(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S<L.f^ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FIFTY-EIGHTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



BATH IN SEPTEMBER 1888. 






LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1889. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemarle Street, London. W. 



PMNTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STRKET SQUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



—•*.■♦- 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxvi 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxxvi 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xliv 

List of Evening Lectures lix 

Lectures to the Operative Glasses Ixii 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Bath Meeting Ixiii 

Officers and Council, 1888-89 Ixv 

Treasurer's Account Ixvi 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixviii 

Report of the Council to the Oeneral Committee Ixx 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Bath Meeting in 

September 1888 Ixxiii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxxii 

Places of Meeting in 1889 and 1890 Ixxxiii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes Ixxxiv 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xcvi 

Address by the President, Sir Frederick Bramweli,' D.C.L., F.R.S., 
M.Inst.C.E 1 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson (Secre- 
tary), J. G. MacGeegor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. T. BovEr and Mr. C. 
Carpmael, appointed for the purpose of promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 27 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir R. S. Bail, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professors Everett, Fitzgerald, Hicks, Caret Foster, 0. J. 
Lodge, Potnting, Macgeegor, Genese, W. G. Adams, and Lamb, Messrs. 
Batnes, a. Lodge, Fleming, AV. N. Shaw, Glazebrook, Hatward, 
Lant Carpenter, Culyerwell (Secretary), and Greenhill, Dr. Muir, 
and Messrs. G. Griffith and J. Larmor, appoiafted for the purpose of con- 
sidering the desirability of introducing a Uniform Nomenclature for the 
Fundamental Units of Mechanics, and of co-operating with other bodies 

engaged in similar work 27 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 
Fourth Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart 
(Secretary), Professor W. Grtlls Adams, Mr. W. Lant Carpenter, Mr. 
C. H. Cakpmael, Mr. W. H. Christie (Astronomer Royal), Professor G. . 
Chrxstal, Captain Creak, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. William 
Ellis, Sir J. H. Lefrot, Professor S. J. Perrt, Professor Schuster, 
Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. G. M. Whipple, appointed for the 
purpose of considering the best means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic 
Observations 28 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes (Secretary), 
Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor G. C. 
Foster, Lord Ratleigh, Mr. Preece, Professor Schuster, Prorfessor Dewar, 
Mr. A. Vernon Haecourt, Mr. H. Trueman Wood, Sir James DoaGLAss, 
Professor H. B. Dixon, and Mr. Dibdin, appointed for the purpose of 
reporting on Standards of Light 3D 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Mr. Milne-Home, Dr. John Murray, Lord McLaren, and Dr. Buchan, 
appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological 
Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 49 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, McLeod, 
Pickering, Ramsay, and Young and Drs. A. R. Leeds and Nicol (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Bibliography of Solution 54 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. 
G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, 
Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
SON, Professor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thojison, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Mr. T. Gray, appointed for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing Practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments 66 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and W. 
Chandler Roberts- Austen and Mr. T. Turner (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Influence of Silicon on the properties of 
Steel. (Drawn up by Mr. T, Turner) 69 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, Sir 
William Thomson, Sir J. 11. Lefroy, General R. Strachey, Professors 
A. S. Herschel, G. Chrystal, C. Niven, J. H. Poynting (Secretary), and 
A. Schuster, and Mr. C. V. Boys, appointed for the purpose of inviting 
designs for a good Differential Gravity Meter in supersession of the pen- 
dulum, whereby satisfactory results may be obtained at each station of 
observation in a few hours instead of the many days over which it is neces- 
sary to extend pendulum observations 72 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. 
J. T. Dunn, Professor W. R. Dunstan (Secretary), Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
Mr. A. G. Vernon PIarcourt, Mr. Francis Jones, Professor H. McLeod, 
Professor Meldola, Mr. Pattison Muir, Dr. W. J. Russell, Mr. W. A. 
Shenstone, Professor Smithells, and Mr. Stallard, appointed for the 
purpose of inquiring into and reporting on the present methods of teaching 
Chemistry. (Drawn up by Professor Dunstan) 73 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Russell, Captain Abney, Professor 
Hartley, and Dr. A. Richardson (Secretary), appointed for the investiga- 
tion of the action of Light on the Hydracids of Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. (Drawn up by Dr. A. Richardson) 89 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Ramsay and Dr. Nicol (Secretary), .appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the Nature of Solution. 93 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Rat Lankester, Mr. P. L. 
ScLATER, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Mr. Walter Heape, 
Professor A. 0. IJaddon, Professor Moseley, and Mr. Percy Slaben 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of making arrangements for assisting 
the Marine Biological Association Laboratory at Plymouth 94 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and Arm- 
strong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric 
Naphthalene Derivatives. (Drawn up by Professor- Armstrong) 96 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson, Mr. Pengelly, 
Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. G. W. Bloxam (Secretary), Mr. J. Theodore 
Bent, and Mr. J. Stuart Glennie, appointed for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Prehistoric Race in the Greeli Islands 99 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Rawson Rawson, General Pitt- 
Rivers, Dr. Mttirhead, Mr. C. Roberts, Dr. J. Beddoe, Mr. II. H. 
HowoETH, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Dr. G. W. Hambleton, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Dr. Gaeson, and Dr. A. M. Paterson, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the effects of different occupa- 
tions and employments on the Physical Development of the Human Body . 1 00 

Sixteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. Prestwtch, 
W. Boyd Da^vkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey (Secretary), and Messrs. C. E. De Rance, H. G. Fordham, 
D. Mackintosh, \V. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. II. Tiddeman, appointed 
for the piu-pose of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological 
characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and 
Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and 
taking measures for their preservation. (Drawn up by Dr. Crosskey, 
Secretary) 101 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Valentine Ball, Mr. H. G. 
Fordham, Professor Haddon, Professor Hillhouse, Mr. John Hopkinson, 
Dr. Macfaklane, Professor Milnes Marshall, Mr. F. T. Mott (Secretary), 
Dr. Traquair, and Dr. II. Woodward, reappointed at Manchester for the 
purpose of preparing a further Report upon the Provincial Museums of the 
United Kingdom 124 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of 
reporting upon the * Manure ' Gravels of Wexford. (Drawn up by Mr. A. 
Bell) 133 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors McIniosh (Secretary), 
Allman, Lankester, Burdon Sanderson, Cleland, Ewart, Stirling, 
and McKendrick, Drs. Cleghorn and Traquair, for continuing the 
Reseai'ches on Food-Fishes at the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory 141 

Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. W. Crosskey, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor G. A. Lebour, and 
Messrs. James Glaishee, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, W. Pengelly, 
James Plant, J. Prestwich, I. Roberts, T. S. Stookb, G. J. 
Stmons, W. Toplet, Ttlden- Wright. E. A^'ethered, W. Whitakee, 
and C. E. De Rance (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Cii-culation of Underground Waters in the Permeable Formations of 
England and Wales, and the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied 
to various Towns and Districts from these Formations. (Drawn up by 
C. E. De Rance, Reporter) 145 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Coedeaux (Secretary), 
Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. William Eagle 
Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, reappointed at Man- 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Chester for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of the Master and 
Brethren of the Trinity House and the Commissioners of Northern and 
Irish Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightvessels, and of reporting on the same 146 

Ileport of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. 0. Williamson and 
Mr. W. Cash, appointed for the purpose of investisrating the Flora of the 
Carboniferous Rocks of Lancashire and West Yorkshire. (Drawn up by 
Professor W. C. Williamson) 150 

Ileport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Rat Lankestek, Mr. P. L. 
ScLATER, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Mar- 
shall, Professor A. C. IIaddon, Pi-ofessor Moseley, and Mr. Perct 
Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occu- 
pation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 150 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Secretaiy), 
Professor Armstrong, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss Ltdia Becker, Sir 
John Litbbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Orosskey, Sir Richard Temple, Bart, 
Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. James Heywood, and Professor N. Story 
Maskelyne, appointed for the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating 
to the teaching of .Science in Elementary Schools 164 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 173 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. 
Y. Edgeworth (Secretary), Professor II. S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Gipfen, 
Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. JMartin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, 
Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrate, and Professor II. Sidgwick, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the best method of ascertaining and measur- 
ing Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard. (Drawn up by Mr. 
Giffen) 181 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth (Secretary), Professor II. S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Giffen, 
Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, 
and Mr. R. 11 Inglis Palgraye, appointed for the purpose of inquiring and 
reporting as to the Statistical Data available for determining the amount of 
the Precious Metals in use as Money in the primipal Countries, the chief 
forms in which the Money is employed, and the amount annually-used in 
the Arts. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 219 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, General Sir J. II. Lefroy, Dr. Daniel Wilson, Mr. R. G. 
Haliburton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating and publishing reports on the physical cha- 
racters, languages, and industrial and social condition of the North- Western 
Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 233 

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. Q. Garson, Dr. J. 
Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Stmons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. Toplet, 
Mr. H. G. Fordham, and Mr. William White 255 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Dr. John 
Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Dr. Robert Munro, Mr. Pengelly, Dr. 
Henry Hicks, Professor Meldola, Dr. Muirhead, and Mr. James W. 
Davis, appointed for the purpose of ascertaining and recording the localities 
in the British Islands in which evidences of the existence of Prehistoric 
Inhabitants of the country are found. (Drawn up by James W. Davis) ... 289 



1 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Third Keport of the Committee, consisting of Sir Joseph D. Hooker, Sii- 
John Lubbock, Sir George Nares, General J. T. Walker, Sir Leopold 
McClintock, Admiral Sir George H. Richards, Professor Flower, Pro- 
fessor Huxley, Dr. Sclater, Professor Moselet, Mr. John Mtjrrat, 
General Strachet, Sir William Thomson, and Admiral Sir Erasmus 
Ommannet (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of drawing attention to 
the desirability of prosecuting further research in the Antarctic Regions ... 316 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Alex. Buchan, Professor 
McKendrick, Professor Chrystal, and Dr. John Murray (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of aidiug in the maintenance of the establishment 

of a Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland 319 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Bauerman, Mr. F. W. Rudler, 
Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, appointed for the in- 
vestigation of the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood. 

(Drawn up by Dr. II. J. Johnsxon-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S., Secretary) 320 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Murray (Secretary), 
Professor Chrystal, Dr. A. Buchan, Rev. C. J. Steward, the Hon. R. 
Abercromby, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. David Cunningham, Mr. Isaac 
Roberts, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Professor Fitzgerald, appointed to arrange 
an investigation of the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, 
and Estuaries in various parts of the United Kingdom in co-operation with 

the local societies represented on the Association 326 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. W. Davis, Mr. W. Cash, 
Dr. H. Hicks, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. Clement Reid, Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, and Mr. T. Botnton, appointed for the purpose of investigating an 
ancient Sea-beach near Bridlington Quay. (Drawn up by G. W. Lamplugh, 

Secretary) " 328 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Lankester, Professor 
Milnes Marshall, Mr. Sedgwick, and Mr. G. H. Fowler (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Developrnent of the Oviduct 

and connected structures in certain iresh- water Teleostei 338 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Armstrong, Lodge, 
Sir William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, Fitzgerald, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Poynting, Crum Brown, Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, 
Hartley, S. P. Thompson, McLeod, Roberts- Austen, Rtjcker, Reinold, 
Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hop- 
KINSON, and Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, W. N. 
Shaw, J. Lakmor, J. T. Botxomley, R. T. Glazebrook, J. Brown, E. J. 
Love, and John M. Thomson, appointed for the purpose of considering 

the subject of Electrolysis in its Physical and Chemical Bearings 339 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. W. Careuthers, W. F. R. 
Weldon, J. G. Baker, G. M. Murray, and W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of exploring the Flora of the Bahamas 361 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Schaper (Secretary), 
Michael Foster, and Lankester and Dr. AV. D. Halliburton, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the Physiology of the Lymphatic 

System. (Drawn up by Dr. W. D. Halliburton) 363 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. J. J. H. 
Teall, and Professor J. F. Blake (Secretary), appointed to mvestigate 
the Microscopic Structure of the Older Rocks of Anglesey. (Drawn up by 

the Secretary) ^^' 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thiselton-Dyer (Secretary), Mr. 
Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, and Mr. Forbes, appointed for 
the purpose of continuing the preparation of a Report on our present know- 
ledge of the Flora of China *20 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Foster, Professor 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Batlet Baifoue, Mr. Thiselton-Dtee, Dr. Trimen, Professor Maeshall 
Waed, Mr. Carruthers, Professor Hartog, and Professor Bower (Secre- 
tary), appointed for tbe purpose of taking steps for the establishment of a 
Botanical Station at PeradcDiya, Ceylon 4i}l 

Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, and Professor John ^Iilne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 422 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thiselton-Dter (Secretary), 
Professor Newton, Professor Flower, Mr. Carrtjthees, and Mr. Sclater, 
appointed for the purpose of reporting on the present state of our know- 
ledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, and taking 
steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 437 

Second Report on our Experimental Knowledge of the Properties of Matter 
with respect to Volume, Pressure, Temperature, and Specific Heat. By 
P. T. Main, M.A 465 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir F. J. Beamwell, Mr. E. A. 
CowpBE, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Pi'ofessors G. H. Daewin and Ewing, Mr. 
Isaac Robeets, Mr. Thomas Gray, Dr. John Evans, Professors Lebotte, 
Prestwich, Hxtll, Meldola, and Judd, and Mr. J. Glaishee, appointed 
for the purpose of considering the advisability and possibility of establishing 
in other parts of the country observations upon the prevalence of Earth 
Tremors similar to those now being made in Durham 522 

The Relations between Sliding Scales and Economic Theory. By L. L. 
Price, M.A 523 

Index-numbers as illustrating the Progressive Exports of British Produce and 
Manufactures. By Stephen Botjene, F.S.S 536 

The Friction of Metal Coils. By Professor Hele Shaw and Edward Shaw 540 

Sur I'application de I'analyse spectrale a la m^canique moldculaire et sur lea 
spectres de I'oxygene. Par Dr. J. Janssen 547 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A. —MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 
Address by Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, MA., F.E.S., President of the 
Section 557 

1. Fourth Report of the Committee for promoting Tidal Observations in 

Canada 562 

2. On the Behaviour of Water under great Provocation from Heat. By 

Professor W. Ramsay, F.R.S 662 

3. On the Proof of the Logarithmic Law of Atomic Weights. By Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S ." 562 

4. On the Oscillations of a Rotating Liquid Spheroid and the Genesis of the 

Moon. By A. E. H. Love, B.A 562 

5. Waves in a Viscous Liquid. By A. B. Basset, M.A 563 

6. On a Hydrostatic Balance. By J. Jolt, M.A., B.E 664 

7. On the Meldometer. By J. Joly, M.A., B.E 564 

8. Electro-calorimetry. By Professor William Stkoud, B.A., D.Sc, and 

W. W. Haldanb Gee, B.Sc 666 

9. On Figures produced by Electric Action on Photographic Drv Plates. 

By .L Brovtn ! 665 

10. Comparison of Gassner's Dry Cells vpith Leclanch6's. By Wm. Lant 
Carpenter 566 

11. On the Intensity of Magnetisation of soft Iron Bars of various lengths 

in a uniform Magnetic Field. By A. Tanakadate 566 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBilR 7. 

1. Recent Progress in the Use of Concave Gratings for Spectrum Analysis. 

By Professor H. A. Rowland 566 

2. Is the Velocity of Light in an Electrolytic Liquid influenced by an 
Electric Current in the direction of propagation ? By Lord Rayleigh, 
LL.D., Sec. R.S 666 

3. On the Measurement of the Length of Electro-magnetic Waves. By 
Professor Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 667 

4. On the Impedance of Conductors to Leyden-jar Discharges. By Professor 

Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 567 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

5. A simple hypothesis for Electro-magfnetic Iiiductiou of incomplete 

circuits, with consequent equations of Electric Motion in fixed homoge- 
neous or heterogeneous solid matter. By Professor Sir William 
Thomson, LL.D.,F.RS 567 

6. On the Transference of Electricity within a Homogeneous Solid Con- 

ductor. By Professor Su- William Thomson, LL.D., F.Pi.S 570 

7. Five Applications of Fourier's Law of Diffusion, illustrated by a Diagram 

of Curves with Absolute Numerical Values. Bv Professor Sir William 
Thomson, LL.D., F.RS .' 571 

8. On Flux and Reflux of Water in Open Channels or in Pipes or other 

Ducte. By Professor James Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S 574 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 
Depaetmbnt for Light and Electriciit. 

1. Siu: rapphcatiou de I'analyse spectrale a la m^canique mol^culaire et sur 

les spectres de I'oxjgene. By Dr. J. Janssen 576 

2. On the Absorption Spectrum of Oxygen. By Professors Liveing, F.R.S., 

and Desvar, F.R.S 576 

3. The Spectra of Meteorites compared with the Solar Spectrum. By J. 
Norman Lockter, F.R.S ". 576 

4. On the Harmonic Series of Lines in the Spectra of the Elements. By 
Professor Carl Runge 576 

5. A Vortex Analogue of Static Electricity. By Professor W. M. HiCKS, 

M.A., F.RS 577 

6. On a DiflFusion Photometer. By J, Jolt, M.A., B.E 578 

7. Third Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 578 

Department for Mathematics and General Physics. 

1. On Centres of Finite Twist and Stretch. By Professor R. W. Genese, 
M.A 579 

2. On Recurring Decimals and Fermat's Theorem. By Professor R. W. 
Genese, M.A 580 

3. On the Relations between Orbits, Catenaries, and Curved Rays. By 
Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S 581 

4. On the Stretching of Liquids. By Professor A. M. Worthington, 
M.A., F.R.A.S 583 

5. A new Sphere Planimeter. By Professor Hele Shaw, M.Inst.C.E 584 

6. On Composition of Sensation and Notion of Space. By L. de la Rive... 585 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Third Report of the Committee for inviting Designs for a good Differential 
Gravity Meter 586 

2. Fourth Report of the Committee for considering the best means of Com- 

paring and Reducing Magnetic Observations 586 

3. Third Report of the Committee appointed to co-operate with the Scottish 

Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Observations on Ben 
Nevis 586 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

4. Modern Views about Hurricanes, as compared witli the Older Theories. 

By Hon. Ralph Abeecrombt, F.H.Met.Soc 586 

5. Report of the Committee appointed to arrange an investigation of the 

Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in 
various parts of the United Kingdom 587 

6. On the Temperature of some Scottish Rivers. By Hugh Robert Mill, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E 588 

7. On the recent Magnetic Survey of Japan. By Professor Cargill G. 
KiioTT, D.Sc, F.R.S.E 588 

8. On Reading Electrically Jleteorological Instruments distant from the 

Observer. By J. Jolt, M.A., B.E 589 

9. On the Mechanical Conditions of a Swarm of Meteorites, and on Theories 

of Cosmogony. By Professor G. H. Darwin, F.R.S 590 

10. On some accurate Charts of Kew Corrections for Mercury Thermometers. 

By W. N. Shaw, M.A. •' 590 

11. On an Apparatus for determining Temperature by the Variation of 
Electrical Resistance. By W. N. Shaw, M.A 590 

12. Fourth Report of the Committee on Standards of Light 591 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Joint Discussion with Section G on Lightning-conductors 591 

2. On the Burning by Lightning of a Magnet on a Generating Dynamo at 
the Waterfall on the Bush River, County Antrim, belonging to the 
Giant's Causeway and Portrush Electric Railway and Tramway Com- 
pany. By Anthony Traill, LL.D., M.D 615 

3. Analyse chronometrique des PbiSnomenes ^lectriques lumineux. Par 

Dr. J. Janssen 615 

4. Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing Practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 616 

5. On Standards of Electrical Resistance. By R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S. ... 616 

6. On the C.G.S. Units of Measurement. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 616 

7. Electrometric Determination of 'v.' By Professors Sir W. Thomson, 
F.R.S., AxRTON, F.R.S., and Perry, F.R.S 616 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Report of the Committee for considering the desirability of introducing a 
Uniform Nomenclature for the Fundamental Units of Mechanics 616 

2. Second Report on our Experimental Knowledge of the Properties of 
Matter. By P. T. Main, M.A 616 

3. On the Mechanical Arrangements of the Analytical Engine of the late 
Charles Babbage, F.R.S. By Major-General H. P. Babbage 616 

4. On a Modification of Maxwell's Equations of Electromagnetic Waves. 

By Professor H. A. Rowland 617 

5. On a Photographic Image of an Electric Arc Lamp, probably due to 
Phosphorescence in the Eye, and on some Photographs of an Eclipse of 
the Moon. By Friese Greene 617 

6. On the Errors of the Argument of Statistical Tables. By Joseph 
Kleiber 618 



Xli CONTENTS 

Page 

7. On Geometry of Four Dimensions. By Edwaed T. Dixon 618 

8. A Suggestion from the Bologna Academy of Science towards an agree- 

ment on the Initial Meridian for the Universal Hour. By Dr. Cffis. 
ToNDiNi DE Qtjakenghi 618 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Address by Professor W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.C.S., President of the 

Section 620 

1. Report of the Committee for the investigation of the action of Light on 

the Hydracids of Halogens in presence of Oxygen 627 

2. Second Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Solution 627 

3. Second Report of the Committee for investigatiug the Nature of Solution 627 

4. Second Report of the Committee for investigating the Influence of Silicon 

on the properties of Steel 627 

5. On the Study of Mineralogy. By T. Stkrrt Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S 627 

6. On the Logarithmic Law and its connection with the Atomic Weights. 

By Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S 630 

7. On Dissociation. By the Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A 630 

8. On Closed-chain Formula. By J. E. Marsh, B.A 631 

9. On Van't Hotf's Hypothesis and the Constitution of Benzene. By J. E. 

Marsh, B.A 631 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Discussion on the Chemical Problems presented by Living Bodies, opened 

by Professor Michael Foster, Sec.R.S 631 

2. On the Atomic Weight of Oxygen. By Alexander Scott, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E 631 

3. The Incompleteness of Combustion in Explosions. By Professor H. B. 

Dixon, F.R.S., and H. W. Smith, B.Sc 632 

4. A new Gas Analysis Apparatus. By W. W. J. Niool, M.A., D.Sc 632 

5. The Determination of Vapour-densities at High Temperatures and under 
Reduced Pressure. By Dr. William Bott, F.C.S 632 

6. On Photographing Hydrogen and Chlorine Bulbs by aid of the Flash of 
Light which caused their Explosion. By Prolessor P. Phillips Bedson, 
D.Sc : ; 633 

7. On the Formation of Crystals of Calcium Oxide and Magnesium Oxide in 

the Oxyhydrogen Flame By J. Jolt, M.A., B.E 634 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report of the Committee on the present methods of teaching Chemistry... 634 

2. Chemistry as a School Subject. By the Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A. ... 634 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Discussion on Valency, opened by Professor H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ... 635 

2, Evidence of the Tetravalency of Oxygen derived from the Constitution of 

the Azonaphthol-Compounds. By Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., F.C.S., 
^•I-t' 635 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

3. The Theory of Solution. By T. Steeet Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S 636 

4. The Composition of Copper-Tin Alloys. By A. P. Lattrie 637 

5. The Composition of the ancient Roman Mortar from the London "Wall. 

By JoHK Spujjer, F.C.S 637 

6. On the Rate of Solution of Copper in Acids. By V. H. Velet, M.A. ... 638 

7. Recoverv of the Ammonia and Chlorine in the Ammonia-soda Process. 

By F. Bale 638 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Third Report of the Committee for investigating Isomeric Naphthalene 
Derivatives , 640 

■2. Note on the Molecular Weight of Caoutchouc and other Colloids. By Dr. 
J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., and W. Hibbert, F.I.C 640 

3. On some new Silicon Compounds. By Professor J. Emekson Reynolds, 

M.D., F.R.S 640 

4. On some new Thiocarhamide Compounds. By Professor J. Emerson 
Reynolds, M.D., F.R.S 640 

5. Proposed International Standards to control the Analysis of Iron and 
Steel. By Professor J. W. Langley 640 

6. On the Action of Light on Water Colours. By Arthur Richard- 

son, Ph.D T 641 

7. Further Researches on the Pyrocresols. By Dr. William Bott, F.C.S., 

and J. Bruce Miller, F.I.C 642 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Address by Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., 

President of the Section , 644 

L Further Note on the Midford Sands. By Horace B. AVoodward, F.G.S. 650 

2. The Relations of the Great Oolite to the Forest Marble and Fuller's-earth 

in the South-west of England. By Horace B. Woodward, F.G.S 651 

3. Note on the Portland Sands of Swindon and elsewhere. By Horace B. 
Woodward, F.G.S 652 

4. On Local Geological Photography. By Osmund W. Jeffs 653 

5. Further Notes on the Origin of the Crystalline Schists of Malvern and 
Anglesey. By Charles Callaway, D.Sc, M.A., F.G.S 653 

6. Sketch of the Geology of the Crystalline Axis of the Malvern Hills. By 
Charles Cauaway, D.Sc, M.A., F.G.S 654 

7. Archean Characters of the Rocks of the Nucleal Ranges of the Antilles. 

By Dr. Persifor Frazer 654 

8. On a Specimen of Quartz from Australia and Three Specimens of Oligo- 
clase Irom North Carolina exhibiting curious Optical Properties. By 

Dr. P EEsiFOR Frazer ". 655 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Sixteenth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ii-eland... 656 

2. On a Hiffh Level Boulder-clay in the Midlands. By Dr. H. W. Cross- 
key, F.G.S : 656 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On the Extension of the Bath Oolite under London, as shown by a Deep 

Boring at Streatham. By W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S 656 

4. On the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Gloucestershire. By E. Wetheeed, 

F.G.S., F.O.S., F.R.M.S ". 657 

5. On the Tytherington and Thornbury Section. By the Rev. H. H. Win- 
wooD, F.G.S ". 658 

6. The Northern Section of the Bristol Coal-field. By Handel Cossham, 
M.P., F.G.S 659 

7. Some Points of Interest in the Geology of Somerset. By W. A. E. 
Usshee, F.G.S 659 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER S. 

1. Comparison of the principal Forms of Dinosauria of Europe and America. 

By Professor 0. C. Maesh 660 

2. The Evolution of the Mammalian Molar Teeth to and from the Trituber- 
cular Type. By Henex Faiefield Osboen 660 

3. On the Gigantic Size of some extinct Tertiary Mammalia. By Professor 

A. Gatjdey 660 

4. Note on the Relation of the Percentage of Carbonic Acid in the Atmo- 

sphere to the Life and Growth of Plants. By the Rev. A. Ieving, D.Sc, 
B.A., F.G.S 661 

6. On the Occurrence of a Boulder of Granitoid Gneiss or Gneissoid Granite 
in the Halifax Hard-bed Coal. P>y .James Spejtcek. With a Note by 
Professor T. G. Bonnet 661 

6. The Caverns of Luray. By the Chevalier R. E. Reynolds 662 

7. Report on the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales ... 663 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. The Volcanoes of the Two Sicilies. By Tempest Andeeson, M.D., B.Sc. 663 

2. Notes on the late Eruption in the island of Vulcano. By Tempest 
Andeeson, ]M.D., B.Sc, and H. J. Johnston-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S 664 

3. Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood ... 666 

4. On the Conservation of Heat in Volcanic Chimneys. By H. J. Johnston- 
Lavis, M.B., F.G.S 666 

6. Note on a Mass containing Metallic Iron found on Vesuvius. By H. J. 
Johnston-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S 667 

6. Note on the Occurrence of Leucite at Etna. Bv H. J. Johnston-Lavis 

M.D., F.G.S :. 669 

7. Note on some recent Investigations into the Condition of the Interior of 
the Earth. By Professor E. W. Clatpole, B.A., D.Sc, F.G.S 669 

8. On the Causes of Volcanic Action. By J. Logan Loblet, F.G.S 670 

9. Eighth Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 671 

10. On the recent Volcanic Structure of the Azorean Archipelago. By 

OSBEEX H. HOWAETH ° Q'^\ 

11. Report of the Earth Tremor Committee 671 



contents. xv 

Sub-Section C. 

Page 

1. The Watcombe Terra-Cotta Clay. By W. A. E. Ussher, F.G.S 672 

2. Second Report ou the ' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 672 

3. Beds exposed in the Southampton New Dock Excavation. By T. W. 

Shore, E.G. S., F.C.S 672 

4. Fossil Arctic Plants from the Lacustrine Deposit at Hoxne, in Suffolk. 

By Clement Reid, F.G.S., and H. N. Ridley, M.A., F.L.S 674 

5. Report on an ancient Sea Beach near Bridlington Quay 674 

6. On the Origin of Oolitic Texture in Limestone Rocks. By Professor 

H. G. Seelet,F.R.S 674 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Notes of some Researches on the Fossil Fishes of Chiaron, Vicentino 

(Stratum of Sotzka, Lower Miocene). By Professor Feancesco 
Bassani 675 

2. Sixth Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 677 

3. Report of the Committee for investigating the Flora of the Carboniferous 

Rocks of Lancashire and West Yorkshire 677 

4. On an Ichthyosaurus from Mombasa, East Africa, with Observations on 
the Vertebral Characters of the Genus. By Professor H. G. Seelet 
F-KS .'677 

5. A Comparison of the Cretaceous Fish-fauna of Mount Lebanon with that 

of the English Chalk. By A. Smith Woodwaed, F.G.S., F.Z.S 678 

6. On Bucklandium diluvii, Konig, a Siluroid Fish from the London Clay 
ofSheppey. By A. Smith Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S 679 

7. On the Origin of Graphite in the Archaean Rocks, with a Review of the 
alleged Evidence of Life on the Earth in Archaean Time. By the Rev. 

A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A., F.G.S 679 

8. On some Devonian Cephalopods and Gasteropods. By the Rev. G. F. 

Whtdborne, M.A., F.G.S 680 

9. On some Devonian Crustaceans. By the Rev. G. F. Whidboene, M A 

FG-s .'. '. ::^i 

10. On some Fossils of the Limestones of South Devon. By the Rev. G F 

Whidborne, M.A., F.G.S 681 

Sub- Section C. 

