hp = 0-15 ft. 

^ Up =327° 

^ .■H„=0-14ft. 

^ 1 ,.•„ = 299° 



278° 

0-968 ft. 
315° 

0-282 ft. 
311° 

0-397 ft. 
327° 

0-134 ft. 
326° 

0-160 ft. 
302° 



The second column is inserted for the sake of comparison, and gives 
the results of three years of continuous hourly observation by the tidal 

' Only one place of decimals of a foot was used. In the Indian tidal operations 
the heights are measured to two places. The second place of decimals was at one 
time given up, but the computers having got used to the two decimal figures, it was 
found that there was actually some loss of time in giving up the second place. 



46 REPORT — 1886. 

department of the Survey of India. An error of 2° in the value of (Cn, 
corresponds to an error of only 4™ in the time of high and low water. 
The concordance between the two affords evidence of the utility of even 
so short a series of observations as during a fortnight. 

§ 4. Computation of a Tide-table. Semidiurnal Tides. 

The computation of a tide-table from tidal constants which do not 
contain the elliptic tides N and L presents some difficulty, because the 
total neglect of these tides would make the results very considerably in 
eiTor. On this account it was found necessary to use the moon's hour- 
angle, declination, and parallax in making the computations. 

We shall begin by considering only the semidiurnal tide. 

In the Tidal Report of 1885 it was shown how the expression for this 
tide in the harmonic notation may be transformed so as to involve hour- 
angles, declinations and parallaxes, instead of mean longitudes and eccen- 
tricities of orbits. 

The formula (27) of the Report of 1885 for the total semidiurnal 
tide, when written in the notation of § 2 is 

cos^ A 

^2=^^^2-^^m cos (2^/ — /C„)-f-H, cos (2vi/, — /.-,) 

cos^o' — cos^ A 

+ r-2-r 683H" cos (2xL-k") 

sm''A/ ^ ^ ' 

coB^a-cos^A, ^^^^,^^ 

sm"' A^ V T/ / 

sinScosacZa/ •683H" ^ , ^. ^ 

^ — jT r"77 r — Hm tan- A, Ism (2\L — »,■ ") 

<7Sin-A, at \cos (^■" — /.-,„) '" 'J ^ ^ '"'' 

cos^A H„co3i.-„— HiCos)>-i 

-i ^-r-(F' —I)- cos (2li— £) 

cos'' A/ ■' ecose ^ ^ ■' 

-f(P,-l)5^.-cos(24.,-.,) 

col^dFldf^r ^g^^_ E„ sec (.-.-.-J + H, sec ('-i-'--.) V-^ .2^_^. . .g 
cos^A; <7—'st\ e J "' ^ 

We shall now proceed to simplify this. 

In the first place, the terms depending on dl\dt and dY\dt are 
certainly small, and may be neglected. 
Then let 

cos^ A cos^ c' — cos^ A 

'cos2 A, ""■•' sin2 A, 

cos^ A H„coBx„— Hicoan i 

c^s^^^-cos^ ,in (.-_.J 

" ™ sm^ A^ ^ ' 

cos2 A H„ cos >■„— Hi cos k^ . 

cos^ A/ ^ ^ e cos£ ^ ™''' 

M,=H,-f- g.^2-^^^ 317H +(P_1)— ^, 

\^,=<. (9) 



M=^^y^ H.-H - X.r -essH" cos a-"-o 



ON THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 47 

Now, observation and tteory agree in showing that k" is very nearly 
•eqnal to K-g ; hence we are justified in substituting ».•, for k" in the small 
solar declinational term of (8) involving •317H". 

This being so, (8) becomes 

A2=Mcos(24/— /L£) + M,cos(2i//,-/Li,) (10) 

In the equilibrium theory each H is proportional to the corresponding 
term in the harmonically developed potential. This proportionality holds 
nearly between tides of nearly the same speed ; hence in the solar tides 
we may assume (see Sched. B, 1883, and note that cot ^ A^=^cot2 ^w) 
that, 

cos^ A 1 

___.317H"=3^^ (H._H,)=H„ 

and M^ reduces to 

00^ C COS c 

^'=^SSd, H.+3(P,-1)H = J3^'_H,[1+3(P,-1)] Marly 

=P-'^=. (11) 

Now, since A,=16°-36=16° 22', sec^ A^=l-086, also P,3=p„ and there- 
fore 

M,=l-086p, cos2 a, H, (12) 

In a similar way, according to the equilibrium theory, we should 
have 

"3^(Hn— Hi)=H„. 

Although this proportionahty is probably not actually very exact, yet 
in our supposed ignorance of the lunar elliptic tides we have to assume 
its truth. Also, we must assume that the two elliptic tides N and L 
suffer the same retardation, and therefore K-„=ki^£. 

With these assumptions, 

-.-r y-^, - H_ cos k„ — Hi cos »Ci 

H„ + (F-1)^^ ^;^ 'cos(^-0=H^[l+3(F-l)]=H„F3. 

Then, since 

cos'' A^ 
we have 

,, „ ,„ cos^ a' — cos^A „ 

M=f p' H^+ g-^, ^^ •683H" cos (."-.„), 

cos^c' — cos^ A „^„„ 
/^=^V+ si^2/^^ •683H"sin(K-"-.„). • ■ • (13) 

If we put 

C,=^ C,= -:S|--x57°-3, 
2 sm-'A, 2 sm^A^ 

then 

log C, =-6344, log 02=2-3925, 

and Ci, C2 are absolute constants for all times and places. 



48 REPORT — 1886. 

Next, if we put 

a = C,H" cos (<C"- O, /3 = C2H" cos (K"-iC„), 

A=acos2A , B=/3cos2A (14) 

then obviously «, /3 are absolute constants for the port, and A and B are 
nearly constant, for their small variability only depends on the longitude 
of the moon's node entering through A. 

Thus we have, from (9), (12), (13), (14), 

M=fH,„+(p'-l)fH,„ + («cos2o'-A), 

^ =!,•,„ + (/3 cos 2o' — B), expressed in degrees, 

M=l-086p,cos2a,H3, 

F.='^s (15) 

where p', o' are the values of p and 2 at a time earlier than that corre- 
sponding to ;// by ' the age ' 52''-2 tan ((," — )>•,„). 

In the article fH,„ is called R.^ ; (p' — l)fHin, the parallactic correction, 
is called c^B,^ ; (a cos 23' — A), tlae declinational correction, is called BjHm- 
Similarly, /3 cos 25' — B, the declinational correction to Knj, is called 22'''m- 
Also, My is called S. 

Thus, with this notation the whole semidiurnal tide is 

7i2=(Il^ + aiR^+a2EJcos(2i^-.-„-cV,J + Scos(2^,-.-3) . (16) 

The mean rate of increase of \p is y — o-, or 14-°49 per hour; hence 
the interval from moon's transit to lunar high water is approximately 
^^(i^m + ^-i'^m) bours, when )>■„ is expressed in degrees. If i be the mean 
i'nterval, and ()2i its declinational correction, 

i + ^2^=2V'^*m+aV^2'^'m (17) 

Now let A be twice the apparent time of moon's transit reduced to 
ancle at 15° per hour, or the apparent time reduced at 30° per hour, 

Then the excess of the moon's over the sun's R.A. at lunar high water 
is iA plus the increase of the difference of R.A.'s in the interval i. This 

increase is approximately ^^^''^:,n, and at lunar high water the sun's hour- 

angle is given by 

2v/.,=2>^ + ^+^--\„ (18) 

•V — a 

Since the difference of time between lunar high water and actual high 
water never exceeds about an hour and a half, if we neglect the separation 
of the moon from the sun in that time, this relationship also holds at 
actual luni-solar high water. 

Now, let 

Hcos (u — d))=M+Scos [4 + -~')c,„-r-(.-g + (.-^ + a2':m] 

^' ' y — (T 

=M+Scos(4 — (Cs + t^K-m + OaOj 
Hsin(f«-^)= Ssin (4-(.-3 + |f(.-n, + Vm) .... (19) 

and we have for the whole luni-solar semidiurnal tide 

7i2=Hcos(2;//-^) (20) 



ON THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



49 



If we put 



we have, from (19), 






tan (^ — ^) = - 



Ssinx 



M + Scosx^ (21) 

H2=M2+S2 + 2MScosx) 



</> 



moon's transit. 



High water occurs approximately — or ^^f after 

2(7— ff) 

The determination of <f> and H may be conveniently carried out by a 
graphical construction. If we take O as a fixed centre, O S as an initial 
line, and S a point in it such that O S=S, and set off the angle A O M equal 
to X, and M equal to M ; then O M S is the angle n—((>, and S M is the 
height H. 

The angle x increases by 360° from spring-tide to spring-tide, and 
therefore one revolution in the figure corresponds to 15 days. 



\ 




As a very rough approximation, M lies on a circle, but the parallactic 
and declinational corrections ^iRm and c^Rra cause a considerable depar- 
ture from the circle. 

The angle f and the height H are also easily computed numerically. 

If cos x is positive, let d be an auxiliary angle determined by 

tan^ 6=:—. cos x, 
M 

and we have 

tan (/x — ^)^sin2 0tanx, H^Scosec (/j. — ^) sin x. 
If cos X is negative, let be an auxiliary angle determined by 

sm- 0= — , - cosx, 
M 

and we have 

tan (/i— ^)^tau2 Otanx, H=Scosec (/i— ^) sinx. 
These formulae are adapted for logarithmic computation. 

§ 5. Correction for Diurnal Tides. 

The tide-table has to be corrected for the effect of three diurnal tides, 
designated O, Kj, P. 
If we write 

Y„=t+li-2s-v + 2'^ + W, 



1886. 



Y'=t+h-i'' -i 



50 EEPORT — 1886. 

then, in accordance with Schedales B of the Report of 1883, the expres- 
sions for the three tides are 

O =f„H„ cos (V„-0, 
K,=f'H'cos(V'-0, 
P =-HpCos[V'-.'-(2/i-r') + (K'-s)] (22) 

We have already seen in (6) and (7) that 

K,+P=R' cos (V'-k' + 0), 
where 

tan^= sin (2 0-./) ^.^3f-cos( 2 -Q g, 
^ 3f'-cos(2 -.'')' 3cos0 

and © denotes the sun's mean longitude at the middle of the short period 
under consideration. 

Then, if we write foHo=Ilo5 ^^^ diurnal tides, reduced to two, are 

0=Ro cos (V„— k-J, 

Ki+P=R'cos (V'-/.'-^0 • ..... (23) 

<p and R', having a semi-annual inequality, may be taken as constant for 
about a month, but must be recomputed for each month. 

Now, suppose that we compute Vo and V at the epoch, that is, at the 
initial noon of the period during which we wish to predict the tides, and 
with these values put 

<|fo^/v-o— Vo at epoch, 

4^'=//— ^— V at epoch, 

then the speed of Vo is y—2tT, or 13°-94 per hour, or 360''— 25°-37 per 
day ; and the speed of V is y, or 15°04 per hour, or 360°*986 per day. 
Hence, if t be the mean solar time in hours on the (/i + l)th day since the 
epoch, 

Vo-'.-o=360°w + 13°-94t-<ro-25°-37ji, 

V' + ^-..-'=360°n + 15°-04t-^' + 0°-986H. 

Therefore the diurnal tide at the time t hours on the (/( + l)th day is 
given approximately by 

0=Ro cos [14°t— i:o-25J° X ?t], 
Ki+P=R'cos[15"t-^' + l°xw] (24) 

If we substitute for t the time of high or low water as computed simply 
from the semidiurnal tide, it is clear that the sum of these two ex- 
pressions will give us the diurnal correction for height of tide at high or 
low water. 

If we consider the maximum of a function, 

A cos 2n(t—a) + B cos n'(t— /3), 

where n is nearly equal to it', we see that the time of maximum is given 
approximately by t=a, with a correction 3t determined from 

—2An sin (2nSi)—n'B sin n'(i—S)=0, 

or 

., 180 7i'B . ., ,,s 
ot=— — — - sm w(t — p). 
4<Trn nA 



r 



ON THE HAEMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 51 

In this way we find the corrections to the time of high water from and 

K, + P ; and since n=y-(T, and 5-^^= O'^'OSS, and !i'=l-^--^- for O, 

4<Trn n y — a 

and 1+ for K,, we Lave 

y — (7 

ato=-0'^-988 (l-^^\^' sin [l^t--Co-m°xn-\, 
\ y—<yJ H 

at'=-0h-988 (\ + ^L\ ^ sin [15t-;' + l° x«J, . (25) 
V y — tJ H 

where H is the height of the semidiurnal high water. 

With sufficient a^jproximation we may write these corrections : 

cto=-Px ^ sin [14°t-Co-25i°x«], 

?t'=-Px 5^sin [15°t-;' + l°XJi] .... (26) 

The computations are easily carried out, although the arithmetic is 
necessarily tedious. Since two places of decimals are generally sufficient 
for Ro and R', the multiplications by the sines and cosines are very easily 
made with a Traverse Table. 

The successive high and low waters follow one another on the average 
at 6h 12'" ; now, 14° x 6-2=87°, and 15° x 6-2=93°. Hence, if we compute 
14!°t — Co — 25^° X ft for the first tide on any day, the remaining values are 
found with sufficient approximation by adding once, twice, thrice 87° ; 
and similarly, in the case of 15°t— <;' + l xn we add once, twice, thrice 
93°. 

§ 6. Certain Details in the Computation of the Tide-table. 

It will be well to give some explanatory details concerning the manner 
of carrying out the computations. 

The angle A is given by 16°-51 + 3°-44 cos Q, — 0°-19 cos 2 Q, where 
^ is the longitude of the moon's node. It is clear that A varies so slowly 
that it may be regarded as constant for many months, and the same is 
true of the factors f, f", f, f^, and the small angles v, I, v', 1v" . 
Approximate formulae for these quantities in terms of Q, were given in 
the Report of 1885, and are used in the article in the ' Manual.' 

To find the cube of the ratio of the sun's parallax to his mean parallax, 
the following rule is given : Subtract the mean parallax from the parallax, 
multiply the difference by 19|, read as degrees instead of seconds, look 
out the sine, and add 1. This rule is founded on the fact that a mean 
parallax 8"-85 multiplied by 19J gives 3 x 57", and 57° is the unit angle 
or radian, whilst the sine of a small angle is equal to the angle in radians. 
Similarly, the cube of the ratio of the moon's parallax to her mean 
parallax is 

1 + 3 sin [60(parx — mean parx)]. 

That is to say, for the moon : Subtract the mean parallax from the paral- 
lax, read as degi-ees instead of minutes, look out the sine, multiply by 3, 

e2 



52 KEPORT — 1886. 

and add 1. This rule depends on the fact that the moon's mean parallax 
in radians is ^}q. 

For the purpose of applying the corrections c,R„, ^2^1.1) ^•I'-'mi C2^, 
r.>y, it is most convenient to compute auxiliary tables for each degree of 
declination of the moon and minute of her parallax, and then the actual 
corrections are easily applied by interpolation. 

These tables serve for the port as long as the longitude of the moon's 
node is nearly constant, or with rougher approximation for all time. 

The declinational and parallactic corrections to high water depend on 
the moon's declination and parallax at a time anterior to high water by 
' the age.' Hence, in order to find these corrections we have to know the 
time of high water in round numbers. Each high water follows a moon's 
transit at the port approximately by the interval ■>'. The Greenwich 
time of the moon's transit at the port is the G.M.T of moon's transit 
at Greenwich, less 2 minutes for each hour of E. lougitude, less the E. 
longitude in hours. Then, if we subtract from this ' the age ' and add the 
interval i, we find the G.M.T's at which we want the moon's declination 
and parallax. 

Thus, at Port Blair) m MT^f t>'c^ 
the G.M.T. at which =^^f^^,°^^« -long. corr. for transit (0-2) 
we want parx. and decl. ' 

— E. long, of port (6'^-2)-age of tide (32''-6) 

+ mean interval (9'^*6) 
= G.M.T of ]) 's tr. at Gr.— 29''4. 

Thus at Greenwich, on Feb. 1st, 1885, the moon's lower, transit was 
at 2'', and hence, corresponding to the lower transit at Port Blair of 
Feb. 1, we require the moon's parallax and declination at 21'' Jan. 30, 
G.M.T. The parallax at the nearest Greenwich noon or midnight is 
sufficiently near the truth, and therefore we take the parallax at 0'' Jan. 31, 
which is 60'-0, and the excess above the mean is 3'-0, and 1 + 3 sin 3° is 
1-157, which is the factor p'. Actually, however, we read off the correc- 
tion CyR^ and the other corrections ^2^m, ^zh hr straight from the 
auxiliary tables. 

§ 7. On Tide-tables Computed hy the above Method. 

A great deal of arithmetical work was necessary in making trial of the 
rules devised above and in various modifications of them, and I must 
record my thanks to Mr. Allnutt, who has been indefatigable in working 
out tide-tables for various ports, and in comparing them with official 
tables. The whole of the results, to which I now refer, are due to him. 
The following table exhibits the amount of agreement between a com- 
puted table and one obtained by the tide-predicting instrument. It must 
be borne in mind that the instrument is rigorous in principle, and makes 
use of far more ample data than are supposed to be available in our 
computations. The columns headed ' Indian tables ' are taken from the 
official Indian tide-tables. The datum level, however, in those tables is 
3-13 ft. below mean water mark, whereas ' Indian spring low-water 
mark ' is 3-65 ft. below the mean. Thus, to convert the heights given in 
the Indian tables to our datum 0-42 ft. or 5 ins. have been added to all 
the heights in the official table. 



ON THE HAEMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



Tide-table for Poet Blaie, 1885. 





Calculated 
Times 


Indian tables 
Times 


Calcd. 
Heights 


Indian tables 
Heights 


Feb. 1, H.W. 


h. m. 
11 3 p.m. 


h. m. 

11 4 p.m. 


ft. 
7-4 


ft. in. 

7 2 


Feb. 2, L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. . 


5 21 a.m. 
11 26 a.m. 

5 28 p.m. 
11 39 p.m. 


5 18 a.m. 
11 31 a.m. 

5 25 p.m. 
11 43 p.m. 


00 
6-6 
0-4 
71 


-0 2 
6 5 

6 11 


Feb. 3, L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 


5 56 a.m. 
3 p.m. 

6 4 p.m. 


5 56 a.m. 
9 p.m. 

6 5 p.m. 


0-2 
6-4 
0-7 


1 
6 3 
7 


Feb. 4, H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 


14 a.m. 
6 31 a.m. 
40 p.m. 
6 42 p.m. 


20 a.m. 
6 33 a.m. 
48 p.m. 
6 44 p.m. 


6-7 
0-5 
61 
1-2 


6 6 

5 
6 

1 


Feb. 5, H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 


48 a.m. 
7 5 a.m. 
118 p.m. 
7 20 p.m. 


56 am. 

7 9 a.m. 

1 28 p.m. 
7 25 p.m. 


61 
10 
5-7 
1-7 


5 11 

10 
5 7 

1 7 


Feb. 6, H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 


1 24 a.m. 

7 41 a.m. 

2 1 p.m. 

8 6 p.m. 


1 33 a.m. 

7 45 a.m. 

2 10 p.m. 

8 12 p.m. 


5'5 
1-5 
5-3 
2-2 


5 4 

1 4 
5 2 

2 1 


Feb. 7, H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 


2 4 a.m. 

8 23 a.m. 
2 53 p.m. 

9 7 p.m. 


2 13 a.m. 

8 25 a.m. 
2 57 p.m. 

9 8 p.m. 


49 
19 

4-9 

2-7 


4 9 

1 10 
4 10 

2 6 


Feb. 8, H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 


2 58 a.m. 

9 20 a.m. 

4 10 p.m. 

10 42 p.m. 


3 8 a.m. 
9 24 a.m. 

4 14 p.m. 
10 40 p.m. 


4-4 
2-4 
4-7 
30 


4 3 

2 3 
4 7 

2 4 


Feb. 9, H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 


4 29 a.m. 
10 46 a.m. 

5 47 p.m. 


4 40 a.m. 
10 57 a.m. 

5 48 p.m. 


40 

2-6 
4-7 


3 10 

2 6 

4 7 



A tide-table was computed for Aden for a fortnight, and the results 
were found to be somewhat less satisfactory than those in the above 
table. It must be remarked, however, that the sum of the semi-ranges of 
the three diurnal tides K,, O, P is 2340 ft., and is actually greater than 
the sum of the semi-ranges of the tides M2 and Sj, which is 2"265 ft. 
Thus, at some parts of some lunations the semidiurnal tide is obliterated 
by the diurnal tide, and there is only one high water and one low water 
in the day. In this case it is obvious that the approximation, by which 
we determine semidiurnal high and low water and apply a correction 
for the diurnal tides, becomes inapplicable. In the greater part of our 
computed table the concordance is fairly good ; bat the tide-predicting 



54 BEPORT— 1886. 

instrument shows that on each of the days, 7th and 8th February, 1885, 
there was only one high and low water, whereas our table, of course, 
gives a double tide as usual. Again, on the 9th February there is an error 
of 68 minutes in a high water. These discrepancies are to be expected, 
since the approximate method is here pushed beyond its due limits ; and 
for such a port as Aden special methods of numerical approximation 
would have to be devised. 

In a table computed for Amherst the agreement is not quite so good 
as was to be hoped; the error in heights amounts in two cases in fifteen 
days to nearly a foot, and in two other cases to three-quarters of an hour 
in time. It may be remarked, however, that the tides are large at 
Amherst, having a spring range of 20 ft. and a neap range of 6 ft., that 
the diurnal tide is considerable, and that the sum of the semi-ranges of 
the over-tides M4, S4 (which we neglect entirely) amounts to 6 inches. 
It appears also that the tidal constants are somewhat abnormal, for 
■ H"=,4H, instead of H"=,.;j7H,, and further Hp=.^H' instead of Hp=^H'. 

Under these circumstances it is perhaps not surprising that the dis- 
crepancies are as great as they are. 

Tables were also computed for Liverpool and West Hartlepool, but no 
correction was here applied for the diurnal tides. The results were 
compared with the Admiralty tide-tables for Liverpool and Sunderland. 
In the case of Liverpool there were four tides in a fortnight in which there 
was a discrepancy in the times amounting to 12 minutes, and four other 
tides in which there was a discrepancy of a foot, and one with a dis- 
crepancy of l.ft. 2 ins. It was obvious, however, that the agreement 
would have been better if the correction for the diarnal tides had been 
applied. The spring rise of tide at Liverpool is 26 ft. 

In the case of Sunderland there were in a fortnight two discrepancies 
of 15 m., two of 14 m., two of 13 m., two of 12 m., &c. in the times, and 
in the heights one discrepancy of 3 ins., and four of 2 ins., &c. The spring 
rise at West Hartlepool is 14 ft. 

These two tables are quite as satisfactory as could be expected con- 
sidering the approximate nature of the methods employed. 

Finally, in order to test the methods both of reduction and of predic- 
tion, Mr. Allnutt took the hai-monic constants derived from our analysis 
of a fortnight of hourly observation at Port Blair, from April 19 to May 2, 
1880, and computed therefrom a tide-table for that same fortnight. He 
then, by interpolation in the observed hourly heights, determined the 
actual high waters and low waters during that period. 

The results of the comparison are exhibited in the table on next page. 

If our method had been perfect, of course, the errors should be every- 
where zero. 

It must be admitted that the agreement ivS less perfect than might 
have been hoped. If, however, the calculated and observed tide curves 
are plotted down graphically side by side, it will be seen that the errors 
are inconsiderable fractions of the whole intervals of time and heights 
under consideration. 

When we consider the extreme complication of tidal phenomena, 
together with meteorological perturbation, it is, perhaps, not reasonable 
to expect any better results from an admittedly approximate method, 
adapted for all ports, and making use of a very limited number of tidal 
constants. In devising these rules for reduction and prediction I could 
find no model to work from, and it seems probable that advantageous 



ON THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSEEVATIONS. 



55 





O 
1 


^•(^^copooo^p•^7^'^^^7^r^^--l.--lO.--lrtoco(^l-*co>Cl-*^lO 
"" 1 1 11+' + + + + + + + + + + + 1 1 1 1 'l 'l 'l "l 'l 'l 




l:-C-1?0 0-100-*-H0005050'MCT>05C5>f5000iMOOO>-l-^i-';C'1(MiO 






i 


C)-*t-00OO— itOtDOtDOO.-lt^lMt^CCT^COOO'-IOCOOt-lOCO 
J i-H rt rt (M c^j ,-H (M CI —1 O O O O O O (M <M (M 'M rt lO .-1 -t* O O i>] (N 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I+ + +++ + + + + + + + + +I 1 1 


41 

OH 


OOCOf— (ii^O<Mr-lt ^c^l(MoO'^iOOt>'0-+'^ooaiOOCOC-»00^ 

'^t— iMcj-i * cbf^coc<)T*^oo»bcocbTt<cb»bt--yDc»t^Cioooc^'-HOc^ 

rt<Mr-l rt rt f-l i-H 1-1 i-H 1-1 rH .-1 CI CTi-l(N 


o 


ONoomoiMMasi— cocoorccoooo«r-<>JCCOcoooOMtoOO 

^0>"I.-H i-H ^H ^H ,—1 i-H I— I t— 1 »— t T-H C<i C^i— tC-l 


1 

^J I— 1 
en 


April 19 . 

„ 20 . 
„ 21 . 

„ 22 . 

.. 23 . 

„ 24 . 

„ 25 . 

„ 26 . 

„ 27 . 

„ 28 . 

„ 29 . 

„ 30 . 

May 1 . 

2 . 


o 


o 

1 

o 


1— iincoOi-HOt^'— <Oi?£'Ococ:it^cct~C'iOo:ii>-o:iCOcD-^ioc5coi— f 

"^ + + + + + +1 'l 1 1 I 1 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 




■^-t^i.Oi:O^^COOC:iO'^000»>-'^iO<>l0500COC>l(MCOOO»CJ-^i— ' 


Is 


coosc^jcoocot-OCiOJO'Xi^^O'-ioooaiOcO'^c-cO'^cocO'^O 

.4JC0»0C^G^lt0asC^C0C0ClO'+'-^-*CC^^OC0»0OrH<>1GCt-CpCp00'^ 


o 
1 


" * 1 "l 'l 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 + I 1 +'+ + + + + + + + 1 1 


■ 0^ 

OH 


COOf— 'C<100Ci'Mt~-t0t^dC0G0i-<«OI>-O0DOC0t»CDCC00':0(Ma0r-t 
,-H ,-. F-t <>) C^ C^ (M^C^r-lG^i-H 1-t i-l I-H rH 


13 

« .S 
.SH 
O 


,_, ,_, ,— ( c^l IM G<l G^t— l(Mf— lOlr-t I-H 1— t I-H I-H 


1 
Qo 

.00 
CO "^ 


00.-H(MCC'*lOOt>-COC50rHClCC 
t-H <M C<) (M <M C^ <N <N C^ <M CI CQ 

1 = ... = = = = == =1 _ 



56 REPORT — 1886. 

raodificatioiis may be introduced. I spared, however, no pains to reduce 
the labour of computation. Nearly half the work in forming a short 
tide-table is preparatory, and would serve for a systematic computation of 
tables for all time. 



III. An Attempt to Detect the IQ-Yeaely Tide. 

If M, E be the moon's and earth's masses ; a the earth's mean radius ; 
c the moon's mean distance ; u the obliquity of the ecliptic ; i the inclina- 
tion of the lunar orbit ; e the eccentricity of the lunar orbit ; S the 
longitude of the moon's node ; and X the latitude of the port of observa- 
tion ; then the term in the equilibrium tidal theory which is independent 
of the moon's longitude (see Schedule B, iii., Report of 1883) is 

_ _j j - j a Os — I sin^ \) (l-}-| e^) sin i cos i sin w cos w 

^JiiycJ - [-cos£3-|-:^tanitanwcos2 £3]. 

Since | tan itan w= "00975, the second term is negligeable compared with 
the first. 

If we take 

^=-l_, -= J^^„, a=21 xlO« feet, 'i=5° 8', a>=23° 28', 
J? 81-5' c 60-27' 

the expression for this tide is, in British feet, 

—0-0579 (i-f sin^ X) cos S . 

Thus, at the poles this tide gives an oscillation of sea-level of 0-695 of 
an inch, or a total range of 1 1 of an inch, and at the equator it is half as 
great. 

In the ' Mecanique Celeste ' Laplace argues that all the tides of long 
period (such as the fortnightly tide) must conform nearly to the equili- 
brium law. I shall adduce arguments elsewhere ' which seem to invalidate 
his conclusion, and to show that in these tides inertia still plays the 
principal part, so that the oscillations must take place nearly as though 
the sea were a frictionless fluid. 

With a tide, however, of as long a period aa nineteen years Laplace's 
argument must hold good, and hence the equilibrium tide of which the 
above is the expression must represent an actual oscillation of sea-level, 
provided that the earth is absolutely rigid. The actual observation of the 
19-yearly tide would therefore be a result of the greatest interest for 
determining the elasticity of the earth's mass. 

A reduction of the observed tides of long period at a number of ports 
was carried out in Thomson and Tait's ' Natural Philosophy,' Part II., 
1883, in the belief in the soundness of Laplace's argument with regard to 
those tides, and the conclusion was drawn that the earth must have an 
effective rigidity about as great as that of steel. The failure of Laplace's 
argument, however, condemns this conclusion, and precludes us from 
making any numerical conclusions with regard to the rigidity of the 
earth's mass, excepting by means of the 19-yearly tide. The results 

' In an article on the Tides in the Eneyclopadia Britannica. The section of tlie 
article ' On the Tides of Long Period ' will probably be communicated also to tlie 
Eoyal Society. 



ON THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



57 



l—JBlB—B—l 



^ o 






IHI 



■■■■■iiBHHnn 

mnmammamM 

■—■■■■■■ Ml 

■■iriiHiHBi 

■■■■niilHHvar 
!■■■■■»■■«■ 



tmmmmmasnm 




MMIM BBMI— 

■■■■■■■lin 









W3 o 



■g s 

P. §■ 



2 5 

3 J; 

. ^ s 






o 



o o 

L-n 3^ O 

O 2 -uJ 

"* to '^S 



= o ■ 



58 REPORT — 1886. 

given in the ' Natural Philosophy ' merely remain, then, as generally con- 
firmatory of Thomson's conclusion as to the great effective rigidity of the 
earth's mass. 

There ai'e but few ports for which a sufiBcient mass of accurate tidal 
observations are accumulated to make the detection of the 19 -yearly tide 
a possibility. 

Major Baird has, however, kindly supplied me with the values of the 
mean sea-level at Karachi for fifteen years. They are plotted ont in the 
annexed figure. The horizontal line reoresents the mean sea-level for the 
jjeriod from 1869-1883, and the sinuous curve gives the variations of 
mean sea-level during that period. The dotted sinuous curve gives the 
annual variations for a portion of the same period for Bombay. The full- 
line sweeping curve has ordinates proportional to — cos 83, and shows the 
kind of curve which we ought to find if the alternations of sea-level were 
due to the 19-yearly tide. 

It is obvious at a glance that the oscillations of sea-level are not due 
to astronomical causes. 

At Karachi (lat. 24° 47') the 19-yearly tide is 

-0"-0138cosS. 

The figure shows that the actual change of sea-level between 1870 and 
1873 was nearly 025 feet, and this is just about nine times the range of 
the 19-yearly tide, viz., 0-028 feet. 

It is thus obvious that this tide must be entirely masked by changes 
of sea-level arising from meteorological causes. 

It seems unlikely that what is true of Kai-achi and Bombay is untrue 
at other ports, and therefore we must regard it as extremely improbable 
that the 19-yearly tide will ever be detected. 

G. H. D. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown 
(Secretai-y), Mr. Milne Home, Mr. John Mdrrat, and Mr. 
BucHAN, afpointecl for the pui^ose of co-operating with the 
Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Obser- 
vations on Ben Nevis. 

Ddeing the past year the work of the Ben Nevis Observatory has been 
carried on by Mr. Omond and his assistants in a way that leaves nothing 
to be desired. The twenty-four daily eye-observations have been made 
uninterruptedly ; and it deserves to be recorded that, as regards the out- 
side observations, no hour has been omitted even on those occasions when 
the wind blew furiously at rates considerably above 100 miles an hour. 

The eye-observations, taken five times daily at the sea-level station at 
Fort William, have also been made with the greatest regularity by Mr. 
Livingston ; and with these are conjoined the continuous records of the 
barograph and thermograph, the results of which are so valuable in 
checking and discussing the observations. 

For the twelve months ending May 1886 the mean temperatures and 
pressures at the Ben Nevis Observatory and Fort William were these : — 



ON 5IETE0B0L0GICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEYIS. 



Observatory 


Fort William 




Temp. Pressure, 
„ Inches 




Temp. 

o 


Pressure, 
Inches 


Summer . . 
Autumn . . . 
Winter . . . 
Spring . . . 
Year .... 


393 
29-9 
22-5 
264 

29^5 


2o^502 
•185 
•244 
•276 

25-302 


Summer . . . 
Autumn . . . 
Winter . . . 
Spring . . . 
Year .... 


55^5 
4.r2 
36 8 
43-7 
45-3 


30^027 
29736 

•880 

•873 

29 879 



These twelve months were thus characterised by an unusually low- 
mean temperature, the annual mean at the sea-level station, 45^o°, being 
1^9° below its normal mean temperature. 

The maximum temperature at the observatory for the period was 60-0° 
at 3 P.M. of July 31, which nearly approaches the onaxhrAim of previous 
years, viz. 60-1° at 2 p.m. on August 9, 1884. The lowest temperature 
-was 8-4'' at noon, December 29, 1885, which is the lowest temperature yet 
recorded on Ben Nevis. The lowest temperatures for the three winters 
have been respectively 99°, 11'1°, and 84°. 

But the most remarkable features in the climate of Ben Nevis during 
the year were the frequent occurrence of excessive droughts, compara- 
tively large amount of sunshine, and occasional unusually heavy falls of 
rain and snow. The following observations were made on July 30, 

1885 :— 

Drv Wet Diff. 



1 A.M. . 


48-8 


o 
46-9 


1°9 


2 „ 


48-3 


45-3 


3-0 


3 „ 


50-3 


362 


141 


4 „ . 


49-7 


36-2 


13 5 



Such low humidities, sharply marked off from high humidities, are 
among the most valuable observations of the observatory, particularly 
when viewed in connection with the irregular geographical distribution of 
frosts and other low night temperatures which occur over the country on 
subsequent evenings. 

But the most remarkable drought yet recorded at the observatory 
occurred in March last, commencing at 1 A.M. of the 11th, and ending at 
midnight of the 12th, thus extending over a period of forty-eight hours. 
The mean humidity of the first twenty-four hours was only 19, and of the 
second twenty-four hours 15, the lowest being 6 at 8 P.M. of the 12th. 
From noon of the 12th to 11 p.m. the mean was only 11. The three 
consecutive hours of greatest dryness were the following : — 





Dry 


Wet 


Dewpoint 


Calculated 
Humidity 


March 12, 1886, 7 P.M. 
,, 8 „ . 


21-8 
210 
192 


14^8 
14-0 
130 


o 

-32-1 
-34-3 
-32-3 


7 
6 
8 



During these two days the sky was absolutely cloudless, and the wind 
south-easterly, blowing at first with force 5, then falling gradually to 3 



60 REPORT~1886. 

at 9 A.M. of the 11th, about which it remained till 4 r.M. of the 12th, 
when it fell either to a calm or the lightest airs from the north-east, when 
the greatest dryness took place. On these two days the extremes of tem- 
perature were 24-3° and 13-3° ; and at 8 a.m. of the 12th, while the tempe- 
rature at the observatory was 23-9°, in Fort William it was 19*2°, or 4-7° 
lower than on the top of Ben Nevis. 

During the twelve months the Sunshine Recorder registered 111 hours 
of sunshine, which is about 19 per cent, of the possible sunshine. In the 
previous year the hours of sunshine only amounted to 464. The extreme 
months were July, with 162 hours, and January, with only 15 hours of 
sunshine. The observations of the two years show that the annual period 
of daily maximuin sunshine is the four hours from 9 A.M. to 1 P.M., the 
means being 61, 67, 67, and 65 hours respectively. For the six months 
from April to September the hour of most sunshine is from 8 to 9 a.m., 
the mean being 39 hours. From this time it slowly but steadily diminishes 
to 36 hours for the hour ending 1 p.m., and from 4 to 5 p.m. the number 
has fallen to 26 hours. The numbers for the five hours preceding, and the 
five hours succeeding noon, are respectively 38 and 32 hours. The total 
number of hours for the six months, from January to June, is 294, and 
for the second half of the year 326 hours, the difference being wholly due 
to the exceptionally large amount of sunshine in July and August 1885. 
In truth the distribution of the sunshine through the year cannot be said 
to be dependent on the great annual rise and fall of temperature, but on 
those causes which bring anticyclones over Ben Nevis. 

The rainfall for the year ending May 1886 amounted to 128"34 
inches, the largest monthly fall being 24-33 inches in December 1885 and 
the smallest 2-85 inches in February following. The heaviest precipita- 
tion on any day was 534 inches on December 12, and 445 inches on 
January 1 — these being heavier than any previously recorded daily falls. 
On the two days December 12 and 13 the precipitation amounted to 
8-86 inches. For five-day periods the following heavy falls are recorded : — . 
for the five days ending December 15, 10-25 inches ; October 5, 10-02 
inches ; January 3, 9-25 inches ; and September 16, 6-13 inches. 

On the other hand, the year was marked by the large number of days 
on which either no rain fell or on which the amount was less than O'Ol 
inch. The number of these days amounted to 126, being thus in the 
proportion of two rainy days for each fair day. The largest number of 
fair days in any month was twenty in August, and the least, two, in Sep- 
tember. In the previous year there were only seventy-nine days without 
rain, being thus forty-seven fewer than last year. 

In the meantime, the whole of the hourly observations of the observa- 
tory, and the observations of the station at Fort William down to date 
are in the press. The publication will appear as an extra volume of the 
' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,' and by this handsome 
act on the part of the Royal Society these observations will shortly be in 
the hands of scientific men in all parts of the world. 

In connection with the Ben Nevis observations the investigation of 
the important question of the bearing of the results on the weather of these 
islands steadily advances. The position of the observatory on an elevated 
isolated peak, and that of the low-level station at Fort William, being 
close to the sea and on a bank sloping down to it, renders this pair of 
stations second to none anywhere yet established for the investigation of 
some of the fundamental data of meteorology. Among the more im- 



ON METEOEOLOaiCAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 61 

portant of these is the rate of decrease of temperature with height, and 
the rate of diminution of pressure with height, for different atmospheric 
temperatures and sea-level pressures. 

In these aspects the double set of observations for the past two-and-a- 
half years have now been discussed. The decrease of the temperature with 
height is at the rate of one degree Fahrenheit for every 270 feet of ascent, 
the lowest rate being one degree for every 284 feet in winter, and the most 
rapid rate 247 in spring. This rate closely agrees with the results of the 
most carefully conducted balloon ascents, and of those other pairs of 
stations over the world which are so situated as to give trustworthy 
results for the inquiry. Ben Nevis Observatory and Fort William Station 
are among the very few pairs of stations yet established from which the 
requisite data can be obtained, the required conditions being great 
difference in height combined with close proximity, and the position of 
the thermometers in situations where the effects of solar and terrestrial 
radiation are minimised. 

The next point, and as regards weather phenomena the most 
important point, to be determined was the normal differences between 
atmospheric pressure at the top of the Ben and at Fort William for the 
different air temperatures and sea-level pressures that occur. These 
differences, or, as they are technically called, corrections for height, were 
empirically calculated from the observations, and thereafter the departures 
from these normals were ascertained for each of the five daily observations 
since the observatory was opened. The results showed a diminution of 
pressure from the normals on almost every occasion during the occurrence 
of high winds at the observatory. In other words, in all cases when 
high winds (30 miles an hour and upwards) prevailed at the observatory 
the observations reduced to sea-level showed a less pressure than that 
actually observed at Fort William. The differences increase with the 
strength of the wind, and amount not unfrequently to the tenth of an 
inch, and one day when the winds continued to blow at the rate of 120 
miles an hour, the five consecutive readings showed differences exceeding 
a tenth and a half. This diminution is doubtless occasioned by the winds 
as they brush past the buildings, partially sucking out the air from the 
interior, thus lowering the pressure. It was therefore necessary to 
recalculate the table of corrections to sea-level, using in the new calcula- 
tion only those observations which were made when the wind blew at 
lower rates than 30 miles an hour. This recalculation has been recently 
completed, and the inquiry as to the bearing of the Ben Nevis observa- 
tions on the weather is being pushed forward. 

So far as the investigation has been carried, it is evident that rapid 
and considerable changes from the normals, but particularly a more rapid 
decrease of temperature with height than the normal decrease, as shown 
by the thermometric observations, are frequently a precursor and concomi- 
tant of storms of wind. This is only what might be expected considering 
that such observations indicate a disturbance of the equilibrium of the 
atmosphere. But when with this is conjoined a lower sea-level pressure, as 
calculated from the Ben Nevis Observatory barometric readings, than what 
is actually observed at Fort William ; in other words, when the barometric 
observations indicate a more rapid decrease of temperature with height 
somewhere in the aerial stratum between sea-level and the top of the Ben than 
the thermometric observations alone indicate, then the indications of a 
coming storm become more decided. Conversely the absence of any 



62 EEPOET — 1886. 

abnormally rapid decrease of temperature -witb height as revealed by all 
the observations is seldom followed by storms of wind. 

For a number of years past the Scottish Meteorological Society has, 
through the courtesy of the Commissioners of the Northern Lighthouses, 
been favoured with meteorological observations from all the light- 
houses, the keepers being regular observers of the Society ; and an 
important part of their duty as such is to record the hour of beginning 
and ending of all strong winds, gales, and storms which occur. The 
observations, made since the establishing of the observatory in December 
1883, have been plotted on monthly sheets, which show graphically when 
storms have occurred at the lighthouses ; and on the same sheets have 
been entered for the respective districts all cases when storm-signals have 
been hoisted under direction of the Meteorological Office. This investiga- 
tion is still in progress, but the following results may be provisionally 
stated. 

Leaving out of view those cases in which the barometer at the 
observatory was lowered by high winds, as above explained, by far the 
larger number of the remaining cases, when the calculated sea-level 
pressure was less than what was actually observed at Fort William, 
preceded or accompanied storms, and when the difierences were unusually 
great the storms were severe and widespread. 

Again, neglecting the occasions during 1884 when the wind at the 
observatory exceeded 30 miles an hour, there remain nine instances which 
in the west and north of Scotland were not followed by a storm. On 
eio-ht of these occasions the observations did not indicate the existence 
of a disturbance in the lower stratum of the atmosphere between Fort 
William and the observatory. 

The Ben Nevis Observatory may be regarded as contributing, towards 
the forecasting of the weather of the British Islands, a body of facts differ- 
ing wholly in kind from what is contributed by any other meteorological 
observatory or station in the country. To the bearing of these observa- 
tions on weather the directors propose to direct attention next year ; and 
thereafter to use the results that may be arrived at in an examination of 
the observations of the high-level stations of Europe in their relations to 
the paths pursued by storms over the Continent. 

Mr. Omond, superintendent of the observatory, has compared the 
results obtained from the registrations of Professor Chrystal's anemometer 
with the estimations of wind-force made by him and the assistants on 
scale to 12, and thereby determined the velocity in miles per hour for 
each figure of the scale 1, 2, 3, &c. The highest figure for which the 
doable observations were sufficiently numerous, so as to give a good 
average, was 8, which was found to be equivalent to a rate of 73 miles an 
hour. This wind-force is of frequent occurrence, and as regards the 
higher estimations Mr. Omond estimates force 11, which occasionally 
occurs, as equivalent to a rate of 120 miles an hour. This paper has 
been published by the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

Mr. Omond has written another paper on the rainfall of Ben Nevis 
in 1885 in relation to the winds. The investigation shows that, as regards 
the rainfall, the winds arranged in their order of greatest frequency are 
N., S.W., W., S.B., S., N.E., N.W., and E., the N.W. and E. winds being 
remarkably few in number. As regards the total fall the order of the 
winds for wetness is W., N.W., S.W., N., S., N.E., S.E., and E. Thus 
the direction of wind with which most rain came during 188-5 was a little 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 63 

north of west, and the quantity diminishes as we go round the compass 
in both directions, until the driest point is reached a httle south of east, 
the east again having a very low value. The dryness of S.E. winds is 
remarkable. They seem mostly to occur when an area of high pressure 
is moving off and a cyclonic stoi-m approaches from the west ; and this 
dry character indicates that the wind shifts when the storm actually 
reaches the observatory and the rain begins to fall. 

For the past two years much attention has been given by Mr. A. 
Rankin, the first assistant, in making rainband observations, and he has 
discussed them in an interesting paper, recently read before the Scottish 
Meteorological Society, which, along with Mr. Omond's paper on the 
Rainfall and Winds, will shortly appear in the Society's journal. 

A series of elaborate hygrometric observations was made at the obsei'- 
vatory during August, September, and October 1885 by Mr. H. N. 
Dickson, under the direction of Professor Tait and Mr. Buchan. The 
observations have been discussed by Mr. Dickson in a paper recently 
read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The results are of consider- 
able value in determining how far Glaisher's factors, so largely used by 
meteorologists in hygrometric inquiries, can be safely used. As regards 
the i-emarkably dry states of the air, which form so prominent a feature 
in the climate of Ben Nevis, Glaisher's factors are found to be altoge- 
ther inapplicable, and the hygrometric observations will therefore require 
a specially constructed set of tables. Copies of this and the other papers 
referred to above will, when published, be forwarded to the Association. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfouu 
Stewart {Secretary), Professor Stokes, Professor Schuster, 
Mr. G-. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Sir H. E. KoscoE, Captain 
Abney, and Mr. G-. J. Symons, appointed for the purpose of 
considering the best methods of recording the direct Intensity 
of Solar Radiation. 

The Committee, in conformity with their last report, have had con- 
structed by Mr. Casella an instrument of the following description : — 

It consists of a cubic copper enclosure, 3^ inches square outside, the 
faces of which are § of an inch thick. This cube is packed round with 
felt, y^y of an inch thick, and the whole is faced outside with thin polished 
brass plates, y^ of an inch in thickness. 

In that vertical face of the cube which is intended to face the sun two 
holes are bored into the copper from above. These holes are equally 
distant from the centre on each side, and are intended to receive the cylin- 
drical bulbs of two delicate thermometers wrapped round with tin foil 
so as to be in metallic contact with the copper. Let us call these thermo- 
meters A and B. In the opposite face of the cube there is one such hole 
bored centrally into the copper, also intended to receive the bulb of a 
thermometer, which we shall call C. Finally, in the very centre of the 
enclosure there is placed the bulb of a thermometer similar to the above 
which we shall call D. 

This last thermometer occupies the position that will ultimately be occu- 
pied by the interior flat bulb thermometer upon which the sun is to play 



04 KEPORT — 1886. 

through a hole, as mentioned in onr last report, only this hole has not yet 
been constructed. The thermometers A, B, C, and D have been carefully 
verified at the Kew Observatory. 

It is proposed to place these thermometers in their respective holes, 
to expose the instrument to the sun as it will be ultimately exposed, and 
then to read the thermometers from time to time. If it shall be found that 
the central thermometer D has a temperature which bears a nearly con- 
stant relation to the temperatures of the front face as represented by A 
and B, and of the back face as represented by C, the Committee will 
proceed finally with the construction of the instrument. If, however, 
the temperature of D be not related to those of the other thermometers in 
a sufficiently definite manner, the Committee may require to reconsider 
the construction of the instrument. 

The Committee have expended 91. 10s. 6d. and returned to the Asso- 
ciation a balance of 101. 9s. 6d. 

They suggest that they be reappointed, and that the sum of 20?. be 
again placed at their disposal. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfolr 
Stewart (Secretary), Professor W. Gr. Adams, Mr. W. Lant 
Carpenter, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, Mr. W. H. M. Christie 
(Astronomer Royal), Professor Gr. Chrystal, Stafif Commander 
Creak, Professor Gr. H. Darwin, Mr. William Ellis, Sir J. H. 
Lefrot, Professor S. J. Perry, Professor Schuster, Sir W. 
Thomson, and Mr. Gr. M. Whipple, appointed for the purpose of 
considering the best means of Comparing and Reducing Mag- 
netic Obsen'otions. Drawn up by Professor Balfour Stewart. 

[Plates I., II., and III] 

It is with deep regret that the Committee record the death of one of 
their number — Captain Sir Frederick Evans, so well known for the valu- 
able contributions which he has made to terrestrial magnetism. His 
eminent scientific qualities combined to make him a greatly esteemed 
member of this Committee, who now deplore his loss. 

The Committee have added to their number the following gentle- 
men : The Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, Professor W. G. Adams, 
and Mr. W. Lant Carpenter. They could hardly consider their list com- 
plete without the addition of the first two names, and they are glad that, 
although not members of the British Association, these gentlemen were 
not unwilling to serve on one of its committees. 

Since the last meeting of the Association Mr. G. M. Whipple has made 
a comparison between the method of obtaining the solar-diurnal variation 
of declination adopted by Sir E. Sabine, and that of Mr. Wild. These 
methods were applied to three years' observations at the Kew Observatory, 
and the results were compared with those deduced by the Astronomer 
Royal from the same three years at Greenwich. The comparison will be 
found in Appendix IV. to this report. 

The Committee think that this comparison deserves careful study, 
but they do not feel themselves able to pronounce as yet upon the com- 



ON COMPARINa AND EEDTJCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 65 

parative merits of these various methods. Nevertheless, they are ol 
opinion that it is highly desirable to record the daily mean values (un- 
disturbed) of the three magnetic elements side by side with their solar- 
diurnal variations. 

It will be seen by Appendix III. that Sir J. Henry Lefroy has con- 
tinued his comparison of the Toronto and Greenwich observations. He 
has obtained from the smooth curves — that is to say, taking Mr. Wild's 
method — results which appear to him to show that the turning-point of the 
declination is decidedly later in local time at Toronto than at Greenwich. 
Sir J. H. Lefroy attributes this to the fact that these two stations are on 
different sides of the Atlantic' 

Appendix II. exhibits, by aid of a diagram, an interesting comparison 
of Senhor Capello between the diarnal variation of the inclination and 
that of the tension of aqueous vapour. It is remarkable to notice the 
great similarity between these variations ; a similarity which holds sepa- 
rately for each month of the year. Senhor Capello hopes that these results 
may be confirmed by a more extended series of observations. 

The researches to which allusion has now been made refer to the 
solar-diurnal variation, excluding disturbed observations. With respect 
to disturbances Sir J. Henry Lefroy has continued his comparison of 
Toronto and Greenwich, and his results are indicated in Appendix III. 

Professor W. G. Adams has, it is well known, made extensive com- 
parisons between the simultaneous traces of magnetographs in various 
places. He is at present engaged on such an undertaking, and the 
Committee are in hopes that when this is completed he will give them 
the benefit of his experience. 

Captain Creak and other members of the Committee feel disposed to 
consider the continuous observation of earth currents an important part 
of magnetic work. 

The Rev. S. J. Perry and Professor Stewart (Appendix V.) have com- 
pleted their preliminary comparison of certain simultaneous fluctuations 
of the declination at Kew and at Stonyhurst in a paper which has been 
published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, No. 241, 1885. The 
results are virtually those which were stated in the last report of the 
Committee. The comparison is being continued and extended. 

Professor Stewart and Mr. W. Lant Carpenter (Appendix VI.) have 
given the I'esults of other four years' reduction of Kew declination dis- 
turbances classified according to the age of the moon. These are very 
similar to the results of the first four years given in our last report. The 
same observers give a comparison, extending over four years, between 
declination disturbances and wind values, which appears to them to show 
that there is some relation between these two phenomena. They are 
anxious to continue and extend both these inquiries. 

Professor Stewart has pointed out certain general considerations 
which appear to him to indicate that the solar-diurnal variation may per- 
haps be caused by electric currents in the upper atmospheric regions. 
Dr. Schuster has likewise made a preliminary application of the Gaussian 
analysis, tending, in his opinion, to confirm the hypothesis that currents 
in the upper regions are the cause of these variations.^ 

By this analysis Dr. Schuster obtains certain relations between the 

' See Appendix by Sir G. B. Airy to the Greenwich Observations, 1884. 
^ An account of these researches will be found in the Phil. Mng., April and May 
1886. 

1886. V 



66 KEPORT — 1 886. 

Bolar-diurnal variations of tlie three magnetic elements which ought, in his 
opinion, to hold on the hypothesis that these variations are caused by cur- 
rents in the upper atmospheric regions. One of these is that the horizontal 
force component of the daily variation ought to have a maximum or mini- 
mum at the time when the declination component vanishes — that is to say, 
attains its mean position. Another is that the horizontal force ought to 
be a maximum in the morning and a minimum "in the afternoon in the 
equatorial regions, while in latitudes above 45° the minimum ought to 
take place in the moi'ning. A third is that in the equatoi'ial regions the 
maximum of horizontal force ought to be coincident with the minimum 
of vertical force, and vice versa. 

These conclusions are considered by Dr. Schuster to be sufficiently 
well confirmed by observations, and thus to render hopeful the first 
attempt to apply the Gaussian analysis to the solar-diurnal valuation. 

The appendices of Captain Creak (I.) and of Dr. Schuster (VII.) have 
reference to this subject, and maintain the importance of some action 
being taken by the Committee to prepare for a thorough application of 
the Gaussian analysis to the magnetic variations. It will be seen fi-om the 
remarks of Dr. Schuster that some time must elapse before observations 
are obtained sufficiently good and complete to justify a systematic appli- 
cation to them of mathematical analysis. This circumstance has induced 
the Secretary- to lay before this Committee in Appendix VIII. a pro- 
visional working hypothesis I'egarding the cause of the periodic variations 
of terrestrial magnetism which has gradually gi'owu up by contributions 
from various quarters. 

While this Committee do not hold themselves responsible for the 
various statements contained in this hypothesis, they would point out the 
desirability of ascertaining to what extent well-known magneto-electric 
laws may succeed in accounting for the phenomena of terrestrial magnet- 
ism, and likewise the desirability of ascertaining to what extent the 
magnetic earth appeal's to be subject to the laws of ordinary magnets. 

A preliminary working hypothesis of this nature might serve to elicit 
facts while the material for the Gaussian analysis is being completed, and 
it would add to the interest of the final result if we should obtain reason 
to think that electric currents in the ui^per atmospheric regions are at 
once the iraiaediate ratises of magnetic variations and the effects of atmo- 
spheric motions in these regions, so that a knowledge of the one set of 
currents might possibly enable us to determine the other. 

In Ajipendix IX. we have a practical example by Mr. C. Chambers of 
the method of reduction which he suggested in Appendix XII. of the last 
report of this Committee. Finally, in Appendix X. there are some remarks 
by Captain Creak on the advantages to the science of terrestrial magnet- 
ism to be obtained from an expedition to the region within the Antarctic 
Circle. 

The Committee have drawn 10?. 10-^., and returned to the Association 
a balance of 291. 10s. They would desire their reappointment, and would 
request that the sum of 501. should be placed at their disposal, to be spent 
as they may think best on the researches mentioned in this report. 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 67 

APPENDIX. 

I. Letter from Captain Creak to Professor Stewart. 

Eichmoncl Lodge, Kidbrooke Park Road, 
Blackheath : Ajjril 26, 1886. 

Dear Professor Stewart, — In tlie appendix accompanying tbe last 
Report of the Committee on Reducing and Comparing Magnetic Obser- 
vations, so many valuable suggestions are made by various well-known 
magneticians that I feel there is little left for me to add. 

I have long noticed the difficulties attending Sabine's method of 
separating the disturbances from the normal values of the solar diurnal 
variation of the declination. It has done good work in the past, but 
now the question has arisen, Has a better been proposed ? I think'that 
adopted at the Greenwich Royal Observatoiy is better, and that the 
whole of the Greenwich methods of reduction, as set forth in the pub- 
lished volume of ' Magnetic Reductions ' of 1883, invite the attentive 
consideration of the Committee, with a view to their adoption as a whole 
or in part. 

_ I am, however, disposed to think that the method proposed by M. H. 
Wild, of ascertaining ' the noi-mal daily path of the magnetic elements.' 
has niuch to commend it, and is rather less open to the possibility of 
individual bias than that of Greenwich. 

In recalling to the notice of the Committee Gauss's valuable memoir 
' On the General Theory of Magnetism,' I consider Dr. Schuster has done 
excellent service. Possibly the prospect of formidable computations has 
prevented Gauss's treatment of magnetic observations from beino- hitherto 
adopted, but if, as Dr. Schuster proposes, by selecting stations °the com- 
putations may be reduced within comparatively easy limits, I would 
suggest some such course as follows : — 

(1) That the selected stations be fixed observatories provided with 
the usual magnetogi'aphs of like pattern. 

(2) That the several Superintendents be invited to make a series of 
observations for a year or more of the solar diurnal variation of the three 
magnetic elements, according to a method to be decided by the Com- 
mittee, with a view to their being treated after the method of Gauss. 

(3) That Earth currents be made, as far as possible, a subject of 
observation at each observatory. 

In thus advocating the application of Gauss's method of calculation to 
the variations of the magnetic elements, I apprehend that the most im- 
portant immediate result will be the settlement of the question whether 
the causes are situated above or below the surface of the Earth, and 
consequently we shall thereafter be better instructed as to the path we 
should follow in future observations. 

Although in these suggestions only future observations have been 
considered, it is not in forgetfulness of the large and valuable series 
already obtained, which all must wish to see made generally available by 
being rendered in a common form. 

I remain, yours truly, 

Ettrick W. Creak. 

II. Letter from Senhor Capello, Lislon, to Professor Stewart. 
Lately in studying the diurnal variation of the tension of vapour at 
Lisbon, I have been struck with the great similarity of the course of this 



68 



REPORT — 1886. 



meteorological element, and that of the magnetic inclination, ^ as shown 
in the following curves. 

It will be very difficult to say what direct connection there can be 
between the tension of vapour and the magnetic inclination, but the great 
similarity of the carves (month by month), and also in the different 



-+-D'IURNAL--VARIAJION^OF-VflPOUR-TENSION 




reasons (although the phases of the inclination are nearly two hours 
earlier) make one think that at least the causes of the variations of these 
heterogeneous elements are the same. 

One would therefore attribute to the currents of the atmosphere the 
magnetic variations : can it be that the vertical currents which are sup- 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



69 



posed to be the cause of the variations of the tension of vapour can also 
produce the movements of the inclination needle ? 

It will be necessary to carefully verify this connection for different 
places. I send you the diurnal curves for these two elements. 



. diurnalLva ft'/ a tionAoeLinclina tion. 

I I I l/8ffl?^/S67 Mill 



7 8 9/0 II ma. I z 3 • 



S 6 7 8 9 10 limlTL 




III. Extract of letter from Sir J. Henry Lefroy to Professor Steivart. 

I have virtually finished the comparison of Photographic Records of 
Declination at Greenwich and Toronto for 1850, and have made up mean 
curves for each month from the undisturbed days alone, generally 7 or 8 
in number (the total number for Greenwich is 99). On plotting the 
means they give, notwithstanding the small number of days in some of 
them, very regular curves are obtained, and they present a feature which 
is new to me. Sabine never compared Greenwich with his colonial 
stations, and has not, that I remember, remarked it. It is that the N. end 
of the magnet reaches the most westerly position of the 24 hours from 
1 to 1^ hour earlier at Greenwich than it does at Toronto. This appears 
in every month compared ; there are only seven ot them, as the whole 
apparatus caught fire and was destroyed in June, and did not get to work 
again before November ; but seven months are good for something. 

The detailed comparison of disturbed movements has not suggested 
much beyond the fact that there is rarely any marked correspondence, and 
that the movements are usually in contrary directions. I have transferred 
all the Greenwich movements of any magnitude to my sheets, and this is 



70 



BEPOBT 1886. 



apparent too frequently to leave any donbt that it is the law ; it could only 
be demonstrated by lithographing examples. I enclose a tracing of mean 
curves from the tracings of undisturbed days, together with an abstract 
of the numerical values. The Greenwich turning points agree very closely 
with those at Dublin. That they are so much earlier than they are at To- 
ronto seems to me likely to be traceable to some influence of the Atlantic 
on the mean direction of the currents. I should add to my explanation 
that, to obtain three months for the winter solstice, January from the 
beginning of the year was grouped with November and December at the 
end, as I had not the next following month of January. 

Senhor Capello has sent me his curves showing the general corre- 
spondence of character between the diurnal changes of magnetic inclina- 
tion and those of the tension of vapour in the atmosphere. Lloyd in 
1849 ' showed that the area of the diurnal curves of declination gave 
an annual progression closely resembling the corresponding progression 
given by the area of the daily curves of temperature, with which the 
tension of vapour is so intimately connected ; so that it would seem that 
there is a closer connection between meteorologic and magnetic jjheno- 
mena than has been supposed. 

Abstract of mean Solar-diurnal Curves of Declination by measurement from photo- 
graphic records at Greenwich and Toronto, 1850. Undisturbed days only, grouped 
in astronomical seasons. 

Note. — The mean date of each group only corresponds approximately to the equinox 
or solstice, the days being irregularl)' distributed. 

— = E of mean. + = W of mean of the 24h. 



M T 


Greenwich. 


Toronto. 
















Vernal 


Summer 


Autumn 


Winter 


Vernal 


Winter 




E 


S 


E 


S 


E 


S 


Midnight 


-1-12 


-o'91 


- I'si 


-o'84 


-0-71 


-0-20 


13 


-0 89 


-1-43 


-1-45 


-0-63 


-0-76 


-0-25 


14 


-0-8.5 


-115 


- 1 •.-.4 


-0-23 


-0-82 


-f004 


15 


-0-78 


-1-64 


-1-84 


-0-42 


-0-82 


-0-46 


16 


-0-72 


-211 


-1G5 


-0-55 


-1-41 


-0-57 


17 


-0-97 


-3-68 


- 2-54 


-0-76 


-110 


-111 


18 


-2 05 


-4-50 


- 3-56 


-0-96 


-2-35 


-102 


19 


-3-30 


-4-89 


-4-53 


-105 


-4-22 


-2-08 


20 


-415 


-4-25 


-4-2(; 


-]'02 


-5-91 


-308 


21 


-3-31 


-202 


-l-(i8 


-0-88 


- 6-34 


-4-13 


22 


-0-38 


+ 1-89 


+ 2-20 


-f0 66 


-411 


-2-85 


23 


+ 3-44 


+ 5-44 


-(-.") '75 


-H2-58 


-i-oo 


-0-47 


Noon 


-t-5-83 


-^7•10 


+ G 67 


+ 3 34 


-I-205 


+ 1-72 


1 


-f 6-51 


+ 7-24 


+ 6-79 


+ 2-99 


+ 5-.")8 


+ 305 


2 


-,- 5-09 


+ 5-93 


+ 5-52 


-^2■]3 


+ 6-23 


+ 3-61 


3 


-1- 3-55 


-1- 3-86 


-f3-31 


-fO-73 


-I-5-50 


+ 3-55 


4 


-hi '23 


-I-1-85 


-1- ] -32 


+ 0-48 


-f4-20 


+ 2-94 


5 


-0-18 


+ 0-28 


-0-39 


-0 05 


-f2-95 


+ 222 


6 


-0-95 


-105 


-0-92 


-0-43 


+ 1-93 


-hO-87 


7 


-1-26 


- 1-36 


- 1 •07 


-0 66 


-105 


-001 


8 


-1-67 


-\--it 


-11 5 


-1-06 


+ 0-57 


-0-44 


9 


-119 


-1-17 


-M3 


-1-20 


+ 018 


-0-60 


10 


-1-25 


-1-26 


-1-02 


-1-41 


-0-08 


-0-30 


11 


-1-43 


-0-9:5 


-1-25 


-114 


-0-28 


-0-53 



The Greenwich observations were '20m. after the hours named ; the 
Toronto observations 2^m. before the hours named. 

' Trans. li. Irish Arddnii//, vol. xxii. Pi. I. 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



71 



The days accepted as undisturbed are the following 





Greeiufivli. 




Toronto. 


Jan. 


. 14, 15. IG. 17, 51, 22. 


Jan. 


. 14. 15, 16,' 17. 21.' 22. 


Feb. 


7. 11, 14. 17. 2-5. 


Feb. 


7, 10, 14, 17, 25. 27. 28. 


Mar. 


2, S, 14. 18, 2U, 28, 29. 


Mar. 


. 2, S, 14. IS, 20. 28. 29. 


Apr. 


3, .5, 16. 17, 23, 2.5, 26, 30. 


Apr. 


. 3, S. 23, 26, 30. 


May 


5, 6, 10. 1.5, 21, 25, 30, 31. 


.May 


. 5, G. 10, 21. 22, 2.5, 20. 30, 31. 


June 


11, 12, 15. 20. 23. 24, 25, 29. 30. 


June 


. 12^ ' • ' 


July 


3, 4, 14, 17, 2«, 31. 


July 


— 


Aus. 


6, 7, 14, 25, 26. 28. 31. 


Aug. 


— 


Sept. 


1, 9. n, 17,20,25,26. 


Sept. 


— 


Oct. 


4,10, n.21, 22. 24. 


Oct. 


— 


Not. 


4, 5, 8. 15, 17, 22, 23, 24, 28. 


Nov. 


. 16^23. 27 28. 


Deo. 


0, 7. 9. 10, 13, 14, 19, 20, 21, 30. 


Dec. 


. S, 9, 12, 13, 14. 19. 20, 21. 


July 1, 1886. 




J. H. Lefroy 



IV. Eejyort hij G. M. Whipple. 

In the Report of the Committee presented to last year's meeting, 
Dr. Wild, of St. Petersburg, .submitted a Table showing the different 
values of the solar-diurnal vai'iation of the declination in Pawlowski for 
October 1882 and March 1883, as derived from the photographic records of 
that observatory, after treatment by the two methods of Sabine and Wild. 

He found that the difference in the value of the declination at any 
hour of the day for the two months in question varied from +08 to — 0'9 
in a range of 8-1, or 21 per cent., of the whole. 

At the request of the Committee I have jirepared tables showing the 
mean daily variation of declination at the Kew Observatory for the three 
years (1870-1872) and have contrasted the values obtained there, by 
Sabine's and Wild's methods, both for the whole year, as well as for the 
sammer and winter semi-annual periods. I have, in addition, compared 
both sets of values with those published by the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, for the same periods. 

The results given in Table III. would show that the differences in the 
values of the diurnal range of the declination magnet at the Kew Obser- 
vatory, as determined by Sabine's or Wild's methods, vary to an extent of 
0*7' in a total range of 12', or may equal G per cent, of the whole ; whilst 
in the summer half-year (Table I.) the extreme difference amounts to 
11 in a range of 15', or 7 per cent., and in winter to an extreme difference 
of 0'8 in a range of 8"7, equal to 9 per cent. 

The greater diurnal range is afforded in every instance by Sabine's 
method of treatment of the observations, although the difference isbutsmall. 

Contrasting the Kew results with those of Greenwich, we may fairly 
consider the difference to be due in some measure to instrumental causes, 
the construction of the magnetographs being dissimilar at the two obser- 
vatoi'ies. The slight difference in position of the two observatories may 
likewise have some influence. 

Accordingly, Table III. shows that the normal daily range at 
Greenwich differs from that at Kew, as deduced by Sabine's method, by 
1'4', or from that derived by Wild's method by 1'8', in a range of 11'6', 
the percentages being 12 and 15 I'espectively. 

In the summer half-year (Table I.) we get differences of 1 -i , or 10 
per cent., by Sabine's, and the same percentage by Wild's method, in a 
range of 14"7' ; whilst in the winter we similarly obtain differences of 
1"3' by Sabine's, and 2'0' by Wild's method in a range of 84', or percent- 
ages of 16 and 25 respectively. G. M. Whipple. 
Kew Observatory, Jali/ 1886. 

' Owing to imperfections of the record only these two days were eventually used. 
- Apparatus destroyed by fire. . ' Kecord begins Nov. 1 2. 



72 



REPORT — 1886. 



Table I. — 8emi-Annual Solar-Diurnal 



1870. 

Summer. 

April ( Greenwich 
to \ Kew (1) . 

September ( Kew (2) . 

WixTEi;. 

.Tan. to Mar. ( Greenwich , 

and \ Kew (1) . 
Oct. to Dec. (.Kew (2) . 

1871. 

Summer. 

April ( Greenwich 

to \ Kew(l) . 

September \ Kew (2) . 



Winter. 



Jan. to Mar. 

and 
Oct. to Dec. 



Greenwich 
Kew (1) . 
I Kew (2) . 



1872. 

Summer. 

April ( Greenwicli 

to - Kew (1) . 

September ( Kew (2) . 

Winter. 

Jan. to Mar. ( Greenwich 
and \ Kew (1) . 
Oct. to Dec. (Kew (2) . 



Noon 
























Oi- 


11" 


at 


S"- 


4h 


5" 


e"- 


7h 


8i» 


gi- 


IC 


Ilk 


+ 7-2 
+ 7-0 
+ 7-5 


+8-9 
+ 8-8 
+ 8-6 


+ 8-6 
+ 8-8 
+ 8-1 


+ 6-5 
+ 6-4 
+ 5-9 


+ 4'2 
+ 4-4 
+ 3-7 


+ 2-1 
+ 2-2 
+ 1-5 


+ 0-5 
+ 0-4 
+ 0-2 


-0-1 
+ 0-4 
-0-4 


-0-2 

0-0 

-0-2 


-0-6 
-0'4 
-0-4 


-0-8 

-0-2 

0-0 


-1-5 
-0-9 
-0-4 


+ 4-8 
+ 4-4 
+ 4-4 


+ G-2 
+ 5-7 
+S-3 


+ 6-0 
+ 5-7 
+ 6-7 


+ 4-9 
+ 4-4 
+ 4-4 


+ 3-3 
+ 2-6 
+ 2-4 


+ 2-2 
+ 1-5 
+ 1-5 


+ 1-4 
+ 0-7 
+ 1-1 


+ 0-5 

0-0 

+ 0-7 


-0-.5 
-0-7 
-0-2 


-1-5 
-1-3 


-2-5 
-2-2 
-2-0 


-2-8 
-2-2 
-1-8 


+ 7-1 
+ 7-0 
+ 6-6 


+8-8 
+8-8 
+ 8-4 


+ 8-5 
+ 8-6 

+ 8-1 


+ 6-9 
+ 6-6 
+ 6-2 


+ 4-6 
+ 4-G 
+ 4-2 


+ 2-5 
+ 2-2 
+ 2-2 


+ 0-9 
+ 0-6 
+ 1-1 


+ 0-1 

00 

+0-2 


-0-4 
-0-2 
-0-2 


-0-7 

-e-4 

-0-4 


-0-9 
-0-4 
-0-4 


-IS 

-0-9 
-0-7 


+ 4-9 

+ 4-4 
+ 4-4 


+ C-2 
+ 5-9 
+ 5-7 


+ 61 
+ 5-7 
+ 5'3 


+ 4-8 
+ 4-4 
+ 4-2 


+ 3-2 
+ 2-9 
4-2-6 


+ 1-8 
+ 1-5 
+ 1-5 


+ M 
+ 11 

+ 0-9 


+ 0-2 

0-0 

+ 0-2 


-0-8 
-0-7 
-0-4 


-2-0 
-1-5 
-1-1 


-2-8 
-2-0 
-1-8 


-3-0 
-2-2 
-1-5 


+ C-7 
+ 6-4 
+ 6-2 


+ 8-2 
+ 7-9 
+7-7 


+ 8-0 
+ 7-7 

+ 7-5 


+ 6-3 
+ 6-4 

+ 5-7 


+ 4-5 
+ 4-4 
+ 40 


+ 2-4 
+ 2-2 
+ 1-8 


+ 0-7 
+ 0-9 
+ U-4 


-0-2 
-0-2 
-0-2 


-0-6 
-0-4 
-0-2 


-0-9 
-0-4 
-0-2 


-1-2 
-0'7 
-0-9 


-1-5 
-0-9 
-0-7 


+ 4-ft 
+'4-4 
+ 4-4 


+ 5-9 
+ 5-.'-. 
+ 0-1 


+ 0-9 
+ 5-0 
+ 5-1 


+ 4-5 
+ 4-0 
+ 3-5 


+ 2-8 
+ 2-6 
+ 2-2 


+ 1-C 
+ 1-5 
+ 1-3 


+ 0-9 
+ 0-9 
+ 0-9 


-0-1 
+ 0-4 
+ 0-2 


-1-2 
-0-7 
-0-2 


-2-3 
-1-5 
-1-3 


-2-9 
-2-2 
-1-5 


-3-3 

-2-2 
-2-0 



MEANS OF 



SuMsujn. 
I Greenwicli 



April 

to 
September 



Kew(l) . 
Ken- (2) . 



WlXTKR. 

r Greenwich . 
Jan. to Mar. 



Kew (2) 



/■Gn 

and "•■jKew(l). 
Oct. to Dec. I , 

Differences ot 3 years' Semi- J 
annual Means . . . . i 

Differences of 3 jxars' Semi- | 
annual Means . . . . T 

Differences of 3 years' Semi- f 
annual Means .... 1 



+ 7-0 


+ 8-6 


+ 8-4 


+ GG 


+ 4-4 


+ 2-3 


+ 0-7 


-0-1 


-0-4 


-0-7 


-10 


-1-4 


+ 6-8 


+ 8-5 


+ 8-4 


+ G-5 


+ 4-5 


+ 2-2 


+ 0-6 


+ 0-1 


-0-2 


-0-4 


-0'4 


-0-9 


+ G-S 


+ 8-2 


+ 7-9 


+ 5-9 


+ 4-0 


+ 1-8 


+ 0-G 


-0-1 


-0-2 


-0-3 


-0-4 


-0-6 


+ 4-9 


+ G-1 


+ 6-0 


+ 4-7 


+ 3-1 


+ 1-9 


+ 1-1 


+0-2 


-0-8 


-1-9 


-2-7 


-30 


+ 4-4 


+ 5-7 


+ 5-6 


+ 4-3 


+ 2-7 


+ 1-5 


+ 0-9 


+0-1 


-0-7 


-1-4 


-21 


-2-2 


+ 4-4 


+ 5-4 


+5-4 


+4-0 


+ 2-4 


+ 1-4 


+ 1-0 


+ 0-4 


-0-3 


-1-2 


-1'8 


-1-8 


0-0 

0-0 

+ 0-2 


+ 0-3 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-1 


+ 0-5 

+ 0-2 

0-0 


+ 0-6 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-1 


+ 0-5 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-1 


+ 0-4 
+ 0-1 

+ 0-1 


0-0 
-01 
+ 0-1 


+ 0-2 
-0-3 

-02 


0-0 
+0-4 
-0-2 


-0-1 
+ 0-2 
-0-3 


0-0 
+ 0-3 
-OG 


-0-3 
+0'4 
-0-5 


+ 0-5 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-2 


+ 0-1 


-0-1 


-0-5 


-0-6 


-0-8 


+ 0-2 


+ 0-4 


+ 0C 


+ 0-7 


+ 0-4 


+ 0-5 


+0-1 


0-0 


-0-2 


-0-4 


-0-6 


-0-8 


+ 0-5 


+ 0-7 


+ 0-G 


+ 0-7 


+ 0-7 


+ 0-5 


+ 0-1 


-0-2 


-0-5 


-0-7 


-0-9 


-1-2 



ON COMPAKING AND BEDUCING- MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, 



73 



Variation. Greenwich and Kew. 



























joh 


ISh 


14h 


ISh 


Iflfc 


171' 


ISh 


igh 


201" 


21h 


22'' 


231' 


-1-9 


-21 


-2-3 


-2-6 


-3-0 


-4-0 


-5-2 


-Gl 


-Gl 


-4-2 


-0-7 


+ 3-7 


-VI 


-1-3 


-1-8 


-2-2 


-3-3 


-4-6 


-5-9 


-6-6 


-6-8 


-4-8 


-1-5 


+ 3-7 


-0-9 


-1-3 


-1-3 


-20 


-2-6 


-4-2 


-5-3 


-G-8 


-6-8 


-5-1 


-1-1 


+ 3-3 


-2-G 


-2-6 


-2-4 


-2-3 


-2'1 


-1-9 


-1-s 


-2-1 


-2-8 


-2S 


-0-7 


+ 2-2 


-2-0 


-2-0 


-2-0 


-2-0 


-2-4 


-2-2 


-2-2 


-2-6 


-3-3 


-31 


-1-1 


+ 2-0 


-1-8 


-20 


-2-0 


—1-8 


-2-0 


-2-0 


-20 


-2-6 


-31 


-31 


-1-3 


+ 1-8 


-1-5 


-2-0 


-2-3 


-2-7 


-3-3 


-4-3 


-51 


-5-9 


-G-0 


-4-4 


-1-1 


+ 3-2 


-1-3 


-1-1 


-1-8 


-2-2 


-31 


-4-6 


-5-7 


-G-G 


-6-6 


-4-8 


-1-8 


+ 3-1 


-11 


-1-3 


-1-8 


-2-2 


-2-9 


-4-2 


-5-5 


-G-6 


-6-4 


-4-8 


-1-5 


+ 3-3 


-2-9 


-2-6 


-2-4 


-2-0 


-1-8 


-1-5 


-1-4 


-1-8 


-2-5 


-2-C 


-0-5 


+ 2-4 


-2-2 


-1-8 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-1-8 


-20 


-2-4 


-3-3 


-3-1 


-0-9 


+ 2-0 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-1-3 


-1-5 


-2-0 


-2-4 


-31 


-3-7 


-3-3 


-1-8 


+ 2-0 


-1-9 


-1-9 


-2-0 


-2-G 


-3-0 


-3-8 


-4-7 


-5-4 


-5£ 


-4-1 


-0-8 


+3-1 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-11 


-2-4 


-2-9 


-4-0 


-5-1 


-5-7 


-6-2 


-4-8 


-1-.5 


+ 2-9 


-11 


-11 


-1-5 


-2-0 


-2-2 


-3-5 


-4-8 


-0-9 


-6-4 


-4-8 


-1-5 


+ 2-6 


-2-7 


-2-5 


-2-4 


-2-3 


-16 


-1-3 


-1-3 


-1-5 


-2-0 


-1-9 


-0-1 


+ 2-6 


-2-4 


-2-2 


-2-0 


-1-8 


-1-5 


-1-8 


-2-0 


-2-2 


-2-4 


-2-4 


-0-9 


+ 2-4 


-2-0 


-1-5 


-1-8 


-1-5 


-1-3 


-1-5 


-2'0 


-2-2 


-2-6 


-2-6 


-1-5 


+ 1-8 



THBEE TEAKS' 



-1-8 


— 2-0 


-2-2 


-2-6 


-3-1 


-4-0 


-5-0 


-5-8 


-5-9 


-4-2 


-0-9 


+ 3-3 


-1-3 


-1-3 


-1-6 


-2-3 


-31 


-4-4 


-5G 


-G-3 


-6-5 


-4-8 


-1-6 


+3-2 


-1-0 


-1-2 


-1-5 


-2-1 


-2-6 


-4-0 


-5-2 


-6-4 


-6-5 


-4-9 


-1-4 


+3-1 


-2-7 


-2G 


-2-4 


— 2*2 


-1-8 


-1-6 


-1-5 


-1-8 


-2-3 


-2-4 


-0-4 


+ 2-4 


-2-2 


-2-0 


-1-8 


-1-8 


-1-8 


-1-9 


-2-1 


-2'4 


-3-0 


-2-9 


-1-0 


+ 2-1 


-1-8 


-1-7 


-1-8 


-1-5 


-1-6 


-1-8 


-2-1 


-2-G 


-3-1 


-3-0 


-1-5 


+ 1-9 


-0-3 
+ 0-4 
-0-5 


-O-l 

+ 0-3 
-0-7 


-0-1 

0-0 

-0-6 


-0-2 
+ 0-3 
-0-3 


-0-5 

+ 0-2 

00 


-0-4 
+0-1 
+ 0-4 


-0-4 

0-0 

+ 0-G 


+0-1 
+ 0-2 
+ 0-5 


0-0 
+ 0-1 
+ 0-6 


+ 0-1 
+ 0-1 
+ 0-6 


-0-2 
+ 0-5 

+ 0-7 


+ 0-1 
+ 0-2 
+ 0-1 


-0-5 


-0-6 


-0-6 


-0-4 


00 


+ 0-3 


+ 0-G 


+ 0-6 


+ 0-7 


+ 0-5 


+ 0-6 


+0-3 


-0-8 


-0-8 


-0-7 


-0-5 


-0-5 


0-0 


+ 0-2 


+ 0-G 


+ 0-6 


+ 0-7 


+ 0-5 


+ 0-2 


-0-9 


-0'9 


-OG 


-0-7 


-0-2 


+ 0-2 


+ 0-6 


+ 0-8 


+ 0-8 


+ 0-6 


+ 1-1 


+ 0-5 



Normal according to Sabine. 
Wild. 



