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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



FIFTY- SEVENTH MEETING 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



MANCHESTER IN AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1887. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1888. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 



PniNTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AXD CO., NEW-STBEBT SQUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of tlie Association xxxi 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xli 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xlix 

Evening Lectures Ixiv 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees presentr at the Manchester Meeting Ixviii 

Treasurer's Account xx 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxii 

Officers and Council, 1887-88 Ixxiv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxv 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee for Additional 
Reports and Researches in Science Ixxvii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxxvi 

Places of Meeting in 1888 and 1889 Ixxxvii 

General Statement of Sums virhich have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Pm-poses Ixxxviii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings c 

Address by the President, Sir Henky E. Roscoe, M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., 
Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S 1 



EBPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson (Secre- 
tary), J. G. MacGregok, J. B. Cherbiman, and H. T. BovEr and Mr. C. 
Gaepmaei, appointed for the purpose of promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 31 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Professor Stokes, Professor Schuster, Mr.. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Abney, and Mr. G. J. 
Stmons, appointed for the purpose of considering the best methods of re- 
cording the direct Intensity of Solar Radiation 82 



iv CONTENTS. 

rage 
Keport of tlie Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Beown (Secretary), 
Mr. Mir,NE Home, Mr. John Murray, Lord McLaren, and Mr. Buchan, 
appointed for the purpose of co-operatino: with the Scottish Meteorological 
Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis M 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Knox Laughton, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Mr. R. H. Scott, 
and Mr. G. Johnstone Stonet, appointed for the purpose of co-operatiug 
with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project of establishing on a permanent and 
scieni ific basis a Meteorological Observatory near Chepstow 89 

Final Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. H. Scott (Secretary), 
Mr. J. Norman Lockter, Professor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour 
Stewart, and Mr. G. J. Stmons, appointed in August 1881, and .reappointed 
in 1882-3 and 4, to co-operate with the ]Meteorological Society of the 
Mauritius in tlie publication of Daily Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean 
for the year ISGl. (Drawn up by Mr. Robert H. Scott) 40 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, Sir 
William Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefrot, General R. Strachet, Professors 
A. S. IIerschel, G. Chrystal, C. Niven, J. H. Poynting (Secretary), A. 
Schuster, and G. II. Darwin, and Mr. H. Tomlinson, appointed for 
the purpose of inviting designs for a good Differential Gravity Meter in 
supersession of the pendulum, whereby satisfactory results may be obtained 
at each station of observation in a few hours, instead of the many days over 
which it is necessary to extend pendulum observations 41 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Williamson, Armstrong, 
Dixon, Tilden, Reinold, J. Perry, O. J. Lodge, Bonney, Stirling, 
Bower, D'Arcy Thompson, and Milnes Marshall and Messrs. W. II. 
Preece, Vernon Harcourt, Crookes, Topley, and E. F, J. Love (Secre- 
tai-y), appointed for the purpose of considering the desirability of combined 
action for the purpose of Translation of Foreign Memoirs and for reporting 
thereon 41 

R-eport of a Committee, consisting of Professors MoLeod and Ramsay and 
Messrs. J. T. Cundall and W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), appointed to 
further investigate the Action of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on 
Oxygen and other Gases 42 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and W. Chandler 
Roberts- Austen and Mr. 'i'. Turner (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Steel. (Drawn 
up by Mr. T. Turner) 43 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), 
Captain Aeney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Professor W.G.Adams, Professor G. C. 
Foster, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, 
Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt, Professor Ayrton, Sir James Douglass, and 
Mr. II. B. Dixon, appointed for the purpose of reporting on Standards of 
Light 47 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Ramsat, Tilden, 
Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
investigating certain Physical Constants of Solution, especially the Expan- 
sion of Saline Solutions 4s 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Tilden, Professor Ramsat, 
and Dr. W. W. J. Nicol (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the Nature of Solution •'j.l 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, McLeod, Picker- 
ing, and Ramsay and Drs. Young, A. R. Leeds, and Nicol (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Bibliography of Solution 57 



conte>;ts. V 

Page 

Ilcport of tlie Committee, consisting: of Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. 
ScLATEK, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Mae- 
shall, Professor A. C.Haddon, Professor MosELEY,and Mr. Percy Sladen 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of makino; arrangements for assisting- 
tbc Marine Biological Association Laboratory at Plymouth 59 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consistinff of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Joy^s (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palceozoic Rocks, 1887 '. 60 

Report of the Committee, consistinj^ of Mr. Johx Cordeaux (Secretary), 
Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie-Beown, Mr. William Eagle 
Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, reappointed at Bir- 
mingham ior the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of tlie Master and 
Brethren of the Trinity flouse and the Commissioners of Nortliern and 
Irish Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightvessels, and of reporting on the same ''0 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Messr.s. 11. Seebohm, R. Teimex, W._ 
Carritthers, and P. L. Sclater (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Flora and Fauna of the Cameroons Mountain 73 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. 
Sclater, Professor M. Foster, Ml-. A. Sedgwick, Prolessor A. M. Mar- 
shall, Professor A. C. IIaddon, Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy 
Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occu- 
pation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 77 

. Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendeick, Professor 
Struthers, Professor Young, Professor McIntosh, Professor A. Nichol- 
son, Professor Cossar Ewart, and Mr. John Murray (Secretary), appointed 
for the pui-pose of aiding in the maintenance of the establishment ot a 
Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland 91 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thiselton Dyer (Secretary), 5Ir. 
Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, and Mr. Foebes, appointed for 
the purpose of continuing the preparation of a Report on our present Ivuow- 
ledge of the Flora of China -51 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Canon A. M. Norman, Mr. II. B. 
Brady, Mr. W. Carruthers, Professor Herdman, Professor W. 0. 
M'Intosh, Mr. J. Murray, Professor A. Newion, Mr. P. L. Sclater, and 
Professor A. C. Haddon (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of con- 
sidering the question of accurately defining the term ' British ' as applied to 
the Marine Fauna and Flora of our Islands ^5 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor M. Foster, Professor Baylky 
Balfour, Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Professor Bowee (Secretary), 
Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. Carruthers, and Professor IIartog, 
appointed for the purpose of taking steps for the establishment ot a 
Botanical Station at Peradeniya, Ceylon ^^ 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Valentine Ball, Mr. II. G. 
FoEDHAM, Professor Haddon, Professor Hillhouse, Mr. John Hopktnson, 
Dr. Macparlanb, Professor Milnes Marshall, Mr. F. T. Mott (Secretary), 
Dr. Teaquair, and Dr. H. Woodward, appointed for the purpose of pre- 
paring a Report upon the Provincial Museums of the United Kingdom 97 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Hillhouse, Mr. E. W. 
Badger, and Mr. A. W. Wills, for the purpose of collecting information as 
to the Disa]5pearance of Native Plants from their Local Habitats. By Pro- 
fessor Hillhouse, Secretary 1"^ 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendeick, Professor 
Cleland, and Dr. McGregor-Robeeison (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Mechanism of the Secretion of Urine 131 



K 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Eeport of tlie Committee, consistinfr of Mr. E. Bidwell, Professor Boyd 
Bawkins, Professor Bridge, Mr. A. H. Cocks, Mr. E. de Hamel, Mr. J. E. 
Harting, Professor Milnes Marshall, Dr. Mfirhead, Dr. Sclater, 
Canon Tristram, and Mr. W. E. Hughes (^Secretary), appointed for tlie 
purpose of preparing a Beport on tbe Herds of Wild Cattle in Cliartley 
Parii and otlier Parks in Great Britain 13o 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Profes-sors Schafer (Secretary), 
MicffAEL Foster, and Laneester and Dr. W. D. Halliburton, ap- 
pointed for tbe purpose of investigating the Physiology of the I..ymphatic 
System 1 45 

Second Eeport of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, 
General Sir J. H. Lefrot (Eeporter), Professor Sir W. Thomson, Mr. 
Alexander Bttchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. John Murray, Dr. J. 
Eae, Mr. H, W. Bates (Secretary), Captain W. J. Dawson, Dr. A. 
Selwyn, and Professor C. Caepmael, appointed for the purpose of report- 
ing upon the Depth of Permanently Frozen Soil in the Polar Eegions, its 
Geographical Limits and Eelation to the present Poles of greatest cold. 
Drawn up by General Sir J. H. Lefroy, E.A., K.C.M.G. (Eeporter) 152 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of the Eev. Canon Carter, the Eev. 
H. B. George, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Bonney, Mr. A. G. 
Veenon Harcouet, Professor T. McKenny Hughes, the Eev. H. W. 
Watson, the Eev. E. F. M. McCarthy, the Eev. A. E. Vabdy, Professor 
Alfred Newton, the Eev. Canon Tristram, Professor JIoselcy, and Mr. 
E. G. Eavenstein (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of co-operating 
with the Eoyal Geographical Society in endeavouring to bring before the 
authorities of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge the advisability of 
promoting the study of Geography by establishing special Chaire for the 
piu'pose 158 

Final Eeport of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, General 
Sir H. Lefkoy, Sir William Thomson, Mr. Alex. Buchan, Air. J. Y. 
Buchanan, Mr. H. W. Bates, and Mr. E. G. Eavenstein (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of taking into consideration the combination of 
the Ordnance and Admiralty Survey.s, and the production of a Bathy- 
hypsographical Map of tlie British Island,s 160 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Secretary), 
Professor Armstrong, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss Lydia Becker, Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir Eichard Temple, Bart, 
Sir Henry E. Eoscoe, Mr. James Heywood, and Professor N. Stoey 
Maskelyne, appointed for the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating 
to the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 163 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Dr. John Evans, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Dr. Egbert Muneo, Mr. Pengelly, Dr. Henry 
Hicks, Dr. Muirhead, and Mr. James W. Davis, appointed for the purpose 
of ascertaining and recording the localities in the British Islands in which 
evidences of the existence of Preliistoric Inhabitants of the country are 
found. (Drawn up by Mr. James W. Davis) 1(j8 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Pitt-Eivers, Dr. Beddoe, 
Professor Flower, Mr. Francis Galton. Dr. E. B. Tylor, and Dr. 
Gaeson, appointed for the purpose of editing a new Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries,' with authority to distribute gratuitously the 
unsold copies of the present Edition 172 

Third Eeport of the Committee, con.sisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor^ Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. Daniel Wilson, Mr. E. G. 
Haliburton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating and publishing reports on the physical cha- 
racters, languages, and industrial and social condition of the North-western 
Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 173 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson, Mr. Pengelly, 
Mr. F. "\V. lluDLER, and Mr. G. W. Bloxam (Secretary), appointed for tlie 
purpose of investigating tlie Prebistoric Race in the Greek Islands 200 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir 
William TnoitsON, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. 
G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John IIopkinson, Dr. 
A. MuiRHEAD, Afr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, 
Professor Schuster, Di-. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor Cerystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
sON, Professor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, appointed for the purpose of constructing and 
issuing practical Standards for use in Electrical Measurements 206 

Supplement to a Report on Optical Theories. By R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., 
F.R.S 208 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell, for the purpose of reporting upon the 
'Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 209 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary, 1887) '. 212 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Bauerman, Mr. F. W. Rudler, 
Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Dr. Johnston-Lavis, for the investigation of the 
"\^olcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood. (Drawn up by 
II. J. Johnston-Layis, M.D., F.G.S., Secretary) 226 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor 
J. W. JuDD, Mr. W. Carruthers, Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. J. S. 
Gardner, for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary 
and Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom. (Drawn up bv the Secretary, 
Mr. J. S. Gardner) '. 229 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. J. J. H. 
Teall, and Professor J. F. Blakl;, appointed to undertake the Micro- 
scopical Examination of the Older Rocks of Anglesey. (Drawn up by 
Professor J. F. Blake, Secretary) 230 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and Arm- 
strong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric 
Naphthalene Derivatives. (Drawn up by Professor Armstrong) 231 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson and 
Mr. Cash, for the purpose of investigating the Carboniferous Flora of 
Halifax and its neighbourhood. (Drawn up l^y Professor W. C, 
"Williamson) 235 

Fifteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. Prestwich, 
W. Boyd DA^vKIN8, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey (Secretary), and Messrs. C. E. De Range, II. G. Fordham, 
D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. H. Tiddeman, appointed 
for the piu-pose of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological 
eliaracters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and 
Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and 
taking measures for their preservation. (Drawn up by Dr. Crosskey, 
Secretary) 236 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Mr. F. Y. Edge- 
worth (Secretary), Professor II. S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Giffen, Pro- 
fessor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, 
Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave, and Professor H. Sidgwick, appointed for 
4he purpose of investigating the best methods of ascertaining and measur- 



viii CONTEN'JS. 

Page 
ing Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard. (Drawn up by the 
Secret ary) 247 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. McK. Httghes, 
Dr. H. Hicks, Dr. H. Woodward, and Messrs. E. B. Lttxmoore, P. P. 
Pennant, Edwin Morgan, and G. If. Morton, appointed for the purpose 
of exploring the Cae Gwyn Cave, North Wales. (Drawn up by Dr. H. 
Hicks, Secretary) 301 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sidgwick, Professor Fox- 
wiOLL, Mr. A. n. D. AcLAND, the Rev. W. Cttnninghah, and Professor 
MuNRO (Secretary), on the Regulation of Wages by means of Lists in the 
Cotton Lidustry 303- 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Baifottk Stewabt 
(Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. AV. Lant Carpenter, Mr. C. H. 
(Jarpmael, Mr. W, H. M. Christie (A.stronomer Royal), Professor G. 
Chrtstal, Staff Commander Creak, Professor G. II. Darwin, Mr. 
William Ellis, Sir J. H. IjEFROT, Professor S. J. Perrt, Professor 
Schuster, Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. G. M. Whipple, appointed for the 
purpose of considering the best means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic 
Observations. (Drawn up by Professor Balfouk Stewart) 320' 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Armstrong, Lodge, 
Sir William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, Fitzgerald, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Potnting, Crum Brown, Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, 
Hartley, S. P. Thompson, McLeod, Roberxs-Austen, Rucker, Reinold, 
and Carey Foster, ('aptain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and 
Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, W. N. Shaw, 
J. Larmor, J. T. BoTTOMLEY, H. B. Dixon, R. T. Glazebrook, J. Brown, 
E. .1. Love, and John M. Thomson, for the purpose of considering the 
subject of Electroly.sis in its Physical and Chemical Bearings. (Edited by 
Oliver Lodge) 33(? 

Thirteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. W. Crosskey, Sir Douglas Galton, Professors J. Prestwich and 
G. A. Lebour, and Messrs. .Tames Glaishbr, E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, T. S. Stooke, G. J. 
Symons, W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, 
and 0. E. De Range (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Circulation of Underground AVaters in the Permeable Formations of 
England and Wales, and the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied 
to various Towns and Districts from these Formations. (Drawn up by 
C. E. De Range, Reporter) .S58 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Woodward, Mr. H. JCeeping, 
and Mr. J. Starkie Gardner, appointed for the purpose of exploring the 
Higher Eocene Beds of the Isle of Wight. (By the Secretarv, J. S. 
Gardner) ..." " 414 

Report of the CJommittee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Barlow, Sir F. J. Bram- 
well, Profe.'-sor James Thomson, Sir D. Galton, Mr. B. Baker, Professor 
W. C. Unwin, Professor A. B. W. Ivennedy, Mr. C. Barlow, Professor 
n. S. Hele Shaw, Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, and Mr. A. T. 
Atchison (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of obtaining information 
with reference to the Endurance of Metals under repeated and varying 
stresses, and the proper working stresses on Railway Bridges and other 
structures subject to varying loads 424 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. F. Galton, General Pitt- 
Rivers, Professor Flower, Professor A. Macalister, Mr. F. W. Rudler, 
Mr. R. Stuart Poole, and Mr. Bloxam (Secretary), appointed for the pur- 
pose of procuring, with the help of Mr. Flinders Peteie, Racial Photo- 
graphs from the Ancient Egyptian Pictures and Sculptures. (Drawn up by 
Mr. Petkie) .• .". 4a»> 



CONTENTS. ix- 

Page- 
Heport of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor A. VV. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Botd Dawkins, Sir Ra-vvson Eawson, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Dr. J. 
Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor E. Meldola (Secretary), Mr. VV. 
Whitakee, Mr. G. J. Stmons, General Pitt-Rivees, Mr. W. Toplet, 
Mr. H. G. FoEDHAM, and Mr. William White 459 

On the Vortex Theory of the Luminiferous ^Ether. (On the Propagation of 
Laminar Motion through a turbulently moving Inviscid Liquid.) By Sir 
William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 48G 

On the Theory of Electric Endosmose and other Allied Phenomena, and on 
the Existence of a Sliding Coefficient for a Fluid iu contact with a Solid. 
By Professor Hoeace Lamb, M.A., F.R.S 49.^) 

Gold and Silver: their Geological Di.-tiibution and their Probable Future 
Production. By William Topley, F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E., Geological 
Survey of England and Wales, Recorder of Section C (Geology) 510 

Recent Illustrations of the Theory of Rent, and their Effect on the Value of 
Land. By G. Aitldjo Jamieson 536 

On Certain Laws relating to the Regime of Rivers and Estuaries, and on the 
Possibility of Experiments on a small scale. By Professor Osborne 
Reynolds, F.R.S 555 

Experiments on the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat on a large scale. By E. 
A. CowpER and W. Anderson 562 

On an Electric Current Meter. By Professor G. Forbes, M.A., F.R.S. 
L. & E 564 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, 

Page 
Address by Professor Sir E. S. Ball, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.RA.S., 

M.R.IA., Astronomer Royal for Ireland, President of the Section 669 

1. Third Report of the Committee for promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 579 

2. Conduction of Electricity through Gases. By Professor A. Schuster, 
Ph.D., F.R.S 580 

3. Instruments for Stellar Photography. By Sir HowAED Gettbb, F.R.S. ... 580 

4. On the Nature of the Photographic Star-Discs and the Removal of a 
Difficulty in Measurements for Parallax. By Professor C. Peitchabd, 
D.D., F.R.S 580 

5. On the Turbulent Motion of Water between Two Planes. By Professor 

Sir AV. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 581 

6. On the Theory of Electrical Endosmose and other Allied Phenomena, and 

on the Existence of a Sliding Coefficient for a Fluid in contact with a Solid. 
By Professor IIoEAOE Lamb, M.A., F.R.S 581 

7. On the Vortex Theory of the Luminiferous ^ther. By Professor Sir 

W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 581 

8. On the Ratio of the Two Elasticities of Air. By Professor Silvantjb P. 

Thompson, D.Sc 581 

9. A Null Method in Electro-ealorimetry. By Professor W. Steoud, D.Sc, 
B.A., and W. W. Haldane Gee, B.Sc 581 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2, 

1. Fourth Report of the Committee for considering the best methods of re- 
cording the direct Intensity of Solar Radiation 582 

2. Third Report of the Committee for considering the best means of ^com- 

paring and reducing Magnetic Observations 582 

3. New Electric Balances. By Professor Sir William Thomson, F.R.S. ... 582 

4. Supplement to a Report on Optical Theories. By R. T. Glazebeook, 
M.A., F.R.S : 583 

5. Description of a Map of the Solar Spectrum. By Professor H. A. 

Rowland 583 

-C. Exhibition of Negatives of Photographs of the Solar Spectrum. By 

Geo. IIiqgs 583 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

7. On the Period of Rotation of the Sun as determined by the Spectroscope. 

By Henet Crew 583 

8, On the Diffraction Bands near the Edge of the Shadow of an Obstacle. 

By Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S 584 

n. Recent Determinations of Absolute Wave-lengths. By LoTTis Bell 584 

10. Twin-Prisms for Polarimeters. By Professor Silyanfs P. Thompson, 
D.Sc 585 

11. On the Existence of Reflection when the Relative Refractive Index is 
Unity. By Lord Rayleigh, LL.D., Sec.R.S 585 

12. On the Magnetisation of Iron in Strong Fields. Bj' Professor J. A. 
EwiNG, B.Sc, F.R.S., and William Low 58G 

13. On the Magnetisation of Hadfield's Manganese Steel in Strong Fields. 

By Professor J. A. Ewing, B.Sc, F.R.S., and William Low 587 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Second Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 588 

2. On some points in Electrolysis and Electro-convection. By Professor 

G. Wiedemann 589 

3. On Ohm's Law in Electrolytes. By G. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S., and Fred. 
Trotjton , 589 

4. Further Researches concerning the Electrolysis of Water. By Professor 
Von Helmholtz '. 589 

5. Experiments on the possible Electrolytic Decomposition of Alloys. By 
Professor W. 0. Roberts-Austen, F.R.S 589 

6. Experiments on the Speeds of Ions. By Professor 0. J. Lodge, F.R.S.... 589 

7. On Chemical Action in a Magnetic Field. By Professor H. A. Rowland 589 

8. On the Action of an Electric Current in hastening the Formation of 
Lagging Compounds. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 589 

9. Experiments on Electrolysis and Electrolytic Polarisation. By W. W. 
Haldane Gee, B.Sc, Henut Holden, B.Sc, and Charles H. Lees, 
B.Sc 589 

10. On the Electro-deposition of Alio vs. By Professor Silvantjs P. Thomp- 

son, D.Sc ■ , 590 

11. On the Action of the Solvent in Electrolytic Conduction. By T. C. 
FiTZPATEICK, B.A 590 

32. On the Industrial Electro-deposition of Platinum. By Professor Silvantjs 

P. Thompson, D.Sc 590 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On the Princeton Eclipse Expedition. By Professor C. A. Young, Ph.D., 
LL.D 590 

2. Observations of Atmospheric Electricity. By Professor Leonti Weber.. 592 

3. The General Bibliography of Meteorology and Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Compiled by the Signal C)iBce at Washington. By Cleveland Abbe ... 593 

4. Fourth Report of the Committee appointed to co-operate with Mr. E. J. 
Lowe in his project of establishing on a permanent and scientitic basis a 
Meteorological Observatory near Chepstow 594 



XU CONTENTS 

Page 

0. Second Eeport of the Committee appointed to co-operate with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben 
Nevis 594 

Ci. On the Hygrometry of Ben Nevis. By H. N. Dickson 594 

7. On the Thermal Windrose at the Ben Nevis Observatory. By Angus 
Rankin 595 

8. On a Peculiarity of the Cyclonic Winds of Ben Nevis. By li. T. Omond 595 
y. Final Eeport of the Committee appointed to co-operate with the Meteoro- 
logical Society of the Mauritius in the publication of Daily Synoptic 
Charts of the Indian Ocean for the year 1861 595 

10. On the Effect of Continental Lands in altering the Level of the adjoining 
Oceans. By Professor Edwarb Huli,, LL.D., F.R.S 696 

11. On some Variations in the Level of the Water in Lake George, New South 
Wales. By H. A. Russell 697 

12. On the different kinds of Thunderstorms, and on a Scheme for theii- 
Systematic Observation. By the Hon. Ralph Abercrombt, F.H.Met.Soc. 597 

Mathematical Sub-Section. 

1. On the Criteria for Discriminating between Maxima and Minima Solutions 

in the Calculus of Variations. By E. P. Culverwell, M.A 598 

2. Some Notice of a new Computation of the Gaussian Constants. By Pro- 

fessor J. C. Adams, F.R.S 600 

3. On the Umbral Notation. By the Rev. Robert Haklet, M.A., F.R.S.... 600 

4. On Criticoids. By Robert Rawson, F.R.A.S 604 

5. Complete Integral of the ?i-ic Differential Resolvent. By the Rev. 
Robert Harley, M.A., F.R.S 606 

6. Note on the General Theory of Anharmonics. By A. Buchheim, M.A. .. 607 

7. Transformations in the Geometry of Circles. By A. Larmor, B.A 607 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Magnetic Properties of Gases. By Professor Quincke 608 

2. Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing Practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 608 

3. On the Permanence of the B.A. Standards of Resistance. By R. T. 
Glazebrook, F.R.S 608 

4. Final Value of the B.A. Unit of Electrical Resistance as determined by 

the American Committee. By Professor II. A. Rowland 609 

5. On the Specific Resistance of Commercial Iron, By W. H. Preece, 

F.R.S 609 

0. Ou the Influence of a Plane of Transverse Section on the Magnetic 
Permeability of an Iron Bar. By Professor J. A. Ewing, B.Sc, F.R.S., 
and William Low 609 

7. On the Physical Properties of a nearly Non-Magnetisable (Manganese) Steel. 

By Professor W. F. Barrett 610 

8. Ou the Application of the Centi-ampere or the Deci-ampere Balance for 

the Measurement of the E.M.F. of a Single Cell. By Professor Sir 

William Thomson, F.R.S 610 

f). On Induction between Wires and Wires. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 611 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

10. On the Coefficient of Self-Iuduction in Telegraph Wires. By \V. II. 
Preece, F.R.S G12 

11. On the General Theory of Dynamo Machines. By Edward Hopkinson, 
D.Se 612 

12. On the Production of a Constant Current with Varying Electromotive 
Force from a Dynamo. By A. P. Trotter, B. A GIG 

13. Description of an Induction Coil. By George Higgs GIG 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Third Report of the Committee on Standards of Light GI7 

2. On a Standard Lamp. By A. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S G17 

3. Second Report of the Committee for inviting designs for a good Diflferential 

Gravity Meter 618 

4. Report of the Committee for considering the desirability of combined action 

for the purpose of Translation of Foreign Memoirs 618 

5. Contributions to Marine Meteorologv from the Scottish Marine Station. 

By IItjgh Robert Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.C.S G18 

■6. The Direction of the Upper Currents over the Equator in connection with 
the Krakatoa Smoke-stream. By Professor E. Douglas Archibald ... 619 

7. On a Comparison-magnetometer. By W. W. IIaldane Gee, B.Sc 020 

8. On Expansion with Rise of Temperature in AVires under Elongating Stress. 

By J. T. BoTTOMLET, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.C.S ! G20 

9. On the Electrolysis of a Solution of Ammonic Sulphate. By Professor 
McLeod, F.R.S G21 

10. Compensation of Electrical Measuring Instruments for Temperature-Errors. 

By J. Savinburne 621 

11. A Musical Slide Rule. By J. Swinburne 621 

12. On a certain Method in the Theory of Functional Equations. By Professor 

Ernst Schroder 621 

13. On the Nomenclature of Elementary Dynamics. By JohnWalmslet,B.A. 022 

14. Exhibition and Description of Henry Draper Memorial Photographs of 
Stella Spectra. By Professor E. C. Pickering 022 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE, 
THUliSDAT, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Report of the Committee for preparing a new series of Wave-length Tables 

of the Spectra of the Elements G24 

2. Report of the Committee for investigating the Influence of Silicon on the 
Properties of Steel 024 

3. Third Report of the Committee for investigating certain Physical Constants 

of Solution, especially the Expansion of Saline Solutions 624 

4. Report of the Committee for investigating the Nature of Solution 024 

5. Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Solution G24 

Address by Edward Schunck, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., President of the Section 624 

6. Preliminary Notice of a Re-determination of the Atomic WeiHit of Gold 
with some remarks on the present State of our Knowledfe as to the 
Determination of Atomic Weights in general. By Professor J. W. 
Mallet, F.R.S ' \ 635 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. The Atomic Weiglit of Zirconium. By G. H. Bailet, D.Sc, Ph.D 636 

8. Torsion Balances. By Dr. A. Springer 63& 

9. Integral Weights in Chenaiatry. By T. Sterey Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 637 

10. On the Action of Light on the Hydracids of the Halogens in the presence 
of Oxygen. By Arthur Richardson, Ph.D 638 

FRIDA Y, SEPTE3IBER 2. 

1. On the Present Position of the Alkali Manufacture. By Alfred E. 
Fletcher, F.C.S., F.I.U 638 

2. On the Composition of some Coke Oven Tars of German Origin. By 

Professor Lunge 640 

3. On the Constituents of the Light Oils of Blast-Furnace Coal Tar from 
Gartsherrie Works. By Watson Smith 640 

4. On the Utilisation of Blast-Furnace Creosote. By Alfred II. Allen, 
F.C.S 640 

5. A new Apparatus for Condensing Gases by Contact with Liquids. By 
Professor Lunge 640 

6. The Extent to which Calico Printing and the Tinctorial Arts have been 
affected by the Introduction of Modern Colours. By Charles O'Neill. . . 640 

7. Exhibition of a new class of Colouring Matters. By Dr. C. A. Martius 641 

8. The Chemistry of the Cotton Fibre. By F. H. Bowman, D.Sc, F.R.S.E., 

F.C.S., F.L.S 641 

Sub-Section B. — Organic Chemistry. 

1. Second Report of the Committee for investigating Isomeric Naphthalene 
Derivatives 642 

2. Isomeric Change in the Phenol Series. By A. R. Ling 642 

3. The Constitution and Relationship of the Eurhodine and Saffranine Classes 

of Colouring Matters, and their Connection with other Groups of Organic 
Compounds. By Dr. O. N. Witt 642 

4. On the Constitution of Azimido-Compounds. By Drs. Noeltins and 
Abt 642 

5. On the Constitution of the Mi.xed Diazoamido-Compounds. By Drs. 
NoELTiNG and Binder 643 

6. On Methylene Blue and Methylene Red. By Professor Bernthsen 645 

7. On some Xenoene or Diphenvl Products and Reactions. By Professor W. 
Odling, M.A., F.R.S., and J. E. Marsh, B.A 646 

8. On the Rate of Velocity of Formation of Acetic Ether. By Professor 
Menschutkin 646 



MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. The Relation of Geometrical Structure to Chemical Properties. By Pro- 

fessor Wislicenus 647 

2. Note on Valency, especially as defined by Helmholtz. By Professor 
Armstrong, F.R.S 647 

3. The Solubility of Isomeric Organic Compounds. By Professor Carnellet, 
D.Sc, and Dr. A. Thomson 647 



CONTENTS. XV" 

Page 

4. The Melting Points of Organic Compounds in relation to tlieir Chemical 

Constitution. Part I. — Influence of Orientation in Aromatic Compounds. 
By Professor Caknellet, D.Sc 647 

5. Alcohol and "Water Comhinations. By Professor Mendeleef 647 

6. On the Constitution of Atropine. By Professor Ladenbttrg 647 

7. The Reduction-products of the Nitro-paraffins and Alkyl Nitrites. By 

Professor Dunstak and T. S. Dymoxd 649' 

8. On the Second Monobromo-benzene. By Professor Fixtica 649 

9. Saccharine, the new Sweet Product from Coal-tar. By Dr. Fahlberg ... 649 
10. On a Partial Separation of the Constituents of a Solution during Expan- 
sion by Rise of Temperature. By Professor J. W. ^Mallet, F.R.S 649 



Scb-Section B. — Chemical Science. 

1. The Chemical Structure of some Natural Silicates. By F. W. Clarke... 6.j0 

2. Apparatus for Measuring the Volume of Gas evolved in various Chemical 
Actions, with or without the Application of Heat, with proposed Exten- 
sion to Organic Analysis, and to the Continuous Determination of Abnormal 
Vapour- Densities. By F. W. Watein, M.A 650 

3. On the Teaching of Chemistry. By M. M. Pattison Mfir, M.A 651 

4. Suggested Amendment of Chemical Nomenclature. By Professor A. 
SiiiTHELLs, B.Sc 65:i 

5. A Study of the Action of Nitric Acid on Benzene. By Professor Lothar 
Meyer 653 

6. On Professor Ramsay's Method of determining Specific '\'olumes. By 

Professor Lothar Meyer 653 

7. The Reduction of Nitrates by Micro-organisms. By R. "Waringto??, F.R.S. 65o 

8. A new Method for determining Micro-organisms in Air. By Professor 
Oarnelley and Thos. Wilson 654 



TUESBAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Report of the Committee for further investigating the Action of the Silent 
Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 654 

2. The Absorption Spectra of Rare Earths. By G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D. 654 

3. The Absorption Spectra of the Haloid Salts of Didymium. By G. H. 
Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D 654 

4. On Solution. By William Durham, F.R.S.E 655 

6. On the Thermal Phenomena of Neutralisation and their bearing on the 

Nature of Solution. By W. W. J. Nicol, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.e" 656 

6. On a probable Manifestation of Chemical Attraction as a Mechanical 

Stress. By Professor John "W. Langley 657 

7. Notes on some peculiar Voltaic Combinations. By C. R. Alder "Wright, 

D.Sc, F.R.S., and C. Thompson, F.C.S ; 657 

8. On the present Aspect of the Question of the Sources of the Nitrogen of 

Vegetation. By Sir J. B. Lawes, F.R.S. , and Professor J. H. Gilbert, 
F.R-S :660 

9. Dispersion Equivalents and Constitutional Formulae. By Dr. J. H. Glad- 

stone, F.R.S 660 



Svi CONTENTS. 

I'age 

10. On a new and rapid Method of Testing Beer and other Alcoholic Liquors. 

By Dr. William Bott 660 

11. On some Organic Vanadates. By JoH?f A. Hall 660 

12. On some Organo-silicon Compounds. By W. B. Hart, A.I.C 661 

13. A new Process for the Preparation of Aconitine. By John Williams, 
r.C.S.,F.I.C 665 

14. Some new Cinnamic Acids. By Professor Peekin and Dr. J. B. Cohen... 667 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Antiseptic Properties of Metallic Salts in relation to their Chemical 
Composition, and the Periodic Law. By Professor Cahnelley and Miss 
EiTA Johnston 667 

2. On the Antiseptic Properties of some of the Fluorine Compounds. By 
William Thomson, F.R.S.E., F.C.S 667 

3. On tlie Composition of Water by Volume. By Alexandee Scott, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S.E 668 

4. On some Vapour Densities at High Temperatures. By Alexander Scott, 
M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E 668 

6. On the Estimation of the Halogens and Sulphur in Organic Compounds. 
By R. T. Plimpton, Ph.D 069 

6. Vacuum Injector Pumps for use in Chemical Laboratories. ByT. Faibley 609 

7. Description of a Shortened Self-acting Sprengel Pump. By Dr. W. W. J. 
NicoL 669 

8. On the Derivatives and the Constitution of the Pyrocresols. By William 
BoTT, Ph.D., F.C.S., and Professor H. Schavarz 669 

9. Apparatus for the Examination of Air. By Dr. Ransome 673 

10. Apparatus for demonstrating the Explosion of Nitro-Glycerine. Bv P. 

Braham, F.C.S .'..... 672 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Henkt Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section 673 

1. On the Geographj' of the British Isles in the Carboniferous Period. By 

Professor W. Botd Daavkins, F.R.S 684 

2. On the Structure of the I\IiIlstone Grit of the Pennine Chain. Bv Pro- 
fessor W. Boyd Dawkixs, F.R.S ." 686 

3. On Foreign Boulders in Coal Seams. By Mark Stierup, F.G.S 68& 

4. On the Organic Orio:iu of the Chert in the Carboniferous Limestone Series 

of Ireland and its Similarity to that in the Corresponding Strata in North 
Wales and Yorkshire. By George Jennings IIinde, Ph.D 688 

5. On the Discovery of Carboniferous Fossils in a Conglomerate at Moughton 

Fell, near Settle, Yorkshire. By Robert Law, F.G.S., and James 
Hoesfall ' 690 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 
1. Fifteenth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland... 60(> 
.■2. Note on a few of the many remarkable Boulder-stones to be found along 
the Eastern Margin of the Wicklow Mountains. 'Bj Professor Edwabd 
Hull, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 691 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

Page 

3. The Terminal Moraines of the Great Glaciers of England. By Professor 

H. Caetiil Lewis 691 

4. On some important Extra-Morainic Lakes in Central England, North 
America, and elsewhere, during the Period of Maximum Glaciation, and 
on the Origin of Extra-Morainic Boulder-clay. By Professor H. Caevill 
Lewis 692 

5. A comparative Study of the Till or Lower Boulder-clay in several of the 

Glaciated Countries of Europe — Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, Switzer- 
land, and the Pyrenees. By Httgh Millek, F.E.S.E., F.G'S., Assoc. 
E.S.M 694 

6. Second Report of the Committee for exploring the Cae Gwyn Cave, North 
Wales 694 

7. On the Discovery and Excavation of an Ancient Sea-heach, near Brid- 
lington Quay, containing Mammalian Remains. By James W. Davis, 
F.G.S 694 

SATURDAT, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. On the Discovery of the LarA'al Stage of a Cockroach, Etoblattina Peachii 

(H. Woodw.), from the Coal-measures of Kilmaurs, Ayrshire. By Henrt 
Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S ." 696 

2. On a new Species of Eurypterius from the Lower Carhoniferous Shales, 
Eskdale, Scotland. By Hexkt Wooitward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 696 

3. On the Discovery of Trilohites in the Upper Green (Camhrian) Slates of 
the Penrhyn Quarry, Bethesda, near Bangor, North Wales. iBy Henet 
Woodward, LL.D./F.R.S., F.G.S 696 

4. Fifth Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 697 

5. On the Mode of Development of the Young in Plesiosaurns. By Professor 

H. G. Seelet, F.R.S 697 

6. On the reputed Clavicles and Interclavicles of Iguanodon. By Professor 

H. G. Seelet, F.R.S 698 

7. On Cumnoria, an Iguanodont Genus founded upon the Iffuanodon Prest- 

wichi, Hulke. By Professor H. G. Seelet, F.R.S 698 

8. The Classification of the Binosauria. By Professor H. Or. Seelet, F.R.S. 698 



Sub- Section C. 

1. La Calc^doine enhydrique de Salto Oriental (Uruguay) et son v^ritahle 
gisement. By Professor Vilanova 699 

2. On the PhyUites of the Isle of Man. By Professor W. Botd Dawkins, 
F.R.S 700 

3. On ThinoUte and Jarrowite. By Professor G. A. Lebour, M.A., F.G.S. 700 

4. A Shropshh-e Picrite. By W. W. Watts, M. A., F.G.S 700 

5. On the Mineralogical Constitution of Calcareous Organisms. By Vatjghan 
Cornish and Perot F. Kendall 700 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On new Facts relating to Eozoon Canadense. By Sir J. William 

Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S. 702 

2. Gastaldi on Italian Geology and the Crystalline Rocks. By T. Sterrt 

Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S 703 

1887. a 



XViii CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. Elements of Primary Geology. By T. Steket Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S 704 

4. Preliminary Note on Traverses of the Western and of the Eastern Alps 

made during the Summer of 1887. By Professor T. G. Bonnet, D.Sc, 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 705 

•5. Some Effects of Pressure on the Sedimentary Rocks of North Devon. By 
J. E. Mare, M.A., F.G.S 706 

6. Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Microscopical Struc- 

ture of the older Rocks of Anglesea 706 

7. Notes on the Origin of the Older Archaean Rocks of Malvern and Angle- 

sey. By Charles Callaway, D.Sc, F.G.S 706 

8. The Origin of Banded Gneisses. By J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.G.S 707 

9. On the Occurrence of Porphyritic Structure in some Rocks of the Lizard 

District. By Howard Fox and Alex. Someetail 708 

10. Some preliminary Observations on the Geology of Wicklow and Wexford. 

By Professor Sollas, LL.D., D.Sc 708 

11. On Archaean Rocks. By G. H. Kinahan, M.R.I.A 709 

Sub-Section C. 

1. Recent Researches in Bench Cavern, Brixham, Devon. By William 
Pengellt, F.R.S., F.G.S 710 

2. The Natural History of Lavas, as illustrated by the Materials ejected 
from Krakatoa. By Professor J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Pres.G.S 711 

3. Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood ... 712 

4. Seventh Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 71 2 

5. The Sonora Earthquake of May 3, 1887. By T. Sterrt Hunt, LL.D., 
F.R.S., and James Douglas, M.A 712 

6. The History and Cause of the Subsidences at Northwich and its neigh- 
bourhood, in the Salt District of Cheshire. By Thomas Ward 713 

7. Places of Geological Interest on the Banks of the Saskatchewan. By 

Professor J. Hotes Panton, M.A., F.G.S 714 

8. The Disaster at Zug on July 5, 1887. By the Rev. E. Hill, M.A 715 

TUESBAT, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Permian Fauna of Bohemia. By Professor Anton Fritsch 716 

2. Report of the Committee for investigating the Carboniferous Flora of 
Halifax and its neighbourhood 716 

3. On the Affinities of the so-called Torpedo {Cyclobatis, Egerton) from the 
Cretaceous of Mount Lebanon. By A. Smith Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S. 716 

4. On a Star-fish from the Yorkshire Lias. By Professor J. F. Blake, M.A., 

F.G.S 716 

5. Thirteenth Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters 717 

6. Notice du Dinotherium, deux especes trouv^es en Espagne. By Professor 

ViLANOVA 717 

7. On the Genus Piloceras, Salter, as eluci "ated by examples latelv discovered 

in Nort^ America and in Scotknd. Ly Arthur H. Foord, F.G.S 717 

8. Report on the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and Secondary Beds of the 

United Kingdom 717 

9. First Report on the 'Manure' Gravels of Wexford 717 



CONTENTS. xix 

Page 

10. The Pliocene Beds of St. Erth, Cornwall. By Robert Georse Bell, 

F.G.S 718 

11. Report on the Higher Eocene Beds of the Isle of Wight 719 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Triassic Rocks of West Somerset. By VV. A. E. Usshee, F.G.S. ... 719 

2. The Devonian Rocks of West Somerset on the Borders of the Trias. By 

W. A. E. UssHER, F.G.S 720 

3. The Matrix of the Diamond. By Professor H. Oakvill Lewis 720 

4. Ohser\'ations on the Rounding of Pehhles by Alpine Rivers, with a Note 
on their Bearing upon the Origin of the Bunter Conglomerate. By Pro- 
fessor.T. G. Bonnet, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.3., F.G.S 721 

5. On the Present State of the Channel Tunnel, and on the Boring at 

Shakespeare Cliff, near Dover. By Professor W. Botd Datvsins, F.R.S. 722 

6. On the Extension of the Scandinavian Ice to Eastern England in the 

Glacial Period. By Professor Otto Tokell 723 

7. On the Terminal Moraine near Manchester. By Professor H. Caetill 
Lewis 724 

8. Upon a simple method of projecting upon the screen Microscopic Rock 
Sections, both by ordinary and by polarised light. By E. P. QuiNN 725 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Alfred Newton, M.A., F.R.S.,F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., &c.. Professor 
of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, 
President of the Section 726 

1. Report of the Committee on Migration 733 

2. Report of the Committee on the Fauna and Flora of the Oameroons 
Mountains 733 

3. Report of the Committee to arrange for the Occupation of a Table at the 
Zoological Station at Naples 733 

4. Report of the Committee on the Zoological Station at Granton 733 

6. Report of the Committee on the Marine Biological Association Laboratory 
at Plymouth 733 

6. The Exploration of Liverpool Bay and the neighbouring parts of the 

Irish Sea by the Liverpool Marine Biology Committee. By Professor 
W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.L.S 733 

7. On some Copepoda new to Britain found in Liverpool Bay. By Isaac C. 

Thompson, F.R.M.S .' 734 

8. Marine Zoology in Banka Strait, North Celebes. By Sidney J. Hick- 
son, M.A 735 

9. Proposed Contributions to the Theory of Variation. By Pateick Geddes 735 

10. On the Early Stages in the Development of Antedon Rosacea. By H. 
BuET, B.A., F.L.S 735 

11. On the True Nature and Function of the Madreporic System in Echino- 
dermata. By Dr. M. Haetog 736 

a2 



XX CONTENTS. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Page 

1. Discussion in conjunction with Section C on the 'Arrangement of 

Museums' 736 

2. On the Vascular System and Colour of Arthropods and Molluscs. By 
Professor Lankester 736 

3. Notes on the Genus P/jj/wosowiff. By W. F. R. Weldon 736 

4. On the Degeneration of the Olfactory Organ of certain Fishes. By Pro- 
fessor WiEDEESHEIM 736 

5. On the Torpid State of Protopterus. By Professor Wiedeeshexm 738 

6. The Larynx and Stomach of Cetacean Emljiyos. By Professor D'Aect 
Thompson 740 

7. On Haplodiscus Piger, By W. F. R. Weldon, M.A., Fellow of St, John's 
College, Cambridge 740 

8. The Blood-corpuscles of the Cyclostomcita. By Professor D'Aect Thomp- 

son 740 



Sub-Section Botany. 

1. Report on the Disappearance of Native Plants 740 

2. Report of the China Flora Committee 740 

3. Cocoa-nut Pearls. By S. J. Hickson 740 

4. Note on the Nitrogenous Nutrition of the Bean. By S. H. Vines, D.Sc, 
F.R.S 741 

5. On the Movement of the Leaf oi Mimosa Pudica. By S. H. Vines, D.Sc, 
F.R.S 742 

6. On Flagella of Calamus. By Professor F. O. Bo wee 743 

7. Note on the Stomata and Ligules of Selaginella. By Professor McNab, 
M.D., F.L.S 743 

8. On the Adventitious Buds on the Leaves of Lachenalia pendula. By Pro- 
fessor McNab, M.D., F.L.S 744 

9. On the Root-spines of Acanthorhiza aculeata, H. Wendl. By Professor 
McNab, M.D., F.L.S 744 

10. On the Gramineous Herbage of Water Meadows. By Professor W. 
Feeam,B.Sc., F.L.S., F.G.S 744 

11. Juncus Alpinus, VilL, as new to Britain. Hy Chaeles Bailey 745 

12. Studies on some New Micro-organisms obtained from Air. By Mrs. 
Peect Feankxand and Peecy F. Feankland, Ph.D., B.Sc. (Lond.), 
F.C.S., F.LC, Assoc. Royal School of Mines 745 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. Recent Researches on Earthworms. By W. B. Benham, D.Sc 749 

2. The Problem of the Hop-plant Louse {Phorodon himuli, Schrank) in 
Europe and America. By C. V. Riley, M.A., Ph.D 750 

3. Arteries of the Base of the Brain. By Bertram C. A. Windle, 
M.A., M.D. (Dublin), Professor of Anatomy in the Queen's College, 
Birmingham 753 

4. On Alteration of Iliac Divarication and other Changes of Pelvic Forms 

during Growth. By Professor Oleland, F.R.S 754 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

5. The Brain Mechanism of Smell. By Dr, Alex. Hill 754 

6. The Nature and Development of the Carotid System. By John Yule 
Mackat, M.D 754 

7. The Development of the Supra-renal Capsules in Man. By Dr. C. S. 
MiNOT 755 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Discussion on ' Are Acquired Characters Hereditary ? ' in which Professor 
Lankestbe, Professor Weismann, Professor Hubrecht, Patrick Geddes, 

M. Hartog, and E. B. Poulton took part 755 

2. Further Experiments upon the Colour-relation between Phytophagous 

Larvae and their Surroundings. By E. B. Poulton 756 

3. Some Remarks on the Recent Researches of Zacharias and Dr. Boveri upon 

the Fecundation of the Ascaris Megalocephala. By Professor J. B. 
Carnot, of the University of Louvain 756 

4. The Spermatogenesis of the Acarians and the Laws of Spermatogenesis 

in general. By Professor Gilson 758 

6. On the Nesting Habit of Atypus Niger, a Florida Spider. By Dr. 

McCooK 759 

«. On Cephalodiscus. By S. F. Harmer 759 

7. On some new types of Madreporarian Structure. By G. Heebeex 

Fowler, B.A., Ph.D 759 

8. The Role of the Heart in Vertebrate Morphology. By Dr. C. S. IMinot . 760 

9. On the Structure of the Human Placenta. By Dr. C. S. Minot 760 

10. A New Species of Virgularia. By Major Plant 760 

11. On some Rare and Remarkable Marine Forms at St. Andrews Marine 
Laboratory. By Professor McIntosh 760 

12. On the Development of the Ovary and Oviduct in certain Osseous Fishes. 

By Edward E. Prince 760 

13. On the Luminous Larviform Females in the Phengodini. By Professor 

C. V. Rilet 760 



Sub-Section Botant. 

1. On Cramer's Gemmae borne by Tnehomanes alata. By Professor F. 0. 

Bower 761 

2. On some points in the process of Secretion in Plant-glands. By Walter 
Gardiner 761 

■3. On Bennettites, the Type of a new gl-oup between Angiosperms and 
Gymnosperms. By Count Solms-Lattbach 761 

4. On the Presence of CaUus-plates in the Sieve-tubes of certain gigantic 
Laminarias. By F. W. Oliver 761 

5. On the Physiology of some Pbseophycese. By Thomas Hick, B.A., 
B.Sc 761 

6. On Assimilation and the Evolution of Oxygen by Green Plant Cells. By 
Professor Pringsheim 763 

7. Some Words on the Life-history of Lycopods. By Dr. M. Treub 763 

8. On a point in the Morphology of Viola Tricolor. By Professor Batlex 
Balfour 763 



XXli CONTENTS. 

Page 

9. On the Morphology of some Csesalpinese and the Value of Morphological 
Criteria. By Professor Hartog 76S 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Discussion on the Present Aspect of the Cell Question 76S 

2. On Polar Bodies. By Professor Weismann, and by Professors Lan- 

KESTEE and Keause, and Messrs. Gardnee, Sedgwick, H. M. "Ward, 
Caenoy, and M. Hartog 763 

3. Eeport of the Committee on the Herds of Wild Cattle in Chartley Park 
and other Parks in Great Britain 763 

4. Further Experiments upon the Protective Value of Colour and Markings 

in Insects. By E. B. Poulton 763 

6. The Secretion of Pure Aqueous Formic Acid by Lepidopterous Larvae for 
the purpose of defence. By E. B. Poulton 765 

6. On Icerya Furchasi, an insect injurious to Fruit Trees. By Professor 
RiEET 767 

7. On a Luminous Oligochsete. By Professor ^Vxlen Harkee, F.L.S. ... 767 

8. On the Hessian Fly, or American Wheat-midge, Cecidomyia destinictor, 

Say, and its appearance in Britain. By Professor W. Fream, B.Sc, '^'^T 
F.L.S., F.G.S 767 

9. Note on the Hectocotylisation of the Cephalopoda. By William E. 
HoTLE 768 

10. On the so-called Luminous Organs of Maurolicus Pennantii (the British 

Pearl-sides). By En. E. Peince 769 

11. On the Ova of Tmnojiferis onisciformis, Eschschoh, By Ed. E. Peince ... 769 

12. On a Ciliated Organ, probably Sensory, in Toviopteris onisciformis. By 
Ed. E. Peince 769 

13. Report of the British Marine Area Committee 769 

14. A Forgotten Species of Peripatus. By Professor F. JEFFREr Bell, M.A., 
Sec.RM.S 769 

15. A Note on the Relations of Helminth Parasites to Grouse Disease. By 

Professor F. Jeffrey Bell, M.A., Sec.R.M.S 770 

16. The Distribution of the Nightingale in Yorkshire. By J. Lisiee 770 

17. Report of the Committee on Pro\incial Museums 770 

18. On the Muga Silkworm and Moth {Antheraa Assama) of Assam, and 

other Indian silk-producing species. By Thomas Waedle 770 

19. Note on a Point in the Structure of Fratercula Arctica. By Frank E. 
Beddard, M.A., Prosector to the Zoological Society of London 771 

20. On the Development of the Ovum in Eudrilus. By Frank E. Beddard, 
M.A., Prosector to the Zoological Society of London 771 

Sub- Section Botany. 

1. Alternation of Generations in Green Plants. By J. Reynolds Vaizet... 771 

2. On a Cinrious Habitat of certain Mosses. By C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S 772' 

3. Report of the Peradeniya Committee 772* 

4. On the Constitution of Cell-walls and its relation to Absorption in Mosses. 

By J. Reynolds Vaizey 772; 



Sub-Section Phtsiologt. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee for the Investigation of tlie Secretion of Urine . 773 

2. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of investigating the 

Physiology of the Lymphatic System 773 

3. On the Development of the Roots of the Nerves and on their Propagation 

to the Central Organs and to the Periphery. By Professor His 773 

4. The Morphology aud Physiology of the Limh-plexuses. By A. M. 

Paterson, M.D .". 776 

5. The Normal Phenomena of Entoptic Vision distinguished from those pro- 
duced by Mechanical Causes. By Beatrice Lindsay, Girton College, 
Cambridge 779 

6. Optical Illusions of Motion ; conflicting theories referred to the test of 
certain hitherto undescribed entoptical phenomena. By Beatrice Lind- 
say, Girton College, Cambridge 781 

7. The demonstration of a new Myographion. By Professor McKendrick .. 783 

8. A new Physiological Principle for the Formation of Natural Bodies. By 
Professor Jessen 783 

9. A new Geometry for the Bodies of Man and Animals. By Professor 
Jessen '. 783 

10. Further supplementary remarks on Supposed Cycloidal Rotation of 

Arterial Red Discs. By Surgeon-Major R. W. Woollcombe 783 



Section B.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Colonel Sir Charles Warren, R.E., G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 

President of the Section 786 

1. Explorations on the Upper Kasai and Sankuru. By Dr. Litdwig 
Wolf 798 

2. The Bangala, a Tribe on the Upper Cougo. By Captain Coquilhat 798 

3. The Congo below Stanley Pool. By Lieutenant Le Marinel 798 

4. Notice sur I'Etat ind6pendant du Congo. By M. van Eetvelde 798 

5. The Lower Congo : a Sociological Study. By R. C. Phillips 798 

6. A Visit to Diogo Cao's ' Padrao ' at the Mouth of the Congo. By R. E. 
Dennett 799 

7. On Acclimatisation. By Dr. A. Oppler 799 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. The Raian Moeris. By Cope Whitehouse, M.A 799 

2. The Feasibility of the Raian Reservoir. By Colonel Ardagh, R.E., 
C.B 800 

3. The Desert from Dahshur to Ain Raian. By Captain Conters Surtees 801 

4. TheBahrYusuf By Captain R. H. Beown, R.E 801 

5. Between the Nile and the Red Sea. By E. A. Floter 801 

6. Trade Prospects with the Sudan. By Major Watson, R.E., C.M.G 801 

7. Account of a recent Visit to the ancient Porphyry Quarries of Egypt, 

By W. Brindley, F.R.M.S 801 



IXIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

8, On the Red Sea Trade. By A. B. Wtlde 802 

9. Matabeleland and the Country between the Zambezi and the Limpopo. 

By Captain C. E. Haynes, R.E 802 

10. A Note on Houghton, the African Traveller. By Major Sir Hebbbbt 

Pekeot 803 

11. Western Australia. By John Fokkest, C.M.G 803 

12. Second Report of the Committee appointed for the pm-pose of reporting 
upon the Depth of Permanently Frozen Soil in the Polar Regions 803 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. The Beginning of the Geography of Great Britain. By Professor W, 

Boyd Daweins, F.R.S 803 

2. Report of the Committee for co-operating with the Roj'al Geographical 

Society in endeavouring to bring before the authorities of the Univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge the advisability of promoting the study of 
Geography by establishing special Chairs for the purpose 803 

3. Geography at the Universities. By IT. J. Mackindee, M.A 803 

4. The Ruby Mines of Burma. By J. Skelton Streetee 803 

5. Siam. By J. McCarthy 804 

6. The Valley of the Rio Doce (Brazil). By William John Steains 804 

7. On South-Eastern Alaska. By Professor Libbey 804 

TUESBA Y, SEPTEMBER (5, 

1. Final Report of the Committee on the production of a Bathy-hypso- 
graphical Map of the British Islands 804 

2. On some Defects of the Ordnance survey. By S. H. Wilkinson, M.A... 804 

3. On the Utilisation of the Ordnance Survey. By Colonel Sir Charles 

Wilson, K.C.B., F.R.S 804 

4. On the United States Geographical and Geological Survey. By Josiah 

Pierce, jun 804 

5. On a Bathy-orographical Map of Scotland. By H. R. Mill, D.Sc 804 

6. A Plea for the Metre. By E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S 805 

7. Second Report of the Committee for drawing attention to the desirability 

of further Research in the Antarctic Regions 805 

8. Formosa. By A. R. Colquhottn 805 

9. On the Study of the Natural Divisions of the Earth, rather than the 
National ones, as the Scientific Basis of Commercial Geography. By 
John Yeats, LL.D 805 

10. On a Natural Method of Teachiog Geography. By John J. Caedwell... 805 

11. The Teaching of Geography in the Elementary Schools of England. By 

A. Park 805 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Robert Giffen, LL.D., V.P.S.S., President of the Section 806 

1. Limited Liability. By G. Atjldjo Jamieson 826 

2. The Economic Policy of the United States. By Professor Leone Levi, 
F.S.S .-^ .'829 



CONTENTS. XXV 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee on the methods of ascertaining and measuring 
Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard 829 

2. Monetary Jmisprudence. By S. Dana Horton 829 

3. Some Notes on Money. By Sir T. Fakeer 830 

4. Changes in Real and in Money Prices. By Wtnnaed Hoopek, M.A. ... 830 

5. Graphic Illustrations of the Fall of Prices in Belgium, France, and 

England. By Professor Denis 832 

6. Effective Consumption and Effective Prices in their Economical and 

Statistical Relations. By Hyde Clakke, F.S.S 832 

7. The Battle between Free Trade and Protection in Australia. By 
William Westgaeth 833 

Sub-Section F. 

1. Preventible Losses in Agriculture. By Professor W. Fream, B.Sc, 
F.L.S., F.G.S., F.S.S .' 834 

2. On the Future of Agriculture. By W. Botlt 835 

3. Recent Illustrations of the Theory of Rent, and their Effect on the 
Value of Land. By G. Atjldjo Jamieson 835 

4. On Depreciation of Land as caused by recent Legislation. By Couetenat 

C. Prance 835 

5. Land Tenure in Bosnia and the Herzegovina. By Miss Iebt 837 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. A Plan for County Councils. By J. Tatloe Kay 837 

2. On the Distribution of Wealth in Scotland. By Ralph Richardson, 
F.R.S.E 840 

3. On the Application of Physics and Biology to Practical Economics. By 

Pateick Geddes 841 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Report of the Committee for continuing the inquiries relating to the 
teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 841 

2. Schools of Commerce. By Sir Philip Magnus 841 

3. Manual Training a Main Feature in National Education. By William 
Mathee, M.Inst.C.E 843 

4. Technical Education: the Form it should take. By Edwaed J. 

Watheeston 844 

6. Manual Training : an Experiment at Keswick. By the Rev. H. D. 
Rawnsley 846 

6. Home Education in its Bearing on Technical Education. By Miss C. M, 
Mason 846 

Sub-Section F. 

1. The Classification of the Exports of Cotton Piece Goods in Board of 
Trade Returns. By Frank Hardcastle, M.P 847 

2. The Statistics of our Foreign Trade, and what they tell us. By A. E. 
Bateman, F.S.S 848 



CONTENTS. 



3. Report of the Committee on the Regulation of Wages by means of Lists 
in the Cotton Industry 848 

4. Expenditure of Wages. By D. Chadwick 849 

6. History of the Cotton Trade. By W. Andrews 849 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Gold and Silver ; their Geological Distribution and their probable Future 
Production. By W. Toplet, F.G.S 849 

2. An Attempt to bring the Issue between those who are called ' Mono- 
metallists ' and those who are called ' Bi-metallists ' into such Terms that 
an Intelligent Public Opinion may be formed thereon. By Edward 
Atkinson 849 

3. On the Solution of the Anglo-Indian Monetary Problem. By Professor 

L. Walras 849 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Food as an Aid to Elementary Education. By Geoege Herbert 
Sargant 851 

2. Phthisis Centres in Manchester and Salford. By Arthttr Ransome 852 

3. On some important Statistics relating to the Silk Industry. By Thomas 
Wardle 852 

4. On Bimetallism. By J. Nicholson 852 

5. On the Position of Economics in Holland. By Professor Geeven 852 

6. Socialism. By Professor W. Graham 852 

7. On the Increase of ^^'ealth and Population in Lancashire. By William 

E. A. Axon 852 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Professor Osborne Reynolds, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., 

President of the Section 855 

1. The Ii-on Mines of Bilbao. By Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E 861 

2. Improvements in the Manufacture of Portland Cement. By Feedk. 
Ransome 864 

3. The Severn Tunnel. By T. A. Walker 865. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. On certain Laws relating to the Regime of Rivers and Estuaries, and on 
the possibility of Experiments on a small scale. By Professor Osborne 
Reynolds, LL.D., F.R.S 867 

2. Improvement of the Access to the Mersey Ports. By W. Shelford, 
M.Inst.C.E 867 



3. The Manchester Ship Canal. By E. Leader Williams 868 

4. Experiments on the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat on a large scale. By 

E. A. Cowper and W. Anderson 869 

5. What is a Drought ? By G. J. Symons, F.R.S 869 



CONTENTS. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Page 

1. The Forth Bridge Works. By A. S. Biggaex 870 

2. The Oity of London and Southwark Subway. By J. H. Greathead, 

M.In3t.C.E : • 870 

3. On a High-speed Steam or Hydraulic Revolving Engine. By Akthtje 

RiGG 871 

4. An improved Steel Railway Sleeper, with Chairs pressed out of the Solid. 

By Henry White 872 

5. Specimens of Steel produced by skidding Railway Wheels. By Jere- 
miah Head, M.Inst.C.E 8/2 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On Copper Wire. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 874 

2. Fast Speed Telegraphy. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 874 

3. Underground Conductors for Electric Lighting, &c. By Professor Q. 

Forbes, M.A., F.R.S. L. & E 875 

4. On an Electric Current Meter. By Professor G. Forbes, M.A., F.R.S. 

L. & E 876 

5. On the Condition of Maximum Work obtainable from a given source of 

alternating Electromotive Force. By Gisberx Kapp 876 

6. Distribution by Transformers and Alternate Current Machines. By 0. 

H. W. Biggs and W. H. Snell 878 

7. The Telemeter System. By F. R. Upton 878 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Enduranoe of Metals under repeated and 
varying Stresses 879 

2. On the Resistance of Stone to Crushing, as affected by the material on 
which it is bedded. By Professor W. C. Un win, F.R.S 879 

3. Expansive Working in Direct-acting Pumping Engines. By Henrt 
Davet, M.Inst.C.E 880 

4. Reinforcing Electrical Contacts so as to increase their ReliabiHty, with 
Example of Application to Reeling Silk from the Cocoon. By E. W. 
Serrell, jun 881 

5. A new Form of Secondary Battery. By Killingworth Hedges 882 

6. Underground Electrical Work in America. By F. Brewer 882 

7. Improvements in Lifeboats. By J. T. Morris 882 

8. Link Motion for Steam Engines. By J, M. McCulloch 882 

9. On the Communication of Motion between bodies moving at different 
Velocities. By J. Walter Pearse 882 

10. The Tangye Gas Hammer. By Dug ald Clerk 883 

11. On the British Association Standard Screw Gauge. By W. H. Preece, 
F.R.S 884 

12. A Fire-damp Indicator. By J. Wilson Sw AN 884 

13. On an improved Railway Reading Lamp. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S. ... 884 



SXVlll CONTENTS. 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Page 
Address by Professor A. H. Satce, M.A., President of the Section 885 

1. The Primitive Seat of the Aryans, By Canon Isaac Tatior, LL.D., 
Litt.D 895 

2. The Non- Aryan and Non-Semitic White Races, and their Place in the 
History of Civilisation, By J. S. Stuaet-Glennie, M.A 898 

3. On the Picture Origin of the Characters of the Assyrian Syllabary. By 

the Rev. W. HouGfHTON 898 

4. Wusum and other Remains in Egyptian AraWa, Bv Cope "VVhite- 

HOUSE, M.A .*. 898 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Report of the Committee for procuring Racial Photographs from the 
Ancient Egyptian Pictures and Sculptures 899 

2. Notes on the Accuracy of the Sculptures and Paintings of Races on the 
Egyptian Monuments. By W. M. Flindeks Petkie 899 

3. Studies on some Groups of Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie's Casts and Photo- 
graphs of Ethnographic Types from Egypt, 1887. By the Rev. Henkt 
George Tomkins 899 

4. Boat-shaped Graves in Syria, By George St, Clair, F.G.S 900 

5. On 108 Skulls from Tombs at Assouan. By W. S. Melsome 900 

6. Account of a ' "Witch's Ladder ' found in Somerset. By Dr. Edward B. 
Ttlor, F,R.S 900 

7. The Effect of Town Life upon the Human Body. By J. Milner Fother- 

GiLL, M.D 900 

8. On the Bosjes. Pelvis. By Professor Cleland, F.R.S 902 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

1. The Experimental Production of Chest-types in Man. By G. W, 

Hambleton 903 

2. The Scientific Treatment of Consumption. By G. W. Hambleton 903 

3. Ancient and Modern Methods of Arrow Release. By Professor E. S. 
MoESE 904 

4. Tattooing. By Miss A. W. Buckland 904 

5. Report of the Committee appointed to edit a new Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries' 905 

6. Third Report of the Committee for investigating and publishing reports 
on the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social condition 

of the North-Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 905 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Second Report of the Committee for investigating the Prehistoric Race 

in the Greek Islands 906 

2. The Early Ages of Metal in South-East Spain. By Henri and Loins 
Sieet 905 



contents:. XXIX 

Page- 

3. The Origin of Totemism. By 0. Staniiand Wake 906- 

4. Observations on Mr, Petrie's Ethnological Casts from Egypt. By Dr. 
Isaac Tatioe 907 

6. Certain Degenerations of Design in Papuan Art. By S. J. HiOKSoisr 907 

6. On the Occurrence of Stone Mortars in the Ancient (Pliocene ?) River- 
gravels of Butte Co., California. By Sydney B. J. Skertchly, F.G.S.... 907 

7. On Inscribed Stones from Mevagh and Barnes, Co. Donegal. By G. H. 
Kinahan, M.R.I.A 908 

8. Gipsies, and an Ancient Hebrew Race, in Sua and the Sahara. By R. G. 
Haubxteton 908 

9. Colour-names amongst the English Gipsies. By William E. A. Axon... 909 

10. The Seneca Indians of North America : their present Customs, Legends, 

and Language. By John Wentwoeth Sanborn, A.M 910 

11. Contributions to the Remote History of Mankind. By Akin Kaeoly ... 911 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Report of the Committee for ascertaining and recording the localities in 
the British Islands in which evidences of the existence of Prehistoric In- 
habitants of the country are found 911 

2. On the Migrations of Pre-Glacial Man. By Henry Hicks, M.D., F.R.S. 912 

3. The Early Neolithic Floor of East Lancashire. By H. Collet March, 
M.D 912 

4. On recent Researches in Bench Cavern, Brixham, Devon. By W. Pen- 

GELLT, F.R.S 912^ 

5. Observations on Recent Explorations made by General Pitt-Rivers at 
Rushmore. By J. G. Garson, M.D., V.P.A.Inst 912 

6. Note on the Ethnic Type of the Inhabitants of the Evolena Valley in 
Switzerland. By Mrs. I^js'ight " 914 

7. On Berber and Guanche Tradition as to the Burial-place of Hercules. By 

R. G. Halibtjrton 914 

Index 917 



LISr OF PLATES. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I. AND II. 



Illustrating the Report of the Committee for Considering the hest means of Com- 
paring and Reducing Magnetic Observations. 

PLATES III., IV., AND V. 

Illustrating the Report of the Committee for Exploring the Higher Eocene Beds 
of the Isle of Wight. 

PLATES VI., VII., VIII., AND IX. 

Illustrating Mr. William Topley's Communication, 'Gold and Silver: their Geo- 
logical Distribution and their Probable Future Production.' 

PLATE X. 

Illustrating Messrs. E. A. Cowper and W. Anderson's Communication, 
' Experiments on the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat on a large Scale.' 



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THE ASSOCIATION. 



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RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlll 

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longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Pekmanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting neiv claims under this Bale to the decisioi of the Council, they must 
he sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Associatiwi. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of 
the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to he final. 

Class B. Temporaky Members.* 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims xmder this liule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Co'inriiittees."^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

■ Ke\'ised by the General Committee, 1884. 

- Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Aiithors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the jseveral Sections Vefore the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to tl.e 

1887. b 



XXxiv EULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees.' 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the fii'st members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease. '^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees? 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Yice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Fi'iday, Saturday,'' Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 
2 No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, 
of a length suitable for insertion in t)ie published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 
before , addressed tlius — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W". For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed eitlier to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, 
be/ore the conclusion of tlic Meeting. 

' Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1S79. 

''■ Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at 
fSouthport, 1883. 



EULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

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D 2 



XXXIV RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

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RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 
ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of tne Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in 
the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the hst of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Miuute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hij Authors, are to he forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee {vide p. xxxiii.), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as pubHshed in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the ' 
state a,nd progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it IS expedient that all Memlers of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

2 ^v?*^ ''"^^^ ^^''^ adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 

b2 



XXXVi RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this he done, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must fii-st he sanctioned hy the Committee of that Section before they 
can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.' 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Individual or the Member first named of a Committee to whom a money 
grant has been made must (previously to the next Meeting of the Associa- 
tion) forward to the General Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the 
sums which have been expended, and the balance which remains dispos- 
able on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a iveeh before the opening of the ensuing Meeting: nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices 
of the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, TJniver.sity College, 
London, W.C, for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

' Passed hj the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVli 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of eacli Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Booms and approaches thereto can be used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Depai'tments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretaiy. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed ou 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
1^ which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Corresponding Societies.'^ 

(1.) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

' The meeting on Saturday may begin, if desired by the Committee, at any time not 
earlier than 10 or later than 11. Passed by the General Committee at Southport, 1883. 
■-' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



XXXVni RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(2.) Applications 7nay be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must be addressed to tbe 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June pi'eceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

(3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

(4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
up, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the vai'ious Sections of the Association. 

(6.) A Corresponding Society shall liave the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
11 Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

(7.) The Delegates of the various Coi'responding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

(8.) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

(9.) The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates .shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into efiect. 

(10.) It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

able to bring those renommendations cleai'ly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A Pi-esident, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
■ of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinai-y ]\Iembers shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

■whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be inehgible for nomination : — Ist, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of ]\Ieetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of General Com- 
mittee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

Tassed by the General Committee, Belfast, 187i. 



Xi RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that ot the 
Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Comrminications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

A ccounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THB SECTIONS. 



xlix 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 

1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



184.3. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 



1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S. Rev. H. Coddington. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 'Prof. Forbes. 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. jProf. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



1859. Aberdeen.. 

1860. Oxford 

1887. 



Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquom Rankine,Prof. Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy , 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 

C 



BEPOBT — 1887. 



Date and Place 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. Birmingham 


1866. Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee . . . 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


1872. 


Brighton... 


1873. 


Bradford... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1876. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


1878. 


Dublin 


1879 


Sheffield ... 


1880 


Swansea ... 


1881 


York 


1882 
1883 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 


1884 


Montreal ... 


1885 


Aberdeen . . 


1886 


Birmingham 


1887 


ilanchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof .W.J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.8., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.E.S., 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clilford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W.K.Clifford, J. W.L.Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof . A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher; 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Prof. O.J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 

Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 

MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 



PBESIDBNTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINEKALOGT. 



Date and Place 



1832. Oxford , 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



Secretaries 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHBMISTKT AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming ... 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S..., 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S, 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Faraday, D.C.L., 
V. Harcourt, M.A. 



Michael 

F.R.S 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W.Odling, M.B.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. So lly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr. Gladstone, Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof, 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveiug, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A.V.Harcourt,Prof.Liveing,R.Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J, 
Russell, J. White. 

c2 



lii 



REPOBT 1887, 




1867. Dundee .. 

1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .., 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... . 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcoivrt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. .. 

Prof. ]\Taxwell Simpson, M.D. 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof . A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S., F.C.S. 



A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J, Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher,. 
Dr. W. J. Russell. ' 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 
W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 
Thomson. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon,^ 
T. Gough. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
J. L. Notter. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B, 
Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
H.ForsterMorley.Dr.Sv. J.Simpson. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 
Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 
J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 
Morley, W. Thomson. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE, 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford IR. L Murchison, F.R.S. 

1833. Cambridge. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

1834. Edinburgh . Prof . Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



R. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Gcaqraphij, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Captain Port lock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury,. 
T. J. Torrie. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liil 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 
1842, Manchester 
184.S. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1 S49.Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh' 



Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 
Geography, G.B.Greenough, 
F.R.S. 
C. LyeU, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 
I <?coi7yapAy, LordPrudhope. 
i Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
j Geograjjhy, G.B.Greenough, 
I F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— fi^eo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
I F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. 1. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S.,' 
M.R.I.A. I 

Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 
Geol. See. I 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Leonard Homer,F.R.S. — Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Secular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr, R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 
I Prof. Ramsay, 
j J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool . . 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1 856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


!1859. 


Aberdeen... 



SECTION c (continued). — geologt. 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S 



Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bimbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J, W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved • That 
tlie subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section," ' for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page Iviii, 



liv 



KEPORT — 1887. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863, 
I86t. 
1866. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymo\ith... 

Dublin 

ShefBeld ... 

Swansea ... 

York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen ... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Blurchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smytli, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay. LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S.. 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



Secretaries 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S 

John EvSns, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 
Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. bawkins, J. Johnston, H. G. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

AV. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henrv Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R" H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W, 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 

W. Whitaker. 
T. W. Shore. W. Topley, E. West 

lake, W. Whitaker. 
R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top 

ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H 
Teall, W. Topley. 

W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W 
Topley, W. W. Watts. 

J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 



PKESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



Date and Place 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh. 



1833. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. 
1838. 



1839. 
1840. 



1841. 
1842. 



1843. 
1844, 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 



York. 



1845. 
1846. 



1847. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Presidents 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Gaxnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Secretaries 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don, 
W. Tarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. ... 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY, 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Iviii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinbiurgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 
1865. Glasgow ... 
1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin.... 

1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E, 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester, 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
I Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 

Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. B. 
i Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, 
i Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 
' Dr. Ogilvy. 

' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Iviii. 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 



Ivi 



EEPORT — 1887. 



Date and Place 



1860. Oxford. 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birmingham 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich 



Presidents 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast. 



1876. Bristol 



Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 



Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S, 

Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S... . 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. B. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

D {continued), — biology.' 



SECTION 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Dtp., Prof. 

Humpliry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Bcp., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dcp. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, BI.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dcp. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. Rolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — i>(^. of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof . M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.8.—Bip. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
Y.U.^.—Bcp. of Bot. and 
ZooZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
¥.R.^.—Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Bcp. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Frof. Ru- 
therford, M.i>.~Bcp. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, W.D.—Bcp. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.l&.,'Pxes.B..^.—Bcp.ofA7i- 
throp.. Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.U.^.— Bep.of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Vmt.C\e- 
land, M.D., F.U.^.—Bep.of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, B. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 



M.D., F.R.S. 

' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved:—' That the title 
of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word " Department" be substituted." 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877, Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 

1884. Montreal-... 

1885. Aberdeen ... 

1886. Birmingham 
1887 Manchester 



A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Dvp. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
B\R.S. — Drp. of Anat. and 
Phijdnl, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — JDep. of Anat. and 
PhijsioL, Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Dep. of Anthropol., 
Francis Galton, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bip. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. Georg-e Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
• — Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Btp. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
¥.11.8.— Bep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.R.S. — Bep. (f An thropo I . , 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.'R.S.—Bep. of Atiat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
-- Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S.— Z»(y7. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bej). of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. L. & B. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



Secretaries 



E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr 
Knox, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hej% Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor- Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Slarshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
■of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

''■ By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology was made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiii. 



Iviii 



KEPORT — 1887. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



Date and Place 


Pi-esidents 


Secretaries 


1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 




Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 


Dr. Abercrombie 


Dr. Koget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 



Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
1847. Oxford' ... 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
184.5. 
1846. 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
' Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

I Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham .'^ 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTION 
Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

G. E. Pasret, M.D 

Prof. Roheston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D.. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 
Sargent. 

Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster, 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 

S OF SECTION D. 

Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C^ 
p. lii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1 84 6. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



" By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of 'Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. Iv.). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 ta 
Geography. » Vide note on page Ivi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 
SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



Date and Place 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 



Ipswich . . . 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin.. 
Leeds ... 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 



1867. Dundee ... 



1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



1376. Glasgow ... 



Sir R. L Murchison, P.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 

SECTION E (continued). - 
Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 

LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.B.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Hme, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 

-GEOGRAPHY. 

H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, . 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 
Wood. 



Is 



REPORT — 1887. 



Date and Place 


1877. 


Plymouth. . . 


1878. 


Dublin 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881 


York 


1882. 
1883. 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 



Presidents 



Adm.SirE. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.L.cfcE. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.a.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 
K.C.S.L, G.B., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 
G.C.M.G., F.B.S., F.R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev. Abbe Laflamme, J. S. O'HaUoran, 

B. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'HaUoran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Raven- 
stein. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart | Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G.W.Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. AV. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, K. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 


Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P.,F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 


Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 


1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 


E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H.. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860, 
1861, 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867, 

1868, 

1869, 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1880. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. ..., 
Nassau \V. Senior, M.A. ... 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir GeoK;e Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. " 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescvie 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 
G. W. Hastings, M.P. ..., 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr.. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown^ 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch^ 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie,. 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory,. 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy.. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston^ 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, B. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neei Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, 0. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 



axii 



REPOET — 1887. 



Date and Place 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



Rt. Hon. M. B. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Secretaries 



C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 
Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
FoxweU, J. N. Kejmes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 
Prof. J. Watson. 

Kev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 
gant. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 
3 840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1869. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

Georoe Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Raukiue, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
Jolm Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 



PEESIBENTS AND SECIIEXAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. MacquornRankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westraacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J, N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H, T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H. ANTHEOPOLOGT. 



1884. Montreal... IE. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

1885. Aberdeen... I Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 
Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 



Ixiv 



REPORT 1887. 



Date and Place 



1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



Sir G. Campbell, K. C.S.I. 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool. 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M.L Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R. S. 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the JEigeaxi Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

PropertiesoftheExplosivesubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on tlie 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Didm inepttis). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 



1855. Glasgow ... 



1856. Cheltenliam 



1857. Dublin.... 

1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford ... 
1887. 



Lecturer 



Dr. W. B. Carpenter, P.E.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Eawlinson .. 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.E.S. ... 
Eev. Dr. Livins:stone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S. ... 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, E.N. 
Prof . W. A. Miller, M.A ., F.E. S. 
G.B.Airy,F.E.S.,Astron.Eoyal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S.. 

Prof. Eoscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S... 



William Huggins, F.E.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, P.E.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergnsson, F.E.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.S.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.E.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.E.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B.. 

F.E.S. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.E.S. 



Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Eecent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for tlie 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Eecent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archseology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Ee verse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulse. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Eelation of Primitive to Modem 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 



Ixvi 



EEPOKT — 1887. 



Date and Place 

1874. Belfast Jsir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P.. 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.K.S 



1875. Bristol i W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.K.S 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

1876. Glasgow ... Prof. Tait, F.E.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 

1877. Plymouth... W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 

1880. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof.E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins. 
F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 



W. Spottiswoode, Pre.s. R.S. 

1882. Southamp- i Prof. SirWm. Thomson, F.R.S. 

ton. I Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 

1883. Southport , Prof. R. S. BaU, F.R.S 



1884. Montreal. 



{Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
I F.R.S.E. 

I Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

I Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



1885. Aberdeen... Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

1886. Birmingham A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S. 

IProf. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 

1887. Manchester jProf. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton, 
I K.C.M.G. 



Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarized Light. 
Railway Safety Aj^pliances. 
Force. 

The Challenger Exjaedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palason- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvani and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .., 



1870. Liverpool. 



1872. Briffhton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 
]«7.5. Bristol ... 



j Prof. J. Tj-ndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 
jProf. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
! Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



I Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 
I F.R.S. 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S, 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.K.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

iDr. W. B. Caruenter. F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tionof the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 



LECTUKES XO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.., 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea .., 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southp )rt 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Lecturer 



Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L. Treas. R.S. 

Sir F. J. BramweU, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S., 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindi'ops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 



d2 



Ixviii KEPOET — 1887. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
MANCHESTER IMEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— FroiessoT Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
M.R.I.A., Astronomer Royal for Ireland. 

Vice-Presidents.— VrofessoY J. C. Adams, F.R.S. ; Dr. John Hopkinson, 
F.R.S. ; Professor the Rev. Bartholomew Price, V.P.R.S. ; Professor 
Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S. ; Professor H. A. Rowland ; Professor 
Schuster, F.R.S. ; Professor Balfour Stewart, F.R.S. ; Professor 
Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Rohert E. Baynes, M.A. {Recorder); R. T. Glazebrook, 
F.R.S. ; Professor H. Lamb, F.R.S. ; W. N. Shaw, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

Presif^ewi.— Edward Schunck, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor C. Schorlemmer, F.R.S. ; Professor T. E. 
Thorpe, F.R.S. ; Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S. ; W. Crookes, F.R.S. ; 
Professor Dewar, F.R.S. ; Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. 
J. Russell, F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; H. Forster 
Morley, D.Sc. ; W. Thomson. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

President.— B.enrj Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Bonney, F.R.S. ; Professor Comm. G. 
Capellini, Sc.D. ; Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; Dr. T. 
Sterry Hunt, F.R.S. ; Professor J. W. Judd, F.R.S. ; Professor 
T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S. ; Professor Otto Torell, Ph.D. ; Professor 
F. Zirkel, Ph.D. 

Secretaries.— J. E. Marr, M.A. ; J. J. H. Teall, M.A. ; W. Topley, F.G.S. 
(Recorder) ; W. W. Watts, M.A. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President.— FrofessoT Alfred Newton, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Asa Gray, LL.D. ; Professor M. Foster, 
Sec.R.S. ; Professor E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S ; Professor A. 
Milnes Marshall, F.R.S. ; Professor J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. ; 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., F.R.S.; Rev. Canon Tristram, 
F.R.S. ; Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. Ixix 

Secretaries.— C. Bailey, F.L.S. ; F. E. Beddard, M.A. ; S. F. Harmer, 
M.A. ; Walter Heape, M.A. {Recorder) ; W. L. Sclater, B.A. ; 
Professor H. Marshall Ward, M.A. 

SECTION E.- — GEOGEAPHT. 

I>resiclent.— Colonel Sir Charles Warren, R.E., G.C.M.G., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— K. W. Bates, F.R.S. ; Dr. John Rae, F.R.S. ; Henry 
Lee ; Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S. ; General Sir 
H. B. L. Thuillier, C.S.I., F.R.S. ; General J. T. Walker, C.B., F.R.S. ; 
Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Rev. L. C. Casartelli, M.A.; J. S. Keltic; H. J. Mackinder, 
M.A. ; E. G. Ravenstein (^Recorder) . 

SECTION r. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Fresident. —Uohert Giffen, LL.D., V.P.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Profes.sor H. S. Foxwell, V.P.S.S.; D. Cbadwick; 
G. H. Gaddum ; Professor Leone Levi, F.S.S.; William Mather, 
M.Inst.C.E. ; T. B. Moxon ; Sir Rawson W. Rawson, K.C.M.G. ; 
Swire Smith ; T. R. Wilkinson. 

Secretaries. — Rev. W. Cunningham, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; F. T. Edgeworth, 
M.A.; T. H. Elliott, F.S.S. ; C. Hughes, B.A. ; Professor J. E. C. 
Munro, LL.D. ; G. H. Sargant. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Osborne Reynolds, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S.; E. H. Carbntt, Pres. 
Inst.M.E. ; T. Hawksley, F.R.S.; Jeremiah Head, M.InstC.E.; 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S.; J. Robinson, M.InstC.E. 

Secretaries. — C. F. Budenberg, B.Sc. ; W. Bayley Marshall ; Edward 
Rigg, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION n. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

P7-esit^eni.~ Professor A. H. Sayce, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Evans, Treas.R.S. ; H. H. Howorth, M.P. ; Pro- 
fessor H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. ; William Pengelly, F.R.S. ; General 
Pitt- Rivers, F.R.S. ; Dr. E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A. (Recorder) ; J. G. Garson, M.D. ; 
A. M. Paterson, M.D. 



KEPOKT 1887. 



THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOE 



Br. 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



1886-87. EECEIPTS. 

£ t. tl. 

By Balance of accomit rendered at Birmingham Meeting 1869 5 5 

„ Receipt of Life Compositions to date 320 

„ Keceipt of Annual Subscriptions to date 648 

„ New Annual Memberships 356 

„ Associates' Tickets at Birmingham Meeting 1067 

„ Ladies' Tickets at Birmingham Meeting 429 

„ Sale of Publications 49 15 2 

„ Interest on Exchequer Bills 43 10 

„ Dividends on Consols 247 f< 

„ Amount of Rent received from London Mathematical Society, 

year ending September 29, 1886 12 15 

„ Unexpended balance of grant made to the Chepstow Obser- 
vatory Committee 25 

,, Unexpended balance of grant made for investigation of 

Lymphatic System 14 



£5081 6 



BALANCE SHEET, 1886-87. Ixxi 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



(not including receipts at the Manchester Meeting). Cr. 

1886-87. PAYMENTS. 

£ .!. d. 

To Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co. for printing, &c. (1885-86) 1286 11 6 

„ Payment of Salaries (1886-87) 54.'j 

„ Kent of Office, i:c., in Albemarle Street (1886-87) 117 

,, Expenses of Birmingham Meeting, including Printing and 

Advertising, also incidental and petty cash expenses, &c. 227 6 8 

GcTUCSTS. 

& s. II. 

Volcanic Phenomeua of Japan (1886 grant) 50 Ci 

Standards of Light (1886 grant) 20 ii 

Silent Discbarge of Electricity 20 

Exploration of Cae G wyu Cave, North Wales 20 

Investigation of Lymphatic System 25 

Granton Biological Station 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 

Pljnnouth Biological Station 50 

Naples Biological Station 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Microscopic Structure of the Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Prehistoric Race of Greek Islands 20 

Flora and Fauna of the Cameroons 75 

Provincial Museum Reports 5 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations 15 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Exploration of the Eocene Beds of the Isle of Wight 20 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Fossil Piiyllopoda 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

Standards of Light (1887 grant) 10 

Migration of Birds 30 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan (1887 grant) 50 

Electrical Standards 50 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of British Isles 7 6 

Absorption Spectra 4(1 V 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Circulation of Underground Waters 6 d 

Erratic Blocks 10 



By Balance at Bank of England. Western Branch 1636 4 10 
„ Deposit in Manchester and Salford Bank, Man- 
chester 82 5 3 



1186 18 



1718 10 1 



Plus Consols, £8,.500 ; Exchequer Bills, £2,000. 



£5081 6 3 



Alex. W. Williamson. 



Ixxii 



EEPORT — 1887. 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, 
1832 
1833. 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850. 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857. 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870. 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877. 
1878. 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 



Sept. 27 
June 19 ... 
June 25 ... 
Sept. 8 ... 
Aug. 10 ... 
Aug. 22 ... 
Sept. II ... 
Aug. 10 ... 
Aug. 26 ... 
Sept. 17 ... 
July 20 ... 
June 23 ... 
Aug. 17 ... 
Sept. 26 ... 
June 19 ... 
Sept. 10 ... 
June 23 ... 
Aug. 9 ... 
Sept. 12 ... 
July 21 ... 
July 2 ... 
Sept. 1 ... 
Sept. 3 ... 
Sept. 20 ... 
Sept. 12 ... 
Aug. 6 ... 
Aug. 26 ... 
Sept. 22 ... 
Sept. 14 ... 
June 27 ... 
Sept. 4 ... 
Oct. 1 ... 
Aug. 26 ... 
Sept. 13 
Sept. 6 
Aug. 22 
Sept. 4 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 14 
Aug. 2 
Aug. 14 ... 
Sept. 17 ... 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 25 
Sept. 6 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 31 
Aug. 23 
Sept. 19 
Aug. 27 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 1 
Aug. 31 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Mancliester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgli 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Mancliester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinbiirgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton . . 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

M.anchester 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Kev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. 
The Eev. A. Sedgwick, F.K.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Kev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
Tlie Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.K.S. 
The Dulie of Northumberland 
The Kev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Kev. W^ Whewell, F.K.S. 

The Lord Francis Egertou 

The Earl of Rosse, F.K.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchisou,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut .-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowbv, F.K.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.K.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.K.H. the Prince Consort ... 
Tlie Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart.,^M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Bucclcucli,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw.C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Kayleigh, F R.S. ... 
SirLyonPIayfair,K.C.B.,F.K.S. 
Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 



Old Life 
Members 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 



Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections on 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxiii 



A iinucd Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 



Old 
vnnual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 


Ladies 


For- 


embers 


Members 


ciates 




eigners 




... 




lioo* 


34 
40 


46 


317 




*60* 




75 


376 


'33t 


331* 


28 


71 


185 




160 




45 


190 


"n 


260 




'.14 


22 


407 


172 


35 


05 


39 


270 


196 


36 


107 


40 


495 


203 


63 


54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


'.>8 


83 


447 


237 


22 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


CI 


47 


244 


141 


37 


('.:! 


60 


510 


292 


9 


5G 


57 


367 


236 


6 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45+ 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


317 


219 


826 


74 


2G&60H.§ 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


428 


179 


1067 


29 


11 


610 


244 


1985 


493 


92 



Total 



353 

900 

1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 



Amount 
1 received 
! during the 

Meeting 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
8369 
1538 
2256 
2532 
4336 



Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 

Purposes 



£20 








167 








435 








922 


12 


6 


932 


2 


2 


1595 


11 





1546 


16 


4 


1235 


10 


11 


1449 


17 


8 


1565 


10 


2 


981 


12 


8 


831 


9 


9 


685 


16 





208 


6 


4 


275 


1 


8 


159 


19 


6 


345 


18 





391 


9 


7 


304- 


6 


7 


205 








380 


19 


7 


480 


16 


4 


734 


13 


9 


507 


15 


4 


618 


18 


2 


684 


11 


1 


766 


19 


6 


1111 


5 


10 


1293 


16 


6 


1608 


3 


10 


1289 


15 


8 


1591 


7 


10 


1750 


13 


4 


1739 


4 





1940 








1622 








1572 








1472 


2 


6 


1285 








1685 








1151 


16 





960 








1092 


4 


2 


1128 


9 


7 


725 


16 


6 


1080 


11 


11 


731 


7 


7 


476 


3 


1 


1126 


1 


11 


1083 


3 


3 


1173 


4 





1385 








995 





6 


1186 


18 






icluding Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Honorary Members for this Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1887-88. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR H. E. KOSCOE, M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., P.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Duke or Devonshire, K.G., M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Eahl or Derby, K.G., Si.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of M.ixr iies- 

TEU, D.D. 
The Risht Rev. the Bishop op S.a.lpoud. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor op Max- 

CHESTER. 



The Right Worshipful the Mayor op Salfoed. 
The VioE-CHAXCELLORof the Victoria University, 

Manchester. 
The PRiNcirAL of the Owens CoUegp, Manchester. 
Sir WiLLLiM Robert.';, B.A.., M.D., F.R.8. 
Thoma.s Ashjox, Esq.. J.P., D.L. 
Oliver Heywood, Esq., J. P.. D.L. 
James Prescott Joule, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S., P.R.S.E.,P.C.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

SIR FREDERICK J. BKAMWELL, D.C.L., F.R.S., M.lNST.C.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Earl op Cork and Orrery, 

K.P., Lord Lieutenant of Somerset. 
The Most Noble the Marquis of Bath. 
The Right Hon. and Right Rev. the Lord Bishop 

OF Bath and Wells, D.D. 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Clifton. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor op Bath. 
The Right Woi-shipful the Mayor of Bristol. 
Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., D.C.L.. F.R.S., Y.P.C.S. 
The Venerable the Arch deacon of Bath. 

(Nominated by the Council.) 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BATH. 
W. Ph.mphrey, Esq. I J. L. Stothert, Esq. | B. 11. WatT! 



The Rev. Leoxard Blomkfikld, M.A., F.L.P., 

F.G.S. 
Professor Michael Foster, M.A., M.D., LL.D., 

Sec.R.S., F.L.S., F.C.S. 
W. S. Gore-Laxgtox, Esq., J.P. 
H. D. Skrixe. Esq., J.P. 
Colonel R. P. Laurie, J[.P. 
E. R. WODEUOUSE, Esq., M.P. 
Jerom Muecu, Esq., J.P. 



Esq. 



LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE 
JoHX Stone, 
ORDINARY MEMBERS OF 
Abxey, Capt. W. DE W., P.R.S. 
Ball, Sir R. S., F.R.S. 
B.^LOW, W H.. Esq., F.R.S. 
Blanford, W. T. Esq., F.R.S. 
Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Professor G. H., F.R.S. 
Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd, F.R.S. 
Dewar, Professor J., F.R.S. 
Douglass, Sir J., F.R.S. 
Flower, Professor W. H., C.B., F.R.S. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. II. II., F.R.S. 
Henrici, Professor 0., F.R.S. 



MEETING AT BATH. 
Esq. 
THE COUNCIL. 

J TDD, Professor J. W., P.R.S. 

JI'Lkod, Professor H., F.R.S. 

Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 

Moseley, Professor H. N., F.R.S. 

Om.m.\nney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S. 

Roberts- Austen, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 

ScHAPER, Professor E. A., F.R.S. 

ScHUS'j'ER, Professor A., F.R.S. 

SlDGWlCK, Professor H., M.A. 

Tiiiseltox-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., 
F.R.S. 

Thorpe, Professor T. E., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 

A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Cowley Grange, Oxford. 

SECRETARY. 

Arthur T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor A. W. AVilliajison, Pli.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.O.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 

Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years. 

the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 

Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleiuh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 
Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Tliomson, LL.D. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. Tyndall. D.C.L., P.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, P.R.S. 
Prof. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. ' 

GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEiVRS. 

1 Dr. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. I P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S, 

I George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S. | Prof. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Cwen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Wilham R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, P.R.S. 



Sir A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Su- John Lubbock, Bart., P.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L.. Sec.R.S. 
Sir Lyon Playfaii-, K.C.B. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 



Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
W. H. Preece, Esq., F.R.S. 



I Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

lUj^>ort of the Council for the year 1886-87, presented to the General 
Committee at Manchester, on Wednesday, August 31, 1887. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the Meeting at Birmingham the following have been elected 
Corresponding Members of the Association : — 

Dr. Finsch. Professor Leeds. 

Dr. O. W. Huntington. Professor H. Carvill Lewis. 

Dr. A. Konig. Professor John Trowbridge. 

Lieut. K. Kund. 

The Council have nominated Mr. Oliver Heywood a Vice-President ot 
the meeting at Manchester. 

An invitation for the year 1889 will be presented from Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne ; but the invitations from Melbourne and Sydney have been 
withdrawn. 

The following resolutions were referred by the General Committee to 
the Council for consideration, and action if desirable : — 

(a) ' That the Council be requested to consider the question of 
rendering the Reports and other papers communicated to the Association 
more readily accessible to the members and others by issuing a limited 
number of them in separate form, or in associated parts, in advance of 
the annual volume.' 

The Council, after careful consideration of the question, are of opinion 
that a certain number of copies of the more important Reports presented 
to the Sections of the Association should be kept in stock and sold 
separately, the number of copies printed and the price of each Report to 
be fixed by the Secretaries after communication with the ofiicers of the 
several Sections. 

(b) ' That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of 
selling publicly the Presidential Addresses.' 

The Council have considered the question, and are of opinion that it 
is desirable that printed copies of the addresses of the President and the 
Presidents of Sections should be stitched together and sold. 

That a number of copies not exceeding 1,000 should be printed, and 
that these should be placed on sale, at the price of one shilling, through 
agents or otherwise, as may be considered most suitable. 

(c) ' That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of 
calling the attention of the proprietor of Stonehenge to the danger in 
which several of the stones are at the present time from the burrowing 
of rabbits, and also to the desirability of removing the wooden props 
which support the horizontal stone of one of the trilithons ; and in view 
of the great value of Stonehenge as an ancient national monument to express 
the hope of the Association that some steps will be taken to remedy these 
sources of danger to the stones.' 

The Council have carefully considered the question, and having had 
the advantage of perusing the detailed report recently prepared by a 
deputation of the Wilts Archaeological and Natural History Society on 
the condition of the whole of the stones constituting Stonehenge, are of 
opinion that the proprietor should be ajDproached with the expression of 



Ixxvi 



KEPORX — 1887. 



a hope that be ■will direct sucli stejDS to be taken as shall effectually pre- 
vent further damage. 

(d) ' That the fJouncil be requested to consider whether a memorial 
should be presented to Her Majesty's Government, urging them to 
undertake and supervise Agricultural Experiments, and to procure 
farther and more complete Agricultural Statistics.' 

The Council have considered the question, and are not prepared to 
memorialise the Government on the subject. 

The question of the re-arrangement of the journal has been brought 
before the Covincil by Mr. J. B. Martin, and after careful consideration 
the Council are of opinion that it is unnecessary to print in each number 
of the Journal the list of the jaapers read on the previous day ; also that 
it would be well to jDlace the list of officers of each Section at the head of 
the list of papers to be read in that Section. The Council wish to obtain 
the sanction of the General Committee to these alterations. 

The Council, having considered a letter addressed to them by Mr. R. 
H. Scott, are of opinion that it should be an instruction to the secretaries 
of all committees, other than committees of Sections, to send notices of all 
meetings to each member of a committee, and that the draft report of the 
committee should first be sent in proof to each member, and then sub- 
mitted to a meeting of the committee specially called for the purpose. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galtou (Chaii-man), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Eawson Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. J. 
Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, and General Pitt-Rivers, having by an 
oversight not been reappointed at Birmingham last year, the Council 
have requested these gentlemen to continue the work of their Committee, 
and now nominate them for re-election, with the addition of the names 
of Mr. W. Topley, Mr. H. G. Fordham, and Mr. William White. The 
report of the Corresponding Societies Committee is herewith submitted 
to the General Committee. 

In accordance with the regulations the five retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — • 



Mr. W. Pengellj^ 
Sir E. Temple. 



Dr. De La Kue. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell. 



Sir. J. C. Hawksliaw. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distin- 
guished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Abney, Capt. W. de W., F.R.S. 

Ball, Sir E. S., F.E.S. 

Barlow, W. H., Esq., C.E., F.E.S. 

Blanford, W. T., Esq., F.E.S. 

Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Prof. G. H., F.E.S. 

Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd, F.R.S. 

Dewar, Prof. J., F.E.S. 

*Douglass, Sir James, F.E.S. 

Flower, Prof. W. H., C.B., F.E S. 

Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.E.S. 

Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H., F.E.S. 

Henrici, Prof. O., F.R.S. 



Judd, Prof. J. W., F.E.S. 

Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 

M'Leod, Prof. H., F.E.S. 

Moselcj', Prof. H. N., F.E.S. 

Ommanuey, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.E.S. 

Roberts-Austen, Prof. W. C, F.E.S. 

*Schuster, Prof., F.E.S. 

*Sidgwick, Prof. H. 

♦Schafer, Prof., F.E.S. 

Thiselton-D3'er, W. T., Esq., C.M.G. 

F.R.S. 
Thorpe, Prof. T. E., F.R.S. 
♦Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



Ixxvi 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Manchester Meeting in August and September 1887. 

[WTien Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the 
Secretary, except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involvmrj Grants of Money. 

That Sir R. S. Ball, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professors Everett, 
Fitzgerald, Hicks, Carey Foster, O. J. Lodge, Ewing, Poynting, Mac- 
gregor, Genese, W. G. Adams, and Lamb, Messrs. Baynes, A. Lodge, 
Fleming, W. N. Shaw, Glazebrook, Hayward, Lant Carpenter, Culver- 
well, and Greenhill, Dr. Muir, and Messrs. G. Griffith and J. Larmor be a 
Committee for the purpose of considering the desirability of introducing 
a Uniform Nomenclature for the Fundamental Units of Mechanics, of co- 
operating -with other bodies engaged in similar work, and of reporting to 
the next meeting of the Association ; that Mr. E. P. Cnlverwell be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That General J. T. Walker, Sir William Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
General R. Strachey, Professors A. S. Herschel, G. Chrystal, C. Mven, 
J. H. Poynting, A. Schuster, and Mr. C. V. Boys be a Committee for the 
purpose of inviting designs for a good Differential Gravity Meter in 
supersession of the pendulum, whereby satisfactory results may be ob- 
tained at each station of observation in a few hours instead of the many 
days over which it is necessary to extend pendulum observations ; that 
Professor Poynting be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Crum Brown, Mr. Milne-Home, Mr. John Murray, 
Mr. Buchan, and Lord McLaren be reappointed a Committee for the 
purpose of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in 
making meteorological observations on Ben Nevis ; that Professor Crum 
Brown be the Secretary, and that the sum of 150Z. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, 
Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Professor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. 
Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Mr. Thomas Gray 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of making experiments for 
improving the construction of practical Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements ; that Mr. Glazebrook be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 80Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart and Sir W. Thomson, Sir J. H. 
Lefroy, Professors G. H. Darwin, G. Chrystal, and S. J. Perry, Mr. C. H. 



Ixxviii KEPOET — 1887. 

Carpmael, Professor Schuster, Mr. G. M. Whipple, Captain Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, Professor W. G. Adams, and Mr. 
W. Laut Carpenter be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of con- 
sidering the best means of comparing- and reducing Magnetic Observa- 
tions ; that Professor Balfour Stewart be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of Ibl. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor G. Forbes, Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, Lord Rayleigh, Mr. 
Preece, Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt, 
Mr. H. Trueman Wood, Sir James Douglass, and Professor H. B. Dixon 
be reappointed a Committee for the pui^pose of reporting on Standards of 
Light ; that Professor G. Forbes be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
100^. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee consisting of Pi'ofessors Armstrong and Lodge, 
Sir William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, Fitzgerald, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Poynting, Crum Brown, Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hartley, 
S. P. Thompson, McLeod, Roberts-Austen, Riicker, Reinold, Carey 
Foster, and H. B. Dixon, Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and 
Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bid well, W. N. Sbaw, J. Larmor, 
J. T. Bottomley, R. T. Glazebrook, J'. Brown, E. J. Love, and John M. 
Thomson be reappointed a Committee for the purjjose of considering 
the subject of Electrolysis in its Physical and Chemical bearings; that 
Professor Armstrong be the Chemical Secretary and Professor Lodge the 
Physical Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose, of which not more than 20/. is to be spent in printing 
and postage. 

That Professors Balfour Stewart, Schuster, and Stokes, Mr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Abney, and Mr. G. J. 
Symons be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of considering the 
best methods of recording the direct intensity of Solar Radiation ; that 
Professor Balfour Stewart be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Armstrong, Meldola, and Smithells, Drs. Gladstone, 
Russell, and Vernon Harcourt, Messrs. J. T. Dunn, Francis Jones, M. M. 
Pattison Muir, and W. A. Shenstone, and Professor Dunstan be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting on the present 
methods adopted for teaching chemistry ; that Professor Dunstan be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors W. A. Tilden and H. E. Armstrong be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives ; that Professor H. E. Armstrong be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 251. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Russell, Captain Abney, Professor Hartley, and Dr. A. 
Richardson be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the action 
of light on the Hydracids of the Halogens in Presence of Oxygen ; that 
Dr. A Richardson be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors McLeod and Ramsay, Mr. J. T. Cundnll. and Mr. W. A. 
Shenstone be reappointed a Committee for the further in\ estigation of 
the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other 
gases ; that Mr. W. A. Shenstone be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
J 01. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxix 

That Professors Tilden and W. Ramsay and Dr. W. W. J. Nicol be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Properties 
of Solutions ; that Dr. W. W. J. Nicol be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Dewar, Odling, and Frankland, Mr. Crookes, and 
Professor P. F. Frankland be a Committee for the purpose of conferrino- 
■with a Committee of the American Association with a view of forming a 
Uniform System of Recording the Results of Water Analysis ; that Pro- 
fessor P. F. Frankland be the Secretary, and that the sum of 101. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Tilden and W". Chandler Roberts-Austen, and Mr. T. 
Turner be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Steel ; that Mr. T. Turner be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Messrs. H. Bauerman, F. W. Rudler, J. J. H. Teall, and H. J. 
Johnston- Lavis be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood ; that 
Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis be the Secretary, and that the sum of 20Z. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor W. C. Williamson and Mr. W. Cash be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Flora of the Carboni- 
ferous Rocks of Lancashire and West Yorkshire ; that Mr. Cash be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. J. W. Davis, Mr. W. Cash, Dr. H. Hicks, Mr. G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Mr. Clement Reid, Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. T. Boynton be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating an Ancient Sea-beach near 
Bridlington ; that Mr. G. W. Lamplugh be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 20^. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, Professor W. J. Sollas, Dr. G. J. Hinde, and Messrs. 
W. Carruthers, R. B. Newton, J. J. H. Teall, F. W. Rudler, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker, and E. Wethered be reappointed a Committee for the 
purpose of carrying on the Geological Record ; that Mr. W. Topley be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell be re- 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting upon the ' Manure ' 
Gravels of Wexford ; that Mr. A. Bell be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of lOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. R. B. Grantham, C. E. De Ranee, J. B. Redman, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker, and J. W. Woodall, Major-General Sir A. Clarke, 
Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, Sir J. N. Douglass, Captain Sir George 
Nares, Captain J. Parsons, Captain W. J. L. Wharton, Professor J. 
Prestwich, and Messrs. E. Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. Vernon 
Harcourt be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into 
the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the 
Influence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or other material in that 
Action ; that Messrs. De Ranee and Topley be the Secretaries, and that 
the sum of 15Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors J. Prestwich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, and Messrs. C. E. De Eunce', 
H. G. Fordham, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. H.' 