1. Mineralogical Evolution. By T. Sterrt Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S 682 

2. Report on the Microscopic Structure of the Older Rocks of Anglesey 684 

3. On a probable Cause of Contortions of Strata. By Charles Ricketts, 
M.D., F.G.S .•: : 684 

4. On the Temperature at which Beryl is decolorised. By J. Joly, M.A., 

^•^ , 684 

6. On the Occurrence of lolite in the Granite of County Dublin. Bv J. 
Jolt, M.A., B.E : 685 

6. An Igneous Succession in Shropshire. By W. W. Watts, M.A., F.G.S. . 685 

7. Fourteenth Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters 685 

8. A List of ^^'orks referring to ^British Mineral and Thermal Waters. By 

W. H. Dalton 685 



\ 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Section D.— BIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 
Address by W. T. Thiselton-Dter, C.M.G., M.A., B.Sc, F.K.S., F.L.S., 

President of the Section 686 

1. Report of the Committee for exploring the Flora of the Bahamas 701 

2. Second Report of the Committee for taking steps for the estahlishment of 

a Botanical Station at Peradeniya, Ceylon 701 

3. Report of the Committee for continuing the preparation of a Report on 

our present knowledge of the Flora of China 701 

4. A Lily Disease. By Professor H. Maesham- Waed, F.R.S 702 

5. On the Morphology of the Pitcher of Nepenthes. Bv Professor Bower, 

F.L.S .". 702 

6. On Adelphotaxij : an undescribed Form of Irritability. By Professor 
Marcus M. Hartog, D.Sc, M.A 702 

Zoological Department. 

1. Report of the Committee for reporting on the present state of our know- 
ledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, and taking 
steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 702 

2. Report of the Committee to arrange for the occupation of a Table at 

the Zoological Station at Naples 703 

3. Report of the Committee for making arrangements for assisting the 
Marine Biological Association Laboratory at Plymouth 703 

4. Report of the Committee for continuing the Researches on Food-Fishes 

at the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory 703 

5. Report of the Committee on the Migration of Birds 703 

6. On the Irruption of Syrrhaptes paradoxus. By Professor Newtox, M.A., 
F.R.S 703 

7. Remarks on some Teleostean Ova, and their Development. Bv J. T. 

Cunningham, B.A., F.R.S.E " 703 



FRIDA F, SEPTEMBER 7. 
PHYSIOLOfilCAL DEPARTMENT. 

1. On the Physiological Bearing of Waist-belts and Stays. By Professor 
Roy, M.D., F.R.S., and J. G. Adami, M.A 704 

Zoological Department. 

1. Some Remarks on the Instincts of Solitary Wasps and Bees. By Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 706 

2. Restoration of Brontops Robiutm, from the Miocene of America. By 

Professor 0. C. Marsh, Ph.D., LL.D 706 

3. Heredity in Cats with an extra Number of Toes. By E. B. Poulton, M.A. 707 

4. On the Nature of the Geological Terrain as an important factor in the 
Geographical Distribution of Animals. By Hans Gabow, M.A., Ph.D.... 707 

5. On the Natural History of Christmas Island. By J. J. Lister, M.A., 
F.Z.S 708 



CONTENTS. XVll 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Page 

1. Report of the Committee for aiding- in the maintenance of the establish- 

ment of a Marine Biological Station at Granton, Scotland 7 10 

2. Report of the Committee on the Development of the Oviduct in certain 
fresh-water Teleostei 710 

3. On certam Adaptations for the Nutrition of Embryos. By F. W. 
Oliver 710 

4. On the Development of the Bulb in Laminaria bullosa. By C. A. 
Barber 710 

5. On Packytheca, a Silurian Alga of doubtful Affinities. By C. A. Barber 711 

6. On the Plant-remains discovered by Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie in the 

Cemetery of Hawara, Lower Egypt, By Percy E. Newberry 712 

7. Abnormal Ferns, Hybrids, and their Parents. By E. J. Lowe, F.R.S., 
and Colonel Jones ' 713 

8. Preliminary Note on the Functions and Homologies of the Contractile 

Vacuole in Plants and Animals. By Professor Marctts M. Hartog, 
D.Sc., M.A 714 

9. On the Contrivances for the Seed Protection and Distribution in 

Blumenbachia Hiei-onymi, Urban. By W. Gardiner 716 

Zoological Department. 

1. On Locusts in Cyprus. By S. Brown 710 

2. On the Fauna of the Firth of Clyde. By W. E. Hotle, M.A 717 

3. On a Deep-sea Tow Net. By W. E. Hoyle, M.A 717 

4. On some Points in the Natural History of the Coral Fungia. By J. J. 
Lister, M.A., F.Z.S 717 

5. On the Echinodermata of the Sea of Bengal. By Professor F. Jeffrey 
Bell, M.A., Sec. R.M.S 718 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. Discussion on Coral Reefs , 718 

2. Second Report of the Committee on the Physiology of the Lymphatic 

System 723 

3. Contributions to the Anatomy of the Tubificidae. By F. E. Beddard, 
M.A., F.Z.S 72.'] 

4. On the Flora of Madagascar. By the Rev. R. Baron 724 

5. On the Efi'ects of the Weather of 1888 on the Animal and Vegetable 
Kingdoms. By E. J, Lowe, F.R.S 720 

6. The Odoriferous Apparatus of the Blaps mortisaga (Coleoptera). By 

Professor GusTAVE Gilson 727 

7. Report of the Committee on Provincial Museums 728 

8. The effect of various substances (chiefly members of the aromatic series 

of organic compounds) upon the rate of secretion and constitution of the 

BUe. By W. J. Collins, M.D., M.S., B.Sc. (Lond.), F.R.C.S 728 

1888. a 



Xviii CONTENTS. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY, 

THUBSBAT, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 

Address by Colonel Sir 0. W. Wilson, R.E., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.R.G.S., President of the Section 7J9 

1. Le Canal de Panama. Par F. de Lesseps 738 

2. Meteorological Conditions of the Eed Sea. By Lieut.-General Steachet, 
F.R.S '^^ 

3. Sea Temperatures in the neighboui-hood of Cape Guardafui. By Lieut.- 
General Steachey, F.R.S "38 

4. The Salinity of the Clyde Sea Area. By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E "3° 

5. Sea Temperatures on the Continental Shelf. By Hugh Robert Mill, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E "39 

6. Perspective Maps and Common Maps. By Arthur W. Olatden, M.A,, 

F.GS 740 

7. • Little Russia.' By E. Delmar Morgan, F.R.G.S 740 

8. Third Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of drawing 

attention to the desirability of prosecuting further research in the Ant- 
arctic Regions 741 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Explorations on the Chindwin River, Upper Burmah, in 1886-87. By 

Colonel WooDTHOEPE, R.E 741 

2. A new Route from India to Tibet. By Captain W. J. Elwes 741 

3. Russian Topographical Surveys. By E. Delmar Morgan, F.R.G.S 741 

4. Notes on the Geography of the Region from the Nile to the Euphrates as 
known to the ancient Egyptians. By the Rev. Henry George Tomkins 741 

5. Remarks on Mr. Tomkins's Paper. By Major Condbr, R.E 743 

6. Recent Explorations East of the Jordan. By Captain A. M. Mantell, 

R.E 743 

7. Jerusalem : Nehemiah's AVall and the Royal Sepulchres. By George 

St. Clair, F.G.S 744 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Tunis since the French Protectorate. By Colonel Sir Lambert Playfair, 
K.C.M.G 745 

2. The Commercial Future of Central Africa. By Colonel Sir Francis de 
WiNTON 745 

3. Bechuanaland and the Land of Ophir. By the Rev. John Mackenzie ... 745 

4. The Transvaal, or South African Republic. By P. H. Ford 745 

5. The Cameroons. By H. H. Johnston 745 

6. Dr. Livingstone and Lake Bangweolo. By E. G. Ravenstein 745 

7. Notes from the Atlas Mountains. By Jos. Thomson 745 

8. Akkas and Dwarfs in Southern Morocco. By R. G. Haliburton 745 

9. Through Kakongo. By Q. E. Dennett 745 



CONTENTS. iix 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 

1. Pbotogi-apliic and Pliotozincoffraphic Processes employed in the Ordnance 

Survey. By ColonelJ. H. Bolland, K.E 746 

2. Note on Geographical Terminology. By H. J. Mackinder, M.A 746 

3. The Piver of Joseph, the Fayum and Raian Basins. By Cope White- 

house, M.A 746 

4. Mission to El-Wedj. By Captain Coxters Surtees 747 

5. Notes on Topographic Maps produced by the United States Geological 

Survey. By G. K. Gilbert 747 

6. On Pahang, an Independent State in the Malayan Peninsula. By W. 
Barrijjgton d'Almeida 747 

7. Formosa : Characteristic Traits of the Island and its Aboriginal Inhabi- 
tants. By George Taylor 747 

■8. On the general adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in relation with that 
of the universal hour. By Dr. 0^8. Tondixi de Quarenghi 747 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER G. 

Address by The Right Hon. Lord Bramwell, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 749 

1. On Mining Royalties and theii- effect on the Iron and Coal Industries. 

By Professor W. R. Sorlet 755 

2. The Relations between Sliding Scales and Economic Theory. By L. L. 

Price, M.A 757 

3. On Wage Statistics and Theories. By James Mayor 767 

4. The Growth of American Industries and Wealth. By Michael George 
Mulhall, F.S.S 757 

6. Somersetshire Cider. By John Higgins 759 

6. Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Banking Statistics. By VVir. 
BoTLY, M.R.A.S.E '. 760 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER!. 

1. An Analysis of the Cun-ent Conception of State Socialism. By Professor 
Henry Sidgwick, M.A 760 

2. The Transition to Social Democracy. By G. Bernard Shaw 761 

3. The Tendency of Competition to result in Monopoly. By Professor Fox- 
well 762 

4. Associative Economics applied to Colonisation. By W. L. Rees 762 

5. On the Statistics of Examination. By Professor F. Y. Edgeworih, 
M.A.,F.S.S 763 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. The Revenue System of the United States. By Albert Shaw, Ph.D. ... 763 

2, On the Distribution of the Licences proposed to be transferred in aid of 
Local Expenditure. By R. H. Ixglis Palgrave, F.R.S., F.S.S 764 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. The Standard, or Basis, of Taxation. By Clair J. Grece, LL.D 765 

4. The Suitability of Small Towns for Factory Industries. By Russell R. 

Tanner 767 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Second Report of the Committee on the method of ascertaining and 
measuring Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard 767 

2. Index-numbers as illustrating the Progressive Exports of British Produce 

and Manufactures. By Siephen Botjrne, F.S.S 767 

3. Report of the Committee on the Statistical Data available for determining 

the amount of the Precious Metals in use as Money in the principal 
Countries, the chief forms in which the Money is employed, and the 
amount annually used in the Arts 767 

4. An Examination into the Reasons of the Price of Wheat rising or falling 
contemporaneously with the Variation in the Value of Foreign Curren- 
cies. By W. J. Harris, F.S.S 767 

5. The Effects on Indian Exports of the Fall in the Gold Price of Silver. 

By L. C. Probtn 768 

6. On Statigrams, with some suggestions for Greater Uniformity in Com- 
parative Graphics. By the Rev. J. F. Heies, M.A., F.C.S., F.R.G.S. ... 76& 

7. Reasons for a Quinquennial Census. By G. B. Lonqstaff, M.A., M.B., 

F.Il.C.P 760 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER II. 

1 . Leasehold Enfranchisement. By Charles Harrison 770 

2. Report of the Committee for continuing the inquiries relating to the 
teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 771 

3. The Industrial Education of Women abroad and at home. By E. J. 

Watherston 771 

4. Irishwomen's Industries. By Miss Helen Blackburn 772 

5. Education: a Chapter of Economics. By T. W. Dunn, M,A 773 

6. L'orgaiiisation et la statistique de I'enseignement technique secondaire en 

Italic. By Signor BoNGHi 774 

7. Agricultural Education. By Professor James Long 776 

8. Economy in Education and in Writing. By Eizak Pitman 776 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. The Malthusian Theory. By Edavin C had wick, C.B 777" 

2. Dairy Industry. By George Gibbons 778 

3. Amendments founded on Experiences submitted for the Local Government 
Bill. By Edwin Chadwick, C.B i 779 

4. The Vital and Commercial Statistics of Bath. By F. Norfolk 780 

5. Old Age and Sickness Assurance for the Mercantile and Professional 
Classes. By F. Norfolk 780' 



CONTENTS. XXI 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 
Address by W. H. Peeecb, F.E.S., M.Inst.C.E., President of the Section 781 

1. The Phonograph. By Colonel G. E. Goueatjd 792 

2. The Graphophone. By Henkt Edmdtsds 792 

3. Mechanical Pathology considered in its relation to Bridge Design. By 

G. H. Thomson, M.Am.S.E 793 

4. A few Arguments in favour of Light or Road Railways. By Thos. 
Stephen P. W. D'Alte Sellon, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 794 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Barry Docks. By John Wolfe Baeet, M.Inst.C.E 795 

2. Plant and Machinery in use on the Manchester Ship Canal. By Lionel 

B. Wells, M.Inst.C.E 796 

3. On an improved Canal Lift. By S. Llotd 797 

4. On the Replenishment of the Underground Waters of the Permeable 
Formations of England. By J. Bailey Denton, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S. ... 797 

5. The Raiyan Project for the Storage of Nile Flood. By Cope White- 
house, M.A 799 

€. The Severn Watershed. By J, W. AVillis Bttnd 799 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. On Rolling Seamless Tubes from Solid Bars or Ingots, by the Mannesmanu 

Process. By Feedeeick Siemens 804 

2. Gaseous Fuel. By J. Emeeson Dowson, M.Inst.C.E 805 

3. The Shipman Engine. By W. R. Pidgeon, M.A 806 

4. On the Disengaging of Boats, &c. By E. J. Hill 807 

6. The old Orkney Click Mill. By Professor A. Jamleson, M.Inst.C.E 807 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. On the application of Electricity to the working of a 20-ton Travelling 
Crane. By W. Anbeeson, M.Inst.C.E 808 

2. On recent Developments of the Cowles Aluminium Process. By R. E. 
Crompton 809 

3. Electric Lighting in America. By Professor Geo ege Foebes, F.R.S, ... 813 

4. On a System of Electrical Distribution. By Henet Edmunds 813 

6. The Measurement of Electricity in a House to House Supply. By W. 
LowEiE 814 

€. Electric Light applied to Night Navigation upon the Suez Canal. By 
R. Peect Sellon 814 

7. Electricity as applied to Mining. By Feank Beain 815 

8. Miners' Electric Safety Lamps. By Nicholas Watts, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E. 816 

9. On an Automatic Fire-damp Detector. By Joseph Wilson Swan, M.A. 817 



XXll CONTENT.*. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Page 

1. An improved Seismograph. By E. A. Cowpee, M.Inst.C.E 818 

2. The Friction of Metal Coils. By Professor H. S. Hele Shaw and E. 
Shaw 819 

3. Steam Engine Diagrams. By M. F. Fitzgerald 819' 

4. The Efficiency of Steam at High Pressures and the Carnot Theorem. By 

AV. WoRBT Beattmont, M.Inst.C.E 820- 

5. Rerolving Sails, or Air-propellers. By H. 0. Vogt 820 

6. A new Sphere Plauimeter. By Professor 11. S. Hele Shaw 821 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Underground Railway Communication in great Cities. By Colonel Row- 

land R. Hazard " 821 

2. Transmission of Motion and Power, By J. Walter Pearse 823 

3. An Annual AVinding Clock, with Torsion Pendulum. Bv W. H. 

Douglas " 823 

4. A new form of Air-compressor for Variable Pressures. By H. Da vet, 
M.Inst.C.E 824 

5. On controlling the direction of Rotation of a Dynamo. By A. AVinter... 824 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Address by Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., 

President of the Section 825 

1. Report of the Committee for investigating the effects of different occupa- 

tions and employments on the Phvsical Development of the Human 
Body '. '. 836 

2. Second Report of the Committee for ascertaining and recording the locali- 
ties in the British Islands in which evidences of the existence of Pre- 
historic Inhabitants of the country are found 836 

3. The Constitutional Characteristics of those who dwell in large Towns, as 
relating to Degeneracy of Race. By G. B. Barron, M.D., L.R.C.S.E., 
M.R.C.S., Hon. Surgeon-Major 836 

4. The Physique of the Swiss as influenced by Race and by Media. By Dr. 
Beddoe, F.R.S., V.P.A.1 837 

5. On Colour-blindness. By Karl Grossmann, M.D 838 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. On Human Bones discovered by General Pitt-Rivers at A\'oodcuts, 
Eotherley, &c. By Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S 839 

2. Human Remains from Wiltshire. By J. G. Garson, M.D., A' .P.A.I 839 

3. On a Method of investigating the Development of Institutions ; applied to 
Laws of Marriage and Descent. By Edward B. Tylor, F.R.S 840 

4. Australian Message-sticks and Messengers. By A. W. Howitt, F.G.S ... 842 

5. Social Regulations m Melanesia. By the Rev. R. H. Codrington, D.D. 843 



CONTKNTS. XXlll 

Page 

6. On the Funeral Rites and Ceremonies of tlie NicoLar Islanders. By 

E. H. Man 844 

7. Notes on the Shell-Mounds and Ossuaries of the Choptank River, Mary- 

land, U.S.A. By the Chevalier R. Elmek Reynolds 845 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Marriage Customs of the New Britain Group. By the Rev. Benjahin 
Danks 847 

2. Totem Clans and Star Worship. By George St. Clate, F.G.S 848 

3. The Survival of Corporal Penance. By Osbert H. Howarth 849 

4. Notes on Chest-types. By Dr. G. W. Hambleton 849 

5. Third Report of the Committee for investigating the Prehistoric Race 

in the Greek Islands 849 

6. Fourth Report of the Committee for mvestigatuig and puhlishing reports 
on the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social condition 

of the North- Western Trihes of the Dominion of Canada 849 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Necklaces in relation to Prehistoric Commerce. By Miss A. W. Buck- 
land 849 

2. The Definition of a Nation. By J. Park Harrison, M. A 850 

3. Sun-myths in Modern HeUas. By J. Theodore Bent 850 

4. The Ancient Inhabitants of the Canary Islands. By J. Harris Stone, 
M.A., F.L.S., F.C.S 851 

5. Some Account of the Ancient (prje-Roman) Stronghold of Worlehury, 
near Weston-super-Mare. By the Rev. Henry George Tomkins 851 

6. Celtic Earthworks in Hampshire, in reference to the Density of the Celtic 
Population. By T. W. Shore, F.G.S., F.C.S 852 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

1. The Monument known as ' King Orry's Grave ' compared with Tumuli in 

Gloucestershire. By Miss A. W. Buceiand 854 

2. Observations made in the Anthropometric Laboratory at Manchester. By 
George W. Bloxam, M.A., and J. G. Garson, M.D 854 

3. On the Early Races of Western Asia. By Major C. R. Conder, R.E. ... 855 

4. Discoveries in Asia Minor. By J. Theodore Bent 856 

6. Notes on the Hyksos or Shepherd-Kings of Egypt. By the Rev. Henry 

George Tomkins 856 

6. Pelasgians, Etruscans, and Iberians ; their relations to the Founders 
of the Chaldean and Egyptian Civilisations. By J. S. Stuart Glennie, 
MA 857 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX. 

Page 
A List of Works referring to British Mineral and Thermal Waters. By 
W. H. Dalton, F.G.S 859 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. B. Grantham, Major- 
General Sir A. Clarke, Sir J. N. Douglass, Capt. Sir Q. Nares, Admiral 
Sir E. Ommannet, Capt. J. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, Professor 
J. Peestwich, Messrs. C. E. De Range, E. Easton, J. B. Redman, W. 
TopiET, J. S. Valentine, L. F. Vernon-Haecotjet, W. Whitaier, 
and J. W. WooDALL, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into the 
Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the Influ- 
ence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or other material in that 
Action. C. E. De Range and AV. Toplet, Secretaries. (The Report 
edited by W. Toplet) 898 

Irj)Ex 935 



LIST OF PLATES. XXV 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



Illustrating the Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical Measurements. 



PLATES II., IIL, IV., Ain) V. 

illustrating the Report of the Committee for investigating the Microscopical 
Structure of the Older Rocks of Anglesey. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCLITION. 



OBJECTS. 

Thk Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a moie systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

KULES. 

Admission of Memhers and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to 
become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to 
conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees,, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



KtTLBS OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXVll' 

gratuitotisly the Reports of tte Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivithout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and- 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid' 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to- 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership- 
after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual, 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members')- 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a composi- 
tion for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874>. 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.^ 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, London, W. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 
• A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



-XXVIU BULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the Greneral Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General CoiwrniUee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
1 longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
•following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Meiibers. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
• dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
iReports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
' thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Coicncil, they must 
he sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claim,s of any Member of 

■ the Association to be placed on the list of the General Gommittee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 

■ conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 

I before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 

>the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees.'^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
■names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports hkely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

' Revised by the General Committee, 1884. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 

. arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 

for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 

1 necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX- 

thereon, and on the order in whicli it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members- 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees.' 

An Organizing Committee may also bold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as art 
Organizing Committee shall cease. ^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
Greneral Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting wbose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Pi'oceedinsrs. 



-"&'- 



Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'' Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
1, The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 
2 No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

several Communications, that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, . 
of a length suitable for insertion in tlie published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, hy book-post, on or 
before .addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
who send in their MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and Abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, 
before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at? 
Routhport, 1883. 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 
ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and 
printed in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
^cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. Atthecloseof the CommitteeMeetingthe Secretaries shall forward 
to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is 
charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
•same before 8 A.M. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwa,rded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the Greneral Committee (vide p. xxxiii), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
■the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified personally 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
■* This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

■or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have the 
responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant {if any has been Tnade) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, further, it is 
■expedient that one of the tnembers should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
insuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
■Committee should be as small as is consistent tvith its efficient working. 

That a tabidar list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sections, 
to enable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Committee 
at a subsequent ineeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
«ach is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sec- 
tions must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they 
-can be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by 
the General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.* 



Notices regarding G^xmts of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Chairman of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
(previously to the next Meeting of the Association) forward to the General 
Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been ex- 
pended, and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 

"■expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor is the 

Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 

such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 

the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices 

• Revised by th6 General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879, 



xxxii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

of the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Chairman is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. "Williamson, 17 Buckingham 
Street, London, W.C, for such portion of the sums granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Booms and approaches thereto can be used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 P.M. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except tbose Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

» The sectional meetings on Saturday and on Wednesday may begin at any time 
which may be fixed by the Committee, not earlier than 10 or later than 11. Passed by 
the General Committee at Bath, 1888. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. SXXUl 

Committee of Recomm^endations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into considex-ation by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

Coi'respondi7ig Societies} 

(1.) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

(2.) Applications may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Application must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

(3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

(4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
up, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

(6.) A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

(7.) That the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies be 
empowered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommenda- 
tions for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee.' 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 
1888. b 



XXxiv RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(8.) The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

(9.) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

(10.) The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to ti'ansmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretai'ies of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

(11.) It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the sevei-al recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the OflBcers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Ojfficers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Belfast, 1874. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

6, The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 
(8) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 

as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of General Com- 
mittee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

A ccounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



b2 



p 



fe .- 

-c 

" OQ 

-a 

■eg 

o a 

.-fe 



m 

Is* 

1 1 
an 



£> :p3 

jaw a, 

f tig 

J-" QJ O 

ei-1 en ^ 

^ Cu 
- o . 



^ >>« a-S 

H a ^.-g 2 

.9 S &^ 
pi .g H (>.« 

S^^Sa 

^i^ .1 






■ cS 
r o 



o 







d 

-i o" .- o" 
^ to .o 

a goO 
■3.gS 8 

s.S=a 



.OS 

CO pi 

So 



w 



Eh b3 o &" fe' 

•^ -t-3 C*> M 

aOKp c3 



■g .-o 
^ -*3 o^ 

iJ a •" 

J -res «i ^- 

C3 -4 c tr; E2 

W '^ > ■ S 
5^ M C ^ ^ 

— .aC f •a 
53 tc ,/, c -r* 

(A -^ fi T. > 
O OJ cd O , 

HHQPhM 



< 
(4 

<f . 

Re 
»=» 
«| 



.OS 

^.^ 

Ph •" 
« rW 

•^ o c 

^ o a 

l^ 






.CO 

Mi 

^ to p 9 

1^ ff U i-t 

rf =3 O O 

^ r;:3 <u d) 



" en r> 

a'8^ 

6 a s 



^ 



•H 



00 



pH -° 



:cc 

■■3 'pi 



lo 



; s " .5 ^„ 

2 ^ fT>' 1^ «? 



'*-■ • -'"3 



o 



^P5 



PhP9 J 

S *3 O 

■ — m 

o c o 



S'i :°^ 

P S o -• o 
o g > c p' 
^ m >,'a I-. 

.2773 a; ^ CO 

1) a 2 "o 
HOH Ph 



HP3 



IJ 



a I" 



Hco 



PH > 



Mo 



>> 






Ha Sg 
P 0) a o 
Ph-^ . S 

Si's 

P3 



Is §3 - 

■a t. f o ". 
a o o fa rrt 

OJ to CO '^ S 

Ci to V, - Q 

-^ ■*-< '^ "^ 

^ega-g 

°p,p.3Q 
a> > t>' *? d 

HKKcohj 



ph : !>. 

^;§ 
ij 

O £?»< 
P5rt 

Sa 

o " 
» 



p« 



Mpi O 

ojT: to 

."2p< 



ofd 

i3p-(Pl 2 

a S ti>5 
a o Q ta 

«p^S^ 

°- &i 
|||§ 

.a.a.i! C 
HHtcM 



Ph-HI 

>■ t"" o 

CJ <y S 

«KPh 



=3 5 



W 



P 

a 



&'3 2 
W p:i 



:P?>. : 

PiSdaJ 

■a "P^ii 
a tjr a to 

M • M 



.d«s" 
d§-g 



t» to 



■'CO 03 






J«« 



& 

o « ■ 
cq ■ © 

02 to 

^P5§ 
►J o 

s^ 

o 

D 



f (34^ a.a 

■Mr"* K »'te 

1- O^ rt o 

C3 m " a to 
tD to CJ J tn 

.S p sap 

EhPhS^^S 



Ph" 
CO 

P3 
P^ 



o a 
-O.S 

gp^a 

waw 

o 



a 






(0 

III 



a 


Q 


< 

1- 


P4 


UJ 


fi 


o 
111 


e^ 


0) 


- «i 




wW 






< 


w^ 


o 


0-C 


o 


eS 


-I 


Moa 



O oa 



z 

UJ 
Q 

«) 
UJ 

q: 
a. 



CI cS 

» « • 



.«3 

^6 



: :e-i 

: :o3 

: 'iJ 

•CS r 

-Pui-:! 






o 

bp eS O 

V o a: 
•c j: j= 
EhHH 









M 

H 
z 
111 
g 

UJ 

q: 

Q. 



"3 o 

'S g 

O 3 

.-. aj 

O W3 

■is 
I! 









m 


n 


fS 


^«. 


Sg" 


mPS 


^1 




ca a 


a-i 


04:. 


A s 


Hg. 


^ 




P=E-i 



aJH 



§o=a :• 
R t" q « d -Q ^ =". 



ir"soiQ 



O i; C •*» 

.^ a -OS 

^r— X O O 

c "g = o > 
^ T ii ^ 






«;. o o o c; 



o 

O 

O 
•-> 



,-d^o 



S fe o s 



-Co* 
a> F> cc 
o sea 



^ 



o CO 

c.a3 

Eh 



>|5 



IS 



"I 

9)F-I 



:p^ 



.a 



§d 

^ . aj -li 3 

■f 1-5 j: re S 

. . -^ cr S 5 

§fc OjI So 

<" p. '^ o 
^ a . u 
E-O fe. Pm 



SHd"? 
r OJ r 

O ID • H 

< u ? o 
« 'c r, .z; 

o <^ ,— ( 
?; fi<PH 



d 



n 



hi" 
m 



So 

"a 



a . CO 

.3 OS 

^ 

• • >. 



: , - a : 3 

&4 o ! > 



(ji-ia jp : 

g^-S^-g : 

^ c — o - 

Ro g^-p 

H J - 

w ' o 
> O" t> 






i2n. 



fepw 



M.SfP 



si Mpj g g 

50 -gcg 






C^itJPh 



«« : 
p=;a : 

CD • 

.ja ■ 
■ ■♦J * 

p« : 
hjS : 

(J a> .CO 

Sh . 00 
- B -oo 

. t^ J- o 

!« / (» o 
0<j;3 

»!>■ a 
<1 



• ^ CO A 

-CO M _ to 

c S^ CO [o _r 

o gs a2 



to CS tc a: H 



:Pa5 

:hJp3 

p'i^ 
^Hp" 
dph^l 

SfOO 

11a 

c5 o r 

•g «d 

•St" 

fel-- 

. X ? 

: o 



i tcaj 

J i !^ fc^ "^ 

.2 2 2 2 



7- i a" 

la 



o : 

p=I : 



« : : 
pcJ : : 

p' : : 

:>-)" : . 

r :« 

p -^ 

f^ujP 

:o^ r 
:P^.5 



iT^a 






• cr. ^^ 

- S CS 

£>-! " 

.H t- 

2-2.= 
Ho£ 



3- h 

Ppa ¥s 

- o tr ^ 3 

2 o . 2 



<y • 



dS. . 

o« : 

Sd2§ 

3 i w 3 

gcC a, >J 

pi a r 

o :.2° 

srI 

o 
E-c 



CO 

d 

.a 

o* J^ - 
n O* 0) 

.O 0) • 

6§^ 






a> W m 



(D 



fete-" 



02 

W 

bo 

a 

o 



1^ 

d 



B^^ 



t-l . * 00 



nj o <i f^ <i 



.-w 



< t cfS 



pK <D 



?« s 



•-3 rt o o 



-3 2 






n c/; "^ 



^ 



►tj'M 



«^5 



JIM 



43 V 

Eh 



• . o 
•CO 

•« g 

•2=3 

o - r 

C vd t-3 
O -" 



H 



•Ha 
ill 

B p 6 
4^< 



6 
ft' 

aj 

N 

CO 

o 

CO o 



O =1-1 

i4 .a _* 

lie 



Q 
a 

3 
p-i 

"5 
o. 