Normal according to Sabine. 
Wild. 



Normal according to Sabine. 
Wild. 



Normal according to Sabine. 
Wild. 



Nonnal according to Sabine. 
WUd. 



Normal according to Sabine. 
Wild. 



Greenwich, Summer, three 

years' Means. 
Kew, Summer, three years' 

(Sabine). 
Kew, Summer, hree years' 

(Wildj. 



Greenwich, Winter, three 

years' Means. 
Kew, Winter, three years' 

(Sabine). 
Kew, Winter, three years' 

(Wild). 
(Sum.), Sabine minus Wild. 
(Win.), Sabine minus Wild. 
Greenwich minus Sabine 

(Summer). 
Greenwich minus Sabine 

(Winter). 
Greenwich minus Wild 

(Summer). 

„ (Winter). 



74 



KEPOKT — 1886. 



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ON COMPARING AND REDDCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. /O 



V. Note by the Bev. Professor Perry and Professor Stewart. Coi7iparison 
of Magnetograms of Kew and StonyJmrst. 

The existence of two magnetic observatories not veiy far apart, and 
supplied with similar sets of self-recording instruments, affords a very 
favourable opportunity for discussing the lesser variations that may be 
detected in the simultaneous movements of the magnetic needle. A first 
comparison was therefore made in 18G8 between the declination magneto- 
grams of Kew and Stonyhurst, and it was found that the ratio between 
the changes at the two stations was a variable one. A further discussion 
of the curves of 1883 and 1884 has lately been made by the Rev. S.J. 
Perry and Dr. Balfour Stewart, and the results communicated to the 
Royal Society in a paper read on December 10, 1885, The observed 
difi"ei'ences in the declination ordinates between the turning-points of 
certain marked fluctuations in the curves have led to the conclusion that 
the fluctuations at both observatories follow the same general law as to 
direction, but that there is apparently a slight diff'erence of duration at 
the two stations in the case of some short period movements. In dis- 
cussing the tabulated measurements it was assumed as a M'orking hypo- 
thesis that the disturbances are due partly to true magnetic cJianges 
and partly to secondary currents arising therefrom. The ratios of the 
simultaneous changes at Kew and Stonyhurst show that the angular values 
of the declination disturbances are in excess at the latter observatory, 
especially when the movement is of short duration ; but these ratios 
appear to be independent of the extent of the oscillation. 

The Rev. S. J. Perry and Dr. Stewart are continuing this research. 



VI. Note by Professor Stewart and W. L. Carpenter, Esq. 

We have reduced other four years of Kew declination disturbances aftei' 
the method described in the last report of this Committee, and have 
obtained the following result from the two series of four years each : — 

Supposed connection between disturbances and the Moon's age. 

(0) = new (4) = full moon. 

(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (fi) (7) 

1866-69 . 88 91 78 64 52 69 74 75 

1870-73 . Ill 114 104 95 83 94 107 101 

From this it will be seen that the results obtained from both series 
agree together in exhibiting the same sort of fluctuation. 

We have likewise reduced the four years of Kew declination disturb- 
ance, 1870-73, with the view of determining whether there is any 
apparent connection between wind values and magnetic disturbances. In 
doing this we have adopted the following procedure : — 

1. We have obtained, by the kindness of the Kew Committee, the 
total amount in miles gone over by the wind at Kew for each 
day of the years 1870-73, and have then converted these into 
daily averages of three days. Let us call this table A. 



76 REPOET— 1886. 

2. We have next obtained a table B, where eacb day's value is the 

average of 25 days of table A, all being properly placed •with 
respect of dates. 

3. Taking the difference between the entries of tables A and B, we 

obtain a series representing departures from the mean — ^lus 
when in excess, and minus when in deficiency — whicb may be 
taken to represent wind weather. 

4. The declination aggregate daily disturbance numbers have been 

treated in exactly the same way as the wind numbers, and the 
differences obtained may be taken to represent dishirbance 
weather. 

5. The values representing wind weather have then been formed 

into series of twelve terms each, so chosen that maximnm wind 
values come together at the middle of each series. The series 
are then added up. The result is given in (a). 

6. The declination disturbance weather values have then been 

arranged into series of twelve each, so that each entry is two 
days previous in date to the corresponding entry in (a). Call 
this (/3) when added up. 

7. The values representing wind weather have next been formed 

into series of twelve terms each, so chosen that minimum wind 
values come together at the middle of each series. Let this be 
added up and called (y). 

8. The declination disturbance weather values have then been 

arranged into series of twelve each, so that each entry is two 
days previous in date to the corresponding entry in (y). This 
is added up and called (o). 
The results of these tables are given below : — 

(a) Wind weather arranged so that max. values represent middle 
of series. 

-2384-1655-101 + 220.5 + 5935 + 7431 + 7022 
+ 4157 + 2401-360-1667-2196. 
(/J) Dec. disturbance values so arranged that each entry of (/3) is 
two days previous to each entry of (o). 

-2220-652 + 245 + 1110 + 919 + 693 + 1007 + 466 
+ 1067 + 588 + 33-186. 

(y) Wind values arranged so that min. values represent middle of 
series. 

+ 2535 + 1114-1017-3393-4872-5312-5177 
-4740-3322-1680 + 1074 + 3196. 

(2) Dec. disturbance values so arranged that each entry of (2) is 
two days previous to each entry of (y). 

+ 679 + 177-474-1022-1227-587-260-367 
-1041-980-535 + 116. 

From this it would appear that high disturbance values correspond 
with and slightly precede high wind values. It is our intention to reduce 
all the available Kew observations in this way, and ultimately to present 
the result to the Royal Society. 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 77 



'VU. Report to the Secretary of the Committee of the British Association 
appointed for the purpose of considering the best means of comparing and 
reducing magnetic observations. 

In the suggestions which I submitted to the Committee last year I 
proposed that the method of spherical harmonics employed by Gauss 
should be applied to the periodic variations of terrestrial magnetism. I 
have in the course of the past year examined by this method the principal 
term of the solar diurnal variation ; and I hope that the results obtained 
will induce the Committee to continue the examination in greater detail 
of the same variation, and also the other periodic changes. Assuming 
that the Committee is willing to adopt a course of action which must 
necessarily lead to results of primary importance, I venture to submit to 
them more definite proposals. 

If we had eight magnetic stations separated as far as possible we 
should be able to obtain a fairly complete expression of the general distri- 
bution of magnetic potential on the surface of the earth. For the expan- 
sion in spherical harmonics, including terms of the third order, involves 
fifteen constants, while the horizontal components of magnetic force at 
each of the eight stations would give us sixteen quantities to determine 
them. As far as I can judge at present, periodic variations are not much 
affected by local circumstances, and therefore harmonics of the first three 
orders will in all probability be sufficient, as a first approximation at any 
rate. After obtaining the expression for the variable part of the poten- 
tial, we can easily, with the help of the vertical component of magnetic 
force, determine the question whether the cause of the disturbance has 
its seat inside or outside the surface of the earth. I think, therefore, that 
we should endeavour to obtain a complete record during a period of about 
ten years of the elements of terrestrial magnetism at eight stations, and 
that these should be reduced in exactly the same manner, under the super- 
intendence of the Committee. 

As it is important to proceed without delay, we must choose stations 
at which self- registering instruments are at present in existence. I think 
the following will be the most suitable : Lisbon, Greenwich or Kew, St. 
Petersburg, Bombay, Mauritius, Melbourne, Zi Ka Wei (China), Toronto, 
or Washington. It is a matter of regret that South America is not re- 
presented, but I do not think the deficiency is sufficiently great to justify 
delay. 

I should propose, then — 

(1) To write to the chief observers at these stations at once, asking them 
for such information as will enable us to judge whether the instruments 
are in good condition, whether sufficient precautions are taken to elimi- 
nate temperature variations, and whether they are willing to pay par- 
ticular attention to the magnetic instraments for a period of ten years. 

(2) To ask these observers how far they are willing to undertake 
the reduction of their observations according to a scheme submitted to 
them by the Committee, and, in case they cannot undertake this, whether 
they are willing to forward to the Committee the necessary records. 

(53) To obtain an estimate of the cost of the reductions, which will 
have to be undertaken by the Committee. 



78 REPORT— 1886. 

I cannot help thinking that on inquiry a good many difficulties which 
have been raised will be found to disappear, and that in view of the great 
importance of the subject the necessary funds will be forthcoming when- 
ever a definite scheme is proposed which will lead to certain results. 

The secular variation of terrestrial magnetism will probably require a 
different treatment. Captain Creak has' informed the Committee that a 
large number of observations of declination, inclination, and total force 
distributed over the world have been collected by the late Sir Frederick 
Evans and himself, and that he has already exhibited on a globe at a 
recent soiree of the Royal Society some leading results of the distribution 
of the secular change for the epoch 1880. The Committee should, in 
my opinion, collect and tabulate all available records of the secular varia- 
tions of the three components of the magnetic force. We cannot decide 
on the best method of reduction until the material has been collected. 

Arthur Schuster. 



VIII. liemarJis on a Provisional WorJdng Hypothesis. 
By Professor Balfour Stewart. 

1. From various quarters there have been brought together the 
elements of what may be termed a provisional working hypothesis with 
respect to the main causes of the periodical variations of terrestrial 
magnetism. 

In this hypothesis it is supposed that electric currents in the upper 
regions of the atmosphere may be the main immediate causes of the 
periodical non-disturbance variations of the magnet, while small bat 
abrupt changes in the magnetism of the earth along with secondary or 
induced currents in the earth's moist conducting strata and also (occasion- 
ally at least) in the upper atmospheric regions, in times of auroras, called 
forth by these changes may account for the disturbance variations of the 
masnetic needle. It will thus at once be seen that the regular variations 
are supposed to be mainly due to a cause above the needle, while the 
irregular variations are supposed to be mainly due to a cause beneath 
the needle. 

2. The electric currents in the upper atmospheric regions which 
cause the regular variations are supposed to originate in the motion of a 
conductor (rarefied air) across lines of magnetic force, and it is supposed 
that such electric currents will vary in the first place according to the 
power of the sim as exercised in producing these atmospheric motions, 
and ill the second place according to the temperature of the moving strata, 
it having been remarked by Professor Stokes that such strata will become 
better conductors as their temperature inci'eases. This increase in the 
temperature of such strata may either be due to an increase in the sun's 
radiation of such rays as are absorbed by these strata, or to a change in 
their constitution with respect to aqueous vapour, a substance which may 
be presumed to possess strong absorptive power for certain rays. 

3. With regard to the solar diarnal variation, the most pi'ominenfc 
feature is the very simple character of this variation as far as the element 
of declination is concerned. For the average of a year, and for all but 
high latitudes, this variation may be represented as if due to positive electric 
currents in the upper atmospheric regions flowing during those hours when 
the sun has most power from the equator to the poles ; that is to say, from 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 79 

south to north in the northern, and from north to south in the southern 
hemisphere, and producing about- 2 p.m. a maximum westerly deflection 
of the north-seeking pole of the magnet in the northern hemisphere, 
while that in the southern hemisphere for the same pole is of an opposite 
character, being easterly. 

4. Again we know that the air in the upper atmospheric regions 
travels from the equator to the poles, forming (in those regions) a south- 
west current in the northern hemisphere, and a north-west current in 
the southern hemisphere, these being, in fact, the well-known anti-trades. 
If, then, owing to their passage across the earth's lines of force, these 
moving conductors are animated by electric currents, these currents 
mast, according to the well-known law, be in such a direction as to stop 
the atmospheric motions.' 

5. For the purpose of the following argument we may without sensible 
error imagine the magnetic eartli to be really similar to the model that 
is sometimes used to represent it ; that is to say, we may regard it as a 
globe wrapped round continuously with insulated wires all in the same 
direction, and conveying a current, the circles of these wires being small 
near the jsoles, and, of course, large at the equator. If we should take a 
bird's-eye view of this system from above the point which I'epresents 
the north pole (which corresponds approximately to the south pole of a 
magnet), we should find that the positive current in the wires would 
circulate in the direction of the hands of a watch, ascendino- on the east 
and descending on the west side. Such hypothetical currents may, there- 
foi-e, be imagined to move along the earth's surface from east to west. 

6. Let us now take the upper systems of atmospheric currents and 
consider that element of their motion which is from west to east. This 
motion is common to both systems. If in the northern hemisphere these 
upper winds be animated by a positive electric curi-ent goino- north, 
this current will be attracted by the hypothetical magnetic current on 
the west side and repelled on the east ; that is to say, there will be a 
tendency to stop the easterly motion of the atmospheric current. In the 
same way it may be shown that if in the southern hemisphere the upper 
winds be animated by a positive current going south, this will tend to 
stop the easterly motion of the atmospheric cui-rent. 

7. It thus appears that the electric currents with which, accordino- to 
this argument, the upper trade-winds in the two hemispheres ouo-ht 
to be animated are precisely such as will account for the solar-diurnal 
variation of declination, this being alike the most prominent and the most 
simple feature of the solar-diurnal variations. 

8. While it is advocated that the provisional working hypothesis thus 
accounts, as far as direction is concerned, for the positive currents going 
north and south — which are presumed to be the main causes of the 
diurnal variation of declination — it is also necessary to remark that such 
currents will naturally present a decided diurnal fluctuation. Indeed, if 
this were not the case, they could not properly account for a variation 
one marked feature of which is its prominence during the day as dis- 
tinguished from the night hours. Now we may conceive that the upper 
atmospheric currents maij be stronger, and will at any rate be better 

' Sir J. Henry Lefroj' lias long been of opinion that the key to the mao-netic 
movements in both liemispheres is to be found by studying the simultaneous effects 
in both produced bv the action of the sun on the equator (see p 18'> of his 
'Survey,' 1851). 



80 REPOBT— 1886. 

conductors when heated by the sun, and hence, through a diminution 
of resistance, the electric current will be increased. The curious 
similarity detected by Senhor Capello between the diurnal variation of 
the magnetic dip and that of the tension of aqueous vapour (see Appendix 
II. to this report) might perhaps seem to point to a variation of 
absorptive power, and hence of electric conductivity brought about in 
certain atmospheric strata by the carriage of aqueous vapour. 

Again, Sir G. B. Airy (see appendix to the Greenwich observations, 
1884) has expressed his opinion that the diurnal magnetic inequality is 
due mainly, if not entii-ely, to the radiant heat of the sun, and he is also 
led to imagine that the magnetic effect of the sun's heat upon the sea is 
considerably greater than the effect on land ; while again Sir J. Henry 
Lefroy (see Appendix III. to this report) having observed a difference in 
the time of turning between the solar-diurnal variation of declination at 
Toronto and at Greenwich, has expressed his belief that this difference is 
due to the fact that these two places are differently situated with regard 
to the Atlantic. 

9. The fact that the solar-diurnal variation is greater at times of 
maximum than at times of minimum sun-spot frequency is explained by 
the advocates of this hypothesis on the assumption that not only is the 
sun most powerful on the former occasions, but that the solar radiation 
then contains probably a larger proportion of such rays as are absorbed by 
the upper strata of the atmosphere, while the composition of these strata 
with respect to aqueous vapour may likewise be such as to cause 
an increased absorption. This increased absorption means an increased 
temperature, and hence an increased conductivity. 

10. It has moreover been adduced in favour of this hypothesis that 
the tendency seems to be, as pointed out by Mr. William Ellis and by Pro- 
fessor Stewart, that changes in the range of the daily variation of magnetic 
declination lag behind corresponding solar changes in point of time. 
This kind of behaviour is apparently inconsistent with direct magnetic 
action of the sun operating as the chief cause, and points rather to some 
indirect influence, probably caused by the radiant energy of the sun, 
inasmuch as the changes and turning-points of such indirect influences 
due to radiation are well known to lag, in respect of time, behind the 
corresponding changes and turning-points in their cause. This subject 
demands further attention. 

11. Hitherto we have been considering that portion of the motion of 
the upper atmospheric currents which is from west to east in both hemi- 
spheres. Let us now consider that portion of such motion which is from 
south to north in the northern, and from north to south in the southern, 
hemisphere.' 

Now, here it may be well to remark that it seems quite possible to 
conceive a set of cui-rents to exist in the earth's atmosphere without 
exhibiting a considerable diurnal variation. Let us take, for instance, an 
ordinary electric current, say of a circular shape and horizontal, and heat 
it by causing some source of heat, such as a lamp, to travel slowly round 
it with a definite rate of progress. It will be evident that we shall have 
(assuming the current to be otherwise constant) no variation in flow due 
to this heating effect. In like manner, if there be electric currents in 

' The discussion of this point is almost identical in wording with a similar dis- 
cussion brought by Professor Stewart before the Physical Society. 



ON COMPAEING AND EEDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 81 

the atmosphere which circulate round the earth in the direction of 
parallels of latitude, such currents will not be subject to any considerable 
solar-diurnal variation. For, while the conductivity of a given region 
would vary according to the position of the sun with regard to it, yet the 
whole circuit round the earth, which would always embrace a region 
affected by the sun, would not have its total resistance altered, or at least 
not greatly altered ; and, as there would be no cause for much alteration 
of the total electromotive force, there would be no great reason for incon 
stanoy of current— in other words, no great solar-diurnal variation. 

12. For the purpose of the following argument, we may consider the 
earth to be at rest {i.e., devoid of rotation), and imagine that the sun 
circulates round the equator in twenty-four hours. As a consequence of 
solar influence we shall have convection currents in the upper regions of 
the atmosphere flowing from the equator northwards and southwards 
toward the poles. Whether these currents reach the poles or come down 
in some intermediate region may be left an open question. Now, such 
currents will not only be conductors, but they will form a movable 
system of conductors, which we may suppose to be created at the equator 
when they rise into the upper regions, and destroyed at the poles or those 
intermediate regions where they descend. 

13. Again, for the purpose of this argument we may, without sensible 
error, regard the magnetic globe in the way already mentioned ; that is to 
say, as represented by a small globe, wrapped round with wires, conveying 
currents that go round it from east to west. Now, if an external in- 
sulated circuit of wire a trifle larger than the diameter of this globe be 
supposed to travel from the equator to either of the poles, it will leave 
behind it more convolutions of the primary globe current than it 
approaches, and will therefore be traversed by an induced current in the 
same direction as that of the primary ; and the continuous travelling of 
such an external system might be supposed to increase the magnetic 
power of the globe. Applying the same sort of reasoning to the earth 
and to the convection currents under consideration, these may be imagined 
to be traversed by equatorial electric currents, the tendency of which in 
both electric hemispheres would be to increase the general magnetism of 
the globe. For the reason already given such currents would have littlc- 
solar-diurnal variation, but yet they would be dependent upon the state of 
the sun, and would vary with it. For imagine a change to take place in the 
radiation of our luminary, producing an excess of such rays as are greedily 
absorbed by the upper atmospheric regions, there would be (as already 
remarked) a sensible increase in the conductivity of these regions, eveii 
if the electromotive force remained unaltered ; and hence there would be 
an increase in the supposed equatorial current. In other words, such 
currents, while presenting no great diurnal variation due to the carriage 
of a constant sun round the earth, would yet be eminently susceptible to 
any inconstancy in the sun itself. 

14. Now here it will be asked. Have we any such phenomenon con- 
nected with terrestrial magnetism. ? The reply to this question will be an 
afi&rmatiye one. The late John Allan Broun has shown that we have 
changes in the mean daily value of the horizontal force, which are aimnl- 
taneous and in the same direction at places on the earth's surface very 
far removed from each other; and the author of these remarks has 
endeavoured to show that the changes of this nature as recorded by Mr. 
Broun depend, as far as we can judge from somewhat imperfect records^ 

1886. r, 



H2 REPORT — 1886. 

upon the state of tlie sun's surface, an increased area of spotted surface 
coinciding apparently with increased values of the daily means of hori- 
zontal force all over the earth. 

While such currents might be supposed to possess, as a whole, no dis- 
tinct daily variation, yet at the time when the sun heats a tropical region 
it might be supposed to increase the relative conductivity of that region 
with respect to that of the atmosphere nearer the pole. It would thus 
divert to the heated region an unusual proportion of the whole current, 
so that we should have a maximum of horizontal force near noon in the 
equatorial, and a minimum at the same time in the polar regions. This 
is probably the case. 

15. One chief object in giving prominence to this part of the subject 
is with the view of advocating that the Gaussian method of analysis 
should not be applied merely to the solar-diurnal variation of the three 
magnetic elements, but should likewise embrace a consideration of the 
simultaneous variations in the mean daily values of the elements at various 
stations. We must, in fine, consider the possibility at least of there being 
in the upper atmospheric regions, not merely currents which present a 
marked solar-diarnal variation, but others that have no marked solar- 
diurnal variation, while yet they may be highly susceptible to changes in 
the sun. The double method of treating matliematically not merely the 
solar-diurnal variation, but likewise the simultaneous changes in the 
mean daily values of the elements, would thus appear to be necessary 
and sufficient for giving us the required information. 

16. If we turn from the solar-diurnal variations to those caused by the 
moon, we find in this region likewise an attempt to explain the phenomena 
by the same working hypothesis. It has been remarked by Dr. Schuster 
that we Uve at the bottom of the atmospheric ocean, where lunar tides will 
necesparily be small, and lie imagines that in the upper regions of the 
atmosphere the motions caused by lunar tides may be very considerable. 
Such motions would be subject to the same magneto-electric laws as 
those caused by the sun, and we might therefore expect a lunar semi- 
diurnal magnetic variation, such as, in fact, we have. The late John 
Allan Broun has shown that the moon's magnetic effect varies approxi- 
mately as the inverse cube of the moon's distance from the earth, a con- 
clusion that would seem to point to some sort of tidal influence as the 
cause of this effect. 

17. Again, if this tidal iufluence be seated in the tipper atmospheric 
regions, it should be greater durins: the day (when these regions are 
heated, and so become good conductors) than during the night. Now, 
Broun was the first to point out that the semi-diurnal lunar variation at 
Trevandrum, in India, is .subject to this law, and his results have lately been 
confirmed, in an independently conceived investigation, by Mr. C. Cham- 
bers, of Bombay. We might likewise expect that the lunar variation, 
like the solar one, should be greatest at times of maximum sun-spot 
frequency, and there is some reason to think that this is the case, 
although the fact is not yet definitely established. 

18. There seems, therefore, reason to believe that the diurnal varia- 
tion of any one magnetic element — the declination, for instance — may 
be due to the joint action of several causes, which we may, perhaps, 
I'epresent as follows : — 

In the first place, the sun may act in producing atmospheric motions 
in the upper regions ; this would cause a solar diurnal magnetic effect. 



I 



ON COMPARING AND EEDUCING MAGNETIC OBSEEVATIONS. 83 

Secondly, the moon would produce tides in those regions, which would 
be the cause of a lunar semi-diurnal magnetic effect. 

Thirdly, the sun, acting as the moon does, would likewise produce 
tides which would be the cause of a solar semi-diurnal magnetic effect. 

Fourthly, these various effects would be increased during those hours 
when the sun is powerful, inasmuch as the upper atmospheric regions 
become better conductors at high temperatures. 

19. If we now leave the regular variations, and turn to magnetic dis- 
turbances, there seems reason to suppose that the earth, like any other 
magnet, may be subject to small and abrupt changes of magnetism, and 
it is quite conceivable that such changes may produce secondary currents 
in the moist conducting strata of the earth, and likewise in the upper 
atmospheric regions. We know, as a matter of fact, that there are such 
earth-currents, and the observations made at Greenwich show that they 
are intimately associated with the disturbances registered by the self- 
recording magnetographs. 

20. The late Dr. Lloyd was the first to remark that ' the rapid changes 
of the earth currents are much greater in proportion to the regular daily 
changes than the corresponding movements of the magnetometers.' We 
may perhaps interpret this to mean that a smn U but abrupt magnetic 
change is associated with a larger earth-curijnt manifestation than 
another change of the same size, but of a more gradual nature. This 
would appear to be in favour of the view that such earth currents are 
secondary currents due to small but abrupt changes which take place in 
the magnetism of the earth. In conformity, too, with this hypothesis, 
•cases may be pointed out where the magnetic disturbance, while rapidly 
varying, is yet altogether on one side of the normal, and where the cor- 
responding earth currents pass alternately from strong positive to strong 
negative. 

21. Quite recently (see Appendix V. to this report) the Rev. Professor 
Perry and Professor Stewart have brought before the Royal Society the 
results of a preliminary comparison between the fluctuations of the 
declination at Kew and at Stonyhurst (neighbouring stations), and have 
derived the following conclusions : — 

(1) In the very great majority of cases the angular value of the 
declination disturbance is greater for Stonyhurst than for Kew. 

(2) The ratio "- ^ is certainly greater for disturbances 

of short than for those of long duration. 
If we add to these conclusions the fact noticed by these observers that all 
the disturbances occur in couplets, we may be disposed to agree with them 
that in the case of disturbance as exhibited by a suspended magnet there 
are probably two causes at work, the first of these being a change in the 
magnetism of the earth, and the second an induced current due to this 
change. 

22. It would thus appear that in this provisional working hypothesis 
the principle of current induction is brought forward with the object of 
explaining both the regular and the irregular magnetic fluctuations. It 
is sought to explain the former by the hypothesis that in the upper 
atmospheric regions we have conductors moving across lines of magnetic 
force, and hence animated by a current. It is sought to explain the latter 
on the supposition that small but abrupt changes of the magnetism of the 
earth by a method similar to that in a Ruhmkorff's coil cause secondary 

G 2 



84 REPORT — 1886. 

currents in the moist conducting strata of the earth's surface and in 
the upper atmospheric regions, which currents, as well as the magnetic 
change which causes them, will, of course, influence a suspended magnet. 

23. There is still left the question, Why should there be small and 
rapid changes of the earth's magnetism ? In reply to this it is argued 
that we must regard the earth as we would any other magnet, the only 
difference being one of size. Now, there are at least two known causes 
which may operate upon a magnet to change its magnetic state. These 
Sire first, mechanical disturbance; and secondly, a change in the electric 
currents in whose field the magnet is placed : and it is asserted that the 
changes which take place in the magnetism of the earth should be studied 
from these two points of view. It is the second of these causes that has 
hitherto been chiefly investigated, and magneticiaus have succeeded in 
showing that disturbances vary with the state of the sun's surface, witlt 
the time of the year, and with the hour of the day. Possibly, however, 
considerations connected with the first of these causes might seem best 
to explain the second portion of the preliminary results obtained by 
Messrs. Stewart and Carpenter (see Appendix VI. to this report). 

24. In conclusion, perhaps the strongest objection to this hypothesis is 
that which questions the possibility of electric currents being produced 
in the upper atmospheric regions. It may be said that while undoubtedly 
rarefied air is a conductor of electricity, yet it is not a good conductor ; 
and where can we look for sufficient potential to drive such currents 
throuo-h these regions ? To this it may be replied that as a matter of fad 
we know that there are visible electric currents in the upper atmospheric 
regions which occur occasionally at ordinary latitudes, and which are 
very frequent if not continuous in certain regions of the earth. These are 
known as the Aurora which, both with respect to the time of its occurrence 
and to the disposition of its beams, manifests a close connection with the 
phenomena of terrestrial magnetism, occurring at ordinary latitudes only 
when there are great magnetic disturbances, and the disposition of its 
beams having a distinct reference to lines of magnetic force. Besides, 
con.oiderations of a mathematical nature induce us, as we have already 
seen, to suppose that the solar-diurnal variation is due to electric currents 
in the upper atmospheric regions. We are, therefore, justified in asserting 
that there is no impossibility in conceiving a set of electrical currents 
intimately associated with certain phenomena of terrestrial magnetism to 
exist in the upper regions of the earth's atmosphere. 

IX. Examples of the Application of a Modified Form of Sabiiie's Method of 
Reduction of Hourly Observations of Magnetic Declination and Hori- 
zontal Force to a Single Quarter s Registrations of the Magnetogra-phs at 
the Colaba Observatory, Bombay. By Chakles Chambers, F.R.S. 

On the invitation of Dr. Balfour Stewart, the Secretary of the Com- 
mittee appointed by the British Association to consider the best means of 
comparing and reducing magnetic observations, I submitted last year, 
for the Committee's consideration, some remarks which had the honour 
to find a place in their Report to the Association. Amongst the sugges- 
tions which I then made was one for a trial application of a somewhat 
elaborate process of reduction, the results of which it was anticipated 
would, in some respects, be as definite and informing when derived from 



ox COMPARING AXD REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 85 

a comparatively short series of observations as those of Sabine's rougher 
method when derived from a much longer series of observations. Such 
a trial I have since been able to make upon the hourly tabulations 
from the registers of the Colaba declination and horizontal force magneto- 
graphs for the quarter November 1875 to January 1876 ; and the results 
iire of so highly satisfactory a character, and bear so directly on the 
inquiry upon which the Committee are engaged, that I deem it my duty 
to place an account of them before the Committee. 
The process may be described as follows : — 

1. Tabulations of hourly ordinates are entered upon monthly abstract 
forms (Form A), which have the hours of the day marked at the head of 
the columns, and the days of the month at the left-hand side of the lines,' 
and upon these ruled forms the daily mean is taken and entered in a 
column at the right-hand side of the twenty-four hourly entries of each 
day, and the mean for the month of the entries in each hour column is 
taken and entered at the foot of the column. Let us suppose this to have 
been done for a given month, and for the two preceding and two following 
months. 

2. Take the mean of the daily means for the first fifteen days of the 
same month and the last fifteen days of the preceding month as the mean 
ordinate for the beginning of the former month, and, for the present, let 
the excess of the mean ordinate for the beginning of the next month over 
this mean ordinate be taken to represent the progressive increase of the 
ordinate for the given month, whether arising from instrumental change 
or from secular or annual variation, and in allowing for such increase 
treat it as growth at a uniform rate. 

3. On a blank strip of ruled paper cut out from one of the columns 
enter the proportional corrections for progressive increase, to reduce the 
tabulations to the standard of the middle of the month ; these corrections 
will be zero for the middle of the month, and equal positive and negative 
numbers at equal intervals before and after the middle of the month, and 
the sum of these for the whole column will be zero. The strip is to be 
placed close up to each column in succession for reference in the operation 
of separating disturbed observations. 

4. Apply Sabine's method of separating disturbances to each hour 
column in succession, taking account of the corrections for progressive 
increase entered on the loose slip, and calculate final normals. The 
separating values adopted are for declination '048 inch of tabulation or 
•00150 of force, and for horizontal force "078 inch of tabulation or -00334 
of force. 

5. Substitute for each disturbed tabulation the higher or lower limit 
for that hour and day of an undisturbed tabulation according as the dis- 
turbance is positive or negative. The deviations of the disturbed tabu- 
lations above the higher or below the lower limits respectively are to be 
called positive or negative ' disturbances without the limits,' and the laws 
of their variations are to be determined by the method that Sabine applied 
to his 'larger disturbances.' In what follows we are to confine our 
attention to the original numbers entered upon Table A, except where 
these have been replaced, in the case of disturbed tabulations, by the 
higher or lower limits. 

' If the continuity of the record has been interrupted during the month, either 
by accident or by instrumental adjustments, due allowances must be made to render 
the whole month's tabulations comparable before proceeding further. 



86 



EEPOET — 1886. 



6. Construct now a new table (B), eact entry in which is the 29-day 
mean of the numbers for the same hour in Table A, viz., of the numbers 
for the day of the entry and of the fourteen preceding and fourteen 
following days. The numbers of Table B for all the hours of a given day 
we may take to represent very approximately the mean solar-diurnal 
variation — plus a constant — for that day, the average extending over the 
lunation of which that day is the middle day. They will be affected by 
progressive change of the values of the tabulations and by disturbance 
within the limits. 

7. The excesses of the numbers of Table A over the corresponding 
numbers in Table B, plus a constant round number, are now entered on 
a third table (C). The numbers in this table will be affected only by 
that part of the solar-diurnal variation which goes through a cycle of 
change in a lunation, and by disturbance within the limits. On the left- 
hand margin of table C mark the days of the moon's age, the number 1 
being placed opposite the first day of which at least a full half follows 
the time of new moon, and the other numbers, in order, up to 29 or 30. 
If table C were calculated for each month of a long series of years it 
would be practicable to re-arrange the days in tables, of which there 
would be one for each day of the moon's age in each month, with a 
probability of obtaining characteristic diurnal variations from the numbers 
of each table ; but as the trial calculations extend over three months only, 
these (November to January) were grouped together, and the days of 
the moon's age were arranged in eight groups as follows : — 



Group 


(0) 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 




29 


3 


6 


10 


U 


18 


21 


25- 


Days of the"! 
Moon's age j 


30 




7 


11 


15 




22 


26 


1 


4 


8 


12 


16 


19 


23 


27 




2 


5 


9 


13 


17 


20 


24 


28 



Thus eight tables were formed corresponding to the times of the four 
quarters of the moon, and to the four intermediate phases, and tb& 
numbers of Table C were duly distributed amongst them.' The hourly 
means were taken of all the numbers on each of these tables, and then 
the excesses of those means above the general mean for the twenty-foui- 
hours of the same table, and finally these excesses were converted from 
inches (of tabulations) into m.g.s. units of force. In this way were ob- 
tained the excess solar-diurnal variations for each of the eight phases of 
the moon. From these were calculated the luni- solar-diurnal variations 



of the formula 



fosW and f,.^(h) 



f,.,(h) cos 2(^^ ) +f,.,ih) sin 2(^py 



' By inadvertence the last three days of Januaiy, which formed part of a fourth 
lunation, were left undistributed ; so that the results will be for the three lunar 
periods from November 1, 1875, to January 28, 1876. 



ON COMPAKING AND EEDUCINa MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 87 

where h is the solar hour, P is the mean period of a lunation, and t is the 
age of the moon. 

Designating the variations for the eight different phases by (0), (1), 
(2) . . . (7), we have 

/•..w= (°)-(^)+w-W - 

And the results for the quarter November 1875 to January 1876 are — 





Solar 
hours 


Midnight 


1 


2 

•000 + 

-03 


3 


4 


5 

•000 + 

+ 04 


6 

•000 + 

+ 02 


7 


8 


9 


10 

•000 + 

+ 11 


11 


-/- 

1 


/./"> 


•000 + 

-03 


•000 + 

-04 


•000+ 

-03 


•000 + 

00 


■000 + 
+ 05 


•000 + 
+ 16 


•000 + 
+ 20 


•000 + 

-05 


c 

1 

.s 

o 

Q 


/;.w 


+ 07 


+ 06 


+ 09 


+ 04 


-04 


-02 


-01 


00 


-05 


-10 


-06 


+ 07 


o 
























o 


/e-. ( 


+ 03 


-04 


+ 01 


+ 02 


-01 


-01 


-06 


+ 11 


+ 37 


+ 46 


+ 25 


+ 13 


"3 




























o 


fj'^-^ 


-16 


-16 


+ 05 


+ 05 


-08 


-16 


-15 


-24 


00 


+ 05 


+ 56 


+ 55 


o 


















1 











Solar 
hours 


Xoon 


13 


14 


15 


16 

•000 + 

+ 05 
-13 


17 


18 


19 20 


21 


22 


23 

■000 + 
00 

+ 08 

00 
-10 


w 
(S 

1 

c 

.2 

"S 
c 

1 


J c-2 


•000+ 

-14 
+ 12 


•000+ 

-20 
+ 13 


•000+ 

-14 

-08 

-25 
+ 21 


•000 + 
- 4 

-17 


■000 + 

+ 05 
-05 


•000+ 

+ 02 
+ 03 


•000+ 
+ 01 

+ 03 


■000+ 
+ 02 

+ 01 


■000+ 

-01 
+ 01 

-10 
-19 


■000+ 

-02 
+ 04 


4) 
g 
O 

§ 

o 
W 




-04 

+ 47 


-13 
+ 35 


-21 
-02 


-12 

-09 


-04 
-15 


-15 

-05 


-14 

-17 

1 


-09 
-31 


+ 03 

-28 



88 REPORT— 1886. 

These numbers are curved (in black) in figs. 1 to 4, and on the same 
forms are curved (in dotted lines), for comparison, the results of a similar 
treatment, but by Sabine's rougher method, of the long series of eye ob- 
servations made in the winter quarters of the period 1846'0 to 1871 "0 in 
the case of the declination, and of the period 1846'5 to 1873*0 in the case 
of the horizontal force. ^ 

We see at a glance that the black curves have the same general 
characteristics as the respective dotted curves, with only such deviations in 
form and range as might well be expected to be found in the real features 
of the variations of individual quarters. They thus confirm the evidence 
afforded by the longer series of observations that there is in nature 
a magnetic periodicity of the kind that we have called the luni-solar- 
diurnal variation ; but their special significance, and that to which we 
would at present particularly direct attention, lies in the indication which 
they afford that it is possible, by applying a suitable process of reduction, 
to utilise short series of observations for purposes requiring a degree of 
nicety that is quite beyond the powers of the older method. 

It may be worth while to mention here that each quarter's reduction, 
carried out in the manner described above, occupies an Indian computer 
of very ordinary capabilities about 360 hours. This includes the calcu- 
lation of the luni-solar variations both for declination and horizontal 
force. The computer of a temperate climate, with his greater natural 
energy and better surroundings, would, of course, accomplish the work in 
much less time. 

Examples are appended hereto of the construction and computations 
of Tables A, B, and C, and of the combination of days belonging to the 
(4th) phase of a lunation ; also of the calculation of the luni-solar-diurnal 
variations. 

In the last calculation the variations are taken after instead of before 
the combination of the numbers for the several phases ; this is to avoid 
the inconvenience of having to deal with positive and negative numbers. 

The curves of fig. 5, exhibiting the regular solar-diiirnal variation 
of horizontal force for each day of the month, are constructed from the 
29-day means of Table B. 

' In the curves for declination as sent by Mr. Chambers, the signs as given above 
are reversed. 



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ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



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rH 




^ 






1^ 


-*o 


5~ 


^ 


r-, 


o 


o 


>> 






fc> 


rC 


M 


s 


;^ 


O 




:^ 


93 










5- 


fe( 


i-O 


f-S 


s? 


« 






o 


l? 


Wl 












c 


^ 


Q^ 


^.— s^^ 






rO 


Q> 


O 








1 


1^ 


!? 


SS 






^ 


^— ^ 






ii 




VI 




03 





-§ 









^m 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 


rang 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




o 


O 


-^ 


o 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


iH 


iH 


00 


o 


rH 


00 


O) 




CD 


t- 


to 






























b- 


t- 


b- 


t— 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 


CD 


bo 




rH 






























O 


^ 


CD 


C-1 


b~ 


^ 


b- 


b» 














00 


















liO 


CD 


lO 


^ 


C4 


CO 


O 


t^ 


t-- 


b- 




b- 


b* 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 


CD 


CO 




•-' 






























,_, 


C-* 


,_( 


CD 


CO 




,^ 








r-t 








b* 










en 




o 




C-l 


-f 


■^ 


OI 


C-1 


CO 


o 


r- 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CD 


CO 


CD 


CO 


CO 


:o 


CD 


CO 




•-' 






























c» 


■^ 


o> 


■T* 


-* 


Ci 


O 


^ 


(74 


ut> 


,_, 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


CD 


t^ 


OO 


t^ 




t^ 


CO 


b^ 


■^ 




CI 


CO 


















CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 




CD 


CO 


OO 


CO 


Oi 


,_, 


■^ 


CO 


IT* 


e^J 


to 


cs 


b- 


Gs» 


lA 


t^ 


b- 


t>- 


CD 


CD 








tH 












CD 




co 






CD 


CO 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 




tH 






























O 


r-- 


"* 


iH 


tA 


O 


















Tji 


*n> 










b- 


b- 


CO 




w 


w 


c^ 




CO 


«D 


co 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CD 


CO 




CO 


CO 


CD 




t-H 






























o 


t- 




CO 


















tH 




CO 




t^ 


t* 


tn 


CD 


CD 


O 


!M 








C4 
















«3 


<p 


o 




CO 




CD 


CD 


•p 




tji 


o 


CD 


M 


CO 


b- 


C^ 


cs 




c^ 






04 




<M 














CO 


CH 




CO 




CI 


CI 


c^ 




CD 


CD 


to 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CD 




T~i 






























«o 


CO 


CO 


t>- 


CO 


b^ 


^ 


^ 














1-* 














CD 


CO 


O 


iH 


C) 


(N 


C4 


C4 


«3 


CD 


*D 


CD 


CO 


co 


CO 


CD 




CO 






CO 






»H 






























o 


■^ 


CO 


-* 


tH 


t^ 


O 


C» 


o> 


o 


ta 


00 


b- 


bo 


O 


CD 




















T-t 


iH 






CD 


CD 


^ 


CD 


CD 


CD 


<© 


<p 


CO 


CD 


« 


CO 


<p 


CD 
















^ 




CO 




b- 












t^ 


b- 


o. 


lO 


CD 


CD 














C» 




CD 


tp 


■? 


<p 


<p 


« 


*? 


*? 


^ 


v> 




Cp 


•? 


tp 




CO 


00 


<M 


C^ 


Oi 


'd* 


O 


Oi 


CO 


■* 


Cd 


•* 


■^ 


^ 




CD 


t- 




l>. 




CD 






Oi 








rH 


CI 




*? 


o 


CD 


<p 


"? 


CD 


^ 


lO 


o 


CO 












to 


CO 


CD 


lO 


CO 


CO 


OS 


Oi 


00 


o 


bo 


o 


C-l 


C4 


t-t 




1^ 


















i-» 


.H 


rH 






O 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


<p 


o 


*? 


to 








CD 




CO 


CO 


CO 


o 


to 


b- 


o 


04 


1 1 

O OS 


in 


00 


CO 


(M 


tH 




CO 


oo 


t- 


00 


CO 


CD 


CD 


CO 


Ud C4 


00 




T-i 




c» 




CD 


CO 


cp 


CD 


V 


CD 


CD 


CO 


1 1 


Ifs 


CO 


CO 


(i, 


(X) 




^ 




^ 


t-H 


b* 
















CD 


CO 




t* 


a> 






CD 


CO 




CO 


CO 


C5 










l-H 


cp 


<p 


CD 


CD 


«; 


CO 


CD 


CO 


f 


l£S 


CD 


«> 


O 


CO 




*a 


»H 


lO 


« 


CO 


CD 


C^ 


o 


-* 


I— 1 


o 


^ 


00 


o 




t- 








CD 












C4 






C4 




A* 




CD 


W 


<p 


CD 


<p 


CD 


^ 


lO 




» 


CO 


? 




(?« 


O 


"^ 


CO 


OO 


CO 


OO 


ci 


c* 


■^ 


04 


^ 


CO 


■<♦< 


t- 


00 








CO 


t~ 


1^ 


CO 


w 


us 


CI 








r-t 


«3 
iH 


t^ 


CD 


CD 


^ 


CD 


CO 


■p 


w 


«5 


CO 


u> 


CO 


CO 




oo 


c* 


O 


CO 


o 


OS 


va 


■^ 


o 


CI 


CO 


^ 


00 


OS 




oo 


05 


cn 




t- 


b- 


b* 








C4 








rH 


»H 






b» 


CD 


cp 


<p 


CD 


? 


lA 


<p 


tp 


to 


CD 




OO 


t^ 


,^ 


CD 


-f 


CO 


o 


CT> 


■* 


■^ 


CD 


bo 


00 


f-t 
































iH 


CO 


CO 




b- 


CO 


ID 


CD 


CO 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 




'-< 






























oo 




00 


CO 




T-* 


t^ 




















Oi 




CO 








00 


lO 


ua 


CD 


CO 


H< 


•^ 


i-H 


1^ 


*? 


t;- 


^- 


^- 


t>. 


b- 


CO 




? 


CD 


o 


o 


V 




WS 


t- 


t>. 


■^ 


co 


CO 


kO 


o 


la 


o 


iH 


b- 


"* 


c* 




c^ 










t-* 


















i-H 


iH 


r- 


I>- 


b- 


b- 


b- 


b<. 


b* 


CD 


CD 


to 


CD 
CO 


ITS 


CD 




o» 


co 


M 


^ 


CO 


1-i 


fH 


b- 


CO 


CO 


M 








t>. 
























^ 


tH 


^- 


f- 


t- 


w 


^ 




fro 


b- 


<x> 


bo 


«• 


o 


o 




•o 


IH 






^' 


»H 


o 






CO 






















CO 


CD 


■^ 












CO 


f— 1 




b» 


b» 




b- 




^- 


to 






b- 


bo 


«> 


CO 




CD 


CD 




os 




o 


O 






















1-- 




CD 




Ui 


CO 


CI 


cs 




cs 


CD 


U3 


rH 




K- 


i-» 


bo 


b- 


b- 


i^ 


b- 


b- 


<x> 


b- 


<p 


O 


w 


Colaba 
Civil 
Hour 


CD 




























1- 


Ol 


O 




M 


CO 


■* 


l« 


co 


bo 


QO 


OS 


O 


rH 








w 


M 


W 


C4 


c< 


c< 


C4 


c< 


CO 


CO 



90 



REPORT — 1886. 



Table A. — Government Observatory, Bombay, Month of November, 1875. 



Correotious for 
progressive in- 
crease in the 
uiontli of No- 
vember. 1875 1 


Colaba Civil 
Hour 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


— -040 


Date 

1 


1^740 


1-747 


1^729 


1^703 


1-684 


1^663 


1^639 


1^640 


1-636 1 


618 


1^600 


1-594 


-•04.3 


2 


•712 


•721 


•700 


•656 


•612 


•566 


" ^528 "1 
. -503 J 


" ^524 1 
- "493 J 


" -522 "1 
. -521 J 


580 


' -519 1 
. "510 J 


" -520 "1 
_ -500 J 


-•040 


3 


•614 


•617 


•607 


•570 


•567 


-547 


•531 


[ -521 ] 


-558 


524 


•553 


-586 


-•037 


4 


•644 


•626 


•615 


•590 


•561 


•568 


•569 


•577 


-577 


576 


•565 


-571 


-•034 


5 


•654 


•662 


•644 


•622 


•614 


•606 


•600 


•592 


-595 


591 


•584 


•581 


-•030 


6 


•665 


•672 


•682 


•661 


•642 


•618 


•615 


•612 


-CIO 


603 


•598 


•591 


-■0-27 


7 


•669 


•672 


•670 


•656 


•642 


•628 


•620 


•622 


•610 


596 


•596 


•584 


-•021 


8 


•699 


•706 


•694 


•667 


•659 


•640 


•651 


•649 


•633 


630 


•620 


■621 


-•021 


9 


•634 


•651 


•641 


•634 


•619 


•585 


•670 


•582 


•683 


573 


•572 


•575 


-•018 


10 


•655 


•648 


•628 


•597 


•577 


•547 


" •oOS 1 
_ ^442 J 


•537 


•551 


531 


•552 


•542 


-•014 


11 


•634 


•638 


•627 


•611 


•584 


-581 


•575 


•571 


•568 


564 


•563 


•572 


-•Oil 


12 


•661 


•660 


•636 


•618 


•595 


•574 


•563 


•555 


•544 


550 


•550 


•544 


-•008 


13 


•610 


612 


■607 


•591 


•583 


•572 


•549 


•548 


•634 


528 


•533 


•529 


-■005 


U 


•686 


•676 


•651 


•620 


•581 


•565 


•570 


•519 


■550 


542 


•541 


•538 


-•002 


15 


•650 


•664 


•640 


•623 


•607 


•590 


•570 


•567 


•562 


545 


•565 


•652 


-f002 


16 


•662 


•651 


•622 


•606 


•592 


•578 


•571 


•667 


•563 


539 


•560 


•559 


-l-'005 


17 


•660 


•667 


•654 


•626 


•598 


■576 


•560 


•561 


•566 


563 


•564 


-566 


-h'008 


18 


•670 


•672 


•653 


•623 


•600 


•589 


•580 


•581 


•578 


576 


•574 


•572 


4- •Oil 


19 


•651 


•648 


•638 


•626 


•609 


•600 


•597 


•590 


•578 


565 


■548 


•648 


+ -0U 


20 


•650 


•644 


•626 


•604 


•586 


•575 


•576 


•566 


•560 


559 


•556 


•554 


+ •018 


21 


•599 


•607 


•595 


•591 


•608 


•610 


•576 


•528 


•533 


554 


•556 


•558 


-t-021 


22 


•544 


•551 


r -526 1 
L -522 J 


r -503 1 

L '-iss J 


•525 


-537 


•528 


•511 


•482 


502 


•510 


•516 


+ •024 


23 


■567 


•565 


-560 


•551 


•549 


■533 


•526 


•515 


•510 


614 


•515 


•529 


+ ■027 


24 


•591 


•597 


-588 


•564 


•539 


-539 


•535 


•531 


•528 


532 


•534 


•533 


+ ■030 


25 


•593 


•582 


-569 


•551 


•531 


-521 


-516 


•518 


•524 


539 


•542 


•547 . 


+ ■034 


26 


•617 


•615 


■602 


•576 


•550 


-548 


•551 


•548 


•545 


540 


•541 


■540 
•530 


+ •037 


27 


•646 


•630 


•611 


•583 


•548 


-529 


•533 


•528 


•530 


521 


•526 


+ ■040 


28 


•625 


•620 


•604 


•575 


•564 


-557 


•663 


•656 


•543 


547 


•544 


•542 


+ •043 


29 


■656 


•654 


•626 


•594 


•571 


-560 


•550 


•549 


•559 


559 


•548 


•539 


+ •040 


30 
31 


•563 


" ^516 - 
L '515 _ 


r ^501 " 
L ^490 . 


•483 


•486 


•487 


•489 


•494 


•490 


485 


•481 


•510 


— 


Sum 
minus 
30-000 


19-221 


19^190 


18^731 


18^057 


17^583 


17-189 


16^818 


16-728 


16^721 16 


666 


16^600 


16623 


— 


-■^leau 


1^641 


1-640 


1^624 


1^602 


1^586 


1-573 


V661 


r558 


1^5J7 1 


566 


1-553 


1^554 


— 


Final 
Nor- 
mal 


1^641 


1^640 


1^625 


1-602 


1^586 


1-573 


r663 


1^559 


1^557 1 


■556 


1-564 


1^665 


— 


V'aria- ) 
tion J 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Increasing ordinates indicate increasing horizontal force. 



ON COMPARING AND EEDUCINa MAGNETIC OBSERYATIONS. 



91 



Sourly Abstract of Tabulations (in Inches) of Horizontal Force Magnetograph. 





22 


23 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Sum 
minus 
24-000 


Mean 


Means for 
beginning 
and end of 
the montli 




1-570 1 


583 


1-575 


1583 


1-593 


1-593 


1-604 


1-606 


1^622 


1-647 


1-673 


1-690 


15-3 32 


1-639 


1-C31 




r "518 1 

_ -502 J 


536 


•544 


•560 


•600 


•572 


•573 


-568 


•572 


-585 


-592 


-610 


13-888 


-579 






•573 


566 


•583 


•584 


•580 


•582 


•586 


-588 


•579 


-575 


•595 


•628 


13-814 


-576 






•580 


588 


•581 


•588 


•589 


•581 


-581 


-590 


•589 


-600 


•619 


•636 


14-161 


•590 






•582 


678 


•587 


•589 


•594 


•598 


-601 


-597 


-600 


•605 


•623 


•648 


14-547 


-006 






•592 


597 


•600 


•597 


•597 


•598 


•601 


•605 


•611 


•622 


•631 


•660 


14-880 


■620 






•590 


597 


•602 


•602 


•602 


•598 


•595 


-602 


•610 


•622 


•644 


•663 


14-892 


-620 






•613 


620 


•614 


-599 


•598 


•594 


•615 


•609 


-602 


•606 


-610 


•618 


15-167 


-632 






•577 


582 


•586 


-587 


•586 


•595 


-596 


-623 


-638 


-647 


•616 


•650 


14-502 


•604 






•543 


553 


•538 


•439 


•548 


•564 


•568 


-560 


-575 


•597 


•617 


•624 


13-633 


-568 






•565 


569 


•565 


•564 


•561 


•560 


•562 


-563 


-571 


-596 


•624 


•643 


1 4-031 


■585 






•659 


572 


•573 


•593 


•587 


•586 


•612 


-620 


•574 


•588 


•631 


•646 


14^191 


•591 






•527 


522 


•575 


•536 


•548 


•550 


•540 


•534 


■544 


-576 


-612 


■662 


13^522 


•563 






•550 


555 


•557 


•546 


•546 


•553 


•554 


•551 


■555 


-576 


-603 


•625 


13-810 


•575 






•550 


551 


•556 


-563 


•564 


•563 


•564 


•566 


•570 


-588 


-620 


■647 


14-037 


-585 






•560 


563 


•569 


•570 


•570 


•572 


•571 


-571 


•572 


-580 


•610 


•639 


14-046 


-585 






•562 


564 


•567 


•569 


•567 


-567 


•566 


. -569 


•576 


•602 


•629 


•652 


14-151 


-590 






•574 


571 


•570 


•571 


•567 


•564 


•569 


-574 


•576 


•591 


•624 


•646 


14-265 


-594 






•555 


564 


•563 


•566 


•572 


•563 


•575 


-565 


•584 


•598 


•61S 


■632 


14-153 


-590 






•546 


-557 


•577 


•570 


•558 


•573 


•564 


-565 


-585 


•591 


•600 


•612 


13-954 


•581 






•537 


•S99 


•501 


•504 


•511 


•522 


•524 


•538 


-553 


•575 


•578 


•573 


13-429 


•560 






•511 


•510 


•513 


•513 


•522 


■518 


•511 


•511 


•520 


■526 


•541 


•565 


12-474 


•520 






•521 


•520 


•532 


•522 


•518 


•517 


•521 


•534 


•542 


•551 


•554 


■571 


12-837 


•535 






■539 


•533 


•531 


•524 


•523 


•521 


•526 


•533 


•541 


•555 


•588 


•601 


13-126 


•547 






-Jil 


•533 


-541 


•533 


•525 


•525 


•534 


•530 


-549 


-568 


•579 


•598 


13-089 


•545 






-540 


•537 


•539 


•539 


•543 


•557 


•558 


•563 


•576 


•597 


•617 


•634 


13-573 


•566 






•538 


•536 


•532 


•534 


•535 


•539 


•535 


•541 


•555 


•571 


•582 


•605 


13-318 


•555 






•542 


•543 


•546 


•546 


•546 


•551 


•556 


-560 


•580 


•605 


■637 


•64S 


13-700 


•571 






•530 


•536 


•547 


•530 


•542 


•543 


•516 


•536 


•520 


•528 


•561 


•550 


13-404 


•558 






•505 


•500 


•506 


•507 


•509 


-512 


•519 


•526 


•532 


-541 


•552 


•562 


12-244 


•510 


1'535 
































-•096 = 




16-574 16 


•735 


16^770 


16^728 


16^801 


16-831 


16^897 


16-998 


17-173 


17-618 


18-180 


18^738 


416-170 


— 


progressive 
increase in 




1-552 1 


558 


1^559 


1-558 


1-560 


1-561 


r563 


1-567 


1-572 


1-587 


1-606 


1^625 


13-873 


1^578 


the mouth 




1-553 1 


558 


1-559 


1^558 


1-560 


1-561 


1^563 


1'567 


1-572 


1-587 


1-606 


1^625 


— 


— 





92 



REPORT 1886. 



Table A {continued forwards). — Government Observatory, Bomhay, Month 

Horizontal 



Colaba 




























Civil 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


"1 




Hour 




























Date 




























1 


1-565 


1-568 


1-555 


1-533 


r5i8 


1-514 


1-500 


1^486 


1^485 1 


■602 


1^499 1 


-498 




2 


■686 


■596 


•567 


-539 


-526 


-500 


-497 


■491 


•486 


■493 


•477 


488 




3 


•681 


■592 


■624 


-605 


-553 


-496 


-470 


-485 


•510 


■Sll 


•51G 


518 




4 


•589 


■595 


■693 


•567 


•547 


-533 


-527 


-622 


•515 


514 


•510 


514 







•573 


•583 


■564 


•541 


■520 


-513 


•516 


-518 


•520 


620 


•518 


519 




6 


■602 


•604 


■599 


•579 


■562 


-653 


•673 


-568 


•576 


550 


•509 


504 




7 


•569 


•560 


■525 


-601 


■474 


-496 


•480 


-450 


•460 


480 


•473 


467 




8 


•570 


-568 


-551 


-526 


•621 


-609 


•494 


-489 


-489 


486 


-480 


480 




9 


•515 


•517 


■516 


-527 


•526 


-521 


•511 


•505 


•488 


487 


-496 


407 




10 


•523 


-514 


-514 


-499 


-497 


•497 


•601 


-500 


-501 


51^ 


-505 


503 




H 


•515 


•516 


■522 


-500 


-497 


•481 


■489 


-494 


-489 


481 


-485 


488 




12 


•542 


-640 


-630 


-526 


-513 


■604 


•503 


•502 


-496 


487 


-485 


179 




13 


•664 


-560 


■551 


•541 


-630 


-629 


•613 


•520 


-508 


501 


-496 


488 




14 


•540 


-537 


-512 


•483 


-473 


-470 


•460 


■467 


-469 


462 


-456 


4G3 





Table B. — Oovernment Observatory, Bombay, Month of November, 

Horizontal Force 
There are in the forms two columns for each hour ; in the second are 
entered the 29-day sum (above), and the 29-day mean (below) for a 
given day ; the first are checked by actual summation at the beginning 
and middle of each month, and these figures are entered in ink ; the rest 
are entered in pencil only. In the first column are entered the number 
to be added to the 29-day sum of the preceding day and the number to be 
subtracted from it to obtain the 29-day sum of the day of the entries, and 
also the excess of the first entry over the second with its proper sign. 



Bombay 
Civil 
Hour 



Date 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



10 



11 



■695 
-691 
■C89 
•686 
•680 
■676 
•671 
•664 
■658 
•653 
■650 
■647 
■645 
•643 
■643 
•637 
■632 
•631 
•629 
•627 



•700 
■696 
•693 
■689 
•684 
•679 
•674 
■667 
•661 
-657 
•663 
•649 
■646 
•644 
-644 
•636 
•631 
•630 
•629 
■627 



12 



-687 
-682 
-679 
•675 
■670 
-666 
■661 
•654 
■647 
■643 
-639 
■635 
■633 
■630 
•629 
•621 
■616 
•615 
•615 
•613 



13 



•665 
•660 
•657 
•653 
■619 
■645 
•640 
•633 
■627 
■623 
•619 
■615 
■611 
•609 
■607 
■599 
■595 
'594 
■594 
■592 



14 


16 


•645 


•626 


■641 


•622 


■638 


■619 


•633 


■615 


•629 


•611 


■625 


•607 


■622 


•604 


■616 


■599 


■611 


-696 


■607 


•592 


■603 


-588 


■599 


•585 


•595 


■582 


■592 


•579 


590 


•576 


•583 


•570 


579 


•568 


578 


•566 


578 


•564 


575 


•561 



le 



•614 
•610 
•605 
•602 
■598 
•595 
•591 
■586 
■582 
•578 
■576 
■573 
•571 
•569 
•566 
■561 
■560 
•559 
•555 
•553 



17 



•611 
■607 
•602 
•599 
•595 
■591 
•586 
•581 
•576 
•572 
•571 
•568 
•566 
■563 
■561 
•556 
■555 
•553 
•550 
•548 



18 



■610 
■606 
•602 
•598 
•595 
•591 
■586 
■579 
•575 
•571 
•570 
•567 
•565 
■562 
■560 
■555 
■553 
■551 
•549 
•546 



19 



•606 
■602 
•597 
•594 
•590 
•586 
•582 
•576 
■572 
■570 
•5(i8 
■566 
■563 
■560 
•558 
•553 
•551 
•560 
•547 
•545 



20 



•602 
•598 
•594 
•590 
•586 
■582 
■578 
•573 
•569 
•568 
■567 
•664 
■561 
•559 
•556 
•552 
■551 
•549 
■547 
•544 



•21 



■602 
■598 
■594 
■590 
•586 
•582 
•579 
•574 
■572 
■570 
■567 
•565 
•562 
■559 
■556 
•553 
•553 
-549 
-547 
-545 



ON COMPARING AND BEDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



95- 



of Beceviher, 1875. Hoitrly Abstract of Tabulations (in Inches) of 
Force Magnetograph. 





22 


23 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Sum 


Mean 




1-503 


r507 


1-512 


1-512 


1-502 


1-499 


1-504 


1-508 


1^517 


1-536 1 


554 


1-525 








•490 


•500 


•501 


•501 


-503 


-504 


•503 


■507 


■521 


-532 


533 


-579 


— 


— 




■515 


■517 


•539 


■522 


•509 


-513 


•510 


■515 


•521 


-529 


547 


-566 


— 


— 




■511 


■514 


•510 


■508 


•507 


-508 


■509 


■513 


•518 


-527 


543 


-555 


— 


— 




•518 


•51G 


•515 


■516 


-518 


-522 


■525 


•532 


•541 


-563 


089 


■592 


— ■ 


— 




•41)7 


•451 


■444 


•444 


•490 


■479 


■474 


•486 


■499 


-530 


546 


■501 


— 


— 




•4«4 


•477 


■469 


■478 


•481 


•485 


■490 


•494 


■498 


-516 


540 


•559 


— 


— 




•4H3 


•486 


-489 


■483 


■483 


-480 


•506 


•503 


■505 


•508 


510 


•518 


— 


— 




■497 


■504 


■504 


■503 


•496 


-493 


•487 


-5iil 


•509 


•504 


521 


-519 


— 


— 




•493 


•498 


■489 


•487 


•479 


-479 


•486 


•494 


■509 


•520 


520 


-514 


— 


— 




■477 


•479 


-480 


■483 


•487 


-492 


•489 


■493 


■500 


-515 


533 


•544 


— 


— 




•487 


■492 


-491 


■491 


•492 


-492 


•492 


■498 


-506 


-532 


553 


•557 


— 


— 




•495 


•490 


■480 


■493 


•479 


-470 


•468 


■476 


•486 


-500 


5-20. 


■540 


— 


— 




•4B3 


•463 


•469 


■465 


•4G6 


-464 


-471 


•481 


-500 


-520 


540 


-556 




~ 



1875. Hourly Determinations of 2^-day Means of each Sour. 
Magnetograph. 

The actual operation is to add this excess to the 29-day sum of the pre- 
ceding day, and enter the result as the 29-day sum of the day of the 
entries. The 29-day sums are divided by 29 by means of a table of 
products of 29 into all the integers from 1 to 999, and the quotients 
are entered below as the 29-day means. The integer 1 in each number 
of Table A is thrown out of account in the construction of Table B,. 
and this is kept in mind in taking the differences of Table C. 





Bombay 




























Civil 


22 


23 





1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 




Hour 






























Date 














1 


-600 


■605 


•608 


■608 


•611 


■611 


■614 


•616 


•618 


•631 


•653 


•676 




2 


•596 


■601 


•605 


•605 


•607 


•608 


•611 


•612 


•615 


•628 


•650 


•674 




3 


■592 


■597 


•601 


•601 


•604 


•604 


•607 


•608 


•611 


•625 


•647 


•670 




4 


■589 


■594 


•598 


•598 


•600 


•600 


•603 


■605 


•607 


•021 


■643 


■066 




5 


•585 


•590 


•594 


•594 


•597 


•597 


•600 


•601 


•604 


•619 


■640 


■062 




6 


-581 


•587 


•591 


•591 


•593 


■594 


•597 


•598 


•601 


•015 


•635 


■657 




7 


•577 


•584 


•585 


•585 


•588 


•589 


•592 


•593 


■597 


•612 


•631 


■651 




8 


•572 


■579 


■580 


■580 


•583 


•584 


•586 


•587 


•592 


•606 


•625 


•045 




9 


•570 


■576 


•577 


•577 


•579 


■580 


•582 


•584 


•589 


■602 


•620 


•640 




10 


•568 


•573 


•574 


•574 


•577 


•577 


•579 


•582 


•586 


•600 


•618 


•638 




11 


•566 


•571 


•572 


•571 


•573 


•573 


■576 


•579 


•.583 


•597 


•615 


•035 




12 


■563 


■568 


•569 


•568 


•570 


■571 


•574 


•576 


.582 


•590 


•614 


•034 




13 


-560 


•565 


•566 


•565 


•567 


•568 


•571 


•574 


•579 


•594 


■612 


•032 




14 


-558 


•563 


■564 


•563 


•565 


■566 


•569 


•572 


■578 


•594 


■612 


•632 




15 


-555 


•560 


■561 


•559 


•562 


■563 


•565 


•568 


•574 


•589 


•608 


•627 




16 


-552 


■557 


•558 


•557 


•559 


■560 


•562 


■565 


•571 


•585 


•604 


•622 




17 


-552 


•556 


•557 


•555 


•556 


•557 


■559 


•563 


•569 


•584 


•602 


•619 




18 


-549 


•554 


■555 


•552 


•553 


■555 


■557 


•560 


•567 


•582 


•600 


•618 




19 


-547 


•551 


■553 


■550 


•550 


•552 


•554 


•558 


•564 


■580 


•598 


•615 




20 


•544 


•549 


•550 


•547 


•547 


•549 


•551 


•555 


•562 


•577 


•595 


•612 



94 



REPORT 1886. 



Table B {continued). — Government Observatory, Bombay, Month of 

Horizontal Force 



Bombay 
Civil 
Hour 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 

•545 
•543 
■536 
•533 
•532 
•529 
•527 
•525 
•526 
•522 


18 


19 

•542 
■540 
•535 
•532 
■531 
•529 
•526 
■525 
■524 
■521 


20 


21 




Date 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 


■624 
•621 
•617 
•615 
•610 
•606 
■601 
•599 
■594 
•591 


•623 
•621 
•616 
■613 
■609 
•604 
•599 
•597 
•593 
•589 


■609 
■607 
■601 
■598 
■594 
•590 
•586 
•584 
•580 
•576 


•588 
•586 
•580 
■576 
■574 
■570 
■566 
•564 
•561 
"556 


•571 
■569 
•562 
•559 
•557 
•554 
•551 
•548 
•546 
•542 


•558 
•555 
•550 
■548 
■547 
■544 
■541 
■538 
■537 
•533 


■549 
•548 
■542 
•539 
•540 
•537 
•534 
■533 
■531 
■527 


•543 
•542 
•536 
■532 
■530 
■528 
■526 
■525 
■523 
•520 


■542 
•539 
•534 
•530 
•529 
■527 
■524 
•523 
•521 
•517 


•543 
•540 
•534 
•531 
•529 
•527 
•525 
■523 
■522 
•519 





Table 0. — Oovermnent Observatory, Bombay, Month of November, 1875. 

Magnetograph 



S o 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Bombay 
Civil 
Hour 



Date 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



10 



•145 
■121 
•025 
•058 
■074 
■089 
•098 
•135 
•076 
■102 
•084 
■114 
■065 
■143 
■107 
■125 
■128 
•139 
•122 
•123 
■075 
■023 
•050 
■076 
■083 
•111 
•145 
•126 
•162 
■072 



11 



•147 
•125 
•024 
•037 
■078 
•093 
•098 
■139 
■090 
•091 
■085 
■111 
■066 
■132 
■120 
•115 
•136 
•142 
•119 
•117 
■084 
■030 
■049 
•084 
•073 
•111 
■131 
■123 
■161 
■027 



12 



•142 

•118 
•028 
•040 
•074 
•116 
•109 
•140 
•094 
■085 
•088 
•101 
•074 
•121 
•111 
•101 
•138 
•138 
•123 
•113 
•086 
•019 
•059 
■090 
■075 
■112 
•125 
•120 
•146 
•025 



13 



•138 
•096 
■013 
•037 
•073 
■116 
■116 
■134 
■107 
•074 
•092 
•103 
•080 
•111 
■116 
■107 
■131 
•129 
•132 
•112 
•103 
•017 
•071 
•088 
•077 
•106 
•117 
•111 
•133 
•027 



14 



•139 

•071 
•029 
•028 
•085 
■117 
■120 
■143 
■108 
■070 
•081 
■096 
■088 
•089 
•117 
•109 
•119 
•122 
•131 
■111 
■137 
■056 
■087 
■080 
■074 
■096 
•097 
■116 
■125 
■044 



15 



■137 
■044 
•028 
■053 
•095 
•111 
•124 
•141 
•089 
•055 
■093 
■089 
■090 
■086 
■114 
•108 
•108 
■123 
•136 
•114 
•152 
•082 
•083 
•091 
•074 
•104 
•088 
■119 
■123 
■054 



•125 

•018 
■026 
•067 
•102 
•120 
•129 
•165 
•088 
•025 
■099 
■090 
•078 
■101 
•104 
•110 
■100 
■121 
■142 
•123 
•127 
•080 
■084 
•096 
•076 
•114 
•099 
■130 
■119 
■062 



•129 
•017 
019 
■078 
■097 
•121 
136 
•168 
•106 
■065 
•100 
•087 
•082 
■050 
■106 
■111 
■106 
■128 
■140 
•118 
•083 
■068 
•079 
■098 
■086 
■119 
■101 
■131 
■123 
■072 



■126 
■016 
■056 
■079 
■100 
■119 
■124 
•154 
■108 
•080 
•098 
•077 

•0(;9 

•088 
•102 
■108 
■113 
•127 
■129 
■114 
■090 
■040 
•074 
•096 
■094 
■117 
■104 
•118 
•136 
•070 



19 



•112 

•078 
•027 
•082 
•101 
•117 
•114 
■154 
■101 
■061 
■096 
•084 
•065 
■082 
•087 
•106 
•112 
•126 
•118 
•114 
■112 
■062 
•079 
•100 
•108 
•111 
■095 
■122 
■135 
■064 



20 



21 



■098 


•0921 


■021 


•022 


■059 


•092 


•075 


•081 


•098 


•095 


■116 


•109 


■118 


•105 


■147 


•147 


■103 


•103 


•084 


■072 


096 


■105 


•086 


■079 


•072 


•067 


■082 


■079 


■109 


■096 


•108 


•106 


•113 


•113 


•125 


•123 


•101 


•101 


•112 


•109 


•113 


■115 


•071 


■076 


•081 


•095 


•104 


•102 


•113 


■118 


•114 


•113 


•102 


•105 


•121 


•119 


•127 


•117 


•064 


•091 



ON COMPARING AND EEDUCINa MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



95 



November 1875. Hourly Determinations of 29-day Means of each Hour. 
Magnetograp h . 



Bombay 
Civil 
Hoiir 



Date 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

no 



22 



■542 
•538 
•533 
•530 
•528 
•526 
•523 
•522 
•520 
•517 



•546 
•541 
•536 
•533 
•531 
•529 
•526 
•525 
•522 
•519 






1 


547 


•544 


542 


•539 


537 


•535 


534 


•531 


533 


•530 


530 


•527 


527 


•523 


524 


•522 


521 


•520 


518 


•517 



•544 
•541 
•536 
•533 
•531 
■528 
•525 
•523 
•521 
•517 



•547 
•543 
•539 
•535 
•532 
•530 
•526 
■524 
■521 
■518 



■548 
■544 
•540 
•537 
■534 
■531 
■527 
•525 
■522 
•519 



•552 
•548 
•544 
•540 
•538 
•536 
•531 
530 
•528 
•525 



559 
555 
552 
547 
545 
543 
540 
539 
537 
534 



•575 
•572 
■569 
•564 
•561 
•558 
•555 
•554 
•551 
•549 



•594 
•590 
•588 
•584 
•581 
•577 
•574 
•572 
•569 
•566 



•610 
•606 
•604 
•600 
•590 
•592 
•588 
•584 
•582 
•578 



Hourly Abstract of Differences from 29-day Means of Horizontal Force 
A -B + -100 J«c/I. 





22 


23 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


' 


9 




•070 


078 


067 


075 


082 


082 


090 


090 


104 


•116 


•120 


•114 






022 


035 


039 


055 


093 


064 


062 


056 


057 


•057 


•042 


•036 






081 


069 


082 


083 


076 


078 


079 


080 


068 


•050 


•048 


•05S 






091 


094 


083 


090 


089 


081 


078 


085 


082 


•079 


•076 


■070 






097 


088 


093 


095 


097 


101 


101 


096 


096 


•086 


•083 


■086 






111 


110 


109 


106 


104 


104 


104 


107 


110 


•107 


096 


■103 






113 


113 


117 


117 


114 


109 


103 


109 


113 


•110 


•113 


■112 






141 


141 


134 


119 


115 


110 


129 


122 


110 


•100 


•085 


•073 






107 


106 


109 


110 


107 


115 


114 


139 


149 


•145 


■096 


•110 






075 


080 


064 


065 


071 


087 


089 


078 


089 


•097 


•099 


•086 






099 


098 


093 


093 


088 


087 


086 


084 


088 


•099 


•109 


•108 






096 


104 


104 


125 


117 


115 


138 


144 


092 


•092 


117 


•112 






067 


057 


109 


071 


081 


082 


069 


060 


065 


•082 


•100 


•130 






092 


092 


093 


083 


081 


087 


085 


079 


077 


•082 


•091 


•093 






095 


091 


095 


104 


102 


100 


099 


098 


096 


•099 


•112 


•120 






108 


106 


111 


113 


111 


112 


109 


106 


101 


•104 


•106 


•117 






110 


108 


110 


114 


111 


110 


107 


106 


107 


•118 


•127 


•133 






125 


117 


115 


119 


114 


109 


112 


114 


109 


•109 


•124 


•128 






108 


113 


110 


116 


122 


111 


121 


107 


120 


•118 


•120 


•117 






102 


108 


127 


123 


111 


124 


113 


110 


123 


•114 


•105 


•100 






095 


153 


054 


060 


067 


075 


076 


086 


094 


•100 


•084 


•063 






073 


069 


071 


074 


081 


075 


067 


063 


065 


•054 


■051 


•059 






088 


084 


095 


087 


082 


078 


081 


090 


090 


•082 


•066 


■067 






109 


100 


097 


093 


090 


086 


089 


093 


094 


•091 


•104 


■101 






113 


102 


108 


103 


094 


093 


100 


092 


104 


•107 


•098 


■102 






114 


108 


109 


112 


115 


127 


127 


127 


133 


■139 


•140 


■142 






115 


no 


105 


111 


110 


113 


108 


110 


115 


•116 


•108 


•117 






120 


118 


122 


124 


123 


127 


131 


130 


141 


•151 


•165 


•164 






110 


114 


126 


110 


121 


122 


094 


108 


083 


■077 


•092 


•008 




•088 


081 


088 


090 


092 


094 


100 


101 


098 


•092 


•086 


•084 



96 



REPORT — 1886. 