IXXX EEPORT 1887. 

Tiddeman be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and oingin 
of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other 
matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for 
their preservation ; that Dr. Crosskey be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 10?. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Hull, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Captain Sir Douglas 
Galton, Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. Marten, 
G. H. Morton, James Parker, W. Pengelly, James Plant, I. Roberts, Fox 
Strangways, T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden- Wright, 
E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Ranee be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable Formations of England, and the Quality 
and Quantity of the Waters supplied to vai-ious towns and districts from 
these formations ; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of 5L be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. H. Woodward, Professor T. R. Jones, Mr. W. Pengelly, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. R. Etheridge, and Professor Wiltshire 
be a Committee for the purpose of assisting the Paleeontographical 
Society in the publication of Monographs of British Fossils ; that Pro- 
fessor Wiltshire be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at 
their disposal for the pui'pose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. T. Gray, and Professor John Milne be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Volcanic 
Phenomena of Japan ; that Professor J. ]\Iilne be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. W. H. Hudleston, Professor J. W. 
Judd, and Mr. R. G. Bell be a Committee for the purpose of preparing a 
Monograph upon the MoUuscan Fauna of the Pliocene Beds of St. Erth ; 
that Mr. R. G. Bell be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50L be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Schafer, M. Foster, and Lankester and Dr. W. D. 
Halliburton be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
the Physiology of the Lymphatic System ; that Professor Schafer be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professors McKendrick, Struthers, Toung, Mcintosh, A. Nichol- 
son, and Cossar Ewart and Mr. John Murray be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of aiding in the Biological Researches carried on at the 
Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland ; that Mr. John Murray 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professor Foster, Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, 
Dr. Trimen, Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. Carruthers, and Professor 
Hartog be a Committee for the purpose of taking steps for the establish- 
ment of a Botanical Station at Peradeniya, Ceylon ; that Professor Bower 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of 50Z. be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professor Lankester, Professor Milnes Marshall, Mr. Sedgwick, 
and Mr. G. H. Fowler be a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
the Development of the Oviduct and connected structures in certain fresh- 
water Teleostei ; that Mr. G. H. Fowler be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of 15L be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



BECOMMENDATIOJSS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxi 

That Professors Mcintosh, Allman, Lankester, Burdon Sanderson, 
Cleland, Ewart, Stii'ling, McKendrick, Dr. Cleghorn and Dr. Traquair, 
be a Committee for the purpose of carrying on researches on the develop- 
ment of Fishes at the St. Andrews Mai-ine Laboratory ; that Professor 
Mcintosh be the Secretary, and that the sum of 501. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professors Newton and Flower, Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Sclater, and 
Mr. Thiselton-Dyer be a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the 
present State of our Knowledge of the Zoology aud Botany of the "West 
India Islands, and taking steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in 
the Fauna and Flora ; that Mr. Thiselton-Dyer be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of 1001. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. W. Carruthers, W. F. R. Weldon, J. G. Baker, G. M. Murray, 
and W. T. Thiselton-Dyer be a Committee for the purpose of exploring 
the Flora of the Bahamas ; that Mr. W. T. Thiselton-Dyer be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 1001. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Bay Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. 
Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Mr. Walter Heape, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy Sladen be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of making arrangements for assisting the Marine Biological 
Association Laboratory at Plymouth ; that Mr. Percy Sladen be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of lOOZ. be placed at theii' disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. John Cordeaus, Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie- 
Brown, Mr. W. E. Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent 
of the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and the Com- 
missioners of Northern and Irish Lights) Observations on Migration of 
Birds at Lighthouses and Lightvessels, and of reporting on the same ; 
that Mr. Cordeaux be the Secretary, and that the sum of 30Z. be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, 
and Mr. Forbes be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing 
the preparation of a report on our present knowledge of the Flora of 
China ; that Mr. Thiselton-Dyer be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
751. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Ray Lankester, Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy Sladen be i-eapjDointed a Committee for 
the purpose of arranging for the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples ; that ]Mr. Percy Sladen be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of lOOZ. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That General J. T. Walker, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Mr. Alexander Bnchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. 
John Murray, Dr. J. Rae, Mr. H. W. Bates, Captain W. J. Dawson, Dr. 
.A. Selwyn, and Professor C. Carpmael be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of reporting upon the Depth of the permanently Frozen Soil 
in the Polar Regions, its geographical limits, and relation to the present 
poles of greatest cold ; that Sir Henry Lefroy be the Reporter and !Mr. 
H. W. Bates the Secretary, and that the sum of 51. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. S. Bourne, Mr. F. T. Edgeworth (Secretary), Professor H. 
S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Giffeu, Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. 

1887. e 



Ixxxii REPORT— 1887. 

Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave, and Pro- 
fessor H Sidgwick be a Committee for the purpose of mqainng and 
'eportino: ^s to the Statistical Data available for determining the amount 
of the precious metals in use as money in the principal countries of the 
world the chief forms in which the money is employed and the amount 
rnnuallv used in the arts ; that Mr. F. T. Edgeworth be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 201. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. S. Bourne, Mr. F. T. Edgeworth (Secretary) Professor H. 
S Foxwell Mr. Robert Giffen, Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J^ B. 
Martin Professor J. S. Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave, and Pro- 
fessor H Sidffwick be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of con- 
tinuino- to investigate the best method of ascertaining and measuring 
SiCii the Value of the Monetary Standard ; that Mr. F.Y. Edge- 
worth be the Secretary, and that the sum of lOZ. be placed at tneir dis- 

^°^That Professor Osborne Reynolds, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Sir James 
Douglass, Professor J. Thomson, Professor W. C-^Uf^i"' ^""^ i^^^^^f • 
W Topley J. Abernethy, E. Leader Williams, W. Shelford, J. A. Froude, 
J N Shoolbred, G. F. Deacon, G. F. Lister, A. R. Hunt, and W. H 
Wheeler be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Action ot 
Waves and Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means 
of Workino- Models ; that Professor Osborne Reynolds be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of 200Z. be placed at their disposal for the purpose 

That Sir Rawson Rawson, General Pitt-Rivers, ^Iv. Francis Galton, 
Dr Muii'head, Mr. C Roberts, Dr. J. Beddoe, Mr. H. H. Howorth, Mr. 
F W Rudler Mr. G. W. Hambleton, Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. G. W. 
Blosam Dr. Garson, and Dr. A. M. Paterson be a Committee for the 
purpose of investigating the effects of different occupations and employ- 
ments on the Physical Development of the Human Body ; that Mr. 
Bloxam be the Secretary, and that the sum of 251. be placed at their 

disposal for the purpose. , o- t -rr t r t» 

That Dr E B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. Dawson, General Sir J. H. Letroy, Dr. 
Daniel Wilson, Mr. R. G. Haliburton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating and publishing 
reports on the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social 
condition of the North- Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada ; that 
Mr. Bloxam be the Secretary, and that the sum of lOOl. be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. r. ttt -di 

That Dr. Garson, Mr. Pengelly, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, 
Mr. J. Theodore Bent, and Mr. J. Stuart Glennie be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Prehistoric Race in the Greek 
Islands; that Mr. Bloxam be the Secretary, and that the sum of 201. 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. Francis 
Galton, Dr. E. B. Tylor, and Dr. Garson be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of editing a new edition of 'Anthropological Notes and 
Queries ' ; that Dr. Garson be the Secretary, and that the sum of SOL be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not involving Grants of Money. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Chrystal, Dr. A. Buchan, Rev. 0. 
J. Steward, the Hon. R. Abercromby, Mr. J. T. Buchanan, Mr. David 



EECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxiii 

Cunningham, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Professor Fitz- 
gerald be a Committee for the purpose of arranging an investigation of 
the seasonal variations of temperature in lakes, rivers, and estuaries in 
various parts of the United Kingdom in co-operation with the Local 
Societies represented on the Association, and that Mr. John Murray be 
the Secretary. 

That Lord Rayleigh, Professors Rowland, Liveing, Dewar, Everett, 
W. Grylls Adams, J. J. Thomson, and Schuster, and Messrs. Marshall 
Watts, and Glazebrook be a Committee for the piirpose of taking such 
steps as may lead to the adoption of an International Scale of Wave- 
lengths for the Solar Spectrum ; and that Pi-ofessor Schuster be the 
Secretary. 

That Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. E. A. Cowper, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor 
G. H. Darwin, Professor Ewing, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas Gray, 
Dr. John Evans, Professor Lebour, Professor Prestwich, Professor Hull, 
Professor Meldola, Professor Judd, and Mr. J. Glaisher be a Committee 
for the purpose of considering the advisability and possibility of estab- 
lishing in other parts of the country observations upon the prevalence of 
Earth Tremors, similar to those now being made in Durham in connec- 
tion with Coal-mine Explosions; and that Professor Lebour be the 
Secretary. 

That Professor Barrett, Professor Fitzgerald, Professor Balfour 
Stewart, and Mr. Trouton be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of reporting on certain Molecular Phenomena connected with the Mag- 
netisation of Iron ; and that Professor Barrett be the Secretary. 

That Mr. John Murray, Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, 
the Abbe Renard, Mr. A. Buchan, the Hon. R. Abercrombie, and Dr. M. 
Grabham be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
the practicability of collecting and identifying Meteoric Dust, and of 
considering the question of undertaking regular observations in various 
localities ; and that Mr. John Murray be the Secretary. 

That Professors A. Johnson, Macgregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H, J. 
Bovey, and Mr. C. Cai'pmael be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of promoting Tidal Observations in Canada ; and that Professor Johnson 
be the Secretary. 

That Professor Cayley, Sir William Thomson, Mr. James Glaisher, 
and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher (Secretary) be reappointed a Committee for 
the purpose of calculating certain tables in the Theory of Numbers 
connected with the divisors of a number. 

That Professor G, H. Darwin, Sir W. Thomson, and Major Baird be 
a Committee for the purpose of preparing instructions for the practical 
work of Tidal Observation ; and that Professor Darwin be the Secretary. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, and Professor Salmon be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of calculating Tables of the 
Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms ; and that Professor Cayley 
be the Secretary. 

That Professors Everett and Sir William Thomson, Mr. G.J. Symons, 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, 
Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
a'^d Mr, A. Strahan be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature down- 

62 



Ixxxiv KEPOET — 1887. 

wards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water ; and that Pro- 
fessor Everett be the Secretary. , „ , x r. a j i 

That Professor G. H. Darwin and Professor J. C. Adams be reap- 
iDointed a Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations ; 
and that Professor Darwin be the Secretary. , ^ ^ ^ , . , 

That Professors Ramsay, Tilden, Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating certain Physical Constants 
of Solution, especially the expansion of saline solutions ; and that Pro- 
fessor W. l'. Goodwin be the Secretary. 

That Professors Tilden, McLeod, Pickering, and Ramsay, and Drs. 
Youno' A R Leeds, and Nicol be a Committee for the purpose of re- 
porting on the Bibliography of Solution ; and that Dr. Nicol be the 

^^That'Captain Abney, General Testing, and Professors W. N. Hartley 
and H E Armstrong be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds ; and that Professor Armstrong 
be the Secretary. . 

That Sir H. B. Roscoe, Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, Livemg, 
Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, Captain Abney, and 
Dr Marshall Watts be a Committee for the purpose of preparing 
a new series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements ; 
and that Dr. Marshall Watts be the Secretary. 

That Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. W. Carruthers, 
Dr H. Woodward, and Mr. J. S. Gardner be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and 
Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom ; and that Mr. Gardner be the 

secretary. . ^ ^t t n n ^ i 

That Dr. H. Woodward. Mr. H. Keeping, and Mr. J. S. Gardner be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of exploring the Higher Eocene 
B6ds of the Isle of Wight ; and that Mr. J. S. Gardner be the Secretary. 
That Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Professor J. F. 
Blake be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Microscopic Structure of the older Rocks of Anglesey ; and that Professor 
J. F. Blake be the Secretary. , „ ^ m -r. t 

That Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. R. Jones 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palasozoic Rocks ; and that Professor T. R. Jones be 

the Secretary. t, n tt jj 

That Professor Valentine Ball, Mr. H. G.Fordhara, Professor Haddon, 
Professor Hillhouse, Mr. John Hopkinson, Dr. Macfarlane, Professor 
Milnes Marshall, Mr. F. T. Mott (Secretary), Dr. Traquair, and Dr. _H. 
Woodward be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of preparing 
a Report upon the Provincial Museums of the United Kingdom ; and 
that Mr. Mott be the Secretary. 

That Sir Joseph D. Hooker, Sir John Lubbock, Sir George Wares, 
General J. T. Walker, Sir Leopold McClintock, Admiral Sir George H. 
Richards, Professor Flower, Professor Huxley, Dr. Sclater, Professor 
Moseley, Mr. John Murray, General Strachey, and Sir William Thomson 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of drawing attention to the 
desirability of prosecuting further research in the Antarctic Regions ; 
and that Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney be the Secretary. 

That Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Professor Armstrong, Mr. S. Bourne, Miss 
Becker, Sir J. Lubbock, Dr. Crosskey, Sir R. Temple, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 



RECOMMENDATIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IxxXV 

Mr. J. Heywood, and Professor N. Story Maskelyne be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating to the 
teaching of Science in Elementary Schools ; and that Dr. J. H. Grladstone 
be the Secretary. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Dr. John Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
Dr. R. Munro, Mr. Pengelly, Dr. Hicks, Mr. J. W. Davis, Professor 
Meldola, and Dr. Muirhead be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of ascertaining and recording the localities in the British Islands in which 
Evidences of the Existence of Prehistoric Inhabitants of the Country are 
found ; and that Mr. J. W. Davis be the Secretary. 

That the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. G-. Carson, Dr. J. 
Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. Topley, Mr. 
H. G. Fordham, and Mr. William White, be reappointed. 

That Mr. W. N. Shaw be requested to draw up a Report on the present 
state of our knowledge in Electrolysis and Electrochemistry. 

That Mr. P. T. Main be requested to continue his Report on our 
experimental knowledge of the Properties of Matter Avith respect to 
voluiue, pressui-e, temperature, and specific heat. 

That Mr. Glazebrook be requested to continue his Report on Optics. 

That Professor J. J. Thomson be requested to continue his Report on 
Electircal Theories. 

Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual 
Report of the Association. 

Sir W. Thomson's paper ' On the Vortex Theory of the Luminiferous 
-^ther.' 

Professor H. Lamb's paper ' On the Theory of Electrical Endosmose 
and Allied Phenomena, and- on the existence of a Sliding Coefficient for a 
Fluid in contact with a Solid.' 

Mr. W. Topley's paper ' On Gold and Silver : their Geological Distri- 
bution and their probable Future Production.' 

Mr. G. Auldjo Jamieson's paper entitled ' Recent Illustrations of the 
Theory of Rent and their EflFect on the Value of Land,' and a Memoran- 
dum ' On the Methods of Ascertaining Variation in the Value of the 
Precious Metals.' 

Professor Osborne Reynolds's paper ' On certain Laws relating to the 
Regime of Estuaries and on the possibility of Experiments on a small 
scale ' (with the necessary illustrations). 

Messrs. E. A. Cowper and W. Anderson's paper 'On the Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat ' (with the necessary illustrations). 

Mr. G. Forbes's paper ' On an Electric Current Meter ' (with the 
necessary illustrations) . 

Resolv/tions referred to the Council for Consideration, and Action if 
desirable. 

That the Council be requested to take such action as they may think 
most expedient in order to bring before the Signal Office of the United 
States a statement of the high value which British meteorologists attach 
to the manuscript bibliography prepared by the Signal Office. 



Ixxxvi KBPOKT — 1887. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Manchester Meeting 
in August and September 1887. The Names of the Members 
entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the respective 
Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Fhysics. 

£ s. 

*Brown, Professor Crum. — Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

*Foster, Professor G. Carey. — Electrical Standards 80 

* Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Magnetic Observations 15 

*Forbes, Professor G. — Standards of Ligbt 100 

* Armstrong, Professor. — Electrolysis 50 

*Stewart, Professor Balfour. — Solar Radiation 10 

Walker, General.— Differential Gravity Meters 10 

Ball, Sir R. S. — Uniform Nomenclature iu Mechanics 10 

Chemistry. 

*McLeod, Professor. — The Influence of the Silent Discharge 

of Electricity on Gases 10 

*Tilden, Professor. — Properties of Solutions 25 

Dewar, Professor.— Recording Water Analysis Results 10 

*Tilden, Professor. — Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 

Armstrong, Professor.— Methods of Teaching Chemistry ... 10 

*Tilden, Professor.— Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 25 

Russell, Dr. — Oxidation of Hy dracids in Sunlight 20 

Geology. 

Davis, Mr. J. W. — Sea Beach near Bridlington 20 

*Evans, Dr. J. — Geological Record 50 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — ' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

* Grantham, Mr. R. B. — Erosion of Sea Coasts 15 

*PreRtvrich, Professor J. — Erratic Blocks 10 

*Hull, Professor E.— Circulation of Underground Waters ... 5 

Woodward, Dr. H.—Palseontographical Society Monographs 50 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. —Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 50 

Etheridge, Mr. R.— Pliocene Molluscan Fauna of St. Erth 50 
*Williamson, Professor W. C. — Carboniferous Flora of Lanca- 
shire and West Yorkshire 25 

*Bauerman, Mr. H. — Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

Carried forward £605 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONET. Ixxxvii 

£ s. d. 

Bronglit forward 605 

Biology. 

Newton, Professor. — -Zoology and Botany of the West India 

Islands ' 100 

Carruthers, Mr. W. — Flora of the Bahamas 100 

Mcintosh, Professor. — Development of Fishes, St. Andrews 50 

*Lankester, Professor E. Ray. — ]\rarine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

*Cordeaux, Mr. J.— Migration of Birds 30 

*Thiselton-Djer, Mr. — Flora of China 75 

*Lankester, Professor E. Ray. — ^Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Schafer, Professor. — Physiology of the Lymphatic System... 25 

*McKendrick, Professor. — Marine Station, Granton 50 

*roster. Professor. — Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Lankester, Professor. — Development of the Oviduct in 

Teleostei 15 

Oeograjyiiy. 

*Walker, General J. T.— Depth of Frozen Soil 5 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

Bourne, Mr. S. — Precious Metals in Circulation 20 

*Bourne, ]\Ir. S. — Variations in the Value of the Monetary 

Standard 10 

Mechanical Science. 

Reynolds, Professor 0. — Investigation of Estuaries by 

Means of Models 200 

Anthropology. 

Rawson, Sir R. — Effect of Occupations on Physical Develop- 
ment 25 

*Tylor, Dr. E. B.— North- Western Tribes of Canada 100 

*Garson, Dr. — Prehistoric Race in the Greek Islands 20 

*Pitt-Rivers, General. — Anthropological Notes and Queries... 50 

lei975 

* Keappointed. ■ 



The Annual Meeting in 1888. 
The Meeting at Bath will commence on Wednesday, September 5. 

Place of Meeting in 1889. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



Ixxxviii 



KEPOKT — 1887. 



General Statement of Sums ^vhich have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientijic Purposes. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions 20 







1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Iclithj-ology . ■■ 105 



£i?, 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 

Cast Iron ( Strength of) 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 

Kailwav Constants 41 

BristorTides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Pavers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments .. 5 

Land and Sea Level 2')7\ 

Steam- vessels 10(7 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 



100 
60 



19 



i'167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-Gauges 9 13 

Eefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation GO 

Thermometers 15 6 







1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on AVaves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 Q 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



i'922 12 6 



1 10 

12 10 











6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



i'932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c G3 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-Iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste ...... 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue ... 166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 

Mining Statistics 50 



t'1.595 11 



1840. 
Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Si ars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 



Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations . . . ... 185 13 

£1546 16 







1841. 

Observations on AVaves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean TemjDerature 8 8 

Actinnmeters 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxix 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers (! IS 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 10 

"Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Eeptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections '^8 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at PljTnouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Eed Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Eaces of Men 5 

Radiate Animals . 2 

±'1235 10 11 



1842. 
DjTiamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 69 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines .' 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) ...... 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 

mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind ;. 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 
Questions on Human Race ... 7 

£1U9 17 8 



8 

11 7 

17 6 

5 













10 







8 6 











1 11 

9 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 



£ s. d. 
Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hoiu-ly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 

Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

"WTiewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 
Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 
Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 
Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin"s Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



xc 



EEPOET — 1887. 



£ s. d. 
1844. 
Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 
Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 

Association Catalogue of 

Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 
Ke vision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 
Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Eail- 

way Sections ]5 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

ofthe Lower Tertiary Strata 100 
Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structm-e of Fo-ssil Shells ... 20 
Eadiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Eed Seas 1842 100 
Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anophtra 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on tlie Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£■981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



11 



£ s. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 15 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structiu-e of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplm-a 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 

£831 9 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Cai)tive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Alortality in York 12 

£685 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


.H 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 
£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCl 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plant s ■■ 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kevsr Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 1.3 9 

£159 19 6 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida ...... 10 

£391 9 7 

1852. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 

for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 

l tionofHeat 5 2 9 

I Influence of Solar Radiations 20 
' Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 
Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



£ s. d. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

iVnnelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Ii-on 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Pliysical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Etlinological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaiaing the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 



rxcu 



KEPOET 1887. 



& s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Eesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Keport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperatui-e of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Earthquake Wave Exijeri- 

ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Eeport on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Eeport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 
1859. — — — ^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Lrish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidas 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Lreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels , 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Eocks and Minerals 25 

Eesearches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Eesearches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

EesearchesontheConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

~Il&& 19 6 



1861. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 

Steam-vessel Performance . . . 

Fossils of Lesmahago 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 

Chemical Alloys 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 
Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



72 

20 
20 
1.50 
15 
20 
20 



£1111 






























5 10 

5 10 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photograpliic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Eocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Eavages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Ee- 

sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



aENERAL STATEMENT. 



XClll 



£ s. d. 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Kocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Ke- 

sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amy] e 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Eain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

HiTmber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 
1865. ■s^ss^^^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Jlollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Em-ypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 60 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British EainfaU 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration .30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Poly cyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 



XCIV 



KEPOBT — 1887. 



& s. d. 

Rigor Mortis ^^ *^ n 

Irish Annelida ^^ ^ ^ 

Catalogiie of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands ^^ 2 n 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 10 

£1750 13 4 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 .0 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 60 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Lnminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of kew Observatory. .600 

Lrmar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 60 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 1 00 

Underground Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 6 



£ s. d. 

Secondaiy Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna - 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. .600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Cominittee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf- Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 
1870. —•^—— 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf- Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 o 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 o 



I 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xcv 



£ s. d. 

Motmtain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat ••• 50 

£1572 



J 871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progi'ess 

in Chemistry , 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lxmar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



















































2 


6 

































1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave- Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals , 





25 












£1 


285 









£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lensi:ths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Siib-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature .. . 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Jleteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Diu-ham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens "s PjTometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



XCVl 



EEPOKT 1887. 



& s. d. 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 O 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

Printins: Mathematical Tables 159 

British "Kainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosj^horic Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Kecord 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Eocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Piecord 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inlia- 

bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Proi^eller on turning 

of Steam Vessels . . 



4 


2 








15 

































































10 



































15 












5 












£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Eocks 9 11 7 

Zoolo.iiical Eecord 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpse, Eeport on 20 



£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Eed Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Eecord 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &;c 15 

£1128 9 7 



8 


















1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Eecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Eecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Eocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xcvu 



£ f. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 
Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolj'sis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 
Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 

■Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Surve}' 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 
Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Jnstruments for Measuring 
the Speed of Ships 17 

Tidal Observations in the 
English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 











































































15 


c 




















14 

















1 


8 









1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Ijunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

iSpecific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

lleport on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

1887. 



£ .s'. d. 

Caves of South Ireland 10 U 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Eecord 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws _^ _9 ^_^ 

£731 7 7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

Electrical Standards 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 

£470 

1882. 
Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

British Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... SO 

Natural History of Timor-laat l(»0 
Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Migration of Birds 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan ; 25 

f 

























































































3 1 

"3 1 



















1 


11 























































XCVlll 



REPORT — 1 887. 



£ s. d. 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by- 
Bodily Exercise 50 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Photographing Ultra-Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Exploration of Eaygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Geological Record 100 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 » 

£1126 1 11 

1883. ^"^^^^^^ 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

■British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 300 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palreo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 

1884. 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Authropometric Committee... 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

International Geological Map 20 

Erratic Blocks o£ England ... 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 



£ 8. d. 

Coagulation of Blood 100 0' 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 0- 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Migration of Birds 20 ' 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Ultra-Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 

Tidal Observations 10 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 C» 

£1173 4 0' 



1885. 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Vapour Pressures, &;c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Recent Polyzoa 10 O' 

Naples Zoological Station ...100 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Ro- 

raima 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 

^dus 25 a 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Geological Record 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 O 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Raygill Fissure 15 

£1385 



GENEEAL STATEMENT. 



1886. £ ». fl. 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Kesearches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 

Electrical Standards 40 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Kaples Zoological Station 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Exploration of Caves in North 

Wales 25 

Migration of Birds iSO 

Geological Record 100 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palteozoic 

Rocks 15 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Magnetic Observations . .' 10 10 

Tidal Observations 50 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 75 

Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

£995 6 



1887. 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 20 

Exploration of Cae Gwyn 

Cave, North Wales 20 



£, i. d. 
Investigation of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel .30 
Plymouth Biological Station 50 
Naples Biological Station . . . 100 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Provincial Museum Reports 5 
Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Fossil Phylloijoda 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 
Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Migration of Birds 30 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Electrical Standards 50 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

£1186 IS 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 31, at 8 p.m., in the Free Trade Hall, Prin- 
cipal Sir J. "William Dawson, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
resigned the office of President to Sir H. E. Roscoe, M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., 
Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, 
for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 1, at 7.30 p.m., a Soiree took place at the 
Royal Jubilee Exhibition. 

On Friday, September 2, at 8.30 p.m., in the Free Trade Hall, Pro- 
fessor H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' The Rate of 
Explosions in Gases.' 

On Monday, September 5, at 8.30 p.m., in the Free Trade Hall, 
Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S., delivered a Discourse 
on ' Explorations in Central Africa.' 

On Tuesday, September 6, at 7.30 P.M., a Soiree took place in the 
Town Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 7, at 2.30 p.m., in the Chemistry Lecture 
Theatre, Owens College, the concluding General Meeting took place, 
when the Proceedings of the General Committee and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Bath. [The Meeting is appointed 
to commence on Wednesday, September 5, 1888.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1887. 



ADDEESS 

BT 

SIR HENRY E. ROSCOE, 

M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S., 
PRESIDENT. 



Manchester, distinguislied as the birthplace of two of the greatest 
discoveries of modern science, heartily welcomes to-day for the third time 
the members and friends of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 

On the occasion of oar first meeting in this city in the year 1842 the 
President, Lord Francis Egerton, commenced his address with a touching 
allusion to the veteran of science, John Dalton, the great chemist, the 
discoverer of the laws of chemical combination, the framer of the atomic 
theory upon which the modern science of chemistry may truly be said to 
be based. Lord Francis Egerton said : ' Manchester is still the residence 
of one whose name is uttered with respect wherever science is cultivated, 
who is here to-night to enjoy the honours due to a long career of persever- 
ing devotion to knowledge, and to receive from myself, if he will con- 
descend to do so, the expression of my own deep personal regret that 
increase of years, which to him up to this hour has been but increase of 
wisdom, should have rendered him in respect of mere bodily strength un- 
able to fill on this occasion an office which in his case would have received 
more honour than it could confer. I do regret that any cause should have 
prevented the present meeting in his native town from being associated 
with the name ' — and here I must ask you to allow me to exchange the 
name of Dalton in 1842 for that of Joule in 1887, and to add again in the 
words of the President of the former year that T would gladly have served 
as a doorkeeper in any house where Joule, the father of science in Man- 
chester, was enjoying his just pre-eminence. 

For it is indeed true that the mantle of John Dalton has fallen on the 
shoulders of one well worthy to wear it, one to whom science owes a debt 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1887. 

of gratitude not less than that which it willingly pays to the memory of 
the originator of the atomic theory. James Prescott Joule it was who, 
in his determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat, about the very 
year of our first Manchester meeting, gave to the world of science the 
results of experiments which placed beyond reach of doubt or cavil the 
greatest and most far-reaching scientific principle of modern times, 
namely, that of the conservation of energy. This, to use the words of 
Tyndall, is indeed a generalisation of conspicuous grandeur fit to take 
rank with the principle of gravitation, more momentous, if that be possible, 
combining as it does the energies of the material universe into an organic 
whole, and enabling the eye of science to follow the flying shuttles of the 
universal power as it weaves what the Erdgeist in ' Faust ' calls ' the 
living garment of God.' 

It is well, therefore, for us to remember, in the midst of the turmoil 
of our active industrial and commercial life, that Manchester not only well 
represents the energy of England in these practical directions, but that 
it possesses even higher claims to our regard and respect as being the seat 
of discoveries of which the value not only to pure science is momentous, 
but which also lie at the foundation of all our material progress and all our 
industrial success. For without a knowledge of the laws of chemical com- 
bination all the marvellous results with which modern industrial chemistry 
has astonished the world could not have been achieved, whilst the know- 
ledge of the quantitative relations existing between the several forms of 
energy, and the possibility of expressing their amount in terms of ordinary 
mechanics, are matters which now constitute the life-breath of every 
branch of applied science. For example, before Dalton's discovery every 
manufacturer of oil of vitriol — a substance now made each week in thou- 
sands of tons within a few miles of this spot — every manufacturer had his 
own notions of the quantity of sulphur which he ought to burn in order 
to make a certain weight of sulphuric acid, but he had no idea that only 
a given weight of sulphur can unite with a certain quantity of oxygen 
and of water to form the acid, and that an excess of any one of the com- 
ponent parts was not only useless but harmful. Thus, and in tens of 
thousands of other instances, Dalton replaced rule of thumb by scientific 
principle. In like manner the applications of Joule's determination of the 
mechanical equivalent of heat are even more general ; the increase and 
measurement of the efficiency of our steam engines and the power of our 
dynamos are only two of the numerous examples which might be adduced 
of the practical value of Joule's work. 

If the place calls up these thoughts, the time of our meeting also 
awakens memories of no less interest, in the recollection that we this 
year celebrate the Jubilee of her Most Gracious Majesty's accession to 
the throne. It is right that the members of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science should do so with heart and voice, for 
although science requires and demands no royal patronage, we thereby 
express the feeling which must be uppermost in the hearts of all men of 



ADDRESS. 5 

science, the feeling of thankfulness that we have lived in an age which 
has witnessed an advance in our knowledge of nature, and a consequent 
improvement in the physical and, let us trust, also in the moral and 
intellectual well-being of the people hitherto unknown ; an age with 
which the name of Victoria will ever be associated. 

To give even a sketch of this progress, to trace even in the merest 
outline the salient points of the general history of science during the 
fifty momentous years of her Majesty's reign, is a task far beyond my 
limited powers. It must suffice for me to point out to you, to the best 
of my ability, some few of the steps of that progress as evidenced in 
the one branch of science with which I am most familiar, and with which 
I am more closely concerned, the science of chemistry. 

In the year 1837 chemistry was a very different science from that 
existing at the present moment. Priestley, it is true, had discovered 
oxygen, Lavoisier had placed the phenomena of combustion on their true 
basis, Davy had decomposed the alkalis, Faraday had liquefied many of 
the gases, Dalton had enunciated the laws of chemical combination by 
weight, and Gay Lussac had pointed out the fact that a simple volumetric 
relation governs the combination of the gases. But we then possessed no 
knowledge of chemical dynamics, we were then altogether unable to 
explain the meaning of the heat given off in the act of chemical combina- 
tion. The atomic theory was indeed accepted, but we were as ignorant 
of the mode of action of the atoms and as incapable of explaining their 
mutual relationship as wei'e the ancient Greek philosophers. Fifty years 
ago, too, the connection existing between the laws of life, vegetable and 
animal, and the phenomena of inorganic chemistry, was ill understood. 
The idea that the functions of living beings are controlled by the same 
forces, chemical and physical, which regulate the changes occurring in 
the inanimate world, was then one held by only a vei'y few of the foremost 
thinkers of the time. Vital force was a term in everyone's mouth, an 
expi'ession useful, as Goethe says, to disguise our ignorance, for 

Wo die Begriffe fehlen, 
Da stellt ein Wort zur rechten Zeit sich ein. 

Indeed the pioneer of the chemistry of life, Liebig himself, cannot quito 
shake himself free from the bonds of orthodox opinion, and he who first 
placed the phenomena of life on a true basis cannot trust his chemical 
principles to conduct the affairs of the body, but makes an appeal to vital 
force to help him out of his difficulties ; as when in the body politic an 
unruly mob requires the presence and action of physical force to restrain 
it and to bring its members under the saving influence of law and order, so 
too, according to Liebig's views, in the body corporeal a continual conflict 
between the chemical forces and the vital power occurs throughout life, 
in which the latter, when it prevails, insures health and a continuance of 
life, but of which defeat insures disease or death. The picture presented 
to the student of to-day is a very different one. We now believe that no 



6 REPORT — 1887. 

such conflict is possible, but that life is governed by chemical and 
physical forces, even though we cannot in every case explain its phenomena 
in terms of these forces ; that whether these tend to continue or to end, 
existence depends upon their nature and amount, and that disease and 
death are as much a consequence of the operation of chemical and physical 
laws as are health and life. 

Looking back again to our point of departure fifty years ago, let us for 
a moment glance at Dalton's labours, and compare his views and those of 
his contemporaries with the ideas which now prevail. In the first place it 
is well to remember that the keystone of his atomic theory lies not so 
much in the idea of the existence and the indivisible nature of the 
particles of matter — though this idea was so firmly implanted in his mind 
that, being questioned on one occasion on the subject, he said to his friend 
the late Mr. Ransome, ' Thou knowst it must be so, for no man can split 
an atom ' — as in the assumption that the weights of these particles are 
different. Thus whilst each of the ultimate particles of oxygen has the 
same weight as every other particle of oxygen, and each atom of hydrogen, 
for example, has the same weight as every other particle of hydrogen, the 
oxygen atom is sixteen times heavier than that of hydrogen, and so on 
for the atoms of every chemical element, each having its own special 
weight. It was this discovery of Dalton, together with the further one 
that the elements combine in the proportions indicated by the relative 
weights of their atoms or in multiples of these pi-oportions, which at 
once changed chemistry from a qualitative to a quantitative science, 
making the old invocation prophetic, ' Thou hast ordered all things in 
■aieasure and number and weight.' 

The researches of chemists and physicists during the last fifty years 
have not only strengthened but broadened the foundations of the great 
Manchester philosopher's discoveries. It is true that his original 
numbers, obtained by crude and inaccurate methods, have been replaced 
by more exact figures, but his laws of combination and his atomic 
explanation of those laws stand as the great bulwarks of our science. 

On the present occasion it is interesting to remember that within a 
stone's-throw of this place is the small room belonging to our Literary 
and Philosojohical Society which served Dalton as his laboratory. Here 
with the simplest of all possible apparatus — a few cups, penny ink bottles, 
rough balances, and self-made thermometers and barometers — Dalton 
accomplished his great results. Here he patiently worked, marshalling 
tacts to support his great theory, for as an explanation of his laborious 
experimental investigations the wise old man says : ' Having been in my 
progress so often misled, by taking for granted the results of others, I 
have determined to write as little as possible but what I can attest by 
my own experience.' Nor ought we, when here assembled, to forget that 
the last three of Dalton's expei'imental essays — one of which, on a new 
method of measuring water of crystallisation, contained more than the 
germ of a great discovery — were communicated to our Chemical Section 



ADDRESS. 



in 1842, and that this was the last memorable act of his scientific life. 
In this last of his contributions to science, as in his first, his method of 
procedure was that which has been marked out as the most fruitful by 
almost all the great searchers after nature's secrets, namely the assump- 
tion of a certain view as a working hypothesis, and the subsequent in- 
stitution of experiment to bring this hypothesis to a test of reality upon 
which a legitimate theory is afterwards to be based. ' Dalton,' as Henry 
well says, ' valued detailed facts mainly, if not solely, as the stepping- 
stones to comprehensive generalisations.' 

Next let us ask what light the research of the last fifty years has 
thrown on the subject of the Daltonian atoms : first, as regards their 
size ; secondly, in respect to their indivisibility and mutual relationships ; 
and thirdly, as regards their motions. 

As regards the size and shape of the atoms, Dalton offered no opinion, 
for he had no experimental grounds on which to form it, believing 
that they were inconceivably small and altogether beyond the grasp of 
our senses aided by the most powerful appliances of art. He was in the 
habit of representing his atoms and their combinations diagrammatically 
as round discs or spheres made of wood, by means of which he was fond of 
illustrating his theory. But such mechanical illustrations are not without 
their danger, for I well remember the answer given by a pupil to a 
question on the atomic theory : ' Atoms are round balls of wood invented 
by Dr. Dalton.' So determinedly indeed did he adhere to his mechanical 
method of representing the chemical atoms and their combinations that he 
could not be pi-evailed upon to adopt the system of chemical formulae 
introduced by Berzelius and now universally employed. In a letter 
addressed to Graham in April 1 837 he writes : ' Berzelius' symbols are 
horrifying. A young student in chemistry might as soon learn Hebrew 
as make himself acquainted with them.' And again : ' They appear 
to me equally to perplex the adepts in science, to discourage the learner, 
as well as to cloud the beauty and simplicity of the atomic theory.' 

But modern research has accomplished, as regards the size of the 
atom, at any rate to a certain extent, what Dalton regarded as impossible. 
Thus in 1865 Loschmidt, of Vienna, by a train of reasoning which 1 
cannot now stop to explain, came to the conclusion that the diameter of 
an atom of oxygen or nitrogen was ^^^^^ of a centimetre.^ With the 
highest known magnifying power we can distinguish the lom V^^^ ^^ ^ 
centimetre ; if now we imagine a cubic box each of whose sides has the 
above length, such a box when filled with air will contain from 60 to 100 
millions of atoms of oxygen and nitrogen. A few years later William 
Thomson extended the methods of atomic measurement, and came to the 
conclusion that the distance between the centres of contiguous molecules 
ia less than ,-^ and greater than i^owWoo of a centimetre ; or, to put 
it in language more suited to the ordinary mind, Thomson asks us to 
imagine a drop of water magnified up to the size of the earth, and then 
tells us that the coarseness of the graining of such a mass would be 



8 EEPORT — 1887. 

something between a heap of small shot and a heap of cricket-balls. Or 
again, to take Clifford's illustration, you know that our best microscopes 
magnify from 6,000 to 8,000 times ; a microscope which would magnify 
that result as much again would show the molecular structure of water. 
Or again, to put it in another form, if we suppose that the minutest organ- 
ism we can now see were provided with equally powerful microscopes, 
these beings would be able to see the atoms. 

Next, as to the indivisibility of the atom, involving also the question 
as to the relationships between the atomic weights and properties of the 
several elementary bodies. 

Taking Dalton's aphorism, ' Thou knowst no man can split an atom,' 
as expressing the view of the enunciator of the atomic theory, let us see 
how far this idea is borne out by subsequent work. In the first place, 
Thomas Thomson, the first exponent of Dalton's generalisation, was torn 
by conflicting beliefs until he found peace in the hypothesis of Prout, that 
the atomic weights of all the so-called elements are multiples of a com- 
mon unit, which doctrine he sought to establish, as Thorpe remarks, by 
some of the very worst quantitative determinations to be found in chemi- 
cal literature, though here I may add that they were not so incorrect as 
Dalton's original numbers. 

Coming down to a somewhat later date, Graham, whose life was devoted 
to finding what the motion of an atom was, freed himself from the bond- 
age of the Baltonian aphorism, and defined the atom not as a thing which 
cannot be divided, but as one which has not been divided. With him, as 
with Lucretius, as Angus Smith remarks, the original atom may be far 
down. 

But speculative ideas respecting the constitution of matter have been 
the scientific relaxation of many minds from olden time to the present. In 
the mind of the early Greek the action of the atom as one substance 
taking various forms by unlimited combinations was sufficient to account 
for all the phenomena of the world. And Dalton himself, though up- 
holding the indivisibility of his ultimate particles, says : ' We do not 
know that any of the bodies denominated elementary are absolutely in- 
decomposable.' Again Boyle, treating of the origin of form and quality, 
says : ' There is one universal matter common to all bodies — an extended 
divisible and impenetrable substance.' Then Graham in another place 
expresses a similar thought when he writes : ' It is conceivable that 
the various kinds of matter now recognised as different elementary sub- 
stances may possess one and the same ultimate or atomic molecules exist- 
ing in diflerent conditions of movement. The essential unity of matter 
is an hypothesis in harmony with the equal action of gravity upon all 
bodies.' 

What experimental evidence is now before us bearing upon these 
interesting speculations ? In the first place, then, the space of fifty years 
has completely changed the face of the inquiry. Not only has the number 
of distinct well-established elementary bodies increased from fifty-three in 



ADDRESS. 9 

1837 to seventy in 1887 (not including the twenty or more new elements 
recently said to have been discovered by Kriiss and Nilson in certain rare 
Scandinavian minerals), but the properties of these elements have b6en 
studied, and are now known to us with a degree of precision then undreamt 
of. So that relationships existing between these bodies which fifty years 
ago were undiscernible are now clearly manifest, and it is to these relation- 
ships that I would for a moment ask your attention. I have already stated 
that Dalton measured the relative weights of the ultimate particles by 
assuming hydrogen as the unit, and that Prout believed that on this 
basis the atomic weights of all the other elements would be found to be 
multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen, thus indicating that an inti- 
mate constitutional relation exists between hydrogen and all the other 
elements. 

Since the days of Dalton and Prout the truth or otherwise of Prout's 
law has been keenly contested by the most eminent chemists of all 
countries. The inquiry is a purely experimental one, and only those who 
have a special knowledge of the difficulties which surround such in- 
quiries can form an idea of the amount of labour and self-sacrifice borne by 
such men as Dumas, Stas, and Marignac in carrying out delicate researches 
on the atomic weights of the elements. What is, then, the result of these 
most laborious experiments ? It is that, whilst the atomic weights of the 
elements are not exactly either multiples of the unit or of half the unit, 
many of the numbers expressing most accurately the weight of the atom 
approximate so closely to a multiple of that of hydrogen that we are con- 
strained to admit that these approximations cannot be a mere matter of 
chance, but that some reason must exist for them. What that reason is, 
and why a close approximation and yet something short of absolute iden- 
tity exists, is as yet hidden behind the veil ; but who is there that doubts 
that when this Association celebrates its centenary this veil will have been 
lifted and this occult but fundamental question of atomic philosophy 
shall have been brought into the clear light of day ? 

But these are by no means all the relationships which modern science 
has discovered with respect to the atoms of our chemical elements. So 
long ago as 1829 Dobereiner pointed out that certain groups of elements 
exist presenting in all their properties strongly marked family character- 
istics, and this was afterwards extended and insisted upon by Dumas. We 
find, for example, in the well-known group of chlorine, bromine, and 
iodine, these resemblances well developed, accompanied moreover by 
a proportional graduation in their chemical and physical properties. 
Thus, to take the most important of all their characters, the atomic 
weight of the middle term is the mean of the atomic weights of the two 
extremes. But these groups of triads appeared to be unconnected in any 
way with one another, nor did they seem to bear any relation to the far 
larger number of the elements not exhibiting these peculiarities. 

Things remained in this condition until 1863, when Newlands threw 
fresh light upon the subject showing a far-reaching series of relation- 



10 REPOBT— 1887. 

ships. Tor the first time we tLus obtained a glance into the mode in 
which the elements are connected together, but, like so many new dis- 
coveries, this did not meet with the recognition which we now see it de- 
serves. But whilst England thus had the honour of first opening up this 
new path, it is to Germany and to Russia that we must look for the con- 
summation of the idea. Germany, in the person of Lothar Meyer, keeps, 
as it is wont to do, strictly within the limits of known facts. Russia, in 
the person of MendelejefiF, being of a somewhat mere imaginative nature, 
not only seizes the facts which are proved, but ventures upon prophecy. 
These chemists, amongst whom Carnelley must be named, agree in placing 
all the elementary bodies in a certain regular sequence, thus bringing 
to light a periodic recurrence of analogous chemical and physical pro- 
perties, on account of which the arrangement is termed the periodic 
system of the elements. 

In order to endeavour to render this somewhat complicated matter 
clear to you, I may perhaps be allowed to employ a simile. Let us, if you 
please, imagine a series of human families, a French one, represented by 
Dumas, an English one, by name Newlands, a German one, the family of 
Lothar Meyer, and lastly a Russian one, that of MendelejefF. Let us next 
imagine the names of these chemists placed in a horizontal line in the order 
I have mentioned. Then let us write under each the name of his father, 
and again, in the next lower line, that of his grandfather, followed by that 
of his great-grandfather, and so on. Let us next write against each of 
these names the number of years which has elapsed since the birth of the 
individual. We shall then find that these numbers regularly increase by 
a definite amount, i.e., by the average age of a generation, which will be 
approximately the same in all the four families. Comparing the ages of 
the chemists themselves we shall observe certain diSerences, but these are 
small in comparison with the period which has elapsed since the birth of 
any of their ancestors. Now each individual in this series of family trees 
represents a chemical elemeilt ; and just as each family is distinguished 
by certain idiosyncrasies, so each group of the elementary bodies thus 
arranged shows distinct signs of consanguinity. 

But more than this, it not unfrequently happens that the history and 
peculiarities of some member of a family may have been lost, even if the 
memory of a more remote and more famous ancestor may be preserved, 
although it is clear that such an individual must have had an existence. 
In such a case Francis Galton would not hesitate from the characteristics 
of the other members to reproduce the physical and even the mental 
peculiarities of the missing member ; and should genealogical research 
bring to light the true personal appearance and mental qualities of the 
man, these would be found to coincide with Galton's estimate. 

Such predictions and such verifications have been made in the case 
of no less than three of our chemical elements. Thus, Mendelejefi" pointed 
out that if, in the future, certain lacunee in his table were to be filled, 
they must be filled by elements possessing chemical and physical pro- 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

perfcies which he accurately specified. Since that time these gaps have 
actually been stopped by the discovery of Gallium by Lecoq de Boisbau- 
dron, of Scandium by Nilson, and of Germanium by Winkler, and their 
properties, both physical and chemical, as determined by their discoverers, 
agree absolutely with those predicted by the Russian chemist. Nay, 
more than this, we not unfrequently have had to deal with chemical 
foundlings, elements whose parentage is quite unknown to as. A careful 
examination of the personality of such waifs has enabled us to restore them 
to the family from which they have been separated by an unkind fate, and 
to give them that position in chemical society to which they are entitled. 

These remarkable results, though they by no means furnish a proof of 
the supposition already referred to, viz., that the elements are derived 
from a common source, clearly point in this direction, and lend some 
degree of colour to the speculations of those whose scientific imagination, 
wearying of dry facts, revels in picturing to itself an elemental Bathybius, 
and in applying to the inanimate, laws of evolution similar to those which 
rule the animate world. Nor is there wanting other evidence regarding 
this inquiry, for here heat, the great analyser, is brought into court. The 
main portion of the evidence consists in the fact that distinct chemical in- 
dividuals capable of existence at low temperatures are incapable of exist- 
ence at high ones, but split up into new materials possessing a less com- 
plicated structure than the original. And here it may be well to empha- 
sise the distinction which the chemist draws between the atom and the 
molecule, the latter being a more or less complicated aggregation of 
atoms, and especially to point out the fundamental difference between the 
question of separating the atoms in the molecule and that of splitting 
up the atom itself. The decompositions above referred to are, in fact, not 
confined to compound bodies, for Victor Meyer has proved in the case of 
iodine that the molecule at high temperatures is broken to atoms, and 
J, J. Thomson has added to our knowledge by showing that this breaking 
up of the molecule may be effected not only by heat vibrations, but 
likewise by the electrical discharge at a comparatively low temperature. 

How far, now, has this process of simplification been carried ? Have 
the atoms of our present elements been made to yield ? To this a negative 
answer must undoubtedly be given, for even the highest of terrestrial 
temperatures, that of the electric spark, has failed to shake any one of 
these atoms in two. That this is the case has been shown by the results 
with which spectrum analysis, that new and fascinating branch of science, 
has enriched our knowledge, for that spectrum analysis does give us 
most valuable aid in determining the varying molecular conditions of 
matter is admitted by all. Let us see how this bears on the question ot 
the decomposition of the elements, and let us suppose for a moment that 
certain of our present elements, instead of being distinct substances, were 
made up of common ingredients, and that these compound elements, if 
I may be allowed to use so incongruous a term, are split up at the 
temperature of the electric spark into less complicated molecules. Then 



12 REPORT— 1887, 

the spectroscopic examination of such a body must indicate the existence 
of these common ingredients by the appearance in the spark spectra of 
these elements of identical bright lines. Coincidences of this kind have 
indeed been observed, but on careful examination these have been shown 
to be due either to the presence of some one of the other elements as an 
impurity or to insufficient observational power. This absence of coinci- 
dent lines admits, however, of two explanations — either that the elements 
are not decomposed at the temperature of the electric spark, or, what 
appears to me a much more improbable supposition, each one of the 
numbers of bright lines exhibited by every element indicates the existence 
of a separate constituent, no two of this enormous number being identical. 

Terrestrial analysis having thus failed to furnish favourable evidence, 
we are compelled to see if any information is forthcoming from the 
chemistry of the sun and stars. And here I would remark that it is not 
my purpose now to dilate on the wonders which this branch of modern 
science has revealed. It is sufficient to remind you that chemists thus 
have the means placed at their disposal of ascertaining with certainty the 
presence of elements well known on this earth in fixed stars so far dis- 
tant that we are now receiving the light which emanated from them 
perhaps even thousands of years ago. 

Since Bunsen and Kirchhoff 's original discovery in 1859, the labours 
of many men of science of all countries have largely increased our know- 
ledge of the chemical constitution of the sun and stars, and to no one 
does science owe more in this direction than to Lockyer and Huggins in 
this country, and to Young in the New England beyond the seas. 
Lockyer has of late years devoted his attention chiefly to the varying 
nature of the bright lines seen under different conditions of time and 
place on the solar surface, and from these observations he has drawn 
the inference that the matching observed by KirchholF between, for 
instance, the iron lines as seen in our laboratories and those visible in 
the sun, has fallen to the ground. He further explains this want of 
uniformity by the fact that at the higher transcendental temperatures of 
the sun the substance which we know here as iron is resolved into separate 
components. Other experimentalists, however, while accepting Lockyer's 
facts as to the' variations in the solar spectrum, do not admit his conclu- 
sions, and would rather explain the phenomena by the well-known differ- 
ences which occur in the spectra of all the elements when their molecules 
are subject to change of temperature or change of position. 

Further, arguments in favour of this idea of the evolution of the 
elements have been adduced from the phenomena presented by the 
spectra of the fixed stars. It is well known that some of these shine with 
a white, others with a red, and others again with a blue light ; and the 
spectroscope, especially under the hands of Huggins, has shown that tlie 
chemical constitution of these stars is different. The white stars, of 
which Sirius may be taken as a type, exhibit a much less complicated 
spectrum than the orange and the red stars ; the spectra of the latter 



ADDBESS. 13 

remind us more of those of the metalloids and of chemical compounds 
than of the metals. Hence it has been argued that in the white, presum- 
ably the hottest, stars a celestial dissociation of our terrestrial elements 
may have taken place, whilst in the cooler stars, probably the red, com- 
bination even may occur. But even in the white stars we have no direct 
evidence that a decomposition of any terrestrial atom has taken place ; 
indeed we learn that the hydrogen atom, as we know it here, can endure 
unscathed the inconceivably fierce temperature of stars presumably many 
times more fervent than our sun, as Sirius and Vega. 

Taking all these matters into consideration, we need not be surprised 
if the earthbound chemist should, in the absence of celestial evidence 
which is incontestable, continue, for the present at least, and until fresh 
evidence is forthcoming, to regard the elements as the unalterable founda- 
tion stones upon which his science is based. 

Pursuing another line of inquiry on this subject, Crookes has added a 
remarkable contribution to the question of the possibility of decomposing 
the elements. With his well-known experimental prowess, he has 
discovered a new and beautiful series of phenomena, and has shown that 
the phosphorescent lights emitted by certain chemical compounds, espe- 
cially the rare earths, under an electric discharge in a high vacuum ex- 
hibit peculiar and characteristic lines. For the purpose of obtaining his 
material Crookes started from a substance believed by chemists to be 
homogeneous, such, for example, as the rare earth yttria, and succeeded 
by a long series of fi-actional precipitations in obtaining products which 
yield difEerent phosphorescent spectra, although when tested by the 
ordinary methods of what we may term high temperature spectroscopy, 
they appear to be the one substance employed at the starting point. The 
other touchstone by which the identity, or otherwise, of these various pro- 
ducts might be ascertained, viz., the determination of their atomic weights, 
has not, as yet, engaged Crookes' attention. In explanation of these sin- 
gular phenomena, the discoverer suggests two possibilities. First, that 
the bodies yielding the different phosphorescent spectra are different ele- 
mentary constituents of the substance which we call yttria. Or, if this 
be objected to because they all yield the same spark spectrum, he adopts 
the very reasonable view that the Daltonian atom is probably, as we have 
seen, a system of chemical complexity ; and adds to this the idea that 
these complex atoms are not all of exactly the same constitution and 
weight, the differences, however, being so slight that their detection has 
hitherto eluded our most delicate tests, with the exception of this one of 
phosphorescence in a vacuum. To these two explanations, Marignac, in 
a discussion of Crookes' results, adds a third. It having been shown 
by Crookes himself that the presence of the minutest traces of foreign 
bodies produces remarkable alterations in the phosphorescent spectra, 
Marignac suggests that in the course of the thousands of separations 
which must be made before these differences become manifest, traces of 
foreign bodies may have been accidentally introduced, or, being present 



14 REPORT 1887. 

in the original material, may have accumulated to a different extent in 
the various fractions, their presence being indicated by the only test by 
which they can now be detected. Which of these three explanations is 
the true one must be left to future experiment to decide. 

We must now pass from the statics to the dynamics of chemistry ; that 
is from the consideration of the atoms at rest to that of the atoms in 
motion. Here again we are indebted to John Dalton for the first step 
in this direction, for he showed that the particles of a gas are constantly 
flying about in all directions ; that is, that gases diffuse into one another, 
as an escape of coal gas from a burner, for example, soon makes itself 
perceptible throughout the room. Dalton, whose mind was constantly 
engaged in studying the molecular condition of gases, first showed that 
a light gas cannot rest upon a heavier gas as oil upon water, but that an 
interpenetration of each gas by the other takes place. It is, however, to 
Graham's experiments, made rather more than half a century ago, that 
we are indebted for the discovery of the law regulating these molecular 
motions of gases, proving that their relative rates of diffusion are inversely 
proportional to the squai'e roots of their densities, so that oxygen being 16 
times heavier than hydrogen, their relative rates of diffusion are 1 and 4. 

But whilst Dalton and Graham indicated that the atoms are in a con- 
tinual state of motion, it is to Joule that we owe the first accurate deter 
ruination of the rate of that motion. At the Swansea Meeting in 1848, 
Joule read a paper before Section A on the Mechanical Equivalent of 
Heat and on the Constitution of Elastic Fluids. In this paper Joule 
remarks that whether we conceive the particles to be revolving round 
one another according to the hypothesis of Davy, or flying about in 
every direction according to Herapath's view, the pressure of the gas will 
be in proportion to the vis viva of its particles. ' Thus it may be shown 
that the particles of hydrogen at the barometrical pressure of 30 inches 
at a temperature of 60° must move with a velocity of 6225 '54 feet per 
second in order to produce a pressure of 14' 714 lbs. on the square inch ; ' 
or, to put it in other words, a molecular cannonade or hailstorm of parti- 
cles, at the above rate — a rate, we must remember, far exceeding that 
of a cannon ball — is maintained against the bounding surface. 

We can, however, go a step further and calculate with Clerk Maxwell 
the number of times in which this hydrogen molecule, moving at the rate 
of 70 miles per minute, strikes against others of the vibrating swarm, 
and we learn that in one second of time it must knock against others no 
less than 18 thousand million times. 

And here we may pause and dwell for a moment on the reflection that 
in nature there is no such thing as great or small, and that the structure of 
the smallest particle, invisible even to our most searching vision, may be 
as complicated as that of any one of the heavenly bodies which circle round 
our sun. 

But how does this wonderful atomic motion affect our chemistry ? 
Can chemical science or chemical phenomena throw light upon this 



ADDRESS. 15 

motion, or can this motion explain any of the known phenomena of our 
science ? I have already said that Lavoisier left untouched the dynamics 
of combustion. He could not explain why a fixed and unalterable amount 
of heat is in most cases emitted but in some cases absorbed when 
chemical combination takes place. What Lavoisier left unexplained 
Joule has made clear. On August 25, 1843, Joule read a short communi- 
cation, I am glad to remember, before the Chemical Section of our 
Association, meeting that year at Cork, containing an announcement of 
a discovery which was to revolutionise modern science. This consisted 
in the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat, in proving by 
accurate experiment that the expenditure of energy equal to that developed 
by the weight of 772 pounds falling through one foot at Manchester, the 
temperature of one pound of water can be raised 1° Fahrenheit. In 
other words, every change in the arrangement of the particles is accom- 
panied by a definite evolution or an absorption of heat. In all such cases 
the molecular energy leaves the potential to assume the kinetic form, 
or vice versa. Heat is evolved by the clashing of the atoms, and this 
amount is fixed and definite. 

Thus it is to Joule we owe the foundation of chemical dynamics and the 
basis of thermal chemistry. As the conservation of mass or the principle 
of the indestructibility of matter forms the basis of chemical statics, 
so the principle of the conservation of energy ' constitutes the foundation 
of chemical dynamics. Change in the form of matter and change in the 
form of energy are the universal accompaniments of every chemical 
operation. Here again it is to Joule we owe the proof of the truth ot 
this principle in another direction, viz., that when electrical energy is 
developed by chemical change a corresponding quantity of chemical 
energy disappears. Energy as defined by Maxwell is the power of doing 
work, and work is the act of producing a change of configuration in a 
system in opposition to a force which resists that change. Chemical 
action produces such a change of configuration in the molecules. Hence, 
as Maxwell says, 'a complete knowledge of the mode in which the 
potential energy of a system varies with the configuration would enable 
us to predict every possible motion of the system under the action ot 
given external forces, provided we were able to overcome the purely 
mathematical difficulties of the calculation.' The object of thermal 
chemistry is to measure these changes of energy by thermal methods, 
and to connect these with chemical changes, to estimate the attractions 
of the atoms and molecules to which the name of chemical affinity has 
been applied, and thus to solve the most fundamental problem of 
chemical science. How far has modern research approached the solution 
of this most difficult problem ? How far can we answer the question, 

' ' The total ^^energy of any material system is a quantity which can neither be 
increased nor^diminished by any action between the parts of the system, though it 
may be transformed into any of the forms of which energy is susceptible.' — Max- 
well. 



16 REPOKT 1887. 

what is the amonnt of the forces at work in these chemical changes ? 
What laws govern these forces ? Well, even in spite of the results with 
which recent researches, especially the remarkable ones of the Danish 
philosopher Thomsen have enriched us, we must acknowledge that we 
are yet scarcely in sight of Maxwell's position of successful prediction. 
Thermal chemistry, we must acknowledge, is even yet in its infancy ; it 
is, however, an infant of sturdy growth, likely to do good work in the 
world, and to be a credit to him who is its acknowledged father, as well 
as to those who have so carefully tended it in its early years. 

But recent investigation in another direction bids fair even to eclipse 
the results which have been obtained by the examination of thermal 
phenomena. And this lies in the region of electrical chemistry. 
Faraday's work relating to conductivity of chemical substances has been 
already referred to, and this has been since substantiated and extended 
to pure substances by Kohlrausch. It has been shown, for example, that 
the resistance of absolutely pure water is almost an infinite quantity. 
But a small quantity of an acid, such as acetic or butyric acid, greatly 
increases the conductivity ; but more than this, it is possible by determi- 
nation of the conductivity of a mixture of water with these two acids to 
arrive at a conclusion as to the partition of the molecules of the water 
between the acids. Such a partition, however, implies a change of 
position, and therefore we are famished with a means of recognising the 
motion of the molecules in a liquid, and of determining its amount. 
Thus it has been found that the hindrance to molecular motion is more 
affected by the chemical character of the liquid than by physical 
characters such as viscosity. We have seen that chemical change is 
always accompanied by molecular motion, and further evidence of the 
truth of this is gained from the extraordinary chemical inactivity of pure 
unmixed substances. Thus pure anhydrous hydrochloric acid does not 
act upon lime, whereas the addition of even a trace of moisture sets up a 
most active chemical change, and hundreds of other examples of a similar 
kind might be stated. Bearing in mind that these pure anhydrous com- 
pounds do not conduct, we are led to the conclusion that an intimate 
relation exists between chemical activity and conductivity. And we need 
not stop here ; for a method is indicated indeed by which it will be 
possible to arrive at a measure of chemical affinity from determination 
of conductivity. It has indeed been already shown that the rate of 
change in the saponification of acetic ether is directly proportional to the 
conductivity of the liquid employed. 

Such wide-reaching inquiries into new and fertile fields, in which we 
seem to come into nearer touch with the molecular state of matter, and 
within a measurable distance of accurate mathematical expression, leads 
to confident hope that Lord Rayleigh's pregnant words at Montreal may 
ere long be realised : ' It is from the further study of electrolysis that we 
may expect to gain improved views as to the nature of chemical reactions, 
and of the forces concerned in bringing them about ; and I cannot help 



ADDRESS. 17 

thinking that the next great advance, of which we ah-eady have some 
foreshadowing, will come on this side.' 

There is, perhaps, no branch of our science in which the doctrine of 
the Daltonian atom plays a more conspicuous part than in organic chemis- 
try or the chemistry of the carbon compounds, as there is certainly none 
in which such wonderful progress has been made during the last fift}' 
years. One of the most striking and perplexing discoveries made rather 
more than half a century ago was that chemical compounds could exist 
which, whilst possessing an identical chemical composition, that is con- 
taining the same percentage quantity of their constituents, are essentially 
distinct chemical substances exhibiting different properties. Dalton was 
the first to point out the existence of such substances, and to suggest that 
the difference was to be ascribed to a different or to a multiple arrange- 
ment of the constituent atoms. Faraday soon afterwards proved that 
this supposition was correct, and the research of Liebig and Wohler on 
the identity of composition of the salts of fulminic and cyanic acid gave 
further confirmation to the conclusion, leading Faraday to remark that 
' now we are taught to look for bodies composed of the same elements in 
the same proportion but differing in their qualities, they may probably 
multiply upon us.' How true this prophecy has become we may gather 
from the fact that we now know of thousands of cases of this kind, and 
that we are able not only to explain the reason of their difference by 
virtue of the varying position of the atoms within the molecule, but even 
to predict the number of distinct variations in which any given chemical 
compound can possibly exist. How large this number may become will 
be understood from the fact that, for example, one chemical compound, 
a hydrocarbon containing thirteen atoms of carbon combined with twenty- 
eight atoms of hydrogen, can be shown to be capable of existing in no less 
than 802 distinct forms. 

Experiment in every case in which it has been applied has proved the 
truth of such a prediction, so that the chemist has no need to apply the 
cogent argument sometimes said to be used by experimentalists enamoured 
of pet theories, ' When facts do not agree with theory, so much the worse 
for the facts ! ' This power of successful prediction constitutes a high- 
water mark in science, for it indicates that the theory upon which such a 
power is based is a true one. 

But if the Daltonian atom forms the foundation of this theory, it is 
upon a knowledge of the mode of arrangement of these atoms and on a 
recognition of their distinctive properties that the superstructure of 
modern organic chemistry rests. Certainly it does appear almost to 
verge on the miraculous that chemists should now be able to ascertain 
with certainty the relative position of atoms in a molecule so minute 
that millions upon millions, like the angels in the schoolmen's dis- 
cussion, can stand on a needle's point. And yet this process of orientation 
is one which is accomplished every day in our laboratories, and one which 
more than any other has led to results of a starthng character. Stdl this 
1887. J 



18 KEPOKT — 1887. 

sword to open the oyster of science would have been wanting to us if we 
had not taken a step farther than Dalton did, in the recognition of the 
distinctive nature of the elemental atoms. We now assume on good 
grounds that the atom of each element possesses distinct capabilities of 
combination ; some a single capability, others a double, others a triple, 
and others again a fourfold combining capacity. The germs of this theory 
of valency, one of the most fruitful of modern chemical ideas, were 
enunciated by Frankland in 1852, but the definite explanation of the 
linking of atoms, of the tetrad nature of the carbon atoms, their power of 
combination, and of the'diflference in structure between the fatty and aro- 
matic series of comjDOunds, was first pointed out by Kekule in 1857; though 
we must not forget that this great principle was foreshadowed so long ago 
as 1833 from a physical point of view by Faraday in his well-known 
laws of electrolysis, and that it is to Helmholtz in his celebrated Faraday 
lecture that we owe the complete elucidation of the subject ; for, whilst 
Faraday has shown that the number of the atoms electrolytically deposited 
is in the inverse ratio of their valencies, Helmholtz has explained this by the 
fact that the quantity of electricity with which each atom is associated is 
directly proportional to its valency. 

Amongst the tetrad class of elements, carbon, the distinctive element 
of organic compounds, finds its place ; and the I'emarkable fact that the 
number of carbon compounds far exceeds that of all the other elements 
put together receives its explanation. For these carbon atoms not only 
possess four means of grasping other atoms, but these four-handed carbon 
atoms have a strong partiality for each other's company, and readily 
attach themselves hand in hand to form open chains or closed rings to 
which the atoms of other elements join to gi'asp the unoccupied carbon 
hand, and thus to yield a dancing company in which all hands are locked 
together. Such a group, each individual occupying a given position with 
reference to the others, constitutes the organic molecule. When, in 
such a company, the individual members change hands, a new combination 
is formed. And as in such an assembly the eye can follow the changing 
positions of the individual members, so the chemist can recognise in his 
molecule the position of the several atoms, and explain by this the fact 
that each an-angement constitutes a new chemical compound possessing 
difierent properties, and account in this way for the decompositions which 
each differently constituted molecule is found to undergo. 

Chemists are, however, not content with representing the arrangement 
of the atoms in one plane, as on a sheet of paper, but attempt to express 
the position of the atoms in space. In this way it is possible to explain 
certain observed differences in isomeric bodies which otherwise baffled our 
eff'orts. To Van t'Hoff', in the first instance, and more recently to 
Wislicenus, chemistry is indebted for work in this direction, which throws 
light on hitherto obscure phenomena, and points the way to still further 
and more important advances. 

It is this knowledge of the mode in which the atoms in the molecule 
are arranged, this power of determining the nature of this arrangement, 



ADDBEfciS. 19 

which has given to organic chemistry the impetus which has overcome 
so many experimental obstacles, and given rise to such unlooked-for 
results. Organic chemistry has now become synthetic. In 1837 we were 
able to build up but very few and very simple organic compounds from 
their elements ; indeed the views of chemists were much divided as to 
the possibility of such a thing. Both Gmelin and Berzelius argued that 
organic compounds, unlike inorganic bodies, cannot be built up from 
their elements. Organic compounds were generally believed to be special 
products of the so-called vital force, and it was only intuitive minds, like 
those of Liebig and Wohler, who foresaw what was coming, and wrote in 
1837 strongly against this view, asserting that the artificial production in 
our laboratories of all organic substances, so far as they do not constitute 
a Living organism, is not only probable but certain. Indeed, they went a 
step farther, and predicted that sugar, morphia, salicine, will all thus be 
prepared ; a prophecy which, I need scarcely remind you, has been after 
fifty years fulfilled, for at the present time we can prepare an artificial 
sweetening principle, an artificial alkaloid, and salicine. 

In spite of these predictions, and in spite of Wiihler's memorable 
discovery in 1828 of the artificial production of urea, which did in 
reality break down for ever the barrier of essential chemical difference be- 
tween the products of the inanimate and of the animate world, still, even 
up to a much later date, contrary opinions were held, and the synthesis of 
urea was looked upon as the exception which proves the rule. So it came 
to pass that for many years the artificial production of any of the more 
complicated organic substances was believed to be impossible. Now the 
belief in a special vital force has disappeared like the ignis fat uus, and 
no longer lures us in the wrong direction. We know now that the same 
laws regulate the formation of chemical compounds in both animate and 
inanimate nature, and the chemist only asks for a knowledge of the con- 
stitution of any definite chemical compound found in the organic world 
in order to be able to promise to prepare it artificially. 

But the progress of synthetic organic chemistry, which has of late 
been so rapid, was made in the early days of the half-century only by 
feeble steps and slow. Seventeen long years elapsed between Wohler's 
discovery and the next real synthesis. This was accomplished by Kolbe, 
who in 1845 prepared acetic acid from its elements. But then a splendid 
harvest of results gathered in by chemists of all nations quickly followed, 
a harvest so rich and so varied that we are apt to be overpowei-ed by its 
wealth, and amidst so much that is alluring and striking we may well 
find it diflBcult to choose the most appropriate examples for illustrating 
the power and the extent of modern chemical synthesis. 

Next, as a contrast to our picture, let us for a moment glance back 
again to the state of things fifty years ago, and then notice the chief steps 
by which we have arrived at our present position. In 1837 organic 
chemistry possessed no scientific basis, and therefore no classification of a 
character worthy of the name. Writing to Berzelius in that year, Wohler 

c 2 



20 EEPOBi — 1887. 

describes the condition of organic chemistry as one enough to drive a man 
mad. ' It seems to me,' says he, ' like the tropical forest primaeval, full of 
the strangest growths, an endless and pathless thicket in which a man 
may well dread to wander.' Still clearances had already been made in 
this wilderness of facts. Berzelius in 1832 welcomed the results of Liebig 
and Wohler's research on benzoic acid as the dawn of a new era ; and such 
it really was, inasmuch as it introduced a novel and fruitful idea, namely 
the possibility of a group of atoms acting like an element by pointing out 
the existence of organic radicals. This theory was strengthened and con- 
firmed by Bunsen's classical researches on the cacodyl compounds, in 
which he showed that a common group of elements, which acts exactly as 
a metal, can exist in the free state, and this was followed soon afterwards 
by isolation of the so-called alcohol radicals by Frankland and Kolbe. It 
is however, to Scborlemmer that we owe our knowledge of the true con- 
stitution of these bodies, a matter which proved to be of vital importance 
for the further development of the science. 

Turning our glance in another direction we find that Dumas, in 1834, 
by his law of substitution threw light upon a whole series of singular 
and unexplained phenomena by showing that an exchange can take place 
between the constituent atoms in a molecule. Laurent indeed went 
farther, and assumed that a chlorine atom, for example, took up the posi- 
tion vacated by an atom of hydrogen and played the part of its displaced 
rival, so that the chemical and physical properties of the substitution- 
prodiTct were thought to remain substantially the same as those of the 
orio-inal body. A singular story is connected with this discovery. At a 
soiree in the Tuileries in the time of Charles X. the guests were almost 
suffocated by acrid vapours which were evidently emitted by the burning 
wax candles, and the gi'eat chemist Dumas was called in to examine into 
the cause of the annoyance. He found that the wax of which the candles 
were made had been bleached by chlorine, that a replacement of some of 
the hydrogen atoms of the wax by chlorine had occurred, and that the 
suffocating vapours consisted of hydrochloric acid given off daring the 
combustion. The wax was as white and as odourless as before, and the 
fact of the substitution of chlorine for hydrogen could only be recognised 
when the candles were destroyed by burning. This incident induced 
Dumas to investigate more closely this class of jihenomena, and the re- 
sults of this investigation are embodied in his law of substitution. So 
far indeed did the interest of the French school of chemists lead them that 
some assumed that not only the hydrogen but also the carbon of organic 
bodies could be replaced by substitution. Against this idea Liebig 
protested, and in a satirical vein he informs the chemical pubKc, 
writing from Paris under the nom de plume of S. Windier, that he has 
succeeded in substituting not only the hydrogen but the oxygen and 
carbon in cotton cloth by chlorine, and he adds that the London shops 
are now selling nightcaps and other articles of apparel made entirely of 
chlorine, goods which meet with much favour, esi)ccially for hospital use ! 



ADDRESS. 21 

But the debt which chemistry, both inorganic and organic, tbns owes 
to Dumas' law of substitution is serious enough, for it proved to be 
the germ of Williamson's classical researches on etherefication, as well 
as of those of Wurtz and Hofmann on the compound ammonias, inves- 
tigations which lie at the base of the structure of modern chemistry. 
Its influence has been, however, still more far-reaching, inasmuch as 
upon it depends in great measure the astounding progress made in the 
wide field of organic synthesis. 

It may here be permitted to me to sketch in rough outline the prin- 
ciples upon which all oi'ganic syntheses have been effected. We have 
already seen that as soon as the chemical structure of a body has been 
ascertained its artificial preparation may be certainly anticipated, so that 
the first step to be taken is the study of the structure of the naturally 
occurring substance which it is desired to prepare artificially by resolving 
it into simpler constituents, the constitution of which is already known. 
In this way, for example, Hofmann discovered that the alkaloid coneine, 
the poisonous principle of hemlock, may be decomposed into a simpler sub- 
stance well known to chemists under the name of pyridine. This fact 
having been established by Hofmann, and the grouping of the atoms 
approximately determined, it was then necessary to reverse the process, 
and, starting with pyridine, to build up a compound of the required 
constitution and properties, a result recently achieved by Ladenburg 
in a series of brilliant researches. The well-known synthesis of the 
colouring matter of madder by Graebe and Liebermann, preceded by the 
important researches of Schunck, and that of indigo by Baeyer, are other 
striking examples in which this method has been successfully followed. 

Not only has this intimate acquaintance with the changes which 
occur within the molecules of organic compounds been utilised, as we 
have seen, in the synthesis of naturally occurring substances, but it has 
also led to the discovery of many new ones. Of these perhaps the 
most remarkable instance is the production of an artificial sweetening 
agent termed saccharin, 250 times sweeter than sugar, prepared by a 
complicated series of reactions from coal-tar. Nor must we imagine 
that these discoveries are of scientific interest only, for they have given 
rise to the industry of the coal-tar colours, the value of which is measured 
by millions sterling annually, an industry which Englishmen may be 
proud to remember was founded by our countryman Perkin. 

Another interesting application of synthetic chemistry to the needs 
of everyday life is the discovery of a series of valuable febrifuges, 
amongst which I may mention antipyrin as the most useful. An im- 
portant aspect in connection with the study of these bodies is the 
physiological value which has been found to attach to the introduction 
of certain organic radicals, so that an indication is given of the possibility 
of preparing a compound which will possess certain desired physiological 
properties, or even to foretell the kind of action which such bodies may 
exert on the animal economy. 



22 REPORT — 1887. 

But it is not only the physiological properties of chemical compounds 
which stand in intimate relation with their constitution, for we find that 
this is the case with all their physical properties. It is true that at the 
beginning of our period any such relation was almost unsuspected, whilst 
at the present time the number of instances in which this connection has 
been ascertained is almost infinite. Amongst these perhaps the most 
striking is the relationship which has been pointed out between the 
optical properties and chemical composition. This was in the first place 
recognised by Pasteur in his classical researches on racemic and tartaric 
acids in 1848 ; but the first to indicate a quantitative relationship and a 
connection between chemical structure and optical properties was Glad- 
stone in 1863. Great instrumental precision has been brought to bear on 
this question, and consequently most important practical applications 
have resulted. I need only refer to the well-known accurate methods 
now in everyday use for the determination of sugar by the polariscope, 
equally valuable to the physician and to the manufacturer. 

But now the question may well be put, is any limit set to this 
synthetic power of the chemist ? Although the danger of dogmatising 
as to the progress of science has already been shown in too many in- 
stances, yet one cannot help feeling that the barrier which exists between 
the organised and unorganised worlds is one which the chemist at pre- 
sent sees no chance of breaking down. 

It is true that there are those who profess to foresee that the day 
will arrive when the chemist, by a succession of constructive efforts, may 
pass beyond albumen, and gather the elements of lifeless matter into 
a living structure. Whatever may be said regarding this from other 
standpoints, the chemist can only say that at present no such problem lies 
within his province. Protoplasm, with which the simplest manifestations 
of life are associated, is not a compound, but a structure built up of com- 
pounds. The chemist may successfully synthesise any of its component 
molecules, but he has no more reasdn to look forward to the synthetic 
production of the structure than to imagine that the synthesis of gallic 
acid leads to the artificial production of gall-nuts. 

Although there is thus no prospect of our effecting a synthesis of 
organised material, yet the progress made in our knowledge of the 
chemistry of life during the last fifty years has been very great, and so 
mucb so indeed that the sciences of physiological and of pathological 
chemistry may be said to have entirely arisen within this period. 

In the introductory portion of this address I have already referred 
to the relations supposed to exist fifty years ago between vital phenomena 
and those of the inorganic world. Let me now briefly trace a few of 
the more important steps which have marked the progress of this branch 
of science during this period. Certainly no portion of our science is of 
greater interest, nor, I may add, of greater complexity, than that which, 
bearing on the vital functions both of plants and of animals, endeavours 
to unravel the tangled skein of the chemistry of life, and to explain the 



ADDRESS. 23 

principles according to which our bodies live, and move, and have their 
being. If, therefore, in the less complicated problems with which other 
portions of oar science have to deal, we find onrselveSj as we have seen, 
often far from possessing satisfactory solutions, we cannot be surprised to 
learn that with regard to the chemistry of the living body — whether 
vegetable or animal— in health or disease we are still farther from a 
complete knowledge of phenomena, even those of fundamental importance. 

It is of interest here to recall the fact that nearly fifty years ago 
Liebig presented to the Chemical Section of this Association a com- 
munication in which, for the first time, an attempt was made to explain 
the phenomena of life on chemical and physical lines, for in this paper he 
admits the applicability of the great principle of the conservation of 
energy to the functions of animals, pointing out that the animal cannot 
generate more heat than is produced by the combustion of the carbon 
and hydrogen of his food. 

'The source of animal heat,' says Liebig, 'has previously been 
ascribed to nervous action or to the contraction of the muscles, or even 
to the mechanical motions of the body, as if these motions could exist 
without an expenditure of force [equal to that] consumed in producing 
them.' Again he compares the living body to a laboratory furnace in 
which a complicated series of changes occur in the fuel, but in which the 
end-products are carbonic acid and water, the amount of heat evolved 
being dependent, not upon the intermediate, but upon the final products. 
Liebig asked himself the question. Does every kind of food go to the 
production of heat ; or can we distinguish, on the one hand, between the 
kind of food which goes to create warmth, and, on the other, that by 
the oxidation of which the motions and mechanical energy of the body 
are kept up ? He thought that he was able to do this, and he divided 
food into two categories ; the starchy or carbohydrate food is that, said 
he, which by its combustion provides the warmth necessary for the 
existence and life of the body. The albuminous or nitrogenous constituents 
of our food, the flesh meat, the gluten, the casein out of which our 
muscles are built up, are not available for the purposes of creating 
warmth, but it is by the waste of those muscles that the mechanical 
energy, the activity, the motions of the animal are supplied. We see, 
said Liebig, that the Esquimaux feeds on fat and tallow, and this 
burning in his body keeps out the cold. The Gaucho, riding on the 
pampas, lives entirely on dried meat, and the rowing man and pugilist, 
trained on beefsteaks and porter, require little food to keep up the tem- 
perature of their bodies, but much to enable them to meet the demand 
for fresh muscular tissue, and for this purpose they need to live on a 
strongly nitrogenous diet. 

Thus far Liebig. Now let us turn to the present state of our know- 
ledge. The question of the source of muscular power is one of the greatest 
interest, for, as Frankland observes, it is the corner-stone of the physio-, 
logical edifice and the key to the nutrition of animals. 



24 EEPORT— 1887. 

Let ns examine by the light of modern science the truth of Liebig's 
view — even now not uncommonly held — as to the functions of the two 
kinds of food, and as to the cause of muscular exercise being the oxida- 
tion of the muscular tissue. Soon after the promulgation of these views, 
J. R. Mayer, whose name as the first expositor of the idea of the con- 
servation of energy is so well known, warmly attacked them, throwing 
out the hypothesis that all muscular action is due to the combustion of 
food, and not to the destruction of muscle, proving his case by showing 
that if the muscles of the heart be destroyed in doing mechanical work 
the heart would be burnt up in eight days ! What does modern research 
say to this question ? Can it be brought to the crucial test of experi- 
ment ? It can ; but how ? Well, in the first place we can ascertain the 
work done by a man or any other animal ; we can measure this work in 
terms of onr mechanical standard, in kilogramme-metres or foot-pounds. 
We can next determine what is the destruction of nitrogenous tissue at 
rest and under exercise by the amount of nitrogenous material thrown ofi" 
by the body. And here we must remember that these tissues are never 
completely burnt, so that free nitrogen is never eliminated. If now we 
know the heat-value of the burnt muscle, it is easy to convert this into its 
mechanical equivalent, and thus measure the energy generated. What is 
the result ? Is the weight of muscle destroyed by ascending the Faulhorn 
or by working on the treadmill sufiicient to produce on combustion heat 
enough when transformed into mechanical exercise to lift the body up to 
the summit of the Faulhorn or to do the work on the treadmill ? Careful 
experiment has shown that this is so far from being the case that the 
actual energy developed is twice as great as that which could possibly be 
produced by the oxidation of the nitrogenous constituents eliminated 
from the body during twenty-four hours. That is to say, taking the 
amount of nitrogenous substance cast off" from the body, not only whilst 
the work was being done but during twenty-four hours, the mechanical 
effect capable of being produced by the muscular tissue from which this 
cast-off" material is derived would only raise the body halfway up the 
Faulhorn, or enable the prisoner to work half his time on the treadmill. 

Hence it is clear that Liebig's proposition is not true. The nitro- 
genous constitaents of the food do doubtless go to repair the waste of 
muscle, which, like every other portion of the body, needs renewal, whilst 
the function of the non-nitrogenous food is not only to supply the animal 
heat, but also to furnish, by its oxidation, the muscular energy of the body. 

We thus come to the conclusion that it is the potential energy of the 
food which furnishes the actual energy of the body, expressed in terms 
either of heat or of mechanical work. 

But there is one other factor which comes into play in this question 
of mechanical energy, and must be taken into account ; and this factor we 
are as yet unable to estimate in our usual terms. It concerns the action 
of the mind upon the body, and, although incapable of exact expression, 
exerts none the less an important influence on the physics and chemistry 



ADDEESS. 25 

of the body, so that a connection undonbtedlj exists between intellectual 
activity or mental work and bodily nutrition. In proof that there is a 
marked difference between voluntary and involuntary work, we need only 
compare the mechanical action of the heart, which never causes fatigue, 
with that of the voluntary muscles, which become fatigued by continued 
exertion. So, too, we know well that an amount of drill which is fatiguing 
to the recruit is not felt by the old soldier, who goes through the evolutions 
automatically. What is the expenditure of mechanical energy which accom- 
panies mental effort, is a question which science is probably far removed 
from answering. But that the body experiences exhaustion as the result 
of mental activity is a well-recognised fact. Indeed, wliilst the secoud law 
of thermodynamics teaches that in none of the mechanical contrivances 
for the conversion of heat into actual energy can such a conversion be 
complete, it is perhaps possible, as Helmholtz has suggested, that such 
a complete conversion may take place in the subtle mechanism of the 
animal organism. 

The phenomena of vegetation, no less than those of the animal world, 
have, however, during the last fifty years been placed by the chemist on 
an entirely new basis. Although before the publication of Liebig's cele- 
brated report on chemistry and its application to agriculture, presented 
to the British Association in 1840, much had been done, many funda- 
mental facts had been established, still Liebig's report marks an era in 
the progress of this branch of our science. He not only gathered up in a 
masterly fashion the results of previous workers, but put forward his own 
original views with a boldness and frequently with a sagacity which gave 
a vast stimulus and interest to the questions at issue. As a proof of this 
I may remind you of the attack which he made on, and the complete 
victory which he gained over, the humus theory. Although Saussui'e and 
others had already done much to destroy the basis of this theory, yet the 
fact remained that vegetable physiologists up to 1840 continued to hold 
to the opinion that humus, or decayed vegetable matter, was the only 
source of the carbon of vegetation. Liebig, giving due consideration to 
the labours of Saussure, came to the conclusion that it was absolutely im- 
possible that the carbon deposited as vegetable tissue over a given area, 
as for instance over an area of forest land, could be derived from humus, 
which is. itself the result of the decay of vegetable matter. He asserted 
that the whole of the carbon of vegetation is obtained from the atmospheric 
carbonic acid, which, though only present in the small relative proportion 
of 4 parts in 10,000 of air, is contained in such absr)lutely large quantity 
that if all the vegetation on the earth's surface were burnt, the proportion 
of carbonic acid which would thus be thrown into the air would not be 
sufficient to double the present amount. 

That this conclusion of Liebig's is correct needed experimental proof, 
but such proof could only be given by long-continaed and laborious experi- 
ment, and this serves to show that chemical research is not now confined 
to laboratory experiments lasting perhaps a few minutes, but that it has 



I 



26 REPORT — 1887. 

iuvaded the domain of agriculture as well as of physiology, and reckons 
the periods of her observations in the field not by minutes, but by years. 
It is to our English agricultural chemists Lawes and Gilbert that we 
owe the complete experimental proof required. And it is true that this 
experiment was a long and tedious one, for it has taken forty-four years 
to give the definite reply. At Rothamsted a plot was set apart for the 
growth of wheat. For forty-four successive years that field has grown 
wheat without addition of any carbonised manure ; so that the only 
possible source from which the plant could obtain the carbon for its 
growth is the atmosphei'ic carbonic acid. Now, the quantity of carbon 
which on an average was removed in the form of wheat and straw from 
a plot manured only with mineral matter was 1,000 pounds, whilst on 
another plot, for which a nitrogenous manure was employed, 1,500 
pounds more carbon was annually removed ; or 2,500 pounds of carbon 
are removed by this crop annually without the addition of any carbona- 
ceous manure. So that Liebig's jjrevision has received a complete ex- 
perimental verification. 

May 1, without wearying yuu with experimental details, refer for a 
moment to Liebig's views as to the assimilation of nitrogen by plants — 
a much more complicated and difficult question than the one we have 
just considered— and compare these with the most modern results of 
agricultural chemistry ? We find that in this case his views have not 
been substantiated. He imagined that the whole of the nitrogen required 
by the plant was derived from atmospheric ammonia ; whereas Lawes 
and Gilbert have shown by experiments of a similar nature to those just 
described, and extending over a nearly equal length of time, that this 
source is wholly insufficient to account for the nitrogen removed in the 
crop, and have come to the conclusion that the nitrogen must have been 
obtained either from a store of nitrogenous material in the soil or by 
absorption of free nitrogen from the air. These two apparently contra- 
dictory alternatives may perhaps be reconciled by the recent observations 
of Warrington and of Berthelot, which have thrown light upon the 
changes which the so-called nitrogenous capital of the soil undergoes, as 
well as upon its chemical nature, for the latter has shown that under cer- 
tain conditions the soil has the power of absorbing the nitrogen of the air, 
forming compounds which can subsequently be assimilated by the plant. 

Touching us as human beings even still more closely than the fore- 
going, is the influence which chemistry has exerted on the science of 
pathology, and in no direction has greater progress been made than in 
the study of micro-organisms in relation to health and disease. In the 
complicated chemical changes to which we give the names of fermentation 
and putrefaction, the views of Liebig, according to which these pheno- 
mena are of a purely chemical character, have given way under the 
searching investigations of Pasteur, who established the fundamental 
principle that these pi'ocesses are inseparably connected with the life of 
certain low forms of organisms. Thus was founded the science of bacte- 



ADDRESS. 27 

riology, which in Lister's hands has yielded sach splendid results in the 
treatment of surgical cases ; and in those of Klebs, Koch, "William Roberts, 
and others, has been the means of detecting the cause of many diseases both 
in man and animals ; the latest and not the least important of wbich is the 
remarkable series of successful researches by Pasteur into the nature and 
mode of cure of that most dreadful of maladies, hydrophobia. And here 
I may be allowed to refer with satisfaction to the results of the labours on 
this subject of a committee, the formation of which I had the honour of 
moving for in the House of Commons. These results confirm in every 
respect Pasteur's assertions, and prove beyond a doubt that the adoption 
of his method has prevented the occurrence of hydrophobia in a larwe 
proportion of persons bitten by rabid animals, who, if they had not been 
subjected to this treatment, would have died of that disease. The value 
of his discovery is, however, greater than can be estimated by its present 
utility, for it shows that it may be possible to avert other diseases besides 
hydrophobia by the adoption of a somewhat similar method of investiga- 
tion and of treatment. This, though the last, is certainly not the least 
of the debts which humanity owes to the great French experimentalist. 
Here it might seem as if we had outstepped the boundaries of chemistry, 
and have to do with phenomena purely vital. But recent research indi- 
cates that this is not the case, and points to the conclasion that the 
microscopist must again give way to the chemist, and that it is by chemical 
rather than by biological investigation that the causes of diseases will be 
discovered, and the power of removing them obtained. For we learn 
that the symptoms of infective diseases are no more due to the microbes 
which constitute the infection than alcoholic intoxication is produced by 
the yeast-cell, but that these symptoms are due to the presence of definite 
chemical compounds, the result of the life of these microscopic organisms. 
So it is to the action of these poisonous substances formed during the 
life of the organism, rather than to that of the organism itself, that the 
special characteristics of the disease are to be traced; for it has been 
shown that the disease can be communicated by such poisons in entire 
absence of living organisms. 

If I have thus far dwelt on the progress made in certain branches of 
pure science it is not because I undervalue the other methods by which 
the advancement of science is accomplished, viz., that of the application 
and of the diffusion of a knowledge of nature, but rather because the 
British Association has always held, and wisely held, that original investi- 
gation lies at the root of all application, so that to foster its growth and 
encourage its development has for more than fifty years been our chief 
aim and wish. 

Had time permitted I should have wished to have illustrated this de- 
pendence of industrial success upon original investigation, and to have 
pointed out the prodigious strides which chemical industry in this country 
has made during the fifty years of her Majesty's reign. As it is I must 
be content to remind you how much our modern life, both in its artistic 



28 ■ REPORT — 1887. 

and useful aspects, owes to chemistry, and, tlierefote, how essential a 
knowledge of the principles of the science is to all who have the industrial 
progress of the country at heart. 

This leads me to refer to what has been accomplished in this country 
of ours towards the diffusion of scientific knowledge amongst the people 
during the Victorian era. It is true that the English people do not 
possess, as yet, that appreciation of the value of science so characteristic 
of some other nations. Up to very recent years our educational system, 
handed down to us from the middle ages, has systematically ignored 
science, and we are only just beginning, thanks in a great degree to the 
prevision of the late Prince Consort, to give it a place, and that but 
an unimportant one, in our primary and secondary schools or in our 
universities. The country is, however, now awakening to the necessity 
of placing its house in order in this respect, and is beginning to see that 
if she is to maintain her commercial and industrial supremacy the 
education of her people from top to bottom must be carried out on new 
lines. The question as to how this can be most safely and snrely ac- 
complished is one of transcendent national importance, and the statesman 
who solves this educational problem will earn the gratitude of generations 
yet to come. 

In conclusion, may I be allowed to welcome the unprecedentedly large 
number of foreign men of science who have on this occasion honoured the 
British Association by their presence, and to express the hope that this 
meeting may be the commencement of an international scientific organi- 
sation, the only means nowadays existing, to use the words of one of the 
most distinguished of our guests, of establishing that fraternity among 
nations from which politics appears to remove us farther and farther by 
absorbing human powers and human work, and directing them to pur- 
poses of destruction ? It would indeed be well if Great Britain, which 
has hitherto taken the lead in so many things that are great and good, 
should now direct her attention to the furthering of international organi- 
sations of a scientific nature. A more appropriate occasion than the 
present meeting could perhaps hardly be found for the inauguration of 
such a movement. 

But whether this hope be realised or not, we all unite in that one 
great object, the search after truth for its own sake, and we all, there- 
fore, may join in re-echoing the words of Lessing : ' The worth of man 
lies not in the truth which he possesses, or believes that he possesses, 
but in the honest endeavour which he puts forth to secure that truth ; 
for not by the possession of truth, but by the search after ih, are the 
faculties of man enlarged, and in this alone consists his ever-growing 
perfection. Possession fosters content, indolence, and pride. If God 
should hold in His right hand all truth, and in His left hand tbe ever- 
active desire to seek truth, though with the condition of perpetual error, 
I would humbly ask for the contents of the left hand; saying, ' Father, 
give me this ; pure truth is only for Thee." ' 



EEPOETS 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



EEPOKTS 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson 
{Secretary), J. Gr. MacGeegoe, J. B. Cheeriman, and H. T. Bovet 
aiul Mr. C. Caepmael, appointed for the purpose of promoting 
Tidal Observations in Canada . 

The Committee have mncli pleasure in reporting tbat altliough a grant 
for establishing stations for continuous tidal observations has not yet 
been made by the Dominion Parliament, yet preliminary steps have been 
taken under the direction of the Minister of Marine (the Hon. G. E. 
Foster) which point to their early establishment. 

At an interview with the minister in May, in which the President of 
the British Association (Sir J. William Dawson) took part, it was stated 
that, although the Hudson Bay Expedition had ended, yet another source 
of expenditure had taken its place, as the Canadian Government had 
undertaken to pay half the cost of a re-survey of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
by the Admiralty. When this work, which would probably occupy two 
years, was finished, it was hoped that a special grant would be made for 
systematic tidal observations. Meanwhile, authority had been given to 
Lieut. Gordon, B.N., commanding one of the Dominion cruisers, to make 
some preliminary observations, and to spend some small sums of money 
in getting assistance in making them. 

In the course of the interview, the minister said that directions would 
be given to Lieut. Goi'don to put himself in communication with Prof. 
Darwin. This has since been done. 

The Minister of Marine is conscious of the facilities offered in con- 
nection with the Association, and by the use of the ' tide-predicter ' of 
the Indian Government, for the reduction of the observations. The 
importance of the harmonic analysis has been fully dwelt on. Under 
these encouraging circumstances the Committee consider that the pro- 
spects of the speedy establishment of stations for continuous observations 
are hopeful. 



32 REPORT — 1887. 



Fourth Report of the Gomrnittee, consisting of Professor Balfour 
Stewart [Secretary), Professor Stokes, Professor Schuster, 
Mr. Gr. Johnstone Stoney, Professor Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 
Abney, and Mr, G. J. Symons, appointed for the purpose of 
considering the best methods of recording the direct Intensity 
of Solar Radiation. 

In the last report of this Committee a description was given of a copper 
enclosure which had been constructed by them. 

This consisted of a copper cube 3^ inches square outside, the faces of 
which were |ths of an inch thick. The cube was packed round with felt 
T^^ths of an inch thick, and the whole was faced outside with thin 
polished brass plates. 

Thermometers were inserted into that side of the cube intended ulti- 
mately to face the sun, and into the opposite side, by means of which the 
temperature of these sides could be accurately determined. Finally, a 
thermometer was placed in the vacant space in the very centre of the 
enclosure. 

This last thermometer occupies the position that will ultimately be 
occupied by the internal thermometer, npon which the sun is to fall 
through a hole; only at this stage the hole had not been constructed. It 
is obvious that when the instrument is finally in action, with a beam of 
solar rays (condensed by means of a lens so as to pass through the hole) 
falling upon t!ie bulb, this thermometer will be subject to a heating 
effect from two separate causes, 

(a) It will, first of all, be subject to radiation and convection from 
the surrounding enclosure, which is gradually (let us suppose) getting 
hot through exposure to the sun. 

(&) It will, secondly, have a beam of solar rays of constant size and 
of constant intensity (except as to variations arising from atmospheric 
absorption, seasonal change in the sun's apparent diameter, or change in 
the sun's intrinsic radiation) continuously thrown upon it through the 
hole. 

In fine days when there is no abrupt variation of the sun's intensity 
the temperature of the internal thermometer will remain sensibly con- 
stant, or at least will only vai-y slowly with the sun's altitude ; and this 
temperature will be such that the heat lost by radiation and convection 
from the internal hot thermometer will be equal to the heat which it gains 
from the sources (a) and (6), save as to a small correction, calculable 
from the slow variation of the temperature of the thermometer. 

Now, our object being to estimate accurately the intensity of source 
(&), we must be able, notwithstanding the gradual heating of the enclo- 
sure, to determine how much heat the internal thermometer gains from 
source (a). That is to say, we must be able to tell what would be the 
temperature of the internal thermometer if the instrument were still 
made to face the sun, but without any aperture. For the solid angle 
subtended by the hole at any point of the bulb is so small that we may 
regard it as a matter of indifference whether there be a hole or not, 
except as to the admission or exclusion of direct solar radiation. 

It was suggested by Professor Stokes that a simple practical method 
of doing this would be to expose the instrument, without a hole, to an 



ON SOLAR EADIATION. 33 

artificial sonrce of heat, such as a fire or a stove, the intensity of which 
might likewise be made to vary. By this means the conditions of the 
instrument when facing the sun might be fairly represented. 

Experiments of this nature were made at Manchester by Mr. Shep- 
herd, acting under the superintendence of Professor Stewart, and these 
were reduced by Professor Stokes. 

It was ascertained from these experiments that the internal thermo- 
meter represented with great exactness the temperature of the cube 
such as it was 3^ minutes before ; in other words, there was a lagging 
time of the internal thermometer equal to 3^ minutes. 

"We may thus find what woald be the reading of the internal thermo- 
meter if the balance were perfect between the gain of heat by direct 
solar radiation and the loss of heat by communication to the environ- 
ment ; and as the latter is approximately proportional to the difference 
of temperature of the envelope and internal thermometer, and the devia- 
tion from exact proportionality admits of determination by laboratory 
experiments, w-e have the means of measuring the former. We must 
bear in mind that the lagging time of the final thermometer may be 
different from that of the thermometer with which these experiments 
were made. 

It was likewise ascertained that the difference between the tempera- 
ture of the internal thermometer and that of the case need not exceed 
20° Fahr., and that a comparatively small lens and hole would suffice for 
obtaining this result. 

In consequence of this preliminary information, we have made the 
following additions to the instrument described in our last report : — 

(1) We have had it swung like the ordinary actinometers with a mo- 
tion in altitude and azimuth, and with two moderately delicate adjusting- 
screws, one for azimuth and another for altitude adjustments. 

(2) We have had a thermometer cenfcrically placed in the interior. 
Tlie graduation of the stem is very delicate, and extends from 20° to 
120° Fahr., the reading being taken from one of the sides. The bulb is 
of green flint, and the stem of colourless glass. 

(3) We have also had a small plate of quartz cut and polished and 
mounted so as to cover the hole, and to be easily removed and replaced. 
The object of the plate is to prevent irregularities arising from irregular 
issue of heated air through the hole, entrance of cooler air blown in by 
wind, &c., and the choice of material was influenced by the wish to per- 
mit of frequent cleaning without risk of alteration by scratching. 

We ought to mention that as it would be difficult to procure the loan 
of a good heliostat, and expensive to make one, we resolved that in the 
preliminary experiments the adjustments to keep the sun's image on the 
hole should be made by the observer. Hence the necessity for the 
adjusting-screws already described. 

The Committee have expended £18 10s., and return to the Associa- 
tion a balance of £1 10s. 

They suggest that they should be reappointed, and that the sum of £10 
be placed at their disposal to defray the expense of further experiments 
connected with the instrument. 



18S7. 



34 



EEPORT 1887. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown 
{Secretary), Mr. Milne Home, Mr. John Murray, Lord McLaren, 
and Mr. Buchan, appointed for the purpose of co-operating ivith 
the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteorological 
Observations on Ben Nevis. 

The observing work by Mr. Omond and his assistants of the Ben Nevis 
Observatory for the past yetxr has been carried on with the same intelli- 
gence, enthusiasm, and completeness as in previous years, none of the 
hourly observations, by night and by day, inside and outside the observa- 
tory having been omitted down to the close of last mouth, except the 
outside observations of temperature on two of the hours of December 8, 
when the weather was too stormy to be faced. The live daily observa- 
tions at the sea-level station at Fort William have also been made with 
the greatest regularity. 

For the year 1886 the folio wiug were the mean pressures and temper- 
atures at the Ben Nevis Observatory and at Fort William : — 

Mean, Pressures in Inches. 



Ben Nevis | 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 
25-319 


Aug. 


Sept. 
25-395 


Oct. 
25-266 


Nov. 


Dec. 
24-960 


Year 
25-260 


24-944 


25-398 


25-234 


25-273 


25-322 


25-417 


25-382 


25-213 


Fort ■William 
Diflterence . 


20-544 


30-071 


29-875 


29-864 


29-880 


29-940 


29-810 


29-865 
4-483 


29-916 
4-621 


29-780 
4-514 


29-7S3 


29-558 
4-598 


29-824 
4-564 


4-60U 


4-673 


4-641 


4-591 


4-558 


4-523 


4-491 


4-570 


Hfca?i Tenqieratures. 


Ben Nevis | 
Observatory f 




13-8 


21-1 


o 
22-0 


2G-8 


30-5 


36-0 


38-6 


39-9 


36-4 


34-6 


29-5 


20-2 


29-6 


Fort William 
Diff 


35-5 


34-8 


38-7 


44-0 


48-2 


53-3 


55-6 


55-3 


51-3 


49-4 


43-7 


34-3 


45-3 


15-7 


13-7 


16-7 


17-2 


17-7 


17-3 


17-1 


15-4 


14-9 


14-8 


14-2 


14-1 


15-7 



The pressures at Fort William are reduced to 32° and sea level; those 
at the observatory only to 32°. 

With the two exceptions of October and November, the temperature 
at Fort William was every month below its normal. The extreme de- 
partures from the normal were December 4°-?, January 3°'4, and Feb- 
ruary 3°'9 under, and, on the other hand, October 2°'6 above the normal. 
The annual mean 4-5''-3 was 1°'8 below the average of the twenty-four 
years ending 1880. 

Atmospheric pressure at Fort William was very nearly the normal on 
the mean of the year, being only 0012 inch under it. 

The maximum pressure for the year at the observatory was 26'093 
inches on November 24, and the minimum 23-454 inches on December 8, 
during the memorable storm that swept over the country at that time. 
A still lower pressure, viz., 23'17o inches, was observed on January 26, 
1884, when pressure at 32° and sea level fell at Ochtertyre, Perthshire, to 
27'333 inches ; and as the centre of this great storm passed only a short 
way to the south of the observatory, this may be considered as the lowest 
pressure likely to be noted at the observatoiy. 

The maximum temperature for the year was •!>5°'8 in September, and 
the lowest 8°'4 in December, thus giving an absolute range of 47°-4. 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERTATIONS ON BEN METIS. 



35 



The following are the yearly extremes of temperature since the 
observatory was opened : — 





Maximum 


Minimum 


1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 (to August) 


60-1 
600 
55-8 
670 




99 

111 

8-4 

90 



The niost noteworthy feature of these figures is the close approach the 
annnal minima make to each other, the close agreement of the four and 
the by no means low temperature they indicate in view of what occurs at 
lower levels. This may be explained by the observatory being built on 
the very top of the mountain, thus minimising the effects of terrestrial 
radiation during the winter months. Previous to June 1887 the highest 
temperature was 60°-l. But in that month this temperature was several 
times exceeded, and on the 24th of the month the registering thermo- 
meter recorded a maximum of 67°-0. The mean temperature of the 
month was 45°4, or 'J°-2 higher than that of June 1886. The absolutely 
lowest temperature was 31°-0, and of July following 30°-8. In these two 
months, therefore, temperature fell but little below the freezino- point, 
thus indicating for this height in the atmosphere a more prolonged period 
of relatively high temperature tban has taken place since the observatory 
was founded . 

The records of the simsbine recorder commenced in the end of January 
1884. As regards the two complete years for which there are now obser- 
vations, there were 680 hours in 1885 and 576 hours in 1886 beino- 16 
and 14 per cent, of the possible sunshine of these years. From January 
to July of the present year the percentage of possible sunshine has been 
28, a result largely due to the comparatively large amount of sunshine in 
April, May, and June, which amounted to 31 per cent, of the possible 
sunshine. Up to May 31, 1887, the largest number of hours of sunshine 
in any month was 162 in July 1885 ; but during last June there were 
206 hours, or nearly 40 per cent, of the possible sunshine. In July 
following there were only 58 hours of sunshine, being little qjore than a 
fourth of the sunshine of June. The distribution of the sunshine durino- 
the hours o Ithe day was similar to the results obtained for previous years' 
as detailed in the Committee's report for last year. 

As respects the rain and snowfall, it is desirable to keep in mind that 
some uncertainty will always necessarily attach to the recorded amounts 
owing to the snow-drifts, the breaks that occur in the returns in con- 
sequence, and the general uncertainty of the estimates formed for the 
periods of these breaks. 