'o 
a 

Ph 

- a) . c a 

O o o 

ja »■- t-i 
H Ph Ph 



<0 }- 

II 

a ° 
§§ 

!■§ 



aj 



o . 

so',. 

- - S f 



«Jc 



??.. 



CO- 



'S o 



SQ' 



£« - 

'-'So'"'" --* 



^fe-S 



2 S g 



5 o .-S 



S<S 



. • . • . <D 

:: C ^ S K. = 



5^^ 



^ S " 

o^ o 

■*^ -*f *^ 
be be &£ 



-•^ *> "nl 



^§1 



ID O O O C t*^ ti- * - • 

.= .a .= j= J 



'03 



CO : 

dj : 

« : 

lil : 

m '. 
pj : 

ft : 

4d 



■^•HS 

a =.fc 
f K a - <s « a 



CO 

Soft 



^ > > 

t, 0) o 



taaS 

tn ^ **- t Q) « 

£ oj o g.o._o^.S 
be be be too be o •- ::2 

O O CJ ID QJ O O 

E-i H H H ti H E-' x 






a 
ij 

1-5 

i-i 

h3jd 
pofi 

■ft'PHg* 

« M a 

^ ..1-= 

^ o o 

•^ ^ g 
-aj 0) t. 
a.KP-1 
Sum 

S s 2 
o > a 

■a~ d 






P5 S 



lOJ 

:d 
•f^ 
■en 
•iJ 
:^' 
:co 
;« 
: ;co" d 

• <j ft .- 

i-ot/i'e -'O 
. -g r-i '^ "^ ui 

s 1^ 43 'C Oh' ja ^. ►^ 
jShi a^i^b-rt*^-- 

-*^ .., o li •♦-< "^ CQ rQ 

nSSggco-s^-a 

■Si>'o|S.P3bS r 

■*5-a,ara.a£ •»- 

.a.a.ara.a ^.a.a &:i 
HE-HBHffifHHpH 



O . . , 
r : :cu 

ft ; -Sj 

i''-',am' r 

■e, c af a m 
=5 - o .xT 

CO'Ppjgi 



ft ; 
a : 

« : 

o • 

M : 
pf • . 

ijft '^ 

ft rj3 

j,wa 

kI"co 

"ift'l 

w =■ 
eo 

P5ft 



cc'S 
ft'- 

CM 



d9 



a.|s3 

<J 5-g2 
)— I 

CQ 



c 
ft 

O" 

D 
P" 

ft" 

o 
o 
t» 
o 

m 

.CO 

Ko 



o 

a - 

WW 

Pd 

w ■ 

ftM 



xliv 



EEPOET 1888. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburs-h 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1836. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I. A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rer. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1876. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 



Presidents 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., P.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
.J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. , 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S., 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



J. P. Heimessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. .J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hay ward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Poster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W, G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richard- 
son. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 
Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 
MacAlister. 



xlvi 



REPORT 1888. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1885. Aberdeen... 


Prof. G. Chi-ystal, 


M.A., 


E. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 




F.E.S.E. 




W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 


1886. Birmingham 


Prof. G. H. Darwin, 


M.A., 


R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 




LL.D., F.E.S. 




J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 


1887. Manchester 


Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, 


M.A., 


R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 




LL.D., F.R.S. 




H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 


1888. Bath 


Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, 


M.A., 


R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 




F.R.S. 




Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 
1831. Edinburgh 



.John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1858. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cummins' .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell.F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumminff 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Perc}', M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,r.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B.,F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Goldins- Bird. Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. '^Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

.J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

U. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Edwards,Dr.Gladstone,Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D, 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1860. Oxford. 



1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 



Manchester 
Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee . . . 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 



Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 



Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

■pi T) Q 

W. Odiing, M.B., F.R.S., 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Ti^ p ^ 
Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Secretaries 



1881. York. 



A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odiing, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcom-t, Prof. Liveing, R. 

Biggs. \ 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof, 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A.,:Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E.Fletcher, 

F.R.S., F.C.S. ! Dr. W. J. Russell. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S.: J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

i E, Thorpe. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 
ProL W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. I ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

A. G.Vernon Harcourt, M.A., [ Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
F.R.S., F.C.S. Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. H. Perkin, F.R.S W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

' J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ...Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 

M. Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 
W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 
Thomson. 
Prof. A. W.Williamson, Ph.D., P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry GUbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 



F.E.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Kotter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. PhiUips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley.Dr. W.J.Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 
■ .7. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H.' B. Dixon, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, R. E. Moyle, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 



xlviii 



KEPORT — 1888. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



E. I. Murcliison, F.K.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson , 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Eev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY. 

1835. Dublin U. J. Griffith I Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

1836. Bristol (Bev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. — IWilliam Sanders, S. Stutchbury 

[ Geoff7-aj)hi/,R. I. Mwcchison,} T. J. Torrie. 
: F.K.S. 

1837. Liverpool... ■ Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

i Geography, G. B .Greenough, 

1838. Newcastle. . I C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

I Geography, Lord Prudhope. 
1889. Birmingham 'Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. — 
I Geoqraphy,Q(.V>SjX&G.xi(ya.^, 
F.R.S. 

1840. Glasgow ...! Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— fi^eo- 

I grajyhy, G. B. Greenough, 
I F.R.S. 

1841. Plymouth... H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 



1842. Manchester I R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

1843. Cork Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

i M.R.I.A. 

1844. York ! Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 

1845. Cambridge .' Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 



1846. Southamp- 
ton. 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 
1850, Edinburgh' 



Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geograjihy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E, H. Bunbury, 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



SECTION c {continued). — geology 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

R.E., 



Lieut. -Col. Portlock 
F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved 'That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,'" for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page liv. 



1 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlii 



Date and Place 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1888. 



Presidents 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, F.R.S... . 

Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.E.S... . 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D.. 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., 

F.G.S, 
E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. E. Harkness, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.E.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



W. Pengelly, F.E.S 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.E.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S., 

K P s 
E. Etheridge, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, Eev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Eobert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E, W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Eev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Eupert Jone?, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lufas Barrett, Prof. T, Eupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H, C. 

Sorbv, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H, C, 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E, 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly, 
E. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W, Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Eev. 0. Fi.sher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Eev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Eev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins. G. H. Morton. 

E. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L. C. Miall, E. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley, 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, E. G. Symes, 

E. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W, Top- 
ley. 

J, Armstrong, F. W. Eudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, E. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J, O'Eeilly, 
E. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

c 



KEPOET — 188». 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1883. Southport 


Prof. "W. C. Williamson, 


R. Betley, C. E. Da Ranee, W. Top- 




LL.D., F.R.S. 


ley, W. Whitaker. 


1884. Montreal ... 


W. T. Blanford, F.E.S., Sec. 


F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 




G.S. 


Topley, W. Whitaker. 


1885. Aberdeen... 


Prof. J. W. Judd, F.E.S., Sec. 


C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 




G.S. 


Teall, W. Topley. 


1886. Birmingham 


Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 


W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 




LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 


Topley, W. W. Watts. 


1887. Manchester 


Henry Woodward, LL.D., 


J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 




F.R.S,, F.G.S. 


ley, W. W. Watts. 


1888. Bath 


Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 


Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 




F.R.S., F.G.S. 


W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

] 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, 

Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



I J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J, E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King. 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. liii.] 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. liii. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



L, W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



Presidents 



Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1-861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Nevfcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee , 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S... . 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof, W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M,A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E, Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr, 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthonj', Rev. C. Clarke. Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology.' 



i 



1868. Norwich 



» 



1869. Exeter, 



» 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh 



k 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiolor/ical Dep., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropoiogical Dep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Dot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physwhgy, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Dot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Etlino., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — J?e//. of 
Anat. and Pki/siol.,Fiof.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Dep. 
of JSthno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.Ii..S.— Dep. of Dot. and 
.2ooZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H, 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr, 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T, 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T Stainton, Rev, H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 



1 At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved:- 'That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology;' and 'That for the word "Subsection " 
mthe niles for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department" 



c 2 



Hi 



BEPORT — 1888. 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol .. 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin . 



1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea .., 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



Presidents 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anat. and PJujsiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman.F.R.S.— i>ri7. of 
Anat. and Pk!/siol.,Fioi. Ru- 
therford, M.t>.—Dfp. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.B.—Dep. of 
Zool. and Jiot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— />^'^.o/'^?i- 
throp.,'&\x VV.R. Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Z)<|/?.o/ 
Anat.niidIVn/s'iol.,Tiof.C\e- 
land, M.D., i\R.fi.—Dep.of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Rus.sel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Zlej?. of Zuol. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
dri'ck, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJearcys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
¥.lj.?>.—Dflp. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Pep. of Anthropol., 
Francis Gallon, M. A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 

Dej}. of Anthropol., Prof. 

Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dtp. 

of Anat. and Physiol., R. 

McDonnell, M.D.,'F.R.S. 
Prof. St. George Mivart, 

F.R.S.— Z»e/A of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
—Dep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Dtp. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

¥.R.S.—Dep.of Anthrojwl., 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anat. and 
Phydol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Dej). of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer.H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morri.son Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F, W. Rudler. 



Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Blo.xam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 

Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



1883. Southport' 



1884. 
1885. 

1886 

1887 

1888 



Montreal^... 
Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. E. KayLankester, M.A., 
F.K.S. — Dep. of A iithrojiol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. L. k E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S,, F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 
F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge ]Dr. Haviland Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh I Dr. Abercrombie Dr. Iloget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly. M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, ]'un., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Yose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof, 

Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S 



1842, Manchester 

1843, Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846, Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. 

:j. C. Pritchard, M.D 

iProf. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
Prof, Owen, M.D., F.R.S, 

I Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S, , 



Dr, J, Butter, J, Fugc, Dr, E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr, E, S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr, R. S. Sargent, 
..il. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent, 
..'Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster, 
C. P. Keele, Dr, Laycock, Dr, Sar- 
gent. 
Dr. Thomas K, Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

* By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology waa made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. lix. 

' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated uader the name of 'Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
Biology' (see p, 1), The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 



liv 



KEroRT — 1888. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
18.57. 
1858. 

1859. 
18G0. 
1861. 
1862. 
186.3. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham.' 



Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. K. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. ShaiTDcy, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.& E. 

G. B. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheeihouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith, 
G. F. Helm. Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bart rum. Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C. 
p. xlviii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1 84 6. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

1851. Ipswich ...Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.,[R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

I Pres. R.G.S. Norton Shaw. 

1852. Belfast Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L.,Ir. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

1 F.R.S. Shaw. 

1853. Hull :R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

I Norton Shaw. 

1854. Liverpool..., Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

F.R.S. Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

1855. Glasgow ... Sir J. Richardson, M.D.,' Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

F.R.S. Norton Shaw. 

1856. Cheltenham Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, R. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

I K.C.B. Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

1857. Dublin Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. R. 

Pres. R.I.A. Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

1858. Leeds Sir R.L Murchison, G.C.St.S., R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

I F.R.S. laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

I "Wright. 

1859. Aberdeen... Rear - Admiral Sir James Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. ' 

1860. Oxford Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

! F.R.S. 

1861. Manchester John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

i 

1862. Cambridge Francis Galton, F.R.S 



I 



ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 



' Vide note on page xlviii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1863. Newcastle 


Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 


C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 




F.R.S. 


C. R. Markham, E. S. "Watson. 


1864. Bath 


Sir R. I Murchison. K C.B 


H. W. Bates, C. E. Markham, Capt. 
E. M. Jlurchison, T. "Wright. 




F.E.S. 


1865. Birmingham 


Major-General Sir H. Raw- 


H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 




linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 


R. Markham, Thomas "Wright. 


1866. Nottingham 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 


H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R, 




LL.D. 


H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 
D. "W. Nash, T. "Wright. 


1867. Dundee ... 


Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S. 


H. W.Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
E. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 


1868. Norwich ... 


Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 


T. Baines, H. "W. Bates, Clements R. 




F.R.S. 


Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued'). — geography. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp. 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



L 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S... 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.E.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

E.E.,C.S.I.,F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.E.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.E.S., F.E.G.S., F.E.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.E.S.L.&E. 

Clements E. Markham, C.B., 
F.E.S., Sec. E.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., E.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 
K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 
G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, E.E., 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W, Bates, F. E. Fox, B. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Eye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E, D. Black, E. C. 

Eye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates, 

E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye. 

John Coles, E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. 

Eye. 
Eev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'HaUoran, 

E. G. Eavenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'HaUoran, E. G. 

Eavenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Eaven- 
stein. 

J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Eavenstein. 



Ivi 



KEroRT — 1888. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1833. 
1834. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, YI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge I Prof. Babbacre, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgli | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart | Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 



1838. 
1839. 

1840, 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851. 
1862. 

1853. 
1864. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool. 



1866. Glasgow 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.- Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Hej'wood. 
W. R. Greg.'w. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. B3-rth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tavler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION P (continued). — economic SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



CoL Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M. A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrorj', W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich.... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 
187.S. Bradford ... 
187-1. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.K.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt.Hon. Sir StaEEordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hasran 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S. , 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., P.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Qiffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon, Lord Bramwell, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi, 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Han» 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

W. J. Hancock, C, MoUoy, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milues, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 
Prof. J. Watson. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. ElUott, C. Hughes, 
Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 
gant. 

Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. EUiott, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. 
Price. 



I 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 
Webster. 



Iviii 



BEPOBT — 1888. 



Date and Place 



1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842, 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 



Birmingham 

Glasgow ., 

Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 

Oxford 

Swansea .. 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 



Presidents 



Prof. Willis, F.K.S., and Eobt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



1874. Belfast. 



John Taylor, F.E.S 

Kev, Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M. A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

WQliam Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

C.E., F,R.S. 
George Eeimie, F.R.S 

Et. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M,A., F.R.S. 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.E.S 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 
C.E., F.E.S.E. 



Secretaries 



W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Eussell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Eussell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, E. A. Le Mesurier. 
E. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B, Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Eamsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

JefEery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H, 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F, Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eobert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. 

P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T, 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. 

P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

B. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Pljinouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.K.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P.Inst. 

O.B., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 



Secretaries 



W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jim., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood, 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, B. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal ...]E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

1885. Aberdeen... Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

1886. Birmingham Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L, 
M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 



1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 







LIST OF EVENING 


LECTUEES. 


Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1842. 


Manchester 
Cork 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 


The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 




R. I. Murchison 


The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 


1843. 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 




York 


The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the .SIgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 


1844. 


Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 






The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 



EEPOET 1888. 



ate and Place 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea 



1849. Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull . 




Subject of Discourse 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh K Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faradav, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. 
F.R.S.E. 



Bennett, M.D., 



Dr. Mantell, F.R.S. , 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., 



F.R.S. 



1854, Liverpool.. 



1855. Glasgow 



1856. Cheltenham 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof.J.Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson .., 



1857. Dublin. 

1858. Leeds . 



1859. Aberdeen. 



1860. Oxford. 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 



Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Russia. 
Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 
Propertiesof the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on 
the Decomposition of Water by 
Heat. 
.Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Diduf inejyttis). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography, 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa, 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTDKES. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



Lecturer 



Prof. Williamson, F.R.S., 



James Glaisher, F.R.S... 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. ... 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F R S 
Prof. W.' K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S , 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archseology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarized Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The Cliallenger Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Palseon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1888. 



D&te and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1882. Southamp- 


Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 


Tides. 


ton. 


Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 


Pelagic Life. 


1883, Southport 


Prof. R. S. BaU, F.R.S 


Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 




Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 


Galvani and Animal Electricity. 




F.R.S.E. 




1884. Montreal... 


Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 


Dust. 




Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 


The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 


1885. Aberdeen... 


Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 


The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 




John Murray, F.R.S.E 


The Great Ocean Basins. 


1886. Birmingham 


A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S. 


Soap Bubbles. 




Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 


The Sense of Hearing. 


1887. Manchester 


Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 


The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 




Col. Sir F. de Winton, 


Explorations in Central Africa. 




K.C.M.G. 




1888. Bath 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, f.H.S. ... 


The Electrical Transmission of 




Power. 




Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 


The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 




F.R.S. 


Crust. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



1867. 
1868. 
1869. 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 
Exeter . , 



1870. Liverpool . 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 



Brighton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast.... 
Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 

Plymouth . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 
Bath 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxlev, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L. Treas. R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages, 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky, 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 



Ixiii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COJklMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

BATH MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President — Professor 0. F, Fitzgerald, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Ca-pt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., F.R.S. ; "William Esson, 
F.R.S. ; Dr. Janssen, For.Memb.R.S. ; Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S. ; 
Professor Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., F.R.A.S.; Professor Stokes, 
Pres.R.S. ; Professor H. A. Rowland; Rev. R. Harley, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Robert E. Baynes, M.A. (Recorder) ; R. T. Glazebrook, 
F.R.S. ; Alfred Lodge, M.A. ; W. N. Shaw, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

Prm'(iew*.— Professor W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Glad- 
stone, F.R.S.; Professor T. Sterry Hunt, F.R.S. ; Professor W. 
Odling, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Emerson 
Reynolds, F.R.S. ; Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. J, Russell, 
F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. 
(Recorder) ; R. E. Moyle, B.A. ; Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, M.A. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

" President.— Froiessor W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— W. Whitaker, F.R.S. ; Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A. ; 
Professor A. Gandry ; Professor 0. C. Marsh ; Professor S. Nikitin ; 
Dr. Max von Hantken ; Professor G. Stefanescu ; Professor Baron 
P. von Richthofen ; Professor J. Szabo. 

Secretaries. — Professor G. A. Lebour, M.A. ; W. Topley, F.R.S. (Recorder) ; 
"W. W. Watts, M.A. ; H. B. Woodward, F.G.S. 



SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President— W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., M.A., B.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Bayley Balfour, F.R.S. ; Professor M. Foster, 
Sec.R.S. ; Professor Newton, F.R.S. ; Professor E. A. Schafer, 
F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. ; Rev. Leonard Blomefield, M.A. 



Ixiv BEPOBT — 1888. 

Secretaries.— F. E. Beddard, M.A. ; S. F. Harmer, M.A. ; Professor H. 
Marshall Ward, F.R.S. {Recorder) ; Walter Gardiner, M.A. ; Pro- 
fessor W. D. Halliburton, M.D. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

Preside^it.— Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., K.C.B , K.C.M.G., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— E. Delmar Morgan, F.R.G.S. ; H. W. Bates, F.R.S. ; 
Sir Lambert Playfair, K.C.M.G. ; Lient.-Gen. Richard Strachej, 
R.E., F.R S. ; General J. T. Walker, C.B., R.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J. S. Keltie ; H. J. Mackinder, M.A. ; E. G. Ravenstein 

(Recorder), 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— The Right Hon. Lord Bramwell, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — S. Boarne, F.S.S. ; G. W. Hastings, M.P. ; R. H. 
Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. ; Professor H. Sidgwick, Litt.D. 

Secretaries.— Proiessov F, T. Edgeworth, M.A., F.S.S. ; T. H. Elliott, 
F.S.S. (Recorder); Professor H. S. Foxwell, M.A., F.S.S.; L. L. 
F. R. Price, M.A., F.S.S. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— W. H. Preece, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidevts. — W. Anderson, M.Inj3t.C.E.;BenjarainBaker, M.Inst.C.E.; 
Sir J. N. Douglass, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. ; William Pole, Mus.Doc, 
F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. ; W. Shelford, M.Inst.C.E. ; J. L. Stothert, 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Secretaries.— ConraA W. Cooke; W. Bayley Marshall, M.Inst.C.E.; E. 
Rigg, M.A. (Recorder) ; JP. K. Stothert. } 

SECTION n. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President— Ueni.-General Pitt-Rirers, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S.; J. Evans, D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S. ; Professor A. H. Sayce, M.A. ; Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A. (Recorder) ; J. G, Garson, M.D. ; 

J. Harris Stone, M.A. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1888-89. 



PRESIDENT. 

SIR FREDERICK J. BRAMWELL, Baut., D.C.L., F.R.S., M.IusT.C.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Bight Hon. the Earl of Cor.K axd Orreuy, 
K.P., Lord Lieutenant of Somerset. 

The Most Noble the Marquis op Bath. 

The Riglit Hon. and Right Rev. the Lord Bishop 
OF Bath and Wells, D.D. 

The Right Rev. the Bishop of Clifton. 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Bath. 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Bristol. 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., D.C.L.. F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

The Venerable the Archdeacox of Bath. 



The Rev. Leonard BLc-tfEriELD, M.A., 

F.G.S. 
Professor Michael Foster, M.A., M.D., LL.D., 

Sec.R.S., F.LS., F.C.S. 
W. S. CtORE-Lanqton, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
H. D. Skrine, Esq., J.P., D.L. 
Colonel R. P. Laurie, C.B., M.P. 
E. R. Wodebouse, Esq., M.P. 
Jerom MurCH, Esq., J.P., D.L. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM HENRY FLOWER, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., Pres.Z.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

Director of the Natural History Department of tiie British Museum. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace the Duke of North u.mbeui.and, K.G., 
D.C.L., LL.D., Lord-Lieuteuaut of Northum- 
berland. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Durham, Lord 
Lieutenant of Durham. 

The Right Hon. the E,akl op Ravbnsworth. 

The Right Rey. the Lord Bishoi- ofNewc.vstle, 
D.D. 

The Right Hon. Lord Armstrong, C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. I 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 
ProfeBsor P. P. Bedson, D.So., F.C.S. | Professor J. H. Merivale, M.A. | Howard Pease, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 
TlIOM.lS HODGKI.S', Esq. 



The Very Rev. the Warded of tlie University of 

Durham, D.D. 
The Worshipful the Mayor op Newc.vstle. 
The Worshipful the Mayor Of Gateshead. 
Sir I. Lowthia.v Bell, Bart., P.R.S., F.C.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Charles Mark Palmer, Bart., M.P. (nimi- 

valid by thf Council). 
The Rigtit Hon. John Morlst, LL.D., M.P. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Arney, C«pt. W. de W., C.B., F.R.S. 
Ball, Sir R. S., F.R.S. 
Barlow, W H., E.sq., F.R.S. 
Blanpord, W. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
CnooKES, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Professor G. H., F.R.S. 
DouGL.^ss, Sir J. N., F.R.S. 
G-AMGEE, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Geikir, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. II., F.R.S. 
Henrici, Professor O., F.R.S. 
Jddd, Professor J. W., F.R.S. 
LivEiXG, Professor G. D., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

M'Leod, Professor H., F.R.S. 
Marti.v, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S. 
Pkef.cE, W. H.,Eiq., F.R.S. 
Roberts- AU.STEN-, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
RtjCKER, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Schaper, Profes.sor E. A., F.R.S. 
Schuster, Professor A., F.R.S. 
SiDGWK-K, Professor H., M.A. 
Tuiselto.v-Dver, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
Thorpe, Professor T. E.. F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Sir Douglas G.u.ton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. , F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, O.^forJ. 

SECRETARY. 

Arthur T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., 17 Buckingham Street, London, W-C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents anil 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and -Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir John LUBBICK, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R..S., Pres.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord R.atleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec.R.S., F.R..A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playpair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B.. F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 



Prof. .Stokes, D.C.L., Pres.R..S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, LL.D. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 
Prof. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 



Sir A. C.Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart, F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L.. Sec.R.S. 
Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S. 



P, Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

I Dr. Michael Foster, Sec.R.S. 1 P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

I George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S. | Prof. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. | 
1888. 



AUDITORS. 
Dr. John Evans, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. 

d 



Ixvi 



REPOKT 1888. 



THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR 



Dr. 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



1887-88. RECEIPTS. 

£ *. d. 

Balance of account rendered at Manchester Meeting 1718 10 1 

By Life Compositions 940 

„ New Annual Members 502 

„ Annual Subscriptions 730 

„ Associate Tickets at Manchester Meeting 1985 

„ Ladies' Tickets at Manchester Meeting 493 

„ Sale of Publications 190 5 5 

„ Interest on Exchequer Bills 58 4 8 

„ Dividends on Consols 295 8 2 

„ Pi,ent received from London Mathematical Society, year ending 

September 29, 1887 .\ 12 15 

„ Unexpended balance of grant made to ' Sliding Scale ' 

Committee 7 10 10 

„ Sale of Exchequer Bills 1509 2 4 



£8441 16 6 



Investment Account: September, 1887, to Septemhrr, 1888. 



Consols . 
Exchequer Bills 
Cash 

Excess of receipts 
over expenditure 
Per contra 



£ .5. 

8500 
2000 
1718 10 



534 G 
86 19 10 
12,83!) 10 5 



Profit on change : 



To Contra . 



£ 


s. 


d. 





., 


4 


77 


17 


6 


86 19 10 1 



New Consols . 
Exchequer Bills 
India 3 per cent. 
Cash 



£ 

8500 

500 

3600 



239 10 







5 



12,839 10 5 



BALANCE SHEET, 1887-88. 



Ixvii 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



(not including receipts at the Bath Meeting). 



Cr. 



1887-88. 



PAYMENTS. 



To Expenses of Manchester Meeting, including Printing, Ad- 
vertising, and incidental expenses 31-t 

Salaries, one year (1887-88) 538 

Kent of Oflice at Albemarle Street (1887-88) 117 

Spottiswoode & Co. printing account to July, 1887 1028 

„ „ to February, 1888 1170 

Purchase of India 3 per Cent. Stock 3522 



18 
15 

3 
6 
o 



GR-OJTS. 



Flora of Ealiamas 100 

Biological Station at Grautoa 60 

Flora of China 75 

Carboniferous Flora of Lancashire and West Yorkshire .... 2.i 

Propcrt ies of Solutions 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 25 

Influence of Silicon on steel 20 

Action of Light on H yJraoicls 20 

Marine Laboratory, I'l ymoutli 100 

Naples Zoological Station 100 

Development of Teleostei 15 

Precibus Metals in Circulation 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

Prehistoric Race in Greek Islands 20 

PaliEontoloprical Sociery 60 

Zoology and Botany of West Indies 100 

Development of Fishes — St. Andrews SO 

Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth 50 

Lymphatic System 25 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

North-Western Tribes of Canada 100 

.Silent Discharge of Electricity 9 11 10 

Manure Gravefs of Wexford 10 

Sea Beach near Bridlington 2U 

Effects of Occupations on Physical Development 25 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Methods of Teaching Chemistry 10 

Uniform Nomenclature in Mechanics 10 

Geological Record 50 

Migration of Birds 30 

Depths of Frozen Soil in Polar Regions 5 

Circulation of Underground Waters 5 

.Standards of Light 79 

Electrical Standards 2 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Electrolysis 30 



— 1511 5 

Ey Balance at Bank of England, "Western Branch 239 10 5 



£8441 16 6 



Alex. W. Williamson, General Treasurer. 



John Evans. 

J. H. Gladstone. \Audiiorx. 

W. H. Perkin. J 



a. 



d2 



Ixviii 



2EP0RT — 1888. 
Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, 

1832, 
1833, 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837, 
1838, 
1839, 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 
1851, 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 



Sept. 27 . 
June 19 . 
June 25 . 
Sept. 8 . 
Aug. 10 . 
Aug. 22 . 
Sept. 11 . 
Aug. 10 . 
Aug. 26 . 
Sept. 17 . 
July 20 . 
June 23 . 
Aug. 17 . 
Sept. 26 . 
June 19 , 
Sept. 10 , 
June 23 , 
Aug. 9 . 
Sept, 12 . 
July 21 , 
July 2 , 
Sept. 1 ■ , 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 12 
Aug. 6 
Aug:. 26 



1858, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
187.5, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 



Sept. 22 . 
Sept. 14 . 
June 27 . 
Sept. 4 . 
Oct. 1 . 
Aug. 26 . 
Sept. 13 . 
Sept. 6 . 
Aug. 22 . 
Sept. 4 . 
Aug. 19 . 
Aug. 18 . 
Sept. 14 . 
Aug. 2 . 
Aug. 14 . 
Sept. 17 . 
Aug. 19 . 
Aug. 25 . 
Sept. 6 . 
Aug. 15 . 
Aug. 14 . 
Aug. 20 . 
Aug. 25 . 
Aug. 31 . 
Aug. 23 , 
Sept. 19 . 
Aug. 27 , 
Sept. 9 , 
Sept. 1 
Aug. 31 . 
Sent. 5 , 



Where held 



Presidents 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull , 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham , 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Pl3'mouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton ... 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.K.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Re V.Humphrey Llovd, D.D, 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A, 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S, 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof .G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S, 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Caylev, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F R.S. ... 
SirLyonPlayfair,K.C.B.,F.R.S 
Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L.,F.R.S 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 



Old Life 
Members 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 



Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Ixix 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid on 
Account of 
Grants for Scien- 
tific Purposes 


Year 


Old Annual 
Members 


New Annua 
Members 


Ass 
ciat 


es I'^'ii'=5 


Foreig 


•ners Total 


• ■• 


... 




> • • • • 




353 








1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 


... 


... 


, , 












... 


... 


,, 


■ • • 




900 






... 


... 


,, 


... 




1298 




£20 





... 


... 


, , 










167 





... 


... 


^, 


... 




1350 




435 





... 


... 


,, 






1840 




922 12 


6 


... 


... 


, , 


1106* 




2400 




932 2 


2 


... 


... 


,, 


... 


34 


1438 




1595 11 





46 
75 
71 
45 
94 
65 
197 


317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 


33 

"9 
407 
270 
495 


60* 
t 331* 

160 
t 200 
172 
196 
203 


4C 

28 

35 
36 
53 


1353 

891 

1315 

1079 

857 

1320 




1546 16 

1235 10 

1449 17 

1565 10 

981 12 

831 9 

685 16 

208 5 


4 
11 

8 
2 

8 
9 

4 
















64 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 


8 


1848 


, 93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


903 


159 19 


6 


1849 


■ 128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


10S5 


345 18 





1850 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 


7 


1851 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 


7 


1852 


56 


57 


367 


230 


6 


876 


903 


205 





1853 


' 121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


.380 19 


7 


1854 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 


4 


1855 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 


9 


1856 


156 


120 


900 


509 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 


4 


1857 


111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 


2 


1858 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2504 


2782 


684 11 


1 


1859 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1089 


1004 


766 19 


6 


1860 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 


10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1101 


1089 


1293 16 


6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 


loot 


25 


3335 


3640 


1008 3 


10 


1863 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2905 


1289 15 


8 


1864 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 


10 


1865 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2409 


1750 13 


4 


1866 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2013 


1739 4 





1867 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45 


t 2004 


2042 


1940 





1868 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 





1869 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 





1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2403 


2575 


1472 2 


6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 





1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 





1873 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 





1874 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 





1875 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 


2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 


7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 


6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 


11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 


7 


1880 


313 


176 


1230 


614 


24 


2557 


2089 


476 3 


1 


1881 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1280 


1126 1 


11 


1882 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 


3 


1883 


317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60 


H.§ 1777 


1538 


1173 4 





1884 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 





1885 


428 


179 


10G7 


29 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 


6 


1886 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 





1887 


399 


100 


639 


509 


35 


1984 


2107 


1611 


5 


1888 


Including L 


idies. § 


Fellow 


s of the Ameri 


:an Asso 


elation were adr 


nitted as Trnn 


Mpmliora fnr 


fhio 


UTaaHr^r, 



Ixx 



■REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the year 1887-88, ])rasented to the General 
Committee at Bath, on Wednesday, September 5, 1888. 