Horizontal Force-Calculation of the Excess Solar-Diurnal Variation for 



Days after 
New Moon 


10 


n 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 




O 


14 

15 
16 
17 

Sum 
Mean 


■0850 
•1140 
•1037 
•1380 
•4407 
•1104 


•0893 
•1137 
•1023 
•1330 
•4373 
•1093 


•0960 
•1090 
•1013 
■1217 
•4280 
■1070 


•0960 
•1043 
•1003 
•1117 
•4123 
•1031 


•0967 
•1010 
•1003 
•1043 
•4023 
•1006 


•1020 
•1010 
•1033 
•1030 
•4093 
•1023 


•1113 
•1050 
•1033 
•1050 
•4246 
•1061 


•1143 
•1060 
•1127 
•0893 
•4223 
•1056 


•1087 
•1017 
•1050 
•1020 
•4174 
•1043 


•1027 
•1017 
•1053 
•0967 
•4064 
•1016 


•1000 
•1040 
•1090 
•0987 
•4117 
•1029 





Horizontal Force- Calculation 



Phase (o) 
riiase (4) 
811111 = a . 
riiiise (2) 
Pliase (6) 
Sum=(&) 
a-b . . 

a-h 

4 

0-6 
■ , x-0427 

4 

Variatn. ==/.,(/() 

Phase (1) 

Phase f5) 

Sum = a' 

Phase (3) 

Phase (7) 

Suin=6' . 

a' -b' . 

a'-V 
4 



a'-V 



Variatn, 



X ^0427 



=fs.2iK) 



•1104 I 
•1104 I 
•2208 I 
•0920 
•0937 
•1857 



•1059 
•1093 
■2152 
•0972 
■0940 
•1912 



+ ^0351 + ^0240 
+ '0088 + •OOOO 

+•00038 +^00026 

I 
+ •00025 +-00013 

•1121 ^1128 

•1138 ^1112 

•2259 -2240 

•0906 ^0899 

•0788 ^0783 

•1694 -1682 
+ -0565 + ^0558 

+ -0141 + -0139 

I 
+ •00060 +^00059 

+•00056 +^00065 



•1052 


•1006 


■0911 


•0920 


•1070 


•1031 


•1006 


•1023 


•2122 


•2037 


•1917 


•1943 


•1057 


■1012 


•0988 


•0963 


•0977 


•1031 


•1047 


•1055 


•2034 


•2043 


•2035 


•2018 


+ ^0088 


- •0006 


- ^0118 


- ^0075 


+ ^0022 


- -0001 


- -0029 


- ^0019 


+•00009 


•00000 


-•00012 


-•00008 


-•00004 


-•00013 


-•00025 


-•00021 


•1074 


•1009 


•1036 


•0986 


•1057 


•1090 


•1061 


•0981 


•2131 


■2099 


•2097 


•1967 


•0916 


■0939 


■0968 


•1019 


•0736 


■0791 


■0896 


■0927 


•1652 


•1730 


■1864 


•1946 


+ -0479 


+ -0369 


+ ^0233 


+ -0021 - 


+ ^0120 


+ -0092 


+ -0058 


+ ■ooos - 


+ •00051 


+ ■00039 


+ •00025 


+ ■00002 - 


+ •00047 


+ 00035 


+ ■00021 


-■00002 - 



•0961 
•1061 
•2022 
•0957 
•1054 
•2011 
+ -0011 

+ ^0003 
+ ■00001 

-■00012 

0922 
0973 
1895 
1028 
0915 
1943 
0048 

0012 

-■00005 

■00009 



0978 
1056 
2034 
0962 
0990 
1952 
0082 

0020 



+ ■00009 

-■00004 

■0922 
0979 
1901 
1068 
0937 
2005 
0104 

- ^0026 
■•OCOll 
■00015 



of the Luni-Solar 

0990 ■loor 

1043 -1016 

2033 ^2023 

1021 -0961 

1033 ■1076 

2054 -2037 



0021 
0005 

■00002 

■00015 

0911 
0983 
1894 
1031 
0875 
1906 
0012 

0003 
-■OOOOl 
-•00005 



0014 
0003 

-•00001 

-•00014 

0964 
0883 
1847 
1026 
0941 
1967 
0120 

0030 
•00013 
•00017 



■1009 
•1029 
•2038 
•0959 
•1041 
•2000 
+ •OOoS 



+ •OOOO 
+ •00004 

-•00009 

•0889 
•0889 
•1778 
•1060 
■0974 
•2034 

- •0250 

- •OOOJ 
-•00027 
-■00031 



' An ordinate of 1 inch corresponds to ^0427 m.g.s. unit of force. 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 97 



the {4ith) Phase of a Lunation, i.e., for Full Moon. Nov. 1875 to Jan. 1876. 



21 


22 
•0930 


23 





1 


2 


' 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


•0993 


•0947 


•0940 


•0940 


•0957 


•0977 


•0987 


■0983 


•1017 


•1037 


•1100 


•1117 


•1017 


•1050 


•1093 


•1090 


•1133 


•1130 


•1133 


•1220 


•1233 


•1057 


•1107 


•1190 


■1150 


•1063 


•lOGO 


•1007 


•1140 


•1030 


•1023 


■0983 


•0930 


•0907 


•0947 


•1033 


•1137 


■1343 


•0997 


•1023 


•1043 


•1110 


•1050 


•1033 


•1033 


•1100 


■1080 


•1110 


•1220 


•1237 


•1277 


•4070 


•4063 


•4090 


•4280 


•4153 


•4143 


•4126 


•4237 


•4203 


•4131 


•4397 


•4664 


•4887 


•1017 


•1016 


•1022 


•1070 


•1038 


•1036 


■1031 


•1059 


■1051 


•1033 


■1099 


•1166 


•1222 



Diurn 


%l Var 


iations 


/:-.cA) 


and/ 


,(h). Nov. 1875 to Jan. 1876. 








•1008 


■1067 


•1059 


•1041 


•1011 


•1074 


■1072 


•1042 


•1058 


•1037 


•1089 


•1157 


•1161 


•lOU 


•1016 


•1022 


•1070 


•1038 


•1036 


•1031 


•1059 


•1051 


•1033 


•1099 


•1166 


•1222 


•2025 


•2083 


•2081 


•2111 


•2049 


•2110 


•2103 


•2101 


•2109 


•2070 


•2188 


■2323 


•2383 


•0977 


•0941 


■0903 


•0946 


•0947 


•0991 


•0980 


•0988 


•1011 


•0986 


•0961 


•0915 


•0918 


•1020 


•0990 


■1059 


•1015 


•1013 


•0986 


•0984 


•1002 


•0990 


•1020 


•1002 


•0945 


•0912 


•1997 


•1931 


•1962 


•1961 


•1960 


•1977 


•1964 


•1990 


•2001 


•2006 


•1963 


•1860 


•1830 


+ '0028 


+ ^0152 


+ •oiw 


+ ^0150 


+ •oosg 


+ •oiss 


+ •oisg 


+ -0111 


+ ^0108 


+ •0064 


+ ^0225 


+ ^0463 


+ ^0553 


+ •OOOT 


+ -0038 


+ •ooso 


+ ^0037 


+ •0022 


+ ^0033 


+ ^0035 


+ ^0028 


+ ^0027 


+ •0016 


+ •OOSO 


+ •Olio 


+ •oiss 


+ •00003 


+•00016 


+ •00013 


+ •00016 


+ •00009 


+ •00014 


+ •00015 


+•00012 


+•00012 


+ •00007 


+ ■00024 


+•00050 


+ •00059 


-■00010 


+•00003 


■00000 


+ •00003 


-■00004 


+•00001 


+•00002 


-•00001 


+■00001 


-■00006 


+ •00011 


+•00037 


+•00046 


•0894 


•0887 


•0902 


•0951 


•0973 


•0999 


•0953 


•0952 


•0975 


•0978 


•0977 


•0950 


•0937 


•0951 


•0937 


•1011 


•0885 


•0909 


•0960 


•1004 


•0930 


•0862 


•0887 


•0800 


•0929 


•0970 


•1845 


•1824 


•1913 


•1836 


•1882 


■1959 


•1957 


•1882 


•1837 


•1865 


•1777 


•1879 


•1907 


•1034 


•1058 


•1068 


•1049 


•10-28 


■1001 


•0996 


•1017 


•1037 


•1041 


•1014 


■0917 


•0890 


•0947 


■09!)3 


■0896 


■0904 


•0963 


•0878 


•0879 


■0902 


•0911 


•0929 


•0952 


•0927 


•0927 


•1981 


•2051 


■1964 


•1953 


•1991 


•1879 


•1875 


•1919 


•1948 


•1970 


•1966 


•1844 


•1817 


- -0136 


- ^0227 


- ^0051 


- •oin 


- •oiog 


+ ^0080 


+ ^0082 


- ^0037 


- •Olll 


- •OlOS 


- ^0189 


+ •0035 


+ •oogo 


- ^0034 


- -0057 


- ^0013 


- ^0029 


- ^0027 


+ ^0020 


+ -0020 


- •ooog 


- ^0028 


- •0026 


- ^004 7 


+ •oooo 


+ ^0022 


-•00015 


-•00024 


-•00006 


-•00012 


-■00012 


+ •00009 


+ •00009 


-■00004 


-•00012 


-•00011 


-•00020 


+ •00004 


+ •00009 


-•00019 


-•00028 


-•00010 


-•00016 


-•00016 


+ ■00005 


+ •00005 


-•00008 


-■00016 


-•00015 


-•00024 


•00000 


+■00005 



1886. 



98 REPORT — 1886. 

X. The Advantages to the Science of Terrestrial Magnetism to he obtained 
from an expedition to the region vnthin the Antarctic Circle, By Staif 
Commander Ettrick W. Creak, B.N., F.B.S. 

In Ganss's paper on the general theory of magnetism, published in 
England in 1839, will be found the following conclusions: — ■ 

(1) 'It is clear that the knowledge of T (or the component of the 
horizontal magnetic force directed towards the west) on the whole earth, 
combined with the knowledge of X (or the component of the hoi'izontal 
force towards the north) at all points of a line running from one pole of 
the earth to the other, is sufficient for the foundation of the complete 
theory of the magnetism of the earth.' 

(2) ' Finally it is clear that the complete theory is also deducible 
from the simple knowledge of the value of Z (or the component of the 
magnetic force directed towards the centre of the earth) on the whole 
surface of the earth.' 

Accepting these conclusions as thoroughly sound, and in no measure 
altered since they were written by other investigators, let us now inquire 
into the question how far are we prepared by observation of the earth's 
mao-netism for a calculation of this kind. Thanks to the activity of 
observers in many lands and over many seas during the years 1865-85, 
we have been supplied with the necessary observations, which have been 
utilised for compiling charts on a large scale of the normal values of the 
declination, horizontal force, and vertical force for the epoch 1880 from 
which the values of X, Y, Z may readily be obtained for a large portion 
of the earth's surface. 

These elements for the zone contained between the parallels of 60° N". 
and 50° S. are (except for some portions of Northern Asia and Central 
Africa) accurate ; from 60° to 70° north latitude and 50° to 60° south 
latitude they are less accurate. North of the parallel of 70° N. and south 
of 60° S. are two portions of the earth of which our knowledge is far 
more limited ; but whilst we have had comparatively recent observations 
ill Arctic regions, nearly the whole of the Antarctic regions have re- 
mained unvisited for magnetic purposes since the memorable survey 
conducted by the late Sir James Ross in 1840-43, so that the charts are 
correspondingly weak in those latitudes. 

A reference to the accompanying map shows that the Challenger, 
whilst on her voyage from the Cape of Good Hope to Melbourne, crossed 
the Antarctic circle about the meridian of 79° E. The magnetic observa- 
tions during that period combined with those made at Sandy Point, 
Magellan Strait, since 1868, and some declination observations recently 
made in the Soiith Pacific between New Zealand and Cape Horn in lati- 
tudes between 50° and 60° S. give ample evidence that considerable change 
of the magnetic elements has occnrred since Ross's voyage. Of the extent 
of these changes our information is so limited that the old survey is of 
but little use in enabling us to complete the charts of 1880 with the 
requisite amount of accuracy, and therefore the X, Y, Z required for 
Gauss's method of theoretical investigation are still wanting. 

Although it is true that Gaass has shown the method by which 
mathematicians may, from an accurate knowledge of the magnetic ele- 
ments over an extended area in both hemispheres, calculate, nearlj^ those 
of the remaining portions, yet supposing this to have been done — and it 



-■G"- Ref^crt Bn. 



Plate [II 




ANTARCTIC MAGNEnC SURVEY, 

Zpodv 1840-m5. 



i ollixviooac U O 



'tu> OhserucULons. 



■6'*U'f^ft»lA'l.-r 


/.\.<>B 














ri'. 


111 






V 






^^;;^^l^-i:f?^^ 




y!^^\'- \ ' 'T^fc 


-'rJsf---n 








y!/^A,^i'^ iO^^ Jt'JSFt' 


T^^-Xr^"/ /^\. 


^^P^^W^r^^ftT^rH 


T*lQ-2/^4>0>< X >k. 




/TY- / . •' vaaIL 


1 //SSO'/V>x>/\'^V^ 






A^ /■y^^Kxm^lW^rA'^y^ 


'm^ 






y^#y^>^<o«wrm^ 




mf&m^m 








~~L 1 FTr-ir~i-~^U tit!--/- 












"T \-j — ^-=^^=^ ^-■■' ^^— TA 


rti 


— 






1 






, L\ —Ys^aI;^^ -y^^-^^L. 


W~ 







'^ 




\ _L-\ — \ — T-^^v^^K^-^^^^^^^ssr---"'" '''''<'^^^^^^^^"j^ / ' T7 




VXx^^^X^^^^M^ 


^^^^^^^^^iy^^^%^Tin 




\\^^\\^-^^'<s^^%9ffff\% 










f 1 \t'*T'\ 1 ^\C^^ 


^^M 












^^^^^^^rij::i»^:v 


^^NT.UtCTlCMAGHmC SURVEY, 








m'm'-^t \"'V^ 




^vV' ^^'^^^^i^r''^^/ • " 


-■''' \ A— -^^^^^ 








-SiuUnatioiv 




Ai^uluHf 


WR* fff'Jttnt's l^age-, and/JtUarHx^ Sitrvey, 1840-4S . 


-So^g; r84(H5. 




■ 









1 



IlbisirajUn^ Repot cffilhe'b&stmeafis ofComparut^ d J^uct/^ Ma^aelCo ObservaUans, 



ON COMPARING AND EEDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 99 

is a woi'k of considerable labour — tbe results would hardly be accepted 
-as final until observation had done its work in every navigable sea and 
on every shore open to the explorer, in proof of the theoretical results. 

It has already been remarked that we know far more of the earth's 
magnetism from observation in Arctic regions, where the approximate 
position of the noi"th magnetic pole has been determined, than in the 
Antarctic regions where the position of the south magnetic pole is yet 
indeterminate. Thus it appears that great advantage to the science of 
terrestrial magnetism would be derived from a new magnetic survey of 
the southern hemisphere extending from the parallel of 40° S. as far 
towards the geographical pole as possible. 

For carrying out such a survey we have many advantages over our 
predecessors in the Erehus and Terror, besides the benefit of their 
experience. At Melbourne there is a magnetic observatory equipped with 
all the most modern apparatus which would form an admirable base sta- 
tion, whilst subsidiary base stations might be formed at the Cape Observa- 
tory, and Sandy Point, Magellan Strait, for the use of the portable abso- 
lute instruments. The survey, too, must in a great measure again be 
carried out on board ship at sea, and here we have a powerful aid in steam 
which would enable an observer in calms and moderate weather to obtain 
excellent results by the process of swinging the ship. The observations 
at sea might be accompanied with considerable advantage by observations 
made with the portable absolute instruments on ice as frequently as pos- 
sible. Ice is specially mentioned as being free from the local magnetic 
disturbance which is common in islands and on i-ocky shores of igneous 
formation. 

But the valuable aid of steam, which enables the seaman and observer 
to handle his vessel with ease and precision, involves a large increase of 
iron in the ship in the form of engines, boilers, &c., and a corresponding 
increase of trouble to the magnetician. Those who have read Sabine's 
detailed account of the errors of the compass, due to iron in the ships 
Erebus and Terror, will have found that the deviation of 3° or 4° in 
the compass at Hobart Town, became 50° in the high southern latitudes, 
which must have all but annihilated the earth's directive force on certain 
courses and rendered the compass useless. 

Experience derived from the magnetic results of H.M.S. Challenger 
and other ships of the Royal Navy points to a means of avoiding much 
of this difficulty, as well as to the selection of a suitable vessel, and above 
all to a proper position on board — considered magnetically — for the 
instruments. The importance of this latter point will be appreciated 
when it is remembered that the errors of the observed magnetic elements 
due to the direction of the ship's head can generally be eliminated by 
swinging the ship, whilst those proceeding from vertical magnetic forces 
are constant for every direction of the ship's head when upright — variable 
when she is inclined at different angles of heel, and requiring frequent 
references to a base station to ascertain their amount. 

On all accounts, therefore, it is necessary that directly a vessel is 
selected for a magnetic survey, positions for the compasses and relative 
magnetic instruments used at sea should be determined after careful 
experiment, and all iron within 30 feet of them removed if possible. 

Subject to these precautions, a magnetic survey of the Antarcfic seas 
might be made with satisfactory precision and great advantage to the 
science of terrestrial magnetism. 

h2 



100 REPORT — 1886. 

First Report on our Experimental Knowledge of the Properties of 
Matter tuith respect to Volume, Pressure, Temperature, and 
Specific Heat. By P. T. Main, M.A. 

Belation of Pressure to Volume ; Oases — Regnaulfs Investigations, and 

General Besults. 

Before Regnanlt published his ' Memoires ' attempts Lad been made- 
without success to detect deviations from the relation of pressure to- 
volume required by Boyle's lavr. In his sixth memoire ' of tome sxi. 
Rewnault describes in detail his arrangement for testing the accuracy of 
Boyle's law for atmospheric air, and for the gases nitrogen, carbon 
dioxide, and hydrogen. At a large number of pressures ranging fi'om. 
that of a single atmosphere to that of about thirty atmospheres experi- 
ments were made of the following kind : a manometer, at the middle of 
which was etched a mark which divided it into (almost) exactly equal 
volumes, as known by the weights of its contents of mercury, was 
filled at a given exactly known temperature and pressure with atmo- 
spheric air, or the gas to be examined ; the pressure was then increased 
until the mercury was forced up to the manometer tube, so that the top 
of the meniscus was seen, by the cathetometer, to be just touched by the 
mark on the middle of the manometer tube, the length of which was 
about 3 metres ; the pressure was then again recoi-ded, and the ratio of 
the foi-mer to the latter pressure calculated. If in all cases Boyle's law 
applied with accuracy the ratio would always be 2 to 1. But it was 
found for the gases mentioned that this was never accurately the case, 
and that the deviation from this ratio was greater the greater the origi- 
nal pressure, and that air and nitrogen under these conditions up to 'SO- 
atmospheres were always more compressible than Boyle's law required,, 
but that for hydrogen the compressibility was always Jess than Boyle's 
law required, and that the deviations from Boyle's law were always 
greater the greater the original pressure up to 30 atmos. 

For example, in the case of nitrogen the ratio of vp for, the original 
and for the doubled pressure (which should be 1, if Boyle's law applied, 
exactly) was 

1-001012 for original pressure 753"96 mm. 
and 1-006784 „ „ 10978-20 „ 

the temperature beiug constant (4° to 5°) in each case. 
Again, for carbon dioxide the ratio was 

at 3-08° 1-007597 for original pressure 764-03 mm. 

and, at 2-7° 1-1.53681 „ „ 9612-39 „ 

But for hydrogen the ratio was 

at 4-4° 0-998584 for original pressure, 969-19 mm. 

and, at 8-95° 0-994460 „ „ 1183-06 „ 

In all three cases we notice that the deviation from Boyle's law i& 
o-reater the greater the pi-essure ; the deviation is much gi-eater for carbon 
dioxide than for the other two gases ; for hydrogen the compressibility is- 
less, for the others greater, than if Boyle's law were accurate. These. 

■ Mcmnires cle VAcaicmie, t. sxi. 



EXPEKIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE rEOPEETIES OF MATTER. 101 

results of Regnault's vpork have been confirmed by his successors within 
the same range of pressure. 

In tome xsvi. of the Memoires, Regnanlt, in the third part of the first 
memoire of the volume, determines the variations of vp for jjressures 
from about one atmo up to not more than eight atmos for atmospheric 
air and for carbon dioxide again ; and for oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitric 
oxide, carbon monoxide, mai'sh-gas, cyanogen, ammonia, hydrochloi'ic 
acid, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide. The variations of vp for 
atmospheric air and for carbon dioxide agreed very well with the values 
obtained up to 8 atmos in the former set of experiments ; and this agree- 
ment is a guarantee of the general accuracy of the results for the other 
gases, the gas in each case being tested and found pure and experimented 
on at some fixed temperature lower than 10°. 

The deviations from Boyle's law were in all these cases found to be in 
direction of greater compressibility. It should be mentioned that the 
dates of publication of these two sets of memoires of Regnault were 1847 
and 1862. 

The volumes, in each case, occupied by the gas at different pressures 
were known by the weight of mercury corresponding to the part of the 
manometer-tube occupied by the gas, and the pressure by the vertical 
height of mercury supported by the gas, this height being corrected for 
standard pressure and density of mercury : for Regnault found by special 
experiments that mercury is compressible, and the density which at 0° 
is 13'596 is at higher temperatures less, according to the rate of absolute 
expansion of mercury. The results of these investigations are given in 
the fifth and seventh memoires of tome xxi. ; at p. 328 there is a list of 
absolute dilatations of mercury between 0° and T°, where T is 10°, 20°, 
or any multiple of 10° up to 350° ; the total dilatation for 

0° to 10° being -001792 for 1 volume at 0° 
0° „ 350° „ -065743 „ 

and the compressibility of mercury per atmosphere was investigated and 
found (p. 462) to be -00000352, and for this corrections have to be applied 
throughout the height of the column of mercury. It will be noticed how- 
ever that for pressures of not more than 30 atmospheres the correction 
due to this is inappreciable, and will in fact be drowned in inevitable or 
unavoided sources of error. The constant temperature of the gas in the 
manometer was always secured by surrounding it with a jacket through 
which a current of water of constant temperature was passing constantly. 

Regnault, as Debray pointed out (see Ditto's ' Proprietes generales 
des corps,' p. 17), omitted from his calculations the weight of the com- 
pressed gas in the manometer, which being added increases the apparent 
pressure of the gas, the increase in Regnault's tables being due to the 
weight of a column of about 2 metres of the gas : a small correction is due 
to Regnault's numbers on this account. 

Among the data required for the determination of the values of pu 
mention must not be omitted of the atmospheric pressure which must 
be reckoned and added to the pressure of the column of mercury. 

This outline must suffice to give some notion of the precautions taken 
to avoid error, and the pains taken to secure an accurate determiaa- 
tion of all the data required in these investigations, in which Regnault 
obtained for many gases up to eight atmospheres, and for a few up to 
thirty, the actual relations of pressure and volume, and the extent to 



102 REPORT— 1886. 

whicli in each gas Boyle's law is found to be, though appi'oximatelj true 
for small variations of pressure, deviated from more and more as the 
pressure is increased (' Memoires de I'Academie,' t. xxvi.). 

Some of the gases which Regnault selected were liquefied at the 
temperature of the experiment by pressure alone, and in these cases it 
was noticed that drops of liquid condensed on the mercury and on the 
glass, and that while this was taking place quite a considerable diminu- 
tion of volume was brought about by a small and gradual increase of 
pressure (p. 261). The liquefaction of these gases — viz., H2S, SO2, 02^,2, 
NH3, CO2, and of chlorine and hydrogen chloride — was known, having 
been effected by Faraday many years before.' 

Andrews has shown ^ that a body in the gaseous state may be 
brought to the liquid state by a continuous process, in which it is im- 
possible to notice any precise point at which the gas becomes liquid, the 
deviations from Boyle's law, which are hardly noticeable at first, being 
gradually increased till the relation between pressure and volume is 
not even approximately repi'esented by this law, the gas becoming on 
still continued j^ressure less and less compressible, so as to finally be 
undistinguishable in this respect from a liquid. It was thus shown 
incidentally in the course of Andrews' expei'iments that for high pres- 
sures the gases examined became less compi-essible the greater the 
pressure, a phenomenon which was observed by Regnault for hydrogen 
only, but not for the other gases at the pressures to which he subjected 
them, i.e. up to 30 atmospheres. 

Before Andrews, Natterer had made experiments extending over a 
long time — his published papers dating from 1844 to 1856 — with the 
object of liquefying and solidifying gases by great pressures, and he 
found that up to 2790 atmospheres the gases hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, 
nitric oxide, as well as atmospheric air, beyond 100 atmospheres, were all 
notably less compressible than Boyle's law required. ^"^ The general result 
of the effect of pressure on volume in the case of gases at ordinary tem- 
peratures as given by Regnault and by Natterer made it desirable to in- 
vestigate this relation with all the accuracy attainable for a range of 
pressures much greater than Regnault had been ahle to measure with 
sufficient accuracy. 

Amagafs Investigations on Relation of Pressure to Volume in Gases. 

Amagat in the year 1880 published a paper, the first of a series, in 
which he examined air, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, marsh-gas, 
and ethylene as to their behaviour at given temperature at various pres- 
sures up to 400 atmospheres or beyond.'' 

In these investigations Amagat obtained his greatest pressures by the 
height of a column of mercury in narrow flexible steel tubes attached to 
the side of a shaft of a mine of some hundreds of metres in depth. 

' Phil. Trails. 182.'5, pp. 160, 189. 

2 Phil. Trans. 1869, Part II. p. 575. 

= PoggendorfE's Annulen, Ixii. 1844, p. 132, and Liebig'.s Ann. liv. 1845 p. 254. 

■• Sitzim/f slier ichte der Miserlic/ien Akademic der Wissenschaften zu Wien, v. 1850, 
p. 351 ; vii. 1851, p. 557; xii. 1854, p. 199. 

' Poggendorff's Atinale/i, xciv. 1855, p. 436. 

« Annates de Chiinie et de Physique, 1880 (5), xix. p. 345 ; 1881 (5;, xxii. p. 353 ; 
1883 (^5), xxviii. pp. 456, 480, 501. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 103 

The principle of the measurement of pressures was the same, therefore, 
as that used by Regnanlt. 

Yarious devices have been used by Cailletet for applying and measur- 
ing increased pressures ; and Amagat suggests a plan which might be 
adopted, and by which the experiments might be extended to vastly in- 
creased pressures — namely, having, e.g., detei'mined the law of compres- 
sibility by a vertical height of TQ metres of mercury up to 100 atmos 
pressure, we may extend it up to 200 atmos by exerting on the top of the 
column pressures up to 100 atmos. But Amagat prefers the direct 
method, and applies it up to 4B0 atmos ; though for the purpose of ex- 
tending the results to still higher pressures he has ' all the apparatus 
necessary. 

One most striking fact which results from A magat's observations — and 
it is so uniformly true for the gases which he tised and for all the tempera- 
tures at which he experimented, and whether the gas was or was not 
liquefied in the course of compression, that it has the appearance of being a 
natural law — is that for each gas beyond a certain pressure the law of 
compressibility is more and more nearly represented by the equation — 

V (v—a)=b, 

where a and h are constant for a given substance at a given temperature ; 
and o varies but slightly for the same substances at different tempera- 
tures. 

The curves by which the results are represented ^ have for abscissae 
the values of p in metres, and for ordinates the values of ^ji? ; and for 
above 180 metres the curve becomes almost straight. 

In the case of the gases liquefied (as, e.g., COo at 18°, one of the tem- 
peratures of the experiments), as also of gases which, though not lique- 
fied, were compressed near their critical points (e.g., ethylene), the 
only regular part of the curve is that at high pressure, which is nearly 
straight. 

For hydrogen the relation between pv and p is represented on the 
diagram by a straight line for all except the very lowest pressures. The 
temperatures for which Amagat obtained curves of relation of vp to p 
were temperatures at intervals between about 15° and 100°, giving from 
4 to 10 curves for each gas. 

So far we have said nothing of experiments made as to relation of 
volume to pressure where the pressures are less than 760 mm., and espe- 
cially when they are very small. Special investigations with this object 
were undertaken by Siljestrom (' Pog. Ann.' 1874) ; by Mendeleeff with 
others ('Ann. Cliim.' (5) ii. 1874, and (5) ix. 1876; also 'Nature,' 
X. 1876-7) ; and by Amagat (' Ann. Chim.' (5) viii. 1876 ; and (5) xxviii. 
1883). 

Experiments on Belation between Pressure and Volume of Gases at 
Pressures below 1 Atmo. 

Mendeleeff and Siljestrom come to the conclusion that for small pres- 
sures the compressibility is less than Boyle's law requires, and that the 
limiting condition of a gas is that in which the density is nil and the 
pressure finite ('Ann. de Chim. et de Phys.' 6, xxviii. p. 482). 

' Annates de Chimie et de Physique (5), xix. 1880, p. 348. 
2 Ibid. (5), 1881, p. 22 



104 REPORT— 1886. 

Amagat, on the other hand, finds the deviations from Boyle's law 
at low pressures sometimes positive, sometimes negative, and all within 
the limits of error of observation — in other words, he does not detect 
any deviations from Boyle's law for initial pressures under 370 mm. ; 
any such deviations, if they occur, being unrecognisable at such small 
pressures. 

There is, Amagat says,' no appearance of any sudden change in the 
law of compressibility of gases at the smallest pressures to which they 
have been submitted ; it is therefore, he says, well to continue to apply 
Boyle's law to gases down to pressures of a few millimetres. 

As to the cause of difference between his own results and those of 
Siljestrom and Mendeleeff he suggests that — at least for Mcudeleeff — the 
method of experimenting was favoui'able to giving prominence to a soui'ce 
of constant error, such as a slight defect in the barometric vacuum, 
p. 497. 

In 1884 Krajewitsch - attacked this question of compressibility of air 
at small pressures, from 11-64 to 0'28 mm., with the general conclusion 
that the compressibility diminishes with increasing pressure up to 11 '64 
mm. ; and he remarks that though his results are not accurate quantita- 
tively, there is no doubt of the qualitative result as substantiating the 
conclusion he draws. 

The following results of observation are given in his paper : — 

mm. 

For _p=ll-636 he finds pv=l08 



and so on down to 



8-385 


;; 


3) 


96 


4-113 


) J 


JJ 


77 


2-646 


>5 


)) 


58 


1-947 


J) 


)) 


46 



p 0-281 



And he states, among other conclasions which he deduces, this, that 
at any given temperatui'e air has a certain minimum density below which 
it loses its elasticity, this minimum density probably increasing with fall 
of temperature. 

Volumes of Oxygen Oas at Low Pressures (Bohr). 

Again, Bohr ^ has endeavoured to solve the question for the case of 
oxygen ; and his conclusions agree in the main with those of Mendeleeff 
and others, while he finds, if his results are to be relied upon, a remark- 
able point at a certain small pressure which we will speak of after briefly 
describing his general method of procedure. 

Without describing the apparatus in detail, it may be enough to state 
that the tube containing a bubble or two of perfectly dry and pure oxygen 
was arranged vertically side by side with a thoroughly dry barometer- 
tube, very completely exhausted of air, each of these two tubes standing 
in mercury in a separate limb of a U-tube ; and that the U-tube, by 
means of a stop-cock at its lowest point, could be brought into communi- 

' Annales de Chimie et de Physiqite (5), 1883, xxviii. p. 499. 

' Beiblatter, 1885, ix. v. p. 315. 

3 Wiedemann's Annalen dcr Physih vnd Chemie, 1886, iii, p. 469. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PEOPERTIES OF MATTER. 105 

cation with a reservoir of mercary -whicli had been thoroughly heated 
and dried, while the reservoir could be adjusted vertically so as to alter 
the level of the mercury in the open limbs of the U-tube and therefore 
to raise or lower the top of the column of mercury in the barometer-tubes. 
One of the barometer-tubes was used as a barometer for comparison with 
the other by a cathetometer ; the other was graduated and served for the 
introduction of oxygen. It will be noticed that by the arrangement 
described above the pressure of the same quantity of oxygen could be 
increased or diminished at will by raising or lowering the reservoir of 
mercury. 

After the introduction of the oxygen its volume in cc. is read and 
the pressure in mm. of mercury at a constant temperature. Several 
readings were taken at intervals of about an hour generally. No pres- 
sure was finally read off after an interval of less than two hours, and 
often the readings for a single pressure and volume were taken at inter- 
vals of from twelve to twenty-four hours. Each result recorded is the 
mean of several observations extending over some time. Another series 
is then taken at the same temperature after introduction of a little more 
oxygen ; and perhaps still another. These give us data for tracing a part 
of the curve, say fromp (abscissa) = 0'12 mm. to p=7'45 m. ; and ^w 
(ordinate) =13'21 5, to ^y^l39'9G ; and so by other series of experiments 
Bohr extends the curve up to p=15'02 ; ^i;=311'83. 

The point which was alluded to above is at 0'70 mm. pressure, at 
which this volume is (between limits) indeterminate ; so that if the oxy- 
gen is at the fixed temperature of the experiment submitted to a pressure 
of very slightly less than 0"70 mm., and allowed to remain five or six 
hours, the volume (and the p v) will be considerably different from that 
which would be exerted by the oxygen after standing the same time at 
the same temperature at a pressure very slightly more than 0'70 mm.; 
thus on p. 472 {loc. cit.) for 0'70 mm. twenty-three observations gave as 
mean volume 47 cc, and twenty-five observations at same pressure gave 
52-41 cc. The peculiarity at this point has been verified by Bohr by re- 
peated observations specially directed to it. 

As a confirmation of all these conclusions concordant results were 
obtained by using tubes of different internal diameter — one of 18'5 mm., 
the other of 32 mm. 

Thus Bohr finds, for representing relation of pv to p, for oxygen at 
pressures from 300 mm. downwards, a line very slightly convex and nearly 
parallel to the axis of abscissEe for some distance, till from say 60 mm. 
to 70 mm. it curves down very considerably ; and again from 0"70 mm. 
onwards towards mm. another curve which curves rapidly down so as 
to tend to become nearly vertical ; this shorter part of the whole he calls 
the small branch, and the part from 07 mm. to some hundreds of mm. 
the long branch of the whole. The volumes of oxygen varied from 
about 20 cc. to 200 cc. in different experiments. 

The short branch of the curve he finds can be approximately repre- 
sented by the formula 

(p + 0-07)v=Z;; 
and the long branch by 

where Tc (and also Jc') will be different numbers according to the amount 
•of oxygen present. 



106 EEPOET — 1886. 

The pressure of Hg-vapour as determined by Hertz ' at 10° is 
0-0005 mm., and at 20° is 0-0013 mm. ; Bobr's results recorded in bis 
paper are for pressures of 0-1 mm. and upwards, and therefore could not 
be seriously affected by any error due to pressure of mercury vapour ; 
moreover, bis measurements of pressure being in all cases differential 
■with a mercury-barometer, this pressure would be almost if not entirely 
eliminated. 

The power which the inner surface of the glass tube may have m 
condensing the oxygen in the conditions of these experiments must not 
be disregarded when such very small pressures are concerned ; it may be 
that the walls of the tube and the surface of the mercury are not wholly 
without action on the gas ; if any action were exerted it might well be 
quite imperceptible in relation to pressures of, say, over lOOmm. ;_ any 
source of error which might be so trifling as to be ignored at higher 
pressures might be important at abnormally low pressures ; in these 
extreme cases the relation of pressure to volume as observed may possibly 
be not wholly determined by the molecules of oxygen, but may be partly 
influenced by the surface of the glass or of the mercury ; cf. Amagat 
('Ann. de Chim. et de Phys.' 5, xxviii. p. 499). 

It must be allowed that Bohr has gone a long way to meet any doubt 
on this head by using two tubes of very different diameters ; but further 
experiments with still wider tubes, and with tubes of different varieties 
of glass, would probably show whether the surface of the glass in contact 
with the oxygen is in any way concerned. 

Some remarks of Regnault ^ in reference to Dalton's law of the 
mixture of gases with vapours as a ' theoretical law,' and showing devia- 
tions from it, due to the inner surface of the glass, are suggestive of such 
an influence in other cases by analogy. 

Certainly, on the face of them, the observations of Bohr are remark- 
able, and his singular point diflicult to account for in any other way than 
the direct and obvious one ; and his experiments show the greatest pams 
taken to minimise the effects of the possible sources of error. 

Volume and Temperature — SegnauU. 

Regnault determined the dilatation of dry air by many series of 
experiments and by different methods. Representing by 100« the whole 
expansion of unit volume of dry air at 760 mm. between 0° and 100°, his 
different series gave, taking the mean of the numerous determinations of 

1. 100a=-36623 with possible error -00140. 

2. 100a=-36633 „ „ „ -00101. 

3. 100«=-36679 „ „ „ .00079. 

4. 100a=-36650 „ „ „ -00130. 

In the above experiments the dilatation was arrived at indirectly by 
observing the increased pressure of air at constant vohime between 0° and 
100°, and deducing by Boyle's laws the volume which the air at 100° 
would then occupy. 

The mean of a fifth set of experiments, by which the value of 100a is 
determined for expansion at constant j^ressure, gave — 

6. 100a =-36706, with possible error -00025. 

' Wiedemann's Annalen der Phijsik nnd Chemie, xvii, p. 199. 
2 Memoires de VAcademie, t. xxvi. iDp. 694, 69.5. 



EXPEEIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PKOPEETIES OF MATTER. 



107 



The above ai'e described in the first part of the first memoire of 
Regnault in t. xxi. of the 'Memoires de I'Academie.' Similar experi- 
ments were made (described in the second part of the same memoire) 
with the following gases : — 



Gas 


Constant Volume 


Constant Pressure 


Hydrogen 


. -3667 . 


. -3661 


Atmospheric air 


. -3665 . 


. -3670 


Nitrogen 


. -3668 . 


. — 


Carbon monoxide . 


. -3667 . 


. -3669 


Carbon dioxide 


. -3688 . 


. -3710 


Nitrous oxide 


. -3676 . 


. -3719 


Sulphur dioxide 


. -3845 . 


. -3903 


Cyanogen 


. -3829 . 


. -3877 



This difi'erence in all cases between the expansion of volume at con- 
stant pressure, and the increase of pressure in constant volume, from 
0° to 100°, is due to the fact that in none of the cases is Boyle's law 
accurately true. But the numbers for constant volume and for constant 
pressure are very nearly equal for hydrogen, air, and carbon monoxide. 

In this memoire it is shown for air at constant pressure (p. 99) that — 

100a=-3657 for 511 mm. 
•3648 „ 149 mm., 

thus diminishing with diminishing pressure ; also that the rate of expan- 
sion of air at increased pressures increases ; thus (p. 110) for air at 
pressure 3655 mm. — 

100a=-3709. 

From these and from results for gases other than air, given in this 
memoire, Regnault infers that the differences in the coefficient of dila- 
tation of diff'erent gases are most striking for great pressures, and espe- 
cially if these are not far removed from those under which the gases can 
be liquefied, and that the deviations from the coefficient for air are 
smaller the smaller the pressures under which the gases are examined. 
The coefficient a for such gases as sulphurous and carbonic acid gases, 
for instance, diminishes very much more rapidly with diminishing 
pressure than the coefficient for air. 

Gay-Lussac's law of the equal dilatation of gases with equal rise of 
temperature is therefore considered by Regnault as a 'loi limite,' which 
is approaclied more and more nearly by each gas the smaller the density 
and pressure at which its dilatation is observed. 



Voluvie and Temperature — Amagat. 
Amagat' tests air and hydrogen for compressibility at temperatures 

up to 320°, and finds that the ratio -^~i where v is very nearly 2 xv, 

p V 

is for air, 

at 0° . . =1-0015, 

„ 100° . . =1-00011, 



250° 



=100025, 
=1-00018, 



„ 320° 

' Annales de CMmie et de Physique, 1873 (4), xxviii. p. 274. 



108 



REPORT — 1886. 



at initial pressure of about 760 mm.; and for h/drogen tlie mean of a num- 
ber of experiments at 250° gave 099986, which is nearer to 1 than at 
•ordinary temperatures ; as are also the above values for air (omitting 
that for 0°) ; these being in fact distinguished from 1 by numbers of the 
order of experimental error. 

Now air was found to deviate from Boyle's law in one direction and 
hydrogen in the other direction when submitted to pressures of a few 
atmospheres, and the efEect of the results here given is to show that both 
these gases tend at higher temperatures to obey Boyle's law more nearly 
than at lower. 

In ' Ann. Chim.' [4] 1873, xxix. pp. 246-285, Amagat considers the 
rates of expansion with increasing temjjerature for SOo, COg, NHj, as 
well as for hydrogen and air, and gives (p. 261) the following results for 



pv 
p'v' 



where v is nearly 2v' for SO2 and CO2 ; at about 700 mm. 



At 



15° 

50° 
100° 
150° 
200° 
250° 



SO, 



10185 
1-0110 
1-0054 
1-0032 
1-0021 
1-0016 



At 



CO, 



8° 


. 1-0065 


50° 


. 1-0036 


100° 


. 1-0023 


150° 


. 1-0014 


200° 


. 1-0008 


250° 


. 1-0006 



in which it is clearly seen how these gases also, as well as hydrogen and 
atmospheric air, approach nearer to agreement with Boyle's law as 
temperature rises. 

On page 279 Amagat gives a table of the coefficients of dilatation 

-— for different gases at different temperatures ; this table also shows how 

'O/t 

nearly they approach to each other and to Gay-Lussac's law in this 
respect. 

The following selections will exhibit this : — 

The value of -— deduced from experiment. 



dt 



for SO2 


for CO2 


for SO, 


for CO2 


0° 


-003724 


at 100° -0'03750 


■003695 


15° -004010 


>) 


„ 200° -003695 


-003685 


50° -003846 


-003704 


„ 250° -003685 


•003682 


75° -003792 


-003699 







at 



The conclusion to be drawn from these results is that gases approach 
more and more to conformity with Gay-Lussac's law (as well as with 
Boyle's law) the higher the temperature, so far as the experiments have 
been carried at ordinary pressures. 

Besults at High Pressure — Amagat. 

But the very thorough investigation of Amagat already mentioned 
(p. 102) ' shows the relation of pv to p beyond the pressures treated of 
hitherto in reference to Boyle's and Gay-Lussac's laws, curves being 



Annates de Chimie et de Physique, 1881 (6), xsii. pp. 353-398. 



EXrERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHOPERTIES OF MATTER. 109 

drawn expressing the results in reference to this relation for tempera- 
tures from 16° to 100° ; and the pressures for each curve for each substance 
ranging from about 20 metres to 320 metres. The gases treated in this 
exhaustive manner are nitrogen, hydrogen, ethylene, carbon dioxide 
and marsh -oas. 

With the exception of the curves for hydrogen, each curve vt^as irre- 
gular, the relation of ]}V to p becoming regular only after the pi'essure 
was about 120 metres, or about 160 atmos, after which the result for any 
substance was expressed very approximately by the equation p (y — a) = & • 
where li was difi'erent for different temperatures for any substance, and a 
was nearly constant for all the temperatures employed. In studyino' the 
effect of Amagat's results in this paper in extending our knowledge of 
Boyle's and Gay-Lussac's laws, it must be remembei-ed that the tempera- 
tures were necessarily very restricted, being not over 100°, while the 
pressures were very great. But the facts brought into notice by com- 
paring curves for the same substance for different temperatures are im- 
portant ; we will be content with indicating one or two of these. 

At high pressures, for all the gases studied, the values of piv at any- 
given temperature increase continiially with the pressure, and are repre- 
sented by an almost absolutely sti-aight line for the increasing abscissse p, 
so that if p' and v' are higher pressure and corresponding volume 

«- — >1; that is, the gas in this condition is less compressible than if 

pv ^ 

Boyle's law were exact. The question arises, does this deviation increase 
or diminish as temperature rises ? The case of any gas will do to try 
this. Taking the case of hydrogen, we extract the following data 

(p. 378 loc. cit.) : if ^(<1) is the ratio for hydrogen at 100m. and 

pv 

320m. pressures, this ratio is 



at 177° 
„ 40-4 



0-830 
0-838 



at 60 '4° 
„ 100-1 



0-853 
0-856 



whence we see that for higher and higher temperatures the ratio 
approaches more and more nearly to 1, or the gas deviates less and less 
from Boyle's law. But this approximation does not imply that Boyle's 
law is even a theoretical condition for these very high pressures at much 
higher temperatures ; for a may approximate more and more, as tempera- 
ture rises, to some value, for. each gas, less than 1. 

Dilatation of Gases at very High Pressures. 
To find for high pressures the dilatation of gases, we must find v' — v 

by finding -^ and ^— , or the ratio of the ordinate to the abscissa at two 
p p 

temperatures t and t', the pressure being the same in both cases, so that 

we have the dilatation at constant pressure. We give an extract from a 

table ' which illustrates this for hydrogen, and therefore, for other gases, 

at very high pressures ; the table gives the whole dilatation for the 

temperature-range stated ; the coefficient may be deduced by dividino- 

by the temperature-range in each case. 



' Annales de Chimie et de Physiqve [.■;], 1881, xxii. p. 382. 



17°— G0» 


G0°— 100° 


00033 


. 0-0029 


0-0038 


. 0-0028 


00031 


. 0-0027 


0-0030 


. 0-0025 


0-0028 

on 


. 0-0024 



110 REPORT — 1886. 



Pressure 40 metres 

„ 100 „ 
„ 180 „ 
„ 260 „ 
„ 320 „ 

It -will be noticed, on calculating the coefficients of dilatation, how 
very much they differ, in this condition of very high pressure of the sub- 
stance, from the coefficients at ordinary pressures ; it -will be seen also 
that the coefficients of dilatation for 1° are smaller, at same pressure, for 
higher than for lower temperatures. 

In the equation jj (v — a) = b for the straight poi'tions of the line — for 
high pressures — if p be made infinite v=u : now a is a constant at any 
given temperature for each gas, which can be determined with fair accu- 
racy from the equation p (u— ") = p' (^''— «) ^^^ pressures p anip', 
being a long way apart : and a is therefore a known number : hence the 
volume taken may be condensed by pressure to a small volume, but never 
to a volume smaller than a, where a varies very gradually with the tem- 
perature. 

Vapour-pressures and Temperahtres ; — RegnauU. 

We must now turn to well-known investigations of relations between 
t)(xpo?ir-pressures and temperatures by Regnault and by others. 

In a magnificent series of investigations on the vapour-pressures 
(elastic forces) of luater, Regnault ' describes various methods, and gives 
in separate tables the results for separate series treated by these methods 
for temperatures ranging from 32° to 230°; and discusses the applicability 
of a number of different formulae, by which, after determination of the 
constants in the formula by reference to a few of the determinations the 
rest of his results were more or less accurately represented. 





pressure mm. 




pressure mm 


At 0° . 


4-G 


at 200° 


. 11688-96 


„ 100° . 


. 760 


„ 230° . 


. 20926-40 



The above samples give some idea of the rapid rise of pressure with tem- 
perature. The empirical formula by which Regnault expressed the results 
of his observations on other bodies - were of a similar exponential form 
to those he used for water in t. xxi., the laws. by which Dalton attempted 
to express the relations being entirely inadequate except over a very short 
range : these laws of Dalton were — 

(1) The elasticity of vapour of a liquid increases in geometrical pro- 
gression when the temperatures follow in arithmetical progression. 

(2) The vapours of all liquids have equal elastic forces at tempera- 
tures equidistant from the boiling points at ordinary atmospheric pressure. 

These laws are replaced by Regnault's tabulated results, and by the 
empirical formulae he adopted ; for each substance fresh experiments have 
to be made, and no reliance placed on Dalton's laws. 

For water at low temperatures — e.g. from — 32° to 0° — the formula 
used was 

F = ft + ta^, where x = t + 32°. 

' Alem. XXT. de TAcaiUmie, mem. viii. pp. 465-633. 
2 Mem. XXVI. de VAcademie, pp. 335-760. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. Ill 

From 0° to 100° the formula 

log F = a + So* — c/3*. 
From 100° to 230° 

log F = a — ha^ — o/j'^ ; where x = t + 20°. 

The formulae used here are of the form proposed by Biot. 

The mere fact of choosing different formulae for different parts of the 
curve of vapour -pressures, and of choosing these formulfe from amono- 
ether exponential formulje, shows that these are empirical formulae ; and 
from Regnault's experimental results different systems of formulfe and 
interpolation give tables differing slightly from Regnault's. Compare, 
e.g., the tables given by Landolt and Bornstein, pp. 40-49, with Reo-nault's. 

Rankine has since suggested the formula log F = a — —. 

Magnus ' made detei-minatipns up to 111° with results agreeing 
closely with those of Regnault. 

In ' Phil. Trans.' for 1860, p. 220, are given the results of experiments 
by Fairbairn and Tate, for the pressure and temperature of saturated 
vapour of water, and for each tem^^erature the ratio of the volume of 
steam to that of the water for temperatui'es ranging from about 58° to 144°. 

The Statical and Dynamical Methods of finding the Relations letween Tem- 
perature and Vapour-pressure. 

Two distinct methods of finding the relation between pressure and 
temperature of saturated vapours are used, one by readings of the pres- 
sures of the vapour over the liquid in a mercury- vacuum at known 
temperatures, and the other by the readings of a thermometer immersed 
in the vapour of a liquid boiling at known artificial atmospheric pressures. 

The first of these methods is called the statical, and the other the 
dynamical method ; ^ the former method is only applicable to moderate or 
low temperatures, at which as at 50° the vapour-pressure of mercury is 
inconsiderable ; the latter may be applied at high temperatures. Exam- 
ples of both are given in the case of steam,^ and the two methods are 
found, when both are employed, to yield identical results for water. 

In t. xxvi. p. 642, Regnault says : ' It is not evident a priori that for a 
given substance the two methods (static and dynamic) give the same rela- 
tion between elastic forces and temperatures. The boiling of a liquid is 
in fact a very complex phenomenon. The vapour which escapes from a 
boiling liquid has not only to contend against the elastic atmosphere 
which pi-esses on the liquid, it has to overcome the attraction which the 
liquid exerts on the molecules which have taken the gaseous state or which 
tend to take it ; it has to overcome the capillary resistance of the liquid 
walls, which form globules, more or less easily extensible, in which the 
vapour is imprisoned while it traverses the liquid, &c., &c. These acces- 
sory resistances can only be overcome by an excess of heat, and there is 
the fear that the vapour may, on emerging from the liquid, possess at the 
same time an excess of elastic force (pressure) and an excess of tempera- 
ture. The two excesses may neutralise each other and disappear, more or 

' Poggendorff's Annalen, Ixi. p. 225. 
* Memoir es, t. xxvi. p. 341. 
' Ibid., t. xxi. 



112 REPORT — 1886. 

less completely, in the space in which the vapour has to contend now 
only against the pressure of the atmosphere acting on it.' 

Regnault finds that for substances of moderate volatility, for which 
both methods can be applied, the two methods give identical results, pro- 
vided the bodies are 'perfectly pure, but not otherwise ; he found that tbe 
addition to alcohol, or to carbon bisulphide, of xwo- of ^ volatile substance 
was in each case sufficient to disturb the two curves of either and to 
destroy their identity. Among the subjects used by Regnault, and which 
led to this conclusion, were ethyl alcohol, ethyl oxide, carbon bisulphide, 
cbloroform, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl chloride, ethyl bromide, 
ethyl iodide, methyl alcohol, acetone, phosphorus terchloride ; these being- 
some of the substances for which Regnault found (' Memoires,' t. xxvi.) 
curves of relation of temperature and vapour-pressure by methods and 
formulas similar to those used for water (' Memoires,' t. xxi.). 

When a liquid boils with bumping, as in the case of methyl alcohol, 
liquid 80-2, liquid NHj, it may be heated with the vapour over it 
to temperatures considerably higher than the temperature at which the 
vapour in each case is, in the static method, in equilibrium with the at- 
mospheric pressure (t. xxvi. p. 645). 

Vapour-pressures from Solid and Liquid — Regnault. 

Regnault's experiments on the vapour-pressure on water included pres- 
sures for low temperatures down to — 32° ; i.e. for a long range of tern- 
perature during which the water is solid — ice. Regnault found that the 
whole curve was continuous, including this portion of it, and inferred 
that the solidification of water made no break in the curve of vapour- 
pressui-es; in regard to water he says (t. xxi. p. 609) it would be necessary 
to make corrections of 3 or 4 hundredths of a millimetre, a quantity almost 
inappreciable to observation, to bring about a complete coincidence 
between the curve given by the formula log F = a — ba^ — c/>, in which 
x=zt + 20° and the graphic curve ; on p. 599, alluding to a formula 
which applies very exactly to all observations of his between 0° and 100°, 
loo- F = a + &a* — c/?*, he says that the values of the vapour-pressure for 
temperatures below 0° are constantly veiy slightly gi-eater than those 
given by observation, and he therefore does not apply this formula to 
temperatures under 0°. The fact is that the methods which were em- 
ployed were not of a nature to show at once that the vapour-pressure 
from solid water helow 0° and liquid water ahove 0° formed two curves 
meeting at an angle at 0° or one curve. Regnault himself ' attacks this 
question directly but unsuccessfully, being unable to prove, to his satis- 
faction, that the state, solid or hquid, of a body exerts an influence on the 
elastic force of its vapour at a given temperature in the barometric vacuum. 

On p. 751 he says in reference to water, alluding to the experiments 
and results obtained for it in t. xxi. : ' I have proved that the curve con- 
structed on the expei'iments [for ice below 0°] presented a perfect con- 
tinuity with the curve which is given by the elastic forces of the vapours 
furnished by liquid water at tempei-atures above 0°.' 

Regnault in this part of this mcmoire takes other easily frozen bodies 
to examine ; ethylene dihromide, benzene, glacial acetic acid ; and comes to 
the conclusion in all these cases that (p. 759) his experiments prove that 

• Memoires, t. xxvi. pp. 751-7G0. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDaE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 113 

* the passage of a body from the solid to the liquid state produces no 
appreciable change in the curve of the elastic forces of its vapour ' (its 
vapour pressure) ; ' this curve keeps a perfect regularity before and after 
the transformation.' 

Ethylene dibromide melts at 9'53° (Regnault, loc. cit.) 

„ „ 8-2° to 8 4° (J. C. S. xlv. p. 520) 
Benzene ,, „ 4'4° „ 4"5° (Regnault, loc. cit.) 

Acetic acid „ „ 16° (Regnault, loc. cit.) 

„ ,,16-55° (Pettersson.J. C.S.42, 3) 

It is seen from the convenient position of the melting-points in refer- 
ence to ordinary temperatures that these bodies are v^ell chosen for this 
purpose. 

As an example we give some results of Regnault for acetic acid : — 

Liquid acid Solid acid 

Temp. Vap.-pressure Temp. Vap.-pressure 



- 0-69° 


4-27 mm. 


- 0'00° 


4-89 mm 


- 2-40° 


3-90 mm. 


- 2-56° 


4'26 mm 


- 5-11° 


3-35 mm. 


- 4-24° 


3 93 mm 






- 5-83° 


3'56 mm 



Thus the curve of vapour-pressures for acetic acid (abscissEe temp., 
and ordinates vap. -pressures) seems to show that there is a difference 
of vapour-pressure due to state, and that the solid acid has a greater 
vapour-pressure than the liquid ; but when this acid has been thoroughly 
dried by distilling over phosphoric anhydride, the results obtained .showed 
<;he vapour-pressure for the solid acid less than that from the liquid ; but 
here acetone was recognised as having been developed by the action of 
the phosphoric anhydride ; and although most of this was removed by 
distillation some, no doubt, remained ; the two specimens of acetic acid 
were thus impure, one with water, the other with acetone, and they gave 
contrary results. And no trustworthy results were obtained with the 
other substances. 

Thus two interesting questions are raised by Regnault's investigations 
on vapour-pressures : — 

(1) Whether static and dynamic methods give, when carefully per- 
formed, identical results. 

(2) "Whether when at the same temperature a body can exist eitl:er in 
the solid or in the liquid state the vapour-pressure in both states is the 
same ; i.e. whether the pressure is the same from the solid as from the liquid. 

Regnault decided both these questions in the affirmative ; subsequent 
investigations have confirmed, as I think, Regnault's answer to the first 
question, as they have undoubtedly reversed his answer to the second. 

Application of Theory to the Second Question. 

It should be mentioned, in reference to the second of these questions, 
that in 1858 Kirchhoff, from theoretical considerations, showed that if the 
vapour- pressure of ice and of water were the same at any the same tem- 
perature, then -^, where j5 is the vapour-pressure, must be different.' 
This was, from the theoretical point of view, an important step. But in 

' Poggendorff's Annalen, ciii. 
1 886. I 



114 REPOKT— 1886. 

reference to both the above questions, if a negative answer is given, it is 
important to have a quantitative determination in order that we may 
know whether the dififerences in each case are of an order to be detected 
by experiment, and whether they are definite. Professor James Thomson' 
published an important paper in which, by the appHcation to Regnault's 
very extensive and minutely investigated results for water of a thermo- 
dynamical foi^mula of Sir W. Thomson - he deduced the result that the 

ratio of the value of -^ for water vapour to the value for ice vapour at 

the same temi^erature is 1'13 to 1. The argument of Professor James 
Thomson is briefly as follows. Take a body which can exist in three states, 
solid, liquid, and vapour, and which can be examined in respect to each 
pair, viz., liquid- vapour, vapour-solid, solid-liquid ; on a plane surface 
mark off on an axis of abscissae the temperature, and perpendicular to 
the abscissae ordinates representing the pressures ; we can then determine 
by experiment and draw a diagram of the relation between each of the 
pairs in i^espect of pressure and temperature ; we shall thus have three 
lines for this relation, one representing these I'elations for liquid-vapour, 
one for solid-vapour, and one for solid-liquid. The two vapour-curves 
are nearly continuous, but they have a slight angle at the point at which 
they meet, an angle which would be evident if one of the two were pro- 
longed ; at the point of junction of these two curves there are then two 

values of -t-; the third line, for solid-liquid, passes through this same 
at 

point, which is therefore called the triple point. 

The line for liquid-vapour if extended with increasing temperature will 
abruptly tei'miuate at the critical point. 

The thermo-dynamic relation supplied by Sir W. Thomson was 

-±. = CM ; in which m is the pressure, and -4- its rate of increase with 
dt at 

temperature, the volume being constant ; C is Carnot's function (=:1/T 

where T is the absolute temperature), and M is the rate of absorption at 

which heat must be supplied to the substance 'per imit augvientation of 

volume to let it expand without varying in temperature. 

Apply this formula first to steam with water, and second to steam witlu 

ice, at the triple point, which is almost exactly at 0° C. In either case since 

the vapour-pressure is for any given temperature independent of the volume, 

dp 

-Tf is the same in this case whether there is change of volume or not. 

Hence -j- j i"^^^^ P' i^ pressure for solid with vapour) =:M/M'. 

at I at 

Now, as determined by Regnault, the heat of evapoi'ation of a gram 
of water at 0° into steam at 0°=606'5 ; and the latent heat of fusion of 
ice is 79; thus M/M'=606/606 + 7y approximately=l/l-13. 

Professor J. Thomson took Regnault's figures for vapour-pressures 
from ice and water as they stand, together with the various formulje- 
which Regnault employed for representing different parts of the curve, 
and showed, by an exhaustive examination of the whole, that Regnault's 
actual determinations were so accurate as in fact to be available for con- 

' Phil. Mag. iv. xlvii. p. 447, 1S74. 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinhurglt, March 17, 1851. 



EXPEEIMENTAL KNOWLEDaE OF THE PEOPEETIES OF MATTER. 115 

firming this result of theory that the ice- vapour and water- vapour curves 
are distinct and meet at an angle. 

Effect of Pressure on Melting-point. 

Professor J. Thomson had proved that the melting-point of ice must 
be lowered by pressure, and had calculated the amount of this lowering 
of the freezing-point by a given pressure ; his result was subsequently 
experimentally verified by Sir William Thomson. The amount of the 
lowering is ■0073?i° for n atmospheres of pressure.' 

Mousson 2 made experiments with a very powerful hydraulic press 
with a view to keep ice liquid at a temperature much below zero, or to 
lower the melting-point of ice many degrees by immense pressure ; these 
experiments suggested themselves to him in consequence of Sir W. 
Thomson's experiment in which by 17 atmospheres' pressure he lowered 
the melting-point of ice more than one-tenth of a degree. Mousson ob- 
tained the following results : — first, he succeeded by great pressure on 
water in preventing the solidification of it till its temperature was lowered 
to —5°; second, he lowered the temperature of a piece of ice to —18°, 
and liquefied it by a pressure which he calculated to have been not less 
than 13,000 atmospheres, and the diminution of volume he estimated at 
13 per cent. 

Bunsen^ obtained results for the raising of melting-points of some 
substances which expand during fusion ; thus spermaceti at 1 atmo fuses 
at 4!7'7°, but at 156 atmos at 50'9°. So paraffin melting at one atrao at 
46'3° melts at 100 atmos at 49"9°. And Hopkins, with spermaceti, wax, 
sulphur, and stearine, using pressures up to 800 atmos, obtained a rise of 
melting-point with increased pressure."* 

Professor Dewar has quite recently ^ made a series of experiments by 
a Cailletet apparatus on the relation between the temperature at which ice 
melts under different pressures. The temperatures were measured by a 
thermo-electric arrangement ; a thermo-junction was frozen in a test-tube 
placed inside .the iron bottle of the apparatus, whilst another thermo- 
junction outside was kept at the constant temperature of ice melting at 
atmospheric pressui'C ; the two thermo-junctions were connected with a 
galvanometer, by means of the deflections of the needle of which the difl^er- 
once of temperature of the junctions was deduced. 

The freezing-point was lowered 0-18° for 25 atmos, and 2-1° for 300 
atmos, giving a mean i-eduction of 0-0072 for 1 atmo. Similar results up 
to 700 atmos agreed in giving the same reduction per atmosphere. By 
this method, therefore, it is possible always to graduate the pressure scale 
of the Cailletet apparatus or to correct the graduations. 

Definitions of Boiling-points. 

The view generally adopted with reference to the boiling-point of a 
liquid is that it is the temperature at which the vapour given off" from its 

■ Phil. Mag. (3) xxxvii. p. 123. 

^ Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1859 (.3), Ivi. p. 252 ; Poggendorff's Annalen 
1858, t. cv. p. 161. 

' Poggendorff's An7ialen, Ixxxi. p. 562. 
* Report Brit. A.ssoo. 1854, p. 57. 
' Proc. Roy. Soc. xxx. p. 533. 

I2 



116 REPORT— 1886. 

surface jnst balances the external actual or artificial atmospheric 
pressure. This view is, in fact, the basis of all practical attempts to 
measure boiling-points. 

Kahlbaum has developed another view, as will be seen. In order to 
understand it, it is well to bear in mind circumstances, which are not un- 
common, which tend to retard or prevent the ebullition and distillation 
of a liquid, so that a liquid may sometimes be heated far above its 
ordinary boiling-point without giving out vapour freely. The view 
commonly taken is that these circumstances are excej^tional, in the sense 
that they may be artificially exaggerated and that the obstacle opposed 
to boiling is of a variable amount and that therefore no definite boiling- 
points can be obtained while these circumstances exist; but that if 
these obstacles can be removed then there is obtained the true boiling- 
point at the pi'essure (say 7G0 mm.), which does not differ sensibly 
from the temperature at which the vapour given off in vacuo exerts a 
pressure of 760 mm. 

Kahlbaum,' in a memoire published at Leipzig, 1884, develops a theory 
of ' specific remission ' (with which we are not concerned here), and in 
connection with it gives an account of determinations of relations be- 
tween temperature and vapour-pressure in which he asserts that the static 
and dynamic conditions of a liquid necessarily give different boiling-points ; 
and whereas Regnault said that the static method when it can be em- 
ployed is always to be relied upon as giving trustworthy results, and always 
to be preferred to the dynamic, Kahlbaum says the dynamic method alone 
gives the true boiling-point. It is to be boi-ne in mind that Regnault 
had found that in many cases in which the two curves — one by the 
statical method and the other by the dynamical method — overlapped, they 
coincided very nearly when the substances taken were pure. It is quite 
clear, therefore, that the static and dynamic determinations cannot alwa3's 
disagree as a matter of course, and on account of the necessity of over- 
coming cohesion, &c. 

Kahlbaum ^ explains at some length his views as to the boiling-points 
as found by the statical and the dynamical methods, and defines -^ boiling- 
point thus: — 'I call by the name boiling-jDoint that temperature uf 
the vapour of a liquid in agitation at which its molecules can , by their 
united energy, overcome the collective attractions of neighbouring mole- 
cules and the external pressure.' 

It cannot be doubted that, as in Dufour's and Gernez's experi- 
ments on the retardation of the boiling-point of liquids in the absence of 
air into which the liquid can evaporate, so in the cases mentioned by 
Regnault, and in others similar, the temperature of liquid and of vapour 
may rise in the dynamic method considerably above the temperature at 
which the vapour-pressure in the static method is in equilibrium with the 
atmospheric pressure ; that is, both liquid and vapour may be superheated. 
But these are exceptional cases, and bodies usually boil under circum- 
stances such that superheating may with care be avoided. Again, it is 
easy enough by avoiding necessary precautions to heat the vapour above 
the boiliag-point, and so to make the boiling-point of any liquid seem 
higher than it is. 

' Berichte der BcuUchen CJiemiscken G. 1883, svi. II. p. 247C ; 1884. xvii. I. 
p. 1245, and p. 1263 ; 1885, xviii. 
2 Ihid. 1884, xvii. I. p. 1263. 
' Luc. cit. p. 1272. 



EXPEEIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PfiOPEETIES OF MATTER. 117 



Dissociation 

27 


pressure 
mm. 


46 
56 




255 




280 




678 




763 




. 1,333 





Le Chatelier ^ gives a list of dissociation-pressures, with the tempera- 
tures corresponding, as follows : 
Temperature 

547° 
610° 
625° 
740° 
745° 
810° 
812° 
865° 

for several varieties of calcium carbonate from different sources, all 
agreeing to give the same dissociation-pressure throughout for each tem- 
perature as soon as equilibrium had been reached, which was more rapidly 
done the more finely divided the calcium carbonate. 

At about 812° the dissociation-pressure was equal to the atmospheric 
pressure ; on heating rapidly, however, the temperature rose higher, up 
to 925°, and stood for some time constantly at that point on account of 
the rapid consumption of heat by the decomposition of the calcium carbo- 
nate. Analogous results were obtained by Le Chatelier in the decompo- 
sition of gypsum and of calcium hydrate ; results easily explained by the 
length of time taken by bodies undergoing dissociation in reaching their 
state of equilibrium. These higher dissociation tempei-atures suggest a 
somewhat similar explanation for cases of overheating such as occur with 
mercury and other bodies in which there is a difficulty in overcoming 
cohesion or capillary action.^ 



Froofhj Direct Experiment that Curves of Vapour-pressure from Solid 

and Liquid are different. 

The difficulty of the problem in the case of water arises from the small- 
ness of the pressure of vapour of ice even at 0°, viz., 4-6 mm., while for ice 
at — 17'1° the pressure is 1-04 mm. It is easy to see that by any ordinary 
m.anometric contrivance it would be difficult to get very satisfactory 
results for such very low pressures; however, Pettersson in 1881 ^ suc- 
ceeded by this means in getting a few results for temperatures at very 
small pressures by using a thermometer surrounded with ice, a manometer, 
and a 4-litre exhausted flask surrounded by a freezing mixture ; an 
arrangement by which the ice round the thermometer distilled without 
melting, while the manometric pressure corresponding to each temperature 
of the ice could be observed. Some of the results were in fair accordance 
■with some data given by Regnault for vapour-pressures given by ice at 
different temperatures below 0°. 

By this method, as Pettersson points out, the pressure continuously 
and rapidly changes as the temperature of the ice rapidly rises ; the ther- 
mometer is therefore not to be expected to indicate the temperature for 
each pressure accurately, seeing that the ice and the mercury cannot take 
up the new temperature corresponding to each new pressure instan- 
taneously. 

» Compt. Rend. cii. 124.3. 

^ Horstmann in Berichte der Deutsclien Chemischen G. six Ref. p. 429. 

' Berichte der DevtscUen Chemischen G. 14a, p. 1370, 



118 REPOET— 1886. 

Analogy of Vaporisation of Solid ivith Boiling of Liquid. 

Bamsay and Young ' have obtained I'esults for ice by the dynamical 
method, which are conclusive on this point, that ice has definite tem- 
peratures of volatilisation without fusing, and for each temperature a 
definite pressure. In the dynamical method the substance is either 
boiling or volatilising when its vapour is being formed at a temperature 
at which the vapour has a pressure just equal to the external pressure. 

Ramsay and Young used two flasks, each having a thermometei-, 
connected at their necks by a narrow glass tube ; the tube was provided 
with a side tube and a cHp, by which it could be either closed against 
the outer air or attached to a pump ; or, what was found more 
efficacious for excluding every trace of air, well-boiled water was put into 
the flasks and boiled down in them, so that the steam expelled the air 
very completely from the apparatus when the clip was closed air-tight 
after the thermometers had been inserted. 

On placing one of the two flasks in a freezing mixture, ice at a low 
temperature was formed, some adhering firmly to the bulb of the ther- 
mometer. 

"When this flask was put in boiling water and the other in a freezing 
mixture what happened was this, that after a little time the bulb of the 
second thermometer was covered with ice, and soon the two thermometers 
showed the same temperature, which they kept so long as the temperature 
of the condenser was not altered, and so long as the bulb of the ther- 
mometer in the other flask was covered with ice. 

If the temperature of the condenser was changed the two thermometers 
both soon showed the same lower or higher temperature, but the variation 
of the temperature of the water-bath had no effect on the temperatures 
of the thermometers — in other words, on the volatilising point. 

The fixed point at which the two thermometers agreed in any experi- 
ment was the temperature at which the pressure of vapour from the ice 
on the bulb of the thei-mometer in the flask in the water-bath was just 
equal to the pressure of the vapour from the ice on the bulb of the ther- 
mometer in the flask in the condenser. 

If the air is not completely expelled, or if a very little air is intro- 
duced, the flask in the water-bath shows a higher temperature than 
the flask in the condenser — for this reason, that the ice in the first flask 
must have a pressure of vapour more than enough to balance the pressure 
of ice- vapour from the condenser flask by the pressure of the air ; the 
pressure of this small quantity of air will not vary much in any one set 
of experiments, and therefore by means of the different temperatures of 
the two thermometers in one experiment and the vapour pressures corre- 
sponding to the two temperatures we can, by taking the difference 
between these two pressures, get the jjressure of the air in the appai-atus, 
which pressure, being allowed for in the rest of the experiments in the 
series, there was found always a satisfactorily constant agreement between 
the volatilising temperature and the condensing temperature ; and not only 
that, but also that the higher temperature given when air was introduced 
was the temperature at which the vapour-pressure from ice and the 
pressure of the air were jointly equal to the pressure found by Regnault 
as the vapour-pressure of ice at that higher temperature by the statical 

> Phil. Trans. Part I. 1884. 



EXPEraMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 119 

method. Thus the analogy is complete between the volatilisation of ice 
against external pressure and the boiling of a liquid against external 
pressure. 

Similar experiments were made bj Ramsay and Young with acetic 
acid (melting 16'4°), with naphthalene (melting 79'2°), with camphor 
(melting 175°) ; the results by heating the bulb containing solid camphor 
adhering to the thermometer were confirmed by the pressures obtained 
with solid camphor over mercury at different temperatures below 175°, 
the results agreeing very nearly, as shown on a diagram. The general 
conclusion to be drawn from this paper is that corresponding to boiling- 
points of liquids there are similar temperatures for solid bodies volatilising 
without liquefying — viz., temperatures which are constant while the solid 
volatilises at a constant pressure, but which are different for different 
pressures, the volatilising point of a solid rising with rise of pressure, and 
being lower with lessened pressure, as is the case with the boiling-point 
of a liquid ; and moreover that the volatilising point (for any pi-essiire) is 
the same as the temperature at which the solid over a mercury-vacuum 
has the same pressure, or sensibly the same ; the second method giving 
the true vapour-pressure, while the former method gives a temperature 
not absoluteh/ identical with that observed for the same pressure over a 
mercury-vacuum, though the difference is extremely minute. 

It was not superfluous to prove by direct experiment the deductions 
made by Professor James Thomson from Regnault's numbers as to the 
discontinuity of the curve for the ice-vapour pressure with the curve for 
water-vapour pressure, and to show by dii-ect experiment that at tem- 
peratures common to the two (below the freezing-point), the curves of 
vapour-pressure are distinct, the one for water-vapour pressure being 
■continuous with the curve for water-vapour pressure above 0° ; and it 
was important to prove that these propositions, mutatis mutandis, apply to 
other substances. This task, for water, acetic acid, benzene, and camphor, 
was undertaken and successfully accomplished by Ramsay and Young, 
and is pubhshed in ' Phil. Trans.' Part II. 1884. 

Vapour-pressures from Solids and Liquids — Banisay and, Young. 

In Naumann's ' Thermochemie ' (Brunswick, 1882), at p. 178 is a 
passage, quoted by Ramsay and Young, showing that Naumann had con- 
vinced himself that from naphthalene (melting 79"5°), the same vapour- 
pressure is produced either from liquid or solid at the same temperature ; 
and he alludes to former experiments (Regnault's, no doubt), which 
yielded similar conclusions in the cases of water, benzene, ethene bromide, 
acetic acid, cyanogen chloride, and carbon tetrachloride. 

It will be remembered that no satisfactory results were obtained by 
Regnault with the substances he tried. In the paper referred to ' Ramsay 
and Young first give results for solid camphor, the pressures being found 
for many temperatures up to the melting-point 175°, and for liquid 
camphor up to 198° ; and it is very evident on the curve of pressures 
plotted out that the curves for liquid and for solid camphor meet at a 
re-entering angle near 175°, which is the melting-point for a pressure of 
one atmosphere. For camphor the operations were conducted by jacket- 
ing a barometer-tube, very carefully ensured from the danger of entrance 

» mil. Trans. 1884, Part II. p. 461. 



120 EEPORT— 1886. 

of air or moisture, the tube being heated to the required temperatures by 
the vapour of aniline (or methyl beuzoate) at dift'ei'ent pressures. But 
the method of work and the apparatus devised were varied to suit the 
requirements of each case. 

Thus for benzene (melting 3'3°) a modification described in § 17 of 
the memoir cited on page 19 ' is used, the bulb of the thermometer being 
covered with cotton-wool which is soaked with benzene ; the benzene 
persisted in solidifying just below fi'eezing-point 3'3°. 

As in the previous case of camphor, so in this case of benzene many 
experiments were made near the melting-point above and below it, and 
several with the solid at long intervals below and with the liquid at long 
intervals above. The lines for solid and liquid, which had slight curva- 
ture, met at a re-entering angle at a point where the temperature was 
between 3-0° and 3-6°. 

With acetic acid it was found possible to cool it below the freezing- 
point 16'4° and keep it liquid, and a large number of good results was 
obtained; the curves meeting at about 16'3°, the two curves helo^r 
the melting-point being very obvious, and each being the result of 
numerous observations. Attempts made with the greatest care by the baro- 
meter (statical) method gave, as with Regnault, no satisfactory results. 

The observed difference between the solid-vapour pressure and the 
liquid- vapour pressure for the same temperature was nowhere much more 
than 1 mm. This gives some idea of the accuracy required in this kind 
of work. 

The next — and last — case taken in this paper is ice and water. Com- 
parative results, i.e. results at identical temperatures for ice- vapour 
and water- vapour were obtained from 0° to —5° ; tables are given of 
observations of pressure for ice down to —16°; and these results when 
compared with the results which Professor James Thomson obtained, as 
mentioned, by recalculation of Regnault's data, are found to give 
differences of vapour-pressures of ice and water gi-eater than his. 
But when the observed pressures for ice, for temperatures below 0^, were 
compared with the pressures calculated from a theoretical formula of 
Professor Thomson, the authors found that their observed results agreed 
more nearly with those so calculated than with those calculated fi-om 
Regnault's results. 

Thus Drs. Ramsay and Young have shown that curves for pressure^ 
from a liquid and a solid state of the same substance, are not continuous 
in the cases of camphor, benzene, acetic acid, and water. 

The process in which the thermometer. bulb is covered with cotton- 
wool (or asbestos fibre), and this soaked with the substance the boil- 
ing-points of which at different pressures are required, gives results^ 
according to Ramsay and Young, in Avhich the error due to overheating 
of the vapour is got rid of, for the substance adhering to the cotton- 
wool has so much free surface that it will, whether solid or liquid, 
evaporate freely at the temperature corresponding to the pressure to 
which it is subjected. The cotton-wool can be re-moistened continually 
by an arrangement described in this paper and in ' J.C.S.' January 1885. 

In the last-mentioned paper they further describe their apparatus, and 
show how it is used for solids as well as liquids, and apply it in particular 
to the case of acetic acid. Regnault had obtained discordant results 

' FhiJ. Trans. Part I. 1884,"?. 47. 



EXPEKIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 121 

with this substance, which sometimes he attributed to the pi'csence of water 
and sometimes to the presence of acetone ; and the least trace of im- 
purity, as he has pointed out, affects the results seriously, especially 
those obtained by the statical method ; for over the thermometer vacuum 
any accidental presence of a trace of air does not get eliminated as in the 
dynamical method by boiling for a short time. By their method Ramsay 
and Young got a series of values of pressures for solid acetic acid 
from — 5"68° to 16'41° volatilising point, and for liqtiid acetic acid from 
2'72° to 117"15° boiling-point. The results so obtained agree closely with 
those given by the usual process when a perfectly pure acetic acid was 
used, and disagreed with vapour- pressures previously given byRegnault,' 
Laudolt,^ Bineau,^ and Wiillner.'' 

Vapour-pressures from Solids and Liquids — W. Fischer. 

W. Fischer,-^ independently of Ramsay and Young, and by a quite 
different method, investigated the lines of solid vapour-pi'essure and of 
liquid vapour- pressure for water and benzene for a range of temperature 
throughout which, in each case, the body could exist either as solid or as 
liquid ; he arrived at results substantially similar to those of Ramsay and 
Young. He showed that the curve of pressures for each substance (for 
temperatures below the melting-point) was lower for solid than for liquid. 

In the case of ice and water he gives four sets of experiments, in each 
of which experiments there are given the thermometer reading below 0°, 
the barometer reading and the reading of an ice- pressure mercury tube 
and of a water- pressure mercury tube, the three tubes being near together 
so that they can all be read with the cathetometer, as well as the thermome- 
ters giving the temperature of the ice and water in each experiment. A 
fifth set of experiments was made for vapour-pressure of water at tem- 
peratures above 0°. From these he deduced two equations of the form 
p=-a + 'bt + cir, which represented very accurately his observations, one 
for p the vapour-pressure of water, and the other for p the vapour- 
pressure of ice. 

These results were got in the winter of 1882-3, and they did not well 
agree with theory, and especially gave a difference for ice and water at 0°, 
differing too seriously from that deduced fi'om Clausius' formula. 

In the winter 1884-5 he resumed the investigation, and succeeded in 
improving the method employed so as to make his results more accurate. 
In the equation ^=rt + ii + cf- he obtained the values of a, h, c, his results 
for the different pairs of values of p and t giving him from the equation 
between j; and t a large number of equations in a, b, and c. This was 
done for water-vapour and for ice- vapour ; the equation for pressure of 
water-vapour at temperatures between 1"35° and — 10'15° was 

2j=4-628-f-0-32535/-f 0-008705^2 
and for ice- vapour pressure 

' p=4-641 -h 0-37190/ + 0-011041/2 

the difference of - " for ice and water at 0° is "04655 ; Kirchhoff calcu- 
dt 

' Mem. 1862, xxvi. p. 51. 

- Liebig's Annalen, Suppt. 6, 157. 

3 A/males de C/iimie et de Phygiqiie (3), xviii. 226. 

■* PoggendorflE's Annalen, ciii. p. 529. 

* Wiedemann's Annalen der Physik ■und Cheviic, 1886, No. 7, p. 400. 



122 



EEPORT — 1886. 



lated it at '044. This is, therefore, a tolerably satisfactory agreement. 
The two curves meet at about 0-3°. 

For benzene W. Fischer found +5-8° as melting-point; Regnault had 
found +4-35°. The equation for the vapour-pressure over solid benzene 
was found to be 

^=24-985 -I- 1-6856^-^0-031339^2 ; 

that for the vapour-pressure over liquid benzene was 
_^=26-40 + l-429.5)' + 0-04505i2. 

The two curves do not meet at 5"3°, but they should meet on some point on 
the line of solid-liquid, and may do so at some point corresponding to a 
pressure higher than atmospheric. From the diagram it appears that the 
two curves would not meet for some distance from the melting-point; 
this is not certain, but it is so probable as to point to some error, perhaps 
arising from impurity of the benzene. 

Yapour-pressures of Mercury. 

The determination of the relations between temperature and vapour- 
pressure for mercury was found by Regnault to be very difficult, on 
account of the occurrence of violent bumping ; the results are published 
in ' Memoires,' t. xxvi. p. 520. The temperatures were measured by an 
air-thermometer of constant volume, but of small initial pressure, it 
having been partially exhausted before the beginning of a series of ex- 
periments. The formula log Y^a + ha' + cif was used, where F is the 
vapour-pressure, and the constants determined by a sufficient number of 
data from observations including a wide range ; thus the table on pp. 
-520, 521 was calculated from the formula. Regnault's observations were 
too few and too doubtful, and the results given by him for vapour-pres- 
sures of mercury at low temperatures and at ordinary temperatures have 
been proved to be quite illusory. 

A few other physicists have attacked this question ; among them 
Hagen, McLeod, Hertz, and Drs. Ramsay and Young. 

We will first give Hagen's results,' comparing some of them with 
Regnault's : — 



Temperature 


Vapour density in ram. 


Hagen 


Regnault 


0° 
10° 
20° 
30° 
40° 
100° 


0-015 
0018 
0-021 
0-026 
0-033 
0-210 


0020 
0027 
0-037 
0-053 
0077 
0-7i5 



Hagen's differ -widely from Regnault's numbers, but, unfortunately, 
there is good reason for thinking Hagen's results entirely untrustworthy 
in spite of the very great care which he took to avoid sources of error. 

An experiment of McLeod's made the early numbers of Hagen (those 

' Wiedemann's Annalen der PhysiTt und Chemie, 1882, xvi. p. 610. 



EXPEEIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 123 



for ordinary temperatures) very doubtful. It is described in the Britisb 
Association volume for 1883. A shallow glass tube 14 mm. diameter 
containing freshly distilled mercury was suspended near the bottom of 
a closed flask of about 1'9 litre capacity, for nine days ; the tube was 
then removed and boiling nitric acid poured into the flask and allowed 
to stand some time, the nitric acid neutralised with ammonia, the solution 
washed out of the flask, acidified with HCl, and treated with H2S. By 
comparison with the result of operating similarly with solutions of mer- 
cury of known strengths, the mercury was found to be between '00006 gms. 
and -00012 gms. 

The flask contained, therefore, as vapour about "00009 gms. of mercury. 

A second similar experiment gave '00012 gms., therefore at ordinary 
temperature 1 litre of Hg-vapour contains '00006 gms., which would 
correspond to pressure of mercury='00574 mm. ; and McLeod says this 
number may be too large, for probably some mercury condensed on the 
inside of the flask. 

In "Wiedemann's 'Ann.' 1882, xvii. p. 177, is an elaborate investigation 
of the evaporation of fluids, especially mercury, by Hertz. His vapour- 
pressures of mercury are very different indeed from Regnault's from 0° to 
100°, as will be seen : — 

Regnault giving at 0° vapour-pressure 0'02 mm. 
Hertz „ 0° „ 0-00019 mm. 

and Regnault „ 100° ,, 0'7455 mm. 



Hertz 



100° 



0'285 mm. 



Ramsay and Young • determine, by a neat and accurate method, in 
which mercury in a small bulb of glass at one end of a narrow graduated 
tube is heated to the boiling-point of sulphur, the vapour-pressure of 
mercury at that temperature ; and deduce, from this and a few data for 
lower temperatures, by means of the formula'^ R'=R4-c(i'- f)— see 
further on (p. 12-3) — the vapour- pressures for temperatures from 360° to 
130° from Regnault's vapour-pressures of water ; and the vapour-pressures 
of mercury between 130° and 40° were calculated by ' extrapolation ' {loc. 
at. p. 48), by means of the known vapour-pressures of mercury at tempera- 
tures 160°, 220°, and 280° — which pressures and temperatures sufiice to 
find the three constants in the formula log. p=^a + ba\ which was then 
applied to find j) at lower temperatures. 

Let us compare some of Hertz' values with those of Ramsay and 
Young : — 



Temp, centigi-ade 


Hertz 


Ramsay and Young 


At 40° 


•0063 mm. 


•008 mm. 


„ 50° 


•013 „ 


•015 „ 


„ 60° 


•026 „ 


•029 „ 


,, 70° 


■050 „ 


•062 „ 


„ 80° 


•093 „ 


•092 „ 


„ 90° 


'165 „ 


•160 „ 


„ 100° 


■285 „ 


•270 „ 


„ 140° 


1-93 


1^763 „ 


„ 180° 


9-23 


8-535 „ 


„ 200° 


18^25 


17-015 „ 


220° 


34-90 


31-937 „ 



J.C.S., January 1886, p. 37. 



- Phil. Mag. January 1886. 



124 KEi'OKT— 1886. 

The remarkable closeness with which these numbers of Hertz and of 
Ramsay and Young agree is a striking proof of the applicability of the 
thermal relation R,'=R+ c(i'- f), explained in ' Phil. Mag.' Jan. 1886, to 
the determination, with considerable accuracy of data which almost baflBe 
direct experimental treatment. 

Crookes, in tlie ' Chemical News,' July 16, 188G, p. 28, writing of the 
mercury left in his radiant-matter tubes even at great exhaustions, 
says that, although in the cold it is impossible to get an induction spark 
through the tube, the interior of it being absolutely non-condnctmg, yet 
on heating the tube with aBunsen flame, keeping the coil going, suddenly 
the current passes, lighting up the inside of the tube with a greenish 
blue light, in which the spectroscope shows strong mercury lines. The 
tube on cooling becomes non-conducting again. 

This shows, according to Crookes, that in such very highly exhausted 
vacuum-tubes there is plenty of mercury present, not as vapour, but con- 
densed on the metallic poles or on the inside of the glass. But a com- 
plete blockade may be established, as Crookes explains in this paper, 
whereby during the exhaustion of the vacuum-tube no mercury can 
enter ; the blockade is effected by interposing between the vacuum-tube 
and the mercury a tube containing freshly heated sulphur and iodide of 
sulphur packed with freshly heated asbestos, and a glass tube containing 
copper to retain any sulphur. By this means the vacuum-tube is so 
freed from mercury that Crookes has been unable to detect mercury 
vapour in any of the tubes, even on heating them. 

Tables for Gonfitant Temperatures. 

The fact that for each pressure there is a corresponding temperature 
for any volatilisable liquid, constant so long as the pi-essure is the same ; 
and for each temperature a pressure of vapour, constant so long as the 
tempei'ature is the same, can be utilised to secure a constant temperature 
by boiling a liquid at constant pressure ; this is the principle of Hof- 
mann's method of determining vapour-densities ; the constant temperature 
being that of a given liquid boiling at the (constant) pressure of the 
atmosphere, different liquids must be used boiling at different tempera- 
tures to give a convenient temperature in each case. 

The substances which can be used must be few, as they must satisfy 
the condition of being cheap, stable, and easily obtained pure. 

Now the number of constant temperatures which can thus be obtained 
is the number of such bodies the boiling points of which can be used as 
the constant temperatures ; the temperatures thus attainable will therefore 
be few and far between. 

Among the liquids satisfying the conditions mentioned are carbon 
bisulphide, ethyl alcohol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, aniline, methyl 
salicylate, bromonaphthalene, and mercury. Their approximate boiling- 
points are 46°, 78°, 132°, 155°, 184°, 222°, 280°, and 358° ; thus we have 
eight temperatures which can be used for purposes for which a constant 
temperature is required ; and they ai-e at fairly uniform intervals from 
46° to 358°, applicable therefore to wide ranges of temperature. 

By the aid of the principle stated above, we can, by keeping constant 
any pressure below 760 mm. for carbon bisulphide, obtain another con- 
slant temperature, and in fact a whole series of constant temperatures- 



0° to 50° 


40° , 


, 80° 


70° , 


, 132° 


120° , 


, 160° 


150° , 


, 185° 


175° , 


, 225° 


215° , 


, 281° 


270° , 


, 360° 



EXPEEIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PEOPERTIES OF MATTER. 125 

between 0° and 46°, or between 0° and temperatures higher than 46°, 
e.g. between 0° and 50°, by using constant pressures over 760 mm. 

This in fact is what'' Ramsay and Young have made possible by 
determining the pressures of the vapour of carbon bisulphide for every 
degree from 0° to 50° inclusive. 

Thus instead of only one we have fifty constant temperatures, being 
boiling-points for sixty known pressures from 127'9 mm. to 857'1 mm.; 
the temperatures being air-thermometer temperatures ; to say that fifty 
constant temperatures are available is sufficient perhaps ; but in fact 
other temperatures are obtainable by interpolation between two succes- 
sive degrees (up to 50°). 

Similar tables have been prepared by the authors for the other sub- 
stances for every degree centigrade ; thus for the eight diff'erent substances 
there are eight tables, giving in the case of — 

Carbon bisulphide vapour pressures from 

Ethyl alcohol „ ,, „ 

Chlorobenzene ,, „ „ 

Bromobenzene „ „ ,, 

• Aniline _ „ „ „ 

Methyl salicylate „ ,, „ 

Bromonaphth aline „ ,, „ 
Mercury 

for each degree centigrade in each table the vapour pressure of the 
substance. 

These valuable tables are founded on the definiteness and constancy of 
the relationship between vapour-pressure and temperature for each pres- 
sure for each substance ; and as most of these results have been obtained 
by the dynamical method they assume that this method is as trust- 
worthy as the statical and gives, when properly applied, as definite and 
constant results. 

Ramsat/ and Young's Formula B'=:B + c (f — t). — Galczclated and olserved 
Tables of the Absolute Temperatures and Vapour-pressures of a Substance 
compared. 

In the brief sketch, p. 123, of Ramsay and Young's method of deter- 
mining the vapour-pressures of mercury for various temperatures, it 
was stated that by certain experiments the relation between temperature 
and vapour-pressure of mercury was determined at about the tempera- 
ture of boiling sulphur, and that, from this and from three or four data at 
lower temperatures, a series of pressures for a long range of temperatures 
was deduced from Regnault's series for ivater by the use of an equation 
of tbe form R'=R-Hc (t'—t) ■ in this R is the ratio of the absolute tem- 
perature of two bodies corresponding to any the same vapour-pressure ; R' 
the ratio at any other pressure the same for both ; t' and t are the tem- 
peratures of one of the bodies corresponding to the two vapour-pressures • 
and c a small constant. 

What Ramsay and Young have proved - is that for the substances of 

widely different kind examined by them, c is very small, that it can be 

accurately determined, and that it is constant for any pair of substances ; 

that when either water, ethyl alcohol, carbon bisulphide, or sulphur 

' J.C.S. September 1885, p. 640. ^ p;,,^ ;y^^ January 1886. 



126 



REPOET 1886. 



is taken as one of the two substances, as the substance of reference, the 
observed pressures agree with those calculated by the formula with re- 
markable accuracy ; and doubtless equal accuracy could be got by using 
i>ther substances of reference. 

We will give some results illustrative of the accuracy which this 
formula shows : — 

1. The absolute temperatures of water at various pressures being- 
known, the following are absolute temperatures of CS2 calculated from 
the formula, and absolute temperatures of CS2 obtained by observation. 

Found c= -0006568. 



Pressures . . . 


mm. 
50 


mm. 
100 


mm. 
200 


mm. 
400 


mm. 
700 


mm. 
1000 


mm. 

2000 


mm. 
3000 


mm. 
5000 i 

1 


Calculated abs.'l^ 
temp. J 


3540° 


267-6° 


28.3-2° 


300-8° 


316-8° 


327-95° 


352-5° 


368-6° 


391-3° 
391-7° 


Observed abs."l 
temp. J 


254-05° 


267-7° 


283-2° 


300-75° 


316-75° 


328-0" 


352-3° 


368-7° 



The greatest difference between the observed and the calculated tem- 
peratures of CS2 is here only 0-4° at the pressure 5000 mm. 

2. The absolute temperatures of CS2 being known for a series of 
vapour pressures, to find by the formula the absolute temperatures of 
sulphur at the same pressures. 

Regnault gives ' a list of corresponding temperatures and vapour- 
pressures for sulphur ; taking some of these and the temperatures of 
CS2 for the same pressures, and adding 273 to the temperatures to get the 
absolute temperatui'es, the value of c is found=: — "0006845. 

A series of absolute temperatures of sulphur can now be constructed 
for various pressures by calculation by the formula from the absolute 
temperatures of CS2 at the same pressures ; and these can then be com- 
pared with the data obtained by interpolation from the temperatures and 
vapour-pressures given by Regnault. 

The following are among the results for sulphur : — 



Pressures 


mm. 
400 


mm. 
800 


mm. 
1000 


mm. 
2000 


mm. 
3000 


Calculated abs. temp. . 


683-5° 


724-6° 


739-3° 


788-15° 


820-8° 


Observed abs. temp . . 


683-7° 


724-6° 


739-0° 


788-2° 


820-8° 



Besides the substances mentioned, the formula was applied to methyl 
alcohol, ethyl chloride, ethyl bromide, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, 
aniline, methyl salicylate, bromonaphthalene, ethylene, oxygen, acetic acid, 
nitric peroxide, chloral-alcoholate, chloral-methylalcoholate, ammonium 
chloride, ammonium carbonate ; and^ to carbon tetrachloride, ethyl oxide, 
chloroform, and mercury (which has been already mentioned). 

The results in such a variety of cases being extremely accurate for 
elements such as oxygen and sulphur, and compounds of such different 
types, there can be no doubt that the relation E,':.=R + c {f — t) very 
accurately rejDresents an actual relationship between temperature and 
vapour-pressure such that the different substances taken are in this way 



' Mem. t. xxvi. p. 527. 



■ Phil. Mag. February 1886. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 127" 

comparable with each other ; and the suggestion imposes itself upon one 
that this may be au expression — very approximately true — of a general 
law with regard to vapour-pressures and temperatures applicable to any 
volatilisable liquid — to any at least which can be lieated with no chemical 
change, or none but dissociation ; in other words, that bodies of this 
kind in the liquid state are, in spite of their apparently great divergencies 
in respect of relations of vapour-pressure to temperature, really very 
similarly constituted in that respect if compared under physical condi- 
tions, which this formula of Ramsay and Young in some way represents, 
at least approximately. 



Application of the formula to Liquid Oxygen. 

The case of oxygen is of such interest that it is impossible to leave- 
this important paper without treating of it. 

Olszewski ' published a series of determinations by a hydrogen-ther- 
mometer of temperatures of liquid oxygen, and vapour-pressures corre- 
sponding, the temperatures varying from the critical temperature of 
oxygen — 118'8° C. to — 211'5° C. ; and critical pressure being 50'8 atmos =: 
38,608 mm., and the pressure for the lower temperature being 9 mm. 
Olszewski was unable to measure any lower temperature, because at this 
point so much liquid oxygen had evaporated that the bulb of the ther- 
mometer was not sufficiently covered with it. 

Taking water to compare with, c was found = — •0008932. By inter- 
polation from Olszewski's numbers, temperatures were determined for 
vapour-pressures 800, 1000, 1500, 2000, and so on up to 20,000 mm.; 
the critical temperature corresponding to a critical pressure 38,600 mm. 
of oxygen vapour being about 154° in ahsohite temperature. 

The calculated and the interpolated values of absolute temperature of 
oxygen are as under : — 



Pressure . . . 


mm. 
9 


mm. 
800 


mm. 
1000 


mm. 
2000 


mm. 
3000 


mm. 
5000 


mm. 
10000 


mm. 
16000 


mm. 
20000 

139-1° 


Calculated abs. "1 
temp. / 


63-5° 


91-6° 


93-7° 
93-5° 


101-1° 


106-1° 


113-2° 


124-7° 


132-7° 


From observed ~l 
abs. temp, j 


61-5° 


92° 


100-0° 


105-5° 


113-9° 


125-7° 


133-0° 


138-1° 



The same comparison of absolute temperatures is made for oxygen 
and alcohol, the vapour-pressures of alcohol and corresponding tempera- 
tures being known over a large range ^ up to 155° C. by air thermometer, 
at which temperature the vapour-pressure is 8259-19 mm. The tempera- 
tures calculated by the formula, from the table for alcohol, give absolute 
temperatures nearly agreeing with those got from Olszewski's observed 
values by interpolation. 

Again, a third calculation of vapour-pressures and temperatures was 
made from the data given by Regnault for sidphur^ where air-thermo- 
meter temperatures centigrade are given at intervals of 10° from 390° 

' Compt. Rend. 100, p. 350. J.C.S. 1885, May Abs. p. 476. 
- Regnault in Memoires, t. xxvi. p. 375. 
' Ibid. p. 530. 



128 REPOET — 1886. 

to 570°. Here c was found as in all the other cases to be constant for 
several pairs of temperatures compared for the same pressure for sulphur 
and for oxygen ; and the calculated temperatures of oxygen agree with 
the observed with an error of one degree at the most. 

Question of Applicabilittj of Hydrogen Thermometer to Low Temperatures. 

Wroblewski * objects that Olszewski's results cannot be true a,t very 
low temperatures because at, for example, 61'5° (abs. temp.) = — 211'5° C. 
at which the vapour-pressure found by Olszewski for hydrogen is 9 mm., 
and at temperatures not quite so low as that, we must be getting 
near the liquefying point of hydrogen, near enough at least to allow 
of the suspicion that the behaviour of hydrogen may be getting irre- 
gular, and deviating from the straight course prescribed by Amagat at 
temperatures above 0° C. i.e. above 273° of absolute temperature. And 
Wroblewski's criticism is probably just ; the determination of the lowest 
temperatures is probably inaccurate ; but the points determined by 
Olszewski, other than the very lowest temperatures, are probably very 
accurate, as hydi'ogen evidently has a very low liquefying point, and is 
far the most regular of the gases, as seen in Amagat's curves ; still 
though we know from Amagat's results and from V. Meyer's that hydrogen 
at ordinary tempei'atares and from these up to nearly 1700° C. behaves 
in the most absolutely regular way in refei'euce to volume, |>ressure and 
temperature, where at least the pressui'e is not excessively great, our 
knowledge, however highly probable with regard to its behavioar at low 
temperatures, is conjectural. 

Wroblewski used two thermo-junctions arranged as a thermo-pile, 
one junction being kept at constant temperature, such as 0° or 100°, the 
other in the liquid the temperature of which is sought, the temperature 
being inferred from the deflection of the needle of a galvanometer. 

The elements of the pile were copper and german silver, and results 
with the pile agreed with results with the hydrogen thermometer down to 
— 193° C. ; but disagi-eed below that temperature. 

Other Formulce of Ramsay and Younr/. 

In the series of papers ^ the authors discuss two other formulae, which 
might often be useful for getting fair approximations, but which do not 
give such remarkably accurate results as the formula of which we have 
been treating. 

A recent paper ^ gives applications of the formula (p. 125) to bromine, 
iodine, and iodine monochloride. 

The Use of Formulce — Formula of Glausius — Formula of Van der Waals. 

The application of the principles of thermo-dynamics to many 
chemical problems may be expected, as in the case we have enlarged 
upon, to economise experimental work in this way ; a few data will be re- 
quired, carefully worked out, and a whole set of experiments made with 

' Compt. Rerid. 100. p. 979. J.C.S. 1885, Abs. Aug. p. 861 ; cf. Comjit. Bend. 101, 
p. 238 ; and J.C.S. 1885, Abs. Nov. p. 1101. 

2 pjiii_ ]\Jag. December 1885 and January and February 1886. 
' J.S.C. July 1886. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 129 

■some one substance. The results of these can then be used to enable us 
to calculate for a large variety of substances and circumstances, numerical 
data which could not otherwise be got without the most laborious and 
tedious investigations. 

One case of this is that of Clausius' formula ' u= — for 

^ v-a T (v-fiy 

the relation between the pressure, volume, and absolute temperature of a 
gas ; Sarrau ^ has determined the constants in this equation for several 
gases by Amagat's results, and has deduced the critical temperature, 
pressure, and molecular volume for oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, 
and marsh-gas. 

In 1873 Van der Waals first published at Leiden his dissertation ' On 
the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid States,' in which he predicts 
some of the most striking of the results which Amagat five or six years 
afterwards firstpublished, and long before his most complete and exhaustive 
treatment of the gases he examined was concluded ; and in this disserta- 
tion, of which a German edition was published at Leipzig in 1881, he 

proposed a formula (p + ^^ (v-h) =U{l + at) (p. 62, Leipzig edition) 

as a general relation between volume, pressure, and temperature for a 
gas ; the constants in the equation must of course be determined for each 
gas.^ Baynes calculates from the formula a series of values of pv for 
ethylene,_ which agree remarkably with the numbers found by Amagat 
by experiment. Amagat applies Clausius' and Van der Waals' formulae 
to the case of COj, and finds'* a portion of the gas well represented by 
calculations from their formulae, but that neither his nor Clausius' formula 
represents the whole of his curves. 

Critical Temperatures and Pressures. 

Faraday having shown how certain gases might be liquefied, and 
liaving himself liquefied a number of those which under ordinary condi- 
tions are gases, Cagniard de la Tour ^ showed that when certain liquids 
were gradually heated in a sealed tube partly filled, suddenly at a certain 
temperature the line of demarcation between liquid and vapour dis- 
appeared, and there was nothing to distinguish one part from another 
part of the tube. 

Thilorier had noticed ^ that COg liquid from 0° to 30° expands four 
times as much as COg gas between the same temperatures. 

Andrews ^ investigated the efiecta of pressure on COj at different 
temperatures, and arrived at the conclusion that above the temperature 
•30-9° C. no pressure however great can liquefy the gas, that is, separate 
it in the tube in which it is confined into two portions, one denser than 
the other, separated by a line of demarcation. 

At any temperature below 30-9° he showed that by some pressure 
under 74 atmos the gas can be liquefied; and at a temperature the 

* Wled. Ann. 1879, t. ix. p 127 ; Annales de CJtim. 1883, xxx. p, 358. • 
- C.R. xciv. pp. 639 and 718 ; J.C.S. Aba. 1882, p. 686. 

^ See Baynes on ' Critical Temperature of Ethylene ' in Nature, vol. xsiii. 18S0-1, 
< Annales de dhlmie et de Physique, 1883 (5), xxviii. pp. 500-502. 

* Ibid. (2), xxi., xxii. 

* Ilnd. 1835 (2), Ix. p. 427. ' Phil Trans. U.S. 1869. 
1886. 



130 



EEPOET — 1886. 



least possible below 30'9° tlie gas just becomes liquefied by a pressiu'e of 
about 74 atmos. 

The temperature 309° and tlie pressure 74 atmos were called by 
Andrews the critical temperature and pressure for CO.2. In further re- 
searches Andrews had found that the critical point was not a point special 
to CO2 and to this body only ; he found a similar behaviour at some point 
for every liquefied gas or volatile liquid he examined, and in particular for 
nitrous oxide, hydric chloride, ammonia, ethyl oxide, and bisulphide of 
carbon. For each of these (and he considered the property to be general) 
there is a certain temperature below which the body can, by sufficient 
pressure, be liquefied, and above which no pi'essure, however great, can 
liquefy it. The smallest pressure which can liquefy it at immediatelij 
below this critical point is the critical pressure. 

There can be no doubt that in reference to general properties of liquids 
and gases the critical temperature and pressure are of the greatest im- 
portance, and that the accurate determination of a number of these will, 
in conjunction with Andrews' very complete examination of COo and with 
Amagat's results — carried, as they are, to very high pressures — be among 
the most valuable data towards a general theory of gases and liquids ; and 
on the other hand the critical points may be arrived at by a theoretical 
method, as indicated in a paper by Thorpe and Riicker.' The actual 
critical temperatures at present known, besides those found by Andrews, 
have been obtained for the most part by Ramsay in 1880,^ by Pawlew- 
ski,^ by Olszewski and Wroblewski, by Sajotschewsky, and by Dewar.^ 

In a paper on the liquefaction of oxygen and the critical volumes of 
liquids,^ Dewar ^ gives a list of twenty-one critical temperatures and pres- 
sures in atmospheres, of which we will mention a few : — 





t 
Critical tempera- 
ture 


P 

Critical pressure 


T 
P 


Chlorine .... 


141° C. 


83-9 


50 


Oxygen .... 


-113° 


50 


3-2 


Nitrogen .... 


-146° 


35 


3-6 


Water .... 


■ 370° 


195-5 


3-3 


Hydric sulphide 


100-2° 


92 


4-0 


Ammonia .... 


130° 


115 


3-5 


Marsh-gas .... 


-99-5° 


50 


3-5 


Ethyl hydride . 


35° 


45-2 


6-8 


Cyanogen .... 


124° 


61-7 


6-4 


Acetylene .... 


37° 


68 


4-5 



where T is the absolute critical temperature=273 + ^. Of the above 
Dewar determined ammonia, hydric sulphide, cyanogen, marsh-gas, and 
ethyl hydride. Ansdell determined acetylene. For Ansdell's experi- 
mental determination of physical constants of acetylene and hydrochloric 
acid, see ' Proc. Roy. Soc' xxx. 117, and sxxiv. 113. 

Dewar shows in the above paper how by his modification of Cail- 
letet's apparatus the volume and weight, and hence the density, of the 

» J.C.S. Trans. 1884, p. 135. 

2 Proe. Roil. Soc. vol. xxsi. p. 194. 

» Bcrichte dcr Deutschen Clwmischen. G. xv. p. 2460, 1882 ; and ibid. xvi. p. 2633. . 

■• PMl. Mag. 1884 (5), vol. xviii. p. 210. i 

» IKd. « Ihid. p. 214. \ 



EXPEEIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PEOPERTIES OF MATTER. 131 

liquefied portion of a gas may be readily determined, and in particular 

T 
the density at the critical temperature and pressure. The values of :g are 

proportional to the molecular volumes of the gases at the critical point. 

We have thus the means of determining the critical temperature, 
pressure, and volume of a gas or liquid. These are the most important 
data for each substance, and the most important points of reference when 
we compare different substances, which are gasifiable, with one another. 

It has already been mentioned, p. 129, that Sarrau deduced the critical 
temperatures and pressures of oxygen and nitrogen by applying Clausius' 
formula to Amagat's results. 

Sarrau found for oxygen ^^= — 105'4° ; ^(.=48"7 atmos ; • 
and for nitrogen i^,= — 12.3'8°; ^^=42-1 atmos. 

The values found by Wroblewski and Oblewski for oxygen arc 
respectively : — ^ 

Oxygen, Wroblewski, Z^^ — 113°; j)^=50 atmos. 

Oblewski, ;;,= -118-8°; j?,=50-8 atmos. \ 

The pressure found by both observers does not differ much from that cal- 
culated by Sarrau ; but the temperature calculated is considerably higher 
than that observed by either. 

Hydrogen has, so far as I know, not been examined as yet in the liquid 
state ; but if not, there can be little doubt that it soon will be. Wroblew- 
ski, by means of nitrogen boiling in a vacuum, cooled hydrogen to a tem- 
perature 208° — 211°, at a pressure 180 — 190 atmos, and found on 
suddenly releasing the pressure a grey mist form, which is due no doubt 
to the formation of liquid hydrogen in a very fine state of division. 

Sarrau deduced from Clausius' formula for hydrogen the critical tem- 
perature — 174°, and critical pressure 98-9 atmospheres. The ratio of 
absolute critical temperature to critical pressure is therefore about I'O. 

Again Olszewski - has obtained his lowest temperatures by the eva- 
poration of solid nitrogen under a pressure of 4 mm., a temperature 
— 225° having been thus registered by his hydrogen thermometer, which 
perhaps cannot give accurate temperatures in these extreme circumstances. 
However, hydrogen does not seem to liquefy at this temperature ; at least 
no meniscus was seen at —220° at pressures up to 180 atmos; still the 
hydrogen- thermometer might, and probably would, register too low. 

The solid nitrogen which Olszewski used was obtained by evaporation of 
the liquid nitrogen at 4 mm. in a glass tube surrounded by liquid oxygen. 

The temperature at which nitrogen solidifies is, according' to 
Wroblewski,3 -203°. 

Dewar has recently obtained solid oxygen, but details have not yet 
been published. 

Pawlewski had stated, as an empirical law, that the difference between 
the critical temperature and the boiling-point is constant. This has been 
found to be by no means true. Vincent and Chappuis ^ find the critical 
temperature, boiling-point, critical pressure, and the ratio T/P, where T 
is the absolute critical temperature, for hydric chloride, methyl chloride, 
ethyl chloride, ammonia, and methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-amines ; 
the differences between the centigrade critical temperatures and boilino-. 
points for these in order are 86-5°, 165-2°, 195°, 169-5°, 157°, 155°, and 
' C.B. xcvii. 309 ; c. 350. ^ jj,i^ pji 

2 Ihid. ci. p. 238. * Ibid. ci. 427. 

k2 



132 KEPOBT— 1886. 

151'2°. In this paper the authors confirm the results of Dewar with 
regard to the Talues of T/P, which is 3"5 approximately for hydric chlo- 
ride water, ammonia, and marsh-gas, and is greater than this for the 
more complex molecules derived from these as types. In the order in 
which the bodies have been named these numbers are given as 3'4, 5' 7, 
8-4, 3'6, 6-9, 7-9, 10-5. 

In another paper ' the same authors add critical temperatures and pres- 
sures and values of T/P for other substances ; thus for propyl chloride 
T/P is 10, for ethylamine GS, for diethylamine 12"2, for triethylamine 
17'4, for propylamine 9"8, and for dipropylamine 17'7. 

Dilatations and Vapour-densities of Bodies in the State of Gas at High 
Temperatures — Experiments by V. Meyer, Crafts and Meier, and others. 

The greater part of the determinations of vapour- densities of bodies 
whose vapour-densities had not been known or were doubtful up to the 
last ten years has been effected by Victor Meyer alone, or in conjunction 
with others ; some by Crafts and Meier.^ 

After describing his apparatus as ordinarily used, V. Meyer gives 
results with CHCI3, CS2, H2O, CcH4(CH3)2, CgH^Br, CfiH^NHa, 
cymene, CsHsOH, those having the highest boiling-point being heated in 
the vapour of boiling ethyl benzoate, the vapour-densities in all the cases 
taken agreeing fairly with the theoretical results calculated fi-om Gay- 
Lussac's or Avogadro's law — quite nearly enough for practical purposes — 
thus: 

For CS, For H.,0 

Observed Calculated Observed Calculated 

2-87 2-91 2-292 2-63 -69 -60 -02 -62 

V. Meyer points out that in calculating the observed densities from 
the direct datum of each experiment the temperature of the bath does 
not require to be known, but must be quite constant during each 
determination. 

By improving his process he shows how to get much more accurate 
results, thus : 

For Water For CSj For Iodine 

Found Calculated found Calculated Found Calculated 

Density '64 '62 2-68 262 8-83 878 

and so for, besides those already mentioned, naphthalene, benzoic acid ; 
some in a lead-bath, e.g., diphenylamine, mercury, anthracene, anthra- 
quinone, chrysene, sulphur; and, in a bath of Wood's metal, perchlor- 
diphenyl. 

For indium chloride the formula InClj corresponded to the found 
vapour-density, whereas the vapour-densities found by Deville and 

' Ibid. ciii. 6. 

- References; Berichte der Detttschen Chemischen G. 1878, 11. 2, pp. 1868, 2258 ; 
1879, 12. 1, pp. 613, 1113, 1195, 1282 ; 12. 2. p. U28 (V. and C. Meyer) ; 1880, 13. 1. 
pp. 423, 776, 851, 1018, 1033 (Crafts and Meier); pp. 391, 394, 401, 407; pp. 399, 
404, 811 (V. Meyer and Ziiblin) ; pp. 1010, 1013, 1721, 2019 ; 1881, ibid. 14b, p. 1453 ; 
1882, ibid. 15b, p. 2769; 1883, ibid. 16a, p. 457 (Crafts); 1884, ibid. 17a, 1334; 
1885, ibid. 18 Ref. p. 133 (C. Langer and V. Meyer) ; a, p. 1501. 

And Pf/rochemische Untersuchungen, von Carl Langer und Victor Meyer. Bruns- 
wick, 1885. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PKOPEllTIES OF MATTER. 133 

Troost ' gave FeoClg, AlaClg, AlaBr^, AlaTg, from about 400° to 1040° (the 
boiling-point (?) of zinc). These formulfe had led V. Meyer to expect 
In2Cl6, which was not given by any vapour- density determination of 
indium chloride. So V. and C. Meyer find formuloe Sn2Cl4, ZnOia for 
temperatures between 620° and 700° as determined by a block of pla- 
tinum and a calorimeter. 

Mitscherlich had found at 571° AS4O6, and V. and C. Meyer find for 
a much higher temperature — about 1000° — the same formula AsjO^, and 
for even higher temperatures SbjOg, CU2CI4, and at over 900° CdBr, ; S2 
at about 1500° (?), while at temperatures below a bright red heat the 
vapour-density gave Sg. They tried potassium, sodium, and then 
chlorine, but found that these attacked porcelain. 

The temperatures in these experiments with the calorimeter and the 
heated block of platinum were not very accurate when very high tempe- 
ratures -were to be measured. The highest estimated temperature 1567° 
gave O2 (from AgoO), ^2) 83 as the molecular formute of oxygen, 
nitrogen, and sulphur. For chloi'ine at the highest temperature of their 
furnace they obtained a molecular formula f Clj, that is, from Pt2Cl4 the 
chlorine given off, which at as high a temperature as about 620° had given 
density corresponding to formula CI2, had given smaller and smaller 
values for the densities at higher temperatures, till at the highest tem- 
perature it had a density 1-60, 1-62, a little less than 1-63 calculated for 
§Cl2 ; admitting that chlorine was undergoing dissociation it was not 
clear that it would not at higher temperatures give still lower densities 
(always compared with air). 

The results thus given for chlorine naturally led to speculation as to 
the behaviour of bromine and iodine in the same circumstances ; and as 
Deviile and Troost had {loc. cit.) found for iodine a normal vapour- 
density corresponding to I2 at the bright-red heat required for reaching 
the boihng-point of zinc (1040°, as found by Deviile and Troost) the 
result with chlorine was considered doubtful ; this taken in conjunction 
with the fact of the porcelain being attacked by alkali metals and 
chlorides led to a revision of the arrangement of the apparatus. In 
succeeding investigations V. Meyer, in conjunction with Ziiblin, used 
a porcelain tube glazed inside and out, and placed in the furnace so 
as to be heated by it when necessary to the highest temperatures. The 
gases of the furnace were thus entirely unable to diffuse into the interior 
of the porcelain tube, and thus the platinum tube which was inside the 
porcelain tube was absolutely guarded against the action of these gases, 
and operations which would be vitiated by the action, either of the gases 
of the furnace on porcelain, or of the substance which was the subject of 
the experiment, could be heated with safety to the highest attainable 
furnace temperatures in the jjlatinum tube. The experimental tube was 
filled with nitrogen, and the vapour-density determined in an atmosphere 
of this gas. The temperature was now accurately determined (it having 
been previously found that up to very high temperatures nitrogen, 
oxygen, mercury, and, as afterwards shown, hydrogen, when compared at 
the same temperature, gave always vapour-densities corresponding to the 
same formula; in fact, that in all these cases the absolute densities 
diminished as temperature rose always in the same ratio) by measuring 
the nitrogen which filled the tube before the experiment, and the nitrogen 
■which filled it after the experiment. 

' Annaleg de Chimie et de Physique, 1860 (3), Iviii. p. 257. 



134 EEPOET— 1886. 

The nitrogen witli wMcli the tube had been filled before the experiment 
■was expelled by CO2 till the CO2 was entirely absorbed by potash ; this 
gives the amount of nitrogen left at the highest tempei'ature of the experi- 
ment. After the furnace had quite cooled the tube was again filled with 
nitrogen at the temperature of the room, and the amount of nitrogen at 
this temperature determined in the same way. The expansion of the 
nitrogen is thus known between the two temperatures ; the highest 
temperature is thus easily calculated on the faith of the accui'acy of Gay- 
Lussac's law for nitrogen through this range of temperature. As an 
example of this method they apply it to the case of mercury vapour, and 
find in two experiments 6'89, 6'76, as against the calculated number 6'91. 

The method described above for determining the temperature may be 
called the nitrogen-thermometer method ; its applicability has been amply 
justified by further comparisons of its densities with those of other gases 
at still higher temperatures, with, among these, the gases hydrogen, 
oxygen, mercury. 

The Behaviour of Iodine at High Temperature. 

In the meantime (year 1879) Crafts, using a modification of V. Meyer's 
apparatus, found for chlorine no alteration of density, or at the most only 
a few hundredths at the highest temperature of the furnace ; but for bro- 
mine, which for Brg should have density 5"7, was found 4"39 at the 
highest temperature ; while the density of iodine, which for I2 should be 
8"795, was found reduced to 5'93.^ Thus Crafts found vapour- density of 
iodine reduced in ratio 1'5 to 1 ; of bromine in ratio 1 2 to 1 ; and of 
chlorine very slightly reduced, if reduced at all. 

V. Meyer also found the vapour-density of iodine reduced in ratio 1'5 
to 1, being abnormal above 590°. 

Crafts and Meier,^ by a quite different experimental method from that 
used by V. Meyer, arrived at results which showed that the temperatures 
were inaccurate in Meyer's experiments with iodine, and that whereas 
according to V. Meyer's figures the vapour-density of iodine remains 
constant between 1000° and 1570°, Crafts and Meier ^ show that it con- 
tinually diminishes as the temperature rises up to 1400°, when it has a 
density less than two-thirds the density required by the formula I2. Since 
then Crafts and Meier ■* extended their experiments to higher tempera- 
tures, operating under reduced pressure. They find that they get a 
vapour-pressure of iodine above 1300° (at -1 atmo pressure), which is 
near to half that for I2 — namely, about 4'6 — and which remains neaiiy 
constant, slightly diminishing for all temperatures up to 1400°, the 
curves showing the vapour-densities as ordinates and the temperatures 
as abscissae. 

Deville and Troost,^ on referring back to an experiment made many 
years ago (in 1860) on the density of vapour of selenium by comparison 
with that of iodine at some very high temperature, find a note appended, 
to the effect that there must have been some mistake made in tlie weight 
of iodine remaining in the flask, for with the number given, Oil gram, a 
temperature of nearly 2000° would be attained ; they in this communica- 
tion recognise that the experiment was accurate and that the smallness 
of the weight of iodine was due to the abnormal diminution in the vapour- 

' C.B. xc. p. 183. - Hid. p. 690. ' Hid. 

* Ibid. xcii. 39. * Ihid. xci. pp. 54, 83. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 135 

density of iodine at the very high temperature — yet much below 2000° — 
in this experiment. 

Troost had also recognised the influence of reduction of pressure on 
the vapour- density of iodine, and had in fact obtained for a constant 
temperature, 440°, a series of vapour-densities of iodine (relative to air at 
same temperature and pressures), as under : — 

Pressures . 768 mm. 67-2 mm. 48'6 mm. 48"57 mm. 34"52 mm. 
Densities . 870 „ 8-20 „ 7-75 „ 7-76 „ 7-35 „ 

The conclusion which was drawn by Crafts and Meier from their ex- 
periments was that the molecule I2 had been gradually decomposed into 
molecules I. Troost considered that such a dissociation could not be 
effected by a simple diminution of pressure ; but there are cases of chemi- 
cal compounds, which can be formed at a low temperature and by suflBi- 
cient pressure, which can be decomposed, partially or wholly, either by 
raising the temperature or hy diminishing the pressure, or by both con- 
bined, and which can be re-formed by lowering the temperature or in- 
creasing the pressure. 

A remarkable instance of this is phosphonium chloride, formed by 
Ogier 1 by combining PH3 with HCl. These two gases do not combine 
at ordinary temperatures, but were by Ogier brought into combination by 
a pressure of about 20 atmos at 14'^, also by lowering the temperature of 
the mixed gases to —30°. In the former method he fills over mercury 
the ordinary tube of ' Cailletet's elegant apparatus ' with a mixture of 
equal volumes of PH3 and HCl, and when a sufficient pressure has been 
applied brilliant crystals of PH4CI appear ; on warming the upper part of 
the tube, at about 20°, a liquid layer forms which is either liquid phospho- 
nium chloride or a mixture of the liquefied gases. Ogier says that on 
gradually cooling the mixed gases the deposit of crystals takes place 
almost suddenly at —30°; but he thinks it possible that the gases may be 
in combination at a somewhat higher temperature. That is a matter 
which experiment has not decided. 

Now Van't Hoff,^ by compressing a mixture of equal volumes of the 
mixture of PH3 and HCl, got the laboratory-tube of a Cailletet's apparatus 
half-full of the white phosphoniura-chloride crystals. These he heated 
with a water-bath ; the crystals melted at 25° ; and on heating further at 
pressure of between 80 and 90 atmos till the temperature was between 
S0° and 61°, the boundary between liquid and vapour disappeared ; on 
again lowering the temperature there was noticed the hazy appearance 
which is characteristic of the critical point. 

The liquid state (?) of the phosphonium chloride obtained by warming 
the crystals, or the crystals themselves obtained by pressure at 14°, on 
gradually diminishing the pressure, gradually disappear, being converted 
without changing the temperature of 14° into PH3 and HCl ; here is an 
exact analogy with the case of iodine in Troost's experiments with dimi- 
nishing pressure, for we may suppose the molecules I2 to gradually de- 
compose, on the pressure being relieved, into molecules I. 

The theory of Crafts and Meier, accepted by V. Meyer, that molecule 
I2 is split into two molecules I, though not overthrown by the experi- 
ments of Troost, is barely proved by Crafts' and Meier's experiments ; for 

' Annalcs de Chiniie ct de Physique, 1880 (-5), xs. p. 63. 
^ BericJde der Bev.tschen Chemischeii G. xviii. 2088. 



136 hepoet — 1886. 

these find only a small portion of curve representing a nearly constant 
vapour-density nearly equal to that required by the molecule I — just 
enough to convince all who wish to be convinced— and until by higher 
temperatures there can be shown a longer range during which the density 
of iodine vapour is always (compared with air) half what it is at ordinary 
temperatures, that is to say shows no tendency to diminish further, the 
evidence from the experiments mentioned will be accepted as conclusive 
only by chemists and physicists who have a predisposition to accept the 
conclusion. But confirmatory evidence of some fundamental change in 
iodine at high temperatures is given by the fact that it gives a band spec- 
trum when subjected to electrical discharges of comparatively low tension, 
and a line spectrum under higher tension.' 

The results obtained for chlorine and bromine were a diminution of 
density continuing up to the highest furnace temperatures under which 
the experiments could be performed ; it is impossible to use a much higher 
temperature than 1700° with platinum vessels, for platinum melts a little 
above this — at 1775° according to Violle^ — and is very appreciably 
attacked by chlorine at a white heat. 

At about 970° stannous chloride was found to have vapour density 
corresponding to SnClz, the density found about 200° lower corresponding 
to Sn2Cl4 ; and FcaCIj had density at white heat much diminished ; while 
the formulae AloCl,;, &c., were in concordance with vapour-densities found 
at the highest temperature ; HgCla was found again to be the molecular 
weight corresponding to the vapour-density of mercuric chloride at the 
highest temperatures, the compound thus showing evidence of not having 
been dissociated at these high temperatures ; and SO2 had vapour-density 
for this formula at a white heat. CO was '^ partially decomposed at 1690° 
thus, 2CO=C + COo; on this account the volume is less than it should 
be, and also on account of a slight difiTusion of the CO through the plati- 
num at the high temperatui-e ; hence there is found, in place of an ab- 
normal expansion of CO, a slightly increased density fas compared with 
air at the same temperature) ; there is almost normal expansion of CQ 
up to 1200°, but at much higher temperatures decomposition begins to 
set in. 

N2O is almost entirely split up at 900° into nitrogen and oxygen ; and 
at 1690° it is split up to just about the same extent. 

NO is entirely decomposed into nitrogen and oxygen at 1090°, but is 
unaltered at 1200°. 

HCl was considerably decomposed at 1300° and higher temperatures, 
the hydrogen difiFusing through the platinum, and the chlorine being 
shown by the amount of iodine liberated from potassium iodide solution. 

CO,, heated in polished platinum, was only very slightly decomposed 
at the highest temperature, about 1690° ; in presence of fragments of 
porcelain Deville had found much dissociation at 1300°. 

The Curmdative Evidence for Avogaclro's Lcm — Application of the Law to 
the Behaviour of the Salogens at High Temperature. 

In a paper on some points of the atomic theory, published in 1826, 
Dumas'* gave determinations of the vapour densities of iodine and mercurj', 

' C.R. Ixxv. p. 76. = CM. Ixxxix. 702. 

^ Langer and Meyer's Pyrocliemiselw Untersuchungen. 

* Annales de Chimie et de Physique (2), xxxiii. p. 337, 1826. 



EXPERIMENTAL KKOWLEDGE OF THE rROPEETIES OF MATTER. 137 

and of some volatile compounds of these and of otLer less volatile elements. 
His object was to deduce from his results, by applying to them the atomic 
theory as expounded by Dalton and the law of Ampere and Avogadro 
as to the distx'ibution of the molecules of a gas or gasitied body, the mole- 
cular weights of both the compounds and the elements. In this Dumas was 
only partially successful, because with Dalton he made the tacit assumption 
that in the case of elementary substances there was no distinction between 
an atom and a molecule. Chemists before Dumas' time had taken no account 
of the law of Avogadro and Ampere in their endeavours to determine the 
true formula3 of compounds and the atomic or molecular weights to be 
assigned to elements, with the exception of Gay-Lussac, who was guided 
by some adumbration of this law in his investigations into the volume 
relations of bodies composed of gaseous components. 

In the investigation which Dumas records in this paper he not only 
recognises this law, but takes it as the foundation of the reasoning he-, 
applies to his experimental results ; thus inaugurating a method of 
chemical research which was afterwards renewed by Gerhardt in 1843 and 
carried by him to a more successful conclusion, for Gerhardt was not only 
able to show how formulae for compounds and especially for very numerous 
carbon- compounds were consistent with Avogadro's law, but to include 
the molecules of volatile elements also under the self-same law. These 
chemical consequences derived from this law are not anticipated by 
Dalton's atomic theory, and without some such physical conception of the 
constitution of matter in the gaseous state we could not have had any 
reason to suppose that the weights of substances in this state in equal 
volumes were in any relation to the chemical formulee. But the facts, 
numerous as they were, which Gerhardt found to show this relation have 
since the publication of his memoir up to the present time been increased 
to a vast extent ; so that it is beyond question that Avogadro and Ampere 
expressed, with reference to the number of molecules in a given volume, 
in the case of bodies in the state of perfect gas, a law which is approxi- 
mately true of vapours of bodies at temperatures far removed from the 
point of liquefaction, and which not only physicists can use with safety 
in explaining physical properties but chemists to find true chemical' 
formulae. 

There are, it is true, cases of apparent exception, but on examination 
it is found that in these cases the body, of which we are trying to find the 
formula by this law, has wholly or partly ceased to exist in the circum- 
stances of the experiment, being rejjlaced by two or more other bodies 
resulting from decomposition of the original. The applicability of 
Avogadro's law which is thus shown, depends of course on the approximate 
truth of Boyle's and Gay-Lussac's laws, which as approximations are thus 
indirectly confirmed ; and V. Meyer and others have confirmed these 
laws by their results for very high temperatures, not only in the cases of 
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, but in the cases of mercury, mercuric 
chloride, arsenicum, phosphorus, arsenious oxide ; aluminium chloride, 
bromide, and iodide, indium chloride, antimonious oxide, cupric chloride, 
and cadmium. Moreover, in many other cases where the results do not 
seem in accordance with these laws at high temperatures we have signs 
of a decomposition, while in other such cases the result has been shown 
to be capable, without any straining of the facts, of simple explanation 
by supposing a molecule to be split into molecules of half the mass and 
represented by halving the formulae, e.g., in the case of Sn2Cl4 which ap- 



138 REPOET— 1886. 

pears to obey the above laws up to a certain temperature, to deviate 
from them for a range of higher temperatures, and tu obey them for a 
still higher range, all of which facts receive an obvious and natural ex- 
planation on the supposition that Sn2Cl4 splits up gradually into two 
molecules SnCl2 as the temperature rises. 

In face of all the above facts, which are of somewhat recent develop- 
ment, and which result from the long-continued labours of V. Meyer, 
Crafts and Meier, and others, it is difficult to hold the view expressed by 
Berthelot,' that Boyle's (or Mariotte's) law, and Gay-Lussac's law have 
only been proved for hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, with the implied in- 
ference that iodine is probably merely one of very numerous exceptions, and 
that therefore Avogadro's law does not hold good for the halogens, and in 
the other cases which are apparent exceptions to the other two laws. 

Deville and Troost — Vapour-densities determined by them in 1860 — Bearing 
of their Results on the Behaviour of Iodine. 

Dumas, in his paper already mentioned, recognised the importance of 
determinations of vapour densities as aiding the solution of chemical pro- 
blems, and particularly in helping to give the cori'ect formula to a com- 
pound. Deville and Troost- used substantially the same method as 
Damas, except that by using porcelain globes instead of glass globes 
they were able to determine vapour-densities of bodies which have very 
high boiling-points. The matter of chief importance is to have a fixed 
temperature above the boiling-point of the substance in the flask at 
which the flask and its contents can be kept before closing it when ifc 
is full of the vapour at the constant temperature. They used for constant 
temperatures the boiling-points of mei'cury, sulphur, cadmium, and zinc ; 
taken as 350°, 440°, 860°, and 1040° respectively. In this way Deville 
and Troost determine the vapour- densities of water and aluminium chlo- 
ride at the temperature of boiling mercury ; again, at the temperature 
of boiling sulphur, the densities of air, iodine, mercurous chloride (4 vols.), 
aluminium chloride, aluminium bromide, aluminium iodide, zirconium 
chloride, ferric chloride ; in the vapour of boiling cadmium, 860°, the 
densities of the following : iodine, air, sulphur, selenium ; in the vapour 
of boiling zinc, the densities of iodine, air, ammonium chloride (4 vols.), 
phosphorus, cadmium, selenium, and sulphur. 

The boiling-points of the substances above mentioned, whose vapour- 
densities have been determined by Deville and Troost, were taken as : 
water 100° ; aluminium chloride 180° ; aluminium bromide 260° ; zirco- 
nium chloride (?) ; ferric chloride 306° ; iodine 250° ; sulphur 440° ; 
selenium 665° ; phosphorus 287°; cadmium 860°. 

It will be seen that even if these boiling-points are not so accurate as 
could be wished, in each case the temperature at which the vapour-density 
was determined was far above the boiling-point of the substance. 

The substances chosen for giving invariable temperatures of boiling- 
point were all elements : these were probably selected, among other 
reasons, because elements were not likely to show any alteration at high 
temperatures, and, therefore, any serious deviation from Gay-Lussac's 
law. 

The vapour-density of iodine was used thi'ee times, viz., at tempera- 

' Annales de Chinue et de Physique, 1881 (5), xxii. p. 456. 
= Ibid. (3), Iviii. p. 257. 1860. 



EXPERIMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. 139 

ture of boiling sulphur 440°, boiling cadmium ^ [860°], and boiling zinc 
[1040°]. In the first and last cases it was used as the thermometric 
substance, i.e. the expansion of the iodine (assumed as obeying Gay- 
Lussac's law) was known by the amount left in the flask after the 
experiment was over ; and as the vapour of iodine is heavy, iodine should 
be an accurate thermometric substance, used in this way by weighing the 
iodine left in the flask. Unfortunately it has since been found that iodine 
does not obey Gay-Lussac's law above 590°, above this temperature its 
rate of expansion increasing. 

But in Deville and Troost's experiments the (relative) vapour-density 
of iodine is almost the same at [860°] as at 440°, viz., 87.^ This seems 
inconsistent with what was said just now ; there may be some error here, 
or it may be, as is likely from analogy, that the dissociation of iodine 
molecules imagined by V. Meyer, and by Crafts and Meier, may be a slow 
process requiring more time than was given in this experiment. 

However that may be, the use of iodine as a thermometric substance 
for giving the boiling-point of zinc was not legitimate, and Deville and 
Troost themselves have since found that^ the boiling-point of zinc was 
over-estimated by 100°, the true boiling-point of zinc being in fact 940° ; 
the more than normal expansion of iodine at 940° had given a result due 
to a normal expansion at 1040°. 

The cubic expansion of the porcelain of which the flasks were made 
was determined by Deville and Troost and found to amount to "009288 
between 0° aaid the boiling-point of cadmium, Avhich was supposed to be 
860° but is now known to be about 772°, as found by Carnelley and 
Carleton Williams (' J.C.S.' 1878, xxxiii. 284.) 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour 
Stewart {Secretary), Mr. J. Knox Laughton, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Mr. R. H. Scott, and Mr. Johnstone Stonet, appointed for the 
purpose of co-operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of 
establishing a Meteorological Observatory near Chepstotv on a 
permanent and scientific basis. 

In their last report this Committee, after expressing their opinion 
that the establishment of a permanently endowed meteorological observa- 
tory on a good site, such as that of Shire Newton, is a matter of un- 
deniable scientific importance, instructed their Secretary to write as 
follows to Mr. Lowe : — 

' The Committee request me to point out to you that the main feature 
of your proposal, which interests the British Association and the scientific 
public generally, is the prospect which it holds out of the establishment 
of a permanent institution by means of which meteorological constants 
could be determined, and any secular change which may take place 
therein in the course of a long period of years be ascertained. It will be 
for you and the local authorities to decide what a,mount of work of local 
interest should be contemplated, and on this will the scale of the observa- 

• C.R. xlix. p. 240. - Ann. Chim. et Phys. 1S60, Iviii. p. 285. 

3 C.E. xc. p. 793. 



140 KEPOET— 1886. 

tory mainly depend. The Committee are therefore unable to say what 
amount of capital would be required. They would point out four con- 
ditions which they hold to be indispensable : — 

' 1. The area of ground appropriated should be sufficient to ensure 
freedom from the effect of subsequent building in the neighbourhood. 

' 2. A sufficient endowment fund of at least 150Z. annually should be 
created. 

' 3. The control should be in tbe hands of a body which is in itself 
permanent as far as can be foreseen. 

'4. The land for the site shall be handed over absolutely to the above- 
mentioned governing body.' 

This communication from the Committee has been submitted to the 
consideration of Mr. Lowe and his friends, and a letter from Mr. Lowe 
has been recently received by Dr. Stewart, of which the following are 
extracts. 

Mr. Lowe — who offers to give an acre of land, his instruments, and 
meteorological books, and to work gratuitously at the observatory — 
writes as follows (July 21, 1886) : — • 

' Yesterday sixteen scientific men from Bristol came over to look at the 
proposed site of the observatory, and said that it seemed a pity that 
nothing was being done. ... If any alteration in the scheme would 
be desirable this could be done, as all that is required is an observatory 
that would be useful to science. Tou have yourself seen the site, and if 
you can suggest what would improve the proposal I have no doubt it 
would be acted upon. . . . Newport would have had a meeting in 
November, but the election came on and it was thought desirable to post- 
pone it. Then the High Sheinff died — the second that had consented to 
call a meeting — and you will recollect that I told you that Mr. Cart- 
wright, another High Sheriff, had died. 

' The Committee think that they see their way to getting two or three 
thousand pounds if the scheme were started. Since you were with me I 
have purchased nearly 150 acres of land in front of the observatory, and 
nothing could come between it and the channel as near as H to 2 
miles. A new road is to be made to the Severn Tunnel station, and I 
hear that the telegraph or telephone is likely to be carried up this 
road. 

' If your Committee think well to recommend the observatory scheme, 
action would be at once taken, and we have reason to believe that the 
Bristol Docks would help us with lOOZ. a year. I should much like to 
see such an observatory in working order whilst I live, but my time is 
getting short. 

' There is a growing interest round here about the observatory, and 
constant inquiries are made as to the probabilities of success.' 

The Committee express their sympathy with Mr. Lowe and his- 
friends under the unfortunate circumstances that have tended to retard 
local action. The Committee see such evidence of local interest in the 
undertaking that they desire to have an early opportunity of co-operat- 
ing with the local committee. They therefore ask for their reappoint- 
ment, and request that the unexpended sum of 251. and an additional sum 
of the same amount — in all 50Z. — be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 



DIFFERENTIAL GRAVITY METER COMMITTEE. 141 

Report of the Committee, consisting of G-eneral J. T. Walker, Sir 
W. Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, Greneral E. Strachey, Professor 
A. S. Herschel, Professor Gr. Chrystal, Professor C. Niven, 
Professor A. Schuster, o,nd Professor J. H. Poynting {Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of inviting designs for a good 
Differential Gravity Meter in supersession of the, pendulum, 
whereby satisfactory results may be obtained at each station of 
observation in a feiu hours, instead of the many days over tvhich 
it is iiecessary to extend, the pendtolum observations. 

The Committee have issued the following circular. They subsequently 
learnt of the work of M. Mascart in this direction. An account of his 
investigation is appended. 

Copy of the Circular. 

The Committee hereby invite designs for an instrument to fulfil the 
above condition. It should aim to give some ' statical ' measure of 
variation in the weight of a fixed mass in place of the present laborious 
' dynamical ' method by means of the pendulum. 

The principle of a statical differential gravity meter was very clearly 
stated by Sir J. Herschel in his ' Outlines of Asti'onomy ' (§ 189 in 
editions 1-4, § 234 in later editions). He suggested, in illustration of 
the principle, a weight suspended by a spiral spring, the spring being 
always stretched to the same length, whatever the variations of gravity, 
by the addition or removal of small weights. There appear to have been 
only three attempts to construct such an instrument, resulting in the 
torsion Gravimeter of the late J. Allan Broun and the two bathometers 
of the late Sir C. W. Siemens. A full account of Mr. Broun's instru- 
ment, by Colonel Herschel, will be found in the ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Society ' (vol. xxxii. p. 507). An account is also given there of a proposal 
for a similar instrument by M. Babinet, though the proposal does not 
seem to have been carried out. In Mr. Broun's Torsion Gravimeter a 
mass is supported by a bifilar suspension ; a third single wire along the 
axis of suspension is also attached to the mass, and this third wire is 
twisted till the mass is turned through 90°. If the weight increases the 
amount of torsion of the single wire required to keep the weight at 90° 
from its original position is increased. For details, see Colonel Herschel's 
paper, which contains a careful criticism of the instrument. 

Sir C. W. Siemens' Bathometers are shortly described by Colonel 
Herschel {loc. cit. p. 515), but a full account of them will be found in 
the ' Phil. Trans.' 1876. The first instrument was virtually a barometer 
with the cistern at the bottom containing a considerable quantity of air 
and closed. The temperature was kept at 0° C. Any variation in gravity 
led to an alteration in the height of the mercury column requisite to 
balance the pressure of the air. The alteration in height of the mercury 
was magnified 300 times by the use of two other liquids, one over the 
other, above the mercury. The junction of the middle liquid with the 
mercury was in an enlargement of the tube, and its junction with the top 
liquid, this junction being the one observed, was in a narrow part of the 
tube. The top surface of the uppermost liquid was also in an enlar"-e- 
ment of the tube. Above this was a vacuum . 



142 REPORT — 1886. 

The instrument did not give satisfactory results, and Sir C. W. Siemens 
was led to devise another form in which the weight of a column of 
mercury was supported by two spiral steel springs. If gravity increased 
the weight increased and the springs were stretched. An increase in 
their length was observed by a micrometer screw, the moment of contact 
being given by an electric signal. This instrument gave much better 
results than the first, but it would require much improvement before it 
could be brought into use for differential measures of gravity. 

The Committee will be glad to receive suggestions from any who are 
interested in the subject, and any design submitted to them will receive 
careful attention. 

The following conditions should be satisfied by the instrument : — 

It should be portable. 

It should be capable of use in ordinary buildings and under varying 
conditions of temperature and pressure. 

Effects of change of temperature should be ascertainable, so that they 
may be allowed for. 

The zero point should remain fixed if the temperature and gravity are 

the same. 

It should not be affected by terrestrial magnetism. 

It should give variations of ^^0^,^00 in the value of gravity. 

Sir Wm. Thomson has favoured the Committee with the following 
account of a gravimeter, designed by himself, for circulation : — 

Spring Gravimeter. 

The following instrument promises to fulfil all the conditions men- 
tioned in the preceding circular. Its sensibility is amply up to the 
specified degree. It is of necessity largely influenced by temperature, 
and it is not certain that the allowance for temperature, or the means 
which may be worked out for bringing the instrument always to one 
temperature, may prove satisfactory. It is almost certain, although not 
quite certain, that the constancy of the virtual zero of the spring will be 
sufficient, after the instrument has been kept for several weeks or months 
under the approximately constant stress under which it is to act in 
regular use. 

The instrument consists of a thin flat plate of springy german silver of 
the kind known as ' doctor,' used for scraping the coloiir off the copper 
rollers in calico printing. The piece used was 75 centimetres long, and 
was cut to a breadth of about 2 centimetres. A brass weight of about 
200 orammes was securely soldered to one end of it, and the spring was 
bent like the spring of a hanging bell, to such a shape that when held 
firmly by one end the spring stood out approximately in a straight line, 
havino- the weight at the other end. If the spring had no weight the 
curvature, when fi-ee from stress, must be in simple proportion to the 
distance along the curve from the end at which the weight is attached, 
in order that when held by one end it may be straightened by the weight 
fixed at the other end. 

The weight is about 2 per cent, heavier than that which would keep 
the spring straight when horizontal; and the fixed end of it is so held 
that the spring stands not horizontal but inclined at a slope of about 1 
in 5, vnth the weighted end above the level of the fixed end. In this 
position the equilibrium is very nearly unstable. A definite sighted 



DIFFERENTIAL GEAVITY METER COMMITTEE. 143 

position has been chosen for the weight relatively to a mark rigidly 
connected to the fixed end of the spring, fulfilling the condition that in 
this position the eqnilibrinm is stable at all the temperatares for which it 
has hitherto been tested, while the unstable position of equilibrium is only 
a few millimetres above it for the highest temperature for which the 
instrument has been tested, which is about 16° C. 

The fixed end is rigidly attached to one end of a brass tube about 
8 centimetres diameter, surrounding the spring and weight, and closed 
by a glass plate at the upper end of the incline, through which the weight 
is viewed. The tube is fixed to the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle 
of sheet brass, of which one leg inclined to it at an angle of about one- 
fifth radius is approximately horizontal, and is supported by a transverse 
trunnion resting on fixed V's under the lower end of the tube and a micro- 
meter screw under the short approximately vertical leg of the triangle. 

The observation consists in finding the number of turns and parts of 
a turn of the micrometer screw required to bring the instrument fronx 
the position at which the bubble of the spirit-level is between its proper 
marks to the position which equilibrates the spring-borne weight with a 
mark upon it exactly in line with a chosen divisional line on a little scale 
of 20 half- millimetres, fixed in the tube in the vertical plane perpendicular 
to its length. 

The instrument is, as is to be expected, exceedingly sensitive to 
changes of temperature. An elevation of temperature of 1° C. diminishes 
the Young's modulus of the german silver so much that about a turn 
and a half of the micrometer screw (lowering the upper end of the tube 
at the rate of f millimetre per turn) produced the requisite change of 
adjustment for the balanced position of the movable weight. About 
1^ turn of the screw corresponds to a difference of ^-^^ in the force of 
gravity, and the sensibility of the instrument is amply valid for ■:^^ of 
this amount, that is to say, for ^ ,, q^q „ q difference in the force of gravity. 
Hence it is not want of sensibility in the instrument that can prevent it 
measuring differences of gravity to ^ ^ ^^q ^ „ ; but to obtain this degree of 
minuteness it will be necessary to know the temperature of the spring to 
within ^° C. I do not see that there can be any very great difficulty in 
achieving the thermal adjustment by the aid of a water-jacket and a 
delicate thermometer. To facilitate the requisite thermal adjustment I 
propose, in a new instrument of which I shall immediately commence the 
construction, to substitute for the brass tube a long double girder of 
copper (because of the high thermal conductivity of copper), by which 
sufficient uniformity of temperature along the spring, throughout the 
mainly effective portion of its length, and up to near the sighted end, 
shall be secured. The water-jacket will secure a slight enough variation 
of temperature to allow the absolute temperature to be indicated by the 
thermometer with, I believe, the required accuracy. 

M. MascarVs Instrument. 

In ' Comptes Rendus,' xcv. (2, 1882), p. 126, is an account of a 
differential gravity meter by M. Mascart. 

He employs a siphon barometer with the shorter tube closed, and 
containing gas to support the mercury in the longer tube. The gas 
chosen is carbon dioxide, to prevent oxidation of the mercury. The column 
of mercury supported is 1 metre in length. A scale is attached to the 



144 



REPOET — 1886. 



tube, and a vertical image of tlie scale is thrown by a gilded surface so 
■ as to coincide with the axis of the tube, and the level of the top of the 
mercury can thus be read off by a microscope without parallax. The 
height can be easily estimated with suitable illumination to '01 millimetre. 
The barometer is enclosed in a metal vessel filled with water and con- 
taining a thermometer reading to Jq° C. A variation of '01 millimetre 
would correspond to a change of less than half a second per day in a 
pendulum. 

The empirical relation between temperature and level of the mercury 
was determined by preliminary experiments at the College de France. 

In the same volume of ' Comptes Rendus,' p. 631, M. Mascart gives an 
■account of observations which he made with this instrument at Paris, 
Hamburg, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Drontheim, and Tromso, on the 
occasion of a journey to the north. The Copenhagen results could not 
be utilised through an accident. 

The four northern stations gave results which compared with Paris 
differed from the theoretical values by the following amounts : — 





dg 
9 


dl in mm. 

-0-03 
-003 
-0-2.5 
-007 


dn ; 

i 


Hamburg 

Stockholm .... 
Drontheiiu .... 
Tromso 


-•00003 
-■00003 
-•00024 
-■00007 


+ \-2 sec. 1 
+ 11 „ 
+ 10^6 sees. 

+ 3-1 ,, 



-where '-^ expresses the error in g. 
9 

dl expresses the error in the length of the seconds pendulum. 
dn expresses the error in the number of seconds per day. 

He suggests that there is a local -variation at Drontheim, as the pen- 
dulum gives a variation from theory in the same direction, though only 
of half the amount. 

M. Mascart remarks that the only conclusion which he draws is that 
the gravity barometer is easily transportable, and that its precision is 
not inferior to that of the pendulum. It only requires observations of the 
level of the mercury and of temperature, and the installation can easily 
be made in the room of an hotel in less than an hour. 

M. Mascart has been kind enough to inform the Committee that, 
though lie has published no farther account of his investigations, he is 
still pursuing them. He has found a difficulty in transporting the in- 
struments since constructed owing to the breaking of the tubes by the 
impact of the mercury. He thinks, however, that this difficulty may be 
overcome. 

He is now observing with a somewhat similar instrument whether any 
changes of gravity in the same place can be detected, using a column of 
mercury about 4 metres long, balanced by the pressure of nitrogen in the 
cistern, the nitrogen being at about 5 atmospheres. The cistern is about 
3 metres below the ground. So far he has only detected an annual 
variation correlative with the continuous variation of temperature. He 
intends to register the height of the mercury continuously by photo- 
graphy. 



O^ STANDARDS FOR USE ' IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



145 



M. Mascart adds that he would be glad to advise in the construction 
of a similar instrument should its installation be contemplated. 

The Committee desire to be reappointed, with the addition of Professor 
G. H. Darwin and Mr. Herbert Tomlinson. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr. Caret Foster, 
Sir W. Thomson, Professor J. Perry, Professor Atrton, Professor 
W. Gr. Adams, Lord Eatleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hop- 
KINSON, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. H. Tatlor, 
Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Pro- 
fessor Gr. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Gtlazebrook: {Secretary), 
Professor Chrtstal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Professor W. Gtarnett, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, and Mr. W. N. Shaw, appointed for 
the purpose of constructing and issuing practical Standards 
for use in Electrical Measurements. 

[Plates IV. and V.] 

The Committee report that the work of testing resistance coils has 
been continued at the Cavendish Laboratory, and a table of the values 
found for the various coils examined is given : — 

Legal Ohms. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in Legal Ohms 


Temperature 


Warden k Muirhead, 640 . "^ No. 155 


•99872 


11-5° 


Warden & Muirhead, 641 . ^ No. 156 


9-98404 


11-25° 


Stuart, 5 . . . ^ No. 157 


100163 


16-5° 


Stuart, 6 . 




. "^ No. 158 


1000642 


17° 


E. M. 






. :^ No. 159 


•99729 


12° 


Elliott, 160 






"^ No. 160 


•99801 


11° 


Elliott, 161 






'^^ No. 161 


•99791 


111° 


Elliott, 162 






;^ No. 162 


•99877 


11-4° 


C. U., 9 . 






"^^ No. 163 


•99982 


12-6° 


C. U., 10 . 






^ No. 164 


9^98927 


12-3° 


Warden, 654 






^ No. 165 


•99936 


12-1° 


Elliott, 167 






. ^ No. 166 


•99977 


16-7'' 


Elliott, 168 






"^^ No. 167 


•99960 


16-5° 


Elliott, 169 






"^ No. 168 


9^9968 


16-1° 


Elliott, 170 






^^ No. 169 


9-9975 


16-1° 


Elliott, 171 






* No. 170 


99^920 


14-7° 


Elliott, 172 






$_ No. 171 


99-917 


14-7° 


Elliott, 165 






^ No. 172 


1-00003 


17° 


1886. 










T. 



146 , BEPOET— 1886. 

Messrs. Elliott Bros, called the attention of the Secretary, during the 
spring of the current year, to the fact that in some of the coils the 
paraffin used for insulation acquii-ed in time a greenish tinge, which is 
most marked round the interior of the case and round the places at which 
the copper of the connecting rods comes in contact with the paraffin. 
Careful examination shows this green tinge in almost all the coils, and 
an analysis of the paraffin made by Mr. Robinson, of the Chemical Labo- 
ratory, Cambridge, proved the colour to be due to a very slight trace of 
copper. The insulation resistance of several of the standards was, there- 
fore, tested by passing the current from 24 Leclanche cells through a high 
resistance galvanometer, and the coil from the case through the paraffin 
to the wire. This resistance for most of the coils tested was found to be 
from eight thousand to ten thousand megohms. One coil in particular, 
sent by Messrs. Elliott, in which the gi-een coloration was most marked, 
had a resistance of 5000 megohms. Thus it is clear that the resistance 
of the coils is not hitherto seriously affected by the presence of the copper 
in the paraffin, but at the same time it becomes necessary to watch closely 
for any changes which may occur, and to select very carefully the material 
used. There appears to be great difficulty in getting rid of all the acid 
employed in the manufacture of the paraffin. 

The only coil among those tested which showed an insulation resist- 
ance, so low as to be serious, was the one known in the Reports as Flat. 
When the galvanometer of 1700 ohms resistance was shunted with 4 ohms 
a deflection of 80 divisions on the scale was obtained. The same deflec- 
tion was obtained when the resistance in circuit was a megohm and the 
shunt was about 20 ohms. Thus the insulation resistance of Flat was 
only about i megohm, or 200,000 ohms. 

Two coils of special interest have recently been sent to be tested. 
One from Pi^of. Himstedt, of Freiburg, will connect his determination of 
the ohm with those made in Cambridge ; while the second is a coil of 
10 B.A. units from the Johns Hopkins University, which has been com- 
pared with the coils used in the determination of the ohm there. The 
results of the observations on these coils are, however, not yet com- 
pletely worked out. 

The Committee wish to express their sense of the great desirability 
of establishing a National Standardising Laboratory for Electrical In- 
struments on a permanent basis, and their willingness to co-operate in 
the endeavour to secure the same. 

The Committee have had under consideration the question of the 
means to be taken to secure the general adoption of the Resolutions of the 
Paris Congress. 

The Committee have received by the kindness of the French Govern- 
ment a specimen of the platinum iridium wire, of which it is proposed 
that the French National Standards of resistance should be constructed. 
They hope shortly to make a aeries of measurements of its specific resist- 
ance and temperature coefficient. 

In conclusion they would ask to be reappointed, with the addition of 
the name of Mr. J. T. Bottomley and a grant of 501. 






^ii^r^^ 





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Chart of the Values of the Legal Ohm Unit Resistance Coils a N°? 100,101. 

THE VERTICAL DIVISIONS ARE -OOOl LEGAL OHM THE HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS 2" CENTIGRADE , 




































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Report, OIK J'rtuiital Staniiard^ &rusc viJLltelnuxi' MoLeurtTrunXg 



ON STANDARDS FOR USB IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



147 



APPENDIX. 

On the Values of some Standard Resistance Coils. By the Secretary and 

T. C. Fitzpatrick. 

In the last report the values of the Standard Legal Ohm Coils of the 
Association are given. For the one-ohm coils the temperatures range 
from 11° to 18°, while the coils of higher resistance were examined only 
at tenaperatures near 17°. It was necessary in all cases to extend the 
range of temperatures in order to determine the temperature coefficient. 
The observations were made by the methods already described in the 
Reports, and the values found are given in the following tables in which 
the previous results are included : — 

Resistance Coil, .IS*. 100. 



Date 


Temperature 


Kesistance 


Nov. 24, 1884 
„ 26 „ 
„ 27 „ 
,, 28 „ 

Dec. 5 „ 
„ 12 „ 

July 30, 1885 
„ 28 „ 








11-4° 
116° 
129° 
13^5° 
13-5° 
153° 
17'2° 
18-1° 


•99876 
•99888 
•99916 
•99930 
•99931 
•99979 
1^00027 
100061 



Mean value 
Temperature coefficient 



•999510 at 1418°. 
•000271 per 1° C. 



Date 


Temperature 


Resistance 


Nov. 21, 1885 . 
„ 24 „ 
23 
Jan. 30, 1886 . 
Nov. 30, 1885 . 
Jan. 22, 1886 . 
Nov. 30, 1885 . 






7° 
7-5° 
8^1° 
11-4° 
11-6° 
125° 
126° 


•99753 
•99770 
•99787 
•99876 
•99878 
•99906 
•99911 



Mean value 
Temperature coefficient 

Mean value of whole series . 
Temperature coefficient 



■998401 at 1010°. 
•000274 per 1° C. 



•998770 at 1228°. 
000272. 