During 1885 the amount of the rainfall was 146"50 inches, beinf the 
first whole year observed; but in 1886, the amount was only 10784 inches. 
The amounts for the months of 1886 were, beginning with January in 
inches :— 12-76, 2-84, 5-91; 4-59, 6-25, 7-60; 10-99, 10-16, 13-03 ■ 8-16 
14-57, 10-98; and for 1887 to July inclusive, 17-80, 13-30, 5-90 '; 7-53' 
3-97, 7-51 ; and 14-54. The number of days during 1886 on which the 
precipitation was less than 0-01 inch were 97 days, and from January to 
July 1887, 87 days. The largest monthly rainfall of these nineteen months 
was, therefore, 17-80 in January 1887, and the smallest 284 inches in 

D2 



36 REPORT — 1887. 

February 1886. The month with the largest number of days on which 
less than O'Ol inch was recorded was 18 in June last, and the smallest no 
days in July 1886. 

It is expected that the hourly observations, given in e.vtenso, of the Ben 
Nevis Observatory to the end of 1886, and those of the sea-level station at 
Fort William, referred to in the Committee's last report as in the press 
as an extra volume of the ' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh,' will be ready for delivery at the end of the year. 

In preparing new isothermal and isobaric charts of the globe for the 
' Challenger ' Expedition Report, Mr. Buchan has constructed tables of 
corrections for height above the sea up to 8,000 feet for the diflFerent air 
temperatures and sea-level pressures that occur, which are based on the 
results arrived at regarding the rate of diminution of temperature, and of 
pressure with heights for different air temperatures and sea-level pres- 
sures. TJie results of charting from these tables offer the strongest cor- 
roboration of the great value in practical meteorology and in physical 
geography of this piece of work already accomplished from the data 
lurnished by the Ben Nevis and Fort "William observations. 

In the meantime, and in addition to the regular work of the observa- 
tory, Mr. Omond, superintendent ; Mr. Rankin, first assistant ; and Mr. 
Dickson, who lias repeatedly relieved the regular observers at the obser- 
torv, are engaged in carrying on original researches. Of these the 
following may be mentioned : — 

Mr. Omoxd. — 1. A second paper on the rainfall of Ben Nevis in 
relation to the winds, in which the observations of 1886 are dealt with. 
The most important result is in corroboration of the results deduced from 
the observations of 1885, viz., of all winds N.W. winds are much the 
wettest while they blow ; and he can now state explicitly that the rule 
holds good both as regards cyclonic and anti-cyclonic winds, which is a 
valuable contribution to the theory of storms. 

2. The diurnal variations in the direction of the summer winds on 
Ben Nevis. 

3. On a peculiarity of the cyclone winds of Ben Nevis (which is to be 
read at the meeting). 

4. Glories, halos, and coronje seen from Ben Nevis Observatory, being 
in continuation of a paper on the subject published in the ' Proceedings of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh ' of last year. The new facts brought 
forward in these papers, for which the observatory affords peculiar 
facilities for observing, necessitate important modifications of the ex- 
planations hitherto given of these phenomena. 

5. Temperatures at different Jieights above ground at Ben Nevis 
Observatory. 

Mr. A. Rankin. — 1. The thermic wind-rose at the Ben Nevis Obser- 
vatory, to be read at the meeting. For the coming year Mr. Rankin 
has undertaken the laborious work of prosecuting the inquiry still 
further by sorting the winds and the temperatures in cyclonic and anti- 
cyclonic areas, and also into the two opposite sides of these areas. 

2. He has also recently detected a connection between an increased 
darkness of one of the lines of the spectrum and a mass of air of an 
unusually low temperature over the observatory, and no opportunity will 
be lost next year in accumulating observations bearing on the point. 

Mr. Dickson. — 1. A continuation of his hygrometric work, to be 
read at the meeting. 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 37 

2. Observations on earth- currents in Ben Nevis Observatory telegraph 
cable. 

Copies of these papers so far as published are submitted with this 
report. 

The plotting of the observations of storms made at the whole of the 
sixty-six Scottish lighthouses, showing graphically the hours of the day 
and night during which the wind blew with the force of a gale or storm 
at each lighthouse, is now far advanced ; and on the same sheets have 
been entered for the respective districts all cases where storm signals 
have been hoisted under direction of the ^leteorological OflBce. The re- 
sults show a very large number of failures, both of storms which have 
occurred of which no warning had been sent, and of warnings issued with 
no accompanying or following storm. These failures are at present being 
investigated by the Ben Nevis observations in connection with the obser- 
vations at Fort William and other low-lj'ing stations in that division of 
Scotland. It is expected that a report of the results of this investigation 
will be ready to be submitted to the next meeting of the Association. 

Arrangements are thus made by the Directors of the observatory for 
the next twelve months for the investigation, in various directions, of the 
relations of the Ben Nevis observations to weather, and particularly 
storms, the workers being Messrs. Omond and Rankin at the observatory, 
and Messrs. Buchan and Dickson in the office of the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society. 

We do not require to inform Section A that we ground our claim on 
the countenance and assistance of the British Association on the scientific 
work of the observatory. One is surprised to meet occasionally in the 
daily press and scientific literature of the day statements to the effect that 
Ben Nevis is expected of and by itself, and without the help of synchro- 
nous low-level observations, to frame warnings of coming storms, and 
that if this is supposed not to be done, there is no hesitation in adding 
that the establishment does not deserve public assistance. It is unneces- 
sary to say that this Association has always been conspicuous in never 
having withheld moral and material support from investigations until it 
was shown that the results could be turned to practical purposes. 

Your Committee, however, from the first, while assuming that the 
claim of the Observatory for support is the scientific work done by it, 
have in each of their annual reports expressed their opinion that, as ob- 
servations accumulate, and as the very laborious discussion of them pro- 
ceeds, the high expectations they had formed as to the practical value of 
these high-level observations in forecasting weather and storms have been 
more than realised. 

At last year's meeting at Birmingham it was stated in Section A, as 
an argument against supporting the Ben Nevis Observatory, that its ob- 
servations were found to be useless in forecasting weather, but, the grounds 
of this opinion were not given. A single statement will show that any 
such opinion must rest on imperfect information. 

The Directors of the observatory and your Committee in their reports 
have from the very outset insisted with some earnestness and strength 
of language on the absolute necessity of combining the double observation 
for all forecasting purposes — in other words, of combining the observation 
at the top of Ben Nevis with that made at the same instant at Fort 
William. The reason is obvious, it being by vertical gradients, and not 
by horizontal gradients, that the observations at high-level observa- 



38 REPORT — 1887. 

tories can be turned to their proper and fullest account in forecasting 
weather. 

Now, when the observatory was opened in December 1883 the hours 
for observation at Fort William were arranged so as to embrace the 
hours adopted by the Meteorological Office, viz., 8 a.m. and 2 and 6 p.m. ; 
and one of the first acts of the Directors was absolutely to place at the 
service of the Meteorological Office weather telegrams for these three 
hours both from the top and bottom of the mountain. This ofier was 
declined on the ground of the expense for the transmission of the tele- 
grams, and until Mr. Buchan shall have thoroughly discussed the ob- 
servations, and deduced inferences from them from which the Meteoro- 
logical Office might learn how to use the observations in forecasting 
weather. 

Since, in fact, none of the sea-level observations at Fort William 
from the founding of the observatory in the end of 1883 down to the 
present time are in the Meteorological Office, or indeed anywhere but 
in the office in Edinburgh, the opinion that the Ben Nevis observations 
are useless in forecasting falls to the ground. 

On the evening of August 23 there was a discussion in Parliament on 
the vote for the Learned Societies, and in that discussion the next morning 
newspapers reported that Mr. Jackson, of the Treasury, Sir John Lubbock, 
Sir E. Birkbeck, and others, argued against any grant to the observatory 
on the ground that the Meteorological Council, composed of men of the 
very highest scientific standing, had given it as their opinion that the 
practical results to be obtained from the Ben Nevis Observatory did not 
warrant the grant asked for from' the Treasury. 

A word as to this opinion. The Meteorological Council recently 
printed a memorandum ' On Occasional Telegrams from Ben Nevis,' 
signed Frederick Caster, which was forwarded to the Treasury some time 
before the discussion came on in Parliament. A copy was also sent to 
the Directors of the observatory by instructions from General Strachey. 
The memorandum concludes thus : ' In their existing form the telegrams 
[from Ben Nevis] are absolutely useless.' 

The whole question turns on the meaning of the phrase ' their existing 
form,' which a few sentences will explain. 

When in December 1883 the offer of the Directors to send daily 
telegrams from the top and bottom of the mountain was declined, the 
Meteorological Office asked instead for occasional telegrams in these 
words : ' We wish Mr. Omond to use his own discretion, and telegraph 
to us whenever any very striking change of conditions or a special 
phenomenon of great interest is recorded.' It will be noted that the 
Meteorological Office made no mention whatever of storms. Since 
December 1883 Mr. Omond has sent such telegrams as appeared to him 
to be wished, and no application has been made for upwards of three 
years for more frequent telegrams or any other information, only that 
some time ago a request was forwarded that every effort be made that 
the telegrams do not exceed the sixpenny charge. 

The request, it will be noted, was for telegrams ' whenever any very 
striking change of conditions ' was recorded. Now, as a matter of fact, 
no telegram has been sent with reference to all those storms, forming the 
imrnense majority of storms, which have not been preceded or accom- 
panied by a very striking change of conditions. But, further, several 
telegrams were sent because it seemed to Mr. Omond that the very 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEYIS. 39 

striking change of conditions which occnrred prognosticated settled 
weather. Now in drawing up the memorandum for the Treasury all 
these, as well as the other telegrams sent, were classed together by the 
Meteorological Office and treated as if they had been intended by Mr. 
Omond to be prognostic of storms, and the nineteen telegrams sent were 
assumed to be all the warnings of storms which the observatory could 
send to the office in London. From these data, so arranged for and 
collected and interpreted, the decision was come to that ' in their exist- 
ing form the telegrams from Ben Nevis are absolutely useless.' It might 
have been predicted before a single telegram was received that no other 
than such a decision could possibly have been arrived at. 

While the statement that ' in their existing form the telegrams are 
absolutely useless ' is thus unquestionably correct, it is nevertheless void of 
all meaning as respects the matter in hand. What has been done is not 
an investigation, and it is not science. But the statement underwent a 
transforming process in its passage to the House of Commons, appearing 
in this form, viz., ' The Ben Nevis observations are absolutely useless in 
forecasting weather ' — a statement of which it is enough to say that it 
is incorrect. The Meteorological Office has yet to take the first step 
towards commencing an investigation into the utility of the Ben Nevis 
observations for forecasting purposes. 

On the other hand the Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society, 
strengthened as regards the Direction of the observatory by rei^resenta- 
tives of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh and the Philo- 
sophical Society of Glasgow, includes men of equal scientific merit with 
any other Meteorological Council in the country ; and after some years' 
investigation their opinion is that the Ben Nevis observations are of the 
highest utility in the development of meteorology and in framing forecasts 
of storms and weather for the British Islands. 



Fourth Report of the Covimittee, consisting of Professor Balfour 
Stewart (Secretary), Mr. J. Knox Laughton, Mr. G. J. Stmons, 
Mr. K. H. Scott, and Mr. Gr. Johnstone Stoney, appointed for 
the purpose of co-operating with Mr. E. J. Lowe in his project 
of establishing on a permanent and scientific basis a Meteoro- 
logical Observatory near Chepstoiu. 

This Committee met at 22 Albemarle Street on March 26, and passed the 
following resolution : — 

' As your Committee have heard no further results from the action 
referred to by Mr. Lowe in his letter quoted in their last report, and there 
thus appears to be an absence of local support, they see no prospect of 
the scheme ever being cai'ried out. The fundamental idea presiding over 
the establishment of the observatory was that it should be one of perma- 
nence, and hence it is obvious that adequate endowment is essential. To 
provide this, and properly equip the observatory, several thousand pounds 
are needed ; but the Committee have no assurance that anything at all 
approaching the necessary amount has yet been subscribed or even 
promised. As they have now been in existence for between three and 



4U REPORT — 1887. 

four years with this negative result, they are of opinion that the Com- 
mittee should now be dissolved.' 

In consequence of this resolution the Committee have not drawn 
the 201. voted at Birmingham, and tbey do not now request their 
reappointment. 



Final Report of the Committee, consisting of ^Ir. E. H. Scott 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Norman Lockter, Professor Gr. Gr. Stokes, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. J. Gr. Simons, appointed 
in August 1881, and re-appointed in 1 882-3 and 4 to co-operate 
ivith the Meteorological Society of the Mauritius in the publica- 
tion of Daily Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean for the 
year 1861. {Draivn up by Mr. Robert H. Scott.) 

yoUR Committee have to report that the sum of 50Z. originally granted 
in 1881 has now been expended, and they enclose herewith a receipt for 
the amount, showing its disposition, from the Treasurer of the Mauritius 
Meteorological Society. 

Dr. Meldrum, in a letter to the Secretary, dated June 4, 1887, says : ' I 
am requested by the President and Council of our Meteorological Society 
to convey to yourself and the British Association their very best thanks, 
and to say that the Society will forward to the Association, through you, 
two copies of each of the publications that have been issued.' 

The following is a list of these publications : — 

1. Daily Synoptic Weather Charts of the Indian Ocean for the months 
of January, February, and March, 1861. The charts for the remaining 
months of 1861, and remarks to accompany the moiiths already published, 
are in preparation. 

2. Tabular Statements of the number of Gales experienced monthly 
between the parallels of 20° S. and 46° S., and the meridians of 0° and 
120° E. during the last 39 years. 

Dr. Meldrum further states that the following works are nearly ready 
for publication : — 

I. Synoptic Weather Charts of the Indian Ocean for January 1860, in 
the course of which month a typical tropical cyclone took place. 

II. The Tracks of the Tropical Cyclones in the Indian Ocean, south of 
the Equator, from 1848 to 1886, as far as is known, together with the 
observations from which the tracks have been deduced. 

III. The Mean Pressure and Temperature of the Indian Ocean for five 
degrees square, in the months of January and July. 

IV. Synoptic Charts of the Indian Ocean for each day, during the last 
39 yeai's, in which it is known that a cyclone existed. 

V. The Average Limits in the Indian Ocean of the South-East Trade 
in each month, and of the Noi'th-West Monsoon from November to 
May. 



ON A GOOD DIFFEREiNTIAL CKAVITT METER. 41 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Greneral J. T. 
Walker, Sir William Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, General 
K. Strachey, Professors A. S. Herschel, Gr. Chrystal, 
C. NivEN, J. H. PoYNTiNG (Secretary), A. Schuster, and 
Gr. H. Darwin, and Mr. H. Tomlinson, appointed for the 
purpose of inviting designs for a good Differential Gravity 
Meter in supersession of the pendulum, xvherehy satisfactory 
results inay be obtained at each station of observation in a few 
hours, instead of the many days over tuhich it is necessary to 
extend pendulum observations. 

Since the last report the Committee have received an account of a 
proposed instrument from Mr. C. V. Boys. Mr. Boj's has lately found 
that quartz threads, which he is able to drav/ from melted quartz, are 
remarkably free from ' fatigue,' and he intends to make use of this in 
constructing a torsion gravimeter. In the form which seems to be most 
promising a quartz thread is stretched horizontally, and to the middle of 
it is attached one end of an arm going out at right angles with a mass at 
the other end. The thread is twisted and the arm is drawn out of the 
horizontal position till it is nearly in unstable equilibrium, and the 
arrangement is exceedingly sensitive to small changes in the weight of 
the mass. In principle the instrument resembles other applications of 
horizontal torsion, such as those in some forms of Sir W. Thomson's 
attracted disc electrometers. As Mr. Boys is engaged in experimenting 
on the best form of instrument, we do not give more than the foregoing 
sketch of his proposals. 

As the metal spring which Sir William Thomson proposed to use 
(described in last year's report) appears to be subject to ' fatigue ' in a 
much greater degree than Mr. Boys's quartz threads, he is awaiting the 
results of Mr. Boys's experiments before proceeding with the construction 
of a complete instrument. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with the addition of Mr. Boys, 
and they apply for a grant of lOZ. to aid in the construction of an 
instrument. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Williamson, 
Armstrong, Dixon, Tilden, Reinold, J. Perry, 0. J. Lodge, 
BoNNEY, Stirling, Bower, D'Arcy Thompson, and Milnes 
Marshall, and Messrs. W. H. Preece, Vernon Harcourt, 
Crookes, Topley, and E. F. J. Love (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of considering the desirability of combined 
action for the purpose of Translation of Foreign Memoirs and 
for reporting thereon. 

This Committee have held two meetings, and carefully discussed the 
subject submitted to it by the British Association. The result of the 
discussion is expressed in the following resolution of the Committee : — 
' That, owing to the difficulty of making suitable selection of the 



42 REPORT — 1887. 

papers, and in view of the probable heavy cost of such an undertaking, 
it is not considered by the Committee possible for the British Association, 
either alone or acting in concert with the special scientific societies, to 
undertake the translation of entire papei'S from foreign journals.' 

It was mentioned in the course of the discussion that no complete 
set of abstracts of papers in physics is published in English ; and the 
advantage of such abstracts being generally recognised. Professor Reinold 
undertook, at the request of the Committee, to bring the subject before 
the Council of the Physical Society of Loudon and report the result to 
the Committee. 

Professor Reinold reports as follows : — 

' The Council of the Physical Society have decided that they are not 
at present in a position to undertake so vast a work as the publication 
of abstracts of foreign physical papers or even to assist in any adequate 
manner in such an undertaking. It has been decided, however, to 
publish from time to time translations in extenso of important papers 
appearing in foreign journals.' 

The Committee have found it unnecessary to expend any portion of its 
grant. 



Report of a Committee, consisting of Professors McLeod and 
Eamsay and Messrs, J. T. Cundall and W. A. Shenstone (Secre- 
tary), appointed to fiirther investigate the Action of the Silent 
Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases. 

The work of this Committee has been actively continued during the past 
year. An apparatus has been constructed for the preparation and storage 
of gases in a pure state. This apparatus has been put together entirely 
before the blowpipe, and has no taps nor joints except such as are protected 
by mercury, and therefore affords the best guarantee of the purity of 
the gas prepared and stored within it at present attainable. The con- 
structing of this apparatus has occupied a considerable period, and has 
prevented the execution of so much of the work that it is proposed to 
carry out as would otherwise have been possible ; nevertheless consider- 
able pi'ogress has been made in several directions. Oxygen has been 
prepared which, from the mode of preparation, may be presumed to con- 
tain not more than one part of nitrogen in two hundred million parts of 
the gas ; and, though it is not possible to obtain reagents of a similar degree 
of purity, by acting on the gas with specially purified phosphorus it has 
been established by experiment that the gas is undoubtedly in a very pure 
state. 

Very pure oxygen has been enclosed with phosphorus pentoxide in 
sealed tubes for periods of many weeks and subsequently submitted to 
the action of the silent discharge of electricity. The results of repeated 
experiments show that such oxygen is freely convertible into ozone. 
Whether pure and dry oxygen is more capable of ozonification than 
oxygen in a less pure state has, however, still to be decided by repeti- 
tions of the experiments with various forms of apparatus. But the 
variable efficiency of ozone-generators under apparently identical condi- 
tions has to be overcome before the results of quantitative experiments can 
be compai'ed one with another ; therefore the Committee ai'e at present 



ON THE SILENT DISCHARGE OF ELECTRICITT. 43 

imable to report more fully on this point and on the main object of their 
work, viz., the influence of heat, pressure, &o., on the formation 
of ozone. Further pro,2:ress has been made in the examination of the 
character of the silent discharge of electricity, and in the study of the 
actions of ozone and mercury on each other. It has been ascertained 
that ozone, pure and dry, except for the presence of oxygen, afi'ects the 
surface-tension of mercury in the well-known manner, and is itself presently 
reconverted into oxygen. This change, however, is not accompanied by 
oxidation of the mercury, such as occurs even when only a trace of 
moisture is present. 

The experiments on the chemical action of ozone on mercury and 
other substances are being continued, and, though their progress must be 
slow, considerable advance may be hoped for during the coming year. 
The other work undertaken by the Committee is also being actively con. 
tinned, and it is proposed that the Committee shall be reappointed. 

Note. — No experimental details are introduced into this report, as 
a full description of the work done has already been published in a paper 
printed in the ' Journal of the Chemical Society ' for July 1887. 



Report of the Coowmittee, consisting of Professors Tilden and W. 
Chandler Eoberts-Austen and Mr. T. Turner (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Influence of 
Silicon on the Properties of Steel. (Di^awn up by Mr. T. Turner.) 

When the above Committee were appointed at the last meeting of the 
Association a series of experiments had already been commenced, and a 
preliminary notice of these appeared in the Report for last year. This 
series of experiments has been completed, and full details have been 
published ('Jour. Chem. Soc' 1887, p. 129). A second set of observations 
in continuation of the work has also been commenced, and the results are 
so far advanced that it is hoped to publish details in a few months. 

In the paper in the ' Journal of the Chemical Society ' a short account 
is given of the results hitherto obtained by other observers, and it is 
believed that the present state of our knowledge may be summarised as 
follows : — 

1. Ingot iron. Silicon promotes soundness; it resembles carbon in 
increasing the tenacity and hardness ; it should not exceed 0'15 per cent, 
if the metal has to be rolled ; and in some cases it produces brittleness 
when cold. 

2. In steel castings. Silicon promotes soundness ; it is, however, re- 
garded as a necessary evil, and excess should be avoided as tending to 
brittleness and low extension ; about 0'3 per cent, is generally recom- 
mended. 

3. In crucible steel. A few hundredths per cent, is necessary to pro- 
duce soundness ; it is generally agreed that considei'able quantities of 
silicon may be present without injury to the material. 

4. Manganese appears to be capable of neutralising the ill effect due 
to silicon. 

The first series of experiments was undertaken to determine the 
effect of silicon on the properties of specially pure iron. For this purpose 



44 



KEPORT 1887. 



Table A. — Generai 



Xo. 



Chemical analysi 
(By Mr. J. P. Walton) 



0-02 



0-029 



Si, 
0098 0039 



S. Mn. 



0-02 



0-02 



0-03 



0'0610-04 



010 



0-03 



4 0'076 



0-057 



0-035 



Hot tests 



0027 0-028 007 0-042 



003 



0-039 



003 



0-052 



0-08 



0-113 



0-034 



Worked 
well at 
welding- 
heat; red 
short at 
dull red 
heat. 

Do. 



Cold 

tests 



Good 



Do. 



Weld- ^f ^''?' 
'' '^'^ I extension 

ing I 

tests 



Do. Do 



0-100-06 



Do. 



009 0-05 Do. Do. 



0036 009 0-OG 



0-117 



0-015 



0113 



0-033 



0-08 



0-045 



Perfect 
weld 



Broke 
owing 
to red 
short- 
ness 



Very 
good 
weld 



0-317 



0-314 



0-326 



0-329 



0321 



Do. 



Do. Do. Do. 



0-321 



Do. 0-328 0-320 



Do. 



Do. 



0-09,0-08 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Modulus of 
elasticity 



E E 



31,590,000 



30,640,000 



0-330 



0-311 



0-321 



0-323 



31,870,00t 



30,420,000 



31,120,000 



31,120,000 



30,530,000 



30,300,000 



0-333:0-326 



Not so 



0-312 



0-313 



31,250,00( 



31,120,00C 



32,130,000 31,000,00( 



30,070,000 



32,100,000 



30,640,00( 



32,000,00 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SILICON ON THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 
( mffry of Results. 



45 



i t 0'' elasti- 

'' \'i- ■ -q. in. 

Ions 
■' 12-77 



13-25 
13-39 



101 12-77 
16-30 



Breaking load 
per sq. in 



Pounds 



48,850 



Tons 
21-80 



Ratio 
of limit 

to 
break 



48,810 21-79 
46,410 20-72 



42,940 
49,040 



30 19-19 48,410 21-61 



30 15-11 

70 16-28 
180 15-22 

17-63 

301 17-92 
JO 15-53 

130 17-73 

18-27 

JO 18-58 
10 18-17 



19-17 



21-89 



51,920 23-18 

51,430 22-96 
22-60 



50,640 

53,670 

54,280 
52,050 

61,490 



23-97 

24-23 
23-24 

27-45 



64,180 28-65 



57,720 25-77 



57,330 



25-59 



0-586 



0-608 
0-646 



0-666 
0-744 

0-888 

0-652 

0-709 
0-673 

0-735 

0-739 
0-668 

0-646 

0-638 

0-721 
0-710 



24-7 



30-7 
19-5 



15-7 
24-2 

27-8 

15-6 

17-1 
15-4 

21-1 

240 
24-5 

12-8 
18-4 

22-0 

17-7 



•iS s a 



76-3 



77-8 
43-4 



37-3 
63-7 

71-1 
30-0 



II 



Remarks 



18 



16 



15 



17 



33-V 
36-3 


17 


39-1 


- 


46-0 


20 


43-8 


- 


19-7 


21 


33-9 


- 


47-7 


20 


36-2 


— 



Silky. 



Very finely silky. 

Fracture irregular ; about 60 per cent. 

silky ; the remainder in patches and 

pipes of crystal. 



Verj- unsound and faulty ; irregu- 
lar crystalline spots ; surface ex- 
tremely distressed all over. 

Fracture silky, but full of pipes and 
reedy holes in part filled -with crys- 
talline siliceous matter; some small 
specks of crystal. 

Very finely silky, but with three large 
and about 20 small round pipes, 
filled with siliceous matter, which 
flew out in a cloud of dust on frac- 
ture ; surface reedj'. 

Fracture irregular, with unsound 
pipes or fissures; mostly crystalline 
granular ; edges silky. 

Like No. 6, but more irregular, and 
surface a good deal distressed. 

Fracture irregular and not entirely 
sound ; about 30 per cent, finely 
crystalline, rest silky. 

Irregular ; mostly silky, but with 
crystalline spots ; in places unsound 
and reedy ; surface reedy. 

Silky, but with irregular crystalline 
specks and pipes. 

Silky but irregular, with crystalline 
spots and pipes; surface a little 
distressed. 

Fracture 65 per cent, finely crystal- 
line, the rest half finely gi-anular ; 
half silky ; surface very much dis- 
tressed on one side. 

Fracture about 65 per cent, finely 
crystalline, the rest irregular, for 
tlie most part silky; surface a good 
deal distressed. 

Silk}' ; specked with crystals and 
silica (yellowish crj'stalline mate- 
rial), a little reedy on surface. 

Somewhat irregular, silky — with flat- 
tened pipes containing crystalline 
siliceous matter; surface a little 
distressed. 



46 



KEPOKT — 1887. 



molten iron was taken from the Bessemer converter at the end of the 
' blow ' and before any addition of ferromanganese had been made. This 
was mixed in a ci'ucible with various proportions of melted cast iron con- 
taining about 10 per cent, of silicon, and the product was afterwards 
examined. The composition of these materials was as follows : — 





C. 


Si. 1 s. 


Mn. 


P. 


Bessemer Iron 
Silicon Pig . 


0-02 
196 


00098 
10-30 


0-039 
0-02 


OOC 
1-90 


0-04 
017 



In Table A is given a general summary of the results obtained. The 
mechanical tests were conducted by Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, and 
duplicate experiments gave concordant results. The mean values de- 
duced from these experiments are given in Table B. The letter D is 
used to indicate that in these cases it is doubtful if thorough mixture was 
obtained. Other ingots were prepared containing more silicon, but as 
these could not be rolled no mechanical tests were performed. 



Table B. — Mean Results of Tensile Tests. Professor Kennedy. 



No. 


Si. p. c. 
found 


Limit of 

elasticity. 

Tons per 

sq in. 


Breaking 

load. 
Tons per 

sq, in. 


Ratio 
limit to 
break 


Extension 

per cent. 

on 10 

inches 


Reduction 

of area 
per cent. 


Relative 
hardness 


1 


0-0098 


13-01 


21-80 


0-597 


27-7 


77-0 


18 


2 


0-02 


13-08 


19-95 


0-65(i 


17-6 


40-3 


16 


D3 


0-027 


17-75 


21-75 


0-861 


26-0 


67-4 


15 


4 


0-035 


15-69 


23-07 


0-680 


16-3 


31-8 


17 


5 


0039 


16-42 


23-28 


0-704 


18-2 


37-7 


17 


(1 


0-08 


16-72 


23-77 


0-704 


24-2 


44-9 


20 


7 


0-117 


18-00 


2805 


0-642 


15-6 


26-8 


21 


D8 


0-13 


18-37 


25-68 


0-715 


18-8 


41-9 


20 



The relative hardness was determined, as in my experiments on cast 
iron, by means of the weight in grams necessary to produce a sci-atch 
with a diamond on drawing its point over the smooth surface of the 
metal. The following list will illustrate the values obtained on applying 
such a method of examination to various substances. On comparing the 
values given in Table B it will be seen that the relative hai-dness was not 
very greatly influenced by the proportion of silicon added. 

Substances. Relative 

hardness. 

Steatite 1 

Lead (commercial) 1 

Tin „ 2-5 

Rock salt ........... 4 

Zicc (pure annealed) ......... 6 

Copper (pure annealed) 8 

Calcite 12 

Softest iron 15 

Fluor-spar ........... 19 

Mild steel 21 

Tyre steel . 20-24 

Good cast iroa . . 21-24 

Ear iron . 24 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SILICON ON THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 47 

Substances. Eelative 

hardness. 

Apatite 34 

Hard cast-iron scrap 36 

Window glass 60 

Good razor steel fiO 

Very hard white iron 72 

The following are the general conclusiona arrived at from this series 
of experiments. On adding silicon, in the form of silicon pig, to the 
purest Bessemer iron, the following results are obtained : — 

The metal is quiet in the mould when even a few hundredths per 
cent, of silicon are added. The metal is originally red short, especially at 
a dull red heat, though it works well at a welding temperature ; the red 
shortness is increased by silicon. In all cases examined, the metal was 
tough cold, and welded well, silicon having little or no influence. Silicon 
increases the elastic limit and tensile strength, but diminishes the elono-a- 
tion and the contraction of area, a few hundredths per cent, havino- a 
remarkable influence in this respect. The appearance on fracture by 
tensile force is changed from finely silky to crystalline, while the fracture 
produced by a blow gradually becomes more like that of tool steel as 
silicon increases. The hardness increases with the increase of silicon, but 
appears to be closely connected with the tenacity. With 0-4! per cent, of 
silicon and 0'2 per cent, of carbon, a steel was obtained diSicnlt to woi'k 
at high temperatures, but tough when cold, capable of being hardened in 
water, and giving a cutting edge which successfully resisted considerable 
hard usage. In some cases silicon was present in the oxidised condition • 
the efiect is then very diS'erent, and the mechanical properties of the 
metal more nearly resemble those of the original Bessemer iron. 

In the second series of experiments various proportions of silicon have 
been added to ingot metal, containing manganese and carbon, as ordina- 
rily met with in commerce. The results are not yet quite ready for 
publication, but they show that manganese greatly modifies the effect of 
silicon in producing x'ed shortness, and hence enables the metal to be 
readily rolled and otherwise worked, even in presence of several tenths 
per cent, of silicon. The low extension, however, though not nearly so 
marked as before, is still observed, despite the presence of manganese • and 
hence, for the majority of the applications of mild steel, silicon does not 
appear to be advantageous. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr. Forbes 
{Secretary), Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Professor W. G. 
Adams, Professor G. C. Foster, Lord Eayleigh, Mr. Preece, 
Professor Schuster, Professor Dewae, Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt, 
Professor Ayrton, Sir James Douglass, and Mr. H. B. Dixon 
appointed for the purpose of reporting on Standards of Light. 

The Committee have been anxious during the past year to carry out com- 
parative experiments on the various standards of light hitherto proposed, 
but have been prevented by want of funds from doing much. Professor 
W. G. Adams, however, has presented a report to the Committee ou pre- 



48 REPOET — 1 887. 

liminary experiments made by him, and the Committee are fully convinced 
that, if provided with funds, they will be able during the next year to 
complete experiments which will lead to recommendations, which, if 
adopted, will place the question of authorised standards on a satisfactory 
footing. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Pj-ofessors Eamsay, 
TiLDEN, Marshall, and W. L. Goodwin (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of investigating certain Physical Constants of 
Solution, especially the Expansion of Saline Solutions. 

The experiments on invaporation described in our last report have been 
continued, and new series have been begun. The process of invaporation 
ia so slow that our report each year must necessarily be imperfect in many 
points. Of all the experiments set up (and some of these have been going 
on for nearly two years) only four are completed. The method formerly 
employed, of sealing in glass tubes and opening by breaking the tubes, 
was found inconvenient, several interesting experiments having been 
spoiled by various accidents in sealing and opening. We next tried the 
so-called ' Gem ' and 'Crown ' jars, used a great deal in America for seal- 
ino- up fruits, &c. They are closed by means of a glass cap, the rim of 
which is pressed down upon a flange on the neck of the bottle by means 
of a metallic screw-i'ing working upon a thread below tbe flange. A ring 
of caoutchouc lies upon the flange and is pressed upon by the rim of the 
cap. Out of a dozen carefully selected specimens of these jars only two 
were found to be even approximately tight when tested by the invapora- 
tion process. For example, experiment 62 shows a loss of 1 •2661 gram 
of water in 133 days. Still, the jars answer their original purpose, and 
can be closed tightly enough to prevent the entrance of putrefactive and 
fermentative germs. The rate of invaporation was found to be very much 
slower when the jars were used, although larger tubes were employed, 
and thus larger invaporating surfaces secured. A comparison of A. 2 and 
C.2 brings out this diff'erence in rates. In A.2 half the quantity of 
sodium chloride invaporates in 111 days six times as much water as is 
invaporated by the sodium chloride of C.2 in 133 days. Of course, this 
is to be explained, in part at least, by the lower vapour tension due to the 
escape of moisture from the imperfectly closed jar. But, that there is 
another cause seems to follow from the case of C.3. The jar in this case 
was almost air-tight, allowing the escape of only 0-2.592 gram of water 
in 131 days. The total water invaporated during this period was 0'8689 
gram, as compared with 1'435 gram invaporated in -56 days by smaller 
quantities of salts inclosed in a sealed tube (see A.l). The jars were 
very much larger than the sealed tubes, and doubtless this circumstance 
retarded invaporation when the jars were used. The jars were rejected 
in favour of wide-mouthed stoppered bottles, the stoppers of which were 
greased with lard. The loss of water from these bottles was found to be 
scarcely appreciable. 

In the following tables Ma = mass in grains. Mo = relative numbers 
of molecules, P = period of invaporation in days, reckoning from the 
beginning of the experiment, Q = masses of water in the small tubes, 
R = relative numbers of molecules of water in tlie small tubes. 



ON THE EXPANSION OF SALINE SOLUTIONS. 



49 





LO O O 


»o 


OS CO ! c. 1 




O O! o 


-ii 


(M to 


CS 


c 


^ o o 




K 00 6 


00 
OS 


1 -( o o 


"-1 








o 




CO 






Ph 


«^^ 1 1 MM 1 




to — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1-5 




1 CO to o 


c; 






lO 


-*i »f5 o 


-* o o 




OSooo OS 

JS OS 


1 -H 6 o 


^ 






1 tc 1 


i:l, 


460 
ay 1 

1887 












1^ O o 


CO 1 to -f 


c 




o t- o 


00 


to UO 


C-l 


C 


>N o o 




Oi 00 6 


CS 


1 ^ o o 


" 


_ _J 




n 




^ <=^ 


Oi 


- o 1 1 MM 1 




cc 5 ' ' 111 1 


1 Q 1 


1 ■N O O 


(M to o; Mo 


OS O O 


OS O — ' "M 


G? m 05 o 


Si ~ tb :o cs 


^66 




<M 




0- f- bb 1 1 MM 1 




1 ^ 




00 (M O O CO Oi 1^ 




t^ to O l-H ^ r-l CO 


<y 


2^8 ? «g2 g 




-loo -1 1 ! 




o 










04 


■o >> 1 1 1 M 1 1 










1 


1-5 




OO (M O 






in c; o 


'-'' 1 r/> " '^ "-' ^ 

5 1 ^.bcijo OS 

• O "*< 1 OS 




O M O 

CO to o 






1 




00 






&i 


g-g^l 1 1 1 1 1 1 




< 




<M C-l O 




1 


03 


t- 00 o 




o 'O lo o 




S 


to 00 -s< 




^ I^ C<1 o 




rt ^ ^ 










-1 -' '-I 










tu 






M 


<a 'u 


o 


^ o 


□ 


•C3 

O "o • ... 






JS 


-gg 








a -i ^- • • • 

3 2 0^ ^ 




^ -2 t^ Op-o 





a 


—1 CO 

o w 
to r^ 

CO o 
t^ o 


CM 

CO 


^ cp 
W ^ ilo 
OS 


OS 
OS 




^ 


0O-- 

il'l 1 MM 


1 




CO rt 

>o oo 

CO o 


Mi 

to 
CO 


pH CO O 

CS 


C3S 

OS 




^ 


5i 1 1 1 M 1 1 




a 


to to 

00 t- 

CO CS 

CO o 

^ 6 


to 

CO 


to 00 
OS t^ 

K <N to 

OS 


tjs 

CS 




- 


i^l I M M 1 
< 


00 
00 

1—1 

o' 

CO 

tj 

O 
s 


O" 


CO OS C<1 

CO CS CO 
CO O f 

^6 ^ 


00 00 o 
Its 00 o 

K^tbc 


to 

OS 

OS 


0. 


CS 

l\\ 1 MM 1 

1-5 


Q 

11160 
0-3166 

1 4320 




=- 


o 

S^ 1 1 MM 1 




C 


-H to O 
O CO o 

o o 6 


00 
CO 


MM 


1 




Ch 


oo" 

S2i i MM 


1 




CS 


to — 1 o 
CO .^ o 

CO .* -K 

1.- 1~ ^ 

6 6.^ 


1 


lO <Q O 


1 




a 

03 

a 


Sodium chloride . 
Potassium chloride 
Water. 

NaCl . 
KCl . 
H.,0 . 



1887. 



50 



REPORT 1887. 
















CO 

00 

.— 1 














HO 












1 


















dt -*• 


t- 


^ 




o o 




-^ -H 


o 




<y 


00 n 






C: 










OO rt 


o 


a 




^ O 


^ 






.^ 






















-o 




^--"^ 1 








■•^ 


Pi 


>o >> 


1 


1 1 1 1 


1 


CO 




co^ 1 








^ 




i-:i 








^ 






























lO t- O 


C-I 






t^ — ■ O 


QO 


t- ^ o 






O' 




S-1 


Oh A. 1^-6 


C3 








-f 


00 rt 


05 






rH OO 


'-* 










co" 












-^ "H t- 










Ph 


S^2 


\ 


111! 


1 










"O lO — ■ 








^ <MO 










S 


-. 1:- -* 
(M CC •* 
6 6-^ 


1 


Si -i '^ 


1 






0) 




































o-S 










?! 


TS O 














































J3 


^g 










CO 


.2 11 

02 PM >? 




^oO 










IziWK 







a 


05 tC 
CO CO 

66 


§ 


R 

53-95 
43-31 


CD 

OS 




^ 


i|i 1 1111 1 




a 


00 Hi< 
00 f- 

6 6 


CO 

o 


05 -* 

Ph^ CO 

lO Ttl 


eo 

CO 
05 




Ph 


i^i 1 1 1 1 1 1 




a 


(M >0 

to lO 
t- 50 

6 6 




•^ Oi a 

pH CO in 6 

10 r)< 


CO 

m 
00 

C5 


lO 


^• 


CI 

i1 1 1 Mill 


ou 

GO 
rH 

CO 
1—1 


c 


CO -H -* 
C5 CO <N 

•9< CO CO 

t~ CO Ht( 

6 6 -^ 


MM 1 


.O 


Ph 


o 

i|i 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


O' 


o o 

O CO 

6 6 




II II i 


-* 
-^^ 


ft. 


sti 1 1 1 1 1 1 

< 




a 


00 o o 
00 — o 
I- t- o 

CD C- O 

6 66 


00 

c: 
-*< 


1 

1 II 1 1 




Ph 


Sss 1 MM 1 






05 o o 

U5 *^ O 
-*< 00 -t" 
i-H rH ^ 

6 6-^ 


1 


>o ic 

<M <>< 

^ CO CO 


1 




i 

c 


o 

V, 2. 

'S s . ... 

o o ... 

ill l§& 









ON 


THE EXPANSION OP SALINE 


SOLUTIONS. 




51 












^ lr~ 


^ 
















n 








<N O 


CO 


o -* 

«a=6 


lO 




















^ o 
























rHO 






o 


















O 


































0^ 








§" 1 


1 Mill 


















rH ^ 


CI 












a 








CI o 

-* o 


CO 
CO 


.. T T- O 












— 











^ 


1 


















t-T 




















(N -^ t^ 














Ph 








5|>2 


1 II II 1 












u 








r^ 






















•* M 


!>. 
















<^ 








O O 


lO 






















^ O 


CO 

'tl 


«<i56 


05 


















00 




'^ 








































00 

r-H 


•-=^' 1 






















§ g 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 


















I— 1 




















r-H 


Q 










































P 


-H C5 


CO 


o -- 














a 








OV lO 


in 




















^ 


CI o 

"* O 


CO 


«050 
C5 


C5 


I— 1 
















s 


CI 




















!>. 
















Ph 






rO 


3^1 


1 MM 1 


^ 

« 
















1— 1 
Ho 


< 




ft 










c 


O O -H 
CO IN t^ 

--H C-1 cc 
O CC O 

,:-( 6 -^ 


IN 

CO 
CI 


O re 
O lO 

CC o 

Tf. O 

r^ 6 


00 
CO 


-H t~ 

CO CO 
Wc-. 6 

C5 


CO 


CI >n 

C?o;o 1 

6 .H 


«5 


t^ Cl 


05 
CO 

6 

00 




o 




o 




5. 

GO 










Ph 




1 


Rl 


« >> 1 

►-5 


1 1 1 II 1 




^S 1 1 


1 


II 1 1 


1 




n 










•* CO O 


o 


^ o o 


•«*< 




t- lo a> 


^ 






l^ CO o o 
CI t^ o o 

P5 oo -^ 6 6 

t- CI o 


a 


o:) -^ CO 
00 o « 


CO 


'r* 


t^ M O 

CI i-l o 

r-4 CO O 


o 

-*i 




CO O O 

Co -H o 


lO 


o a; o 
Dio OS 6 


6 




O O p-l 


<N 


OQ 


-H 66 






O -H o 


^ 








00 




CO 














. rt t- 






i-H 














Ph 




1 




m^ 1 


1 Mill 




^^ 1 1 


1 


MM 


1 


08 


>o «o o 

"*< 00 CO 

rt -H 00 


1 


CD — 1 O 

CO CI o 

00 t-- ^ 

lO CO -*l 


i 


>o o 

O f5 CI O 

S <N tb ^ 


1 


CI 'ii O 
^ t- t- O 

^ CO ^ -* 

St"??" 


1 


O >0 «5 O 

g CI CI o 


1 




O O <M 






6 6.^ 




'^ 






rt o^ 










0) 






■rS . 




































s 


'C O 






-2 o 












a 

3 
DC 


is -^ . 
o o 






-Sa 






-r1 tH 

a 










2 1 35 
^ -H -g 

CO Pip: 






,__, 




2.2 S 














CO Oh? 






r/3 J ^ 









B a 



52 



REPORT — 1887. 





Q 

0-1386 
1-9107 
0-0950 


CO 

(>1 


1 M 1 




Ch 



lS>l 1 1 M 1 




j fe- o oc 
6^ — 




p 

472 

May 17, 

1887 




& 


'l. CO 

to 1 

■* ' 


to 



x^B 1 




^ 1 i1 1 1 MM 


00 
00 
l-H 


Q 

0-0005 
1-4443 

1-4448 


1 1 II 




P-( 




S|l 1 MM 

■-5 




O' 


05 

5 ^ 1 

6 ^ 


00 


[MM 


0. ■ 


E:5 1 1 MM 




a 


0-0031 
1 4459 
OOOOO 

1-4490 




»H 


CO 

5i| 1 1 MM 

a 




3 


to (^ 
CO CO 
00 CT -* 
>o -* ■* 
6 o-^ 


1 


Mo 
12-5 
12-5 
100 






Sodium chloride 
Lithium chloride 
Water 

NaCI .... 
LiCI . 







(N CO 


•0 


(MO (M 






Oi OO , 


I— 


<M 1 Oi 




c 


^c 1 















t» t~ ! OS 






(M 


C^l 








■^'" 




t( 


476 
May 1 

1887 






to cs >o 


OS CC 


t^ 






Oi 10 , in 


. . cs •*< c 


-* 




c 


ri 1 S 


Oi^-^o 










C<1 t- 


OS 






ON N 










<M 






(N 










Ph 


"6 1 

CO (3^ ' ' 

P 






»o ■* 


CI 








to 00 , 








(^ 


CO IM 
to (M 1 


to 

CO 

IN 


M II 1 


«£> 






(X) 




(M 


00 






r- 


(L, 


o» bb 1 1 MM 1 








CO 




<! 


OJ 






»s 










^ 




05 T»< 


CO 






i-H CO , 










C>l -*i 


to 








to CM ' 


CO 




^ 

s 




M 


« 








s 




C» 


^ 




t- '"' II' 


tO 


Pi 


•r-b 1 1 1 N 1 1 


'•^ 




^^ 


CO 












1 







« •* 
tc 10 


to 






c 


to ^ 
■^ -»< 
6 c<ic 


00 


MM 1 






1 ^ 1 






<M 




Ph 


62 

March 






■~o t- 




10 U5 








CO CO c 


, 


! c*^ IN 






S 


ip -t< CO 

6 6 « 


1 


gtc to -" 

1 


1 






a>^ • • • • 




V 


'O.a 










C 


S 












'^ ^ ■ ' 




.^ 


-5 " 










'/3 


Sodium 
Lithiuu 
Water 

NaCI . 
LiCI . 
H,0 . 



ON THE EXPANSION OF SALINE SOLUTIONS. 



53 





-H r^ -*< 


cq 


to CO CC 


(N 


c 










00 N to 


t^ 


^ oc >b ^ 

<M f <M 






C -H 


IM 



























(U 




1 


MM 


1 




rH -t< W 


(M 




05 


a 


00 00 •* 








to n !M 


N 


^a; to N 


Ttl 
















C^l 








^- 










t-"^^ 








Cm 


3 
1-5 


1 


1 M 1 


1 




r3 










.« 01 


^ 






\ 
1 


put 
stopp 

tie, 




1 M 1 


1 




fe of 


u 








^ bj 








!zi 










m M to 


»*< 


-- C5 us 


«s 


<y 


oq — ■* 


00 






^ "* t- 

i-H C3 to 


IN 


^ cn « i) 
ec 10 


05 






!N 








^ 


















fk 


2§ 1 


1 


1 M 1 


1 




-w cS 






























td a 










(D — ' 








1 


-=5 ^ 


1 


1 1 1 1 


1 




g'-ga 


















3 &M 


















P 










00 C5 








a 


— 1 rH 




»5 <N 




s 


(N N 00 

6 6 t« 


1 1 


^ K M 


1 




^-S • 








u 










d 


II- 








,J5 










tn 


a s 
3.2 s 




NaCl. 
LiCl . 
H,0 . 





tj 





to 


CC 




a 




00 


2 




IM (M 


I-— 


<M 




"^ rl 


rj 







,_, 






au, 


CO 3 1 


1 


1 








CO 






a 











(M 




>0 








CT3 


CO 


N 










CO 


lO 



"SO) — 

te 2 oT 0) 2 





_ 





>o 






C>1 


CO 


CO 










CO 






CO 


-* 


-f 


IM 










■* 






Q 



3 a bo 

Q 



54 REPOET — 188". 

A.l is evidently completed. The condition at the end of 314 days is 
practically the same as that at the end of 460 days. The potassium 
chloride retains only a few milligrams of water. At the end of 534 
days the potassium chloride has gained 1-4 milligram, while the sodium 
chloride has lost 2'8 milligi-ams. These numbers represent the change 
between the 260th and the 534th day. The quantities are so small that 
they may be due to unavoidable errors of experiment. It is to be noted, 
however, that the period is a hot one, including as it does the month of 
July, during which the average daily minimum was 66° F., and the 
average daily maximum 78° F. Other observations made in the course 
of these experiments have led us to believe that the distribution of the 
water is appreciably affected by the temperature. It has been shown by 
Wiillner (Jahresber., 1860, 47-49), that the effect of salts in solution 
in decreasing vapour tension is increased by rise of temperature. From 
this it follows that invapoi-ation is more powerful at high than at low 
temperatures, and we would expect this effect to be different for different 
salts. 

A.2 is still in progress, but invaporation from the potassium chloride 
to the sodium chloride is proceeding so slowly (a little over one centigram 
during the last 221 days !) that the limit must be nearly reached. 

A.3 is not yet completed. Water is still passing from the potassium 
chloride to the sodium chloride. 

A.4 is almost, if not quite, in equilibrium, and it is to be observed 
that the ratio in which the water is divided does not depart far from 
unity. 

A. 5, in progress for a year, shows that after sufficient dilution, 
potassium chloride invaporates more rapidly than sodium chloride. 

Series B includes the experiments made to show the effect of in- 
creasing the relative pi'oportion of sodium chloride. A comparison of 
B.l with A.2 shows that increasing the relative proportion of sodium 
chloi-ide causes more rapid invaporation, and, when the quantity of water 
is small, more comjDlete desiccation of the potassium chloride. The 
quantity of water remaining with the potassium chloride after the ISlst 
day is fairlj' constant, and it is to be observed that the maxima come 
immediately after the hot months (vide supra). 

Series D includes experiments V., VI., and VII., of our previous 
report (see D.l, D.2, and D.3). A study of D.4 shows that, after a 
certain degree of diluteness is attained, sodium chloride invaporates more 
rapidly than lithium chloride, and it seems probable that, given enough 
water, sodium chloride would invaporate as much as, if not more than, 
lithium chloride. 

A check experiment was made by using two equal weights of sodium 
chloride placed in tubes of nearly the same diameter, and allowing them 
to invaporate water. If the conditions were the same in the two tubes, 
and did not vary from part to part of the enclosed space, invaporation 
would go on at the same rate in the tubes. The small differences 
observed are easily explained. In tube No. 68 a small quantity of the 
salt remained as fine powder on the sides of the tube. This, deliquescing 
rapidly, exposed a large invaporating surface, and thus during the first 
period No. 68 gained water more rapidly than No. 67. This advantage 
disappeared as soon as the solution adhering to the walls became very 
dilute. Then, during the second period. No. 67 invaporated more 
rapidly than No. 68. This was owing to the fact that the diameter of 



ON THE EXPANSION OF SALINE SOLUTIONS. 55 

No. 67 was sliglitly greater than that of No. 68, so that the solution in 
No. 67 exposed a larger invaporating surface. This second cause of 
variation is not so great as the first. 

An interesting comparison could be made between the results of 
invaporation experiments and the vapour tensions of the corresponding 
saline solutions ; but it will be necessary to await the completion of a 
suflBcient number of experiments to permit the plotting of curves, in 
order that the comparison may be advantageously made. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Tilden, Professor 
KAMS.iT, and Dr. W. W. J. Nicol (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose, of Investigating the Nature of Solution. 

Supersaturation of Salt Solutions.^ — The various physicalconstants of 
supersaturated and non-saturated solutions were examined in two ways. 
(1) Starting with a non-saturated solution of a salt at a high tempera- 
ture it was allowed to cool and thus to become more and more concen- 
trated till it reached its saturation point, while on further fall of tempera- 
ture it became supersaturated; (2) solutions of the salt were prepared 
of definite strengths, extending equal distances on either side of the 
saturation point, and their physical properties were examined at a definite 
temperature (20° C). The salts examined were the following: — 

Sodium sulphate, sodium phosphate, sodium thiosulphate, sodium 
carbonate, zinc sulphate, magnesium sulphate. 

The physical constants examined were — 

Rate of expansion, specific viscosity, molecular volume, and electrical 
conductivity. 

In no case did the curves representing the change in the value of the 
physical constants with temperature or concentration exhibit the slightest 
change in direction above or below the saturation point. 

These experiments show that there is no marked change in the physi- 
cal properties of a solution when it becomes supersaturated either through 
fall of temperature or by the addition of salt. No n- saturated, saturated, 
and supersaturated solutions have therefore the same constitution ; they 
differ only in degree, not in kind. 

Specific Viscosity of Salt Solutions.— The experiments in this direction 
are incomplete, but new forms of apparatus have been devised which have 
yielded highly satisfactory results. 

Preliminary experiments have been made with NaCl, KCl, NaNOs, 
and KNO3 in diff'erent strengths of solution, the general result being to 
cast doubts on some of the results obtained by Hannay as to the propor- 
tionality of the retardation of flow and the amount of salt present. 

The forms of the curves for the sodium salts are essentially the same, 
but differ completely from those for the corresponding potassium salts, 
the latter having a minimum time of flow at a strength of 2 to 3 molecules 
of salt per 100 water molecules and approximately the same rate as pure 
water when tc=5 for KNO3 and KCl. 

A large number of further experiments will be required before the 



I 



Journ. Chcm. Soc 1887, p. 389. 



56 



IlEPORT — 1887. 



work is suflSciently advanced to justify the drawing of general conclusions 
from it. 

Change of volume on the precipitation of hariiim sulphate hy various 
sulphates. 

Two series of experiments have been completed, one with solutions 
containing one equivalent of the salts in 50 molecules of water, the other 
with solutions of half this strength. The results ai-e as follows : — VC. is 
the change of volume in cubic centimetres resulting on the mixture of the 
solution of barium chloride containing 1 gram equivalent with excess of 
the precipitant. 



BaCl9a;Hr,0 -i- Excess. 



M. x = 100 

Li, . 

Na'j . 
K„ 
Cd . 
Mg . 
Zn . 
Co . 
Cu . 
Ni . 
Fe . 
Mn . 



MSO.a;H,0. 



VC. 


M. 


x=200 


— 


Li, . 




40-7 


Na„ . 




40-7 


K,". 




37-3 


Cd . 




36-2 


Mg . 




35-7 


Zn . 




34-7 


Co . 




34-8 


Cu . 




34-5 


Ni . 




350 


Fe . 




350 


Mn . 





VC. 
43-6 
43-5 
43-9 

40-4 
391 
38-6 
38-3 
38-1 
37-8 



the mean difference between corresponding members of the two series 
being 3'1, due to the different dilutions. 

It is to be noted that the first three metals yield closely agreeing 
results, and are marked off by a gap of 3'4 — 3'5 from the others, while 
these are all comprised within 2'8 — 2'6. It is probable that this different 
behaviour of the magnesian sulphates is due to the presence of water of 
constitution, cadmium forming a connecting link between this group and 
that of the alkali metals. 

Vapour Pressure of Salt Sohitions. — The work done has been confirmed 
to a great extent by Emden (Wied. 'Ann.' 1887, xxxi. 145), who employed 
the barometric method of experiment. He, however, maintains the truth 
of von Babo's law, that the vapour pressure of a solution at different 
temperatures always bears the same proportion to that of pure water, 
or p := AP ; where p = pressure from salt solution, P = from pure 
water, and A = a constant. This point is a most important one, for 
unless A varies with the temperature, there would be no reason why a 
salt should change in solubility with rise of temperature, or at any rate 
why the solubility of all salts should not vary equally with change of 
temperature. 

In order to settle this question new apparatus has been devised 
whereby water and salt solution can be compared under precisely similar 
conditions, and it is proposed to extend the observations from ordinary 
temperatures up to 100° C, advantage being taken of Professors Ramsay's 
and Toung's methods of maintaining constant temperatures by means of 
the vapour of liquids boiling under definite pressures. 



ON THE BIBLIOGEAPHT OF SOLUTION. 57 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, McLeod, 
Pickering, and Kamsat, and Drs. Young, A. R. Leeds, and 
NicoL (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting on 
the Bibliogixiphy of Solution. 

A CIRCULAR was issued to the members of the Committee, enclosing a 
proposed classification and list of jouz-nals, and asking for suggestions as 
to alterations, additions, &c. As a result of the answers to this circular, 
the following classification was adopted : — 

Classification. 
Class A. — Theoretical. 

Section 1. Without original experimental work. 
„ 2. With original experimental work. 

„ B. — Determinatimi of Solubilities. 
Section 1. Solids "I 

„ 2. Liquids [ in liquids. 
„ 3. Gases J 

„ C. — Physical Properties of Solutions. 

Section 1. Densities and molecular volumes. 
„ 2. Dilatation. 
„ 3. Freezing-points. 
„ 4. Vapour pressures and boiling-points. 
„ 5. Capillarity. 
„ 6. Diffusion. 
,, 7. Refraction and dispersion. 
„ 8. Rotatory power. 
„ 9. Blagnetic rotatory power. 
,, 10. Absorption spectra. 

„ D. - Thermo-chemical Data. 

Section 1. Specific heat. 

,, 2. Heat of solution, precipitation, &c. 

Note. — Papers not coming under any of the above will be included under 
Miscellaneous. 

The list of journals is as follows : — 

List of Journals. 

To he referred to hy miniber in classifying slips. 

1. ' American Journal of Science and Arts.' 

2. ' Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.' 

3. Proceedings of the above. 

4. 'Annals of Philosophy.' 

5. ' Philosophical Magazine.' 

6. The ' Edinburgh Journal of Science ' (Brewster). 

7. Nicholson's 'Journal of Natural Philosophy.' 

8. The ' Chemical Gazette.' 

9. The ' Chemical News.' 

10. The ' Laboratory.' 

11. 'Nature.' 

12. The ' Pharmaceutical Journal.' 

13. ' Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.' 

14. ' Philosophical Transactions,' R.S.L. 



58 REPORT— 1887. 

List op Journals — (^continued). 

15. Proceedings of the above. 

16. ' Philosophical Transactions,' R.S.E. 

17. Proceedings of the above. 

18. ' Memoirs of the Roj'al Irish Academy.' 

19. ' Journal of the Chemical Society of London.' 

20. Liebig's ' Annalen.' 

21. Gilbert's, PoggendorfE's, and Wiedemann's 'Annalen.' 

22. Schweigger's ' Journal.' 

23. Kolbe's ' Journal fiir Practische Chemie.' 
21. Fresenius' ' Zeitschrift.' 

25. Carl's ' Eepertorium.' 

26. ' Chemisches Centralblatt.' 

27. ' Sitzung berichte d. k. Acad, der Wissen. Wien.' 

28. ' Berichte d. Deut. Chem, Gesellschaft. Berlin.' 

29. ' Annales de Chimie et de Physique.' 
.30. ' Bulletin de Pharmacie.' 

31. ' Journal de Phannacie.' 

32. ' Comptes Rendus.' 

33. ' Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris.' 

34. ' Gazetta Chimica Italiana.' 

The following members of the Committee undertook to look over the 
following journals : — 

Professor Tilden. — ' Annales de Chimie et de Physique,' the ' Pliarmaceutical 
Journal.' 

Professor McLeod.- -'Proceedings of the Royal Society.' 

Professor Pickering. — ' Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and 
Edinburgh,' ' Proceedings of the Royal Society, Edinburgh.' 

Professor Ramsay. — ' Journal of the Chemical Society,' ' Comptes Rendus.' 

Dr. Young. — Liebig's ' Annalen.' 

Dr. NiCOL. — ' Annals of Philosophy,' ' Philosophical Magazine,' the ' Edinburgh 
Journal of Science,' Nicholson's ' Journal of Natural Philosophy,' ' Journal 
of the Society of Chemical Industry,' Gilbert's, Poggendorff's, and Wiede- 
mann's ' Annalen,' Schweigger's ' Journal,' Carl's ' Repertorium.' 

The classification and list of journals was issued to the members who 
had undertaken work along with the classification slips. 

Directions for Filling up the Classifying Slips. 

The titles of papers are to be given in full in the original language. 

Other references will, as a rule, be left blank, but may be used for the 
original reference when the paper is a translation. 

Papers en electrical constants of solutions, unless they come under 
Class A, are to be passed over. 

Papers containing experimental work, unless professedly theoretical, 
will come in classes B, C, and D. 

The volume number is to be given in ordinary, not Roman figures. 

The periodical is to be referred to by its number in the accompanying 
list. 

With the following circular enclosed : — 

Biemingham, March 21, 1887. 

B. A. Committee. — Bibliography of Solution. 

Bear Sir, — I have sent you by this post a number of classifying slips, 
and enclose a revised list of journals and classification. I wish also to 



ON THE BIBLIOGEAPHY OF SOLUTION. 59 

draw your attention to the directions to be followed in filling up the slips 
which you will find on the other side of this. 

If you will kindly send me the sli^DS in small batches as they are filled 
up it will greatly facilitate the work of filling in the other references. 

Yours truly, 

W. W. J. NicoL, Secretary. 

The result of the work up to the present has been that the whole of 
the following journals have been searched: — 

' Annals of Philosophy.' 

' Edinburgh Journal of Science.' 

(' Brewster,' ' Jameson,' and the ' New Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.') 

Nicholson's ' Journal.' 

Schweigger's ' Journal.' 

Gilbert's ' Annalen,' Wiedemann's ' Annalen.' 

Carl's ' Repertorium.' 

In all 369 volumes. 

Portions of the following have been searched : — 

' Philosophical Magazine.' 

PoggendorS's ' Annalen.' 

Liebig's ' Annalen.' 

' Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society, Edinburgh.' 

In all 219 volumes. 

These 588 volumes contained the following papers :- 

A. 1 = 11; 2 = 12 2.3 

B. 1 = 80; 2 = 2; 3 = 31 113 

C. 1 = 38; 2 = 10; 3 = 5; 4 = 19; 5 = 5; 6 = 26; 7 = 5; 8 = 9; 

9 = 1; 10 = 2 120 

D. 1 = 14; 2=16 30 

Miscellaneous fJ!) 

Total 355 

The Committee would recommend as members of the Committee 
other gentleman who have access to the journals on the list, and who 
would be willing to take an active share in the work. 



I 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Eay Lankestek, 
Mr. P. L. ScLATEE, Professor M. P'oster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
MosELET, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of maJcing arrangements for assisting the Marine 
Biological Association Laboratory at Plyinouth. 

Your Committee have pleasure in stating that the building for the 
Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth is approach- 
ing completion. 

Your Committee report that they have paid to the Marine Biological 



60 



REPORT- 1887. 



Association the sum of 501., placed at their disposal for that purpose ; and 
they hope that the Council will continue theii' support to this national 
undertaking, and that the grant may be not only renewed but increased 
for the ensuing year. 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of IN'Ir. K. Etheridge, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. Rdpert Jones (Secretary), 
on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palceozoic Rocks, 1887. 



§ I. Ceratiocaris tyrannus and C. 

patula. 
§ II. Scandinavian Phyllocarida. 

1. Ceratiocaris Angelini, sp, n. 

2. C. Bohemica, Barrande. 

3. 4, 5. G, Bohemica, varieties. 

6. Ceratiocaris, sp. nov. 

7. C. concinna, sp. nov. 

8. C. Scharyi, Barr., var. 

9. C. pectinata, sp. nov. 

10, 1\. Phasgarwcaris pitgio (Barr)., 
var. serrata, nov. 



§ III. JDithyrocaris. 

I. Upper-Carboniferous Species. 

II. Lower-Carboniferous Species 

and Specimen formerly re- 
ferred to Bithyrocaris. 

III. Devonian Species of Bithy- 

rocaris. 

IV. Silurian Specimens formerly 

referred to Bithyrocaris. 
§ IV. Leaia. 

List of known Species of Leaia. 
§ V. Palseozoic Species of Estheria. 



§ I. Ceratiocaris tteannus and C. patula. — Continuing our researches 
on the Ceratincaricles, especially with a view to a monograph in preparation 
for the PalEeontographical Society, we have found that the species which 
we proposed to name Ceratiocaris attenuata (Fourth Report, Brit. Assoc. 
Rep. for 1886, p. 230) is really the same as C. tyrannus, Salter MS., and 
of course we adopt the latter name. 

The term lata having been already applied to a species of Ceratiocaris, 
we use the designation patula for the little Lower-Ludlow form named 
lata in our Fourth Report. 

§ II. Scandinavian PHYLLOCAEiDA.^Some Phyllocarida from the 
Silurian strata of Scandinavia (Sweden and the island of Gothland) are 
represented by specimens in the State Museum at Stockholm. Draw- 
ings, casts, or the specimens themselves have been shown to us by our 
friend Professor Gustav Lindstrom, F.C.G.S., and we have arrived at 
the following conclusions as to their relationships [all except the first 
(Ceratiocaris Angelini) are from Upper- Silurian strata] : — 

1. Ceratiocaris Angelifii, sp. nov. — A long, stout, trifid caudal append- 
age, consisting of the style or telson (145 mm. long, and 17 mm. broad at 
the top) and two stylets (each 75 mm. long) lying close together. One 
of the latter has been broken across by a crush, and the former is not quite 
perfect at the tip (possibly 15 mm. longer or more originally). The 
lower (ventral) surface only is shown. The articulation of the stylets 
with and beneath the shoulders of the style — that is, under the backward 
extension or overhanging hinder edge of its head or proximal end — is 
very distinct. The upper edge of this part of the style (the surface arti- 
culating with the ultimate segment) has an undulated profile, with two 
small, projecting, asymmetrical, curved, horn-like processes. 

The style on thisits lower aspect has a deep groove along the middle 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC EOCKS. 61 

of its upper moiety (obscured at the top), becoming narrow lower down. 
A slight groove on each side is also present. No delicate ridging is seen, 
nor any pits for bases of prickles. The stylets are smooth, and apparently 
subtriangnlar in section, each bearing one strong ridge on the upper part 
of the under face (as exposed). 

In these features this form differs from C. Bohemwa,^ Barrande, the 
telson of which is not deeply furrowed on its ventral (under) face ; and 
the latter species has longer stylets, oval in section, and neatly ridged 
throughout. 

The Scandinavian specimen occurs, as an impression, in hard black 
shale ('Brachiopod-Skiffer') from the Lower- Silurian (Upper-Caradoc) 
of Westergotland (Westrogothia), a province in the western part of the 
mainland of Sweden. It has been badly figured in Angelin's unpublished 
' Tab. LIIL' (figs. 18 and 19). 

All the following are from the Upper- Silurian : — 

2. G. Bohemica, Barr. — Portions of the shafts of straight, strong styles 
(telsons), similar to that of C. Bohemica, and chiefly from the middle 
and lower parts of the styles. In section these Scandinavian specimens 
are not so oblong as in Barrande's figs. 7 and 9 (pi. 19, ' Syst. Sil. 
Boheme,' vol. i. Suppl.), and the ridging on the lower face is somewhat 
stronger. (One piece=fig. 5 of Angelin's unpublished Table B.) 

From the cream-coloured limestone (Wenlock Shale) of Eksta, Goth- 
land. 

3. A piece of telson of the same kind as the above. Shown by a 
drawing from Stockholm. From the ("Wenlock Shale) Sandstone of 
Bursvik, South Gothland. 

4. C. Bohemica, Barr., var. ? — A fragment of strong thick telson in 
cream-coloured limestone, differing from G. Bohemica : (1) in being curved 
(the convexity being dorsal, on the upper surface), (2) in having the 
two pitted ridges lower down on the side, and (3) in the under surface 
being more strongly ridged than in G. Bohemica. In some respects it 
approaches C. valida, J. and W. In whitish limestone with Strophomena, 
Trilobites, Tentaculites, Encrinites, &c. (Wenlock Limestone), from 
Rone, Gothland. 

5. G. Bohemica, var. ? — A small fragment from Lau, Gothland, in 
cream- coloured fossiliferous limestone (Wenlock). It tapers rather rapidly, 
bears several thin ridges, and is oval in section. It may be a part of a 
stylet of some variety of G. Bohemica, for that species has its stylets 
ridged throughout. 

6. Geratiocaris, sp. nov. ? — A fragment of a style or a stylet. It is 
somewhat like the last (5), but the ridges are fewer, broader, and 
rounded. This is a drawing sent from Stockholm. The specimen 
(Mus. Geol. Survey, Sweden) was from Frojel, Gothland (Wenlock 
Shale). 

7. Geratiocaris concinna, sp. nov. — A small portion of a straight, rapidly 
tapering style, convex on the upper, and concave along the lower face, with 
a half-moon-shaped section in the upper, and more oblong in the lower 
part. Two rows of small pits along the back, one on each side of the raised 
middle. The test is of a dull, light chesnut tint ; it is hollow and filled 
with limestone. From Frojel, Gothland. This tapering telson (7 mm. 
broad at the top, and 4^ mm. at the end of the fragment 15 mm. long) 

' Sijst. Sil Boheme, vol. i. Supplement, p. 447, pi. 19, figs. 1-13. 



62 REPOBT — 1887. 

dififers from any we know of, thoagli it approaclies that assigned to G. 
patula, J. and W. It is very neat in aspect and might be called concinna. 

8. G. Scharyi, Barrande, var. — Seven abdominal segments (first and 
last imperfect), some with the test, some shown only by impressions ; 
crushed laterally, and showing the whole half from the back to the epimeral 
border. In shape they are not unlike those of C. »9cAari/i, Barrande. They 
are ornamented with a strong leaf-like lattice-pattern, as in that species, 
but the lattice-pattern dies out into irregular oblique lines on the lower 
part of each segment (as in G. stygia, &c.), instead of being continued all 
over it as in G. Schariji ; nor is the smaller (secondaiy) lattice-work inside 
each leaf-mark so distinct as in that species, but presents merely a wrinkled 
appearance. (This is part of fig. 1 in Angelin's unpublished Table B.) 

In hard blue micaceous shale (Ludlow), from the lake Ringsjon, 
Scania. 

9. Ceratiocaris pedinata, sp. nov. — A portion of an ultimate segment 
(14x6 mm.), with a telson (fragment 30 mm.) and one stylet (not quite 
perfect, 22 mm.). The segment retains scarcely any of the test, but shows 
traces of an ornament of irregular small tubercles and interrupted lon- 
gitudinal lines, and the distal margin of the segment has a coarse 
comb-like fringe, consisting of a regular set of thin elongate tubercles, 
reminding us of the di op-like tubercles on marginal parts of some 
Eurypterids. (Fig. 2 in Angelin's unpublished Table B.) 

The head of the telson is wrinkled longitudinally, and both the style 
and the stylet are ridged and furrowed. This form is new to us. Its 
comb-like fringe suggests the name fectinata. 

In earthy micaceous blue-grey limestone, from the Ringsjon, Scania. 

10. PJiasganocaris, Novak. — Phasganocaris pugio {Bsirr.), var. serrata, 
nov. — Flattened pieces of tapering, riband-like telsons, with a central 
line, sometimes raised, but usually sunken, which was originally a ridge 
in all probability. From it, on each side, numerous parallel, oblique, 
sigmoid lines pass downwards and outwards, and these end at the edges 
with sharp upward curves, defining the small subtriangular teeth of a 
serrated fringe. This is of varying strength, and is sometimes backed 
by a slio'ht ridge. Except in the serrated edges these specimens cor- 
respond in essential pai'ticulars with the dorsal aspect of the triangular 
or bayonet-like lower portion of the telsons referred by Barrande to 
Eurypterus,^ but by 0. Novak, lately and with precision, to his new 
genus Phasganocaris."^ 

The fragments, dark brown and chitinous in appearance, are in an 
earthy yellowish grey limestone (Lower- Ludlow) from Vattenfallet (the 
"Waterfall), near Wisby, Gothland. 

11. Phasganocaris pugio (Barr.), var. serrata, nov. — A longer and 
narrower piece of a telson, badly preserved, much crushed and wrinkled, 
but retaining some convexity, and its upper end showing a slightly 
triangular section. Dark brown and chitinou^ in a blue-grey, calcareous, 
and finely micaceous shale (Ludlow), from the Ringsjon, Scania. 

§ III. DiTHYROCAEis.^ — This genus, as recognised by its carapace and 
abdominal appendages, is now known in three of the Paleozoic formations, 

• E. pugio, Barr., Sil. Si/st. BoMnie, vol. i. Suppl. p. 564, pi. 26, figs. 25-34, and pi. 
34, figs. 7-9. 

2 Ph. pugio, Novak, Sit:tin//sh. k. bohm. Genell. Wissensch., 1886, pp. 1-4, pi. 1. 
s Referred to in the First Report, 1883, Brit. Assoc. Reports for 1883, p. 216. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC KOCKS. 63 

namely, the Upper and the Lower Carboniferous (especially in the latter), 
and the Devonian, of Europe, the British Isles, and North America. 
The following list indicates the geological horizons and the localities. 
There are two species from the Coal-measures of the United States, 
twelve from the Lower- Carboniferous of the Continent and British Isles 
(chiefly from Lanarkshire in Scotland), and six Devonian species. 

DiTHTROCARis, Scouler, 1843. 

Argas, Scouler, ' Records of General Science ' (Thomson's), vol. i 
1835, p. 136. 

Dithyrocaris, Scouler in Portlock's ' Geol. Report Londonderry, &c ' 
1843, p. 313. 

Bithyrocaris, M'Coy, ' Ann. M. N. H.' ser. 2, vol. iv. 1849, p. 395. 

Dithyrocaris, Morris, ' Catal. Brit. Foss.,' 1854, p. 107. 

Bithyrocaris, Woodward and Etheridge, 1870, 1873, 1879, &c. 

Bithyrocaris and Argus \_Argas'], Packard, ' Monogr. Phyll. Americ.,' 
1883, p. 451. 

I. Upper- Carboniferous Species of Dithyrocaris. 

1. Bithyrocaris carbonaria, M. and W., 1873. 

Bithyrocaris (?) carbonarius. Meek and Worthen, ' Geol. Survey of 
Illinois,' vol. v. (Geology and Palaeontology), 1873, p. 618, pi. 32, 
f. la, lb. 

B. carbonaria, Miller, ' Catal. Pal. Foss. Amer.,' 1877, p, 217. 

Carboniferous. — Middle Coal-measures, Danville, Illinois. 

2. Bachura [probably Bithyrocaris'] venosa, Scudder, 1878, ' Proceed. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,' vol. xix. pp. 296, 2^7, pi. 9, f. 3, 3a ; Packard, 
' Monogr. N.-Amer. Phyll.,' 1883, p. 452. 

Carboniferous. — Coal-measures ; Danville, Illinois. 

II. — Lower-Carboniferous Species of Dithyrocaris. 

1. Bithyrocaris tricornis, Scouler, 1835. 

Argas tricornis, Scouler, ' Records of General Science ' (Thomson's), 

vol. i. 1835, pp. 137, 141, fig. 2. 
Bithyrocaris tricornis, Morris, ' Cat. Brit. Foss ' 1854, p. 107. 
B. tricornis, W. and E.. 'Mem. Geol. Surv. Scotl, Expl. Sheet 23,' 

lh73, p. 99 ; ' Geol. Mag.,' 1873, pp. 483, 486, pi. 16, f. 2 and 3. 
Lower-Carboniferous. — One mile south-east of Paisley, Renfrewshire ; 

East Kilbride, Lanarkshire. 

2. Bithyrocaris testudinea, Scouler, 1835. 

Argas testudineus, Scouler, ' Records of General Science ' (Thomson's), 

vol. i. 1835, pp. 137, 141, f. 3. 
Bithyrocaris Scouleri, M'Coy, ' Syn. Carb. Foss. Irel.,' 1844, p. 163, 

pi. 23, f. 2. 
B. testudineus, Morris, ' Catal. Brit. Foss.,' 1854, p. 107. 
D. testudineus, W. and B., 'Mem. Geol. Surv. Scotl, Expl. Sheet 

23,' 1873, .p. 98 ; ' Geol. Mag.,' 1873, p. 482, pi, 16, f. 1. 
B. testudineus, Etheridge, ' Q. J. G. S.,' xxxv. 1879, p. 465, pi. 23, 

f . 1 
Lower-Carbo7iiferous. — Near Paisley, Renfrewshire ; East Kilbride, 

Lanarkshire ; New Castleton, Roxburghshire. 

3. Dithyrocaris Colei, Portlock, 1843. 

' Geol. Report Londonderry, &c.,' 1843, pp. 314, 565, 570, &c., pi. 1 2. 



64 EEPORT— 1887. 

(Specimens.) Mus.Pract. Geol.-^ = f. 4 and f . 5 ; -— = f. 1 and f. 6. 

/ 8 

Mus. Pracfc. Geol. D ^ = f, 2; ' Catal. Sil. Cambr. Foss., M. P. G.,' 

1865, p. 116. 
Lower-Garboniferous. — Tyrone Shales ; Clogher, Ireland. 
Derry Shales; Ballynascreen, Ireland. 
Carboniferous Limestone, Lower Shales ; Clogher, Tyrone. 
Low er- Carboniferous ; Craigenglen, near Glasgow; fide 'Catal. W.. 

Scot. Foss.,' 1876, p. 45. 

4. Dithyrocaris orhicularis, Portlock, 1843. 

'Geol. Report Londonderry, &c.,' 1843, p. 316 (not figured). 

Loiver- Carboniferous. — Ballynascreen Shale; Whitewater River, Derry. 

5. Dithyrocaris iemiistriata, M'Coy, 1844. 

Avicula jparadoxoides ? De Koninck, ' Descript. Anim. Foss. Carb.,' 

1842, p. 139, pi. 6, f. 6. 
Dithyrocaris tenuistriatus, M'Coy, ' Synops. Carbonif. Foss. Ireland,' 

1844, p. 164, pi. 23, f. 3. 
D. tenuistriatus, H. W., ' Report Brit. Assoc.,' August 1871. ' Geol. 

Mag.,' 1871, p. 106, pi. 3, f. 4. 
Morris, Packard, &c. 
(Specimens.) Loioer-Carbonifero7is.---Yine, Belgium; Robroystone, 

Lanarkshire. 
Lower-Carboniferous. — Ireland (no locality given) ; Robroystone (?) and 

Auchenbeg, Lanarkshire, Scotland-; Mountain-limestone, Settle, 

West Yorkshire. 

6. Dithyrocaris lateralis, M'Coy, 1852. 

' Brit. Pal. Foss. Cambridge Mus.,' 1852, p. 182, pi. 3 i, f. 36. 

The figure here referred to does not well represent the specimen in the 

Cambridge University Museum (W. Hopkins, Coll.). 
Lower-Carboniferous. — From the black bands over the main limestone 

of Derbyshire. 

7. Dithyrocaris granulata. Woodward and Etheridge, 1873. 

'Mem. Geol. Surv. Scotl., Expl. Sheet 23,' 1873, p. 99. 
' Geol. Mag.,' 1874, p. 108, pi. 5, f. 2 and 3. 
Lower- Carboniferous. — East Kilbride, Lanarkshire. 

8. Dithyrocaris glabra, W. and E., 1873. 

' Mem. Geol. Surv. Scotl, Expl. Sheet 23,' 1873, p. 99. 
' Geol. Mag.,' 1874, pp. 108, 109, pi. 5, f. 4 and 5. 
Lower-Carboniferous. — East Kilbride, Lanarkshire ; and Ardross Castle, 
Fife. 

9. Dithyrocaris ovalis, W. and E., 1873. 

'Mem. Geol Surv. Scotl., Expl. Sheet 23,' 1873, p. 100. 
' Geol. Mag.,' 1874, p. 107, pi. 5, f. 1. 
Lower-Carboniferous. — East Kilbride, Lanarkshire. 

10. Dithyrocaris, sp. indet. Etheridge, ' Q. J. G. S.,' xxxv. 1879, p. 465. 
Lower- Carboniferous. — Wardie Shales of the Calciferous-sandstone 

series, near Edinburgh. 

11. Dithyrocaris, sp. indet. Etheridge, ' Q. J. G. S,,' xxxv. 1879, p. 466, 

pi. 23, f. 2 and 3. 
Lower-Carboniferous. — Cement-stone group, near New Castleton, Rox- 
burghshire. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS. 65 

12. Diihtjrocaris, sp. indet. Etheridge, ' Q. J. G. S.,' xxxv. 1879, p. 467. 
Lower- Carhoniferous. — Cement-stone group, near New Castleton, Rox- 
burghshire. 

Specimen Formerly Referred to Dithyrocaris. 

[Dithyrocaris'] pholadomya, Salter MS., 1863, 'Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc.,' vol. xix. 1863, p. 92, note. 

D. pJioladomyia, Packard, 'Monogr. Phyllop. N. America,' 1883, p. 
452. 

(Specimen.) Mus. Pract. Geol. D *— , marked ' Dithyrocaris pholadi- 

formis,' Salter MS. In a dark micaceous sandstone of the Lower-Car- 
boniferous Limestone, Berwick-upon-Tweed. ' Catal. Sil. Cambr. Foss. 
M. P. G.,' 1865, p. 116. 

This specimen is probably allied to Saccocaris, Salter (1868 and 1873), 
First Report ' Pal. Phyll.,' 1883, p. 219. 

III. Devonian Species of Dithyrocaris. 

1. Dithyrocaris ? striata, W. and E., 1873. 

'Mem. Geol. Surv. Scot!., Expl. Sheet 28,' 1873, p. 100. 
'Geol. Mag.,' 1874, pp. 109, 110, pi 5, f. 6. 
' Catal. W.-Scot. Foss.,' 1876, p. 27. 

Devonian. — Lower Old Red Sandstone ; Carmichael Burn, 4<\ miles 
S.E. of Lanark. 

2. Dithyrocaris Belli, H. Woodward, 1871. 

D. striata, H. W., ' Brit. Assoc. Rep.,' 1870, sect, p, 90. 
D. Belli, H. W., ' Geol Mag.,' 1871, p. 106, pi. 3, f. 5. 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' August 1871. 

Miller, ' Catal. Pal. Foss. Amer.,' 1877, p. 217. 

D. striata, Bigsby, 'Dev.-Carb. Thesaurus,' 1878, p. 27. 

D. Belli, Packard, 'Monogr. N.-Amer. Phyll.,' 1883, p. 452. 
Devonian. — Middle-Devonian ; Gaspe. 

It is possible that the figure represents two opposite valves, reversed 
and overlapping on their inner margins. 

3. Dithyrocaris Neptuni, Hall, 1863. 

' Sixteenth Annual Report New-Tork State Museum,' 1863, Appendix 

D, p. 75, pi. 1, f. 9. 
' Palseont. New York,' vol. v. Part II.; 'Illustrations of Devonian 

Fossils,' 1876 ; pi. 22, f. 1-6, carapace and spines, Portage Group; 

pi. 23, f. 1-6, tail-spines, Hamilton and Portage Groups. 
Miller, ' Catal. Pal. Foss. Amer.,' 1877, p. 217, ' Chemimg Group.' 
Packard, ' Monogr. N.-Amer. Phyll.,' 1883, p. 452, woodcut, f. 73. 
Upper {and Middle ?) Devonian. — Hamilton and Portage Groups. 

4. Dithyrocaris Kochi, Ludwig, 1864. 

' Palseontographica,' vol. xi. p. 309, pi. 50, fjla, lb, Ic. ■/ / 

Devonian. — Near Herborn, in the Dillthal, Nassau. K 

6. Dithyrocaris breviaculeata, Ludwig, 1864. 

' Palseontographica,' vol. xi. p. 310, pi. 50, f. 2. 

Devonian. — Spirifer-sandstone Series, near the Butzbach, Nassau. 
6. (Specimen.) Near D. tenuistriata, M'Coy ; from the Cypridinen- 
Schiefer, near Saalfeld. 

1887. P 



66 REPORT — 1887. 

IV. Silurian Specimens Formerly Referreh to Dithyrocaris. 

1. [Dithyrocaris~\ aptyclioides, Salter, 1852 

= Peltocaris aftychoides, Salter, 1863. See the Second Report on the 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda, 1884', p. 92. 
Silurian . — Moffat, Scotland. 

2. [Dithyrocaris'] MurcMsoni, Geinitz, 1853. 

Geratiocaris Murchisoni (Agass.). See the Third Report on Palaeoz. 

Phyllop., p. 340. 
Silurian. — Saxony. 

3. [Dithyrocaris ?] longicauda, D. Sharpe, 1853. 

D. ? longicauda, D. Sharpe, ' Q. J. G. S.,' vol. ix. p. 158, pi. 7, f. 3. 
Geratiocaris ? longicauda, Jones and Woodward. Third Report on 

Palseoz. Phyllop. 1885, p. 354. 
Silurian. — Near Bussaco, Portugal. 

4. [Dithyrocaris'] Jaschei, F. A. Roiiier, 1855. 

' Pateontographica,' vol. v. p. 8, t. 2, f. 13 ; and vol. xiii. 18GC, p. 219, 

referring to Romer's ' Beitrag 111. 17. 13 ' (misspelt ' Ditryocharis '). 

[Dithyrocaris] Jaschei, Romer. Kayscr, ' Abhandl. Geol. S])ecialkart6 

von Preussen und Thiiringischen Staaten,' vol. ii. Heft 4, 1878, p. 

7, t. 1, f. 13, 13a. 

Silurian. — Near Ilsenberg, Hartz. 

Referring to Romer's 'Beitrag III., p. 120, t. 17, f. 2,' and giving 
more correct figures of the exterior and section. Doubtfully like a portion 
of a bivalved carapace, filled with matrix and broken across. 

Kayser, Hid. p. 8, t. 1, f. 14, also describes and figures a dubious 
fossil from the oldest Devonian rocks of the Hartz (the limestone of the 
Upper Sprakelbach), which, Kayser says, looks like a tail-spine of a 
Geratiocaris ; such, for instance, we may add, as G. jierornata, Salter ; see 
our Third Report, p. 352. It may, however, have belonged to a Placoid 
fish, as Kayser observes. A fragment of what may have been the 
valve of a Nothozoe (ibid. p. 9, t. 1, f. 15) was found in the same lime- 
stone. 

§ IV. Leaia. — Since the genns Leaia (mentioned in our First Report, 
1883, p. 217) was established in the ' Monograph of Fossil Estherite,' 
Pal. Soc, 1862, Appendix, p. 116, some other forms besides L. Leidyi 
have been recorded ; and several additional localities have been noticed, 
both for that species and L Williamsoniana and L. Salteriana, described 
originally as varieties. The original rlescription of the genus and of 
Leaia Leidyi (Lea) has been reproduced in Dr. A S. Packard's ' Mono- 
graph of North- American Phyllopod Crustacea,' 1883, pp. 356-358. 

In 1870 the history and nature of the genus Leaia were fully treated of 
by H. Laspeyres in the ' Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch.,' vol. xxii. pp. 
773, &c., with definite descriptions and good figures of five forms as 
specific types, distinguished by shape, proportions, and ornament — namely, 
L. Leidyi, Lea, p. 743, t. 16, f. 3 Jj. 'Williamsoniana, Jones, p. 743 
t. 16, f. 4; L. Baentschiana, Beyr. and Gein., p. 744, t. 16, f. 2 ; L. 'Wet- 
iiaensis, Laspeyres, p. 745, t. 16, f 1 ; and L. Salteriana, Jones, p. 744, 
t. 16, f. 5, the second, third, and fifth having previously been treated as 
varieties by their describers. This paper is noticed in the 'Neues Jahrb.,' 
1870, p. 922. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALiEOZOIC ROCKS. 67 

Goldenber?, in his ' Foss. Thiere Sfceinkohl. Saarbrucken,' Heft. II. 
1877, redescribed, with some figures, L. Leidyi and varr. Williamsoniana 
and Salteriana, Jones, p. 45, t. 2, f . 22, 33, adding an account of other forms. 

In 1879 R. Btheridge, jnn., gave a synopsis of the foregoing genus 
and species, with full references, in the 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' ser. 5 
vol. iii. p. "262, with the addition of the species L. Jonesii. 

All the known species of Leaia have been found in the Carboniferous 
series or in strata in close apposition above or below, as shown in the 
following list : — 

1. 1862. — Goal-measures of South "Wales, and the Lotvest-Carhoni- 
ferous or Uppermost-Devonian of Pennsylvania. 

Leaia Leidiji (Lea), Jones, 'Monogr. Foss. Esth. Pal. Soc.,' 1862, 
Appendix, p. 116, pi. 5, f. 11, 12. Figured also by Laspeyres and 
Goldenberg. 

2. 1862. — Goal-measures near Manchester and South "Wales. 

Leaia Williamsoniana, Jones. As a variety of L. Leidyi, ibid. 
p. 117, pi. 1, f. 19, 20. Figured also by Gokieuberg. 

3 1862. — Goal-meastires of South "Wales (?), and Lower Garboniferous 
of Fife. 

Leaia Salteriana, Jones. As a variety of L. Leidyi. Ibid. p. 119, 
pi. 1, fig. 1. Figured also by Laspeyres and Goldenberg. 

In the ' Geol. Mag.,' vol. vii. 1870, p. 219, doubts were expressed 
as to these forms being specifically distinguishable, but in view of H. 
Laspeyres' careful conclusions it may be right to treat the so-called 
varieties as distinct species. 

4. 1864. — Lower Permian ('Lower Dyas ') ; "Werschweiler, near 
Neunkirchen, not far from Saarbriioken, in the Treves district, Rhenish 
Prussia. 

Leaia Bcentschiaua, Beyrich and Geinitz, was so named as a variety 
of L. Leidyi by Beyrich, and as a species by Geinitz independently in 
1864; Beyrich's note, ' Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch.,' vol. xvi. 
1864, p. 364, bearing a ratlier earlier date than Geinitz's descriptive note 
in the ' Neues Jahrb.,' 1864, p. 657, and his fuller description in the 
' N. Jahrb ,' 1865, p. 389, t. 2, f. 2 a, a, & 3 a, a. 

In his paper on "Von Dcchen's Geological Map of the Saai'briicken Coal- 
field, &c , Dr. Weiss first noticed this fossil as being either a Fosidonomya 
or an Estheria, of a peculiar goose-foot shape, ' N. Jahrb.,' 1864, p. 656. 

In 1870 this species was carefully redescribed and well figured by 
H. Laspeyres, 'Zeitschr. d. g. Ges.,' vol. xxii. p. 744, t. 16, f 2, as L. 
Bainfscliiana. 

In 1873 and 1877 M. Goldenberg included this interesting fossil in 
his ' Fauna Sartepontana fossilis,' Heft I. p. 24, t. 1, f. 20, 21, and Heft 
II. p. 46, t. 2, f. 24, as a variety of L. Leidyi. 

In his 'Handbuch der Palaontologie,' vol. i. Part 8, 1885, p. 568, fig. 
758, Zittel gives both Leaia Leidyi, J. (after Jones), and L. Bcentschi- 
aua, Geinitz (after Goldenberg), but they are wrongly referred to in 
the text. 

5. 1868. — Goal-measures. Illinois. Lenia tricarinafa, Meek and 
"Worthen, ' Geol. Survey Illinois,' vol. iii. Geology and Palteontology, 
pp. 541^3, woodcuts on p. 540 (with Golpocaris), tigs. Bl, B2, B3, and C. 

6. 1870. — Goal-measures. "Wettin, Prussian Saxony, on the Saale. 
Leaia Wettinensis, Laspeyres, ' Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch,,' vol. 
xxii. p. 745, t. 16, f. 1 ; ' N. Jahrb.,' 1870, p. 922. 

f2 



68 - REPORT— 1887. 

7 1873 and 1877.- Coal-mea.tures. Saarbriicken, Rhenish Prussia. 
Leaia Leidyi, var. Klieveri, Goldenberg. ' Fauna Sar^p. foss.' or ' Foss. 
Thiere Steinkohl. Saarbriicken,' Heft I. 1873, p. 24, t. 1, f. 22; L. 
Klieverlana, Hid. Heft II. 1877, p. 46, t. 2, f. 20, 21. 

8. 1879. — Lower- Carboniferous series (Wardie Shales), near Edinburgh. 
Leaia Jonesii, R. Etheridge, jun., ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' ser. 5, vol. iii. 
p. 260, woodcuts, figs. 1 and 2. 

9. Other localities for Leaia (all in the Lower-Garhoniferous series) have 
been noticed : — 

Ironstone of the Wardie Shales, near Edinburgh, ' Geol. Surv. Scotl., 
Expl. Sheet 32,' 1861, pp. 30, 31 ; ' Geol. Mag.,' viii. 1871, p. 96 ; 
' Report Brit. Assoc' for 1871, sections, p. 109; ' Q. J. G. S.,' vol, xxxiv. 
pp. 5, 23. 

Ironstone at Clifton (under the eastern end of York Crescent, near the 
Post Office), Bristol. Fide Mr. R. S. Roper and Mr. W. Adams. 

Ironstone near (north of) Wemyss, Fife. ' Geol. Mag.,' 1874, 
p. 480. 

Lower-Carboniferous Shales, Nova Scotia, ' Geol. Mag.,' vol. ii. 1865, 
p. 60 ; ' Acadian Geology ' (J. W. Dawson), 1st edit. 1868, and 3rd edit. 
1878, pp. 131 and 256, fig. 78 e. Leaia Salteriana ? 

§ V. Palaeozoic Estheri^. — The following species are known : — 

1. Permian. 

Estheria exlgua (Eichwald, 1846), Jones, 1862. Russia. 
E. tenella (Jordan, 1850), Jones, 1862. Saxony ; Russia. 
E. nana (Ludwig, 1861), Geinitz, 1864. Not E. nana (De Koninck). 
Germany. 

E. PortlocJdi, Jones, 1862. Ireland. 
E. rugosa, Giimbel, 1864. Thuringia. 

2. Upper-Caeboniferous. 

Estheria striata (Miinster, 1826), Jones, 1862. Bavaria ; Belgium ; 
England. 

Estheria nana (De Koninck, 1842), Geinitz, 1864. Liege, Belgium. 
E. tenella (Jordan, 1850), Jones, 1862. P!]ngland ; Scotland ; 
South Wales ; France (?); Germany; Spain. 

E. striata, var. Beinertiana, Jones, 1862. England ; Silesia. 

var. Binneyana, Jones, 1862, England. 

E. Adamsii, Jones, 1870. South Wales. 

Saarbriicken, Rhenish Prussia. The 
coal-beds here are regarded by some 
' geologists as of Permian age. 
E. Frei/steini, Geinitz, 1879. Saxony. 

3. Lower- Carboniferous. 

E. striata^ var. Beinertiana Jones, 1862. Lanarkshire, Scotland. 

var. Tateana, Jones, 1862. Berwickshire, Scotland. 

E. punctatella, Jones, 1865. Lanarkshire, Scotland. 
E. Dav>soni, Jones, 1870. (Not E. Daivsoni, Packard, 1881 and 
1883.) Nova Scotia. 



E. limbata, Goldenberg, 1877. 
E. rimosa, Goldenberg, 1877. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS. 69 

E. Peachii, Jones, 1870. Edinburgh, Scotland. 
E. stnata, var. tenuipectoralis, Jones, 1883. Western Siberia. 
E. Nathorsti, Jones, 1883. Possibly of Upper-Devonian age. Spitz- 
bergen. 

4. Devonian. 

Esiheria memhranacea (Pacbt, 1849), Jones, 1862. 

E. pulex, Clarke, 1882. Western part of the State of New Tprk. 

This last- mentioned Esiheria is very small, but in shape it is some- 
what like the recent E. compressa, Baird. In its shape it also approximates 
to E. rimosa, Goldenberg, ' Foss. Saarbriick.,' Part II. t. 2, f . 18 ; and to 
E. triangularis, Emmons. 



Professor Dr. F. M'Coy long ago intimated that some fossils described 
as belonging to the Mollusca may really be Entomostraca, ' Synops. 
Carbonif. Foss. -Ireland,' 1842, p. 164. Some suggestions in this direc- 
tion were offered in the ' Monogr. Foss. Estherias,' 1862, p. 13. 

It may be useful to notice that it is highly probable that, as Geinitz 
has suggested (' Neaes Jahrb.,' 1864, p. 654), the Cardinia nana of 
De Koninck, ' Foss. Carbonif. Belg.,' p. 71, t. 1, f. 6 a, b, is an Estheria 
(referred to also in the ' Monograph Esth.,' I.e.). It was taken from the 
coal-shale at the Battery Coal-pit, near the citadel at Liege. 

The Cyclas nana, Ludwig, 'Palseontographica,' vol. x. 1861, p. 21, t. 3, 
f. 10, from strata regarded as Permian (Dyadic) by Giimbel, near Mane- 
bach, not far from Ilmenau in Sachsen- Weimar, is also probably an 
Estheria. See Geinitz, ' N. Jahrb.,' 1864, p. 654 ; also Karl von Fritsch, 
' Zeitschr. d. g. Ges.,' vol. xii. 1860. This little fossil Ludwig thought to 
be the same as the Cardinia nana of De Koninck ; but it is evidently very 
different in shape, being nearly orbicular, whilst the other is obliquely 
sub-elliptical. 

Pullastra? striata in Portlock's 'Report Geol. Londonderry, &c.,' p. 
440, t. 36, f. 13, has somewhat the aspect of an Estheria. This form will 
have to be carefully studied in connection with E. Adamsii, E. punctaMlla, 
and other punctate shells, formerly looked upon as MoUuscan, before 
definite conclusions can be arrived at. 



ABDENDUM. 



Professor C. Malaise, of Gembloux, has to-day shown us several 
specimens oWaryocaris ' Wrightii (?) from the Lower- Silurian (Cambrian) 
slates of Hay and Nanuine, Belgium; and with one of them is an un- 
doubted trifid caudal appendage. Each of the three spines is sharply 
lancet-shaped, and they are of nearly eqaal size. — August 17, 1887. 

' See the First Report, L883, pp. 217 and 221. 



70 REPORT— 1887. 



Report of the Gommittee, consisting of Mr. John Cokdeaux (Secre- 
tary), Professor A. Newton, ]\ir. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. 
William Eagle Clarke, Mr. E. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. 
G. More, reappointed at Birmingham for the purpose of 
obtaining {with the consent of the Master and Brethren of the 
Trinity House and the Commissioners of Northern and Irish 
Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Lightvessels, and of reporting on the same. 

The General Report • of the Committee has been printed in a pamphlet 
of 174 pages, and includes observations from 126 stations out of a total 
of 198 supplied with schedules, letters of instruction, and cloth-lined 
envelopes for wings ; altogether 280 schedules have been sent in. In the 
last report attention was particularly directed to those main highways or 
lines of migration by which birds approach the east coast of Scotland both 
in the spring and autumn. Two chief lines seem to be clearly indicated, 
by the Pentland Firth and Pentland Skerries, also by the entrance of the 
Firth of Forth as far north as the Bell Rock Lighthouse. Continued 
observations also indicate that on the east coast of England the stream 
of migration is not continuous over the whole coast line, but seems to 
travel along well-estabHshed lines, which are persistently followed year 
by year. 

On the east coast of England there seems to be a well-marked line, both 
of entry and return, of the Earn Islands, on the coast of Northumberland, 
Scarcely second to this in importance is the mouth of the Tees, both in 
the spring and autumn. The North Yorkshire coast and the elevated 
moorland district from the south of Redcar to Flamborough, including the 
north side of the headland, is comparatively barren, few birds appearing to 
come in. Bridlington Bay and Holdernessto the Spurn and Lincolnshire, 
as far as Gibraltar Point, on the coast of Lincolnshire, give, perhaps, the 
best returns on the east coast. The north of Norfolk is poor, but there 
are indications, in the heavy returns annually sent from the Llynwells, 
Dudgeon, Leman and Ower, and Happisburgh Lightvessels, that a dense 
stream pours along the coast from E. to W., probably to pass inland by 
the estuary of the Wash and the river systems of the Nene and Welland 
into the centre of England, thence following the line of the Avon valley 
and the north bank of the Severn and Bristol Channel, and crossing 
the Irish Sea to enter Ireland at the Tnskar Rock, off the Wexford coast. 
This is apparently the great and main thoroughfare for birds in transit 
across England to Ireland in the autumn. Large numbers of migrants 
also which pass inland from the coasts of Holderness and Lincolnshire 
may eventually join in with this great western highway by the line of 
the Trent, avoiding altogether the mountainous districts of Wales. The 
Norfolk seaboard between Cromer and Yarmouth and the corresponding 
lightvessels show a large annual immigration, but the returns are much 
less, and comparatively meagre between Yarmouth and Orfordness. The 
coast of Essex, with the northern side of the Thames, is fairly good ; but 
the coast of Kent, between the North and South Forelands, including 

' Report on the Migration of Birds in the Spring and Autumn of 1886. McFar- 
lane k Erskine, 19 St. James's Square, Edinburgh, price 2s. 



ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 71 

the four Goodwin and the Varne li,a;htships, is a barren and pre-eminently 
uninteresting district for arrivals, both as regards numbers and species, 
the chief migrants seen being such as are apparently following the coast 
to the south. 

Such migrants, both local and otherwise, which in the autumn follow 
the east coast from north to south, seem, as a rule, to pass directly from 
the Spurn to the Lincolnshire coast without entering the Humber ; and 
there are no indications that they follow the shores of the Wash in and 
out, but shape their course from about Gibraltar Point to the Norfolk 
coast. The well-filled schedules sent in annually from the Shipwash, 
Swin Middle, Kentish Knock, and Galloper Lightships indicate that a 
stream passes from the south-east coast of Suffolk across the North Sea 
in the line of these stations, to and from the Continent, both in the spring 
and autumn. 

Autumn migrants approaching the Humber from the sea do not appear 
to follow the course of the river into the interior, that is, from S.E. to N.W. 
The line would seem to cross the river diagonally, and is from E.S.E. to 
W.N.W. This course is so persistently followed that year by year, on 
such days when migration is visible, birds are observed to cross the same 
fields and at the same angle. Supposing this course to be continued, they 
would strike the Trent at or near Gainsborough. 

Much information has been obtained from the legs and wings sent 
in the envelopes provided for that purpose; and by this means already 
several rare and unusual wanderers have been recorded, not the least 
interesting being the occurrence of a small Asiatic species, the yellow- 
browed warbler, at Sumburgh Head, Shetland, on September 25, and 
an immature example of the American red-winged starling, at 3 a.m. 
on October 27, at the Nash Lighthouse, Bristol Channel. This station, 
situated on the coast of Glamorgan and on the north side of the Bristol 
Channel, lies directly in the track of the great highway followed by 
migrants from England to Ireland. The black redstart was killed at the 
Nash Lighthouse on the night of October 29 ; and another interesting 
occurrence was that of the green woodpecker, seen on October 26, with 
many other birds at sunrise passing to the S.E.' The black redstart 
was also received from the Fastnet, co. Cork, found dead on October 30. 
It is also recorded at four other stations on the south coast of Ireland, 
and its regular occurrence in the winter on the south and east coasts of 
that island has now been fully established by this inquiry. The regular 
occurrence in migration of the black redstart both off and on the east coast 
of England, as well as the example from the Nash Lighthouse, are sugges- 
tive of the route followed annually by some small portion of this Con- 
tinental species, which curiously select as their winter quai'ters the south- 
west coasts of the British Islands. From the Irish coasts the rarities 
received were numerous, including the second Irish specimen of the wry- 
neck from Arran Island, co. Galway, killed striking 2 A.M. on October 6. 

' Mr. H. Nicholas, of the Nash [East] L. H., under date of September 3, has 
recorded an enormous arrival of small birds — the greatest number ever seen there at 
any one time. These include four nightjars at 2.10 A.M., one killed; fifteen to 
twenty common buntings from 3.15 to 3 a.m., eight killed; fifty to sixty greater 
whitethroats from 2.15 to 3 A.m., twenty-fcur killed; twenty to thirty willow wrens 
from 2.30 to 3.20 A.M., seventeen killed ; sis young cuckoos at 3 A.M., two killed ; 
fourteen house spaiTows and one robin killed at 3 A.M. ; thirty to forty wheatears 
at 3.10 A.M. two killed ; three blackbirds from 3 to 3.15 A.M., one killed. 



72 REPOKT— 1887. 

From the Tearaght, co. Kerry, a pied flycatcher was caaght at the 
lantern, September 21, the species only having once before occurred in 
Ireland — in April 1875. The repeated occurrence of the corncrake, 
several miles from shore — killed striking against lanterns between 100 
to 200 feet above sea-level — must satisfy the sceptical that this well- 
known species can fly at a high level with great power and velocity. 
The waterrail, which seems so unwilling to fly, was received from the 
Fastnet and Tuskar on October 26 and 28 ; also fi-om Spurn L. V., 
November 1, one; Llyn Wells L. V., November 4, two; and Coquet 
Island L. H., same date, one ; showing a widely extended migratory 
movement of this species during the last week in October and early in 
November. 

The great spotted woodpecker occurred in considerable numbers in 
the eastern counties of Scotland about the middle of October. Almost 
all the specimens examined were either old birds or with very slight 
traces of immaturity. This immigration extended southward to the 
coast districts of Lincolnshire, where very considerable numbers were 
obtained in the autumn and winter. 