The Council liave received reports during the past year from the 
General Ti-easurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the Meeting at Manchester the following have been elected 
Corresponding Members of the Association : — 

Cleveland Abbe. 

Professor de Bary. 

Professor Bernthsen. 

His Excellency E. Bonghi. 

Professor Lewis Boss. 

Professor J. W. Bruhl. 

Professor G. Capellini. 

H. Caro. 

Professor J. B. Carnoy. 

F. W. Clarke. 

Professor E. Fittig. 

Dr. Anton Fritsch. 

Professor W. His. 

Fr. von Hefner-Alteneck. 

Professor C. Julin. 

Professor Krause. 

Professor A. Ladenburg. 

Professor J. W. Langlej-. 

Professor Count Solms von Laubach. 

Professor H. Le Chatelier. 

Professor A. Lieben. 

Professor G. Lippmann. 

Dr. Georg Lunge. 

Dr. Henry C. McCook. 

Dr. C. A. Martius. 

Professor D. Meudelccff. 

The Council have nominated tlie Venerable Archdeacon Browne a 
Vice-Pi-esident of the meeting at Bath. 

Invitations for the year 1890 will be presented from Leeds and Cardiff, 
and from Edinburgh for the year 1891. 

The following resolution was referred by the General Committee to 
the Council for consideration, and action if desirable : — 

' That the Council be requested to take such action as they may think 
most expedient in order to bring before the Signal Office of the United 
States a statement of the high value which British metcoi'ologists attach 
to the manuscript bibliography prepared by the Signal Office.' 

The Council, after consideration of the question, are of opinion that it 
is inexpedient to take action in the matter. 

The Council, having considered a motion of Mr. TV. T. Thiselton- 
Dyer calling attention to the present mode of appointing Committees, 



Professor N. Menschutkin. 

Professor Lothar Mej'er. 

Dr. Charles Sedgwick Minot. 

E. S. Morse. 

Professor Xoelting. 

Dr. Pauli. 

I'rofessor W. Prc3'er. 

N. Pringsheim. 

Professor G. Quincke. 

C. V. Eilev. 

M. Ic Jlarrjuis de Saporta. 

Ernest Solvay. 

Dr. Alfred Springer. 

Dr. T. M. Treub. 

Professor John Vilanova. 

I'rofessor H. F. "Weber. 

Professor L. 'A'eber. 

Professor jiugust Weismann. 

Professor E. Wiedersheim. 

I'rofessor G Wiedemann. 

Professor J. Wislicenus. 

Dr. Otto Witt. 

Dr. Ludwig H. Wolf. 

Professor C. A. Young. 

Professor F. Zirkel. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxi 

witli a view to securing more responsible action, are of opinion that 
the following rule of the Association, ' In case of appointment of 
Committees for special objects of science, it is expedient that all Members 
of the Committee should be named, and one of them appointed to act as 
Secretary, for insuring attention to business,' should be amended as follows : 

' In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of science 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, 
and one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified 
personally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman 
to have the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any 
has been made) and securing the presentation of the report in due time ; 
and, further, it is expedient that one of the Members should bo appointed 
to act as Secretary for insuring attention to business. 

' That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve 
on a Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working. 

' That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommen- 
dation of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the 
several Sections, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the 
several Committees appointed on the recommendation of their respective 
Sections had presented their reports. 

' That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee 
for a special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, the number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, 
but that the Members to serve on such Committee be nominated and 
selected by the Sectional Committee at a subsequent meeting.' 

The Council have received the following report from a Committee of 
Council appointed to consider the question of grants to marine biological 
stations in this country, together with a letter from Professor E. Ray 
Lankester, Secretary of the Marine Biological Association, suggesting 
that the British Association should complete its donations to the funds of 
that Association, so as to make up the sum given to the amount of 5001., 
thereby securing certain rights. 

' The British Association has up to the present time granted altogether 
300Z. to the Marine Biological Association, and by a further grant of 200Z. 
the British Association would be entitled to nominate a representative on 
the Council of the Marine Biological Association. The Committee are of 
opinion that the Council should recommend the General Committee to 
grant the 200Z., and appoint a member to represent them on the Council 
of the Marine Biological Association. 

' With reference to the grants to Marine Biological Stations generally, 
the Committee are of opinion that in all these cases it is desirable that 
grants in future should be made to individuals for specific researches rather 
than for the general maintenance of institutions ; and with reference to 
the Scottish Stations they would further call the attention of the Council 
to the fact that the Scotch Fishery Board has a parliamentary grant of 
2,000L per annum for scientific investigations, the whole of which, it 
appears from the appropriation accounts, is not at present expended.' 

The Council, having received the above Report, have forwarded it, 
together with the letter of Professor Lankestei', to the Committee of 
Section D. 

The report of the Corresponding Societies Committee is herewith, 
submitted to the General Committee. 



Ixxii 



EEroRT — 1888. 



The Correspondini^ Societies Committee consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. J. 
Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Seci-etary), Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. Topley, Mr. 
H. G. Pordham, and Mr. William White, with the addition of Professor 
T. G. Bonney, is hereby nominated for reappointment by the General 
Committee. 

The Council hereby nominate Dr. John Evans, Treasurer R.S.,, 
Chairman, Mr. W. Whitaker, F.R.S., Vice-Chairman, and Professor R. 
Meldola, F.R.S., Secretary to the Conference of Delegates of Correspond- 
ing Societies to be held during the Bath meeting. 

In accordance with the regulations the five retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 



Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Dewar, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B. 



Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distin- 
guished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Abney, Capt. W. de W., C.B., F.R.S. 

Ball, SirR. S., F.R.S. 

Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Blanford, W. T., Esq., F.R.S. 

Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Prof. G. H., F.R.S. 

Douglass, Sir James, F.R.S. 

*Gamgee, Dr. A., F.R.S. 

*Geikie, Dr. A., F.R.S. 

Godwin- Austen, Lieut.-Col. H. H., F.R.S. 

Henrici, Prof. O., F.R.S. 

Judd, Prof. J. W., F.R.S. 

*LiveiDg, Prof., F.R.S. 



Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 

M'Leod, Prof. H., F.R.S. 

Ommannev, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S, 

*Preece, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Roberts-Austen, Prof. W. C, F.R.S. 

*Rucker, Prof., F.R.S. 

Schuster, Prof., F.R.S. 

Sidgwick, Prof. H., M.A. 

Schiifer, Prof , F.R.S. 

Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G.„ 

F.R.S. 
Thorpe, Prof. T. E., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



Ixxiii 



Committees appointed by the Gteneeal Committee at the 
Bath Meeting in September 1888. 

1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Possibility of Calculating 
Tables of certain Mathematical 
Functions, and, if necessary, of 
taking steps to carry out the 
calculations, and to publish the 
results in an accessible form. 

Co-operating with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in 
making Meteorological Observa- 
tions on Ben Nevis. 

Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Considering the subject of Elec- 
trolysis in its Physical and 
Chemical Bearings. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Lord Kayleigh. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Lodge. 

Sir William Thomson, Professor Cay- 
ley, Professor B. Price, and Messrs. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, A. G. Greenhill, 
and W. M. Hicks. 

Chairman. — Hon. R. Abercromby. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Messrs. Milne-Home, John Murray, 
and Buchan, and Lord McLaren. 

Chairman. — Professor Carey Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayr- 
ton, Professor J. Perry, Professor 
W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 
O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, 
Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Pro- 
fessor Everett, Professor Schuster, 
Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. 
F. Fitzgerald, Professor Chrystal, 
Mr. H. Tomlinson, Professor W. 
Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, 
Mr. W. N. Shaw, Mr. J. T. Bottom- 
ley, and Mr. T. C. Fitzpatrick. 

Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 

Secretaries. — Professors Armstrong 
and O. J. Lodge. 

Professors Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Poynting, Crum Brown, 
Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hart- 
ley, S. P. Thompson, M'Leod, 
Roberts-Austen, Riicker, Reinold, 
Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, 
Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, 
Hopkinson, and Fleming', and 
Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, 
W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. 
Bottomley, R. T. Glazebrook, J. 
Brown, E. J. Love, and John M. 
Thomson. 



Grants 



£ 
10 



50 



100 



20 



Ixxiv 



EEPOKT 1888. 

1. licceiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Considering the best Methods of 
Kecording the Direct Intensity 
of Solar Kadiation. 



Inviting Designs for a good Diffe- 
rential Gravity Meter in sm3(?r- 
session of the Pendulum, where- 
by satisfactory results may be 
obtained at each station of 
observation in a few hours 
instead of the many days over 
which it is necessary to extend 
pendulum observations. 

Seasonal Variations in the Tem- 
peratures of Lakes, Rivers, and 
Estuaries in Various Parts of 
the United Kingdom in Co- 
operation with the Local Socie- 
ties represented on the Associa- 
tion. 



Considering the Desirability of 
introducing a Uniform Nomen- 
clature for the Fundamental 
Units of Mechanics and of co- 
operating with other bodies 
engaged in similar work. 



The Action of Light on the Hy- 
dracids of the Halogens in 
presence of Oxygen. 



The Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricit}- on Oxygen 
and other gases. 



Inquiring into and reporting on 
the present Methods adopted 
for teaching Chemistry. 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Chairman. — Professor Stokes. 

Secretartj. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 

Professor Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 
Abney, and Mr. Whipple. 

Chairman. — General J. T. Walker. 

Secretary. — Professor Poynting. 

Sir William Thomson, Sir J. H. 
Lefroy, General R. Strachey, Pro- 
fessors A. S. Herschel, G. Chrystal, 
C. Niven, and A. Schuster, and Mr. 
C. V. Boys. 



Chairman. — Mr. John Murray. 

Secretary.— Dv. H. E. Mill. 

Professor Chrystal, Dr. A. Buchan, 
Kev. C. J. Steward, the Hon, R. 
Abercromby, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, 
Mr. David Cunningham, Mr. Isaac 
Roberts, Professor Fitzgerald, Mr. 
Sorby, and Mr. Willis Bund. 

Chairman. — Sir K. S. Ball. 

Secretary. — Sir. Culverwell. 

Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professors 
Everett, Fitzgerald, Hicks, Carey 
Foster, O. J. Lodge, Poynting, 
MacGregor, Gencse, W. G. Adams, 
and Lamb, and Messrs. Baynes, 
A. Lodge, Fleming, W. N. Shaw, 
Glazebrook, Hayward, Lant Car- 
penter, Greenhill, Muir, G. 
Griffith, and J. Larmor. 

Chairman. — Dr. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney, and Professors Noel 
Hartley and W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor Ramsay and Mr. J. T. 
Ciindall. 

Chairman. — Dr. AV. J. Russell. 

Secretary. — Professor W. R. Dunstan. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professor H. E. 
Armstrong, Professor Meldola, Pro- 
fessor M'Leod, Dr. J. H. Glad- 
stone, Mr. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 
Mr. M. M. Pattison Jluir, Professor 
Smithells, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, 
and Mr. G. Stallard. 



10 



10 



10 



10 



10 



10 



COMMITTEES! ArPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxv 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Recording the Position, Height 
above the sea, Lithological Cha- 
racters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and tak- 
ing measures for their preserva- 
tion. 

The Volcanic Phenomena of 
Japan. 



The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius and its neighbourhood. 



Reporting on the Fossil Phyllo- 
poda of the Palasozoic Rocks. 



Exploring the Higher Eocene Beds 
of the Isle of Wight. 



Reporting on the Fossil Plants of 
the Tertiary and Secondary Beds 
of the United Kingdom. 



Carrpng 
Record.' 



on the ' Geological 



To improve and experiment with 
a Deep-sea Tow-net for opening 
and closing under water. 

The Natural History of the 
Friendly Islands, or other 
.groups in the Pacific, visited by 
"h.M.S. ' Egeria.' 

Continuing the Preparation of a 
Report on our present Know- 
ledge of the Flora of China. 



The Physiology of the Lymphatic 
System. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairina/n. — Professor J. Prestwich, 
Secretary. — Dr. H. W. Crosskey. 
Professors W. Boyd Dawkins.T. McK. 
Hughes, and T. G. Bonney and 
Messrs. C. E. De Ranee, D. Mackin- 
tosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. 
H. Tiddeman. 



Chairman. — ]\Ir. R. Etheridge. 
Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. 
Mr. T. Gray. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. Bauerman. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. J. Johnston- Lavis. 
Messrs. F. W. Rudler and J. J. H. 
Teall. 

Chairman. — Mr. R. Etheridge. 
Secretary. — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. —Mr. J. S. Gardner. 

Mr. Clement Reid. 

Chairman.— T)r. W. T. Blanford. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. S. Gardner. 
Professor J. W. Judd, Mr. W. Car- 
ruthers, and Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Topley. 

Dr. G. J. Hinde and Messrs. R. B. 
Newton, J. J. H. Teall, F. W. Rud- 
ler, and W. Whitaker. 

Clia irman. — Professor Schiif er. 
Sccretary.—MT. W. E. Hoyle. 
Professor W. A. Herdman. 

Chairman. — Professor Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. Harmer. 
Mr. W. T. Thiselton-Dyer and 
Professor M. Foster. 

Chairman. — Mr. John Ball. 
Secretary. — Mr. Thiselton-Dyer. 
Mr. Carruthers, Professor Oliver, 
and Mr. Forbes. 

Chairman. — Professor Schiifer. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. D. Halliburton. 
Professor M. Foster and Professor 
E. Ray Lankester. 




10 



25 



20 



20 



15 



15 



80 



10 



100 



25 



25 



Ixxvi 



EEPOUT — 1888. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Arranging for the Occupation of a 
Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples. 



Keporting on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India 
Islands, and taking steps to in- 
vestigate ascertained deficien- 
cies in the Fauna and Flora. 

Geography and Geology of the 
Atlas ranges in the Empire of 
Morocco, by Mr. Joseph Thom- 
son. 



Inquiring and reporting as to the 
Statistical Data available for 
determining the Amount of the 
Precious Metals in use as Money 
in the principal countries of the 
world, the chief forms in which 
the money is employed, and 
the amount annually used in 
the arts. 

The best method of ascertaining 
and measuring Variations in the 
Value of the Monetary Standard. 



The Action of Waves and Currents 
on the Beds and Foreshores of 
Estuaries by means of Working 
Models. 



To report on the Development of 
Graphic Methods in Mechanical 
Science. 



Editing a new Edition of ' Anthro- 
pological Notes and Queries.' 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. Percy Sladen. 

Professor B. Ray Lankester, Profes- 
sor Cossar Ewart, Professor M. 
Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, and Pro- 
fessor A. M. Marshall. 

Chairman. — Professor Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. D. Morris. 

Mr. Carruthers, Dr. Sclater, Mr. 

Thiselton-Dyer, Dr. Sharp, Mr. F. 

Du Cane Godman, and Professor 

Newton. 

Chairman. — General J. T. Walker. 
Secretary.— Mi. H. W. Bates. 
General R. Strachey, Mr. W. T. 

Thiselton-Dyer, and Professor W. 

Boyd Dawkins. 

Chairman. — Mr. Robert Giffen. 

Secretary.— Vioi. F. Y. Edgeworth. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Professor H. S. Fox- 
well, Professor Alfred Marshall, 
Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. 
Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave, and Professor H. Sidgwick. 



Cluiirman. — Mr. Robert Giffen. 

Secretary.— Fioi. F. Y. Edgeworth. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Professor H. S. Fox- 
well, Professor Alfred Marshall, 
Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. 
Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave, and Professor H. Sidgwick. 

Chairman.— Sir J. N. Douglass. 

Secretary. — Professor W. C. Unwin. 

Professor Osborne Reynolds and 
Messrs. W. Topley, E. Leader Wil- 
liams, W. Slielford, G. F. Deacon, 
A. R. Hunt, and W. H. Wheeler. 

Chairman.— Mt. W. H. Preece. 
Secretary. — Professor H. S. Hele 

Shaw. 
Messrs. B. Baker, W. Anderson, and 

G. Kapp and Professors J. Perry 

and R. H. Smith. 

Chairman.— General Pitt-Rivers. 
Secretary.— Tir. Garson. 
Dr. Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. 
Francis Galton, Dr. E. B. Tylor. 



25 



50 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxvii 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



The Habits and Customs and Phy- 
sical Characteristics of the No- 
mad Tribes of Asia Minor, and 
to excavate on sites of ancient 
occupation. 

The Physical Characters, Lan- 
guages, and Industrial and So- 
cial Condition of the North- 
western Tribes of the Dominion 
of Canada. 

The Effects of different Occupa- 
tions and Employments on the 
Physical Development of the 
Human Body. 



Calculating the Anthropological 
Measurements taken at Bath 



Carrying on the work of the 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee. 



Cliairman. — Dr. Garson. 
Secretary. — Mr. Bent. 
Mr. Pengelly, Jlr. Eudler, Mr. 
Bloxam, Mr. J. Stuart Glennie. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. W. Bloxam. 

Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Daw- 
son, General Sir H. Lefroy, Mr. 
E. G. Haliburton. 

Chairman. — Sir Rawson Rawson. 
Secretary. — Mr. G. W. Bloxam. 
General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. J. Beddoe, 

Dr. H. Muirhead, Mr. C. Roberts, 

Dr. G. W. Hambleton, Mr. F. W. 

Eudler, Mr. Horace Darwin, Dr. 

J. G. Garson, and Dr. A. M. 

Paterson. 

Chairman. — General Pitt-Rivers. 
Secretary. — Dr. Garson. 
Mr. Bloxam. 

Chairman. — Dr. John Evans. 

Secretary. — Professor E. Meldola. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Professor A. W. 
Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Raw- 
son Eawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt- 
Eivers, Mr. W. Topley, Mr. H. G. 
Fordham, Mr. William White, and 
Professor Bonney. 



2. "Not receiving Grants of Mone%j. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To consider the proposals of M. Tondini 
de Quarenghi relative to the Unifica- 
tion of Time, and the adoption of a 
Universal Prime Meridian, which have 
been brought before the Committee by 
a letter from the Academy of Sciences 
of Bologna. 

Considering the advisability and possi- 
1 bility of establishing in other parts 

of the country Observations upon the 
' Prevalence of Earth Tremors similar 
I to those now being made in Durham 

in connection with coal-mine explo- 

BJons. 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



30 



150 



20 



20 



Chairman. — Mr. J. Glaisher. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Glaisher. 
Mr. Christie (Astronomer Royal), Sir E. 
S. Ball, and Dr. G. B. Longstaff. 



Chairman.— 'Mr. G. J. Sjinons. 

Secretary. — Professor Lebour. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. E. A. Cowper, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor 
Ewing, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, Dr. John Evans, Professor Prest- 
wich. Professor Hull, Professor Mel- 
dola, Professor Judd, Mr. M. Walton 
Brown, and Mr. J. Glaisher. 



Ixxviii 



KEPOBT — 1888. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money— continned. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Molecular Phenomena connected 
with the Magnetisation of Iron. 

The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Promotion of Tidal Observations in 
Canada. 



Calculating certain tables in the Theory 
of Numbers connected with the Divi- 
sors of a Number. 



The Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Obser- 
vation. 

Preparing instructions for the practical 
Work of Tidal Observation. 



Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



Conferring with a Committee of the 
American Association v,'ith a view of 
forming a Uniform System of Piccord- 
ing the Results of Water Analysis. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 
Secretary. — Professor Barrett. 
Mr. Trouton. 

Chairman. — Mr. John Murray. 

Secretary. — Mr. John IMurray. 

Professor Schuster, Sir AVilliam Thom- 
son, the Abbe Eenard, Mr. A. Buchan, 
the Hon. R. Abercromby, and Dr. M. 
Grabham. 

Chairman. — Professor Johnson. 
Secretary. — Professor Johnson. 
Professors Macgregor, J. B. Cherriman, 

and H. J. Bovey and Mr. C. Carp- 

mael. 

Chairman. — Professor Cayley. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher. 
Sir W. Thomson and Mr. James 
Glaisher. 



Chairmen.- 
Secretary.- 



-Professor J. C. Adams. 
-Professor G. H. Darwin. 



Chairman. — Professor Darwin. 
Secretary. — Professor Darwin. 
Sir W. Thomson and Major Baird. 

Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Sir W. Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, Pro- 
fessors G. H. Darwin, G. Chrystal, and 
S. J. Perry, Blr. C. H. Carpmael, Pro- 
fessor Schuster, Mr. G. M. Whipple, 
Captain Creak, the Astronomer Royal, 
Mr. William Ellis, and Sir. W. Lant 
Carpenter. 

Chairman.— Vi-o[cs?.or Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor Everett. 

Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. 
J. Symons, Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. 
Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Pro- 
fessor A. S. Herschel, Professsor G. A. 
Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, and Mr. A. 
Strahan. 

Chairman. — Professor Dewar. 
Secretary.— YYoiessox P. F. Frankland. 
Professor Odling and Mr. Crookes. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxix 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



To consider the best !Method of Estab- 
lishing an International Standard for 
the Analysis of Iron and Steel. 

Preparing a new series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectraof the Elements. 



Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds. 



The Influence of Silicon on the Proper- 
ties of Steel. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives . 



Certain Physical Constants of Solution, 
especially the Expansion of Saline 
Solutions. 

Reporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



The Properties of Solutions 



The Circulation of the Underground 
Waters in the Permeable Formations 
of England, and the Quality and 
Quantity of the Waters supplied to 
various Towns and Districts from 
these Formations. 



Reporting upon the 
of Wexford. 



Manure Gravels ' 



An Ancient Sea-beach near Bridlington. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts-Austen. 
Professor Reinold. 

Chairvian. — Professor Roberts-Austen. 
Secretary. — Mr. T. Turner. 
Mr. J. W. Langley. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretarij. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, Liveing, 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott 

Gibbs and Captain Abney. 

Cliairman. — General Festing. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 
Captain Abney and Professor W. N. 
Hartley. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Mr. Tliomas Turner. 
Professor Roberts-Austen. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.— YioiessQT H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ramsay. 
Secretary.— ?xotessoT W. L. Goodwin. 
Professors Marshall and Tilden. 

Chairma7i.—?ioiQssox W. A. Tilden, 
Secretary.— Dv. ^V. W. J. Nicol. 
Professors M'Leod, Pickering, Ramsay, 
and Young and Dr. A. R. Leeds. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.— Tit. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor Ramsay. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. E. De Ranee. 

Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir D. Galton, Pro- 
fessor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. J. 
Glaisher, E. 13. Marten, G. H. Mor- 
ton, J. Parker, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, 
I. Roberts, C. Fox-Strangways, T. S. 
Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, 
Tyld en- Wright, E. Wethered, and W. 
Whitaker. 

Clmirman. — Mr. R. Etheridge. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Bell. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Jfr. J. W. Davis. 
Secretary.— Ilx. G. W. Lamplugh. 
Mr. W. Cash, Dr. H. Hicks, Mr. Clement 
Reid, Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. T. 
■ Boynton. 



Ixxr 



REPORT — 1888. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money. — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of 
England and Wale?, and the Influence 
of the Artificial Abstraction of 
Shingle or other material in that 
action. 



The Flora of the Carboniferous Eocks 
of Lancashire and West Yorkshire. 

The Development of the Oviduct and 
connected Structures in certain Fresh- 
water Teleostei. 



Taking steps for the Establishment 
of a Botanical Station at Peradeniya, 
Ceylon. 



To make a Digest of the Observations 
on Migrations of P>irds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels, which have been 
carried on during the past nine years 
by the Migrations Committee of the 
British Association (with the consent 
of the Masters and Elder Brethren 
of the Trinity House, and the Com- 
missioners of" Northern Lights), and 
to report upon the same at New- 
castle. 

Collecting Information as to the Dis- 
appearance of Native Plants from 
their Local Habitats. 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools. 



Chmrman.—yir. K. B. Grantham. 
Secretaries.— 'iileasTS. C. E. De Ranee and 

W. Topley. 
Messrs. J. B. Redman, W. Whitaker, and 

J.W.Woodall, Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Clarke, 

Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, Sir J. N. 

Douglass, Capt. Sir G. Nares, Capt. 

J. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, 

Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. E. 

Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. 

Vernon Harcourt. 

ClMlrman.—Vxoiessor W. C. Williamson. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Cash. 

Chairman. — Professor Lankester. 
Secretary.— ^Ir. G. H. Fowler. 
Professor Milnes Marshall and Mr. Sedg- 
wick. 

Chairman. — Professor M. Foster. 

Secretary. — Professor F. O. Bower. 

Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Mr. Carruthers, and Professor 
Hartog. 

Chairman. — Professor Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Mr. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barrington, 
llr. W. E. Clarke, and Rev. E. P. 

Knubley. 



Chairman.— ^iT. A. W. Wills. 
Secretary. — Professor W. Uillhouse. 
Mr. E. W. Badger. 

Chairman.— T)T. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary.— ?roiessor Armstrong. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Miss Becker, Sir J. Lub- 
bock, Dr. Crosskey, Sir R. Temple, Sir 
H. E. Roscoe, Mr. J. Heywood, and 
Professor N. Story Maskelyne. 



Other Resolutions adopted by the General Committee. 

That it is desirable that the Association should become a Governor of the Marine 
Biological Association, and that a grant of 200/. be made to the Marine Biological 
Association with that view. 



KESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENEBAL COMMITTEE. Ixxii 

That the sum of 100?. be placed at the disposal of the Baths Committee of the 
Bath Corporation to assist in tlie prosecution of further researches in the Roman 
Baths. 

That Mr. R. E. Baynes and Mr. J. Larmor be requested to draw up a Report on 
the present state of our knowledge in Thermodynamics, specially with regard to the 
second law. ^r ^ o 

That Mr W. N. Shaw be requested to continue his Report on the present state of 
our knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 

That Mr. P. T. Main be requested to continue his Report on our experimental 
knowledge of the Properties of Matter with respect to Volume, Pressure, Tempera- 
ture, and Specific Heat. ^ 

That Mr. Glazebrook be requested to continue his Report on Optics. 

Theorfe*^ Professor J. J. Thomson be requested to continue his Report on Electrical 

Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual Report 

of the Association. 

Dr. J. Janssen's paper, ' Sur I'application de I'analyse spectrale a la mecaniqu. 
moleculaire et sur les spectres de I'oxygene.' ^<^^^h^i 

Mr. Stephen Bourne's paper, ' The Use of Index-numbers.' 
Thew'' ^' ^' ^' ^' ■^"^^'^ ^^^^^' ' ^^^ delation between Sliding Scales and Economic 

Professor H. S. Hele Shaw and Mr. E. Shaw's paper on 'The Friction of Metal 
t/jils, with the necessary illustrations. 

The Report of the Conference on Lightning Conductors, as far as is desirable. 

Mr. Dalton s paper giving a List of British Mineral Waters. 

The Bibliography of the Lesser Antilles, as an appendix to the Report of the 
Committee on the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands. 

Besolutions referred to the^ Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be recommended to consider what measures, if any, it might be 
desirable to take with respect to the apparatus from time to time purchased by funds 
voted by the Association. •' 

BpfrtlVJ! ^''Tv^ °V^^ Association be requested to urge upon the Corporation of 

fhiJt iu^t^^^ °^^^{i.°? ^^'" ^ ^"'■'^"^ P°^'^°'^ °^ *^^ ^"iq^e Koman Baths at 
].Ia k ^' V. ,!> u "'^^"^ *° *''®''" permanent preservation ; and that the part already 
laid bare should be protected from the weather. F«"'' «*i'^-auy 

nf ItfKr''if*^°'"'°'^ ^^ requested to memorialise her Majesty's Government in favour 
nnftpf^ !^^ ^ permanent Census Sub-Department, and taking the census of the 
United Kingdom every five years. 



1888. 



Ixxxii KEPORT — 1888. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Bath Meeting, in 
September, 1888. The Names of the Members entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are 
prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

*Abercromby, Hon. R. — Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

♦Foster, Professor G. Carey. — Electrical Standards 100 

♦Fitzgerald, Professor.— Electrolysis 20 

*Stokes, Professor.— Solar Radiation 10 

*"Walker, GeneralJ. T.— Differential Gravity Meter 10 

*Ball, Sir R. S. — Uniform Nomenclature iu Mechanics 10 

Rayleigh, Lord. — Calculating Tables of certain Matbematical 

Functions 10 

*Mnrray, Mr. J. — Seasonal Variations in the Temperature of 

Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries 30 

Chemistry. 

*McLeod, Professor H. — The Influence of the Silent Discharge 

of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 10 

♦Russell, Dr. W. J.— Methods of Teaching Chemistry 10 

♦Russell, Dr. W. J.— Oxidation of Hydracids in Sunlight ... 10 

Geology. 

*EVans, Dr. J. — Geological Record 80 

*Prestwich, Professor J. — Erratic Blocks 10 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 

*Bauerman, Mr. H. — Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Fossil Phyllopoda of the Paleozoic 

Rocks 20 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Higher Eocene Beds of the Isle of 

Wight 15 

*Blanford, Dr. W. T.— Fossil Plants of the Tertiary and 

Secondary Beds of the United Kingdom 15 

Biology. 

*Flower, Professor. — Zoology and Botany of the West India 

Islands 100 

*Ball, Mr. John.— Flora of China 25 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L.— Naples Zoological Station 100 

Carried forward ^680 

* Eeappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixxxiii 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward. 680 

*Scliafer, Professor. — Physiology of the Lymphatic System... 25 
*Schafer, Professor. — To Improve and Experiment with a 

Deep Sea Tow- Net, for opening and closing under water 10 
Newton, Professor. — Natural History of the Friendly 

Islands TOO 

Geography. 