These results are represented graphically in Plate IV. by the 
curve ^j 100, which is drawn through the means derived from the two 
series, and represents within the limits of accuracy of the experiments all 
the observations of the two series, the mean error from the curve, omitting 
one observation, being about '00002. 

In the diagram the circles indicate the observations of 1884-5 ; the 
dots those of 1885-6. 



148 



EEPORT — 1886. 



Resistance of Coil, jB, 101 



Date 


Temperature 


Resistance 


Nov. 24, 1884 

„ 25 „ 
Dec. 2 „ 
Nov. 27 „ 
Dec. 5 „ 

12 

July 30, 1885 

„ 29 „ 








11-4° 
11-5° 
12-8° 
12-9° 
13-4° 
15-4° 
17-2° 
18° 


•99813 
■99815 
•99847 
•99851 
■99865 
•99917 
•99961 
•99983 



Mean value 
Temperature coefficient 



•998815 at 14-15°. 
•000259 per 1° C. 



Date 


Temperature 


Kesistance ' 


Nov. 21, 1885 
„ 24 „ 

Jan. 20, 1886 
Nov. 30, 1885 
Jan. 22, 1886 
Nov. 30, 1885 
Jan. 26, 1886 
„ 28 ., 








6 9"' 
7.70 

7.90 

11^3° 
11-8° 
12^4° 
. . 12^6° 
13^9° 
14-3° 


•99677 
•99698 
•99704 
•99793 
•99803 
•99821 
•99834 
•99868 
•99876 



Mean value 

Temperature coefficient from this series 



•997860 at 1098°. 
■000272 per 1° C. 



On plotting these results it becomes clear at once that the straight line 
joining the means of the two series will not represent the results at all. 

The first series is represented by the upper curve^ 101 (1), the 

second series by the lower curve I^ 101 (2). 

Thus it would seem that between November 1884 and November 1885 
this coil had lost in resistance about "00015 ohm at a temperature of 
1.2° C. Again, the two curves are not parallel, so that it would seem at 
first sight that the temperature coefficient also has altered ; but this infer- 
ence is hardly justifiable, for the experiments in series (1) cover the time 
from November 1884 to July 1885, the high temperature observations 
being made at the later date ; if then during that period the coil was 
decreasing in resistance the temperature coefficient would necessarily be 
too low ; moreover we notice that the observations for July 1885 do not 
lie very far from the curve which represents the results of the second series. 

We infer then that of the two coils of platinum silver made at the 
same time — two years from the present date — one |^ 100 has not changed 
since that date, and has a value of 

•998770 legal ohm at 12'28° 
■with a temperature coefficient of •000272, while the other has changed by 





^,;»A»«^^T/^.,.w:W£; pni? v 






Chart of the Values of the 10 Legal Ohm Coils 

THE. VERTICAL DIVISIONS ARE 001 LEGAL OHMS THE HOR'IONTAL OIVI 


^ N<>^ 102 AND 103, 

S10N5 2" CENTIGRADE 













































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lUnstralzn^ &pcrt on FraOLcal Suoidards ^us&OtiEUariuil^asuranBiis 



ON STANDAKDS FOE USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



149 



about -00015 ohm, and no-w has a value of •9&7860 at 10-98° and a tem- 
perature coefficient also of "000272. 

The fact that the temperature coefficient of ^ 101 is the same as 
that of 100 ^ would appear to show that it has now reached its per- 
manent state. 

Messrs. Elliott Bros, possess a standard |^ 63, made at the same time 
as the above two coils which in August 1884 had a resistance of 

1-00027 legal ohms at 13-8°, 

while in April 1886 it was found to be -99928 at 166° and 

•99992 at 18-6°. 

From this it follows that its value at 18-8° would be '99998, indicating 
a fall of -00029 in a year and eight months. 

This coil showed marked traces of the green coloration referred to 
in the Report, but its insulation resistance was tested and found to be 
■ 8000 megohms. Both the coils ^ 100 a^id 101 show slight traces of the 
green colour ; their insulation, however, is remarkably high. It would 
seem, then, that it is very necessary to avoid the use of newly made coils 
in important researches, and to keep a careful check on any secular 
changes by means of repeated comparison. We hope, when the permanence 

of ^ 101 has been certainly established, to remove the paraffin and see 
if there is any change in the coil visible to the eye which could account 
for this fall in resistance. 

The two ten-ohm coils '^ 102, 103 have also been compared with the 
one-ohm in the manner described in the reports, and the values are given 
in the tables below. These coils are stated by Messrs. Elliott Bros, to be 
made of ' the same wire of platinum silver -015 of an inch diameter and 
3"52 metres long.' 



Eesistance of Coil, I^ 102. 



Date 


Temperature 


Value 


July 1885 . 

?> )> 
March '1886 

Nov. 1885. 
it » 

»» »» 








16-8° 

16-7° 

16-7° 

16-6° 

15-6° 

11-9° 

11-8° 

8-2° 

7-5° 

6-5° 


10-00210 

10-00222 

1000129 

10-00103 

9-998.33 

9-988.30 

9-98797 

9-97711 

9-97612 

9-972.50 



Mean value 
Temperature coefficient 



9-990597 legal ohms at 1283°. 
•00289. 



This ise presented by the straight line (drawn thus 
diagram) ^ 102, Plate V. 



on the 



150 



REPORT — 1886. 
Eesistance of Coil, 3E 103. 



Date 


Temperature 


Value 


July 1885 . 

March '1886 

Nov. 1885. 
J) 1) 








16-9° 

16-8° 

16-65° 

16-6° 

1.5-6° 

12° 

11-8° 

8-3° 

7-7° 

6-5° 


1000202 

1000197 

1000130 

10-00142 

9-99815 

9-98767 

9-98692 

9-97479 

9-97315 

9-96975 



Mean value . 
Temperature coeflBcient 



9-989714 at 12-88° 
-00312. 



This is represented by the second line (drawn black on the diagram) 
103, Plate II. 

This difference between the temperature coeflBcients has been checked 
by determining the difference between the coils at different temperatures 
directly, and the results of the comparison are quite satisfactory. 

The proportional errors of the individual observations ai'e somewhat 
larger in this case than they were for the single ohms, amounting in one 
or two cases to -0006, or 6 in 100,000, but the accordance is perhaps as 
good as can be expected. The point of interest lies in the fact that 
the temperature coefficients of the two coils differ so considei'ably as 
•00289 and -00312 per 1° C. although made at the same time from the same 
wire. 

Similar observations have been made on the coils of 100, 1000, and 
10,000 ohms, but their number is not yet sufficient for the construction 
of the curve of variation with temperature. These we hope to lay before 
the Association on some future occasion. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson 
(Secretary), J, Gr. MacGregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. T. Bovey 
and Mr. C. Carpjiael, appointed for the purpose of promoting 
Tidal Observations in Canada. 

The reply, last year, of the then Minister of Marine to the memorial 
presented to him by your Committee is contained in the Keport of the 
Association. This year the Committee have again been urging on the 
attention of the Canadian Government the importance, looking especially 
to the needs of navigators, of systematic tidal observations at stations 
properly selected. 

In last January a deputation of fifteen or sixteen — consisting of repre- 
sentatives of your Committee, of members of the Council of the Royal 
Society of Canada, and of representatives of the Board of Trade of 
Montreal, accompanied by Sir William Dawson as President-elect of the 
Association — waited on the new Minister of Marine (Hon. G. E. Foster), 
and subsequently on the same day had an interview with the Premier 



ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS IN CANADA. 151 

(Sif John Macdonald), at which other membei-s of the Cabinet, including 
the Minister of Marine, were present. The memorial of the Committee 
was very fully discussed and favourably received. The Minister of 
Marine, after the interview, asked for further information on practical 
details. This, with the aid of the data obtained from the corresponding 
Committee in England, was supplied to him. 

The official answer was received in June, and stated that, ' while the 
Government is fully sensible of the importance of establishing stations for 
continuous tidal observations in Canadian waters, it is not proposed at 
present, owing to the large expense in carrying out surveys and exploi a- 
tions, to undertake the additional expense which would be involved in 
establishing the stations referred to.' 

The surveys and explorations here alluded to are those in Hudson's 
Bay and on the Great Lakes, and your Committee were semi-officially 
informed that, until these are more nearly completed, it is considered un- 
advisable to incur the expense necessary to accomplish the tidal observa- 
tions. The Committee were told, however, that 'the Government is fully 
alive to their importance, and much indebted to the Association for having 
brought the subject to their attention, and for the valuable practical 
hints given as to method and cost.' ' In the near future it maybe able 
to carry out a work so necessary and useful to the commercial interests of 
the country.' 

Under these encouraging circumstances it is thought advisable to re- 
commend the reappointment of the Committee. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James N. Shoolbred 
{^Secretary) and Sir William Thomson, appointed fo7' the Reduc- 
tion and Tabulation of Tidal Observations in the English 
Channel, made ivith the Dover Tide-gauge, and for connecting 
them ivith Observations made on the French Coast. 

[Plate VI.] 

Tour Committee (having, through the courtesy of the Board of Trade, 
been placed in possession of the records of the self-registering tide- 
gange at Dover for the four years 1880-3, and also having been pre- 
sented by the Minister of Public Works of Belgium with copies of the 
curves of the self-registering gauge at Ostend) stated in their RejJort last 
year, that they had completed the reduction and comparison of the times 
and heights of high water and of low water during these four years at 
both places. 

In order to obtain a common datum-plane for the reduction of the 
different levels, advantage has been taken of the international datum, 
which had been established by the British Association Committee ' On 
the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain,' and which had been made use of 
by the British Association Committee ' On the Stationary Tides in the 
English Channel,' in the reduction of the simultaneous observations taken 
in 1878. 

This datum is 20 feet below that of the ordnance of Great Britain ; 
and it is practically (on the assumption of an uniform mean sea-level afc 



152 KEPORT— 1886. 

Dover and at Calais) 5'50 metres below the Frencli ' zei'O du nivellement ' 
(Bourdaloue). 

Since tlie meeting of last year the Committee, considering that these 
four years' observations would, in their entirety, form too large a mass 
for publication, decided upon specially preparing a more limited portion 
of these observations. 

After much consideration, as the records of the year 1883 appeared 
on the "whole to be the most reliable and complete, selections were made 
of a fortnight before and after the winter, and also at the summer solstice, 
and of a similar period at the vernal and at the autumnal equinox in that 
year ; those times appearing to offer most points of intei'est. 

The high water and low water observations during these four periods 
are appended to this Report, as also a continuous diagram of the two sets 
of observations during one of the periods (the vernal equinox). 

It has been repeatedly felt by the Committee that there are many 
points of interest which present themselves in the four-year period em- 
braced by the entire records which are beyond the scope of the present 
Committee, and which would require a complete and exhaustive examina- 
tion of those records to fully disclose them. 

Your Committee, therefore, before closing their labours, would suggest, 
that, if the Committee ' On the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations' 
considered the investigation of the tides of the English Channel to be 
within the scope of their inquiiy, the present Committee would, with the 
consent of the respective authorities, be glad to place at the disposal of 
the Committee ' On Harmonic Analysis ' the records of the Dover and 
of the Ostend tide-gauges ; as also any further information in their 
possession. 

In the earlier stages of the work of the present Committee it was 
hoped that some of the records of the self- registering tide gauges on the 
French coast would have been included in the comparison of the various 
tidal observations in the English Channel. It was found, however, that 
the difficulty to obtain records continuously throughout the four-year 
period selected was very considerable. With the more limited periods of 
four separate months in one year the difficulty is very materially reduced. 

It is still possible, that a comparative record of at least one of these 
shorter periods from a point on the Fi-ench coast may yet arrive so as to 
be presented with the other observations accompanying this Report. 

In conclusion the Committee request, that the thanks of the British 
Association be conveyed to the President of the Board of Trade, and to 
the Minister of Public Works of Belgium for their courtesy in placing at 
the disposal of the Committee the records of the tide-gauges at Dover 
and at Ostend respectively. Also to the several other authorities and 
private individuals, for the kind assistance they have afforded to the Com- 
mittee during the course of their investigations. 



Plate VI 




Vernal Eouinox—March io to 26. 1883. 




I 



I HORIZONTAL I =24 



mi,.-.tr,itiii,f h''i">rt on Tul,il OhtrVtitiom iii t/ii /.ti,//is/i ('hannfi 



ON TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 



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1 


Weather 

Barometer 
Wind-force 


29-59 

29-69 

NE2 

29-84 
ENEl 

29-96 

SSEl 

29-94 
SW3 

29-73 
SW4 

30-00 
E3 






Height on 

Datum 

■20 ft. below 

Ordnance 
Gt. Britain 


^ M ?■: CO CO X' CO X' CO CO CO CO CO M V^ CO 0-3 00 C« M CO CO CO CO CO 00 01 CO CO 
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Time 

(Greenwich 

mean) 


a a a :: a ^ a = a = a :: a = a : a = a = a s a : a ;: a ;:l 

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r-i 00 CO ^' l>^ i-i t-^ 1-H 06 « 06 « 00' CO" 05 ^' Oi ■*' -*' ■-< »b r-I 
(— ( i-H i-H i-H 




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ON TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 155 



• 




d 




O Full Moon 
3h. 41m. P.M. 

N.B. — The 
Dover H. W. 
levels, marked 
thus,* between 
the 21st and 
the 31st, are to 
be mistrusted ; 
as the registra- 
tion of the in- 
strument was 
ev idently 
faulty a.s to 
those points. 






O 03 


O^ 00^ 
O ^ C5 ^ 


^ CO 




29-59 
WSW 7 

29-79 
WSW 7 




29-81 
SSW4 

29-83 
SW 4 






^ 

a 


L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 






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o .>— .„,<M ^ ^ .y^ ,..^ ..,>o ...io ...t^ .„.co -.,o> .-.O J 



30-36 
ZO 

29-99 
WSW 6 

29-83 
W4 

29-50 
NW5 

29-79 
NW4 

29-66 
SW3 

29-36 
WSW 5 

29-56 
WSW 4 

29-76 
WSW 6 

29-70 
WSW 7 


C5 yj 




Wh4 


* * * * * * * 

COroa)XCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO<»COCOCOCOCOCO=OCOQOCOCOCOeOrCQOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO;^COCO 

SSSooS-Scococ^^ooi:~oco--HCOcooo2a)t-5o,-^Mr;^>ot-:f-rT<-*cp^ic>-i»v=^'r' 
tbc^«h<N>biqicbt-6?coiNi»iJq<»o<i63T^Gsot^'^<»<>io<f^Ort 


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REPORT 1886. 



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— --- — - ---.--..-.-.-.. . "p p -th cj -^< -+■ so CO r^ 00 CO in CO 

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ON TIDES IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 159 



Stormy (D. & 0.) 

Stormy (0.) 
Stormy (0.) 


d 

1 




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cS . 






29-17 
SW 3 

29-38 
SW3 

30-00 
SW3 


30-26 

SSW 1 

29-78 
SSE 5 




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30-29 
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30-22 
SE 1 

.30-21 

SSW 1 


"1 




L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 
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L.W. 
H.W. 
L.W. 
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O.^«p00f;^-*a5t~C0-!n03 

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25-62 
14-12 
26-42 


s -g" .s -s .s .a .a 

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00 coNO -^t^i^ CI en 

»S W 00 C) CO -# 00 lO CO lO CO co_ ^ 
■rH 00 c-i CO ci 00 ci oo' oq oo' o-j ci co' 


9.48 •„ 

3.14 P.M. 
10.15 „ 

3.20 A.M. 
10.40 „ 

4.10 P.M. 
10.19 „ 

4,29 A.M. 


, g . g g . g g g - g . g . g 

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30-29 
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30-17 
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30-18 
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160 



REPORT 1886. 



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Barometer 
Wind-force 


29-77 

NNE4 

29-71 
NE3 

29-79 
ENE 3 

29-88 
WSW 3 

29-90 
SEl 

29-99 
N3 

30-25 

NNW 4 

30-37 

NNW 1 




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a §05 


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29-81 
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29-75 
ENE 3 

29-78 
ENE 2 

29-87 
E2 

29-92 
Nl 

3005 
NE4 

30-30 
NE3 

30-37 
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11.48 „ 
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C 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 167 



[The Report of the Committee on Electrolysis will be found at p. 308.] 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir H. E. Eoscoe, 
Mr. LocKYER, Professors Dewar, Liveing, Schuster, W. N. 
Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall 
Watts (^Secretary), appointed for the purpose of preparing a new 
series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements. 

The Committee report that satisfactory progress has bee a made with the 
tabulation of the emission-spectra of the elements and compounds. The 
volumes of Reports for 1884 and 1885 contain the spectra of the elements, 
complete, and of the compounds up to manganese-oxide ; and the re- 
maining portion of the emission-spectra of the compounds, together with 
the more accurately measured absorption-spectra of the elements and 
compounds, are printed in the volume for the present year. Under these 
circumstances the Committee request reappointment. 

Phosphorus Hydeide. See Phosphorus — Band Spectrum (Report, 1884). 

Silicon Chloride. 



Salet 


Intensity and 


Salet 


Intensity and 


Character 




Character 


6220 


6 


5140 


3 


61201 


3 


5070 


6 


6050/ 


75010 


6 


59.50 


6 


4950 


1 


58701 


^ 


e4876 


6 


5780/ 




4810 


6 


85670 


6 


4740 


1 


5590 \ 
5510 J 


3 


4690 


6 


4650 


1 


)35450 


6 


4570 


8 


5370 \ 
5270/ 


3 


4520 


1 


4460 


3 


o5220 


6 







Silicon Bromide. 



Salet 


Intensity and 
Character 


Salet 


Intensity and 
Character 


6200 

6050 

5950 

5790 

5670 

5560 \ 

5480/ 

5450 


6 
1 
6 
3 
6 

3 

6 


.5350 \ 

.5270/ 

5220 

5070 

5010 

49.50 

4875 

4770 


3 

6 
6 
6 

1 
3 
3 



168 



REPORT — ] 886. 



Silicon Iodide. 



Salet 


Intensitj' and 
Character 


o , , Intensitj- and 
S^^«t Character 

1 


6200 
5950 
5670 
5510 
5450 


6 
6 
6 
3 
6 


5330 
5220 
5070 
1950 
4880 


3 
6 
6 
6 
6 



Strontium Chloride. 



Flame Spectrum 


Intensity 
and Character 


Lecoq de Boisbaudran 


Mitscherlich 


76729 . 
/36598 
* [56464 
a6350 
e6233 


6718 
6609 
6472 
6336 
6195 


8b. 
9b, 
on] 
9b, 
5n 



* Appears to be due to the Oxide. 



Strontium Bromide. 



Mitscherlicli 


Intensity 


Mitscherlich 


Intensity 


6735 
6637 
6582 
6537 


5s 
5s 
2n 

2n 


6488 
6402 
6336 


5s . 

3s 

2s 


Strontium Fluoride. 


Mitscherlich 


Intensity 


Mitscherlich 


Intensity 


6609 
6501 


8n 
8n 


5807 
5783 


4s 
4s 


Strontium Iodide. 


Mitscherlich 


Intensity 


Mitscherlich 


Intensity 1 


6724 
6664 


5s 
5s 


6559 
6468 


4s 
3s 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 169 



Strontium Oxide. 



Flame Spectrum 




Flame Spectrum 






Intensity 




Intensity 


Lecoq de Boisbaudran 


Lecoq de Boisbaudran 


16862 


8b,' 


6191 


In 


76746 


9b,o' 


f6069 
"\6031 


lOn 


€6627 


8b/ 


9n 


86498 


9b/ 


5970 


In 


rj6464 


6b, 


5940 


In 


6276 


In 


r5911 
'\5890 


3n 


96233 


5n 


3n 



e, probably due to the Cliloride. 

Tin Oxide. 



Salet 


Intensity and 
Character 


Salet 


Intensity and 
Character 


5800 
5660 
5630 
5560 
5370 
5320 


5b3/ 

5b 

5b 

5b 

5b/ 

5b 


5160 

5100 

4970 

4600 

4390* 

4240* 

4080 


5b/ -1 

5b/ U,/ 

5b,/ J 

lb,/ 

3b,/ 

3b/ 

lb/ 



• Triple. 

Water. 



Huggins 


Liveing 
and Dewar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Huggins 


Liveing 
and Dewar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


3276 






3163 






3266 






3159-5 






3262 






3156 






3256 






3152-5 






3252-5 






3149-5 






3242-5 






8145 






3232 






3142-5 






3228 






3139 






3223 






3135 






3217-5 






31.33 






3211 






3130 






3207-5 






3127 






3201 






3122-5 






.3198 






3117 






3192-5 






3111 






3189 






3105 






3184 






3102 






3180 






3099 






3175 






3094 






3171 






8090 


3087-9 




3167 













170 



EEPOET 1886. 

Water — continued. 



Huggins 


Liveing 
and Dewar 


Intensitj' 

and 
Character 


Huggins 


Liveing 
and De-vrar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


3085 


3085-9 






2960-1 


4 




Shading of 






2958-0 


4 




close-set lines 






2954-6 


2n 




3083-5 






2952-1 


1 


3082 


3081-6 






2950-2 


4 


3080 


3079-8 






2944-7 


In 


3077-5 


/ 3078-4 
\ 3076-8 






2941-2 
2936-4 


4n 

4 


3074 \ 
3073/ 


3075-4 






2934-1 


4 


3073-4 






2933-2 


4 


3071-5 






2931-9 


1 




3070-7 






2930-4 


4 


3068 


3068-8 






2928-0 


2n 




Shading of 






2925-6 


4 




close-set lines 






2924-4 


1 




3066 






2922-8 


4n 




3064-6 






2918-8 


2 




3063-5 






2917-6 


8 


3062 


3062 


b" 




2915-7 


4 




3055-9 


4 




2912-5 


4n 




3051-2 


4 




2910-9 


4 




3046-6 


4 




2908-7 


2 




3042-1 


4 




2907-6 


4 




3037-9 


4 




2906-8 


2 




3034-1* 


4 




2906-1 


1 




3030-5* 


4 




2902-9 


8 




3027-8* 


4 




2900-3 


2 




3025-4* 


4 




2899-8 


2 




3021-8* 


4 




2898-7 


2 




3016-8* 


4 




2897-0 


4n 




3013-6* 






2895-0* 


4n 




3008-9* 






2892-9 


2 




3005-6* 






28920 


10 




3001-8* 


4 




2889-2 


4 




2998-8 


2 




2886-7 


4 




2998-0 


4 




2884-6 


4 




2994-9* 


4 




2882-5 


4 




2992-2 


1 




2881-7 


4 




2990-7 


1 




2880-0* 


2 




2989-4 


2 




2877-8 


8 




2987-4 


2 




2875-5 


4 




2985-9 


2 




2874-4 


4 




2983-8* 


4 




2871-2 


10 




2980-2 


4 




2869-2 


4 




2977-7 


In 




2867-8 


4 




2974-6 


8n 




2865-3* 


4 




2972-8 


1 




2863-1 


4 




2971-8 


1 




2861-6 


4 




2970-7 


4 




2860-2 


4 




2970-2 


4 




2859-4 


4 




2969-4 


4 




2857-6 


4 




Several faint 






2855-4* 


4 




lines 






2854-2 


2 




2965-8t 


4 




2852-4 


4 




2964-511 


4 




2850-6 


4 




2962-7 


4 




2849-9 


2 




2961-6 


4 




2848-9 


2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 171 

Water — contimwd. 



Liveing 


Intensitv 


Liveing 


Intensity 


and 


and 


and 


and 


Dewar 


Character 


Dewar 


Character 


2847-5 


4 


2836-0 


2 


2846-1 


4 


2835 6 


2 


2844-3 


4 


2834-6 


1 


2843-0 


4 


2834-1 


2 


2842-3 


4 


2832-3* 


4 


2840-8 


1 


2830-7 


4 


2838-9 


10 


2829-7 


8 


2836-9 


2 


2827-2 


4 



Liveing 

and 
Dewar 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2826-3 
2824-9 
2823-0 
2821-1 
2819-5 
2817-7 
2816-7 
2816-3 



Liveing 

and 
Dewar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


2815-7 
2814-1 

2812-7 
2811-3 


1 
2 

2n 
8n 

b' 


Deslandres 
2610-5 



* Double: — Hie mean of pair. 

II Doable : — the more refran^ble of the pair. 

t Double : — the less refrangible of the pair. 



AiB (Absobption). 
(Telluric Fraunhofer Lines.) 



Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


Cornu 


Intensity 








7690-5 \ 
7689-1/ 
















7682-3 \ 
7680-7 / 


7683-8 1 


1 






7682-6/ 


1 






76800 


7680-1 


1 




7699-9 


7677-3 \ 
7676-3 / 


7677-61 
7676-4/ 


2 






2 






7670-0 "1 
7668-6 / 


7671-5 1 


4 




7689-4 


7670-2/ 


4 






7665-6 ^ 


7665-6 ~\ 


6 




7683-9 


7664-2 / 


7664-5 j' 


6 




76791 \ 
7678-3 / 


76600 "l 


76600 


7 




7658-9 / 


7658-9 


7 




7668-3 "\ 


7654-2 1 


7654-71 


8 




7i;67-4 /• 


7653-4 / 


7653-6J 


8 




7662-9 \ 


7649-8 1 


7649-71 


9 




76620 J 


7648-8 / 


7648-4/ 


9 




7657-9 \ . 
7657-0 P 


76450 t 


7644-7 \ 
7643-5/ 


10 




7643-9 / 


10 




7652-9 'I 


76410 \ 


7640-2 \ 
7639-0/ 


12 




7651-9 / 


7639-8 j 


12 




7648-2 1 


7636-6 "1 
7636-1 f 


7635-8 \ 


12 




7647-2 J 


7634-7/ 


12 




7643-8 ^ 


7632-9 \ 
7631-8 / 


7631-61 


10 




7643-1 / 


7630-4 r 


10 




7639-3 \ 
7638-4 / 


7629-0 1 


7627-51 


9 




7627-8 1 


7626-2 / 


9 




7631-8 \ 


7625-2 \ 
7624-1 / 


7623-6 i 
7622-4/ 


9 




7631-2 j 


9 


7630-0 


7628-2 


7621-6 


7620-2 


10 




7623-2 1 


7617-9 "l 


7615-4 


6 




7622-1 / 


7616-6 / 


7614-2 


8 




7620-3 \ 
7619-3 / 


7614-5 I 


7612-5 


8 




7613-2 J 


7611-2 


8 



7644-3 Abuey. 



172 



KEPOKT 1886. 

Air (Absorption) — continued. 



o 










Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


Cornu 


Intensity 




7617-5 1 
761 6-3 J 


7611-9 \ 
7610-9 / 


7609-7 


8 




7608-5 


8 








7607 1 


9 








7606-0 


9 








7604-8 


9 








7603-6 


9 








7602-8 


9 








7601-5 


8 








7600-9 


8 




7613-4 \ 




7599-7 


6\ 




7612-4 
7611-0 


7605-4 


7599-4 
7598-1* 


I -8^.,, 


A 7604-0 


7609-3 




7596-7 


6J 




7607-2 


7600-0 


7595-6 


7 




7604-5 


7598-6 


7595-0 


6 




7602-0 -] 




7594-4 






7601-0 I 


75960 


7593-7 


8b„.3 




1 7600-1 J 




75930 




7315-1 


7314-5 
7312-6 
7311-2 
7310-2 
7308-4 






1 

1 
8 
1 
1 


7307-4 


7307-8 
7304-5 
7301-0 






6 
1 

1 


7300-4 


7300-2 
7298-2 
7297-6 
7290-3 






8 
1 
8 
1 


7289-7 


7289-8 






6 


7288-3 


7288-2 






8 


7285-7 


7285-3 
7282-7 
7278-2 
7277-1 
7275-8 






8 

1 

10 

10 

1 


7274-4 


7274-3 
7272-9 






1 

1 


7271-8 


7270-6 
7269-8 
7267-9 1 
72660 K 






4 
4 
8 








8 




7265-1 J 






8 




7263-5 






1 


7262-1 


7262-3 
7260-7 
7259-8 

7258-9 






1 
6 
7 
1 


7256-9 


f 7258-0 

■ 7254-8 

7251-7 






10 

10 

1 


7249-5 


7249-3 
7247-1 
7245-4 
7244-9 






8 
10 

10 

1 


7241-9 


7241-3 






1 



* Double. 



t 7593-7 Abney. 



A, due to Oxygen, Egoroff. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 173 
Air (Absorption) — cmitinued. 





o 

Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


7237-5 


/ 7239-2 
\ 7234-8 




7231-8 


7232-5 




7229-2 


7229-8 
7227-6 






/ 




7208-8 






7207-4 


7207-7 






7206-8 








7206-0 


7206-2 




7204-8 


7204-8 


7204-5 




7202-4 


7204-0 


7203-4 






7200-4 


7201-8 
7200-9 
7199-2 




7198-2 


7198-8 


7198-7 






7197-8 


7197-8 






7196-1 


7195-9 




71950 


7193-5 


7195-3 
7194-6 
7192-3 






7192-8 


7192-2 




7191-3 


7191-7 








7190-8 


7190-7 




7189-6 


7189-8 


7189-9 






7188-8 


7188-8 






7187-8 


7186-3 




7184-8 


7185-0 


7184-7 






7184-3 


7183-8 




7182-3 


7182-5 
7182-9 


7182-4 


a 




7182-0 
7182-6 
7181-2 
7180-0 






7179-2 




7179-5 






7178-6 


7178-2 






7178-0 


7177-2 






7176-8 


7176-0 




7175-7 


7175-8 


7175-1 




7171-3 




7173-9 
7172-0 
7171-6 




7168-5 


7167-0 


7171-2 
7170-5 
7169-6 
7168-8 
7168-2 






71670 


7167-8 
7167-0 






7165-0 


7165-6 
7164-9 
7164-0 




71630 


7163-0 


7163-4 
7162-3 




7160-2 

\ 




7160-0 
a, due to Water. 




Intensity 



10 
6 

10 
6 

1 

10 

10 

10 

5 

5 

5 

10 

10 
2 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



10 



1 

8 
6 

2 
3 
4 

1 

2 
1 
1 

r. 



6960-2 



1^ 


^4 


EEPOET — 1886. 








Air (Absorption) — continued. 




Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


Comu 


Intensity 








6958-4 


6 








6955-4 


10 








t6952-7 


6 








t6949-7 


6 








6948-0 


4 








6946-4 


8 








6945-5 


1 








6942-7 


4 








6941-1 


4 








6940-2 


5 








6040-01 


1 








6939-3/ 


1 








6939-1 


4 








6938-6 


2 








6937-2 


3 








6936-6 


4 








t6934-8 


7 








6934-2 \ 
6933-4/ 


4 








4 








t6932-8 


10 








{6932-5 


9 








6931-2 


3 








6930-8 


4 








6930-3 


5 








6929-6 


1 








t6928-9 


8 








6928-5^ 
16928-3 1 


4 








9 








t6928-l f 
6927-7J 


5 








5 








t6925-7 


8 








t6923-4 


8 








6923-2 ■) 


4 




/ 6922-4 


6922-2 


6922-7 1 


6922-3 / 


4 






6921-2 


6922-0 1 


6918-0 \ 
6917-1/ 


5 






6917-4 \ 
6916-5 / 


6917-8 i 
6917-0 / 


5 




6917-1 


6916-5 


2 










6914-4 


2 




6912-1 


*6913-5 -| 
6912-8 \ 
6912-0 J 


*6913-0 -| 
6912-8 ■ 
69120 J 


6913-1 \ 
6912-2/ 


6 
6 






6908-6 \ 
6907-5 / 


6908-2 1 
6907-0 / 


6908-4 \ 


6 




6907-8 


6907-5 J 


6 






6904-5 \ 
6903-4 / 


6903-6 \ 
6902-5 / 


6904-0 \ 
6903-0/ 


6 




6903-2 


7 






6901-2 \ 
6899-9 / 


6899-4 i 
6898-4 / 


6899-81 


7 




r6899-0 
1 6898-5 


6898-9/ 


8 




t!897-0 \ 
6896-0 / 


6895-6 i 
6894-5 r 


6895-9 \ 


8 




/ 6895-4 


6895-0/ 


9 




1.6894-8 


6893-6 \ 
6892-6 / 


6891-8 i 
6890-8 / 


6892-3 \ 
6891-3/ 


10 




/'6891-8 


10 


B 


\6891-0 


6890-2 \ 


6888-2 \ 
6887-1 / 


6888-9 \ 
6887-9/ 


10 




6888-0 


6889-2 / 


9 




6887-2 


6886-9 \ 
6885-9 / 


6885-2 \ 
6884-3 / 


6885-71 
6884-7 r 


9 




6885-1 


8 




6884-3 


6883-9 


6882-0 


6882-8t 


8 




6882-2 


6880-2 






9 


I 


, due to Oxygen, 


Egoi-off. • Solar, C 


ornu. t due to wate 


r-vapour, Comu. t 


' Raic isoI6e.' 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 175 
Air (Absorption) — continued. 





Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


Cornu 


Intensitj- 




6878-2 


6877-9 


6877-9 


6878-9 


3 






6877-0 


6877-2 


6878-0 


6 






6875-9 


6876-0 


6876-6 


5 






6875-0 


6875-3 


6874-5 


7 






6873-9 


6874-3 


6873-6 


6 






6873-0 


6873-4 


6872-7 


6 






6872-2 


6872-5 


6871-8 


6 






6871-5 


6871-5 


6871-2 


9 




6871-0 


6871-1 


6870-8 


6870-2 


9 






6870-5 


6870-0 


6869-8 


6 




6869-9 


6869-8 
6869-2 


6869-7 


6869-0 
6868-8 


6 






6868-8 


6868-9 


6868-5 


6 






6868-1 


/ 68680 


6868-0 


6 




6867-1 


6867-5 




6867-5 


6867-8 
f 6867-5 
J 6867-1 


6 
6 










nonr.! 


12 








/ UOU* J. 


6867-0 


8 












. 6866-8 


4 










6866-7 


6866-5 


9 












6866-6 


4 






\ 6866-3 


6866-2 


9 


6597-0 


6596-8 








6594-8 


6593-5 








6592-2 


6592-1 








6585-9 , 


6586-0 


6585-3 




6 


1 


6585-3 


6584-4 




1 


6582-9 ;- 


6583-0 


6582-6 




1 


6580-6 ) 


6581-7 


6582-1 






65800 


6580-4 








6578-8 


6579-6 




2 




6576-1 










65750 








6573-6 V 


6574-1 
ti573-l 


6573-8 
6573-1 
6571-6 




8 


6571-0 l 


6570 7 \ 
6569-9/ 


6571-1 




6 




6569-0 


6568-5 




2 




6568-6 








6567-4 '' 


6567-4 
6566-0 
6564-6 


6567-7 




1 




6563-3 


6563-5 




5 




6562-5 


6562-8 




2 


(6562-1 


6561-6 


6561-7) 








6560-0 


6560-0 




2 


6559-8 


6559-5 


6559-7 




4 


6558-4 


6558-0 


6558-4 






6557-6 




6557-8 




2 




6556-8 


6556-8 




1 


6556-2 


6555-7 


6555-8 
6554-7 




5 




6554-0 


6554-2 




1 




6553-0 










6552-6 












6552-4 




6552-4 




2 



176 



REPOET 1886. 

AiE (Absorption) — eontinued. 



Angstrom 



6551-8 
6550-7 

6544-8 

6545-4 Fe 

6543-2 

6541-5 

6534-5 

6533-2 

6531-7 

6530-0 



6523-1 

6518-6 
6517-6 

6515-8 

6514-1 

6511-6 
6498-2 Ca 

6496-3 Ba 

6495-1 

6494-2 Fe 

6493-0 
6492-4 Ca 



6490-1 Fe 

6488-7 

6485-0 



6483-0 



Fievez 



65520 
6551-0 
6547-9 
6540-0 
6545-7 
6542-4 
6541-0 
6535-5 

6530-0 

6530-4 

6529-5 

6528-5 

6526-3 

6525-8 

65251 

6523-5 

6521-7 

6521-0 

6518-5 

6518-0 

6517-1 

6516-8 

65160 

6515-4 

6514-7 

6514-3 

6513-5 

6513-0 

6512-1 

6498-0 

64970 

6496-1 

6495-4 

6495-1 

6494-6 

6494-2 

6493-7 

6493-2 

6492-7 

6492-2 

6491-7 

6490-2 

6489-4 

6485-8 

G484-4 

6483-2 

6483-0 



63208 

6319-4 
6318-4 



Piazzi-Smyth 



6551-5 

6550-8 



Comu 



6341-3t 

6330-9 

6328-6^ 

6327-8/ 

6323-5 1 

6322-7 J 

6319-9 

63 1-9 

6318-6) 

6317-9/ 



Intensity 

6 
2 



4 
2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
3 
2 
6 
2 
2 
5 
>j 

1 
4 



3 

1 

5 
5 



t due to water-vapour, Coruu. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 177 



AiK (Absorption) — continued. 



Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


Cornu 


Intensity 




6317-0 




6316-4 


3 




6316-9 




6316-2t 


9 




6316-7 




6315-2t 
6314-3t 


10 
9 




6314-4 \ 
6313-5 / 




6313-9^ 


6 






6313-1/ 


6 




6312-0 




6311-7 


3 




6309-8 -| 




6309-5 1 
6309-1 K 


7 
3 




6309-1 J 




6308-7 J 
6308-3t 


7 
9 




6305-7 \ 
6305-0 / 




6305-4^1 


8 






6304-6/ 


8 




6302-0 \ 
6301-2 / 




6301-61 


9 






6300-9/ 


9 




6298-7 




62980 \ 
6297-3/ 


9 




6298-0 




9 


6296-9 


6297-1 


6296-2 


6296-6t 
6296- If 
6295-3 


8 
8 
3 


6294-2 


6295-5 


6295-0 


6294-8 \ 
6294-0/ 


4 




6294-6 


6294-6 


1 








62935 


2 








6292-7 


3 




6292-8 


6292-7 


6291-8 \ 
6291-4t/ 


4 


6291-8 




6292-3 


2 


6290-3 


6292-0 


6291-9 


6291-0 


4 




6290-8 


6290-8 


6289-81: 
6289-6 


5 




6289-7 


6289-6 


6289-0 \ 
6288-2/ 

6288-Ot 


3 

2 




6289-0 


6288-5 


6286-7 


6287-3 


6286-9 


6286-7t 
6286-6* 


}^ 




6285-6 


6285-8 


6285-Ot 


1 


62850 


6285-4 


6285-4 


6284-6t 


1 




6283-8 


6284-1 


6283-4 


2 




6283-0 


6283-2 


6282-6J 
6281-6 


2 
1 




6282-3 


6282-2 


6281-5 
6281-3t 


3 

8 




6281-5 


6281-9 


6280-8 


1 




/ 6281-8 


6280-8 


6281-3 


62800 
6279-8 


4 
2 






6280-2 


6280-4 


6279-5 


4 




6279-8 


6280-0 


6280-0 


6279-2 


4 






6279-5 


6279-8 


6278-7 


4 








6279-2 


6278-51 


5 






6278-7 


6278-9 


6277-9 


8 


d 


6278-4 


6278-4 


6278-4 


6277-7 


8 








6278-2 


6277-5 


1 








6278-0 


6277-2 


8 




6277-1 


6277-6 


6277-4 


6276-9 
6276-7 


10 

2 






6277-1 




6276-4 


4 






6277-0 
6276-8 


6276-9-1 
6276-8 \ 


6276-2 


9 






6276-7 


6276-6J 


62761 


6 


a, due to Oxygen, 


Egoroff . • ' Raie isolte." t Due to w 


iter-vapour, Cornu. 


t Solar, Cornu. 




1886. 








N 



178 



REPORT — 1886. 



AiK (Absorption) — conti7iued. 



Angstrom 



Fievez 







6276-2 




6276-3 


6275-9 


' 5967-31 


5967-8 




5966-8 




5966-4 


5965-2 


5965-0 




5964-5 




5964.0 




5958-0 




7-4 


5957-2 \ 


5957-0 


5955-6 


5956-0 




5955-5 


6953-9 [ 


5954-0 


6952-0 


5952-4 




5951-5 


6950-4 / 


5950-3 




5949-5 




5949-0 




5948-7 


6948-4 \ 
5947-6 Fe 


5948-2 


5947-6 




5946-8 


69460 


59460 


69450 


59450 




5944-4 




5944-0 


5943-6 


5943-4 




5943-0 


5941-7 


5941-6 




5941-3 


5940-9 


5940-7 


5940'4 


5940-0 




6939-5 




59390 


5937-4 


5937-4 




5934-5 


5935-0 


59340 




5933-4 


5931-8 


5932-5 


5931-2 / 


5931-2 




5230'5 




5928-7 




5928-3 




5926-7 


6924-0 X 


5926-3 


69230 


5923-6 


■ 


5922-2 


6921-7 


5921-9 


6920-8 ' 


5920-7 




5920-4 


6919-1 ) 


5919-5 


6918-4 I 


5918-0 


5917-5 j 


5917-5 




5917-0 


5915-6 


5915-6 




59151 


5914-6 


5914-9 




5914-3 


6913-3 


5913-4 




5912-1 


6912-3 



Piazzi-Smyth 



6276-1 
6275-7 



Comu 



6275-8 
6275-6 
6275-4 



Intensity 

4 

6 

7 

2 

4 

2 

2 

1 

2 

6 

6 

6 

6 

1 

1 

1 

6 

1 

1 

3 

3 

6 

1 

6 

1 

5 

4 

i 

4 

4 

6 

1 

6 

6 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

5 

1 

1 

2 

6 

4 

1 

4 

1 

5 

5 

1 

1 

1 

8 

8 

8 



10 
4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 179 





Air (Absokption)- 


— conHmied. 




o 
Angstrom 


Fievez 


Piazzi-Smyth 


Intensity 


5909-7 1 


5910-0 




4 


5908-1 y 


59091 




I 


5907-2 J 


5908-8 




1 




5908-0 




2 




59075 




1 




5907-3 




1 




5906-7 




1 




5906-2 




1 




5905-8 




1 




5904-4 


5904-5 






6904-2 


5904-1 


2 


5902-7 


5902-5 


5902-9 


1 




52021 


5902-3 


1 


6901-4 


5901-3 


5901-0 


3 


6900-5 


5900-3 


6900-4 


6 






5899-9 


1 


5899-1 Ti 


5899-0 


5898-8 
6898-7 


9 




5898-3 


6898-3 


2 




5898-0 


6898-1 


2 


5898-1 


5897-7 


5897-9 


3 






6897-4 


1 


5897-1 


5897-0 


5897-2 


8 




5896-5 


6896-6 


4 






5896-3 


1 




5896-0 


5896-9 


4 


5896-6 


5895-5 


6896-6 


4 


D25895-1 Na 


5895-0 


5896-1 


30 


5895-0 


5894-4 


5894-4 


1 




5894-1 


5894-1 


1 




5893-5 


5893-6 


2 


5892-5 


r 5892-7 
1 5892-2 


r 5892-9 
\ 6892-4 


3 
3 


5892-1 Ni 


5892-0 


5892-2 


4 


5891-6 


5891-8 


5891-7 


6 


6890-8 


5891-3 


5890-9 


9 




5890-7 


5890-7 


1 




5890-4 


5890-3 


3 




5889-9 






D,5889-l Na 


5889-0 


5889-1 


30 




5888-5 


5888-7 


12 




5887-4 


5887-9 


4 


5886-7 




6886-9 


6 




58861 


5886-3 


6 




5885-9 


/ 5885-9 

15885-2 


6 


5885-3 




3 




5884-8 \ 
5884-4 / 




6 








5882-7 


5882-9 \ 
5882-5 / 




5 








5881-5 


r5881-6 
\5881-4 






5880-2 


5880-6 
5879-5 \ 






5879-1 


5879-2 J 
5878-3 1 








5878-0 / 
5876-5 T 
6876-0 }> 
6875-5 J 
6874-0 \ 
6873-6 J 






6874-0 












n2 



180 




KEPOET- 


-1886. 






• 


Beomine (Absorption). 






Koscoe and 
Thorpe 


Hassel'uerg 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Eoscoe and 
Thorpe 


Hasselberg 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


6801-3 








5584-3 


2s 


6777-2 






5580-6 


5574-2 


2bo./ 


6733-6 






5560-7 


5557-0 


8b,- 


6640-1 








5553-3 


2b- 


6581-3 






5556-8 


55.50-4 


4b- 


6526-9 








5539-5 


6s 


6468-9 




8 


55341 


6529-4 


8b,' 


6455-4 




4 




5527-4 


4n 


6413-0 




8 




6522-3 


6s 


6401-0 




4 




5519-2* 


2s 


6372-6 




4 




5515-8* 


Is 


6350-5 




8 


5510-3 


5504-9 


6bo.,- 


6336-7 




4 




5502-5 


2b 


6312-1 




4 


6501-3 


6495-8 


2s 


6292-8 




8 


5483-8 




b- 


6275-4 




4 


6476-8 


5480-7 


6b,./ 


6263-9 




4 




5477-9 


6s 


6240-2 




8 




54735 


2s 


6223-3 




4 




54690 


2s 


6190-9(b') 


6188-5 


Is 


5460-1 


5460-2 


8b,- 


6169-7 








5456-8§ 


2s 


6144-1 








5454-3 


In 


6119-0(b') 


6117-9 


lb„.5 




5451-7 


6s 


6101-4(.b-) 


6098-8 


2b 




5449-3* 


2s 


6072-2 


6068-7 


lb" 




6445-5 


6b 


6053-2 


6047-1 


lb- 




54440 


2s 


6027-3 


6023-5 


lb- 


5439-9 


5435-8t 


8bo.,- 


6006- l(b') 


6001-5 


4b 




5432-4 


10b„.,- 


5987-5(b') 


59820 


lb 




5421-0 


2s 


5956-o(b') 


5957-0 


2b 




5419-9 


Is 


5945-l(b') 


5942-0 


lb 


5418-2 


5412-1 


6b„.,' 


5913-9(.b') 


5911-4 


lb 




5412-1 


8s 


5905-9 




2b'' 




54100 


6b„., 


5875-5 




b' 




5407-8* 


4s 


5870-7 


5868-9 


4b- 


5403-2(b-) 


5400-6 


2s 


BSSS-SCb") 


5844-5 


4b 




5392-6 


2b„./ 




5829-0 


6b„., 




5392-6 


6s 


5797-7(b') 


5803-4 


4b 


5380-3 


5391-0* 


8s 




5800-9 


4s 




5388-3 


lb„., 




5791-5 


2b- 




5384-6 


lb„.. 


5762-7(b') 


5762-0 


6b,., 




5380-2* 


4s 




5725-8 


Ib,- 




5377-4 


4s 


5727-5(b-) 


5723-5 


6b„., 




5373-6 


4s 




56980 


2b- 




5370-4 


4b„./ 




5688-5 


2b- 


5365-8 


5361-6 


6s 


5694-4(b') 


5686-8 


6b 




53581 


6b.- 




5667-1 


2s 




5356-9 


2s 


5660-4 


5657-4 


6b- 




5352-4t 


2bo.6 




56520 


6bo., 




5346-9 


2b„./ 




5648-3 


2b„., 




5342-7 


2s 


5634-8(b») 


5625-7 


6b,.,- 


5347-5(b-) 


5342-2 


8b„., 




5621-5 


8b„.3 


5337-4 


5336-1 


Is 


5624-4(V) 


5618-5t 


8b«.2 




5331-4 


2b' 




5605-0 


bi-5 




5326-7 


2s 




5593 5 


2s 




5318-5 


4b,- 


65920 


5586-8 


8b„.,- 




5318-5 


4s 


|Tr. 


pU. 


* Double. 


tA 


mass of fine linee^ 





ON WATE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 181 
Bromine — contimied. 



Roscoe and 
Thorpe 


Hasselberg 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Roscoe and 
Thorpe 


Hasselberg 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




6310-7 


2s 




5256-3+ 


s 




5312-5 


4b„., 


5244-1 


5248-8 


*^Ks- 


5306-8(bO 


5308-4 


6b,., 




5246-6§ 


s 


5298-7(b'') 


5302-2 


7b„.8 




5243-2* 


4s 




5301-lt 


8s 




5241-9 


4s 




5289-3 


W 




5239-6 


4s ^b 


5292-2 


5289-3 


4s 




5237-4 


4s 




5287-5 


6b„., 




5234-8 


4n 




5283-5 


6b„., 




5224-1 


2s 


5274-5(b') 


5279-7 


4b 




5221-8 


6b„., 




5276-1 


2s 




5219-4* 


2s 




5271-8 


4s 




5211-2 


6s 


5258-S(b') 


5265-7 
5259-4* 


b 
2s 




5208-Ot 


6bo.,' 



Double. t A mass of fine lines. 

DiDTMiuM Chloeide (Absorption). 



Bahr and 


Lecoq de 


Intensity and 


Bahr and 


Lecoq de 


Intensity and 


Bunsen 


Boisbaudran 


Character 


Bunsen 


Boisbaudran 


Character 




f7430t 


41 




5750 
l 5730 


] 5747t 


10b, 
9s J 


7220 


e \ 7360t 


6 


•b.s' 


U719t 




i7307t 


8 




5300 


(5312t 


3b., 






6894t 


4n 


'*\5200 


;8]5219t 


10b/ 


•b,/ 


S6730 


667921 


7b, 


l5205t 


9b, J 






6720t 


In 


5170 




3b„ 




6363 


2n 


5100 


S <''5125t 
* \5087t 


6b., 


6280 


6282 


In 


5010 


3b, 


6220 


6225 


3n 


4810 


74822* 


8b., 


5920 


r5962* 


3b3^ 


4760 


»4758 


5b, 




r5820 


/ 5885* 


3b< 


4710 


f4691* 


Sbj 






a ( 5824t 


4b, b,/ 




4618 


lb, 


a. 




\ 5788+ 


10b., / 


4440 


7)4441* 


7\ 










4275t 


3b, 



* ' Praseodi(l3-mium,' f ' Neodidymium ; ' vou WelsbacU. 



Erbium Chloride (Absorption). 



Bahr and 


Lecoq de 


Intensity and 


Bahr and 


Lecoq de 


Intensity and 


Bunsen 


Boisbaudran 


Character 


Bunsen 


Boisbaudran 


Character 




6985 


1 




55363 


7n 


6730 / 


€6837 


6b, 




5278 


1 


6600 1, 


7)6670 


4b, 


a5230 


o5231 


9b, 


76500 


J86534 


9b, 




5208 


3n 




6492 


3n 




5189 


2n 


6360 


16404 


Sbj 


S4900 


4921 


4b4 


5501 


5490 


lb„ 




74874 


9b, 


J85440 


5433 


2n 




4855 


2n 


5390 


S5409 


7n 


4539 


4515 


4b, 



182 



EEPOBT 1886. 

Iodine (Absorption). 









Intensity 






Intensity 




Morghen 


Thale'n 


and 
Character 


Morghen 


Thale'n 


and 
Character 




6799-4 


68340 


3b' 


5732-3 


57380 


3b' 






6778-0 


Sb' 


5719-3 


5721-5 


2b' 




6741-2 


6739-0 


3b- 


5713-8 


5713-5 


6b' 






6724-0 


2b' 


5693-4 


5707-5 


4b' 




66860 


6685-0 


3b' 


5686-2 


5683-0 


7b' 






6647-5 


2b' 


5664-7 


5675-0 


5b' 




6638-3 


6634-0 


3b' 


5656-4 


5653-0 


7b' 






6594-0 


2b'' 


5636-5 


5644-0 


5b' 




6587-5 


6582-5 


2b'' 


5625-4 


5625-0 


6b' 




6544-8 


6541-0 


4b'' 


56100 


5614-0 


6b' 






6532-5 


2b' 


5597-5 


5597-5 


5b' 




6504-2 


6503-5 


3b' 


5582-3 


6586-0 


6b' 




6494-7 


6493-0 


4b' 


5567-0 


5571-0 


7b' 




6458-2 


6455-0 


4b' 


5554-2 


5558-5 


7b' 




6448-6 


6446-5 


3b' 


5540-6 


5545-0 


4b' 




6407-9 


64070 


4b' 


5531-0 


5531-5 


8b' 




6400-6 


6399-5 


3b' 


5514-8 


5521-0 


3b' 




63655 


6369-5 


2b' 


5506-4 


5505-5 


8b' 




6559-4 


6361-0 


4b' 


5488-1 


5496-5 


3b' 






6354-0 


lb' 


5480-5 


5480-0 


9b' 




6321-7 


6322-5 


3b' 


5462-3 


5473-0 


2b' 




6313-2 


6316-0 


3b' 


5457-6 


5455-0 


7b' 




6274-1 


6276-0 


4b' 




5449-5 


2b' 




6267-2 


6271-0 


3b' 


5436-4 


5432-0 


7by 






62320 


5b' 


5412-0 


5409-5 


7b' 




6229-2 


6227-5 


2b' 


5389-0 


5388-0 


6b' 






6190-0 


6b' 


5366-4 


6366-0 


6b' 




6187-4 


6186-5 


2b' 


5344-6 


5346-0 


5b' 




6148-6 


614S-5 


6b' 


5324-4 


5326-0 


5b' 






6147-0 


lb' 


5304-3 


5307-0 


5b' 




6108-3 


6110-0 


7b' 


5284-8 


52890 


4b' 




6069-5 


6068-0 


7b' 


5267-8 


5272-0 


4b' 




6031-6 


6029-5 


8b' 


5251-3 


5254-0 


4b' 




6011-0 






5235-7 


52390 


4b' 




5991-4 


5991-5 


8b' 


5219-9 


5222-5 


4b' 




5969-0 






5206-6 


5208-0 


3b' 




5951-8 


5954-5 


7b' 


5192-7 


5193-0 


3b' 




5931-8 






5180-2 


5181-0 


3b' 






5918-0 


7b' 


5165-3 


5168-0 


3b' 




5915-0 


5916-0 


lb' 


5152-0 


5155-0 


3b' 




5898-4 






6140-6 


5144-0 


2b' 






5883-0 


6b' 


5129-8 


5132-5 


2b' 




5879-5 


5880-0 


lb' 


5120-5 


5122-0 


2b' 




5864-0 






5111-7 


5112-0 


2b' 




5848-2 


5848-5 


5b' 


6101-8 


5102-0 


2b' 




6843-3 


5S45-5 


lb' 


5093-5 


50930 


lb' 




5816-5 


5816-0 


5b' 


5086-6 








5811-0 


5811-0 
5808-5 


lb' 
lb' 


5079-1 
5072-0 








5786-2 


5784-0 


4b' 


5064-4 








5778-5 


5776-5 


2b' 


6057-0 








5759-1 


5772-5 


2b' 


5050-6 








5749-8 


57530 


3b' 


5044-8 






. 


5744-8 


5745-0 


5b' 


5038-6' 







on wave-length tables of the spectea of the elements. 183 
Iodine Monochloride (Absorption), 



Roscoe and 


Intensity 


Roscoe and 


Intensity 


Roscoe and 


Intensity 

and i 


Roscoe 
and 


Intensity 
and 


Tliorpe 


Character 


Thorpe 


Character 


Thorpe 


Character 


Thorpe 


Character 


64751 


3b' 


6033-2 


3b' 


5782-0 


4b' 


5552-9 


3b' 


6442-9 


3b' 


6021-3 


4b' 


5751-0 


3b' 


5535-4 


3b' 


6421-3 


3b' 


6005-2 


8b' 


5744-4 


2b' 


5523-6 


3b' 


6383-7 


3b' 


5995-9 


4b' 


5719-6 


8b' 


5508-4 


3b' 


6372-6 


3b' 


59741 


4b' 


5713-0 


4b' 


5501-3 


3b' 


6324-9 


3b' 


1 5957-3 


8b' 


5685 8 


3b' 


5482-5 


3b' 


6318-0 


3b' 


5944-3 


4b' 


5679-5 


3b' 


5459-5 


3b' 


6266-8 


3b' 


[ 5918-7 


3b' 


5658-3 


3b' 


5435-1 


3b' 


6216-9 


3b' 


5905-1 


3b' 


56500 


3b' 


5412-1 


3b' 


6181-5 


3b' 


5886-7 


3b' 


5632-1 


3b' 


5394-3 


3b' 


6167-9 


3b' 


5877-8 


3b' 


5628-6 


3b' 


5368-1 


3b' 


6155-0 


3b' 


5861-4 


3b' 


5618-4 


3b' 


5349-8 


3b' 


6122-6 


3b' 


5852-3 


3b' 


5600-7 


3b' 


5330-0 


3b' 


6112-8 


3b' 


5843-7 


3b' 


5590-0 


8b' 


5315-5 


3b' 


6079-2 


3b' 


5820-5 


8b' 


5572-0 


3b' 


5295-0 


3b' 


6071-3 


3b' 


5815-9 


4b' 


5561-3 


3b' 


5276-1 


3b' 


6040-9 


3b' 


5788-8 


8b' 











Nitrogen Peroxide (Absorption). 



Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


6853-7 


4s 


6417-3 


4b,' 


6186-6 


Is 


6827-5 


Is 


64121 


Is 


6175-8 


6b„.. 


6808-7 


2s Ik 
4nf^'-* 


6407-0 


In 


6171-8 


4s 


6794-0 


6397-5 


Is 


6165-3 


6b„.,' 


6772-5 


2b„., 


6377-7 


4b„., 


6164-7 


8b„., 


6766-3 


4s 


6367-2 


2n 


6160-6 


4s 


6742-4 


2b 


6360-1 


4b„., 


6155-5 


6n 


6734-6 


6n 


6353-3 


2s 


6141-3 


6b' 


6725-8 


4s 


6350-9 


In 


6136-2 


4b„., 


6710-7 


2s 


6341-0 


2b„./ 


6126-4 


12b„.,) 

8b„-i fb,., 
6b„.J 


6695-3 


4b„.8' 


6334-2 


4b„., 


6121-2 


6689-0 


2n 


6321-5 


4s ) 


6114-6 


6678-3 


4b„., 


6316-3 


4b, 


6110-0 


2s 


6658-9 


2s 


6311-2 


4 j 


6107-8 


4s 


6558-0 


In 


6305-1 


Is 


6090-4* 


2s 


6552-7 


Is 


6297-8 


Is 


6084-3 


4s 


65460 


In 


6290-0 


4n 


6079-2 


2s 


6526-0* 


Is 


6268-7 


Is 


6068-0 


2b 


6515-6 


2s 


6263-4 


4s 


6055-8 


6s 


6509-8 


2s 


6259-2 


2s 


6052-3 


4b'- 


6502-3 


lb„.4 


6255-8 


4s 


6039-4- 


2b„.. 


6488-5 


2b„.«' 


6250-7* 


6s 


6028-3 • 


lb„.8) 
4s ) 


6474-7 


6b,' 


6242-3 


2s 


6023-3 


6468-1 


6bo.6 


6236-7 


6s 


6018-6 


6s 


6461-0 


6b„., 


6232-3 


4s 


60160 


Is 


6454-8 


2bo-, 


6224-9 


4n 


6013-4 


6\., 


6448-2 


4b„., 


62122 


lbo-6'1 


6002-5 


6b„.,' 


6438-2* 


Is 


6206-3 


2b„./ ■ 


5997-1 


6b„.. 


6433-2 


4s 


6201-5 


6b„.,'. 


5989-1 


4b„.4 


6424-7 


4n 


6194-8 


2b„., 


5984-6 


4s 



» Double. 



t A mass of fine lines. 



184 



REPORT 1886. 

Nitrogen Peroxide (Absorption) — continued. 



Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


5977-5 


4b„., 


5642-1 


10b„,,J 


5349-1 


Is ^ 


5972-6 


4s 


5635-7 


8b,a 
8b,. J 


5345-4 


4s 


6969-3 


2s 


5633-0 


5343-0 


6b,, \ , 

lb,.3 /^*''-» 


6962-2 


6n 


5627-9* 


2s 


5342-5 


5957-0 


4s 


5624-0 


4s 


5339-3 


8b,, 


5947-5 


4b' 


5616-5 


lb„.4 


5336-0 


Is J 


5944-8 


6b„., 


§5610-1 


Is 


5334-1 


2b.,n 

6n I-, 
6s j^^ 


6936-0 


6b„./ 


*5606-4 


Is 


5332-4 


5933-7 


6n 


5602-1 


Is 


6325-1 


5928-1 


10b„., 


5600-2 


4s 


5321-6 


4s J 


6924-4 


4s 


5588-0 


4n 


5312-8 


2b„./), 
6b,/;^'M 


5920-4 


8bo., 


5579-9 


6n 


5304-6 


6915-3 


6b„., 


5572-5 


Is 


5294-0 


4b,'-\ 


6912-6 


6b„., 


5564-6* 


4s ) 

ib„.,'; 


5288-2 


6s 




5902-7 


6b, ) 


5564-5 


5285-6 


6n 


-b... 


5898-3 


7s 


• 


5557-0 


4s 


5279-8 


6b,, 


5892-2 


6b„.,' 




5553-5 


4n 


5277-8 


4s 




5877-9 


4s 


5550-9 


4s 


52730 


4b,' J 




5873-2 


In 


5542-8 


lb„./i 
Ibo.^N 


5270-7 


6b,/ ^ i 


6864-2 


Ibo-^" 


5540-3 


5263-6 


10b„5 




5859-6 


lb„.5 


5537-8 


lb,., 


5259-2 


8n 


■bj-s 


6853-9 


6n ] 


5530-5 


8b„.,- 


5251-3 


12b,g 




5850-5 


4b 


5528-2 


8b„., 


5242-8t 


Sbo.s' 




5845-2 


4s j 


5522-2 


6b,3- 


5240-2 


8s 


6840-4 


Is 


5516-1 


lb„.5 


5229-6 


8s ) 

8b,8'; 


5837-0 


6s 


5502-5 


4s 




5224-1 


6828-7 


In 


5491-5 


6n 




6219-0 


8s 1 
8b,/ 1 


5819-0 


Is 


5489-7 


8b,.,' 


.b,.r 


5214-8 


6814-4 


lbo>' 


5485-3 


4b„.,' 


5207-0 


10b,, 


5807-5 


Is 


5480-8 


4ii 




5199-9 


6b„.4 
10s J 


5803-0 


lb„.5 


5476-5 


4n 




5199-7 


5791-3 


lb,.4 

8s ; 


5471-4 


6b,/ 




51950 


10b,„' 


5789-8 


5469-0 


6n 


5190-8 


10b,3' 


5776-7 


6s 


5465-9 


4s 


5185-5 


4b„.5 


5770-2 


6s 


5462-4 


8b' ^ 


5178-4t 


6b„.5' 


5768-1 


Is 


5451-2 


8n 




6176-5 


4s 


6752-5 


8s 


5448-6 


Is h 


's 


5172-1 


6b„ 


5747-8* 


6s 


5440-2 


4n 




61640* 


Is 


5742-6 


In 


5432-9 


2b'/ 




5157-11 




Is ) 




5737-1 


4s 


5430-3 


8s 1 
4bo.4) 


5155-1 




lbo.4 


bo-« 


6734-2 


Is 


5428-5 


51.54-6 J 




4s j 




5729-4 


8b„., \ 


5421-8 


4s 




5145-0 


In 


5719-8 


4b. J, 


5421-8 


4bo.8' 




5137-1 


2b'- 


5709-2 


5420-0 


6s 


■bo-8 


5124-8 


2b,., -v 


5708-2 


4b,, ) 


5417-5 


4s 




5124-0 


8bo.i 




6706-4 


6b,,,'- 


5415-7 


2s J 




5122-0 


2s 


b,., 


5699-5 


4b„.3^ 


5411-6 


Is 


5121-2 


6s 




5692-3* 


Is 


5404-7 


2s? 


5119-4 


4s 1 




5689-3 


4s , 
lb„./f 


5399-5 


4n 


5117-5§ 


Is ^ 1 


56893 


5392-5 


8b„.3 


5111-7 


6n 




5683-8 


4s ) 




6389-4 


8s 


5103-7 


2bo-, 


b„.. 


5679-5 


6b„./ 


b,.3 


5387-0 


2s 


5100-7 


Is 


" 


5670-7 


4b,' j 




5384-3 


8b,, 


5095-2 


8b,/ > 




5663-9 


■ 4be./ 


5379-2 


8b,, 


5092-9 


4s 


5653-0 


8b„./-j 


5376-1 


4s 


5089-7 


4b„ 


5648-1 


iob,3 r- 


5363-7 


6b„ 


5086-9 


2b„ 


5644-6 


5360-6 


4b„ 


5083-1 


4b„ 


* Dm 


ible. 




t A mass of 


fine lines 


, 


§ 


Tri 


pie. 





ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 185 
Nitrogen Peroxide (Absorption) — continued. 



Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


Hasselberg 


Intensity and 
Character 


5076-6 


4s 


4843-4 


4ii ) 
4b«.,'; 


5073-5 


Is 


4841-5 


6066-2 


6b„.2 


4839-2 


4b„.j 


5063-6 


4b„., 


4835-8 


2s 


5061-2t 


eb-- 


4831-0 


6b' 


5050-5 


6b,.3 |u 
10b„.. 1 ^'•' 


4828-0 


2b/ \ 


5045-7 


4820-0 


2n 




6042-8 


4s ) 


4817-2 


2ii 




5041-2 


6s b„., 


4814-3 


2ii 




50400 


lb„.4'j 


4812-0 


8ii 


b,.. 


5035-1 


Is 


48101 


6n 


5032-0 


8s,b„.3'^ 


4807-2 


4n 




5027-2 


10b„.,^ 


4802-8 


4ii 




5024-1 


4s 




4797-2 


lOn 




5022-3 


2s 


•b. 


4792-8 


8b„./; 




5020 8 


Is 




4787-4 


2s 


6018-8 


Is J 




4783-6 


Is 


5009-6 


6b„., 


4778-8 


Cb„., 


5003-3 


Is 


4775-2 


4b„., 


5001-1 


4ii 


4764-8 


6b„., 


4998-1 


2n 


4760-3 


4b„.2 


4978-2 


4n 


4757-6 


4b„.2 


4974-7 


2s 


4753-5 


6n 

8b„.8' ; 


4965-6 


lOn 


4746-6 


4963-8 


8b„.8'[b,.,' 


4744-7 


4s 


4960-7 


6b„.3'j 


4738-4 


6bo.,', 

4b„./ r 


4953-9 


6b„., 


4736-1 


4946-2 


8b,' '^^-^ 
6b' j 


4731-1 


6s 


4944-3 


4728-1 


4s 


4941-7 


4721-7 


4b„.,' 


4937-8 


4718-0 


6s t 
4b„.,'r 
4bo.2' 


4931-3 
4929-5 


^^ lb ' 
4b' J °»-5 


4715-7 
4714-5 


4917-8 


4n 1 
eb,.,"/ 


4710-2 


6bo.2 


4915-Ot 


4708-1 


4s ) 




4912-0 


sb,.; 


4702-2 


4bo.s' \ 


b, 


4907-7 


4b„.3 


4698-5 


2b„.3'j 




4903-0 


8b„., 


4694-0 


4b„., 


4896-0 


4b' ) 1 


4687-5 


4b„., 


4891-5 


6b„.5 




4683-7 


4b' 


4885-5 


8bo.5 


-bj-s 


4679-7 


10b„.- 


4882-3 


8b„, 




4675-2 


4a 


4874-0 


lb„.6' 




4665-3 


6b,' 


4867-6 


2n 


4662-9 


4ii 


4865-3 


2s 


4659-5 


2n 


4860-6 


2b„., 


4656-8 


4n 


4856-7 


Is 


4643-8 


10b„./) 


4854-7 


Is 


4640-9 


fib„.., b^ 


4849-9 


2b„.3- 


4630-6 


6b,'" j 


4846-9 


4b 







t A mass of fine lines. 



186 



EEPORT 1886. 



Potassium Permanganate 
(Absorption). 



Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran 


Intensity and 
Character 


Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran 


Intensity and 
Character 


55703 
a5465 
;85246 
75045 


7b„ 
9b,2 
9b, 

7bs 


£4861 
4694 
4543 


3b, 
lb. 
lb« - 



Phosphorescent Spectra. 
Ytteia. 



Crookes 


1 
Intensity and 
Character 


Crookes 


Intensity and 
Character 


Crookes 


Intensity and 
Character 


6675-6 
6629-9 
6475-6 
6209-5 
6179-7 
5976-2 


2b 
2b 
3b, 
lb, 

6b2 

lb 


5790-8 
5736-9 
56700 
5491-5 
5399-5 
5373-3 


lbs 
10b„ 
2b, 
8b, 
7b, 
2b, 


5177-8 
4932-0 
4S24-7 
4449-1 
43230 


lb 

4b 
4b' 
4b 
4b 



Erbia. 



Crookes 


Intensity and 
Character 


Crookes 


Intensity and 
Character 


5564 
5450 


*b 
3b 


5318 
5197 


5b 

4b 



Samaria. 



Crookes 


Intensity and 
Character 


Crookes 


Intensity and 
Character 


6402 
6093-7 


2b, 
10s 


5976 
5620 


4b, 
2b, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 187 

APPENDIX. 





Hydrogen 


. (See Kepoet, 1884, p. 


390.) 




Compound Line Spectrum 




Compound Line Spectrum 




Hasselberg 


Intensity 


Hasselberg 


Intensity 




and 




and 
Character 






Character 






Eye Observation 


Photographic 
Observation 




Eye Observation 


Photographic 
Observation 




4497-5 


4497-4 


3n 




4223-9 


1 




4495-9 


1 




4223-4 


2 




4494-3 


1 


1 


*4222-0 


3 


4492-8 


4492-6 


2 




4221-6 


3 


4489-7 


4489-6 


3 




*4211-8 


4 




4488-4 


1 




4211-3 


1 




4486-9 


2 




4209-5 


H 


4485-2 


4485-1 


3 




4208-5 


2 




4481-0 


1 




4205-5 


1| 




4479-2 


1 




*4204-4 


6 




4477-8 


1 




*4199-2 


3i 


4476-6 


4476-1 


2 




4197-7 


2 




4474-9 


1 




*419.5-0 


H 


4473-7 


4473-3 


2 




4181-5 


3 




4470-9 


1 




4179-5 


3 


4466-6 


4466-2 


2 




4179-0 


2 




4463-1 


1 




4177-1 


2i 


*4460-6 


4460-3 


3 




*4176-5 


6' 


4458-6 


4458-2 


1 




4174-5 


3 


4456-4 


4456-1 


2 




*4170-7 


4 


4455-3 


4454-9 


2 




4166-9 


1 




4453-7 


1 




4164-6 


4 


4452-6 


4452-2 


1 




41630 


H 


4450-3 


44501 


1 




*4161-3 


2i 


4449-2 


4449-1 


2 




4158-7 


2 


*4447-2 


4447-0 


3 




*4155-9 


3 


4444-7 


4444-6 


2 




4145-4 


1 


4443-6 


4443-5 


1 




4144-8 


1 




4442-2 


1 




4109-4 


1 




4440-7 


1 




4108-7 


1 




4425-2 


1 




4107-3 


1 




4422-6 


1 




4107-1 


1 




44220 


1 




4105-6 


1 




4419-6 


1 




*4101-2 


8 




4418-7 


1 




4096-9 


H 


4416-8 


4416-7 


2 




40959 


1 


*4411-7 


4411-7 


3 




4095-4 


1 




4409-9 


1 




4094-9 


1 




4400-2 


2 




4087-2 


2| 




4390-3 


2 




4084-7 


H 




4388-5 


1| 




4082-4 


1 




4386-8 


1 




4081-8 


H 




4378-8 


2 




4080-9 


1 




4347-1 


5 




4077-3 


5 




*4340-l 


10 




4073-6 


1 




4338-3 


3 




4072-4 


1 




4242-7 


2 




4070-7 


1* 




4235-9 


2 




*4069-2 


4 




4233-2 


2 




*406G-4 


H 




4232-9 


2 




4064-7 


1 




4232-1 


1 




4063 2 


2 




4226-8 


1 




*4062-l 


3 



* Vogel 4459, 4448, 4413, 4340, 4220 4210, 4201, 4195, 4193, 4174, 4168, 41S8 ? 4152 ? 4101, 4067, 
4066,4060. . 



188 




EEPORT- 


-1886. 






' 


NlTEOGEN. 






Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 






Intensity 
and 


o 




o 




Angstrbm and 
Thalen 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 


(^6621-8 


»6622-4 


4 




6440-6 


6439-5 


21 






6618-7 


H 






6437-4 


l| 






6615-7 


1 






6434-3 


1 




6614-2 


6612-9 


Sb"- 






6429-4 


1 






6606-7 


2 


c 




6427-1 


1 






6603-9 


H 






6423-5 


1 






6601-4 


51 






6422-2 


1 






6598-7 






6419-5 


H 






6595-4 


H 






6417-1 


1 




6594-7 


6593-1 


3 






6414-4 


^ 






6590-6 


1| 






6409-1 


1 


a 




6587-4 \ 
6583-0/ 


2b 






6403-3 


1 










6400-6 


1 






6580-1 


2^ 




\ 


6397-5 


1 




^542-3 


6577-3 
6574-7 
6571-9 
6569-1 
6566-5 
6558-8 
6555-2 
6551-9 
6548-2 
*6543-4 


U 

l| 

2 

1 

1 

1 

li 

1 

li 
4 




, 6392-5 
6384-8 

6366-8 


*G393-2 
63900 
6385-8 
6383-5 
6378-3 
6371-1 
6369-9 
6367-8 
6365-9 


3 

H 
1 

4 

1 
1 
3 




6533-8 


6539-8 
6536-0 
6533-4 


1 
1 
3 


5/ 




6363-6 
6358-1 
6356-1 


1 

1 




6616-3 


6527-7 
6524-9 
65220 
6519-9 
6516-6 
6514-4 
6512-6 


2i 

la/ 
2 
3 
2 




^ 


63540 
6350-9 
6348-5 
6345-7 
6343-0 
6338-0 
6326-3 


1 

1 

2 
1 

2 
1 
1 






6509-3 \ 
6505-3/ 


2ih 




/ 6321-0 


*6321-4 


4 


i\ 








6318-0 


2 




6501-7 


2 






6314-2 


1 






6499-1 


1* 

1? 




6313-8 


6311-6 


4b' 






6496-4 






6305-8 


H 






6493-7 


2f 






6302-3 


1 






6490-2 


ih 






6300-3 


1 






6488-1 


2 






6298-5 


1 






6485-7 


1 






6296-7 


1 






6482-9 \ 
64800 / 


lb 




6294-9 


6294-8 


3 






e^ 




6293-2 


2 






6477-5 


if 






6290-7 


1 






64741 


If 






6285-0 


I 






6470-8 


ll 






6283-2 


2 


^6465-5 


*6467-3 


3 






6281-0 


1| 






6464-4 


2 






6278-3 


IJ 






6460-3 


1 




» 


6275-8 


2 




6458-6 


6457-5 


4 






6273-3 


1| 






6452-4 


l|}b' 
1 






6270-9 


2 






6441-5 




c 


6268-2 


1 




« 


Denotes the chief lir 


les whose vri 


ive-1 


engths were firs 


t r]etermi7ied. 





ON WAYE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 189 
NiTEOGEN — continued 



Positive Band Spectnim 




Positive Band Spectrum 








Intensitj' 
and 






Intensity 
and 










Angstrom and 
Thalen 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 




/ 62492 


*6251-6 


2 




f' 6011-8 


#6012-4 


5 






6248-3 


1 




6004-6 


6005-1 


4 






6244-9 


1 






6000-3 


3 




6242-6 


6242-2 


3 






5997-6 


2 






6236-5 


H 






5995-1 


2 






6231-4 


1 






5993-1 


1 






6229-8 


1 






5991-7 


1 






6227-8 


1 






5990-3 


1 




6225-5 


6225-7 


2 




5987-8 


5988-7 


3 


f 




6224-3 


2 


h 


5986-6 


2 




6221-6 


1 




5984-6 


1 






6219-3 


1 






5981-5 


1 






6217-8 


1 






5979-9 


2 






6216-4 


1 






6977-0 


2 






6214-4 


H 






5974-4 


1 






6211-6 


1 






5971-5 


li 






6209-3 


1 






5969-1 


1 






6207-3 


H 






5966-8 


H 






6204-7 


1 






5963-2 


1 




\ 


6202-4 


H 




V. 


5960-9 


1 




/ 6183-2 


6184-6 


2 




/5957-3 


»5957-9 


5 






6178-1 


1 




5950-5 


5950-6 


4 


ff- 


6175-1 


*6174-3 


3 






5946-0 


3 






6168-5 


1 






5943-4 


2 




. 6158-2 


6157-2 


2 






5940-9 


2 


. 










5939-1 


1 




( 6125-4 


»6126-0 


4b-- 






6937-8 


1 




6118-8 


6118-7 


3b' 






5936-4 


1 






6114-1 


2 






5934-6 


3 






6110-6 


1 


l\ 


5933-3 


5933-1 


2 


h 


6107-9 


1 






5930-7 


1 




6102-1 


6101-2 


2 






59280 


1 






6099-1 


H 






5926-1 


2 






6082-9 


H 






5923-4 


2 




\ 


6077-9 


1 






5920-9 


1 


1 6066-3 


*6068-3 


5 






5918-1 


2n 




6060-6 


60G0-9 


4 






5913-4 


2ii 






6058-6 


1 






5910-1 


1 






6056-0 


3 




^ 


5907-4 


1 






6053-2 


2 




/ 5904-6 


*5904-6 


5 






6050-4 


2 




5897-5 


5897-5 


4 






6048-3 


1 






5893-0 


3 






6045-5 


1 






5890-6 


2s 


i 


6048-3 


6043-9 


3 






5888-3 


2 




6041-9 


2 






5886-8 


1 






6040-0 


1 






5884-7 


1 






6036-7 


1 






5883-5 


1 






6034-9 


1 




5882-5 


5882-0 


3 






6032-1 


1 


«ii 


5880-7 


2s 






6029-2 


1 


\ 




5878-2 


1 






6026-3 


2 






5875-6 


Is 






6021-2 


2 






5873-9 


2s 






6017-4 


1 






5870-8 


2s 






6014-9 


1 






5868-8 


1 



« Benotes the cMef lines -whose -waye-lengths -were first determiued. 