At Rathlin O'Birne (West Donegal) immense flocks of birds — star- 
lings, thrushes, and fieldfares — passed west from December 18 to 23. 
The nearest land to the west of this rocky island is America. This is 
not an isolated occurrence. The westerly flight of land-birds at stations 
ofi" the west coast of Ireland has been noticed on other occasions ; the 
movement is apparently as reckless as that of the lemmings. 

The autumnal passage of quails from England is shown by their 
occurrence at the Smalls L. H., September 3, and the Eddystone on 
October 5; also a wing from the Shipwash L. V., ofi" the Essex coast, 
obtained on October 26. 

An enormous rush of immigrants is recoi'ded from the east coast of 
England on October 4, 5, and 6, with easterly and south-easterly winds, 
pressure system cyclonic, but the adverse meteorological conditions 
during this period slowly passing away. Much fog and thick weather 
at the time, which in a great measure may account for the immense 
numbers of birds seen at the lanterns of lighthouses. The movement was 
less apparent on the east coast of Scotland, the winds being E.N.B. and 
N.E., having a tendency to crush down migration, giving it a more 
southerly direction. On the west coast of Scotland, during the same 
period, at the majority of stations the rush of birds was enormous ; but 
the movement was much less accentuated on the west coast of England, 
and to a less degree still on the Irish coasts. The rush is by far the 
largest ever recorded since the opening of this inquiry. 

As usual on the east coast of England, rooks, daws, hooded crows, 
starlings, and larks occupy a considerable portion of the returned 
schedules. Chaffinches have crossed the north sea in extraordinary num- 
bers. ^ They are always numerous, but this autumn the immigration has 
been in considerable excess of previous years. With these exceptions, 
however, there has been a singular and very marked falling off" in the 
migration of some species whose breeding range lies chiefly in the north 
of Europe. This has been especially noticeable in the small arrivals 
recorded of fieldfares, redwings, ring-ousels, bramblings, snow -buntings, 
short-eared owls, and woodcocks. 

Eight reports have now been issued by your Committee, and the 
stations have again been supphed with the necessary papers for the re- 



ON THE MIGEATION OF BIRDS. 73 

turns of the observations in the present year. It seems highly desirable 
that an attempt should shortly be made to analyse, classify, and digest 
the large mass of facts brought together in these reports, so as to show, 
statistically and otherwise, the actual results which have been arrived at 
by the inquiry. It is intended that this shall be carried out at as early 
a date as possible. 

The Committee respectfully request their reappointment. 



Report of the Coinmittee, consisting of H. Seebohm, E. Trimen, 
W. Carruthers, and P. L. Sclater (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Flora and Fauna of the Cameroons 
Mountain. 

The Committee have the pleasure of reporting that a successful ascent 
of the Cameroons Mountain was made by Mr. H. H. Johnston, F.Z.S., 
F.R.G.S., H.B.M. Vice-Consul for the Cameroons, on their behalf in the 
autumn of 1886. Mr. Joh iston encamped at Mann's Spring, at an altitude 
of 7,350 feet, about 300 feet above the forest region of the mountain, and 
remained there several weeks. A popular account of his expedition has 
been published with illustrations in the ' Graphic ' newspaper.' 

Mr. Johnston made considerable collections in zoology and botany. 
The zoological collections have been worked out by specialists in different 
branches, to whom the collections were referred by the Committee, and 
the results published in a series of papers in the ' Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London,' of which the following are the titles :— 

1. 'List of Mammals from the Cameroons Mountain, collected by 
Mr. H. H. Johnston.' By Oldfield Thomas, Proc.Z.S., 1887, p. 121. 

2. ' On a Collection of Birds made by Mr. H. H. Johnston on the 
Cameroons Mountain.' By Capt. G. E. Shelley, P.Z.S., Proc.Z.S., 1887, 
p. 122. 

3. ' List of the Reptiles collected by Mr. H. H. Johnston on the 
Cameroons Mountain.' By G. A. Boulenger, Proc.Z.S., 1887, p. 127. 

4. ' On the Mollusca collected at the Cameroons Mountain by Mr. H. 
H. Johnston.' By Edgar A. Smith, Proc.Z.S., 1887, p. 127. 

5. ' On some Coleopterous Insects collected by Mr. H. H. Johnston 
on the Cameroons Mountain.' By Charles 0. Waterhonse, Proc.Z.S., 
1887, p. 128. 

; It will be observed that although the collections are small they are by 
no means devoid of interest. Out of eighteen species of birds of which 
examples were obtained four were new to science, and a new land shell, 
of the genus Qibbus, was also discovered. 

The zoological specimens have been placed in the collection of the 
British Museum. 

The botanical specimens collected by Mr. Johnston were sent by the 
Committee to the Kew Herbarium, where they were placed in Prof. 
Oliver's hands for determination. As was to be expected, although the 
specimens were in many cases acceptable, they have added very little to 
our knowledge of the flora of the Cameroons Mountain. With few ex- 

' See ' An Ascent of the Cameroons Mountain.' By H. H. Johnston, F.R.G.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. {GrajpMc.^ 



\ 



74 REPORT— 1887. 

ceptions all Mr. Johnston's species, of which a complete list is given in 
the appendix to this report, are enumerated in Sir Joseph Hooker's paper 
on Mann's Plants of the Cameroons, published in the ' Journal of the 
Linnean Society' in 186i. (Bot. vol. vii. p. 181.) 

A complete set of the duplicates has been deposited in the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum, and a second set of duplicates has 
been sent to the Royal Museum of Berlin. 

The sum of 751., granted to the Committee at Birmingham, has been 
paid to Mr. Johnston as a contribution towards the expenses of his 
expedition. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, and a further sum of 100?. 
placed at their disposal, as Mr. Johnston will in all probability be able to 
undertake a second expedition up the Cameroons Mountain in the coarse 
of the present autumn. 

APPENDIX. 

List of Plants from the Upper Slopes of the Cameroons received at Kew from Vice- 
Oousul H. H. Johnston, December 1886. 

I. Phanerogams. 

Clematis simensis, Fres. 

Thalidrum rhynchocarpum, A. Rich. 

FolygaJa tenuicaulis, Hook. f. 

Silene Biafrce, Hook. f. 

Gerastiv,m africanum, Oliv. 

Eypericnm lanceolaium, Lam. 

Geranium simense, Hochst. 

„ „ var. glabrior. 

Vitis Mannii, J. G. Baker. 

Adenocarpus Mannii, Hook. f. 

Trifolium simense, Fres. 

Indigqfera atriceps. Hook. f. 

Desmodium scaljoe, DC. {D. strangulahim, Wight and Am.) 

Bithus pinnatus, Wight and Arn. 

Crassula abyssinica, A. Rich. (C. Mannii, Hook, f.) 

Cotyledon Umbilicus, L. 

Sanicula europcea, L. 

Peucedanum sp. nov. ? (material inadequate) 

Pimpinella ? ,, „ 

Caucalis melanantha, Bth. and Hook. f. (Agrocharis, Hook, f.) 

Pentas occidentalis, Bth. and Hook. f. (Vignaldia, Hook, f.) 

Biodia {D. breviseke, Benth. var. ? no fruit). 

Galium Biafrce, Hiern (G. rotundifolium. Hook. f.). 
„ Aparine, L. var. 

Bichrocepliala clirysanihemifolia, DC. 

Anisopappus africanus, O. and H. 

Achyrocline Eochstetteri, S. Bip. 

HeUchrysum chrysocoma, S. Bip., var, angustifolium. 
„ foetidum, Cass. var. (fl. Mannii, Hook, f.) 

„ ? sp. nov. Technical character of Gnaphalium. 

Coreopsis monticola, O. and H. (Verbesina, Hook, f.) 
Gynura vitellina, Bth., var. gracilis. 
Senecio Burtoni, Hook. f. 



ON THE FLOEA AND FAUNA OF THE CAMEROONS MOUNTAIN. 75 

Senecio Clarenceana, Hook, f, 

Crepis Hookeriana, O. and H. (Anisoramplms, Hook, f.) 

Lactuca capensis, Thbg. ? inadequate. 

Probably Sonchus angustisshnus, Hook, f., inadequate. 

Wahlenhergia arguta, Hook. f. 

Agauria salicifolia. Hook. f. 

Ericinella Mannii, Hook. f. 

Blneria spicata, Hochst. 

Sehcea brachyphylla, Griseb. 

Swertia Mannii, Hook. f. 

„ Clarenceana, Hook. f. 
Gynoglossum lancifolium, Hook. f. 

„ micranthum, Desf. 

Myosotis intermedia, Link. 
Solanum nigrum, L., forma (of Sir. J. Hooker's Enumeration of Mann's 
plants of Cameroons) an sp. diversa ? 
Solanum nigrum, L. var. 
Barfsia ahyssinica, Hochst., small form. 
Alectra senegalensis, Benth. 

Soptcbia trifida, var. madagascariensis, Hook, f., I.e. 
Veronica Mannii, Hook. f. 
,, africana. Hook. f. 
Celsia densifolia, Hook. f. var. pedicellis longiorihus 
Isoglossa =:Mann, 2009. 
,, =MaDn, 1972. 
OreacantMis Mannii, Benth. 

Pycnostachys ahyssinica. Hook, f., non Fresenius ? 
Plectrantlius, sp. nov. ? inadequate. 

,, decumbens. Hook. f. 

,, glandulosus ? Hook, f., imperfect. 

„ ramosissimus. Hook- f. 

Coleus glandulosus. Hook, f., inadequate. 
Mi cromeria punctata, Benth. 
Calamintha simensis ? Benth. (inadequate), forma. 

„ simensis, Benth. 

Nepeta robusta. Hook. f. 
Stachys aculeolata, Hook, f, 
Leucas oligocephala. Hook. f. 
Achyranthes argentea, L. 
Cyathula cylindrica, Moq., var. 
Bumex ahyssinicus, Jacq. 
Piper capense, L. f. (Coccobryon, Kl.) 
Lasiosiphon glaucus, Fres. 
Thesium tenuissimum. Hook. f. 
Thonningia sanguinea, Vahl. 
Euphorbia ampla, Hook. f. 
Phyllanthus sp. (fragment) 
Pilea quadrifolia, A. Rich. 
Parietaria mauritanica, L. var. 
Calanthe corymbosa, Lindl. ? (our type is not so much advanced ; it is 
hardly comparable) 

' Angrcecum arcuatum, Lindl.' (of Sir J. Hooker's Enumeration of 
Mann's plants). 



76 REPORT— 1887. 

Poh/stachya elegans, Reiclib. f. 

„ =:Mann, 1339. 

Disa alpina, Hook, f. 

Holot/irix (Perisfylus tridentahbs, Hook, f.). 
Mahenaria attenuata, Hook. f. 

„ microceras. Hook. f. ? (type in fruit) 

„ Mannii, Hook. f. 

„ sp. (not identified) 

Renealmia africana, Bth. ? in fruit. 
Hypoxis villosa, L., var. recurva. 
Sesperantha alpina, Bth. (OeissorJiiza, Hook, f.) 
Romulea camerooniana, Baker. 

Commelina sp. nov. ? but required with ripe capsules. 
Cyanotis Mannii, C. B. Clarke. 
Luzula campestris, L. var. 

Scirpus atrosanguineus, Bkler. {Isolepis schcenoides of Hook. f. ; Enu- 
meration of Mann's Cameroons plants) 

Oyperus, apparently young state of Mann's 1358, sub nom. 0. ingrata, 
Kth. 

Kyllingia cylindrica, Nees. 

Oplismenus africanus, Beauv. 

' Pennisetum riparioides, Hochst. ? ' of Mann's Enumeration. 

Trisetum (Aira picHglunia, Steud.). 

Avena Neesii, Hook. f. 

II. Crtptogams. 

Gi/athea Ma^miana, Hook. 
HymejiophjtUum ciliatuni, Sw. 
Trichomanes radicans, Sw. 
Cheilanthes farinosa, Kanlf. 
Pteris aquilina, L. 

,, quadriaurita, Retz. 
,, „ var. ludens, Beddome. 

„ hrevisora, Baker. 
Asple7iium liiuulatum, Sw. 

„ furcafum, Thunb. 

,, hrachypteron, Kunze. 

„ cicutarium, Sw. 

„ anisophrjllum, Kunze (high mountain form). 

„ Thwnhergii, Kunze. 

„ serra, Langsd. and Fisch. 

„ protensmn, Schrad. 

„ Filtx fcemina, Bernh. 

Didymochloena lunulata, Desv. 
Aspidium angulare, Sw. 
Nephrodium Filix mas. Rich., var. N. elongatum, H. and G. 

„ cicutarium, Baker. 

,, sp. near Spekei, Baker ? (too incomplete) 

,, punctulatum, Baker. 

NepJirolepis cordifolia, Presl. 
Gymnogramme javanica, Blume. 
Acrostichum spathulatum, Bory. 
Acrosfdchum sorbifoKum, L. ? (too imperfect) 



ON THE FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE CAMEROON MOUNTAINS. 77 

Pohjpodium lineare, Thunb. 
Marattia fraxinea, Sm. 
Lycopodium fertile, Baker. 

„ dacrydioides, Baker. 

Selaginella Vogelii, Spring. 
JJsnea harhata, f . florida, Fr. 
Stereocaulon, sp. probably ramulosum, Ach. 
Neckera pennata, Hedw. 
Bryum Commersonii, Brid. 
Meteoriicm imbricatum (Schw.). 
Leptodontium pungens, Mitt. 
Plagiochila dichotoma, Nees. 
Metzgeria tnynapoda, Lindbg. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankester, 
Mr. P. L. Sclater, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
MosELET, and Mr. Percy Sladen {Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of arranging for the occxipatioii, of a Table at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. 

Your Committee report that the table at their disposal has been fullv 
occupied during the past year, and they beg to direct attention to the 
subjoined reports of the naturalists to whom it has been granted as evi- 
dence of satisfactory work done, which probably could not have been 
undertaken elsewhere with equal success. 

The general efficiency and good organisation of the Zoological Station 
at Naples is too well known to need recapitulation. The institution con- 
tinues in its course of steady development, and its sphere of action will 
shortly be still further extended by the opening of the physiological 
laboratory. Tlie new building, which is now rapidly approaching com- 
pletion, is expected to be in working order before the close of the year. 
This addition will probably greatly increase the number of workers at the 
Station, in consequence of the exceptional facilities that physiological 
students will there find for carrying out a systematic course of experiments. 

It may be of general interest to state that the Zoological Station has 
recently carried out, at the instigation of the Italian Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Commerce, a number of investigations of a practical bearing 
on the fishery industry. One of the most important in a commercial 
point of view has reference to the question of trawl-fishing. Trawl- 
fishing, as is well known, has been alleged to be hurtful to the propaga- 
tion of food-fishes, by destroying the eggs, which are deposited on the 
sea-bottom. This question has been made the subject of careful research 
by the Station ; and the results arrived at may be briefly summarised in 
the statement that positive evidence has been procured that thirty-five 
species of food-fishes, which include those most important in a commei'- 
cial point of view, produce pelagic or floating eggs ; and that consequently 
the supposed injurious efiect of trawl-fishing is, in the case of these forms, 
proved to be an illusion ; and that legislative restriction of trawl-fishing, 
based on these reasons, can safely be abandoned. The Italian Ministry 



78 REPORT — 1887. 

has fully recognised the importance of these researches, which will be 
published m extenso before the end of the year. 

Some time ago the Italian Government made arrangements with the 
Station for the instraction of naval officers in the proper modes of col- 
lecting and preserving marine organisms, and it will be remembered that 
several important collections have been made by officers thus qualified. The 
Russian navy has now adopted the same course, and has just concluded 
a special contract with the Station for the instruction of officers belonging 
to that service. The important scientific gains which are likely to accrue 
to any country whose officers ai'e thus practically acquainted with the 
technical methods of preserving animals for histological investigation are 
too obvious to need exposition. 

The British Association Table. — Two naturalists have occupied the 
British Association Table during the past year. Hitherto the table has 
be'^n occupied only by zoologists ; but your Committee have this year 
the pleasure to report a deviation from this custom, the use of the table 
having been granted to a botanist--Mr. John Gardiner, late Scientific 
Adviser to the Board of Agriculture of the Bahamas. As Mr. Gardiner 
travelled from the West Indies for the purpose of carrying out certain 
special investigations at Naples, permission was given to him by your 
Committee to hold the table for the period of twelve months — the 
current year. Mr. Gardiner's intermediate report, which is annexed, will 
fully justify the expediency of granting the table for this extended term, 
and will also bear testimony to the interesting results which are likely to 
reward Mr. Gardiner's further labours if he is permitted to complete his 
term of occupancy. Your Committee would also venture to direct atten- 
tion to Mr. Gardiner's remarks on the Zoological Station in general, and 
on the claim which the British Association Table has for continued support. 

The use of a table was also granted to the Re^^. Canon A. M. Norman. 
This your Committee were able to do by the favour of Prof. Dohrn, who 
with great kindness placed at their disposal a second table in considera- 
tion of the fact that in previous years the British Association Table had 
for some months remained unoccupied. Dr. Norman worked at Naples 
for five weeks and has furnished a report, which is annexed. 

Two other applications for the British Association Table were received 
by the Committee during the past year, which the Committee were 
unable to grant. 

For the next year a preliminary inquiry for permission to use the 
table has already been made by an able naturalist, who wishes to com- 
mence work in January. As Mr. Gardiner's term of occupancy will not 
terminate until December, if the lease of the table is renewed, this would 
ensure a continuance of occupation. 

With these facts before them and the satisfactory character of the 
present report, your Committee feel justified in expressing the hope that 
the Council will renew the grant (100/.) for the ensuing year. 

The Puhlications of the Station. — The progress of the various works 
undertaken by the Station is here summarised : — 

(1) Of the ' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel' the following 
monograph has been published since the last Report : — XIV. J. Fraipont, 
' Polygordius.' 

The following works are in the press, and will probably be published 
in 1887 : — H. Eisig, ' Capitellidse,' and G. von Koch, ' Gorgoniidse.' 

(2) Of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel ' 
vol. vii. part ii. has been published. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 79 

(3) Of the ' Zoologisclier Jahresbericht ' for 1885 Parts II. and III. 
are published. The remainder will be out shortly. 

Extracts from the General Eeport of the Zoological Station. — The officers 
of the Station have courteously furnished lists (1) of the naturalists 
who have occupied tables since the last report, (2) of the works published 
during 1886 by naturalists who have worked at the Zoological Station, 
(3) of the specimeus sent out by the Station during the past year. These 
details show an increase in the number of naturalists who have worked 
at the Station, and in the total value of the specimens distributed, as 
compared with the previous year. 



I. Report on the Occupation of the Table, by Mr. John Gardiner. 

The Committee of the British Association having kindly granted me 
the use of their table at the Naples Zoological Station for the year 1887, 
I arrived at Naples on February 1. For the first two months my work 
was much hindered, partly by frequent iudisposition, due to the very in- 
clement weatlier, partlj^ by delay in the ai-rival of my microscope, &c. 
During this time I occupied myself mainly in familiarising myself with 
the algal flora of the gulf, in which work I was much aided by the her- 
barium made by Dr. G. Bei'thold, and by Sig. Lo Bianco, the conservator 
of the Station. 

The first research I made was suggested to me by a fellow botanist at 
the Station, who pointed out to me the surprising statements made by 
Berthold in his monograph on the Bangiacece, as to their resistance to dry- 
ing and to the action of various reagents. I thought the statements were 
worth testing, and accordingly repeated Berthold's experiments, with 
others of my own, upon Bangia fusco-purpurea and Forjihyra leucosticta. 
My results, except with regard to drying, are entirely at variance with 
Berthold's. He says that in fibres of Bangia kept in concentrated glyce- 
rine for several months many cells still remained alive, and considers 
it probable that the cells in some preparations made three years before 
were still alive. I made experiments with thoroughly dried material, and 
with material from which only the superfluous moisture had been re- 
moved, immersiug it in concentrated glycerine in a watch-glass. In 
various periods, from a few minutes to an hour, the fibres assumed a 
bright reddish-brown colour when seen asainst a black surface, and under 
the microscope all the cells were found to be much contracted, and 
reddish-brown by reflected, green by transmitted, light. On washing and 
returning to sea-water no change was visible, even after several days. 
The same reddish-brown colour is seen when the plant dies after being 
kept for some time in sea-water. On immersing fresh fibres for a minute 
or a little more in glycerine, washing and returning to sea- water, most of 
the cells were, as a rule, found to have resisted the glycerine and to be 
still alive. In one case young fibres resisted it for half-an-hour. I con- 
clude from these experiments that while Bangia does resist the action of 
concentrated glycerine, such resistance is very limited in its duration. 

Alcohol of 30, 50, and 70 per cent, kills at once, producing the 
reddish-brown colour and contraction of the cells. In 90 per cent, alcohol 
the cells contracted greatly, but retained their green colour both by re- 
flected and transmitted light, the contents being granular ; on carefully 
drying and returning to sea-water, the cells swelled again, but the con- 



80 KEPORT — 1887. 

tents became homogeneous, and after keeping in sea-water for some days 
showed no sign of lite. Berthold states that in Bancjia kept for several days 
in absolute alcohol, and then brought into sea-water, many cells showed 
the same appearance as in the living plant, while others were completely 
killed and decolourised. I took great care in this experiment to avoid 
diluting the alcohol by any moisture in the fibres, and my results were 
curious. The fibres shrivelled up, cells contracted, and contents became 
homogeneous, but the green colour remained, except at the torn end of a 
fibre, where six or seven cells lost their chlorophyll, and showed the red 
colour. Even when sjsecimens were kept in alcohol for a week, the green 
colour remained in many cells ; sometimes cells towards the middle of a 
fibre were decolourised, while those on both sides remained green. In no 
case did the cells resume their normal appearance after being carefully 
freed from alcohol by drying and returned to sea- water. 

In nature Bangia lives on the rocks above high-water mai'k, dashed 
by the spray. This may explain the curious fact that I was able to keep 
it alive in freshwater for eight days, while it died in four or five days 
when kept in sea- water. In nature it is often exposed to heavy rain, 
sometimes almost continuously for some days, and this probably accounts 
for its resistance. I believe that if, instead of keeping the plant immersed 
in water, it Avere simply kept moist by a spx'ay of fresh water, it would re- 
main alive for a still longer time, though not so long as if moistened by a 
spray of sea- water. Its quick death in sea- water I take to be due to its 
immersion. 

The ordinai-y reagents used for killing — osmic acid, picric acid, subli- 
mate, iodine — kiWedBangia very quickly, producing considerable changes 
in its appearance. 

Porphyra leucostida showed similar phenomena, but its resistance is 
considerably less than that of Bangia. It dies very quickly in fresh 
water. 

The resistance of Bangia to reagents appears to be due mainly to the 
cuticle which surrounds the fibi'es, which is insoluble in sulphuric 
acid. Porphyra appears not to possess such a cuticle. Veiy young 
plants of Porphyra, however, resisted glycerine for nearly an hour, 
the cells gradually, from the base to the tip, becoming disorganised. 

The hypha-like prolongations of the basal cells of Bangia which form 
the rhizoids, as a rule, pass down inside the tube to the base ; occasion- 
ally, however, lateral roots are found ; and when this is the case the 
rhizoid, surrounded by a thick membrane, pushes its way through the 
cell wall and cuticle in a manner analogous to that of the roots of higher 
plants. 

Bangiacece are not available in summer here ; in autumn and winter I 
hope to do further work at them. 

I did a considerable amount of work on Acetahularia mediterranea, 
following up its development from the state of a simple unbranched thallus 
to the final development of the pileus. The memoirs of De Bary and 
Strasbiirger, and of Woronin are not in the library ; consequently when at 
last I saw them I found that most of my results had already been described. 
But I found a few things which I take to be new. The branched hairs, 
which in the young stage are in whorls round the stem, and in older stages 
form a tuft in the centre of the pileus, are usually described and drawn as 
consisting of distinct cells. I find, on the contrary, that the cavities of 
the branches always during life remain in communication with one another 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 81 

and with that of the main stem ; the branches are developed as hollow- 
processes of the mother cell, and these constrictions are formed by thicken- 
ing of the cell-wall at the points branching, but the lumen does not close 
during life, though it is reduced to a very narrow opening. When the 
stem of a vigorous plant is cut, the contents flow out of the opening, and 
the protoplasm contained in the basal branches of the hairs can be observed 
to flow into the stem, while in the smaller hairs the contents, so to speak, 
endeavour to do so, collecting at the base of the branch, but not being able 
to pass through on account of the constriction. When the hairs die off, 
the smaller hairs die first, the contents apparently passing down into the 
cell below, and a membrane being formed across the opening, and so on 
down to the basal cell. I have only observed this in the case of the basal 
cells, but I conclude that it applies to the others, for the basal cells at this 
time are crammed full of protoplasm and other cell-contents, so that they 
are almost opaque, while their minor branches have disappeared. The 
membrane formed across the opening into the stem is thin at first, but 
becomes thicker by the deposit of layers of cellulose. The hairs appear 
to be analogous to the branches of the West Indian BhijyocephaJus and 
Corallocejyhalus. Their function I could not determine ; they contain a 
small amount of chlorophyll and the red oil found in the chlorophyll 
bodies, but too little to be of much use, except perhaps in the basal 
branches. Perhaps they are reduced organs ; it is conceivable that at one 
time they may have been important organs of assimilation, as the branches 
of the West Indian forms mentioned are still, and that their function may 
have been taken from them by the greater development of the pileus. 

I also investigated the mode of formation of the pileus. The cell- 
wall at the end of the stem is very thick just before it begins to be formed. 
The inner layers of cellulose appear to be absorbed at definite points, 
while the outer ones are pushed out, the cell being intensely turgid at this 
time, and form the walls of the branches. There is no organic connection 
between the branches ; at their bases they are distinct, and when decal- 
cified the branches can be readily separated from one another; in the 
slightly calcified A. crenulata of the West Indies they are often separate 
during life. The branches of the pileus would appear to be more or less 
homologous with the hairs. 

I also made some experiments on the brown ethereal oil found in the 
chlorophyll bodies of the majority of joung Acetabularia, which it colours 
a rich red brown, and even in many full-blown ones. I could find no 
starch in the brown specimens, while there was a good d' al in the green 
ones, and I thought it possible that the oil might be a product of assimi- 
lation, especially as some species of Vaucheria, Musa, and other plants are 
said to contain oil instead of starch. My experiments gave no result, posi- 
tive or negative; partly, at any rate, owing to the difliculty of keeping 
Acetabularia alive in an aquarium. There seems, however, to be a pre- 
sumption in favour of the theory that the oil is a product of assimilation. 

I hope, in the autumn, to be able to make some observations on the 
sinking of the cell-contents into the basal part of the stem, the death of 
the upper parts, and the condition of the plant during the winter. 

One of the main objects of my coming to Naples was the study of the 
SipJwnece, and especially Caiilerpa. I have studied in addition to Acetabu- 
laria and Gaulerpa, the genera Codium, Valonia, Udotea, Bnjopsis, and 
Dasycladus. My results with Gaulerpa are perhaps worth stating, though 
they are by no means complete. As a means of inducing the plant to 

1887. Q 



82 REPORT— 1887. 

produce spores, T starved it by depriving it almost entirely of ligtt, and 
after a while by aerating the water only at intervals. As a result, after 
some weeks, long (4 to 6 cm.), thin ('5 to '75 mm.), cylindrical pi-ocesses, 
pointed at the end, grew out from the rhizome and leaves, pointing perpen- 
dicularly upwards to a hole in the top of the box, through which a little 
light came. These processes and the rhizome were very dark green in 
colour, almost black, but usually white at the tips, while some were 
dark green the whole length. When put into fresh sea-water those with 
white tips burst at the tips, emitting a little cloud. On examining this, it 
appeared to consist of protoplasm and chlorophyll bodies ; but the latter 
were in very active oscillating motion, even when apparently quite freed 
from the protoplasm. The motion differed from ordinary molecular 
motion of particles in a fluid, in that there was very marked change of 
relative position. It continued for some hours, when a damp chamber was 
used. The bodies were of oval form, and in various stages of formation ; 
groups of two, four, eight, and large balls of them, apparently consisting 
of thirty or forty, were seen. I would have thought the balls due to the 
contact of the protoplasm with the water, but I have since seen them in 
the interior of processes preserved, stained, and cut with the microtome. 
It appeared as if I had found the long-sought zoospores of Caulerpa, and 
I cannot yet decide whether they were chlorophyll bodies or zoospores. In 
specimens kept in a damp chamber I observed bodies of diflerent sizes, 
the larger having more active motion than the smaller. I watched one 
large one sailing about through the drop, and saw it come in contact with 
a smaller one which was oscillating quietly. They coquetted with each 
other for some minutes, and then appeared to become united in some 
way, oscillated together for a while, and then stopped. I kept them under 
observation for three days, but no further change took place, and the 
rapid growth of bacteria in the drop appeared to kill them. Iodine killed 
these bodies, stopped their motion, and rendered evident what I took to 
be two cilia, but which may have been simjjly particles of protoplasm. I 
have made many experiments, and have seen several apparent instances 
of conjugation like the above, but have not been able to obtain further 
development. The chlorophyll bodies of normal Caulerpa move so long 
as any currents continue, but when these are prevented stop at once. The 
processes, which were dark green throughout, and the rhizome did not 
burst in a change of water, and when cut no protoplasm flowed out. Their 
contents consisted of a dense mass of these chlorophyll bodies, or zoospores, 
which showed the same movements when pressed out into water. Later 
I found that a specimen of Caulerpa which had been kept in an ordinary 
tank in ordinary light had produced a number of processes of a similar 
kind, some of which burst spontaneously, with the same results as noted 
above. Others became detached from the parent, developed rhizoids at 
the previously attached end, flattened out to a leaf-like form, and are 
growing well : these were branched considerably before becoming de- 
tached. Some Carilerpa brought to me in the beginning of May from 
the usual locality, the Magellina, showed profuse proliferation, the young 
leaves arising from a narrow base and gradually expanding and branching 
dichotomously, the branches also being flattened ; some of this material 
which I have kept has continued branching, until at present a leaf about 
9 cm. long has some 250 branches, up to the tenth order. The branches 
produced in the aquarium are mostly long, thin, and cylindrical. The 
material I have been receiving for some time past shows only the ordinary 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 83 

proliferation. It might appear, tterefore, tbat the ' processes ' of which 
I have spoken merely indicated an occasional special mode of prolifera- 
tion, and that my ' zoospores ' were no zoospoies, the later conclusion being 
a priori pcssibJe, on account of my want of experience in these matters. 
But I am quite positive about my observations on the apparent conjuga- 
tion, and my lurking conviction that the moving green bodies will turn 
out to be really zoospores is strengthened by the fact that I am told by 
the authorities here that a botanist who had formerly studied here had 
seen the zoospores of Caulerpa but had not been able to work at them. I 
trust to make some decisive observations in the great breeding period for 
many algaj which is approaching. 

At present, while keeping an eye on Cmilerpa, I am working mainly 
at the reproduction and development of Sargassum. My observations are 
as yet too incomplete for me to give a connected account of them. I 
have not seen the discharge of the antherozoids nor the process of 
fertilisation, though I have followed the development of the antherozoids 
and of the oospore. I have also succeeded in obtaining a tolerably com- 
plete series of embryos, including nearly all the early stages in the 
division of the egg. The difficulty in the earliest stages is to determine 
what is normal and what is abnormal (owing to artificial conditions) 
division ; I have some embryos with the same number of cells, having 
these cells arranged in quite different ways. I hope, however, to conquer 
this difficulty and to be able to present a complete account of the deve- 
lopment of Sargassum at the meeting of the Association in 1888. So far 
as I can see at present, the development is much like that of Gysiosira. 
I am also collecting material for a study of the development of the con- 
ceptacles in Sargassum. 

As yet I have not published, or prepared for publication, any of my 
work, because I consider that I serve my own ends and those of the 
Association in appointing me to this table better by devoting all my 
working time while at Naples to the actual business of research and of 
collecting material for future work. 

I have to thank the staff and my fellow- workers at the Station for 
much valuable information as to methods of preservation, staining, &c., in 
use among zoologists, which I thought might be serviceable in botany 
also. I have devoted a good deal of time to the study of these methods, 
and hope to publish an account of my conclusions when I leave the 
Station, if not before. 

Besides completing my work on the plants already mentioned, I 
hope to be able to make some researches into the algise growing in the 
hot mineral springs of Ischia, and into the algal flora of Lake Avernus ; 
and I expect to find much to observe in the autumn when many algas 
reproduce very actively. 

Before concluding, may I be permitted to call the attention of the 
Committee to the great claims which the Station has upon the support of 
scientific men in England as well as on the Continent ? I would speak 
with special reference to England, because England, though second to no 
Continental country in the amount and value of the biological work she 
produces, has only two tables at the Station, and even these two she 
shows some inclination to give up. The advantages which the Station 
ofi'ers to the student, whether he be zoologist, botanist, or physiologist, are 
these : the best arranged marine laboratory in Europe ; a staff of distin- 
guibljed men at the head of it, ever ready and willing to assist the student 

Q 2 



84 HEPORT — 1887. 

in every 'way, but never interfering with liis methods or theories until 
asked for advice, while all the time interesting themselves in the work of 
each individual ; a perfectly disciplined staff of servants and fishermen, 
trained by the experience of years to supply all one's wants at the shortest 
notice and to the fullest extent ; and a large library, excellent, so far as 
zoology is concerned, if rather weak in botanical works. It may be said, 
I believe it is said, ' we have zoological stations in England and Scotland : 
why spend money on a Station established by foreigners in a foreign 
country ? ' The answer is that it will be many years before the British 
Stations can possibly attain to the perfection of the Naples one, if they 
ever do ; directors and servants must acquire that experience in the 
working detai's on which so largely depends the value of such a Station ; 
a library must be gradually formed ; and in the meantime what are 
Englishmen, who require to study in a well-appointed laboratoiy, to do ? 
When we have as good, or nearly as good, a laboratory as the Naples one, 
by all means let us give up our tables at Naples and spend the money on 
our own Stations ; but till then let us retain our privilege of sending 
men to study at a laboratory whose at present unrivalled advantages we 
rather grudgingly, other nations more willingly and generously, admit. 
We ought to have enough biologists in England to keep our Naples 
tables filled, and yet have many to attend to the development and 
improvement of our own Stations. Furthermore, the tropical luxuriance 
of the Mediterranean fauna and flora must always be an inducement to 
many Englisbmen to study at Naples as well as in their own country. 

I may have expressed myself I'atber strongly, but my reasons for doing 
so are partly a feeling of injured national pride that England should have 
only two tables and grudge the money for them, while Germany willingly 
pays for about a dozen, and Italy, which Englishmen are wont to regard 
as hardly more than semi-civilised, for about half that number ; but 
mainly a vivid sense of the advantages I myself have derived from my 
stay here. And if a botanist derives so much good, much more must a 
zoologist, for the botanist has to contend with the disadvantage of a not 
very good library, and the want of an assistant, and the zoologist has not. 
In this connection I would remark that it is the fault of botanists them- 
selves that the library is not better. If moi'e of them came, the library, 
by the help of their suggestions, would soon improve. At present there 
is no botanical assistant, for the same reason. I fancy that botanists 
generally do not know that they are admitted willingly, even desired, at 
this so-called Zoological Station. And they do not know, I think, of the 
perfect freedom they would have in their work. While occupying a 
table here, a man may work at the phanerogamic flora of the district, or 
at freshwater algse, or marine algte, or all of them. There is absolutely 
no restriction placed upon him. It is much to be desired that more 
botanists should come to the Station, though a fair number of Germans 
have been here, including two during part of this year. I believe I am 
the first Englishman who has studied botanical questions at the Station, 
but I hope I shall by no means be the last. 

In concluding this first report on my occupancy of the table of 
the British Association, I wish to express my gratitude to the Committee 
for nominating me, and for so long a period. I also wish to thank Pro- 
fessor Dohrn, Dr. Eisig, Signer Lo Bianco, and the rest of the staff of 
the Station for the constant courtesy and kindness I have experienced at 
their hands, and for the help they have in many ways given me. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 85 



II. Beport on the Occupation of the Tulle, hij the Rev. Dr. Norman. 

It had long been my desire to pay a visit to the Zoological Station at 
Naples, and during the past spring an opportunity having presented 
itself, five weeks in the months of March and April were spent there. 
The British Association Table was at this time occupied, but on the appli- 
cation of your Committee Dr. Dohrn placed a second table at my dis- 
posal. I should be most ungrateful if I did not testify to the great 
kindness and attention which I received from the whole staff of the 
Station during my most pleasant and profitable stay at Naples. The 
management of the establishment seems to have been brought to perfec- 
tion. The admirable tone, good nature, and courtesy which pervade the 
entire staff; the smooth, quiet, and efficient working of the establishment 
— these, combined with the extreme richness of the sea around Naples in 
representatives of almost every section of marine animals, and pre- 
eminently of the surface fauna, the calmness of the Mediterranean waters 
which renders dredging at almost all times practicable, form a combina- 
tion of essentials to the success of a Zoological Station which perhaps 
can never be equalled and certainly not excelled elsewhere. Pleasure 
was anticipated from my visit, but my anticipations were much more 
than realised. 

My object in visiting the Station was, first, to see in life certain groups 
of animals which are unknown in North European seas ; secondly, to 
take a general review of the fauna as compared with that of the North 
Atlantic ; and, lastly, to study more especially, so far as the very limited 
time at my disposal would allow, certain groups of the great class 
Crustacea, which had not been worked out by South European carcino- 
logists. I had in view such orders as the Mysidea, Cumacea, Ostracoda, 
&c. ; but after a few days I was surprised to find how much remained to 
be done in every order of the Crustacea. Dr. Dohrn kindly placed at 
my disposal from the museum unexamined material of several groups 
which it seemed well to study ; while the fishermen daily supplied me 
with far more animals than it was possible to work out. Time sufl&ced 
for little more than the collecting, roughly examining, and preserving 
for more close investigation hereafter the things of interest which passed 
through my hands. Since my return my time has been so fully occupied 
with other matters that there has not been opportunity so much as to 
open the bottles which contain the product of the trip. This report, 
however, is of course not supposed to be exhaustive. In almost every 
section of the Crustacea, — -Bi-achyura, Anomura, Macrura, Mysidea, 
Isopoda, Amphipoda, Ostracoda, Copepoda, and Cirripedia — forms were 
detected either altogether new or interesting as not hitherto recognised 
in the Mediterranean at large or at Naples in particular. Even among 
the Brachyura results were important. An Inachus, very abundant in 
the bay close to the Station, and often taken in company with I. dorset- 
tensis, though nearly related to, is manifestly distinct from, the latter 
species, and is either still undescribed or possibly the I. mauritanicus of 
Lucas, which authors have synonymised with dorsettensis. From the 
deep water were two species, which have recently been figured by Milne- 
Edwards from the ' Travailleur ' Expedition, Ergasticus Glouei, Milne- 
Edwards, and Heterocrypta Marionis, Milne-Edwards ; together with a 



86 REPORT — 1887. 

third fine form which appears to be altogether new and belonging to a 
genus allied to the last. The Ergasdciis, I may mention, was also taken 
by the ' Porcupine ' Expedition off the Spanish coast ; and of the Hete- 
rocnjpta I possess specimens given me previously by the Marquis de 
Folin, which were taken by the ' Travailleur ' Expedition in the Fosse 
de Cap Breton. 

With this brief review of the more interesting Brachyura, J must 
pass by the remaining groups and only notice one remarkable crustacean 
of excessive interest. My friend, Professor Sars, to whom I sent a 
specimen, writes to me on it : ' The interesting parasite detected by you at 
K^aples is certainly a highly remarkable and perplexing form, and the 
discovery of this animal would alone, I believe, fully recompense your 
voyage to Italy.' 

In 1882 a memoir on an extraordinary parasitic crustacean discovered 
by Professor Lacaze-Duthiers was published by the Institut de France, 
illustrated with eight quarto plates. 

The parasite thus described, Laura Gerardice, Lacaze-Duthiers, lives 
in one of the Antipatharian Actinozoa, which was made the type of a 
genus by Lacaze-Duthiers, Gerardia LamarcH, S?i\me; and that author 
regarded the parasite found by him as an aberrant member of the 
Cirripedia, and constituted a new section to receive it, named Ascotho- 
r acid a. 

It is to this genus that the form now discovered appears to have closer 
relationship than to any other. The Neapolitan parasite, for which I 
propose the name Synagoga^ mira, is also a parasite on an Antipatharian, 
AntipatJies larix, Ellis, but while Laura, is buried beneath the tissues of 
the host, being completely covered, except in one minute spot by the 
sarcosome of Gerardia, Synagoga is an external parasite attached to the 
surface of the Antipathes. At first sight the latter looks veiy unlike the 
former, and, with the naked eye might easily be mistaken for one of the 
Cypridinidae, inasmuch as the body of the animal is covered by two nearly 
circular valves ; these valves (' carapace,' Lacaze-Duthiers) are in Laura 
of enormous size and three times the length of the body, but in Synagoga 
they are shorter than the body. In Laura the antenna are weak, feeble 
structures ; here they are strongly developed grasping organs ; the mouth 
organs in both cases are formed for piercing and sucking, and follow the 
same type. In both genera the adductor muscle which passes through 
the body into the valves is similar; and in both, as in the Ostracoda, 
the organs of reproduction are extended on either side into and beneath 
the valves. Both genera are furnished with six pairs of limbs posterior 
to the oral members and a caudal bifurcation ; but while in Laura these 
members are simple, apparently unjointed, and somewhat rudimentary, in 
Synagoga they are two branded, jointed, and freely setose, and the laminae 
of the caudal furca are much longer, spiued on the edges, and provided 
with long setae. It will thus be obvious that Synagoga is a type of much 
less retrograde character than Laiira. Upon its relations I will only say 
at present that while, on the one hand, there is much in its structure 
which reminds us of the Cypris-condition of a larval Cirriped, there are 
also features which recall strongly to us the much disputed genus Nehalia. 

' iviuywyi], a meeting-spot. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



87 



III. A List of Naturalists who have worlced at the Station from the end of 
June 1886 to the end of Jixne 1887. 



Num- 




State or University 


Duration o: 


Occupancy 


bsr on 


Naturalist's Name 


whose Xable 






List 


was made use of 












Arrival 


Departure 


359 


Dr. P. de Vescovi 


Italy 


Aug. 1,1886 


Sept. 7,1886 


360 


Dr. G. Rovelli . 


» 




» 1, „ 


„ 7, „ 


361 


Prof. F. Gasco . 


,, 




,, 1, „ 


Oct. 19, „ 


362 


Dr. D. Carazzi . 


»» 




.. 12, „ 


„ 1, „ 


363 


Prof. S. Trinchese 


,, 




,, 12, „ 


Dec. 31, „ 


364 


Dr. C. Crety . 


» 




» 14, „ 


„ 31, „ 


365 


Prof. C. Emery . 


V 




» 19, „ 


Oct. 19, „ 


366 


Prof. C. Chun . 


Berlin Academy 


,. 25, „ 


„ 17, „ 


367 


Dr. K. Brandt . 


,, j^ , 


Oct. 5, „ 


Mar. 1,1887 


368 


Dr. J. M. Janse 


Holland . 


„ 22, „ 


Jan. 15, „ 


369 


Mr. G. Bidder . 


Cambridge 




„ 24, „ 


June 29, „ 


370 


Dr. E. Fraas 


Wiirtemberg 




Nov. 8, „ 


Dec. 31,1886 


371 


Dr. S. Apiithy . 


Hungary . 




» 8, „ 





372 


Mr. H. Bury . 


Cambridge 




., 10, „ 


May 29, 1887 


373 


Lieutenant Saxe 


Russian Navj^ 




„ 11, „ 


., 8, „ 


374 


Dr. F. Noll 


Baden 




„ 12, „ 


AprU 6, „ 


875 


Dr. G. Jatta 


Italy 




Jan. 1, 1887 


June 25, „ 


376 


Dr. J. Eaffiaele . 


,, 




„ 1. >, 





377 


Prof. S. Trinchese 


j» 




., 1, „ 





378 


Dr. F. S. Balsamo . 


Province of Naples . 


„ 1, « 





379 


Dr. F. S. MonticeUi . 


» »> 


„ 1, „ 





380 


Prof. A. G. de Linares 


Spain 


., 14, „ 


Junel2,1887 


381 


Mr. J. Gardiner 


British Association . 


Feb. 2, „ 





382 


Dr. Fleischmann 


Bavaria . 


„ 15, „ 


May 1,1887 


383 


Mr. E. Penard . 


Switzerland . 


„ 18, „ 


,. 12, „ 


384 


Dr. P. Pelseneer 


Belgium . 


„ 21, „ 


June 23, „ 


385 


Prof. J. Steiner 


Berlin Academy 


,. 24, „ 


April 8, „ 


386 


Dr. von Schroder 


Strasburg 


Mar. 1, „ 


May 1, „ 


387 


Sr. Ma('rid Moreno . 


Spain 


„ 1, „ 


„ 15, „ 


388 


Dr. A. Fischer . 


Saxony . 


„ 7, „ 


Apr. 22, „ 


389 


Dr. J. W. van Wijhe. 


Holland . 


„ 17, „ 





390 


Dr. G. Motti . 


Italy 


„ 25, „ 





391 


Stud. Med. Marcuse . 


Prussia . 


,, 25, „ 


June 23, „ 


392 


Prof. C. Rabl . 


Zoological Station . 


,. 26, „ 


Apr. 20, „ 


393 


Rev. Dr. A. M. Norman 


British Association . 


„ 28, „ 


May 1, „ 


394 


Dr. von DavidoflE 


Bavaria . 


„ 29, „ 


Apr. 13, „ 


395 


Dr. A. KorotneS 


Russia . . 


Apr. 17, „ 


May 15, „ 


396 


Dr. Reichenbach 


Zoological Station . 


,, 22, „ 


» 19, „ 


.397 


Dr. B. Rawitz . 


Prussia . 


May 16, „ 




398 


Prof. A. della Valle . 


Italy 


June 23, „ 


. 


399 


Prof. RepiachofE 


Russia 


„ 24, „ 


— 



lY. A lA<st of Papers which have been published in the year 1886 Jnj the 
Naturalists who have occupied Tables at the Zoological Station. 



Dr. J. Frenzel 



Prof. E. Metschnikoffi 
Prof. J. Steiner 



Mikrographie der Mitteldarmdriise der Mollusken. I. Theil, 
'Nova Acta K. Leop. Carol. Akad. der Naturforscher,' 
Bd. xlviii. Halle, 1886. 

Embryologische Studien an Medusen. Wien, 1886. 

Ueber das Centralnervensystem des Haifisches und des 
Amphioxus lanceolatus, und iiber die halbcirkelforinigen 
Canale des Haifisches. ' Sitz.-Ber. K. Pr. Akad. Wis- 
sensch., Berlin.' Bd. xxviii. 1886. 



88 



REPORT — 1887. 



Prof. J. Steiner 



Dr. W. J. Vigelius . 

Dr. W. Pattea 

Dr. E. von Daday . 

Dr. W. Repiachoff . 

Dr. J. Walther und 

P. Schirlitz 
Prof. C. Chun 



Prof. G. von Kocli . 
Dr. F. Raffaele 

Dr. J. H. Wakker . 

Prof. G. Colasanti , 
Dr. E. Robde . 

Prof. W. Krause 



Dr. C. Hartlaub . 
Prof. C. Emery 

Dr. F. Albert . 

Prof. W. Preyer 
Dr. A. Onodi . 

Cand. K. Wenkebacli 

Cand. J. L. Dobberke 



Functioneller Beweis fiir die Richtigkeit der morpholog. 

Ansicht von der Bntstehung des asymmetrischen 

Baues der Pleuronectiden. Heidelberg, Festschrift, 1886, 

p. 127. 
Zur Ontogenie der marinen Bryozoen. ' Mitth. Zool. 

Station,' Bd. vi. 1886. 
Eyes of Molhiscs and Arthropods. Ibid. 
Ein kleiner Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Infusorien-Fauna 

des Golfs von Neapel. Ibid. 
Zur Anatomie u. Entwickelung von Discophilus gj-roci- 

liatus. ' Verb. Neiiruss. Nat. Ges. Odessa,' 1886. 
Studien zur Geologie des Golfs von Neapel. 'Zeitschr. 

Deutsch. Geol. Gesellschaft,' Jahrg. 1886. 
Ueber Bau u. Entwickelung der Siphonophoren. Dritte 

Mitthlg. 'Sitz.-Ber. K. Pr. Akad. Wiss. Berlin,' Bd. 

xxxviii. 1886. 
Untersuch. ilber das Wachsthum von Antipathes. ' Festschr. 

der technischen Hochschule Darmstadt,' 1886. 
Papille ed organi di senso cutanei nei Pleuronettidi del 

genere Solea. Estr. ' Rivista Ital. Sc. Nat. pubbl. dal 

Circolodegliaspiranti Naturalisti,' Napoli, Anno II. 1886. 
Die Neubildungen an abgeschnittenen Blattern von 

Caulerpa prolifera. ' Verslagen en Medeelingen Kon. 

Akad. van Wetenschap. Afd. Naturk,' 3de Reeks, Deel 

II. 1886. 
II Pigmento blu delle Idromeduse. Estr. ' Atti. R. Accad. 

medica di Roma,' (2) vol. xii. 1886. 
Histol. Untersuchungen uber das Nervensystem der Chae- 

topoden. ' Sitz.-Ber. K. Pr. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin,' 

Bd. xxxix. 1886. 
Die N ervenendigung im elektr. Organ. ' Internationale 

Monatsschrift,' Bd. iii. 1886. 
Ueber die Folgen der Resection der elektrischen Nerven 

des Zitterrochen. ' Sitz.-Ber. K. Pr. Akad. Wissensch. 

Berlin,' Bd. xxxviii. 1886. 
Ueber den Bau der Eleutheria. ' Zool. Anzeiger,' 1886. 
La Regeneration des Segments Posterieurs du Corps. ' Arch. 

Ital. de Biologic,' t. vii. 1886. 
Ueber die Fortpflanzung von Haplosyllis spongicola, Grube. 

' Mitth. Zool. Station" Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1886. 
Ueber die Bewegungen der Seesterne. I. Hiilfte. Ibid. 
Neurologische Untersuchungen an Selachiern. ' Internat. 

Monatsschrift f. Anatomie u. Histologic,' Bd. iii. 1886. 
Beitriige zur Entvv. Geschichte der Knochenfische. 'Arch. 

Mikr. Anat.' Bd. xxviii. 1886. 
Verslag der Onderzoekingen, verricht aan de Nederlandsche 

Tafel in het Zoologisch Station, etc. ' Nederland. 

Staatscorr.' 1886. 



V. A List of Naturalists to whom, Specimens have been sent from the end 
of June 1886 to the end of June 1887. 

1886. July 



4 Mr. E. Marie, Paris . . . Various 

5 Mr. Weber-Sulzer, Winterthur . Corallium, Isis 
7 Conte Peracca, Turin . . Elaphis 

„ Mr. A. Blume, Iver . . . Collection . 

12 Dr. Kerbert, Aquarium, Am- 

sterdam Living Mursena 

13 Mr. J. Tempere, Paris . . Various 
„ Dr. A. Andres, Milan . . Actinia 

14 Prof. Ussow, Zootom. Cabinet, 

Kasan ..... Collection . 

20 Prof. A. C. Haddon, Dublin . Collection . 



Lire c. 
8305 
37-45 
25- 

122- 

25- 
1510 
7-70 

61915 
295-46 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



89 



188G. July 21 
31 



Aug. 



I 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



28 
10 
15 

k; 

23 

27 

29 

1 

4 



2G 



11 



14 



Mr. W. Schliiter, Halle-on-Saale 
Exhibition connected with the 
Meeting of German Natura- 
lists and Physicians, Berlin . 
Prof. Stepanoff, Charkov . 
Prof. A. Froriep, Tiibingen 
Mr. H. M. Gwatkin, Cambridge . 
Prof. Kollmann, Bale 
P. Rousseau and Co., Paris 
'Mr. J. Honegger, Ziu-ich . 

Physiological Institute, Ziirich . 
Dr. Riickert, Munich . 
Prof. Krause, Gottingen . 
Morphol. Labor. Cambridge 

Prof. Gravis, JA^ge . 

Oliergymnasium, Tarajevo 

Prof. Kollmann, Bdle 

Dr. Amans, Montpelier 

Prof. Leuckart, Leipzig 

Dr. Barrois, Lille 

Maison de Sante, SchiJneberg . 

Dr. A. Corona, Sassari 

Owens College, Manchester 

Mr. H. C. Chadwick, Manchester . 

Society Tecnica, Florence . 

Institute Tecnico, Naples . 

Prof. Barrois, Lille . 

Morphol. Labor., Cambridge 

Mr. E. Rigby, Blackburn . 

Mr. C. Jefferys, Tenby 

Dr. Carazzi, Spezia . 

Dr. P. Pelseneer, Brussels . 

Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva 

Mr. F. S. Oliver, Kew 

Dr. Kihlmann, Helsingfors 

Dr. J. Vajela, Klausenburg 

Prof. A. Carruccio, Museo Zoo- 
logico, Rome .... 

Prof. A. Delia Valle, Modeha . 

Mr. T. G. Nicholson, London 

Dr. J. W. van Wijhe, Almelo 

Rev. Dr. Norman, Bummoor 
Rectory 

Prof. Uljanin, University, War- 
saw ..... 

University College, London 

Mr. J. Tempore, Paris 

Mr. VV. Schliiter, Halle . 

Dr. J. Vajela, Klausenbui-g 

Dr. 0. Hamann, Gottingen 

Capt. Dannevig, Flodevig, Nor- 
way ..... 

Prof. Moseley, Oxford 

Grossh. Museum, Darmstadt 

Dr. Amans, Montpelier 

Prof. Landois, Greifswald . 

Mr. H. Putze, Hamburg . 

Dr. Rawitz, Berlin 

Dr. Schuchardt, Gorlitz 

University, Philadelphia . 

Swarthmore Coll., Swarthmore . 



Lire c. 

Various ... 50' 

4 Collections for school 

purposes . . . G87'50 

2 Collections . . 208-20 

Embryos of Torpedo . 51-75 

Mollusca ... 75- 

Embryos of Dogfish . 80-25 

Various . . . 16-65 
Brains of Acanthias, 

Heptanchus . . 12-40 

Brains of Dogfish . 6-35 

Yolk-sacks of Dogfish . 670 

Embryos of Torpedo . 71-95 
Bonellia, Sipuncuhis, 

&c 458-10 

Posidonia . . . 3450 

Small Collection . . 82-70 

Embryos of Dogfish . 82-65 

Various . . . 2630 

Collection . . . 213-95 

Palfcmonetes . . . 3-20 

Collection . . . 187-50 

Aplysia ... — 

Collection . . . 768-15 

Collection . . . 85-25 

Various . . . 83-50 

Collection . . . 311-30 

Orchestia . . . 3- 

Sepia .... 252-50 

Collection . . . 145-45 

Crustacea . . . 294-10 

Collection . . . 225- 

Tiedemannia . . 6-10 

Terebratula . . . 11-35 

Caulerpa . . . 20-50 

Caulerpa . . . 8- 

Collection . . . 187-50 

Collection . . . 2000- 

Collection . . . 136-35 

Amphioxus . . . 2-50 

Amphioxus . . . 6-60 

Collection . . . 418-10 

Collection . . . 579-40 

Mollusca . . . 261-40 

Various . . . 47-80 

Collection . . . 130-70 

Tapeworms . . . 8-50 

Brissus . . . 23-05 

Crustacea . . . 37-50 

Embrj'os and Various 153-15 

Octopus . . . 46-25 

Dactylopterus . . 25-70 
Collection . . .375- 

Various . . . 29.55 

Lima, Pecten, &c. . 19.30 

Gelidium . . . 2050 

Collection . . . 376 70 

Collection . . . 376-70 



90 



REPORT — 1887. 



1886. Dec. 14 


Conte Peracca, Turin 


Lacerta 




18 


Prof. C. Chun, Konigsberg 


Pelagia 




20 


Mr. W. Schliiter, Halle 


Various 




)) ,, 


I. R. Educatorio, Naples . 


Various 




I, » 


III. ., „ . . 


Various 




24 


Zootom. Cabinet, St. Petersburg 


Collection . 




i> >» 


Prof. Richiardi, Pisa . 


Various 




27 


Dr. Lahille, Toulouse. 


AscidiEe 




„ 30 


Morphol. Lab., Cambridge . 


Various 




1887. Jan. (5 


Prof. Hertwig, Munich 


Collection . 




„ ^ 


Prof. Hensen,"Kiel 


Heads of Fish 




6 


Dr. E. Fraas, Stuttgart 


Echinoderms 




G 


Prof. Lankester, London . 


Amphioxus . 




7 


Prof. Vogt, Geneva . 


Pteropoda . 




„ „ 


Miss Heath, Plymouth 


Various 




!. )' 


Cav. Brogi, Siena 


Various 




„' 10 


Prof. A. Lang, Jena . 


Sepia . 




if »» 


Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 


Torpedo 




., 11 


Prof. Gasco, Rome 


Various 




„ 1.5 


Dr. 0. Hamann, Gottingen 


Spatangus . 




„ 31 


Prof. Wilson, Brynn Mawr Coll. 


Collection . 




Feb. 3 


Prof. Batelli, Perugia 


Various 




6 


Mr. 0. Frio, Prague . 


Various 




)J )» 


Prof. Rabl, Prague 


Oikopleura . 




9 


Dr. J. W. van Wijhe, Almelo 


Embryos of Dogfish . 


„ 10 


Dr. Carazzi, Spezia . 


Brains of Dogfish 


)> )» 


Mr. Th. Wardle, Leek 


Living Murex 


„ 15 


Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 


Various 




,, 17 


Collegium, Szekely Udverhely . 


Collection . 




» 


Oberrealschule, KecskemSt 


Collection . 




)) 


Mr. G. Maclaine, Lochbine 


Various 




„ 18 


Zoolog. Museum, CharkofE . 


Collection . 




»» »* 


Zoolog. Institute, Charkoil 


Collection . 




„ 23 


Dr. Barrois, Lille 


Pinna nobilis 




„ 26 


Dr. F. Lahille, Toulouse . 


ActiniEe 




„ 28 


Prof. Dames, Berlin . 


Orthagoriscus 




„ „ 


University College, London 


Various 




March 4 


Dr. Janse, Le3'den 


Algas . 




8 


Mr. J. Krause, Glogau 


Various 




)» J) 


Prof. Hubrecht, Otrecht . 


Torpedo, Petrom 


fzon . 


,. 12 


Staatsgymnasium, Munkacs 


Collection . 




.. 


Society Tecnica, Florence . 


Various 




J. 


Prof. Giglioli, Florence 


Orthagoriscus 




)t » 


Mr. G. Maclaine, Lochbine 


Various 




»i »» 


Dr. Lampert, Stuttgart 


Various 




„ 16 


Prof. A. M. Marshall, Man- 








chester 


Corallium . 




>i )i 


Prof. Hensen, Kiel . 


Eyes of Pecten 




„ 18 


Prof. Menzbier, Univer. Moscow 


Collection . 




„ 20 


Dr. 0. Harmann, Gottingen 


Brissus 




» >» 


Labor. d'Anat. Comp., Geneva . 


Amphioxus . 




„ 22 


Accademia Navale, Leghorn 


Collection . 




») >» 


University College, Nottingham 


Collection . 




» 28 


National Museum, Budapest 


Siphonophora 




„ „ 


Dr. A. Appellof, Upsala . 


Sepia . 




)i » 


Mr. H. Knorr, Munich 


Various 




„' 29 


Conte M. Peracca, Turin . 


' Lacerta 




April 7 


Rev. HeinersdorfE, Elberfeld 


Sepia, CoralUum 




11 


Mr. P. L. Trico, Trino 


Amphioxus 




13 


Count Rose, Baden-Baden 


Collection . 




)» >» 


Geol. Mineral. Inst. Freiburg i/B 


Collection . 




„ 14 


Prof. G. Frizzi, Perugia . 


Fish . 




» 17 


Mr. C. Redlich, Brunn 


Various 





ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



91 



April 17 Prof. S. Loven, Stockholm 

„ ,, Cons. F. Nausen, Bergen, Nor- 
way ..... 

,, 18 Mr. Weber-Sulzer, Winterthur . 

., ,, Mr. G. Schneider, Bale 

„ ,, Dr. A. Kanfmann, St. Gall 

„ 20 Dr. L. figer, Vienna . 

,, ,, Mr. A. Kreidl, Prague 

„ ,, Prof. G. Macloskie, Princeton . 

,, „ Prof. Kupffer, Munich 

„ ,, Prof. W. Krause, Gottingen 

,, 23 Prof. Beraneck, Acad. Neuchatel 

26 Prof. Moseley, Oxford 

„ ,, Mr. A. de Baranowski, Moscow 

May 11 Rev. Dr. A. M. Norman, Burn- 
moor Rectorj'. 

„ ,, Mr. Perepelkiu, Moscow . 

„ „ Prof. A. Goette, Strassburg 

„ „ Dr. Doederlein, Strassburg 

,, 12 Prof. Salenaky, Odessa 

„ ,, Dr. C. F. Jickeli, Hermannstadt 

„ ] 6 Mr J. Tempere, Paris 

„ 18 Prof. Mitsukuri, Tokio 

„ „ Prof. M. Braun, Rostock . 

,, 21 Prof. Matarazzi, S. Maria, Capua 
Vetere ..... 

„ „ Dr. Riickert, Munich 

„ 25 Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 

26 Prof. C. Rabl, Prague 

,, „ Prof. Kupffer, Munich 

„ 28 Prof. C. Vogt, Geneva 

,, ,, Mr. R. 0. Cunningham, Belfast 

,, „ Mr. A. Amrhein, Vienna . 

,, „ Conte Ahbate Castracane, Rome 

June 2 Prof. Giglioli, Flurence 

,, ?, Prof. Hertwig, Munich 

,, Mr. E. Marie. Paris . 

,, 5 Sottoprefetto Martelli, Asti 

,, 12 Mr. J. Chalon, Namur 

„ „ Dr. C. Hartlaub, Nizza 

,, 17 Mr. A. Wenke, Jaromer 

„ „ Prof. Koehler, Nancy 

„ 25 Mr. Cli. Jefferys, Tenby . 

„ ,, Mr. J. Chalon, Namur 

,, 30 Dr. Irao Ijima, Science Coll., 

Tokio 







Lire c. 


Arbacia 




9-70 


Amphioxus 




21- 


Collection . 




,190-45 


Various 




67-75 


Physophora 




21-40 


Various 




39-45 


Various 
Various 




59-50 
23-40 


Ascidise 




15-35 


Amphioxus 




5-85 


Collection 




19215 


Various 




88-20 


Various 




62-50 


Various 




557- 


Various 




50- 


Various 




34-80 


Various 




15- 


Distaplia 




34-80 


Aniphiura 




8-85 


Various 




35-25 


Collection 




574-90 


Helix . 




6-75 


Collection 




208- 


Embryos of 


Dogfish 


40-50 


Collection 




169-10 


Embryos of Dogfi.sh 


36-80 


Petromyzon 




39-75 


Cerianthus 




8-75 


Amphioxus, 


Torpedo 


12- 


Diatome* 




5-45 


Diatomeae 




1-65 


Fish 




9-05 


Actinipe 




22-90 


Eggs of Oct 


opus. Sec. 


18-35 


Amphioxus 






Elaphis 




12-50 


Cladonema 




9-60 


Mollusca 




60- 


Collection 




161-15 


Mollusca 




50-95 


Elaphis 




13- 


Collection 




870- 



20,57205 



Report of the Gommdttee, consisting of Professor McKendeick, Pro- 
fessor Struthers, Professor Young, Professor McIntosh, Professor 
A. Nicholson, Professor Cossar Ewaet, and Mr. John Mdrrat 
{Secretary) , appointed for the purpose of aiding in the inain- 
ienance of the establishment of a Marine Biological Station 
at Granton, Scotland, 

The Committee have received the following reports from Mr. Cunningham, 
the superintendent, on the zoological work carried on at the Granton 
Laboratory and at Millport, and from Dr. Mill, the Physicist of the station, 
regarding work done on the Clyde sea area. 



92 EKPOBT — 1887. 

Report on the Scottish Marine Station for the year 1886-87. 

Since the last meeting of the British Association the principal work 
carried on at Granton has been the systematic study of the Polychteta of 
the Firth of Forth. Mr. Gr. A. Ramage, Vans Dunlop Scholar of Edin- 
burgh University, was associated with myself in this undertaking. We 
collected all the species we could find, more especially those living near 
the Laboratory in the littoral zone, and we found that the Polychseta, 
more particularly the sedentary forms, were abundant in the neighbour- 
hood both in individuals and in species. We carefully determined the 
systematic position of each form, and investigated, as far as opportunities 
allowed, its life-history, anatomy, and histology. One of the most in- 
teresting results of our work was the elucidation of the peculiar structure 
and relations of the nephridial system in Laiiice conchilega (Malmgren), 
an account of which was communicated by myself to the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, and afterwards published in ' Nature ' (June 16, 1887). A 
more complete paper, illustrated with several plates, on various points in 
the anatomy of the Polychseta was prepared by me for publication in 
the ' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science,' and will appear shortly 
in that periodical : it is now in the pi'ess. A memoir, in which the results 
of our investigations are fully described and illustrated, was presented 
in July to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and will be published in the 
coming autumn in the Transactions of that Society. 

In the course of the spring Mr. Rupert Vallentiu, at Mr. Murray's 
suggestion, undertook to make an investigation of the phosphorescent 
organs oiNycfophanes norvegica (G. O. Sars) (a species of the Euphausiidse), 
which occurs abundantly m certain deep areas in the Forth of Clyde. 
Mr. Vallentin paid several visits to Millport, and made excursions on the 
steam yacht ' Medusa ' in order to obtain specimens of the animal. He 
afterwards made experiments on the phosphorescence in the living animal 
in the small laboratory at Millport, and brought preserved material to 
Granton, where he investigated the histology of the luminous organs. I 
afterwards joined him in preparing the results of this work for publica- 
tion, and we communicated a short account of the subject to the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. A more complete and illustrated paper on the 
subject will be published shortly in the ' Quarterly Journal of Micro- 
scopical Science.' 

My own inquiries into the reproduction of Myxine glytinosa were 
continued from time to time during the winter and spring, but I was not 
successful in obtaining fertilised ova or embryos. I was able, however, to 
obtain evidence which increased the period during which I was certain 
that oviposition took place : the additional evidence is recorded in the 
' Zoologischer Anzeiger.' 

During June and July observations on the reproduction of oysters in 
the Firth of Forth were resumed. Steps were being taken to plant oysters 
and collect spat ofi" the shore at Preston Pans, and the resources and ex- 
perience available at the Granton laboratory were placed at the disposal 
of those engaged in this enterprise. Oysters were imported from Holland, 
as well as collected in the Firth, healthy spat was obtained, and arrange- 
ments were made in the aquarium at Granton for keeping this spat alive 
in captivity, and, if possible, securing its fixation on collectors. 

The above is a sketch of the work carried on. I have now to report 
on the extent to which the organisation has been made use of by zoologists 



ON THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL STATION AT GBANTON, SCOTLAND. 93 

not attached to it.' Mr. Ramage was working at Granton for a little more 
than a year, from June 1886 to July 1887. During the latter month he 
left in order to proceed to the island of Fernando Norotiba, as arrange- 
ments had been made through me that he should join a scientific expedi- 
tion to that place, organised by Mr. Ridley, of the botanical staff of the 
British Museum. 

Mr. R. Vallentin came to Granton on January 1, 1887, and worked 
there, with occasional visits to Millport, until July. 

Two students of Edinburgh University, Messrs. McBryde and Kerr, 
spent some time in March and April in studying at the Granton 
laboratory. 

Mr. J. Arthur Thomson, lecturer on zoology in the Extra-Mural Medi- 
cal School of Edinburgh, with Mr. Muri'ay's permission, arranged to give 
a vacation course in zoology at the Granton laboratory to school teachers 
and others in August and September. The class met on August 1. It 
had been arranged that T should assist in conducting this course, but I 
was unable to be present after the first two days, having accepted the 
post of naturalist at the Plymouth laboratory. The class consisted of 
eleven persons, and is still meeting daily at Granton. 

Mr. Bury, an undergraduate at Cambridge, began to carry on 
zoological studies at Millport in the middle of July, and is still working 
there. 

My own connection with the Scottish marine station is now ter- 
minated, but I still take a strong interest in its prosperity, and may state 
here my conviction that the existence of the Granton laboratory is of the 
greatest importance in exciting a healthy interest and activity in zoologi- 
cal science in Edinburgh. J. T. Cunningham. 

Report on the Physical Worh of the Station. 

In connection with the physical work of the Scottish Marine Station 
I have, since last meeting of the Association, carried on regular tempera- 
ture cruises on the Clyde sea area at intervals of about one month. On 
two occasions Mr. John Murray extended these excursions to the deep 
lochs of the west of Scotland. In many of the observations the fauna 
was studied in relation to the physical conditions of the water, and much 
information of a new and interesting nature has been collected. 

Observations on the fresh-water lakes in Scotland have been continued. 
I have acted with Mr. Cunningham in his operations regarding the oyster 
culture experiment at Preston Pans, and inaugurated observations on the 
temperature of the sea margin there. 

All the physical observations made in connection with the station are 
being prepai'ed for publication. The whole of the temperature work up 
to July 9, 1887, is passed for press, and will appear in the forthcomino- 
' Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society.' The observations of 
density will be given in a later number. 

The improved thermometers and water-bottles were exhibited at the 
Exhibition of Marine Meteorological Instruments held by the Royal 
Meteorological Society in March last, and several have subsequently been 
supplied to zoologists in various parts of the country for use on dredging 
excursions. 

My principal papers since last year have been — (1) ' On the Physical 
Conditions of Water in the Clyde Sea Area,' read to the Philosophical 



94 KEPORT — 1887. 

Society of Glasgow in February, and published in abstract with additions 
in ' Nature,' vol. xxxvi. pp. 37-39, 56-58. (2) ' Marine Temperature 
Observations,' read to the Royal Meteorological Society in March, and 
about to be published in their ' Quarterly Journal.' (3) ' On the Salinity 
and Temperature of the Moray Firth,' read to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh in July last, and to appear in the next part of the ' Proceediug.s.' 
(4) ' Recent Physical Research iu the North Sea,' a criticism of the work of 
the German gunboat ' Urache,' iu the ' Scottish Geographical Magazine' 
for August; and (5) ' Contributions to Marine Meteorology resulting from 
the three years' work of the Scottish Marine Station,' read to the Scottish 
Meteorological Society iu July and to Section A of the present meeting. 

Hugh Robert Mill, B.Sc. 

The Committee beg to recommend that a further grant of lOOL be 
made by the Association to aid in the maintenance of tlie Scottish Marine 
Station during the ensuing year ; and that M r. John Murray, Dr. Alex. 
Buchan, Professor McKendrick, and Professor Chrystal be the Committee. 
Mr. John Murray to be Secretary. 

John Mukkay, Secretary. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thiselton Dyer (Secre- 
tary), Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, and Mr. 
Forbes, appointed for thepurpose of continuing the preparation 
of a report on our present knoivledge of the Flora of China. 

The grant made by the Association has enabled the Committee to proceed 
with this important work, the third part of which, carrying the enumera- 
tion down to the end of the Rosacece, is now iu the hands of the printer, 
and the fourth part has been commenced. Since the work was begun, 
about two years ago, several collections of dried plants have been received 
at Kew fi-om China ; notably, a very exlensive one from Dr. A. Henry, 
made in the little known district of Ichang, in the province of Hupeh, iu 
the very centre of China. And the trustees of the British Museum have 
acquired the herbarium of the late Dr. Hance, containing the types of the 
large number of species published by him from time to time during a 
long residence in the country. Dr. Henry's collection includes a large 
number of novelties, besides the addition of many Himalayan and Japan. 
ese forms not previously known, from China ; and Dr. Hance's herba- 
rium greatly facilitates the limitation of the species where comparisons 
with his types are necessary. The published parts of the report have 
been freely distributed among English residents in China, and have no 
doubt been the means of stimulating some of them to greater activity now 
that they perceive that there is a probabiUty of the results of their exer- 
tions being promptly published. Dr. Henry is specially interested in the 
origin of the numerous drugs used in Chinese medicine, and, aided by 
our determinations of the plants, we may assume that he will be able to 
make a substantial addition to onr knowledge of the Chinese pharmaco- 
poeia. Mr. Ford, too, the Superintendent of the Hong Kong Botanic 
Garden, takes a lively interest in the work, and has rendered valuable assist- 
ance, doubtless with advantage to the establishment under his charge. 
Several eminent foreign botanists have alluded to the work as of great 



ON THE FLORA OJT CHINA. 95 

interest and importance, and the Committee have mach satisfaction in 
reporting that circ am stances are now favourable to more rapid progress 
in the future than hitherto. Simultaneously with the appearance of our 
Index Florae Sinensis, a French botanist, M. Franchet, is publishing a 
very extensive collection of plants made by French missionaries in Yun- 
nan, a province from which there is almost nothing in the London her- 
baria ; hence his labours sapplemeat ours and cover a distinct floral 
region. 

The Committee recommend their reappointment, and that a further 
grant of £100 be placed at their disposal. 



Report of the Cornmittee consisting of Canon A. M. Nokman, Mr. 
H. B. Brady, Mr. W. Carruthers, Professor Herdman, Professor 
W. C. M'Intosh, Mr. J. Murray, Professor A. Newton, Mr. P. 
L. Sclater, and Professor A. C. Haddon (Secretary), appointed 

^for the purpose of considering the question of accurately defin- 
ing the term ' British ' as applied to the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of our Islands. 

A CIRCULAR giving in detail alternative boundaries for a British marine 
area, and maps and sections illustrating the same, was distributed to the 
members of the 'British Marine Area Committee,' as well as to a large 
and representative number of naturalists interested in marine zoology. 
As was to be expected, the replies showed tliat great diversity of opinion 
exists not only as to the desirability of limiting a British marine area, but 
also as to how far such an area should extend. 

A tabulation of the replies was subsequently forwarded to the members 
of the Committee, and the following statements appear to express the 
views of the majority. 

It may be desirable, for the convenience of curators of museums and 
the compilers of faunistic works, to limit a marine area which may be 
more particularly described as ' British.' 

The British Marine Area may be conveniently subdivided into a 
shallow-water and into a deep-water district. 

The 100-fathom contour is a natural boundary line for the former off 
the north and west coasts of the British Islands for the following reasons : 
1. It is defined on all charts; 2. The Admiralty soundings are veiy com- 
plete down to that depth; 3. The 100-fathom line roughly corresponds 
with the beginning of the declivity of the continental plateau ; 4. There 
is a marked change in the fauna about that limit ; 5. Moat of the dredg- 
ings of British naturalists have been taken within that contour. 

The only boundary on the south and east is the half-way line between 
Great Britain and the Continent : this should include the Dogger Bank. 

The above district may be termed ' The British Marine Shallow- 
water District.' 

The deep-water district of the British Marine Area may be regarded 
as extending from 100 to, say, 1,000 fathoms — that is, to the commence- 
ment of the abysmal floor of the ocean. As these depths occur only off 
the north and west coasts, this region may be termed ' The British Atlantic 
Slope District.' 

The Channel Islands lie outside the British Marine Area proper. 



96 REroET— 1887. 



Report of the Committee consisting of Professor M. Foster, Pro- 
fessor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Pro- 
fessor Bower {Secretary), Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. Car- 
ruthers, and Professor Hartog, appointed for the purpose of 
taking steps for the establishment of a Botanical Station at 
Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

The Oommittee for the purpose of taking steps for the establishment of a 
botanical station at Peradeniya, Ceylon, report that they have communi- 
cated with Dr. Trimen since his return to his duties at Peradeniya, and 
that he has provided them with the following memorandum on Pera- 
deniya as a site for a botanical station : — 

' Ceylon is the only British colony in the trojjics which possesses a 
botanic garden of importance, provided also with a good library and her- 
barium, arranged, and available for reference and study. 

' Though the immediate neighbourhood of Peradeniya gardens is 
mostly land which has been or is now under cultivation, and thus does 
not exhibit the natural wild vegetation of the Eastern tropics in a very 
characteristic manner, yet there are within easy reach by railway and 
road all descriptions of country, including high mountains, and the south 
and west coasts ; and on the whole Peradeniya is favourably placed for 
the study and collection of tropical plants of all types (the contents of the 
gardens themselves being also taken into consideration). 

' There is no special laboratory for microscopic and other work here, 
but a large room in the museum building is well suited for the purpose. 
There is at present no apparatus there. In the gardens themselves there 
is no suitable accommodation for students, but in the close neighbour- 
hood are several bungalows, some of which are generally unoccupied. 
That in which Professor Bower lived in 1886 is quite close to the gardens 
and could easily accommodate two men. It is possible that if there were 
any prospect of a succession of students this little house might be acquired 
by the Government, and furnished with the few requisites for tropical life. 

' The climate is very healthy ; elevation 1,540 feet above the sea ; 
mean annual temperature about 77° F. ; rainfall about 90 inches, pretty 
evenly distributed throughout the year, December to April being the 
driest months. 

' (Signed) Henry Trimen, Director.' 

In addition to the advantages, thus noted by Dr. Trimen, which Pera- 
deniya possesses over alternative sites, it may be mentioned that it is the 
residence of the permanent director of the gardens in Ceylon ; also that 
the extensive garden would supply large quantities of material suitable 
for research ; further, that a large number of the plants in the garden are 
labelled, while attempts are being made to arrange the plants as far as 
possible according to their natural alBnities. Again, there is attached to 
the gardens a body of experienced native collectors, whose duty it is to 
bring in plants from remote districts, and thus access is gained to plants 
which would not otherwise be readily obtained. These are facts of im- 
portance which contribute to make Peradeniya a most fitting place for the 
visits of students who have not had any previous experience of a tropical 
flora ; and this, it must be remembered, will be the position of most of 
those who will wish to study there. On these grounds your Committee 



ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BOTANICAL STATION AT CEYLON. 97 

are of opinion that Peradeniya is a most suitable place for the establish- 
ment of a botanical station in the Eastern tropics. From the memorandum 
of Dr. Trimen it would appear that laboratory accommodation is already 
supplied, and a comparatively small outlay would be required to provide 
apparatus. The Committee therefore request that they be reappointed, 
and that a grant of 50?. be placed at their disposal to provide this ap- 
paratus. 



Rejport of the GoTnmittee, consisting of Professor Valentine Ball, 
Mr. H. Gr. FoRDHAM, Professor Haddon, Professor Hillhouse, 
Mr. John Hopkinson, Dr. Macfarlane, Professor Milnes Mar- 
shall, Mr. F. T. MoTT (Secretary), Dr. Traquair, and Dr. H. 
Woodward, appointed for the pinpose of preparing a Report 
upon the Provincial Museums of the United Kingdom. 

We propose to treat the subject entrusted to us under the following 
sectional headings, viz. : — 

1 . Preliminary Sources of Information. 

2. Methods adopted for obtaining correct Statistics. 

3. Tables of General Statistics. 

4. Discussion of Details. 

5. The Ideal Museum. 

6. Practical Suggestions for approaching the Ideal. 

We include in our inquiry all Museums out of London to which the 
public can obtain access. 

1. Pkeliminart Soukces of Information. 

(a) A ' List of Museums in the United Kingdom,* prepared in 1876 
by the Science and Art Department, a copy of which was supplied to us 
on application to the Department. This was stated to be ' incomplete,' 
but it contained the names of 158 museums, exclusive of those in London. 

(i) A i-eturn to an Order of the House of Commons in 1884, giving 
a list of 41 museums established under the Public Libraries Act. 

(c) A list of local scientific societies contained in the Report of the 
Local Scientific Societies Committee, presented to the Association at 
Southport in 1883, and published in the annual volume for that year. 

This list indicates those societies which were known to possess 
museums. 

(cT) A circular posted to the town clerks of all the municipal boroughs 
in the United Kingdom (240), asking for the names of all museums in 
their respective towns and districts. To nearly the whole of these circu- 
lars we received very courteous replies, with the names of many museums 
previously unknown to us. 

(e) Information from the members of the Committee and friends. 

2. Methods adopted foe obtaining correct Statistics. 
From the various sources of information enumerated above a prelimi- 



nary list of museums was dr 

England 
Wales . 
Scotland 
Ireland 



awn up and printed, containing, in — 
190 j 
27 I Total, 240. 
15 



1887. ,tt 



lib 



REPOET — 1887. 



Some of these were afterwards found to have been sold or otherwise 
dispersed. Some had never been actually established. Some were erro- 
neously named ; others were art galleries only ; and in a few cases two 
museums in the same town had been united into one. As a final result 
we have found 211 museums which seem properly to come within the 
scope of our inquiry. 

In addition to this preliminary list we drew up a series of questions 
arranged in two schedules, A and B. Schedule A contained seven ques- 
tions relating to primary statistics, intended to be incorporated in a 
published list. Schedule B contained thirty-six questions on matters of 
detail. These schedules were printed with space for replies, and posted, 
with copies of the pi-eliminary list of museums and a printed circular 
explaining the object in view, to ' The Curator ' of nearly every museum 
on the list. 

Schedule A. 

1. Name of town and county. 2. Name of museum and street or building in 
which it is situated. 3. Date of foundation or opening, ft. Name and address of 
curator or other principal oflScer. 5. List of collections and of subjects illustrated, 



General collections, 
including local specimens, 

unless these are kept 

separately, or distinguished 

bj' special labels 


Local and special collections. 

If kept separately, or 

distinguished by special 

labels, not otherwise 


Loan collections 


Subjects 


Approxi- 
mate 
number of 
specimens 


Particulars 


Approxi- 
mate 
number of 
specimens 


From whom 


Approxi- 
mate 
number of 
specimens 


Geology. 
Zoology . 
Botany . 
ArchfEology . 
Anthropology. 













6. On what terms aud at what hours is the museum open to the public ? 7. Re- 
marks. 

Date, Signature of Curator, 



Schedule B. 

1. By whom was the museum founded ? 2. To whom does it now belong ? 3. How 
is it supported ? 4. How is it governed ? 5. State in round numbers the annual 
cost of maintenance, %iz. : — Rent aud taxes ; salaries and wages ; cases ; purchase of 
specimens ; mounting of specimens ; other expenditure. 6. What is the staff em- 
ployed ? and during what hours 1 7. Under what tenure and from what owner are 
the buildings or rooms held ? 8. State the number of rooms or galleries, their 
length, breadth, and height, and how lighted and warmed. 9. State the general 
arrangement of the cases in the principal rooms, either in words or by a rough 
sketch. lO. How are the cases made dust-proof ? 11. State any special details of 
fittings. 12. State an)' special methods adopted for preserving or exhibiting the 
specimens. 13. Are the natural history specimens set up pictorially with rock, 
grass, water, &c., showing their mode of life, or merely on separate pegs or stands ? 
1ft. Is any attempt made to exhibit the family life of birds and animals, showing 
male, female, young, eggs, nest, &;c., grouped together ? 15. Are the natural history 
specimens generally in good condition, or dirty and grub-eaten and requiring re- 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 99 

newal ? 16. Are all the specimens illustrating each group — whether skeletons, 
stuffed, or bottled — arranged together, or are the skeletons and the bottles kept 
apart from the stuffed specimens ? 17. Are the fossils arranged zoologically with 
the recent specimens, or stratigraphically ? 18. If there are any purely local 
collections, give some further account of these than in the answer to Question 5, 
Schedule A, and say whether they are kept apart from the other specimens, or only 
distinguished by special labels. 19. State the principal specialities in your district 
which ought to be represented by special collections but are not so at present. 
20. Are there any collections especially arranged for t'ducaUonal purposes ? If so, state 
method of arrangement or classification. 21. Have you any technical or industrial 
department in the museum ? 22. Are there any classes or any arrangements for 
systematic teaching at the museum ? 23. Is the museum much used for study by 
local naturalists, or archaeologists, or medical students 1 24. Are any facilities 
offered to students, such as private rooms, tables, or microscopes ; and are they 
allowed, under any conditions, to handle the museum specimens ? 25. Are the 
rooms used for any other purposes when the museum is not open ? 26. Are there 
any aquaria or vivaria in the museum 1 27. What catalogues or handbooks of the 
museum have been published ? (Please inclose copies.) 28. How are the duplicates 
and surplus stores kept and arranged 1 Have you any large stock of duplicates ? 

29. If the museum belongs to the public, and any local society is in any way con- 
nected with it, say what benefit the museum receives from such connection. 

30. Are there many donations of specimens to the museum annually, and from 
what class of persons chiefly ? 31. What style of labelling is adopted ? (If you 
have a special form of label, please attach a specimen.) 32. If the museum has a 
library of scientific or archfeological works for the use of the curator or students, 
state about the number of volumes and the average annual increase. 33. Can you 
give any estimate of the average weelihj number of visitors 1 Hov^r is the estimate 
anived at ? 3ft. Is the museum centrally situated, or otherwise, in reference to the 
population 1 35. At what time' of the day is the museum most visited, and how is 
it affected by public holidays 1 36. Make here any remarks upon matters not 
included in the foregoing inquiries, or any suggestions of your own as to improve- 
ments in the general management of provincial museums. 

Name of Museum. Signature of Curator, 

Date. 

The returns came in slowly. Some of them were very full and satis- 
factory ; others were extremely meagre. A large book was prepared in 
which to enter up in tabular form the replies to the various questions as 
they arrived. 

Two months after the schedules had been distributed a printed post- 
card was sent to each curator who had made no return, and a month later 
another card, marked ' Urgent,' was posted to those still in arrear. Many 
had to be specially written to for important details omitted in their replies, 
and there are still eight museums from which we have been unable to 
get any information. 

Some asked for duplicate schedules in order to keep copies of their 
i-eplies. In many cases the schedules had miscarried, owing probably to 
there being no recognised ' curator ' to a number of the smaller museums. 
On information of this fact being received, fresh copies were forwarded to 
the secretary or other officer. 

The statistics finally obtained afford sufficient data for comparing the 
size and special characteristics of the various museums, and have enabled 
us to arrange them into four classes, taking into consideration the super- 
ficial area of the rooms, the size and character of the collections, the 
annual cost, the staff, and the number of visitors. 

A few of the museums have been personally visited by members of 
the Committee, but it has not been found practicable at present to carry 
out this method on any extensive or systematic plan. 

h2 



100 



REPORT 1887. 



KoTE. — The collections are named in the order of 



3. Tables oi 

TABLE l.—Usto^ 

their numerical impcn-tance in eaoi 
M. standi 




Date 

Name and Locality of Museum pomi. 
dation 



Englasd— 
Aldborough, Yorks 

Alnwick, North- 
umberland 

Alton, Hants . 

Andover, Hants . 

5 Aylesbury, Bucks . 



Bakewell, Derby- 
shire 



Barnard Castle, 
Durham 



Bath, Somerset 



Berwick-on-Tweed, 
Durham 



Birmingliam, War- 
wickshire 



Blackburn, Lanca- 
shire 



' M. Isurlanum,' Aldborough 

Manor, near Boroughbridge 
The Castle M., Alnwick Castle . 

The ' Curtis ' M., Mechanics' In- 
stitute 
The Institute M., Bridge Street . 



Bucks Architectural and Archaeo- 
logical M., Church Street 



Bingham's M., Bath Street 



1855, 
1880 
1854 



1873, 
1885 



Name and Address of Curator, I n\s^ 
Principal Officer, or Owner 



The Bowes M. 



Bootle, Lancashire 

Bradford, Torlts . 
Brighton, Sussex . 



Bristol, Gloucester- 
shire 



M. of the Royal Literary and 
Scientific Institution, Terrace 
Walks 



Berwick M., High Street 
M. and Art Gallery 

Aston Hall M., Aston Park 



M. of the Natural History and 
Microscopical Society, Mason 
College 

Public Library and M., Library 
Street 



Bolton, Lancashire The Chadwick M., Park Road 



Free Public Librai-y and M., Oriel 
Road 

Free Library and Art M., Darley 

Street 
Free Library and M. . . • 

M. of British Birds, Dyke Road . 

M. and Library, Queen's Road . 



A. S. Lawson, Esq., Owner, Ald- 
borough Manor 
Duke of Northumberland, Owner 



William Curtis, Cur., Alton . 
Ernest Collier, Cur., The Vicarage 

Robert Gibbs, Cur., Aylesbury . 

L. F. Bingham, Owner, Bakewell 



Owen S. Scott, Cur., Bowes M., 
Barnard Castle 



T. F. Plo^^'man, Gen. Secretary . 



1869 .Tohn Scott, Cur., 103 High Street 



1885 Whitworth WalHs, F.R.G.S., Direc- 
tor 



1864 Alfred J. Rodway, Cur., Aston 
Hall 

1864 W. N. Wilkinson and W. P. Mar- 
shall, Hon. Sees. 

1862 David Geddes, Cur. 

W. W. Midgley, Cur., Museum 

1885 

1879 Butler Wood, Cur., 1 Scott Street 

Benjamin Lomai, F.L.S., Cur. 

E. T. Booth, Owner 

1867 Edward Wilson, F.G.S., Cur., 
Museum 



ON THE 


PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OP THE 


UNITED KINGDOM. 


101 


: NEEAL Statistics. 






[ovlncial Museums. 






1 seum. When two dates are given, the second refers to removal to 2)resent premises. 


■ Museum. 






Collections 














Supported by 


^0. of 
Visitors 
weekly 


Duplicates 
for Exchange 


Terms of 
Admission 


Remarks 


General 


Local 


— 


Arch. (Roman re- 
mains, &c.) 


Owner . 


— 


— 


Free on ap- 
plication 


Private 


•oh. (Egyptian, &c.), 


Arch. 


„ 


— 


— 


Free on 


„ 


Q-eo., Zoo., Anth. 










order 




!0., Zoo., Arch., Anth., 


Geo., Zoo., Arch., 


The Institute 


Few 


_ 


•2d. daily . 


Good for 


Bot. 


Bot. 


and Fees 








smalltown 


o. Arch., Geo., Sub- 


Arch., Geo., Anth. 


The Institute 


2 


_- 


Free daily 




marine cables, &c. 














'oh 


- 


Local Society 


- 


- 


Free on ap- 
plication 


Small and 
neglected 


so. (White Watson's 





Owner . 


100 




Free 




ooU.), Zoo., Shells, 














'Models, Autographs, 














&c. 














•t, Italian and Span- 





Endowment 








Free on ap- 


Grand de- 


ish paintings, pottery 










plication 


sign.but in- 


and porcelain 












complete 
at death of 
founder, 
and not yet 
formally 
opened 


•0., Bot., Anth., Arch. 


Geo. (coll. of C. 
Moore, F.G.S.&W. 
Lonsdale, F.G.S.), 
Zoo. (Duncan and 
Lockey colls.), Bot. 
(Rev. L. Blome- 
fields coll.) 


The Institu- 
tion and 
Fees 


140 


Geo. and Zoo. 


Free, 4 
days ; Gd. 
2 days 




'0. { tew). Zoo. (few). 


Bot., Zoo., Geo., 


Town Sub- 


30 


— 


Id. daily . 


Intended to 


Arch, (few) 


Arch. 


scription 
and Fees 








be purely 
local 


•t (industrial and 





Bate . 


22,000 


— 


Free daily. 


Open on 


lecorative) 










and Sun- 
days 2 to 5 


Sunday ; 
loan from 
S.K. 


0., Geo., Art (indus- 


Anth. . 


„ 


2,000 


Geo. and Zoo. 


Free daily 


An old 


trial and fine), Anth., 












mansion 


Bot., Arch. 














■0., Zoo., Bot., Micro- 





Local Society 





— 


Members 


Very small 


icopy 










only 




0., Zoo., Arch., Art 


._ 


Rate . 


1,200 


Geo., Bird 


Free daily 




(industrial and fine). 








skins and 






Bot., Anth. 








eggs, &c. 






, Geo., Arch., Bot., 







3,500 


— 


„ 


Legacy of 


reoli. Art (industrial 












5,000;. to- 


md flue) 












wards 
building 


0., Geo. (purchased 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


„ 


Not yet 


ivim Royal Institu- 












opened 


ioii, Liverpool) 














t (industrial and fine), 







6,000 


— 


„ 


Loan from 


jeo., Anth. 












S.K. 


0., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 


Geo. 




1,500 


Given away . 


Free daily 




utli.. Porcelain 














0. (British birds 





Owner and 


_ 





1j!. daily . 


Good of its 


luly) 




Fees 








kind 


0., Zoo., Anth., 


Geo., Zoo. 


Subscription, 


240 


Geo. 


2d. 3 days ; 




:lrch., Bot., Egyptian 




Endowment 






6d.3 days 1 




int., Materia Medica 




and Fees 









102 



REPORT 1887. 



Table I.— List of Provin 



Town and Connty 




Kame and Address of Curator, 
Principal Officer, or Owner 



England— coni. 

Burslem, Stafford- 
shire 

Burton - on - Trent, 
Staffordsliire 

Bury-St.-Edmunds, 

Suffolk 
Caerleon, 

mouth 



Mon- 



Cambridge, 
bridgeshire 



Cam- 



Canterbury, Kent . 

Carlisle, Cumber- 
laud 
Chard, Somerset . 
Chatham, Kent 

Chelmsford, Essex 

Cheltenham, Glou- 
cestershire 
Chester, Cheshire . 



Chesterfield, Der- 
byshire 
Chichester, Sussex 



Cirencester, Glou- 
cestershire 



Coalbrookdale, 
Shropshire 

Colchester, Essex . 
Croydon, Surrey . 

Darwen, Lanca- 
shire 
Derby, Derbyshire . 

Devizes, Wiltshire . 



Devonport, Devon . 
Dorchester, Dorset 
Dover, Kent . 
Dudley . 
Dulwich, Surrey 
Durham, Durham . 
Eastbourne, Sussex 
Eton, Bucks . 



Wedgwood Institute, Queen Street 

M. of the Nat. History and Archae- 
ological Society, The Institute, 
Union Street 

Bury-St.-Edmunds M., The Athe 
ua3um, Angel Hill 

Caerleon M 



M. of General and Local Archje 

ology. Little St. Mary's Lane 
The Woodwardian M. Trin. Coll. 



The FitzWilliam M., Trumping 

ton Street 
Mineralogical M., New Museums 
Botanical M. and Herbarium 

Canterbury M. . . . 

Carlisle M., Finkle Street 



Chard M 

M.of School of Military Engineer- 
ing 
Essex and Chelmsford M. 

The Pierson M., Cheltenham Col 

lege 
The Grosvenor M., Grosvenor 

Boad 

M. of Chesterfield and Mid-Coun- 
ties Institution of Engineers 

M. of the Literary Society and 
Mechanics' Institute, South 
Street 

The Corinium M., Tetbury Boad . 

M. of Eoyal Agricultural College . 

M. of the Literary and Scientific 
Institution 

Colcliester Free M., The Castle . 
M. of Surrey Arch. Society, Public 

Hall 
Public Library and M., Church 

Street 
Derby Free M., Wardwick . 

Wilts Arch, and Nat. Hist. M., 
Long Street 

Free Public Library and M., Duke 

Street 
Dorset County M., High West 

Street 
Dover M. , Market Square 

M. of Geol. Soc. and Field Club 

Dulwich College M., College . 

University M 

The Caldecott M. . 

Eton College M. 



1S82 
1840 



1884 
1728 



1825, 
1847 
1835, 
1877 
1882 



1831 

1856 

1845 
1858 



1846 
1856 

1839, 
1871 
1879 



1846, 
1883 
1836 



1833 
1870 
1879 



Thomas Hulme, Hon. Cur., Wood- 

leigh, Longport 
Frank B. Lott, Hon. Cur., Bridge 

Chambers 

Henry Eigg, Hon. Cur., Babwcll 

Priory 
F. J. Mitchell, Esq., J.P., Hon. 

Sec, The Grange, Llanfechfa, 

Caerleon 
Baron Anatole Von HUgel, 53 

Chesterton Road 
Prof. T. McKenny Hughes, M.A., 

F.G.S., Cur. 

C. Waldstein, M.A., Ph.D., Direc- 
tor, King's College 

Prof. W. J. Lewis, Cur. 

Prof. C. C. Babington, M.A., 
F.E.S., Cur., 5 Brookside 

A. D. Blaxland, Cur. 

E. S. Ferguson, M.A., Hon. Cur., 
Sowther Street 



Bev. E. E. Bartlett, Hon. Cur. . 

Charles Pierson, Hon. Cur., 3 

Blenheim Parade 
Eobert Newstead, Cur. . 



Eev. J. M. Mello, M.A., F.G.S., 

Hon. Cur. 
Joseph Anderson, Jun., Hon. Cur., 

Aere Villa 



Christopher Bowley, Hon. Cur., 
Siddington House 

Eev. J.B. McClellan, M.A., Prin- 
cipal of the College 

Isaac Dunbar, Cur. ... 3 



Frederick Spalding, Cur. 
Thomas Milbourn, Hon. Sec, 12 
Beaulieu Villas, Finsbury Park 
E. Neville. Cur 

W. Crowther, Cur., Wardwick 

Henry Cunningham, Hon. Cur., 
Devizes 

Charles E. Eome, Librarian . 

H. J. Moule, Cm-., Dorchester 

E. F. Astley, M.D., Hon. Cur., 29 

Parade 
W. Madeley, Sec 



H. M. Stewart, Hon. Cur., Dul- 
wich College 
J. CuUingford, Cur., Palace Green 

C. J. Muller, Trustee, 4 Bolton 

Eoad 
F. Drew, F.G.S., Hon. Ciu"., Eton 

College 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 
Ij Museums — contimwd. 



103 



Collections 



1 teiy only 

( I. ( few), Zoo. (few) . 



( I., Bot., Arch., Zoo., 

.nth. 



: leralngy . 



C '., Anth., Arch., 

00., Bot. 
5 ., Geo., Arch., 



1., Anth. 



Bot., Ai-ch., Anth. 



Arch. CRoman) 

Arch. 
Geo. 



Geo., Zoo., Bot., 
Arch., Anth. 



..t For 

I'l^-S &c. 


ts. 




( 1., Zoo., Bot. 

ad. Art 
( 1., Zoo. . 


Arch.. 


Zoo., Arch. . 


rob. . 




Geo. 


HO., Bot 

Jiili. 


, Arch., 


Geo. 


— 




Arch. (Roman) 


(>.. Bot, 
Vgri., Surg., 


Chem., 
Zoo. 


Geo. 
Geo. 


. h. . 
. li.,Anth. 




Arch. . 


Zoo., 

(f)., Zoo., Bot 
Jith. 


Arch., 
, Arch., 


Geo., Zoo., Bot., 

Arch. 
Geo., Zoo., Bot., 

Arch. 
Arch. 


)., Zoo., 

Lnth. 

)., Zoo., Bot. 

). 


Ai'ch., 
Arch. . 


Geo., Arch., Zoo. . 

Zoo. 

Geo. 


J., Zoo., Bot. 




- 


>., Geo., Arcli. . 


Bot., Arch. 


3. 




Zoo., Eot., Arch. . 


0., Zoo. 




Zoo., Anth. , 





No. of 


Supported by 


Visitors 
weekly 


Rate , 




Local Society 


- 


Borough 


50 


Funds 




Local Society 


— 


The Univer- 


50 


sity 


No ac- 




count 




kept 


„ 


Few 


Rate . 


500 


Boro' Fund 


100 


and Fees 




Boro' Fund . 


Few 


The Crown 


— 


Local Society 
and Fees 


- 


The College. 


6 


Subscriptions 
and Fees 


— 


The Institu- 


_ 


tion 




The Institu- 


17 


tion 




Earl Bat- 


_ 


hurst 




The College. 


— 


The Institu- 


Few 


tion and 




Fees 




Boro' Fund . 


250 


Local Society 


— 


Rate . 


Few 


Local Society 
and Fees 


30 


Rate . 


Few 


Subscriptions 
and Fees 


60 


Rate . 


50 


Local Society 


Few 


Subscriptions 


- 


The Univer- 


_ 


sity 
Subscriptions 
and Fees 


15 


The College . 





Duplicates 
for Exchange 



Geo., Zoo., 
Bot. 



Geo., Zoo. 



Anth. 
Geo. 



Few 
Birds 



Geo. 
Geo. 



Terms of 
Admission 



Free daily 



Free by 
order 



Free daily 



Free daily 



2d. daily 

Free daily 
Free on ap- 
plication 
Is. daily 

Free one 

day 
Free one 

day 4 6d. 

five days 
Free daily 

Zd. daily . 



Free daily 

Free to vi- 
sitors 

Small 
charge 

Free daily 
Free on 

order 
Free daily 



Free one 
day ; 6d. 
five days 

Free daily 

2d. daily 

Free five 
days 

Free on ap- 
plication 

Free to 
visitors 

2d. daily 

Zd. 3 days 

Free on ap^ 
plication 



Loan from 
S.K. 



Loan from 
S. K. 



Very small 



104 



KEPORT — 1887. 



Table I.— List op Provi 



1 




Date 






No. 


Town and County 


Name and Locality of Museum 


of 
Foun- 
dation 


Name and Address of Curator, 
Principal Officer, or Owner 


Class 




England— con/. 










54 


Exeter, Devon 


Albert Memorial M., Free Library 


1868, 
1870 


James Dallas, F.L.S., Cur., 21 
Wonford Road 


1 


55 


Folkestone, Kent . 


Public Library and M. . 


1870 


Henry UUyett, B.Sc, Hon. Cur., 
Lyell House 


3 


56 


Frome, Somerset . 


M. of the Literary and Scientific 
Institution 


1845 


G. A. Daniel, Hon. Sec. . 


3 


57 


Giggleswiok, 
Yorks. 


Gigglesmck School M. . 


1887 


Rev. G. Style, M.A., Head Master 


3 


58 


Glastonbury, So- 
merset 


Glastonbury M., Town Hall . 


1886 


G. L. Bulleid, Hon. Sec. 


3 


59 


Gloucester, Glou- 
cestershire 


County M., Brunswick Koad 


1870 


W. G. Lucy, F.G.S., Hon. Cur., 
Brookthorpe 


3 


60 


Gosport, Hants. . 


Haslar Hospital M. . . . 


1827 


Dr. Walter Reid, Fleet Surgeon, 
Director 


1 


61 


Greenwich, Kent . 


Naval M., Royal Naval College . 


1874 


Wm. Rees, R.N., Hon. Cur., 23 
Park Place 


1 


62 


Haileybury, Herts. 


Haileybury College M. . 


— 


A. de. M. Hemsley, College . 


4 


63 


Halifax, Yorks. . 


M. of Literary and Phil. Society . 


1830 


J. W. Davis, F.G.S., Hon. Cur., 

Chevinedge 
J. W. Davis, F.G.S., Owner . 


1 


64 


>, 


Mr. J. W. Davis's M., Chevinedge 


- 


2 


65 


Hereford, Here- 
fordshire 


Hereford Free Library and M., 
Broad Street 


1874 


A. M. D. Gott, Cur. 


2 


66 


Huddersfield, Yorks. 


Beaumont Park M., Woodside 
Eoart 


1880 


S. L. Jiossley, Owner, Museum . 


3 


67 


" 


M. of Technical School and Me- 
chanics' Institute 


— 


Austin Keen, Secretary 


4 


68 


Hull, Yorks. . 


-^ 











69 


Huntingdon, 


M. of Literary and Scientific In- 


1840 


Wm. Bryant, Hon. Cur., Hunting- 


4 




Hunts 


stitution, Institution Hall 




don 




70 


Ipswich, Suflfolk . 


Ipswich M 


1849 


Dr. J. B. Taylor, F.L.S., Cur. 


1 


71 


Kendal, Westmore- 
land 


M. of the Literary and Scientific 
Institute, Strickland Gate 


1835 


Joseph Severs, Hon. Sec. 


3 


72 


Keswick, Cumber- 
land 


M. of Local Nat. Hist., Town Hall 


1877 


John Birkett, Hon. Cur., Market 
Place 


3 


73 


King's Lynn, Nor- 


King's Lynn M., Athenaeum 


1844 


E. A. Atmore, Hon. Cur., High 


2 




folk 


Buildings 




Street 




74 


Kirkleatham, 


Kirkleatham M., Turner Hos- 





Trustees for the heir of the Kirk- 


4 




Yorks. 


pital 




leatham Estate 




75 


Lancaster, Lanca- 
shire 
Launceston, Corn- 


Mechanics' Institute M. 


— 


George Kelland, Hon. Sec. . 


4 


76 


M. of the Scientific and Historical 


1879 


W. Wise, Hon. Cur., Broad Street 


4 




wall 


Society 








77 


Leeds, Yorks. 