Walker, General J. T. — Geography and Geology of the Atlas 

Ranges 100 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*GifEen, Mr. R. — Precious Metals in Circulation 20 

*GiffeD, Mr. R. — Variations in the Value of the Monetary 

Standard 10 

Mechanical Science. 

*Douglass, Sir J. W. — Investigation of Estuaries by Means 

ofModels 100 

Preece, Mr. W. H. — Development of Graphic Methods in 

Mechanical Science 25 

Anthropology. 

*Rawson, Sir R. — Effect of Occupations on Physical Develop- 
ment 20 

*Tylor, Dr. E. B.— North -Western Tribes of Canada 150 

*Pitt- Rivers, General. — Editing a New Edition of Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries 50 

Pitt- Rivers, General. — Calculating the Anthropological Mea- 
surements taken at Bath 5 

Garson, Dr. — Characteristics of Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

*Evans, Dr. J. — Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

Exploration of Roman Baths at Bath 100 

£1,645 

* Reappointerl. 



The Annual Meeting in 1889. 

The Meeting at Newcastle-upon-Tyne will commence on Wednesday, 
September 11. 

Place of Meeting in 1890. ; 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Leeds. 



e2 



Ixxxiv 



KEPORT — 1888. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

£167 U 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Kain-Gauges 9 13 

Eef Faction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 






1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



#. d. 

2 

18 6 

11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 






7 8 
2 9 




£1695 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 62 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



:ei546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivera 6 







8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxv 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (LacaLlle) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 60 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 23 

Fossil Eeptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 01 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals . 2 

¥l2H5 10 iT 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannioe 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire C61este) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 

£1449 17 8 

1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 



£ t. d. 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Obsen'ations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 I 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 S 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



Ixxxvi 



KEPOBT — 1888. 



£ t. d. 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Kevision of the Nomenclatui-e 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

oftheLowerTertiaryStrata 100 

Eegistering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Eadiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining- the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplm-a 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 

cmes 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1 8 43 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



15 






































7 















1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 V 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York .^ 12 

£685 



15 

















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 



8 19 8 
7 6 3 







16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 













9 

7 




3 
7 


8 


6 


5 


4 



GENEEAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxvii 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars • 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plant s 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 1.3 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Kadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Kesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Kadiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Kesearches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 1 

£304 6 7 



£ *. d. 
1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Kesearches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 















8 


5 


7 


11 





















575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1888. 



& s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Eesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon ^2 ° ^ 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats -500 

£507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Pieport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£6 18T8~~2 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British MedusidiE 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam- vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents .39 11 

£684 11 1 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels ]24 

Explorations in the Yellow 
Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



£ t. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Kocks and Minerals 25 

Eesearches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Eesearches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Eesearches on the Constit uent s 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 lir~6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 "\ ,g 

1861 £22 0/'-' 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 6 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 1.50 

Eocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 

Eavages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Ee- 

sistance 50 

Eailway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 





















































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 









6 





















































9 


6 


11 






























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxix 



£ 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 



«. 


d. 














10 


















16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 2.5 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£16 08 3 1 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Ilydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 60 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Kain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Inrestigation 20 



£ i. d. 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 
1865. — — — — 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

0}'ster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 60 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 60 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 60 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 60 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 60 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 



xc 



REPORT — 1888. 



& 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund ... 100 

£:i750 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufactvire... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739' 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 1.50 

Steamship Performances 1 00 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 
of Animal Substances 5 



s. 


d. 







































13 4 







































































































4 





























4 













































































































































£ i. d. 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British ISIarine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 

stoneRocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£'1622 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Lujninous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ...150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCl 



£ s. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny Kiver Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progi-ess 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave -Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 























































2 


6 












































































































































































... 25 









£1285 






£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

LabjTrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£115 1 16 

1875. '^~~~^~' 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

LTiminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



xcu 



KEJfORT — 1888. 



£ s. d. 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Kecord 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Eocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Act ion of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels 5 

£1092 i 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Eocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpse, Report on 20 



' 



£ t. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Eed Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Eecord 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



18 


















1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Eecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Eecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 ] 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Eocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 

1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structu»e of 
less-known Alkaloids 26 



GENEBAL STATEMENT. 



XClll 



£ I. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 

Eecord of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel "Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 6 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 60 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Parafl^es 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 



£ t. d^ 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



1881. 
Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

Electrical Standards ... 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

£476 3 1 

1882. 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

EiDloration of Caves of South 

o*f Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

British Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Migration of Birds 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 















1 


11 



















































XCIV 



EEPORT — 1888. 



£ 
Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Elimination of Nitrogen by- 
Bodily Exercise 50 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Photographing Ultra-Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Exploration of Raygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Geological Record 100 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

£1126 

1883. 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Zoological Literature Record 100 
Explo'ration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and "Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 
Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan ^0 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Kocks 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Screw Gauges • 5^ 

£1083 

1884. 
Zoological Literature Record 100 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

International Geological Map 20 

Erratic Blocks oE England ... 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 



s. d. 

























1 11 

















3 3 

























3 3 





















£ 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Migrationof Birds 20 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Ultra- Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 

Tidal Observations 10 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

£1173 



1885. 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 
Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Calculating Tables in Theory 
of Numbers 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Ro- 
raima 100 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesv:- 
vius 25 

Biological Stations on Coasts 
of United Kingdom 150 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Marine Biological Station at 
Granton 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 
Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 
Ocean 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Geological Record 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Raygill Fissure 15 

£1385^ 



s. 





d. 





































4 














4 







































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCV 



1886. & t. d. 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Eesearches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 

Electrical Standards 40 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 100 

Prehistoric Eace in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Eegulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Exploration of Caves in North 

Wales 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Geological Record 100 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palffiozoic 

Rocks 15 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Tidal Obsei-vations 50 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 75 

Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

£995 6 



1887. 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 20 

Exploration of Cae Gvtryn 

Cave, North Wales 20 

Investigation of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Plymouth Biological Station 50 
Naples Biological Station ... 100 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Eegulation of Wages 10 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 



£, s. d. 
Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Provincial Museum Reports 5 
Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Electrolysis .30 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 
Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Migration of Birds 30 

Volcanic Phenomena of JajDan 

(1887grant) 50 

Electrical Standards 50 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 C 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

£1186 18 












































































1888. 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Biological Station at Granton 60 

Flora of China 75 

Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Action of Light on Hydracids 20 
Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 
Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Precious Metals in Circula- 
tion 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Prehistoric Eace in Greek 

Islands 20 

Palffiontographical Society ... 50 
Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies lOQ 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth 50 

Lymphatic System 25 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada JOO 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 







































































































































11 


10 









XCVl 



BEPORT — 1888. 



£ s. d. 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

EflEect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Geological Record 50 

Migration of Birds 30 

Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 



£ s. d. 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Peradeniya Botanical Sta- 
tion 50 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Electrolysis 30 

£1511 5 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 5, at 8 p.m., in the Drill Hall, Sir H. E. 
Roacoe, M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., resigned the office of 
President to Sir F. J. Bramwell, D.C.L., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., who took 
the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Assembly Rooms. 

On Friday, September 7, at 8.30 p.m , in the Drill Hall, Professor 
W. B. Ayrton, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' The Electrical Trans- 
mission of Power.' 

On Monday, September 10, at 8.30 p.m., in the Drill Hall, Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., delivered a 
Discourse on ' The Foundation Stones of the Earth's Crust.' 

On Tuesday, September 11, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Assembly Rooms. 

On Wednesday, September 12, at 2.30 p.m., in the Assembly Rooms, the 
concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjonrned to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. [The 
Meeting is appointed to commence on Wednesday, September 11, 1889.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1888. 



ADDEESS 



BY 



SIE FEEDEEICK BEAMWELL, 

D.C.L., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., 

PRESIDENT. 



The iate Lord Iddesleigh delighted an audience, for a whole evening, 
by an address on * Nothing.' Would that I had his talents, and could 
discourse to you as charmingly as he did to his audience, but I dare not 
try to talk about ' Nothing.' I do however propose, as one of the two 
sections of my Address, to discourse to you on the importance of the 
' Next-to-Nothing.' The other section is far removed from this micro- 
scopic quantity, as it will embrace the ' Eulogy of the Civil Engineer 
and will point out the value to science of his works.' 

I do not intend to follow any system in dealing with these two 
sections. I shall not even do as Mr. Dick, in ' David Copperfield,' did — 
have two papers, to one of which it was suggested he should confine his 
Memorial and his observations as to King Charles's head. The result is, 
you will find, that the importance of the next-to-nothing, and the lauda- 
tion of the Civil Engineer, will be mixed up in the most illogical and 
haphazard way, throughout my Address. I will leave to such of you as 
are of orderly minds, the task of rearranging the subjects as you see fit, 
but I trust — arrangement or no arrangement — that by the time I have 
brought my Address to a conclusion, I shall have convinced you that 
there is no man who more thoroughly appreciates the high importance 
of the ' next-to-nothing,' than the Civil Engineer of the present day, the 
object of my eulogy this evening. 

If I may be allowed to express the scheme of this Address in modern 
musical language, I will say that the ' next-to-nothing ' ' motive ' will 
commonly usher in the ' praise-song ' of the Civil Engineer ; and it seems 
to me will do this very fitly, for in many cases it is by the patient and 
discriminating attention paid to the effect of the ' next-to-nothing ' that 



4 EEPORT 1888. 

the Civil Engineer of the present day has achieved some of the labours 
of vrhich I now wish to speak to you. 

An Association for the Advancement of Science is necessarily one of 
such broad scope in its objects, and is so thoroughly catholic as regards 
Science, that the only possible way in which it can carry out those 
objects at all, is to segregate its members into various subsidiary bodies, 
or sections, engaged on particular branches of Science. Even when this 
division is resorted to, it is a hardy thing to say that every conceivable 
scientific subject can be dealt with by the eight Sections of the British 
Association. Nevertheless, as we know, for fifty-seven years the Asso- 
ciation has carried on its labours under Sections, and has earned the 
right to say that it has done good service to all branches of Science. 

Composed, as the Association is, of a union of separate Sections, it is 
only right and according to the fitness of things that, as time goes on, 
your Presidents should be selected, in some sort of rotation, from the 
various Sections. This year it was felt, by the Council and the Members, 
that the time had once more arrived when Section G — the Mechanical 
Section — might put forward its claim to be represented in the Presidency ; 
the last time on which a purely engineering Member filled the chair 
havinsr been at Bristol in 1875, when that position was occujiied by Sir 
John Hawkshaw. It is true that at Southampton, in 1882, our lamented 
friend, Sir William Siemens, was President, and it is also true that he 
was a most thorough engineer and representative of Section G ; but all 
who knew his great scientific attainments will probably agree that, on that 
occasion, it was rather the Physical Section A which was represented, than 
the ]Mechanical Section G. 

I am aware, it is said. Section G does not contribute much to 
pure Science by original research, but that it devotes itself more to the 
application of Science. There may be some foundation for this assertion, 
but I cannot refrain from the observation, that when Engineers, such as 
Siemens, Rankine, Sir William Thomson, Fairbairn, or Armstrong, make 
a scientific discovery. Section A says it is made, not in the capacity 
of an Engineer, and, therefore, does not appertain to Section G, but in 
the capacity of a Physicist, and therefore appertains to Section A — an 
illustration of the danger of a man's filling two positions, of which the 
composite Prince-Bishop is the well-known type. But I am not careful 
to labour this point, or even to dispute that Section G does not do much 
for original research. I don't agree it is a fact, but, for the purposes of 
this evening, I will concede it to be so. But what then ? This Associa- 
tion is for the ' Advancement of Science ' — the Advancement be it remem- 
bered ; and I wish to point out to you, and I trust I shall succeed 
in establishing, that for the Advancement of Science it is absolutely 
necessary there should be the Application of Science, and that, therefore, 
the Section, which as much as any other (or, to state the fact more truly, 
which more than any other) in the Association applies Science, is doing 



I 



ADDKESS. O 

a very large share of the work of advancing Science, and is fully entitled 
to be periodically represented in the Presidency of the whole Association. 

I trust also I shall prove to you that applications of Science, and 
discoveries in pure Science, act and re-act the one upon the other. 
I hope in this to carry the bulk of my audience with me, although there 
are some, I know, whose feelings, from a false notion of respect for 
Science, would probably find vent in the ' toast ' which one has heard in 
another place — this ' toast ' being attributed to the Pui-e Scientist — 
' Here's to the latest scientific discovery : may it never do any good to 
anybody ! ' 

To give an early illustration of this action and re-action, which I con- 
tend occurs : take the well-worn story of Galileo, Torricelli, and the pump- 
maker. It is recorded that Galileo first, and his pupil Torricelli afterwards, 
were led to investigate the question of atmospheric pressure, by observing 
the failure of a pump to raise water by ' suction,' above a certain level. 
Perhaps you will say the pump-maker was not applying science, but was 
working without science. I answer, he was unknowingly applying it, and 
it was from that which arose in this unconscious application that the mind 
of the Pure Scientist was led to investigate the subject, and thereupon to 
discover the primary fact, of the pressure of the atmosphere, and the 
subsidiary facts which attend thereon. It may appear to many of you 
that the question of the exercise of pressure by the atmosphere should 
have been so very obvious, that but little merit ought to have accrued to the 
discoverer ; and that the statement, once made, must have been accepted 
almost as a mere truism. This was, however, by no means the case. 
Sir Kenelm Digby, in his ' Treatise on the Nature of Bodies,' printed 
in 1658, disputes the proposition altogether, and says, in effect, he is 
quite sure, the failure of the pump to raise water was due to imperfect 
workmanship of some kind or description, and had nothing to do with 
the pressure of the air ; and that there is no reason why a pump should 
not suck up water to any height. He cites the boy's sucker, which, when 
applied to a smooth stone, will lift it, and he says the reason why the 
stone follows the sucker is this. Each body must have some other body 
in contact with it. Now, the stone being in contact with the sucker, 
there is no reason why that contact should be broken up, for the mere 
purpose of substituting the contact of another body, such as the air. It 
seems pretty clear, therefore, that even to an acute and well- trained 
mind, such as that of Sir Kenelm Digby, it was by no means a truism, 
and to be forthwith accepted when once stated, that the rise of water on 
the ' suction side ' of a pump was due to atmospheric pressure. T hardly 
need point out that the pump-maker should have been a member of ' G.' 
Galileo and Torricelli, led to reflect by what they saw, should have been 
members of ' A ' of the then ' Association for the Advancement of 
Science.' 

But, passing away from the question of the value of the application 



6 REPORT — 1888. 

of Science of a date some two and a half centuries ago, let us come a 
little nearer to our own times. 

Electricity — known in its simplest form, to the Greeks by the results 
arising from the friction on amber, and named therefrom ; afterwards 
produced from glass cylinder machines, or from plate machines ; and 
produced a century ago by the 'Influence' machine — remained, as did the 
discoveries of Volta and Galvani, the pursuit of but a few, and even the 
brilliant experiments of Davy did not suffice to give very great impetus 
to this branch of physical science. 

Ronalds, in 1823, constructed an electric telegraph. In 1837 the 
first commercial use was made of the telegraph, and from that time 
electrical science received an impulse such as it had never before ex- 
perienced. Further scientific facts were discovered ; fresh applications 
were made of these discoveries. These fresh applications led to renewed 
vigour in research, and there was the action and reaction of which I 
have spoken. In the year 1871 the Society of Telegraph Engineers was 
established. In the year 1861 our own Association had appointed a Com- 
mittee to settle the question of electrical standards of resistance, which 
Committee, with enlarged functions, continued its labours for twenty 
years, and of this Committee I had the honour of being a member. The 
results of the labours of that Committee endure (somewhat modified, it is 
true), and may be pointed to as one of the evidences of the value of the 
work done by the British Association. Since Ronalds's time, how vast 
are the advances which have been made in electrical communication of 
intelligence, by land lines, by submarine cables all over the world, and by 
the telephone! Few will be prepared to deny the statement, that pure 
electrical science has received an enormous impulse, and has been ad- 
vanced by the commercial application of electricity to the foi'egoing, and 
to purposes of lighting. Since this latter application, scores, I may say 
hundreds, of acute minds have been devoted to electrical science, stimulated 
thereto by the possibilities and probabilities of this application. 

In this country, no doubt, still more would have been done if the 
lighting of districts from a central source of electricity had not been, 
since 1882, practically forbidden by the Act passed in that year. This 
Act had in its title the facetious statement that it was ' to facilitate 
Electrical Lighting' — although it is an Act which, even modified as it 
has been this year, is still a great discouragement of free enterprise, 
and a bar to progress. The other day a member of the House of Com- 
mons was saying to me : ' I think it is very much to our discredit in 
England that we should have allowed ourselves to be outrun in the dis- 
ti'ibution of electric lighting to houses, by the inhabitants of the United 
States, and by those of other countries.' Looking upon him as being 
one of the authors of the ' facetious ' Act, I thought it pertinent t& 
quote the case of the French parricide, who, being asked what he has 
to say in mitigation of punishment, pleads, ' Pity a poor orphan ' — 



ADDRESS. t 

the parricide and the legislator being both of them authors of con- 
ditions of things which they affect to deplore. I will say no more on 
this subject, for I feel that it would not be right to take advantage of 
my position hei-e to-night to urge Political Economy views, which should 
be reserved for Section F. I will merely, and as illustrative of my views 
of the value of the application of Science to Science itself, say there is 
no branch of physics pursued with more zeal and with moi'e happy 
results than that of electricity, with its allies, and there is no branch of 
Science towards which the pablic looks with greater hope of practical 
benefits ; a hope that, I doubt not, will be strengthened after we have had 
the advantage of hearing one of the ablest followers of that science, 
Professor Ayrton, who, on Friday next, has been good enough to promise 
to discourse on ' The Electrical Transmission of Power.' 

One of the subjects which, as much as (or probably more than) any 
other, occupies the attention of the engineer, and therefore of Section G, 
is that of (the so-called) Prime Movers, and I will say boldly that, since 
the introduction of printing by the use of movable type, nothing has done 
so much for civilisation as the development of these machines. Let us 
consider these prime movers — and, first, in the comparatively humble 
function of replacing that labour which might be performed by the mus- 
cular exertion of human beings, a function which at one time was looked 
upon by many kindly but short-sighted men as taking the bread out of 
the mouth of the labourer (as it was called), and as being therefore 
undesirable. I remember revisiting my old schoolmaster, and his saying 
to me, shaking his head : ' So you have gone the way I always feared you 
would, and are making things of iron and brass, to do the work of men's 
hands.' 

It must be agreed that all honest and useful labour is honourable, but 
when that labour can be carried out without the exercise of any intelli- 
gence, one cannot help feeling that the result is likely to be intellectually 
lowering. Thus it is a sony thing to see unintelligent labour, even 
although that labour be useful. It is but one remove from unintelligent 
labour which is not useful ; that kind of labour generally appointed 
(by means of the tread-wheel or the crank) as a punishment for crime. 
Consider even the honourable labour (for it is useful, and it is honest) of 
the man who earns his livelihood by turning the handle of a crane, and 
compare this with the labour of a smith, who, while probably developing 
more energy by the use of his muscles, than is developed by the man 
turning the crane-handle, exercises at the same time the powers of 
judgment, of eye, and of hand in a manner which I never see without 
my admiration being excited. I say that the introduction of prime 
movers as a mere substitute for unintelligent manual labour is in itself a 
great aid to civilisation and to the raising of humanity, by rendering it 
veiy diflicult, if not impossible, for a human being to obtain a livelihood 
by unintelligent work — the work of the horse in the mill, or of the turnspit. 



8 REPORT— 1888. 

But there are prime taovers and prime movers — those of small 
dimensions, and employed for purposes where animal power or human 
power might be substituted, and those which attain ends that by no 
conceivable possibility could be attained at all by the exertion of muscular 
power. 

Compare a galley, a vessel propelled by oars, with the modern Atlantic 
liner ; and first let us assume that prime movers are non-existent and 
that this vessel is to be propelled galley-fashion. Take her length as 
some 600 feet, and assume that place be found for as many as 400 oars 
on each side, each oar worked by three men, or 2,400 men ; and allow that 
six men under these conditions could develop work equal to one horse- 
power : we should have 400 horse-power. Double the number of men, 
and we should have 800 horse-power, with 4,800 men at work, and at 
least the same number in reserve, if the journey is to be carried on 
continuously. Contrast the puny result thus obtained with the 19,500 
horse-power given forth by a large prime mover of the present day, 
such a power requiring, on the above mode of calculation, 117,000 
men at work and 117,000 in reserve; and these to be carried in a 
vessel less than 600 feet in length. Even if it were possible to carry 
this number of men in such a vessel, by no conceivable means could 
their power be utilised so as to impart to it a speed of twenty knots 
an hour. 

This illustrates how a prime mover may not only be a mere substitute 
for muscular work, but may afEord the means of attaining an end, that 
could not by any possibility be attained by muscular exertion, no 
matter what money was expended or what galley-slave suffering was 
inflicted. 

Take again the case of a railway locomotive : from 400 to 600 horse- 
power developed in an implement which, even including its tender, does 
not occupy an area of more than fifty square yards, and that draws us at 
sixty miles an hour. Here again, the prime mover succeeds in doing that 
which no expenditure of money or of life could enable us to obtain from 
muscular effort. 

To what, and to whom, are these meritorious prime movers due ? I 
answer : to the application of science, and to the labours of the civil 
engineer, using that term in its full and proper sense, as embracing all 
engineering other than military. I am, as you know, a Civil Engineer, 
and I desire to laud my profession and to magnify mine office ; and I know 
of no better means of doing this than by quoting to you the definition of 
' civil engineering,' given in the Charter of The Institution of Civil 
Engineers, namely, that it is ' the art of directing the great sources 
of power in Nature for the use and convenience of man.' These words 
are taken from a definition or description of engineering given by one of 
our earliest scientific writers on the subject, Thomas Tredgold, who com- 
mences that description by the words above quoted, and who, having given 



ADDEESS. y 

various illustrations of the civil engineer's pursuits, introduces this preg- 
nant sentence : — 

' This is, however, only a brief sketch of the objects of civil engineer- 
ing ; the real extent to which it may be applied is limited only by the 
progress of science ; its scope and utility will be increased with every 
discovery in philosophy, and its resources with every invention in 
mechanical or chemical art, since its bounds are unlimited, and equally 
so must be the researches of its professors.' 

' The art of directing the great sources of power in Nature for the use 
and convenience of man.' Among all secular pursuits, can there be 
imagined one more vast in its scope, more beneficent, and therefore more 
honourable, than this ? There are those, I know — hundreds, thousands — 
who say that such pursuits are not to be named as on a par with those 
of literature; that there is nothing ennobling in them; nothing elevating; 
that they are of the earth, earthy; are mechanical, and are unintellectual, 
and that even the mere bookworm, who, content with storing his own 
mind, neither distributes those stores to others nor himself originates, is 
more worthily occupied than is the civil engineer. 

I deny this altogether, and, while acknowledging, with gratitude, that, 
in literature, the masterpieces of master minds have afforded, and will 
afford, instruction, delight, and solace for all generations, so long as 
civilisation endures, I say that the pursuits of civil engineering are 
worthy of occupying the highest intelligence, and that they are elevating 
and ennobling in their character. 

Remember the kindly words of Sir Thomas Browne, who said, when 
condemning the uncharitable conduct of the mere bookworm, ' I make 
not, therefore, my head a grave, but a treasure of knowledge, and study 
not for mine own sake only, but for those who study not for themselves.' 
The engineer of the present day finds that he must not make his ' head 
a grave,' but that, if he wishes to succeed, he must have, and must 
exercise, scientific knowledge ; and he realises daily the truth that 
those who are to come after him must be trained in science, so that they 
may readily appreciate the full value of each scientific discovery as it is 
made. Thus the application of science by the engineer not only stimu- 
lates those who pursue science, but adds him to their number. 

Holding, as I have said I do, the view that he who displaces unintelli- 
gent labour is doing good to mankind, I claim for the unknown engineer 
who, in Pontus, established the first water-wheel of which we have a record, 
and for the equally unknown engineer who first made use of wind for a 
motor, the title of pioneers in the raising of the dignity of labour, by 
compelling the change from the non-intelligent to the intelligent. 

With respect to these motors — wind and water — we have two proverbs 
which discredit them : ' Fickle as the wind,' ' Unstable as water.' 

Something more trustworthy was needed — something that we were 
sure of having under our hands at all times. As a result, Science was 



10 REPORT 1888. 

applied, and tlie ' fire ' engine, as it was first called, the ' steam ' engine, 
as it was re-named, a form of ' lieat ' engine, as we now know it to be, 
was invented. 

Think of the early days of the steam-engine — the pre- Watt days. The 
days of Papin, Savory, Newcomen, Smeaton ! Great effects were produced, 
no doubt, as compared with no fire engine at all ; effects so very marked as 
to extort from the French writer, Belidor, the tribute of admiration he paid 
to the ' fire ' engine erected at the Fresnes Colliery by English engineers. 
A similar engine worked the pumps in York Place (now the Adelphi) for 
the supply of water to portions of London. We have in his work one of 
the very clearest accounts, illustrated by the best engravings (absolute 
working di-awings), of the engine which had excited his admiration. 
These drawings show the open-topped cylinder, with condensation taking 
place below the piston, but with the valves worked automatically. 

It need hardly be said that, noteworthy as such a machine was, as 
compared with animal power, or with wind or water motors, it was of 
necessity a most wasteful instrument as regards fuel. It is difficult to 
conceive in these days how, for years, it could have been endured that 
at each stroke of the engine the chamber that was to receive the steam 
at the next stroke was carefully cooled down beforehand by a water 
injection. 

Watt, as we know, was the first to perceive, or, at all events, to cure, 
this fundamental error which existed prior to his time in the 'fire' engine. 
To him we owe condensation in a separate vessel, the doing away with 
the open-topped cylinder, and the making the engine double-acting ; the 
parallel motion ; the governor ; and the engine indicator, by which we 
have depicted for us the way in which the work is being performed 
within the cylinder. To Watt, also, we owe that great source of economic 
working — the knowledge of the expansive force of steam ; and to his 
prescience we owe the steam jacket, without which expansion, beyond, 
cei'tain limits, is practically worthless. I have said ' prescience ' — fore- 
knowledge — but I feel inclined to say that, in this case, prescience may 
be rendered ' pre-Science,' for I think that Watt /eZi the utility of the 
steam jacket, without being able to say on what ground that utility was 
based. 

I have already spoken in laudatory terms of Tredgold, as being one ol 
the earliest of our scientific engineering writers, but, as regards the ques- 
tion of steam jacketing. Watt's prescience was better than Tredgold's 
science, for the latter condemns the steam jacket, as being a means 
whereby the cooling surfaces are enlarged, and whereby, therefore, 
the condensation is increased. 

I think it is not too much to say, that engineers who, since Watt's 
days, have produced machines of such marvellous power — and, compared 
with the engines of Watt's days, of so gi-eat economy — have, so far as 
principles are concerned, gone upon those laid down by Watt. Details 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

of the most necessary character — necessary to enable those principles to 
be carried out — have, indeed, been devised since the days of Watt. 
Although it is still a very sad confession to have to make, that the very 
best of our steam engines only utilises about one-sixth of the work which 
resides (if the term may be used) in the fuel that is consumed, it is, never- 
theless, a satisfaction to know that great economical progress has been made, 
and that the 6 or 7 lbs. of fuel per horse-power per hour consumed by the 
very best engines of Watt's days, when working with the aid of condensa- 
tion, is now brought down to about one-fourth of this consumption ; and 
this in portable engines, for agricultural purposes, working without con- 
densation — engines of small size, developing only 20 horse-power ; in such 
engines the consumption has been reduced to as little as 1'85 lb. per 
brake horse-power per hour, equal to 1"65 lb. per indicated horse-power 
per hour, as was shown by the trials at the Royal Agricultural Society's 
meeting at Newcastle last year — trials in which I had the pleasure of 
participating. 

In these ti-ials, Mr. William Anderson, one of the Vice-Presidents of 
Section Gr, and I were associated, and, in making our report of the results, 
we adopted the balance-sheet system, which I suggested and used so 
long ago as 1873 (see vol. 52, pages l-r<4 and 155, of the ' Minutes of Pro- 
ceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers '), and to which I alluded in 
my address as President of Section G at Montreal. 

I have told you that the engineer of the present day appreciates the 
value of the 'next-to-nothings.' There is an old housekeeping proverb 
that, if you take care of the farthings and the pence, the shillings and the 
pounds will take care of themselves. Without the balance-sheet one 
knows that for the combustion of 1 lb. of coal, the turning into steam 
of a given quantity of water at a given pressure is obtained. It is seen,, 
at once, that the result is much below that which should be had, but 
to account for the deficiency is the difSculty. The balance-sheet, dealing 
with the most minute sources of loss — the farthings and the pence of 
economic working — brings you face to face with these, and you find that 
improvement must be sought in paying attention to the ' next-to- 
nothings.' 

Just one illustration. The balance-sheet will enable you at a glance 
to answer this among many important questions. Has the fuel been 
properly burnt ? — with neither too much air, nor too little. 

At the Newcastle trials our knowledge as to whether we had the 
right amount of air for perfect combustion was got by an analysis of 
the waste gases, taken continuously throughout the whole number of 
hours' run of each engine, affording, therefore, a fair average. The 
analysis of any required portion of gases thus obtained was made in a 
quarter of an hour's time by the aid of the admirable apparatus invented 
by Mr. Stead, and, on the occasion to which I refer, manipulated by him. 
In one instance an excess of air had been supplied, causing a percentage 



12 REPORT— 1888. 



of loss of 6'3-Ij. In the instance of another engine there was a deficiency 
of air, resulting in the production of carbonic oxide, involving a loss of 
4) per cent. The various percentages of loss, of which each one seems 
somewhat unimportant, in the aggregate amounted to 28 per cent., and 
this with one of the best boilers. This is an admirable instance of the 
need of attention to apparently small things. 