190 



REPORT 1886. 

Nitrogen — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 



Angstrom and 
Thal€n 



/'58530 
5846-1 



6830-6 



»< 



/ 5801-8 
5795-3 



5780-6 



Hasselberg 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



5866-3 
5863-7 
5861-3 
5858-1 
5855-5 



*5853- 
5845- 
5841- 
5839' 
5838- 
5836' 
5835- 
5833- 
5832- 
5830' 
5829- 
5828' 
5827- 
5825' 
6824' 
5822- 
5821' 
5819 
5818' 
5815 
5813 
5810 
5807' 
5805 



2n 

1 

2n 

2 

1 

5 
4 

2 

2 
1 

n 
1 

1 

1 

3 

3 

I 

1 

1 

1 

2n 

1 

n 
1 

Un 
1' 

Hn 
1 

1 



Positive Band Spectrum 



Angstrom and 
Thal^n 



f 5752-0 
5745-6 



5730-7 



!l^ 



*5802-9 5 

5795-7 4 

5792-2 1 

5791-3 2 

5789-9 2 

5788-6 1 

5787-1 1 

5785-8 1 

5784-1 1 

5782-8 1 

5780-9 3 

5779-9 3 

5778-7 1 

5777-5 1 

5776-1 1 

5775-0 1 

t5773-0 1 

5771-4 1 

5770-2 1 

5768-6 1 

5766-7 2 

5764-1 1 

5761-9 2 

5758-5 1 

5756-4 1 
Denotes the chief lines whose wave-lengths were first determined. 



5703-8 



5682-5 



5657-9 

5637-2 
5612-6 



n-2 



/5567-9 



5563-0 



5551-8 



Hasselberg 



*5753-8 
5746-4 
5743-0 
5742-0 
5740-6 
5739-6 
5738-1 
5736-7 
5735-0 
5733-6 

f5731-5 
5729-7 

t5726-2 

15724-5 
5722-6 
5721-3 
5719-9 
5718-0 
5715-5 
5713-6 
5710-0 
5707-9 

♦5706-3 
5703-9 
5702-3 
5700-2 
5698-1 
5695-5 
5693-0 
5690-3 
5687-5 
5684-7 
5681-6 
5678-8 
5671-8 

*5659-2 
5652-0 
5638-1 

»5613-8 
5606-3 
5602-1 
5596-0 
5593-2 
5591-0 
5586-0 

*5569-0 
5567-1 
5561-8 
5560-0 
5557-2 
5555-4 
5552-1 
5549-3 
5547-2 
5545-5 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



5 

4 



■^2 



n 



H 



t Double. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 191 
Nitrogen — contimied. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






[ntensity 
and 






[ntensity 
and 










Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 


/ 


5o43-o 


1 






5399-2 


2 






5542-0 


1 






5397-5 


3 






6535-1 


1 






5393-9 


1 1 






5531-3 


In 






5393-0 


li 


t 


5525-2 


5525-4 


4s 






5391-4 


Ij 






5523-5 
5522-0 


1 
1 






5389-7 
5388-4 






5518-7 


5518-1 


3 


X 


5487-4 


53871 








5515-9 


1 




5385-2 


■■-3 


/ 5513-4 


«5514-3 


4 






5383-2 


li 






5509-5 


2 






5381-7 


IJ 






5507-9 


2 






5380-2 






5506-0 


5506-3 
5504-6 








5378-3 
5375-8 








5502-8 


H 




k 


5373-7 


1 


w 




5500-9 
5498-8 


It 




/ 5371-7 
5366-7 


•5371-6 
5366-4 


5 
3 






5496-6 


H 






6364-6 


2 






5494-7 


2 






5362-9 


3 




5493-7 


5493-6 
5491-6 


2 






5359-4 
5357-4 






5482-8 


5483-3 


2ib' 






5355-7 






^ 


5479-8 


1 






5354-3 






( 5476-9 


*5477-5 
5476-2 


4 
2 


., 


5353-2 


5352-8 
5350-8 


4 




5472-6 


5472-2 
6471-4 


2| 






5349-4 
5347-7 








6469-3 






5346-2 








5464-3 


2 






5345-0 




v\ 




5457-4 
5455-5 


2 






5342-9 
5340-9 








5453-1 


1* 


\ 










5451-3 


H 




5339-7 


«5338-6 


4 






5448-6 


H 






5337-2 


U 






5445-8 


1 






5335-5 


1* 




\ 


5443-7 


1 






5333-4 ) 
5327-4 S 


b' 




/ 5441-9 


*5441-2 


4 








5437-0 


5436-0 


3| 






5326-7 


1 






54341 


2 


zi 




5324-5 


li 






5432-5 


3 






5322-2 


1* 






5428-6 


n 






5320-0 


H 






5427-9 


2" 






5316-8 


1 






5426-2 


1 






5313-7 


1 


«1 




5424-2 


1 






5309-4 




5422-1 


5421-7 


4 




^ 


5306-9 








5419-8 


1* 




r- 5306-3 


*5305-8 


4 






5417-7 


1| 






5303-9 








54] 5-9 


l| 






53020 








54130 


1 






5300-2 








5411-6 


1 


a' 




5298-2 


TO 

^ S 
■^3 




\ 


5410-1 


1 






5296-2 


/ 5406-4 


*5406-2 


5 






5294-1 


•^ a 


/ 


5403-6 


1 






5287-4 






, 5401-7 


5401-0 


3 






5284-4 





» Denotes the chief lines whose wave-lengths were first determined. 



192 



KEPORT 1886. 

NiTEOGBN — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 








Intensity 






Intensity 


o 




and 







and 


Angstrom and 
Thalen 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thal& 


Hasselberg 


Character 


I 


5281-5 








5142-4 


1 


5278-2 




/' 


5138-7 


5137-8 


3 




5273-8 


*5274-0 


3 




> 5126-5 


5134-6 


H 


//■ 




5268-4 






*5126-1 


4 




, 5256-3 


52560 








5124-7 


1 


/ 5244-6 


»5243-l 


4 






5123-1 


2 




5239-3 


5237-8 


2 






5121-2 


25 


c'- 




5234-5 


H 


9' 1 


5120-6 


2I 






5232-2 


H 






5117-9 


2 




. 5226-5 


5225-6 


H 






5110-1 


H 


/ 5213-1 1 


*5212-7 


4 






5106-7 


i| 






5210-8 


1 




\ 


5100-9 


2 






5209-3 


1 




'5097-7 


*5098-7 


3 




5207-7 


5207-8 


3 






5093-6 


1 






5205-3 


li 


A'h 




6090-3 


1 






5204-0 


2^ 




6083-5 


1 






5201-8 


2 






5076-8 


2 


d'i 




5200-2 


la 




^ 


5071-8 


2 




5198-6 


Is 


/ 1 


*6068-3~| 


H 






51971 


Is 






6066-9 U 


3 




5196-1 


5195-5 


*» 




5065-6 


6065-3J 


4 






5191-2 








. 6063-7 


2 






5189-7 






6062-4 


2 






5188-4 






6060-9 


2 






5186-6 








6059-7 


2 


1 


5185-2 






6058-7 


2 




5183-4 


•5183-5 


5 






5057-0 


2 






5181-7 


2 


-v 




6055-5 


3s 






5180-5 


2 


* 




60536 


3s 






5178-9 


3 






6051-7 






6179-3 


5177-9 
5176-5 
5174-8 
5173-0 
5171-5 


4 

2 

3 

Is 

Is 






6049-5 
6047-3 
5044-8 
6042-6 
60400 


■•- 


a 




5170-2 


Is 






6037-1 






5169-1 


Is 






5034-3 








5168-0 


Is 




^ 5032-0 


5030-8 


3n 




5165-8 


516G-0 


4 




/ 


*4975-7-| 
49740 U 


2i 
3| 






5164-7 


QQ 










5162-5 






4972-0 


4972-2J 


4 






5161-3 


-^3 






4970-2 


2 






5159-9 


^& 






4969-1 


2 






5158-5 


>l 






4967-8 


2 






5157-1 








4966-5 


2 




X 


5155-9 




k' 




4965-2 


2 




' 5153-7 


*5154-5 


5 




4963-8 
4960-8 


b 






5153-1 


1* 










5151-6 


2^ 






4959-5 


2i 


J 5149-0 


5149-4 


3 






4957-5 


3 


5148-4 


H 






4955-3 


2| 






5147-1 


1 






4953-4 


2i 






5145-8 


3 






4950-9 


2 






5144-1 


H 






4947-8 


2 




• Groupi o to * 


by eye-observation. 


Groups a 


too 


recorded by pbc 


tography. J Stron 


g triplets. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 193 
Nitrogen — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 






Intensity 
and 


o 




and 






Angstrom and 
Thalfo 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 






4945-6 


2 




4811-7 


4812-OJ 


6 






4943-8 


H 






4811-2 


3 






4940-8 


H 




4810-4 


4810-4 


3 






4937-7 


H 




4809-3 


4809-4 


3i 






4934-5 


H 




4808-3 


4808-5 


sf 




\ 


4931-1 


1 




4807-2 


4807-4 


sf 




/4919-0 


4917-5-) 


3 






4806-4 


4 






4916-7 \t 


4 






4805-8 


4 






♦4915-7J 


6 






4805-1 


4 






4914-7 


2 






4804-2 


2| 






4913-8 


2 




4803-7 


4803-8 


2| 






49130 


2 




4802-4 


4802-6 


4 






49119 


2 




4800-7 


4800-8 


4 






4910-7 


2 




4899-2 


4799-2 


3i 






4909-8 


2 






4798-4 


4 






4909-1 


2 




4897-3 


4797-2 


2i 






4908-3 


2 






4796-2 


2^ 






4907-2 


3 




4895-3 


4795-3 


2I 






4905-7 


3 






4794-9 


2I 






4903-9 


3 




4893-6 


4793-4 


2^ 






4902-0 


1 






4792-7 


2' 






4900-2 


2 




4891-1 


4791-3 


3 






4898-6 


2 






4790-1 


2 






4897-6 


2 




4888-7 


4788-8 


3 






4896-2 


2 






4787-8 


2 






4895-0 


2 




4886-1 


4786-2 


3 






4893-8 


2 






4785-0 


2 






4892-6 


2 


a 




4783-8 


2 






4891-3 


3 






4783-3 


2 


a 




4889-9 


1^ 






4782-3 


2 






4888-5 
4887-1 
4885-9 
4885-1 


3 






4781-1 
4780-3 
4779-3 
4778-3 


2 
2 
2 






4884-1 








4777-2 


li 






4882-7 


a 






4776-2 


J 






4882-0 


'h3 






4772-8 








4881-0 


1 






4771-9 


ji 






4880-0 


^ 






4770-7-1 


ji 






4878-8 






4769-7 > 


ji 






4877-7 








4768-7J 


1? 






4876-7 








4767-4T 
4766-3 I 
4765-4J 


\i. 






4875-4 


U 






1? 






4874-3 


li 






1? 






4873-5 


H 






4763-71 


1? 






4872-0 


1 






4763-8 )■ 


Ja 






4870-9 


1 






4759-9J 






4869-8 


1 






4759-0'l 


li 






4868-1 


2 






4758-2 I 


3 






4866-6 


1 






4756-3 J 


^ 






4865-1 


1 






4755-4-) 


U ' 




4814-0 


*4814-01 , 
4813-0 >■+ 


4 






4754-5 \ 


2 




48130- 


5 






4752 3 J 














V 


4751-0"] 




» 


Groups a to i 1 

1886. 


tiy eye-observatioa. 


Crroups a t< 


tot 


eoonled by phot 


Ography. + StrOE 


g triplete. 




\ 



194 



BEPORT 1886. 

Nitrogen — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 








Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 






o 




Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thalen 


Hasselberg 


Character 




4750-5J 






/ 


4682-7 








4748-2~l 








4681-7 








4747-4 K 








4680-6 








4746-4 J 








4679-6 


00 






4743-9T 


B 






4678-5 








4743-1 K 


a> 






4677-5 


3 






4742-3 J 








4676-6 


-S 






4739-7'l 


H 






4675-2 


to 


a 




4738 9 I 


-M 






4674-3 






4738-1 J 


§ 

^ 






4673-2 








4735-5T 
4734-7 I 
4733-8J 






4671-7 








& 






4670-9 








CD 






4669-9 








4730-8T 
4729-8 K 








4668-1 














4667-3 








4728-9J 








4665-8-) 

4665-2 I 

*4664-4j 


2 






4725-9 






46660 


3 




> 4722-7 \ 
4722-0 r 


*4722-7- 


4 






4 




4721-6 f* 




/3| 




4663-8 


2 




4721-5 


5 






4663-1 


3 




4720-2 


4720-4 


6 






4662-4 


2 






4719-4 


S 






4661-6 


2 




4718-4 


4718-4 


3i 






4660-8 


2 




4717-2 


4717-3 


3* 






4659-8 


2 




4716-0 


4716-3 


3i 






4659-3 


^t 






4715-1 


H 






4658-7 


H 






4714-1 


2 






4658-0 


2 






4713-4 


2 






4657-4 


1 






4712-8 


2 






4656-6 


3 






4711-7 


3b' 






4656-0 


1 




4709-9 


47100 


4 






4655-1 


2^ 






4709-2 


1 






4653-8 


2 




4708-2 


4708-3 


4 






4653-0 


H 




4706-3 


4706-6 


3 






t4652-2 


2 






4706-1 


1* 






4651-1 


2 


i8 


4704-6 


4704-7 


3 






4650-6 


2 






4703-8 


2 






4650-0 


2 






47030 


2 


;-4649-01 


*4648-6- 


4 




4702-7 


4702-5 


2 




4648-6 / 


4647-3 H 








4701-5 


2 




4647-2 


6 




4700-9 


4700-9 


2 




4645-7 


4645-9 


6 






4700-2 


2 




4644-8 


4644-7 


3 




4698-8 


4698-9 


3 




4644-0 


4644-1 


SiV 






4697-8 


li 




4642-8 


4042-9 


4 




4696-2 


4696-4 


3 




4641-8 


4641-8 


3 






4695-5 


H 


7( 


4640-7 


4640-8 


4 




4693-7 


*4693-6 


3 




4639-6 


4639-7 


4 






4692-6 


1 




4638-2 


4638-4 


4 




4691-0 


4690-9 


2| 






4637-3 


2? 






4689-6 


2 






4636-6 


3i 






4688-4 








4636-0 


2i 






4685-6 


_M ro 






4635-0 


^1 






4684-8 


<" .S 
^>3 






4634-5 




V. 


4683-8 




>, 4632-9 


4633-1 


4 



> Groups o to i by eye-observation. Groups a to o recorded by photography, t Double. J Strong triplets. 



ON WAVE-LENfiTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 195 
NiTRO GEN — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 








Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 










Angstrom and 
ThaWn 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thal& 


Hasselberg 


Character 


/ 4631-3 


4631-4 


4 


/ 


4564-5 


3^ 






4630-9 


01 
2 






4563-1 


4 




4629-6 


4629-7 


3 






4561-7 


4 






4628-8 


n 






4560-3 


% 




4627-5 


4627-7 


3 






4559-4 






4626-7 


2 






t4558-6 


2i 






4625-8 


2 






4557-5 


2 






4625-2 


1| 






4557-0 


2 






4624-3 


2 






4556-4 


2 






4623-7 


H 






4555-5 


2| 






4623-1 


1 






4554-5 


2 






4622-5 


1 






4553-3 


3| 




4621-5 


4621-9 


3 






4552-3 


2 






4620-7 


2 






*4551-1 


3i 




4619-2 


*4619-2 


3 






45500 


2 






46180 


2 






4548-8 


2in 




4616-7 


4616-7 


2| 






4547-6 


2 






4615-5 


H 






4546-7 


2 




4614-0 


4614-1 


4 






4546-0 


H 






4612-8 


i| 






4545-2 


2 




4611-4 


4611-5 


2 






4544-3 


H 


y, 




4611-1 


2 






4543-4 


ll 




46100 


1 






4542-7 


15 




4608-7 


4608-8 
4608-2 
4607-3 


2 
2 
2 






4541-7 
4540-8"1 
4540-0 I 


2 






4606-1 


2 


S 




4539-lJ 








4605-1 


1 




4538-OT 








4604-2 


2 






4537-1 I 








' 4603-0 


1 






4536-2J 








4602-2 


2 






4535-OT 








4601-1 


li 






4534-2 \ 








46000 


i| 






4533-5J 








t*4599-0 


2| 






45320T 








4597-8 








4531-2 K 








4596-7 








4 530-4 J 








4596-0 








4528-8T 
4528-1 I 
4527-4J 








4595-3 


_fl 












4594-4 


i3 












4593-6 


^ 
cS 






4525-5^ 








4592-3 


<1> 






4524-9 I 








4591-2 






4524-2J 






^ 


4590-2 








4522-2S 
4521-6 . 






/ 4574-0 


*4573-5-) 
4572-8 , X 


4 












5 






4520-9J 








4572-oJ 


6 






4518-9T 








4570-7 


3 






4518-3 K 








4570-1 


3 






4517-7J 




s. 




4569-2 


3 






4515-3 


2 




4568-3 


3 






4514-6 


1 






4567-5 


3 






4514-0 


1 






4566-6 


2| 






4510-9 


1 






4566-0 


2| 






4510-2 


1 




I 


4565-4 


2| 




I 


4509-3 


2 



Groups o to i by eye-observatiou. Groups a too recorded by photography, t Double. 



X strong triplets, 
O 2 



196 



EEPOKT — 1886. 

Nitrogen — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 



Anffstrom and 
Thale'n 



r 4489-0 



Hasselberg 



4507-2 
4506-6 
4504-0 
4502-7 
4501-3 

*4489-4") 
4488-6 I 
4487-7J 
4486-8 
4486-0 
4485-2 
4484-3 
4483-5 
4482-6 
4482-3 
4481-6 
4480-8 
4479-4 
44780 
4476-5 
4475-9 
4474-9 
44741 
4473-4 
4473-1 
4472-2 
4471-7 
4471-0 
4469-9 
4469-0 
4467-9 
4466-8 

*4465-9 
4464-8 
4463-8 
4463-5 
4462-5 
4461-6 
4460-9 
4460-1 
4458-4 
4457-5 
4454-9 
4454-1 
4452-9 
4452-2 
4451-0 
4450-0 
4449-3 
4448-5 
44471 
4446-3 

*444^ 
4443- 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



44-21 

13-4 r 



l' 

lin 

l|n 

lin 

4 

6 

6 

3 

H 
H 

H 

3b' 

4 

4b' 

3 

2 

3n 

2^ 
2| 

2 

2^ 

2i 

2^ 

2 

3 

2 

3 

H 

2 

n 

i| 

1 
1 

ii 

-■^3 

H 

n 

■"■3 



Positive Band Spectrum 



Angstrom and 
Thale'n 



/44170 



" 



Hasselberg 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Ot J 

4-3-1 

3-5 y 
2-9J 

D-8~| 
31 I 
9-6j 

6-7 I 
6OJ 
3-6'l 

3-0 y 

2-4J 



4442-7J 

4440-9T 

4440-2 I 

4439-5 J 

4437-6T 

4437-0 I 

4436-4J 

4434-3 

4433 

4432 

4430-8 

4430 

4429 

4427-2 

4426 

4426 

4423-6 

4423 

4422 

•4415-9 
4414-7 
4413-6 
4413-4 
4419-8 
4411-9 
4411-1 
4410-3 
4410-0 
4409-3 \ 
4408-8/ 
44081 \ 
4407-5/ 
44070 
4406-3 
4405-9 
4404-7 
4403-3 
4401-9 
4401-4 
4400-4 
4399-5 
4398-8 
4398-5 
4397-7 
4397-1 
4396-5 
43960 
4395-2 
4394-5 
4393-4 
4392-5 
4391-2 
4390-2 

•4389-3 



4 

6 
6 

2^ 
3 
3 
3 

9i 
''a 
2ib 

2ib 

2 
3 

2 

4 
4 

H 

2 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 



* Groups a to i by eye-observation. Groups a to recorded by photograpliy. t Strong triplets. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 197 
NiTEOGEN — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 










Angstrom and 
ThaMn 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thalfe 


Hasselberg 


Character 




/ 


43881 


1-2 


^ 


4338-8 


4 






4387-0 








4337-9 


2| 






4385-7 








4337-3 


3 






4384-7 








4336-7 


2 






4384-1 








4336-1 


4 






4383-2-1 








4335-4 


1 






4382-3 \ 








4334-8 


4 






4381-4J 








4333-7 


4 






4380-7 








4333-0 


H 






4379-8-) 
4378-8 I 








4332-4 


2 












4331-5 


3 






4378-0 J 








4331-01 
4330-4/ 


2b 






4377-1 












4376-lT 
4375-2 \ 








4329-7 


3^ 












4329-0 


1 






4374-4J 








4328-0 


3 






4373-11 
4372-4 . 








4327-3 


2 












4326-1 


3 






4371-7J 








4325-3 


2 






4370-31 








4324-3 








4369-5 \ 








4323-4 






4368-7J 








4322-4 


2 






4367-91 








4322-1 


1 






4367-1 \ 








4321-4 


1| 






4366-4J 








4320-6 


2 


Vf 




4365-6 
4364-0-) 








4319-9 
4319-2 


J" 






4363-4 \ 




c 




4318-4 


2 






4362-6J 








4317-6 


It 






*4356-91 


4 






4316-9 






4355-8 1 


6 






4316-2 






- 4355-0 f 


2 






4315-31 


1 






4354-5J 


6 






*4314-6 \ 


H 






4353-4 


3 






4313-9J 


I5 






4352-8 


4 






4312-91 








4351-8 


4 






4312-2 \ 








4360-9 


4 






4311-5J 








4349-9 


3i 






4310-31 








4349-2 


2 






4307-7 \ 








4348-9 


3 






4301-lJ 








4347-9 


4 






4307-71 








4346-8 


2 






4307-1 \ 








4346-4 


2| 






4306-5J 








4345-8 


2 






4305-11 








4345-1 


2 






4304-4 \ 








4344-4 


4 






4303-8J 


09 






4343-81 








430211 






4346-0 


*4343-2 \ 
4342-6J 


6b 






4301-6 \ 
43OIOJ 








4342-2 "1 


> 






4299-21 


■^ 






4341-6/ 






4298-6 \ 


1 






4341-0 


1^ 






4298-2J 


^ 






4340-3 


4 






4296-31 
4295-7/ 






^ 


4339-6 


4 




^ 





» Groups o to * by eye-observation. Groups o to recorded by photography. 



198 






REPOKT- 


-1886. 






Nitrogen — continued. 




Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 




1 




Hasselberg Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 






4295-2 






•f 


4236-91 




(■ 




4293-2 








4236-3 K 






4292-6 








4235-5J 








4292-1 








4234-41 
4233-8 K 






'42710 


*4269-41 


4 












4268-8 U 


5 






4233-lJ 








4268-oJ 


6 






4231-71 
4231-1 I 








4267-4 


2 












4266-8 


4 






4230-5J 








4266-2 


4 






4229-11 
4228-5 ). 








4265-5 


3i 






°3 






4264-6 


3 






4227-9J 


(1) 






4264-1 


3 






4226-31 
4225-8 \ 








4263-7 


2 










4263-1 


3 






4225-lJ 


M 






4262-7 


2 






4223-41 
4222-9 ). 


03 






4262-4 


2 






^ 






4262-0 


H 


I 




4222-4J 








4261-5 


4 






4220-51 
4219-9 \ 
4219-4J 








4260-9 


2 












4260-3 


4 












4259-7 


1 






4217-51 
4216-9 I 








4259-1 


3i 












4258-8 


2 






4216-3J 








4257-9 


H 






4214-21 
4213-7 )■ 








4257-2 


2 












4256-6 


3 






4213-2J 








4256-2 


2 






4211-01 
4210-5 \ 


^ 






4255-5 


2^ 






^ 






4255-1 


H 






42100J 






4254-6 


2* 






4208-3 \ 
4206-8/ 


b 






4253-9 


n 













4253-7 


2i 






4204-4 \ 
4203-3/ 








4253-0 


2| 




\ 








•4251-9 


H 




/ 4203-0 


'4201-01 


4 






4251-2 


2 






4200-3 U 


5 






4250-2 


H 






4199-6J 


6 






4249-3 


n 






4199-0 


3 






t4248-3 


2 






4198-5 


4 






4247-4 


2 






4197-8 


4 






4246-6 


n 






4197-2 


3ib^ 






4246-1 


2 






4196-4 


3| 






4245-4 


2i 






4195-7 


3n 






4244-5 


2^ 






4195-5 


3n 






4243-9 


2 


I 




4194-9 


3 






4243-4 


} lb 






4194-5 


3 






4243-0 






4194-0 


2| 






4242-4 


2 






4193-4 


3 






4241-6-) 
4241-0 [ 


2 






4193-0 


4 






2 






4192-2 


4 






4240-2J 


2 






41917 


H 






4239-41 


2 






4190-9 


4 






4238-7 > 


2 






4189-7 


3| 




^ 


♦4237-9J 


2 




\ 


4189-3 


2\ 



* Groups o to A- by eye-observation. Groups a to recorded by pbotography. t Double, t Strong triplets, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 199 

NiTEOQEN — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 










Angstrom and 
Thal^n 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 
4 




/ 


4188-4 


3n 




•^ 4144-0 


*4141-1-| 
4140-2 It 
4139-5J 






4187-7 


2| 






6 






4187-0 


3 






6 






4186-8 


3 






4138-7 


3 






4186-2 


H 






4138-3 


3i 






4185-7 


3 






4137-8 


2 






4185-1 


3 






4137-4 


31 






4184-3 


2| 






4136-7 


3^ 






4184-1 


n 






4136-1 


2i 
2| 






4183-4 


3 . 






4135-6 






♦4182-7 


H 






4135-1 


\ 3b 






4181-9 


n 






4134-7 


V* XJtJ 






4180-9 


H 






4134-0 


\ 3b 






41800 


2 






4133-7 






t4179-l 


n 






4133-1 


2 






4178-1 


2 






4132-6 


3 






4177-2 


2 






4132-2 


2^ 






4176-7 


2 






»4131-3 


4 






4176-0 


n 






4130-7 


1 






4175-2 


1 






4130-1 


4 






4174-6 


H 






4128-8 


H 






4173-6 


1 






4128-4 


4 






4171-8 


1 






4127-5 






<*4170-8 


2| 






4126-9 


H 






41700-1 


2 






4126-3 


^ 






4169-3 )> 


2 






4125-9 


2i 


K 




4168-6J 
4167-6T 


2 
2 


Al 




4125-3 
4124-8 


2I 






4166-9 I 


2 






4124-3 






4I66-2J 


2 






4123-6 


2 






4165-n 
4164-5/ 


It 






4123-2 
4122-7 


f' 






4162-6-] 


H 






4121-7 


n 






4161-9 )> 


H 






4120-9 


n 






4I6I-2J 


n 






«4120-1 


3 






4159-9- 


i| 






4118-3 


2 






4159-3 . 


H 






4117-3 


1 1 

•"■a 






4158-7J 


i| 






4116-4 








4157-2T 


i| 






4115-2 


<1 






4156-6 I 


H 






4114-5 


< 1 






4156-1 J 


H 






41140 


< 1 






4154-3-1 
4153-8 ). 


1 






4113-3-1 


11 






1 






4112 5 y 


1 1 
•^3 






4153-2J 


1 






4111-9 J 


li 

*3 






4151-5-1 
4151-0 } 


1 






4111-1 








1 






4110-3-1 


li 

■^3 






415O-4J 


1 






4109-6 I 


li 






4148-5T 








4IO8-9J 


li 






4147-9 y 


•^ 






4108-2 








4147-4J 


CD 






4107-3T 








4145-5'] 






4106-6 K 








4145-0 } 


b 






4IO59J 






X 


4144-4J 




> 






4104-91 
4104-2 ! 





* Groups a to i by eye-observation. Groups o to recorded by photography, t Double. J Strong triplet* 



200 



BEPORT — 1886. 
Nitrogen — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 




Intensity 
and 


AngstrSm and 
Thale'n 




and 


o 




Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thal^n 


Hasselberg 


Character 






4103-6J 








4064-9 








4102-4 -1 








4064-1 








4101-8 y 








4063-7 








4101-1 J 








4062-7 








4099-9 T 








4062-0 








4099-3 K 








4061-1 








4098-6 J 








4060-6 








4097-2 -| 








4059-8 








4096-7 I 






/ 4063-0 


*4058-7-| 


ih 




k 


4096-oJ 








4058-3 U 


5' 




/ 4098-0 


*4094-2^ 


4 






4057-9 J 


6 






4093-7 


2 






4057-3 


4 






4093-2 ' 


6 






4056-8 


4 






40921 


6 






4056-3 


4 






4091-6 


n 






4055-8 


3| 






4091-0 


H 

2| 






4055-5 


3 






4090-5 






4055-2 


3 






4090-2 


2 






4054-7 


3i 






4089-6 


3n 






4054-3 


3" 






4088-9 


3 






4053-9 


H 






4088-3 


Sib"- 






4053-5 


3 






4087-3 


2i 






4053-1 


3 






4086-9 






4052-7 


3| 






4086-1 


3 






4052-2 


l|a 






4086-0 


3 






40520 


lin 






4085-2 


H 






4051-5 


4|n 






4084-9 


H 






40511 


1 






4084-3 


2 






4050-9 


lb' 






4083-6 


3 






4050-5 


4b' 






4083-3 


2 






4049-4 


3i 






4082-3 


4 






40489 


3 


M 




4081-0 


4 


"1 




4048-3 


3 




4079-7 


H 






4048-1 


3 






4079-4 


1 






4047-7 


3 






*4078-3 


3^ 






4047-2 


3 






4077-7 


4 






4046-8 


3 






4077-0 


2 






4046-2 


2| 






4076-8 


2 






4045-8 


3 






4076-1 


2 






4045-4 


3 






4076-5 


2 






40450 


1 






4075-1 


2 






4044-6 


3i 






4074-4 


2 






4043-9 


2I 






4074-0 


2 






*4043-2 


4s 






4073-4 


2 






4042-6 


2i 






4072-6 


2 






4041-7 


3n 






4072-4 


2 






4040-9 


3 






4071-7 


2 






4040-2 


2i 






4070-8 


^ 






4039-8 


2^ 






40699 


U 






4039-2 


2^ 






4068-9 


H 






4038-5 


2^ 






4068-0 


In 






4038-0 


2I 






4067-0 


H 






4037-4 


2I 






4066-0 






s. 


4036-7 


2I 






4065-2 






4036-1 


2I 



• Groups a to k by eye-observation. 



Groups a to recorded by photography. % Strong triplets. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 201 
Nitrogen — continued. 



Positive Band Spectrum 




Positive Band Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 


o 




o 




Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Tlaal^n 


Hasselberg 


Character 




/ 


4035-5 


2| 






3993-7 


2i 

2 






4034-9 


2i 






3993-5 


2| 






4034-2 "1 
4033-6 \ 
4033-0 J 


% 






3993-0 
3992-7 


2^ 
2 






H 






3992-3 


8 






4032-2 1 


n 






39919 


3 






4031-6 \ 


n 






3991-5 


2^ 






4031-1 J 


2i 






3991-3 


n 






4030-01 


2 






3990-8 


^ 






4029-5 \ 


2 






3990-4 








4029-0 J 


2 






8989-8 








*4027-8 1 


2 






3989-4 








4027-3 \ 


2 






3989-1 








4026-8 1 


2 






3988-7 








4025-6 -| 


2 






3988-5 


2 






4025-1 \ 


2 






3987-7 


n 






4024-6 J 


2 






3987-1 






4023-2") 
4022-8 J. 
4022-3 J 


li 






8986-6 


3 






li 






3986-3 


3 






^~ 






S985-8 


3 






4020-8 -] 


•^ 






8985-4 


3 


V 




4020-4 \ 


^ 






39850 


3 




4019-9J 


3 






3984-3 


21 






4018-4-1 
4017-9 \ 
4017-5 J 








8984-1 


1 












3983-6 












3982-8 






4015-81 




J 




3982-1 


4 






4015-4 \ 




\ 




*3981-2 


4 






4015-0 J 








3980-5 


2i 






4013-2] 
4012-7 \- 
4012-4 J 








8979-7 


3 












3979-5 


8 






.4J 

0) 






8978-9 


n 






4010-5') 


[S( 






8978-1 






4010-1 \ 








8977-8 


n 






4009-7 J 


(V 






3977-2 






4007-7 \ 


^ 






3976-5 


4 






4007-3 \ 


0) 






8976-0 


2 






4006-9 J 


fe 






8975-5 


1 






4004-9 1 
4004-5 \ 
4004-1 J 








3975-3 


H 






a 






3974-8 


4 






t-1 






3974-1 


2 






4001-9^ 


+3 






3973-5 


2 






4001-5 \ 


P^ 






8972-9 


2 




K 


4001-1 J 








3972-2-1 


2 




/ 4002-0 


*3997-81 


4 






8971-6 K 


2 






3997-2 \% 


5 






3971-1 J 


2 






3996-6 J 


6 






3970-2 1 


2 






3996-4 


4 






3969-6 \ 


2 


J 1 


3995-9 


3 






8969-0 1 


2 






8995-4 


4 






3968-1 ■) 


if 






3994-9 


3 






3967-6 i 






3994-7 


2 






3967-0 J 






3994-8 


3 






8965-9-) 
3966-4 [ 






8993-9 


2i 






1- 



Groups a to i by eye-observation. Groups o to o recorded by photography. * Strong triplets. 



202 



BEPOET 1880. 

NiTEOGEN — contimted. 



Positive Band Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Positive Band Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Angcstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 




Ansjstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


'■ 




3964-9J 

3963-8^ 

3963-2 I 

3962-7J 

3961-4") 

3960-9 \ 

3960-4J 

39591S 

3958-6 I 

3958lJ 


li 

1 1 

A 

11 
'■1 





\ 


3956-6") 
3956-1 I 
3955-7J 
3954-lT 
3953-6 K 
3953-2J 
3951-5") 

3951-1 y 

395Q-7J 





Nitrogen — cmitinued. 



Negative Band Spectrum 




Negative Band Spectrum 








Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 












Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 

i 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Charactsr 




f 4709-3 


*4708-6 


5 




/ 


4633-3 


1 






4706-8 


1 






4632-7 


H 






4704-6 


1 






4631-1 


1 






4702-8 


1 1 






4629-9 


3 






4701-0 


2 






4629-0 


1 






4699-9 


1 






4627-2 


1^ 






4698-7 


2i 


B 




4625-1 


1 






4697-2 


1 > 






4624-6 


1 






4695-9 


3 






4620-8 


2^ 






4694-4 


1 






4616-1 


H 


A 




4692-8 


3 






4609-0 


H 




4691-1 


1 






4606-5 


i| 






4689-4 


3 






4600-9 


i| 






4687-5 


1 


N 










4685-6 


2i 




/ 4601 -2 


*4599-4 


5 






4683-6 


1 






4597-7 


2 






4681-5 


2 






4596-5 


2 






4679-3 


1 






4594-3 


H 






4677-2 


H 






4593-2 


1 






4674-7 


1 






4592-2 


2 






4672-3 


1' 






4591-2 


1 






4667-3 


1 






4590-1 


2| 




/ 4653-5 


♦4651-2 


5 






4588-8 


l| 






4649-2 


2 


^ 




4587-4 


3 






4644-8 


1 






4586-1 


H 






4643-8 


2 1 






4584-7 


3 






4642-6 


H 






4583-1 


H 


«i 




4641-5 


4 






4581-5 


3 






4640-2 


H 






4579-8 


H 






4638-8 


2i 






4578-1 


n 






4637-4 








4576-1 


1 






4635-9 






4574-3 


1 




V 


4634-3 


I5 




\ 


4570-2 


2 



» Groups a to k by eye-observation. Groups a to recorded by photography. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 203 
Nitrogen — contimied. 



Negative Band Spectrum 




Negative Band Spectrum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensitj- 
and 


o 




o 




Angstrom and 
ThaMn 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 




/ 4555-2 


4553-8 


5 




/ 


4271-2 


H 






*4552-9 


5 






4270-2 


2| 






45490 


1| 






4269-2 


4 






45480 


1 






4268-0 


2i 






4547-0 


2 






4266-9 


4 






4546-0 


1 






4265-7 


2§ 






45450 


2b'- 






4264-5 


4 






4543-8 


1 






4263-1 


3 






4542-9 


2 






4261-7 


4 






45420 


2 






4260-3 


2^ 


D 




4540-9 


2 


TT^ 




4258-8 


4 




4539-5 


H 


\ 




4257-2 


2i 






4538-0 


1 






4255-5 


3| 






4536-4 


2 






4253-9 


2 






4535-3 


1 






4252-2 


3 






45340 


1 






4250-3 


2 






4533-3 


1 






4248-5 


2| 






4532-5 


n 






4246-5 


1^ 






4529-8 


1* 






4244-6 


2 






4529-1 


H 






4242-6 


1 






4525-7 


1 






4240-4 


1 






4525-4 


1 




^ 


4236-5 


1 




'^ 


4521-4 


1 










/4516-5 


*4515-3 


5 


/ 42390 


*4236-3 


5 






4514-3 


n 






4235-1 


H 






4513-4 


H 






■ 4234-3 


3 






4512-7 


H 






42339 


2 






4512-2 


n 






4233-3 


2| 






4510-1 


u 






4232-8 


1| 






4509-2 


i" 






4231-3 


2 






4508-3 


2 






4230-4 


H 






4507-3 


1 






4229-5 


3 


j; 




4506-2 


2i 






4228-6 


2 






4505-1 


1 






4227-6 


H 






4503-9 


3 






4226-6 


2| 






4502-6 


1 






4225-5 


4 






4501-3 


3 






4224-4 


2i 






4499-9 


1 


T / 




42231 


4' 






4498-5 


2i 


I\ 




42219 


2§ 






4496-9 


1 






4220-5 


4 






4495-3 


2 






4219-4 


1 






4493-6 


1 






42191 


1 




\ 


4491-9 


2 






4218-4 


H 


F 1 


4484-9 


4 






4217-6 


2 


4484-3 


4 






42161 


2 


/ 4281-0 


*42780 


5 






4215-4 


1 






4276-9 


3 






4214-5 


2 






4276-5 


3 






42141 


2 






42761 


3 






4212-7 


2 


G^ 




4275-6 


2i 






42111 


2 




4275-0 


3 






4209-3 


1 




4274-4 


2 






4207-6 


H 




4272-9 


2| 




\ 


4203-6 


1 




^ 1 


42721 


2 











* Groups a to i by eye-observatiou. Groups a to o recorded by photography 



204 



EEPOET 1886. 

NiTEOGEN — continued. 



Negative Band Spectrum 




Negative Band Spectrum 








Intensity 
and 






Intensity 
and 


o 




o 




Angstrom and 
ThaMn 


Hasselberg 


Character 


Angstrom and 
Thale'n 


Hasselberg 


Character 




4203-0 


*4198-7 


5 


j 


4187-3 


1 






4198-3 


4 






4186-1 


3 






4197-7 


3| 






4185-0 


H 






4196-9 


3| 






41836 


3 






4196-4 


2 






4182-3 


U 






4195-9 


2 


T ) 




4180-9 


2| 


I 




4195-3 


2 


^\ 


4179-4 


1 




4193-9 


H 






4177-9 


2 






4193-3 


2 






4176-4 


n 






4192-3 


2 






4174-7 


1 






4191-4 


H 






4172-9 


<i 






4190-6 


4 




I 


4171-3 


1 






4189-6 


1 


^1 4175-0 


*41C6-3 


3 




\ 


4188-4 


3 


*4165-6 


3 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Tilden, 
Professor W. Ramsay, and Dr. W. W. J. NicoL {Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the subject of Vapour 
Pressures and Refractive Indices of Salt Solutions. 

I. Vapour Pressures of Salt Solutions. 

Four salts, NaCl, KCl, NaNOg, and KNO3, have been completely examined, 
in solutions varying in strength from one molecule of salt per 100 -water- 
molecules up to solutions nearly saturated at the temperature of experi- 
ment. 

The method employed was similar to that described in the previous 
Report of the Committee, with this difference, that in this case the solu- 
tions were kept of constant strength and the temperature -was the 
variable. As before, the pressures at definite temperatures were deter- 
mined, and not the converse. 

The experiments, though covering the same ground, are completely 
distinct from those described in the previous Report, and are not only 
more complete, but more reliable, being means of four independent 
observations, and it is believed as free from the eflFect of superheating 
as it is possible to obtain them by this method. The zinc introduced to 
prevent succussive boiling has been proved to have no influence on the 
results. 

The solutions were of the following: strengths : — 



NaCl 2, 


4, 5, 6, 8, 10 molecules 


KCl 2, 


4, 6, 8, 10 


NaWOg 2. 


4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25 molecules 


KNO3 1,2, 


3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 55 



all in 100 HjO, and the temperatures were 70°, 75°, 80°, 85°, 90°, 95°. 



ON VAPOUR PRESSURES AND REFHACTIYE INDICES OF SALT SOLUTIONS. 205 

The results confirm in all respects those obtained in the previous pre- 
liminary experiments. They are as follows : — 

(a) When temperature is constant and concentration (n) varying, 

then ^H^ increases rapidly with NaCl, more slowly with KCl; diminishes 
n 

slowly with NaNOs, and very rapidly with KNOg, the order being 

NaCl, KCl, NaNOs, KlNOa. The figures show a clear agreement with 

those of Tammann (Wiedemann 'Ann.' xxiv), obtained by the barometric 

method. This is entirely at variance with Wiillner's statement (Pogg. 

' Ann.' ex.) that ^ — ^ is constant for all salts ; a statement not borne 

P 
out by his figures, discordant as they are. 

(/3) When n is constant and temperature varying, then the value of 

P~P ^^ i,e., the restraining efiect of each salt molecule, is a diminishing 

np 
quantity in the case of NaCl, practically constant with KCl, slowly in- 
creasing with NaNOs, and rapidly increasing with KNO3, the order 
being the same but reversed. This also is confirmed by Tammann, and 
agrees with the results of Legrand ('Ann. Chim. et Phys.' 1835). 

(•y) When, too, the temperature and concentration increase, the salts 
form the same series : decrease of restraining efiect with NaCl, less so 
with KCl, no change with NaNOs, and a marked increase with KNO3. 

Connected with the above are : — 

(^) The order is the same when the solubility as a function of 
the temperature is considered. NaCl has its solubility only slightly 
affected by rise of temperature, KCl more so, NaNOs still more, and 
KNO3 greatly so. 

(e) The value of ^ — ^, where n^l, is very nearly the same for all 

four salts at the same temperatures. 
(^) The heat of solution for — 
NaCl =-1-180 



NaN03= -5-200 



KCl =-4-400 
KN03= -8-500 

Again the same series. 

The behaviour of these four salts can be satisfactorily explained on 
the lines of the theory of solution laid down in a paper on the nature of 
solution ('Phil. Mag.' 1883); but for the details reference must be 
made to the memoir. 

II. Refractive Indices of Salt Solutions. 

The work of nearly all previous experimenters on this branch of 
the subject of solution is unavailable for any systematic examination of 
the point, inasmuch as but few salts have been examined, and only a 
few solutions of each ; while even in these cases the results require re- 
calculation, as the solutions examined were of percentage composition, 
and the conversion of these into terms of even molecules of salt per 100 
H2O is a laborious process, requiring a large amount of interpolation, 
for which the data are generally insuQicient. 

Recently, however, a paper by Ostwald has come into our hands 
(' Volum. u. Optisch-Chem. Studien,' Dorpat, 1878), which contains the 
necessary data for a partial examination of the subject. Ostwald's ex- 



206 KEPOET — 1886. 

periments were conducted with solutions containijig one equivalent in 
grammes of the base or acid in one litre of the solution . Consequently 
the. salt solutions obtained on neutralisation contain one equivalent in 
grammes of the salt in the two litres. These solutions, though not 
strictly comparable, are still nearly so, and are of the approximate 
strength, MR. IIOH^O. 

The results' obtained by Ostwald are as follows : — 

(a) When a solution of a base (potash or soda) is neutralised by the 
requisite amount of the solution of an acid (fourteen organic and inorganic 
acids), the difference between the sum of the refractive indices of the 
two solutions before mixing and twice the refractive index of the result- 
ing salt solution is a value almost identical for both bases, no matter 
what may be the acid. There is thus complete parallelism between the 
change of refractive index and of molecular volume on neutralisation. 

(/3) The conclusion is tliat the alteration in the physical constants, 
brought about by combination, has a constant value for each constituent 
which enters into the combination, and is therefore independent of the 
other constituents with which the first may combine. 

Thus there is little room for doubt that in other cases also alteration 
in molecular volume will be accompanied by parallel changes in the refrac- 
tion equivalent. Unfortunately, Ostwald's results are not of a form to 
permit their conversion into refraction equivalents, or it would be pos- 
sible to show, even more clearly, the close connection between these 
physical constants. 

III. Saturation of Salt Solutions.^ 

It has long been known that a salt is able to drive another out of 
solution in very many cases, partially or completely, while in other 
cases the solubility of one or both salts is largely increased. 

When the two salts are capable of forming well-defined double salts, 
then either salt added to a saturated solution of the other completely 
expels it from solution. On the other hand, when the two salts are iso- 
morpJwus, and are thus able to form mixed crystals, then the expulsion 
from solution is onlj partial (Rudorff. Wiedem. ' Annalen,' xxv. 626). 

This may be explained as follows : — 

Double salts do not exist as such in solution ; the saturated solution 
of a double salt is therefore not necessarily saturated for either of its 
constituents, but may be able to dissolve more of one or other of the 
single salts. As the amount, however, of this salt increases there 
arrives a point at which the solution has become so rich in this salt (B) 
that any one molecule of the other salt (A) may be regarded as being in 
contact with a molecule of B ; aggregation or combination to form the 
double salt (AB) is then possible, and crystallisation proceeds jjari passu 
with the solution of B, and results finally in the complete expulsion of A 
from the solution in cases where the attraction between A and B exceeds 
the cohesion of either A or B. While, on the other hand, if this is not 
the case the expulsion is only partial. This explanation is strongly 
supported by the stability and definite character of the well-defined 
double salts, which are totally expelled from solution, and by the insta- 
bility of those salts which are only partially expelled, and also by the 

« Published Phil. Mag. January 1886. 



ON VAPOUB PEESSUBES AND EEFEACTIVE INDICES OF SALT SOLUTIONS. 207 

fact that the saturated solutions of pairs of salts which do not crystallise 
together are unaffected by excess of either salt. 

IV. Eorpansion of Salt Solutions. 

The results described in the previous Report have been completely 
examined, and will soon be pubhshed. The following may be added to 
the conclusions already arrived at : — 

The effect of heat on the volume of a solution of a salt depends on 
the solubility of the salt as a function of the temperature. If the solu- 
bility be little affected by temperature then the volume curve approaches 
more nearly to a straight line than when the solubility is largely de- 
pendent on temperature. 

In the former case the effect of heat is simpler than in the latter. In 
the one the solution is practically of the same strength throughout. In 
the other the rise of temperature is attended not only by expansion, biit 
also by what is practically dilution of the solution. Thus it is at present 
impossible to trace out a further connection between solubility and rate 
of expansion of a salt in solution. 

V. Water of Crystallisation. 

An examination of the evidence derivable from the results of thermo- 
chemical investigations, and also a comparison of the molecular volumes 
of dissolved salts, lead to the conclusion that no part of the water in a 
solution of a hydrated salt can be said to be in a different relation to the 
salt from that of the remainder of the water. In other words, water of 
crystallisation cannot be recognised in solution either by thermal or 
volume changes — it is indistinguishable from the rest of the water. The 
argument based on colour changes of solutions of C0CI2, &c., does not 
affect the above, for it is not contended that the salt is anhydrous in the 
Bame sense as it is when dried at 150° C. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Ramsay, 
TiLDEN, Maeshall, and W. L. Goodwin (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of investigating certain Physical Constants of 
Solution, especially the Expansion of Saline Solutions. 

Graham, in a series of interesting experiments, has shown that saline 
solutions absorb water- vapour from a saturated atmosphere (' Edin. Journ. 
of Science,' xvi. 1828, pp. 326-335 ; also Schweigger, ' Journ.' liii. 1828, 
pp. 249-264). This process he called inva'poration. His experiments 
were made by enclosing, in a tin canister containing water, glass basins 
in which were equal weights of (generally) saturated solutions. After a 
few days the canister was opened, the dishes weighed, and the gain of 
water by invaporation thus determined. The relative rates of invaporation 
thus became approximately known. But these rates estimated in this 
way are influenced by the rate of diffusion of water- vapour in air, and by 
the rates of diffusion of the salts in water. The latter especially must be 
taken into account in interpreting Graham's results. A salt with strong 



208 REPORT— 1886. 

attraction for water, but low rate of diffusion, might show less invapora- 
tion than one with a weaker attraction for water but a higher rate of 
diffusion. Thus, potassic chloride diffuses faster than sodic chloride, but 
the latter has the greater attraction for water vapour. If solutions of 
these two salts were confined in a space containing water, the sodic chlo- 
ride solution would at first attract water more rapidly, but the consequent 
dilution of the surface layer would not be counterbalanced by diffusion so 
rapidly as in the case of potassic chloride ; so that the rates of invapora- 
tion might become equal, or that of potassic chloride even greater. Some 
experiments made by us have given indications of these phenomena. 

If the rates of invaporation, not complicated by diffusion, could be 
accurately measured, a comparison of such measurements would be 
valuable, by giving indications of the formation of hydrates in solution. 
They would also be of value in considering the ' Correlation of Physical 
Properties of Solution with Concentration,' in the manner indicated by 
D. Mendeleeff (' Ber. Deut. Ch. Ges.' xix. 370-389). But the subject can 
be investigated in a different way and with promise of more fruitful 
results. When two salts are enclosed in the same space with a certain 
quantity of water, the salts tend to keep the atmosphere dry by con- 
densing the water- vapour. This goes on until all the water is evaporated 
except that small portion which remains in the condition of vapour. The 
question at once presents itself, in what proportion will the two salts 
divide the water between them ? The proportion will be influenced, 
probably, by the relative masses of the salts and the water, and by the 
temperature, as well as by the relative attractions of the salts for water. 
If the salts are in molecular proportion, they might be expected to divide 
the water between them much in the same way as equivalents of caustic 
soda and potash with a simple equivalent of sulphuric acid in solution. 
That is, if the attraction of salts for the water which dissolves them is of 
the same nature as that between acids and bases, the partition would be 
in proportions representing the relative attractions of the salts for water. 
It was to test the correctness of this reasoning that the following experi- 
ments were made. 

The salts were carefully dried, and weighed out in small test-tubes 
(5'5 cm. long and 1 cm. diam.). The quantities used were in the ratio of 
the molecular weights. Thus, in the first experiment (I.) the masses of 
the salts were two-hundredths of the gram-molecules, and the quantity of 
water eight-hundredths of the gram-molecule. As a rule, the water was 
divided between the two salts, because by so doing we thought to hasten 
the completion of the experiment. Experience, however, has decided us to 
abandon this method in favour of enclosing the water along with the salts, 
the three in separate small tubes, so that the process of invaporation may 
be watched from the beginning. The salts and water were sealed in a 
large glass tube (about 10 cm. long and 4 cm. in diameter) before the 
blowpipe. When the small tube containing the water appeared to be 
dry, the enclosing tube was opened, the small tubes with their contents 
weighed, and then resealed. Invaporation was very slow, owing to the 
small surface exposed by the liquids in the narrow tubes. Shallow 
vessels would have been better, but the hermetical enclosing of these pre- 
sented such difficulties that the narrow tubes were used in preference. 
Heating to 100° C. and cooling gradually was also tried as a means to 
hasten invaporation. This was found to have the desired effect up to a 
certain point, beyond which the water began to condense on the enclosing 



EXPANSION OF SALINE SOLUTIONS. 



209 



tube. The results of the experiments are here put in tabular form. In 
the first column the formula of the substances in the small test-tubes are 
given ; in the second, the masses of the substances in grams ; in the third 
the number of days between the first sealing and the first opening of the 
enclosing tube ; in the fourth, the quantities of water adhering to the 
salts at the time of first opening ; and following are pairs of columns 
giving similar data for the second, third, and fourth times of opening. 
The quantities of salts and of water are also given in molecules, 100 
molecules of water being taken as the basis of calculation. The ' period * 
in each case is the time elapsed from the beginning of the experiment. 



Experiment I. 



Substances 


Mass in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


Water in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in daj's 


Water in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


Water in 
grams 


NaCl. 
KCl . 

H,0 . 

NaCl . 
KCl . 

H,0 . 


1-1672 

1-4882 

1-44 


56 


0-8058 
0-6292 


159 


1-1978 
0-2332 


172 


1-2392 
0-1900 


1-43.^0 


1-4310 


14292 


Number of 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


25 
25 

100 


55-96 
43-69 


83-18 ! 
16-19 


8606 
13-19 


99-65 


99-37 1 


99-25 



Experiment II. 







1 fl 




1 a 




1 a 




1 a 




I 


.a « 


iod of 
oratio 
days 


11 


iod of 
oratio 
days 


a 


iod of 
oratio 
days 


a 

•^ (71 


lod of 
oratio 
days 


a 

si 
















^ a. 




3 


g bo 


ju a a 


^ '^ 


<u oi a 


t2^ 




|« 


Oh >-" 


1^ 


CO 




a 




_a 




_e 




a 




NaCI 


0-5836 


111 


9516 


155 


1 1160 


276 


1.3331 


290 


1-3386 


KCl. 
H,0. 


0-7441 
1-44 


— 


0-4866 


— 


0-8166 


— 


0-0991 


— 


0-0976 


1-4382 


1 4326 


1-4322 


1-4362 


'SSI 


a S 




.s s 


a S 
























Oi 3 












u a 




S~i S 




^ o 




O <J 




d, o 




<D U 






NaCl 


a.2 




1-^ 




^5 




^1 






12-5 


66-08 


77-50 


92-58 


92-96 


KCl. 
HjO. 


12-5 
100 


— 


33-79 


— 


21-99 


— 


6-88 


— 


6-78 


99-87 


9949 


99-46 


99-74 



1886. 



210 



REPOBT 1886, 



Experiment III. 



1 

JO 

s 

03 


.S " 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


cl 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


CI 
•^ en 

> fcJO 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


CI 

•« CO 

g 6 

S CO 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


d 

Si 


NaCl 
KCl. 

NaCl 
KCl. 


0-1459 
0-1860 

1-44 


111 


0-6788 
0-7710 


143 


0-7020 
0-7370 


249 


0-7493 
0-6831 


262 


0-7539 
0-6785 


1-4498 


1-4390 


1-4324 


1-4324 


11 


.as 




.as 

^1 




3-125 
3-125 

100 


47-14 
53-54 


48-75 
51-18 


52-03 
47-44 


52-35 
47-12 


100-68 


99-93 


99-47 


99-47 



Experiment IV. 



Substances 


Mass in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


Water in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


Water in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


Water in 
grams 


NaCl . 
KCl . 

NaCl . 
KCl . 


0-5836 
0-3721 

1-44 


36 


1-1271 
0-3129 


131 


1-4300 
0-0053 


144 


1-4294 
0-0059 


1-44 


1-4353 


1-4353 


Number of 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


12-5 
6-25 

100 


78-27 
21-73 


99-31 
0-37 


99-26 
0-41 


100 


99-68 


99-67 



EXPANSION OF SALINE SOLUTIONS. 



211 



Experiment V. 



Substances 


Mass in 
grams 


Period of 

invapora- 

tion in 

days 


Water in 
grams 


Period of 

invapora- 

tion in 

days 


Water in 
grams 


NaCl 
LiCl 

NaCl 
LiCl 


1-1672 

0-8474 

1-44 


24 


00034 
1-1506 


56 


0-0024 
11551 


1-1540' 


1-1575 1 

1 


Number of 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


25 
25 

100 


0-24 
79-90 


0-17 
80-22 


80-14' 


— 


80-39 



Experiment VI. 



I 







d 




c 




c 




^ 




s 


fl n 


=►. 


C! 


-^ m 


a 


's-B- 


13 


o-^ m 


n 


a 

03 




ofei' 




>^ fc- CS 

.2 o-a 


2 3 


.S o-a 


zl 


.3 o-a 


51 




ci ^ 


















J 
3 


gbO 


^t^ 


|-=. 


5^^^ 


|.. 


3 C B 


^^ 


Oh >- 


^.. 


'Jl 




p 




a 




c 




_c 




NaCl 


0-5836 


42 


0-0031 


77 


0-0019 


171 


0-0005 


184 


0-0006 


LiCl. 


0-4237 
1-44 


— 


1-4459 


— 


1-4466 


— 


1-4443 


— 


1-4445 


1-4490 


1-4485 


1-4448 


1-4451 




■SJ 


.3 S 


= S 


•SJ 




OS's 




t-< ^ 




I. 3 




^-i S 




•- 3 






























































NaCl 


5 2 




^a 




=^1 




^S 




^S 


12-5 


0-22 


0-13 


0-03 


0-04 


LiCl. 
HjO. 


12-5 
100 


— 


100-62 


— 


100-46 


— 


10030 


— 


100-31 


100-84 


100-59 


100-33 


100-35 



' Part of the water was lost in closing the outer tube. Before opening the first 
time the tube was kept at 12° C. for three days, and before opening the second time 
for six hours at 100° C. 

p 2 



212 



EEPOET 1886. 



Experiment VTI. 



Substances 


Mass in 
grams 


Period of 

invaporation 

in days 


Water in 
grams 


^ o 

Hi 

V a 
a 

177 


Water in 
grams 


a 

^*- .z. 

O ^ X 

■a 2 ^ 
.2 S^ 

;~< £Cl. 
» cs C 
Pi >- 
_C 

191 


Water in 
grams 


NaCl . 
LiCl . 

H„0 . 

NaCl . 
LiCl . 


0-5836 
0-4237 

2-88 


62 


0-4562 
2-4154 


0-6219 
2-2434 


0-6365 
2-2284 


2-8716 


2-8653 


2-8649 


Number of 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 


Water in 
molecules 

21-59 

77 90 


Water in 
molecules 


6-25 
6-25 

100 


15-84 

83-87 


22-10 
77-38 


99-71 


99-49 


99-48 



In discussing these experiments it is to be noted that when the t-wo 
salts were potasrdc and sodic chlorides, the water was divided as nearly 
as possible equally between them, a little being, however, left in its small 
tube. The first weighing was not made until all the water seemed to be 
invaporated by the salts. When the two salts were sodic and lithic 
chlorides, the greater part of the water was given to the latter before en- 
closing in the large tube. Experiments I., II., and III. were made to- 
discover the efiect produced by increasing the relative quantity of water 
(an accident spoiled the experiment coming between II. and III.). It is 
evident from these experiments that sodic chloride invaporates water more 
powerfully than potassic chloride, for, as all the experiments show, the 
sodic solution increases in weight at the expense of the potassic. A 
preliminary experiment made this very apparent. The three tubes were 
enclosed without dividing the water between the salts : after 24 hours 
the sodic chloride had begun to deliquesce, while the potassic chloride was 
quite dry ; after 25 days about one-half of the water was invaporated, 
and, while the potassic chloride was only slightly moist, the sodic 
chloride was dissolved to a considerable extent. In repeating and 
extending our experiments this method (as above indicated) will be 
followed. Our c/«ie/ object, so far, has been to determine how the water 
is divided between the two salts when a condition of equilibrium is 
reached. As might be expected, when the relative quantity of water is 
increased, the process is retarded, as the weaker solutions invaporate 
more slowly. But even with 32 molecules of water to 1 of each of the 
salts, the sodic chloride goes on steadily stealing water from the potassic 
(III.), although, after 15\ days, it has succeeded in abstracting only 5 
per cent, of the whole quantity of water. 

Experiment I., with the greatest relative quantity of salts, is not yefc 
completed. The sodic chloride has, after 172 days, 86 per cent, of the 
water, and is still invaporating. In experiment II., which has lasted 290 
days, the process of invaporation is apparently nearly complete, and the 
result is somewhat surprising. There are 100 molecules of water to 12-5 



EXPANSION OF SALINE SOLUTIONS. 213 

■of each of tlie salts. The sodic chloride has nearly 93 per cent, of the 
water. It is possible that in course of time all the water may be 
attracted by the sodium salt ; in which case we should conclude that the 
force in operation is different from chemical affinity. 

Experiment IV. was made to ascertain the effect of increasing the 
Telative quantity of sodic chloride. The effect is to hasten the invapora- 
tion of water by this salt. After 144 days it has over 99 per cent, of the 
water. Now, it is known that even a saturated solution of sodic chloride 
gives off water- vapour to a dry atmosphere, so that in this final condition 
-of experiment IV. the potassic chloride is in the presence of water- vapour. 
If the force of invaporation (which is probably intimately connected with 
the force of solution) were of the nature of chemism, it would cause com- 
bination of the potassic chloride with the water, and the condition of 
•equilibrium would be one in which the relative quantities of water held 
by the two salts would be a measure of their affinities for water. The 
discussion of this point will, however, be better postponed until our ex- 
periments have been further extended. 

In experiments V., VI., VII., sodic chloride is pitted against the 
highly deliquescent lithic chloride. In V., with the same number of 
molecules as in I., the lithic chloride takes all but about one-third per 
cent, of the water; VI. and VII. show the effect of increasing the relative 
quantity of water. (Owing to the rapid deliquescence of the lithic 
chloride, the water is sometimes in slight excess of the theoretical 
quantity.) VI. shows that when the relative quantity of water is 
doubled, the lithic chloride still takes nearly all after 42 days, and quite 
all after 173 days. In this case 12*5 molecules of the salt have in- 
vaporated 100 molecules of water. When the relative quantity of water 
is again doubled, as in VII., an unexpected result is obtained. As in V. 
and VI., the greater part of the water was given to the lithic chloride 
before enclosure. After 177 days, we find that the sodic chloride is gain- 
ing water, and this continues until in 129 days it has gained about 6 per 
cent, of the whole quantity. The condition of equilibrium is not yet 
reached, but there is clearly a limit to the quantity of water which the 
lithic chloride can hold against the attraction of the sodic chloride. 

There is a wide field of research opening up in the direction indicated 
by these few experiments. We shall extend the investigations to other 
salts, particularly chlorides, with a view to testing more fully the effect 
of increasing the relative quantities of water and of one of the salts ; and 
shall also attempt to determine the influence, if any, of temperature. 
With large proportions of water, experiments conducted at the tempera- 
tures at which cryohydrates are formed may yield interesting results. 



Report (Provisional) of the Committee, consisting of Professors 
McLeod and W. Ramsay and Messrs. J. T. Cundall and W. A. 
Shenstone (Secretary), appointed to investigate the Influence 
of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other 
'Gases. 

The Preparation and Storage of Oxygen Gas in a Pure State. 
By W. A. Shenstone aiid J. T. Ctjndall. 

Tor the purposes of this investigation it is necessary to provide oxygen 
and other gases in as pure a state as possible, in considerable quantities, 



214 EEPORT— 1886. 

aud to preserve tliem for long periods without change, in order that 
the results of series of experiments made at intervals of several days or of 
weeks shall not be subject to unknown errors. In dealing with oxygen^ 
the presence of nitrogen must especially be guarded against, for it com-- 
biues more freely with oxygen (when the latter gas is present in excess) 
under the influence of the electric discharge than is commonly known to 
be the case. 

The mercury gasholder invented by Bunsen, which has been 
described in ' Watts' Dictionary ' and elsewhere, is hardly suitable for 
collecting gases in the rather large quantities that will be required. A 
similar but much larger gasholder, in which the mercury was replaced 
by sulphuric acid, has been tried. But, apart from the risk of air gaining 
admittance through the sulphuric acid, in which it is to some extent 
soluble, we find that even thoroughly washed oxygen, prepared from 
chlorate of potassium, carries with it a sufficient quantity of suspended 
matter to result in the presence of slight traces of chlorine tetroxide in 
the gas after the gasholder has been refilled several times. After the 
failure of this method of storing oxygen, an attempt was made to prepare 
it by electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid almost saturated with chromic 
anhydride. When the superficial area of the negative electrode em- 
ployed greatly exceeded that of the positive electrode, pure oxygen was 
obtained in this way. When the evolution of oxygen was conveniently^ 
rapid, however, some bubbles of hydrogen escaped the oxidising action 
of the chromic acid and made their appearance. Finally, after the failure 
of an attempt to store pure oxygen by compressing it in iron bottles, the 
apparatus next described was constructed for producing the gas in smaller 
quantities as required. 

In the diagram, A is a cylinder having a capacity of one litre. It can 
be filled with mercury from a reservoir, not shown, through an india- 
rubber tube O, the entrance of bubbles of air carried by the mercury being 
prevented by the air-trap B. E is a flask connected to A by the tube 
J H. In E is placed the material from which oxygen is to be produced. 
G contains phosphorus pentoxide * to remove moisture as far as possible 
from the gas before it is delivered through P into the receiver in which 
it is to be collected. Beyond G is one of Mr. Cetti's patent vacuum taps. 
As this will not prevent the passage of air in the direction a to b, however,, 
it is trapped at C. This trap can be filled with mercury to any desired 
level from a reservoii-, as shown at R and S. The only joints not made 
before the blowpipe are those shown at J, H, and F. These are all 
protected with mercury in the now familiar manner, the india-rubber 
connections being well lubricated and firmly bound with iron wire. 

The materials from which oxygen is to be prepared having been 
placed in E, and everything being in order, A is filled with mercury, t^ is 
closed, t- and fi are opened, and the appai-atus is exhausted through P. 
Oxygen is then generated in E until the whole apparatus, including A, 
is filled. This process of exhausting and refilling is repeated at intervals 
of a few hours two or three times ; and after the third operation a 
specimen may be collected and examined. Such specimens have been 
found to be very fairly satisfactory ; two samples of oxygen which had been 
confined in A for several weeks contained respectively 99'97 and 99"9& 

' We find this substance to be admirably suited for removing suspended solid 
matter from gases. 



SILENT DISCHAKGE OF ELECTRICITY ON OXYGEN AND OTHER GASES. 215 

per cent, of oxygen ; that is to say, 9997 and 99-96 per cent, of the gaa 
was absorbed by melted phosphorus in experiments made upon the two 
samples. 

When the apparatus is not in use the taps t\ t^, t^ are closed, and 
the traps C and D filled with mercury to prevent the entrance of air. 

Oxygen may be delivered from A into any vessel by connecting it to 
P, exhausting it, t^ being closed and Q being clamped to prevent the 
mercury from rising and filling C, and subsequently opening t^, when the 
gas will flow from A into the exhausted vessel. If f be well ground it 
will resist the passage of air sufficiently to permit this to be done. 

If a delivery tube be attached to P, all air may be driven from it by 
flushing it with mercury before proceeding to deliver the oxygen in the 
usual mancer. Thus waste of pure gas is avoided. 

The supplementary tap f and mercury trap D are provided in order 
that accidental breakage of E on the application of heat (when fresh 




VA-;; 



supplies of oxygen are about to be introduced into A) shall not admit air 
to the stock of oxygen already in A. When A, partly empty, is to be 
replenished, t^ is closed, t'^ opened, and heat is applied to E, D being filled 
with mercury to the level S, through which the gas is permitted to 
escape. When E is thoroughly heated and a steady evolution of gas 
has set in, the oxygen is delivered into A. Thus if the replenishment of 
A be not too long delayed, no loss of time results from accidents to E, 
which can at any time be replaced and exhausted, whilst the oxygen 
remaining in A is still available for use, if the taps have been properly 
ground and are thoroughly lubricated. Of course the trap D, like C, 
must be closed by filling it with mercury at all times when escape of 
gas from E is not desired. 

When potassium chlorate is used as the source of oxygen, breakages, E, 
are frequent. Silver oxide is much better, but it is troublesome to obtain 
it perfectly free from carbon dioxide. This has led us to employ a 
mixture of the chlorates of sodium' and potassium in molecular propor- 

' Chlorate of sodium ia apt not to be pure ; it should be carefully examined before 
it is used. 



216 REPORT— 1886. 

tions. We prepare the mixture by thoroughly mixing the recrystallised 
salts, maintaining the product in a state of fusion for some little while in 
an open dish, and subsequently powdering the solid produced on cooling. 
The melting-point of the product is considerably lower than that of 
either chlorate of potassium or chlorate of sodium ; and it gives off its 
oxygen to about the same extent as chlorate of potassium ; that is to say, 
about one-third of it is easily expelled by a moderate heat. 

In conclusion, we are glad to be able to report that we have also con- 
structed most of the rest of the apparatus that will be required in the 
investigation that is before us. We hope, therefore, to make considerable 
progress before the next meeting of the Association. 

Note. — October 10, 1886. Since this report was read we have suc- 
ceeded in connecting all the parts of the oxygen generator and holder 
before the blowpipe by a method described by one of us.' The only 
permanent mercury joint which remains is that at F, which is now 
specially protected against entrance of air. We may, therefore, expect 
to approach still nearer to the attainment of absolutely pure gases for our 
experiments. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and 
Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investi- 
gating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 

The study of isomeric naphthalene derivatives acquires importance from 
a variety of considerations, notably, from the very close relationship of 
naphthalene to benzene, which finds expression in the use of a simple 
hexagon to represent the latter hydrocarbon, the first mentioned being 
symbolised by a double hexagon formed of two benzene hexagons joined 
so that one side is common to both. 

In the case of benzene there are but three possible isomeric di-deriva- 
tives, according to the received theory of the constitution of this hydro- 
carbon ; the formation of these di-derivatives is governed by certain 
very simple ' laws,' the first of which may conveniently be termed the 
^ara-law, the second the meta-\a,w : i.e., mono-derivatives containing a 
hydrocarbon radicle, one of the halogens, NH2, or OH invariably yield as 
chief product a para-di-derivative together with the isomeric ortho-di- 
derivative, the meta-di-derivative being formed, if at all, to but a small 
extent; whereas mono-derivatives containing NO2, SO3H, or COOH 
yield as chief product the me<a-di-derivative, the para- and ortho-deriva- 
tives being formed in relatively small amount. 

Instead of three, naphthalene may give rise to ten isomeric Ji- 
derivatives ; it might therefore be expected that the laws of substitution 
for naphthalene would be proportionally less simple than for benzene : 
thus far, however, this has not been found to be the case, and many of 
the di-derivatives are to be prepared only by indirect methods. The para- 
law obtains equally in the case of naphthalene, being applicable to mono- 
derivatives analogous to those which in the benzene series obey the para- 

• Methods of Glass-hlomiiig, pp. 62-3. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



217 



law ; but an interesting modification of the meta-law, exemplified by the 
behaviour of nitronaphthalene to bromine, nitric acid, and sulphuric 
acid, is to be noted : nitrobenzene under such circumstances would yield 
chiefly the meta-derivative, but in the case of nitronaphthalene the 
attack becomes shifted to the other nucleus, an a -a -derivative being 
formed as represented by the formulae : — 



NO,, 



NO, 



NOo 




NO., 



SO,H 



It would appear from our knowledge of the naphthalene derivatives 
generally that, as a rule, the a-hydrogen atoms (see figure) are those 
which become displaced, and that the /5-atoms are aff'ected only under 
somewhat exceptional conditions — as in the formation of /3-sulphonic 
acids at high temperatures in presence of an excess of sulphuric acid — 
and when an amidogen or hydroxyl group is present. Hence the beha- 
viour of nitronaphthalene above referred to — the absence of similarity in 
the behaviour of the corresponding nitro-derivatives of naphthalene and 
benzene — is not improbably due to the existence in the case of naphthalene 
of a higher law, which it may be permitted to term the ' alpha-law.' 

As naphthalene-/3-sulphonic acid is the only /3-derivative obtainable 
•directly from naphthalene, it appeared to be specially important to study 
the behaviour of the sulphonic derivatives in order to throw light on the 
formation of the /3-mou(isulphonic acid ; and it was to be expected that 
their investigation would furnish results of value in determining the laws 
■of substitution in the naphthalene series : moreover the ease with which 
the sulphonic radicle may be removed by hydrolysis renders the sulphonic 
derivatives especially suitable subjects of study.' 

It will suffice to indicate briefly the character of the results hitherto 
•obtained, reserving a full account for one of the chemical journals. 

The action of sulphuric acid in excess on naphthalene at a tempera- 
ture of 160°-180° has been studied by Ebert and Merz, who isolated 
two distinct acids — an a- and a ji-disuljph.onic acid ; Armstrong and 
Graham (' Chem. Soc. Trans.' 1881, p. 133 ; ' Berichte,' 1882, p. 204) on re- 
examining the product obtained evidence of the presence of other disul- 
phonic acids, but after numerous trials the attempt to separate these was 
for the time abandoned, and attention directed to the preparation of disul- 
phonic acids by other methods less likely to give rise to secondary changes, 
such as readily occur on heating in presence of sulphuric acid. The result 
has been to establish the existence of two acids isomeric with the a- and 
/3-acid of Ebert and Merz. 

y-Naphthalenedisulplionic Acid. — This appears to be the sole pro- 
duct of the action of chlorosulphonic acid, CISO3H, on naphthalene in 
accordance with the equation : CioHg-f 2SO3HCI = C,oB[5(S03H)2 
-f- 2HC1. On distilling its chloride (m. p. 184°) with phosphorus penta- 
chloride, y-dichloronaphthalene is produced : therefore it may be con- 
cluded that y-naphthalenedisulphonic acid is an a-n-derivative of the 
same constitution as the nitronaphthalene derivatives formulated above. 



218 REPORT— 1886. 

Naphthalene-? -fi-disulphonic Acid. — This acid is prepared by acting on 
naphfchalene-/3-mono3ulphonic acid with chlorosnlphonic acid, and is cer- 
tainly the chief product, but it remains to ascertain whether an isomer is 
not produced simultaneously. It is at once converted by the action of 
bromine into a dibromo-ruonosulphonic acid ; this behaviour renders it 
more than probable that the sulphonic radicle introduced by the agency 
of the SO3HCI assumes an a- position. 

The two acids prepared by Bbert and Merz by the action of sulphuric 
acid at a high temperature (160°-180°) are in all probability /3-/3-deriva- 
tives ; they are both isomeric with the acids obtained by sulphonating- 
naphthalene-a- and /3-7>io«osulphonic acids by means of SO3HCI : and 
this difference being established between the action of sulphuric acid 
and that of chlorosulphonic acid, it appeared desirable to ascertain the 
behaviour with SO3HCI of the naphthalene derivatives which had pre- 
viously been converted into sulphonic acids in the ordinary manner. The 
derivatives taken were a-nitro-, a-bromo-, a-chloro-, and /3-chloro-naph- 
thalene : these have all been found to yield the same products when 
sulphonated by means of SO3HCI as on treatment with sulphuric acid. 
It is especially noteworthy, however, that from both a-bromo- and 
fi-chloro-naphthalene an acid has been obtained in small quantity isomeric 
with the ^ara-sulphonic acid previously known, and which forms the 
chief product ; this secondary product is probably also an a-o -derivative 
like the primary product, but of the same series as the nitro-sulphonic 
acid formulated above. Two isomeric sulphonic acids also are obtained 
from /3-chloronaphthalene. One, which is the chief product when 
SO3ECI is used, has been shown by Arnell to correspond to 0-dichloro- 
naphthalene, while the other corresponds to t-dichloronaphthalene, and 
therefore to the /3-disnlphonic acid of Bbert and Merz, and to Schaefer's 
betanaphtholsulphonic acid. Probably 0-dichloronaphthalene is the 
ortho- or 1-2 modification, and it may almost be regarded as established 
that £-dichloronaphthalene is a /3^-/33'-derivative ; so that, while «- and 
^-chloronaphthalene both behave in the manner to be expected from the 
analogy subsisting between benzene and naphthalene, evidence is afforded 
by the production of the a'-a'^'-derivative from the one and of the iP-jo^'- 
derivative from the other of the existence in the naphthalene molecule, in 
addition to the ' para-plane ' of benzene, of two ' planes of symmetry,' as. 
it were, in which an inflaence is exercised. 

The study of the action of bromine on aqueous solutions of the naph'- 
thalene-sulphonic acids has also furnished results of interest. It has long 
been known that when naphthalene-a-sulphonic acid is treated with 
bromine the sulphonic group is displaced, dibromonaphthalenes being 
formed, whereas the /J-sulpbonic acid is converted into a dibromonaph- 
thalene- sulphonic acid, the SO3H group retaining its place. It now 
appears that this behaviour of the two acids is fairly typical. Thus the- 
two disulpbonic acids of Ebert and Merz — which are doubtless both /3-/3- 
derivatives — yield isomeric dibromonaphthaquinonemowosulphonates on 
treatment with bromine in excess — ^only one of the sulphonic radicles, 
viz., that which is contained in the Cg groap which is oxidised, being 
displaced. The isomeric dibromomonosulphonic acids obtained by 
treating (a) naphthalene /3-monosulphonic acid and (h) the ?-/3-disul- 
phonic acid above described with bromine are finally converted by the 
action of bromine into the same tetrabromonaphthaquinone, the sulpho- 
nic radicle being displaced, although in the /3-position, in consequence 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 219' 

of the oxidation to quinone of the Cg group in which it is located. The 
y-disnlphonic acid — which is doubtless an a-a-derivative — readily parts 
with both its sulphonic radicles, yielding as final products dibromonaphtha- 
quinone and what appears to be a hexabromonaphthalene. A further 
illustration of the stability of a /3-sulphonic radicle is afforded by the 
behaviour of (Schaefer's) betanaphtholsulphonic acid with bromine, the 
end product being a bromohydroxyquinones«?p/iO?i.aie. 