Corporation M., Municipal Build- 
ings 


1884 


James Yates, Cur., Public Library 


4 


78 


„ 


M. of the Philosophical and Liter- 
ary Society, Park Row 


1822 


Professor L. C. Miall, F.G.S., Cur., 
Yorkshire College 


1 


79 


" 


M. of Yorkshire College Medical 
Department, Park Street 


— 


E. H. Jacob, M.D.,Cur., Yorkshire 
College 


3 


80 


" 


M. of Yorkshire College Biologi- 
cal Department, College Road 


— 


— 




81 


" 


M. of the Architectural Society, 
Infirmary Buildings 


1882 


L. P. Hicks, Cur., Infirmary Build- 
ings 


2 


82 


Leek, Stafford. 


Nicholson institute M., Stockwell 
Street 


1884 


William Hall, Cur., Nicholson 
Institute 


3 


83 


Leicester, Leices- 


Town M., New Walk . 


183G, 


Montagu Browne, F.Z.S., Cur., 


1 




tershire 




1849 


Aylestone Road 




84 


Lewes, Sussex 


M. of the Sussex Arch. Society, 
The Castle 


— 


Robert Crosskey, Hon. Cur., The 
Castle 


3 


85 


Lichfield, Staff. . 


Free Library and M., Bird Street 


1859 


J. P. Roberts, Cur. 


3 


86 


Liverpool, Lanca- 


Free Public M., William Brown 


18.52, 


T. J. Moore, Cor. Mem. L.S.L., 


1 




shire 


Street 


1861 


Cur., Museum 




87 


„ 


M. of the Royal Instit., Colquitt 
Street 


1814 


Edward Doling, Cur., Royal Insti- 
tution 


1 


88 


" 


Zoological M. of University Col- 
lege, Ashton Street 


1881 


Prof. W. A. Herdman, D.Sc.,Cur., 

University College 


3 


89 


Ludlow, Shropshire 


M. of Natural History Society, 
Ali." Street 


1842 


Charles Fortey, Hon. Cur., Abbey 
VUla 


3 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 
L MvBEVMS—aontimied. 



105 



Collections 














Supported by 


No. of 

Visitors 
weekly 


Duplicates 
for Exchange 


Terms of 
Admission 


Remarks 


General 


Local 


0., Geo., Arch., Bot., 


Geo., Zoo., Arch. . 


Rate . 


500 


Geo., Zoo. . 


Free daily 




Inth. 














0., Zoo. 


Geo., Zoo. 


Rate . 


— 


— 


Free daily 




•0., Zoo., Arch. . 


- 


Local Society 


5 


- 


Free on 
order 




•0., Zoo. 


— 


The School . 


— 


— 


Free 




ch 


Arch. 


Local Society 


- 


- 


id. 5 days, 
2d. 1 day 




— 


Geo,, Zoo., Arch. . 


M 


— 


— 


Small 
charge 




X, Surgery, Anth. . 


— 


The Admi- 
ralty 


60 


— 


Free daily 




)dels of Ships, Dock- 


— 


The Crown . 


— 


— 


Free 5 days 




yards, &c. 














c. Zoo. 


— 


The College . 


— 


— 


— » 


For teach- 
ing only 


0., Geo., Arch. . 


Geo., Zoo., Bot., 
Arch. 


Local Society 


400 


— 


Id. daily 







Geo. 


0\\Tier . 


20 




Free on ap- 
plication 




— 


Geo., Zoo., Arch. . 


Rate . 


— 




Free daily 




0., Geo. . . . 


- 


The Owner . 


- 


Zoo. . 


Irf. daily 




dustrial Art, Zoo. . 


- 


The Insti- 
tute 


- 


- 


- 




ientific Apparatus, 





Local Society 








Members 




>eo. 










only 




0., Geo., Arch., Anth. 


Zoo., Geo., Bot. 


Rate . 


1,500 


— 


Free daily 




>o., Zoo. 


Bot. 


Local Society 


40 


Geo. . 


Free daily 




- 


Geo., Zoo., Bot., 
Arch. 


Local Society 
and Fees 


40 


- 


U. daily 




:0., Zoo., Bot., Arch. . 


Zoo., Bot. 


Subscriptions 


80 


Few . 


Free daily 




oh., Anth. 


- 


The Owners 


- 


- 






0., Zoo. 


- 


The Insti- 
tute 


- 


- 


- 


Small and 
neglected 


■0., Zoo., Bot., Arch. 


— 


Local Society 


— 


— 


— 




dustrial and Fine Art 


— 


Rate . 


2,500 


— 


Free daily 


Loan of 4 
cases from 
S.K. only 


0., Geo., Arch., Anth.. 


— 


Local Society 


500 


Few . 


'id. daily 




Bot. 




and Fees 










.thology. Anatomy . 


— 


The College 


— 


— 


Free to 


For College 













visitors 


students 


lilding appliances . 


- 


Exhibitors' 
Rents 


- 


- 


Free daily 




iustrial and Fine Art 


Geo., Zoo. 


The Institute 


200 


— 


W. daily . 


Loan from 
S.K.chiefiy 


D., Geo., Arch., Bot., 


Geo., Zoo., Bot.. 


Rate . 


2,000 


Geo., Zoo. . 


Free daily 


Loan from 




Arch. 










S.K. 


oh 


Arch. 


Local Society 
and Fees 


— 


— 


Small 
charge 




0., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 





Rate . 








Free daily 




V.nth. 














)., Geo., Arch., Bot., 


Zoo., Geo. 


,, 


7,000 


Geo., Zoo., 


„ 




\ja.th., Historic Art 








Bot. 






Creasnres 

0., Anth., Fine Art . 

















Local Society 


— 


— 


Free one 














day 




) 


— 


The College 


— 


— 


Free on ap- 
plication 




D., Zoo., Arch. . 


— 


Local Society 
and Fees 


50 


Geo. 


3d. daily 





106 



EEPOET 1887. 



Table I.— List of Peovii 



No. Town and County Name and Locality of Museum 



Date 

of Name and Address of Curator, 

Foun- Principal Officer, or Owner 
dation 



England— coH?. 

Macclesfield, 

Cheshire 
Maidstone, Kent . 

Malton, Yorkshire 

Malvern, Worces- 
tershire 

Manchester, Lan- 
cashire 



MarlboroughjWilts. 

Melton Mowbray, 
Leicestershire 

Middlesborough, 
Torks. 

Newbury, Berks. . 

Newcastle-ou-Tyne, 
Northumberland 



Newport, Isle 'of 
Wight 

Northampton, 
Northamptonshire 
Northwich, Che- 
shire 
Norwich, Norfolk 

Nottingham, Not- 
tinghamshire 



Oldham, Lanca- 
shire 

Oxford, Oxford- 
shire 



Penrith, Cumber- 
land 

Penzance, Corn- 
wall 



Peterboro', North- 
amptonshire 



119 1 Plymouth, Devon 



Poole, Dorset 

Preston, Lanca- 
shire 
Reading, Berks. , 



School of Art M., Park Lane 

M. & Public Library, Faith Street 

M. of Field Naturalists and Scien- 
tific Society, Yorkeregate 
Malvern College M. . . . 

Manchester M., Owens College . 

Art Museum, Aucoats Hall . 

Queen's Park M. and Art Gallery, 
Queen's Park 

Marlborough College M. 

Melton M., The Bede House 

Middlesborough M., Zetland 

Road 

Newbury M 

Castle and Blackgate Ms. of the 

Antiquarian Society 

M. of the Natural History Society, 

St. James's, Barras Bridge 
Isle of Wight M., Quay Street . 

Northampton M., Guildhall Road 

The Brunner Free Public Library 
and M., Wilton Street 

Norfolk and Norwich M., St. An- 
drew's Street 

Free Natural History 51., Univer- 
sity College 

Art M., the Castle . . . . 



Free Library, M., and Art Gallery, 

Union Street 
Bodleian Library and M. 



University M. 
Ashmolean M. 
M. of Magdalen College 
Penrith M. . . . 



M. of the Royal Geological Society 
of Cornwall 

M. of Nat. History and Anti- 
quarian Society, Public Build- 
ings 

The Came JL, Carne, Penzance 

Peterborough M., Minster Close 



M. of Plymouth Institution and 
Devon and Cornwall Nat. His- 
tory Society, Athenaeum 

Poole M., High Street . 

Free M., Cross Street . 

Free Public M.. Blagrave Street 



1883 
1858 
1880 



1843 
1S13 



1829, 
1884 
1810, 
1852, 
1881 
1865 

1885 

1824 

1872, 
1881 
1872, 
1878 

1885 



1883 
1814 



1829, 
1883 



Edward Bartlett, Cur., Museum . 
S. Chadwick, Hon. Cur., Norton . 

George E. Mackie, Hon. Cur., 1 

College Grounds 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., Owens College 
Henry Brooke, Cur., Anooats HaU 



C. G. Virgo. Cur., 2 Green Moimt, 
Queen's Park 



Rev. T. N. Hart Smith, Hon. Cur., 
The Green 



W.Y.Veitch, Hon. Cnr., 37 Grange i 
Road j 

M. Palmer, Surgeon, Hon. Cur. . 

Robert Blair, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, 
South Shields 

Richard Howse, Cur., Museum 

John Wood, Hon. Cur., The Ce- 
dars, Carisbrooke 

Thomas J. George, F.G.S., Cur., 1 
Hazlewood Road 

F. A. Howe, Cur., Free Library 

James Reade, Cur., Clarence Boad, 

Thorpe Hamlet 
J. W. Carr, B.A., F.G.S., Cur., 

University College 

G. H. Wallis, F.S.A., Director, 
The Castle 

Thomas W.Hand, Cur., 169 Wind- 
sor Road 

G. B. Nicholson, Librarian, Bod- 
leian Library 

Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
Keeper 

J. H. Parker, C.B., Keeper . 

E. Chapman, F.L.S., Hon. Cur. . 

J. Stuart, Librarian 

G. B. Millott, Hon. Sec, Penzance 

John Symons, M.R.C.S., Hon. 
Cur., Penzance 

Charles C. Ross, Owner, Carne, 
Penzance 

J. W. Bodger, Hon. Cur., 18 Cow- 
gate 

J. C. Inglis, Hon. Sec, Athenseum 



W. Penney, A.L.B., Hon. Cur. 
Rev. J. Shortt, Hon. Cur., Museum 
Joseph Stevens, Hon. Car. . 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OP THE UNITED KINGDOM, 
i I\IusEUMS — continued. 



107 



Collections 



Strial and Fine Art 

Anth., Zoo., 
t., Geo. 

Zoo., Bob., Arch., 
th . 

Zoo., Arch. . 

Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
th. 
atrial and Fine Art 



Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
th., Industrial and 
le Art 

Zoo., Geo., Arch., 
th. 
Geo., Arch., Anth. 

Zoo., Bot. . 



., Anth. . 



Geo., Zoo., Arch., 

th. 

Zoo., Bot., Arch. . 



Zoo. 

atrial Art 

Geo., Bot., Arch., 

th. 

Geo., Bot., Anth. . 

., Anth., Industrial 
I Fine Art 

Zoo. . 

) (50,000) 

Zoo., Bot., Anth. 

diciue 

., Anth. . 



Bot., Arch., Anth, 

ralogy only . 

Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
th., Engravings 

Geo., Bot., Anth. . 

(few) . 

Zoo., Arch., Anth. 
Geo., Zoo., Arch. . 



Geo., Arch., Bot., 
Zoo., Anth. 



Geo., Zoo., Bot., 
Arch. 



Bot., Zoo., Geo. 
Arch. 



Geo., Arch. 
Arch., Auth. 



Bot., Geo., Zoo. 
Geo. 

Geo., Zoo., Arch. 



Geo., Zoo., Bot., 

Arch. 
Zoo., Bot., Geo. 



Geo., Zoo., Bot. 



Zoo., Geo. 



Zoo., Anth. 



Supported by 



School of Art 
Rate . 
Local Society 
The College 

Subscriptions 



Subscriptions 

and Fees 
Rate 

Local Society 

Local Society 

and Fees 



Local Society 



Subsci'iptions 
Rate 



Rate 
Fees 



The TTniver- 
sity 

Endowment 

and Fees 

The College 

Rate . 

Local Society 



No. of 
Visitors 
weekly 



1,000 
40 



2,000 



Few 
130 



600 
5,500 
4,000 



1,000 
20 



The Owner . , — 



Local Society 
and Fees 



Local Society 100 



400 
1,000 



Duplicates Terms of 
for Exchange Admission 



Geo. . 
Geo., Zoo. 



Geo., Zoo., 
Bot. 



Geo., Zoo., 

Bot. 
Geo. . 



Geo. 
Few 



Free daily 

Free daily 
Free 1 day 
Free 3 days 
Free daily 



Free on ap- 
plication 
Gil. daily 



Free 

6(i. Castle, 
Zd. Black- 
gate 

Zd. daily 

Fre^ daily 



Free 2 days 

Free 5 days 

6(7. . 1 day. 
Id. 4 days, 
Free 1 day 



Free daily 



Free on ap- 
plication 
Free daily 

Free daily 



Free on ap- 
plication 

6d. daily ; 
\d. one 
night 

6d. 5 days; 
free one 
day 

Free on ap- 
plication 

Free daily 



Loan from 
S.K. 



Open on 
Sundays, 
2 to 5 

Loan from 
S.K. 



Not yet open 



Loan from 
S.K. 



Loan from 
S.K. 



Not yet open 



108 



REPORT — 1887. 



Table I. — List of Peov 



Town and County 



Name and Locality of Museum 



123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
181 
132 
133 

134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 

148 

149 

150 
151 

152 

153 

154 

155 

156 
157 



England — co»t. 
Richmond, Torks. . 

Ripon, Torks. 

Ryde, I. of Wight . 

Saffron Walden, 

Essex 
Salisbury, Wilts. . 

Salford, Lancashire 

Scarborough,Torks. 

Sheffield, Torks. . 

Shrewsbury, Shrop- 
shire 
Southampton,Hants 

Southport, Lanca- 
shire 

South Shields, Dur- 
ham 

Stafford, Stafford- 
shire 

Staly bridge, Lan- 
cashire 

Stamford, Lincoln- 
shire 

St. Neots, Hunting- 
don 

Stockport, Cheshire 

Stoke- upon -Trent, 
Staffordshire 

Stratford-ou-Avon, 
Warmckshire 

Sunderland, Dur- 
ham 

Taunton, Somerset 

Torquay, Devon . 

Truro, Cornwall . 

Tynemo uth. North- 

umber land 
Wakefield, Torks. 

Warrington, Lanca- 
shire 
Warwick, Warwick- 
shire 
Watford, Herts . 
Wenlock, Shrop- 
shire 
Whitby, Torks. . 

Winchester . 

Windsor, Berks. . 

Wisbech, Cam- 
bridgeshire 

Wolverhampton, 

Staffordshire 
Woolwich, Keat . 



M. of Naturalists' Field Club 

M. of the NaturaUsts" Club, Park 

Street 
Ryde M 

Saffron Walden M., Museum 

Street 
Salisbury and Blackmore M. 

Royal Free M. and Library, Peel 

Park 
M. of the Philosophical and Arch- 

Ecological Society 
Public M., Weston Park 

Free Library and M., Old Gram- 

mar School 
M. of the Hartley Institution 

Botanic Gardens M.,Botanic Road, 
Churchtown 

Free Public M., Ocean Road 

The Wragge Free Public M., Free 

Library 
Park M., Stamford Park 

M. of Literary and Scientific Insti- 
tution, St. Peter's Hill 

Victoria M. The Literary and 
Scientific Institute 

Vernon Park M., Vernon Park . 

Free Library and M., London 
Road 

Shakespeare's Birthplace M., Hen- 
ley Street 

Borough M 



Date 

of 
Foun- 
dation 



M. of Archaeological and Nat. 

Hist. Society, Taunton Castle 
M. of Natural History Society . 

M. of the Royal Institution of 

Cornwall 
Free Library and M., Howard 

Street 
M. of the Naturalists' Society, 

Westgate 

Warrington M., Bold Street . 
Warwick M., Market Square 

Public Library and M. 

Wenlock M., Com Exchange 
Buildings 

M. of the Lit. and Phil. Society, 
The Pier 

The City M., Guildhall Free Li- 
brary 

M. of the Albert Institute . 

Wisbech M., Lit. Institution, 
Museum Square 

Municipal Art Gallery and 
M., Lichfield Street 

Rotunda M., Royal Artillery Insti- 
tution 



1885 
1883 



1850 
1828 
1875 
1885 
1862 
1876 

1876 

1881 

1875 

1842 

1887 

1860 

1878 

1847 

1880 

1849 
1875 

1818 
1825 



1838 

18.36 

1875 
1S40 

1823 

1849 

1884 
1835 



Name and Address of Curator, 
Principal Officer, or Owner 



W. D. Benson, Hon. Cur. 

B. M. Smith, Hon. Sec, 31 Princes 

Road 
B. Barrow, Pres. of School of 

Science and Art, Ryde 
G. N. Maynard, Cur 



Major John Plant, F.G.S., Cur. . 

J. H. Phillips, Hon. Sec, 22 Albe- 
marle Crescent 

E. Howarth, F.R.A.S., Holly Bank, 
Northumberland Road 

A. C. Phillips, Libarian, Free Li- 
brary 

T. W. Shore, F.G.S., Executive 
Officer, Hartley Institution 

W. Fish, F.R.H.S., Cur., Botanic 
Gardens 

L. Inkster, Secretary, Public Li- 
brary 
C. J. Calvert, Librarian 

W. Bardsley, Cur., Stamford Park 

H. Mitchell, Cur., The Institution 



John Tj-m, Cur., The Museum 

Alfred Caddie, Librarian and Cur., 

Free Libarary 
Richard Savage, Secretary, 59 

West Street 
Robert Cameron, Cur., 4 St. Bede's 

Terrace 
W. Bidgood, Cur., The Castle 



W. Newcombe, Cur. 

G. Tidy, Librarian 

W. Rushforth, Hon. Sec.Horbury 



Charles Madeley, Cur., The 

Museum 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S., Hon. 

Cur., Vicarage, Rowiugton 
Dr. Brett, Hon. Cur. . 
Mrs. S. Landon, Cur. . 

Martin Simpson, Cur., Stakesley 

Vale 
J. F. Burchett, Librarian 

Joseph Lundy, .I.P., President, 

Windsor 
George Oliver, Cur. 



1884 W. J. Wheddon, Cur. 
— Major Hannan, Sec. 



ON THE 


PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF 


THE UNITED KINGDOM. 


109 


MVSEVMS— continued. 






Collections 




1 










Supported by Visitors 
weekly 


Duplicates 
for Exchange 


Terms of 
Admission 


Remarks 


General 


Local 


,Zoo. 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


Small 
charge 




1., Geo., Zoo., Bot. . 


Arch. 


Local Society 


10 


— 


2(1 daily 




- 


Geo., Zoo., Bot. . 


Subscriptions 


- 


- 


Free on ap- 
plication 




, Geo., Bot., Arch., 


Geo., Arch. . 


EndowmentiSt 


200 


Geo., Zoo., 


„ 




ith., Art 




Subscriptions 




Bot. 






X., Ar»h. . 


— 








Free on 
application 




, Geo., Bot., Arch., 


Zoo., Geo.. Bot., 


Rate . 


7,000 


Given away . 


Free daily 




ith. 


Arch., Anth. 












, Zoo., Bot., Arch., 


— 


Local Society 6,000 in 1 


— 


Sd. daily 




ath. 




and Fees summer. | 






., Arch., Zoo., Bot., 


— 


Rate . . 2,000 


Geo. . 


Free daily 




nth. 














, Zoo., Arch., Geo. . 


Arch. . 


" 


— 


Few . 


" 






Bot. 


Endowment. 


500 


Geo. . 


Free 5 days 




nth. 

, Geo., Bot., Arch., 


Zoo. 


Botanic Gar- 


2,500 


_ 


id. daily . 


With the 


nth. 




dens Co. 








gardens 


, Geo., Arch. . 


Arch. 


Rate . 


1,000 


Arch . 


Free daily 




, Geo., Arch., Auth. 


- 


Rate . 


400 


- 


Free daily 




.,Bot. 


Geo. 


EndowTiieut 
and Rate 


- 


- 


Free daily 




., Bot., Arch., Zoo. . 


— 


Local Society 


50 


— 


Gd. daily 




i.. Zoo., Arch., Anth. 


— 


The Instituts 


200 


- 


Free daily 




., Geo., Art . 


- 


Rate . 


600 


- 


Free daily 


Loan from 
S. K. 


ustrial and Fine Art 


— 


» 


— 


— 


" 


" 


— 


Shakespeare Relics 


Fees . 


- 


- 


6d. daily . 




1., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 


Geo. 


Rate . 


1,800 


Geo., shells 


Free daily 




-nth. 














)., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 


Geo., Arch., Anth. 


Local Society 


100 


— 


2d. 5 days, 




Jith. 






_ 


_ 


Id. 1 day 




'., Geo., Bot., Arch. . 


- 


Subscriptions 


60 


Few . 


Free 1 day 
6d. 5 days 




)., Zoo., Bot., Arch. . 


— 


Rate . 


200 


— 


Free 1 day 




1., Bot., Geo. . 


- 


Local Society 


— 


— 


— 


Only open 
on special 
occasions 


)., Arch., Geo., Bot., 


Arch. 


Rate . 


600 


Shells . 


Free 3 days 


Loan from 


LTt, Anth. 












S.K. 


J., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 


Geo. 


Subscriptions 


100 


Geo., shells . 


Free 2 days 




inth. 

(., Geo., Art, Auth. . 


Bot., Geo., Zoo 


Local Society 


Few 


— 


Free daily 


Loan S. K. 


)., Arch., Bot. . 


Geo. 


Subscriptions 


30 


Geo. . 


Free daily 




J., Bot., Zoo., Arch. . 


Geo., Zoo. 


Local Society 
and Fees 


30 


— 


6d. daily 




3., Zoo., Arch. . 


— 


Rate . 


100 


— 


Free daily 




}., Zoo., Ai'ch., Anth., 


_ 


The Institu- 





— 


Free on ap- 




nd. Art 




tion 






plication 




0., Arch., Bot., Zoo., 


Geo., Zoo., Arch. . 


Endowment 


Few 


— 


Gd. daily 




>.nth.. Art 




and Sub- 
scriptions 










iustrial and Fine 


— 


Rate . 


700 


— 


Free daily 




^t 














ma and Trophies 




Government 











no 



EEPOBT — 1887.] 



Table I.— List of Pkovi 



Towu aud Couuty 



160 

161 

162 
163 
164 

165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 



Name and Locality of Museum 



Englanb— coni. 

Worcester, 

Worcestershire 
York, Yorks. . 



Edinburgli, Mid- 
Lotliian 



Aberdeen, Aber- 
deenshire 

Abbotsford, Rox- 
bm-ghshire 

Alloa, Clackman- 
nan 

Banff, Banffshire . 

Dumfries, Dum- 
friesshire 



Dundee, Forfar- 
shire 



Elgin, Elgin . 
Forres, Elgin 



Glasgow, Lanark- 
shire 



Greenock, Beu- 
frewshire 

Hawick, Rox- 

burghshire 

Inverness, Inver- 
ness-shire 

Kelso, Roxburgh- 
shire 

Kilmarnock . 

Kirkcudbright, 
Kirkcudbright- 
shire 

Largo, Pifeshire . 

Montrose, Forfar- 
shire 

Paisley, Renfrew- 
shire 
Perth, Perthshire . 



The Hastings M., Public Library 
Jl. of Yorkshire Phil. Society . . 



M. of Science and Art, Chambers 
Street 

National M. of Antiquities, 
Princes Street 



University M 

The Abbotsford M. 

M. of the Society of Nat. Science 
and ArchEeology, Church Street 

Banff Jl 

The Observatory M. 

M. of Nat. Hist, and Antiquarian 

Society, Church Crescent 
Albert Institute M. 

University College M. . 

Elgin M., High Street . 

Falconer M., Tolbooth Street 

The Hunterian M., The Uuiver 

sity 
Anderson College M. 



Kelvin grove M. 
il. of Geol. Society 



Greenock M 

M. of the Archseolog. Soc, Buc 
cleagh Memorial Building 



M. of Tweedside Physical and 
Antiquarian Society, Roxburgh 
Street 

Burns' Monument M. . 

Kirkcudbright M., Town Hall 



M. of Field Naturalists' Society . 

M. of the Nat. History and Anti- 
quarian Society 

Free Library and M., High Street 

M. of Literary aud Antiquarian 

Society, George Street 
M. of Society of Natural Science, 

Tay Street 



Date 
of 
Foun- 
dation 



1780, 
1859 



1828 
1875 
1835 

1885 

1873 

1885 

1836 

1871 



1863 
1837 

1871 
1785 



Name and Address of Curator, 
Principal Officer, or Owner 



George Reeoe, Cur. 



H. 5[. Platnauer, Cur., Low Royd, 
St. Olave's Road 



Colonel R. M. Smith, R.E., Direc- 
tor 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D,, Keeper . 

Prof. H. A. Nicholson, M.D., 

Director 
Hon. Mrs. Maxwell Scott, Owner, 

Abbotsford 
J. Ferguson Lyou, Hon. Cur., 

Greenfield Place 

James AVatt, Hon. Sec. . 

P. Dudgeon, Chairman, Cargen . 

J. Wilson, Hon. Sec, 3 Norfolk 

Terrace 
John MacLauchlan, Cur. 

Prof. D'Aroy Thompson, B.A., Cur. 

John Gatherer, Cur. 

J. D. Davidson, Secretary, Forres 

Prof. J. Young, M.D., Cur. . 



James Paton, F.L.S., Cur. 



W. F. Dunlop, Cur. 
D. Watson, Treasurer 



Edward Johnson, Secretary, 
Tweed Bank 



Geo. Hamilton, Hon. Sec. 



E. Kennedy, Sec, Bayview 
Robert Barclay, Hon. Sec. 



Morris Young, F.E.S., Cur., The 

Museum 
A. B. Urquhart, M.D,, Hon. Sec. . 



* The Museums of Edinburgh aud Dublin, being Metropolitan Institutions, ai 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

Museums — continued. 



Ill 



Collections 



, Geo., Bot., Arch., 
nth. 

, Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
aith. 



Zoo., lud. Art, 
rch., Aiith. 

ih., Anth. . 

., Bot. . 

lOur and Antiquities 

., Geo., Bot., Arch., 
nth. 

., Zoo., Anth. . 

., Zoo., Arch., Anth. 

., Geo., Bot., Aich., 

nth. 

., Bot. . 

., Geo., Arch., Anth. 

., Zoo., Bot., Arch. 

,h., Geo., Zoo., Bot. 

I., Zoo., Bot. . 

., Geo., Bot., Arch. 



I., Zoo., Arch. 



,., Zoo., Geo., Arch. 



., Arch., Bot., Geo., 
ad. Art 



., Zoo., Arch. . 

., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
nth. 

., Arch., Geo., Bot., 
nth., Ind. Art 
)., Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
nth. 



Geo., Zoo., Bot., 

Arcli. 
Geo., Arch. . 



Arch., Anth 



Geo., Zoo., Anth. . 

Geo., Zoo., Arch. . 

Bot., Geo., Zoo., 

Arch. 
Zoo., Geo., Bot. 

Geo., Zoo., Bot. 
Zoo., Bot., Arch. . 



Zoo., Bot. 
Geo. 



Bot., Zoo., Arch. 



Geo., Zoo., B 

Arch. 
Geo., Zoo., Bot. 



Supported by 



No. of 
Visitors 
weekly 



Rate 

Local Society 



The Univer- 
sity 
The Owner 
and Fees 
Local Society 



Subscriptions 

and Fees 
Local Society 

Rate . 

The College 

Local Society 
and Fees 

Endowment 
and Fees 

The Univer- 
sity 

The College 



Rate . 
Local Society 



Local Society 
and Fees 



Local Society 



Subscriptions 
and Fees 



Local Society 



Local Society 
and Fees 



Rate 

Local Society 



7,000 
2,000 



20 
150 



5,000 



4,000 



900 
38 



Duplicates 
for Exchange 



Few 
Few 
Few 



Geo., Zoo. 
Zoo. . 



Terms of 
AdmiBsiou 



d at the heads of their respective columns, not in the alphabetical arrangement. 



Free daily 
Is. daily 



Free 3 

days ; 6d. 

3 days 
Free 3J 

days ; Sd. 

2i days 
Free one 

day 
Is. daily 

Small 

charge 

daily 
6rf. 3 days, 

3d. 3 days 
6d. 5 days, 

3d. 1 day 
Free on 
application 
Free daily 

Free on ap- 
plication 
6d. daily 

Gd. daily 

6d. daily 



Free daily 



Free daily 
2d. 1 day. 



Small charge 
6d. daily 



Free daily 

Sd. daily ; 
working 
class Id. 

Free daily 



Art Gallery 
included 

For teach- 
ing only 



Collections 
packed 
away 

Collections 
packed 
away 



Loan from 
S.K. 



Loan from 
S.K. 



112 



REPORT — 1887. 



Table I. — List of Provi 



Towu aud County 



SCOTLAXD — cont. 

Peterhead, Aber- 
deenshire 

St. Andrews, Fife- 
shire 



Stirling, Stirliug- 

sliire 
Tliornhill. Dum- 

friessliire 



IREIAXD— 

Dublin, Dublin 



Armagh, Armagh 
Belfast, Antrim 



Cork, Cork . 
Galway, Galway 
Kilkeuny,Kilkeuny 



Wales^ 

Aberystwith, Car- 
diganshire 

Bangor, Carnar- 
vonshire 

Cardiff, Glamor- 
ganshire 

Carnixrvon, Carnar- 
vonshire 

Neath, Glamorgan- 
shire 

Swansea, Glamor- 
ganshire 

Tenby, Pembroke . 

Welshpool, Mont- 
gomeryshire 



Name aud Locality of Museum 



Arbuthnot JI., Chapel Street 
University M. . . . 



Stirling M., Smith Institute , 
Thoruhill M., New Street . 



Science aud Art M., Kildare Street 

M. of Royal College of Science 

M. of Geology, Trinity College 

M. of Anatomy and Zoology, Tri- 
nity College 

Herbarium, Trinity College . 

M. of Koyal Irish Academy, 19 
Dawson Street 

M. of Royal College of Surgeons, 
Stephen's Green 

M. of Nat. History and Philosophi- 
cal Society, The Mall 

Belfast M., College Square, North. 

M. of Queen's College . 

M. of Queen's College . 

M. of Queen's College . 

M. of Royal Historical and Arch- 
asological Society o£ Ireland 



M. of University College 
M. and Reading Room . 
Free M., Trinity Street . 

M. of Mechanics' Inst. . 

M. of the Royal Institution of S. 

Wales 
Local M., The Castle 

Powys-Land M. and Library and 
School of Art, Salop Road 



Date 

of 
Foim- 
dation 



Name and Address of Curator, 
Principal Officer, or Owner 



15th 
ceu- 
turv, 
1837 
1874 

1872 



1789, 
1820 



1S21, 
1831 

1847 

1851 
1849 
1849 



1874 
1873 



1867, 
1883 



1835, 
1883 
1878 



James Aiken, Hon. Cur., 11 Ja- 3 
maica Street 



Thomas Walker, Cur., The Mu- 
seum 

James Sword, Cur., Smith Insti- 
tute 
T. B. Grierson, M.D., Owner . 



Prof. V. Ball, M.A., F.R.S., Direc- 
tor 



Prof. A. C. Haddon, Cur. 



H. W. Macintosh, Cur., School of 
Physic, Trinity College 



Dr. E. P. Wright, Keeper 



Major R. MacEuiry, Cur., 19 
Dawson Street 



A. B. McKee, M.B., Royal College 
of Surgeons 



G. R. JohiLson, Hon. Sec, The 
College 



W. Darragh, Cur., The Museum . 



R. 0. Cunningham, M.D., Cur., 17 
College Gardens 

Professor Marcus M. Hartog, Cnr., 

The College 
R. J. Anderson, Cur., The College 

J. G. Robertson, Hon. Cur. . 



Peter Williams, Cur. 



John Stoorie, Cur., 6 Queen's 
Place, Crockherbtowu 



Hort. Huxham, Hon. Sec, Swan- 
sea 
E. Lawes, Hon. Sec. 

Morris C. Jones, F.S.A., Hon. Cur., 
Gungrog Hall 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 113 

MtrSEUMS — contimied. 



Collections 
















Supported by 


No. of 

Visitors 
weekly 


1 Duplicates 
for Exchange 


Terms of 
Admission 


Remarks 


General 


Local 


Arch., Geo., Bot., 
th. 


- 


Boro' Fund 
and Fees 


20 


- 


2rf. daily 




Zno., Bot., Arch., 
Ih. 


Zoo., Marine Labo- 
ratory 


University 
and Local 
Society 


— 


Marine Zoo., 


Free daily 




Zoo., Bot., Arch., 

:h. 

Geo., Bot., Arch., 

:h. 


Zoo. 


Endowment . 


100 


— 


„ 




Arch., Anth. . 


The Owner . 


20 


— 


6<?. daily 




Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
;h., Ind. Art 


Geo., Zoo. 


Government . 


4,000 


Geo., Zoo., 
Bot 


Free daily 


Open on Sun- 
day. Loan 


Jrt, Geo., Zoo., Bot. 


~ 


Government . 


— 


— 


„ 


fi-omS.K. 


- 


- 


The College . 


- 


- 


— 




"omp. Anatomy . 


- 


The College . 


- 


Few . 


Free daily 






- 


The College . 


— 


— 


„ 




ry. . . . 


Arch., Anth. . 


The Academy 
and Govern- 
ment 

The College . 


50 


Pathology . 


Free on ap- 
pUcatiou 




}eo., Bot., Arch. . 


Zoo. 


Local Society 


- 


Geo., Zoo. . 


Free daily 




Arch., Bot., Geo., 
h. 


Geo., Zoo. .^rch., 
Bot. 


Local Society 
and Fees 


25 


Geo., Zoo., 
Bot. 


6<i. daily 




5oo., Bot. . 


— 


The College . 


- 


Geo., Zoo., 
Bot. 


Free on ap- 
plication 




}eo.. Zoo., Arch., 
h. 


Geo., Zoo., Bot. . 


» 


- 


Geo. . 


Free daily 




Zoo., Bot. Arch., 

h. 

Anth. 


Geo. 


.. » 


— 


— 


„ 




Arch., Anth. . 


Subscriptions 


Few 


— 


Free on ap- 
plication 




Zoo., Bot., Arch., 
Art 


Geo., Zoo., Bot. 


The College 


- 


- 


Free on ap- 
plication 


Lately burnt 
down 


;oo., Arch., Anth. 


- 


Rate . 


- 


- 


Free daily 




5oo., Bot., Arch., 
and Fine Art 
rial Art 


Zoo., Bot., Arch. . 


» „ 


- 


- 


Free five 
days 


Loan from 
S. K. 


Geo. . 


- 


The Institute 


— 


— 


— 




ioo., Bot., Arch., 
1., Ind. Art 

Jch., Geo., Bot. . 


Geo., Zoo., Bot., 

Anth. 
Zoo., Bot. 


Subscriptions 
and Fees 

Subscriptions 
and Fees 

Local Society 
and Fees 


250 
20 

Few 


Few . 

Shells 


Id. daily 
6(7. daily 
3d. daUy 





.887. 



114 



REPORT — 188T. 



TABLE II. 

Approximate Estimate of the Number of Specimens contained in the 
Provincial Museums. 



: Collections 


Geology 

2,000,000 

200,000 

10,000 


Zoology 


Botany 


Archae- 
ology 


Anthro- 
pology 


Sundries ' Art 


General. . 
Local . . 
Loan . . 


1,000,000 

100,000 

.5,000 


500,000 

20,000 

5,000 


250,000 

100,000 

3,000 


50,000 
5,000 
1,000 


50,000 
5,000 
1,000 


20,000 
15,000 




2,210,000 


1,105,000 


525,000 


353,000 


56,000 


56,000 


35,000 



Number of Museums estimated as First class . 
„ „ „ Second class 

,, „ „ Third class 

„ „ „ Fourth class 

No information 



Museums consisting entirely of General Collections 

„ ,, entirely or chiefly of Local Collections 

„ of both Local and General Collections , 



56 

55 
63 
30 

204 

7 

211 

95 
16 
92 

203 



No information 



IMuseums in which the largest Collections are Geological 
„ ,, ,, Zoological 

„ „ „ Botanical 

„ ,, „ Archeeological 

Art 

Miscellaneous and not sufficiently reported . . . . 



211 

98 
49 
9 
23 
16 
16 

211 



Provincial Museums in England 159 

„ „ Scotland 31 

„ „ Ireland 13 

„ „ Wales S 

211 



Provincial Museums sui3ported by Special Rate 


50 


„ „ „ General Borough Funds . 


5 


„ „ „ Local Societies. 


50 


„ „ „ Local Institutions 


13 


„ „ „ Annual Subscriptions 


21 


„ „ „ Colleges .... 


30 


„ „ „ Government 


8 


,. „ „ Private Owners 


11 


„ „ „ Endowment, 


11 


„ „ „ Unknown .... 


12 



211 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, 



115 



Museums Free to the Public daily 

„ „ „ on certain days only . 

„ Charging Entrance Fees daily, from Id. to 1.9. 
„ „ ,, on certain days only 

„ Free on Special Order or Application . 

„ Open on Sunday 

„ Beceiving Loans from South Kensington 



84 
1.5 
4fi 

8 
31 

4 
19 



TABLE III. 

List of Collections of Special or Local Interest which are distributed about 
the country, with the Museums in which they are preserved. 



This list might probably be greatly extended. 
not make any return of their special collections. 



Many Museums did 



Geology. 



Collection of Agostino Scilla, 1670 . 

Dr. Woodward, 1G95-1727 
„ Barrande . 

„ Forbes Young 

„ Fletcher 

,, Leckenby , 

Walton 
„ Montagu Smith . 

„ Dr. Daubeney 

,, Dr. Grindrod 

„ Professor Harkness 

Clifton Ward . 
TraiU . 
Geology of the Fens 
„ Yorkshire 
„ • East Yorkshire 
„ Ireland . 
„ West Ireland . 
„ Ulster . 

Isle of Wight . 
„ Somerset 
Fossils of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Strata 
„ Permian . 
,, Jurassic . 

Chalk (Willett) 
„ Upper Chalk, Crag, and Drift 

Trias 

„ Hampshire Basin Tertiaries 
Coal .... 



„ Dorsetshire 
„ Skiddaw Slates (Harrison) 
„ Greensand (Griffiths) 

„ Paris Basin (Davidson) . 
„ Lias .... 
„ Post-glacial deposits 
„ Old Red Sandstone (Altyre) 

'Minerals, fine collections 
„ Came collection 
„ Keate collection 

Agates, India, &c. . 

Scotch pebbles, unique . 



Cambridge, Woodwardian M. 



Oxford, Magdalen College. 

„ University M. 
Carlisle. 

j> 
Liverpool, Royal Institute. 
Wisbech. 
York. 

Scarborough. 
Dublin. 
Gal way. 
Belfast. 
Newport. 
Bath. 

Eastbourne ; Dudley. 
Sunderland. 
Middlesborough . 
Brighton. 
Saffron Walden. 
Warwick. 
Southampton. 
Newcastle Nat. Hist. ; Staly- 

bridge ; Liverpool Free M. ; 

Chesterfield. 
Dorchester. 
Keswick. 
Brighton. 

Leicester ; Whitby ; Warwick. 

Liverpool, Free M. 

Forres. 

Truro ; Devonport ; Slontrose. 

Penzance. 

Giggleswick. 

Eastbourne. 

Montrose. 

X2 



116 



REPORT 1887, 



Cave remains, Victoria Cave .... 
,, Creswell Caves 

Mendip Hills .... 
„ Kent's Cavern 

Zoology. 

Mammalia, pictorially mounted . 

„ of Ireland 

,, of Ulster 

„ of Munster 

„ Elephas primigenius, from Siberia 

Birds, British, nearly complete 



„ Hancock collection . 

„ Raptorial (Gurney) . 
of Kent (Hornby) 

„ of Devon . 

„ of the Tay Valley 

„ Gurney collection 

„ the extinct Great Auk 

„ European, skins 

„ of Ceylon (Lord Wimborne) 

„ British, skeletons (Strickland) 

„ of New Guinea (Stone) 

„ Skeletons of extinct Moa 
Fish, British .... 

„ Australian, Ceratodi 

„ development of the salmon 
Invertebrates, fine collection 

„ European, Coleoptera 

„ Ireland 

of the Tay Valley . 
„ Lancashire insects (Gibson) 

„ British Lepidoptera (Cooke) 

„ of Devon 

„ recent shells, foreign (Sir G 

Whitmore) . 
„ recent shells . 

British 



Marine fauna 
Teeth . 
Injurious insects 



British herbaria 



Botany. 



Flora of Hampshire 

„ Hertfordshire . 

„ Isle of Wight 

„ Somerset, &c. (Blomefield) 
Balfour Botanical collection 
Mosses of Cornwall (Curnow) 
Flora of Cape of Good Hope (Flora Capensis) 
Freshwater Alg£e (Bates) .... 



AKCH.ai0L0GY 



Roman, from Wilderspool 
„ Eboracum 



Giggles wick. 
Derby. 
Taunton. 
Torquay. 



Liverpool Free M. ; Leicester, 

Dubhn. 

Belfast. 

Cork. 

Cheltenham. 

Leeds ; Leicester ; Durham ; 
Sunderland ; Coalbrookdale ; 
Devizes ; Wisbech ; Elgin ; 
Brighton Dyke Road M. ; 
Scarboro'. 

Newcastle, N. H. Society. 

Norwich. 

Dover. 

Exeter, Plymouth. 

Dundee. 

King's Lynn. 

Norwich. 

Leeds. 

Poole. 

Worcester. 

Leicester. 

Manchester, Owens College. 

Wisbech. 

Bristol. 

Perth. 

Liverpool Free M. ; Not- 
tingham. 

Bootle. 

Dublin ; Belfast ; Cork. 

Dundee. 

Salford. 

Liverpool. 

Plymouth. 

Worcester. 

Stockport. 

Wisbech. 

St. Andrews ; Liverpool College. 

Cirencester 

Huddersfield. 



Dublin (T. Coll.) ; Cork ; Cam- 
bridge ; Thornhill ; Norwich ; 
Nottingham. 

Southampton. 

Watford. 

Ryde. 

Bath. 

Perth. 

Penzance. 

Dublm, Trinity Coll. 

Leicester. 



Warrington. 
York. 



ON THE PKOVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 



117 



Koman, from Isurium 

„ „ Hampshire 
„ Bath 

„ „ Chester 

„ „ Vinorium . 

„ „ Eatje 

„ North of England 

„ „ Ripon 

„ ,, Uriconium 

„ „ South Shields . 
Irish antiquities, especially gold 
Scotch „ . . . 

Kentish „ . . . 
Glastonbury „ . . . 
Dorset „ . . . 

Forfarshire „ sculptured stones 
General British to Mediseval 
Egyptian 
Disney marbles 

Central American sculpture (Maur 
Coins (Leake) 
,, British silver 
„ very large collection 



naments 



rlsley) 



Aldborough, Yorks. 

Andover. 

Bath. 

Chester. 

Durham. 

Leicester. 

Newcastle ; Carlisle. 

Ripon. 

Shrewsbury. 

South Sliields. 

Dublin, R. I. Academy. 

Edinburgh, R. Institution. 

Maidstone. 

Glastonbury. 

Dorchester. 

Montrose. 

Wisbech ; Devizes ; Sheffield. 

Bristol ; Alnwick. 

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam M. 



Marlborough College. 
Oxford, Bodleian. 



Antheopologt. 



The Pitt- Rivers collection 
Stapenhill „ 

General „ large 

Pre-historic „ 



Mummies, unrolled 
,, Peruvian 
Pacific Islands 
Indian and Chinese 
Cyprian pottery (Anderson) . 
Anglian cinerary urns 
Military weapons . 
Unique amber cup, from a barrow 
Musical instruments 
Shakespeare relics . 
Bewick ,, . 
Walter Scott 



Oxford. 

Burton-on-Trent. 

Liverpool, R. Inst. M. 

Exeter ; Eton ; York ; Chelten- 
ham ; Preston ; Reading ; Scar- 
borough; Manchester, Owens 
College. 

Brighton. 

Haslar Hospital. 

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam M. 

Newcastle, Blackgate M. 

Dumfries, Observatory M 

York. 

Woolwich. 

Brighton. 

Manchester, Queen's Pk. M. 

Stratford-on-Avon. 

Newcastle, Nat. Hist. M. 

Abbotsford. 



Miscellaneous. 

The Mayer collection of historical art treasures 

(very fine) Liverpool, Free M. 

Silk production, breeding, manufacture, &c. . Nottingham. 

Food materials Manchester, Queen's Pk. M. 

Comparative anatomy Dublin, Trin. Coll. M. 

Pathology „ „ and Leeds. 

Pictures of buildings and scenery round Manchester Manchester, Ancoats Hall Bl. 



4. Discussion op Details. 

The questions in Schedale B are here taken seriatim. 

Note. — In the references to various groups of museums in the foUow- 
j ing pages the numbers given are not absolutely accurate, owing to the 
incompleteness of the statistics. 

1, 2, 3, 4. Foundation, Ownership, Support and Government. — About 
one-half of the existing museums of the country were originated by local 



118 REPORT— 1887. 

societies, and one-half of these have been since handed over either to 
municipal corporations or to bodies of trustees for the benefit of the pub- 
lic, the remainder being still the property of the local societies. 

About one-fourth of the existing museums were originated by indi- 
vidual collectors, but only about a dozen of these remain in private hands. 
About 55 museums are now the property of municipal corporations, and 
are nearly all supported by local rates levied under the Public Libraries Act. 

About thirty belong to public institutions, universities, or schools, 
and are supported by those institutions or by Government grants. About 
half a dozen belong to and are entirely supported by the Imperial 
Government. About a dozen museums were established prior to the 
beginning of this century, about 100 were established between 1800 
and 1870, and nearly 100 have been opened during the last sixteen years. 

The Public Libraries Act requires that the public shall have free 
admission to all institutions, libraries, museums, or art galleries esta- 
blished under its authority. In a Bill introduced to amend the Act, a few 
years ago, it was proposed to modify this clause, giving corporations 
power to make a charge on certain days, and also to raise the maximum 
rate from a penny to twopence. This Bill, however, has not been passed. 
Several towns have obtained power to levy a twopenny rate by clauses 
inserted in their local Acts. 

The charges for admission to museums which are not rate-supported 
vary from one penny to one shilling. Frequently the charge for two 
persons or for a party is on a reduced scale, and schools and children 
are often admitted at a still lower price. 

The usual amount realised by entrance-fees varies from 51. to lOOZ. per 
annum. A very few museums obtain 1501. or 200?. from this soui'ce. 
There are four whose receipts from fees are probably from 5001. to 1,000/. 
a year, viz., Nottingham Art Museum, York, Scarborough, and South- 
port. In all these cases the pictures and the gardens are additional 
attractions. 

5. Cost of Maintenance. — In a large proportion of the municipal 
museums the cost of maintenance is mixed up with that of a free library 
or an art gallery, and cannot be separately stated. It appears, however, 
that no first-class public museum while in a growing condition can be 
efliciently conducted for less than about 800Z. a year, and that the very 
large national museums in Edinburgh and Dublin cost about 10,000Z. a 
year each. 

Second-class museums may be taken to cost from 100/. to 500/ a year ; 
third-class from 25/. to 100/. ; fourth-class museums are mostly in a neg- 
lected condition, and the money spent upon them is trifling. 

6. Staff and Hours. — A first-class museum requires at least 1 curator 
at a minimum salary of 150/., 1 assistant curator at a minimum salary of 
30/., and 2 caretakers or workpeople at a minimum salary of 25/. each. 

The large science and art museums in Edinburgh and Dublin have 
each 1 director, 7 curators and assistants, about 30 porters and work- 
people, including women, and pay 5,000/. a year each in salaries. 

A second-class museum has usually a salaried curator, and a workman 
or caretaker. 

Third and fourth class museums have frequently only a caretaker. 

In addition to the paid ofiicers, however, there is a large amount of 
supervision, and of actual work done in provincial museums by honorary 
curators, especially in the second, third, and fourth classes. 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 119 

First-class museums, being more efficiently officered, do not require 
so much outside assistance, and in many cases the position of the curator 
is such that he could not submit to the supervision of an amateur. 

Where the museum is in connection with a free Hbrary, the two 
offices of Hbrarian and curator are frequently combined. This may be 
an economy, but it is rarely satisfactory for the museum. The hbrary 
is usually regarded as the more important institution ; the officer is 
chosen as a librarian chiefly, the larger proportion of space and funds 
are devoted to the library, and the museum is not conducted with the 
necessary vigour, and often falls into disrepute. On the other hand, there 
is considerable advantage in having the two institutions under the same 
roof, as the library is then available for the staff and the students of the 
museum, and the museum is as a book of plates close at hand to illus- 
trate the volumes in the library. 

Museums belonging to local societies are often without any paid staff 
or even an attendant, the whole work being performed by members, but 
with the regular admission of the public comes, of course, the necessity of 
regular and therefore of paid attendance. 

Rate-supported museums are generally open to the public five or six 
days a week. It is necessary to close them at intervals for cleaning, 
and there is much variation in the arrangements made for this purpose. 
Some museums take two days quarterly, some one day monthly or weekly, 
some open later in the morning and get the cleaning done day by day 
without closing, some close one room at a time only, others open only 
four days a week for the general public and two days for students, and 
most of the cleaning can be done on the comparatively quiet students' 
days. 

The usual hours of opening are from 10 till dusk if the museum has 
no artificial light, from 10 till 8 or 9 if there is gas. The longest hours 
are reported from Canterbury, where the museum is open from 9 A.M. 
till 10 P.M. In museums belonging to local societies the hours vary 
greatly, many being only open to the public on two or three afternoons 
weekly. Malvern College admits the public to its museum for two hours 
only on Thursdays ; but generally in these semi-private museums admis- 
sion may be obtained by special application. In first-class museums the 
staff are generally in attendance for an hour or two before the time of 
opening to the public, and where the museum belongs to the corpoi-a- 
tion, one or two policemen are frequently on duty either all day or at 
certain hours, in addition to the regular staff. The bye-laws of some 
museums authorise the curator to exclude young children either alto- 
gether or except in proper charge. 

From Birmingham comes a suggestion that the staff of every large 
museum ought to be regularly drilled as a fire-brigade. 

7. Tenure of Buildmgs. — The great majority of provincial museums of 
all kinds are lodged in freehold buildings, about twenty hold their pre- 
mises on lease and twenty as annual tenants, nearly the whole of these 
museums being the property of societies or individuals. In only two 
reported instances are rate -supported museums kept in rented buildings, 
and in these the arrangement is not intended to be permanent. 

8. Superficial Area. — There is some difference of opinion as to the 
respective advantages of large halls and of rooms of moderate size for 
museum purposes. Museums have been erected on both systems. In the 
majority of the newer buildings the large-hall system has been adopted, 



i 



120 REPORT— 1887. 

often surrounded by one or two tiers of galleries, each affording as mncli 
wall space and about half as much floor space as the hall itself. One 
objection to galleries is that they obstruct the light on the walls, and the 
remedy for this is to pierce the walls with windows, and to place the cases 
at right angles to the wall instead of flat against it. In the small-room 
system the principal rooms vaiy in size from about 30x17 to about 
60 X 25. In the large-hall system the principal halls run from about 
60 X 80 to about 250 x 70. A first-class museum must have at least 5,000 
squai'e feet of floor space. The majority of these have from 5,000 to 
10,000, a few have between 10,000 and 50,000, and the Edinburgh Museum 
of Science and Art provides 100,000 square feet, including the galleries. 

Second-class museums have generally from 2,500 to 5,000 feet of 
superficial area, third-class from 1,000 to 2,000, and fourth-class from 
250 to 750. 

For the lighting of the rooms by day a top-light is generally preferred 
where it can be got, but in buildings of more than one storey side lights 
are inevitable on the lower floors. In a few modern museums, built in 
ornate Gothic style, the windows come within a few feet of the ground, and 
have their heads filled with heavy tracery, thus supplying light under the 
worst possible conditions. There can scarcely be too much light in a 
museum room, especially in the upper part, but it is desirable to exclude 
direct sunshine, as it rapidly destroys the colours of organic objects. Side 
windows should, therefore, be placed in north walls wherever this is 
practicable. 

For lighting by night, gas is of course the usual means. Several 
museums have adopted the Wenham light, and several of the larger ones 
are lighted by electricity, as at Birmingham, Leeds, and Brighton. There 
can be no doubt that the fumes of open gaslights are injurious to many 
objects. ' Sun-lights ' get rid of the fumes, but being near to the ceiling, 
and thus as far as possible from the cases, the waste of light is very large. 
The Wenham light can be suspended at any distance from the ceiling, and 
the fumes are conducted away, but this burner is liable to be blown out 
or much disturbed by a down draft, and moreover the light is too concen- 
trated, and casts black shadows. Doubtless, for museum purposes, the 
electric incandescent light is the best, but there is some hope that the new 
incandescent gas-light may prove to be a valuable substitute. 

For warming museums a number of different systems are in use, viz., 
open fires, coal and gas stoves of various designs, hot air, and hot water. 
For small rooms open fires have some advantages, particularly in securing 
ventilation. Gas stoves are now made to condense the whole products of 
combustion ; thus they require no chimney, and are useful auxiliaries. Hot- 
water pipes are too often hidden under cases and desks, and their heating 
power minimised. It may be good for the cases to be kept warm and dry, 
but extra power must be provided if the air of the room is also to be 
efiiciently warmed. Coils of hot-water pipes standing out in the rooms 
away from the walls are as effective as anything. 

The ventilation of rooms in which many persons congregate is often 
very troublesome. Tobin ventilators are good, but quite useless unless a 
rapid egress of air from the room is first secured, and many methods which 
are supposed to secure this fail in pi'actice. In lighting a museum either 
by day or night it is most important to arrange the incidence of the 
light so that the source of it shall not be reflected from the glazed cases to 
the eyes of the visitors. 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 121 

9. Oases. — Vertical wall-cases and horizontal table-cases are used in 
all mnseums. Some have also upright detached cases glazed all round, 
and some have upright pillars, from which glazed frames project, hinged 
to the pillar, and movable like the leaves of a book. These are good for 
photographs, engravings, textile fabrics, &c., or for dried plants, and even 
for insects. Vertical wall- cases should not be more than eight or nine 
feet high ; a division into bays of about five feet wide is convenient. These 
should be glazed with plate glass, either in one sheet or divided by narrow 
strips of wood or metal horizontally into two or three squares, the divi- 
sions corresponding with the edges of shelving inside. Drawers should 
be provided under all the horizontal table-cases, but should not come quite 
to the ground, unless they are recessed, otherwise they are in the way of 
the feet of visitors. Table-cases are often made with an upright glazed 
compartment along the centre. This gives additional space, but interferes 
somewhat with the view of objects beneath it. Whether it is better to 
run the wall-cases round the room with their backs to the wall, or to have 
side windows and cases between them projecting from the wall at right 
angles, is still an open question. The latter arrangement does not show 
the classification so clearly to the eye, and does not favour an easy cir- 
culation of visitors, but it may sometimes afford better light and more 
space. 

10. Dust. — The exclusion of dust from the cases is a very important 
matter in all museums. Most of the older cases are very defective on this 
point, but those more recently built have all joints deeply rabbeted and 
lined with cloth, velvet, rubber, or cotton-wool, and all the lids and doors 
closely screwed up with some special kind of screw. Some paste paper 
over all the joints. At Nottingham a small tin gutter runs under the 
joint to catch any dust which may get through. The Birmingham 
Museum and Art Gallery finds a ' double rabbet ' successful. From 
Norwich 'Brown's Patent' is reported to have stood sound for fifteen 
years. This consists of a hollow tube of cloth. The Rev. H. H. Higgins, of 
Liverpool, who has had much experience, says that nothing will absolutely 
exclude dust in a public museum where hundreds or thousands of visitors 
tramp over the floors daily, but that the objects must be tenderly dusted 
by hand at short intervals. 

11. Fittings. — These are made of various woods and in various colours. 
In the best museums plain oak, polished mahogany, or ebonised bay- 
wood are generally used. Ebonised wood has a handsome appearance, 
and is not obtrusive, but is undesirable for table-cases, as the stain wears 
off by friction. Polished mahogany is handsome and durable, but has 
perhaps too heavy an appearance. Plain oak, neither coloured nor 
varnished, is cheerful and wears well. In small museums birch and 
deal stained, varnished, or painted, are used for the sake of economy. 
For shelving within the cases plate-glass is now much used, as it makes 
less shadow than opaque material. Many experiments have been tried 
in the internal colouring and lining of the cases. At Liverpool a rich 
dark blue has been found effective as a background in the wall-cases. 
Other museums line with white or tinted paper. For archaeological and 
art specimens the cases are often lined with cloth of various hues — 
maroon, olive green, Turkey red, &c. As the natural history collections 
come more and more to be set up pictorially the difficulty will disappear 
in their cases, as the backgrounds will form part of each pictorial 
group. 



122 REPORT— 1887. 

The best museums have many ingenious devices contrived by their 
own officers, such as special fasteners for the cases, supports for open 
lids, blinds for protection from light, stands for specimens and labels, 
cements, &c. At Brighton some cases full of very valuable objects are 
protected by electric alarms. At Montrose coins are exhibited in locked 
cases, through which run a number of narrow wire frames turning on 
pins w^hich project through the sides of the case. On these frames the 
coins with their labels are fastened, and thus both sides are readily seen. 
At Peterhead the coins are mounted in circular holes cut out of sheets of 
cardboard which are glazed on both sides. These glazed sheets are kept 
in a cabinet. At the Dublin Museum of Anatomy osteological specimens 
are mounted in revolving spindles, so that students may examine every 
part. The Cork Museum reports that ' slit gun-barrel has been largely 
used for the insertion of stands, &c.' Fragile objects are exhibited in 
glass-topped boxes of various sizes, from the small pill-box upwards ; 
these are often partly filled with cotton-wool. Shallow glazed drawers 
are frequently used for the exhibition of insects, eggs, &c., which are 
injured by light. They are thus much better protected than in table- 
cases, even with blinds over them, as the blinds are removed by visitors 
and frequently not replaced. The glazed drawers can be drawn out by 
the public, but a stop prevents them from being removed, and each 
drawer is locked. This system saves much space. 

12. Methods of Freservation. — Camphor is the usual preservative 
against moths, and is effectual if freely supplied. At King's Lynn pure 
carbolic acid on cotton-wool is found entirely to prevent mould in the 
insect-cases. The vapour of benzine seems to be of much value in the 
cases of stuffed animals. At Bolton bird-skins are cured with three 
parts burnt alum and one part saltpetre, and washed inside with a 
solution of mercuric chloride. The plumage is also washed with a veiy 
weak solution of the same. At Aston Hall, Birmingham, all natural 
history specimens are preserved by a private chemical process. At 
Cirencester iron antiquities ai'e soaked in very hot white paraffin. In 
the medical department of the Yorkshire College many delicate patho- 
logical specimens are preserved in glycerine jelly. 

At Leicester modelling is largely used. A new method of modelling 
fish has been introduced which is light, of good texture, and takes colour 
better than a plaster cast. Many museums have collections of Blaschka's 
glass models of invertebrates, and of opaque white models of foraminifera 
on a magnified scale. Fossils, shells, &c., are commonly fastened to 
tablets made of wood or thick millboard or plate-glass and covered with 
tinted paper. Cements of various kinds are used, but these often fail, 
and after a time the specimens get loose. At York fine wire is preferred. 
At Liverpool many specimens are kept in their places by several short 
pins only, and these may be so arranged as to lift small specimens 
nearer to the eye. At Owens College, Manchester, recent shells are laid 
on a bed of fine sand, which has a natural appearance and holds them in 
place. A workshop for the curator and his assistants is an essential 
featui'C in all good museums. 

13 and 14. Mounting. — The teaching power of natural history speci- 
mens depends very largely upon the manner in which they are placed 
before the eye. A single bird stuffed in an unnatural position teaches 
very little. Well stuffed it teaches a good deal more, even though it 
stand alone on a mere wooden peg. A family group of birds, comprising 



ON THE PKOYINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 123 

the male and female, the young in several stages, the nest and eggs, set 
up with their natural surroundings of plants, stones, water, &c., the nest 
in its natural position, the birds in the usual attitudes of active life, 
feeding, building, &c., teaches more than can be learnt from books or 
even from the casual observation of nature. This fact is now beginning 
to be recognised, and many museums ai'e making small attempts in this 
direction. But it is a slow and costly process to reconstruct a collection 
which has been formed on the old-fashioned plan. At Leicester this has 
been done, however, to some extent, and a striking efPect is produced. 
But as the object in this case was rather to attract than to teach, the 
result is disajDpointing. An attempt has been made to illustrate the 
vertebrate fauna of the whole world in a range of wall-cases scarcely 200 
feet long, and this is done simply by setting up single specimens of a few 
forms in each order with pictorial surroundings. The scenery is cleverly 
constructed, and shows some of the habits of a few species. It is 
unfortunate that it was not started on a better principle. A less 
ambitious attempt more thoroughly worked out would be far more 
valuable. A collection of local birds is now being got together at 
Leicester, and a somewhat better system is adopted. A family group of 
each species is represented, but at present the great teaching value of 
comparison is ignored. At the Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington the same mistake is made. Family groups excellently set 
up in separate cases are placed at a distance from each other and from 
all related forms. They would teach more if they were less isolated, and 
if there were single specimens of foreign allied types close at hand for 
comparison. The value of this system is strongly urged by the curator 
at Exeter. Mr. Moore, of- Liverpool, was probably the first to adopt the 
pictorial family group arrangement. 

15. Condition of Specimens. — The most perishable contents of a 
museum are its specimens of natural history. Unless they have been 
well cured and are carefully excluded from damp, from infection, and 
from too much direct sunlight, they will rapidly deteriorate. About 100 
museums repoi't their natural history collections as in good condition ; in 
about 25 they require more or less renewal. The cleaning of stuffed 
specimens which have become dirty is a process requiring care and know- 
ledge. Many are spoilt by well-meant but ignorant attempts. 

16 and 17. Arrangement. — In all good natural history collections there 
will be, in addition to the stuffed vertebrates, a number of skeletons and 
of specimens preserved in bottles. About thirty museums report that 
the skeletons and bottles are grouped with the stuffed specimens, in about 
forty-five they are kept separately. In some no regular system is adopted, 
in others the skeletons and bottles are too few to be considered. 

The usual system of arranging fossils is to group them stratigraphi- 
cally in the first instance, and zoologically within the stratigraphical 
groups. About a dozen museums, not of the lowest class, report that their 
fossils are not arranged at all. 

A phylogenetic arrangement of organic forms is advocated by some 
authorities. Professor Herdman, of Liverpool, has elaborated a plan for 
such a collection, but it has not yet been carried out. 

In furnishing a new museum it is wise to determine upon a scheme, 
to provide cases sufficient to carry this out, to place all specimens in their 
permanent places, and to fill up the blanks gradually. 

18, 19. Local Collections. — About one-half of the provincial museums 



124 itEPOET— 1887. 

have some distinct local collections ; in the remainder no distinction is 
made. Only sixteen museums are reported to be entirely or chiefly de- 
voted to local collections. At Hereford and at Dumfries no foreign 
specimen is admitted, but in most of these sixteen there are foreign types 
or small foreign collections. 

That provincial museums should chiefly devote themselves to the 
thorough and complete working out of the productions of their own dis- 
tricts is now the opinion of the great majority of competent authorities, 
and the same view is urged by the curators of many of the leading 
museums, as Liverpool, Cambridge, Bristol, Brighton, Exeter, &c. In 
no single instance has this yet been accomplished. To do it in a satis- 
factory manner would task to the utmost the resources of any average 
first-class museum ; but the interest, the novelty, and the immense 
scientific and social value of such work would much better repay the 
cost and labour than the fragmentary and often aimless collections which 
are now gathered from all quarters of the globe. 

The leading character of such local collections as now exist depends 
partly on the locality and partly on the favourite pursuits of the curator 
or of the amateurs of the district. In some places the local geology is 
well worked up while the zoology is neglected, or the archiBology and 
the shells may be looked after while there is no one to take much interest 
in the geology, the botany, or the birds and insects. This is the conse- 
quence of trusting to amateur collecting and of the want of a definite 
ideal to work up to. 

To exhibit the local productions as completely as possible, showing 
very distinctly what groups are not represented in the district, and to 
supplement these collections by well-selected types of foreign species for 
comparison and for carrying the observer's mind beyond the narrow 
limits of his own country, carefully arranging these types so that com- 
parison shall be easy — this seems to be the best which museums can do 
in this direction. 

20. Educational Collections. — A number of museums report that their 
collections are arranged throughout with an educational purpose. The 
museums attached to some of the large provincial colleges are, however, 
designed for the special illustration of certain text-books or certain 
courses of lectures, and are therefore more definitely educational. Some 
of the larger museums have prepared sets of specimens illustrating 
diff'erent branches of science for lending to the surrounding schools, and 
at Liverpool a system of small circulating museums has been established 
with excellent results. At Leicester there is a useful osteological col- 
lection, showing by colour on a series of skulls, &c., the various forms 
assumed by the same bone in different animals. Truro is one of the few 
of the smaller museums which possess a laboratoiy and theatre with 
chemical and physical apparatus. 

21. Industrial and Technical Collections. — Only about thirty museums 
appear to have given any attention to this department. Some of these 
have provided collections illustrating the manufactures of the districts, 
showing materials, processes, and results. Others have collected foreign 
examples of the local manufactures, or choice designs of art-work for the 
assistance of local workmen. At the Edinburgh Science and Art Museum 
Industrial Art is made a leading feature. At Dublin a new building is 
being erected especially for such collections. At the Queen's Park 
Museum, Manchester, there is a general collection of substances used as 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 125 

food. At Beaumont Park Museum, Huddersfield, there is a collection of 
injurious insects. The Ancoats Hall Museum at Manchester, which is 
especially devoted to the culture of the sense of beauty in nature and art, 
has some interesting collections of furniture and of art processes. 

22. Classes. — Except at the museums connected with the universities 
and large schools there appears to be very little class work carried on in 
these institutions. At two or three places regular courses of lectures 
by certificated science teachers are held either in the museum or in rooms 
adjoining. Several museums provide a series of popular scientific lectures 
during the winter evenings, and at several others short explanatory 
addresses are delivered at stated times in the museum rooms by the curator 
or the honorary curators, A few of the local societies hold classes in 
their own museums. Beyond these there are no actual teaching arrange- 
ments, though these institutions seem to off'er so many advantages for that 
purpose. 

23. Local Students. — About fifty museums report that they are used 
for frequent reference and study by local naturalists, archaeologists, and 
medical and art students. Nearly an equal number state that there is 
unfortunately very little use made of them by such persons. 

24. Facilities for Study. — Many museums report that they would wel- 
come students and give them every assistance, but that none apply. About 
twenty museums have private rooms which they would gladly place at the 
disposal of students, and about thirty can provide tables though not rooms. 
In a few instances local students avail themselves of these facilities to a 
considerable extent. Microscopes for students are provided in about 
twenty-five museums. In about fifty museums the handling of specimens 
is distinctly allowed, generally under supervision, while in twenty it is as 
distinctly forbidden. 

25. Other Uses of Museum Booms. — Museums belonging to local socie- 
ties are frequently kept in rooms which are used for the society's meetings. 
In a few public museums evening lectures and concerts are given, but in 
the great majority of cases the rooms are not used for any other than their 
legitimate purpose. 

26. Aquaria and Vivaria. — These interesting and instructive con- 
trivances appear to be generally neglected. Not more than about a dozen 
museums have anything of the kind. The Liverpool Free Museum seems 
to be the only one which makes an important department of them. Here, 
however, in the basement, between forty and fifty tanks and cases ot 
various sizes have been kept up for a long period. ' One large salt-water 
tank has been in continuous use for over twenty-five years. Fish have 
been kept for ten years in the medium- sized tanks, and in a smaller glass 
vessel a blind crayfish from Kentucky has lately died, after fourteen years' 
confinement therein.' The value of such arrangements for studying the 
life-histories of many organisms must be very great. It is possible to 
keep even marine aquaria in inland towns. Some years ago a salt-water 
tank with a fine collection of sea-anemones, &c., was maintained for 
several years at Leicester. 

27. Handhoohs. — It is perhaps undesirable to publish ' catalogues ' of 
growing museums, as they are so soon out of date ; but catalogues of all 
completed and of all special collections should undoubtedly be published. 
This is generally done by the best museums, and sometimes in a very 
sumptuous and elaborate style. The handsome illustrated quarto volumes 
forming the ' Descriptive Catalogues ' of the Woodwardian Museum at 



126 REPORT— 1887. 

Cambridge were prepared by such authorities as Sedgwick, McCoy, and 
Salter. The Blackgate Museum, Newcastle-on-Tyne, issues a catalogue 
of inscribed and sculptured stones, illustrated by nearly 200 admirable 
woodcuts. The catalogue of the Duke of Newcastle's Museum at 
Alnwick Castle is richly illustrated. The Saffron Walden Museum has 
also a rather costly illustrated catalogue. The Edinburgh National 
Museum of Antiquities has issued an illustrated catalogue at the price of 
sixpence, of which nearly 20,000 copies have been sold. 

The Liverpool Museum has several illustrated catalogues of the Mayer 
Collection of Art Treasures, and has issued a series of ' Museum Reports ' 
upon some special collections of mollusca and lepidoptera, illustrated by 
coloured plates. Besides the above, only about twenty museums appear 
to possess permanent catalogues, not illustrated, about an equal number 
publish handbooks and guides, which are sold at various prices from one 
penny to sixpence, and a somewhat larger number issue Annual Reports, 
in which the progress of the museum and the donations of the year are 
registered. Some of the handbooks and guides are exceedingly well 
done, giving a vast amount of information in a terse and popular style. 
Those issued by the Liverpool Museum ; the Marlborough College ; the 
York Philosophical Society ; the Albert Institute, Windsor ; the Free 
Museum, Nottingham ; the SheflSeld Public Museum ; and the Agricultural 
College, Cirencester, are particularly good. The Liverpool Museum has 
published a ' Museum Memorandum Book,' prepared by the Rev. H. 
H. Higgins, ' containing plans showing the main features in the Natural 
History Department of the Liverpool Free Public Museum, with ruled 
spaces for memoranda invited to be made on the spot, price one penny ; 
pencils ready pointed, one halfj^enny ; millboard tablets for writing on, 
one halfpenny.' This is a novel and very interesting experiment, and 
shows that the authorities of this museum are devoting thought and 
labour to the task of making their museum as widely educational as 
possible. 

28. Duplicates. — The large number of duplicates which accumulate 
in many museums and are stored away for years in drawers or boxes 
might be of considerable value if they were distributed. Curators often 
feel this, but the distribution is difficult to accomplish. Many of the 
duplicates were gifts, and there is an unreasonable idea that gifts must 
not be given away elsewhere ; many, being little cared for, lose their 
labels and become valueless. Moreover, there is much difficulty in 
ascertaining where particular duplicates are wanted and what can be got 
in exchange. About fifty museums report that tbey have large collec- 
tions of duplicates, and about twenty-five have a small number. At 
Birmingham, Brighton, Nottingham, Salford, and Cardiff a large number 
of duplicates are distributed to schools or other museums as fast as they 
come in. The Dublin Science and Art Museum is organising its dupli- 
cate department for the purpose of periodical distributions to other Irish 
museums. 

A well- understood system of exchange is much wanted. Suggestions 
have been made that museum inspectors should be appointed, charged, 
among other duties, with that of arranging exchanges. Others have 
suggested the formation of a society of curators, meeting periodically. 

29. Selp from Local Societies. — Many of the museums now belonging 
to the public and supported by the rates were originated by local socie- 
ties. In some of these cases the societies still render valuable assistance, 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 127 

but there is sometimes a disposition to eliminate this element as trenching 
on the domain of the regular officers ; and sometimes the societies, feeling 
that they are no longer responsible for the maintenance of the museum, 
lose interest in it. Only about a dozen of the rate-supported museums 
report that they are receiving any assistance from local societies. 

30. Donations. — Nearly all museums, except the smallest and the 
most neglected, receive donations fi'om time to time, though many report 
that these are ' mostly vcorthless.' The donations come from all classes 
of the community. Many are sent from old inhabitants now living 
abroad ; sea-captains and sailors carry home many objects which they 
present to the museums of various ports ; artisan naturalists bring in the 
fossils or the eggs or the insects which they find in the neighbourhood. 
Hitherto this desultory method of accumulating a promiscuous mass of 
objects has been almost the only resource of a large number of museums. 
It has its advantages, and should by no means be ignored or discouraged ; 
but if museums in the future are to do the scientific work of which they 
are capable and which waits to be done, this must only be relied on as 
supplemental to a much more systematic method of collection. 

31. Labels. — A museum without labels is like an index torn out of a 
book ; it may be amusing, but it teaches very little. It is true that, when 
vertebrates are set up pictoi'ially, labels injure the picturesque effect, 
but picturesqueness is not the chief object of a museum. The Leicester 
Museum, having set up all its vertebrates in pictorial style, has made an 
attempt to do without labels, and the i-esult is instructive. Instead of 
labels or numbers there is a small coloured sketch of each group with 
small numbers near each figure. The figure of the specimen of which 
the name is required has to be found on this sketch, the number noted 
and carried to a separate printed card in rather small type ; here the 
number has to be found, and the name and particulars are then obtained. 
Afterwards the specimen has to be found again in the stuffed group, and 
if any of the information is forgotten the process must be repeated. This 
is much too complicated and wastes too much time. The cases are a 
little more showy than they would be if labels were dotted all over them, 
but the sacrifice is far too great. 

A few old museums still preserve the practice of numbering their 
specimens and registering them in a manuscript catalogue which is open 
to visitors. Such a register should always be kept as a check, but should 
not be allowed to take the place of labels. Effective labelling is an art 
to be studied ; it is like style in literature. A good writer conveys his 
meaning clearly, tersely, artistically. The reader grasps the thought 
with the least possible effort and with a pleasing sense of elegance and 
harmony. A good labeller produces the same effect. It is to be attained 
by a combination of well-chosen words, expressing well-arranged ideas 
in carefully selected type on paper of appropriate colours. In the 
smaller museums the labels are generally written by hand, and in a good 
many larger ones this system is still continued ; many have printed 
headings and fill up the details with the pen ; the best museums have 
nearly everything fully printed. Some have set up small printing- 
presses on the premises, with which the curator prints his own labels, 
but in most cases this is not a success — the work is done too roughly. 

In some museums the English name is always placed first in the 
boldest type ; in others the scientific name takes the lead in genera, 
the English in species. Some museums possessing classical collections 



128 EEPOHT— 1887. 

indicate on the labels those specimens which have been figured. The 
Elgin Museum indicates geographical distribution by a system of tinted 
labels. At the Queen's College Museum, Cork, the minerals are mounted 
on thick wooden blocks, painted white and with the front upper edge 
bevelled to receive the label. 

The best museums are not now content with labelling the specimens, 
but place also with each group printed tablets describing in popular lan- 
guage the generic or family characters, so that they become museums and 
libraries combined, and a student may get at once almost all the infor- 
mation he needs. 

The Nottingham and Manchester Museums have introduced an effec- 
tive style of large-type labelling, the letters being punched out of white 
cardboard and glued upon a black ground. 

It is important to consider the amount of description or information 
which can be got upon a label without overloading it. The more the 
better, so that the type is clear and not too crowded, and the label not 
too large. 

32. Libraries. — Nearly half of the rate- supported museums ai-e at- 
tached to free libraries and use the books there provided. A good many 
other museums are attached to colleges, schools, and institutions which 
possess libraries. But where there is no such accommodation, a library 
of reference on the spot is absolutely essential to every active museum. 
About sixty museums report that they possess such libraries, varying in 
number of volumes from 10 to 10,000 ; but only a few of them appear 
to be adding annuallj to their contents, and many of these volumes are 
bound Reports of various societies, which though valuable are not 
the most available sources of information for a working curator. A good 
museum should have at least 500 volumes of the best standard works 
of reference on all branches of zoology, geology, botany, and archaeo- 
logy- 

33. Visitors. — There are few museums in the country of any value 
from which visitors are entirely excluded, but if they can only be seen by 
special application their value to the public is greatly restricted. 

Some of the smallest museums are not visited by more than two or 
three persons in the course of a week. About twenty-five museums 
admit that their visitors do not exceed thirty per week. About fifty 
record them at 500 and upwards. Liverpool, Edinburgh, and Salford 
give their weekly average as 7,000. Where all visitors pay for 
admission, even if it be only one penny, the numbers never exceed 500 
weekly, and rarely reach half that number, unless there be public 
gardens or other attractions included. Art museums with art galleries 
are largely attended, but the pictures are the great attraction. The 
Birmingham Art Gallery has reached an average of over 20,000 for some 
weeks in succession. Some museums are open free on certain days in 
the week and make a charge on the other days. The charge rarely 
exceeds sixpence each for admission to a museum only. About a dozen 
museums, several of them large ones, state that no record of visitors is 
kept, and that they are unable to estimate the numbers. Various 
methods are used for recording or estimating the weekly attendance. 
The most efficient is the automatically recording turnstile, which costs 
however about 50Z., and does not appear to be in use at more than twenty 
museums throughout the country. The larger museums which are 
without turnstiles employ some person either at irregular intervals, or 



ON THE PEOVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 129 

for a week together at several times of the year, to count the numbers 
who enter, and from this imperfect record an estimate for the year is 
made. Smaller museums have a visitoi's' book, in which each must sign 
his name on entering. Where an admission fee is charged the money 
taken indicates the number. In the few cases in which museums are 
opened on Sunday afternoons they appear to be largely attended. 

34. Situation. — The great bulk of the public museums are centrally 
situated in the midst of the populations for whose benefit they are in- 
tended. The few which are not so are either included in public parks 
and botanic gardens or are attached to institutions erected in the sub- 
urbs. It is not easy, therefore, to estimate the effect of this difference, 
but there seems to be some evidence that while a suburban situation 
deters visitors during the woi^king days, it tends to attract them on 
holidays. The curator at Cardiff reports that his museum ' is too central, 
in the heart of the smoke and dust,' and that a new building is in pro- 
gress. Dusty and noisy situations are undoubtedly objectionable. 

35. Busiest Time. — In museums generally the busiest time is the after- 
noon, and next to that the evening, while only about half-a-dozen record 
their busiest time as the morning, several of these being at fashionable 
watering-places. A large number are crowded on public holidays, while 
a few state that they are not affected by holidays at all, and about half-a- 
dozen close their doors on those days. Those which are open on Sunday 
afternoons give this as one of their busiest times. 

36. Hemarhs. — Suggestive remarks were made by many curators under 
this head. Some of them have been already referred to. Many urge the 
importance of provincial museums giving their chief attention to local 
collections. Several speak of the great want of workrooms ; of the 
necessity of fully descriptive labels, and explanations of words and names 
such as ' majolica,' ' vertebrates,' &c. ; of the desirability of collections of 
scientific apparatus, of a good supply of seats in the rooms, and of the 
importance of getting some alteration in the law of treasure-trove. One 
thinks that Sunday opening is not required ; another wishes he could per- 
suade his committee to adopt it. 

Several point out the impoi'tance of having museums controlled by 
scientific curators, not by town councils or amateurs, and urge that at 
least the committees of town councils should associate with themselves 
some gentlemen of scientific reputation, which is in fact done by a consider- 
able number of such committees. Several others feel the need of some 
organisation among curators, either nationally or in districts, for mutual 
help and co-operation. 

The great question of funds is a perpetual source of complaint. 
Societies are nearly always short of money ; and when a town adopts the 
Public Libraries and Museums Act it generally tries to get both institu- 
tions, and often an art gallery as well, out of the penny rate. The con. 
sequence is that, except in very large towns, all are crippled. In a 
town of 100,000 inhabitants the penny rate will raise on an average per- 
haps 1,500L This would be sufficient to carry on only one of these institu- 
tions in a vigorous and successful manner. It is not nearly sufficient for 
two, and is useless when divided among three. Several towns have now 
obtained in private Acts the power to levy twopence for these purposes. 
There is a considerable feeling of disappointment that the trustees of the 
Great Exhibition Fund have refused any assistance to provincial museums, 
although much of that fund was derived from provincial sources. 
1887. K 



130 REPORT— 1887. 

The present Keporfc includes only four of the six sectional headings 
under which we proposed to treat the subjects entrusted to us. Want of 
time and of data have made it impossible for us to consider with suffi- 
cient seriousness the questions of the ideal museum, and of the best prac- 
tical methods for approaching it. Yet, as the answering of these questions 
forms the chief object of our inquiry, we ask to be reappointed for another 
year, that we may have the opportunity of collecting information by two 
other important methods which are at present practically untried, viz., the 
personal visitation of a number of museums in different parts of the country, 
and inquiries respecting those which exist in Europe and America ; 
and that thus, with the whole statistics before us, we may endeavour 
to formulate such a scheme for the working of provincial museums as 
would bring out their fullest capacity for educational purposes. 



First Report of the GoTnmittee, consisting of Professor Hillhouse, 
Mr. E. W. Badger, and Mr. A. W. Wills, for the purpose of 
collecting information as to the Disappearance of Native Plants 
from their Local Habitats. By Professor Hillhouse, Secretary. 

The question of the extirpation of native' plants from many localities 
was brought before the members of the Birmingham Natural History 
and Microscopical Society in 1884 by Mr. A. W. Wills, and an article on 
the subject communicated by him to the ' Midland Naturalist ' for 
August of that year.^ At the meeting of the Midland Union of Natural 
History Societies at Birmingham in June 1885, Mr. Wills, in conjunction 
with the other two members forming this present Committee, brought 
the matter up ; in the first instance before the Council of the Union, and 
afterwards, with their cordial approval, before the Conference of Delegates 
from the societies constituting the Union. An ' appeal,' passed by this 
Conference, and circulated amongst scientific societies, was, by request of 
the then secretaries, laid by the writer of this Report before the Com- 
mittee of Section D of the British Association at its meeting at 
Aberdeen, 1835, and by it referred, with cordial approval, to the Con- 
ference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. (See the proceedings 
of this Conference in the Report for the Birmingham meeting, 1886.) 

Between the dates of the Aberdeen and Birmingham meetings a 
considerable mass of information bearing upon this question was collected 
from diflferent sources, and letters of approval were received from various 
quarters, including one expressing the full sympathy of the President and 
Council of the Royal Society with the efforts of the Midland Union for 
the preservation of the native flora of Great Britain ; and finally, at the 
Birmingham meeting, 1886, these initial labours were crowned with their 
highest possible I'eward in the constitution of the present Committee. 

For the purpose of carrying out its objects the Committee have 
addressed to local Natural History Societies and Field Clubs, and to local 
botanists, a circular asking the following questions : — 

1. Have any plants, of comparative rarity or otherwise, disappeared 
from your local flora in recent years? If so, kindly enumerate them, 

' Vol. vii. p. 209. 



ON THE DISAPPEARANCE OF NATIVE PLANTS. 131 

specifying the original habitat of each, and giving the cause, or probable 
cause, of extirpation so far as known to you. 

2. As above, but referring to partial instead of complete disappearance. 

3. If you know personally of any cases of extirpation, partial or 
complete, in localities other than your own, please give them. 

For convenience in collating, it is requested that answers under these 
three heads may be given separately in schedule form as follows, and that 
the plants may be arranged with the names, numbers, and sequence of the 
latest edition of the London Catalogue. 



No. in London 
Catalogue 


Name of Plant 


Habitat 


Cause of Disappearance 
(or of Diminution) 



4. To what extent do you think that the partial or complete dis- 
appearance of plants fi'om any localities known to you was, or may be 
made in the futui-e, subject to public or private control ? 

The Committee do not consider it any part of their present duty to 
express opinions or make suggestions. Not until the fallest possible 
information upon the disappearance of plants from their local habitats, 
and the causes thereof, has been obtained upon personal and sufficient 
authority, can the question of remedy be taken into consideration, if, 
indeed, investigation should show that remedial action is necessary or 
possible ; and the Committee are not without hope that the awakenino- of 
local societies to the importance of the subject may lead to the gradual 
formation of such a healthy tone of public opinion as will i-ender further 
action unnecessary. Nevertheless, it is considered desirable to ask the 
above question No. 4, in order to elicit the views of diverse and widely 
distributed correspondents. 

In order to avoid undue demands upon time and space, and to 
minimise the clerical labour involved in such an extended investigation as 
this, the Committee propose to spread it over a short series of years, 
confining its attention in each year to some well-defined area. At 
present they are limiting their inquiries to Scotland, and propose to collate 
the results for the meeting of the Association in 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McKendrick, 
Professor Cleland, and Dr. McGeegor-Robertson (Secretary), 
appointed^ for the purpose of investigating the Mechanism of 
the Secretion of Urine. 

Your Committee have to report that they have conducted a series of ex- 
periments having specially in view the desire to discover, if possible, any 
new evidence regarding (1) the mechanism of the separation of the watery 
constituents of the urine, (2) the mechanism of the separation of the 
nitrogenous constituents, and (3) any cause of the appearance of 
albumen. 

A few experiments previously made by one of us seemed to indicate 
that the influence of atropine on the kidney would aid in such an inquiry, 

K2 



132 



BEPOKT — 1887. 



and it was, indeed, becaase of such an indication tliat the investigation 
was undertaken. The animals hitherto experimented on were cats and 
rabbits. The method emploj^ed was as follows : — 

The animal was confined in a large cage, supplied with a double 
bottom of zinc. The false bottom was perforated, allowing the passage 
of urine, but retaining the fEBces. At one end of the real bottom a tube 
conducted into a receiver, where the urine was collected. The urine was 
collected once in twenty-four hours, and was usually quite clear and free 
from foreign admixture. In order to simplify the experiment and avoid 
as far as possible variations due to different quantities of food, the animal 
was fed on a stated quantity of porridge, made of a weighed quantity of 
meal, and there was added a measured quantity of milk. The animal was 
in all cases kept for a week or more on the regulation diet before the 
observations began, until the urine, in regard to total quantity and to 
constitution, became steady. Variations were thus easily observed, and 
the risk of error in assigning the cause much diminished. 

After the urine had become steady, and a record of the quantity and 
amount of nitrogen present had been taken for a number of days, atropine 
■was injected hypodermically and its effects on the urine observed. The 
total nitrogen was estimated by the method of Knop and Hiifner, a large 
number of estimations of urea by the method of Liebig having led to its 
abandonment. 

Some of the results are given in tabular form as obtained from the 
cat. They are a fair sample of the results obtained in every one of a 
large number of observations on the cat. 

The first table gives the results of two consecutive experiments on the 
same cat. 

Table l.— Cat. 



Total Urine 
in 24 hours 


Total N. in 


Kemarks 


in CCS. 


grras. 




190 


1-786 




175 


1-802 1 


Half a grain ofatrojnne injected. 


179 


1-950 




148 


2-490 


Bare trace of albumen. 


175 


1-837 




200 


1-800 




170 


1-700 




One grain of atrojnne injected. 


132 


1-973 




98 


2-352 


None of the food eaten. 


50 


2-920 


Only 190 grms. of a total of 270 grs. food supplied eaten. 


205 


2-665 


Trace of albumen. 230 grms. of total food eaten. 


170 


2-210 


Faint trace of albumen. All food eaten. 



The table shows that after the injection of atropine the total quantity 
of urine falls and the total N. rises : this is more marked with the larger 
dose of atropine. The increased elimination of N. occurs in spite of 
a lessened consumption of food. In two or three days after the injection 



ON THE SECRETION OF UEINE. 



133 



a great increase occurs in the total quantity of urine, while at the 
same time the elimination of N. is diminishing. In some of the experi- 
ments, though not shown in this table, the total N. fell below the 
average, while the total quantity of urine rose much above the average. 

As tested by the specific gravity, the other solid constituents of the 
urine did not seem to vary. 

Where no remark regarding food is made, it must be understood to 
have been all consumed. 

The following tables give the results of a single experiment with two 
diflPerent cats : — 

Table II.— CW. 



Total Urine 
in 24 hours 


Total N. in 


Remarks 




in CCS. 


grms. 






176 
190 
224 


2-200 
2-945 
2-531 


Each day a small quantity of food left ; 


about the 


same quantity each day. 




One grain of atropine injected. 




185 


5-457 


Of a total of 460 grms. food supplied only 
eaten. 


190 grms. 


140 


4-270 


230 grms. food eaten. 




246 


2-509 


410 grms. food eaten. 




206 


2-884 


Food all eaten. 




235 


2-232 


Trace of albumen. Food all eaten. 




306 


2-754 


Trace of albumen disappeared. 





Table III.— Cai. 



Total Urine 

in 24 hours 

in CCS. 


Total N. in 
grms. 


Remarks 


250 
232 

Injected on 

192 
186 
212 
290 


1-850 
1-856 

e grain atrojn 

2-899 
2-641 
1-759 
2-436 


le. 

Only 195 grms. food (of total 370 grms.) eaten. 
130 grms. food eaten. 
230 grms. food eaten. 

Trace of albumen. Food increased to 400 grms. 
eaten. 


all 



These tables show results similar to table I. After injection the 
nitrogen rises in spite of the greatly diminished consumption of food, 
while the total urine falls. Two or three days later the total urine rises, 
while the N. falls. At the same time the ability of the animal to take 
the usual quantity of food is returning. The changes that have been in- 
dicated are markedly shown in table II. 

A series of experiments was conducted on rabbits. While supplying 
no results contradicting any of those mentioned, none confirming them to 
a. satisfactory extent was obtained. This seemed to be dae to the marked 



134 REPORT— 1887. 

insusceptibility of rabbits to the influence of atropine. Under the influence 
of one grain of atropine, and even of half a grain, cats are markedly ex- 
cited, are unable to take food, and exhibit evidences of serious disturbance. 
Rabbits show no such symptoms. Even a dose of 4 grains of atropine 
seemed to have little disturbing effect, but with that dose results as 
regards the urine indicating an approach to those of the cat were 
obtained. 

As regards the appearance of albumen, in the majority of instances 
traces of albumen were obtained some time after the injection of atropine; 
in a few, quite distinct evidence of its presence in very small amount 
The evidence was usually most distinct at the time when the total urine 
was rising and the total N. falling. But regarding albumen, no results 
were obtained definite enough to allow of any conclusions being drawn as 
to its relation to the separation of nitrogen. 

In cats on whom several experiments had been made there seemed to 
be some degree of tolerance of the drug ; but though a few experiments 
Avere tried directly in relation to albumen they yielded nothing definite. 
The Committee next considered whether a method could be adopted which 
would admit of microscopic examination of kidneys of animals submitted 
to the influence of atropine. 

For this purpose a number of rabbits were injected with a solution of 
indigo-carmine, after the method of Heidenhain. The rabbits were first 
of all injected with atropine in varying doses and at varying intervals; 
after its administration the indigo-carmine was injected. It was thought 
that if any marked influence were exerted on the renal epithelium, it might 
be indicated by variations in the extent to which the colouring matter 
was picked up by the cells. Though the injections were satisfactorily 
enough accomplished, the experiments yielded no information beyond 
what might have been expected from Heidenhain's description of what 
normally occurs. It may be, however, that the insusceptibility of rabbits 
to the influence of atropine renders them unsuitable subjects for such an 
experiment. Tlie Committee think it probable that this method might 
yield some results with cats or other animals, and a further set of trials 
in this direction may yet be conducted by one of the members. 

Your Committee think that what evidence has been obtained strongly 
supports the view that the mechanism for the separation of the watery 
constituents of the urine is different from that for the separation of the 
specific constituents. The effects of atropine which the experiments 
demonstrate could be explained by a stimulating action on the renal 
epithelium, followed by a paralysis or state of exhaustion. This, at least, 
would account for the great increase in the elimination of N., followed 
by a decrease. It would also account for the diminution of water, 
followed by an increase, if the cells were supposed to possess the function 
of absorbing water to any extent. The meagre results relating to albu- 
men do not justify the offering of any suggestion regarding its ap- 
pearance. 

Tour Committee think that a continuation of the experiments on the 
lines of some of the methods indicated, as well as on others, might elicit 
further facts of value. One of their number hopes to be able himself to 
pursue the subject further, and if he obtains any results to communicate 
them to some future meeting of this Association. In view of this the 
Committee respectfully suggest they might now be discharged. 



ON THE HEBDS OF WILD CATTLE IN THE PARKS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 135 



Report of the Comrniitee, consisting of Mr. E. Bidwell, Pro- 
fessor Boyd Dawkins, Professor Bridge, Mr. A. H. Cocks, 
Mr. E. de Hamel, Mr, J. E. Harting, Professor Milnes Mar- 
shall, Dr. Muirhead, Dr. Sclater, Canon Tristram, and Mr, 
W. E. Hughes {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of pre- 
paring a Report on the Herds of Wild Cattle in Chartley Park, 
and other Parks in Great Britain. 

Ant inquiry into the origin of the Wild "White Cattle would be beyond the 
scope of the present Report, and this question, however interesting in 
itself, must be dismissed in a very few words. 

The Urus (Bos 'primig emus') was probably the only indigenous wild 
ox,' not only in this country, but throughout the Palgearctic region, and 
the source of all our domestic breeds, as well as of the White Park Cattle ; 
and we may fairly trace these park herds back to the Btibali or Tauri 
sylvestres, which are mentioned ^ as occurring down to mediaeval times; 
but whether these animals were genuine Uri, or feral cattle, admits of 
some doubt. 

The original Urus was a huge beast, while the park cattle, as we 
know them, are smaller than many domestic breeds ; but deterioration in 
size would be a natural result of their way of life and long-continued 
in-breeding. 

The prevailing white colour of the park herds, with a tendency to 
throw black calves, which still exists in most of the herds, and which is 
especially the case when any admixture of blood takes place, is probably 
the result of the same cause, and not the original coloration of the 
Urus. White cattle had a special value, according to the Welsh laws of 
Howell Dha, and as is also proved by the present sent by Maud de Breos 
to appease King John. 

This report does not include extinct herds, but as one herd — that in 
Lyme Park — has only very recently ceased to exist, and as this is the first 
account of the wild cattle published since that catastrophe, it has been 
thought well to include a short notice of that ancient stock. 

The following list includes all the herds now remaining in the British 
Isles, arranged according to the probable order in time of their arrival at 
their present abode. In the detailed account of the different herds further 
on, they are arranged to some extent geographically, from north to 
south. 

Chartley Park, near Utfoxeter, Staffordshire (the Earl Ferrers), 
appears to have been enclosed by the middle of the thirteenth century.^ 

Chillingham Park, near Belford, Northumberland (the Earl of Tan- 
kerville), seems to have been enclosed before the latter part of the same 
century, and probably as early as (or even before) 1220; and should there- 
fore, perhaps, have been placed first. 

Lyme Park, near Disley, Cheshire (W. J. Legh, Esq.), at the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. 

Cadzow Park, Hamilton, Lanarkshire (the Duke of Hamilton, K.T.). 

' l.JE., of the genus Bos ; there was in addition the bison. 

' By Matthew Paris, Fitz- Stephen, and others. 

' For these dates ride authorities quoted by Harting, Extinct British Animals. 



136 REPORT— 1887. 

Date of enclosure unknown, but the present park occupies a portion of 
the old Caledonian Forest, in which Robert Bruce is traditionally stated 
to have hunted the wild bull in 1320, and where in 1500, James IV. of 
Scotland took part in the same wild sport. 

The above are probably the only herds remaining on the ground in 
which they were originally enclosed. 

Somerfbrd Park, near Congleton, Cheshire (Sir Charles W. Shakerley, 
Bart., C.B.) The cattle cannot bo traced hei'e more than about 200 years, 
though it is possible they have been there since the original enclosure of 
the park ; it is perhaps more likely that they were brought in the seven- 
teenth century from Middleton Park, Lancashire, which herd in turn is 
supposed to have come from Whalley Abbey. 

The Middleton Herd is now represented by offshoots (to some extent 
cross-bred, however, and now, like the Somerford herd, domesticated) at 
Blickling, near Aylsham, Norfolk (the Marchioness of Lothian), and at 
Woodbastwick Hall, near Norwich (A. Cator, Esq.). The cattle were 
removed from Middleton about 176-5 to Gunton Park, Norwich (Lord 
Suffield), where they became extinct in 1853 ; but some had meanwhile — 
viz., between 1793 and 1810 ' — been introduced to Blickling, and others 
in 1840 were sold to Mr. Cator of Woodbastwick. 

The herd at Vaynol, near Carnarvon (G. "W. DnfiF-Assheton-Smith, 
Esq.), was started in 1872 from stock purchased from Sir John Powlett 
Orde, of Kilmory House, Argyllshire. This stock (now somewhat crossed) 
was originally at Blair Athol, Perthshire. In 1834 the herd was sold to 
the Marquis of Breadalbane, Taymouth, and to the Duke of Buccleuch, 
Dalkeith. When the latter herd was broken up, the late Sir John Orde 
purchased the only survivor and transpoi'ted it to Argyllshire. In 1886 
the entire remainder of the Kilmory herd was transferred to Vaynol, and 
added to the cattle already there. 

At Hamilton, Chartley, and Somerford persons who have known the 
herds for a number of years have expressed the opinion that the cattle 
have somewhat deteriorated in size within their recollection; but there is 
nothing to prove this, and it must be recollected that by degrees things 
appear smaller than the recollection of the first impression received as 
children. 

At Chillingham, Chartley, and Hamilton, the wild cattle's heads seem 
slightly larger in proportion to their bodies than in ordinary cattle, the 
feet larger and broader, and the legs stouter. May not these be taken as 
indications of a certain amount of deterioration in their size ? 

At Chillingham the cattle have a ' fine-drawn ' almost ' washed-out ' 
appearance, which may be considered the result of close breeding, and the 
fact of more male than female calves being born is probably the effect 
of the same cause. 

It is interesting that in the semi- or wholly-domesticated herds at 
Vaynol, Somerford, and Woodbastwick the calves are extremely shy 
when first born, and only become accustomed to human beings by 
degrees. 

If it is not beyond our province to make a suggestion, it would be 
extremely interesting if the noble owners of the three ancient herds would 
co-operate with some other owner of a large park — if haply such could be 
found — willing to undertake the following experiment : — Namely, that all 
calves which would ordinarily be converted into veal or steers should 
' Storer, Wild White Cattle, p. 307. 



ON THE HERDS OF WILD CATTLE IN THE PARKS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 137 

instead be sent to build up a new herd, which, combining the blood of the 
only remaining ancient herds, and with no artificial selection exercised, 
might be expected to revert more nearly to the aboriginal wild type than 
could be achieved in any other manner. 

Hamilton (Gaclzoiv). — On August 22 last the herd was made up 
somewhat as under : — Bulls : 2, six years old ; 1, five years old ; 2, three 
years old; 6, two years old; five calves; total, 16 bulls. Females: 25 
cows, four years old and upwards ; 10 heifers, two years old ; 9 yearlings 
and calves ; total, 44 females. Total, 60 head (against 54 at the beginning 
of the year). 

The coloration and markings are tolerably uniform, though ten years 
ago, at any rate, there was a variety in the amount of black on the out- 
side of the ears, and in a slight degree in the amount on the muzzle. 
Any that are defective in their points are slaughtered or made into steers ; 
there are none of the latter at the present moment in the park, but two 
were shot last October, and some of the young bulls will be operated on 
in the fall. 

There is -a good deal of black on the forelegs in this herd, the hoofs 
are black, also tips of horns, roof of mouth, and circle round eyes ; black 
calves are frequently bom, ten years ago the average was about three 
annually. 

Three years ago a bull, which was considered as a Highland bull, 
arrived from Kilmory ; it was marked precisely like the Hamilton cattle, 
but one of its progeny was white all over, and another was black, so the 
bull and all its stock were killed. 

The new blood was introduced in consequence of an idea prevailing 
that the breed was deteriorating from too close breeding. 

Last year (1886) a bull was procured from Chillingham, and perhaps 
greater interest attaches to the result of this admixture of blood than any 
other event in connection with the White Herds of recent years. The 
first two calves were born in March last, and three others somewhat later. 
Four of these were males, and only one a female. Three of the bull 
calves took after their sire in having brown ears, and have been destroyed. 

The remaining bull calf is described as beautifully marked, with black 
points after the Hamilton pattern. 

The heifer calf has her ears slightly tipped with a few brown hairs, 
but the keeper thinks she may throw well-marked calves by a Cadzow 
bull. 

There is no certain evidence of new blood having previously been 
introduced into this herd, however unlikely it is (as shown by Storer) 
that a small number of cattle could have been continually bred only 
inter se for centuries, and the herd still exist. But Sir John Orde ' was 
told that one, if not two. Highland bulls bred in the herd some years ago. 

With regard to what has been recorded as to this herd being formerly 
polled, the following appears to be fresh evidence : — Joseph Dunbar, a 
labourer who has been in the ducal service for about fifty years, says that 
forty-five years ago (say, 1842) the cattle were all hornless, and the 
present duke's grandfather caused all showing the least appearance of 
being horned to be killed. 

The calves are all born hei'e in spring and early summer ; to ensure 
this the bulls are kept in a run apart from the cows during the greater 
part of the year. At the present time the Chillingham bull is in a third 
1 Storer, Wild White CaUle, p. 342. 



138 BEPOET— 1887. 

enclosure with seven cows (in Marcli the ChilHngham bull was by him- 
self, and the ten calves then in existence in a fourth enclosure). 

When the grass is scanty, hay and turnips are given, and the cows in 
addition get a little cotton-seed cake. 

The keeper (Scott), who has known them for upwards of twenty 
years, says they are much less wild and dangerous now than formerly, in 
consequence of being visited by so many people of late years. 

Chillingham. — In October last the herd numbered 60 animals ; this 
has been the average number during the last twenty-three years (Lord 
Tankerville wishes to raise the number to 70, which is sufficient for the 
extent of the park). During the above period 113 male calves and 105 
females have been dropped, averaging over nine a year. The deaths have 
averaged about ten annually. The causes of death, besides the shooting of 
oxen and an occasional aged or sickly bull or cow, include old age, drown- 
ing, injuries received in fighting, rupture, cancer, fall, and other injuries; 
poverty and want of food ; and, in calves, the failure of the dams' milk. 

The cattle live on good terms with the red deer, but they will not 
tolerate fallow deer or sheep in the park, possibly because they eat the 
pasture too close, or more probably from the fact of the red deer being 
like themselves primisval denizens of the forest. 

They will never touch turnips. During the last few winters ensilage 
has been given them along with the hay. For a long time none of them 
would touch the ensilage. They sniffed at it and turned away. Even 
when all the hay had been eaten the ensilage remained untouched. At 
length a young bull was seen to try the ensilage ; he went back to the 
herd, and they returned to the ensilage with him. Since then the ensilage 
is always finished before the hay is attacked. It is not thought prudent 
to give very much ensilage, as it appears to stimulate the milk in the cows 
too much for a time, and it afterwards fails. 

One difficulty in increasing the herd is, that the cows continue to 
suckle their calf even after a second calf is born, and the latter is 
consequently left to starve. The calves dropped in winter suffer from 
want of milk. 

The herd is subject to sudden panics, owing to strangers frightening 
them purposely to see them run, and several calves have been trodden to 
death in these stampedes. 

Drowning in the marshes has been a frequent cause of death in wet 
winters and during thaws. 

It is denied that any calves are dropped coloured otherwise than the 
correct white, with black extending very slightly beyond the naked part 
of the nose, and red ears, though in Bewick's time (towards the end of 
last century) there were some with black ears, and from the steward's 
book in 1692 there were not only several animals with black ears, but 
some were apparently entirely black and one brown. ^ 

It is believed that Culley's celebrated shorthorns at the beginning of 
this century were bred by a cross secretly obtained with a Chillingham 
wild bull.2 

' Storer, Wild White Cattle, p. 154 ; and Halting, Extinct British Animals, p. 
234. Bewick, Quadrupeds, 8th ed. 1824, in a foot-note, p. 39 : ' About twenty years 
since there were a few at Chillingham with black EAUS, but the present park- 
keeper destroyed them, since which period there has not been one with black ears.' 

- Bewick, op. cit. p. 41 (foot-note) : ' Tame cows, in season, are frequently turned 
out amongst the wild cattle at Chillingham,' &c. 



ON THE HEEDS OF WILD CATTLE IN THE PARKS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 139 

During the last ten years Lord Tankerville has been trying the 
experiment of strengthening the domestic breed by crossing wild cattle 
and shorthorns. He commenced with a "wild bull and two shorthorn 
cows. They produced a heifer and bull calf respectively, on June 10 and 
17, 1877. Both the calves had red noses, though the male's was smutted 
with black ; while the heifer (her dam's first calf) was the more cori'sctly 
marked about the ears. The bull calf, being the first male of this new 
race, was named ' Adam.' 