I have already said that we now know the steam engine is really 
a heat engine. At the York Meeting of our Association I ventured to 
predict that, unless some substantive improvement were made in the 
steam engine (of which improvement, as yet, we have no notion), I 
believed its days, for small powers, were numbered, and that those who 
.attended the centenary of the British Association in 1931 would see the 
present steam engines in museums, treated as things to be respected, 
and of antiquarian interest to the engineers of those days, such as are 
the open-topped steam cylinders of Newcomen and of Smeaton to our- 
selves. I must say I i^ee no reason, after the seven years which have 
elapsed since the York Meeting, to regret having made that prophecy, or 
to desire to withdraw it. 

The working of heat engines, without the intervention of the 
vapour of water, by the combustion of the gases arising from coal, or 
from coal and from water, is now not merely an established fact, but a 
recognised and undoubted, commercially econonncal, means of obtaining 
motive power. Such engines, developing from 1 to 40-horse-power, and 
worked by the ordinary gas supplied by the gas mains, are in most 
extensive use in printing works, hotels, clubs, theatres, and even in large 
private houses, for the working of dynamos to supply electric light. Such 
engines are also in use in factories, being sometimes driven by the gas 
obtained from ' culm ' and steam, and are giving forth a horse-power for, 
it is stated, as small a consumption as one pound of fuel per hour. 

It is hardly necessary to remind you — but let me do it — that, although 
the saving of half a pound of fuel per horse- power appears to be insigni- 
ficant, when stated in that bald way, one realises that it is of the highest 
importance when that half-pound turns out to be 33 per cent, of the 
whole previous consumption of one of those economical engines to which 
E have refei-red. 

The gas engine is no new thing. As long ago as 180V, a M. de Rivaz 
proposed its use for driving a carriage on ordinary roads. For anything 
[ know he may not have been the first proposer. It need hardly be said 
that in those days he had not illuminating gas to resort to, and he pro- 
posed to employ hydrogen. A few years later, a writer in 'Nicholson's 
Journal,' in an article on ' flying machines,' having given the correct 
statement that all that is needed to make a successful machine of this 
description is to find a sufficiently light motor, suggests that the direction in 
which this may be sought is the employment of illuminating gas, to operate 
by its explosion on the piston of an engine. The idea of the gas engine 



ADDRESS. 1 S 

was revived, and formed the subject of a patent by Barnett in the year 1838. 
It is trne this gentleman did not know very much about the subject, and 
that he suggested many things which, if carried out, would have resulted 
■ in the production of an engine which could not have worked ; but he had 
an alternative proposition which would have worked. 

Again, in the year 1861, the matter was revived by Lenoir, and in the 
year 1865, by Hugon, both French inventors. Their engines obtained 
some considerable amount of success and notoriety, and many of them 
were made and used ; but in the majority of cases they were discarded 
as wasteful and uncertain. The Institution of Civil Engineers, for 
example, erected a Lenoir in the year 1868, to work the ventilating fan, 
but after a short time they were compelled to abandon it and to substitute 
a hydraulic engine. 

At the present time, as I have said, gas engines are a great commercial 
success, and they have become so by the attention given to small things, 
in popular estimation — to important things, in fact, with which, however. 
I must not trouble you. Messrs. Crossley Brothers, who have done so 
much to make the gas engine the commercial success that it is, inform 
me that they are prosecuting improvements in the direction of attention 
to detail, from which they are obtaining greatly improved results. 

But, looking at the wonderful petroleum industry, and at the multi- 
farious products which are obtained from the crude material, is it too 
much to say, that there is a future for motor engines, worked by the 
vapour of some of the more highly volatile of these products — true 
vapoui' — not a gas, but a condensable body, capable of being worked 
over and over again ? Numbers of such engines, some of as much as 
4 horse-power, made by Mr. Yarrow, are now running, and are appa- 
rently giving good results ; certainly excellent results as regards the 
compactness and lightness of the machinery ; for boat purposes they 
possess the great advantage of being I'apidly under way. I have seen 
one go to work within two minutes of the striking of the match to lio-ht 
the burner. 

Again, as we know, the vapour of this material has been used as a 
gas in gas engines, the motive power having been obtained by direct 
combustion. 

Having regard to these considerations, was I wrong in predicting 
that the heat engine of the future will probably be one independent of 
the vapour of water ? And, further, in these days of electrical advance- 
ment, is it too much to hope for the direct production of electricity from 
the combustion of fuel ? 

As the world has become familiar with prime movers, the desire for 
their employment has increased. Many a householder could find useful 
occupation for a prime mover of |^ or |^ horse-power, working one oi- 
two hours a day ; but the economical establishment of a steam engine is 
not possible until houses of very large dimensions are reached, where 



14 REPORT — 1888. 

space exists for the engine, and where, having regard to the amount of 
work to be done, the incidental expenses can be borne. Where this can- 
not be, either the prime mover, with the advantages cf its use, must be 
o-iven up as a thing to be wished for, but not to be procured, or recourse 
must be had to some other contrivance— say to the laying on of power, in 
some form or another, from a central source. 

I have already incidentally touched upon one mode of doing this, 
namely, the employment of illuminating gas, as the working agent in the 
gas engine ; but there are various other modes, possessing their respective 
merits and demerits — all ingenious, all involving science in their appli- 
cation, and all more or less in practical use — such as the laying-on of 
special high-pressure water, as is now being extensively practised in 
London, in Hull, and elsewhere. Water at 700 lbs. pressure per inch is 
a most convenient mode of laying on a large amount of power, through 
comparatively small pipes. Like electricity, where, when a high electro- 
motive force is used, a large amount of energy may be sent through a 
small conductor, so with water, under high pressure, the mains may 
be kept of reasonable diameters, without rendering them too small to 
transmit the power required through them. 

Power is also transmitted by means of compressed air, an agent which, 
on the score of its ability to ventilate, and of its cleanliness, has much to 
recommend it. On the other hand, it is an agent which, having regard 
to the probability of the deposition of moisture in the form of ' snow,' 
requires to be worked with judgment. 

Ao-ain, there is an alternative mode for the conveyance of power by 
the exhaustion of air — a mode which has been in practical use for over 
sixty years. 

We have also the curious system pursued at Schaflfhausen, where 
quick-running ropes are driven by turbines, these being worked by the 
current of the river Rhine ; and at New York, and in other cities of 
the United States, steam is laid on under the streets, so as to enable 
domestic steam engines to be worked, without the necessity of a boiler, 
a stoker, or a chimney, the steam affording also means of heating the 
house when needed. 

Lastly, there is the system of transmitting power by electricity, to 
which I have already adverted. I was glad to learn, only the other day, 
that there was every hope of this power being applied to the working of 
an important subterranean tramway. 

These disti'ibutions from central sources need, as a rule, statutory 
powers to enable the pipes or wires to be placed under the roads ; and, 
following the deplorable example of the Electrical Facilities Act, it is now 
the habit of the enlightened corporation and the enterprising town clerk 
of most boroughs to say to capitalists who are willing to embark their 
capital in the plant for the distribution of power from a central source 
for their own profit, no doubt, but also, no doubt, for the good of the 



ADDRESS. 15 

■community — ' We will oppose you in Parliament, unless you will consent 
that, at the end of twenty-one years, we may acquire compulsorily your 
property, and may do so, if it turns out to be remunerative, without other 
payment than that for the mere buildings and plant at that time 
existing.' This is the way English enterprise is met, and then English 
engineers are taunted, by Englishmen — often by the very men who have 
had a share in making this ' boa-constrictor ' of a ' Facilities Act ' — that 
their energy is not to be compared with that which is to be found in the 
United States and other countries. Again, however, I must remember 
that I am not addressing Section F. 

There is one application of science, by engineers, which is of extreme 
beauty and interest, and that cannot be regarded with indifference by 
the agriculturists of this country. I allude to the Heat-withdrawing 
Engines (I should like to say, ' Cold-Producers,' but I presume, if I did, 
I should be criticised), which are now so very extensively used for the 
importation of fresh meat, and for its storage when received here. It 
need hardly be said, that that which will keep cool and sweet the car- 
cases of sheep will equally well preserve milk, and many other perish- 
able articles of food. We have in these machines daily instances that, if 
you wish to make a ship's hold cold, you can do it by burning a certain 
quantity of coals — a paradox, if ever there was one. 

In this climate of ours, where the summer has been said to consist of 
' three hot days and a thunderstorm,' there is hardly need to make a 
provision for cooling our houses, although there is an undoubted need for 
making a provision to heat them. Nevertheless, those of us who have 
hot-water heating arrangements for use in the winter would be very glad 
indeed if, without much trouble or expense, they could turn these about, 
so as to utilise them for cooling their houses in summer. Mr. Loftus 
Perkins, so well known for his labours in the use of very high-pressure 
steam (600 to 1,000 lbs. on the inch), and also so well known for those 
most useful high-pressure warming arrangements which, without disfigur- 
ing our houses by the passage of large pipes, keep them in a state of 
warmth and comfort throughout the winter, has lately taken up the mode 
of, I will say it, producing ' cold ' by the evaporation of ammonia, and, 
by improvements in detail, has succeeded in making an apparatus which, 
without engine or pumps, produces ' cold ' for some hours in succession, 
and requires, to put it in action, the preliminary combustion of only a 
few pounds of coke or a few feet of gas. 

As I have said, our climate gives us but little need to provide or 
employ apparatus to cool our houses, but one can well imagine that the 
Anglo-Indian will be glad to give up his punkah for some more certain, 
and less draughty, mode of cooling. 

I now desire to point out how, as the work of the engineer grows, 
his needs increase. New material, or better material of the old kind, 
has to be found to enable him to carry out these works of greater mag- 



16 KEPORT 1888, 

nitude. At the beginning of this centary, stone, brick, and timber were 
practically the only materials employed for that which I may call stand- 
ing engineerin-g work — i.e., buildings, bridges, aqueducts, and so on — 
while timber, cast iron, and wrought iron were for many years the only 
available materials for the framing and principal parts of moving machines 
and engines, with the occasional use of lead for the pipes and of copper 
for pipes and for boilers. 

As regards the cast iron, little was known of the science involved (or 
that ought to be involved) in its manufacture. It was judged of by 
results. It was judged of largely by the eye. It was ' white,' it was 
' mottled,' it was ' grey.' It was known to be ' fit for refining,' fit for 
'strong castings,' or fit for castings in which great fluidity in the 
molten metal was judged to be of more importance than strength in the 
finished casting. With respect to wrought iron, it was judged of by its 
results also. It was judged of by the place of its manufacture — but 
when the works of the district were unknown, the iron, on being tested, 
was classed as ' good fibrous,' although some of the very best was ' steel- 
like,' or ' bad,' ' hot -short,' or ' cold-short.' A particular district would 
produce one kind of iron, another district another kind of iron. The ore, 
the flux, and the fuel were all known to have influence, but to what extent 
was but little realised ; and if there came in a new ore, or a new flux, 
it misrht well be that for months the turn-out of the works into which 
these novelties had been introduced would be prejudiced. Steel again — 
that luxury of the days of my youth — was judged by the eye. The 
wrought bars, made into 'blister' steel by 'cementation,' were broken, 
examined, and grouped accordingly. Steel was known, no doubt, to be a 
compound of iron and carbon, but the importance of exactness in the per- 
centage was but little understood, nor was it at all understood how the 
presence of comparatively small quantities of foreign matter might necessi- 
tate the variation of the proportions of carbon. The consequence was that 
anomalous results every now and then arose to confound the person who had 
used the steel, and falsifying the proverb ' true as steel,' steel became an 
object of distrust. Is it too much to say that Bessemer's great invention 
of steel made by the ' converter,' and that Siemens's invention of the 
open-hearth process, reacted on pure science, and set scientific men to in- 
vestigate the laws which regulate the union of metals and of metalloids ? 
— and that the labours of these scientific men have improved the manufac- 
ture, so that steel is now thoroughly and entirely trusted ? By its aid 
engineering works are accomplished which, without that aid, would have 
been simply impossible. The Forth Bridge, the big gun, the compound 
armour of the ironclad with its steel face, the projectile to pierce that 
steel face- -all equally depend upon the ' truth ' of steel as much as does 
the barely visible hair spring of the chronometer, which enables the 
longitude of the ship in which it is carried to be ascertained. Now, 
what makes the difference between trustworthy and untrustworthy steel 



ADDRESS. 1 7 

for each particular purpose ? Something which, until our better sense 
comes to our aid, we are inclined to look upon as ridiculously insignificant 
—a ' next-to-nothing.' Setting extraneous ingredients aside, and con- 
sidering only the union of iron and carbon, the question whether there 
shall be added or deducted one-tenth of 1 per cent, (pardon my clumsy 
way of using the decimal system) of carbon is a matter of great import- 
ance in the resulting quality of the steel. This is a striking practical 
instance of how apparently insignificant things may be of the highest 
importance. The variation of this fraction of a percentage may render 
your boiler steel untrustworthy, may make the difference between safety 
in a gun and danger in a gun, and may render your armour-piercing pro- 
jectile unable to pierce even the thinnest wronght-iron armour. 

While thus brought incidentally to the subject of guns, let me derive 
from it another instance of the value of small things. I have in my 
hand a piece of steel ribbon. It is probable that only those who are 
near to me can see it. Its dimensions are one-fourth by one-sixteenth of 
an English inch, equal to an area of one sixty-fourth of a square inch. 
This mode of stating the dimensions I use for the information of the 
ladies. To make it intelligible to my scientific friends, I must tell them 
that it is approximately "00637 of a metre, by approximately "00159 of a 
metre, and that its sectional area is "00001012S3 (also approximately) of 
a square metre. This insignificant (and speaking in reference to the greater 
number of my audience), practically invisible piece of material — that I can 
bend with my hand, and even tie into knots — is, nevertheless, not to be 
despised. By it one reinforces the massive and important-looking A-tube 
of a 9"2-inch gun, so that from that tube can be projected with safety a 
projectile weighing 380 pounds at a velocity, when leaving the muzzle, 
of between one-third and one-half of a mile in a second, and competent to 
braverse nearly 12^ miles before it touches the ground. It may be said, 
[' What is the use of being able to fire a projectile to a distance which 
sommonly is invisible (from some obstacle or another) to the person 
lirecting the gun ? ' I will suggest to you a use. Imagine a gun of 

lis kind placed by some enemy who, unfortunately, had invaded us, and 
lad reached Richmond. He has the range table for his gun ; he, of 
jourse, is provided with our Ordnance maps, and he lays and elevates the 

m at Richmond, with the object of striking, say, the Royal Exchange. 
Suppose he does not succeed in his exact aim. The projectile goes 100 
^ards to one side or to the other ; or it falls 250 yards short, or passes 
250 yards over ; and it would be ' bad shooting ' indeed, in these days, if 
nearly every projectile which was fired did not fall somewhere within an 
area such as this. In this suggested parallelogram of 100,000 square 
yards, or some 20 acres, there is some rather valuable property ; and the 
transactions which are carried on are not unimportant. It seems to me 
that business would not be conducted with that calmness and coolness 
which are necessary for success, if, say every five minutes, a 380-pound 
1888. c 



18 REPORT— 1888. 

shell fell within this area, vomiting fire, and scattering its walls in 
hundreds of pieces, with terrific violence, in all directions. Do not 
suppose I am saying that similar effects cannot be obtained from a gun 
where wire is not employed. They can be. But my point is, that they 
can also be obtained by the aid of the insignificant thing which I am 
holding up at this moment — this piece of steel ribbon, which looks more 
suitable for the framework of an umbrella. 

I have already spoken to you, when considering steel as a mere alloy of 
iron and carbon, as to the value of even a fraction of 1 per cent, of the 
latter ; but we know that in actual practice steel almost always con- 
tains other ingredients. One of the most prominent of these is manganese. 
It had for years been used, in quantities varying from a fraction of 1 
per cent, up to 2'5 per cent., with advantage as regards ductility, and 
as regards its ability to withstand forging. A further increase was found 
not to augment the advantage : a still further increase was foand to 
diminish it : and here the manufacturer stopped, and, so far as I know, 
the pure scientist stopped, on the very reasonable ground that the point 
of increased benefit appeared to have been well ascertained, and that 
there could be no advantage in pursuing an investigation which appeared 
only to result in decadence. But this is another instance of how the 
application of science reacts in the interests of pure science itself. One 
of our steel manufacturers, Mr. Hadfield, determined to pursue this appa- 
rently barren subject, and in doing so discovered this fact — that, while 
with the addition of manganese in excess of the limit before stated, and 
up to as much as 7 per cent., deterioration continued, after this latter 
percentage was passed improvement again set in. 

Again, the effects of the addition of even the very smallest percent- 
ages of aluminium upon the steel with which it may be alloyed are very 
striking and very peculiar, giving to the steel alloy thus produced a 
very much greater hardness, and enabling it to take a much brighter 
and more silver-like polish. Further, the one-twentieth part of 1 per 
cent, of aluminium, when added to molten wrpught iron, will reduce 
the fusing-point of the whole mass some 500 degrees, and will render 
it extremely fluid, and thus enable wrought iron (or what are commer- 
cially known as ' Mitis ' — castings of the most intricate character) to be 
produced. 

No one has worked more assiduously at the question of the effect of 
the jDresence of minute quantities, even traces, of alloys with metals than 
Professor Roberts-Austen, and he appears, by his experiments, to be 
discovering a general law, governing the efiect produced by the mixture 
of particular metals, so that, in future, it is to be hoped, when an alloy 
is, for the first time, to be attempted, it will be possible to predict with 
reasonable certainty what the result will be, instead of that result remain- 
ing to be discovered by experiment. 

I have just, incidentally, mentioned aluminium. May I say that we 



ADDRESS. 1 9 

•engineers look forward, with much interest, to all processes tending to 
bring this metal, or its alloys, within possible commercial use ? 

One more instance of the effect of impurities in metals. The engineer 
engaged in electrical matters is compelled, in the course of his daily- 
work, frequently to realise the importance of the ' next-to-nothing.' One 
striking instance of this is afforded by the influence which an extremely 
minute percentage of impurity has on the electrical conductivity of copper 
wire : this conductivity being in some cases reduced by as much as 60 
per cent., in consequence of the admixture of that which, under other 
•circumstances, would be looked upon as insignificant. 

Reverting to the question of big guns. According to the present 
mode of manufacture, after we have rough-bored and turned the ' A ' 
tube (and perhaps I ought to have mentioned that by the ' A ' tube is 
meant the main piece of the gun, the innermost layer, if I may so call it, 
that portion which is the full length of the gun, and upon which the 
remainder of the gun is built up) — after, as I have said, we have rough- 
bored and turned this 'A' tube, we heat it to a temperature lying 
between certain specified limits, but actually determined by the behaviour 
of samples previously taken, and then suddenly immerse it perpen- 
dicularly into a well some 60 feet deep, full of oil, the oil in this well 
being kept in a state of change by the running into it, at the bottom, of 
cold oil conveyed by a pipe proceeding from an elevated oil tank. In this 
way the steel is oil-hardened, with the result of increasing its ultimate 
tensile strength, and also with the result of raising its so-called elastic 
limit. In performing this operation it is almost certain that injurious 
internal strains will be set up : strains tending to produce self- rupture 
of the material. Experiments have been carried out in England, by 
Captain Andrew Noble, and by General Maitland of the Royal Gun 
Factory, by General Kalakoutsky, in Russia, and also in the United 
States, to gauge what is the value, as represented by dimensions, of these 
strains, and we find that they have to be recorded in the most minute 
fractions of an inch, and yet, if the steel be of too ' high ' a quality (as it is 
technically called), or if there has been any want of uniformity in the 
oil-hardening process, these strains, unless got rid of or ameliorated by 
annealing, may, as I have said, result in the self -rupture of the steel. 

I have spoken of the getting rid of these strains by annealing, a 
process requiring to be conducted with great care, so as not to prejudice 
the effects of the oil-hardening. But take the case of a hardened steel 
projectile, hardened so that it will penetrate the steel face of compound 
ai'mour. In that case annealing cannot be resorted to, for the extreme 
hardness of the projectile must not be in the least impaired. The internal 
strains in these projectiles are so very grave, that for months after they 
are made there is no security that they will not spontaneously fractare. I 
have here the point of an 8-inch projectile, which projectile weighs 210 lbs., 
this with others was received from the makers as long ago as March of 

c 2 



20 KEPORT — 1888. 

this year, and remained an apparently perfect and sound projectile until 
about the middle of August — some five months after delivery — and, of 
course, a somewhat longer time since manufacture — and between August 
6th and 8th this piece which I hold in my hand, measuring 3| inches by 
31 inches, spontaneously flew oiF from the rest of the projectile, and has 
done so upon a surface of separation which, whether having regard to 
its beautiful regularity, or to the conclusions to be drawn from it as to 
the nature of the strains existing, is of the very highest scientific interest. 
Many other cases of self-rupture of similar projectiles have been recorded. 

Another instance of the effect of the ' next-to-nothing ' in the harden- 
ing and tempering or annealing of steel. As we know, the iron and 
the carbon (leaving other matters out of consideration) are there. The 
carbon is (even in tool-steel) a very small proportion of the whole. The 
steel may be bent, and will retain the form given to it. You heat it and 
plunge it in cold water ; you attempt to bend it and it breaks ; but if, after 
the plunging in cold water, you temper it by carefully reheating it, you 
may bring it to the condition fit either for the cutting-tool for metal, or 
for the cutting-tool for wood, or for the watch-spring ; and these important 
variations of condition which are thus obtained depend upon the ' next-to- 
nothing ' in the temperature to which it is reheated, and therefore in the 
nature of the resulting combination of the ingredients of which the steel 
is composed. 

Some admirable experiments were carried out on this subject by the 
Institution of ]\Iechanical Engineers, with the assistance of one of our 
Vice-Presidents, Sir Frederick Abel, and the subject has also been dealt 
with by an eminent Russian writer. 

There is, to my mind, another and very striking popular instance (if 
I may use the phrase) of the importance of attention to detail — that is, to 
the ' next-to-nothing.' Consider the bicycles and tricycles of the present 
day — -machines which afford the means of healthful exercise to thousands, 
and which will, probably within a vei'y short time, prove of the very 
greatest possible use for military purposes. The perfection to which 
these machines have been brought is almost entirely due to strict atten- 
tion to detail ; in the selection of the material of which the machines are 
made ; in the application of pure science (in its strictest sense) to the • 
form and to the proportioning of the parts, and also in the arrangement of 
these various parts in relation the one to the other. The result is that the 
greatest possible strength is aff"orded with only the least possible weight, 
and that friction in working has been reduced to a minimum. All of ns 
who remember the hobby-horse of former years, and who contrast that 
machine with the bicycle or tricycle of the present day, realise how 
thoroughly satisfactory is the result of this attention to detail — this 
appreciation of the * next-to-nothing.' 

Let me give you another illustration of the importance of small things, 
drawn from gunnery practice. 



ADDRESS. 21 

At first siglit one would be tempted to say that the density of the air 
on the underside of a shot must, notwithstanding its motion of descent, 
be so nearly the same as that of the air upon the upper side as to cause the 
difference to be unworthy of consideration ; but we know that the projectiles 
from rifled guns tend to travel sideways as they pass through the air, and 
that the direction of their motion, whether to the right or to the left, de- 
pends on the ' hand ' of the rifling. We know also, that the friction against 
liquid or against gaseous bodies varies with the densities of these bodies, 
and it is believed that, minute as is the difference in density to which I have 
referred, it is suSicient to determine the lateral movement of the 
projectile. This lateral tendency must be allowed for, in these days of 
long ranges, in the sighting and laying of guns, if we desire accuracy of 
aim, at those distances at which it is to be expected our naval 
engagements will have to be commenced, and perhaps concluded. We 
can no longer afford to treat the subject as Nelson is said to have treated 
it, in one of his letters to the Secretary of the Admiralty, who had 
requested that an invention for laying guns more accurately should be 
tried. Nelson said he would be glad to try the invention, but that, as 
his mode of fighting consisted in placing his ship close alongside that of 
the enemy, he did not think the invention, even if it were successful, 
would be of much use to him. 

While upon the question of guns, I am tempted to remark upon that 
which is by no means a small thing (for it is no less than the rotation 
of the earth), which in long-distance firing may demand attention, and 
that to an extent little suspected by the civilian. 

Place the gun north and south, say in the latitude of London, and fire 
a 12-mile round such as I have mentioned, and it will be found that, 
assuming the shot were passing through a vacuum, a lateral allowance of 
more than 200 feet must be made to compensate for the different velocity 
of the circumference of the earth at 12 miles north or south of the place 
where the gun was fired, as compared with the velocity of the circum- 
ference of the earth at that place itself — the time of flight being in round 
numbers one minute. 

At the risk of exciting a smile, I am about to assert that engineering 
has even its poetical side. I will ask you to consider with me whether 
there may not be true poetry in the feelings of the engineer who 
solves a problem such as this : Consider this rock, never visible 
above the surface of the tide, but making its presence known by the 
waves which rise around it : it has been the cause of destruction to many 
a noble vessel which had completed, in safety, its thoasands of leagues 
of journey, and was, within a few score miles of port ; then dashed to pieces 
upon it ? Here is this rock. On it build a lighthouse. Lay your founda- 
tions through the water, in the midst of the turmoil of the sea ; make 
your preparations ; appear to be attaining success, and find the elements 
ure against you and that the whole of your preliminary works are ruined 



22 REPORT — 1888. 

or destroyed in one night ; but again commence, and then go on and go on 
until at last you conquer ; your works rise above ordinary tide-level ; then 
upon these sure foundations, obtained it may be after years of toil, erect 
a fair shaft, graceful as a palm and sturdy as an oak ; surmount it with 
a light, itself the produce of the highest application of science ; direct 
that light by the built-up lens, again involving the highest application 
of science ; apply mechanism, so arranged that the lighthouse shall from 
minute to minute reveal to the anxious mariner its exact name and its 
position on the coast. When you have done all this, will you not be entitled 
to say to yourself, ' It is I who have for ever rendered innocuous this rock 
which has been hitherto a dread source of peril ' ? Is there no feeling, do 
you think, of a poetical nature excited in the breast of the engineer who 
has successfully grappled with a problem such as this ? 

Another instance : the mouth of a broad river, or, more properly 
speaking, the inlet of the sea, has to be crossed at such a level as not to 
impede tbe passage of the largest ships. Except in one or two places the 
depth is profound, so that multiple foundations for supporting a bridge 
become commercially impossible, and the solution of the problem must 
be found by making, high in the air, a flight of span previously deemed 
unattainable. Is there no poetry here ? Again, although the results do 
not strike the eye in the same manner, is there nothing of poetry in the 
work, that has to be thought out and achieved, when a wide river or an ocean 
channel has to be crossed by a subterranean passage ? Works of great 
magnitude of this character have been performed with success, and to the 
benefit of those for whose use they were intended. One of the greatest and 
most noble of such works, encouraged, in years gone by, by the Govern- 
ments of our own country and of France, has lately fallen into disfavour 
with an unreasoning public, who have not taken the pains to ascertain 
the true state of the case. 

Surely it will be agreed that the promotion of ready intercourse and 
communication between nations constitutes the very best and most satis- 
factory guarantees for the preservation of peace ; when the peoples of two 
countries come to know each other intimately, and when they, therefore, 
enter into closer business relations, they are less liable to be led away by 
panic or by anger, and they hesitate to go to war the one with the other. 
It is in the interests of both that questions of difference which may 
arise between them should be amicably settled, and having an intimate 
knowledge of each other, they are less liable to misunderstand, and the 
mode of determination of their diSei'ences is more readily arranged. 
Remember, the means of ready intercourse and of communication, and the 
means of easy travel, are all due to the application of science by the engi- 
neer. Is not therefore his profession a beneficent one ? 

Further, do you not think poetical feeling will be excited in the breast 
of that engineer who will in the near future solve the problem (and it 
certainly will be solved when a sufficiently light motor is obtained) of travel- 



ADDKESS. 23 

ling in the air — whether this solution be effected by enabling the self- 
suspended balloon to be propelled and directed, or perhaps, better still, by 
enabling not only the propulsion to be effected and the direction to be 
controlled, but by enabling the suspension in the air itself to be attained 
by mechanical means ? 

Take other functions of the Civil Engineer — functions which, after 
all, are of the most important character, for they contribute directly to 
the prevention of disease, and thereby not only prolong life, but do that 
which is probably more important — afford to the population a healthier 
life while lived. 

In one town, about which I have full means of knowing, the report 
has just been made that in the year following the completion of a 
comprehensive system of sewerage, the deaths from zymotic diseases 
had fallen from a total of 740 per annum to a total of 372 — practi- 
cally one half. Has the engineer no inward satisfaction who knows such 
results as these have accrued from his work ? 

Again, consider the magnitude and completeness of the water supply 
of a large town, especially a town that has to depend upon the storing-up 
of rain water : the prevision which takes into account, not merely the 
variation of the different seasons of the year, but the variation of one 
year from another ; that, having collated all the stored-up information, 
determines what must be the magnitude of the reservoirs to allow for 
at least three consecutive dry years, such as may happen ; and that finds 
the sites where these huge reservoirs may be safely built. 

All these — and many other illustrations which I could put before you 
if time allowed — appear to me to afford conclusive evidence that, whether 
it be in the erection of the lighthouse on the lonely rock at sea ; whether 
it be in the crossing of rivers or seas, or arms of seas, by bridges or by 
tunnels ; whether it be the cleansing of our towns from that which is foul ; 
whether it be the supply of pure water to every dwelling, or the distribu- 
tion of light or of motive power ; or whether it be in the production of 
the mighty ocean steamer, or in the spanning of valleys, the piercing of 
mountains, and affording the firm, secure road for the express train ; or 
whether it be the encircling of the world with telegraphs — the work of 
the Civil Engineer is not of the earth earthy, is not naechanical to the 
exclusion of science, is not unintellectual ; but is of a most beneficent 
nature, is consistent with true poetical feeling, and is worthy of the 
highest order of intellect. 



1 



EEPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 

OIT THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson 
(Secretary), J. Gr. MacGregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. T. Bovey 
and Mr. C. Carpmael, for the purpose of promoting Tidal 
Observations in Canada. 