The results thus briefly recorded have been obtained with the 
assistance of Messrs. F. W. Streatfield, S. Williamson, and W. P. 
Wynne, B.Sc. 

It is anticipated that by the time of the next meeting of the Asso- 
ciation the investigation of isomeric naphthalene derivatives will have 
been carried sufficiently far to render possible a fairly complete statement 
of the laws of substitution in the naphthalene series in the shape of a 
final report. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. McK. Hughes,. 
Dr. 11. Hicks, and Messrs. H. Woodward, E. B. Luxmoore,. 
P. P. Pennant, mid Edwin Morgan, appointed for the purpose 
of exploring the Caves of North Wales. Drawn up by Dr. H. 
Hicks, Secretary. 

The explorations conducted by the Committee have been confined to the 
caverns of Ffynnon Benno and Cae Gwyn, in the Vale of Clwyd. These 
caverns had been explored in preceding years by Dr. H. Hicks and Mr. 
E. B. Luxmoore, some of the results being given in a paper communicated 
to the Geological Section of the Association in 1885, but more fully in a 
paper in the ' Quart. Jour. Geolog. Soc.,' Feb. 1886. 

Among the remains discovered in these two caverns up to the com- 
mencement of the work this year there were over eighty jaws belonging to 
various animals, and more than 1,300 loose teeth, including about 400' 
rhinoceros, 15 mammoth, 180 hyaena, and 500 horse teeth. Other bones 
and fragments of bones occurred also in very great abundance. Several 
flint implements, including flakes, scrapers, and lance-heads, were found 
in association with the bones. The most important evidence, however,, 
obtained in the previous researches was that bearing on the physical 
changes to which the area must have been subjected since the caverns 
were occupied by the animals. During the excavations it became clear 
that the bones had been greatly disturbed by water action, that the sta- 
lagmite floor, in parts more than a foot in thickness, and massive stalac- 
tites had also been broken and thrown about in all positions, and that 
these had been covered afterwards by clays and sand coutainiug foreign 
pebbles. This seemed to prove that the caverns, now 400 feet above ord- 
nance datum, must have been submerged subsequently to their occupation 
by the animals and by man. One of the principal objects, therefore, 
which the Committee had in view this year was to critically examine 
those portions of the caverns not previously explored, so as to endeavour 
to arrive at the true cause of the peculiar conditions observed. Work 
was commenced at the end of May and carried on during the whole of 
June and parts of July and August. 



:220 



BBPORT — 1886. 



Gae Gwyn Cave, 

When tlie explorations were suspended last year it was supposed that 
we had just reached a chamber of considerable size, but after a few days' 
work this year it was found that what appeared to be a chamber was a 
gradual widening of the cavern towards a covered entrance. The posi- 
tion of this entrance greatly surprised us, as hitherto we had believed 
that we were gradually getting further into the limestone hill. The rise 
in the field at this point, however, proved to be composed of a considerable 
thickness of glacial deposits heaped up against a limestone cliff. As the 
materials covering the bone-earth within and at the entrance were chiefly 
sands and gravels, it was found necessary to suspend operations in that 
direction and to ask the landlord (E. Morgan, Esq.) for permission to 
open a shaft directly over this entrance from the field above. As this 




t. 6 in. 

Brown clay with boul- 
ders, 2 ft. 9 in. 
Yellow loamy clay, 7 in. 
Gritty boulder clay, 9 in. 

Stiff reddish clay with 

boulders, 2 ft. 3 in. 
Sand, 2 in. 
•Purple clay, 10 in. 

Sand with boulders, 1 ft. 
Tin. 

■Gravelly sand with boul- 
ders and bands of purple 
clay, 2 ft. 2 in. 

•Sandy gravel, 2 ft. 

.Fine banded sand, 1 ft. 
5 in. 

•Red laminated clay and 
bone-earth, Nrith angu- 
lar fragments of lime- 
stone and a few boul- 
ders. Contiiined also a 
flint-flake, from 2 to 5 ft. 

A. Carboniferous limestone. f) Position of the flint flake. 

Fig. 1. — Section at New Entrance to Cae Gwyn Cave. 

necessitated the removal of a considerable surface of land and caused 
some damage to the field the Committee feel that their special thanks are 
due to Mr. Morgan for his kindness in so readily acceding to their appli- 
cation. This shaft, as at first opened, was about nine feet across at the 
surface and over five feet at the bottom. It was subsequently widened 
at the bottom in consequence of some falls, and the lower part, excepting 
at one point, had to be carefully faced with timber. The upper part is now 
much widened and sloped. The shaft was about twenty feet in depth, 
and the deposits as shown in fig. 1 were made out in it. These were care- 
fully measured by Mr. C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S., Mr. Luxmoore, and the 
writer during the prosecution of the work. Below the soil, for about 
eight feet, a tolerable stiff boulder clay, containing many ice-sci'atched 



ON THE CAVES OF NORTH "WALES. 



221 



boulders and narrow bands and pockets of sand, was found. Below this 
there were about seven feet of gravel and sand, with here and there bands- 
of red clay, having also many ice-scratched boulders. The next deposit 
met with was a laminated brown clay, and under this was found the bone- 
earth, a brown, sandy clay with small pebbles and with angular fragments 
of hmestone, stalagmite, and stalactites. On June 28, in the presence of 
Mr. G. H. Morton, F.G.S., of Liverpool, and the writer, a small but well- 
worked flint-flake was dug up from the bone-earth on the south side of 
the entrance. Its position was about eighteen inches below the lowest 
bed of sand. Several teeth of hytena and reindeer, as well as fragments 



Sand 



Laminated clay 



Bone earth 
(Bandy clay with pebbles, &c.) 



Gravel . . 
(Mainly local materials) 

Fig. 2. — Section in Cae Gwj-n Cave, near tne New Entrance. 




Sandy clay 
Laminated clay 



Bona earth 
(Sandy clay with pebbles, &c.) 




Gravel 
(Mainly local materials) 



Fig. 3. — Section in Cae Gwyn Cave, about 16 feet from the New Entrance. 

of bone, were also found at the same place, and at other points in the 
shaft teeth of rhinoceros and a fragment of a mammoth's tooth. One 
rhinoceros tooth was found at the extreme point examined, about six feet 
beyond and directly in front of the entrance. It seems clear that the 
contents of the cavern must have been washed out by marine action 
during the great submergence in mid-glacial time, and that they were 
afterwards covered by marine sands and by an upper-boulder clay, iden- 
tical in character with that found at many points in the Vale of Clwyd 
and in other places on the North Wales coast. Figs. 2 and 3 ex- 
plain the order of the deposits as found within the cavern. Fig. 3 



222 REPORT — 1886. 

was taken at a distance of about sixteen feet from the entrance at the 
shaft, and fig. 2 just within that entrance. The order in that por- 
tion of the cavern examined this year accorded in the main with that 
found during the previous researches, but within the entrance there was 
a greater thickness of sand, less of the laminated clay, and more bone- 
earth than in the other parts of the cavern. The bone-earth seems to 
diminish in thickness rather rapidly outwards under the glacial deposits, 
but it was found as far out as the excavations have been made. Here 
the bone-earth rests directly on the limestone floor, with no local gravel 
between, as in the cavern. 

It would be interesting to know how far the cave earth extends under 
the glacial deposits, but this could only be ascertained by making a deep 
cutting through the terrace of glacial deposits, which extends for a con- 
siderable distance in a westerly direction. The glacial deposits here are 
undoubtedly in an entirely undisturbed condition, and are full of smooth 
and well-scratched boulders, many of them being of considerable size. 
Among the boulders found are granites, gneiss, quartzites, flint, felsites, 
diorites, volcanic ash, Silurian rocks, and limestone. Silurian rocks are 
most abundant. It is clear that we have liere rocks from northern sources, 
along with those from the Welsh hills, and the manner in which the lime- 
stone at the entrance to the cavern in the shaft is smoothed from the 
north would indicate that to be the main direction of the flow. The 
marine sands and gravels which rest immediately on the bone-earth are 
probably of the age of the Moel Tryfaen and other high-level sands, and 
the overlying clay with large boulders and intercalated sands maybe con- 
sidered of the age of the so-called upper-boulder clay of the area. The 
latter must evidently have been deposited by coast-ice. Whether the 
caverns were occupied in pre- or only in inter-glacial times it is difficult 
to decide, but it is certain that they were frequented by pleistocene 
.animals and by man before the characteristic glacial deposits of this area 
were accumulated. The local gravel found in the caverns, underlying the 
bone-earth, must have been washed in by streams at an earlier period, 
probably before the excavation of the rocky floor of the valley to its 
present depth. From the glacial period up to the present time excavation 
has taken place only in the glacial deposits, which must have filled the 
valley up to a level considerably above the entrances to the caverns. The 
characteristic red boulder clay with erratic blocks from northern sources is 
found in this area to a height of about 500 feet, and sands and gravels in 
the mountains to the S.E. to an elevation of about 1,400 feet. The natural 
conclusion therefore is that the caverns were occupied by an early pleisto- 
cene fauna and by man anterior to the great submergence indicated by the 
high-level marine sands, and therefore also before the deposition of the 
so-called great upper-boulder clay of this area. As there is no evidence 
against such a view it may even be legitimately assumed that the ossi- 
ferous remains and the flint implements are of an earlier date than any 
glacial deposits found in this area. 

Ffynnon Beuno Cave. 

This cavern, which yielded the greatest number of bones in the 
previous researches, has now been cleared out in all those parts where 
the deposits appeared to have been undisturbed by man. A considerable 
addition to the number of bones and teeth has been made this year, but 
DO new forms have to be added to those already mentioned. 



ON THE CAVES OF NORTH WALES. 223 

The animal remains fonnd in both caves, as defined by Mr. W. Davies, 
P.G.S., of the British Museum, comprise teeth and bones of eleven genera 
and sixteen species, as shown by the annexed list : — 

Lion (Felis Zeo, var. spelma). Bovine (Bos ? Bison?). 

Wild cat (F. catusferus). Great Irish deer (Cervus giganteus) . 

Spotted hysena (H. crocuta, var. Red deer (Cervus elaphiis). 

speloea). Roebuck (0. capreohis). 

Wolf (Canis lupus). Reindeer (C. tarandus). 

Fox (G. vulpes). Horse (Eqtius cabalhis). 

Bear (Ursus, sp.). Woolly rhmoceros (B.fdcliorrhinus). 

Badger (Meles taxus). Mammoth (Elephas primigenius) . 
Wild boar (Sus scrofa). 



Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. 
Prestr'ich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G-. 
BoNNEY, Dr. H. W. Crosskey (Secretary), and Messrs. C. E. De 
Range, H. G-. Fordham, J, E. Lee, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, 
J. Plant, and R. H. Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological cha- 
racters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, 
and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with 
the same, and taking measures for their preservation. 

The attention of the Committee has been called by Professor Hughes 
to boulders near Kendal and Settle, which are perched npon pedestals of 
limestone, and are striated in the direction of the main iceflow of the 
district, whereas the surface of the surrounding block bears no traces of 
glaciation. 

These boulders appear to have been transported to their present 
position, and placed npon the bare striated rock under exceptional local 
conditions, and the pedestals appear to be portions of the surrounding 
rock protected from denuding agents by the overlying boulder. 

The Committee hope to be able to secure the preservation of these 
boulders. 

Mr. Plant reports a remarkable assemblage of blocks in the drift in 
the valley of the Soar, near Leicester. Excavations to the depth of 30 
feet have been made in various parts of the river valley, and after passing 
through the alluvium the boulder clay has been reached. Thousands of 
erratics have been found. Half of the erratics were from the Charnwood 
district, and of the remainder a great many were from the Permian sand- 
stones and Carboniferous rocks of the Ashby coalfield, with blocks of 
mountain limestone from Staunton, Harold, and Breedon — a distance of 
fifteen to eighteen miles north-west. The I'est are from the east side of 
the Pennine chain, forty to fifty miles distant north-east. 

On a ridge near the Victoria Road, south of Leicester, upwards of 200 
erratics have been uncovered. Millstone grit, mountain limestone, and 
lower oolite blocks, more or less striated, were found mixed with Cham- 
wood syenites. The height of the ridge is 260 feet above the sea, and 
110 feet above the present valley of the Soar. 



224 EEPORT — 1886. 

In the drift at Clarendon Park, south-east of Leicester (310 feet)^ 
many hundreds of boulders have been exposed during recent excavations. 
Some of the millstone grit blocks must have travelled forty or fifty miles. 
Lumps of coal were also found which must have travelled seventeen 
miles from the north-west. 

Dr. Crosskey and Mr. Fred W. Martin record a group of boulders found 
on the road between Shiffnal and Tong. This group consists of a fine 
collection of Lake rocks and Criffel granites. They evidently travelled 
together to their present position. A catalogue of these boulders will be 
given in the next Report. 

The Committee call especial attention to the grouping of the erratics 
found in different districts, and also to the evidence presented that the 
Chamwood district was the centre of local ice action. 

On the Glacial Phenomena of the Midland District. By Dr. Ckosskey. 

The object of the paper is to indicate some of the problems raised by 
the glacial phenomena of the Midland district, and point out tbe typical 
sections by which they ai-e illustrated. 

It is necessary to avoid the confusion caused by the vague use of the 
term ' boulder clay.' Seven or eight different beds have, in fact, been 
designated by the term ' boulder clay ' ; and it has become absolutely 
necessary to separate the deposits from each other and record their distinct 
characteristics. 

The first question is. What are the lowest deposits of glacial age in 
the Midlands ? What is found at the base of the masses of clay, sand, and 
gravel scattered over the district ? Is there any deposit of the age of the 
lower boulder clay or Till of Scotland ? The lowest of the beds known in 
the Midlands may be seen at California, near Harborne. It consists of a 
thick clay filled with angular and striated erratics of Welsh origin, com- 
pactly pressed together and intermixed with fragments of rocks from the 
locality, and is about 480 feet above the sea. This boulder clay is fol- 
lowed by a series of sands and gravels, which are covered by a consider- 
able mass of tenacious ' india-rubber ' clay with erratics scattered 
somewhat sparsely through it ; and this upper clay is capped by a second 
series of sands and gravels, more or less intermixed with clay. 

The lower boulder clay is more intensely glacial in character and more 
analogous to the Scotch Till than any other yet described in the district. 
Whatever its origin, it belongs to the period of extreme ice action. Of 
another type of boulder clay an example may be seen at Wolverhampton. 
This boulder clay contains a mixture of erratics. A large number of its 
erratics are from the Lakes and some are fi'om Scotland, while flints from 
the east also occur. In the ordinary Scotch Till, when the trend of the 
valleys radiating from the central eminences is followed, the course over 
which the erratics travelled can be traced. But the Wolverhampton 
boulder clay marks the meeting-place of erratics from various quarters. 
An example of a third series of beds, possibly belonging to the same age, 
may be seen in a cutting at Soho, near Birmingham, where clays and 
sands, containing erratics, are strongly contorted. While the material of 
these beds is probably lower glacial, the contortions must have been sub- 
sequent to its deposition, and indicate the work of another age. How 
far this series of lower beds may be attributed to the action of land ice 
or of floating ice is an open question. 



ON THE ERKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 225 

The second question is, Are there any Midland glacial beds referable 
to the period of glacial subsidence ? Two series of deposits and of 
erratics also have to be taken into account — those representing the period 
of subsidence and those representing the period of re-elevation. During 
the gradual subsidence of the ice-covered land, erratics would be floated 
off as its various points became successively immersed, and deposits would 
also be formed at the sea-bottom. These middle glacial clays, sands, and 
gravels occur at various points. Fossils have been found near Welling- 
ton, Shropshire, Astarte borealis being among them. In beds at Lilies- 
hall, Salop (463 feet), three arctic species occur. The upper boulder 
clay (worked for bricks through the district) contains erratics, which 
appear cleai-ly to have fallen into it, and altogether differs from the lower 
bed. It is a mass accumulated during subsidence. 

The third question is. What signs are there of ice action during the 
re-elevation of the land ? During the process of re-elevation the marine 
clays and sands would be washed and re-sorted by currents, and the sea 
would be covered by icebergs floating away from our present mountains, 
which would then be islands in a glacial sea. The Midlands now consti- 
tute a table- land. This table-land would at this period be the shallow part 
of the sea against which icebergs would be stranded. At Icknield Street, 
Birmingham, the rock has been smashed and a large collection of Welsh 
erratics flung against it. One of the most marked characteristics of this 
period would be the distribution of fragments from the present highlands 
of the Midlands. The present highlands of the Midlands would then be 
low-lying islands, which would be covered with ice. By the breaking 
away of the ice-foot around them blocks would be distributed over the 
Bea-bottom in their immediate neighbourhoods. Rowley Hill blocks are 
found eight or nine miles off. Boulders torn from Charnwood are abun- 
dantly spread over many acres for many miles, and must have been carried 
by local ice. Fragments from the Malvern Hills have been scattered 
through the plains around. 

Erratics from the mountains of Wales, the Lakes, and Scotland also 
must have been brought by the icebergs travelling from those centres 
as the mountains became higher and higher. The work done during 
re-elevation must be distinguished from that done during subsidence. 

The surface erratic blocks, so remarkably developed in the Midlands, 
cannot be roughly explained away in connection with any one portion of 
the epoch, and present complicated problems. Some erratics now upon 
the surface may have been originally imbedded in clays and sands, which 
have been washed away, and have really belonged to the ancient boulder 
clay. Erratics were dropped by icebergs during the submergence of the 
land when there was a succession of ever- varying island boundaries. 
Erratics were also dropped during re-elevation when there was an ever- 
increasing moui tainous area from which they could be derived. 

Facts have to be noted in connection with the following points : — 

(i.) The origin of the erratics. — Some were derived from a distance — 
i.e., from W. Scotland, the Lakes, and Wales. Others were of local origin 
and of local range, as from Charnwood, Rowley, and Malvern. Others 
mark the pushing in of the debris derived from chalky boulder clay. 

(ii.) The heights of erratics above the sea. — Erratics are found in the 
Midlands on heights extending from comparatively low levels to 900 feet. 
They could not therefore have been deposited in their present positions 
at one and the same time. They must indicate a succession of events. 
1886. Q 



226 REPORT— 1886. 

(iii.) The position of definiie groups of erratics in relation to each other. 
For example, around Birmingliam and Bromsgrove the erratics are 
chiefly "Welsh ; but a vast collectioB of Scotch and Lake erratics lies right 
across the path the Welsh erratics must have taken. 

(iv.) The distribution of erratics in relation to the physical geography 
of the district. — On the table-land north of Wolverhampton, Lake and 
Scotch rocks are intermixed, the Scotch being abundant. Journeying 
westward the intermixture becomes more complete. The stream of 
Welsh erratics crosses the northern stream ; then the Welsh erratics be- 
come more and more abundant, only a few northern stragglers being 
found, until at Clent and Bromsgrove not a single erratic of granite has 
yet been found among thousands of Welsh origin. 

Taking a line of country in another direction — between Wolverhamp- 
ton and Stafford — cretaceous and Jurassic debris appears. The same 
■debris may be noted pushing itself around Coventry. 

(v.) The distribution of erratics in relation to the physical geography 
of England and Wales. — The various Midland glacial deposits cannot be 
understood apart from a careful examination of their relation to the 
various levels of the plains, highlands, and mountains of the whole of the 
surrounding country. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Bauerman, Mr. 
F. W. EuDLER, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Dr. Johnston-Lavis, for 
the Investigation of the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and 
its neighbourhood. Drawn tip by H. J. Johnston-Lavis, M.D., 
F.G.S. (Secretary). 

During the last twelve months Vesuvius has shown slight variation from 
the state of activity which it has exhibited during the past few years. 
Lava has from time to time found fresh openings around the higher parts 
of the crreat cone, and has flowed from them one after another, so that 
the intervals of time during which no fluid rock was issuing were very 
short. This regularity of action was, however, broken on June 28, when, 
a lower outlet being formed on the eastern side of the great cone, the 
consequent depression of the lava level in the main chimney resulted in 
the crumbling in of the cone of eruption, which before this date bad 
attained very considerable dimensions. During the whole month of July 
the ash-forming stage prevailed, so that the usual continuous vapour and 
lava-cake ejections were replaced by intermittent puffs of ash and sand- 
laden vapour and accompanied by the ejection of stones. The craterial 
cavity, which is double or bifurcated, which has been excavated within 
the cone of eruption, is of very considerable size, being about 60x80 
metres in diameter. The lava that issued during July, on two occasions 
entirely ci'ossed the Val d'Inferno, and following one of the wooded 
glens or ravines on the property of the Prince of Ottajano destroyed 
a considerable number of trees. These different changes will be made 
apparent by the photographs taken by the reporter and exhibited at 
the meeting. 

In a paper read before the Royal Society the writer has given compara- 
tive curves of the activity of Vesuvius, the barometric pressure, and the 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF VESUVIUS. 227 

rainfall, together with the phases of the moon, deduced from observations 
extending over two years. The method of registering the different 
degrees of activity ' is that described in the report of this Committee last 
j-ear. The results seem to indicate a distinct relationship between 
barometric pressure and the violence of the explosions, or, in other 
words, the ebullition of the lava. On the contrary, the rise and fall of 
lava level within the chimney in relation to tidal action set up within 
the magma is doubtful, though some coincidences are remarkable. The 
short time during which observations have been carried on, and the 
facility with which any true rise and fall of lava may be masked by other 
causes, necessitates the study of the subject for some years longer. 
Observations during the past fourteen months go to confirm the conclu- 
sions arrived at in the paper above mentioned. 

The fourth sheet of the geological map of Monte Somma and 
Vesuvius has been completed, and is exhibited at the meeting. Although 
small — a good portion being sea — much patience and time were necessary, 
owing to the area being thickly inhabited and the ground broken up by 
numerous small gardens, &c., enclosed within high walls. The geology 
of the region mapped in this sheet is slightly more difficult to work out 
than that included in the third sheet (exhibited at the last meeting), 
and is much more intricate in detail. Sheet 5 is in considerable part 
mapped, and the reporter had hoped to have completed it for exhibition 
at the present meeting beside Sheet 4, but he was prevented by a 
number of family troubles, which forcibly diverted his attention during 
the spring and early summer. The reporter regrets to announce that 
the ' Giornale del Vesuvio,' containing a diary of all the observations 
made during the last four years, and which should have appeared eight 
months ago, is not yet published. This delay, however, is not the fault 
of the author. Proofs of nine of the illustrations in phototype are 
exhibited at the meeting. 

The present year is remarkable for the chances it afi'ords for 
studying the subterranean structure of the Campi Phlegrei and the 
volcanic region around Naples. The great main drain, which is to convey 
the sewage of Naples to the Gulf of Gaeta, will traverse the region west 
of Naples on a line running nearly east and west. Before, however,, 
oonstructing this sewer a series of five borings have been made to test 
the ground to be cut through. Observations on the water level, tem- 
perature, and presence of volcanic gases were made. Although these 
borings in themselves have brought no remarkable fact to light, they 
will, combined with the deep artesian well at Lago Fusaro, form 
important documents for the study of the structure of such a complicated 
region. 

Five other borings on or near the renowned Starza or foreshore of 
Pozzuoli, on the works of Sir W. Armstrong, Mitchell, & Co., are in- 
teresting as being within a few hundred yards of the celebrated so-called 
Temple of Serapis. Details of these, two of which are on the beach and 
the other three at varying distances out to sea, will be published together 
with others being made. For the present, however, it may be said that 
these borings fully confirm the opinions generally held as to the oscilla- 
tions of the ground in this district. 

' And not of the quantity of vapour, as erroneously stated in the Abstract, Proc. 
Roy. Soc. No. 243, 1886. 

Q 2 



228 REPOET— 1886. 

The new Cumana Railway, which is to connect Naples with Baia and 
Fusaro, in the first part of its course traverses a tunnel of about a mile 
and a half long, which is cut in the body of the escarpment which consti- 
tutes the rocky amphitheatre backing the west end of Naples. Until the 
present, this was supposed to be composed of a moderately uniform mass 
of pelagonatised basic marine tuff. Under the middle of the Corse- 
Vitt. Emanuele and the Via Tasso the edge of a trachyte flow was 
encountered and traversed for a distance of over 70 metres. The rock 
the reporter has not yet examined microscopically, but it very much 
resembles a simple non-quartziferous, and more probably a sodalite 
trachyte. This line of railway will traverse a number of tunnels and 
cuttings in the Campi Phlegrei, and will have to traverse the hot hill 
which backs Baia, and will no doubt present various uncommon engi- 
neering diflBculties, besides giving some useful information bearing on 
terrestrial physics. 

Lastly, a deep well at present being bored at Ponticelli, on the out- 
skirts of Naples towards Vesuvius, has already been carried to a depth 
of over a hundred inetres, and during the latter half of this a series of 
leucitic lava streams were traversed, showing the great distance to which 
the old flows from Monte Somma reached, and also, that either great 
depression of land has taken place, or that Monte Somma once formed a 
volcanic island. As these different works progress they are and will be 
kept under watch, and all that is interesting will be recorded. 

The reporter has partly prepared the first instalment of a study of 
the ejected blocks of Monte Somma. He has left this subject dormant 
for two reasons : first, the want of further chemical apparatus for the 
execution of many analyses required ; and, secondly, it was considered 
necessary to visit the ancient volcanic region of the Fassathal, in the 
Tyrol, to study some points that could not be worked at in an area 
covered by thick deposits from recent volcanoes. The striking analogy 
between the products of volcanic action and the contact metamorphism 
in the Southern Tyrol and at Vesuvius is so remarkable that many 
interesting facts will come out of the study of these two regions in 
relation to each other. The reporter, having had the opportunity this 
summer of visiting the Tyrol, hopes this winter to be able to study the 
ejected blocks of Monte Somma, which, from the absence of serpentini- 
sation and other secondary changes, will throw much light on the origin 
and mutual relations of many varieties of igneous and metamorphic rocks 
and the genesis of numerous minerals. 

The reporter has treated during the past year various questions 
bearing on Vesuvius and its neighbourhood in papers before the Royal 
Societies of London and Dublin, the Royal Microscopical Society, the 
Geologists' Association, and the Accademia Oronzio Costa, besides various 
articles in ' Nature ' and other periodicals. The reporter's ' Monograph 
of the Earthquakes of Ischia,' after many vicissitudes, was published at 
the end of 1885. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC BOOKS. 229 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridgie, 
Dr. H. WooDWAED, and Professor T. Rdpert Jones {Secretm-y), 
on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks. 



Ge/nera ami Species. 

Ceratiocaris leptodactylus (M'Coy). 

C. Murchisoni (Agass.)- 

C. gigas, Salter. , 

C. valida, nov. 
o. C. attenuata, nov. [? tyrannus, Salt.] 
1(5. C. canaliculata, nov. 

C. Halliana, nov. 

C. Pardoeana, La Touche. 

C ludensis, H. W. 

C. robusta, Salter, C. lata, angusta, 
and minuta, now. 
H. C. papilio and C. stygla, Salter. 
] 3. C. laxa, nov. 

C. Salteriana, J. & W. 

C. cassia, Salter, C. cassioides, nov. 

C. compta, nov. 

C. inornata, M'Coy. 

C. Kuthveniana, nov. 



1. 



7. 

S. 

1). 

10. 



13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Genera and Species. 

18. C. oretonensis and C. truncata, H. W. 

19. C. solenoides (M'Coy), and C. gobii- 

formis, J. & W. 

20. Emmelezoe elliptica M'Coy ; E. tenui- 

striata, nov. ; E. cras.si striata, 
nov. ; E. Maccoyiana, nov. 

21. Xiphocaris ensis (Salter). 

22. Physocaris vesica, Salter. 

23. C. ? spp. 

24. C. ? longicanda (D. Sharpe). 

25. Ptychocaris simplex and Pt. parvnla, 

Ov4k. 

26. Cryptozoe problematica, Packard. 

27. Geological localities of Mr. J. M. 

Clarke's fossil Phyllopods. 

28. List of British Palifiozoic Phyllo- 

carida described in the Third 
and Fourth Reports. 



Introduction. 

Since the publication of the Third Report on Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 
('Brit. Assoc. Report' for 1885) vee have examined many addi- 
tional specimens in the Museums of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Uni- 
versities, and in the Braidwood Museum belonging to Dr. J. R. S. Hunter, 
of Braidwood, near Glasgow. Mr. James Thomson, F.G.S., has given 
us a quantity of nodules, containing remains of Ceratiocaris, from the 
Lesniahago district ; and other friends have lent us several interesting 
specimens. 

We have also again critically examined the fossils enumerated, under 
' Ceratiocaris,' in the ' Third Report,' and, having had numerous finished 
drawings carefully made for illustration of a forthcoming monograph for 
the Palseontographical Society, we have been able to compare them more 
perfectly and with more precise results. 

Thus we find that — 

1. Ceratiocaris leptodactylus (M'Coy), see ' Third Rep.' pp. 11-14, as 
known by its caudal appendages (Cambr. Mus. a/923, a/924, and a few 
others), is distinct from G. Murchisoni, M'Coy, both as to size and 
proportions. "We have traced two rows of pits (bases of prickles) on 
«/924, as exposed. Some similar caudal appendages, M.P.G. \^, occur 
in the Lower Wenlock rock of Helm Knot, Dent, Yorkshire. 

2. G. Murchisoni (Agass.), founded on some specimens figured in 
^ Sil. Syst.' and ' Siluria,' but unfortunately lost (' Third Rep.' p. 11, &c.), 
is represented by several analogous fossils, such as Oxford Mus. B and C ; 
Ludlow Mus. C ; M.P.G. f | and §f . We find only one row of pits on the 
■styles, as exposed. We have been unable to determine its carapace ; but 
■a fragment lying in the same slab with |f may belong to it. The cara- 
paces formerly assigned to G. leptodactylus and C. Murchisoni (' Third 
Rep.' pp. 12, 15) are now regarded as belonging to distinct species. 

3. The caudal appendages of G. Murchisoni have a slight curvature ; 
there are others much like them, but straight, and associated with a 
iarge ultimate segment, much broader than that in M.P.G. |f. (For 



230 REPORT— 1886. 

instance, Oxford Mus. F; M.P.G. Xi; Ludlow Mus. T.) One of these 
(X ^) has been labelled C. gigas by Mr. Salter ; and therefore we adopt 
that name. 

4. The specimens from the Wenlock beds of Dudley and Kirkby 
Lonsdale, described and figured in the ' Geol. Mag.', 1866, p. 204, pi. 10, 
figs. 8 and 9, as belonging to C. MurcMsoni ('Third Rep.' p. 12), are 
too thick and. strong for that, species, and the Dudley example (fig. 8) 
has difierent proportions. We propose to distinguish them as C. valida. 

5. Some abdominal segments (Oxford Mus. E ; Ludlow Mus. L ;. 
B.M. 39403; M.P.G. §f and |f ; 'Third Rep.' p. 20, &c.), narrow in 
proportion to those in one other specimen marked f |, and referred to- 
C. MurcMsoni, and very much narrower and smaller than in C gigas, we 
separate as a new species, to be called C. attemiata. They have straight 
styles and stylets, much shorter than in either of the foregoing. 

6. Two small specimens of crushed telsons (one in Mr. Cooking's 
collection, and the other M.P.G. X ^L, both from the Ludlow series), 
probably smaller than C. MurcMsoni, have a fluted or channelled sculp- 
ture on their upper part, instead of either wrinkles or leaf-pattern ; hence- 
they may be regarded as belonging to a distinct form, for which the 
name canaliculata will be convenient. 

7. One fine large carapace (M.P.G. Xi) and others smaller and less 
definite in some respects (M.P.G. X4-; X^; X^; Ludlow Mus. A; 
Oxford Mus. K & J), and associated with segments and appendages, we- 
regard as distinctive of a new species, though hitherto referred to 
C. leptodactylus (' Third Rep.' pp. 12, 15). The test appears to have 
been of an unusually solid consistency. 

These carapaces in some instances have been much modified by 
pressure, but we trace a close similarity throughout the series, allowing 
for probable differences of age. The shape approximates to that of 
Dr. James Hall's species G. acuminata and F. Schmidt's G. Noetlingi 
('Third Rep.' p. 30). There are marked differences, however, and we 
intend to designate this form G. Halliana, in honour of our old friend^ 
■who began working at these Phyllocarida as early as 1852. 

A perfect specimen of G. acuminata, Hall, has been lately described 
and figured by Dr. Julius Pohlman in the ' Bulletin of the Buffalo 
Society of Natural Sciences,' vol. v. No. 1, 1886, pp. 28, 29, pi. 3, fig. 2. 
Its caudal appendages are much like those of G. papilio and G. siygia, the 
style being relatively short, and the stylets broad and blade-like. The 
appendages in M.P.G. X^^, X ^, and Ludlow Mus. A are different from 
these, being thinner, tapering slowly, and pitted in at least one row, as 
exposed. 

8. G. Pardoeana, La Touche. Two carapaces with segments and 
parts of appendages from Ludlow (Ludlow Mus. B and D ; ' Third 
Rep.' p. 12) diff'er from any other form. One of them (B), with a 
wrong caudal appendage attached to it, in the Ludlow Museum, has been 
labelled ' G. Pardoensis,' and as such is referred to in J. D. La Tonche's- 
' Guidebook to the Geology of Shropshire.' We retain tliis name 
(altering the termination, as it refers to a person, and not a place) for the 
two carapaces here referred to. One of them (B) is of special interest 
as having its rostrum still in place. 

9. The fine large specimen of G. ludensis, H. W. (' Third Report,' 
p. 16), has been again carefully studied, and we find reason to believe 
that the caudal appendage which appears longest in the fossil was not 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THK PALEOZOIC EOCKS. 231 

really the longest, or the true telson, but was one of the ' laterals ' or 
ptylets. Hence the whole animal was probably much longer than our 
former estimate made it. 

10. C. robusta, Salter (' Third Report,' p. 24), being based merely on 
some small caudal appendages (Cambridge Museum a/925 and a/926) 
without carapaces, is troublesome and unsatisfactory to deal with. We 
find some equivalent styles and broad blade-like stylets, like long scalene 
triangles, in G. papilio, stygia, acuminata, &c. ; but none of these seem 
small enough for the several little sets of trifid appendages, more or less 
perfect, which we have met with. C robusta takes in some of these ; but 
Oxford Mas. T is relatively broad, and might be termed lata; B.M. 
58878, from Muirkirk, has very narrow members {anyusta) ; and one set 
in the Owens College is so neat, symmetrical, and small that it might be 
called minuta. 

11. The specimens Ludlow Mns. S. and M.P.G. X-ji^^ jjave each a 
long style and a strong stylet attached to a broken ultimate segment, 
and were regarded as var. longa in the ' Third Report,' p. 25. Although 
not showing the lattice-pattern so often seen on the segments of G. papUio 
and G. stygia, they may well belong to one of those species, and the or- 
nament may have flaked off from the ultimate segment. The study of 
C. papilio and stygia (' Third Report,' pp. 16-20) we have not yet ex- 
hausted by any means. We know, however, that the abdominal segments 
were delicately sculptured with leaf-like or lattice-pattern ornament, the 
points of the triangles pointing upwards, or rather backwards, towards 
the carapace, and one limb of the triangle, where free, running downwards 
and outwards in the other direction. These oblique lines are often visible 
when the triangles have disappeared from wear or decomposition. Among 
many others the segments M.P.G. X^Li; B.M. 41900: Oxford Mus. A 
and H exhibit fine examples of this leaf-like ornament ; and it is visible in 
several more complete individuals in those collections. In the Braidwood 
and Glasgow Museums numerous specimens show it well. See also 
'Third Report,' p. 31. 

12. A small and very delicate specimen, B.M. 59648, has a thin sub- 
ovate carapace, with excessively fine parallel longitudinal stri®, and shows 
14 or 15 segments, some within and five outside the carapace, ending with 
a neat trifid set of appendages. This differs from any other form 
we know ; and probably some small loose bodies, of numerous segments, 
occurring in the Lesmahago shales (' Third Report,' p. 20) may be of the 
same species. Its looseness of structure would suggest the name laxa. 

13. Of G. Salteriana, noticed as a new species in the ' Third Report,* 
p. 23, we have not yet seen any additional specimens. 

14. The specimens which we referred to in the ' Third Report,' pp. 23 
and 24, as C. cassia, Salter, are separable into two forms. G. cassia proper 
is recognised on an interesting slab, of which one counterpart is in the 
Ludlow Museum (E and F) and the other in the Museum of Practical 
Geology ac Jerniyn Street, London (X|). The other somewhat similar, 
but larger and otherwise different, specimens are not unlike in the 
characters of the carapace, but they have more abdominal segments 
exposed and proportionally longer caudal appendages — M.P.G. X^^J 
B.M. 39400 ; Ludlow Mus. K ; Oxford Museum L and Q. These might 
be conveniently named G. cassioides. 

In all the specimens of both kinds the carapace has been apparently 
thin and tough, so as to allow of their being crumpled very much. This 



232 REPORT— 1886. 

condition and the presence of harder parts of their internal organs beneaj;h 
give rise to various tubercular irregularities of the surface, in some cases 
simulating ocular tubercules. There are, however, no real eye- spots. 
There may have been irregularities of the surface, due to the attachment 
of the muscles of the jaws within the body. 

15. An ovate carapace, represented by a mere film, and five abdominal 
segments, with a neat trifid tail, all flattened but very distinct, have no 
close ally among the known forms. The segments are delicately striate, 
with oblique lines on each side, suggesting the name compta, which we 
propose for this specimen — Ludlow Museum, B. 

To G. inornata, M'Coy (' Third Report,' pp. 20, 21), we have nothing 
to add, except that some large specimens (so named, Cambridge Mus., 
b/35) have a greater proportional depth (height) at the ventral border 
than smaller individuals, and yet have the same general outline and pos- 
terior slope, as well as the longitudinal lineate ornament. The presence 
of this sculpturing is not in accordance with the trivial name. These 
large specimens may belong to G. shjgia. 

In the Cambridge Museum is a specimen {hj'iQ) of two abdominal 
segments, with a style and a stylet in good preservation, being convex and 
not injured by pressure. The penultimate segment is smooth, but shows 
faint traces of oblique lines ; the ultimate is quite smooth and cylindrical ; 
the telson (style) is attached by an apparently rounded joint ; and the 
two uropods much resemble some of those referred to G. robusta. This 
specimen is from Benson Knot, and is labelled G. inornata ; but the evi- 
dence of its specific relationship is supported only by its having been 
found in the same rock, and by its size suiting the large form of G. inor- 
nata ? (b 135). It belongs possibly to G. stygia. 

17. From the list for G. inornata., given in the ' Third Report,* we 
have to remove one of the specimens found at Benson Knot, and marked 
' 44342 ' in the British Museum, being decidedly different in outline 
(more ovate), though similarly marked with longitudinal striae. It might 
well be named C. Buthvenia^ia, in memory of the old geological collector 
who laboured for very many years in the Kendal district for Professor 
Sedgwick and others. 

18. G. oretonensis and truncata, H.W. ('Third Report,' pp. 21, 22), 
though near to G. inornata in shape, hold their distinct places as species. 

19. Of 0. solenoides and C. gohiiformis (' Third Report,' p. 22) there 
is nothing new to be stated. 

20. As intimated in the ' Third Report,' pp. 27, 28, the presence of 
the ocular tubercle has an important signification, showing that the 
animal must have had an organ equivalent to the eye sufficiently de- 
veloped to affect the external covering, whether it was adapted for clear 
vision or not. It may be a family distinction; at all events, the oculate 
carapaces have to be removed from Geratiocaris, and we propose that 
M'Coy's G. elliptica be referred to a new genus under the name 
Fjmmelezoe} 

JE. elliptica, M'Coy, is described in the ' Third Report,' p. 27, as 
represented by the type, Cambridge Mus. h/15 ; but Ludlow Mus. G., and 
M.P.G. X -^ and §f differ from it considerably. The first of these is 
shorter and broader (higher), nearly semicircular in outline, with an acute 
and projecting postero-dorsal angle ; and its surface has a fine, almost 

' ''EfifieK'fis, elegant ; ^wfi, life (a termination common in some of M. Barrande's 
genera). 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS. 233 

silky, linear ornament. As a new species this might be known as 
E. tenuisiriata. The specimen X -jJj^ is subovate, larger than either of the 
•othet" two, and is coarsely striate, with longitudinal anastomosing wrink- 
lets, and might be named E. crassistriata. M.P.G. -§4 i^ smaller than 
any of the foregoing, somewhat boat- shaped, between the last and elliptica 
in shape, but not identical with either ; and it is rather coarsely striate 
longitudinally. To this form we propose to give the name E. Mac- 
coyiana, in honour of the first describer of any member of this genus. 

21. At page 26 of the ' Third Report,' we described Salter's Geratio- 
caris ? ensis, and now we are still more confirmed in the opinion that it 
belonged to a distinct genus. Its large size, its curvature, and the 
serration on both the upper and the lower edge, and the profuse spination 
(as shown by pits) on the latter distinguish it from other telsons ; and 
more particularly its lozenge-shaped sectional area, of an unequal rhombic 
form, blunter at the outer (upper) and convex edge than on the other, the 
ridge along the sides not being quite on the medial line, but neai'er the 
outer than the inner edge. We propose the name Xiphocaris ' for this 
■rare genus. 

M. Barrande's Ceratiocaris primula ('Third Report,' p. 32^ has a style 
(or stylet ?) with lozenge- or diamond-shaped section ; but this uropod, 
though curved, is of different dimensions, and is pitted all over. 

22. Physocaris vesica, Salter (' Third Report,' p. 28), we consider as 
having had its abdominal segments shifted from below upwards, and 
turned over on their axis, after death ; and therefore as having been 
•figured upside down. 

23. Of G. ? lata, insperata, and perornata we have no further evidence 
at present. 

24 Ceratiocaris ? longicauda, D. Sharpe (' Third Report,' p. 29), a 
foreign (Portuguese) form within our reach, has been studied in the 
Geological Society's Museum, Burlington House, and shows some inter- 
esting features. Its scientific name was given under the supposition that 
the fossil was a Dithyrocaris, with a longer abdomen than usual ; but its 
cylindrical ultimate segment, its somewhat bayonet- shaped style, and 
blade-like stylets clearly remove it from that genus, as intimated in our 
former notice. It is probably distinct also from Ceratiocaris ; it has some 
analogy with the Devonian Elymocaris ; but at present we cannot fix its 
generic place. 

25. In the ' Sitzungsb. K. bohm. Gea. Wiss.' 1885, M. Ottamar 
Novak, Keeper of the Barrande Collection at Prague, has described a 
new Phyllocaridal genus from the etage F, f 2, in Bohemia, as Ptycho- 
caris, with two species Ft. simplex and Pt. parvula, characterised by a 
strong and obliquely longitudinal ridge or sharp fold on each valve, and 
by an anterior group of three small nodules, an ocular tubercle behind 
them, and some larger but less distinct swellings further back, but still 
in the antero-dorsal region. M. Novak supplies also a Table of the 
vertical distribution of the Phyllocarida in Bohemia. 

In the Annales XIII. Soc. Geol. du Nord, 3^6 Livr. April 1886, p. 
146, M. E. Canu gives a resume of the results of M. O. Novak's re- 
:searches in the Phyllocarida, with some woodcuts of Aristozoe regina, 
Bactropus hngipes, and Ceratiocaris dehilis (see ' Third Report,' pp. 
S2-34), and of Pfyclwcaris simplex (see above). 

26. Dr. A. S. Packard, junior, has described and figured some 

' a'upos, a sword ; Kapls, a shrimp. 



234 



KEPORT 1886. 



peculiar appearances on an internal cast of a Carboniferous Phyllopodous 
carapace from Illinois, as traces of four pairs of lamellate limbs (thoracic 
feet), probably 'the homologues of the exopodites of Nehalia.' He has 
defined the genus and species as Cryptozoe prohlematica (' American 
Naturalist,' Extra, Feb. 1886, p. 156 ; and ' Proceed. Americ. Philosoph. 
Soc' vol. xxiii. No. 123, pp. 380-383). 

27. In a Geological Report, Assembly Document, No. 161, 1885 
(or 1886), Mr. J. M. Clarke has defined the localities and geological succes- 
sion in Ontario County and New Toik, where the Phyllopods which he 
previously described (see ' Second Report,' 1884, pp. 80-86, and ' Third 
Report,' p. 3) have occurred with or without Goniatites. 

28. A list of the British Palaeozoic Phyllocarida described in the 
Third and Fourth Reports. 









Ludlow Beds 




Wenlock Beds 








0) 

■h 

a a 












1 


a 
o 

'i 
^^ 

§« 

u 


S 

Si 


o 
1-1 ■o 


■a 
1°' 


i 

^1 


^-1 


II S 

oj O 

11 


II 

3 


s 

o t-^ 


0) o 








Pa 


|| 

p. OS 

PS 


^ a 


^ 




1 


II 

3a 


P. 
P. 
P 


H 


Dudley 


1. Ceratiocaris leptodac- 


_ 


_ 


_ 





+ 


_ 


_ 




+ 






tylus 
























2. C. Murchisoni 


— 


X 


— , 


— 


X 














3. C. gigas .... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


x = o 














4. C. valida 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


X 








5. C.attenuata(tyranuus?) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 














6. C. canaliculata 


— 


X 




















7. C. Halliana . 


— 





^ 


^ 


X 














8. G. Pardoeana 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 














9. C. ludensis . 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


X 














10. C. robusta 


— 


X 


— 


— 


X 














11. C. lata .... 


— 








— 


X 














12. C. angusta . 


— 


— 


_ 


X 
















13. C. miuuta 


— 








— 


X 














14. C. papiUo 


— 


— 


? 


X 1 


X 














15. C. stygia 


— 


— 


9 


X r 














16. C. laxa .... 


— 








X 
















17. C. Salteriana . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


X 












18. C. cassia .... 


— 








— 


X 














19. C. cassioides . 


— 








— 


X 














20. C. compta 


~ 


" 


~ 




X 

Fresh- 
water, 














21. C. decora 


— 








~ 


Pem- 
broke- 
shire 














22. C. oretonensis 


X 






















23. C. truncata . 


X 






















24. C. iuornata . 


— . 


— , 


X 


















25. C. Euthveuiana . 


— 





X 


















26. C. solenoiaes . 


— 


— 


X 


















27. C. gobiiformis 


— 


— 


X 


















28. C.perornata . 


— 


— 


X 


















29. C. ? lata 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 














X 


30. C. ? insperata 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 





— 





X 


31. C. ? sp 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


— 











X 




32. Physocaris vesica . 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


X 














33. Xiphocaris ensis . 


— 





— 


— 


X 














34. Emmelezoe elliptica . 


— 


— 


X 


















35. E. tenuistriata 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 














36. E. crassistriata 


— 


Pres- 

teign 




















37. E. Maccoyiana 


— 


— 


— 


X 















ON THE CIKCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 235' 



Twelfth Report of the Gommittee, consisting of Professor E. Hull,- 
Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, Professors J. 
Prestwich and Gr. A. Lebour, and Messrs. James G-laisher,. 
E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly,. 
James Plant, I. Egberts, Fox Strangways, T. S. Stooke, 
G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. Wethered, 
W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Kance {Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Circulation of Underground 
Water's in the Permeable Formations of England and Wales, 
and the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied to 
various Totvns and Districts from these Formations. Brawn 
up by C. E. De Eance. 

Tour Committee have not been able to include in the present report 
information which would be of considerable value in drawing up a final 
report on the result of their thirteen years' labour. They therefore 
consider they will best carry out the instructions given them in 1874 by 
continuing their investigations for at least a year. 

It had been hoped by the Committee that the details of the sections 
passed through, and the character and quantity of several important 
wells and borings now in progress in the Midland counties, might have 
been laid before this meeting, but they are still incomplete. 

Northamptonshire. — At Kingsthorpe, 2\ miles north-east of North- 
ampton, a trial for coal was made in 1830, against the advice of Dr.- 
William Smith, F.R.S., and Mr. Richai-dson, of the British Museum. 
This shaft was described by Dr. Buckland, and later by the late Mr. S. 
Sharp (' Geol. Mag.,' vol. viii.). It passed through 120 feet of Oolites,. 
760 feet of Lias, and 60 feet of sandstone, 12 feet of marls, and 1 5 feet of 
conglomerates, referred at the time by Dr. Smith to the New Red series. 
The Middle Lias (or marlstone) appears to have produced 36,000 gallons 
per hour at a depth of 210 feet from the surface, and the New Red a like 
quantity of brackish water from a depth of 880 feet. The work was 
stopped at 967 feet, after costing 30,000Z. 

In 1846 the London and North- Western Railway bored for water iu' 
Northampton, and, on reaching 650 feet, tapped a salt-water spring, con-- 
taining chloride of sodium, carbonate of soda, sulphates of magnesia and 
lime, the spring occurring in a 4-feet bed of magnesian limestone, lying, 
under 50 feet of variegated sandstone and marls. 

In 1879 a boring was made by the water company at Kettering Eoad, 
one mile north-east of Northampton, to a depth of 851 feet. In this- 
boring the Lias rested on an eroded surface of crystalline conglomerates 
and sandstone, 67^ feet in thickness, which are somewhat doubtful in 
age, no fossils having been discovered, but overlie 45 feet of carboniferous 
dolomitic limestone with fossils, which is believed to have yielded the 
200,000 gallons of saline water met with in this boring, containing 1,200' 
grains of mineral salts per gallon. 

The second trial of the Northampton Waterworks Company was 
at Gayton, two miles north-west of Blisworth Station, and five south- 
west of Northampton. The details are given by Mr. H. J. Eunson 
(Range of the Palseozoic Rocks beneath Northampton, ' Q. J. G. S.,.'' 



236 



EEPOBT 1886. 



vol. xl. part III. p. 485). The Lias, White Lias, and Rhsetic continued 
to 617 feet from the surface, the latter resting on a slightly eroded series 
of marl, followed bj variegated sandstone 60 feet in thickness, which are 
referred to the Trias. At 676^ feet occurred carboniferous sandstone 
with fossils, which, with the underlying marls and limestones are regarded 
as a local littoral deposit, lying on the true carboniferous limestone 
occurring at 699 feet. The beds beneath are very remarkable, but do 
not affect the present inquiry. The total depth reached was 994 feet. 
As in the other boring, the water was saline, containing 1,500 grains of 
mineral salts to the gallon, the quantity being only 100,000 gallons per 
■day. The water stood 20 feet higher than at Kettering Road, giving a 
gradient (I") of 3J feet per mile to the north-east. 

In the boring lately carried out for Mr. J. Fleming (of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne), at Orton, five miles west of Kettering, and twelve miles to the 
N.E. of Northampton, the Triassic beds were absent, and the beds of 
doubtful age were 24 feet, the underlying carboniferous beds were absent, 
and a quartz-felzite 74 feet thick still persisted when the boring was 
abandoned at 789 feet. 

Details of Wells and Borings, Cheshire. Collected hy Mr. 0. H. Morton, 
F.O.S.,from Mr. H. Aston Hill, C.E. 
1. The Wallasey Waterworks, Great Float, near Birkenhead. i.a. No. 1 well, 1861. 
Borehole enlarged to 13 inches, and deepened to 400 feet from surface in 1876. No. 
2 well 1874; not deepened since. 2. 23 feet. 3. No. 1 shaft, 7 feet diameter, 90 
feet from surface. Borehole 13" diameter, 400 feet from surface. No. 2 shaft, 7 feet 
diameter, 90 feet from surface. Borehole 18'' diameter, 400 feet from surface. 3a. 
4. The pumping is almost continuous, and the working level of water is about 40 feet 
from surface. After stopping four hours the water rises to 24 feet from surface. 4«. 
When No. 1 well was sunk in 1861, the water rose to within 9 feet of the surface. 
Cannot tell how high it would rise now, being unable to stop pumping for a suf- 
ficiently long period. 5. 1,250,000. 6. No. No. 7. No. Do not stop pumping 
sufficiently long to see what height water would rise to; but as a rule our working 
level is about 17 feet below mean level of the Birkenhead Docks. 8. Not had an 
analysis made recently. Water is considered of excellent quality, and does not 
possess any marked peculiarity. 

9. Red marl . 

Sand and marl . 
Marl .... 
Clay, stones, and sand 
White rock 

Total 

lO. Probably. 11. Yes. 12. It is believed so. 13. No. 14. No. 15. Don't 
know of any deep wells having been discontinued ; but several shallow ones have 
Jbeen, in consequence, no doubt, of surface contamination. 



ft. 








ft. 


. 78 






Eed rock . 


. 56 


. 9 






Grey rock . 


. 12 


. 6 






Hard red rock . 


. 22 


. 3 






Soft red rock 


. 48 


. 12 


246 


ft. 


from surface, in 1861. 







Northamptonshire. 








Section of Boring at Hamhledon. Collected 


hy Mr. W. Whitalcer. 






ft. in. 


Inferior Oolite 


(Northampton sand) 


. 10 6 


Upper Lias . 


. 






176 


• 




Marlstone rock 

Clay 

Eock 






15 
3 
1 


Middle Lias 


• • " 


Clay 
Rock 
Clay 
Rock 
^Clay 






13 

1 

16 

. 1 

+ 



. 5000 


grains 


to 


gallon 


. 8-50 


j» 




»» 


. 000 


ji 




»> 


. 0012 


J) 




)f 


•254° 









ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDEEGEOUND WATERS. 237 

Boring ceased 240 feet from the surface. Water was found in the 
lower part of the marlstone, but not in great quantity. An increased 
quantity was found in each of the three bands of rock subsequently per- 
forated. The water-level stands in the bore about 6 feet above the bottom 
of the marlstone. 

Shropshire. 

Collected hij Mr. T. 8. StooU, C.E. 

1. At Sunderton, near Shrewsbury, la. 1884. No. 2. 205 feet. 3. No well. 
Bore-hole 76 feet in depth, 5 inches diameter. 3a. 4. Normal surface of water 11 
feet. 4fl. 4^ feet ; 11 feet. 5. The full yielding power of bore-hole has not been 
tested. The yield is considerable. 6. Not known to vary. 7. Not known to be 
affected about 5 feet above an adjoining stream. 8. By Mr. Thomas Blunt, M.A. 

Total solid contents 

Chlorine in chlorides 

Nitrogen in nitrates 

Oxygen absorbed .... 

Temporary hardness, Clarke's scale 

Permanent „ (after boiling for some time) 9^° 

The water Ls pronounced wholesome, but somewhat hard for drinking and domestic 

use. 

ft. 

9* Soil and clay 6 

Red sand ......... 1 

Clay with stones ........ 20 

Eed sand ......... 2 

Clay 5 

New red sandstone . . . . , . .38 
Marl 4 

Total depth 76 

9a. New red sandstone. lO. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 
15. No. 16. 

Collected hy Mr. Thos. S. Stoohe, C.E. 

1. Atcham workhouse well, near Shrewsbury, la. A bore-hole was put down in 
1884. 2. 206 feet. 3. 60 feet in depth; 4 feet in diameter; 181 feet; cased with 
4-inch tubes. 3a. No driftway. 4. 54 feet ; the water level is only reduced about 
6 inches in affording the supply required. The ordinary water level is quickly re- 
stored. 4a. The water stands about 12 inches higher in well since the bore-hole 
was put down. 5. The average quantity pumped is about 10,000 gallons daily. The 
full yielding power of the well and bore-hole has not been tested. 6. Water level 
does not vary since bore-hole was put down. 7. Not affected by local rains. About 
15 feet higher than the normal summer level of Severn, which is situated about | 
mile from the site of well. 8. Water of very good quality ; no recent analysis has 
been taken. 9. No record of strata pierced by the well. 

Section of Boring. 

60 to 80 feet— sand. 

80 to 124 „ — sand and gravel. 
124 to 152 „ —coarse gravel sand with flint. 
152 to 210 „ — grey sand and gravel. 
210 to 214 „ — red sandstone. 
214 to 230 „ —marl. 

9a. Sand and gravel beds. lO. II. The well is cased with brickwork through- 
out. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 16. The bore-hole was carried 
through 2i" tubes placed within the 4'' tubes to the depth of 230 feet. The inner 
tubes were withdrawn, as an ample supply was obtained at the depth of 181 feet. 



ft. 


in. 


1 





16 


6 


7 


6 


14 





35 





4 








9 


46 


7 


356 





369 






238 EEPOBT— 1886. 

'Collected hij Mr. C. E. Be Ranee from Mr. William Blackshaiv, Borough 

Surveyor, Stafford. 

Stafford Corporation Waterworhs Pumping Shaft and Trial Boring at 

Ensonmoor. 
Particulars of Strata passed through. 

Soil. 

Clay. 

Loamy sand. 

Gravel jnelding 400,000 gallons of water per 24 hoiirs. 

Ked marl. 

Sand. 

Light friable sandstone. 

Blue and red rock marl with veins of gypsum yielding 800,000 

gallons of water per 24 hours. 
Blue and red rock marl with veins of gypsum but no water. 
Red and grey sandstone. 

850 4 
June 3, 1886. — Water overflowing at the rate of 44,000 gallons per 24 hours. 

South Staffordshire. — In districts of Old Hill and Tipton many of the 
coal mines are waterlogged, and are underwatered by a pumping commission, 
appointed in 1873, with powers to levy rates of dd. per ton on coal, iron- 
stone, and slack, and 2>d. a ton on fireclay and limestone. In Tipton in 1873 
there were 77 pumping stations ; in 1885 these were reduced to 10. The 
principal pumping stations over an area of 50 square miles are Bradley 
Station (near Moxley, G. W. R.), which can raise four million gallons from 
a depth of 126 yards, the Moat, and the Stoneheath Stations. 

Appendix I. 

Memoranda for Mr. Be Bance, Reporter to the Underground Water Com- 
mittee of the British Association, Birmingham Meeting, 1886. By 
Mr. E. B. Marten, of Pedmore, Stourbridge. 

The Committee have investigated chiefly the Triassic Rocks, and with 
a view to trace the flow of potable water, with a few illustrations from 
other geological formations. 

The drainage of the South Stafi'ordshire and Bast Worcestershire 
coalfield being taken up by a commission under the South Stafi'ordshire 
Mines Drainage Act, 1873, information has been obtained of the state of 
the underground water, and many a puzzle has presented itself as to how 
far the eff"ects of any one pumping station will reach, as it depended not 
•only on the natural porosity of the strata, but also on the extent to which 
the natural barriers had been pierced or weakened by mining opemtions. 
It was found that although naturally the underground water would 
level itself and flow out at the nearest surface stream, as if all the coal- 
fields were one homogeneous rock, it was far from the case when attempts 
were made to pump the whole sufficiently for mining purposes. It was 
then found that the part dealt with by the Act divided itself into the two 
sides east and west of the Sedgley, Dudley, and Rowley Hills ; and the 
east side again into four smaller areas, Bentley, Bilston, Tipton, and Old- 
bury ; and in the west Kingsaricford and Old Hill, any one of which 
could be pumped separately. These smaller districts were again divided 
into smaller pounds, each separated when the water was pumped down 
below the broken barriers. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



239 



These are readily seen in the sketch map of area under the Act with 
five large districts, each having the smaller pound-boundaries marked in 
■different colours. 

It was soon found that Bilston and Tipton were so far one that when 
Tipton was pumped Bilston water flowed down and nearly swamped 
Tipton, so that some of the largest pumps in the kingdom have been put 
down on the lower side of the boundary between those districts, and the 
most difficult operation in mining successfully carried out, of driving under 
the Bilston water and tapping it. 

To each pumping station the water flows, but the district which it 
will drain depends on the ' faults' and workings. 

A few examples may be of interest, especially as compared with the 
behaviour of the water in the more homogeneous strata under the inves- 
tigation of the Committee, and will be given in the next report. 

Appendix II. 
Bij Mr. E. B. Marten. 

Although the records are, I believe, closed, I send you particulars of 
four springs yielding extremely good water and sufficient for supplying 
the village of Pedmore, just upon the borders of tbe great western 
boundary fault of the coalfield as it passes away south under the Clent 
Hills and Hagley. 

Wychbury Camp Hill, like Clent, Walton, Woodbury, and other hills 
of Permian formation, is capped by the Breccia described by Professor 
Jukes which receives the rainfall and holds it like a sponge on the some- 
what denser rock below, springs showing themselves all around 500 feet 
above sea-level at the base of the Breccia at Pedmore and Hagley, and 
forming the heads of rivulets. 

Within the last few weeks the water has been analysed by Dr. Bostock 
Hill and found to be very good as follows : — Parts per 100,000 : total 
solid impurity, 20'0 ; organic ammonia, 0-002 ; free ammonia, 0001 ; 
chlorine 2-5 ; temporary hardness, 6' 43 ; permanent hardness, 9-57 : total 

hardness, 15'00. 

On the west side of the fault the New Red sandstones abut against 
the Permian, and being far more porous ^ 

the rainfall sinks away, so that at Hagley 
the few wells are 70 feet deep, and at 
Pedmore there are no deep wells, and the 
few that are shallow easily get contami- 
nated. The general level of the water in 
the New Red sandstone is about 250 feet 
above the sea, the river Stour being the 
lowest outlet about one mile below the 
Wollaston Pumping Station, described by 
me on page 7, 1882 (Eighth Report), is 
about 200 feet above sea-level. 

In excavating for a small reservoir, 
about three years ago, one side slipped 
in, the whole coming off like half a peg- 
top, point downwards, leaving a smooth, 
polished, ' slickenside ' surface, so that 
we were evidently exactly on the great 
western boundary fault. 



Si'ourhridae 




240 



EEPORT 1886. 



Appendix III. 

Weekly Readings of Height of Water in Messrs. 8. GourtauU ^ Go.'s Well, 
Boching, Essex. Batum zs-137-07 Feet above Sea-level. 




Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



Above 
Datum in 

Inches 



J» 


21 


)> 




» 


28' 


)» 




May 


5 


1) 




19 


12 


>l 




9» 


19 


>» 




»» 


26 


5> 




June 


3 


)> 




)» 


9 


»> 




SJ 


16 


>» 




9> 


23 


»» 




» 


30 


»» 




July 


7 


*• 




1> 


14 


»> 




» 


21 


» 






28 


»> 




Arife. 


5 


» 





Hi 

iH 

15 

12 

3U 

42" 

44 

49 

49 

57 

561 

55 

57 

58 

58i = 

58| = 

57i 

56 

54 



Date 



Aug. 11, 1884 

,, 18 „ 

» 25 „ 

Sept. 1 „ 

„ 8 „ 

» 15 „ 

„ 22 „ 

,, 29 „ 

Oct. 6 „ 

„ 13 „ 

,, 20 „ 

27 „ 

Nov. 3 '„ 

„ 10 „ 

„ 17 „ 
24 

Dec. 1 „ 

>> 8 „ 

,) 15 >i 

22 

29 

Jan. 5, 1885 

„ 12 „ 

„ 19 .. 

„ 26 „ 

Feb. 2 „ 

Q 

>. 16 

,. 23 „ 

Mar. 2 „ 

>> "^ >> 

» 16 „ 

„ 23 „ 

„ 30 „ 

April 7 „ 

>» 13 J, 

,. 20 „ 

„ 27 „ 

May 4 „ 

„ 11 » 

„ 18 „ 

„ 26 „ 

June 1 „ 

,. 8 „ 

)> 15 >, 

» 22 „ 

,. 29 „ 

July 6 „ 

» 13 » 

„ 20 „ 

.. 27 .. 



Above 

Datum in 

Inches 



54 

531 

5U 

52| 

49i 

48i 

50" 

45i 

42 

44 

42 

44 

42i 

39i 

40 

40| 

42 

42 

42 

40 

43 

42 

431 

391 

41' 

44 

43 

45 

42i 

41i 

41i 

40 

39| 

42 

46 

42i 

40i 

44 

441 

41i 

42 

42 

40 

39i 

40 

39i 

41" 

38i 

40 

39i 

37 



Date 



Aug. 4, 1885 

„ 10 „ 

„ 17 „ 

„ 24 „ 

>» "'I >) 

Sept. 7 „ 

„ 14 „ 

» 21 „ 

„ 28 „ 

Oct. 5 „ 

„ 12 „ 

,. 19 „ 

,, 26 „ 

Nov. 2 „ 

q 

,. 16 „ 

„ 23 „ 

„ 30 „ 

Dec. 7 „ 

„ 14 ,, 

„ 21 „ 

» 28 „ 

Jan. 4, 1886 

„ 11 „ 

,, 18 •„ 

„ 25 „ 

Feb. 1 „ 

>, 8 „ 

» 15 )) 

,, 22 „ 

Mar. 1 „ 

„ 8 „ 

), 15 11 

22 

), 29 „ 

April 5 „ 

« 12 „ 

,> 19 „ 

„ 27 „ 

May 3 „ 

„ 10 „ 

,, 17 „ 

„ 24 „ 

„ 31 „ 

June 7 „ 

,, 15 „ 

„ 21 „ 

» 28 „ 

July 5 „ 

„ 12 „ 

»» 19 >f 



Above 

Datum in 

Inches 



38i 

39i 

36" 

35i 

35" 

37* 

35 

36 

36 

38i 

38 

35 

41 

35 

32 

31 

34 

34 

30 

29 

31 

33 

33 

33 

37i 

36 

37 

35 

32i 

30 

33 

31 

31 

32 

34 

33 

32i 

33i 

33| 

29| 

31i 

32 

32 

31 

31 

31i 

29" 

27i 

26i» 

27 

29 



» Essex earthquake, April 22, 1884. 

* Lowest recorded since 



" Highest recorded since earthquake, 
earthquake. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



241 



Appendix IV. 
List of Questions Circulated. 



Xa. 



2. 



1. Position of well or shafts with which 
you are acquainted 1 
State date at which the well or shaft 
was originally sunk. Has it been 
deepened since by sinking or 
boring 1 and when ? 

Approximate height of the surface of 
the ground above Ordnance Datum 
(mean sea-level) 1 

Dejjth from surface to bottom of shaft 
or well, with diameter. Depth 
from surface to bottom of bore- 
hole, with diameter ? 

I Depth from the surface to the hori- 
zontal drift-ways, if any ? What 
is their length and number ? 

Height below the surface, at which 
water stands he/ore and after pump- 
ing. Number of hours elapsing 
before ordinary level is restored 
after pumping 1 
Height below the surface, at which 
the water stood when the well was 
first sunk, and height at which it 
stands now when not pumped ? 

5. Quantity capable of being pumped 

in gallons per day of 21 hours ? 
Average quantity daily pumped ? 

6. Does the water lex-el vary at different 

seasons of the year, and to what 
extent 1 Has it diminished during 
the last ten years 1 



4. 



4a. 



7. Is the ordinary water level ever 

affected by local rains, and, if so, 
in how short a time ? And how 
does it stand in regard to the level 
of the water in the neighbotiring 
streams, or sea 1 

8. Analysis of the water, if any. Does 

the water possess any marked 
peGuliarity 1 

9. Section with nature of the rock passed 

through, including cover of Drift, 
if any, with thickness ? 
9a, In which of the above rocks were 
springs of water intercepted ? 

10. Does the cover of Drift over the 

rock contain surface springs ? 

11. If so, are these land springs kept 

entirely mtt of the well ? 

12. Are any large faults known to exist 

close to the well 1 

13. Were any brine springs passed 

through in making the well ? 

14. Are there any salt springs in the 

neighbourhood ? 

15. Have any wells or borings been dis- 

continued in your neighbourhood 
in consequence of the water being- 
more or less irachish 1 If so, 
please give section in reply to 
query No. 9. 

16. Kindly give any further information 

you can. 



Second Re'port of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. T Blanford, 
Professor J. W. Judd, and Messrs. W. Carruthers, H. Wood- 
ward, and^. S. G-ardner (Secretaoy), appointed for the purpose 
of reporting on the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and Secondary 
Beds of the United Kingdom. 

[Plate VII.] 

Our attention has been devoted exclusively this year to the fossil flower- 
ing or phanerogamoas plants. 

The results of our researches point to the conclusion that while that 
section known as Gymnospermous, to which the Conifers belong, is of 
the highest antiquity, being almost coeval with the first definite remains 
of plants in the PaljBozoic age, there are no Angiospermous plants in 
British rocks of greater antiquity than the Secondary period, if we except 
the problematic plant known as Spirangium. Even down to so late as 
the Lias we have been unable to ascertain that any indisputable Angio- 
sperm has been discovered within our area, for we are led to the conclu- 
sion that the supposed Monocotyledons from the Rha3tics, near Bristol, 
1886. B 



242 REPORT— 1886. 

hitherto referred to the family of Pond-weeds under the name Najadita, 
are really cryptogamic plants of the moss tribe, closely allied to the river 
. moss Fontinalis. This group had not previously been found fossil, and, so 
far as it goes, would indicate rather a temperate climate. It is important 
to notice that these conclusions are shared by such high authorities on 
fossil plants as Prof. Williamson, Mr. Carruthers, and all botanists who 
have examined them, as well as by Mr. Brodie, the possessor of the spe- 
cimens. The Lilia, Bensonia, and other supposed Monocotyledons of 
similar age are very imperfectly preserved, and doubtless referable to 
Cycads, a family which then abounded. 

"We have examined a large number of specimens of the anomalous 
Jurassic plant described by Carruthers as Williamsoma. It is well known 
that Prof. Williamson, in whose possession or charge a number of the 
finest specimens remain, has devoted a considerable amount of attention 
to them, without, however, feeling justified in coming to any very definite 
conclusion as to their true position in the vegetable world. De Saporta, 
on the other hand, has found more perfectly preserved specimens in 
France, and has no hesitation whatever in referring them to the group of 
Pandanacece. Though there are still many difficulties in the way, our 
own examination of the specimens in London, Manchester, Cambridge, 
and elsewhere tends to confirm Saporta's view so far as that there 
do appear to be vestiges, in some cases at least, of lignitic structure 
which may represent the areolse or carpels. These rather minute cavities 
and the lignitic matter surrounding them fall away on exposure to the 
air, and only traces of them are visible. Should Saporta's contention 
be upheld, Williamsonia will be by far the most perfectly known of the 
secondary Angiosperms, since all the organs of fructification and even of 
foliation are more or less known. 

A still more definite Monocotyledon is the Podocarya, from the Inferior 
Oolite, originally figured by Buckland, and redescribed by Carruthers. 
Its resemblance to the fruit of Williamsonia, as interpreted by Sapoi'ta, 
is extremely striking, and on suggesting this to that author, he replied 
that he was in the act of preparing an important work on the very subject. 
The same work is to include an illustration of the most recent member of 
the group, obtained from the Grey Chalk of Dover, and which we thought 
advisable to communicate to him. 

Next in point of age, among English Monocotyledons, to the Podo- 
carya is the Kaidacarpxmi, from the Great Oolite, also described by Car- 
ruthers, and by him referred to the Pandanece. We have been able to 
ascertain that a second species, hitherto supposed to be of Cretaceous age 
from the Potton Sands, is a derived fossil, and undoubtedly Jurassic. A 
third species was originally figured, without any reference in the letter- 
press as to its age or locality, by Lindley and Hutton as Strohilites Buck- 
landi, in their ' Fossil Flora,' vol. ii. pi. 129, published between 1833-35, 
from a drawing made by Miss E. Bennett for Dr. Buckland. In the 
first edition of Morris's ' Catalogue,' 1843, it is set down as from ' Gr. S. 
Wilts,' which cannot mean either Lower or Upper Greensand, the abbre- 
viations for which are * L. G. S.' and ' U. G. S.,' but which certainly 
looks like a misprint for ' Gr. O.,' the sign for Grea.t Oolite. In the second 
edition of Morris, 18-54, the locality is corrected to ' U. G. S. Wiltshire,' 
but it appears likely that the correction may have been made without 
ascertaining the facts de novo, for the only entry occurring in Miss Ben- 
nett's 'Catalogue of the Organic Remains of Wiltshire,' published in 



ON THE FOSSIL PLAKTS OF THE TERTIARY AND SECONDARY BEDS. 243 

1831, that could possibly refer to this fossil, is a ' Cycadeoidea ? ' from 
the Portland Beds, which occurs under the heading ' Woods ' on p. 9. A 
journey to Newcastle with the object of examining the Hutton collection 
of fossil plants, where it seemed probable the specimen might be found, 
has been unsuccessful, and its present whereabouts is still unknown. We 
think it, however, far more likely to prove a Jurassic than a Cretaceous 
fossil if found, and the genus should not be included in lists of plants of 
the latter age. 

The oldest Monocotyledons thus appear to be referable to the Panda- 
neae, a group of plants distributed in widely distant and remote oceanic 
islands, and whose fruits are still met with at sea in drifts of vegetable 
matter. 

Next to these in antiquity are two very monocotyledonous-looking 
fragments from the Jurassic of Torkshire, which have been fully described 
in the ' Geological Magazine ' for May and August. The one is apparently 
an unopened palm-like spathe, and the other a jointed cane-like stem. 
Mr. Brodie possesses an undoubtedly monocotyledonous leaf fragment 
from the Purbeck of Swindon. 

The Aro'idece have long been supposed to be a group of very high 
antiquity, but there are good reasons for believing that the supposed 
remains of aroideous plants from beneath the Tertiaries are, without 
exception, referable to other groups, and actually there are no known 
traces of them earlier than the Middle Eocene, when they become by no 
means uncommon. 

In a similar manner the fruits once supposed to represent palms in the 
Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks have been gradually removed or suppressed, 
and, unless the fragments of palm-like wood in the gault at Folkestone are 
taken into account, there are no traces of palms in any of our Secondary 
strata. They, however, appear as low down in our Eocene as the 
Woolwich series. 

We are not yet able to speak with certainty regarding the supposed 
liliaceous or Dracce7ia-\ike stems from the Wealden, so frequently men- 
tioned by Mantell, and now in the British Museum, since they have not 
yet been thoroughly examined ; but it is very probable that they are 
liliaceous, and, if so, of the highest interest. The Wealden has so far 
yielded no other trace of any more highly organised plants than ferns 
and Gymnosperms, and this, when we remember that Monocotyledons 
were undoubtedly in existence, is a fact that should be of great signifi- 
cance to speculative geologists. The sediments must represent the deposits 
of tlie drainage system of a large area, for they are of vast extent and 
thickness, varied in character, and abounding in remains of trunks and 
stems, fruits and foliage of plants. In them, therefore, if anywhere, we 
might reasonably expect to find at least the traces of reed and rush, but 
the swamps seem to have been tenanted only by Equisetum and ferns, 
and the forests mainly by Cycads and Conifers. 

The same absence of Angiosperms, so far as British rocks are concerned, 
is continuous throughout the Neocomian and Gault, and it is only in the 
White Chalk that we meet with any indications of them, and these only 
take the form of a more than suspicious impression of a net- veined leaf, 
in the Jermyn Street Maseum, and of some structureless bodies which 
were apparently some kind of fruit. 

When, however, we turn to the gymnospermous section of Phanero- 
gams the records are very different. To refer here to the earlier Secondary 

e2 



244 REPORT — 1886. 

Coniferfe and Cycadece would be quite beyond our province, and it is only 
those of the Cretaceous, as the last discoverable ancestors in our area of 
the Eocene flora, that are of immediate interest. These belong, excluding- 
Cycads, chiefly to the newest section of the Coniferfe, the Pine family. 
"We are able to make the following contribution to our knowledge of 
these : — 

Pinites Andrcei, Coemans. ' Flore fossile du Terrain Cretace du 
Hainault,' 1866, p. 13, pi. v. fig. 1. Gault, Folkestone, fig. 1. 

This specimen measures 5 centimetres in length and nearly 3c. in 
breadth, though something should be perhaps deducted for the compres- 
sion undergone. When perfect it was probably composed of 50 to 60 
imbricated leathery scales, about half that number being visible on the 
exposed face. The substance of the scale seems to have been consider- 
able, though the edges are thin ; they are smooth even without striae, and 
with the upper margin round to obtusely pointed. They are apparently 
variable in size. 

The cone is of the same general type as P. Andrcei, Coem., from the 
Gault of La Louviere, Hainault, though somewhat shorter, more oval, 
and with thinner and rounder scales. The form and general consistence 
of the scales, as well as their size, the number composing each whorl,, 
and their disposition are, however, so similar that we think it better, in 
the case of so imperfect a specimen, to unite it rather than claim specific 
rank on account of distinctions that might largely disappear with more 
perfect specimens. If the assimilation is correct the apex of the cone, as 
well as the base, would have been somewhat pointed. The cones are 
very abundant at La Louviere, more than 100 specimens having been 
collected ; and they are stated to have been frequently curved and highly 
resinous. The specimen from Folkestone was found by us, being Tiniqu& 
from that locality, and is now in the British Museum. 

Pinites Valdensis, sp. nov. figs. 4 and 5. Wealden, Brook Point, Isle 
of Wight. 

This fragment shows the presence in the Wealden flora of a Pine of the 
section Strobus with a cone composed of scales as numerous and thin as 
in any recent species. The cone was long, cylindrical, and tapering, the- 
scales very numerous, permanent, imbricated, leathery, pointed, and 
lightly thickened at the apex, with entire margin, striated, and slightly 
keeled. It somewhat resembles P. Dunkeri, Carr., also of the Wealden,. 
but is probably a distinct species. The specimen, fig. 5, is from the 
Tork Museum, and 4, in which all the scales are mutilated, from the 
Woodwardian Museum. Both these, with several others, are frona the 
Wealden of Brook, so that it appears to be by no means rare there. It 
is associated with Cycadostrohus elegans, Carr., ^ a representation of which 
is given for comparison in fig. 8. 