In April 1878 Adam's dam, a shorthorn cow, produced a bull calf 
by Adam. This bull when 3^ years old measured 56 inches at the 
shoulder. In the following year Adam became the father of two more 
bull calves out of shorthorn cows. 

In 1877 a wild yearling heifer was shut off from the herd, and the 
following year a second one, in continuation of this experiment. The elder 
one dropped a calf by a shorthorn bull in 1880, but it died ; its fertility 
was afterwards at least temporarily impaired by a remarkable contingency, 
but in October 1881 both were supposed to be in calf to a shorthorn 
bull. None of these wei'e to be added to the wild herd, nor were the 
wild cows to be ever readmitted. 

Lyme. — Mr. W. J. Legh, writing on June 3 last, states that this ' herd 
ceased to exist about four years ago.' 

It will be of interest, therefore, to mention what state it was in ten 
years ago, since which time we have no particulars of it. 

The herd being on the decline as long ago as the year 1859, Mr. Legh 
purchased in October of that year the last surviving cow and calf from 
the Gisburne herd, and added them to his at Lyme.^ The latest account 
published of this herd appeared in the ' Zoologist ' for August 1878, and 
refers to a visit paid in June 1877. Correcting one or two obvious errors 
by comparing this account with Mr. Storer's, taken in August 1875, the 
following list includes the animals that were nearly, or quite, the last 
representatives of this ancient and interesting herd : — 

One old bull, said in 1877 to be dying of old age, and to be eleven or 
twelve years old, though referred to by Mr. Sfcorer in 1875 as three 
years old ; one bull, brought from Chartley as a yearling, in 1877 was 
probably rising or upwards of seven years; one cow, aged about ten; 
one cow, out of the above cow, by the old bull, died previous to 
August 1875 ; one bull, out of the last-named cow, probably by the 
Chartley bull, sent to Chartley ; one cow, hlacJc, out of the old cow first 
mentioned, by the Chartley bull, was in 1877 rising or turned five probably ; 
one heifer, about two years old, by the old bull, out of the old cow, both 
first mentioned ; one heifer, about eighteen months old, out of the black 
cow, by the old bull ; one heifer calf, by the Chartley bull, out of a 
domestic cow ; one heifer calf, from Vaynol. 

Somerford. — In July last the herd consisted of thirty animals, made 
up as follows : — 3 bulls — viz., one born about April 1885, one born about 
March 1886, one born about June 21 last; 18 cows of all ages, the 
youngest being about two years old ; 5 heifers — viz., one about two years 
old, one born about February 1886, one born about May 1886, one born 
about June 1886, one born about September 1886 ; 4 heifer calves — viz., 
one born January, two born about end of April or beginning of May, 
one born July 21 ; total, 30. 

No steers are reared ; all surplus bull calves are fed for veal. 
' Storer, Wild White Cattle, p. 290. 



140 REPORT — 1887. 

Three calves born this year have died — viz., one male from quinsy, 
two females born prematurely. 

Two heifers were due to calve in September and four cows in 
October. 

This will make a tofal of fourteen births during the year, from which 
we may infer that this herd is in no danger of extinction from shy 
breeding. 

These cattle weigh up to fifteen scores to the quarter when fed for 
beef. They are thoroughly domesticated, and allow one to move freely 
among them, and the second bull permitted two visitors and Mr. Hill 
(the agent) to handle him simultaneously. The cows are all regularly 
milked. The butter made from them is pronounced the best in the 
county, and they are as a rule excellent milkers. The highest record 
(^fide Mr. J. Hill) is thirty-three quarts per diem, but the drain on this 
cow's constitution proved fatal in about four months, notwithstanding 
everything possible being done in the way of feeding. 

These cattle are polled, and no exception is known to have occurred. 
They are black pointed, but there is considerable range in the markings 
— far more than in any of the other herds. When Mr. Hill became agent, 
some nine years ago, he found the herd somewhat uncared for, and many 
of the cows so aged as to be past breeding, and he has therefore during 
that interval of time been keeping every good heifer calf, without 
weeding out too stringently on account of irregular markings. 

About 1876 or 1877 a young bull was exchanged with the Marchioness 
of Lothian (Blickling). This cross succeeded fairly well ; a peculiarity 
in this strain being that many are born with the ears square-tipped, as if 
the animal had been marked by cropping. 

About the year 1879 a young bull was exchanged with A. Cator, Esq. 
(Woodbastwick). This bull was broivn pointed, but threw calves with 
red ears and muzzles, which were the first so marked known to have 
occurred at Somerford. 

Of the twenty-three cows and heifers, eleven have either very little 
black fleckings about the body or even none at all ; while about six have 
a good deal of black in thickly grouped fleckings, spots, and small patches ; 
two or three have probably fully one-third of the entire hide black. One 
cow, about ten years old, may be described as a blue-roan, black and white 
hairs being placed almost alternately over the greater portion of her body, 
which give her a hlue-grey coloration. The fronts of her forelegs below 
the knees are black, and also the whole outside of her ears, instead of as 
usual from one-third to a half at the distal end. This cow was (accord- 
ing to Mr. Hill) giving twenty-four quarts of milk per day. 

One cow is red pointed, and slightly flecked on the neck with the 
same colour. The black on the nose in the majority extends evenly round 
the whole muzzle, including the under jaw, but some have merely the 
naked part of the nose black, and in one or two even this is rusty 
coloured and not perfectly black. All, with the exception of the red- 
pointed cow, have a narrow rim of black round the eyes. The animals 
with the least black about them appear to have the finest bone and 
smallest heads. This may be following the old^'strain, while the others 
perhaps more nearly follow the cross-strains. 

The red-pointed cow and one of the quite white ones have small knobs 
or excrescences on either side of the frontal bone, like budding horns, but 
they do not protrude through the skin. 



ON THE HERDS OF WILD CATTLE IN THE PABKS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 141 

One of the handsomest of the cows is almost entirely white, and is the 
daughter of a cow that died this year at the extraordinary age of twenty- 
three (at Chillingham they rarely reach ten) years. She was very dark, 
although of the old strain, and had withstood infection during the cattle 
plague epidemic. 

The bulls (though both immature) are very strongly made, very 
broad across the thighs, short on the legs, and witti remarkably broad, 
thick-set heads. Both are plentifully flecked with black, and in the 
younger of the two the fleckings extend to the lower part of his face, 
while the black on his muzzle is broader than in probably any other 
example of pai'k cattle. 

The old bull, aged eleven, was consigned to the butcher this spring, 
as he had become dangerous, having nearly killed the cattle-keeper.' 

One of the cows and the younger bull have some black in their tail 
tassels, in all the rest it is quite white. 

The bull calf and three of the heifer calves have very little black 
about them beyond their ears and muzzles, while the fourth is the blackest 
individual in this herd, having probably more black than white about it, 
in spots and patches with ill-detined boundaries. 

The cows produce their first calf when from two to two and a half 
years old. The bulls run with the herd throughout the year, but, in order 
to in some degree regulate the birth of calves, individual cows are tem- 
porarily shut up. 

The udders of the cows here, are as large as ordinary domestic cows', 
which is not the case in the herds which are not milked. 

In winter all the cattle, especially the bulls, develop long hair on the 
poll and neck, which divides along the central line and covers them like 
a mane. The hairs decrease in length backwards to the withers, where 
they cease somewhat abruptly. 

About 180 acres of the park are allotted to the cattle, consisting of 
excellent upland turf sloping down to the river Dane. It is said that the 
whole herd will sometimes gallop to a pond in their enclosure, and go in 
so deep that little but their heads remains visible. 

In dry seasons, when the river Dane has become unusually low, in- 
stances have occurred of cattle of both sexes crossing the river both ways ; 
but calves p^-oduced by the park cows are kept if correctly marked, &c., 
even when the sire was probably a common bull. 

The cattle are housed at night during winter, and supplied with hay. 
Ghartley. — The herd in July last was made up as follows : — Bulls : 
1, nine years old ; 1, six ; 1, four ; 1, three ; 1, yearling ; 4 calves ; in all, 9. 
Females : 6 cows, aged ; 2 cows, four years old ; 2, three ; 2, two ; 6 year- 
lings ; 2 calves ; in all, 20. Bullocks : 1, four years old ; 1, three ; 3, two ; 
in all, 5. Total, 34. 

This is the largest number recorded during recent years. An idea or 
tradition prevailed that the number could not be raised beyond 21, so the 
late Earl tried the experiment, and succeeded in April 1851 in getting 
the number up to 48. The late Mr. E. P. Shirley,^ in November 1873, 
recorded 27 ; the late Rev. John Storer,^ in July 1874, found 25, and 
apparently an increase of two or three in the Decemljer following. In June 

' This was no doubt the ' big calf, eight or nine months old,' seen bv Storer on 
August 6, 1875 OVild Mliite Cattle, pp. 258 and 259). 
■■' titorer, Wild White Cattle, p. 220. 
' Loc. cit. p. 222. 



142 REPOKT — 1887. 

1877, Mr. A. H. Cocks • found the number reduced to 20. Mr. J. R. B. 

Masefield,^ whose visit was apparently about 1884, remarks that ' a few 
years ago the number was reduced to 17'; but at the time of his visit the 
aumber was 28, and three had been recently kiUed. Mr. E. de Hamel,' in 
May 1886, found 30. 

This herd's existence seems to be traceable further back even than 
Chillingham — namely, to 1248-49, according to Sir Oswald Mosley 
('Hist. Tutbury, co. Stafford,' 1832). 

The colour is uniform — white, with black noses, ears and feet, some- 
times ticked. Occasionally black calves are born, but are not kept. An old 
tradition says that the birth of a black calf means a death in the family of 
Ferrers. 

The number of calves reared annually would average about half the 
number of breeding cows. 

There is no evidence or knowledge of fresh blood having at any time 
been introduced. 

Lay cows were formerly admitted to the park, and crosses with the 
wild bulls obtained, but this was stopped twenty years ago. The result 
of these crosses was very good meat, but the cross-breds were very awk- 
ward to milk or handle.^ 

The animals in this herd are heavier in front and lighter behind 
than any of the other herds ; in general shape and character, both of 
bodies and horns, they closely resemble the old domestic breed of Staf- 
fordshire longhorns. 

The udders of the cows are remarkably small, and incline forwards at 
an angle — very unlike the huge gland of a domestic cow. 

In winter the cattle are fed on hay in sheds. 

The park is nearly 1,000 aci'es, and is in its natural, original con- 
dition. It has never been manured, or broken up, or seeds sown, and 
contains a very great variety of wild plants. 

Vaynol. — In August the herd consisted of 53 animals — namely, 1 old 
bull, 2 young ditto, about 20 cows, and about 30 heifers and calves of 
both sexes. 

They are short-legged, straight-backed animals, all white with black 
muzzles, black tips to the ears, and more or less black about the hoofs, 
varying, however, in individuals, some being only faintly marked in this 
way. They all have horns, not very long, sharp, and turned up at the 
ends, but not quite uniform. 

In winter they are fed with hay, but are never housed, and none of 
the cows are ever milked. The beef is of excellent quality. 

The original importation of this herd from Kilmory took place in 1872, 
consisting of 22 head — namely, 1 bull, 9 cows, 6 heifers rising two years, 
6 yearling steers. 

In May 1882 the herd numbered 37 or 38, including 8 young calves, 
and 1 bull, which would be killed when three years old. 

In August 1886 the remainder of the Kilmory herd were brought here 

' Zoologist, 1878, p. 276. 

* Proceedings N. Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, 1885, p. 33. 

' Handhooh prepared for the lese of the British Association when visiting Birming- 
ham, 1886 

■• A heifer calf was born in 1875 out of a domestic cow by a wild bull; the heifer 
was said to resemble the wild animals very closely. Seen in the distance the clear 
white, characteristic of the young of the park herds, was conspicuous. 



ON THE HEEDS OF WILD CATTLE IN THE PARKS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 143 

— namely, 2 yearling bulls, 14 cows and heifers, 8 two-year-old lieifers, 8 
yearling heifers ; 32 in all. 

The average number of calves born per year (previous to the addition 
of the remainder of the Kilmory herd) was about 14, of which perhaps 
half a dozen were reared, the remainder being killed for veal. 

Some time within six or eight years of the first instalment of cattle 
coming to Vaynol a black bull calf was born. 

Very few deaths occur, and only among the calves, of which now and 
then one dies of ' scouring.' 

The cattle, although never handled, nor lioused in winter, are not 
fierce, and will allow a near approach (except when they have calves) 
without showing any signs of impatience or alarm. 

Since the arrival of this herd at Vaynol in two instalments, uo fresh 
blood has been introduced, nor have any exchanges been eSectnal ; never- 
theless, Mr. Assheton- Smith is of opinion that the cattle have improved 
both in size and weight. 

Sir John Orde ^ says that, shortly before he parted with the herd, he 
obtained two young bulls from Hamilton, with a view to changing the blood, 
but they proved quite useless, and both met with accidents and had to be 
destroyed. 

Sir John Orde wished to have fresh blood, owing to an opinion that 
the cattle were deteriorating in bone and horn from close breeding, and 
also slightly in fertility. 

The origin of the Kilmory herd, as gathered by Storer, is that the late 
Sir John Orde in 1838 purchased a bull, the only survivor of the Duke of 
Bucclench's (Dalkeith) section of the old Athol herd. This was used 
with Kyloe (West Highland) cows, carefully selected. After some few 
years this bull and Lord Breadalbane's (Taymouth) were exchanged, and 
the latter was used with good results until 1852, when a West Highland 
bull calf was bought, and this sire was supposed to have much improved 
the stock. No further crosses were made up to the time Mr. Storer's 
book was published, 1879 ; but since then the present Sir John Orde, in 
the above quoted letter, says that they had had at various times, crosses 
with ordinary Highland, Ayrshire, and Indian cattle. The first named 
was the only one found desirable, the produce of some cows recently, that 
proved infertile with the wild bull, being very satisfactory in everything 
except colour ; the cattle show traces of their Kyloe extraction. 

About 200 acres of the park are allotted to the cattle, consisting of 
old (artificial) pasture, bordering a lake. This run is shared by red and 
fallow deer, and there are a few roe deer in the plantations round the 
park, descended from Scotch and German stock. A doe was seen in the 
middle of August last with two fawns. 

Blichlincj. — In July last this herd comprised : — Bulls : 1, five years old ; 
2, two years old ; 1 calf. Cows : 9 ; 2 yearling heifers ; 6 calves. Total, 21. 

Only the two young bulls and the two heifers were in the park ; the 
others were kept up. 

Storer says that these cattle were introduced from Gunton about the 
beginning of the present century, and that they were nearly destroyed a 
few years since by the rinderpest, which killed off all but three or four, 
and since then the herd has been somewhat made up, and consequently 
somewhat altered in its characteristics. 

' Letter, dated June 1 1887. 



144 BEPORT — 1887. 

The cattle here are black-pointed (muzzles, ears, and hoofs) ; some- 
times the points are red ; sometimes there is no colour about them at all. 
They are frequently spotted like flea-bitten Arab horses. The six heifer 
calves born this year are irregular in their markings. Two have black 
ears, but no spots ; while one has red ears, and the other has white earg. 

All calves with black points are preserved, amounting to about five or 
six in a year. The herd is low at present — only numbering about twenty 
altogether, ranging from five years old to calves of this year. 

There has been a large proportion of bull calves during the last year 
or two. The individual animals are finer at the present time than when 
Mr. Storer made his report, but they are not as large as they were pre- 
vious to the rinderpest, which destroyed the whole herd except a few 
calves. 

By the advice of Mr. Storer a cross was obtained from Somerford, two 
young bulls being sent thence, one of which had an incipient horn. There 
was another cross about five years ago with a cow from Yorkshire, which in 
appearance was like the cows in the Blickling herd — it was out of a white 
shorthorn by a black Galloway. 

No horns have appeared among its descendants, though one cow 
always throws black calves (which are never reared), and in some of the 
others the black points have been more than usually pronounced. 

As soon as the animals are adult, and are taken into the dairy herd, 
they no longer range in the park, but are fed in meadows. The land is 
light, and they are given cotton cake all through the summer ; in winter 
this is supplemented by hay, but no roots are given. In cold weather 
they are housed at night. 

Woodbashuick — The herd in August last contained: — 1 bull; 12 
cows, aged from nine to two years ; and about the same number of young 
animals. 

Ten calves have been born this year, of which three have died. 

There is also a white shorthorn bull, which was used for breeding 
purposes last year. 

Originally all these cattle had red ears and red muzzles. Latterly, 
however, from want of fresh blood, it has been impossible to maintain the 
red points. A red-pointed bull, received in exchange from Somerford 
(about 1879), proved useless. Mr. Cator was therefore obliged to use a 
black and white bull sent fi'om Somerford, which had (as was supposed) 
some black Angus blood in him. The stock by this strain have nearly all 
had black points, though some few have them of a dark chocolate colour, 
and a few others are red pointed. 

This bull had a good deal of black on his back, and the calves at first 
took after him, being in most cases more or less spotted with black. As 
he got older, however, the calves took after the cows, and in 1883, which 
was the last year he was used, all the calves came pure white, with black 
ears and noses. 

The next bull used was a son of the last, and the result was satisfactory 
as regards markings, although more calves were black- than red-pointed. 

The present bull is a son of this one, and is a splendid animal and 
beautifully marked. Though a little light behind, as all this breed seem 
to be, they are very heavy in the withers. 

At different times some three or four different shorthorn bulls have 
been used, the last occasion being last year (1886). This was done with 
a view to improving the hindquarters, which are rather light. They are 



ON THE HERDS OF WILD CATTLE IN THE PARKS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 145 

inclined to be weak in the loins, and their coats had been getting very 
fine. This last cross has not proved very successful as regards marking, 
all the calves turning oat pure white, ears and all, and a few will have 
horns, while the character of the head diffei-s from the old type, which 
was short, and broad between the eyes. The cattle, from interbreeding, 
had become delicate and thin in the coat, but the shorthorn ci-oss has 
much improved the coat. The white of the shorthorn looks yellow by the 
side of the pure white of the park breed. 

Though the cattle are not considered hardy, they are good milkers 
when well fed. 

This herd originated from Gunton stock. Storer says that the late 
Mr. A. Cator bought one cow at a sale about 1840.' This cow produced 
a bull calf, and at various times subsequently the herd was recruited by 
red-pointed calves from Blickling. 

The cattle here are kept in fields, and do not enjoy the wider range of 
a park. The soil is poor and gravelly. They are stalled all the winter 
and fed on turnips. In the exceptionally protracted bad weather of last 
winter they were given oil cake in addition. 

In conclusion, the Committee request that the thanks of the British 
Association be conveyed to the following noblemen and gentlemen for the 
assistance they have kindly rendered in the preparation of this Heport, 
and that a copy of this Report may be forwarded to each of them : — 

The Dowager Marchioness of Lothian, Blickling Hall, Norwich. 

The Earl Ferrers, Chartley Castle, near StaflEord. 

The Earl of Tankerville, Chillingham Castle, Belford, Northumberland. 

Sir John VV. P. Campbbll-Orde, Bart., Kilmory, Loch-Gilp-Head, N.B. 

Sir Charles W. Shakerley, Bart., C.B., .Somerford Park, Congleton, Cheshire, 

and his Agent, J. Hill, Esq., Smethwick Hall, Congleton. 
G. W. Duff-Assheton-Smith, Esq., Vaynol Park, Bangor, N. Wales. 
A. Cator, Esq., Woodbastwick Hall, near Norwich, and his son John Catok, 

Esq., Woodbastwick Hall, near Norwich. 
D. C. Barr, Esq., Chamberlain to his Grace the Duke of Hamilton, Hamilton, 

Lanarkshire. 



Report of the Govimittee, consisting of Professors Schafer (Secre- 
tary), Michael Foster, and Lankester, and Dr. W. D. 
Halliburton, appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Physiology of the Lymphatic System. 

The Committee appointed for the purpose of investigating the physiology 
of the lymphatic system are not at present able to present a complete 
report ; the chemical physiology of the lymphatic glands is the only 
subject upon which they feel prepared this year to make a definite com- 
munication. This investigation has been carried out in the Physiological 
Laboratory, University College, London, by Dr. Halliburton. The 
following is his report : — 

The animals employed in the research have been mostly cats ; in a 
few cases the lymphatic glands of dogs have been also exammed, which 
entirely corroborate the more complete observations upon cats' glands. 
The method employed in the research was as follows : — The animal waa 

' Mr. A. Cator, the present proprietor, and son of the above, says in a letter, 
' about the year 1832.' 

1887. L 



146 KEPOBT — 1887. 

chloroformed and killed by bleeding from tbe carotids ; the thorax 
was then opened, and a cannula inserted into the aorta ; a stream of 
salt solution (| per cent.) was then passed at considerable pressure 
throuo-h the vessels by this means ; in about a minute the large veins 
entering the heart were opened, and the mixture of blood and saline 
solution allowed to escape ; in fi-om five to ten minutes the vessels were 
entirely free from blood, and the fluid came through colourless. The abdo- 
minal glands were then removed, and dissected from surrounding fat and 
connective tissue ; as much also of the capsule was removed as possible, 
and the glands were cut into small pieces, and ground up in a mortar 
with saline solution. By this means the lymph-cells were freed almost 
entirely from the remaining portions of the gland capsules, which were 
removed. The fluid, with the cells suspended in it, was poured into 
test-tubes, the cells in a short time settling to the bottom and forming a 
yellowish- white deposit. This process of settling was hastened by centri- 
fugalising ; the supernatant liquid was poured off, and the cells again 
■washed with saline solution in a similar way. By this method the cells 
were quickly freed from any lymph which might still have been in con- 
tact with them. Microscopical examination of the cells showed that 
they still possessed their normal appearance, except for a small amount 
of shrinkage. The supernatant saline liquid was found to contain in 
small quantities the same proteids that were afterwards found in the cells, 
a certain amount of their proteid constituents having thus entered into 
solution. 

The lymph-corpuscles collected by this means were further examined 
in order to determine qualitatively the kinds of proteids that they con- 
tained. Lymph-corpuscles being typical animal cells, this research was 
in other words directed to the determination of the varieties of proteid 
that occur in protoplasm. 

The methods adopted for this investigation consisted in extracting 
the cells with various saline solutions, and then of examining these 
extracts by the methods of precipitation by neutral salts, and of fractional 
heat-coagulation. 

Although it appears that this subject has not been investigated before 
in the same way, it should be mentioned that a very similar research was 
undertaken by Miescher ^ on the proteids of pus cells. He found that 
these cells contained five proteids, as follows : — 

1. An alkali-albumin. 

2. A proteid coagulable by heat at 48°-49° C. 

3. Serum-albumin. 

4. A proteid formerly considered to be myosin, which swells up into 

a jelly-like substance on admixture with solutions of sodium 
chloride. 

5. A proteid insoluble in water, and in sodium chloride solution, and 

soluble with difiiculty in dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Miescher also investigated the properties and composition of the 
mucin-like substance called nuclein, which composes in main the sub- 
stance of the cell nuclei, and which remains undigested in artificial gastric 
juice, and can be thus separated from the investing protoplasm. 
Although pus cells are in origin white blood corpuscles, yet on account of 
the degenerative changes they undergo while in an abscess cavity they 

> Miescher, ' Ueber die chemische Zusammensetzung der Eiterzellen.' Eoppe- 
Seyler, Med. Chevi. Untersuchungen, p. 441. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. 147 

cannot be regarded as consisting of normal protoplasm. Many of the 
results obtained in this research, however, corroborate Miescher's facts. 

The liquid which was found the best to dissolve the proteids of lymph 
cells was a partially saturated solution o£ sodium sulpbate. Such a 
solution was prepared by mixing a certain volume of saturated solution 
of that salt with nine times its volume of distilled water. After 
thoroughly shaking the cells with this solution they dissolved to a very 
great extent, and microscopical examination of the debris showed that it 
consisted chiefly of nuclei, with apparently pieces of shrunken protoplasm 
adhering to or separate from the nuclei. 

The proteids present in such an extract were as follows : — 

1. A globulin which coagulates at 48°-50°. C. 

2. A globulin which coagulates at 75° C. 

3. An albumin which coagulates at 73° C. 

4. An albumin which coagulates at 80° C. 

5. Certain varieties of albumose and peptone. 

6. A proteid similar to that described by Miescher in pus, which 

swells up into a jelly-like substance when mixed with solutions 
of sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. It is the presence 
of this proteid which makes a solution of sodium sulphate a 
better liquid with which to extract the lymph-cells than either a 
solution of sodium chloride or magnesium sulphate, as sodium 
sulphate does not produce this peculiar phenomenon. 
It will now be convenient to take these proteids one by one, and 
describe each in detail. 

1. The glohulin luMch coagulates at 4<8°-50° C. — On heating the sodium 
sulphate extract of the cells, faintly acidified with weak acetic acid, to 45°, 
the liquid becomes opalescent, and at 48° to 50° C. a distinct flocculent 
precipitate separates out. In one or two cases the temperature of heat- 
coagulation was somewhat higher, in one case as high as 55°. The precipi- 
tate, collected on a filter, has the usual characters of coagulated proteid. 
There are comparatively few proteids which coagulate at so low a tempe- 
rature as this. The one which it most resembles is the proteid occurring 
in muscle plasma, which coagulates at 47°-48° C. ; this proteid has been 
named paramyosinogen, and its properties are described elsewhere.' 
This proteid in lymph-cells resembles it in many particulars, but differs 
from it in certain others, which, however, are of minor importance. It 
resembles paramyosinogen in being a proteid of the globulin class, i.e. 
soluble in unconcentrated saline solutions, precipitable from them by 
dialysing out the salt from such solutions, and precipitable by excess of 
such a neutral salt as sodium chloride or magnesium sulphate. It differs 
from paramyosinogen in being precipitable with great readiness by weak 
acetic acid from its saline solutions, and in requiring for its complete 
precipitation with a neutral salt, like the above-mentioned, complete 
saturation with such a salt. The name I should propose for this proteid 
is cell-globulin a. 

2. The globulin which coagulates at 75° C— On heating the liquid from 
^ hich cell-globulin abas been removed by heating to 50° C. and filtering, 
it becomes opalescent at about 66° C, and a flocculent precipitate begins 
to separate at about 73° C. ; this is increased by heating to 75° C. This 
is because an albumin is present which coagulates at the former tempera- 
ture, and a globulin at the latter. The temperatures are, however, so 

' Halliburton, ' On Muscle Plasma,' Journ. Physiology, 1887. 

L 2 



148 REPORT — 1887. 

close together that it is not possible to separate them by fractional heat- 
coagulation. The separation is effected as follows : the sodium sulphate 
extract is saturated with magnesium sulphate ; this precipitates the 
globulins, leaving the albumins in solution. Magnesium sulphate also 
causes the swelling-up of the proteid numbered 6 in the foregoing enu- 
meration of the proteids of tymph-cells ; but on complete saturation 
with this salt, the swollen-up lumps become somewhat shrunken, and 
can be removed by filtration with the globulins. The jjrecipitate on 
the filter is then washed with saturated solution of magnesium sulphate 
until the washings do not give the proteid reactions, and distilled water 
is then added to the filter. The salt adhering to the globulins enables 
them to dissolve in the water, while the jelly-like proteid remains un- 
dissolved. In this solution of globulins the a variety can be removed by 
heating to 50° and filtering, the second globulin remaining in solution. 
This second globulin, for which I should propose the name cell-globulin 
fi, resembles serum-globulin in all its properties. It coagulates at 75° 0., 
is precipitated by dialysis, is also precipitated completely by saturation 
with maguesium sulphate, and incompletely by saturation with sodium 
chloride. That white blood-corpuscles are a source of serum-globulin 
was first pointed out by A. Schmidt,' who showed that on their disinte- 
gration in shed blood, two of the products resulting are paraglobulinand 
fibrin ferment. The name paraglobulin is now almost abandoned ; the 
term serum globulin is hardly applicable to a proteid existing in lymph- 
cells ; hence it seems necessary to multiply terms and provisionally to 
designate this globulin by a new name. 

3. The alhumin ivhich coagulates at 73° C. — This is present in small 
amount, being, on heating to 78°, often not more than a cloudiness in 
the liquid from which the globulins have been removed by saturation 
with magnesium sulphate and filtration. In those cases in which a larger 
amount than this was present, it was found to be identical in its properties 
with sernm-albvimin. It has been found, however, that the serum, 
albumin of warm-blooded animals can by fractional heat-coagulation be 
separated into a, /3, and y varieties coagulating respectively at 73°, 77°, 
and 83° C.^ This albumin of lymph-cells is therefore identical with 
serum-albumin a ; but, for the reasons just specified, it seems advisable 
here again to introduce a new term and provisionally to speak of this 
proteid as cell-albumin a. 

4. The alhumin which coagulates at 80° 0. — This is, except for the dif- 
ference in a iew degrees of its heat-coagulation temperature, identical 
with seram-albumin y. It is present in exceedingly minute quantities, 
and is often altogether absent. It may bo named, in symmetry with the 
other proteids, cell-albumin /?. 

5. Alhumoses and Peptone. — After filtering off all the foregoing 
proteids which are precipitable by heat, a certain amount of proteid 
material still remains in solution. This is not the jDCCuliar mucinoid 
proteid to which allusion has already been made. That is carried down 
by and removed with the heat coagulum, as will be fully explained in the 
next section : but this proteid residue consists of albumoses, the j| name 
given by Kiilme and Chittenden to those substances which are inter- 
mediate between ordinary proteids, and peptones. The amount of 
albumose, or perhaps proteose would be a better name, varies consider- 

' Schmidt, Pfliiger's Archiv, vol. vi. p. 445. 

- Halliburton, ' Proteids of Serum,' Jown. of Physiology, 1885. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. 149 

ably. In some cases a doubtful trace is all tbat is present : in other 
cases the amount is considerable, the precipitate produced by adding 
nitric acid being a fairly thick cloud. On examining the matter more 
closely, it was found that in those preparations rapidly made from glands 
removed immediately after death, the amount of albumose was all but 
imperceptible ; while in those which had been allowed to remain for an 
hour or more at a summer temperature before they were extracted with 
a saline solution, the amount was more considerable. The same result 
was obtained by preparing these albumoses in another way : the glands 
from several cats were chopped up finely, and placed under absolute 
alcohol for four months ; by this means the ordinary proteids were 
rendered insoluble ; the glands were then dried over sulphuric acid, and 
powdered. Aqueous extracts of this powder contained no proteids which 
were coagulable by heat, but varying quantities of albumose. In those 
cases in which the glands had been removed with great expedition and 
placed immediately under alcohol, the amount of albumose present was 
very small ; but in those in which there had been delay, the amount of 
albumose was considerable, and was easily separated into proto albumose 
{i.e. an albumose precipitable by nitric acid in the cold, the precipitate 
dissolving on the application of heat, and reappearing when cooled, not 
precipitable by dialysis, and precipitated by saturation with sodium 
chloride) and deutero-albumose (i.e., an albumose which is not preci- 
pitated by dialysis, nor by saturation with sodium chloride, and which 
gives the nitric acid test just described only when its solution is saturated, 
or nearly saturated, with a neutral salt like sodium chloride). Hetero- 
albumose was not identified ; it is exceedingly difficult to separate this 
substance from a mixtui-e of proteids, as it is precipitated by heat, and 
converted into an insoluble albumose — dysalbumose — by alcohol. In 
only one case was peptone present ; in all other cases, no proteid re- 
mained in solution after saturating the solution with ammonium sulphate ; 
that is, peptone was absent. 

■ These observations suggested that the presence of these substances 
was due to some post-mortem change in the pi'oteids of the protoplasm. 
This surmise was strengthened by the further observation that, although 
the natural reaction of the lymphatic glands is alkaline, in a very few 
minutes, usually under a quarter of an hour after death, they become 
faintly acid. A. Hirschler ' has shown that this acid is sarko-lactic acid. 
Briicke showed that pepsin is present in various tissues, and accounted for 
its presence by saying it was absorbed from the alimentary canal. It 
does not exert any digestive function in the tissues because of their alka- 
line reaction. When, however, the reaction of a tissue becomes acid, there 
is no reason why, as in this case, the ferment should not exert its proteo- 
lytic action. That this explanation is probably the correct one, was shown 
by a few experiments performed as follows : the glands were quickly 
removed from the animal, cut into small pieces, and then divided into 
two halves ; one half was extracted immediately with a weak solution of 
ammonium sulphate ; this extract was saturated with ammonium sulphate, 
and the precipitate so pi'oduced filtered off. The filtrate contained no 
peptone, and the precipitate contained a mere trace of proto-albumose. 
The other half of the glands was placed in distilled water: on testing' the 
reaction of this half an hour later, it was found to be distinctly acid ; 
thymol was added to prevent putrefaction, and the whole kept in an 
' A. Hirschler, Zelt. PJlysiol. Cheniie, vol. xi. p. 41. 



150 BEPOET— 1887. 

incubator at 36° C. for six hours. The pieces of glauci were then filtered 
off, and the filtrate saturated with ammonium sulphate; the precipitate so 
produced was collected on a filter. The filtrate contained abundance of 
peptone, and the precipitate contained a small amount of deutero-albumose ; 
the action having presumably been sufficiently great, so that digestion had 
advanced beyond the proto-albumose stage. 

6. The mucin-like pruteid. — This proteid, which was first described by 
Miescher in the protoplasm of pus cells, is also present in the cells of 
lymphatic glands. It forms, in fact, the largest proteid constituent of 
those cells. When the cells are extracted with a five- or ten per cent, 
solution of either sodium chloride or magnesium sulphate, the result is a 
slimy mass, very much resembling mucus in its appearance. It may be 
obtained free from other proteids by pouring this mixture into a large 
excess of distilled water; this peculiar proteid then extends in cohesive 
strings throughout the water, and in time these contract and settle at 
the bottom of the water. This is then washed by decantation with 
I per cent, sodium chloride solution, in which it is very slightly soluble. 

The following are its chief properties : — 

(a) It is insoluble in water. 

(b) It is slightly soluble in | per cent, sodium chloride solution. If 
the lymph-cells be extracted with this solution, a small amount of all the 
proteids described goes into solution, and among them this one. Such an 
extract is not, however, slimy ; it becomes slimy when the proportion of 
salt is increased to a strength of 5 per cent. 

(c) When a 10 per cent, sodium chloride solution, with this proteid in 
suspension, is heated to 50° C. the mucns-like strings shrink, and can 
be easily filtered off. In the case of sodium sulphate extracts of glands 
it is apparently carried down with the cell-globulin a, which coagulates 
at this temperature. When the sodium chloride solution is boiled, the 
shrunken flakes which formed at 50° C. break up and dissolve ; they are 
not, however, reprecipitated on cooling. It is, however, precipitated once 
more when poured into water, and also by the addition of acetic acid. 

(cl) Saturation with neutral salts. Saturation of a sodium sulphate 
extract of cells with sodium sulphate causes little or no precipitation of 
the proteids contained therein ; nor does it cause any mucinous appear- 
ance. In a very weak sodium chloride solution (j per cent.), there is 
also no mucin-like appearance ; this only comes on when the strength of 
the solution reaches 5 per cent. ; saturation with sodium chloride causes 
a small amount of shrinkage of this proteid, and renders filtration easier. 
Magnesium sulphate acts in a similar way. Ammonium sulphate acts 
similarly ; saturation with this salt, however, causes the proteid to lose 
almost altogether its resemblance to mucin, and precipitates it as whitish 
flakes. 

(e) It is precipitable by absolute alcohol, by basic lead acetate, by 
dilute sulphuric acid, and by solution of tannin. 

(/) It is precipitated by acetic acid in strings like mucin ; like mucin 
it is also soluble in baryta or lime-water ; from which solution it is again 
precipitable by acetic acid, and not soluble in modei-ate excess of that 
reagent. 

It is thus seen that this substance is very like mucin in its reactions, 
and in its physical characters. The question arises : Is it mucin ? The 
substance nuclein, of which the cell-nuclei are made up, has been described 
as very similar to mucin ; but it is not this substance with which we have 



ON THE PHTSIOLOGT OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. 151 

to deal, as the cell-nuclei are exceedingly insoluble, and are not attacked 
at all by such reagents as | per cent, sodiam chloride ; this proteid, which 
assumes a mucinoid appearance on treatment with sodium chloride, is 
undoubtedly a constituent of the cell protoplasm : and the question, Is it 
mucin ? is not au idle one, as the degeneration of cell protoplasm into 
mucin is one which is constantly taking place, in such situations as the 
submaxillary gland, or the epithelium cells of the respiratory and ali- 
mentary tracts, to form goblet cells. 

I think, however, that this proteid is not mucin, but only resembles it 
in certain physical characteristics, as well as in a few tests : it is precipi- 
tated by tannin, which does not precipitate mucin ; the best proof, how- 
ever, of its identity or non-identity would be an elementary analysis ; this 
I have not made as yet. My present chief ground for believing this 
substance not to be mucin is that it is not a glucoside, like mucin, or at 
least that prolonged boiling with sulphuric acid does not cause it to yield 
any substance which has a reducing action on cupric hydi-ate. I look 
upon this substance as a globulin, but one which is much more readily 
precipitated by neutral salts than most other globulins are ; a proportion 
of 5 per cent, of sodium chloride, for instance, in its solutions rendering 
it insoluble. The precipitate, moreover, is not of the usual fine flocculent 
character, but a slimy, mucus-like one. In my investigation on muscle 
plasma, I showed that the precipitate of the proteid called myosinogen 
is of a similar slimy appearance, though to a much less degree. The 
name I propose for this proteid is mucinoid globulin. 

The question which I have in the last place investigated is whether 
there exists in lymph-cells any substance like myosin. Myosin is the 
substance which separates from muscle plasma after death, in the same 
way that fibrin separates from blood plasma. In the case of muscle this 
coagulation is accompanied by the formation of a lactic acid. Now we 
have in the case of the lymph cells seen that there is a formation of acid ; 
is there any simultaneous formation of a solid proteid analogous to myosin 
or fibrin ? I have tried to answer this question by experiments similar 
to those by which Kiihne obtained muscle plasma from frogs, and which 
I have lately extended to mammals. But hitherto this question has been 
answered in the negative. By employing strong pressure upon the glands 
frozen immediately after removal from the body, I have been able to 
express from them a juice ; but one, however, which underwent no spon- 
taneous coagulation on exposure to a temperature of 85°-40° C. Similarly 
extracts of the frozen glands with solutions of sodium sulphate of various 
strengths, did not undergo coagulation when subsequently diluted to 
various extents with water, and exposed in an incubator to the tempera- 
ture of 36° C. In other words, such experimental methods that enable 
one to study the coagulation of blood or of muscle, lead in the case of the 
lymph-cells to an entirely negative result. Miescher in his examination 
of pus cells came to an exactly similar conclusion. 

This research is at present incomplete ; up till now all that has been 
attempted is a separation and recognition of the various proteids in the 
cells which can be extracted by saline fluids. A very important point is 
the determination of the influences these various constituents have upon 
the coagulation of the blood, on account of some recent observations by 
Dr. Wooldridge. To this question I hope to be able next year to apply 
myself. 

W. D, Hallibueton. 



152 



REPORT — 1887. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. 
Walker, Greneral Sir J. H. Lefroy [Reporter), Professor Sir W. 
Thomson, Mr. Alexander Buchan, ]\Ir. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. 
John Murray, Dr. J. Eae, Mr. H. W. Bates {Secretary), Captain 
W. J. Dawson, Dr. A. Selwyn, and Professor C. Carpmael, 
appointed for the p)urpose of reporting upon the Depth of Per- 
manently Frozen Soil in the Polar Regions, its Geographical 
Limxits and Relation to the present Poles of greatest cold. Draivn 
up by General Sii- J. H. Lefroy, R.A., K.G.M.G. {Reporter). 

The Committee have received a valuable commnnication from Dr. Percy 
Matthews, LL D., coroner for the North-west Territories of the Dominion 
of Canada, and resident medical officer at York Factory, on Hudson's Bay, 
of which an analysis is subjoined : — 

York Factory, lat. 57° N., long. 92° 26' W. (No. 9 of Report of 1886). 
Surface about 61 feet above sea-level. 



I. Positive Evidence of the Depth of Penetration of Frost. 

(1) 1879-1886. By the mean of seven measurements in the channel 
of Hayes rivei", at the mouth of which the factory is situated. Thickness 
of ice in January, February, and March, 6 feet 6 inches. Hayes river has 
been, on the average of the last thirty years, closed to navigation on 
November 26, and reopened on May 17. 





No. 


Alluvial 

Soil. 


Super- 
ficial 
Thaw. 
Inches 


Frozen 
Soil. 








Inches 


Inches 




(3) April 14, 1885 


514 


22 


None 


33 


Boring continued to 17 
feet. Very dry soil. 


(4) May 4, 188C 


17 


21 


2 


48 


Boring continued to 17 
feet. Wet soil. 20 
inches of snow on 
surface. 


(5) May 28 „ 


519 


21 


91 


40 


Wet soil. 


(^6) June 4 „ 


521 


23 


1 


30 


Boring continued to 18 
feet. Dry soil. 


(7) June 23 „ 


526 


21 


14 


31 


Boring continued to 18 
feet. 


(8) June 25 „ 


527 




65 


68 


A stratum of 3 inches 
of frozen water was 
found at 65 inches, 
resting on clay.' 


(9) June 26 „ 


528 


— 


14 


96 


Boring continued to 21 
feet.2 


(10) July 23, 1881 


14 


20 


28 


38 


Boring continued to 10 
feet. Dry soil. 



' The MS. gives ' frost penetration 3 inches,' with the explanation, ' a lodgment 
of 3 inches of frozen water over clay bed at 65 inches.' Evidently, therefore, the frost 
had got down 68 inches. The boring was continued to 18^ feet. 

- Dr. Matthews adds the following note to this observation : — Taken in a cleai'ing, 
the bareet^and most bleak in the neighbourhood of York. It is nearly at all times 



DEPTH OF PEEMANENTLT FROZEN SOIL IN THE POLAR REGIONS. 153 

(2) 1882-83. By the mean of 485 measurements made in the course 
of a survey of the bed of Nelson river (about seven miles north of York 
Factory), under direction of Mr. H. Jukes, C.E., for the Winnipeg and 
Hudson's Bay R.R. Company. Thickness of ice, or penetration of frost, 
in December, Jannary, and February, 5 feet 10 inches. 

On July 1, 1886, the soil of No. 528 was only thawed 20 inches, and in 
another spot within the clearing, 37^ inches. On September 6 following, 
at 140 yards north of this spot, the soil was frozen to a depth of 102 inches, 
with 51 inches of thawed ground at the surface. And at 140 yards south 
of the same spot to a depth of 94 inches, with 42 inches of thawed ground 
(Nos. 602, 603). Other measurements of the thawed ground, September 4 
and 10, gave respectively 50 and 52 inches. 

II. Examples of Excavation or Boring without finding Frozen Soil, 
and of Superficial Thaio. 

1870, August, September. In excavating a dry dock at York no frost 
down to 36 feet. 

1879, August 25. Nos. 8-10. 300 yards W. ; 300 yards N.W. ; 300 yards 

S. of York. In a swamp, no frost found down to 33 feet. 

1880, August 10. Nos. 11-13. 100 yards S. ; 300 yards S. ; and 100 

yards S.W. as before. No frost found down to 33 feet. 

1882, August 30 (see below, Severn river). 

„ September 10. Nos. 16-22. Six graves opened in an old Indian 
burial-ground. Depth of alluvial soil 48 inches. No frost down 
to 10 feet. The burial-place in question has been disused for 
fifty years, and the results in surrounding ground which has 
never been disturbed are the same. 

1884, July 30. Nos. 519-513. Four graves opened ; depth of alluvial 
soil 40 inches. Thin sandy clay ; no frost down to 16 feet. 

1886, May 28. No. 518. In a garden at York, thaw 7^ to 9 inches. 

Landslips, Hayes River. 

1884, July 15. No. 509. The thawed soil was 36 inches in depth. 

1885, June 18. No. 515. The thawed soil was 29 inches in blue clay, 

37 inches iu white clay. 

1886, June 14. No. 523. The thawed soil was 28 inches. 

1883, Sept. 10. No. 508. On a much exposed portion of the bank of 

Hayes river, dry soil, there was no frost down to 16 feet. 

The following are also given as observed depth of thaw in or near York 
Factory, that of the frost below not having been measured. 

freed from its winter's snow by the action of fierce winter gales sweeping over Hud- 
son's Bay. So that its soil is fully exposed to the greatest degree of frost-penetration 
possible, not only from above downwards, but from its position, laterally ; therefore, 
having selected this, the most exposed site obtainable, 1 had a trench dug 10 feet in 
length down to the non-fvozen subsoil. This experiment, together with subsequent 
ones, is in my opinion conclusive, inasmuch as I consider it indicates the greatest 
depth of frost-penetration in and around York of late years, and may certainly be 
ranked as perpetual ice, but upon a scale so small as to be wholly comprised, as far as 
my experience goes, within ten acres. To give an idea of quarrying in frozen ground 
in June, I may mention that I had an Indian working hard for three days to obtain 
the above information. 



154 REPORT — 1887. 

1886, May 28. No. 518. Garden at York, in dry soil, 7| inches ; in wet 

soil, 9 inches. 
,, May 31. No. 520. In a swamp 1,000 yards south of the factory, 

10 to 12 inches. 
Jane 14. No. 525. Garden at York, average 18 inches. 
July 1. No. 529. In the swamp, 36 incbes. 

,, 3. No. 531. After two days' rain, 37 inches. 
Aug. 2. Nos. 53.3-545. In the swamp, 48 inches, 12 borings. 

,, 2. Open ground, 40 inches, 9 borings. 

„ 15. Nos. 555-570. In the swamp, 49 inches, 15 borings. 

„ 20. Nos. 571-583. „ 56 „ 12 

„ 25. Nos. 584-596. „ 11 feet 12 

Sept. 1. Nos. 597-600. „ 15 „ 3 „ after 

heavy rain. 

„ 8. Nos. 604-607. „ 30 „ 3 borings. 

The general summary of the author from eight years' observation 
is — 

The greatest depth at which the soil was found frozen was 102 inches* 
,, „ „ of thaw having frozen soil below it was 52 inches. 

,, ,, ,, reached without finding frost, 33 feet. 

The mean temperature by nine years' observations is 17 "4° F. 
Mean rainfall 2298 inches. 
„ snowfall 47-91 „ 
1882-83. At the river Severn, lat. 56°, or 1° south of York Factory, in 
making a cutting for a jetty, in December and January, no frost 
was found at 15 feet down. It is not stated how far it was frozen 
(as it must have been nearer the surface). 

To his tabular statement the author has added the following ' Notes 
on the table of experiments for ascertaining the depth of frost and thaw 
penetration, York Factory, Hudson's Bay ' : — 

' In briefly examining the accompanying list of experiments, it will at 
once be realised that so many variable conditions have to be taken into 
consideration in connection with frost-penetration that it is impossible to 
form any estimate other than that based upon a series of experiments 
carried over a number of years. For, in the first place, the extent of the 
winter's frost must be dependent upon locality (including soU, exposure, 
drainage), season, and certainly, from my experience, upon the snowfall, 
be it early or late, much or little ; even as the depth of the summer's thaw, 
though subject in a negative sense to like conditions, is to a great extent 
dependent upon the rainfall. For instance, reverting to six experiments 
(Nos. 14, 514, 517, 519, 521, 526) carried out in the York churchyard (a 
site which is protected by su,rrounding willows, palisading, &c., and so 
thoroughly in the lee that, when the country lying beyond is bare, it main- 
tains its covering of certainly 20 inches of snow throughout the winter), 
the soil is there found to be frozen to an average depth of three feet only, 
whereas, within 350 yards. Experiments Nos. 528, 602, and 603 tell us that 
under exactly opposite conditions a depth of upwards of eight feet of 
frost is attained. Again, on the same principle, if the snowfall is late, the 
soil will naturally be found to be frozen far deeper than when it early 
covers the ground, even as the rainfall, if great during the summer, inde- 



DEPTH OF PERMANENTLY FROZEN SOIL IN THE POLAR REGIONS. 155 

pendently of season, exercises a considerable influence in determining 
both the rapidity and penetration of the thaw. 

'In venturing to offer some explanation of Sir John Richardson's 
statement "that the soil was found frozen to a depth of nearly 20 feet at 
York Factory," apart from the consideration of it being a severe season, 
which it undoubtedly was (for on referring to old records I find that the 
winter of 1834-35 was exceptionally severe), I would in all deference sub- 
mit, from observations of my own upon this point, that the measurement 
alluded to gave but a section of the lateral freezing of a landslip ; for in 
sounding the " face " of a perpendicular bank, say 40 feet in height, for 
frost-penetration, the frost will be found at its depth in relative proportion 
to the height of the bank, making all due allowance for the varying of its 
penetrative action in differing strata ; but if the bank be not perpendi- 
cular, but sloping, the frost follows the decHvity, and a portion of the 
thawed surface (probably due to heavy rains) slides over the frozen sub- 
soil, and, impinging on the denser structure, abruptly breaks off at the 
point where the frost-action is checked, and gliding on thus exposes a 



Rough Diagram of Landslip in Hayes River : apparent frost-penetration of over 14 feet 
proved to be only 4 feet. 

thawed surface, leaving a deceptive frost-line far below the true one, which 
upon a cursory examination leads to the supposition that the ice-pene- 
tration is greater than it really is. Though this is conjecture as regarding 
the statement in question, I have the rather endeavoured to illustrate not 
only what I have witnessed myself, but that which may be an explanation 
of the depth of frost alluded to in this particular instance.' 

' But in further reference to Sir John Richardson's statement " that 
the soil was found frozen to a depth of nearly 20 feet at York Factory," 
I must not omit the fact that Mr. George Gladman, a chief factor of the 
Hudson's Bay Company's service, in his evidence before the Select Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons in 1857, says, "Pits were dug there 
(York) with a view of ascertaining the depth of ground thawed during 
summer ; repeated diggings showed about three feet of thawed ground, 
whilst the perpetually frozen ground was found to be fifteen feet deep." 
In this connection, although fully admitting its corroborative force, I 
cannot but point out a discrepancy of nearly five feet (4 feet 10 inches) 

' It is to be observed of the above diagram that if the line of fracture, instead of 
being only some four or five feet back from the edge of the bank, had been twice or 
thrice that distance, the whole frozen part would have disappeared and the section 
have disclosed the real depth of the frost, provided the slip occurred, as they usually 
do, at a period of the year too advanced for the new face to freeze to any depth. 



156 EEPOKT— 1887. 

existing between Sii' John Richardson's experiment and those carried out 
by Mr. Gladman, the same year, plainly indicating that the site of Sir 
John Richardson's experiments must have been exceptional, as I have 
before inferred. In passing on to Mr. Gladman's experiments, it must be 
noted that the climate of York has undergone a considerable change, 
even within the last fifty years ; indeed, quoting from Mr. Gladman's 
later evidence, he says that "turnips and garden-stuff failed at York on 
account of the nearness of the sea, the severity of the seasons, and 
summer frosts." Whereas now, speaking from a personal expeinence of 
upwards of eight years, I may say that no difficulty whatever exists 
in providing the establishment with very passable potatoes, excellent 
turnips, and sevei'al kinds of " garden-stuff," and that many kinds of 
flowering plants thrive in the open air. The country surrounding York 
fifty years ago was thickly wooded, and more swampy than it now is ; 
evidence of its being so is present to-day in the innumerable grassy 
hillocks dotted around the settlement, formed by the decayed stumps of 
trees forced up out of the ground by the compressive action of frost. 
Therefore, under these altered conditions, not only would the frost- 
penetration be deeper, the thaw be less, but "perpetual ice" would 
extend at a greater depth over a much larger area than it now does. 
Something may also be attributed to a disposition which prevailed among 
the older generation of fur-traders to minimise the suitability of the 
North West for agricultural settlement. 

' I am not in a position to offer any very satisfactory explanation as to 
the frost-penetration being so relatively small at York, considering the 
mean temperature of the year, be^^ond stating that the surrounding 
country contains numerous springs, which may be readily tapped at any 
time during the winter ; that the subsoil is clay, though this perhaps 
hardly bears upon the question when closely examined. Doubtless the 
inconsiderable height above the sea-level, and " the immediate vicinity of 
a large body of unfrozen water," are important factors, and do exercise a 
great influence upon the surrounding country, although I must not omit 
the more immediate bordering of some miles of frozen water for upwards 
of five months in the year. As to whether the peaty formation of much 
of its soil has any appreciable influence in absorbing and accumulating 
the intense tropical heat of summer is a question beyond my humble ken ; 
but that the frozen subsoil acts as a " provision " in the earlier part of 
summer in counteracting the effects of such heat as regarding vegeta- 
tion is a fact that can be, in my opinion, incontestably proved in some 
pai'ts of the country immediately surrounding Yoik.' 

In a second communication, dated July 27, 1887, Dr. Matthews, in 
answer to questions, reiterates his belief that no permanently frozen 
ground now exists at York Factory, with the slight qualifications stated 
on p. 152 : — 

' The climate has unquestionably changed, and the surface vegetation 
equally. The presence of grass, superseding moss, of itself would mate- 
rially influence frost-penetration, but with the drying up of the country, 
owing to many causes (uprising of the land, &c.), the frost-penetration 
would be less. The surface vegetation is, in my opinion, a more 
important factor than water.' 

He quotes Indian testimony as well as comparison of records to prove 
that the rivers open about a week earlier and close about a week later 
than they did 50 years ago. 



DEPTH OF PERMANENTLY FROZEN SOIL IN THE POLAR REGIONS. 157 

The Committee are indebted to Dr. J. Rae for the following commu- 
nication: — The station in question is only a little north and east of No. 20 
in the first report. 

Ice in Ground. — By Frederick C. Baker, Binscarth, Manitoba. — 
Twenty-three observations taken in the prairie lands of Manitoba. 
Approximate position— lat. 50° 40' N., long. 101° 20' W.; east of 
Assiniboine river. 

Q. How deep does frost penetrate the ground, and how is depth 
affected by greater or less quantity of snow on ground ? 

A. On May 20 last year (1886) frost was found whilst digging a cellar 
5 feet below surface. High ground near a prairie. In June 1883, whilst 
digging a cellar of the Binscarth Company's store, frost was met with at 
a depth of 9 feet. 

On April 20 last year (1886) we drove fence-posts 2 feet into ground 
without touching frost. 

Cannot say exactly how far depth of snow affects penetration of frost, 
but our creek got frozen to the bottom this winter (1886-87) for want of 
a good supply of snow on first ice ; therefore suppose that want of .snow 
on ground would facilitate the deeper penetration of frost. 

Dr. Rae adds here : — ' From my own knowledge, the bottom of pools 
which have been in winter frozen to the bottom, remain solid ice fur a 
long time after much of the ice is thawed out of the land not covered by 
water.' 

Q. Have you heard of or seen any frost in ground in autumn ?^ If so, 
how far down in the earth has it been ? 

A. Never heard of any of the old stock of ice remaining so long. 

Q. At what time of the year does the ground become quite free from 
frost ? 

A. If you mean for farming operations, ploughing can generally be 
got at between April 10 and 15.' 

Q. How far have you usually, in your district, to dig for water ? 

A. Everything depends upon the locality. When shale is known to be 
underground, water is sure to be got when it is reached, and good water 
too ; seams of shale vary as to their depth. Wells range from 9 to 200 
feet in depth. A well of the latter depth (200 feet) has just been dug at 
Birtle (March 1887), on the Manitoba and N.W. Railway, through all 
clay ; but it is on the high banks of the Birdtail river or creek, where a 
person would expect to have to go deep. At Binscarth station the well 
is 84 feet deep through clay ; this is also near the banks of a creek My 
well is now 61 feet, also on the bank, with the creek 64 feet below. We 
struck a very slight spring at this depth, which gives us only about six 
inches of water, through a hard clay. We intend going down until a 
good spring is reached, which we expect to find below the level of the 
creek, at least. So much for the deep wells. 

I know lots of wells about here from 9 to 40 feet. I think one may 
say the average is 30 feet. 

There is never much difficulty in getting water at a reasonable depth 
on the ordinary level prairie about here. During the summer of 1883 we 
used water from a well not over six feet deep, but that was not a dry 
year. 

Q. Do you know any explanation of the working of the willow in 
finding springs ? 

' That is not what was meant.— [J. Eae.] 



158 REPORT — 1887. 

A. Botli the openings of the well of Birtle and Binscarth were found 
by this method, and a number of others.' 

This evidence that Rhabdomancy has sincere believers in the Cauadian 
prairies is not without curiosity. 

No expense has been incurred. The Committee recommend that they 
be reappointed. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Eev. Canon Carver, the 
Eev. H. B. George, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Bonnet, Mr. 
A. Gr. Vernon Harcourt, Professor T. McKenny Hughes, the Eev. 
H. W. Watson, the Eev. E. F. M. McCarthy, the Eev. A. E. 
Vardy, Professor Alfred Newton, the Eev. Canon Tristram, Pro- 
fessor MosELEY, and ]\Ir. E. Gr. Eavenstein {Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of co-operating with the Royal Geographical 
Society in endeavouring to bring before the authorities of the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge the advisability of pro- 
moting the study of Geography by establishing special Chairs for 
the purpose. 

The Committee beg leave to report that, at a meeting held on January 
12, 1887, at the ofl&ce of the Association, the following resolutions were 
adopted: — 

1. That the Committee fully recognise the educational value of the 
scientific study of geography, and are agreed in thinking that geography 
should occupy a place among the subjects of study at the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

2. That the Council of the British Association be requested to give 
their support to the representations and offers made to the Vice-Chan- 
cellors of the two Universities by the Council of the Society in letters 
dated July 9 and December 9, 1886, of .which copies are enclosed. 

London : July 9, 1886. 

Mt dear Vice-Chancellor, — The Council of the Royal Geographical 
Society have on two previous occasions (in 1871 and 1874) addressed 
memorials, of which copies are enclosed, to your predecessors, urging 
the claims of geography to further recognition by the Universities. 

They have recently undertaken an inquiiy into the position of geo- 
graphy in English and Continental education. The result has been 
unfavourable to England ; and there has been a general concurrence of 
testimony, according with their own strong conviction, that the most 
effectual step towards the removal of our inferiority would be the estab- 
lishment in our Universities of Chairs or Readerships similar to those 
held in Germany — viz., by Karl Ritter at Berlin, and Professors Peschel 
and Richthofen at Leipzig. 

So much of human knowledge and human interests is bound up with 
the relations and interaction of the physical conditions of the earth, the 
study of which is practically embraced in geography, that there are few 

' This is scarcely an answer to the question. As both these wells were deep (84 
and 200 feet) ponsibly water might have been found at these depths without the 
' willow method ' being used to discover the spring. — [J. Kae.] 



ON THE PROMOTION OF THE STUDY OF GEOGRAPHY. 159 

branches of education which do not present a geographical aspect, and 
which do not therefore offer a field for instruction in geography in com- 
bination with some other subject. 

It is unnecessary to insist upon the close connection of history and 
geography, or upon the importance of a knowledge of the physical con- 
ditions of the various regions of the world, to those who engage in the 
conduct of our political affairs. 

Without the comprehensive study of the earth, for which Englishmen, 
as a people, have the largest opportunities and the least preparation, 
physical students would fail to grasp the true character and relations of 
che various sciences of observation, such as anthropology, geology, botany, 
meteorology, &c. 

As geography already holds a statutable place in the studies of the 
University, it seems to us that the courses of a Reader or Professor in 
Geography might easily, by consultation with the examiners, be so 
arranged as to fit in with the requirements of scholars in the Honour 
Schools, their establishment serving rather to complete the present 
University system of instruction than to introduce a new element 
into it. 

The Council of the Royal Geographical Society are so fully convinced 
of the national importance of placing geographical science on a sound 
footing, and of the necessity of some action at the Universities in order 
to obtain this result, that they have approved the proposals submitted 
by their Education Committee, enclosed herewith, which they beg you to 
take into your favourable consideration, and to submit at the earliest 
opportunity to the proper authorities. 

The length of time for which the Society should undertake to make 
a contribution out of its funds towards a Geographical Chair or Reader- 
ship will be further considered whenever your University may be pre- 
pared to accept our proposition in principle, and to discuss in detail the 
plans proposed. 

Believe me, my dear Vice- Chancellor, 
Sincerely yours, 

Aberdaee, President. 
To the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 



December 9, 1886. 

Sir, — The Council of the Eoyal Geographical Society have on two 
previous occasions (in 1871 and 1874) addressed memorials, of which 
copies are enclosed, to your predecessors, urging the claims of geography 
to further recognition by the Universities, 

They have recently undertaken an inquiry into the position of geo- 
graphy in English and Continental education. The result has been un- 
favourable to England ; and there has been a general concurrence of 
testimony, according with their own strong conviction, that the most 
effectual step towards the removal of our inferiority would be the estab- 
lishment in our Universities of Chairs or Readerships similar to those 
held in Germany — viz., by Karl Ritter at Berlin, and Professors Peschel 
and Richthofen at Leipzig. 

So much of human knowledge and human interests is bound up with 
the relations and interaction of the physical conditions of the earth, the 
study of which is practically embraced in geography, that there are few 
branches of education which do not present a geographical aspect, and 



160 REPORT — 1887. 

which do not therefore offer a field for instruction in geography in com- 
bination with some other subject. 

It is unnecessary to insist upon the close connection of history and 
geography, or upon the importance of a knowledge of the physical con- 
ditions of the various regions of the world, to those who engage in the 
conduct of our political affairs. 

Without the comprehensive study of the earth, for which English- 
men, as a people, have the largest opportunities and the least preparation, 
physical students would fail to grasp the true character and relations of 
the various sciences of observation, such as anthropology, geology, botany, 
meteoi'ology, &c. 

It seems to us that the courses of a Reader or Professor in Geography 
might easily, by consultation with the examiners, be so arranged as to fit 
in with the requii'etnents of scholars in the Honour Schools, their esta- 
blishment serving rather to complete the present University system of 
instruction than to introduce a new element into it. 

The Council of the Royal Geographical Society are so fully convinced 
of the national importance of placing geographical science on a sound 
footing, and of the necessity of some action at the Univei-sities in order to 
obtain this result, that they have approved the proposals submitted by 
their Education Committee, enclosed herewith, which they beg you to 
take into your favourable consideration, and to submit at the earliest 
opportunity to the proper authorities. 

The length of time for which the Society should undertake to make a 
contribution out of its funds towards a Geographical Chair or Reader- 
ship will be further considered whenever your University may be pre- 
pared to accept our proposition in principle, and to discuss in detail the 
plans proposed. A similar proposal has already been laid before the 
Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, and is now under the consideration of the 
Hebdomadal Council. 

I am, &c., 
(Signed) Richard Strachey, Vice-President. 

To the Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge. 



Final Report of the GoTrimittee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, 
General Sir H. Lefroy, Sir William Thomson, Mr. Alex. 
BucHAN, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. H. W. Bates, and Mr. E. G. 
Ravenstein (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of taking 
into consideration the combination of the Ordnance and 
Admiralt'}/ Surveys, and the production of a Bathy-hypso- 
graphical Map of the British Islands. 

1. YouB Committee desire to draw attention to the absolute necessity 
of making the contours of the land and of the adjoining ocean-bed to cor- 
respond with each other. The method of drawing contours on the land 
at one set of intervals and on the sea at another set is objectionable and 
unscientific, more especially if the land and sea contours are referred to 
different datum planes. 

2. With reference to maps of particular locaUties on a larger scale, 



ON A BATHY-HTPSOftRAPHICAL MAP OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 161 

your Committee are of opinion that the existing Ordnance maps should be 
utilised. A combination of the Ordnance map with the Admiralty charts 
presents no difficulties, and in doubtful or difficult cases a co-operation of 
our two Survey Departments would speedily lead to satisfactory results. 
Your Committee are happy to be able to report that Sir Charles Wilson, 
the present Director of the Ordnance Survey, is arranging to insert 
contours showing the configuration of sea bottom upon the contoured 
edition of the one-inch Ordnance map, and is prepared to extend this 
system to tbe whole of the Survey as soon as the means necessary for that 
purpose shall have been granted by Government. This extension will 
necessitate a certain amount of bathymetrical survey for delineating the 
beds of lakes and river channels which has not yet formed part of the 
operations of the Ordnance Survey. 

3. With reference to general maps on small scales, the Secretary of 
your Committee has prepared contoured maps of the Loch Linnhe region 
(including Ben Nevis), and of the country on the Lower Medway, these 
two districts presenting the extreme features which have to be taken into 
consideration when preparing a bathy-hypsographical map of the whole 
of the British Islands. These maps have been tinted experimentally. 

4. Your Committee are of opinion that no adequate representation of 
the vertical configuration of the lowlands, the lower hill ranges, and of 
the ocean-bed can be obtained on the proposed scale of 1 : 200,000 unless 
the contours, up to a height and down to a depth of 1,000 or 1,200 feet, 
are drawn at intervals not exceeding 100 feet. In some localities it may 
even become necessary to introduce supplementary contours. These 
contours, whether they refer to the land or to the ocean-bed, would have 
to be referred to a fixed datum level, such as that of the Ordnance Survey 
of Great Britain. 

In the more mountainous parts of the country, contours at intervals of 
500 feet (as on the one-inch Ordnance map) appear to yield fairly satis- 
factory results. 

5. The larger lakes would have to be contoured as if they had been 
drained, a faint horizontal shading indicating their character as lakes. 

6. In some foreign maps (including the new one of the United States, 
on a scale of 1 : 250,000) the contours are printed in brown, and by this 
means a fair idea of the configuration of the land may be obtained, 
especially if the intervals between the contours are small. 

7. Your Committee are, however, of opinion that the intelligibility of 
he proposed map would be very much increased by the employment of 

tints. In selecting these tints it must be borne in mind that the map is 
to embrace the whole of the British Islands with the surrounding seas, 
and that a system of colouring suited to the highlands might utterly fail 
when applied to the more gentle undulations of the greater part of the 
country. It may at once be admitted that none of the systems of tinting 
employed or suggested hitherto has proved thoroughly satisfactory. 

8. The 'natural' method of tinting a map of this description, and 
that which most readily suggests itself, is to apply one colour to the sea 
and another to the land, and either to increase the depth of the tints 
with the height (or depth), or to apply the deepest tints to the least 
elevated parts of the country. A reference to Maps 1 and 2 proves that 
very fair results are attainable by this method. In the one case the low- 
lands and valleys are emphasised ; in the other the mountain-tops become 
the most prominent points on the map. When tinting a map in this way 

1887. M 



162 REPORT— 1887. 

care must, of course, be taken that even the deepest tints do not obscure 
the underlying outline and lettering. 

In practice it will be found that this system of tinting, whilst tho- 
roughly applicable either to a country of hills or to a mountain region, is 
not well suited to a map embracing both low hill ranges and lofty moun- 
tain chains. On a map of the British Islands tinted on this system the 
lower hill ranges would merge almost completely into the surrounding 
plains, so as to be hardly recognisable. 

9. Hence a ' regional ' system of tinting has generally been applied 
to maps of countries presenting great variety of surface configuration. 
If we apply distinct colours, presenting striking contrasts, to each stratum 
of elevation, as in Map 5, the various strata or regions can be readily 
traced, but the map assumes a highly artificial appearance, and hence we 
are unable to recommend this arbitrary system of colouring. 

10. It appears to us that all practical and scientific requirements can 
be met by limiting the number of regions to be distinguished by colours. 

On Maps 3 and 6 only two regions are distinguished, viz., lowlands 
up to 500 feet, and the more elevated parts of the country. The former 
are shown in five shades of green, the latter in brown, growing paler 
with the elevation. 

On Map 7 three regions are distinguished, viz., lowlands up to 500 
feet, shown in green ; hills and uplands, between 500 and 1,000 feet, 
shown in orange or red ; and the mountainous regions, which are coloured 
brown, the depth of colour increasing with the height. 

A yellow tint is introduced on Map 8 for lowlands up to 100 feet ; the 
effect, however, is far from pleasing. 

We believe that a map tinted on the principle adopted in Maps 4 and 
7 would best meet all reasonable requirements. 

11. Should it be desired, for special reasons, to distinguish a larger 
number of regions, the tints of Map 9 recommend themselves for adop- 
tion. In this instance the colours of the prism have been employed in 
regular succession, viz., brown, red, orange, yellow, and green for the 
land, and blue, indigo, and eventually violet and lavender-grey for the 
sea. This succession of colours, whilst presenting fair contrasts easily 
caught by the eye, afibi'ds at the same time a natural gradation from 
the darker to the lighter tints, supposing, of course, that the shades of 
the various colours employed are judiciously selected. 

It should be stated that the specimen maps which accompany this 
report have been coloured by hand, and that maps tinted by the litho- 
graphic process would present better facilities for identifying each tint by 
a reference to the scale of colours attached to the map. 

12. One other method of colouring hypsographical maps remains to 
be attended to, viz., the employment of a double scale of tints — one for 
valleys and level ground generally, the other for uneven ground. This 
system has been applied with much effect to maps of the Alps, but its 
application to the whole of the British Islands would undoubtedly lead to 
confusion and indistinctness. In our opinion the contrast between even 
and uneven ground could be more clearly exhibited by shading the hills 
on the system in ordinary use. 

13. The map should not be crowded with names. Altitudes and 
depths — the former in upright, the latter in sloping characters — should 
be freely and judiciously inserted. 

14. Your Committee think it desirable that the bathy-hypsographical 



ON A BATHT-HTPSOGRAPHICAL MAP OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 163 

map should be accompanied by a general map, showing boundaries and 
political features, and engraved on the same scale. 

15. Your Committee are of opinion that the production of a bathy- 
hypsographical map of the British Isles, such as they recommend, together 
with that of an accompanying political map, both on the scale of 1 : 200,000 
(about three miles to the inch), should be left to private enterprise, the 
production of maps on a larger scale being entrusted to the Ordnance 
Survey Department. 

[A set of the nine maps designed by Mr. E. G. Ravenstein in illustra- 
tion of this report can be seen in the libraiy of the Royal Geographical 
Society.] 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone 
(Secretary), Professor Aemstrong, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss 
Lydia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Crosskey, 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart., Sir Henry E. Eoscoe, Mr. James 
Heywood, and Professor N. Story Maskelyne, appointed for 
the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating to the teaching 
of Science in Elementary Schools. 

Your Committee, in continuing their periodic reports upon this subject, 
have to state that nothing has been done this year in the shape of actual 
legislation, but that great advance has been made in regard to the public 
appreciation of the importance of scientific and technical instruction. 

The only alteration in the code of this year that at all bears upon the 
matter is that drawing is withdrawn from the list of class subjects, which 
gives an advantage to the claims of geography and elementary science 
by removing a powerful competitor in those schools that can only take 
two class subjects. 

The return of the Educati9n Department for this year shows that the 
diminution previously noted in the teaching of science subjects still 
continues. 

The statistics of the class subjects for four years are given in the 
subjoined table, which shows an actual decrease in geography and 
elementary science, notwithstanding the increase in the number of 
departments examined. It will be seen that drawing begins to figure in 
this year's return, but the effect of it will be much more apparent in that 
for next year. 



Class Subjects 1882-3 


1883-4 


1884-5 


1885-6 


English . . . (Departments) 


18,363 


19,080 


19,431 


19,608 


Geography . . „ 
Elementary Science „ 
History ... „ 
Drawing . . „ 
Needlework . . „ 


12,823 

48 

367 

5,286 


12,775 

51 

382 

5,929 


12,336 

45 
386 

6,499 


12,055 

43 

375 

240 
6,809 


18,524 


19,137 


19,266 


19,522 



M 2 



164 



EEPOET — 1887. 



The return of passes in the scientific specific subjects on the individual 
examination of children shows again an actual falling off in the total, and 
either an actual or relative falling off in every subject except Mechanics, 
A. The large increase in the teaching of mechanics is due to the carry- 
ing out of the peripatetic method of teaching it by the School Boards of 
Liverpool, Birmingham, Nottingham, and London. The figures are given 
in the following table : — 



Specific Subjects 


1882-3 


1 1883-4 


1884-5 


1885-6 


Algebra . . • (Children) 


26,547 


24,787 


25,347 


25,393 


Euclid and Mensuration , 




1,942 


2,010 


1,269 


1,247 


Mechanics, A . . , 




2,042 


1 3,174 


3,527 


4,844 


B . . 




— 


i 206 


239 


128 


Animal Physiology . , 




22,759 


i 22,857 


20,869 


18,523 


Botany .... , 




3,280 


! 2,604 


2,415 


1,992 


Principles of Agriculture , 




1,357 


' 1,859 


1,481 


1,351 


Chemistry ... , 




1,183 


1,047 


1,095 


1,158 


Sound, Light, and Heat , 




630 


1,253 


1,231 


1,334 


Magnetism and Electricity , 




3,643 


3,244 


2,864 


2,951 


Domestic Economy . , 




19,582 


21,458 


19,437 


19,556 




82,965 


84,499 


79,774 


78,477 


Number of Scholars in Standards V., 


286,355 


j 325,205 


352,860 


393,289 


VI., VII. 




1 







The rapid and serious decrease of attention paid to these science 
subjects is shown by the percentage of children who have passed as 
compared with the number of scholars that might have taken these 
subjects, viz. : 

In 1882-3 29-0 per cent. 

„ 1883-4 260 

„ 1884-5 22-6 

„ 1885-6 19-9 „ 

and it must be remembered that when children have passed in two of 
these subjects they count twice over. 

Of course a good deal of scientific instruction is given in many element- 
ary schools under the name of object lessons, not only in the infants', but 
also in the boys' and girls' departments ; but this is neither examined by 
Her Majesty's inspector nor encouraged by a grant except in the few 
cases where it comes in as a class subject under the name of elementary 
science. These object lessons are therefore very apt to be neglected. 
The same remark applies in the case of pupil teachers. It may be worthy 
of record that in the pupil teachers' schools of the London Board natural 
history and the principles of physics are taught systematically in the 
junior division, and this year an examination has been held by the Board 
inspectors, and certificates of proficiency are to be awarded. 

The Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the working of the 
Education Acts of England and Wales issued their first report in August 
last, from which it appears that two of the points of inquiry bore directly 
upon the scope of this Committee. The one was ' Elementary Science : 
to what extent can it be taught in elementary schools ? ' The other, 
' Technical Instruction : as grants are made in girls' schools for needle- 



1 

i 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, 165 

work, why not for mechanical drawing and handicraft in boys' schools ? * 
Another instalment of the evidence was issued in June last. 

With reference to the first-named subject of inquiry, Her Majesty's 
inspectors and others who were examined appear not only of opinion that 
elementary science is of importance, but some maintain, with Matthew 
Arnold, that ' Naturkunde should be a necessary part of the programme.' 
Most of them agree with the view expressed by this Committee, that the 
absolute preference given to English as a class subject should be 
abolished, and the choice thrown perfectly open. 

With reference to the second subject of inquiry, the evidence of 
Sir Philip Magnus, Dr. Crosskey, Mr. Hance (Clerk to the Liverpool 
School Board), and others is distinctly in favour of it, showing that it is 
both desirable and practicable. 

It appeared to your Committee that the British Association should 
contribute its views on these subjects to the Royal Commission, and they 
accordingly passed a resolution to that effect. This met with the approval 
of the Council. Two of the members of the Committee have since given 
evidence. The Rev. Dr. Crosskey enforced strongly the importance of 
elementary science and technical instruction, and more recently Sir 
Henry Roscoe, as the mouthpiece of the Committee, presented a series of 
the reports of this Committee and a memorial emphasising the two points 
of special importance, viz., as to the absolute preference given to English, 
and as to the want of provision for ensuring the instruction of pupil 
teachers in any kind of elementary science. The memorial also repeated 
their approval of tbe recommendation of the Royal Commission on Tech- 
nical Instruction, ' That proficiency in the use of tools for working in wood 
and iron be paid for as a specific subject, arrangements being made for 
the work being done, so far as practicable, out of school hours. That 
special grants be made to schools in aid of collections of natural objects, 
casts, drawings, &c., suitable for school museums.' 

An important meeting of gentlemen interested in popular edu- 
cation was held at the house of Mr. George Dixon at Birmingham 
last November, at which some of your Committee were present. This 
has led to several courses of action. The resolutions come to at this 
meeting were adopted in the following form by the School Board for 
Birmingham : — 

I. That it is desirable that an enabling Bill should be introduced 
into Parliament to give School Boards power to provide and maintain 
schools in connection with the Science and Art Department, in which a 
course of instruction extending over a period not exceeding three years 
may be given in accordance with its regulations, such schools to be open 
only to scholars who have passed the sixth standard in public elementary 
schools. 

TI. That in Article 113 of the Code of Regulations of the Education 
Department, affecting evening schools. Paragraphs IV., V., and VII. of 
sub-section (b) should be omitted. These paragraphs read thus : — ' IV. No 
scholar may be presented for examination in the additional subjects alone. 
V. No scholar may be presented for examination in more than two of the 
additional subjects. VII. Scholars presented for examination in the 
third or fourth standard, if they take one additional subject, must take 
English ; if they take two, the second subject must be drawing, geography, 
or elementary science.' 

III. That the words in Article 13 of the Code of Regulations of the 



166 REPORT — 1887. 

Education Department, which exclude scholars who have passed the 
seventh standard from the number of grant-earning scholars, and also 
the words in the Instructions to Her Majesty's Inspectors which bear on 
this part of the said article of the code, should be expunged. 

These were afterwards brought before the Education Department 
on December 14 by a deputation of the Birmingham, Leicester, and 
Nottingham Boards, which was unofficially joined by members of the 
London Board. Two Bills have been brought into Parliament, and have 
passed their first reading. The one introduced by Sir Henry Roscoe 
relates to technical edncation (day schools), and embodies the substance 
of the above resolution. No. 1. The other is introduced by Professor 
Stuart, and relates exclusively to evening continuation schools, embody- 
ing the substance of Resolution No. 2. Sir Richard Temple, the Vice- 
Chairman of the London School Board, also propounded a scheme by 
which technical and commercial instruction might be given in Board 
Schools. Quite recently the Government have brought in a Bill dealing 
with the same subject, which has been read the first time.' 

In consequence of the Government having given notice of their inten- 
tion to introduce such a bill this session, Mr. George Howell withdrew 
the resolution of which he had previously given notice — 'That in the 
opinion of this House it is essential to the maintenance and development 
of our manufacturing and agricultural industries, in view of the rapidly 
increasing competition of other nations, both at home and abroad, and in 
consequence of the almost universal abandonment of the system of 
apprenticeship, that our national scheme of education should be so 
widened as to bring technical instruction, the teaching of the natural 
sciences, and manual training within the reach of the working classes 
throughout the country.' 

The Brighton School Board has opened an 'Organised Science School,' 
under the sanction of the Science and Art Department ; but the official 
auditor has decided that all expenses incurred in respect of it are illegal, 
and has surcharged the Board with the balance not covered by the 
receipts. Appeal will be made to the Local Government Board against 
the decision of the auditor. 

The experiment in manual instruction at Beethoven Street School was 
considered by the London School Board so successful that it was resolved 
to open five more classes of the same kind, but they were suspended in 
consequence of the official auditor having in the meantime surcharged 
the Board with the costs incurred for the workshop and tools. Appeal 
was made in November last agaiust the surcharge of the auditor, but no 
answer has yet been received from the Local Government Board. The 
instruction is now being continued at Beethoven Street School, as a 
specific subject, with the concurrence of the inspector. That this subject 
finds favour with the elementary teachers is manifest from the fact that 
eighty of them have availed themselves of the opportunity offered by the 
City and Guilds of London Institute of qualifying themselves to give 
instruction in the use of tools, aud many more applied who could not be 
accommodated. 

The British and Foreign School Society have started a joinery class 

' This Bill of Sir Wm. Hart Dyke was read a second time with little opposition, 
though with some suggestions of amendment; but it had to be abandoned on 
August 18, on account of press of business. It is intended, however, to proceed with 
the Scotch Bill. 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 167 

at their Training College in the Borough Eoad, which is attended by all 
the senior students, in which instruction is given both in the theory and 
practice of carpentry. 

The London School Board on May 19 adopted, by a very large 
majority, the motion of the Rev. C. D. Lawrence — ' That, in the opinion 
of this Board, it is necessary to introduce into elementary schools some 
regular system of manual training,' and the matter was referred to a 
special committee on the subjects and modes of instruction in the Board's 
schools, which is now sitting. 

The first examination by the Science and Art Department in the 
alternative first stage of chemistry has taken place, and may be considered 
to mark a great advance in the teaching of that subject. That the 
teachers were eager for such instruction is evident from the fact that as 
many applied for permission to attend Professor Armstrong's course of 
lectures established by the City and Guilds of London Institute as that 
institution could be made to accommodate. 

There has recently been formed a ' National Association for the Pro- 
motion of Technical Education,' which includes the leading politicians 
who have given special attention to the subject of education. The 
following are the objects proposed : — 

(a) The promotion in our primary schools of the better training of 
the hand and eye by improved instruction in drawing, in the elements of 
science, and the elementary use of tools. 

(b) The introduction of such changes in the present system of pri- 
mary instruction as may be necessary to enable children to take advan- 
tage of technical teaching. 

(c) The more extended provision of higher elementary schools, where 
technical education may be provided for those who are fit to take advan- 
tage of it. 

(d) The reform of the present system of evening schools, with special 
provisions for the encouragement of technical (including commercial and 
agricultural) instruction. 

(e) The development, organisation, and maintenance of a system of 
secondary education throughout the country, with a view to placing 
the higher technical education in our schools and colleges on a better 
footing. 

(/) The improvement of the training of teachers, so that they may 
take an effective part in the work which the Association desires to for- 
ward. 

The Association was inaugurated at a meeting at the Society of Arts 
on July 1, when the Marquis of Hartington, who occupied the chair, was 
appointed President of the Association. 

From this review of the present situation it would appear that the 
action of the Education Department tends positively to frustrate the 
efforts of those who desire to increase the teaching of natural science in 
elementary schools ; but your Committee do not believe that that is the 
intention of those in authority, and feel sure that the great advance in 
public opinion wUl ultimately lead to a knowledge of the elements of 
science being made an essential part of all State-aided education. 



168 REPORT — 1887. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Dr. 
John Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Dr. Egbert Munro, Mr. 
Pengelly, Dr. Henry Hicks, Dr. Muirhead, and James W. 
Davis, appointed for the pitrpose of ascertaining and recording 
the localities in the British Islands in which evidences of the 
existence of Prehistoric Inhabitants of the country are found. 
{Drawn up by James W. Davis.) 

The objects sought to be attained by yonr Committee consist in recording 
and mapping the prehistoric remains of Great Britain ; it is suggested 
that such remains may be best tabulated under the following groups : — 

1 . Caves and caverns. 

2. Camps and earthworks. 

3. Lake-dwellings and crannoges. 

4. Menhirs and dolmens. 

5. Barrows, tumuli, and other burial-places. 

In mapping the localities of such remains it is proposed that dis- 
tinctive signs shall be used to indicate the several groups. 

Localised groups of objects formed in connection with the above or 
scattered over larger areas, such as flint or bronze implements, pottery, 
and other similar objects, may be classified, as far as possible, according to 
the following periods : — 

1. Palaeolithic stone age. 

2. Neolithic stone age. 

3. Bronze age. 

4. Iron age. 

It will be neither necessary nor possible to tabulate and record all 
the instances in which flint implements have been found, but it is 
suggested that records should be made of the discovery of hoards of 
implements, of localities where manufactories have been foand, and in 
localities where the flints occur abundantly summarised lists of the 
objects should be given. 

The information may be tabulated under the following heads : — 

1. Object. 

2. Locality. 

3. Date when found. 

4. If previously described cite authority. 

5. Where the object is at present deposited. 

6. Remarks. 

The objects and information regarding them being necessarily of a 
very diversified character, it is difficult to suggest any form which shall 
meet every case, and the recorders will use a discretionary power in 
making their reports. 

It is considered that the objects of the Committee may be best served 
by securing the assistance of one or more competent persons who shall 
represent a certain area-district or county, and record the occurrence in 
that area of any prehistoric objects which have been or may be found. 
The following gentlemen have kindly undertaken to form lists for the 
areas appended to their names : — 



ON THE PREHISTORIC INHABITANTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



169 



Professor G. A. Lebonr, for Northumberland and Durham. 

Rev. J. Magens Mello, for Derbyshire. 

Capt. L. P. OHver, for Hampshire. 

W. Cole, Esq., Hon. Sec. Essex Field Club, for Essex. 

Dr. Henry Laver, for Essex. 

Thomas Boynton, Esq., Norman House, Bridlington, for East 
Riding, Yorkshire. 

John Holmes, Esq., Leeds, for S.W. Riding, Yorkshire. 

Dr. Robert Munro, for West Scotland. 

William Home, Leyburn, for Wensleydale. 

Rev. C. H. Drinkwater, Shrewsbury, for Salop. 

Dr. Henry Hicks, Hendon, London, for Wales. 

Charles P. Hobkirk, Dewsbury, for West Riding, Yorkshire. 
Lists have been received from Mr. Thomas Boynton of bronze imple- 
ments, mostly in his own collection, found in the East Riding of York- 
shire, and from Mr. John Holmes a record of prehistoric objects has been 
received ; both are appended. The remainder are being prepared, and 
there is much valuable material promised for a future report. 

Your Committee will be glad to receive assistance from those interested 
in its objects, and consider that it is desirable that recorders should be 
connected with it in every county or district in the kingdom. 



I. — List of Bronze Implements, hij Thos. Boynton, Bridlington Quay. 

N.B. — The numbers in the first column refer to the illustrations in Dr. Evans' 
' Bronze Implements of Great Britain.' 



Type 


Name of 
Object 


Locality 


Date 


Previous 
Descrip- 
tion 


Where 
Deposited 


Length 


Remarks 


16 


Celt . 


Staxton 


1886 


- 


Own Col- 
lection 


41 in. 


Has ten waves on the blade 
and cable pattern on 
flanges. 


12 




Driffield 








3iin. 


The flanges are very 
slightly raised, and it 
has not the fluted pat- 
tern as described in 
Evans. 


53 


„ 


Gransmoor . 


1862 





,, 


7Jin. 


Weight 21 oz. 


50 


" • • 


TJlrome 


1879 


— 


» 


5J in. 


Has very slight stop ridge 
and plain blade. 


55 


• • 


jj 










5iin. 




56 


" 


Kilham 


1882 


~ 


" 


5|in. 


There is a slight vertical 
ridge on the lower part 
of the blade. 


76 


Palstave 


Leven 


— 


— 


" 


5iin. 


Pocketed at the stop ridge 
4 in. deep. 


55 


Celt . 


Baiingtou . 


1881 


— 


" 


4| ill. 


The edge has been ham- 
mered out. 


120 


Socketed Celt 


Leven . 


— 


— 


,^ 


4 in. 


Kim imperfect. 


116 




Gainsboro' . 










41 in. 




164 


„ 


„ 


— 





' 


3iin. 




169 


„ 


Harpham . 


1876 


_ 




3 in. 




125 


„ 


Button- Hang 








J, 


3Jin. 




125 


„ 


TJlrome 


1877 





jj 


Sin. 




136 




Skipsea 
Brough 


1885 






4} in. 


The chevron pattern is 
much closer than the 
Winwick specimen, and 
it has four horizontal 
lines on each side, like 
138, Evans' ' Ancient 
Bronze Implements of 
Great Britain." 


398 


Spear-head . 


TJlrome 


1860 





jj 


4Jiu. 




391 


K 


» • 


" 


— 


." 


64 in. 





170 



REPORT — 1887. 



Type 


Name of 
Object 


Locality 


Date 


Previous 
Descrip- 
tion 


Where 
Deposited 


Length 


Remarks 


405 


Spear-head . 


Brigham 


1880 


Evans,'Br. 
Impts.,' 
p. 327 


Own Col- 
lection 


6* in. 


Dr. Evans has erroneously 
described this as found 
near Lowthorpe. 


382 


" 


Leven . 


1885 


— 


" 


7iin. 


Imperfect, the socket be- 
ing broken. 


395 


" 


Skipsea 


1880 


— 


" 


43 in. 


A portion of the shaft still 
in the socket. 


401 




Carnaby 








51 in. 


There are traces of orna- 
mentation on the socket, 
probably done with a 
chisel or punch. Unfor- 
tunately the boy who 
found it struck it against 
his plough and broke the 
point. 


386 




Lake -dwell- 
ing, Uh-ome 


1882 






4Jiu. 


Appeared to have been 
struck into the floor of 
the structure and broken 
from the shaft; a portion 
of the shaft (with the 
pin) yet remains in it. 
Caught by the workman's 
spade and bi-oken. 


114 


Socketed Celt 


Barmston . 


1886 


— 


2i in. 


Found embedded in peat 
















near the supposed site of 
















a lake-dwelling. The top 
















of the socket has been 
















imperfectly cast, and it is 
















filled with fragments of 
















metal preparatory to re- 
















casting. 


499 


Button 


Near Bever- 
ley 








liu. 
diam. 


The loop spans the entire 
diameter, and is bow- 
shaped. Plain, increasing 
in thickness downwards; 
circular. 


~ 


Earring 


North Burton 


1876 




» 


~ / 


The bracelets are made of 
wire, plaited, and were 


— 


Bracelet 


Near Bever- 
ley 


— 


— 


" 


— 


purchased from Mr. Sum- 
ner's collection, Wood- 






" 








' 


mansey, Beverley, de- 
scribed as being found in 
the locality. 



II. — List of Objects found near Leeds, hy John Holmes, Roundhay, near Leeds. 



Object 


Locality 


Date 
when 
Found 


Reference to 
previous De- 
scription 


Where De- 
posited 


Remarks 


1. Urn . 


Broughton 


- 


Thoresby, 'Du- 
catusLeodien- 
sis,' p. 565 


- 


British ; 10 in. in dia- 
meter. 


2. Brass lance ' 


„ 


-— 


M J> 


— 


■3 in. in length. 


3. Hone ' 


" 


— 


" " 


— 


Bluish-grey stone ; 3 in. in 
length. 


4. Hammer ' . 


" 




„ p. 566 


— 


6 in. in length; speckled 
marble, polished. 


5. Bone imple- 


„ 


— 


„ „ 


— 


Having holes bored in one 


ment ' 










end, and pointed like a 
bodkin at the other. 


6. Urn . 


Leeds 


1745 


Warden, 'Anti- 
tiquities of 
Leeds,' 1853 




12 in. in height ; British, 
\rith rudely incised en- 
circling rows of undula- 
tions. 


7. Stone ham- 


» 


„ 


„ „ 


— 


Found in the urn last men- 


mer 










tioned ; both are figured 
in the work cited. 


8. Socketed 


Bramham Moor 


1709 


Thoresby, ' Du- 


— 


5 or 6 in number; ploughed 


celts 






catus Leodieu- 
sis ' 




up ; 3 to 41 in. in length, 
1 to 2J in breadth. 



Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 were found inside the urn No. 1. 



ON THE PBEHISTOEIC INHABITANTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 
Table II. — contimied. 



171 







Date 


Reference to 


Where 
Deposited 




Object 


Locality 


when 
Fount 


previous De- 
scription 


Remarks 


9. Celt . 


Bolton -iu-Bol- 


_ 


Thoresby, ' Du- 




7 in. long, 2i broad ; bronze 




land 




catus Leodien- 
sis,' p. 565 




with lateral flanges ; se- 
veral similar ones have 
been found at Morley, 
near Leeds. 


10. Celt, &c. . 


MixendenMoor, 


1776 


Whitaker,'Loides 


— 


A miscellaneouscollection; 




near Halifax 




and Elmeti,' 
p. 373 




bronze, with stone and 
other objects. 


11. Bronze im- 


Hunslet, near 


1881 


Holmes, 'Proc. 


Public Museum, 


A hoard, consisting of 9 


plements 


Leeds 




Yorksh. Geol. 
& Polyt. Soc' 
vol. vii. p.405 


Leeds 


implements, under 10 ft. 
6 in. of clay ; there are 8 
of the palstave and 1 of 
the socketed celt type. 


12. Spear-head . 


Hunslet . 


1878 


„ jj 




1 mileS.E. of the precedmg. 


13. Bronze wea- 


Churwell, near 


1846 


„ p. 406 


„ „ 


3 spears and 6 palstaves. 


pons 


Leeds 










14. Palstave . 


Morley 




Warden, 'His- 
torical Notes,' 
p. 42, 1869 


" 


7 in. in length. 


15. Palstave . 


Chnrwell . 


— 


Holmes, op.cit. 


Museum Lit. 


Similar to palstaves in No. 








p. 406 


and Phil. Soc. 
Leeds 


11. 


16. Bronze dag- 


5 miles N.E. of 


1842 


Holmes, 'Proc. 


— 


At a depth of 22 feet be- 


ger 


WakeBeld 




Yorksh. Geol. 
& Polyt. Soc' 
vol. vii. p. 406 




neath silt, &c., with oak 
trees. 


17. Bronze dag- 


Stanley Ferry . 


1818 


„ „ 


— 


Together with solid oak 


ger 










canoe, now in the York 
Museum. 


18. Bronze Celt 


Wakefield, San- 


1852 


— 


PublicMuseum, 


5i in. long ; early type. 




dal Magna 






Leeds 


finely palmate. 


19. Stag - horn 


nkley 


1870 


— 


— 




pickaxe 












20. Socketed & 


Roundhay,near 


1880 





PublicMuseum, 




looped celt 


Leeds 






Leeds 




(bronze) 












21. Celt . 


Teadon . 


1882 


— 


— 


Others have been found 
near the same place. 


22. Gold torque 


» 


1816 


Denny, ' Proc. 
Yorksh. Geol. 
& Polyt. Soc.' 


British Museum 




23. Bronze celt. 


Wakefield 


1855 


— 


— 


4 in. long ; slightly flanged 
and well patinated. 


24. Pottery 


Oulton 






Rev. R. Burrell, 
Stanley, near 
Wakefield 


British ; pierced at the 
sides. 


25. Bronze celt . 


Leeds 


~ 


" 


Museum of Lit. 
and Phil. Soc. 
Leeds 


Basalts. 


26. Flint spear- 


Adel, nr. Leeds 


— 


Thoresby, ' Du- 


— 


2 ill. long, smooth, arrows 


head & ar- 






catus Leodieu- 




barbed. 


row-heads 




sis,' p. 565 






27. Urn . 


HaUfax . 


— P. A. Leyland, 
' Rem. of An- 
tiq. of York- 
shire,' p. 26, 












1855 






28. Dagger 


— 


— 


Op. cit. p. 39 . 


— 




29. Hammer . 


Leeds 


1870 




Public Museum, 
Leeds 


3 in. long, 2i broad ; asso- 
ciated with a number of 
black oak piles near the 
margin of the R. Aire. 


30. Flint arrows, 


Ilkleymoor 


— 


— 


F. W. Fison, 


Knmerous flint flakes are 


&c. 








Esq., nkley 


found, rarely associated 
with arrow-heads. 


31. Arrow-heads, 


Adel, nr. Leeds 


1865- 





Museum Lit. & 


Flakes, arrow-heads, scra- 


&c. 




1876 




Phil. Soc, 
Leeds, and at 
Public Mu- 
seum, Leeds 


pers, &c., in large num- 
bers ; apparently a manu- 
factory. 


32. Hammer . 


Potter-Newton, 


1879 


— 


Public Museum, 


8J in. long by 31 thick; 




near Leeds 






Leeds 


two others found at same 
place. 


33. Stone celt . 


Shadwell . 


1S81 




— 


4 in. by 2 in., beautifully 
worked and fir.ished. 



172 



BBPORT — 1887. 
Table II. — continued. 







Date 


Beferenoe to 


Where 
Deposited 




Object 


Locality 


when 
Found 


previous De- 
scription 


Remarks 


34. Stone celt . 


Roundhay.near 


1884 




Mr. Buckton, 


4 in., cutting edge 2i in. 




Leeds 






Leeds 


decreasing to li in. 


35. 


Patterton, near 








Jno. Holmes, 


Similar to the two prece- 




Leeds 






Roundhay 


ding. 


36. Flint imple- 


Stanley Ferry, 


1860- 


'Remains of An- 


Rev. R. Burrell, 


Large numbers of arrow- 


ments 


nr. Wakefield 


1887 


tiq.iu Yorksh.' 


Stanley, near 


heads, flakes, scrapers. 








Leeds, 1855 


Wakefield 


and other objects. 



Report of the Covimittee, consisting of General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. 
Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. Francis Gtalton, Dr. E. B. 
Tylor, and Dr. Garson, appointed for the purpose of editing 
a new Edition of ' Anthropological Notes and Queries,'' with 
authority to distribute gratuitously the unsold copies of the 
present edition. 

The Committee found that tbe cost of printing and publishing the 
first edition of ' Anthropological Notes and Queries ' was defrayed partly 
out of the grant voted by the British Association for that purpose in 1874 
and partly by General Pitt-Rivers, who edited the work. The first set of 
copies printed was paid for by the Association, and was exhausted a few 
years after publication. Additional copies being then required, they were 
printed at the expense of General Pitt- Rivers, who generously placed 
them at the disposal of the Association. It was for the distribution of 
what remains of these copies that the Committee had to arrange. Fifty 
of them have been placed at the disposal of the Anthropological Institute 
of Great Britain and Ireland for gratuitous distribution to such persons 
as the Council of that institute may deem advisable in the interests of 
anthropological research. Prof. Flower and Dr. E. B. Tylor have also 
undertaken to distribute copies to travellers and others willing and 
desirous to supply information wanted for the scientific study of anthro- 
pology at home. The Committee consider that the plan it has adopted 
for the distribution of unsold copies is such as will make the work more 
widely known than heretofore, and probably create a greater demand for 
the new edition when it is published than there might otherwise be. 

The Committee, after carefully considering the question of how the 
preparation of the new edition can be most eflBciently done, strongly 
recommend that the work be entrusted to the Anthropological Institute 
of Great Britain and Ireland. That being a body specially and perma- 
nently organised for the purpose of advancing the various branches of 
Anthropology, and, as such, having many facilities not possessed by a com- 
mittee, as well as a Council which meets regularly, and at short intervals, 
during the greater part of the year, it is peculiarly well fitted to cany 
out the necessary arrangements for a thorough revision of the work, and 
after it is published to bring it under the notice of those for whom it is 
intended. The Committee have reason to believe that the Anthropological 



ON ' ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES.' 173 

Institute would be willing to undertake the task and to proceed with the 
work during the ensuing winter. 

The Committee have not required to draw any of the money placed at 
its disposal last year by the Association, as its work has hitherto been 
entirely that of making preliminary arrangements. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, and, as during the course of 
next year money will be required for printing and publishing, they request 
that the sum of 501. be placed at their disposal for that purpose. The sum 
asked for is the same as was contributed by the Association towards the 
publication of the first edition in 1874. 



Third Report of the Gomrdittee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, 
Dr. Gr. M. Dawson, Greneral Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. Daniel 
Wilson, Mr. E. Gr. Haliburton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam 
{Secretary^, appointed for the purpose of investigating and 
publishing reports on the physical characters, languages, and 
industrial and social condition of the North-western Tribes of 
the Dominion of Canada. 

Tbe following ' Circular of Inquiry ' has been drawn up by the Com- 
mittee for distribution amongst those most likely to be able to supply 
information : — 

At the meeting of the British Association at Montreal in 1884 the 
subject of Canadian anthropology came frequently under public and 
private discussion. The opinion was strongly expressed that an effort 
should be made to record as perfectly as possible the characteristics and 
condition of the native tribes of the Dominion before their racial pecu- 
liarities become less distinguishable through intermarriage and dispersion, 
and before contact with civilised men has further obliterated the remains 
of their original arts, customs, and beliefs. 

Two considerations especially forced themselves on the attention of 
anthropologists at Montreal : first, that the construction of the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad, traversing an enormous stretch of little known country 
on both sides of the Rocky Mountains, has given ready access to a number 
of native tribes whose languages and mode of life ofi'er a field of inquiry 
as yet but imperfectly worked ; secondly, that in the United States, where 
the anthropology of the indigenous tribes has for years past been treated 
as a subject of national importance, not only have the scientific societies 
been actively engaged in research into the past and present condition of 
the native populations, but the Bureau of Ethnology, presided over by 
the Hon. J. W. Powell (present at the Montreal meeting), is constituted 
as a Government department, sending out qualified agents to reside among 
the western tribes for purposes of philological and anthropological study. 
Through these public and private explorations a complete body of infor- 
mation is being collected and published, while most extensive series of 
specimens illustrative of native arts and habits are preserved in the 
museums of the United States, especially in the National Museum at 
Washington. If these large undertakings be compared with what has 
hitherto been done in Canada, it has to be admitted that the Dominion 



174 REPORT— 1887. 

Government, while they have taken some encouraging steps, as by the in- 
stallation of an anthropological collection in the museum at Ottawa, have 
shown no disposition to make the study of the native populations a branch 
of the public service. Anthropologists have thus two courses before them 
in Canada — namely, to press this task upon the Government and to carry 
it forward themselves. Now it is obvious that agitation for public endow- 
ment will not of itself sufiBce, as involving delay during which the material 
to be collected would be disappearing more rapidly than ever. If, how- 
ever, a determined attempt were at once made by anthropologists, result- 
ing in some measure of success, public opinion might probably move in 
the same direction, and a larger scheme might, before long, receive not 
only the support of Canadians interested in the science of man, but the 
material help of the Dominion Government. 

On these and other considerations the General Committee of the 
British Association appointed Dr. E. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. Dawson, General 
Sir J. H. Lefi-oy, Dr. Daniel Wilson, Mr. Horatio Hale, Mr. R. G. Hali- 
burton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam (Secretary) to be a committee for 
the purpose of investigating and publishing reports on the physical 
characters, languages, industrial and social condition of the north-western 
tribes of the Dominion of Canada, with a grant of -50?. This committee 
the next year sent in a ' Preliminary Report on the Blackfoot Tribes,' 
drawn up by Mr. Hale. Their action in other districts was, however, 
much delayed by the difficulty of making plans by correspondence, and 
the committee were reappointed at Birmingham in 1886, in the hope that 
during the ensuing year Mr. Hale might be able personally to visit some 
of the tribes. 

It has now been arranged to collect information, as far as possible, over 
the vast region between Lake Huron and the Pacific, the materials thus 
obtained being edited and presented in successive reports, as they shall 
be from time to time received, by Mr. Hale, whose experience and skill 
in such research are certified to by his volume embodying the ethno- 
graphy of the Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes and by his 
subsequent publications relating to Canada. As a means of obtaining 
data, the present memorandum has been drawn up for circulation among 
Government officers in contact with the native tribes, medical practi- 
tioners, missionaries, colonists, and travellers likely to possess or obtain 
trustworthy information. The results gained from the answers will be 
incorporated with those of a personal survey to be made in some of the 
most promising districts by the Rev. E. F. Wilson, who has been named 
on the recommendation of Mr. Hale, and will act under his directions. 

Suggestions for Investigation. 

Physical Characters. — Tables of anthropological measurements &c. 
from Canada being extremely deficient, schedules drawn up by medical 
men and other qualified anatomists and naturalists will be highly accept- 
able. The following headings comprise the chief points on which infor- 
mation is needed in this department : stature, girth, pi-oportions of trunk 
and limbs, cranial indices, facial angle, &c., brain capacity, peculiar bodily 
forms and features, special attitudes and movements, muscular force, &c., 
colour of skin, eyes, and hair according to Broca's colour-tables, form and 
growth of hair, skin odour. Statistics are required as to age of maturity and 
decline, periods of reproduction and lactation, longevity. Especial import. 



J 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 175 

ance attaches to the examination of mixed races, especially crosses of North 
American Indian with European and African, the resemblances and differ- 
ences between the offspring and the parent stocks, the number of generations 
during which inherited race-characteristics are distinguishable, and the 
tendency to revert to one or other of the ancestral types. Both as to 
native tribes and cross-breeds pathological observations are of value, as 
to power of bearing climate, liability to or freedom from particular 
diseases, tendency to abnormalities, such as albinoism &c., and the here- 
ditary nature of abnormal peculiarities. Medical men have also better 
opportunities than others of observing artificial deformations practised by 
native tribes, especially by compression of the skull in infancy. Pacific 
North America has been one of the regions of the world most remarkable 
for this practice among the Flatheads (thence so named) and various other 
peoples ; so that it may still be possible to gain further information on two 
points not yet cleared np, viz. fii-st, whether brain-power in after-life is 
really unaffected by such monstrous flattening or tapering of the infant 
skull ; and second, whether the motive of such distortion has been to 
exaggerate the natural forms of particular admired tribes, or, if not, 
what other causes have led to such ideas of beauty. 

To those concerned in these inquiries it may be mentioned that the 
• Notes and Queries on Anthropology ' issued by the British Association 
contains a series of Broca's colour-tables, together with descriptions of 
the approved modes of bodily measurement &c.' 