Last year the Committee reported that Lieut, Gordon, R.N., commander 
of one of the Dominion crnisers, had been authorised to make some pre- 
liminary observations and to spend some small sums of money in getting 
assistance for this purpose ; and also that he had been directed to put 
himself in communication with Prof. Darwin with the expectation that 
next year a special grant would be made for systematic tidal observations. 
It was understood that no more could be done in the interval. The Com- 
miittee, therefore, have taken no action during the past year. It is 
considered, however, desirable that they should be reappointed in order 
to keep the matter before the Government during the next session of 
Parliament. The Board of Trade of Montreal is still earnestly pressing 
this as well as other questions connected with a hydrogra,phic survey on 
the attention of ministers. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir E. S. Ball, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Professors Everett, Fitzgerald, Hicks, 
Carey Foster, 0. J. Lodge, Poynting, Macgregor, Genese, 
W. G. Adams, and J^amb, Messrs. Baynes, A. Lodge, Fleming, 
W. N. Shaw, Glazebrook, Hayward, Lant Carpenter, Cul- 
verwell {Secretary), and Greenhill, Dr. MuiR, and Messrs. 
G. Griffith and J. Larmor, appointed for the purpose of con- 
sidering the desirability of introducing a Uniform, Nomen- 
clature for the Fundaviental Units of Mechanics, and of co- 
operating with other bodies engaged in similar ivork. 

The Committee recommend the use of the following names : — 

The unit of velocity on the C.G.S. system of units, i.e., the velocity 
of one centimetre per second, to be called one Kine. 



28 EEPORT — 1 888. 

The unit of momentam on the C.G.S. system of units, i.e., the 
momentum of one gramme moving at one kine, to be called one Bole. 

The unit of pressure on the C.Gr.S. system of units, i.e., the pressure 
of one dyne per square centimetre, to be called one Barad. 

The Committee do not recommend that any additional names be 
given to English units. 

They ask to be reappointed, as they think that there are some other 
units upon which there is prospect of agreement as to the names to be 
recommended. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour 
Stewaet (Secretary), Professor W. GtEtlls Adams, Mr. W. Lant 
Caepentee, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, Mr. W. H. M. Cheistie (Astrono- 
mer Royal), Professor Gr. Chetstal, Captain Ceeak, Professor Gr. H. 
Daewin, Mr. William Ellis, Sir J. H. Lefeot, Professor S. J. 
Peeey, Professor Schustee, Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. 
Gr. M. Whipple, appointed for the yurpose of considering the 
best m,eans of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations. 

Since their last report the Committee have to record the death of their 
Secretary, Professor Balfour Stewart, whose loss will be deeply felt in the 
scientific world, especially by those who are engaged in researches in 
terrestrial magnetism and in the work of magnetic observatories. A 
meeting of the Committee was held on February 2, 1888, at which Pro- 
fessor W. Grylls Adams was requested to act as Secretary to the Com- 
mittee, and to forward to the directors of magnetic observatories copies of 
the third report of the Committee, calling special attention to the para- 
graphs relating to the determination of scale coefficients. 

At the second meeting of the Committee on July 11, 1888, Mr. W. L. 
Carpenter handed to the Committee a paper which had been prepared by 
Professor Balfour Stewart on a comparison between the wind values and 
declination disturbances at the Kew Observatory. The Committee have 
thought it right to recommend that this paper and the table accom- 
panying it be printed as an appendix to the report. 

The Committee learn that all the scientific material found among Dr. 
Stewart's papers is in the possession of Professor A. Schuster. Professor 
Schuster has continued his reduction of the diurnal variation of terrestrial 
magnetism and has nearly completed a paper on the subject, which he 
purposes to present to the Royal Society. 

A paper has also been communicated to the Committee by Major 
Dawson on magnetic observations taken at Fort Rae in 1882-83, which 
is printed as Appendix II. to this report. 

Appendix I. Eesults of a companson between the wind values and declination 
disturhances at the Kew Observatory. By Balfour Stewakt, M.A., 
JjL.I)., F.B.S., and William Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc. 

In a note communicated to the Royal Society on February 11, 1885, we 
gave the results of a preliminary comparison between the dates of cyclonic 



ON COMPARING AND KEDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 2& 

storms in Great Britain and those of declination disturbances at the Kew 
Observatory. As we continued this investigation we came to the conclu- 
sion that the best method of procedure would be to compare together 
what may be termed wind-weather and declination-disturbance-weather, 
in order to see if there is any apparent connexion between them ; our 
hope of a positive result being strengthened by the belief that there is 
accumulating evidence in favour of a connexion of some kind between 
the convection currents of the earth and the oscillations of terrestrial 
magnetism. 

We shall, therefore, begin by defining precisely what we mean by 
wind weather and by disturbance weather. We have obtained, through 
the kindness of the Kew Committee, records of the total amount in miles 
gone over by the wind at Kew for each day of the years 1858-73 (sixteen 
years in all), and we have likewise obtained from the same source daily 
aggregates of the disturbance of magnetic declination at Kew separated by 
Sabine's method. 

To begin with the wind values, we have first of all smoothed these 
down into daily averages of three days. Let us call this Table A. 

We have next obtained a Table B, where each day's value is the 
average of 25 days of Table A, all being properly placed as regards 
dates. 

Next, taking the difference between the entries of Tables A and B, we 
obtain a series representing departures from the mean — -^^Zms when in 
excess, and minus when in deficiency — which may be taken to represent 
tvind weather. The declination aggregate daily disturbance numbers (for 
which the nnit is -jJ^ of an inch measui'ed on the curve) have been 
treated in exactly the same way as the wind numbers, and the differences 
finally obtained have been taken to represent disturbance weather. The 
values representing wind weather have then been formed into series of 
twelve terms, each so chosen that maximum wind values come too-ether at 
the middle of each series. The yearly sums of these series, as well as four- 
yearly sums and total sum for 16 years, are exhibited in Table I^. 

The disturbance weather values have then been arranged into series of 
twelve terms each, so that each entry is two days previous in date to the 
corresponding entry of Table I^. The yearly, four-yearly, and total sums of 
these series are given in Table I,,. 

The values representing wind weather have next been formed into 
series of twelve terms each, so chosen that minimum wind values come 
together at the middle of each series. The yearly, four-yearly, and total 
sums of these series are given in Table 11,. 

Finally, the disturbance-weather values have been arranged into series 
of twelve turns each, so that each entry is two days prior in date to the 
corresponding entry in Table 11^, and the sums of these are entered in 
Table 11^. 

The general results of the comparison for the sixteen years are shown 
in the accompanying table, and if averages be taken from these for the 
three minimum sunspot years 1865-6-7, and for the three maximum years 
on either side thereof, we get 



1858-59-60 
1865-60-67 
1869-70-71 



Wind 


Declination 


weather 


weather 


68-6 


640 


65-0 


51-8 


670 


63-5 



30 



KEPORT— 1888. 









Mag- 






Mag- 




Mag- 






Mag- ' 






Wind 


netic 




Wind 


netic 


Wind 


netic 




Wind 


netic 






Velocity 


Declina- 




Velocity 


Declina- 


Velocity 


Declina- 




Velocity 


Declina-. 








tion 


1862 




tion 






tion 






tion 


January 


1858 


81 


27 


84 


66 


1866 


88 


52 


1870 


88 


78 j 


February 




61 


52 




85 


44 




102 


79 




109 


01 


March 




95 


92 




90 


47 




56 


54 




53 


48 


AprU 




104 


94 




51 


88 




72 


45 




46 


48 


May 




68 


69 




57 


38 




84 


35 




80 


72 


June 




37 


79 




68 


34 




49 


17 




39 


54 


July 




49 


55 




44 


56 




46 


36 




48 


25 


August 




49 


24 




53 


83 




60 


44 




47 


54 


September 




76 


61 




76 


4S 




57 


66 




57 


105 


October 




62 


53 




59 


115 




41 


76 




53 


96 


November 




130 


39 




80 


43 




55 


31 




98 


66 


December 




96 


78 




82 


100 


1867 


80 


22 




65 


105 


January 


1859 


78 


58 


1863 


92 


70 


88 


33 


1871 


82 


35 


February 




68 


69 




46 


80 




82 


71 




73 


119 


March 




72 


37 




69 


52 




66 


41 




92 


79 


April 




82 


70 




79 


62 




75 


33 




40 


82 


May 




56 


46 




85 


36 




55 


52 




36 


56 


June 




45 


55 




49 


24 




59 


49 




41 


44 


July 




37 


41 




41 


60 




65 


30 




54 


39 


August 




59 


78 




41 


39 




45 


15 




44 


69 


September 




47 


118 




49 


80 




50 


49 




62 


32 


October 




45 


102 




92 


89 




47 


36 




65 


59 


November 




84 


81 




86 


71 




76 


29 




108 


70 


December 


1860 


78 


70 


1864 


67 


50 


1868 


75 


28 


1872 


69 
101 


29 


January 


89 


32 


89 


41 


110 


27 


25 


February 




64 


71 




75 


48 




70 


38 




42 


82 


March 




92 


81 




72 


66 




54 


87 




59 


47 


April 




116 


72 




56 


89 




93 


97 




73 


66 


May 




7% 


42 




49 


72 




71 


64 




54 


52 


Jime 




59 


91 




35 


87 




38 


31 




50 


46 


July 




43 


87 




56 


66 




63 


60 




44 


67 


August 




55 


84 




42 


56 




58 


69 




61 


95 


September 




64 


57 




57 


91 




94 


102 




63 


55 


October 




60 


47 




99 


87 




53 


108 




54 


178 


November 




50 


41 




62 


85 




82 


52 




100 


45 


December 




49 


53 




79 


61 




89 


23 
53 


1873 


69 


48 

1 


January 


1861 


88 


76 


1865 


102 


63 


1869 


111 


64 


98 


February 




80 


85 




60 


108 




97 


55 




111 


53 


March 




68 


72 




97 


54 




64 


66 




90 


69 


April 




70 


48 




56 


85 




78 


124 




63 


62 


May 




53 


28 




55 


72 


72 


73 




52 


31 


-June 




61 


41 




53 


54 


49 


38 




47 


57 


July 




51 


SO 




44 


67 




42 


56 




47 


47 


August 




33 


40 




49 


97 




48 


49 




36 


29 


September 




65 


33 




45 


63 




76 


89 




61 


32 


October 




69 


83 




45 


110 




76 


63 




77 • 


45 


November 




63 


'59 




94 


54 




59 


42 




86 


30 


1 December 




63 


76 




67 


14 




92 


56 




87 


— 



ON COMPAKING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 31 



Appendix II. Magnetic Dishbrbances at Fort Bae in 1882-83. 

At the International Polar Conference in Vienna, in the spring of 
1884, the subject of the treatment of magnetic disturbances was much 
discussed, but among the numerous schemes proposed none was univer- 
sally accepted, and the matter was left undecided. 

I have thought it worth while to make trial, on the observations of 
declination and horizontal intensity made at Fort Rae in 1882-83, of a 
method founded on that proposed by Dr. Wild, and the results obtaiaed 
will not, I hope, be without interest. 

From a comparison of lists of magnetically undisturbed days, supplied 
by most of the circumpolar stations, Dr. Wild selected from four to six 
days in each month, when the diurnal variation appeared to follow n 
normal course ; and the hourly means obtained from these days are given 
in the Fort Rae observations. When, however, these values are plotteii 
down they do not afford a very regular curve, because, though these day s 
are free from disturbance as a whole, a good many decidedly distui'bed 
observations are included. The readings for hours of magnetic distur- 
bances were therefore struck out, the question of disturbance beinLf 
decided by reference to the original observation-book, for, as nine obser- 
vations were taken at each hour, it was easy to see whether the instru- 
ments were steady or not. Rather under 4 per cent, of the readings 
were so struck out, and from the remainder a fairly satisfactory set of 
hourly mean values was obtained for each month. 

The mean of these values at any hour for any two adjacent months 
was then assumed to be the normal value at that hour on the middle dav 
of the two months. Thas, for example, the mean horizontal intensitv 
from the selected undisturbed days being, for January, at 11 a.m., '07653 ; 
for February, at the same hour, •07661 ; and for March, -07669 ; then the 
normal value for that hour was taken as "07657 on January 30, and •07665 
on March 2. 

Having thus obtained a set of hourly values at intervals of about a 
month, the values for the intermediate days were easily interpolated, an'l 
in this manner a normal value of declination and horizontal intensity was 
obtained for every hour of the year. 

By subtracting each of these values from the corresponding observed 
value the ' disturbance ' at each hour was obtained, sometimes with a + , 
sometimes with a — sign. These positive and negative disturbances weie 
then entered in separate sheets, and their means are given in the appended 
tables (I. — IV.) These means are obtained by dividing the sums of dis- 
turbance by the number of observations ; not by the number of -)- or — 
disturbances. 

In order to determine whether the larger and smaller disturbances 
foUow different laws the disturbances were classified according to their 
magnitude. Table V. shows the number of each class occurring at each 
hour. 

H. P. Dawson, Maj. B.A. 
April 20, 1887. 



32 



REPORT 1888. 



+ or Easterly Declination. 




1 --t^ t^irSiOOCSQOOiCOOt-O 




1 

1 
•r 

1=: 
1 


-S^TtfiOOCC-V-^-^TjiiCCCffO 


t!< 




5 


^O CQTt<«OTCSUSMTi(CQNi-l 




•^T-f OO»G00ilOMt-00CS«t> 




r- 

i 2 


r-* 




OD 


iaaDO(^»C00O»3Oi-<«?ia 


do 


O 
C4 


O 


^t-> iMCSeCi-'MINi-H'NiOC^CC 


<M 

i ^ 


-.cioo-*ir3T*<oosf-H«.cs.-<co 




CO 

o 

I-H 


OJ 


^'i::oorOTH!N<Nc^i-'C^cor-ic<» 


O 
CO 








cc 


^0(MI:*.----iCO<N<NC^-*i-HG^ 


I-« 


^W t- 00 c^ -^ !:; tt US CO CO u'3 eo 




1 ^ 


c 


^« i-<t-'^0«e»3.-«COCQr-"rH 


CO 


-Tt* -*b--«teOiOOOOb-GO«' 


t^ 

»» 


o 


to 


^C1r-(»--:r-r-t^r-.0.-.^rHCq 


Ah 


^C4 '<jteoeoo»ec>coaoiQcoco>o 

I-H 


lb 


CD 
CD 


if3 


^<M Ot^i-li-Hr-*.— "OrHi-tCNr-t 




^cc «*cococc-^co»o-*t*ooco 




03 


^ 


^m F-iCTlNOOi-iC^-^CCi-ti-. 


00 


^C^-*r-r?»:5O».t'C<<NC0U3C0 


CO 


eo 


ffC 


^L-r C^ (^ r-t ^ ffO N rj- M W CO CO 


o 


.^r- -^Cli-- -T'^CCCO.-ieOCOCO 


9 




<^^ 


^i«ecoo(Mr-iTj<m»ocQ»OTj('* 


as 

PS 


,.1-t C^WTjuOt-C^C^^NfMC^ 


C4 


i 


-^ 


^t^lOt-^f-HCOCQt-iOCOlO-* 


OS 


^r-H COCOU^Tt<i-'C^«— C4(NC0— ' 


CO 

04 


M 
t- 


§ 
o 

13 


^iftt-OTr-lWOfOCOCOrHOOCO 




^,-H(Ni-i«CCOeOC^r-«MC^r-iC-( 


C^ 


i*- 


s 


^ci eot*Nio»Ob»cscooacQio 

.— (N 1-1 t-H 




^OC^^CT'T*— .rir-^rtC^.-'(M 


^ 

^ 


-* 


o 


eo C4 .-I ^ f— W 




-.T-'N^C4<Nr-HfH»-HMOr-«i-( 


M 


TO 


Oi 


^O .-.cscccC'fj'eoecciiniocQ 

.— ( —1 C^ .-1 rH eo iM t-< C< C^ i-l 




^O i-lOf-*N^r-.i-..-(f-.r-.C: 


o 


£ 


ao 


%-. COi-».-"r»<Mi-<r-l1NCO,-t 


o 


^CC Wf-4r->r-<r-<«M — .— i— O 


ro 




t^ 


^r-^ i-.Mi-i'-'i-IClrHr-tC^C^i-t 


«5 


^.-H cq,-tC^c;-*cowcNc-)Mi-' 


OS 


CD 


,-ICO.-«.~f-"Mi-H---«,-lrH 


*? 

rf 


^w*i<'<i'coeoeoM'*CTiMo«w 




t-H 




1-H i-H N rH ,-t rH i-H 


OS 


^r-* COi-<«C^N<?<IO^r-<COTt 


ei3 


04 


~^^^^,-ir-l r-« i-li-t 


o 




04 




CO 


r-l (M 


T^ 


^O rj* "-' •* (?» CI CO i.-t. (M iC>C <N 




00 

o 


c<« 


^Ot 00i-''O'*C'5'^iO«>COCOTf 


lb 






c^ 


- 


^t*USCOCO'*-<^COCOiDiOMM 




^eot-coNttt-ocsb-i-it-ws 


OO 


CO 




H 

c: 
O 

c 




1 

1^ 




• 

CO 

i 


o 
42 'm 








September . 
October 
Novcmlier . 
December 
January 
February 
Marcb . 
April . 

June . 
July . 
August 


-5 o 

o 
So 

£ ?< 

|£ 


Septembfii- . 
October 
November 
December 
January 
Februtxry 
Marcli . 
April . 
May 
June . 
July . 
August 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERTATIONS. 



33 









O 
00 



Ci 






tq 



ca 



^ 


■« 






ts 


?^ 






a 


^' 


o 


^ 






!> 


^ 


.0 


■? 


tq 


+ 


95 




«.-) 




S 




e 




rO 




5» 




s 





CI^Hi— l'-<f-»'-<i-<t-Hi-HClC^i-H 
000000000000 



S-3 


.-HOOOOOOOO^OO 

000000000000 


t-- 





i-H 


COeMCOCCOO^Tpt^CQOCO.-" 
r-OO.-HO'-'OO'-'C^OrH 

000000000000 







i 





T)<T-(.-ICOCSOr-tClCOCOCOt^ 
1— 'Oi-HC^^C^^O'-H'— "i-iO 

000000000000 





GO 




ffO(Mt>.0^-c^tooooit^ai 

C^O'-'M—'CS'-'—'C-l '-"'-''-< 
0*00000000000 



OOOOOOOOOOOO* 



000000000000 



C«Wb-3S05M»0O»-<Oa0O 

000000000000 



*o 


000000000000 


3 




00 


'* 


'^■*COi-iOO.-'C^O>i3'-'-^'* 

000000000000 









CO 


Oooocot*'— 'TC«fflmoootM 
000000000000 


CO 







w 


.-tt^iO'^POC«COCCt*u3QOOO 

000000000000 


i 


s 



o 
o 



CJ^rHlMOerSTtfC^TfOiOb- 

000000000000 



cooou5aooo»acoc^'^b-"^ 
r-l,-ir-.,-iOOOO'— ■-« — >-< 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



C^O'-'OOOO OO'-'OO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



eoe<ie«i^«ot*o»co«oot^u5 

<NO(MOOOOOOrHOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



QOGoaiOC<»ocoeooseoi^^ 
MOC^OOOO'-^OOO'— 

c> 00000000000 



«D^OC1CDC0C0OC^C^'*'*0 

C^O— •0000'-''-<000 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



b-COt^O"*ON«30eo»2^ 
f-<00000000000 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



ior-eO"«i<'*CDCO>«QOOOib* 
i-iO'-'OooooO'-' 00 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



h-COCllft^t-i^OOCSOi— 1-^ 
Ot-'0000000'-«'--iO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



,-lOr-iOOOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



^HCoiow(Neocoooi>.<£>t't^ 
f-HOOOOooooc 00 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



« 


SSgS§S§5So§8 


i 


QO 




-^ 


OOOOOOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 




g 


s 





s 

a 



•g •- ^ ^ >. j; ^i 












u 




■*^ 









Tl 


> 



C^Ob-COCOiO-t*C»3CC?3-^Oq 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



c^FHCiOOr-focooocs-^oo 
eoi>»occco— 'O'Tfit^cooeQ 

Oi-trHOO'-l.-lOOOOO 





C-1xOtJ«0»00*C)»000"*US"* 
"^CiCO?0(nr-t~-Wiairtrf<CO 

OOt-HOOOOOOOOO 


CO 




Oi-too 00000000 


00 



rHTfeot-'i'aiaoojotooiQO 

CqOOCOt-H"— ".— iCO'T^C^— 'C^O 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



C^0l»«.-.0>-t— '1— IO-HC>»0 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



COtHC. eOOOOirHCSOOOwS 
O.-l-«*<r->OC0O.-<.-.^C0O 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 






Cq"*t^t^CO00Cfl^Q0CD(M-* 

O0c0000 0.-«0 0<-l0 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 


g 


T-Hocit'iofOcoc^ot-oeo 

g§§g§§S5SS2§ 


CO 







(NMb-00»'MC^OOCO-f<t~(N 

OOC^OOOC: 00000 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 


s 




uSCOOOC'liat-i.-lift'-trHmO 

ggsggggggggg 


g 


-^HT*H»0l-t-CQ-^G0C^C1-*O 
OOr-iOO'-'OOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 




§ 



s 

■§ 

•iS> 

g 

•pi 



eO"^eOOaatOb-Me050iOC^ 

O"— tC^'— 'O-— '0<— tOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 



c■^olco^-c^l-'CiOi^ocooco 

OO'—Of-'t-'OOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 


01 







»ocoooeoasoocoicooo»ous 
»-to»af-ic^coc^c^Oi— 'C^o 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



■»s<OQO'o^cicoci^o<r>c» 
,-(cocDcoroairj<c-(.-te'»eD(M 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 






cooi«ooou30-*McO"^e« 

.— IMOO'^J^-^CICOG^NOQOCO 
OOOOOi-iOOOOOO 


CO 




ci-^i^t^oo't'OcoasMco 

C^'iJHCsuaiO'-'QO'^COOTOig 
00000r-0000--"0 






CJC5COiO*.'5r- CDCO'*t-'*0O 

usm'j'Oh-oooocDcooios-^ 

OOr-<OOOOOOOOC> 



■^t-iO<ncOCBCONeO'-*ffOO 
■^COI— «OCOOOOCOCOO>t^2? 

OOi-lOOOi-lOOOOO* 



COt-f-^OO-^OOOCOiOi-iO 
OOrHOOOO 00000 



Or-HCOaSlOCOi— 'C1«00(?^.-H 


CO 




b^OCXJCO-^O-^CDOtOOW 
Or=J^OOOOOOOOO 


00 
CO 










t^«oom>-H^C5(Ni-<«2t-eo 

Sf^^OO^OOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 

gooooooooooo 



gs 

■e ° 

ST o 

MO 



> o 






H 



1888. 



3 


4 














KEPOKT 


— 1 


sy» 




























Table III 


. — Daily 


Means 




i 


September 


October 


1 
November 


Decemeek 


January 


February 




B. or 

+ 


W.OT 


rotal 


1 

E. or W.or' 

+ - 


rotal 


E. ori 

+ 


(V.or 


rotal 


E. or w.or' 
+ - 


1 
rotal E. or 
+ 

7 'Z 


W.or 


rotal 


E. or 

+ 


SV.or 


rotal 




1 


/ 


1 





i 


/ 

9 


10* 


7 


4 


11 


/ 
4 


/ 

3 


2 


1 
6 


15 


6 


21 




2 


— 


— 


— 


22 


11 


33 


3 


5 


8 


1 


4 


5 


3 


1 


4» 


23 


7 


30 




3 


— 





_ 


2 


6 


8 


5 


1 


6 


1 


4 


5 


4 





4* 


18 


9 


27 




4 


1 


7 


8 


8 


3 


11 


4 


1 


5« 


9 


6 


15 


2 


6 


8 


9 


8 


17 




6 


11 


3 


14 


20 


11 


31 


3 


2 


5 





6 


6 


1 


4 


5 


5 


4 


9 




6 


11 


5 


16 


10 


5 


15 


5 


1 


6 


1 


3 


4* 


12 


3 


15 


12 


2 


14 




7 


— 


— 


— 


1 


2 


3 


16 


2 


18 


1 


3 


4 


16 


5 


21 


1 


2 


3» 




8 


— 


— 


— 





5 


5 


8 


1 


9 





5 


5* 


3 


4 


7 


2 


2 


4» 




9 


8 


1 


9 


3 


7 


10 


20 


1 


21 


4 


6 


10 


7 


4 


11 


1 


7 


8 




10 


8 


1 


9 


8 


6 


14 


4 





4* 


5 


5 


10 





4 


4 


2 


1 


3» 




11 


14 


3 


17 


4 


S 


9 


10 





10* 


4 


6 


10 


3 


2 


5» 


1 


2 


3*. 




12 


11 


6 


16 


1 


4 


5 


20 


8 


28 


4 


4 


8 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2* 




13 


13 


1 


14 


1 


4 


5 


44 


4 


48 


1 


4 


5 


3 


2 


5» 





2 


2»< 




14 


13 


2 


15 


11 


2 


13 


38 


9 


47 





2 


2» 


1 


2 


3 


8 


2 


10 




15 


6 





6 


18 


2 


20 


12 


13 


25 


3 


7 


10' 


8 


3 


11 


2 


2 


4 




16 


4 


2 


6* 


4 


« 


12 


2 


10 


12 


G 


12 


18 


3 


3 


3 


5 





5 




17 


4 





4 


10 


2 


12 


42 


29 


71 


2 


1 


3 


13 


2 


15 


7 


1 


g 




18 


6 


1 


7 


1 


4 


5 


33 


4 


37 


1 


6 


7 


3 


3 


6 


3 


2 


5 




19 


4 


1 


6 


2 


1 


3» 


38 


8 


46 


3 


2 


S 


3 


3 


6 


1 


2 


3 




20 


3 


1 


4 





1 


1* 


36 


9 


45 


30 


5 


35 


8 


8 


16 


9 


1 


10 




21 


3 


1 


4 


1 


3 


4» 


28 


11 


39 


17 


2 


19 


6 


2 


8 


4 


5 


9 




22 


4 


1 


6 


10 


6 


16 


5 


2 


7 


7 


5 


12 


4 


3 


7 


23 


4 


27 




23 


10 





10 


6 


4 


10 


13 


4 


17 


6 


5 


11 


2 


2 


49 


12 


5 


17 




24 


3 


8 


11 


6 


7 


13 


5 


6 


11 


12 


6 


18 


3 


5 


8 


30 


14 


44 




25 


13 


1 


14 


10 


3 


13 


24 


3 


27 


4 


3 


7 


16 


3 


19 


8 


4 


12 




26 


5 


8 


13 


3 


3 


6 


13 


2 


15 


3 


2 


5 


12 


5 


17 


7 


3 


10 




27 


9 


1 


10 


5 


5 


10 


3 


4 


7 


3 


5 


8 


7 


5 


12 


26 


4 


30 




28 


4 





4 


18 


2 


20 


4 


4 


8 


4 


4 


8 


1 


5 


6 


19 


4 


23 




29 


6 


3 


9* 


7 


1 


8 





3 


3* 


10 


6 


16 


2 


2 


4 


— 


— 


— 




30 


2 


4 


6* 


10 





10 


4 


6 


10 


7 


4 


11 


1 


6 


7 


— 


— 


— 




31 


- 


— 


— 


4 


1 


5» 
11 


— 


— 


— 


7 


5 


12 


2 


5 


7 


— 


— 


— 




Mean 


7 


2 


9 


7 


4 


15 


5 


20 


5 


5 


10 


5 


3 


8 


9 


4 


13 














St 
0( 
N 
D 
Ji 
F< 


ptem 
rtober 
oveml 
eccmb 
nuarj 
>bruai 


ber . 

)er . 
er . 

y 




• 


.' 1, 


I 
J 2 
1 4 
) 5 
) S 
) 3 
) 4 


1 

•2 

1 

1 


3 
1 
1 

t 
B 
3 













N.B.— Days maiked (•) are those 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 
of Disturbance. Declination. 