Pinites CaiTuthersi, sp. nov. Fig. 6. Wealden, Brook Point, Isle of 
Wight. 

The fi-agment figured represents another long cylindrical cone with 
very numerous persistent leathery imbricated scales. It tapers like the 
one last described towards the base, the scales being much thicker, though 
thin at the edge, smooth, without keel, and with entire rounded margins. 
It resembles the Gault species P. Andrcei in texture, but there were at 
least twice as many scales in each whorl, and these are much more 
imbricated. It also is quite distinct from P. Dunheri, Carr. 

• Journ. of Bot. vol. iv. pi. Ivii. fig. 9. 



ON THE FOSSIL PLANTS OF THE TERTIARY AND SECONDARY BEDS. 245 

It resembles Cedrus Lennieri, ' Sap. Veg. foss. de la Craie inferieure des 
Environs du Havre,' Mem. de la Soc. Oeol. de Normandie, 1877, but is not 
apparently tbe same species. 

Pinites cylindroides, sp. nov. Lower Greensand, Potton. Figs. 2 and 2a. 

This is an almost perfectly cylindrical specimen, being veiy sligbtly 
thickened towards the base, 7 centimetres in length and 22 millim. in diame- 
ter, composed of about 96 scales, arranged in 12 rows from left to right, and 
8 rows from right to left, the arrangement thus being -j^. The scales are 
short and at right angles to the axis, with a smooth flat half-moon-shaped 
apophysis or scale-head, now gaping, but evidently imbricated before the 
seeds were shed. The scales become very small towards the base. The 
summit is abraded, exposing the end of a somewhat slender axis, fig. 2a. 
Certain grooved lines on the sandy matrix between the scales show that 
the cone was furnished with foliaceous bracts, and the marks of a boring 
insect are visible. The specimen, which is quite distinct from any other 
fossil or recent cone, is singularly elongated and cylindrical, scarcely 
tapering at all from the base upward. It is fortunately in excellent con- 
dition, certainly not derived from any older bed, like so many of the 
Potton fossils, and is well cared for in the Woodwardian Museum. 

Pinites Pottoniensis, sp. nov. Pig. 3. Lower Greensand, Potton. 

The fragment figured, though much mutilated, fortunately shows the 
characteristically winged seeds of Pitius in the most perfect manner, 
entirely removing any lingering doubt as to the occurrence of represen- 
tatives of true Pinus as low down as the Neocomian. The scales were set 
at an acute angle with slightly thickened recurved apophyses, the form of 
which cannot clearly be made out, though they appear to have been 
narrow, keeled, and mucronate. It nearly resembles a type very common 
in the Eocene, and is of great interest in many ways. It also is in the 
Woodwardian Museum, and was obtained from the same formation. 

The specimen, fig. 7, evidently represents a third species from the 
Wealden of Brook, with scales very closely resembling a common Barton 
and Bracklesham type, but its fragmentary condition scarcely renders it 
advisable to attach any specific name to it. 

The accompanying list comprises all the British Cretaceous Coniferae 
previously known, up to the present date, though there ig no doubt that 
many new and undescribed forms must exist in collections. 



List of British Cretaceous Goniferoe 'previously described. 

Pinites Fittoni, Carr., Pnrbeck, 'A Cone,' Pitton, ' Geol. Trans.' 2nd 
«er. vol. iv. p. 280, pi. xxii. fig. 9. Dammarites, ' Ung. G. et spec. Plant, 
foss.' p. 384. Pinites, ' Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. p. 543. 

P. Mantellii, Carr., ' Geol. I. of W.' 2nd ed. p. 452, 3rd ed. p. 337, 
pi. xlii. ; and Carr. ' Gym. Fruits,' ' Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. p. 543, pi. xxi. 
fig. 3, Tilgate. 

P. patens, Carr. id. p. 543, pi. xxi. fig. 4, Tilgate. 

P. Bunheri, Carr. id. p. 542, pi. xxi. figs. 1, 2, Brook. Abietites, Mant. 
" Geol. I. of Wight,' 2nd ed. p. 542. 

P. Sussexsiensis, Carr. Zamia, Mant. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. ii. 
p. 61, pi. ii. fig. 1 ; Zamites, Morris Cat. ; Zamiostrobus, Goepp. ' Ueber 
Schless. Gesellsch.' 1844, p. 129; Pinites, Carr. 'Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. 
p. 541. pi. XX. figs. 5, 6. 



246 



REPORT 1886. 



p. elongatus, Endl. 'Synop. Conif.' p. 286; Strobilites, Lind. and 
Hutton, ' Foss. Flora,' vol. ii; p. 23, pi. xxix. 

P. LeckenUji, Carr. Pinites, ' Geol. Mag.' vol. vi. p. 2, pi. i. figs. 1-5, 
Shanklin. 

Ahietites Benstedi, Goepp. Abies, Mant. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 
vol. ii. p. 51, pi. ii. fig. 2, 1846. Pinites, Carr. ' Journ. Bot.' Jan. 1867 ; 
' Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. p. 541 ; Abietites, Goepp. ' Foss. Conif.' p. 207. 

A. dblongus, Goepp. Abies oblonga, Lind. and Hutt. vol. ii. p. 155, 
pi. cxxxvii. Supposed to be from Greensand, near Lyme Regis ; described 
by a misprint as from ' Dresent,' instead of 'present' shore. Elate, 
Unger, ' Syn.' p. 199. Abietites, Goepp. ' Foss. Conif.' p. 207. Pinites, 
Endl. ' Synop. Conif.' p. 283; Carr. 'Geol. Mag.' vol. iii. p. 541. 
(Professor Williamson is describing a magnificent specimen of this or oxi 
allied form.) 

Pinites gracilis, Carr. Gault, Folkestone, ' Geol. Mag.' vol. vi. p. 2, 
pi. i. fig. 9. 

P. hexagonus, Carr. id.' vol. viii. p. 540, pi. xv. 
Sequoiites Gardneri, Carr. id. vol. vi. p. 2, pi. i. 

Sequoiites ovalis, Carr. 
' -f ' ' ''^ • -"'■ id. vol. viii. p. 542. 

Sequoiites Woodwardii, 
Carr. id. vol. iii. p. 544, pi. 
xxi. figs. 11-16, Blackdown. 
We have now dealt with 
the more highly organised of 
ourMesozoic plants, and pass 
on to those of the Eocene. 

Among the most inter- 
esting of recent discoveries 
is that of plant- remains in 
^^ a small sand-pit at Colden 
Common, between Bishop- 
stoke and Winchester, the 
first locality in the Hamp- 
shire basin that has yielded 
any of Woolwich and Read- 
ing age. This was first 
commnnicated to us by Mr. 
Whitaker, who thought the 
leaves might prove to be of 
London Clay age. They 

^ , „ ^. ^ ^ , , o ,,- , ^^^y ^ fact, actually included 

Fig. 1. — Section at Uolden Common, near \\ inchester. • -j. i i_ t -i j 

, , ^, „ , .s ^ ' m its basement bed, and 

London Clay (3 feet).— a. Very saudy clay, mottled yellowish -it • 1 1 j z* 

and pale drab. mmgled With casts of 

fiearfm^Mj (5 feet).-6. Very plastic clay, of pale drab marine shells and sharks' 
colour, c. Perruginous sand with sea shells,- occasional peb- , , uj-i, iii ir 

bles, enclosing rolled fragments of pale drab clay with fossil teeth, but the blocks OI 
leaves, d. Imperfectly stratified grey loamy sand. ^^^^ ^j^}^ j^^^^g ^^^ derived, 

though other unfossiliferoas clay-seams are in situ. If not of London 
Clay age, however, they are much nearer to it than the Reading flora, 

' Far larger specimens than that originally described, one 8 inches long by 
1| inch in diameter, have since been found. 

2 Cardium Laytoni, Panopoea, Cytlwrea, Pccten, Tliracia f Trigonocoelia, Naiica ? 
Sharks' teeth. 




ON THE FOSSIL PLANTS OF THE TERTIARY AND SECONDARY BEDS. 247 

which occurs below the great mass of mottled clay, whilst these lie above 
it aa shown in the accompanying sections. The plants show in the mam 
as might be anticipated, an approach to the Alum Bay flora, which is still 

higher and above the London 
Clay; but whether these leaves 
are connected in any closer degree 
with the fruits of Sheppey than 
are those from Woolwich, Croy- 
don, or Bromley is a question 
which we have not as yet the data 





V7" 



Fig. 2. — Section at Katgsgrove, Reading. 

London Clay. — a. Unctuous laminated clay, 
whitish, slightly mottled orange with well-defined 
base. There is only about 3 feet exposed here, 
but it becomes very fossiliferous nearer Reading, 
containing Ostrea, Pertunculus, Cylhena, A'atica, 
Valuta, &c. 

Reading Beds. — b. Stiff clay, mottled slate and 
chocolate colours, 3 feet. c. The same with the 
addition of crimson, 10 feet. d. Dark greenish- 
grey clay, about 8 inches, e. Stiff clay, mottled 
bright pink and drab, 1 foot 6 inches. /. Same 
as d, 2J inches, g. Ditto of dark crimson colour, 
about 18 inches. A. Yellow and drab mottled 
clay with traces of red, 3 feet. i. Clayey sand, 
warm grey colour, about 9 inches, j. Ditto, of 
greenish yellow passing into buff sand, becoming 
mottled greenish at base, about 4 feet exposed. 
The leaf bed is a little below this. 

for answering. There are, at all events, no remains of Palms among 
them, and this, so far as it goes, is against the connection ; but on the 

' This in places is dovetailed into the sand, which sometimes thins considerably, 
though the mottled clay never rests directly on the Thanet beds. 



Fig. 3. — Section at Coley Hill, Reading, 

Reading Beds. — a. Mottled clay.' b. Current- 
bedded sand, white to buff, with occasional galls 
and lenticular patches of clay, in some of which 
indistinct willow-like leaves occur. 

Thanet Beds.—c. Clayey sand, greenish in colour, 
with layer of irony concretions, 4 feet. d. Dark 
slate-coloured clay, piped with ochreous sand, 
1 foot 7 inches, e. The oyster bed, at first stiff 
dark clay with strong line of oysters, and sub- 
angular pebbles, then the same clay with bore- 
holes of green sand, becoming sandy at base with 
green-coated flints. 



248 EEPORT— 1886. 

other hand the fruits of an Ahius, like that from Swale Cliff, abound. 
There is no large variety among the leaves, the majority being large 
and simple, but with highly serrate margins, and the species will not be 
found to exceed 12 or 14 in number, including Plataniis, which is rare. 

Though we have continued to collect the Reading, we have been unable 
80 far to determine any new species. The assemblage of fmits at Sheppey 
on the other hand becomes of increasing interest, and has proved unex- 
pectedly rich in Palms, many of them apparently identical with existing 
species which are now found growing in the remotest regions. 

Besides the large variety of Nipas, which are still met with in enor- 
mons abundance among the seed-vessels of the New Guinea drift, we have 
seeds indistinguishable from Verschaffeltia splendida, endemic to the 
Seychelles, from Sahal Blackhurniana of the Bermudas, from a Desmoncus, 
an Areca, a Monodora, and probably of many, certainly of some other 
Palms. When we consider that probably many of the kinds of Palm 
fruits would sink at once, we realise how great an assemblage of this 
magnificent family is indicated by the Sheppey drift. 

The difiiculties we fear of determining anything but a fraction of the 
Sheppey fruits must prove insurmountable. Their outer coats are for the 
most part destroyed, and some part of their inner structure, nearly always 
quite different in form from that which is external, is revealed. Botanists 
have been able to determine but few of the drifted fruits brought home 
by the Challenger, though these are more perfect and of living species be- 
longing to definite and known floras. 

The Bournemouth cliffs continue to furnish fresh forms, though the 
leaf-beds are becoming more and more difficult of access. We have 
especially enriched the series of Smilacece, and a complete account of them 
has been presented to the Linnean Society. The series now obtained falls 
little short of a hundred specimens, and is by far the richest of fossil 
Smilaceae, perhaps of any family, ever brought together. Such a material 
has enabled us to reduce the number of distinct species to no more than 
five, most of which are represented by foliage in all stages of development, 
from the largest leaves measuring several inches, down to quite minute 
leaves from near the extreme growing points. The necessity for such ex- 
tensive series when dealing with fossil leaves may not at once be apparent, 
but the President of the Linnean Society expressed the opinion at the 
meeting that out of less material not five but five-and-twenty species 
might have been made. 

The leaves of Smilacete are highly characteristic, and can be de- 
termined with a large degree of certainty ; but it is quite improbable that 
such will be the case with very many of the families of Dicotyledons. 
There is indeed little hope that more than a very few can be determined with 
anything like the precision required for botanical purposes, unless we can 
call in aid the fruits or some other organs. Thus if we may base a con- 
clusion upon the large number of the characteristic bracts, which envelope 
the seed in a section of Flemingia that are met with in the Bournemouth 
flora, the leaves of that genus should be far from -uncommon, and they 
should also be found in the Swiss Oligocene, yet no species of Flemingia 
has ever been recorded from the Tertiaries. The leaves, however, may 
perhaps be sought for among the species oi Poptdus and Carpinus. 

Fortunately fruits and even flowers are comparatively abundant at 
Bournemouth, and we consequently anticipate little difficulty in determin- 
ing leaves belonging to such easily distinguishable fruits as Alnus, Tilia, 



ON THE FOSSIL PLANTS OF THE TERTIARY AND SECONDARY BEDS. 249 

Acer, Carpinus, the Leguminosce, and many otliers, bat the residnam with 
indeterminable fruits, or fruits that will not float, may be very large. We 
are thus brought to the question, whether any value beyond that of mere 
landmarks, or aids to the correlation of rocks, can be attached to the de- 
terminations of fossil dicotyledonous leaves arrived at when fruits are absent. 
Nearly every Tertiary and even many Cretaceous floras are said to comprise 
Quercus, Fagus, and Corylus, to select these as typical examples. Now, 
we very much doubt whether the fruits of these genera have been met 
with in any strata older than the Upper Miocene, we might almost say 
the Pliocene ; whilst in the latter the fruits of at least two of them are 
very far from uncommon. Fossil hazel-nuts are well known to abound in 
forest beds such as the one at Brook, in the Isle of Wight, and at Carrick- 
fergus. It does appear to us that it would have been wiser and more 
■consistent, when arriving at these determinations, to have taken the 
absence of fruits into account, when these were such as would naturally 
have been preserved. The large proportion of fossil dicotyledonous 
leaves that have been referred without any hesitation to living genera 
must strike everyone, in comparison with the relatively few associated 
fruits that have been determined otherwise than as Carpolithes — a name 
which is a confession of failure. It will thus be seen that in our opinion 
the fossil Dicotyledons of our own Eocene must be dealt with in a 
manner difierent from that pursued by the majority of foreign writers on 
kindred subjects, and that a revision of much of their work is urgently 
needed. 

To resume our immediate subject, we have nothing new to record of 
the Bracklesham flora except that Mr. Elwes, in excavating in the New 
Forest, met with Nipadites in some abundance, and a specimen he still 
has proves the species to be the same as that from Bracklesham Bay, and 
entirely different from that which forms a conspicuous zone in the marine 
series of the Bournemouth group. 

At Barton, on the other hand, we have been able to procure nearly a 
dozen pine-cones, hitherto a great desideratum, from the Highcliff" beds, 
which go far to prove that there is only one variety there, indistinguish- 
able from the Pinus Dixoni of Bracklesham. Along with these we have 
branches of apparently the Bournemouth Araucaria, and an important 
and entirely new fruit, fortunately represented by many specimens, which 
permit us to examine the details of their structure. These consist of twigs 
on which are seated in some profusion clusters of numerous sessile woody 
pericarps with deeply laciniate margin, giving the fruit when closed the 
appearance of a large burr. These enclose a nut or seed, rather smaller, 
but otherwise resembling that of a cucumber. There has not yet been 
time to make the researches necessary to come to a conclusion regarding 
it, and Mr. Carruthers and other botanists who have seen the specimens 
are unable oS'hand to pronounce upon its aflBnities. A rather large fossil 
plant from the same locality has recently been lent us by the Council of 
the Hartley Institute, and altogether the plants from this horizon, hitherto 
. very meagrely represented, bid fair to take an important position. On 
the other hand, the Hordwell end of the same section, though twice 
visited since our last report, has furnished nothing new. 

We have fortunately met with a few veiy distinctly marked leaves 
from the Middle Headon of Headon Hill, preserved in the York Museum, 
which with those previously obtained from the Lower Headon of Hord- 



250 EEPOKT— 1886. 

well, help to bridge over one of the few gaps in our really surprisingly 
complete succession of Eocene floras. 

We have continued to investigate the great series of plant remains so 
assiduously collected by Mr. A' Court Smith, and with this object have 
visited Gurnet Bay, as well as receiving several packages of fossils from 
that place. While lamenting that they are of so fragmentary a nature, we 
cannot overlook their importance as almost the last representatives of the 
great series of floras which maintained themselves in our area throughout 
the Eocene time. As an illustration of their value we may instance the fact 
that while anything like true grasses seem to be wholly wanting in the pre- 
vious floras, there are many more or less definite indications of them in 
this. We have reason to hope that renewed working in the still younger 
beds of Hempstead may lead to further discoveries, for, besides the better 
known plants described by Heer, pine-cones and a fine aroideous fruit 
have been obtained from them. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

1. Pinites Andreei, Coemans, from the Gault, Folkestone (British Museum). 

2. P. cylindroides, sp. nov., from the Lower Greensand, Potton (Woodwardian 

Museum). 
2a. End of axis, with scales of same. 

3. P. Pottoniemis, sp. nov., from the same (Woodwardian Museum). 

4. P. Valdensis, sp. nov., from the Wealden of Brook Point (Woodwardian 

Museum). 

5. Another specimen (York Museum). 

6. P. Carruthersi, sp. nov., from the Wealden of Brook Point (Woodwardian 

Museum). 

7. Pinites, from the Wealden of Brook Point (Woodwardian Museum). 

8. Cycadostrohus elegans, C'arr., from the Wealden of Brook Point (Woodwardian 

Museum). 

The figures are about two-thirds the natural size. 



Rejport of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendrick, 
Professor Cleland, and Dr. McGregor-Eobertson {Secretai'y), 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Mechanism of 
the Secretion of Urine. 

Your Committee have to report as follows : — A method of procedure, and 
various points to be determined as to the proportion of the several con- 
stituents of the urine in difi"erent states of the kidney and under the in- 
fluence of drugs, have been decided on, and the microscopical examination 
of the kidney after certain experiments has been undertaken ; but the 
progress of the investigation was hindered by unavoidable circumstances. . 
Your Committee therefore respectfully request to be reappointed. 



56 "' Report Brit Assoc J6'S6 



Plate VII 




]JJUtstraawgVi& Second' lieportowtM/FossiL Flxints of 1^ 

JBede cffi^v& VhxteA MjiffdxTm/. 



'?<\-^^ 






'^ffiSf 



^/?AL 



ON THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL STATION AT GE ANTON, SCOTLAND. 251 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendeick, Pro- 
fessor Strutheks, Professor Young, Professor McIntosh, Professor 
Alleyne Nicholson, Professor Cossar Ewaet, and Mr. John 
Murray (Secretai'y), appointed for the purpose of promoting th& 
establishment of a Marine Biological iStation at Granton,. 
Scotland. 

The Committee report that the sum of 751. placed at their disposal has been- 
used to aid in defraying the expenses of carrying on the work of the Scottish 
Marine Station at Granton. Two reports on the work of the institution 
during the past year are given below ; they have been sent in to the Secre- 
tary by Mr. J. T. Cunningham, the Superintendent, who has charge ol 
the zoological investigations ; and Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, who is respon- 
sible for the physical work : — 

The Biological work of the Station falls into three principal divisions ; 
(1) Embryology and Morphology, (2) Faunology, (3) the accommodation- 
of students and investigators. 

(1) Eiforts to elucidate some facts bearing on the reproduction and 
development of Myxine formed the principal part of the work under this 
head during the autumn and winter. In the summer the aquarium had 
been arranged, and a large tank was specially devoted to the purpose oF 
keeping specimens of the animal in confinement. After careful attention 
to the matter it was found that the creatures refused entirely to feed 
whUe in captivity ; they lived several months, but no signs of reproduc- 
tive activity appeared, with one exception noted below. It was then 
determined to continue the examination of large numbers of specimens 
every month in the year in order to find if the ova were shed at any 
limited season. As almost nothing accurate was known on the whole 
subject, the first problem was to obtain ripe males and females. In No- 
vember the testis in its immature condition was recognised, and it was sub- 
sequently found that with few exceptions all very immature specimens 
were hermaphrodite, containing immature testicular tissue at the posterior 
end of the generative organ. Microscopic examination of the largest ova 
obtained showed that the well-known polar threads belonged to the vitel- 
line membrane, and were developed in tubular depressions of the follicular 
epithelium. In December, January, February, and March females were 
obtained which had just discharged their ova, the collapsed capsules, still 
quite large, being present in the ovary. At the end of January two females 
were obtained in which the polar threads were so far developed as to form 
projections at the ends of the enclosing follicle. One specimen with egg» 
in this condition was taken from the aquarium. No perfectly ripe ova 
were ever obtained. In February moving spermatozoa were discovered 
in hermaphrodite specimens, but the total quantity of milt present waa- 
quite insignificant. The greater number of the specimens examined were 
obtained from fishermen's lines baited for haddock ; some were taken by 
baited traps. In March dredging was carried on off St. Abb's Head, with 
a view to obtain deposited fertilised eggs of Myxine, but none were found. 
It has thus been shown that Myxine deposits its eggs in the months of 
December to March, and that the females are taken on the hook imme- 
diately after the eggs have been shed. But no method has been dis- 



252 



REPORT — 1886. 



covered of obtaining adults in the ripe condition, or of obtaining the fer- 
tilised oTa and embryos. The research and its results are described in a 
paper in the ' Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,' and more 
fully in a paper which will appear in the next number of the ' Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science.' 

At the beginning of the present year the systematic examination of the 
ova of all species of fish which could be obtained was commenced. The 
pelagic ova of the cod, haddock, whiting, and gurnard had been examined 
in the previous spring, and those of a large number of additional species 
have now been figured and described at successive sta,ges of development. 
The results of this work are now being published in full by the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, and wiU appear as a memoir in the Society's 
■' Transactions.' 

(2) The Faunological investigations have been carried on as time per- 
mitted since the opening of the Station, and have, since June last, been 
receiving particular attention. A report on the Chjetopoda, in the pre- 
paration of which Mr. G. A. Ramage is giving his assistance, will appear 
in the coming autumn ; a report on the Sponges is being prepared by 
Mr. J. Arthur Thomson ; and miscellaneous notes on other classes will be 
incorporated with these special reports. 

(3) The following is a list of those who have carried on studies at the 
Station : — 



Name 


Began 


Left 


Subjects 


1885. Dr. Kelso, Edinburgh . 


August 


September 26 . 


Teleostean ova. 


And. D. Sloan, Edinburgh . 


August 8 . 


April 1886 


CcElenterates. 


A. H. W. Macdonald, Edin- 


October 5 . 


November 1885 


General. 


burgh 








G. L. GuUand, Edinburgh . 


October 6 . 


November 1885 


Crustacea. 


1886. G. A. Kamage, Edinburgh . 


June 3 


— 


Chfetopoda, 

&c. 
General. 


J. M. M. Kay, Edinburgh . 


July 24 . 





Miss Macomish, London 


August 2 . 


— 


Mollusca. 


J. Arthur Thomson, Edin- 


August 9 . 


— 


Sponges, &;c. 


burgh 









The yacht is kept up in the same condition as at the opening of the 
station, and the number of men is unaltered. The ark at Millport is 
again in use this summer, and is in the charge of Mr. David Robertson. 
Mr. Cunningham worked there for one week in June, having found at 
Millport a particularly favourable opportunity for the study of Teleostean 
ova. Many other naturalists have taken part in the Medusa's dredgings 
in the Clyde district during the present summer. The services of Alex. 
Turbyne, the keeper of the Station, in making excursions in trawlers to 
procure fish ova, have been most valuable. All those interested in the 
Station are gi-eatly indebted to Mr. Robert Irvine, of Royston, for the 
friendly assistance which he has always been ready to afford on every 
occasion. 

Preserved specimens of marine animals and plants are still sent out 
to applicants, and some attention is being paid to the question of oyster 
cultivation in the Firth of Forth. 

J. T. Cunningham, B.A., F.R.S.E. 



ON THE MAEINE BIOLOGICAL STATION AT GRANTON, SCOTLAND. 253 

Physical marine research has from the commencement formed one of the 
distinctive features of the Scottish Marine Station. During last year 
work has been carried on in this direction by Dr. H. R. Mill and ]\Ir. J. 
T. Morrison ; other gentlemen have occasionally made nse of the facilities 
of the Station. 

Regular meteorological observations are continued twice daily, and in- 
clude the temperature at surface and bottom of the water. An elaborate 
set of experiments with Mr. John Aitkin's new forms of thermometer 
screen were completed last year by Mr. H. N. Dickson. Experiments 
witb various anemometers are still in progress. 

Atmospheric dust is being collected on several islands in the Firth of 
Forth by means of large funnels and carboys, which are periodically 
emptied and the contents forwarded to Mr. Murray for examina- 
tion. 

Monthly trips along the Firth of Forth for the observation of tempera- 
ture and salinity have taken place regularly from river to sea ; prelimi- 
nary results have been communicated to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh from time to time, and a cotnplete discussion of salinity is nearly 
ready for publication. It shows remarkable relationships between salinity 
and configuration, which have suggested new definitions of the words 
river, estuary, and firth. Special attention has been devoted to the relation 
of salinity and temperature to tide in the estuary of the Forth. Besides the 
observations of the scientific staff of the Station, thermometer readings are 
taken by volunteer observers at different parts of the Forth river-system 
and in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. 

The Medusa has made regular trips on the Clyde since April last at 
intervals of two months. Temperature and salinity observations are made 
in all parts of the estuary and firth from Dumbarton to the North Channel, 
and in all the connected lochs. These trips have yielded results of great 
interest and novelty. They are communicated in several papers to various 
sections of the present meeting. 

The temperature of two deep fresh- water lakes — Locli Lomond and 
Loch Katrine — has been observed at all depths once a month since Novem- 
ber 1885, in continuation of Mr. J. Y. Buchanan's work. 

Daily temperature observations have been established on a number of 
rivers and at several points on some. The Station has charge of obser- 
vations on the Thurso, in the north of Scotland, the Forth and Teith, and 
the Tweed ; and it has also been the means of inducing independent ob- 
servers to undertake similar work on the Tummel (a tributary of the 
Tay), the Tay, and the Derwent, in Cumberland. These are all salmon 
rivers, and the observers being interested in fishing have already suc- 
ceeded in showing some connection between temperature and the move- 
ments of salmon. 

In consequence of experience gained in physical marine investigations 
the apparatus used for the purpose has been progressively modified and 
improved — the Scottish thermometer- frame and water-bottle may be 
pointed to as special instances. 

The Station has, since September 1885, been able to advise and assist 
several public bodies in starting observations of temperature and salinity, 
the National Fish Culture Association of England, the Dundee Harbour 
Trust, and the Fishery Board for Scotland being amongst the number. 
Thermometers have been lent to several naturalists for nse on short 
scientific voyages. 



254 REPOET — 1886. 

The collection of all existing records of sea and river temperature 
round the coast of Scotland is proceeding, and promises when completed 
to be of great value in showing the different sea- climates of the east and 
west coasts — a question of much importance in relation to the distribution 
-of marine species. 

Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

The Committee beg to recommend that a grant of lOOZ. be made for 
Tthe maintenance of the Station during the ensuing year. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankestek, 
Mr. P. L. ScLATER, Professor M. Fostek, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
Moselet, and Mr. Percy Sladen {Secretary), appointed for the 
furpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. . 

Tour Committee regret to report that, in consequence of the insufficient 
grant voted for their use at the Aberdeen meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, they have been placed, during the past year, in a very difficult and 
undesirable position. Indeed, if they had not been met in the most 
generous spirit by Professor Dohrn, the Committee would have been 
unable to carry out the purpose for which they have been appointed 
•during a number of successive years. 

The following are the facts of the case. Tables in the Zoological 
Station at Naples are let to foreign Governments and scientific bodies for 
•periods of not less than one year, and at a fixed annual rental, which has 
for some time been established at lOOZ. The table previously at the dis- 
posal of the Committee had been hired on these terms. At the Aberdeen 
meeting of the Association, held last year, the sum of only SOL was 
entrusted to your Committee, and they were consequently unable to hire 
a table in the usual way. Several informal communications passed 
between the Committee and Professor Dohrn, and culminated in the two 
letters subjoined, which your Committee submit for the consideration of 
±he Council. 

' Ewell, Surrey : November 28, 1885. 

' Dear Sir, — I am directed, as Secretary of the Committee for arrang- 
ing for the occupation of a table at the Zoological Station at Naples, 
to acquaint you with the fact that the Committee have been entrusted 
only with 50Z. this year by the British Association, which they much 
regret. 

' They are aware that it is impossible that you should depart from the 
principle of the Institution which you have founded, and that you would 
■compromise its interests by letting a table for less than a year, or for less 
than the regularly established sum of IQOl. They therefore propose to 
present the sum of bOl. to the Direction of the Zoological Station of Naples 
without any stipulation ; but I am instructed to add that they hope, 
should a naturalist approved by the Committee desire to visit Naples 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 255 

during tlie year, that you will be able to receive him as a guesb for such 
period as may be convenient to your arrangements. 

' In the meantime the Committee desire me to assure you that they 
will use their best efforts to obtain next year the usual grant, which will 
enable them to lease a table at the Naples Station in the usual way. They 
further beg you to be assured that the project of the Marine Biological 
Association for erecting a laboratory at Plymouth has not been the cause 
of the insufficient grant made by the British Association at Aberdeen, 
since no grant was applied for or assigned to the Plymouth enterprise 
this year. 

' I am, dear Sir, 

' Tours very faithfully, 
' W. Percy Sladen, 

' Sec. to tlie Committee. 
' Prof. Anton Dohen.' 

* Naples : December 5, 1885. 

' Dear Sib, — In acknowledging the receipt of your communication, 
dated November 28, on behalf of the Committee for arranging for the 
occupation of a table at the Zoological Station at Naples, I find it difficult 
not to begin with the expression of the sincerest gratitude both for the 
grant of 50^. and for the tenor of the communication which informs me 
of the condition under which the grant is tendered to me. I cannot but 
consent at once to the propositions the Committee makes therein ; and I 
shall be doubly pleased if you should have to announce to me at the 
earliest possible date the arrival at Naples of a naturalist whom the Com- 
mittee desires to see installed at the table, and who will be sure to receive 
the full share of the advantages which the Zoological Station, its staff, 
and myself may be able to give him for his scientific work. 

' It is a great satisfaction to me to be assured by the Committee that 
they will use their influence to continue the table in the usual way. 
Indeed, as you say, it is essential for the existence of the Zoological 
Station that the regulations hitherto observed should be maintained. The 
system of letting tables to different Governments or scientific bodies has 
been introduced as the best possible means to guarantee the existence of 
an institution which it would have been difficult to create in any other 
way on so large a scale. 

' It seems to me beyond doubt that in creating and continuously 
strengthening one great central institution, a greater good to science 
is secured than by promiscuously attempting to establish smaller labora- 
tories on different points of the European coast, without carefully weighing 
whether such laboratories offer any special advantage, and can be carried 
to a state of really efficient working order. If available funds existed, 
every university — nay, every zoologist — might establish a seaside labora- 
tory for his own private use, and thus pursue with all possible advantage 
bis favourite lines of research. But, as it is, such funds are not ready, 
and nobody, I dare to say without presumption, can judge better about the 
difficulties of making them forthcoming than the writer of these lines. 
The Zoological Station of Naples represents up to this date a capital of 
20,000Z., and has to provide for a yearly budget of 6,0001. to 7,000Z. 
The efforts it has cost to secure these sums have been considerable. I may 
be permitted to state that it took seven or eight years of persevering 
effort to add the recently acquired 4,0001. for the creation of the new 



256 KEPOET— 1886. 

physiological laboratory now in course of construction, and I look forward 
to considerable eiFort being needed to secure adequate annual sums for 
working it. It would take more than double the amount of money to 
create the same facilities for physiological research at any other seaside 
place, and a much greater annual outlay to carry it to the perfection 
which may be readily attained by the establishment of this new physio- 
logical laboratory as part of the already extensive Naples Zoological 
Station. 

' In stating that the proposed Marine Laboratory at Plymouth did not 
cause the diminution of the grant for the Naples Station, the Committee 
seems to place itself on the same principle which I am advocating, viz., 
that whatever may be the advantages of a greater number of local zoo- 
logical stations, they can hardly supersede the importance of having 
access to the greatest and most effective establishment of the kind ; and 
by giving that access to British naturalists also secure the welfare and 
ever-increasing efficiency of this central biological institution, which to 
conduct to its highest level will always remain the chief duty of 

' Tours sincerely, 

' Prof. Dr. Anton Dohrn. 
' W. Percy Sladen, Esq., 

* Secretary to the Committee of the British Association' 

Your Committee beg to direct the attention of the Council to the 
liberal manner in which Professor Dohrn has assisted them by generously 
placing at their disposal the resources of the station as unreservedly as if 
a table had been hired in the usual way and the customary contribution 
had been paid. 

Your Committee trust that the Council will not again leave them with 
a sum insufficient for the hire of the Naples table, and desire to state that 
they would not be able again to propose such terms to Professor Dohrn 
as they have done this year. 

The Committee would suggest that all sums granted by the Association 
for the prosecution of marine biology should be assigned in the first in- 
stance to the present Committee, and voted in one sum. And they would 
propose now a grant of 200Z., of which lOOZ. should be appropriated for 
the hire of a table in the Zoological Station at Naples, and lOOZ. for the 
Plymouth laboratory of the Marine Biological Association. 

The General Collections. — The extensive series of marine organisms 
collected by officers of the Italian navy, mentioned in the last Report, 
have been placed in the hands of specialists for investigation. The 
distribution of the collections was undertaken by a Committee appointed 
by the R. Accademia dei Lincei of Rome, by whom the material has 
been confided to about sixty naturalists in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, 
England, Holland, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and Switzerland. 
Very few specimens now remain undistributed. The Committee placed 
no restrictions of any kind upon the use of the material, requesting only 
the return of specimens not needed for investigation. 

The Publications of the Station. — The progress of the various woi-ks 
undertaken by the station is here summarised : — 

(1) Of the ' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel ' the following- 
monograph has been published since the last Report : — XIII. Elarl Brandt, 
Koloniebildende Radiolarien {Sphcerozo'ea) (276 pp., 9 plates). 



ON TUE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 257 

The following works are in the press : — J. Fraipont, ' Polygordius ' ; 
H. Eisig, ' Capitellidae.' 

Monographs by Gr. von Koch on ' Gorgoniidte,' by P. Falkenberg on 
• Rhodomeleae,' and by J. W. Spengel on ' Balanoglossus ' will subse- 
quently appear, the plates being now in the press. 

(2) Of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel ' 
vol. vi. is completed (756 pp., 32 plates). 

(3) The ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht' for 1884 (1499 pp.) is published. 
The editors and the general arrangement of the sections are the same 
as in the preceding year. The ' Bericht ' for 1885 is in the press. 
The index (register) will be given in greater detail than in previous 
years. 

(4) Of the Guide to the Aquarium (printed in German, English, 
Italian, and French) a second Italian edition has been published. 

Extracts from the General Report of the Zoological Station. — The 
oflBcers of the station have courteously furnished lists (1) of the natu- 
ralists who have occupied tables since the last Report, (2) of the works 
published during 1885 by naturalists who have worked at the Zoological 
Station, (3) ot the specimens sent out by the station during the past 
year. These details, which will be found at the end of this Report, 
are the strongest evidence of the activity and efiiciency of the institu- 
tion. 

The British Association Table. — During the past year Dr. Robert 
Scharff", who had been nominated by your Committee, has been kindly 
allowed by Professor Dohrn to occupy a table for a period of nearly six 
months (December to May), in accordance with the generous undertaking 
contained in his letter already quoted. Dr. Scharff has been engaged in 
several important investigations, the results of which he hopes to publish 
during the coming winter. His report on the occupation of the table is 
appended. 



I. Report on the Occupation of the Table, by Dr. Robert Scharff. 

I commenced my studies at the Zoological Station by taking up the 
small group of the ChlorhaBmidse. Several species of this group of 
marine Annelids are pretty abundant in the bay, such as Siphonostoma 
diplochcetum and Stylarioides vionilifer. I examined a number of them 
anatomically, but before I had quite concluded my researches my attention 
was drawn by Professor Dohrn to a more interesting field of study, 
namely, the gills of Elasmobranch fishes. 

Since the publication of the series of articles on the origin of Verte- 
brates by Professor Dohrn, anything regarding the development and 
structure of the gills of fishes has been received with much greater inter- 
est by scientists than formerly. Several organs having now quite a dif- 
ferent function are stated by Dohrn to have been merely gill-clefts in the 
ancestral vertebrate. Thus the mouth was primitively a pair of gill- clefts 
which have coalesced and come to open in front. The organ of smell is 
also supposed to represent a gill-cleft. "With regard to the mouth, strong 
additional support is given to Dohrn's theory by Beard's researches on 
the ' Branchial Sense-organs in Ichthyopsida.' On the other hand, Blaue's 
as well as Beard's discoveries do not lend any support to the view of the 
nose having been a gill-cleft. 

1886. s 



258 REPORT— 1886. 

I merely mentioned these facts, without going into further details, in 
order to show the importance of having an exact knowledge of the histo- 
logical structure of the gills in order to be able to compare it with that 
of the other organs mentioned. 

In the investigation I carried on at Naples during several months the 
gills of the following Elasmobranch fishes were examined, both fresh and 
preserved : — 

Scyllium catulus. Torpedo ocellata. 

— canicula. — marmorata. 

Trygon vtolaceus. Squafina angelus. 

Raja asterias. Musfehis Icevis. 
— clavata. — vulgaris. 

The general structure and anatomy of the gills are of course well known, 
and have been the subject of several important papers. 

The gills of sharks and rays are easily distinguished from the corre- 
sponding organs of Ganoids and Teleosteans. While the rows of bran- 
chial leaflets, which are placed upon the branchial arches in the latter 
two groups project freely into a common cavity covered by the operculum, 
in the Elasmobranchii they are distributed in separate branchial sacs. 
Every one of these sacs also has its own opening to the exterior. As in 
Teleosteans, the branchial leaflets are provided with secondary folds at 
their sides, in which the true branchial capillaries are to be found, and 
thus form the principal respiratory surface. 

The whole branchial leaflet has the form of the blade of a knife. The 
base is taken up by the artery, the free margin by the vein. The trian- 
gular shape of the cross-section is somewhat interfered with by the above- 
mentioned lateral folds, wliich are placed upon the sides at right angles. 
They appear as semicircular flaps. The gills, as well as the gill-clefts, 
contain a large number of mucous cells in their outer cellular layers. As 
far as I have been able to make out, there are no special cells having a 
sensory function. In adult gills there are no ciliated cells ; in the fully 
grown embryo of Mustelus, however, the cells covering the lateral flaps 
of the branchial leaflets were ciliated. At the margin of the gill-cleft I 
also observed ciliated cells. 

One of my principal objects in studying the gills of Elasmobranch 
fishes was to find out the nature of the nerve-endings. I regret that, 
although I tried a large number of different methods, and much time was 
spent over it, I was not successful. For general purposes, however, I can 
recommend the following method of staining with chloride of gold, which 
did me more good service in tracing nerves than Ranvier's or any of the 
other methods : — 

' Place the small object in a watch-glass-full of ^ per cent, chloride of 
gold, and add one drop of hydrochloric acid. Leave this in the dark for 
about half an hour ; then, after washing out with water, put the object in a 
mixture of one part formic acid to four parts water, and expose to light 
until a violet colour appears.' 

A more detailed account of the innervation, as well as the structure of 
the mucous and other cells composing the cellular layers of the gill-cleft 
and the branchial leaflets, will be published during the course of next 
winter. I can only give this very short resume at present, having to 
complete many of my observations by a series of sections which I purpose 
making shortly. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



259 



II. A List of Naturalists who have toorJced at the Station, from the end of 
June 1885 to the end of June 1886. 

















Num- 




State or Universit}' 


Duration of 


Occupancy 


ber on 
List 


Naturalist's Name 


whose Table 








11 t.\\jtj\j .A. L^*J X\J 

was made use of 














j Arrival 


Departure 


322 


Prof. Albini 


Italy 


Jan. 26, 


1885 


Aug. 22, 1885 


323 


Lieut. N. Asbeleff 


Russia 




July 23, 


»» 


,, !■", ,, 


324 


Stud. E. Bornand 


Switzerland 




Aug. 18, 


)> 


June 10, 18 86 


325 


Dr. J. H. Wakker 


Holland . 




! Sept. 3, 


)J 


Dec. 1,1885 


326 


Dr. 0. Hamann . 


Prussia . 




„ 24, 


»» 


Oct. 20, „ 


327 


Dr. E. de Daday 


Hungary . 




Oct. 5, 


It 


May 15, 1886 


328 


Dr. A. Ostroumoff 


Russia 




„ 8, 


» 


Mar. 10, „ 


329 


Prof. W. Krause 


Berlin Academy 


„ 24, 


M 


Dec. 31, 1885 


330 


>» 


Prussia . 


Jan. 1 , 


1886 


Mar. 6,1886 


331 


Dr. Monticelli . 


Province of Naples . 


Nov. 1, 


1885 


— 


332 


Dr. T. Balsamo . 


)» 


,. 1, 


I) 


— 


333 


Lieut. A. Colombo 


Italy 


„ 17, 


1) 


April 5, 1886 


334 


Dr. K. Semon . 


Prussia . 


,, 21, 


11 


— 


335 


Dr. 0. Geise . . 


Saxony . 


„ 25, 


1) 


June 7, „ 


336 


Dr. F. Zschokke 


Switzerland 


Dec. 4, 


}i 


■> 8, „ 


337 


Dr. A. TichomirofE . 


Russia 


„ 11, 


yt 


May 16, „ 


338 


Dr. R. Scharff . 


British Association . 


,, 11, 


yy 


,> 3, ,, 


339 


Prof. A. della Valle . 


Italy . 


„ 21, 


)> 


Jan. 17, „ 


340 


Prof. W. Preyer. 


Prussia . 


„ 29, 


»» 


April 21, „ 


341 


Dr. G. Jatta 


Italy 


Jan. 1, 


1886 





342 


Dr. J. Eaflaele . 


»i ... 


„ 1, 


It 





343 


Dr. M. de Davidoff . 


Bavaria . 


„ 7, 


)1 


April 2, 1886 


344 


Prof. G. von Koch 


Hesse 


Feb. 2, 


)) 


Mar. 16, „ 


345 


Dr. G. Karsten . 


Prussia . 


Mar. 10, 


»» 


May 1, „ 


346 


Di L. Will 


Hamburg 


„ 10, 


JJ 


April 24, „ 


347 


Prof. W. His . 


Saxony . 


„ 13, 


»l 


„ 7, „ 


348 


Prof. KoUmann . 


Switzerland . 


„ 15, 


»J 


May 1, „ 


349 


Dr. J. Steiner . 


Baden 


,. 20, 


)} 


June 5, ,, 


350 


Dr. L. Plate 


Bavaria . 


,. 20, 


it 


May 6, „ 


351 


Prof C. Chun . 


Prussia . 


„ 27, 


19 


„ 1 „ 


352 


Cand. J. Dobberke . 


Holland . 


April 6, 


11 


July 9, „ 


353 


Mr. W. Heape . 


Cambridge 


„ . 15, 


11 


June 1, „ 


354 


Prof A. della Valle . 


Italy 


„ 16, 


11 


May 5, „ 


355 


Dr. Onodi . 


Hungary . 


„ IS, 


19 


June 9, „ 


356 


Dr. F Nansen . 


Stazione Zoologica . 


„ 21, 


)) 


„ 7, „ 


357 


Dr. F. Schwinck 


Bavaria . 


May 4, 


19 




358 


Prof. A. della Valle . 


Italy 


June 18, 


» 


— 



III. A List of Papers which have been published in the i/ear 1885 by the 
Naturalists who have occupied Tables at the Zoological Station. 



Dr. von Sehlen 
Dr. J. Frenzel. 



Zur Aetiologie der Alopecia areata. Virchow's 'Archiv,' 

Bd. xcix. 1885. 
Ueber einige in Seethieren lebende Gregarinen. ' Archiv 

f. mikr. Anatomic,' Bd. xxiv. 1885. 
Ueber die Mitteldarmdriise (Leber) der MoUusken. Ibid. 

Bd. XXV. 1885. 
Temperaturmaxima fiir Seethiere. Pfliiger's 'ArcMv f. 

d. ges. Physiologic,' Bd. xxxvi. 1885. 
Ueber den Darmcanal der Crustaceen nebst Bemerkungen 

zur Epithelregeneration. ' Archiv f. mikr. Anatomie.' 

Bd. XXV. 1885. 

s2 



260 



EEPOET — 1886. 



Prof. N. Wagner 
Mr. W. Ransom 
Dr. W. Kukenthal . 
Mr. Sidney F. Hanner 
Prof. C. Chun 

Dr. L. Orley . 

Dr. J. Walther 

Prof. G. Albini 

M. M. Jaquet . 

J. M. de Castellarnan 

Mr. A. G. Bourne . 

Prof. A. Swaen 

Dr. E. Eohde . 

Dr. A. Gravis . 



'Journal of 
' Jenaische 



' Quart. 



der Siphonophoren. 
1885. 
der Siphonophoren. 



' Termeszetrajzi 



Sur quelques points de I'organisation de I'Anchynie. ' Ar- 
chives de Zool. Exper.' t. iii. i" Sevie, 1885. 

On the Cardiac Rhythm of Invertebrata. 
Physiology,' vol. v. 1885. 

Ueher die Ijmphoiden Zellen der Anneliden. 
Zeitschr. f. Naturw.,' Bd. xviii. 1885. 

On the Structm-e and Development of Loxosoma. 
Journ. Micr. Science,' 1885. 

Ueber die cyclische Entmckeluug 
' Sitzungsb. K. Preuss. Acad. Wiss.' 

Ueber die cyclische Entwickelung 
Zweite Mittheil. Ibid. 

Die Entozoen der Haie und Rochen. 
Fiizetek,' vol. ix. 1885. 

A Cziipaknak es Rajaknak Belfergei. Tbid. 

Zur Physiologie der Haiembryonen. Ibid. 

Die gesteinbildecden Kalkalgen des Golfs von Neapel' 
und die Entstehung structurloser Kalke. ' Zeitschr. 
der deutschen geolog. Gesellschaft,' 1885. 

Sui movimenti dei cromatofori nei Cefalopodi. ' Rendi- 
conto Accad. Scienze Fis. e Mat., Napoli,' Anno 24,. 
1885. 

Recherches sur le Systeme vasculaire des Annelides, 
' Mittheil. Zool. Station Neapel,' Bd. vi. 1885. 

La Estacion de Napoles y sus Procedunientos para el 
esamen microscopico, Madrid, 1885. 

On the supposed communication of the vascular system) 
with the exterior in Pleurobranchus. ' Quart. Journ.. 

, Micr. Science,' vol. xxv. 1885. 

Etude sur le dSveloppement des Feuillets, &c. dans le- 
blastoderme de la Torpille. ' Extr. Bull. Acad. Roy. 
Belgique,' 3« Serie, t. 9, 1885. 

Die Musculatur der Chaetopoden (Nachtrag). ' Zool. 
Beitrilge,' herausgeg. von Dr. A. Schneider, Breslau,. 
Bd. i. 1885. 

Sur les Travaux Botaniques pendant son sejour au Labo- 
ratoire de la Station Zoologique de Naples (Extr. Bel- 
gique Horticole, 1884). 

Precedes Techniques usites ^ la Station Zool. de Naples- 
en 1883 (Extr. du proc6s-verb. Soc. belg. de Micro- 
scopic, 1884). 

Contribuzioni all' Ittiologia. ' Mittheil. Zool Station; 
Neapel,' Bd. vi. 1885. 

Ueber vermuthliche rudimentiire Kiemenspalten bei 
Elasmobranchiern. 'Mittheil. Zool. Station Neapel,"" 
Bd. \\. 1885. 

Zur naheren Kenntnis der Tintinnoden. Ibid. 

Raccolte Zoologiche eseguite dal R. piroscafo Washington 
nella Campagna abissale talassografica deU' anno 1885. 
' Rivista Marittima,' Aprile 1885. 

CoUezioni per studi di scienze natural! fatte nel viaggio 
intorno al mondo dalla R. corvetta ' Vettor Pisani,*^ 
1882-3-4-5, con 12 tavole e 2 grandi carte zootalasso- 
grafiche(Estratto dalla ' Rivista Marittima,' Settembre,. 
Ottobre, Novembre, 1885), Roma, 1885. 

IV. A List of Naturalists to luJwm Specimens have been sent from the end 
of June 1885 to the end of June 1886. 

Lire c 
1885. July 4 Prof. C. Claus, Vienna . . Various . . . 125-5& 
„ 6 Prof. P. Pavesi, Pavia . . Annelida . , . 49-16. 
„ „ Landwirihsschaftsschule, Weil- 
burg Coelenterata . , 34-4 



Prof. C. Emery 

Dr. J. T. van Bemmelen 



Prof. G. Entz . 
A. Colombo 



G. Chierchia 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



261 



. July 


7 


1> 


t» 


?» 


8 


■)» 


»» 


■)) 


10 


1» 


11 


■I? 


15 


a 


18 


9» 


25 


17 


29 


»» 


31 


i> 


1> 


Aug. 


8 


») 


12 


»» 


15 


>» 


16 


)j 


20 


») 


24 


Sept. 


4 


»» 


9 


1> 


Jl 


1» 


15 


i) 


J) 


■>» 


16 


■») 


19 


1) 


20 


i» 


23 


■»» 


25 



■Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



28 

5 

18 
20 



21 
23 
24 



28 

» 

29 
11 



13 
15 
16 
17 
24 

28 



29 
11 



Dr. F. Blochmann, Heidelberg . 
Prof. Askenasy, Heidelberg 
Mr. E. G. Stocker, London 
Mr. V. Fri^, Prague . 
Dr. Th. Barrois, Lille 
Mr. Ch. Jeiferys, Tenby . 
University, St. Petersburg 
Mr. A. Kreidl, Prague 
H.R.H. Prince Rupprecht of 

Bavaria ..... 
Mr. Pernoletti, Beziers 
Mr. W. E. Hoyle, Edinburgh . 
Marcbese Diana, Naples . 
Prof. Giglioli, Florence 
Dr. L. Edinger, Frankfort-on- 

Maine ..... 
Mr. H. Reichelt, Leipzig . 
K. Zool. Sammlung, Munich 
Mr. A. ElofEe, Paris . 
Prof. Paladino, Naples 
Prof. D'A. W.Thompson, Dundee 
Mr. V. Fri6, Prague . 
Obergymnasium, Sarajevo 
Baron R. von Drasche, Vienna . 
Mr. A. Kreidl, Prague 
Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 
Prof. E. Haeckel, Jena 
Admiral de KasnakofE 
Dr. Bolau, Aquarium, Hamburg 
Prof. Richiardi, Pisa . ' . 
Mr. A. Eloflfe. Paris . 
Dr. John Beard, Manchester 
Prof. C. Chun, Konigsberg 
Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva 
Prof. Mohr, Lahr 
Dr. H. J. Veth, Rotterdam 
Dr. E. Evei-ts, Hague 
Prof. C. Chun, Konigsberg 
Mr. J. Puis, Ghent . 
Dr. 0. Hamann, Gottingen 
Zoolog. Institut, Berlin 
Mr. E. Marie, Paris , 
Prof. C. K. Hoffmann, Leyden . 
ProE. G. Frizzi, Perugia 
K.K. Geol. Reichsanstalt, Vienna 
Prof. Hubrecht, Utrecht . 
Prof. Bogdanoff, Moscovsr . 
Dr. Rabl-Riickhard, Berlin 
Prof. A. della Valle, Modena 
Prof. Emery, Bologna 
Prof. Ehlers, Gottingen 
Dr. Th. Barrois, Lille 
Musee d'Histoire Nat., Geneva . 
Dr. Zograf, Zool. Mus., Moscow 
Mr. R. Damon, Weymouth 
Rev. A. M. Normau . 
Dr. P. Pelseneer, Brussels . 
Mr. Pedro Antigo, Barcelona 
Mason College, Birmingham 
Hohere Bilrgerschule, Hamburg 
Prof. Newton Parker, Cardiff . 
University, Warsaw . 
Prof. M. Marshall, Manchester . 





Lire c. 


Various 


99-90 


Algaj . 


6-40 


Various 


26-65 


Various 


43-80 


Mactra 


605 


Mollusca 


153-90 


Siphonophora 


66-65 


Collection . 


107-35 


Mollusca 


82-90 


Octopus 


76- 


Mollusca 


143-85 


Various 


41-10 


Fishes 


70-45 


Brains of fish 


14-45 


MoUusca 


9-85 


Collection . 


417-55 


Collection . 


275-10 


Ovaries of Squatina 


12-45 


Collection . 


250-30 


Coelenterata 


106-10 


Various 


60-95 


Various 


17-95 


Various 


12- 


Various 


47-40 


Collection . 


53815 


Collection . 


20- 


Living animals 


— 


Collection . 


246-35 


Various 


69-70 


Embryos of Torpedo 


27-65 


Siphonophora 


10-30 


Chimfera monstrosa 


13- 


Collection . 


179-40 


Collection . 


207-85 


Collection . 


9015 


Embryos of Torpedo 


17-25 


Collection . 


176-55 


Spatangus . 


37-50 


Collection . 


437-50 


Various 


102-20 


Engraulis . 


3-35 


Mollusca 


63-95 


Corallinea . 


6-90 


Various 


52-85 


Ascidise, Hydromedusas 


317-75 


Amphioxus . 


9-20 


Collection . 


624-90 


Various 


143-60 


Various 


75-35 


Dentalium . 


3-60 


Various 


115-05 


Aplj'sia, Hippocampus 


37-75 


Collection . 


103-05 


Collection . 


335-30 


CymbuUa . 


9-85 


Crustacea . 


77-10 


Collection . 


. 142-10 


Collection . 


250- 


Collection . 


. 205-35 


Collection . 


. 451-35 


Antedon 


. 38-15 



262 



KEPORT — 1886. 



1885. Dec. 



1886. Jan. 



Feb. 



11 

12 
14 
16 



17 

20 

3 
5 
10 
11 
12 
16 



22 

>» 
»» 

8 
9 

»» 

10 

)» 

15 
19 



21 

22 



24 



March 


3 




4 




6 




10 




11 




)* 




12 




13 




16 




24 




27 




»> 


April 


3 


i» 


8 



14 



16 
19 
21 



Dr. Simroth, Leipzig . 

Prof. Gezii Entz, Klausenburg . 

Prof. D'A. W. Thompson, Dundee 

Dr. A. Toth, Szegedin 

Dr. N. Ormandj', Szegedin 

Prof. Salensky, Odessa 

Zool. Institut, Munich 

Laboratoire de Zoologie, Dijon . 

Mr. F. Kiise, Copenhagen . 

Prof. Wiedersheim, Heidelberg 

Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 

Prof. Sabatier, Montpelier 

Zool. Museum, St. Petersburg . 

Dr. E. Voges, Heisede 

Zool. Institut, Berlin 

Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 

Laboratoire de Zoologie, Lille . 

Prof. Ludwig, Giessen 

Mr. J. Tempere, Paris 

Mr. R. Damon, Weymouth 

Mr. J. Beck, London 

Dr. von Hanstein, Gottingen 

Prof. Hertwig, Munich 

Prof. A. Andres, Milan 

Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 

Mr. E. Vallentin, Leytonstone . 

Prof. A. Batelli, Perugia . 

Mr. J. B. Jeaffreson, London 

Dr. O. Hamann, Gottingen 

Mr. L. Dreyfus, Wiesbaden 

»> )» »» 

Inst, de Zoologie, Lille 
Mr. H. Putze, Hamburg . 
Dr. J. Friih, S. Gall . 
Mr. H. Knorr, Munich 
Morphol. Laboratorj', Cambridge 
Dr. A. Pauly, Munich 
Mr. B. Simon, Paris . 
Dr. Mendelsohn, Posen 
Prof. H. Blanc, Lausanne . 
Dr. Ed. Pergens, Louvain . 
Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 
Zool. Institut, Gottingen . 
Mr. H. Putze, Hamburg . 
Mr. Kymmel, Riga 
Mr. A. Kreidl, Prague 
Prof. Fritscb, Berlin . 
Prof. A. Goette, Rostock . 
Mr. V. Fric, Prague . 
Mr. J. Tempere, Paris 
Prof. G. von Koch, Darmstadt . 
Dr. Hering, Frankfort-on-Maine 
Mr. Pfeiffer, Ehrenfeld 
Lab. de Zool., Vimereux . 
Veteriniir Hogskole, Copenhagen 
Morphol. Lab., Cambridge . 
Senckenbergisches Mus., Frank- 
fort-on-Maine 
Polj'technicum, Zurich 
Lab. de Zool., Neuchatel . 
Dr. I. Felix, Leipzig 
Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva 
Dr. L, Eger, Vienna . 





Lire c. 


Collection . 


. 100- 


Collection . 


. 169- 


Collection . 


62-55 


Pelagia 
Collection . 


6-75 
. 121-50 


Collection . 


. 237-10 


Pecten 


5-95 


Collection . 


. 460-95 


Mollusca . 


42-35 


Heads of Dogfish 


50- 


Torpedo, Octopus 
Collection . 


60-45 
. 410-75 


Coelenterata 


88-10 


Collection . 


. 125- 


Collection . 


. 425-15 


Various 


34-25 


Various 


. 25-85 


Collection . 


. 625- 


Various 


22-60 


Various 


. 139-15 


Various 


. 125- 


Various 


70- 


Various 


. 182-95 


Strongylocentrotus 


46-50 


Various 


95-15 


Echinodermata . 


. 13-80 


Fishes 


63-65 


Pycnogonida 
Echini 


6-85 
4-45 


Collection . 


. 952- 


Collection . 


. 298- 


Various 


62-30 


Argonauta . 


22-85 


Corallinea . 


1- 


Various 


72-85 


Animals for Dissect] 


on 578-50 


Eyes of Pecten . 


6-75 


Crustacea . 


21-95 


Various 


55- 


Various 


93-90 


Bryozoa 
Pyrosoma, Nemertir 


24-90 
la 32-35 


Echinodermata . 


. 136-05 


Argonauta . 
Various 


. 22-75 
. 162-90 


Various 


. 64-05 


Toi-pedo 
Coelenterata 


. 13-75 
6-55 


Callianassa . 


1-85 


Various 


. 31-25 


Collection . 


. 625- 


Various 


. 79-40 


Various 


. 71-40 


Various 


. 228-45 


Various 


. 128-65 


Amphioxus 


. 97-35 


Collection . 


. 1250- 


Lepidopus . 
Collection . 


. 32- 

. 244-35 


Various 


. 29-15 


Brachiopoda 
Corallium . 


30-70 
47-30 



ON THK ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



263 



1886. April 22 
„ 23 

,. 28 



May 



June 



10 
13 
17 

19 
20 
22 
24 

27 
29 
31 
1 
8 
11 

9* 

13 
16 



21 
22 

26 
29 
30 



Dr. G. Kiem, Halle-on-Saale 
Prof. Hofrath Preyer, Jena 
Oberstaatsanwalt, Hamm, Co- 
logne 

Prof. Frizzi, Perugia . 

Dr. Bolau, Hamburg . 

Dr. Pancritius, Konigsberg 

University, Columbia, Missouri 

Dr. Miiller, Berlin 

Zool. Museum, Berlin 

Dr. Moescb, Zurich . 

Prof. Frizzi, Perugia . 

Dr. G. Gilson, Louvain 

Mr. Jaquet, Jena 

Realgymnasium, Zwickau . 

Mr. H. W. Gwatkin, Cambridge 

Dr. Karsch, Berlin 

Musee d'Hist. Nat., Brussels 

Prof. Gabor de Baczo, Zilah 

Mr. J. T. Hillier, Eamsgate 

Mr. H. Putze, Hamburg 

Dr. Riickeri, Munich 

Prof. Kupfer, Munich 

Zool. Instituf, Heidelberg . 

Prof. Chun, Konigsberg 

Count Peracca, Turin 

Zool. Institut, Wiirzburg . 

Prof. D'A.W. Thompson, Dundee 

Mr. J. Tempere, Paris 

Mr. P. Antigo, Barcelona . 

Prof. W. His, Leipzig 

Prof. Eabl, Prague 

Prof. Ray Lankester, London . 

K. Obergymnasium, Szatccar 

„ „ Tyrnan 

Dr. F. Zschokke, Aaran 
Istituto Pontano, Naples . 
Mr. Gustav Schneider, Basle 
Mr. F. Hermann, Naples . 





Lire c. 


Various 


64-10 


Echinodermata . 


11305 


Collection . 


69-50 


Various 


8-45 


Living Specimens 


25- 


Intestines . 


29-95 


Collection . 


436- 


Collection . 


260-85 


Collection . 


78-55 


Various 


57-65 


Petromyzon 


8-75 


Testicoli 


4-80 


Scymnus 


12-55 


Collection . 


106-75 


Various 


75- 


Myzostomum 


6-40 


Fishes 


1.36-3(> 


Collection . 


150- 


Various 


38- 


Various 


31-70 


Embryos of Dogfish 


— 


Petromyzon 


50- 


Collection . 


271-60 


Various 


151-95 


Lacerta muralis . 


10- 


Cardium 


8-85 


Collection . 


. 161-15 


Various 


28-40 


Various 


84-95 


Embryos of Dogfish 


19-25 


»t »» • 


27-35 


Thysanoteuthis, &c. 


86- 


Collection . 


125- 


Collection . 


62-.50 


Collection . 


44-45 


Collection . 


45- 


Rhizostoma, Corallium 


33-95 


Xiphias 


15- 



19,781-05 



v. A List of Naturalists to wJiom Microscopic Preparations have been 
sent from the end of June 1885 Yo the end of June 1886. 

1885. Oct. 23 Zool. Inst., University, Berlin 
Dr. O. S. Jensen, Christiania 
Prof. W. Newton Parker, Cardiff 
University, Warsaw 

1886. May 31 Miss Garland, Winchester . 

217-25 



Oct. 


23 


Nov, 


27 


»> 


29 


Dec. 


12 


May 


31 





Lire c. 


. 52 preparations 


105- 


. . 23 


50- 


. . 13 


31- 


. . 14 


25- 


. . 3 


6-25 



264 REPORT— 1886. 



Report of the ConiTnittee, consisting of Mr. John Cokdeaux (Secre- 
tary), Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brow'N, Mr. 
William Eagle Clarke, Mr. R. M. Harrington, and Mr. A. 
G. More, appointed for the purpose of obtaining {with 
the consent of the Master and Brethren of the Trinity House 
and the Commissioners of Northern and Irish Lights) observa- 
tions on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightvessels, 
and of reporting on the same. 

The General Report of the Committee, of which this is an abstract, is 
comprised in a pamphlet of 173 pages,' and includes observations taken at 
lighthouses and lightvessels, as well as at several land stations, on the 
coasts of Great Britain and Ireland and the outlying islands. 

The best thanks of the Committee are due to their numerous ob- 
servers for their assistance. Much good work has been rendered by 
those amongst them who have taken the trouble to forward a leg and 
wing of such specimens as have been killed against the lanterns, and 
which they have themselves not been able to identify. This has already 
led to the determination of several rare birds, which otherwise would 
have escaped notice. It is evident that unless the birds can be correctly 
named the value of this inquiry is materially diminished, and ornitho- 
logists may justly refuse to accept the accuracy of the statements. It is 
intended, in order to facilitate the sending of wings, to supply the light- 
keepers with large linen-lined envelopes, ready stamped, and enclosing 
labels for dates and other particulars. 

The best thanks of the Committee are also tendered to Mr. H. Gatke 
for the increased interest he has given to their report by forwarding a daily 
record of the migration of birds as observed at Heligoland between 
January 1 and December 31, with the concurrent meteorological conditions 
under which the various phenomena occurred. 

Altogether 187 stations were supplied with printed schedules for 
registering the observations, and returns have been sent in from 125. 
About 267 separate schedules have been sent in to your reporters. The 
general results, as far as the special object of the inquiry, have been very 
satisfactory, and much information has also been accumulated respecting 
the breeding habits of seafowl on the outlying islands and skerries on 
the Scotch and Irish coasts, and altogether a great mass of facts and 
valuable data obtained which cannot fail to be of value to future in- 
quirers. 

A special point of interest in the report is the large arrival, with a 
north-east wind, of Pied Flycatchers in the first week in May 1885, 
observed at Spurn Point, Flamborough Head, the Isle of May, and 
Pentland Skerries. At Flamborough Head the Flycatchers were accom- 
panied by male Redstarts in large numbers, both species swarming for 
two or three days. The immigration at this period was not exclusively 
confined to these two species. Mr. Agnew, writing from the Isle of May, 
at the entrance of the Firth of Forth, says, under date of May 3rd — ' An 
extraordinary rush of migrants to-day ; have never seen anything like it 

' • Report on the Migration of Birds in the Spring and Autumn of 1885.' McFar- 
lane and Erskine, 19 St. James's Square, Edinburgh. 



ON THE MIGRATION OP BIRDS. 265 

in spring. To attempt to give numbers is simply useless. I will just 
give you the names in succession : Fieldfares, Redwings, Ring Ouzels, 
Blackbirds, Lapwings, Dotterels, Rock-pigeons, Hawk, Meadow Pipits, 
Redstarts, Whinchats, Tree Sparrows, Yellow Wagtails, Ortolan (ob- 
tained), Robins, Chiff-chaffs, Wood-warbler, Blackcap-warbler, Marsh 
Tit, Whitethroats, and Pied Flycatchers.' And on the 4th : * Still 
increasing in numbers, but wind shifted this morning to E. for S.B.' 

A noteworthy incident also of the vernal migration was the great 
Tush of Wbeatears observed at the Bahama Bank vessel off the Isle of 
Man, and at Langness on the night of April 13, when many perished and 
were captured. On the same night Wheatears were killed at the Coning- 
beg and Rathlin Island lighthouses, on the Irish coast On the I2th and 
13th the rush was very heavy at stations on the west coast of Scotland, 
^o coi-respouding movement was observed on the east coast of Great 
Britain on the same night; but at Hanois L. H., Guernsey, on the 10th of 
May, at night at the north light, and on the Lincolnshire coast and Farn 
Islands on the 10th and 11th. These entries are sufficient to show the 
immense area covered by the migration of this species at or about the 
same period. On the east coast of England the first Wheatears were 
observed at the Farn Islands on February 22, 

The autumnal migration is first indicated at Heligoland on July 6, 
and was continued with slight intermissions up to the end of the year. 
A similar movement affected the whole of the east coast of Great Britain 
during the same period, but was apparently less constant and persistent 
■than at Heligoland. 

It has been remarked in previous reports that the migration of a 
species extends over many weeks, and in some cases is extended for 
months. Yet it is observable that, at least on the east coast of England, 
year by year, the bulk or main body of the birds come in two enormous 
and almost continuous rushes during the second and third weeks in 
October and the corresponding weeks in November. 

In the autumn of 1885 it is again observable that the chief general 
movements which usually characterise the southward autumnal passage 
were two in number, and affected the stations over the whole coast line 
both east and west of Great Britain. The first of these commenced 
about the 11th ot October, and was continued to the 20th. The second 
from the 8th to the 12th of November. It is worthy of notice that these 
two chief movements of the autumn were ushered in by and were con- 
current with anti-cyclonic conditions, preceded by and ceasing with 
cyclonic depressions, affectii\g, more or less, the whole of the British 
isles. From this it appears not unlikely that birds await the approach 
of favourable meteorological conditions, of which perhaps their more acute 
senses give them timely warning to migrate in mass. Whatever may be the 
cause which impels these enormous rushes, often continuous for days, it 
is one which operates over an immense area at one and the same time. 

The October rush reached its maximum ou the 16th, at which date 
almost all the stations report extraordinary numbers of various species 
on the wing. As one out of many we quote from the journal of Mr. 
James Jack, principal of the Bell Rock lighthouse : ' Birds began to 
arrive at 7.30 p.m., striking lightly and flying off again ; numbers went 
on increasing till midnight, when it seemed that a vast flock had arrived, 
as they now swarmed in the rays of light, and, striking hard, fell dead on 
balcony or rebounded into the sea. At 3 a.m. another flock seemed to 



266 KEPOBT— 1886. 

have arrived, as the numbers now increased in density ; at the same 
time all kinds crowded on to the lantern windows, trying to force their 
way to the light. The noise they made shrieking and battering the 
windows baffles description. The birds were now apparently in thou- 
sands ; nothing ever seen here like it by us keepers. Wherever there 
was a light visible in the building they tried to force their way to it. 
The bedroom windows being open as usual for air all night, they got in 
and put the lights out. All birds went off at 6 a.m., going W.S.W. 
Redwings were most in number ; Starlings next ; Blackbirds, Fieldfares, 
and Larks.' The rush in November chiefly tof>k place in the night ; at 
the Bell Rock the movement ceased at midnight of the 12th, and at the 
Longstone Lighthouse, on the Farn Islands, a little earlier — at 10.30 p.m., 
when the wind became strong from S.W. 

From each succeeding year's statistics we have come to almost similar 
conclusions regai-ding the lines of flight — regular and periodically used 
routes where the migratory hosts are focussed into solid streams. Three 
salient lines on the east coast of Scotland are invariably shown, viz., 
(1) by the entrance of the Firth of Forth, and as far north as Bell Rock, 
both coming in autumn and leaving in spring ; (2) by the Pentland 
Firth and Pentland Skerries, likewise in spring and autumn; and (3)' 
by the insular groups of Orkney and Shetland, which perhaps may be 
looked upon as part of No. 2. On the other hand, three great areas of 
coast line, including many favourably lighted stations, almost invariably, 
save in occasionally protracted easterly winds, and even then but rarely, 
send in no returns, or schedules of the very scantiest description. These 
areas are Berwickshire, the whole of the east coast south of the Moray 
Firth, and Caithness and East Sutherland. Each and all of these areas 
possess high and precipitous coast lines, if we except the minor estuaries 
of the rivers Tay and Dee, and a small portion of the lower coast line of 
Sutherland, which face towards the east. 

On the east coast of England these highways are less clearly demon, 
strated. The Farn Islands, Flamborough Head, and the Spurn are well 
established points of arrival and departure ; but south of the Humber as 
far as the South Foreland the stream appears continuous along the whole 
coast line, and to no single locality can any certain and definite route 
be assigned. It cannot be said that the southerly flow of autumn 
migrants is equally distributed along the entire west coast of England. 
On the contrary, the schedules afford unmistakable evidence that the 
great majority of these migrants, st far as the English and "Welsh coasts 
are concerned, are observed at stations south of Anglesey. But while 
the north-west section of the coast is thus less favoured than the rest,, 
such is not the case with the Isle of Man, which comes in for an important 
share of the west coast migratory movement. The fact has already been 
alluded to, that large masses of immigrants from Southern Europe pass 
through the Pentland Firth, and, along with migrants from Faroe, 
Iceland, and Greenland, pass down the west coast of Scotland, whence 
many cross to Ireland, and it seems most probable that the remainder 
leave Scotland at some point on the Wigtown coast, and pass by way of 
the Isle of Man to the west coast of Wales, and thus avoid the English 
shore of the Irish Sea. The schedules s-ent in from the coasts of Flint,. 
Cheshire, Lancashire, and Cumberland show that in 1884-85 compara- 
tively few migrants were observed, and that the great general movement 
did not affect them in any general degree. These remarks do not apply 



ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 267 

to migrants among the waders and ducks and geese, which, as a rule, 
closely follow coast lines, and which are abundantly represented on the 
Solway and coasts of Cumberland and Lancashire. There is a much 
used bird route along the north coast of the Bristol Channel, and thence, 
from the Pembroke coast, across to Wexford, passing the Tuskar Rock, 
the best Irish station. 

The fact of a double migration or passage of birds, identical in species, 
across the North Sea in the spring and autumn both towards the E. and 
S.E. and to the W. and N.W., is again very clearly shown in the present 
report. This phenomenon of a cross migration to and from the Continent, 
proceeding at one and the same time, is regularly recorded on the whole 
of the east coast of England, but is specially observable at those light- 
vessels which are stationed in the south-east district ; at the same time, it 
is invariably persistent and regular year by year. 

Our most interesting stations are those on small islands or rocks, or 
lightvessels at a considerable distance from shore, and the regular occur- 
rence of so many land birds, apparently of weak power of flight, around 
these lanterns is a matter of surprise to those unacquainted with the 
facts of migration. No clear indication of the migration of the Redbreast 
has yet been shown on the Irish coast ; the records of its occurrences are 
few and scattered. The Black Redstart was recorded at several stations 
in the southern half of Ireland ; specimens were forwarded from Mine Head, 
The Skelligs, and Rockabill. It is apparently a regular winter visitant to ■ 
The Skelligs and Tearaght, generally appeai-ing in October and Novem- 
ber. The occurrences so far recorded by the Committee of the Black 
Redstart on the east coast of Great Britain, in the autumn, range between 
October 23 and November 3. 

In the spring of the present year Mr. G. Hunt, under date of March 
20, reports an extraordinary flight of Rooks at Somerton, on the Norfolk 
coast, which he observed from IU.30 a.m. to 6 p.m. He says : ' I observed 
them flying just above the sand-hills, going due south, and as far as the 
eye could see both before and behind there was nothing but Rooks. There 
could never for one moment of the day be less than a thousand in sight 
at one time ; they kept in a thin wavering line. The coast line here runs 
due north and south.' Mr. J. H. Gurney reports : ' I saw the Rooks 
and Grey Crows on the same day in much smaller numbers as were seen 
at Somerton, which is fifteen miles further south. I again saw them on 
the 2l3t, 22nd, 25th, 26th, and 29th, but none after this date ; with ns, 
however. Grey Crows preponderated : the direction was to S.E. An 
enormous migration of these and many others is recoi'ded from Heligoland, 
also from Hanover between March 19 and 25.' 

In conclusion your Committee wish to thank H.R.H. the Master and 
the Elder Brethren of the Trinity House, the Commissioners of Northern 
Lights, and the Commissioners of Irish Lights for their ready co-opera- 
tion and assistance, through their intelligent oflicers and men, in this 
inquiry. 

The Committee respectfully request their reappointment. 



568 REPOHT— 1886. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cleland, Professor 
McKendeick, Professor Ewart, Professor Stirling, Professor Bower, 
Dr. Cleghorn, and Professor McIntosh (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of continuing the Researches on Food-Fishes 
and Invertebrates at the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory. 

■The Committee beg to report that the sum of 751., placed at their dis- 
posal, has for the most part been expended in the purchase of instruments 
and books permanently useful in the Laboratory, only a limited proportion 
having been disbursed for skilled assistance. 

Since the meeting of the Association at Aberdeen last year several 
structural improvements in the wooden hospital, now converted into the 
Laboratory, have been completed, and others are being carried out by the 
Fishery Board for Scotland. These changes will render the temporary 
building much more suitable for work. A small yawl of about 21 feet in 
length has also been added to the apparatus by the Fishery Board. The 
desiderata now are an increase in the number of good microscopes and 
other expensive instruments, and an addition to the nucleus of books 
which workers require always at hand. In this respect the Laboratory 
has been much indebted to the Earl of Dalhousie, who forwarded a com- 
plete set of Fishery Blue Books, and to the Trustees of the British 
Museum, who sent their publications relating to marine zoology. 
Collections of papers have also been forwarded by many observers, 
amongst whom Professor Flower, the late Dr. Gwyn JeflTreys, and Pro- 
fessor Alexander Agassiz are conspicuous. Most of the Continental and 
American workers in marine zoology and cognate subjects, as well as 
those of our own country, are indeed represented. 

The first work of the year was the examination of a fine male Tunny, 
9 feet in length, caught in a beam-trawl net near the mouth of the Forth, 
and the skeleton of which is now being prepared for the University 
Museum. Various interesting anatomical features came under notice, and 
its perfect condition enabled a more correct figure of its external appear- 
ance to be made (vide ' Ann. Nat. Hist.' April and May 1866 and ' Fourth 
Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland,' plate viii.) The examina- 
tion of various food- and other fishes in their adult and young conditions 
was systematically carried out, and notes on the following species will be 
found in the ' Annals of Natural History,' and the ' Report of the Fishery 
Board' : — Weever (greater and lesser), shanny, sand-eel, halibut, salmon, 
common trout, herring, sprat, conger, ballan-wasse, shagreen-ray, piked 
dog-fish, and porbeagle-shark. Special attention was also given to the 
' Mode of Capture of Food-Fishes by Liners,' ' Injuries to Baited Hooks 
and to Fishes on the Lines,' ' Shrimp-Trawling in the Thames,' ' Sprat- 
Fishing,' and to the ' Eggs and Young of Food- and other Fishes,' 
' Diseases of Fishes,' the ' Effect of Storms on the Marine Fauna,' and 
' Remarks on Invertebrates, including Forms used as Bait.' ' 

The active work in connection with the development of fishes for the 
season may be dated from the middle of January, when one of the local 
trawlers captured a large mass of the ova of one of the food-fishes, viz., 
the catfish (Anarrhichas lupus, L.). The embryos in these eggs (which