Senses and Mental Characters. — "With the bodily characters of the 
Canadian tribes may advantageously be combined observations as to their 
powers of perception and ratiocination. The acuteness of sight, hearing, 
and smell, for which the wilder races of man are justly famed, may be 
easily tested, these being capabilities which rude hunters display readily 
and with pride, so that they may even serve as an easy introduction to 
other measurements and inquiries which savages cannot see the reason of, 
and reluctantly submit to. The observer's attention may be especially 
directed to settling the still open question, how far these sense-differences 
are racial at all, and how far due to the training of a hunter's life from 
infancy. As to mental capacity, among the means of convenient trial are 
to ascertain facility in counting, in drawing and recognising pictures and 
maps, and in acquiring foreign languages. Evidence is much needed to 
confirm or disprove the view commonly held that children of coloured 
races (Indian, negro, &c.), while intelligent and apt to learn up to 
adolescence, are then arrested in mental development, and fall behind the 
whites. Few points in anthropology are more practically important than 
this, which bears on the whole question of education and government of 
the indigenes of America, living as they do side by side with a larger 
and more powerful population of European origin. No amount of pains 
would be wasted in ascertaining how far mental differences between races 
may be due to physical differences in brain- structure, how far the less 
advanced races are lower in mind-power by reason of lower education and 
circumstances, and how far the falling-ofF at maturity in their offspring 
brought up with whites (if it actually takes place) may be due to social 
causes, especially the disheartening sense of inferiority. 

Language. — Introductory to the investigation of language proper are 

' This work is now out of print, and a new edition is being prepared by a Com- 
mittee of the British Association, appointed in 1886. 



176 REPORT— 1887. 

certain inquiries into natural dii'ect means of expressing emotions and 
thoughts. Preliminary to these are conditions of face and body which 
are symptoms of emotion, such as blushing, trembling, sneering, pouting, 
frowning, laughter, and smiles ; there being still doubtful points as to how 
far all races agree in these symptoms, it is desirable to notice them care- 
fully. They lead on to intentional gestures made to express ideas, as 
when an Indian will smile or tremble in order to convey the idea of 
pleasure or fear either in himself or some one else, and such imitations 
again lead on to the pretences of all kinds of actions, as fighting, eating, 
&c., to indicate such real actions, or the objects connected with them, as 
when the imitation of the movement of riding signifies a horse, or the 
pretence of smoking signifies a pipe. The best collections of gesture- 
language have been made among the wild hunters of the American 
prairies (see accounts in Tylor's 'Early History of Mankind,' and the 
special treatise of Mallery, ' Sign-language among the North American 
Indians '). There is still a considerable use of gesture-language within 
the Dominion of Canada as a means of intercourse between native tribes 
ignorant of one another's language, and any observer who will learn 
to master this interesting mode of communication, as used in the wild 
districts of the Rocky Mountains, and will record the precise signs 
and their order, may contribute important evidence to the study of 
thought and language. The observer must take care that he fully under- 
stands the signs he sees, which through familiar use are often reduced to 
the slightest indication ; for instance, a Sioux will indicate old age by 
holding out his closed right hand, knuckles upward — a gesture which a 
European would not understand till it was more fully shown to him that 
the sign refers to the attitude of an old man leaning on a staff. The 
sequence of the gesture-signs is as important as the signs themselves, and 
there is no better way of contributing to this subject than to get a skilled 
sign-interpreter to tell in gestures one of his stories of travelling, hunt- 
ing, or fighting, and carefully to write down the description of these 
signs in order with their interpretations. 

Coming now to the philological record of native languages, it must be 
noticed that small vocabularies &c., drawn up by travellers, are useful as 
materials in move thorough work, but that the treatment of a language is 
not complete till it has been reduced to a regular grammar and dictionary. 
As to several Canadian languages this has been done, especially by the 
learned missionaries Fathers Barraga, Lacombe, Cuoq, and Petitot, who 
have published excellent works on the Ojibway, Cree, Iroquois, and Atha- 
pascan (Denedinjie) languages respectively; while Howse's Grammar is 
a standard Algonkin authority, and it is hoped that the knowledge of 
Mr. McLean and others of the Blackfoot language may be embodied in 
a special work. On the other hand, the study of languages west of 
the Rocky Mountains is in a most imperfect state. Nothing proves 
this better than the volume of ' Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian 
Tribes of British Columbia,' by W. Fraser Tolmie and George M. 
Dawson, published by the Geological and Natural History Survey of 
Canada. These vocabularies of the Thlinkit, Tshimsian, Haida, Kwakiool, 
Kawitshin, Aht, Tshinook, and other languages are important contributions 
to philology, well worth the pains and cost of collecting and printing ; but 
the mere fact that it was desirable to publish these vocabularies of a few 
pages shows the absence of the full grammars and dictionaries which ought 
to be found. This want is felt even in districts where there are white 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 177 

missionaries asing the native languages, and native teachers acquainted 
with English, so that the necessary philological material actually exists, 
and only the labour of writing it down is required to preserve it from 
destruction. A general effort, if now made, would save the record of 
several dialects on the point of disappearance. It is suggested by the 
Committee that inquiry should be made for lists of words &c. hitherto 
unpublished ; that the terms and phrases possessed by interpreters should 
be taken down ; that sentences and narratives should be copied with the 
utmost care as to pronunciation and accent, and translated word by 
word. 

Particular attention is asked to two points in the examination of these 
languages. Care is required to separate from the general mass of words 
such as have a dii'ect natural origin, such as interjections expressing 
emotion, and words imitating natural sounds, as, for instance, the names 
of birds and beasts, derived from their notes or cries. It is desirable in 
such words to notice how close the spoken word comes to the sound 
imitated, for resemblances which are obvious from the lips of the native 
speaker are apt to be less recognisable when reduced to writing. It is 
also of interest to notice the significance of names of places and persons, 
which often contain interesting traces of the past history of families and 
tribes. 

An ethnographic map, based on language, and showing as nearly as 
possible the precise areas occupied by the various tribes speaking distinct 
idioms, is a desideratum, and, if properly completed, will be an acquisi- 
tion of the greatest value. Several partial maps have been published, 
mostly of the region west of the Rocky Mountains. Among these may 
be specially mentioned two maps by Mr. W. H. Dall, given in the first 
volume of the ' Contributions to North American Ethnology,' published 
by the United States Government — one of which relates to the tribes of 
Alaska and the adjoining region, and the other to the tribes of Washing- 
ton Territory and the country immediately north of it. These are con- 
nected through British Columbia by the excellent map which accom- 
panies the Comparative Vocabularies of Drs. Tolmie and Dawson. A 
small map, by Dr. Franz Boas, in ' Science ' for March 25, 1887, with 
the accompanying report, adds some useful particulars concerning the 
coast tribes of that province. With the additions which different ob- 
servers can supply for the various portions of the country, a complete 
tribal and language map of the whole Dominion might soon be con- 
stinjcted. In forming such a map, it is desirable that the various lin- 
guistic 'stocks,' or families of languages, completely distinct in grammar 
and vocabulary, should be distinguished by different colours. East of 
the mountains the number of these stocks is small, but west of them it is 
remarkably large. Besides showing the distinct stocks, the map should 
also show the several allied languages which compose each stock. Thus, 
of the widespread Algonkin family, there are in the territories west of 
Lake Superior at least three languages, the Ojibway, the Cree, and the 
Blackfoot, all materially differing from one another. If, in the proposed 
map, the Algonkin portion should be coloured yellow, the subdivisions in 
which these separate languages are spoken might be marked off by 
boundary lines (perhaps clotted lines) of another colour, say blue or red. 
It would be proper to give the areas occupied by the different tribes 
as they stood before the displacements caused by the whites. Following 
the example set by Gallatin in his Synopsis, it will be well to select 
1887. If 



178 EEPOET — 1887. 

different dates for different portions of the map. The middle of the last 
century might be taken for Ontario, Quebec, and the Eastern Provinces, 
and the middle of the present century for the rest of the Dominion. If 
each observer is careful to give the tribal and linguistic boundaries in 
his own district, as he can learn them from the best informed natives and 
from other sources, the separate contributions can be combined into a 
general map by the editor of the report. 

Arts and Knowledge. — The published information as to the weapons 
and implements, clothing, houses, and boats, and the rest of the numerous 
appliances of native life on both sides of the Rocky Mountains is not so 
deficient as the knowledge respecting other matters already mentioned ; 
and their intellectual state, as shown in such arts as the reckoning of 
time, the treatment of wounds, &c., is also to some extent known from 
books of travel. Still every observant traveller finds something in savage 
arts which has escaped former visitors, and there are a number of points 
on which further inquiry is particularly invited. Though the practical use 
of stone implements has almost or altogether ceased, there are still old 
people who can show their ways of making them, and inquiry may prob- 
ably show that stone arrow-heads, hatchets, &c., are still treasured as 
sacred objects, as is the case among tribes in California, who carry in 
their ceremonial dances knives chipped out of flint and mounted in handles 
— relics of the Stone Age among their fathers. Notwithstanding the 
o-eneral introduction of iron and steel tools by the whites, it is possible that 
something may still be learnt as to the former use of native copper and of 
meteoric iron (or iron supposed to be meteoric). With regard to native 
weapons, the spliced Tatar bow being usual in this part of America (having 
probably come over from Asia), it is desirable to examine further the 
modes of making and using it, the forms of arrows, &c. Any game-traps 
on the bow principle, if apparently of native origin, are worth describing, 
as possibly bearing on the early history of the bow. The art of cooking 
by water heated by dropping in red-hot stones having been characteristic 
of the western region, any traces of this should be noticed, while the 
native vessels carved out of wood or closely woven of fir root &c. are 
still interesting. The native mode of twisting or spinning thread or yarn, 
and the manufacture of a kind of cloth, not woven but tied across like 
that of New Zealand, require fuller description. Especial attention is 
required to the ornamental patterns of the region, which are of notable 
peculiarity and cleverness. To a considerable extent a study of them on 
hats and blankets, coats and pipes, &c., shows, in the first place, actual 
representation of such natural objects as men or birds, or parts of them, 
which have gradually lost their strictness and passed into mere ornamental 
desio-ns ; but the whole of this subject, so interesting to students of art, 
requires far closer examination than it has yet received, and especially 
needs the comparison of large series of native ornamented work. 

Miisic and Armisements. — The ceremonial dances, especially those in 
which the performers wear masks and represent particular animals or 
characters, deserve careful description, from the information to be gained 
from them as to the mythology and religion embodied in them. The 
chants accompanying the dances should be written down with musical 
accuracy — a task requiring considerable skill, though the accompaniments 
of rattle and hollowed wooden drum are of the simplest. Several of the 
games played among the ludians before the coming of the Europeans are 
of interest from their apparent connection with those of the Old World. 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 179 

This is the case with the ball-play, now known by the French name ' la 
crosse,' which belonged to the Eui'opean game familiar to the French 
colonists. It is worth while to ascertain in any district where it is played 
what form of bat was used, what were the rules, and whether villages or 
clans were usually matched against each other. The bowl-game, in which 
lots such as buttons or peach-stones blackened on one side are thrown 
up, has its analogues in Asia ; the rules of counting and scoring belong- 
ing to any district should be carefully set down. It is in fact more diffi- 
cult than at first sight appears to describe the rules of a game so as to 
enable a novice to play it. Among other noticeable games are that of 
guessing in which hand or heap a small object is hidden, and the spear- 
and-ring game of throwing at a rolling object. 

Constitution of Society. — Highly valuable information as to systems of 
marriage and descent, with the accompanying schemes of kinship, and 
rules for succession of offices and property, has in time past been obtained 
in Canada. Thus in 1724 Lafitau ('Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains,' 
vol. i. p. 552) described among the Iroquois the remarkable system of 
relationship in which mothers' sisters are considered as mothers, and 
fathers' brothers as fathers, while the children of all these consider them- 
selves as brothers and sisters. This is the plan of kinship since shown by 
Mr. L. H. Morgan to exist over a large part of the globe, and named by 
him the ' classificatory system.' J. Long also in 1791 gave from Canada 
the first European mention of the Algonkin totem (more properly otem), 
which has become the accepted term for the animal or plant name of a 
clan of real or assumed kindred who may not intermarry; for example, 
the Wolf, Bear, and Turtle clans of the Mohawks. These historical 
details are mentioned in order to point out that the lines of inquiry thus 
opened in Canada are far from being worked out. The great Algonkin 
family afibrds a remarkable example of a group of tribes related together 
in language and race and divided by totems, but with this difierence, 
that among the Delawares the totem passed on the mother's side, while 
among the Ojibways it is inherited on the father's side. Some Blackfeet, 
again, though by language allied to the same family, are not known to have 
totems at all. To ascertain whether this state of things has come about 
by some tribes having retained till now an ancient system of maternal 
totems, which among other tribes passed into paternal and among others 
disappeared, or whether there is some other explanation, is an inquiry 
which might throw much light on the early history of society, as bearing 
on the ancient periods when female descent prevailed among the nations 
of the Old World. It is likely that much more careful investigation of the 
laws and customs, past and present, of these tribes would add to the scanty 
information now available. On the Pacific side of the Rocky Mountains, 
where the totem system and female descent are strongly represented, such 
information is even scantier ; yet careful inquiry made before the passing 
away of the present generation, who are the last depositories of such 
traditional knowledge, would be sure to disclose valuable evidence. How 
large a field for anthropological work here lies open may be shown by a 
single fact. Among the characteristics of tribes, such as the Haidas of 
Queen Charlotte's Island, has been the habit of setting up the so-called 
' totem posts,' which in fact show conspicuously among their carved and 
painted figures the totems of families concerned, such as the bear, whale, 
frog, &c. Such posts, which are remarkable as works of barbaric art, 
are often photographed, and Judge James G. Swan, of Port Townsend, 

N 2 



180 REPOET — 1887. 

has publisted, in vol. sxi. of the ' Smithsonian Contributions,' an interest- 
ing study of them, as relating to episodes of native mythology, in which 
the animal-ancestors represented are principal figures. More investiga- 
tion is required to work out this instructive subject, and with the help of 
the older natives will doubtless well repay the not inconsiderable trouble 
it will cost. 

Among the special points to be looked to in the condition of the 
Canadian tribes both at present and previously to civilised influence may 
be noticed the modes of marriage recognised — whether the husband enters 
the wife's family or clan, or vice versa ; what prohibited degrees and other 
restrictions on marriage exist ; what is the division into families, clans, 
and tribes ; and how far do totems or animal names answer this purpose ; 
what are the regulations as to position of first or chief wife, household 
life, separation or divorce ; how relationship is traced in the female and 
male lines ; rules of succession to cbiefship and inheritance of property. 
It is desirable to draw up tables of terras of relationship and affinity 
in the native language according to the usual schedules, or by setting 
down the relationships which a man and a woman may have for 
three generations, upward and downward. In doing this it is desir- 
able to avoid the ambiguous use of English terms, such as cousin, 
uncle, and aunt, under which a number of different kinds of relation- 
ship are confused, even brother and sister being used inexactly to express 
whole brother and paternal or maternal half-bi'other, &c. In fact, 
the published schedules of kinship are imperfect in this respect. It 
is desirable to interpret each term into its strict meaning, expressed by 
father and mother, son and daughter, husband and wife ; for instance, 
father's father's daughter, mother's son's wife, &c. This scheme of 
relationship will often be found to constitute a classificatory system, as 
mentioned above, and in respect of which it will be necessary to observe 
the use of the term of relationship rather than the personal name as a 
form of address, and the distinction between elder and younger brothers, 
sisters, and other kinsfolk. Customs of avoiding certain relatives, as 
where the husband affects not to recognise his wife's parents, are of 
interest as social regulations. 

Government and Law. — When it is noticed how the system of chief- 
ship, councils, &c., among the Iroquois, on being carefully examined by 
visitors who understood their language, proved to be most systematic and 
elaborate, it becomes likely that the scanty details available as to groups 
of West Canadian tribes might be vastly increased. Such old accounts 
as Hearne has left us of the Tinneh or Athapascans (whom he calls 
Northern Indians), and Carver of the Sioux, are admirable so far as they 
go ; but in reading them it is disappointing to think how much more the 
writers might have learnt had they thought it worth the trouble or that any 
readers would care to know it. Even now, though old custom has so 
much broken down, present and past details of savage political life may 
be gained among the western tribes on both sides of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

The prominent points are the distinction between the temporary war- 
chief and the more permanent peace-chief; the mode of succession or 
election to these and lower offices ; the nature of the councils of old men 
and warriors ; personal rights of men and women of different classes ; 
the rules of war and peace ; the treatment of captives and slaves ; the 
family jurisdiction, with especial reference to the power possessed by the 



ON THE NOETH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 181 

father or head of the household and others ; the law of vengeance and its 
restrictions ; the tribal jurisdiction in matters, especially criminal, concern- 
ing the community ; the holding of land and other property by the tribe 
or family ; personal property, and the rules of its distribution and 
inheritance ; the law of hospitality. The observer will in such inquiries 
frequently come into contact with forms of primitive communism, not 
only as to food, but as to articles of use or wealth, such as guns and 
blankets, which are of great interest, as is the custom of obtaining social 
rank by a man's distributing his accumulated property in presents. All 
these matters, and far more, are, as a matter of course, known with legal 
accuracy to every grown-up Indian in any tribe which is living by native 
rule and custom. In the rapid breaking-up of native society it remains 
for the anthropologist at least to note the details down before they are 
forgotten. 

Religion and. Magic. — The difficulty of getting at native ideas on these 
matters is far greater than in the rules of public life just spoken of. On 
the one hand the Indians are ashamed to avow belief in notions despised 
by the white man, while on the other this belief is still so real that they 
fear the vengeance of the spirits and the arts of their sorcerers. It is 
found a successful manner of reaching the theological stratum in the 
savage mind not to ask uncalled-for questions, but to see religious rites 
actually performed, and then to ascertain what they mean. The funeral 
ceremonies afford such opportunities ; for instance, the burning of the 
dead man with his property among Rocky Mountain tribes, and the practice 
of cutting off a finger-joint as a mourning rite, as compared with the actual 
sacrifice of slaves for the deceased, as well as the destruction of his goods 
among the Pacific tribes. Here a whole series of questions is opened up — 
whether the dead man is considered as still existing as a ghost and coming 
to the living in dreams, of what use it can be to him to kill slaves or to cut 
off finger-joints, why his goods should be burnt, and so on. In various 
parts of America it has long been known that funeral rites were connected 
with the belief that not only men but animals and inanimate objects, 
such as axes and kettles, had surviving shadows or spirits, the latter 
belief being worked out most logically, and applied to funeral sacrifices, 
by the Algonkins of the Great Lakes. It is probable that some similar 
train of reasoning underlies the funeral ceremonies of the Rocky Moun- 
tain and Columbian tribes, but the necessary inquiries have not been 
made to ascertain this. More is known of the native ideas as to the 
abode of the spirits of the departed, which is closely connected with the 
theory of Souls. There is also fairly good information as to the pre- 
valence in this region of the doctrine, only just dying out in the civilised 
world, of diseases being caused by possession by devils, that is, by the 
intrusion of spirits into the patient's body, who convulse his limbs, speak 
wildly by his voice, and otherwise produce his morbid symptoms. Books 
of travel often describe the proceedings of the sorcerer in exorcising these 
disease-demons ; and what is wanted here is only more explicit information 
as to the nature of such spirits as conceived in the Indian mind. Even 
more deficient is information as to how far the ghosts of deceased rela- 
tives are regarded as powerful spirits and propitiated in a kind of ancestor- 
worship, and the world at large is regarded as pervaded by spirits whose 
favour is to be secured by ceremonies, such as sacred dances, and by 
sacrifices. The images so common on the Pacific side are well known as 
to their material forms, but anthropologists have not the information 



182 REPORT— 1887. 

reqaii'ed as to whether they are receptacles for spirits or deities, or merely 
symbolical representations. The veneration for certain animals, and 
prohibition to kill and eat them, partly has to do with direct animal- 
worship, but is mixed up in a most perplexing way with respect for the 
totem or tribe-animal. In fact, many travellers, as, for instance, Long the 
interpreter, already mentioned, have confused the totem-animal with the 
medicine-animal, which latter is revealed to the hunter in a dream, and 
the skin or other part of which is afterwards carried about by him as a 
means of gaining luck and escaping misfortune. Above these lesser 
spiritual beings greater deities are recognised by most tribes, whether 
they are visible nature-deities, such as Sun and Moon, Heaven and Earth, 
or more ideal beings, such as the First Ancestor, or Great Spirit. There 
is still great scope for improving and adding to the information 
already on record as to the religious systems of the tribes of the 
Dominion, and hardly any better mode is available than the collection 
of legends. 

Mythology. — As is well known, most Indian tribes have a set of 
traditional stories in which are related the creation of the world, the 
origin of mankind, the discovery of fire, some great catastrophe, especially 
a great flood, and an infinity of other episodes. Such, for instance, are 
the legends of Quawteaht, taken down by Sproat among the Ahts, and 
the Haida stories of the Raven published by Dawson. These stories, 
written down in the native languages and translated by a skilled interpreter, 
form valuable anthropological material. It is true that tliey are tiresome 
and, to the civilised mind, silly ; but they are specimens of native language 
and thought, containing incidentally the best of information as to native 
religion, law, and custom, and the very collecting of them gives 
opportunities of asking questions which draw from the Indian story- 
teller, in the most natural way, ideas and beliefs which no inquisitorial 
cross-questioning would induce him to disclose. 

In studying the religion and mythology of the various tribes, and 
also their social constitution, their arts, their amusements, and their 
mental and moral traits, it is important to observe not only how far 
these characteristics differ in different tribes, but whether they vary 
decidedly from one linguistic stock to another. Some observers have 
been led to form the opinion that the people of each linguistic family 
had originally their own mythology, differing from all others. Thus the 
deities of the Algonkins are said to be in general strikingly different 
from those of the Dakotas. Yet this original unlikeness, it is found, has 
been in part disguised by the habit of borrowing tenets, legends, and 
ceremonies from one another. This is a question of much interest. It 
is desirable to ascertain any facts which will show whether this original 
difference did or did not exist, and how far the custom of borrowing 
religious rites, civil institutions, useful arts, fashions of dress, ornaments, 
and pastimes extends. Thus the noted religious ceremony called the 
' sun-dance ' prevails among the western Ojibways, Crees, and Dakotas, 
but is unknown among the eastern tribes of the Algonkin and Dakota 
stocks. It would seem, therefore, to be probably a rite borrowed by 
them from some other tribe in the vicinity of those western tribes. The 
Kootanies of British Columbia, immediately west of these tribes, are 
said, on good authority, to have practised this rite before their recent 
conversion by the Roman Catholic missionaries. If it is found, on 
inquiry, to have prevailed universally among the Kootanies from time 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 183 

immemorial, the presumption would seem to be that this tribe was the 
source from which the others borrowed it. Careful inquiry among the 
natives will frequently elicit information on such points. Thus the 
Iroquois have many dances which they affirm to be peculiar to their own 
people. They have also a war-dance which differs in its movements 
entirely from the former. This dance they declare that they borrowed 
from the Dakotas, and the statement is confirmed by the name which 
they give it — the Wasase, or Osage dance. 

Apart fi'om the mythological legends, the genuine historical traditions 
of the different tribes should be gathered with care. In obtaining these 
it must be borne in mind that, commonly, only a few Indians in each 
tribe are well informed on this subject. These Indians are usually chiefs 
or councillors or ' medicine men,' who are known for their intelligence, 
and who are regarded by their tribesmen as the record-keepers of the 
community. Tbey are well known in this capacity, and should always 
be consulted. Ordinary Indians are frequently found to know as little 
about their ti'ibal history as an untaught English farm labourer or French 
peasant commonly knows of the history of his own country. This fact 
will account for the mistake made by some travellers who have reported 
that the Indians have no historical traditions of any value. More careful 
inquiry has shown that the Iroquois, the Delawares, the Creeks, and 
other tribes had distinct traditions, going back for several centuries. 
These are often preserved in chants, of which the successive portions or 
staves are sometimes recalled to mind by mnemonic aids, as among the 
Delawares (or Lenape) by painted sticks, and among the Iroquois by 
strings of wampum. The Creeks and the Dakotas kept their recoi'ds by 
means of rude pictographs painted on buffalo skins. Such records 
should be sought with care, and the chants should be taken down, if 
possible, in the original, with literal translations and all the explanations 
which the natives can give. Colonel Mallery's memoir on ' Pictographs 
of the North American Indians,' in the Fourth Annual Report of the 
United States Bureau of Ethnology, and Dr. Brinton's volume on ' The 
Lenape and their Legends,' might be referred to as aids in this inquiry. 
It would be very desu'able that the music of these chants should be taken 
down by a competent musician. 

Conclusion. — In this brief series of suggestions some published works 
relating to the Canadian Indians have happened to be mentioned, but 
many more have been left unnamed. These, however, are not left un- 
noticed, but every available publication is now consulted for anthropological 
purposes, and those who collect information in reply to the present 
circular may feel assured that all evidence contributed by them will be 
duly recognised in the study of savage and barbaric culture, which 
furnishes data so important for the understanding of the higher civilised 
life. 

The Rev. E. F. Wilson has furnished the Committee with the follow- 
ing report of his proceedings : — 

Report on the Blackfoot Tribes. Braiun up by the Rev. Edward F. Wilson, 
and supplementary to that furnished in 1885 by Mr. Horatio Hale. 

Before proceeding with my report I would like just to say, by way of 
explanation, that I have been working nineteen years among the Ojibway 
Indians of Ontario as a missionary, have two institutions for Indian 



184 REPORT— 1887. 

children at Sault Ste. Marie, and during the last three summers (since 
the C. P. R-ailway was opened) have been visiting the Cree, Saulteaux, 
Sioux, and other tribes in Manitoba and the North- West, in the hope of 
inducing those Indians to send some of their children to our institution. 
Last summer six Sioux boys and six Ojibway boys from the north-west 
came to us, and this summer I have succeeded in bringing down two 
young Blackfeet from their prairie home at the foot of the Rockies. We 
have in our homes at present 52 Indian boys and 27 Indian girls. Mr. 
Hale, hearing of my projected visit to the Blackfeet Indians, asked me to 
act in his place in furnishing the following report ; and, as I am quite 
unused to this sort of undertaking, I hope that any blunders I may make 
in my style of writing or in the putting together of the material which 
came into my hands will kindly be overlooked. I think I may vouch 
for it that whatever I have offered in the following pages is the result 
either of what I have seen with niy own eyes or have gained from the lips 
of reliable Indians or from missionaries living on the spot. 

The Blackfoot Indians, as Mr. Hale mentioned in his report of 1885, 
consist of three tribes, united in one confederacy, speaking the same 
language, and numbering in all about 6,000 souls. The common name by 
which they call themselves is Sokitapi, the prairie people. Siksikaw, 
Blackfeet, is a title given to the northern tribe by those living in the 
south (i.e. the Bloods and Peigans) on account of the black earth, which 
soils their feet ; where the Bloods and Peigaus live (50 miles or so to the 
south) the land is gravelly or sandy, so that their feet are not made black. 
The Bloods call themselves Kainaw (meaning unknown). The Peigana 
call themselves Pekaniu (meaning unknown). By the white people they 
are all called, in a careless way, Blackfeet. 

Whence thet Came. 

Chief Crowfoot (Sapomakseka), the head chief of the whole confederacy, 
with whom I had a long and interesting interview, was very positive in 
asserting that his people tor generations past had always lived in the same 
part of the country that they now inhabit. He entirely scouted the idea 
that they had come from the East, even though I cautiously omitted any 
reference to the theory that the Crees had driven them. ' I know,' he 
said, ' the character of the soil in all parts of this country. The soil of 
Manitoba I know is black, but that proves nothing, for this soil where we 
are now living is black also, and hence our friends to the south call us 
Blackfeet : our true name is " Sokitapi," the prairie people.' In answer 
to further inquiries, Chief Crowfoot said that there were no people west 
of the Rockies in any way related to them. His people crossed the 
mountains sometimes to trade with the British Columbia Indians, but 
their language was quite different, and they were entire strangers to them. 
He informed me, however, that there were a people a long way to the 
south in the United States who were related to them, and spoke the same 
language as they did. One of his wives, he said, came from that tribe. 
The woman was present in the teepee, and he pointed her out and ordered 
her to tell nae what she knew. I questioned and cross-questioned the 
woman closely, the Rev. J. W. Sims, who has been four years among the 
Blackfeet, and is well acquainted with their language, interpreting for 
me. The information I drew from the old woman appeared to me most 
interesting. She said it was a journey of about thirty days' distance, and, 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 185 

by putting together certain names which she mentioned and the character 
of the country as she described it, we found that the tribe to which she 
alluded lived in New Mexico or Arizona, and were in close contiguity to 
the domains of the curious Moqui Indians, who build their houses on the 
clifE tops. The name of the tribe she said was ' Nitsipoie,' and they were 
near to a people called Moqui-itapi (the Moqui people). It may possibly 
be from this quarter that the Blackfeet derive their worship of the sun. 
While travelling among them I saw very few people, whether men or 
women, who had not suffered the loss of one or more fingers (some as 
many as four) cut off at the first joint, the severed member having been 
offered to the sun. The second chief under Crowfoot is named Natiisi- 
apiw (old sun), and these people during my short visit (six days) did me 
the honour of adopting me into their nation and giving me the name 
Natusi-asamiu, which means ' the sun looks upon him.' 

I thought it might further help to decide whence these Blackfeet 
originally came if I asked what other hostile tribes they had fought with. 
These are the names of the tribes: — The Kostenai, or River Indians ; the 
Flatheads ; the Kouminetapi, or Bine Indians ; the Matujokawai, or 
grasshouse Indians ; the Aksemini Awaksetcikin, or gum getters Csaid to 
rub gum on the bottom of their feet instead of wearing moccasins) ; the 
Apaksinamai, or flat bows; the Pitseksinaitapi, or Snake Indians; the 
Pietapi, or strangers ; the Atokipiskaw, or long earring Indians ; the 
Istsitokitapi, or people in the centre ; the Awaksaawiyo, or gum eaters. 
All these they say either live or used to live in and about the Rocky 
Mountains. Their enemies have also been the Sioux, Crows, Crees, and 
Nez Perces. 

The fact that these people neither build boats nor canoes, nor eat fish, 
seems to me another proof that they have not come from the Lake region 
to the east. 

Some of their Traditions. 

Chief 'Big Plume,' another minor chief in the Blackfoot camp, gave 
me the following information. I have put it down word for word as it 
was interpreted to me : — 

How Horses originated. — A long time ago there were no horses. There 
were only dogs. They used only stone for their arrows. They were 
fighting with people in the Rocky Mountains. Those people were Snake 
Indians. They took a Blackfoot woman away south. There were a great 
number of people down there, and they tied the woman's feet, and tied 
her hands behind her, and a cord round her waist, and picketed her to a 
stake near the big salt water. And they cried across the lake, ' See, 
here is your wife ! ' Then they all retreated and left her. These big lake 
people did not see her at all ; but the waters rose and covered her ; and 
when the waters abated, thei'e was no woman there, but there were lots 
of horses. The Snake Indians caught these horses, and that is how horses 
began. 

The Creation. — It had been long time night. Napi the Ancient said, 
' Let it be day,' and it became day. Napi made the sun, and told it to 
travel from east to west. Every night it sinks into the earth, and it 
comes out of the earth again the next morning. Napi is very old every 
winter, but he becomes young every spring. He has travelled all along 
the Rocky Mountains, and there are various marks on the mountains 
"^vhich remain as relics of his presence. Napi said, ' We will be two 



186 EEPOET— 1887. 

people.' He took out the lower rib from his right side, and he said, ' It 
shall be a womaD,' and he let it go, and he looked on it, and he saw a 
woman. He then took a I'ib from the left side, and said, ' Let it be a boy,' 
and it was a boy. Napi also made a number of men with earth. Napi 
and the men went one way, the woman went another way. And the 
woman made women of earth in the same way as Napi had made men. 

At Morley, opposite the Rev. John Macdougall's house, and down the 
river, said Big Plume, there is a little stream ; they call it the men's 
kraal or enclosure ; on one side of the stream is a cut bank and big stones ; 
this was the men's boundary, beyond which they were not to pass. They 
used to hunt buffalo, and drive them over the cut bank ; they had plenty 
of meat ; they had no need to follow the buffaloes ; they hid themselves 
behind the big stones and uttered a low cry; this guided the buffalo to the 
cut bank, and when they wei'e over the bank they shot them with their 
stone aiTows and ate the meat. 

One day Napi went out on a long journey. He got as far as High 
River. There he saw lots of women together, with the woman made from 
his rib, who acted as their chief. There were no men and no boys there. 
There were a great number of teepees. Napi was alone. He told the 
women, ' I have come from the men.' The woman chief said to him, ' Go 
home ; bring all your men ; stand them all on the top of this stone ridge ; 
our women shall then go up one by one, and each take a man for a 
husband.' When they were all up there, the chief woman went up first 
and laid hold on Napi to take him, but Napi drew back ; the chief woman 
had put on an old and torn blanket, and had rubbed all the paint off her 
face, and had no ornaments on her. JSTapi did not like her aj)pearance, 
and so he rejected her addresses. He did not know that she was the 
chief woman. She then went back to the women, and, pointing to Napi, 
said, ' Don't any of you take him.' She then dressed herself in her best, 
and painted her face, and put on her ornaments, and went and chose 
another man. All the women did the same. Thus all the men had wives, 
and Napi was left standing alcne. The chief woman then cried aloud, 
' Let him stand there alone like a pine tree.' Napi then began breaking 
away the stony ridge with his heel, till there was only very little of it 
left. The woman then shouted, ' Be a pine tree.' And the pine tree 
stands there now alongside the big stones, and they still call it the 
women's kraal. Napi's flesh is in the pine tree, but his spirit still 
wanders through the earth. 

The boy made from Napi's left rib fell sick. The woman took a stone 
and threw it in the water, and she said, ' If the stone swims the boy will 
live,' but the stone sank and the boy died ; and so all people die now. If 
the stone had floated, all people would have lived. 

First Appearance of the White Man. — The Sai-u (Sioux?) were the first 
to see the white men. The Crees first brought the news to the Blackfeet. 
That was the first time they saw axes and knives and tobacco. The Crees 
said they heard guns firing. The white men were shooting buffaloes with 
guns. The white men took them to their teepees, and showed them their 
guns and knives. The white men came from the far east. They call 
white men ' Napi-akun,' but cannot tell whether this has any reference to 
Napi the Ancient. 

Eclipse of the Sun. — They say that the sun dies, and that it indicates 
that some great chief has either just died or is just going to die. 

How their Arts originated. — Napi gave them the first specimens of 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OP CANADA. 187 

every article they use, and they make the copies. They never try to 
make new things, unless instructed to do so in a dream. Nevertheless, 
they make no difEculty about using things made by white people. 

Religion. 

These people, notwithstanding that missionaries of the Roman 
Catholic Church, the Church of England, and the Methodist Com- 
munions have been working among them for several years past, are still, 
nearly all of them, with scarcely an exception, heathen. They seem to be 
more than any other north-western tribe opposed to adopting either the 
customs or religion of the white man. Their own system of religion has 
been already well explained by Mr. Hale, but I may perhaps add a few 
additional items of interest which I have gathered. The following is from 
the lips of ' Big Plume ' : — 

' Young men go up on to a hill, and cry and pray for some animal or 
bird to come to them. Before starting out they wash themselves all 
over and put off all their clothing and ornaments except a blanket. For 
five or six days they neither eat nor drink, and they become thin. They 
take a pipe with them and tinder and flint, and a native weed or bark for 
smoking (not matches or tobacco). When the pipe is filled they point 
the stem to the sun and say, " Pity me, that some animal or bird may 
come to me ! " Then they address the trees, the grass, the water, and the 
stones in the same manner. If anyone crosses their path while so 
engaged, they call aloud to them to warn them off, saying, " I am living 
alone. Do not come near ! " While in this state they dream, and what- 
ever animal or bird they see in their dream becomes their medicine or 
guardian through life. They are told also in a dream what description 
of herbs or roots to gather as their medicine, and this they collect and 
put carefully into a small bag to keep as a charm. They also kill the 
animal that they dreamed of, and keep its skin as a charm. No one 
knows what is the medicine they have gathered ; it is kept a profound 
secret. The little bag is kept in the tent, and no one may touch it but 
the owner. Other Indians would be afraid to meddle with it. There is 
no particular age for young men to engage in the above rites. They start 
away in the evening — only in summer. Some go of their own accord, 
others are bid to do so by their fathers or elder brothers. If they do not 
go, any sickness that comes upon them will certainly be fatal, or if shot 
by an enemy they will certainly die.' 

I asked ' Big Plnme ' what did he think became of the soul after death ? 
He replied that the souls of all Blackfeet Indians go to the sandhills north 
of the cypress hills (this would be to the east of the Blackfeet country). 
What proof had he of that ? I asked. ' At a distance,' said the chief, ' we 
can see them hunting buffalo, and we can hear them talking and praying 
and inviting one another to their feasts. In the summer we often go 
there, and we see the trails of the spirits and the places where they have 
been camping. I have been there myself, and have seen them and heard 
them beating their drums. We can see them in the distance, but when 
we get near to them they vanish. I cannot say whether or not they see 
the Great Spirit. I believe they will live for ever. All the Blackfeet 
believe this ; also the Sarcees, Stonies, Atsinas, and Crees. The Crees 
after death will go to the sandhills farther north. There will still be 
fighting between the Creea and the Blackfeet in the spiritual world. Dogs 



188 BEPORT— 1887. 

and horses go to the sandhills too ; also the spirits of the dead buffaloes. 
We hand these traditions down to our children. We point out to our 
children various places where Napi slept, or walked, or hunted, and thus 
our children's minds become impressed.' 

From inquiries I have made I am able to corroborate all that Mr. 
Hale has said in regard to the sun-dance and the amputation of their 
fingers and offering them as a sacrifice to the sun. Both these customs, 
on account of the cruelties accompanying them, are now discountenanced 
by the Canadian Government, and are likely before long to fall into disuse. 

Government &c. 

The head chief of the Blackfeet is Sapomakseka (Crowfoot). Under 
him are ' Old Sun,' chief of the Northern Blackfeet ; ' Red Crow,' chief 
of the Bloods ; ' North Axe,' chief of the Peigans. Over the southern 
Blackfeet, Crowfoot is himself the chief. There are also three or four sub- 
chiefs belonging to each tribe. The position is not hereditary, but, it 
would seem, is assumed by the man who possesses the most talent, tact, 
and power in the tribe. At present the chiefs are paid a small annual 
pittance by Government, 51. to each principal chief, and 31. each to the 
minor chiefs. The power of a chief is not defined ; he is in fact a czar, 
possessing an absolute control over his camp. He has a number of young 
men employed as soldiers to execute his commands. If the order is given 
to move camp or to come to a sun-dance and any disobey, the soldiers go 
round and violently strip the covering from the teepee, tear it to pieces, 
scatter the contents to the winds, and sometimes kill the dogs. 

Tomahawks are not much used by the Blackfeet Indians. Their 
weapons are a bow and arrows, a war club, a scalping-knife, and, for 
defence, a circular skin shield ornamented with feathers. Many of them 
have also guns or rifles. They will not fight openly, and are regarded by 
other tribes as cowardly. Their tactics are to avoid the enemies' missiles 
by jumping from side to side, and they have a hole in the shield through 
which they look and try to deceive the enemy by putting the shield to one 
side of their persons, as a mark to aim at, instead of in front. They 
always scalp their foes when fallen. 

I cannot discover that there are any clans or gentes existing among 
these people, but they have various orders connected with their dances, and 
those who belong to the order have to imitate the bird or animal whose 
name they have adopted as their totem. Toung unmarried men wear a 
badge of bead work and hair on each shoulder to show that they are 
available for marriage. 

Food. 

The principal and almost only food of these people was formerly 
buffalo meat. A man would eat on an average about eight lbs. a day. 
White people who have lived on it say that there is something very appe- 
tising about buffalo meat, and that it is no hardship to eat it alone without 
bread or vegetables. It is very different, they say, to eating beef. The 
Blackfeet Indians have never grown any corn, and never knew what bread 
was until the white man came among them. When in camp it was 
usually their practice to boil the meat, but when out on a hunting expedi- 
tion, without any cooking utensils, they would put the flesh on spits 
before a large fire and roast it. It used to be a common practice to make 



ON THE NOKTH-WESTEEN TRIBES OF CANADA. 189 

youths who had not yet been on the warpath hold the meat while roast- 
ing, so as to harden them to endure suffering. The Indians never used 
salt before the white man came, bat are now very fond of it. They seem 
to like strong- tasting food, and sometimes make a mixture of strong black 
tea, tobacco, and ' pain-killer,' which they drink with great relish. The 
Blackfeet seldom, if ever, eat fish ; I am told that they regard it as 
unclean. They preserve berries by drying them in the sun. Principal 
among these are the Saskatoon berry and the choke cherry. The latter 
they pound up when newly picked, and spread it on sheets of parchment 
to dry ; then they powder it up and put it in skin bags. It is called by 
white people ' choke cherry pemmican,' and is said to be very palatable. 
These people, in common with other nomad Indians, usually eat two meals 
a day — breakfast and supper. The latter, however, is often prolonged to 
an indefinite period after a successful day's hunt. When they get up in 
the morning the first thing they do is to wash. The Blackfeet Indians 
are very particular about this, even in the depth of winter. For soap 
they use ashes from the fire, and they usually rinse out their mouths 
thoroughly with water. It is a common practice to take a deep draught 
of cold water on first awakening in the morning. Directly after break- 
fast the usual thing is either to move camp or to start on a hunting 
expedition. The little fetish, or charm, shaped out of stone like some 
animal or bird, and wrapped round with roots, herbs, clay, and beads, is 
placed on end the night before, and in whichever direction it has fallen 
that is the direction in which to look for the buffalo. The hunt occupies 
the day, and in the evening, when work is over, they will eat a heavy 
and long-continued meal. For the above information I am indebted 
principally to the Rev. John Macdougall, of the Methodist Missionary 
Society, who has for many years past been labouring among these and 
neighbouring tribes of Indians. Now that the buffaloes are all gone, these 
people would be forced to starve were it not for the Government rations 
which they receive. Each individual receives one pound of good beef and 
half a pound of flour per diem. The buffalo disappeared in 1879-80. Before 
that time they might be counted by thousands. Their sudden disap- 
pearance has never yet been satisfactorily accounted for. None now 
remain in Canada, and only very few are to be found in the United 
States. 

Medicine. 

I had no opportunity of talking to the Blackfeet Indians themselves 
about this, and had I done so they would probably have been unwilling 
to reveal their secrets. I however gathered from Mr. Macdougall the 
names of some of their most frequently used medicines. (1) Minweg 
(Cree), a vegetable; little short sticks; a strong, pleasant aromatic 
flavour, like celery ; used for headache, catarrh ; also for smoking. 
(2) Bear root ; tastes like liquorice ; used for colic. (3) Rat food ; a 
flag root, with a sharp, pungent taste ; they grind it up and drink it like 
hot tea ; used for various diseases. Bleeding is done with a piece of 
sharp flint fastened into a stick like a veterinary surgeon's fleam. They 
bind the arm till the vein is swollen, put the edge of the flint on the vein, 
and strike it with a stick. Cupping is done by scarifying the part with 
a flint or pricking it with needles and then drawing the blood to the 
surface by sucking through a horn. Amputation of a limb is never 
resorted to, but they will patch up a bad wound, and often succeed in 
effecting a cure where an English surgeon would have amputated. These 



190 EBPOBT — 1887. 

things are not done by the professional 'medicine men,' but by any man 
or woman in the camp who is clever enough. The ' medicine men ' resort 
only to witchcraft in attempting their cures. 

Dwellings, Occupations, &c. 

While sitting in ' Old Sun's ' teepee I mentally took its dimensions 
and noted down its contents. It was about sixteen feet in diameter on 
the floor and about eighteen feet high in the centre, formed by fifteen 
poles, their feet on the line of the circle and their upper ends meeting in 
a bunch at the top, the framework covei-ed over with white tent canvas, 
yellowed and browned with the smoke. In the centre was a circlet of 
smooth stones, two and a half feet in diameter, forming the fireplace, and 
over the fire was a tin pot, suspended by three sticks — gipsy fashion. 
Overhead hung some pieces of dried beef on a string. The interior of 
the teepee, unlike those of the Crees and Sioux, was divided iuto four 
partitions by sloping back-resters, called ' stopistakiska,' and made of 
wickerwork ; their basis, about twenty inches wide, rested on the ground, 
and theii' tops, which tapered to three or four inches in breadth, were 
secured to the sloping poles which supported the tent about four feet from 
the ground. The teepee also had its sides lined with quilts and blankets 
to a height of four feet from the ground, which gave it a warm, comfort- 
able appearance. Back in the angle made by the sloping sides of the 
tent were packed away all the valuables which the family possessed — 
blankets, packsaddles, guns, &c. — and on the front of these partitions, 
towards the fire, a neat finish was made to each couch by a clean-shaved 
pole lying on the gi'ound. The teepee had no floor, only the grass of the 
prairie, but the couches between the partitions were carpeted with skins 
and blankets. All the feather ornaments, headdi'esses, shields, buckskin 
dresses, &c., were neatly folded up and packed away in skin cases made 
to contain them. There was an air of neatness and cleanliness about the 
whole arrangement. ' Old Sun ' exhibited to us some of his valuables. 
There was a circular shield, twenty inches in diameter, made of skin 
stretched over a wooden frame and ornamented with red cloth and crim- 
son-dyed feathers. On the face of the shield was a rude picture of a 



buffalo and some marks like this j-T which we were told represented 

the buffalo trail. We were also shown a skin helmet, mounted at the top 
with a buffalo horn studded with brass nails. The helmet was one mass 
of weasel tails, hanging in every direction, and the point of the horn, 
which pointed backwards and downwards, had a tuft of crimson feathers. 
There was also a very elaborate headgear for a horse to wear when going 
to battle. One part of it covered the head like a mask, holes being left 
for the eyes, and was fitted with a pair of horns ; the other part was a 
sort of banner, to be suspended to the lower jaw ; both parts were profusely 
decorated with red, yellow, and blue feathers. We were told that such a 
headdress as this was, in Indian estimation, worth a couple of ponies. 

These Blackfeet seem to live in teepees such as I have described in the 
summer, but in the winter it is now their custom to dwell in little log 
huts plastered over with mud, which they have learnt to construct, in 
imitation, it is thought, of the lumberer's shanty. It seems to me, how- 
ever, after seeing models of the Moqui and Pueblo Indians' houses at the 
Smithsonian Institute, that it is quite as likely that they had this style 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 191 

of dwelling previous to the coming of the white man. I enclose a sketch 
of both the exterior and interior of one of these mud huts. The sides are 
made of logs, plastered over with mnd ; the roof is almost flat, made of 
poles, covered first with prairie grass and then earth. There is always a 
fireplace, not built into the wall, but standing a little way from it. It is 
just a long, mud, rudely constructed chimney, reaching from a foot above 
the roof down to the ground inside the hut, a little widened at the base, 
and an arched opening in front for the fire. Sometimes the hut has a 
little square hole for a window, but more often the only aperture is the 
doorway. The floor is partly covered witb poles, flattened on the upper 
surface. A few sticks stuck into or between the logs serve for pegs. The 
occupants of two or three teepees usually unite for the winter, and occupy 
one mud hut between them. The hut would not be more than twelve by 
eighteen feet in size. 

Clothing and Ornaments. 

, A man's dress consists of a breech cloth ; a pair of leggings made of 
coloured blanket or cloth, with a fringe of long loose strips down the outer 
side of each leg ; a pair of buckskin moccasins ornamented with beads ; 
and over his shoulders a white, scarlet, or parti-coloured blanket. This 
is his whole dress. He wears no hat. His blanket is wrapped round his 
shoulders, or up around his head, or slipped down to his waist — according 
to the temperature of the weather or the whim of the moment. His neck 
is encircled by several necklaces, made of twisted bi'ass wire, large bright- 
coloured beads, bones of a deer's tail, the small bones of a deer's foot, or 
the claws of a bear. He has earrings, made of brass, wire, beads, or 
shell (brought from the Pacific coast). Generally he wears a coil or so of 
brazen rings on his fingers. Sometimes his wrists or arms are tattooed, 
but not often. Usually his face is painted either with crimson or ochre. 
He does not wear feathers in the head as a general thing. These are kept 
rather for special occasions. His hair is allowed to grow long and is 
plaited ; usually a plait on each side of the face, hanging vertically, and 
one or two more plaits at the back ; the hair is sometimes twisted into a 
knot at the point known as the scalp-lock. A man has the greatest ob- 
jection to his hair being cut short ; he wears it, it would seem, in defiance 
of his enemies, and boasts that none shall cut it oS" while he is alive. 
The dress of the woman resembles that of her European sister, but is very 
roughly constructed and shorter in the skirt. She has no under gai-ments, 
but wears leggings like the men and a blanket over her dress. Her neck, 
arms, fingers, and ears are profusely ornamented with brass, bead, and 
bone rings. Little children under four years of age sometimes have 
nothing on but a little apology for a shirt, reaching barely to the waist, 
but their little arms and necks are loaded with ornaments and charms. 
There is never any indecent exposure on the part of either sex. They are 
always particularly careful about this. The women, however, make no 
attempt to hide their breasts when suckling their infants. 

The Blackfeet women do not use board cradles for their babes like the 
Ojibways. Board cradles are seldom seen west of Lake Superior. The 
Blackfeet babes are wrapped up warmly and laced into a bag, which the 
mother carries on her back. 

A chief's dress sometimes has marked on it a record of his exploits. 
Chief Crowfoot bade us count the black lines on his buckskin rope — they 
amounted to 143 — and he said that he had been in 143 fights. 



192 REPORT — 1887. 

Manufactures. 

The Blackfeet have the name of being a lazy people, and, beyond 
making the ornaments which adorn their persons and the saddles for 
their ponies, they certainly do not seem to do much in the way of manu- 
facture. They make no boats or canoes, no baskets, no articles of metal. 
The most that they attempt to do in this line is to fashion a few rude 
wooden bowls and platters, and horn spoons, and plaited ropes. 

Marriage. 

The Blackfeet are polygamous, some of the men having as many as 
ten wives. Girls mature early, and become wives as early as at twelve 
years of age, and are sometimes mothers at fourteen. The families average 
five or six children. The women are strong, and undergo but little incon- 
venience in bringing their children into the world. Mr. Macdougall has 
known a woman when travelling to go aside from the trail, and in little 
more than an hour to be on her pony again with an infant in her arms. 
There is no marriage ceremony ; so many ponies or other presents are 
given by the intending husband to the parents of the bride, and then he 
takes her away. 

Games and Amusements. 

The Blackfeet have no regular ball game. They sometimes engage in 
feats of strength, wrestling, and foot-racing, but their chief amusements 
are horse-racing and gambling. For the latter of these they employ dice 
of their own construction — little cubes of wood, with signs instead of 
numbers marked upon them — these they shake together in a wooden dish. 
Holding some small article in the hand under a blanket, and rapidly 
passing it from one hand to another, leaving the second party to guess in 
which hand it is left, is another method. They have^also a little wheel 
made of metal, covered over with cloth, three or four inches in diameter, 
which they roll towards two arrows stuck in the ground, and see towards 
which it will fall the nearest. There is always heavy betting on a horse 
race ; each chooses his favourite, and then they begin throwing down in 
a heap the articles they wish to stake — blankets, guns, lines (representing 
ponies), tents, &c. Those who win take the whole heap, and divide it 
among themselves ; even their wives are sometimes gambled away in this 
manner. 

Burial of the Dead. 

The Blackfeet never bury their dead below the sui-face of the soil ; 
they think it a horrible practice to expose the body to the worms and 
vermin that live in the ground. They either deposit the bodies on a hill- 
top or place them in a tree. Perhaps, being sun- worshippers, their idea is 
that the sun should still shine upon them after they are dead. When the 
body is placed in a tree it is wrapped in blankets and put up on a rudely 
constructed platform. When deposited on a hill-top or cliff a rough 
kind of box is made, three times the size of a coffin, and into it are put, 
besides the body, all that belonged to the dead person — blankets, saddle, 
gun, kettles, and everything ; it is then nailed down, dragged by a pony 
on a travoie to the appointed spot, and there deposited. Sometimes a few 
logs are piled round it to keep oflf the dogs and wild animals, but often 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 193 

nothing is to be seen but the rudely made box and some kind of a flag 
flying above it. When a chief dies his favourite pony is brought and 
killed at the door of his tent; his body is then laid out in his own teepee, 
often in a sitting position, and all his possessions are spread around him; 
the edges of the tent are wedged down and secured with stones, then the 
teepee is closed and left. This is called a ' death teepee.' Travellers 
sometimes come across a solitary teepee with no signs of life around it, 
and on looking in are horrified to see a decomposing corpse. There is 
great grief when a person dies. The people weep and howl over the dead 
bodies of their friends. It is usual also for the friends to throw their 
blankets and other valuables into the coffin before it is closed. A mother 
has been known to wrap her last i-emaining blanket around her dead infant, 
even in the middle of winter. Mr. Tims told me of a father walking 
sevei'al miles barefoot through the snow to bury his little child, having 
given his moccasins to the dead infant. The graves of the dead are 
visited by the living ; the people often come and hold a feast with the 
departed spirits, setting aside portions of food for them. The Blackfeet 
seem to have no dread of ghosts or spirits, and do not mind handling 
dead bodies. It is not an unusual thing for a ' death teepee ' even to be 
rifled by those bent on plunder. 

Physical Development. 

I picked out, as nearly as I could, an average Blackfoot Indian — his 
name was Boy Chief, aged 44 or 45 — and measured him from head to foot, 
the result being as follows :— 

ft. in. 

1. Height from ground to vertex 6 8| 

2. „ „ meatus auditorius . . . .5 2* 

3. „ „ chin 4 ll| 

4. „ „ top of sternum . . . . 4 7^ 
li; „ „ elbow (bent) 3 5| 

5. „ ,, umbilicus 3 4^ 

7. „ „ fork 2 7| 

12. „ „ tip of finger (hanging vertically) . 2 2| 

8. „ „ knee-cap joint 1 "^1 

16. Circumference of chest at armpit 2 llA 

„ „ mammEe 2 9| 

18. „ at haunches 2 8| 

26. Span — outstretched arms 5 11 

27. „ thumb to middle finger 8| 

28. Length of thumb 2f 

foot 10| 

13. Height- sitting on the ground 2 10 

30. Head — greatest circumference (over glabella) . . .1 lOj 
41. „ length of face, root of nose to chin . . . . o 4| 

32. „ arc meatus audit, over head to chin . . . . 1 2^ 

31. ,, ,, root of nose to inion 12 

33. „ „ over glabella 1 0^ 

The hair of the Indians is black, straight, somewhat fine, and abundant 
in quantity ; it grows to about 3 feet in length, and is put up in large 
plaits, one on each side of the face, and generally one or more at the 
back. There is no hair on the face ; if any grows it is very little. The 
few stray hairs that appear are plucked out with small iron tweezers. The 
colour of the skin, not exposed to the air, is No. 21 (two other persons 
agreed with me on this point), and of the eye, No. 1 towards the centre 
and No. 16 towards edge of iris. 

1887. 



194 



KEPOKT — 1887. 



Intellectual Capacitt. 

As no cliildren of this tribe have, as yet, been induced to remain even 
for a few consecutive weeks at school, it is impossible to report at present 
on this head. I have, however, succeeded in inducing two boys to return 
with me to our Shingwauk Home (1,600 miles distant fi-om their reserve), 
and it will be very interesting to see in the course of a year what progress 
they make, in comparison with boys from other tribes. The Blackfeet 
have all the appearance of being an intelligent people ; and I saw two 
boys at the mission who were evidently beginning to understand intelli- 
gently the use of the letters of the alphabet, for they had several times sug- 
gested to Mr. Tims alterations in his mode of spelling Blackfoot words ; 
one of them, I found, had in his possession a list of Blackfoot and English 
words, evidently trying to teach himself the English language. Like all 
other Indian tribes, they learn very quickly to write a good hand, and 
many of the children show a taste for drawing. 



The Language. 

I entirely endorse Mr. Hale's view that the Blackfeet language is a 
branch of the Algonhin stocJc, having a near affinity to that spoken by the 
Ojibways and Crees ; the grammatical construction is almost precisely the 
same, and a good many of the words are similar. The Sioux language, 
spoken by some 2,000 Indians in the North- West Territory, is an entirely 
distinct language, both in structure and vocabulary, but the other lan- 
guages south of the Saskatchewan Valley, viz. Cree, Blackfoot, Saulteaux, 
and Ojibway, are clearly all of one common stock. Following are a few 
words in the three principal tongues which bear some resemblance to one 
another : — 







Ojibway 


Cree 


Blackfoot 


Man 




inini 


iyiniw 


nin'nau 


woman 




ikwe 


iskwew 


akew 


name 




ijinikasowin 


ijihikasowin 


inikasim 


my daughter 


nidiinis 


nitiinis 


nititna 


wood or 


tree 


mitik 


mistik 


mistis 


I 




nistoa, -ni 


niya, -ui 


nin, -ni 


thou 




kistoa, -ki 


kiya, -ki 


kin, -ki 


yes 




A 


A 


A 


my leg 




nikad 


niskat 


nokatsi 


kettle 




akik 


askik 


iska 



But it is in the grammatical construction of the three languages that the 
resemblance is the most marked. I shall notice eleven points in order : — 

1. The distmction between animate and inanimate plurals. 

In Ojibway animate nouns make their plurals in g, ig, og ; inanimate in an, un. 

In Cree „ „ oh, ah „ a 

In Blackfoot „ „ ax, ix, ox ; „ in esto, isto. 

In all three languages an animate noun must be followed by an animate 
verb, and vice versa. 

2. In all three languages a distinction is observed between the ^rs< 
person plural exclusive and the first person plural inclusive. Thus : — 

Ojibway Cree Blackfoot 

Our house (excl.) niwigiwiiminan niwaskdhiganinau nokoanan 

,, (incl.) kiwigiw&minan kiwaskahiganinau kokoanan 





Ojibway 


Cree 


I lo7e thee 


kisagiin 


kisakihitin 


thou lovest me 


kisagi 


kisakihin 


thou lovest us 


kisagiimiu 


kisakihinan 


he loves us 


nisagiigonan 


nisakihikonan 



ON THE NORl'H-WESTEBN TBIBES OF CANADA. 195 

3. Distinct endings to express the second third person and the third third 
person in a sentence. — This rule is peculiar to Ojibway and Cree, but I 
could not ascertain whether or not the Blackfeet observe the same 
distinction. 

4. The adjective is placed before the noun in these three languages. In 
some other Indian languages, e.g. Sioux, it follows the noun. 

5. All adjectives (with the exception of adjectival particles used only 
as prefixes) can be transformed, with but very little alteration, into im- 
personal verbs ; thus (Blackfoot) agsi, good ; agsiu, it is good. This is 
similar to Ojibway and Cree. 

6. Personal and possessive pronouns. — The first and second persons, 
singular and plural, as shown in Mr. Hale's report, have the same first 
syllable and nearly the same plural endings in all three languages, viz. 
ni, I, my ; hi, thou, thy. Plural endings — nari, we, our ; wa, waw, you, 
your. 

7. The objective case of the pronoun is in all three languages embodied 
in the verb. Thus : — 

Blackfoot 
kitakomimo 
kitakomimok 
kitakomimokipinan 
nitakomimokinau 

8. The simplest form (and often the root) of the verb is the sino-ular 
imperative. Thus : — 

Ojibway Cree Blackfoot 

Sleep thou nibun nipd okdt 

give it to him mij miy klikit 

9. The negative is doiMe, as in the French language: — Ojibway, 
Tcawin ...si-, Blackfoot, mat . . .atov ats. In Cree they have only the simple 
word namdwiya or na-ma before the verb. Thus : I do not love him. 
Ojibway, kawin nisagiasi ; Cree, namdwiya nisakihew ; Blackfoot, 
ni-mat- takomimau-ats. 

10. There is a distinct form for the negative imperative. Ojibway, 
kego ._ . . ken ; Cree, ekaimja or eka ; Blackfoot, mini or pini. Tbus : Do not 
give it. Ojibway, kego mina ken ; Cree, ekawiya miy ; Blackfoot, mini 
kukit. 

11. An interrogative particle is used in all three languages. Ojibway, 
ina ; Cree, tci ; Blackfoot, kat . . . pa. Thus : Are you happy ? Ojibway] 
kiivawijendam ina ? Cree, kimiyawatam tci ? Blackfoot, kikateagsitakipa '/ 

There may very likely be other analogies between these three 
languages, but the above are as many as I have had time to inquire 
into. 

There are two sounds in the language which are difficult of pro- 
nunciation, and students are undecided as to how best to write them. 

(a) There is a sound between kr and ks. I suggest writing it kc, 
thus : nikcista, my mother. 

(6) There is a sound between ch and is. I suggest writino- this tc, 
thus : tcema ? Where ? 

In the following vocabulary the letters and sounds are pronounced as 
follows : a as in father, a as in bat, e as in they, i as in pique, i as in 
pick, as in note, u as oo in cool, ai as in aisle, au as ow in cow^ iu as ew 
in few, j as z in azure, g like ch in the German. 

o2 



196 



KEPORT — 1887. 



Vocabulary of Blachfoot loords. 



woman 

boy 

girl 

infant 

my father 

my motber 

my husband 

my wife 

my son 

my daughter 

my elder brother 

my younger brother 

my elder sister 

my younger sister 

Indian 

people 

head 

hair 

face 

forehead 

ear 

eye 

nose 

mouth 

tongue 

teeth 

beard 

neck 

arm 

hand 

fingers 

thumb 

nails 

body 

chest 

belly 

female breast 

leg 

foot 

toes 

bone 

heart 

blood 

town 

chief 

warrior 

my friend 

house 

skin loage 

kettle 

bow 

arrow 

axe 

knife 

boat 

moccasins 

pipe 

tobacco 

sky 

sun 



nin'nau 

akew 

sag'komapi 

akekoiin 

s'itsiman 

nin'nu 

nikcista, 

no'mii 

notokeman 

noko-a 

nitan'na 

ni-is 

niskan 

nin'sta 

nitakim 

niitci-tapiwa 

matapiwa 

motokan 

mokoiekinsin 

mostoksis 

moniis 

mogtokis 

moopspi 

moksisis 

mah'Oi 

m^tsini 

mogpekists 

imoyowasin 

mokokin 

mots'Imln 

motci.s 

mokitslix 

omakokitsis 

owot'anokitsix 

mostom 

mokikin 

mokoan 

un'nikis 

mo'katsi 

m(>apisak 

mokitsiix 

ogkin 

moskitsipap 

aapan 

akapioyis 

ninnau 

sooyiepitsi 

nipia 

napioyis 

moyls 

iska 

ndma 

apsi 

koksiiki 

istoan 

ikiosatsis 

'atsikists 

akwiniman 

pista'kan 

nS,motak 

natusi 



moon 


kukumikesum (night- 




light 


star 


kakatosi 


day 


kc'istikui 


night 


kokuyi 


morning 


kciskanatani 


evening 


o'lakujd 


spring 


motuye 


summer 


nepiiye 


autumn 


mukiiye 


winter 


stuy(§ 


wind 


sopiiyi 


thunder 


kcistcikum 


lightning 


aipopum 


rain 


so'taiyi 


snow 


kun'skwii 


fire 


istci 


water 


ogke 


ice 


kokutuyi 


earth 


kcakum 


sea 


istciksipokogke 


river 


niyctagtai 


lake 


omaksikimi 


valley 


istelkum 


prairie 


sau-ke 


mountain 


netum'mo 


island 


mini 


stone 


'okotoki 


salt 


istciksipoko 


iron 


mikskim 


forest 


as'oaskwi 


tree 


mistcis 


wood 


mistcis 


leaf 


suyopokist 


bark 


otokis 


grass 


matuyis 


pine 


pagtogki 


flesh 


ikcisiko 


dog 


imita 


buffalo 


enlwa 


bear 


ki;\iyo 


wolf 


apisi 


fox 


otatuye 


deer 


owatuye 


elk 


ponoka 


beaver 


kcistagki 


rabbit 


'atcista 


horse 


ponokamita 


fly 


sosksisi 


snake 


pitseksina 


bird 


piksi 


^EE 


owaw 


feather 


mam'iM 


goose 


'apspini 


duck 


sa-ai 


fish 


mam'mi 


name 


nimikasim 


white 


ksiksinam 


black 


siksinam 


red 


maksinara 


blue 


kumunin^tsi 



ON THE NOETH-WESTEEN TEIBES OF CANADA. 



197 



yellow 


otokiunam 


nine 


pikso 


green 


otski'iinam 


ten 


kepo 


big 


omakimi 


eleven 


kepo niteikoputo 


small 


enakimi 


twelve 


kepo natcikuputo 


strong 


skunitapi 


twenty 


natcippo 


old 


nilpi 


thirty 


niippo 


young, new 


mani 


ninety 


piksippo 


good 


agsi 


one hundred 


kepippo 


bad 


pakAppi 


one thousand 


omaksi-kepippo 


dead 


eniu 


he eats 


au-yi-u 


alive 


Silkiaitd.pi 


I eat 


nit-au-yi 


cold 


sttiye 


he drinks 


aisimiu 


this 


'amu 


I drink 


nitAisimi 


that 


'omak 


he runs 


aukskiisiu 


all 


konai 


he dances 


aiilipiu 


many 


iikaiim 


he sings 


ninikiu 


who 


taka 


he sleeps 


ai-6kau 


far ofE 


pietsi 


he speaks 


epuyiu 


near 


astotsim 


he sees 


'asapiu 


here 


anum 


he sees him 


nanuyewaie 


there 


omim 


he kills him 


initsiu-ai-e 


to-day 


anok kcistcikui 


he loves him 


akomimiu-ai-e 


yesterday 


matan'ni 


he sits 


itaiipiu 


to-morrow 


ilpinakwis 


sit down 


'apiit 


yes 


a 


he stands 


itaipuyiu 


no 


sa 


he goes 


itappo 


one 


nitukskam 


I go 


nitai-itappo 


two 


natokam 


go 


tapput 


three 


niokiskam 


he comes 


puksipu 


four 


nisoyim 


come 


puksiput 


five 


nisitci 


he walks 


awawakau 


six 


n'awyi 


he works 


apotilkiu 


seven 


ikitsikam 


he steals 


aikomosiu 


eight 


naniso 







Notes by Mr. H. Hale on the Report of the Bev. E. F. Wilson. 

Mr. Wilson having submitted to me his valuable report, I add a few 
notes, comprising some facts whicli have come to my knowledge since my 
report of 1885 was prepared. 

In that repoT't I suggested that the non-Algonkin element of the 
Blackfoot language, as well as their peculiar religious ceremony, the ' sun- 
dance ' (which is not found among the eastern Algonkins), might have 
been derived from some tribe west of the Rocky Mountains. The natives 
of that region who are nearest to the Blackfeet are the Kootenais, a people 
in some respects of noteworthy and superior character. 

Father De Smet, in his 'Indian Sketches,' describes them as 'the 
best disposed of all the mountain Indians.' They are highly esteemed 
among the traders for their good qualities, and particularly for their 
scrupulous honesty. With this people the Blackfeet have had close 
relations, in peace and war, from time immemorial. My intelligent cor- 
respondent, Mr. J. W. Schultz, an educated gentleman, who has resided 
for several years among or near the American Blackfeet, and has written 
much about their usages and traditions, informs me that the Kootenais, 
before their recent conversion by the Roman Catholic missionaries, prac- 
tised the sun-dance. This he had learnt from Indians of that tribe. 
He adds : ' In old times, however, the Kootenais lived as much on this 
side of the mountains as they did on the other.' This accords with other 
information which I have received to the same effect. As the Blackfeet 



198 REPORT— 1887. 

DOW occupy the country which the Kootenais formerly possessed, on the 
east side of the mountains, it is clear that the Blackfeet must have ex- 
pelled the Kootenais from that country, and very probably have con- 
quered and absorbed some portion of the tribe. It is to this quarter, 
therefore, that we should naturally look for the strange element in the 
Blackfoot language. We find, accordingly, that the word for 'sun,' 
which in the Blackfoot language is totally different from the correspond- 
ing word in all other Algonkin tongues, bears an evident resemblance 
to the Kootenai name of that luminary. In Blackfoot the word is natos 
or nahisi ; in Kootenai it is natanih. The words diifer merely in their 
terminations. There can hardly be a doubt that, when the Blackfeet 
borrowed from their former neighbours their most peculiar and remark- 
able religious ceremony, they borrowed also the name of the sun-deity to 
whose worship it was devoted. 

Two of the legends given by Mr. Wilson deserve notice in this con- 
nection. He was informed that the Snake Indians first had horses, and 
■that these came out of the ' big salt water ' which has tides. This event 
is combined with another — that of the carrying away of a Blackfoot 
woman to the south by 'the snakes.' The snakes are the Shoshonees. 
This widespread people, whose bands wandered over a vast region, from 
California to Texas, were in former days among the most inveterate 
enemies of the Blackfeet. To the ti-adition related by Mr. Wilson some 
facts may be added from the statements of Mr. Schultz. He mentions 
that horses were first known to the Blackfeet about the beginning of the 
present century, and that ' they were stolen from the south.' Putting all 
these circumstances together, we are warranted in concluding that the 
Blackfeet first obtained horses by capturing them from the Shoshonees 
in a war which was kept in memory not only by this event, but also by 
tlie fact that a Blackfoot woman was made prisoner and cai^ried off by 
the enemy. From the prisoners whom they made in turn the Blackfeet 
learnt that the strange animals which they had taken came from the 
great salt water. Horses were probably first known to the Shoshonees in 
California, where they were introduced by the Spaniards in the latter part 
of the last century. The Shoshonees would learn from the Spaniards 
that the horses had come originally across the ocean. This information 
passing from tribe to tribe over the continent reached the Blackfeet in 
the shape of the myth which Mr. Wilson has obtained. What is chiefly 
to be noted is that this myth, which by its form might be thousands of 
years old, has yet unquestionably originated within less than a century. 

This modem shaping of the Blackfoot mythological stories is also 
apparent in the account of the making of the first woman and man from 
the ribs of Napi. This portion of the creation myth, which does not 
appear in the version furnished to me by Father Lacombe, is evidently a 
novel feature, derived very recently from the missionary teachings. 

We are now prepared to find an event of not very ancient history 
involved, as may reasonably be conjectured, in the remarkable tradition 
obtained by Mr. Wilson concerning the women who lived by themselves 
in a district adjoining the land of the Blackfeet, and who finally took 
husbands from among the latter. This story holds apparently an impoi't- 
ant place among the Blackfoot legends. A coi'respondent, who has paid 
much attention to such subjects — Mr. George Bird Grinnell, Ph.D., of 
New Tork (editor of ' Forest and Stream ') — sends it to me as he learnt 
it from his Blackfoot (Peigan) guide during a hunting tour in the Far 



ON THE NORTH-WESTEKN TEIBES OF CANADA. 199 

"West two years ago. In this form the story does not appear to have 
anything directly to do with the creation. It becomes one of the many 
tales in which the ' Old Man ' (Napi) is represented as playing the fool, 
and as tricked by other powers or by mortals. In reference to his name, 
which Mr. Wilson and others write Nafi, and Father Lacombe Napiw, 
and which 2Ir. Grinnell renders ' Old Man,' it may be mentioned that 
Napi is an adjective, signifying ' old.' Used as a name, it might be ren- 
dered ' The Old One ' (in French, Le Vieux ; in German, Ber Alte). 
Napiiv is a verbal form, used also as a name, and signifying, properly, 
' He who is old.' The following is the legend as told to Mr. Grinnell : — 

' As Old Man was going along he came to a big lodge, which was the 
woman's home. He went in. The women said to him, " Do you think 
that you have men for husbands for us? " He said, "Who is chief 
here ? " A woman replied, " That woman behind is chief." He said to 
the chief woman, " To-morrow let those women come to the valley. A 
Peigan will be there, finely dressed, with leggings trimmed with weasel- 
skin ; very handsome is his wearing apparel." The chief woman replied, 
" Let the others wait. I am first chief woman ; I will be the first to take 
a husband." Now Old Man wanted very much to have the chief woman 
for his wife, although she did not look nicely. She had been making 
dried raeat, and her hands and arms and clothing were covered with 
blood and grease. The next day the chief woman came to the valley, 
and there she found many men. In the midst of them was Old Man, 
splendidly dressed, with weasel-ski q leggings. As soon as she saw him 
the chief woman recognised Old Man ; so she let them all go, and went 
back to the women. To them she said, " You can take any of these men 
except the finely dressed man who sta^nds in the middle. Do not take 
him, for he is mine." Then she put on her best apparel, and went to the 
valley. The women went to look for husbands. Old Man [who wished 
to be chosen by the chief woman] stayed far behind [so that he should not 
be taken by any of the others] . All the women chose husbands, and took 
all the men to their lodges. One man was still left unchosen — it was Old 
Man. The chief woman said, " Old Man thought I was a fool. Now we 
will make a bufi^alo piskan [enclosure], and I will change him into a pine 
log, and we will use him for a part of the fence. So Old Man is the fool, 
and not the woman." ' 

As we know the legend of the origin of horses had a recent historical 
foundation, so we may also conclude that this story of the women and 
their choice of husbands, coupled with the rejection of Napi, had its 
origin in some actual occurrence of perhaps no very remote date. We 
know, from other noted traditions — such as the ' Rape of the Sabines ' 
and the capture of wives for the children of Benjamin — how such mar- 
riages by wholesale, as they might be styled, are likely to take place. If 
there ever was a camp of Indian women with whom no men were found, 
we may be tolerably sure that they were the survivors of a war in which 
all the fighting men of their tribe had been slain. The band of Kootenais, 
who formerly dwelt east of the Rocky Mountains, was certainly not dis- 
lodged by their Blackfeet enemies without a desperate war, in which, as 
a natural and almost inevitable result, the men would be killed — perhaps 
in a fight at a distance from their homes — and the women, who were left 
at home, would be afterwards made prisoners, and would become the 
wives of the conquerors. Such events are of common occurrence in Indian 
history. The liberty given to the captive women, when once received as 



200 _ REPORT— 1887. 

members of the Blackfoot nation, of choosing their own husbands would 
be entirely in accordance with Indian sentiments and habits. That these 
women should despise and reject Napi, the peculiar and rather ridiculous 
divinity of the Algonkins, and should introduce the worship of their own 
glorious sun-god, is intelligible enough. Thus we can see how a tradition 
as improbable on its face as the coming of horses out of the salt water 
may represent an actual event which has deeply affected the language, 
religion, and character of the Blackfoot nation. A similar occurrence, 
described in Muller's 'Grandriss der Sprachwissenschaft,' had a still more 
remarkable consequence. The Caribs (Galibis) of the South American 
mainland, having conquered the Arowaks, who inhabited the neighbour- 
ing islands, put the men to death and took the women for wives. The 
women, with true Indian independence, retained their own language 
among themselves, and taught it, as well as the language of their hus- 
bands, to their children. The result was that two languages were subse- 
quently spoken in the tribe — the Galibi among the men, and the Arowak 
(mixed, however, with some Carib elements) among the women. If the 
conquest had taken place a few generations earlier the two languages 
would doubtless have been by this time fused into one — a Cai'ib speech, 
with many Arowak elements — and the origin of the mixed race would 
have become a story of the Carib mythology. 

I may venture to add that Mr. Wilson's carefulness in preserving these 
' native stoiies — however trivial they might at first seem — precisely as they 
were received by him deserves particular acknowledgment. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with a I'enewal of the grant. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson, Mr. 
Pengelly, Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Mr. G. W. Bloxam (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Prehistoric Race 
in the Greek Islands. 

The Committee have to report that they have again had the benefit of Mr. 
and Mrs. Bent's valuable assistance in carrying on investigations during 
the past year. The results of explorations must always be uncertain 
from the fact that when an exploration is begun, however promising it 
may seem to be, it is impossible to tell whether expectations will be 
realised regarding it. This yeai", however, the explorations which 
Mr. Bent undertook for the Committee have proved to be successful, as 
they have resulted in the discovery of an ancient temple, which proved 
to be of Apollo, containing no less than thirteen ancient inscriptions 
which have been successfully photographed by Mrs. Bent. The structure 
and plan of the temple have been thoroughly explored, and a marble 
statue, unfortunately wanting the head, but nevertheless of considerable 
value, has been found. Several of the tombs adjoining the temple have 
been explored, and massive and elaborate sarcophagi of considerable 
interest found in them, which illustrate the customs and art of the 
inhabitants of these islands in ancient times. 

The field selected for exploration has been an extremely interesting 
one, and the work which has been done has thrown much light on the 
ancient marble commerce of Thasos. 



ON THE PREHISTORIC RACE IN THE GREEK ISLANDS. 201 

As the Committee attach considerable value to the report which was 
presented to it by Mr. Bent of the work done by him, it has been thought 
advisable to incorporate that report in the px-esent report of the Committee 
to the Association. 

The sum of 201., placed at the Committee's disposal by the Association 
last year, has been entirely expended on wages to the workmen engaged 
in excavation. 

The Committee have much pleasure in tendering its best thanks to Mr. 
and Mrs. Bent for the indefatigable zeal with which they have conducted 
the researclies, attended as they have been with no small j^ersonal incon- 
venience arising from imperfect accommodation obtainable at the scene 
of their labours, and expenses not defrayed by the grant of the Associa- 
tion. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, and that a similar sum be 
placed at their disposal. They recommend that Mr. Bent's name be also 
added to those forming the present Committee. 

Report op Mk. Bent to the Committee. 
The Ancient Marble Commerce of Tliasos. 

Last winter, with the grant from the British Association, I was enabled 
to make excavations and close examinations at one of the chief centres of 
marble merchandise of the ancient world. The quarries of Thasos were 
chiefly productive of what we may term a fashionable marble during the 
epoch of Hadrian and the decadence of Hellenic art, but long before the 
time of its popularity Thasiote marble was in use for domestic purposes 
when Parian and Pentelic were exclusively used for statuary ; and having 
visited these three great quarries of white marble, I am inclined to think 
that from Thasos during the coui'se of ages far more has been taken than 
from the other two. 

Herodotus tells us that a statuary marble was in the first instance 
discovered here by the Phoenicians ; whilst Pliny tells us that it was less 
livid than the Lesbian, and on examination we found the texture of the 
Thasiote marble decidedly compact, and the grain formed of bright and 
medium-sized scales, and very subject to rot when exposed to water. 
From Seneca we further gather that in his time ' fish preserves were 
made of Thasiote marble,' and at this period it was considered a marble 
of inferior quality, for Papinio Stagio, in describing the magnificence of an 
edifice, adds that Thasiote marble had not been admitted in its construction. 
Pausanias, on the other hand, assures us that the late Athenians held it 
in great estimation, and had two statues in honour of Hadrian made of 
it, which were placed in the temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens. The 
Euripides in the Vatican is made of it, and Belloni asserts that the 
exterior of the pyramid of Caius Sestius in Rome was coated with this 
marble. This is about all that is known of the quarries until the investi- 
gations we made into the subject during our stay in Thasos last winter. 

Owing to the position of the quarries they were very easily worked, 
and the marble was most handy for exportation. A promontory consisting 
wholly of marble juts out into the sea on the southern coast-line of Thasos ; 
it is about a mile in length, and rises in parts to about 300 feet above the 
sea-level. This promontory at its extreme point has been completely cut 
down to the sea-level, forming a large flat surface over which the sea 
dashes in storms, and in the hot weather the inhabitants of a village 



202 REPOET— 1887. 

some four hours distant come here to collect the salt which forms in the 
crevices out of which the marble blocks have been cut. Fiom this fact 
the locality has acquired the modern name of Alki, a name common 
enough in spots where salt marshes exist. 

This flat nose of the marble promontory forms an interesting study of 
the methods adopted for quarrying marble in ancient times. Here we 
see the shape and ;;ize of each block as it was cut — some square, some 
rounded, and all cut away round the edges, and holes bored in regular 
lines undei-neatb, a means adopted for raising the block that they wished to 
detach. Most of the loose blocks which have remained here unexported 
since ancient times have been removed for building purposes to Con- 
stantinople in late years, but the old inhabitants informed me that thirty 
years ago this flat space was covered with such blocks. We saw a few 
of them, and also the drum of a column 6 ft. 8 in. in diameter, and 
4 ft, 4 in. high, and a monolithic column 30 ft. long and 3 ft. 8 in. in 
diameter. On the higher ground deep quarries are to be seen, and on the 
isthmus which joins the promontory to the mainland are the remains of 
a considerable town of ancient date, where doubtless the workmen and 
marble merchants had their dwellings. Here it was that we commenced 
the excavation of the temple which proved to be of Apollo ; but before 
describing our work and its results in detail I will say a few words 
about a road of excellent Hellenic engineering which was constructed 
across the mountains and connected this marble town with the ancient 
capital of Thasos, some six houi-s distant. 

Traces of this road in an excellent state of preservation are found at 
intervals all along the ancient line of route, but owing to the burning of 
an extensive tract of forest a quarter of an hour's walk from Alki a short 
time ago a portion in the bend of a hill has been exposed to view, which 
is almost as perfect as when originally in use. It is constructed of 
irregular blocks of marble placed lengthwise, so that the whole width of 
the road is only composed of two blocks, and is a uniform width of 
13 ft. 3 in. Wherever it was possible the engineer utilised the neigh- 
bouring marble rocks in constructing his road ; it is noticeable that at 
the angles of the valley, where mountain streams run down, there is no 
conduit for water beneath, and the sti'eam must liave made its way across 
the roadway itself; but so massive are the blocks that not one of them 
has been displaced by the action of the water. At intervals along the 
road there are towers for protection, several of them well preserved, and 
taken as a whole it forms one of the most interesting specimens of 
ancient engineering skill that has come down to us. 

After carefally inspecting Alki we determined on commencing our 
excavations at a spot down by the water's edge, where some huge marble 
blocks in tiers indicated the existence of a building of considerable 
importance on the top of the platform. The lower tier of steps came 
down almost to the water's edge, or j;ather down to a curious concrete 
quay, which in ancient times ran all round the marble promontory, and 
must at least have been three miles in extent, projecting some twenty 
feet into the water, and then ending abruptly, for the water here as else- 
where amongst the islands has risen several inches. 

There were five tiers or steps, composed of some of the largest marble 
blocks I have ever seen. The one at the northern angle of the lowest 
grade measured 16ft. 11 in., was 5ft. Sin. wide and 2ft. 4 in. thick; 
whereas the block at the northern angle of the top tier was 12 ft. long. 



ON THE PREHISTORIC RACE IN THE GREEK ISLANDS. 203 

The building, which originally stood on the top of this massive platform, 
was of the Doric order, and consisted of two chambers, the debris of 
which and the foundations were hidden by several feet of soil, in which 
fir trees of considerable age were growing. 

The long side of the platform facing the sea measured 54 ft., and 
2 ft. 4 in. from the outer edge we came across the outer wall of the 
temple, offering a fa9ade to the sea of 45 ft. 9 in. in length. Until we had 
proceeded some way with the excavation we found few traces on this 
side, which, from its proximity to the sea, had doubtless been robbed of 
its principal features at an earlier date. A^ the south-western corner of 
this outer chamber, which was in width 32 ft. 7 in., we came across a 
raised platform, on which originally stood an archaic statue of Apollo ; 
along this, in letters of an early period, ran the inscription AA02 
AIIOAA, which I take to be a rai-e dedication either to the ' wolf god ' 
Apollo or in connection with the sun god (Saos, a torch, a light). 

At a little distance from this platform we came across the marble 
trunk of an archaic statue, broken oif below the knees, and without a 
head, and measuring from the neck to below the knee 4 ft. 5 in. Ai'ound 
the shoulders it was 4 ft. 10^- in., and round the waist only 3 ft. 4 in. ; it 
had down the back 15 braids of hair, and, at the top of each, holes in 
which ornaments had been fixed. Strength was curiously developed in 
the chest and sinews, and the idea of the knee was given by a curious 
trefoil-like excrescence. 

In front of this platform we came across a number of large marble 
slabs, with votive inscriptions from mariners, thanking the gods for a 
successful voyage. The most interesting was dedicated to ' Sminthean 
Apollo, who gives good voyages,' and relates how the oSerer had sailed 
around ' the misty island ' {depirjv vrjaov). This is a curious allusion to the 
old legendary name of Thasos, 'Aept'a, or the misty island, which was given 
to it in this wise. An early band of colonists, in the ninth century B.C., 
from the other marble island of Paros, sought from the Delphic oracle 
directions as to where they should go. ' Go to the misty island ' was the 
reply ; and Thasos, according to their idea, being the most misty place 
they knew, they repaired thither, colonised it, and called it 'Aepia. 

Another votive tablet of later date was dedicated to Artemis, ' who 
gives good voyages,' by Eutychus, the captain, Tychichus, the mate, and 
Jucundus, the helmsman, of a ship. Amongst this interesting debris of 
an ancient cult, we likewise found a small archaic head, of exceedingly rude 
workmanship, and a curious, well-cut stone, 3 ft. lin. by 1 ft. 3 in. thick, 
down the front edge of which was carved a curious head, as of Poseidon, 
with a long beard in five bi'aids, which seemed as if it had been one of 
two sides to a seat. 

The wall which divided this outer chamber from an inner one was 
built of huge blocks of marble, fastened together with iron rivets, set in 
lead, only the foundations being in their place; the first and second blocks 
of this wall, measuring 3 ft. 2 in. and 12 ft. 2^ in. respectively, formed 
the base of a neatly cut square pattern which had adorned this portion 
of the wall ; then came the door, the hinge-holes of which were still dis- 
tinguishable, measuring 5 ft. ; close up against the southern side of the 
entrance stood a large block of marble, with an inscription on it relating 
the names of various archons, polemarchs, apologoi, a local Thasiote name 
for the logistai, or auditors of accounts, and the name of a sacred herald. 
Close to this stood a pedestal, without inscription, and which doubtless 



204 EEPORT — 1887. 

carried a small statue, of which no fragments were found ; but about 
three feet from the wall we laid bare a larger pedestal, with votive in- 
scriptions behind and before. The inscription to the front was headed 
with the name of Athene, and went on to thank Hercules, ' who gives 
good voyages.' The inscription behind purported to be the ela-fjiopos, a 
curious form of the word eto-<^opa, giving, I suppose, the idea of tribute 
to some god whose name was unfortunately obliterated. Near this 
pedestal we found fragments of a draped statue, which had presumably 
stood upon it. Also an archaic circular jDcdestal with Doric flutings, 
6 ft. 2 in. round at the base, 1 ft. 6 in. in diameter at the top, 3 ft. 2 in. 
round the neck, and standing 3 ft. 6 in. high. This pedestal is similar to 
several which have been found amongst the archaic remains on the Acro- 
polis at Athens. 

Along the southern wall of this chamber ran another raised platform, 
similar, though slightly lower, to the one on which the statue of Apollo 
had stood in the other chamber. On this we found a small votive altar, 
with an inscription stating that it had been put up to Dionysos, the 
oppressor of wrath (/jl^vl Tvpdvvtti), and in the wall behind was a stone 
bearing the inscription, in letters of a good period, ' the Dionysian 
herald of love.' 

This chamber was considerably smaller than the other, measuring 
only 14 ft. 8 in. across ; it had been paved with marble, but the outer wall 
towards the town showed signs of considerable alterations in the original 
scheme during the Roman period ; however, on the central .slabs of this 
frontage wall, we found the bases of two Doric columns, 2 ft. 8 in. in dia- 
meter, with 22 flutings and 6 ft. 6 in. apart. This platform was 3 ft. 1 in. 
wide, and between and around the pillars were many names and sen- 
tences scribbled, also j^hallic designs. One of the names, in large and 
good letters, was Aristogeiton, and another recorded the name of ' Simos 
the gay, the good at heart.' 

But at the southern side this wider platform and the Doric columns 
had been replaced by a narrower platform, with traces on it of a later 
colonnade, and before it stood the circular bases of two columns of a 
debased period ; and from fragments we found it would appear that badly 
executed Ionic columns had been erected at the time of these later 
alterations, and stood side by side with the massive Doric columns of the 
earlier scheme. 

Between the southern wall of the temple and the hill which rose 
abruptly behind it ran a narrow passage, with steps leading down to the ■ 
sea. The wall on the hill-side, evidently erected as a facing to the natu- 
ral rock, was composed of blocks of marble of extraordinary thinness in 
comparison to their length, the first that we uncovered being 11 ft. 5 in. 
long, 1 ft. 7 in. high, and only 7 in. thick. This passage was 7 ft. 4 in. 
wide, and at forty feet from the top of the steps was divided by a wall 
and a door. Time did not permit of our following this passage up 
further, but it evidently was in connection with the temple, for on one 
stone of the outer wall of the temple we found a much obliterated in- 
scription, of which all we could decipher was ' to Poseidon, who gives 
good voyages,' and in another line the name Asclepius, and in a third 
the name Pegasos. Also we found another well-cut stone with Anteros 
scribbled on it in large irregular letters (Anteros, the revenger of un- 
requited love). 

These are the principal features of the temple which we excavated, 



ON THE PREHISTORIC RACE IN THE GREEK ISLANDS. 205 

and, from the thirteen inscriptions which we found amongst its ruins, it 
would appear that in the first instance it was dedicated to Apollo, doubt- 
less from the fact that the early colonists, in search of marble, considered 
that they had been guided thither by the Delphic response ; and the rude 
headless trunk which we found was presumably the first representation 
of their god, which they erected for worship ; but in later ages this temple 
would appear to have been converted into a perfect pantheon, where the 
sailors and merchants who carried the Thasiote marble into distant lands 
set up their votive tablets and brought their offerings. 

Beside the temple we made some slight excavations amongst the 
tombs of this marble town, which were of exceedingly elaborate work- 
manship, but of the same style that we had seen in other parts of this 
island. Massive marble sarcophagi, averaging about 8 ft. long by 3 ft. 
wide, and 4 ft. deep, made out of single blocks of marble, and covered 
with a marble lid, pointed in the centre like a roof, and with four large 
bosses at each of the corners. We found many of these buried in the 
sand by the shore at the neck of the isthmus, where it joins the land. All 
of them had been opened in ancient times, no doubt to extract the objects 
of gold which the Thasiotes invariably put in their tombs. Objects in 
terra cotta are curiously rare in Thasos, most likely owing to the fact 
that the Thasiotes owned the extensive gold mines on Mount Pangajus, 
on the mainland opposite, and considered it rigbt to put objects of this 
precious metal in their tombs. Occasionally unopened tombs are found, 
and confirm this statement ; notably, the so-called tomb of Antiphon, in 
which a marble figure was found wearing a tunic of gold, but unfortu- 
nately a Bulgarian workman who had been employed in opening the 
tomb managed to steal it, and nothing more has been heard of it. 

On one of the lids of a sarcophagus at Alki we found that the bosses 
had each been decorated with a female head ; another had its bosses 
decorated with wreaths of flowers, and the sloping roofs were occasion- 
ally decorated with diaper patterns. Long metrical inscriptions seem to 
have been much in vogue for these tombs. One stands in the centre of 
the town, with an inscription twelve lines in length. We found many 
fragments of metrical inscriptions, and the tomb which the family of 
Asclepiades had put up to one of their members ; also an inscription 
telling us that in the tomb was buried 'the slave of the four,' ©pewios rdv 
rea-a-dpoyv, concerning which I am not prepared to offer an explanation. 

There are many interesting spots in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Alki which we were able to visit on Sundays and feast days, when our 
workmen did not come. All these spots are connected with the marble 
enterprise. About two miles to the west of Alki is the bay of Temonia, 
on the west side of which are high cliffs of marble, rising straight out of 
the sea like a wall some 200 to 300 feet in height. All this has been cut 
away by the marble quarrying, and there are evident signs of the blocks 
having been let down by pulleys into the ships, which could anchor close 
to, in the deep water beneath. There are ruined houses about here in 
many points, and at the top of a rounded hill in the centre of the bay is 
a round Hellenic tower of excellent workmanship ; this tower is 49 ft. 9 in. 
in diameter in the interior, the wall being 3 ft. 4 in. thick ; it is built in 
courses of marble, exceedingly regular, the joints being all vertical, and 
the length of the blocks composing it varies from 3 ft. 6 in. to 2 ft. The 
entrance to this tower is on the eastern side ; it is low, and with a pointed 
arch formed by the stones of the courses overhanging each other, and re- 



206 



REPORT — 1887. 



calling the entrances of many archaic buildings in Greece. On one of 
the blocks near this door I read the word Apre/xt, being an abbreviated 
form of AprefXiSi, which we had found on one of the votive tablets in the 
temple at Alki. The interior of the tower is almost entirely choked up 
with fallen blocks from the surrounding wall, and the debris of later 
habitations, but it seemed to me that a thorough excavation of this 
tower might produce some valuable results respecting ancient systems of 
fortification. 

Between this bay of Temonia and Alki there is another well-preserved 
rectangular Hellenic tower and the ruins of another village. So we 
find, within a very short distance, no less than two villages and one 
town, all well protected, and all in former ages thriving on the quarrying 
and export of marble, connected with an admirable road to one of the 
great centres of Hellenic culture and progress, and affording us a highly 
interesting study of a commercial centre, dating from centuries before 
the Christian era, and bearing traces of having continued in prosperity 
down well into the period of the Eastern Empire. 



Report of the Gorti'mittee, consisting of Professor Gr. Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. 
John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. 
Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor G-. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Gtlaze- 
BROOK {Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Pro- 
fessor W. GrARNETT, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, appointed for the purpose of con- 
structing and issuing Practical Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

The Committee report that the work of testing resistance coils has been 
continued at the Cavendish Laboratory, and a table of the values found 
for the various coils is given. 

Legal Ohms. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in Legal Ohms 


Temperature 


Elliott, 183 


:£ No. 173 


•99938 


16^3° 


Elliott, 184 


^ No. 174 


•99924 


10-3° 


L. Clark & Muirhead, 251 


^ No. 175 


10-0040 


17° 


Elliott, 117 


'^ No. 63 


•99976 


15-9° 


Elliott, 185 


^ No. 176 


■99962 


15-8° 


Elliott, 186 


^ No. 177 


•99959 


15-8° 



ON STANBABDS FOR USE IN ELECTEICAL MEASUKEMENTS. 
B.A. Units. 



207 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in B.A. Units 


Temperature 


Elliott, 41 . 


. :^ No. 55 


1-00286 


16-2° 


Elliott, 56 . 


. ;^ No. 5(; 


1-00039 


16° 


Univ. Coll. coil . 


• "^ No. 63 


•99983 


16-2° 


Taylor's coil 


. ^ No. 6S 


-99985 


18-25° 


Taylor's coil 


. "^ No. 69 


10-00209 


18-1° 


Price coil . 


. :^ No. 66 


1-00289 


19-2° 


Price coil . 


• ^ No. 67 


1001-39 


19-4° 


Warden, 292 


. ^ No. 70 


9-99416 


16-5° 



Of these the coils Elliott Nos. 41, 56, and 117 have been tested 
before, but owing to the green coloration mentioned in the last report 
showing itself in the paraflBn, the paraffin was removed and the coils 
refilled with ozokerit, which can be obtained more nearly free from traces 
of acid. 

This change in all cases produced an appreciable increase in resistance, 
amounting in the case of Elliott No. 41 to about -0025. 

The coils ^ 63, 68, and 69 are three of the original B.A. units. 

70 is a coil sent over from the Johns Hopkins University for the 
purpose of connecting their value of the B.A. unit with that found at the 
Cavendish Laboratory. 

Shortly after the Birmingham meeting of the Association the Secretary 
received a letter from the Board of Trade enclosing a copy of the general 
bases of a convention proposed by the French Government for the con- 
sideration of the Powers, with the object of carrying out the resolutions of 
the Paris Congress with regard to electrical standards. 

The convention stipulates that a legal character is to be given to 
(1) the legal ohm ; (2) the ampere ; (3) the volt ; (4) the coulomb ; 
(5) the farad. 

It charges the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, established 
by the Metric Commission, with the construction and conservation of the 
international prototypes of the standard of electrical resistance, the com- 
parison and verification of national standards and secondary standards. 

These questions had, at the request of some of the English delegates 
to the Congress of 1883, been considered by the Committee at the 
Birmingham meeting, and the following series of resolutions, which the 
Secretary was instructed to forward to the British Government, had been 
agreed to on the motion of Sir William Thomson, seconded by Professor 
W. G. Adams :— 

(1) To adopt for a term of ten years the legal ohm of the Paris Con- 
gress as a legalised standard sufficiently near to the absolute ohm for 
commercial purposes. 

(2) That at the end of the ten years period the legal ohm should be 
defined to a closer approximation to the absolute ohm. 



208 REPORT — 1887. 

(3) Tbat the resolutions of the Pai'is Congress with respect to the 
ampere, the volt, the coulomb, and the farad be adopted. 

(4) That the resistance standards belonging to the Committee of the 
British Association on electrical standards now deposited at the Cavendish 
Laboratory at Cambridge be accepted as the English legal standards 
conformable to the adopted definition of the Paris Congress. 

In reply, therefore, to the letter of the Board of Trade, the Secretary 
forwarded a copy of the above resolutions, with a statement of some of 
the reasons which had led to their adoption by the Committee. 

During the year the original standards of the Association have again 
been compared by the Secretary. An account of this compai-ison and 
of the very complete one made in the years 1879-80-81 by Dr. Fleming, 
the details of which have not been published previously, will be given 
shortly. 

At the last meeting of the Committee it was resolved, on the motion 
of Mr. "W". H. Preece, seconded by Sir William Thomson, to recommend 
the adoption of the Watt as the unit of power. 

The Watt is defined to be the work done per second by the ampere 
passing between two points between which the difference of electrical 
potential is one volt. 

The Committee were also of opinion that it is highly desii-able to 
proceed with the construction of an air condenser as a standard of 
capacity, and for this purpose they desire to be reappointed, with the 
addition of the name of Mr. Thomas Gray and a grant of lOOZ. 



Supplement to a Report on Optical Theories. 
By R. T. Glazebkook, M.A., F.R.S. 

In my Report on Optical Theories (' B. A. Report,' 1885) I gave an 
account of Dr. Voigt's Theory of Optics. A recent communication of 
his to Wiedemann's ' Annalen ' shows me that in one point I have unin- 
tentionally misrepresented his views. 

As I understood his previous papei's, the quantities represented by 
A, B, C (Wied. ' Ann.' xix. p. 874 ; ' Report,' p. 231), &c., are intended 
to express completely, so far as the problem before us is concerned, the 
action of the matter on the ether in the element of volume considered, 
and that in all cases, even when one face of the element is on the 
surface. 

I took the statement (p. 876) ' indem man die Wirkungssphare der 
Molecnlarki-afte gegen die Grosse des betrachteten Volumen Elementes 
soklein annimmt dass man die Wirkung die der Aether in demselben erfahrt 
als nur von der Materie desselben Elementes herrlihrend betrachtenkann,' 
which is precise and definite, as true always, and supposed that the forces 
acting on the element were known up to the boundary. This being the 
case, the surface conditions are X + A=X' + A', and not those implied in 
Kirchhoff 's principle. Professor Voigt has explained that this was not 
his meaning. When one face of the element is on the surface, the forces 
acting are no longer known. The force denoted by A is to be taken as 
made up of two — A„j and A^i^ in his notation — of which Aj^jj arises from 
the action of the matter in the second medium, and all that is known is 
that neither loss nor gain of energy is caused by such forces. This, it is 



ON OPTICAL THEORIES. 209 

true, is implied in the original paper, and I regret that I misunderstood 
the statement there. 

In consequence of these unknown forces the equations of stress are of 
no use to us, and we are compelled to have recourse to Kirchhoff's prin- 
ciple to arrive at the conditions. But this appears to me to aflPect in a 
fundamental manner the whole of the theory. It ceases in consequence 
to be a strict mechanical theory of light, for we are ignorant of what goes 
on in the immediate neighbourhood of the boundary. There is a thin film 
throughout which our equations of motion do not hold, for throughout it 
the unknown forces A^^, &c., act. Unless we can show that this film is in- 
finitely thin compared with the wave-length of light, we have no rio-ht to 
assume that the displacements up to the boundary surface are given by 
the expressions which hold in the interior of the medium. 

The actual displacements are, of course, continuous across the bound- 
ary, but these displacements will, in addition to what we may term the 
light motion, involve terms arising from the forces A^^, and such are 
neglected in Professor Yoigt's theory. 

With regard to the electro-magnetic theory of dispersion developed 
by Willard Gibbs, it should be remarked that H' ('Report,' p. 256, '20) 
vanishes when E.', >/', i', the components of the irregular part of the motion, 
vanish. Now this irregular part of the motion may be supposed to be 
due to the presence of the matter-molecules, and will therefore disappear 
in a vacuum ; so that in that case we should have H' zero, and there would 
be no dispersion. 



First Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. K. Etheridge 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell, for the purpose of 
reporting upon the ' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford. 

The area of the later Tertiary deposit of co. Wexford is described by the 
late Sir Henry (formerly Captain) James as extending from Arklow to Kil- 
more in a north to south direction, and inland to Ferns Gorey and Ennis- 
corthy. The very short memoir upon this district (' Journ. Dubl. Geol. 
Soc' vol. iii.) was accompanied by a list of the fossils obtained ; but the 
localities from which they were collected not being stated, and the 
differences in the nature and age of the various sands, gravels, and loamy 
clays comprehended under the heading ' Post-Tertiary Deposits,' being 
considerable, it is less useful than it might have been made. 

In Professor E. Forbes's well-known memoirs, the fossils are 
simply recorded as from Wexford or Ireland, Post-Tertiary geology 
being then in its infancy. These, with a few spare references in 
papers contributed to the ' Geological Magazine ' by Messrs. Harkness 
Kinahan, Hull, and the writer, in the 6-in. survey maps, and in two 
volumes — one on the ' Physical Geology, &c., of Ireland,' by Professor 
Hull, the Director of the Survey, and the other on the ' Geology of 
Ireland,' by Mr. G. H. Kinahan, comprise the bibliography of the 
subject. 

The so-called manure gravels consist of fine clean sharp sands without 
stones or organic remains passing up into finely comminuted shell sand 
and this, as the fragments become larger, forms a fine gravel containing 
1887. p 



210 KEPORT — 1887. 

sliell8 occasionally perfect,' but tisually mucli waterworn and broken, 
continuing upwards into seams of sand and large gravel, both devoid of 
life-remains. 

Tbe lower sands are well exposed in tbe cliffs on the nortb side of the 
Slaney river, where they repose directly upon the Cam bro- Silurian altered 
rocks. They may be traced northwards to Castlebi-idge, where they 
pass up into the higher members of the series at Pulregan, and again 
seven miles off, near Castle Ellis, the very scanty shelly gravels occurring 
only at considerable elevations on the inland or right flanks of the 
elevations bordering the coast. A little beyond Arklow the highest gravel 
only is present, near the coast, this being the northern limits of the 
series. 

Returning to Wexford, one notes the same order of stratification 
on the right flank of the elevated mass of altered rocks rising behind 
Wexford. At Rathaspick, the most southerly point to which the writer 
has traced the gravels, only the uppermost gravel is present ; but higher 
up the road, about two miles off, in Little Clonard, on the same side of the 
ridge, the upper and shelly portions of the series are well exposed in some 
sandpits looking towards the Forth Mountain. Here the top gravel is 
interspersed with thick beds of sand, much thicker than at Pulregan, 
eight miles away, but is equally wanting in fossils. From Little Clonard 
the slope descends rapidly for a distance of three-quarters of a mile, and 
then rises as sharply to the summit of the Forth Mountain, passing over 
boggy upland and clay, derived from the decomposed subsoil, or schists 
and quartz gravel. 

Three miles north and east, descending towards the river Slaney, the 
sands, with traces of comminuted shelly sands, appear behind Wexford 
town, and complete the outline. 

From these observations it would appear that the sands and associated 
shelly gravels are the remnants of a once widespread series, occupying a 
channel entering somewhere to the south-west of Wexford, having for its 
right shore the ridges and hills extending from the coast behind Wexford, 
thence north- hy-east to the shore at Arklow. 

The deposit of which these are the scanty remains was accumulated 
before the river Slaney had broken through the Cambro- Silurian schists 
near Fitzstephen's Castle, since it has cut its way through the lower 
sands forming part of its banks. 

Sir H. James says that a boulder deposit overlies both the Wexford 
and Wicklow drift, and Professor Hull intimates that the Wexford 
gravels are without doubt of Middle Glacial age, the faunas being the 
same and covered by a similar di'ift. 

The writer traverses both these statements. Clay with included rocks 
abounds, and may be seen in process of formation, rain and heat alike 
contributing to the disintegration of the original bed rock, the altered 
Cambrian decomposing rapidly. Unlike the gravel or drift covering the 
Middle Glacial, the gravels above the shelly part of the Wexford manure 
gravel are purely local and bear no marks of ice action, and it is very 

• The term ' manure ' applies more especially to this poition, the sheUy gravel being 
spread over lands for the lime contained in them. Shell-bearing loams, and loams 
containing lime derived from the disintegration of Carboniferous limestone are also 
used for this purpose, the usual test of its presence being effervescence when treated 
with oil of vitriol. 



ON THE 'manure' GEATELS OF WEXFOED. 211 

questionable if this part of Ireland has ever been subjected to glacial 
action as generally understood. 

The southern side of Wexford Harbour and Wexford Hill, Rosslare 
Bay, and the adjacent coast cliffs are composed of an earthy loam, which 
in places contains marine shells. At Ballygeary, near the summit of the 
cliffs, seventy feet elevation, and in the railway cutting, they may be ob- 
tained not infrequently, a thin bed of shingle, extending either side of 
Rosslare Pier, having yielded about thirty species, these being of a dif- 
ferent type from the Wexford gravels, and perhaps representing the 
sandy beds from which Captain James obtained littoral shells. 

This earthy loam is separated by a bed of sand, more or less persistent, 
one to three feet thick, almost unfossiliferous, one specimen only being 
obtained from an almost unfossiliferous dense black clay, with very rarely 
an exotic pebble. An hour's search procured only two fragments of Pec- 
tunculus and Astarte. This clay is derived almost entirely from the calp 
or black limestone, which is now being woi-ked at Drinagh for cement, 
a rolled fossil Productus, &c., being occasionally present, and reposes 
directly upon the palaeozoic schists and felsites. 

Professor Hull having asserted the identity of the faunas of the Wex- 
ford gravels and those of the Middle Glacial deposits, a careful examination 
was made of the typical section at Ballybraek, in Killiney Bay, on several 
occasions, and the species then obtained, together with those recorded by 
other authors and collectors, have raised the known fauna to about forty- 
five species. Unfortunately the non-localisation of the fossils given by 
Captain James and the probability that both the Wexford gravels and 
the cliffs at Ballygeary and elsewhere are included by him render com- 
parison uncertain. This is the more to be regretted because certain 
species of Mitra, Fusus, &c., are recorded by him, most of the specimens 
being lost, and only a few preserved in the Museum of Practical 
Geology. 

The writer's own collections from the gravels do not embrace more 
than thirty-five to forty species at present identified, others still having 
to be worked out, and explorations still being carried on ; and his results 
are so totally opposite to the remarks of Professor Hull that he ventures 
to ask the Council of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science for an additional grant to enable him to continue his researches 
into the age and extent of these gravels, the history of the early making 
of Ireland in its present form largely depending upon a solution of the 
question. 

The fossils obtained will be shortly handed over to the National Col- 
lection as soon as they are worked out in detail, and are in number about 
as follows : — 

Sp. 
Wexford Manure Gravels ..... 35-40 
,, Loams (Ballygeary) .... 30-35 

Killiney Bay 30- 

Balbriggan ........ 20- 

Your reporter respectfully asks for a further grant of \hl., the former 
grant being exhausted. 



p 2 



212 



REPORT — 1887. 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheeidge, 
Mr. Thomas GtRay, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Volcanic Phe- 
nomena of Japan. {Draivn up by the Secretary, 1887.) 

The Gray-Milne Seismograph. 

The seismograph, wliich in 1883 was constructed partially at the expense 
of the British Association, still continues to give satisfactory results at the 
Imperial Meteorological Observatory in Tokio, where it is installed as the 
reference instrument. 

In the following table its i-ecords, as published in the daily papers and 
the official reports, are given for the last year. The time is noted for a 
particular wave in a disturbance. The period or time taken to describe 
one of the principal vibrations is given in seconds. 

The numbers in the amplitude column give the total range of motion, 
or the double amplitude, in millimetres. 

Catalogue of Earthqualws recorded at the 3Ieteorologioal Observatory, Toldo, letween 
May 1886 and May 1887, by the Gray-Milne Seismograph. 



No. 


Month 


Day 


Time 


Period 
in sees. 


Ampli- 
tude in 
m.m. 


Principal direction 


Duration 








H. M. S. 








M. S. 


666 


VI. 


.3 


3 6 37 P.M. 


— 


— 


S.E. or N.W. 


— 


667 




11 


1 45 44 P.M. 


0-6 


0-2 


S.S.E. 01- N.N.W. 


45 


668 




11 


6 25 19 P.M. 


— 


— 


S.E. or N.W. 


25 


669 


,, 


J, 


6 56 9 P.M. 


0-3 


0-1 


S. 45° E. 


1 10 


670 


VII. 


2 


33 G P.M. 
vertical motion 


1-2 

0-7 


0-7 
0-2 


S. 26° E. 


3 30 


671 


,^ 


23 


57 Oa.m. 


1-9 


0-5 


S. or N. 


1 4 


672 


vi'ii. 


3 


2 11 45 a.m. 


— 


— 


E. or W. 


20 


673 


,, 


9 


10 24 Oa.m. 


2-4 


0-7 


E. or W. 


3 


674 




10 


8 53 43 P.M. 


0-8 


0-2 


E. or W. 


17 


675 


^1 


11 


9 52 33 P.M. 


1-2 


0-2 


E. or W. 


2 


676 


)> 


12 


2 54 45 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


677 




13 


11 40 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


678 


j^ 


19 


9 23 a.m. 


0-4 


0-2 


E. or W. 


14 


679 


,, 


29 


8 34 54 p.m. 


— 


— 


N.N.E. or S.S.W. 


20 


680 


IX. 


6 


38 53 P.M. 


1-0 


0-2 


E.S.B or N.N.W. 


10 


681 


,^ 


12 


8 43 22 P.M. 


1-0 


0-3 


B. 20° 20' N. 


1 


682 


J, 


15 


3 9 23 a.m. 


very 


slight 


E. and W. 


26 


683 


,, 


16 


1 2 57 p.m. 


„ 


„ 


S.E. and N.W. 


40 


684 


J, 


20 


abt. 1 40 P.M. 


— 


— 








685 


,, 


21 


8 17 9 P.M. 


vei-y 


slight 


E. and W. 


1 5 


686 


„ 


30 


10 36 8 A.M. 


„ 


,, 


S. and N. 


— 


687 


X. 


4 


1 35 25 P.M. 
vertical motion 


0-5 


0-3 
0-3 


E. and W. 


30 


688 


^, 


22 


3 49 14 A.M. 


very 


slight 


S. and N. 


50 


689 


'• 


25 


10 11 18 P.M. 
vertical motion 


0'8 
very 


0-3 

slight 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


39 


690 


„ 


30 


4 35 17 P.M. 


„ 


„ 


E.-W. 


10 


691 


XI. 


1 


5 13 5 A.M. 


0-4 


0-3 


E. .34° S. 


10 


692 


» 


2 


8 21 46 a.m. 


very 


slight 


S.E.-N.W. 


30 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 
Catalogue of Earthquakes — {continued). 



213 



Xo. 


Month 


Day 


Time 


Peiiod 
in sees. 


Ampli- 
tude in 


Principal direction 


Duration 













m.m. 










H. M. S. 








M. S. 


693 


XII. 


4 


2 39 P.M. 


0-5 


0-4 


S.E.-N.W. 


2 10 








vertical motion 


0-5 


0-4 


— 


_ 


694 


„ 


6 


45 46 P.M. 


very 


slight 


— 


.— 


695 


„ 


8 


11 58 16 P.M. 


0-5 


0-2 


E. 27° N. 


35 


696 


„ 


11 


10 16 25 P.M. 


1-5 


0'2 


E.-W, 


28 


697 


„ 


12 


10 11 55 P.M. 


2'2 


3-5 


E. 37° S. 


4 30 








vertical motion 


very slight 






698 


„ 


21 


3 7 2 A.M. 


,j 


„ 


S.-N. 


— 


699 


" 


26 


5 48 5 P.M. 
vertical motion 


0-2 
very 


1-0 

slight 


N. 35° W. 


30 


700 


" 


29 


11 5 43 A.M. 
vertical motion 


0-6 

very 


0-4 
slight 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


45 




1 


8S7. 








701 


I. 


15 


6 51 59 P.M. 
vertical motion 


2-3 
0-8 


19-2 
5-5 


E. 34° N. 


10 


702 


" 


" 


7 36 40 P.M. 
vertical motion 


0-4 

very 


0-6 

slight 


E. 36° N. 


1 30 


703 


jj 


16 


10 16 19 P.M. 


0-4 


0-7 


E.-W. 


1 17 


704 


jj 


J, 


10 31 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


705 


^^ 


,, 


10 54 18 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


706 


j> 


17 


8 59 34 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


707 




21 


11 46 43 P.M. 


— 


0-2 


E.-W. 


25- 


708 


„ 


23 


9 16 55 P.M. 


1-0 


0-2 


S.S.E.-N.N.W. 


35 


709 


jj 


24 


10 40 50 P.M. 


very 


slight 


— 


— 


710 


„ 


28 


3 54 8 P.M. 


— 


— 


S. or N. 


20 


711 


TI. 


2 


2 8 14 P.M. 


2-0 


0-4 


W. 26° 30' S. 


2 30 


7L2 


„ 


22 


1 30 48 a.m. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


713 


„ 


25 


3 41 P.M. 


— 


— 


E. or W. 


— 


714 


„ 


27 


8 11 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


E. or W. 


— 


715 


in. 


2 


5 33 2] P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


716 


„ 


10 


1 31 37 P.M. 


0'8 


1-0 


S. 59° 30' E. 


20 


717 


„ 


20 


11 32 56 P.M. 


— 


— 


N. or S. 


— 


718 


IV. 


4 


8 46 A.M. 


— 


— 


N.E. or S.W. 


— 


719 


jj 


!' 


11 49 54 a.m. 


— 


— 


E. or W. 


— 


720 


J, 




3 1 54 P.M. 


— 


— 


E. or W. 


15 


721 


,, 


15 


10 18 Oa.m. 


— 


— 


S. or N. 


— 


722 


„ 


16 


3 41 55 a.m. 


1-6 


0-3 


S. 37° 30' E. 


1 


723 


„ 


18 


11 25 Op.m. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


724 


„ 


27 


9 30 38 P.jr. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


725 


„ 


29 


11 12 10 A.M. 


30 


1-2 


S. 22° E. 


3 


726 


V. 


2 


11 25 40 A.M. 


0-3 


0-3 


E. 33° N. 


30 


727 


,, 


5 


2 35 10 a.m. 


0-5 


0-4 


S. 38° 30' W. 


20 


728 


„ 


6 


3 49 58 p.m. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


729 


„ 


7 


7 12 3 a.m. 


2-6 


0-9 


S. 29° 40' E. 


2 30 


730 


„ 


„ 


8 44 22 a.m. 


— 


— 


— 


1 50 


731 


„ 


9 


O 9 14 a.m. 


30 


0-3 


S. or N. 


2 


732 


„ 


„ 


4 33 7 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


733 


,J 


17 


4 19 44 P.M. 


0-3 


0-2 


S. or N. 


20 


734 


J, 


21 


9 46 20 P.M. 


0-7 


0-5 


S. or N. 


30 


735 


„ 


29 


50 57 A.M. 


0-8 


1-8 


S.E. or N.W. 


3 25 


736 


J, 


„ 


1 10 44 A.M. 


10 


11 


S.E. or N.W. 


2 30 


737 


„ 


„ 


3 41 26 a.m. 


— 


— 


E. or W. 


35 


738 


„ 


jj 


6 47 21a.m. 


— 


— 


S. 01- N. 


40 


739 


" 


" 


8 7 9 a.m. 


— 


— 


— 


— 



214 REPORT— 1887. 

Since 1883 several improvements have been introduced into the Gray- 
Milne seismograph, and the instruments embodying these improvements 
are now being manufactured by Mr. James White, of Glasgow. In the 
original form of the instrument, as with all instruments with which we 
are acquainted, after the occurrence of an earthquake the instrument 
required to be provided with a new recording surface and reset. Unless 
this was done successive earthquake-diagrams would be superimposed 
upon each other, and even a single earthquake, if its duration exceeded 
forty-five or sixty seconds, had the diagram of its later movements super- 
imposed upon its first ; a method of recording which often resulted in con- 
fusion. Further, the diagrams were written upon a surface of smoked 
paper or smoked glass to preserve which varnishing was a necessity. In 
the new form of instrument the horizontal and vertical motions are 
written in ink, side by side, upon a straight baud of paper. Ordinarily 
this band of paper is moving very slowly beneath the syphon pointers of 
the seismograph. At the time of an earthquake the speed of the paper is 
automatically increased for a definite period, after which it is automati- 
cally slowed down to its ordinary rate. In this way earthquake after 
earthquake may be recorded without the intervention of the observer, 
whose only duty is to see that the instrument is supplied with paper and 
the clockwork wound. A separate clock, arranged to keep accurate time, 
impresses a mark on the paper ribbon every five minutes, and during 
an earthquake every second. This improved seismograph is fully described 
by Mr. Thomas Gray, who has taken great pains to perfect the apparatus, 
in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for April 1887. 

The importance of the instrument in its present form for the investi- 
gation of special seismological problems — such, for instance, as the relation 
of the 'Uri Kaishi,' or ' return shake,' which apparently succeeds all large 
distui'bances to the disturbances which precede them — is evident to all 
who have given attention to earthquake investigation. 

Remarks on the Earthquahes of 1886-87. 

From the preceding list it will be seen that between the end of May 
1886 and May 1887 seventy-four earthquakes were recorded at the 
Meteorological Observatory in Tokio. On the low ground in the same 
city it is probable that a slightly greater number were sensible, and in 
Yokohama, sixteen miles distant, which appears to be nearer to the origin 
of many of the earthquakes felt in Tokio, the number may have been still 
greater. During the two preceding years the number of disturbances 
recorded in Tokio were respectively seventy-three and fifty-six. 

In 1886, as recorded by the 600 post-card stations distributed through 
the empire, 472 earthquakes were felt, and for each of them the Earth- 
quake Bureau, which is a branch of the Meteorological Department, has 
drawn a map. I trust that at a future date I may be enabled to give the 
British Association an epitome of the results obtained from these obser- 
vations, similar to that which I had the honour of presenting in 1886. 

In looking at the catalogue published in this report, and also at the 
catalogue iu the report for 1886, it will be noticed that there are several 
records of vertical motion, which is a component of earthquake movement 
about which we as yet know but very little, Frora these records it 
appears that the vertical motion relatively to the horizontal is very quick, 
so that two or three vertical movements are superimposed as ripples on a 
horizontal wave. Professor K. Sekiya, in a model made of bent wire 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 215 

showing the path of an earth-parfcicle as deduced from an earthquake 
diagram, called attention to this fact. Further, it appeared that the 
motion upwards was greater than the motion downwards. I have pre- 
viously drawn attention to the shortness in period of vertical motion in 
artificially produced disturbances (see Report for 1885), and also as 
exhibited in the preliminary tremors of an earthquake, which are probably 
also vertical in direction. It is also probable that the sound-wave of 
earthquakes owes its origin to the rapidity of these movements, which are 
more marked where the strata are hard, and that many animals, like horses 
when lying down, pheasants, geese, frogs, &c., feeling these preliminary 
vertical movements, often exhibit symptoms of alarm from ten to thirty 
seconds before many earthquakes are felt by human beings. 1 have recently 
communicated a special note on this subject to the Seism ological Society. 

The severe earthquake of January 15. — By reference to the preceding 
catalogue it will be seen that on January 15, at 6h. 51m. 59sec. p.m. an 
earthquake, having a range of motion of 192 millimetres and a period 
of 2'3 seconds, was felt in Tokio. Its duration was ten minutes, an 
interval of time which probably includes the ' TJri Kaishi,' or 'return 
shook.' Professor K. Sekiya has read a special paper before the 
Seismological Society about this disturbance, and I myself have com- 
municated observations on the same to our local papers. Thirty-six 
seconds after the commencement of the motion Professor Sekiya observed 
a maximum motion of 21 m.m. In Yokohama, 16 miles to the S.W., 
a motion of 36 m.m. was recorded. The motion was most severe along a 
line about 30 miles in length, running westward from near Yokohama. 

In Tokio the motion was slow, easy, and of considerable range, the 
sensation being not unlike that upon a boat moved by a gentle swell. 

Billiard balls rolled to and fro upon their tables, and a distinct feeling 
of nausea was experienced by very many. The slowness in period I 
take to be due to our distance from the origin. Sometimes earthquakes 
have been so long in their period that they have moved Tokio back and 
forth almost unknown to many of the inhabitants, the only record of the 
motion being that recorded by seismographs and observations made on 
swinging lamps and objects like pendulums. Near the origin there were 
small landslips, and the water in certain wells of an ' artesian character ' 
was decreased or increased. A rumbling preceded the disturbance, and 
during the night five more shocks were felt. Thousands of houses Pro- 
fessor Sekiya reports as damaged, those which suffered most being the 
frame houses with a stone facing, the movement of the timber throwing 
out the facing. In my own house, which is of timber faced with brick 
and stone, a similar but slighter effect was produced. In Yokohama the 
damage was, as usual, amongst the chimneys, the falling of which through 
the roof and various floors in certain cases created considerable damage. 
These chimneys, so far as I am aware, in all, or nearly all, cases were new 
chimneys, built partly for the sake of appearance and with a total dis- 
regard of the experiences of 1880 and the recommendations repeatedly 
expressed by the Seismological Society. Chimneys which were short 
and thick, without heavy ornamental copings, and not compelled to follow 
the vibrations of the structure to which they belonged, although situated 
in places which are known to be extremely dangerous, did not suffer. In 
my own mind it is certain that if the disturbance of January 15 had 
visited a city like Naples or London the destruction would have 
approached that which recently created eo much havoc in the Riviera. 



216 EEPORT — 1887. 

I wish to lay stress on this, because engineers and others judging of 
Japanese earthquakes by the amplitudes of motion which have been 
published, which, so far as I am aware, have only been published by 
observers in Japan, cannot furnish any ideas of relative intensity, and 
from the amount of damage we sustain refer to the earthquakes of this 
country as being ' mild in character,' ' mere tremors,' &c., while those 
of Ischia and other places in Europe are severe. (See, for example, 
Construction in Earthquake Countries, ' Proceedings of the Institute of 
Civil Engineers,' vol. Ixxxiii. Pt. I.) In Japan we suffer but little 
damage on account of the nature of our buildings, but now that many 
ordinary European buildings are springing up the damage will probably 
increase. Earthquakes like the one here referred to occur in Japan as 
pointed out by Professor Sekiya about once a year, while near Tokio they 
are experienced every few years. Still larger earthquakes have hitherto 
recurred near to Tokio and Yokohama every thirty or fifty years. The 
following are the dates of the more important of these disturbances: 
A.D. 1293, Kamakura, a city near to the origin of the last earthquake, was 
destroyed, and 30,000 lives were lost. Others occurred in 1419, 
1433, 1435, 1495, 1510, 1589, 1633, 1647, 1649, 1650, 1683, 1703 
(when there was shaking for 200 days, and 100,000 people killed), 1707, 
1771, 1772, 1783, 1794, 1812, 1853, and 1855. 

Sounding Asama Yama. — Asama Tama is an active volcano about 
seventy-five miles N.W. from Tokio. It was last in eruption in 1870, and 
it is always violently steaming. I first ascended this mountain, which is 
about 8,800 feet in height, in 1877. At that time the crater, which has 
the appearance of a bottomless pit with perpendicular sides, was audibly 
roaring and belching forth enormous volumes of sulphurous vapour. 
The drifting of these vapours across the snow rendered it extremely 
bitter. Some of this snow was liquefied and carried to Tokio for chemical 
examination. The examination only yielded pure water, whatever it was 
that had given the snow its peculiar taste having probably been evapo- 
rated during liquefication. My next visit to Asama was in the spring of 
1886. One of the chief objects of this expedition was to satisfy a 
curiosity which had arisen with regard to the depth of the crater. Many 
visitors to the summit reported that at favourable moments, when the 
wind had blown the steam to one side, they had been able to see down- 
wards to an enormous depth. One set of visitors, who had remarkable 
opportunities for making observations, were convinced that if the crater 
was not as deep as the mountain is high above the plain from which it 
rises (5,800), it must at least be from 1,500 to 2,000 feet in depth. 
Although I had provided myself with sufficient wire and rope to solve 
this problem, owing to the inclemency of the weather and the quantity of 
snow then lying on the mountain, the expedition proved a failure. One 
of our number had to give up the attempt to reach the summit at about 
6,000 feet above sea-level, while I a.nd my remaining companion only 
reached it with great difficulty. Our stay was very short. The wind, 
which was at times so strong that we were often compelled to lie down, 
rendered it impossible to approach the crater, and after a few minutes' 
rest we beat a retreat, worn out with fatigue, across the snow-fields, to- 
wards our starting-point. 

Two months after this a visitor who ascended the mountain by moon- 
light reported that the crater was only 200 feet in depth, and that at the 
bottom there was a glowing surface. A second visitor. Colonel H. S. 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 217 

Palmer, R.E., estimated the depth, as being between 500 and 600 feet. 
This estimate was based on the convergence of the walls of the crater, 
which he saw to the depth of about 300 feet, and the diameter of the 
crater, which he estimated, by walking round a semi-circumference, as 
about 370 yards. Previous estimates of the diameter had been 200 yards, 
three-fourths of a mile, and 1,000 metres. The Japanese say that the 
periphery is 3| miles. These last estimates, as pointed out by Colonel 
Palmer, are nearly in the ratio of 10, 81, 85, and 150 ! 

These wildly discordant results as to the dimensions of Asama, and 
the increasing curiosity on this question, led me, in conjunction with 
Messrs. Dun, Glover, and Stevens, to face the fatigue of ascending 
Asama for the third time. We left our resting-place (Kutskake) at the 
foot of the mountain at 4.30 on the morning of October 2, and in com- 
pany with five coolies we reached the summit at 11 a.m. After a short 
rest we commenced our measuring operations, the general arrangements 
of which were entirely the suggestion of Mr. Dun. Before Mr. Dun 
made his suggestion the various schemes which were proposed would, to 
my mind, have been unpractical and unsatisfactory. One suggestion 
was to roll a cannon-ball, with a string attached, down the crater ; 
another was to shoot an arrow carrying a string into the hole ; a third 
suggestion was to fly a kite across the crater, &c., &c. 

Mr. Dun's method, which I subsequently learnt was similar to a 
method devised by the late Mr. Mallet, was as follows : — First, a light 
rope some 500 yards in length was attached to a block of rock lying on 
a high portion of the rim of the crater. Next, this rope, which I shall 
call the cross-line, was carried round the edge of the crater for about 150 
or 200 yards. Here a heavy brass ring was tied upon it, and through 
the ring was passed the end of a copper wire coiled on a large reel. This 
was the sounding- line. Close to the ring a string, which I shall call the 
guy-rope, was made fast to the cross-line. This being completed, the 
cross-line was then carried on round the rim of the crater until it reached 
an eminence, as near as we could judge, opposite to the point where the 
other end of it was attached to the block of rock. After this the line 
was jerked clear of pinnacles and boulders lying round the edge of the 
crater. The cross-line now formed two sides of a triangle, stretching 
across the crater from where the ring and lowering apparatus were to 
two points diametrically opposite to each other. By letting out the guy- 
rope, the cross-rope could be stretched until it formed a diameter to the 
cratei", with the ring in the middle. The getting of these ropes into 
position was a matter of no little difficulty. First was the fact that 
clouds of vapours not only prevented us from seeing from station to 
station, but also from seeing far out into the crater. Secondly, on 
account of the hissing and bubbling noises in the crater itself, we could 
only communicate with each other by sound for short distances. And, 
thirdly, there was the difficulty of clearing the cross-rope from the ragged 
edges of the crater, which involved considerable risks in climbing. All 
being ready, word was passed along to haul on the cross-rope ; and, as it 
tightened, the guy-line was let out, together with the sounding-line, 
running parallel to it, but passing through the ring. Owing to the 
twisting of the cross-line by tension, and the consequent revolution of 
the ring, the wire was broken, and the first attempt at sounding failed. 
This difficulty was overcome by attaching the guy-rope to the ring itself. 
Very luckily the sounding-wire, having been entangled in the cross-rope 



218 EEPORT— 1887. 

by the twisting before it broke, the apparatus it carried was recovered. 
This apparatus consisted of an iron wire, to which were attached a 
number of metals of low fusibility, like antimony, zinc, &c., together 
"with pieces of wood, india-rubber, sealing-wax, &c. By the melting, 
burning, or fusing of some of these, it was hoped to obtain a rough idea 
of the temperature. Above these came a small net containing pieces of 
blue and red litmus-paper. Brazil-wood paper, and lead paper. With the 
assistance of my colleague. Dr. E. Divers, I had planned a number of 
chemical tests ; but from previous experience I had learnt the impossibility 
of carrying out anything but the simplest of experiments when working 
on the summit of a live volcano. 

At the second sounding, at a distance of about 100 feet from the edge, 
bottom (side ?) was reached at 441 feet. The wire of metals, &c., came 
up without change, farther than the softening and bending of the sealing- 
wax. The automatic laboratory had a strong smell of the action of acid 
vapours. The blue litmus was turned red, and the lead paper was well 
darkened. Assuming the lead paper to have been blackened by sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, then, as pointed out to me by Dr. Divers, the 
absence of this gas at the surface, and the presence of sulphurous acid, 
might be due to the decomposition of sulphuretted hydrogen by oxida- 
tion or by sulphurous acid in the jDresence of steam. The presence of 
sulphuretted hydrogen would indicate a relatively low temperature. 

At the thii'd sounding the line, which was a copper wire, gave way 
at a depth of about 200 feet, carrying with it a mercurial weight thermo- 
meter and other apparatus which I had reserved for what I hoped to be 
the best sounding. 

The fourth and last sounding was made, as measured on the guy-rope, 
at a distance of about 300 feet from the edge. In this case, the line, 
which was strong twine, after striking bottom when nearly 800 feet of it 
had run out, suddenly became slack. On hauling up, 755 feet were re- 
covered. The end of this line was thoroughly carbonised, and several 
feet were charred. Assuming that the guy-rope was paid out at an angle 
of 45°, we may conclude that the depth at this particular place was at least 
700 feet. It is probable that the greatest depth is about 750 feet. 

A final experiment was to attach a stone to the end of the cross-rope, 
and then throw it into the crater, with the hope of hauling at least a 
portion of it up the almost perpendicular face on the other side. Unfor- 
tunately the line caught, and, in the endeavour to loosen it, it was broken. 

Before we left the summit we were very fortunate in obtaining views 
of one side of the bottom of the crater. This we did by cautiously 
crawling out upon an overhanging rock, and then, while lying on our 
stomachs, putting our heads over the edge. The perpendicular side oppo- 
site to lis appeai'ed to consist of thick horizontally stratified bands of rock 
of a white colour. The bottom of the pit itself was white, and covered 
with boulders and debris. Small jets of steam were hissing from many 
places in the sides of the pit, while on our left, where we had been sound- 
ing, large volumes of choking vapours were surging up in angry clouds. 

After this we descended the mountain, reaching our hotel at 8 P M., 
after 15 hours' absence. 

The recorded eruptions of Asama took place in the years 687, 1124 or 
1126, 1527, 1532, 1596, 1645, 1648, 1649, 1652, 1657, 1659, 1661, 1704, 
1708, 1711, 1719, 1721, 1723, 1729, 1733, 1783, and 1869. This last 
eruption was feeble, but the eruption of 1783 was one of the most fright- 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



219 



fal on record. Rocks, from 40 to 80 feet in some of their dimensions, 
■were hurtled through the air in all directions. Towns and villages were 
buried. One stone is said to have measured 264 by 120 feet. It fell in 
a river, and looked like an island. Records of this eruption are still to be 
seen, in the form of enormous blocks of stone scattered over the Oiwake 
plain, and in a lava stream 63 kilometres in length. 

Earth-tremors. 
Introductory notes relating to the work done in Italy. — During the past 
year considerable time has been devoted to a critical examination of the 
earth- tremor records obtained from the automatic tromometer described 
in the report to the British Association for 1885. These records, together 
with the results which they have furnished, will be published in detail by 
the Seismological Society of Japan. As an introduction to an epitome 
of the results obtained in Japan, a few words may be said respecting the 
work now in progress in the Italian Peninsula, where, through the efforts 
of Professor M. S. de Rossi, twenty -seven stations for the observation of 
microseismical movements have been established. At the central station in 
Rome a dailj^map is issued on which the following phenomena are indicated: 

1. Isobars at 1 millimetre apart. 

2. Microseismical activity in different pai-ts of the kingdom. 

3. The number and intensity of earthquakes. 

4. The state of activity at volcanoes. 

5. The state of hot springs. 

6. The increase or decrease in the water of wells. 

From the tabular matter accompanying the maps one can read the 
state of microseismic activity at any particular station, or the average state 
of activity for the whole kingdom for any particular day or for a whole 
decade of ten days, the conclusion having been arrived at in Italy that 
microseismical storms recur decadically. 

January 1885. 





Days 


1« 


2 


3 


4 


5» 


6 


7 


8* 


9 


10 

0-61 
4 

1° 




Decade I.— 

Medium microseismical . 
Number of shocks . 
Maximum intensity 


1-42 
4 

5° 


2-23 
3 

4° 


2-32 

3 

3° 


1-68 
3 

1° 


1-77 

4 

4° 


2-26 

3 

1° 


1-70 
3 

2° 


1-63 
■2 

3° 


1-33 
3 

1° 






Days 


11 


12* 


13 


14* 


15 


16 

2-86 

9 

1° 


17* 

2-41 
1° 


18 


19* 

3-37 

10 

3° 


20* 

2-59 

8 

2° 




Decade II.— 

Medium microseismical . 
Number of shocks . 
Maximum intensity 


1-44 
3 

2° 


3-07 

7 

3° 


2-59 
3 

1° 


2-15 

17 

3° 


3-07 

6 

3° 


2'08 

3 

1° 




Days 


21* 


22-* 


23 


24» 


25 


26 


27 


28« . 


29 


30 


31* 


Dec.\de Ill- 
Medium microseismical . 
Number of shocks . 
Maximum intensity 


2-03 

19 

1° 


2'13 

4 

3^^ 


1-74 

4 

1° 


2-66 
14 

8° 


1-.S9 
19 

1° 


1-83 
16 

1° 


1-74 

9 

1° 


0-94 

6 

1° 


0'64 

1 
1° 


0-66 
2 

2° 


1-35 

6 

3° 



As illustrative of this decadic recurrence I give the preceding table 
compiled from the notes of Professor Rossi as published in the ' Bullettino 
del Valcanismo Italiano ' (anno xiii. fas. 1-3, pp. 5-7). 



220 



EEPOKT 1887. 



The days mai-ked with an asterisk are those on which, as referred to 
in the 'Bnllettino,' there was the greatest activity. First, I fail to see 
that those days are the days of maximum activity, and even if they are 
they do not appear to repeat themselves at intervals which are strictly 
decadic. Considering that each decade is divided into three parts that 
there should not be a near correspondence is apparently impossible. 

As residents in Japan cannot know the nature of the Italian work so 
well as those who are carrying it on in Italy, the chief object of this 
criticism is to gain information which may be of value in the tabulation 
of the work which in Japan is only now commencing. Another criticism 
which I bring forward refers to the relationship between the occurrence 
of tremors and the movements of the barometer. In Italy it has been 
observed that tremors are frequent and almost invariably accompany a 
low barometer. These tremors are known as haw-seismic movements, 
while those which occur during periods of high pressure are called vulcano- 
seismic movements. From an examination of a large series of the Italian 
maps it appears that there is a more general relationship between the 
occurrence of earth-tremors and atmospheric fluctuations than that which 
is implied in the name baro-seismic. The new law which I venture to put 
forward is that tremors are at a maximum in the Italian, Peninsula tuhen 
the barometrical gradient is steep, no matter whether the barometer is high or 
whether it is low. 





Mean micro- 


Barometric fall 




Date 


seismical inten- 


per 300 geo- 
graphical miles 


Heights of barometer 




sity in Italy 


300 miles apart -700 


Januarj' 1, 1885 


1-48 


7 


G3-70 


2 


2'24 


6 


63-69 


." 3,' ',', 


2-47 


G 


64-70 


„ .5, „ 


1-84 


4 


64-68 


6, „ 


2-29 


4 


64-68 


7, „ 


1-89 


4 


63-67 


10, „ 


•53 


1 


64-65 


12, „ 


3-59 


7 


48-55 


13, „ 


303 


G 


44-50 


19, ,, 


8-75 


9 


61-70 


20, „ 


2-79 


10 


54-64 


30, „ 


•75 


3 


63-66 


February 3, „ 


2-80 





54-63 


7, „ 


113 


4 


60-64 


15, „ 


•43 


Oor 1 


67-68 


,, . 16, „ 


•57 


2 


67-69 


23, „ 


•98 


3 


65-68 


24, „ 


•82 


3 


69-72 


., 27, „ 


■73 


3 


65-68 


March 2, „ 


•88 


1 


59-60 


3, „ 


•71 


1 


62-63 


6, „ 


4^37 


8 


53-61 


7, „ 


404 


8 


54-62 


14, „ 


314 


8 


58-66 


Ifi, „ 


■57 


1 


72-73 


17, „ 


•49 





72-72 


20, „ 


114 


4 


51-55 


22, „ 


109 


4 


54-58 


29, „ 


•82 





59-59 


30, „ 


•81 


35 


56-58^5 


31, „ 


■96 


2 


61-63 


April 2, „ 


•54 


1 


58-59 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 221 

As confirmatory of the above conclusion the preceding table for days 
when there has either been great or little microseismical disturbance has 
been drawn up. It shows the intensity of the tremors in Italy, the actual 
height of the barometer, and the gradient. 

From an inspection of the table it will be seen that a low barometer, 
as on March 29, is not necessai-ily accompanied with unusual tremors, 
and that tremors only occur with a steep gradient. 

A steep gradient is usually accompanied by wind, but, unfortunately, 
the means of comparing microseismical disturbances with the state of the 
wind is not given on the Italian maps. 

Worlc done in Japan. — I will now give the general results derived 
from a set of records obtained from my automatic tremor- recorder. With 
but few omissions they extend from Jan. 13, 1885, to May 14, 1886. 

(a) General harometric analysis. — With the barometer standing above 
the monthly mean tremors were observed 72 times, while they were not 
observed 14-3 times. 

With the barometer below the monthly mean tremors were observed 
105 times, while in 104 cases they were not observed. The observations 
apparently indicate that tremors occur rather with a low than with a 
high barometer ; but even if the barometer is low it is as likely that 
tremors should not occur as it is that they should occur. The tables 
showing these results also showed that tremors were more frequent 
during the winter months — a fact which has often been noticed. 

(?;) General ivind analysis. — Tables were prepared, showing for each 
month the number of times that tremors had been observed, or had not 
been observed, for different intensities of the wind. The general results 
arrived at showed that when the wind velocity was low it was seldom 
that tremors had been observed, but when it was high tremors were 
almost invariably observed. 

With a wind velocity of 100-150 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 28 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 150-200 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 27 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 200-250 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 24 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 250-300 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 34 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 300-350 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 50 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 350-400 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 35 per cent, of the times of obsei'vation. 

With a wind velocity of 400-450 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 54 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 450-500 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 57 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 500-550 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 38 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 550-600 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 60 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 600-650 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 44 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 650-700 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 62 per cent, of the times of observation. 



222 



REPORT 1887. 



With a wind velocity of 700-750 kilometres per 24 hours, tremors 
were observed in 100 per cent, of the times of observation. 

With a wind velocity of 750-800 kilometres per 24 honrs, tremors 
were observed in 100 per cent, of the times of observation. 

(c) Detailed wind analysis.— The analysis now referred to extends 
over the period between Jan. 20 and May 14, 1886, or nearly four 
months. The wind observations with which the tremors were compared 
are given in the tri-daily weather maps prepared by the Imperial 
Meteorological Observatory. The wind scale runs from 0, or a calm, to 
6, or a hurricane. 

With the wind at tremors were observed 10 times and not observed 
16 times. 

With the wind at 1 tremors were observed 53 times and not observed 
47 times. 

With the wind at 2 tremors were observed 54 times and not observed 
49 times. 

With the wind at 3 tremors were observed 37 times and not observed 
16 times. 

With the wind at 4 tremoi's were observed 12 times and not observed 
1 time. 

The percentage of times that tremors were observed with the wind in 
different states were as follows : — 

Wind at 0, percentage 38 
)) )) Ij >i 53 

5) )) 2, „ 53 

„ „ 3, „ 70 

„ „ 4, „ 92 

From this and the preceding analysis it seems that the stronger the 
wind the more likely it is that tremors should occur. The difficulty 
which here presents itself is to account for tremors sometimes occurring 
during a calm, and for the occasional absence of tremors during a wind. 
A partial explanation of these difficulties is obtained when we compare 
the occurrence of tremors with the barometric gradient, when we find 
that for each particular state of the wind when tremors have occurred 
the gradient has been steeper than the gradient for the same state of the 
wind when tremors have not occurred. Thus — 



Wind intensity 


Barometric gradient in millimetres per 120 miles 


With tremors 


Without tremors 




1 
2 
3 

4 


2-3 
2-9 
30 

3-6 
44 


1-9 

2-1 
21 
2-9 
30 



From the above it appears that tremors are more closely connected with 
barometric gradient than they are with a local wind. 

((Z) Detailed barometric analysis. — The following table shows the 
relationship between the occurrence of tremors and the barometric gra- 
dient, irrespective of the force of the wind. The percentage of times that 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN, 



223 



tremors were observed out of the total number of observations made at 
any particular gradient are also given. 



Barometric gradient per 120 m. 


Tremors 


Percentage 


No tremors 





2 


28 


8 


1 


28 


57 


21 


2 


42 


44 


52 


3 


40 


50 


40 


4 


22 


88 


3 


6 


20 


71 


8 


6 


5 


100 


— 


7 


3 


100 


— 


9 


1 


100 


- 



The general conclusion to be drawn from this table is that tremors are 
proportionately more frequent the steeper the gradient. 

(e) The -presence of tremors and the absence of loind. — In the detailed 
wind analysis table c it was shown that there were tremors 10 times when 
it was calm, and 53 times when there was only a light breeze in Tokio. 
It was, however, also shown that although the wind was light the baro- 
metric gradient ia relatively high. This led me to inquire whether there 
was not a strong wind blowing at a distance from Tokio, while in Tokio 
itself when tremors were observed it was calm. The results of the 
inquiry were as follows : — 

First, in 6 cases out of the 10 when tremors were recorded during a 
calm, there were heavy winds blowing behind the mountains which shelter 
Tokio on its western and northern sides at a distance of 60 to 100 miles. 
In 3 cases there was a calm throughout Central Japan, but the tremors 
on these occasions were very slight. 

Second, on 35 days out of 45 days on which the 53 cases of tremors 
were recorded with a Hght breeze, there was a strong wind blowing 
within 50 to 150 miles of Tokio. When the wind was blowing up from 
the S.W. at right angles to the ranges sheltering the plain of Tokio the 
tremors were very marked. On 10 days there was a calm in Central 
Japan, and the tremors which were recorded cannot be explained as the 
result of wind, neither do they hold any connection with a steep baro- 
metric gradient. 

It is proper to note here that 44 days when there was a calm in 
Tokio, and no tremors, were also examined, with the result of show- 
ing that on 22 of the days there was a general calm in Central 
Japan, and on the 22 remaining days there was practically a calm. 
At one or two stations only was the intensity of the wind one or 
two, and even then at different stations it was blowing in contrary 
directions. 

( f) Absence of tremors and presence of ivind. — By reference to section c, 
it will be seen that there were sixteen cases when the wind was of strength 
3, and one when the wind was of strength 4, and no tremors were 
recorded. In these instances if tremors are the result of wind, then 
tremors ought to have been recorded. In three cases the wind was local, 
while in the remaining cases the wind came in from the ocean. 

(g) Analysis of selected storms. — A few of the more important tremor 
storms, some of which extended over thirty or forty hours, have been 



224 REPORT — 1887. 

drawn as curves, the ordinates of which represented the amplittide of 
tremor motion. These carves were compared with curves which repre- 
sented the force of the wind and the height of the barometer in Tokio. 
After comparing these curves with each other it appeared that the micro- 
seismical distm-bances showed the most varying relationship with the 
strength of the wind and the movements of the barometer. 

(h) Earth-tremors and earthquakes . — Professor M. S. de Rosse has 
pointed out some remarkable instances when earth-tremors have been the 
precursors of earthquakes. From my records it appears that earthquakes 
have happened fifty-three times when there were no tremors, and thirty- 
three times when there were tremors. From this I conclude that earth- 
quakes are just as likely to occur without tremors as with them. 

(i) Earth-tremors and the state of the ivind in Central Japan in 1885. — 
Central Japan is here meant to include all places within about 200 miles 
of Tokio. In this area there are eleven meteorological stations. If the 
wind has had a force of three or upwards at more than one of these 
stations it has been considered windy. When the wind has not exceeded 
two or one, even if wind of that intensity was blowing at all the eleven 
stations, it has been considered calm. An arbitrary division of days or 
periods into windy and calm, such as has here been followed, must neces- 
sarily result in absolutely separating the days which were truly windy 
from those which were truly calm. There are, however, a number of 
cases which might equally well be placed in either group. 

In 1885 there were 945 weather maps which could be compared with 
the records of the tremor instrument. The results of the comparison were 
as follows : — 

1. With no wind and no tremors there were . . .651 cases. 

2. With no wind and tremors „ ,, . . .51 

3. With wind and no tremors ,, >, • • .60 

4. With wind and tremors „ ,, . . .65 

5. With a local wind in Tokio and no tremors there were 101 

6. With a local wind and tremors there were . . .17 

On the assumption that tremors are due to the wind, then the second 
and third results are difficult to understand. These have therefore been 
carefully re-examined, with results as follows: In 17 out of the 51 cases 
of tremors occurring when there was no wind it is found that at these 
times it was moderately windy, and it is therefore possible that the tremors 
which were observed might have been due to wind. In 8 instances the 
tremors were accompanied by marked barometrical depressions, while in 
the 26 remaining cases the tremors were slight and of short duration. 

In 51 cases out of the 60 cases when there was wind and no tremors 
it is seen that the wind was only moderate and of short duration. Most 
of these winds were afternoon sea-breezes, which possibly do not continue 
sufficiently long to produce tremors. In 9 instances of tremors they are 
the result of wind. These tremors ought to have been observed. The 945 
comparisons may therefore be arranged as follows : — 

1. With no wind and no tremors ..... 651 cases. 

2. With no wind and tremors 51 cases : — 

(a) Tremors possibly due to preceding wind . . 17 „ 

(6) Tremors accompanying barometric depressions . 8 „ 
(c) Tremors possibly of subterranean origin . . . 26 „ 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 225 

3. With wind and no tremors 60 cases : — 

(a) Cases where tremors ought to have occurred . 9 cases. 
(h) Cases where it is doubtful whether tremors ought 

to have been observed . . . . . 51 ,, 

4. With wind and tremors . . . . . . 65 ,, 

6. With local wind and no tremors ..... 101 ,, 

6. With local wind and tremors . . . . . 17 ,, 

Total 945 „ 

In 1885 tremors were therefore recorded 133 times. The obvious ex- 
planation for 65 cases (50 per cent.) when tremors were very marked is 
that they were produced by stormy winds which were then blowing. In 
34 cases (25 per cent.) the ti'emors inay have been produced by stormy 
winds which had been blowing a few hours previously or by strong local 
winds. The remaining 34 cases (25 per cent.) may have been of subter- 
ranean origin. In these latter cases, however, the tremors are feeble and 
of short duration, ivhile ivhen the tremors have accompanied luind they have 
been of considerable amjdittide and of long duration. That tremors are in 
great measure due to wind receives support from the fact that when it 
has been calm in Central Japan tremors which have always been very 
slight have only been observed in less than 5 per cent, of the times of 
observation. 

Summary. 

The preceding epitomised analyses apparently point to the following 
results : — 

1. Earth- tremors are more frequent when the barometer is low than 
when it is high, but even with a low barometer tremors are not always 
observed. 

2. With a steep barometric gradient tremors are almost always ob- 
served, but with a small gradient it is seldom that they are recorded. 

3. The stronger the wind the more likely it is that tremors should be 
noted. 

4. When there is a high wind in Tokio and no tremors such wind has 
almost invariably been local, or of short duration, or blowing in from the 
Pacific Ocean. Such winds are rarely accompanied by tremoi'S. 

5. When there has been no wind in Tokio, and tremors have been 
observed, in most instances there has been a strong wind in other parts 
of Central Japan. In the case of winds working up Japan from the 
S.W. the tremors in Tokio have been very marked, these being recorded 
in Tokio several hours before the arrival of the wind. Sometimes 
tremors appear to be due to a wind which had been blowing a few hours 
previously. 

6. With a general calm in Central Japan it is extremely rare to 
observe tremors, and even if they are observed they are extremely slight. 

7. Earthquakes and earth-tremors do not appear to be connected with 
each other. 

Although the above conclusions are founded upon a fairly long series 
of observations and their importance is great, especially to all who are 
engaged in meteorological investigations, it is hardly yet justifiable to 
put them forward as established laws until the observations have been 
repeated. So far as my investigations have gone, it certainly appears 

1887. Q 



226 REPOKT— 1887. 

tbat the greater number of tremor disturbances are phenomena which 
originate upon the surface of the earth, and it is not necessary to look to 
subterranean agencies for their production. That tremors are produced 
by local winds acting upon trees and buildings is a phenomenon hardly 
requiring demonstration. We also know that artificially produced tremors 
can be propagated through ordinary soil to a considerable distance. 
Vibrations produced by stamping with the feet can be seen reflected in a 
dish of mercury at the distance of 100 feet. The vibrations produced 
by a railway train can be recorded at the distance of a mile. 

The question now is whether winds blowing against high mountains, 
which at times, as I showed in my report for 1885, are in a state of 
vibration, produce a disturbance sufficiently iiitense to be felt at the 
distance of 100 miles upon plains where it is practically calm ? 
Observations, so far as they have gone, appear to indicate this to be 
the case, and if it is so, then the movements of the ocean upon which 
wavelets and waves outrace the storms which originate them find a 
parallel in the movements of the land. 

As a test of the accuracy of my conclusions I invited Colonel H. S. 
Palmer, R.B., to determine from a series of weather maps (267 in all) 
the days upon which tremors had occurred. The rules for his guidance 
were : — 

1. With a general calm in Central Japan tremors seldom occurred. 

2. With a wind in Tokio and Central Japan, or with no wind in 
Tokio, but with strong wind in other parts of Central Japan, tremors 
might be observed. 

On receiving Colonel Palmer's list 1 was agreeably surpi'ised to find 
that in 54 out of b7 cases ivheii he reported that tremors ought to have been 
observed he was absolutely right, there having been tremors which were very 
marked. In reporting ' no tremors ' he was only wrong when slight 
tremors had occurred. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Badeeman, Mr. F. 
W. KuDLEU, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Dr. Johnston-La vis, /or the 
i/nvestigation of the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and 
its neighbourhood. (Drawn up by H. J. Johnston-Lavis, M.D., 
F.G.S., Secretary.) 

Fewer changes have taken place in Vesuvius than the reporter has known 
to occur during any of the eight years the volcano has been under his 
observation, and even in the recent history of the mountain no such 
extent of regular action is indicated. The lava mentioned in the last 
report as flowingr continued to do so in varying quantity, and about 
September 17, 1886, again reached the cultivated lands, destroying some 
trees at the southern end of the Sorama ridge. During the latter part of 
the same month and the first half of October the amount of lava varied 
very much, as also did the activity. Sometimes after a few days of quiet- 
ness with the lava high in the chimney so that the scoria stage persisted, 
a small cone of eruption would be built up at the bottom of the great 
crater formed during the summer ; but as soon as greater activity declared 
itself, or the lava-level sank, the ash-forming stage prevailed, and the 
great crater formed during the summer was further enlarged. As all 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF VESUVIUS. 227 

these changes took place from tbe eastern depression, the crater rim 
assumed an iri'egular oval plan — the larger end being towards the 
east. Early in November the upper part of the eastern slope of the 
great cone showed a considerable rent, nearly on the site of that of 1881-2, 
and about half-way down the mountain another opening, from which issued 
some of the lava during the last two months, and near which it probably 
now issues and flows under cover to the Val d'Inferno, where it appears 
at the surface. In November there was also to be seen a new fissure on 
the crater-plain (1872) in a N.E. direction, whilst the long one running 
due west has become much more marked from the advanced decomposition 
of its edges by the escape of the acid vapours. From that time up to the 
present the lava has continued to ooze in a few small streams near the base 
of the great cone at the junction of the Val d'Inferno with the Pedimen- 
tina. In the meanwhile, with slight intervals, a cone of eruption has been 
built up gradually at the crater-bottom, whilst the inner sides of the 
latter were thickly lined by a mantle of scoria cakes. This is fairly well 
shown in the photograph exhibited, which is the only one of any interest 
amongst those taken this year. 

Exhibited at the meeting is the first volume of ' Lo Spettatore del 
Vesuvio e dei Campi Flegrei,' published by the Neapolitan section of the 
Italian Alpine Club. It is a revival in name of a somewhat similar pub- 
lication of some thirty years ago. Its object is to record and publish any 
scientific observations on the Neapolitan volcanic region. The present 
number contains memoirs by Professors Comes, Palmieri, Palmeri, Riccio, 
Scacchi, and the reporter. The latter memoir consists of the detailed ob- 
servations on Vesuvius during a space of four years, illustrated by three 
figures and thirteen phototype reproductions of photographs, all being the 
work of the reporter. These photographs have been exhibited in Section 
C during the last three years.^ It is the intention of the publishers to 
continue to issue numbers from time to time if sufficient support can be 
found to cover the expenses. While speaking of this part of the subject, 
the reporter has received much help fi'om local friends, and is particularly 
indebted to Mrs. T. R. Guppy and Mrs. Lavis for carefully carrying on 
observations on the activity of Vesuvius during his absence or illness. 

The fifth sheet of the geological map of Monte Somma and Vesuvius 
has been completed, and is exhibited at the meeting, whilst the sixth is 
nearly so, but owing to the outburst of cholera at Resina and some other 
of the Vesnvian communes the five or six other field days necessary to finish 
it were not obtainable. Even had this been the case there would have 
been insufficient time to make a clean copy for exhibition at this meeting. 
The sheet presented required much negative work in the valleys and on 
the slopes of Monte Somma, and the detail work on the southern part 
took much time. As a portion of this sheet has been worked at different 
times, and no account kept, it is difficult to estimate the number of field 
days, but it would be within the truth if placed at twenty-five. 

The only work now remaining to finish the geological map may be 
summed up thus : about six field days to complete the last sheet ; about 
one week's work in the Atrio del Cavallo to map in that region with its 
dykes on the three different sheets upon which it appears ; and about six 
field days to different localities where new exposures, roads, and excava- 
tions have been made ; so that the reporter hopes next year to exhibit the 
whole map in manuscript and, if possible, a printed copy. 

' A copy of the volume is exhibited. 



228 BEPOBT— 1887. 

This year Las been less favourable for addiug to our knowledge of 
tbe subterranean structure of this volcanic district. The artesian well at 
Russo's factory at Ponticelli, which was in progress at the date of the 
last report, is now completed, and M. Chartier, the engineer who super- 
intended the boring, has kindly placed at my disposal the working 
records and specimens, which I hope to describe in detail elsewhere. 
Marine sand, tuff, and other clastic materials were traversed to a depth 
of 58 metres, and from that point to 103'4 metres beds of rather coarse 
doleritic lava were met with. The lavas repose on strata of ash, lapillo, 
and pumice, and at a depth of 180'6 metres sand and leucitic (?) breccia were 
met with. The importance of this well cannot be overrated, showing as 
it does the interlapping of the trachytic ejections of the Campi Phlegrese 
with the Vesuvian lavas, tuffs, and breccias, and proving undoubtedly 
that the site of the valley of the Sebeto was a deep bay of the sea long 
after the fires of Vesuvius had commenced to burn, and that this bay 
was in great part filled up by the fragmentary deposits from the Neapo- 
litan volcanoes, or others washed down the slopes of Vesuvius, and above 
all the lavas of that volcano that poured as fiery torrents into the placid 
prehistoric bath of the Siren long before that mythical goddess or even 
the ancient Paleopolia were thought of by human mind. At San Giovanni 
di Teduccio, in a direct line from the last well to the seashore, and near 
the latter, another boring has been made by M. Chartier. After passing 
through 18 metres of sand with shells 8 metres of marl were met with, 
with tuff and sand to 34 metres. It is regrettable that no greater depth 
was reached, as it might also have struck the Vesuvian lava, as in the 
former case. 

At PisciarelH, on the N.B. flank of the Solfatara, once the site of the 
alum- water rivulet, an attempt has been made to dig a well and re-find 
the alum water. The well has reached a depth of 25 metres, and the 
water is at boiling-point ; and even with two hand-fans the atmosphere 
has risen above 90° C, so that the day before writing this report 
(Aug, 17, 1887) the workmen refused to continue work ; and as it is 
necessai-y to excavate another 10 metres the fight between human in- 
genuity and volcanic heat may afford us some interesting facts. The 
water found is an alkaline sulphur water, and not aluminous, as the re- 
porter had forewarned the engineer, who would not believe that alum is 
a surface product of the higher oxidation of the sulphurous acid and the 
action of the resulting sulphuric acid upon the trachytic rocks. 

The railway works at the back of Naples have been suspended for 
some months from financial difficulties, and the new drainage works have 
not brought anything new to light. At the Armstrong works at Pozzuoli 
only facts that confirm what is already known have been met with. 

The reporter spent over a month of the early summer in studying the 
volcanic group of the Eolian Islands. The state of Vulcano afler the late 
eruption seems to be very similar to what it is under oi'dinary conditions. 
The bottom of the crater is now inaccessible without a rope, as the lower 
half of the path was blown away by the late eruptive action. Stromboli, 
however, showed the most remarkable quiescence, explosions being only 
few and far between; and during a stay of 4| hours at the crater only 
three were sufficiently strong to project a few fragments of pasty 
lava. 

It is the reporter's wish, as soon as the geological map of Vesuvius 
and Monte Somma is finished, to commence a series of experiments upon 



ON THE VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF VESUVIUS. 229 

the temperature of the lava and, if possible, of its specific gravity at dif- 
ferent temperatures. 

The reporter regrets to show less apparent work in the present report, 
but he can assure the Section that not less real work has been carried 
out. 



Third Rejport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. T. Blanford, 
Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. W. Cakruthees, Dr. H. Woodward, 
and Mr. J. S. Gtardnek, for the purpose of reporting on the 
Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and Secondary Beas of the United 
Kingdom. {Drawn up by the Secretary, Mr. J. S. Gtardnee.) 

The small balance carried forward from last meeting has been ex- 
pended in visiting the localities in which fossil plants have previously 
been met with. 

The beds near the pier at Bournemouth seem more than usually 
inaccessible, but a fall from the clifE has brought down some of the dark 
clays, and in these were parts of a lai'ge featlier palm and other leaves. 
I was fortunate enough, however, to secure at the west end of the cliffs 
a new species of Acer and a fine leaf of Bryandra acutiloba, really a Myrica, 
a rare leaf at Bournemouth, and one of the few that extend upward from 
the Lower Bagshot into the Bournemouth horizon. 

I have again visited Alum Bay, but the pipe-clay on the shore has 
become still more diminisbed, and there is no hope that any more fossil 
plant-remains will be obtained there in our time. No distinct plant- 
remains are obtainable from the same horizon at WhitecliQ' Bay, though 
I had some hope that this might be the case. The drought was unfavour- 
able to collecting at Barton and Hordwell, where most interesting fruits 
are washed out during heavy rains, and I procured no plants during my 
visits there this year; but it favoured, on the contrary, collecting at 
Lough Neagh, by lowering the level of the lake, and I am able to add a 
new Pteris, an exquisitely preserved fruit, and many dicotyledons to the 
flora, and a Paludina to the fauna. 

No plant-remains were obtainable this year at Reading, nor do any 
of the other brick-pits in which plant-remains have occurred seem in 
exactly a favourable state at the moment for collecting ; so that it appears 
undesirable to ask for further grants for this purpose at present. The 
Lower Eocene floras are, however, still insufficiently known, and excava- 
tions at Bromley, or elsewhere in the Woolwich horizon, would, I anticipate, 
yield especially important results. In the meantime an enormous mass 
of material has now been accumulated, which will require years of patient 
research to digest. Advantage has been taken of the presence of that 
distinguished palseobotanist, the Marquis de Saporta, at our meeting to 
go through the drawings, numbering more than a thousand, that I have 
already made of the fossil plants so far collected. He is completely 
astonished at the richness of our Eocenes, and considers them to be 
unrivalled. The Reading and Bournemouth horizons contain plants 
which do not appear in Europe until much later Tertiary times, seeming 
to have passed very slowly across Europe towards Eastern Asia — which 
may be considered their present home — their chief affinities being with 
floras indigenous to that part of the globe, rather than with those of 
America and Australia, as hitherto supposed. 



230 REPORT— 1887. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. Gr. Bonney, 
Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Professor J. F. Blake, appointed td 
undertake the Microscopical Examination of the Older Rocks of 
Anglesey. {Drawn up by Professor J. F. Blake, Secretary.) 

The Secretary of the Committee reports that it has been thought desirable 
for the adequate exaniination of the questions which arise in connec- 
tion with tlie crystalline schists and associated rocks of Anglesey to have 
a large number of sections — about 300 — cut from specimens from various 
localities. The cutting and preparation of these have occupied so much 
of the year as not to have left adequate time for the detailed study they 
require. 

A map is exhibited showing the localities from which the rocks from 
which slices have been prepared have been obtained. These are in 
nearly every part of the island where the older rocks occur, and certainly 
incluile examples of every important variety. For stratigraphical pur- 
poses, to show the distribution of the vai-ions types, which cannot be 
with certainty distinguished in the field, a still larger series would be 
desirable ; but for general questions connected with the origin of these 
rocks the collection is probably sufficient. 

These preliminary results obtained by the first examination will be 
liable to modification and correction when more time has been given to 
their study ; but the following points seem fairly well established at 
present : — 

1. The quartz rocks have two distinct origins ; one group consists of 
ordinary beds of quartz sand which have been more or less compacted 
and foliated by the development of some chloritic or other mineral in the 
interstices, and the other group has the original quartz grains irregularly 
scattered and imbedded in quartz which has been developed in the rock 
itself, somewhat after the manner of the quartz in a vein. 

2. Passages may be traced from true chloritic schists, in which the 
largest original saud-graius only are left here and there, into breccias, in 
which the matrix has not yet been crystallised to its full extent, but 
which remains in a dusty or granular state. 

3. Tiie presence of this green mineral, geneially called chlorite, is 
characteristic of certain parts of tlie whde series of Anglesey rocks, 
whether taken from the newer or the older portions, though its amount 
and definiteness vary to a great extent. 

4. This same chloritic mineral is characteristically combined with 
quartz in what one might almost call a micropegmatitic manner, except 
that the mineral is rather in rounded blebs, arranged in a botryoidal 
manner. 

5. The less crystalline or dusty members of the series are often 
divided by narrow opaque lines of the finest dust running more or less 
parallel, but interosculating and undoubtedly produced since the first 
formation of the rock. The more crystalline the rock the more rare is it 
to find such lines in them. 

6. The granitic and dioritio rocks, which are found associated with the 
schists or ashy rocks, more generally with the latter, are distinguished 
by the presence of accessory minerals, such as zircon, sphene, rutile, and 
apatite. 



ON THE OLDER ROCKS OF ANGLESEY. 231 

7. Any one of these rocks, whether granite, syenite, or diorite, or 
whatever they may be called, puts on a foliated character in places, usually 
towards the margin of the mass. 

8. There are rocks in this old series of an essentially basaltic 
structure, i.e., consisting of acicular crystals of felspar in a less differen- 
tiated ground mass. 

9. The fragments which occur in the breccias of the series between 
Bangor and Carnarvon can mostly, if not entirely, be identified with 
rocks from Anglesey, including the above basaltic rock, except those 
which are derived from the felsites of the same series. 

10. The limestones of the group are remarkably pure, having either 
a schistose or mosaic structure ; they have, however, in some cases the 
interstices filled with bfematitic dust, which, when quartz is present, forms 
jasper. The only exception to this purity is an oolitic limestone at Llan- 
badrig, in which oolitic grains, often grain within grain, are imbedded in 
the more crystalline calcite. 

11. In connection with the felsites occurring on the mainland must 
be recognised a rock occurring, amongst other places, near Beaumaris, 
which may be called a felsite grit. It is truly clastic, and may be a 
cleaved rock containing foreign fragments ; but the matrix is so entirely 
formed of felsitic material that it has the aspect of a true felsite. 

12. The peculiar polarising tints which are characteristic of pressure 
are met with in many of the rocks, but their development is so sporadic, 
even in the same rock, that their significance cannot yet be completely 
determined : it is less common in the granitic and allied rocks than in 
the schist. 

In order to carry on the investigation of these rocks to a conclusion 
the Committee de.sire to be reappointed. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of ProfeBsors Tilden 
and Armstrong {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of in- 
vestigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. (Draivn up by 
Professor Armstrong.) 

Valuable contributions to our knowledge of the naphthalene derivatives 
have been made during the past year by Bamberger, Cleve, Ekstrand, 
Porsling, Guareschi and Biginelli, and others ; my own investigations 
have also progressed very satisfactorily : and fi^om the results obtained it 
is more than ever obvious that the information to be derived from the 
study of naphthalene derivatives will be of considerable importance, as 
it will unquestionably serve to throw light on the nature of the changes 
involved in the formation of substitution derivatives generally and on 
laws of substitution. 

Sulplionation of a-mono-derivatives. — The behaviour of a-chloro- and 
bromonaphthalene was referred to in the last report ; that of u-iodo- 
naphthalene has since been found to be precisely similar, as this com- 
pound yields the 1:4 sulphonic acid as main product together with an 
isomer. The latter, however, has not yet been obtained in sufficient 
quantity to satisfactorily determine its specific characters. The 1:4 
sulpho-chloride crystallises in massive prisms, melting at 123° ; bromine 



232 REPORT — 1887. 

at once displaces the snlpho-group in the acid, forming 1:4 iodobromo- 
naphthalene (m.p. 88°). 

a-Cyanonaphthalene yields an acid which forms well-characterised 
salts, &c. : this is undoubtedly an a-sulphonic derivative, as it is con- 
verted by fusion with potash into an hydroxycarhoxylic acid, from which 
a-naphthol may be obtained by removal of carbon dioxide. The hy- 
droxy acid appears not to be identical with the a-hydroxy acid pre- 
pared from a-naphtoic acid ; if this be the case it is to be anticipated 
that, although the sulphonic acids prepared from a-naphtoic acid and from 
a-cyanonaphthaleue are both o-a-derivatives, the one will prove to be the 
1:1' and the other (probably the cyano-compound) the 1:4' derivative. 
In any case, however, the behaviour of a-cyanonaphthalene aflfords another 
example of the modification of the ' meta-law ' which prevails in the 
benzene series in favour of the ' alpha-law ' to which reference was made 
in the previous report. These experiments on o-derivatives have been 
made by Mr. S. Williamson. 

Dlcldoronaijlilhalenesulfhonic acids. — With the object of characterising 
the dichloronaphthalenes and in order to obtain more material for the 
detei'mination of the laws of substitution, a systematic study of the 
sulpho-acids obtainable from the dichloronaphthalenes has been com- 
menced and already extended to five of them by Mr. W. P. Wynne and 
myself; the examination of the dichloronaphthalenes melting at about 
61°, obtained from various sources, has afibrded results of special interest, 
which serve to throw light on the constitution of several of the com- 
pounds referred to in the previous report, and has also led to the dis- 
covery that two distinct dichloronaphthalenes have hitherto been con- 
founded together. 

1. It was suggested in the former report that the sulpho-acid formed 
from a-CidHyCl in small quantity together with the 1:4 acid was an 
a-a-derivative ; if so, it should give either the 1:1' or 1:4' dichloro- 
naphthalene on treatment with PCI5. Actually, however, it is found to 
yield a dichloronaphthaleue melting at about 61° — the melting-point of 
Cleve's (^-modification — thus proving it to be an o-/3-derivative. 

Now there is reason to believe that, as a rule, if a /3-hydrogen atom 
become displaced it is one contiguous to an o-position which is already 
occupied ; it is therefore probable that the dichloronaphthalene in question 
and the parent sulphonic acid are 1:2 derivatives. The acid obtained on sul- 
phonating the dichloronaphthalene gave a sulphochloride melting at 113°. 

2. The chloro-acid obtained as chief product on sulphonating 
/S-CjoHyCl was said by Arnell to yield a dichloronaj^hthalene melting 
at about 61° when distilled with PCI 5 : on re'^eating the experiment, it 
was found that the product fused sharply at 65°. The sulpho-acid pre- 
pared from this dichloronaphthalene gave salts similar to those obtained 
from the acid prepared from the dichloronaphthaleue discussed in the 
preceding paragraph, and its sulpho-chloride fused at 119°. Avery small 
quantity of the products from a-CioH^Cl was at disposal, but a very con- 
siderable quantity of those from /S-CjoH^Cl, which could therefore be 
carefully purified ; and as the formation of a 1 : 2 derivative on sulpho- 
nating /3-C10H7CI appears highly pi'obable, it is believed that the slight 
diflferences observed were due to impurity in the products from a-CioHyCl. 
It is thought desirable provisionally to term the dichloronaphthalene 
melting at 65° liomo-Q-dicliloronaplitlialene = 0-CioHeCl2, as it is probably 
a homonucleal compound. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 233 

3. On treating the ? /3-disulphonic acid referred to in the previous 
report with PCI5 a dichloronaphthalene is obtained which also melts at 
about 61°-5 ; this, however, yields a snlpho-acid distinct from that 
obtained from the dichloronaphthalene from jS-CioHyCl, the melting- 
point of the sulphochloride being 150°. 

4. Cleve has recently described a dichloronaphthalene melting at 61°'5 
which he prepared from dichloro-a-naphthylamine. On sulphonating this 
modification an acid is obtained which is identical with that prepared 
from the dichloronaphthalene from the ? ^-naphthalenedisulphonic acid. 
It is proposed to provisionally term this dichloronaphthalene 1ietero-6- 
dichloronaphtJtalene = ^'-CioHeCla, as there is reason to believe that it is a 
heteronucleal compound — probably it is 2':4 CioHgCl2. 

5. It will assuredly be found on examining the two dichloronaphtha- 
lenes melting (?) at 61° prepared from Cleve's two nitro-/3-sulplionic 
acids, that the one is the homo- and the other the /teiero-^-modification. 
That obtained from Bayer's modification of /3-naphtholsulpbonic acid is 
doubtless hetero-6-dichloronaphtlialene : the conclusion arrived at by Clans, 
that this acid is a 2:3 di- derivative" is not only opposed to all that is known 
of the behaviour of naphthalene compounds, inasmuch as it involves the 
assumption that on sulphonating /?-naphthol the second /8-position con- 
tiguous to the hydroxyl becomes displaced ; it is untrustworthy, as the 
dichloroquinone which he obtained may have been, and doubtless was, 
produced by the action of chloi'ine liberated during the process of oxida- 
tion ; and there is reason to believe that the dichloronaphthalene corre- 
sponding to such an acid would be the i-modification, which melts at 120°. 

Isomeric change in the naphthalene series. — One of the most strik- 
ing cases of isomeric change known is that of jS-naphthylsulphate, 
C10H7.OSO3H, into Schaefer's modification of /3-naphtholsulphonic acid 
by mere warming on the water-bath (' Berichte,' 1882, p. 204). The 
conversion takes place in the absence of sulphuric acid, and witli such 
ease that there can be practically no doubt that it is a true case of 
isomeric change ; and it is not probable either that the sulpho-group 
becomes displaced and re- enters the molecule in another position, or that 
one molecule acts upon another so that an exchange of sulpho-groups is 
effected. This view is supported by the following more recent observa- 
tions : first, that if bromo-/3-uaphthol be submitted to the action of 
SO3HCI at ordinary temperatures, the resulting product contains very 
little of the sulphate CioHgBr.O.SOall, but chiefly consists of the 
bromonaphtholsulphonic acid which is formed on brominating Schaefer's 
naphtholsulphonic acid. 

Again, if ^-naphthylsulphate be acted upon by SO3HCI without 
heating, not only is a second sulpho-group introduced, but that already 
present sioontaneously changes its position : a clisulphonic acid is thus pro- 
duced, which is characterised by the readiness with which it parts with 
one of its sulphonic radicles being converted into Schaefer's monosul- 
phonic acid; it i.s probable that the sulpho-group, which is easily dis- 
placed occupies the a-position contiguous to the OH group. The disul- 
.phonic acid here referred to itself undergoes isomeric change when heated, 
but the nature of the product is not yet finally determined. 

Lastly, experiments have been made at my suggestion by Mr. E. G. 
Amphlett, in which the formation of the sulphate has been prevented 
by ethylating the naphthol ; and it appears that, on sulphonating 
/S-CioHj.OCoHj at ordinary temperatures, by means of SO3HCI, a mixed 



234 



REPORT 1887. 



product is obtained, consisting chiefly of an acid which most probably is 
the ethylated derivative of Bayer's naphtholsulphonic acid together with a 
small proportion of what is undoubtedly the isomeric ethylated derivative 
of Schaefer's acid ; if, however, the product be heated on the water-bath, 
the former acid is converted into the latter. 

These results afford evidence of a most interesting character, both the 
ease with which the conversion is effected and the variety of isomeric 
changes which are disclosed being remarkable. Special attention is being 
directed to the further elucidation of this branch of the inquiry. 

Theory of the formation of azo-dye stuffs from /3-naphthol. — A series of 
dye stufl's of considerable technical value are produced from y8-naphthol 
and its sulphouic acids by interaction with diazo-salts. It is well known 
that in the case of yS-naphthol itself the a-hydrogen atom contiguous to 
the OH group becomes displaced by the azo-group. This position 
appears to be free in all the sulphonic acids which afford azo-colours, and 
those naphthol derivatives in which it is not free appear to be incapable 
of forming such colours ; it is therefore a legitimate inference that all 
azo-dyes derived from /3-naphthol are formed by the introduction of an 
azo-group in the position indicated. The formation of such azo-colours 
in all probability involves the occurrence of isomeric change, the initial 
action consisting in the displacement of the H atom of the OH group by 
the azo-group Az, the compound thus constituted then undergoing 
change ; thus — 

H Az 



OAz 



In the case of such compounds the isomeric change apparently can 
take place only in the one direction, and on this account it is impossible 
to effect the introduction of the azo-group into any other position ; if it 
were possible to displace some other hydrogen atom, azo-colours might 
well result. 

Melting-points of the isomeric sulpho- chlorides. — The following num- 
bers are interesting, as showing that the same change in composition 
does not always involve a change in physical properties of the same 
order; it will be noticed that, whereas in the 1:4 series the bromo-com- 
pound has a lower melting-point ' than either the cbloro- or iodo-com pound, 
in the 2:3 series the bromo- derivative has the highest melting-point; the 
low melting point of the 2:3' iodosulphochloride is also remarkable. 

a-Cl.CioHc.SOoCl 
a-Br.C,oHo.SO.>Cl 
a-I.C,oHr,.SO,Cl 

/S-CI.OioHc.SO^Cl 
^-Br.C.oHg.SO^Cl 
^-LC.oHg.SO^Cl 

' The melting-point cited is that given by Jolin ; the others are from my own 
observation. 



y8(l : 4) 
95° 


e{?\ : 2) 
127° 


87° 


151° 


123° 


— 


e (2 : 3') 
109° 


(n : 2) 

130° 


125^ 


147° 


92°-5 


174° 



ON THE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA OF HALIFAX. 235 



Rejport of the Gommlttee consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson 
and Mr. Cash, for the 'purpose of investigating the Gar- 
honiferoits Flora of Halifax and its neighbourhood. (Brawn 
up by Professor W. C. Williamson.) 

Our researches during the past year in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Halifax have been less productive than usual ; but this unfruitfulness 
has been in some degree compensated by successes in the surrounding 
district. Most notable amongst the latter has been the discovery of mate- 
rial enabling us to determine with absolute certainty the fructification of 
the Calamites. A fragment of a fruit was described in 1869 in the ' Memoirs 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester,' peculiarities in 
the internal structure of which led the author of that communication to an 
important conclusion. None of the many Carboniferous fruits previously 
discovered displayed an internal structure that corresponded in any 
degree with tbat of Calamites. It was otherwise with the specimen just 
referred to, which exhibited what was so conspicuously absent elsewhere ; 
hence the writer of the memoir in question inferred that it was a true 
Calamitean fruit. But though the evidence supporting this concKision 
was strong, it was not sufficient to be absolutely demonstrative. It was 
therefore extremely satisfactory when, during the past spring, our young 
auxiliary, Mr. James Lomax, of RadcliQ", brought to us a nodule, col- 
lected at Sunfield, Moorside, by Mr. Isaac Earnshaw, of Oldham, which 
contained seven or eight specimens of the strobilus described in 1869. 
The internal organisation of each of these new examples exhibits every 
feature seen in the older specimen, whilst they collectively furnish 
some new and important facts. Each of at least three of the strobili had 
attached to its base a portion of the peduncle of which the axis of the 
fruit was but a prolongation. In each case this peduncle is merely the 
end of the slender twig of a Calamite, identical in every respect with those 
of which we have obtained so many examples from the plant- bearing 
nodules of the Gannister coals. It has long been contended by some 
pal^obotanists that these Arthropitean Calamites were gymnospermous 
plants. This interpretation has always been rejected by us. We have 
always insisted that they were Equisetiform cryptogams, and our new 
specimens demonstrate absolutely tbat such is the case. But the researches 
of the last twenty years have compelled us to modify some long-accepted 
notions. Under the title of the natural order Equisetaceje, we regarded 
the living Equisetums as affording our standard type, by which all our 
primteval forms had to be judged. Now, however, a more comprehensive 
philosophy embraces both primaeval and living forms in the large and 
varied group of the Galamarice, of which the living Equisetums are but 
a degraded and somewha.t aberrant branch. 

We have obtained fresh information respecting the relations of Cordas, 
genera Anachoropteris and Zygopteris. One of these genera must be 
abandoned, their separation being no longer possible. We have also 
obtained many additional examples of cellular bodies within the interiors 
of tissues, cells as well as vessels, of various plants. Whether these are 
examples of Tylose, of Fungi, or of commensal Algae is yet sub judice. We 
must also repeat an observation made at Birmingham last year. We 
possess many vegetable fragments which are known to ns too imperfectly 



236 REPORT — 1887. 

to justify their immediate publication. On these, however, persevering 
research may be expected, sooner or later, to throw a faller light. The 
number of such ill-understood forms increases, I'ather than diminishes, 
notwithstanding the success which has rewarded persevering inquiry in 
the case of several such, and which encourages the hope that the con- 
tinuance of such inquiries will be yet further rewarded in like manner. 



Fifteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. 
Prestwich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. Gr. 
BoNNEY, Dr. H. W. Crosskey {Secretary), and Messrs. C. E. De 
Eance, H. G-. FoRDHAM, D. Mackintosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, 
and R. H. Tiddeman, appointpxl for the purpose of recording 
the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, 
and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, 
and talcing measures for their preservation. [Draivn up by Dr. 
Crosskey, Seo-etary.) 

Mant details concerning erratic blocks not previously recorded have 
been received by the Committee during the past year, which throw con- 
siderable light on the important subject of their distribution. 

It is not the business of the Committee to enter upon theoretical 
discussions. It may be useful, however, to point out a few of the salient 
facts, established (in the opinion of the writer of this report) more and 
more clearly by the researches undertaken by the Committee, and which 
must be fully covered by any theory that may be adopted respecting the 
Glacial epoch. 

1. Erratic blocks occur in groups as well as in isolated positions ; 
and these groups have well-defined and distinctive characteristics, and 
must not be confusedly mixed together. These groups sometimes contain 
erratic blocks from one locality ; sometimes the blocks from various 
localities are intermixed, but in either case they have characteristics as 
distinct groups. 

2. The distribution of a considerable proportion of erratic blocks is 
connected with the existing physical geography of Great Britain, as sub- 
jected to elevation and depression during the Glacial epoch. The evidence 
shows that many of them have travelled through the openings between 
and among our present hills, and that they have been diverted from 
their courses, or even blocked in their passage, by table-lands and emin- 
ences. 

This fact, it must be noted, is at present stated with respect to a con- 
siderable proportion, and not the whole of them. 

3. Erratic blocks have not all been distributed at one and the same time. 
Their occurrence has been recorded in the reports, in four positions, viz. : 

(a) Beneath beds of clay, sand, and gravel. 

(6) Embedded in beds of clay, sand, and gravel, thickly or sparsely. 

(c) Resting upon beds of clay, sand, and gravel. 

(d) Resting upon the native rock of the district. 

It is clear that they could not have been deposited at the same time in all 
these positions. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OP ENGLAND, IRELAND, AND WALES. 237 

4. Erratic blocks occur at various levels above the sea. These levels 
have been given in the reports. 

5. Streams of erratic blocks have — 

(a) crossed each other's paths, so that they have been more or less 

mixed ; 
(6) gone over each other under circumstances which have prevented 

any mixing ; 
(c) impinged against each other. 

6. Erratic blocks have been distributed — 

(a) from localities at a considerable distance from their present posi- 
tions ; as, e.g., from CrifFel to the Midland counties. 
{h) from hills and eminences in their own immediate neighbourhoods. 

7. With respect to the admixture of erratic blocks the facts recorded 
show the following differences : — 

(a) Local erratic blocks are sometimes intermixed with those from a 

distance in considerable profusion. 
(6) Groups of erratic blocks are sometimes found with a very slight 
admixture of rocks from the immediate locality, and have 
evidently travelled together as a group. 
(c) Sometimes groups of erratic blocks contain rocks picked up along 
the course leading to the mountains from which they are 
derived ; but this is by no means universally the case. 
(fZ) In the neighbourhood of various hills purely local groups may be 

found. 
The Committee have been greatly assisted by the formation of a 
Boulder Committee in connection with the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
of which Professor Green, F.R.S., is President, and Mr. S. A. Adamson, 
F.G.S., the Hon. Sec. 

Were a similar committee organised in each county the work of 
the Committee of the Association could soon be brought to a satisfac- 
tory conclusion. 

Durham, 

The following reports have been received (through the Yorkshire 
Boulder Committee) from Dr. R. Taylor Manson, Darlington. 

Bulmer^s Siowe.— This is a block of Shap Fell granite. 

It occurs on the west side of Northgate, at the edge of the flagged 
pavement opposite some old cottages, to which it is claimed as an appur- 
tenance Neai-ly opposite the west end of Garden Street, Darlington, 
on Ordnance map. By compass circumference N. and S. 13 ft. Sin.; 
E. and W. 12 ft. 8 in. ; horizontal circumference (1^ ft. from ground), 
13 ft. 5 in. ; height from ground 3 ft. All portions visible are rounded. 
It has been moved. No striations ; \>\\i some fractured surfaces smoothed. 
This boulder is known as ' Bulmer's Stone,' from old Willy Bulmer, who 
during the excitement of the Peninsular wars used to perch on it and 
read the newspapers aloud to the neighbours. The origin or age of the 
tradition contained in the following verse is unknown : — 

In Darnton toune ther is a stane, 

And most strange is yt to tell, 
That yt turnes nine times round 

When yt heares ye clock strike twell. 

One hundred and fifty-seven feet above sea-level ; marked on the 25-inch 
Ordnance map. Well shown on a photo of Northgate. It is isolated, 



238 REPORT — 1887. 

but tliere are both gravel and sand in the immediate neigtbonrbood. I 
believe that it rests on Glacial red clay, but the clay, sand, and gravel 
are irr*^gularly distributed through the town ; I think it is red clay there. 

jq^OTB. — I have found Shap Fell granite several times in the bed of the 
Tees, at Pierce Bridge, and at Low ConiscliiFe. 

Erratic block at village of Sadberge, three miles N.E. of Darlington. 
The boulder vpas found in Glacial clay vphile excavations were being made 
for a reservoir. About 6 ft. 6 in. long, 4 ft. high. Estimated weight 
four tons. A wedge-shaped mass. The boulder is long-shaped, and has 
been moved. On what has originally been the base of the boulder there 
are innumerable striee in the direction of the longer axis, and all parallel 
to one another. So far as I could ascertain (the incrustations of clay 
have not been removed) there were none of the crossings of striae so 
generally seen. The striae are confined to the original base. The rest 
of the surfaces are irregular and angular. The rock is a compact 
encrinital blue limestone, one of the Yoredale rocks, probably from Upper 
Teesdale, and is 218 ft. above sea- level. Too recently discovered for any 
legend, but no doubt traditions will gather round it, since, through the 
following circumstances, it will be known in the future as the 'Jubilee 
Stone.' Her Majesty is Countess of Sadberge, and the inhabitants of the 
village determined that one part of their Jubilee proceedings should be 
the dedication of this large boulder. It was removed from the excava- 
tion where it had been found to the village green, and on Jubilee Day a 
service was held in the village church. A procession from the church 
was then formed, escorted by a troop of yeomanry, an address on the 
history of Sadberge was given by the Rev. J. W. Baron, the stone was 
unveiled, and a/eit de join fired over it by the Hussars. 

YORKSHIBR. 

The Committee have received valuable information from the Rev. 
John Hawell, of Ingleby Greenhow Vicarage, Northallerton, who has 
examined the erratic blocks in his parish. 

The sheets of the Ordnance Survey maps, which include the parish, 
are 24 and 43. The genei'al height of the blocks above the sea-level is 
between 400 and 450 ft. 

Most of the blocks examined are on the surface, in or near the beds 
of streams ; others have been drawn out in draining. There is a thick 
tenacious clay in the district, with imbedded blocks, some of which at 
least are the same as those upon the surface. Further investigations, 
however, are needed to determine the relationship between the blocks 
upon the surface and those in the clay. 

The erratic blocks are extremely numerous ; Mr. Hawell has notes 
of 365, which he has already examined in his parish. It will be sufficient 
in this report to record examples of the chief varieties as a preliminary 
to further investigations. 

The Committee have had the valuable assistance of Professor Bonney 
and Mr. C. T. Clough in the determination of the rocks. In identifying 
some of the more distant specimens the kind help of Messrs. B. N. Beach 
and T. Home has also been given. 

The erratic blocks of Northallerton may be arranged in several classes: — 

(A) Blocks uf local origin. — The most numerous blocks of all on the 
surface are from the local Oolite. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, IRELAND, AND WALES. 239 

No special record is needed of individual examples of these. 

(B) Blocks from the north of England. — Next in abundance to the 
blocks of local Oolite are those from the basaltic dyke of the Cleveland 
district. Mr. Clough Veritas : ' This dyke has now been traced right 
across the country, N.W. to near Carlisle, and keeps much the same 
character throughout. There are also a few other dykes of much the 
same character in the N. of England.' 

Marsh Lane, left of road, Ingleby, 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 1 in. x4 in. Ba- ■ 
Baltic dyke of Cleveland district. 

Ingleby Vicarage Garden — Dolerite, 1ft. X 10 in. X 6 in. Sub-angular. 
Extremely like one of the medium-grained vai'ieties of the Whin Sill 
of Upper Teesdale and Weardale, and probably from the former dis- 
trict. 

(C) Blocks from the Cheviot Hills and adjoining districts of the south of 
Scotland. — Ingleby Mill Dam, 1 ft. 6 in. x 8 in. x ? Sub-angular. Old 
andesite. Possibly from Cheviots, but not a common type there ; and 
Mr. Clough thinks more probably iVom some of the other porphyritic 
areas in S. of Scotland. 

Ingleby, 10 in. x9 in. x 5 inj Porphyritic felsite. Might be from 
Cockburn Law (the Lammermoors) or from various other places in south 
of Scotland. 

Ingleby — Wall on top of Vicarage Garden, 9 in. x 5 in. x 3 in. Sub- 
angular. Might well be from the Lower Old Red porphyrite district of 
the Cheviot Hills. 

Right of road leading down to Ingleby Church, 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. 
Old augite-andesite. Like a type of the Lower Old Red porphyritic flow 
of the Cheviot Hills. 

Ingleby Vicarage Garden, 1 ft. x6 in. x 6 in. Porphyrite. A common 
type of dyke in the Lower Old Red porphyrite district of the Cheviot 
Hills. 

Stream below Ingleby Church, 7 in. X 5 in. x3 in. Sub-angular. 
Very like the Lowest Old Red porphyrite flows at the head of Coquetdale, 
Cheviot Hills. There are also dykes of much the same character in that 
district. 

Stream below Ingleby Church, 10 in. x 7 in, x4 in. Sub-angular, Old 
andesite. Ihid. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 1 ft. 1 in. x6in. x ? Like a common type of 
intrusive dyke in the Lower Old Red porphyritic district of the Cheviot 
Hills ; but there are probably other exposures of similar rock in S. of 
Scotland. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 9 in. x 7 in. x 2 in. Sub-angular. Might well be 
from Lower Old Red porphyrite district of the Cheviot Hills. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 6 in. x 4 in. x ? Porphyrite. Ihid. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 10 in. x 6 in. x ? Porphyritic basalt. Might be 
from some of the similar basaltic blocks of the Border country. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 10 in. x 7 in. x ? Old augite-andesite. Like 
portions of lower porphyritic flow at head of Coquetdale. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 1 ft. 3 in. x 8 in. x 8 in. Old andesite. Extremely 
like a very common type of Lower Old Red porphyrites of Cheviots. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 1 ft. 4 in. xl ft. 2 in. xl ft. 1 in. Porphyrite. Ihid. 

Ingleby Mill Dam,l ft. 1 in. xll in. x5 in. Hornblendic porphjrite. 
A very common type of dyke in the Lower Old Red porphyritic district 
of the Cheviots. 



240 REPORT — 1887. 

Right bank of stream below Ingleby Cliurcli, 1ft. 4in.xlft. 2 m. 
X ? Very like some of the Upper Old Red Traps of Kelso, S. of 

Scotland. Mr. Clough has noticed these I'ocks, mixed with Cheviot rocks 
in considerable quantity among Bridlington Bay boulders. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 1 ft. X 1 ft. X 9 in . Rounded. Compact basalt 
or possibly an augite-andesite. Might be matched from Lower Old Red 
districts of the Cheviots, but not a common type there. Probably from 
some other district in the S. of Scotland. 

Ingleby Mill Dam, 1ft. 2 in. xl ft. x 9 in. Volcanic ash. From 
Cheviots or adjoining volcanic district of S. of Scotland. 

(D) Blocks from more distant N. parts of Scotland. — In stream just 
below bridge near Mr. Boyes' farm, 1 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. 
Very like an igneous mass in the Highlands, near the head of Loch 
Katrine and Loch Lomond. 

(E) Blocks from S.W. of Scotland. — Stream at Ingleby, 10 in, x6 in. 
X 6 in. Might be from the shoulder of Criffel. 

(F) Blocks from the Lake district. — Blocks of Shap granite not at all 
uncommon. 

Ino-leby Mill Dam, 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. X 9 in. Probably from volcanic 
series of Barrowdale. 

Ingleby Vicarage Garden, 7 in. x 6 in. x 4 in. Ibid. 

A number of other specimens are also analogous to the rocks of the 
Lake district. 

The following reports have been furnished by the Yorkshire Boulder 
Committee : — 

Dr. R. T. Manson, Darlington, reports upon the ' Stranger's Stone,' 
Deepdale, N. Yorkshire. 

It is Shap Fell granite, 8 feet in height and 22 feet in circumference, 
on the bank of Deepdale Beck, about a mile up the stream from the point 
whence it flows into the Tees. 

Semi-oval and smoothed ; longest axis N.E. and S.W. Not em- 
bedded, but stands on a flat edge of the mountain limestone, which 
forms the bed of the stream, 550 feet above sea-level. 

Probably moved by man from the higher ground above the river, 
since on the south-end face are two holes filled with lead as if for the in- 
sertion of iron hinge hooks for a gate, which in its present position would 
hang over the river. 

Dr. Manson also reports upon an erratic block of Shap Fell granite at 
Low Field, three-quarters of a mile west of Clifi" Hall, near Pierce 
Bridge, on the Yorkshire side of the Tees. The boulder is in the hedge 
side, on the east side of the field, about 200 yards from the river. It is 
about 70 feet above the river ; 10 feet long on front face ; 7 feet 4 inches 
from front to back. The boulder is sunk in the ground considerably ; 
portion visible 4 feet above soil. Sub-angular; rounded top. Long- 
shaped. Longest axis N. and S. No groovings. An attempt has evi- 
dently been made to break it ; holes have been cut in it with chisels. 
Two hundred and fifty feet above sea-level. Isolated ; some beds of 
gravel not far off. Embedded, I think, deeply in the soil, which is heavy 
clay. 

jq'OTF. — Another smaller boulder is lying to the left of the walk leading 
to Cliff" Hall, about a mile west from the other. It is rounded, and about 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, IRELAND, AND WALES. 241 

3 feet long:, with long axis E. and W. It has probably been moved by 
those who made the path near which it lies. 

Mr. Wm. Gregson, Baldei'sby, Thirsk, records the following : — 

Cattersty Sands, Skinningrove, 3 miles S.E. of Saltburn. Grey 
granite. Diameter, 3 feet. Rounded. No striations. Rests uj)on Lower 
Lias shales. On the shore. 

Whoi-lton, 8 miles N.B. of Northallerton. Grey granite. Diameter, 
3 feet. Sub-angular. Is striated. Rests upon Lias, 2£0 feet above sea- 
level. 

Baldersby Park, 5 miles S.W. of Thirsk. Millstone grit ; 6 feet by 
3 feet. Angular. No striations. Rests on an outlier of Lower Lias, 
90 feet above sea-level. 

Elmire, 6 miles S. of Thirsk. Shap granite. Diameter, 2 feet. 
Sub-angular. No striations. Rests oa Kenper sandstone overlaid by 
gravel, CO feet above sea-level. 

Mill Beck, Robin Hood's Bay (3 boulders), 10 miles N. of Scarbro'. 
Sbap granite. Height 2 feet, circumference 9 feet. Sub-angular. No 
striations. Rests on Lower Lias on the shore. 

Shap granite. Height I foot, circumference 7^ feet. Sub-angular. 
No striations. Rests on Lower Lias on the shore. 

Shap granite. Height and circumference and other circumstances 
exactly similar to the last named. 

Hutton Moor, 3 miles N.E. of Ripon. There are a good number of 
erratic boulders scattered over this moor, from I foot to 3 feet in 
diameter, a few of which are or grey granite, the remainder being chiefly 
millstone grit. They all rest on the Keuper sandstone. 

The Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., informs the Committee that an im- 
mense number of boulders have been lodged on the top of Flamborough 
Head. On Beacon Hill are half a dozen of great size, mostly rounded, 
consisting of granite, whinstone, sandstone, and mica schist with garnets. 
These have probably been placed in their present position, but not moved 
far, as a neighbouring small ravine, called Hartindale Gutter, reveals the 
fact that the boulder clay in this locality is full of large boulders. On 
the neighbouring side of the ravine, leading down to Thornwick Bay, 
there is a boulder of cherty limestone lying on the surface, which mea- 
sures 5 ft. 5 in. X 4 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. 

A rounded boulder of sandstone 2 ft. Sin. X 1 ft. 9 in. X I ft. 2 in. projects 
in the side of the same ravine. 

On Cliff Lane, Bempton, by the side of the road, is a group of eight 
large whinstone boulders, more or less i-ounded, which were removed 
from the adjoining fields to their present position more than seventy years 
ago. The average size is 3 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. 

In the village of Bempton, by the blacksmith's shop, lies a whinstone 
boulder, 4 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in, and numerous others are visible in all 
directions. 

Mr. C. D. Hardcastle reports upon ' The Greystone ' in the parish of 
Leeds, one mile from the town on the side of the old highway to Brad- 
ford, opposite the northern end of Ventnor Street, on property belongincr 
to the ' Pious Use Trustees.' Only 6 inches in height is now exposed 
above the causeway, and it projects 6 inches from a garden wall which is 
built over it. The base of exposed segment along the flao-s measures 
2 ft. 10 in. Old inhabitants say it was formerly from 4 ft, to 5 ft above 

1837. ■ K 



242 KEPORT — 1887. 

ground, and from 3 ft. to 4 ft. in diameter, but of irregular form. Its 
entire length is perhaps 1 or 8 ft. Thoresby in 1715 calls it ' a prodigious 
great stone.' Probably originally nearly rectangular. There are inden- 
tations in the stone, but not natural. It is composed of millstone grit, 
similar to that of Horsforfch and Bramley Fall. The Rough Rock, of 
Horsforth, is about four miles distant on the same side of the river, and 
at a considerable elevation, some of the quarries being about 475 feet 
above the sea. The stone has probably come from there. Bramley is 
about three miles away on the opposite side, and at an elevation of 200 
feet. The Greystone legend is that a huge giant hurled it from the 
Giant's Hill at Armley, about half a mile distant on the opposite side 
of the river, in proof of which statement the indentations of the giant's 
thumb and fingers are still to be seen. The Giant's Hill belongs to the 
flagstone series of the Lower Coal measures, whereas the ' Greystone ' is 
millstone grit, 115 feet above sea-level. Ou the 6-inch Ordnance map. 
Lat. 53° 48' 40", long. 1° 34' as ' Greystone.' An ancient boundary 
stone. Has served from time immemorial as boundary stone separating 
the manors of Leeds and Burley. Thoresby in 1715 quotes an old MS. 
survey, N.D : ' Lapis cinereus ingentis magnitudinis admodum antiquatus 
et vetustatus existens.' It rests upon yellow clay from 8 to 9 feet in 
thickness, below which there is Coal-measure shale. 

Note. — According to Thoresby there was an old boundary stone called 
the Paudmire stone in Leeds main street (Briggate) similar to this 
boulder. This memorable stone was purposely sunk below the pavement 
as a supposed nuisance when that part was newly paved in the mayoralty 
of Mr. Samuel Hey (1703). The two stones are in a direct line with the 
Rough Rock of Horsforth, which is to the N.W. 

i(ote tiiwti the '■ Sitchingstone,' Keighhy Moor. — This huge block of 
millstone grit was described to the Committee by Mr. E. G. Spencer in 
1874 as a ' boulder,' and the details concerning it will be found in the 
Report of the British Association for that year, p. 196. 

A few years subsequently Mr. J. R. Dakyns, of the Geological Survey, 
stated in a letter to the Geological Magazine that ' in his opinion it is not a 
boulder ' ; and that ' it has no single characteristic of a boulder about it. 
It is not rounded or scratched, nor is it standing on end, nor in any such 
a way as to raise a suspicion of its having been removed.' 

The Leeds Geological Association has, during- the past j^ear, tho- 
roughly investigated the subject, and the seci'etary (Mr. Adamson) has 
described the results in a paper published in The Naturalist, November 
1886, p. 333. 

In this paper clear and satisfactory reasons are given in confirmation 
of Mr, Dakyns' opinion. The Hitchingstone cannot be regarded as an 
erratic, but is a portion of the ' Rough Rock ' which originally covered 
the moors, and in situ. 

Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S., communicates (with the permis- 
sion of the Director- General of H.M. Geological Surveys) the following 
report ' On the Distribution of Boulders from the Base of the Carbon- 
iferous Series at Norber and Malham Tarn, Yorkshire.' 

Throughout the great area of Carboniferous rocks in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire there are hardly any rocks at the same time sufficiently 
well marked in character and limited in their area to give any good indi- 
cations of the general distribution by drift transport of boulders from the 
original rock. Limestones, sandstones, grits, and shales, in all parts of 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, IRELAND, AND WALES. 243 

the series, bear a strong family resemblance to those from other parts, and 
so are no guide to ice movements during Glacial times. 

There is, however, one rock which is an exception to this, and which 
gives a good starting-point followed by an excellent tx-ail to the boulder 
hunter. This is a conglomerate which is to be found at the base of the Car- 
boniferous limestone at Malham Tarn, and at Noi-ber, near Clapbam, York- 
shire. The conglomerate consists of a fine gravel of Silurian shale, the 
pebbles being compacted in a matrix of limestone. The former are of a 
greenish grey, the latter is of a creamy brown colour. When the rock is 
broken the fracture is a very clean one, passing through pebbles and 
matrix alike, and then to a casual observer it looks like a light mottled 
limestone. Where it has been subjected to the solvent action of weather- 
ing the pebbles stand out from the rock, giving well-marked oblong forms 
of which the surfaces are well preserved. 

Conglomerate of this type occurs in a band across Malham Tarn, and 
showing best on its eastern margin, and also on the southern face of Nor- 
ber, one mile E.N.E. of Clapham, a hill well known to geologists for its 
splendid train of Silurian boulders resting on the limestone. The con- 
glomerate is no less interesting. It contains, besides the fine gravel, 
large boulders up to half a ton in weight, and interspersed with the 
gravel are coi'als, probably of the age of its deposition. Detached 
boulders of this rock range over a distance so far as I have seen them of 
25 miles. 

The nearest specimens worthy of note are a large boulder in the fields, 
J mile S.E. of the Methodist Chapel iu Malham — pointed out to me by 
Mr. Walter Morrison, M.P., and others, which he tells me were to be seen 
formerly along the road by the school on Kirkby Top. Some occur in 
walls a little to the east, between the first locality and Goredale Beck. 
These are mostly small. 

A large boulder with quite a bed of loose gravel beneath it produced 
by its disintegration lies on the i-ight branch of a stream running down 
south from the upper road between Malham and Settle on the moor 
about 200 yards from the road. This is more out of a north and south line 
from Malham Tarn than any of the others ; which fact suggests that it 
may have come from Norber, but on the whole it is more likely from the 
Tarn, which lies N. 30° E., the nearest point of origin. Two other bould- 
ers appear to have been transported into Ingle Beck, south of the lane 
leading from Airton towards Holmes Gill Green, and have been built 
into walls there. These lie about S. 15° W. from the Tarn. 

Beyond this point the boulders as we get further from the source are 
fewer and more scattered. Two more examples only have I seen, but 
these are remarkable. One was found in the banks of Pendle Water 
below the Old Hall at Roughlee — famous as the residence of Mistress 
Nutter as mentioned in ' Ainsworth's Lancashire Witches.' 

This was a glaciated boulder of the conglomerate, about 14" long, of 
oval form, and lay at about 600 ft. elevation. Scratches on Twiston Moor 
to the north pointing in this direction, and also in a straight line nearly 
for Norber, lie at an elevation of about 1,100 ft. ; and if the boulder came 
from Norber it must have overridden this ridge, a continuation of the 
Pendle range, and crossed over ground 500 ft. higher and 150 ft. lower 
than its present site. 

On the other hand, if from Malham Tarn it may have been carried 
south by the ice, along the Aire valley, to Bell Bush, and thence across 



244 REPORT — 1887. 

the watershed of England, north of Colne. Tliis would be a much less 
up-and-down- hill route than the other. 

The only other boulder of this rock I found was on Habringham 
Eans, about one mile south of Burnley. This was at an elevation of 
between 700 and 800 ft., and must have been carried by ice which was 
working its way towards Todmorden. This is the furthest ; 23 miles 
from Malham Tarn, and borne along a line S. 10° W. If from Norber it 
has travelled about 24i miles along a general route of S. 10° B. 

It will be seen in either case the route has been but very little de- 
flected from a N. and S. line. These facts tend to bear out the truth of 
some statements made by me in 1871 to the Geological Society of London ' 
that the general movement of the ice-sheet in this part of England, as 
shown by the boulders and by the glaciated rocks on which they lie, 
was to the soiitli, parallel to the watershed of England and not away 
from it. 

Staffordshire and Shropshire. 

Mr. Fred. W. Martin furnishes the Committee with the subjoined 
catalogue of boulders in these counties previously unrecorded. 

He is still engaged in their investigation, and will continue the cata- 
logue in subsequent reports. 

The collection is mainly a mixture of blocks from the Lake district 
and from the S.W. of Scotland, although a few scattered among them 
may be from the Cheviots. 

So far as the present observations indicate the Welsh distribution has 
very sparsely, if at all, reached this district. 

Sliifnal to Tong. 

1. At junction o£ road to Upton, hornblendic granite (gneissoid), very liard and 

heavy and porphyritic ; Eskdale ? Sub-angular ; 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. ; 
rough surface. 

2. On road just beyond stream. ' A syenite or diorite (slightly gneissoid), probably 

Scotch, not Lake or Welsh ' (Bonney). Sub-angular ; 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 
6 in. ; rough surface. 

3. In field, granite (of Criffel type) ; rounded; 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. C in. ; rough 

surface. 

4. Coarse Eskdale granite ; rounded ; 2 ft. (i in. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. ; rough sur- 

face. 

5. In ' Spinney ' on left. ' A tine-grained hornblendic granite, poor in quartz ' 

(Bonney). Buttermere ; rounded ; 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. ; smootli. 

6. Near gate, opposite last, augite andesite ; angular ; 2 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. b)' 

1 ft. 3 in. ; rough surface. 

7. On left, just beyond last ; epidote vein protruding. ' Felstone witli epidote 

not unlike Bardon Hill rock, but probablj' Welsli '(Bonney). Sub-angular; 
1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. ; smooth and striated. 

8. By entrance to lodge gates ; coarse black granite (probably South Scotland) ; 

sub-angular ; 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. (J in. 

9. Under trees at junction of road to Long Norton ; quartz felsite ; square, broken 

edges ; 3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. out of ground. 

10. At opposite corner to last; granite of CrifEel type; sub-angular; 3 ft. 6 in. 

by 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. ; rough. 



' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1872, 'On the Evidence for the Ice-sheet in West- 
morland,' &c. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, IKbLAND, AND WALtS. 245 

11. On left near pool ; granitite ; two micas (black and white) ; two felspars (pink 

and white). ' Very likely from the area between Criffel and Dalbeattie ' 
(Clough). Kounded; 2 ft. 6 in. bj' 2 ft. 6in. by 2 ft. 3 in. out of ground ; rough. 

1 2. On right near bridge. ' A rhyolitic breccia, one of the Lake district porce- 

lanite rocks ; probably has come from Calder Fells, though maj'' have come 
from the Duddon valley ' (Lapworth). 5 ft. bj' 4 ft. by 2 ft. out of ground ; 
squarish. 

13. Near the last a gi-anite of Criffel type ; sub-angular ; rough; 4 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 

9 in. by 2 ft. out of ground. 

14. On bridge over stream and used as a pier. ' Felspar hornblende and quartz ; a 

quartz diorite or an exceptional fine grained felspathic hornblende granite. 
Probably Scotch ' (Bonney). 3 ft. b}' 2 ft. by 2 ft 6 in. out of ground ; rounded. 

15. Next to above ; granite of Criffel type ; 3 ft. by 2 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. out of ground ; 

rounded. 

16. Ditto 2 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. by 2 ft. 3 in. out of ground ; rounded. 

17. As last, rounded ; 3 ft. by 2 ft. by 2 ft. 3 in. out of ground. 

18. Ked granite (Eskdale ?) ; rounded ; 2 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 3 in. by 2ft. 

19. Granite ; 3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. ; rounded. 

20. In field near Tong Church ; granite, two felspars, orthoclase and oligoclase ; 

free quartz ; hornblende (probably South Scotland) ; 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 

1 ft. 3in. ; rough, rounded. 

21. In road near last. 'Syenite or diorite (slightlj' gnessoid) ; probably Scotch, 

not Lake or Welsh ' (Bonney). 2 ft. by 1 ft. tj in. by 1 ft. 6 in. 

22. Coarse Eskdale granite ; 1 ft.' 6 in. by 1 ft. by 1 ft. 

23. Granite of Criffel type ; small. 

24. Same as No. 1 ; ditto ; rounded. 

25. Vesicular andesite lava with blebs of quartz. ' Might be from Lake district or 

South Scotland ; or might be found anywhere by contact with intensely heated 
granite ' (Lapworth). Under 1 ft. diameter ; rounded ; smooth. 
2G. Small block near last. ' A porphyritic felsite ; many of the crystals resemble 
orthoclase. I don't know localitv, but should say it was from an old lava 
flow ' (Bonney). 1 ft. « in. by 1 ft. by 1 ft. 

27. Near last ; red granite (Eskdale?) ; small. 

28. Granite of Critfel type ; built into gate pier near church ; 5 ft. by 2 ft. 9 in. 

by 2ft. 

29. On bridge over stream near Tong Church ; granite of Criffel type ; 4 ft. by 3 ft, 

by 1 ft. 6 in. ; sub-angular. 

30. Near to same ; Ibid. 4 ft. by 3 ft. by 2 ft. ; sub-angular. 

31. On opposite side of bridge. IJiid. 4ft. by 2ft. 9