35 



March 


Apbil 


May 


June 


July 


AuGnsT 


E. or 


W.or 


Total 


E. or 


W.or 


Total 


E. or 


W.or 


Total 


E. or 


W.or 


Total 


E. 01 


W.or 


Total 


E. or 


W.or 


Total 


+ 






+ 


~ 




+ 


~~ 




+ 


— 




+ 


— 




+ 


— 




23 


1 
5 


28 


2 


4 


6 


4 


3 


/ 
7 


/ 
6 


1 
6 


12 


15 


1 
9 


24 


13 


I'o 


23 


23 


9 


32 


4 


5 


9 


10 


2 


12 


16 


7 


23 


1 


5 


6 


i 


1 


5 


11 


3 


14 


19 


7 


26 


3 


3 


6 


8 


3 


11 


9 


4 


13 


4 


1 


5 


5 


2 


7 


11 


4 


15 


4 


4 


8 


7 


1 


8» 


5 


5 


10 


2 


1 


3* 


V 


1 


7 


8 


4 


12 


2 


6 


8 


4 


1 


5» 


9 


6 


15 


8 


8 


16 


2 


6 


8 


3 


2 


5 


3 


6 


9 


14 


4 


18 


2 


4 


6 


15 


7 


22 


B 


9 


15 


1 


5 


6 


1 


1 


2 


5 


2 


7 


9 


7 


16 


6 


7 


13 


7 


8 


15 


7 


3 


10 


4 


2 


6 


8 


4 


12 


6 


8 


14 


6 


2 


8 


6 


1 


7 


4 


3 


7 


2 


2 


4» 


12 


2 


14 


2 


5 


7 


2 





2* 


8 


1 


9 


2 


4 


6» 


1 


2 


3» 


4 


6 


10 


6 


3 


9 


2 


6 


8* 


5 





6* 


2 


4 


6 


3 


1 


4» 


3 


3 


6» 


5 


3 


8 


8 


2 


10 


4 


3 


7 


4 


2 


6 


1 


2 


3* 


5 


3 


8 


6 


2 


8 


4 


1 


5 


9 


3 


12 


3 


4 


7 


4 


7 


11* 


2 


3 


5 


10 


1 


11 


4 


2 


6 


12 


1 


13 





2 


2* 


3 


2 


5 


6 





G 


15 


3 


18 


4 


5 


9 


2 


2 


4* 


3 


5 


8 


4 


4 


8* 


1 


3 


4» 


16 


S 


24 


3 


2 


5 


2 


I 


3 


1 


5 


6 


8 


6 


14 


3 


13 


16 


10 


8 


18 


3 


1 


4» 


1 


2 


3« 





3 


3» 


4 


4 


8 


13 


7 


20 


3 


3 


6 


4 


1 


5* 


2 


2 


4 


4 


15 


19 


3 


4 


7 


10 


11 


21 


12 


10 


22 


17 


5 


22 


1 


3 


4* 


14 


19 


33 


3 


2 


5 


6 


6 


12 


4 


7 


11 


3 


1 


4 


4 


5 


9» 


12 


2 


14 


6 


8 


14 


3 


8 


11 


2 


3 


5 


3 


1 


4 


11 


7 


18 


2 


1 


3» 


23 


8 


31 


2 


2 


4 





3 


3» 


4 


1 


5 


11 


10 


21 


2 


1 


3» 


8 


6 


14 


12 


10 


22 


1 


2 


3» 


4 


4 


8 


4 


6 


10 


1 


2 


3» 


8 


1 


9 


10 


5 


15 


2 


8 


10* 


5 


3 


8 


1 


6 


7 


13 


11 


24 


5 


2 


7 


6 


2 


8 


11 


11 


22 


7 


2 


9 


2 


6 


8 


7 


6 


13 


3 


1 


4 


12 


1 


13 


4 


3 


7 


3 


1 


4 


6 


7 


12 


8 


4 


12 


8 


2 


10 


21 


3 


24 


11 


d 


16 


2 


2 


4 


32 


6 


38 


8 


1 


9 


7 


4 


11 


16 


7 


23 


4 


2 


6 


2 


2 


4 


11 


6 


17 


4 


2 


6 


6 


3 


9 


10 


1 


11 


2 


1 


3» 


2 


2 


4 


15 


3 


20 


8 


1 


9 


8 


1 


9 


7 


5 


12 


1 


17 


18* 


5 


5 


10 


3 


5 


8 


8 


2 


10 


5 


7 


12 


15 


8 


23 


22 


12 


34 


1 


2 


3 


6 


5 


11 


— 


— 


— 


4 


4 


8 


— 


— 


— 


22 


15 


37 





4 

4 


4» 


8 


4 


12 


6 


4 


10 


5 


4 


9 


8 


5 


13 


7 


6 


13 


5 


3 


8 



Jlarch 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 



selected as unJisturbed by Dr. Wild. 



Jlean 



8 


4 


12 


6 


4 


10 


5 


4 


•.1 


8 


5 


13 


7 


6 


13 


5 


3 


s 


7 


4 


11 



D 2 



36 



KEPOBT 1888. 



















Table 


IV. 


— Daily 


Means c 


fl> 


isturhance. 


1 


September 


October 


KOTEMBKI! 


December 


Jaxcabt 


Febuuaky 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 
031* 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 
030 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 








■00O06 


025 


006 


036 


(M2 


009 


021 


008 


038 


046 


015 


068 


083 


2 






_ 


034 


108 


142 


028 


008 


036 


009 


008 


017 


003 


023 


026* 


022 


159 


181 


3 






_ 


006 


036 


042 


Oil 


Oil 


022 


014 


012 


026 


001 


022 


023" 


016 


067 


083 


4 




_ 


_ 


■006 


106 


112 


Oil 


002 


013* 


010 


066 


076 


Oil 


017 


028 


021 


059 


080 


5 


■00044 


034 


078 


016 


136 


152 


039 


002 


041 


002 


021 


023 


025 


003 


028 


023 


034 


057 


6 


026 


042 


068 


Oil 


116 


127 


019 


003 


022 


007 


007 


014* 


015 


048 


063 


009 


060 


069 


7 


039 


022 


061 


003 


012 


015 


015 


029 


044 


004 


013 


019 


016 


110 


126 


007 


003 


010* 


8 


093 


027 


120 


006 


007 


013 


020 


038 


058 


004 


017 


021» 


015 


039 


054 


003 


015 


ei3« 


9 


129 


008 


137 


017 


034 


051 


007 


088 


095 


019 


027 


046 


012 


026 


038 


027 


003 


030 


10 


010 


035 


045 


009 


045 


054 


004 


007 


Oil* 


005 


012 


017 


020 


002 


022 


004 


010 


014* 


11 


007 


044 


051 


010 


041 


051 


013 


059 


072* 


021 


053 


074 


004 


004 


008» 


004 


012 


016* 


12 


023 


055 


078 


003 


025 


028 


021 


140 


161 


008 


041 


049 


006 


009 


014 


002 


009 


Oil* 


13 


018 


037 


055 


002 


016 


018 


018 


187 


205 


004 


006 


010 


003 


020 


0239 


007 


005 


012« 


14 


019 


041 


060 


009 


076 


085 


062 


140 


202 


005 


004 


009* 


003 


008 


Oil 


010 


042 


052 


15 


008 


030 


038 


007 


098 


105 


016 


048 


064 


056 


010 


066» 


004 


039 


043 


014 


010 


024 


16 


007 


017 


024* 


044 


059 


103 


034 


041 


075 


012 


057 


069 


003 


037 


OlO 


001 


036 


037 


17 


007 


010 


017 


018 


034 


052 


020 


349 


369 


012 


009 


021 


O06 


073 


081 


Oil 


040 


051 


18 


008 


013 


021 


003 


020 


023 


015 


126 


141 


008 


038 


046 


009 


039 


048 


012 


Oil 


023 


19 


015 


003 


018 


000 


016 


016* 


004 


365 


369 


007 


031 


038 


001 


029 


030 


004 


002 


006 


20 


027 


009 


036 


001 


007 


008=' 


057 


212 


269 


015 


197 


212 


014 


074 


088 


Oil 


081 


092 


21 


007 


004 


Oil 


003 


017 


020* 


004 


085 


089 


013 


085 


098 


003 


046 


049 


026 


017 


043 


22 


009 


009 


018 


025 


049 


074 


000 


012 


012 


008 


061 


069 


004 


032 


036 


029 


129 


158 


23 


006 


042 


048 


002 


092 


094 


001 


105 


106 


004 


050 


054 


002 


033 


035* 


021 


053 


074 


24 


018 


021 


ose^s 


007 


069 


076 


023 


041 


064 


004 


097 


101 


015 


014 


029 


019 


170 


189 


25 


019 


052 


071 


017 


054 


071 


033 


111 


144 


001 


039 


040 


013 


073 


086 


014 


077 


091 


26 


013 


061 


074 


012 


032 


044 


Oil 


055 


066 


018 


016 


034 


028 


060 


088 


022 


034 


056 


27 


021 


032 


053 


017 


051 


068 


006 


038 


044 


019 


002 


021 


040 


040 


080 


051 


120 


171 


28 


003 


017 


020 


022 


068 


090 


014 


032 


04« 


032 


036 


068 


015 


009 


024 


026 


127 


153 


29 


006 


047 


053» 


022 


063 


085 


003 


015 


018» 


025 


062 


087 


002 


021 


023 


— 


— 


— 


30 


004 


021 


025» 


006 


035 


041 


014 


016 


030 


017 


031 


048 


010 


016 


026 


— 


— 


— 


31 


— 


- 


— 


012 


022 


034 


— 


— 


— 


019 


034 


053 


008 


020 


028 


— 


— 


— 


Mean 


022 


028 


060 


012 


051 


063 


018 


073 


091 


013 


038 


051 


010 


033 


043 


016 


052 


068 




























, . _ 













September 

October 

TS'ovember 

December 

January 

February 

llarcli 



022 


•00028 


•0005 1> 


012 


051 


06H 


018 


073 


091 


013 


038 


(151 


010 


033 


(143 


016 


052 


068 


013 


045 


058 



K.B. — Days marked (*) are- 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 

Horizontal Intensity. C. G. 8. Units. 



37 



ILiHCH 


Apkil 


5LA.Y 


JUXE 


July 


August 


+ 


- 


ToUl 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 


+ 


- 


Total 
123 


019 


119 


138 


005 


014 


019 


035 


038 


073 


036 


038 


074 


022 


093 


115 


037 


086 


019 


108 


127 


009 


048 


057 


027 


041 


068 


034 


079 


113 


010 


024 


034 


018 


016 


034 


016 


fl41 


057 


027 


046 


073 


828 


027 


055 


007 


030 


037 


031 


047 


078 


015 


026 


041 


016 


033 


049 


008 


065 


073 


019 


020 


039 


007 


019 


026* 


019 


022 


041 


004 


009 


013* 


013 


019 


032 


016 


049 


065 


015 


020 


035 


009 


007 


016* 


055 


053 


108 


015 


045 


060 


023 


032 


055 


002 


027 


029 


010 


033 


043 


047 


088 


135 


020 


007 


027 


040 


071 


111 


013 


047 


060 


Oil 


005 


016 


010 


004 


014 


034 


006 


040 


010 


036 


046 


026 


035 


061 


029 


050 


079 


005 


040 


045 


018 


021 


039 


021 


040 


061 


022 


024 


044 


010 


020 


030 


015 


■028 


043 


004 


022 


026 


010 


010 


020* 


015 


049 


064 


019 


010 


029 


003 


010 


013» 


0«9 


031 


040 


021 


013 


034» 


012 


005 


017* 


022 


017 


039 


034 


028 


062 


024 


018 


042* 


001 


024 


025» 


006 


027 


033 


017 


027 


044* 


012 


012 


024* 


039 


043 


082 


018 


026 


044 


010 


055 


065 


002 


030 


032 


006 


009 


015» 


Oil 


026 


037 


004 


034 


038 


005 


018 


023 


008 


037 


045 


009 


031 


040 


033 


014 


047* 


026 


024 


050 


014 


051 


065 


008 


018 


026 


007 


052 


059 


006 


007 


013* 


009 


009 


018 


008 


019 


027 


003 


071 


074 


050 


018 


063 


004 


018 


022* 


019 


023 


042 


010 


021 


031 » 


012 


009 


021« 


028 


084 


112 


017 


003 


020 


006 


Oil 


017 


007 


019 


026 


018 


024 


042 


033 


006 


039 


0311 


054 


084 


Oil 


000 


Oil* 


006 


009 


014* 


004 


009 


013* 


045 


Oil 


096 


031 


082 


113 


012 


010 


022 


01 


006 


016* 


004 


020 


024 


030 


050 


080 


008 


021 


029 


037 


065 


102 


023 


095 


118 


053 


061 


114 


004 


004 


008* 


017 


108 


126 


Oil 


051 


062 


024 


041 


065 


046 


025 


070 


012 


012 


024 


009 


013 


022* 


010 


043 


053 


021 


065 


086 


043 


024 


067 


001 


027 


028 


013 


Oil 


024 


018 


067 


085 


006 


006 


012* 


045 


133 


178 


010 


Oil 


021 


002 


017 


019» 


022 


009 


031 


014 


084 


098 


002 


009 


Oil* 


032 


055 


087 


015 


047 


062 


008 


014 


022* 


026 


025 


051 


014 


039 


053 


005 


005 


010» 


009 


023 


032 


040 


034 


074 


Oil 


021 


032* 


018 


041 


059 


010 


-010 


020 


020 


032 


052 


012 


042 


054 


017 


009 


026 


039 


042 


081 


Oil 


060 


071 


001 


034 


035 


021 


061 


082 


016 


016 


032 


020 


034 


054 


014 


027 


041 


004 


014 


018 


023 


035 


060 


040 


037 


077 


012 


036 


048 


007 


075 


082 


030 


063 


093 


006 


013 


019 


019 


166 


185 


019 


047 


066 


035 


028 


063 


051 


102 


153 


008 


023 


031 


005 


006 


on 


016 


054 


070 


Oil 


010 


021 


0O7 


058 


06d 


009 


027 


036 


014 


010 


024* 


Oil 


014 


025 


025 


067 


092 


012 


024 


036 


006 


031 


037 


025 


016 


041 


021 


049 


070* 


022 


029 


051 


010 


030 


040 


015 


032 


047 


019 


032 


051 


037 


104 


141 


061 


116 


177 


009 


003 


012 


013 


052 


065 


012 


— 


— 


017 


019 


036 


— 


— 


— 


020 


141 


161 


009 


006 


01 5» 


013 


045 


058 


031 


043 


019 


031 


050 


023 


038 


061 


022 044 


066 


017 


024 


041 




April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 

lleau .... 


•00012 -00031 
019 031 
023 038 
022 044 
017 024 


•00043 
050 
061 
0«6 
041 






■00016 -00041 


■l«)057 




selecti 


Bd as 1 


inftistn 


rhedl 


jy Dr 


Wild. 



























38 



REPORT 1888. 



-§ 






o 

I. 

■^ re: 



e 


5ti 


1 


S 






<11 


K 




^ 


fi 


« 




5^ 


s? 


o 


e 


^ 


^ 


e 




ai 


e 

S 


O 


M 


-W 




«1 


1 


«o 




^ 


O 


«i 


nC 


■<?^ 




g 


W 


^ 


0) 


=rj 




t-^ 


8 


S 


"¥1 




^ 


ir^ 


w 


1 


rO 
O 


o 


as 


t> 




"^ 






W 


V 


rJ^ 


^ 


5- 


hO 


^ 


g 


CO 


s 






R 


o 


^ 




J. 




■u 




rO 




s 




» 




K 




h<a 




« 




•+i 




O 




bH 








CO ffO O t* C» -rtt 
CS ^ rH f 00 t- 
ft m CO O t^ »« 



^ a 



Tf ai tH CO m <:d 



t^ CD "S ■* CS O 
CO CO >-< t-~ "5 PO 

<0 C3 CD i-H I— I 



«— • t^ CO »0 ^H OS 



! 00 »a OS o i-H o 



O ■«*< 00 O r- 

us OS 00 I— ( 
CQ CD OS 



o o c C o 

-*3 ^ *J +J "-^ 



' ^ c o o o 



-.->a -^ .1,) 4- 



; CDr-. ,— -H 



o o o o ** 
iH I- t. t- A 



O (M t* O M 
Oi O US !>• «a 
«> t- 00 CQ i-H 



o oeoo -* 




CO U5 i^ CO CO 
CO Tp CO c^ ^ 


O O t*i-i CO 


s 


00 O 00 CD CO 
(T^ Tj* TI* O* rH 


O O tn C» 00 


CD 


— OS ooot* 


O C^ OO >— 1 OS 


CD 
CD 


OS t- -^^ 1-H -^ 
l?4 M (71 1-4 


O C^ OS CO CO 
CO ■* TH 


1 


O lO CO ■* ■* 

CO 1— ' t-H 


Or- -* ,-< W 
CO CO O 


CO 


o l-H eo i-H "^ 
M l-l I-< 


M* CO ui 


s 


OS T(< t*o c^ 


O ■^ W 00 »H 

1-1 »f3 TJ" « 


CO 


t^ lO t- i-H l-H 


OCO Tf CO 00 

t-H ■^ lO CO 


CO 


00 CO c<i cq o 


fH t» OS t^o 


00 

r-t 


f-H C-1 CO o o 


O W 1- CO '(it 
CO iQ to 


s 


i-< «3 '•Jt rH O 


^" O rH OS CO OS 
5!S rH TH '^ 


Ol 


OrH TjtTH t-H 
CO rH 


1 «*^sg 


CO 


00 OS CO (N O 

^IrH 


'^ r-l « 


15 


SSS"" 


':s r-r (N coooco 


C4 
OS 


C» b- lO «3 CO 
-* CO CO l-H 


Eq ^""^S5 


2 


O ■^ 00 c^ t- 


rrf O i-H -^f CO »0 


CO 
CO 


CO ■* Mi-H M 
CO -^ coco f-« 


O O CI t* OS 

CO 


1 


iOf-< OS t^co 

CO «S (>- CO 


O rH l« O CS 


M 


•-I OS b- -^ CO 
CO «3 coco t-H 


o »-( c» io r^ 

1-H CO 


CD 

o 


t^-<*< OS oos 
CO CO U3 CO 


O O iC CO in 




oj w. 00 coco 
■* -^ coc^ 


O C -^ OS o 


Ift 


00 t^CO ■* IT* 

CO Tj« UO C^ I-> 


O Or-" i-H (M 
l-H CO 


-J. 

rH 


O T^OCO CO 
CO -^ cocq r- 


°=>"SS 


CO 

CO 


00 GO CO CO >-< 
WCO COCOrH 



Mw« I'- -'J '-^ 

»0 O O O' d 

o o 9 --o 

:l- r O C O 

O *J *^ -*3 -*3 

C5 CO t-H a OO 

00 <30 OS r— CO 
1.^ CO « .r^ — 1 



Pi-pH t-t- 
-Mj .lO + 



CO CD i-H CO • 
CO t^ OS CO 
O O — CO 

o o o o 
o o o o . 

o o o o 

•4J 4.;) 4-1 .(J 

O OS I-- (N CO 
CJ CO b- OS CO 

O O O I— I TO 

o o o o o 
o o o o o 



5 S S 3 A 

poop' 
-TfT ^o- 



ON STANDAKUS OF LIGHT. 39 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr. Forbes 
(Secretary), Captain Abney, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Professor W. G. 
Adams, Professor Gr. C. Foster, Lord Eayleigh, Mr. Preece, 
Professor Schuster, Professor Dewar, Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt, 
Ml-. H. Trueman Wood, Sir James Douglass, Professor H. B. 
Dixon, and Mr. Dibdin, appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on Standards of Light. 

The Committee, which has now been in existence for four years, has at 
length arrived at certain definite conclusions as to the value of the dif- 
ferent standards of light at present available. These conclusions have 
been arrived at mainly as the result of a large number of experiments 
undertaken by various members of the Committee. 

The experiments of the past year are added to this report in the form 
of two appendices. The first contains an extensive series of experiments 
which have been tabulated, showing the relative constancy of the follow- 
ing proposed standards : — 

1. Ordinary candles made by Messrs. Millei. 

2. Ordinary candles made by Messrs. Brecknell and Turner. 

3. Spei-m candles, of six to the pound, of larger diameter, made by 

Messrs. Miller. 

4. The Pentane Standard. 

5. The Pentane Lamp. 

6. The Amyl-acetate Lamp. • 

The other appendix relates to some experiments carried on with 
a view to making platinum heated to its melting-point a practical 
standard. 

The Committee wishes to state that the result of all its experi- 
ments has been to confirm the conclusions arrived at by Mr. Dibdin in 
his report to the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1887. 

Your Committee, in making its final report, is anxious to draw atten- 
tion to a number of conclusions which will now be treated in order :— 

(1) The present standard candle, as defined by Act of Parliament, is 
not worthy, in the present state of science, of being called a standard, 
and does not meet the practical requirements of those whose duty it is to 
test illuminants. The objections to the candle as a standard are so 
numerous, and most of them are so well understood, that space need not 
be taken up now in repeating them. It will suffice to say that the sper- 
maceti employed is not a definite chemical substance and is mixed with 
other materials, and the constitution of the wick is not su.fficiently well- 
defined, so that so-called standard candles, conforming to the definitions 
of the Act of Parliament, can be made which vary largely in illuminating 
power. The Committee wishes to add the important observation, which 
has been incontestably proved by the independent observations of dif- 
ferent members of the Committee, that the illuminating power of a 
candle in a closed photometer, or in any small, ill-ventilated room, is 
considerably less than in an ordinary room, 

That which forces itself upon the attention of any one who attempts 
to determine the value of any source of light by comparison with standard 
candles is the fluctuation fi'om minute to minute, which is due to the 
varying length and form of the wick and the filling and emptying of the 



40 EEPOET— 1888. 

cup of the candle accordiDg to the movement of the surrounding air. 
But these variations are to some extent neutralised by taking the average 
of many testings. A source of error, which is at once less easily recog- 
nised and more grave in its practical result, is the change in the average 
value of the standard candle, which is due to the improvements made 
from time to time in the manufacture of spermaceti. The manufacturer 
aims at separating as perfectly as possible the solid parts of his crude 
material, which constitute spermaceti, from the liquid parts which form 
sperm oil. To obtain as muf^h oil and as ' dry ' a spermaceti as possible is 
the object sought, and we are informed by one of the principal manufac- 
turers of sperm candles that within the last ten years considerable im- 
provements have been made in the process by which the sepai'ation is 
effected. As a consequence of the use in the making of standard candles 
of a drier sperm, it has been found necessary to provide them with 
thicker wicks, in order that the required rate of consumption may be 
maintained. Probably the drier sperm has a higher melting-point and 
furnishes a less limpid liquid. A thicker wick means less light for a 
given consumption ; and thus the result of the improvements in sperma- 
ceti has been that standard candles give less light than they gave ten 
years ago, and probably still less light than they gave at an earlier date, 
when the average consumption of a sperm candle of six to the pound was 
140 grs. per hour. 

(2) Professor Violle's standard of molten platinum is, in the opinion 
of the Committee, not a practical standard of light. On this point your 
Committee is anxious to have it understood that it is quite prepared to 
agree to the adoption of the light emitted by a square centimetre of 
molten platinum as a unit of light, but not as a standard of light. Hence, 
in its recommendation, it is not challenging the conclusions arrived at by 
the International Congress of Electricians. The experiments detailed in 
the second appendix to this report confirm the Committee iu its belief 
that there is no means at present known by which molten platinum can 
be used practically as a standard. In fact, a comparison of Violle's unit 
with any standard could be made only with great labour and but rarely. 
Violle's unit not having been universally adopted, your Committee would 
not propose to change the name of the unit hitherto in use, but would 
call it a standard candle, giving it that value which appears to have been 
intended by the Legislature, and was used in the adjustment of the 
Pentane standard. 

(3) There seems unfortunately no prospect of any reliable electric 
standard of light being constructed. In the report of 1885 your Com- 
mittee delayed making a definite recommendation until further informa- 
tion should be gained by experiment about the laws of radiation from 
carbon heated by an electric current. The information gained since then 
has led it to believe that but little help is to be gained from this quarter. 
Some of the reasons are given in the report of 1886 ; others are the 
variation in light by the blackening of the glass bulbs in which the 
carbons are enclosed, and by the wasting of the carbon filaments. Also 
the amount of radiation from carbon depends upon its surface and upon 
the treatment to which it has been subjected. 

(4) The Amyl-acetate standard is Yery constant, but its red colour is 
a serious objection to its use. This conclusion has been arrived at as the 
result of a very large number of experiments in the hands of the Com- 
mittee. The following experiments by the Committee show this well : — 



ON STANDABDS OF LIGHT. 41 

The Amyl-acetate lamp was compared witli the Standard Pentane 
^ame by placing the two equidistant from the screen. The flame of the 
Amyl-acetate lamp was set at a height of 45 mm., and an observer 
watching the two halves of the screen turned up and down the Pentane 
flame until he judged the screen to be equally illuminated by the two 
lights. The Amyl-acetate lamp gave a distinctly redder light than the 
Pentane flame. In comparing the two lights four observers obtained 
results which were appreciably different, each result being constantly 
obtained in successive readings by the same observer. Two observers 
made the light from the Amyl-acetate flame exactly equal to the normal 
Pentane flame of 6S^ mm. ; a third observer made the Amyl-acetate flame 
equal to a Pentane flame of 63 mm. ; and a fourth made it equal to a 
Pentane flame of 62^ mm. 

On raising the Amyl-acetate flame to 50 mm. the same differences in 
the estimation of the two coloured flames were found, but the change in 
height of 5 mm. in the Amyl-acetate flame was compensated by a change 
in height of 2 mm. in the Pentane flame. 

(5) The Pentane standard of Mr. Vernon Harcourt is reliable and 
convenient, and fulfils all the conditions required in the adoption of a 
standard of light. This standard attains this end by its having no wick 
and consuming a material of definite chemical composition. The experi- 
ments of your Committee also show that the light was not altered when 
the specific gravity of the pentane was "632 or "628, instead of the specified 
"value of -630. 

(6) Your Committee is not of opinion that the Pentane standard is 
the only one which can be made possessing the necessary qualifications, 
but it is the only one which has come under its notice, and it wishes most 
earnestly to urge the importance of undertaking such action as is possible 
to ensure the immediate rejection by the Board of Trade of the Parlia- 
Tuentary candle as a standard, and the adoption in all future work of the 
Pentane standard. 

(7) Your Committee wishes further to draw attention to the following : 

Appendix I. 

Photometric comparison of Candles, the Pentane Standard, the New Pentane 
Lamp, and the Amyl-acetate Lamp. 

By the courtesy of Mr. Dibdin and the Metropolitan Board of Works 
the testing-room at Spring Gardens was placed at the disposal of the 
■Committee for conducting experiments. The photometer employed was a 
four-way one designed by Mr. Dibdin, the standard source of light in the 
centre being a portion of the flame of an argand burning coal gas enriched 
bj passing over pentane. This central flame was kept at a height of 
about 3 inches, and only light from the middle of the flame was allowed 
to fall on the photometer discs. In a preliminary series of experiments 
made in January 1888 it was found that the light proceeding from the 
central burner along each of the four photometer bars was equal. The 
^ttings and measurements of all parts of the photometer were also care- 
fully verified by the Committee. 

It was decided that the actual tests should be performed by two of 
the official gas-testers in the service of the Metropolitan Board. Messrs. 
■G. W. "Wood and R. Grimwood were selected by Mr. Dibdin to carry out 
the work, which tbey performed in a most careful and satisfactory manner. 



42 KEPORT— 1 888. 

Mr. Livingston kindly undertook to chronicle and keep the records of 
the experiments made, and also assist in the testings, and to him the Com- 
mittee is beholden for the very considerable trouble he took on its behalf. 
The experiments were conducted as follows: — The central flame 
being adjusted, one observer made a determination of its illuminating 
power by candles in the first arm and by the Pentane lamp in the second 
arm, making the I'eadings alternately. At the same time the second 
observer made a determination of the illuminating power of the central 
burner by the Amyl-acetate lamp in the thii'd arm and by the Pentane 
standard in the fourth arm, also making the readings alternately. The- 
observers changed positions after each set of observations. The candle 
readings were corrected in the usual way for sperm consumed. On all 
the four bars the standards were kept fixed in position and the readings 
were made by moving the discs. The candles employed were those now 
manufactured by Mr. Miller and by Messrs. Brecknell and Turner for gas- 
testing, but tests were made also of other candles, of the same composition 
as the gas-testing candles, but larger in diameter, which were made by 
Mr. Miller. The Pentane lamp was of the new form manufactured by 
Messrs. Woodhonse and Rawson. 

It was found that the central burner was nearly but not exactly con- 
stant in illuminating power from day to day, but during the hour and 
a half or two hours the tests lasted each day the light did not vary 
appreciably, according to the most uniform standards. In order to show 
the uniformity of the standards under trial, the average of the day's tests 
with each standard is taken and the individual tests compared with this- 
mean. The divergencies of each standard from the mean of several tests 
by the same standard are evidence of the want of uniformity of that 
standard. 

In the following table the corrected result of each test is given; 118 
complete tests by each of the four standards were taken. By the side of 
each result is a number (obtained by dividing that result by the average 
of the day's tests and multiplying by 100) which expi'esses the ratio of 
that result to the average of the day by the same standard, the day's 
average being called 100. A glance at the table shows the uniformity or 
want of uniformity of the standards. Out of the 118 complete candle 
tests 86 differed by 1 per cent, from the day's average, 57 difi"ered by 2 
per cent., and 19 by 5 per cent. Variations of 9 and 10 per cent, 
occurred occasionally. Of the other standai'ds the Amyl-acetate lamp 
showed a variation of 2 per cent, from the daj^'s average on four occasions 
out of the 118 tests, and a vai'iation of 1 per cent, on 11 occasions. The 
Pentane lamp twice only showed a variation of 1 per cent., the Pentane 
standard once only. 

In the second table the averages of each day are tabulated and the 
general average of each standard is given. The Pentane standard and 
the Pentane lamp gave practically the same light ; and the light was not 
altered when pentane of specific gravity '632 and of specific gravity •628 
was employed, instead of pentane of specific gravity -630. The Amyl- 
acetate lamp was set too high, but although this was discovered soon 
after the experiments were begun it was thought better to maintain the 
flame at the same height than to alter it during the tests. The three 
lamps tested gave uniform results. The bi'oader candles made by Mr. 
Miller gave less light than those ordinarily used for gas-testing, and they 
did not appear to burn more uniformly in this photometer. 



ON STANDARDS OF LIGHT. 



43 



Table I. 
Tests of Central Burner made hy four Standards in Four-ivay Photometer. 



Date 


lime 


Candles 


Pentane 
Standard 


Pentane Lamp 


Amyl-aoetate Tiamp 
















Lamp A— 


Lamp B— 


1888 


P.M. 


Miller's— Per cent. 






Per cent. | 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


April 16 


5. 


11-91 100-2 





— 


12-27 


101-6 


12-19 100-4 


12-08 100-4 


5.30 


11-86 99-8 


— 


— 


11-89 


98-4 


12-09 99-6 


11-98 99-6 


Mean 11-885 100-0 


— 


— 


12-08 


100-0 


12-14 100-0 


12-03 100-0 


MiLLER'.s New - 


Per cent. | 






L-iMP B— 


Per cent. 


April 17 


4.50 


13-15 101-1 


12-10 


99-7 


12-11 


99-4 


12-11 


101-0 




5.10 


12-73 97-9 


1218 


99-9 


12-21 


100-2 


12-00 


100-0 




5.40 


13-13 101-0 


12-20 


100-5 


12-23 


100-4 


11-88 


99-1 


Mean 13-00 100-0 


12-14 


100-0 


12-18 


100-0 


11-99 


100-0 


Mlllbr'.s New— 










L-\MP B— 




April 18 


5.30 


12-56 98-7 


12-26 


100-8 


12-19 


100-8 


11-59 


100-5 




5.45 


12-58 98-8 


12-lG 


100-0 


12-08 


99-8 


11-71 


101-6 




6. 


13-04 102-5 


12-05 


99-1 


12-03 


99-6 


11-28 


97-8 


Mean 12-73 100-0 


12-16 


100-0 


12-10 


100-0 


11-53 


100-0 


Miller'.s New — 










Lamp B— 




April 23 


5. 


13-73 98-2 


12-86 


100-1 


12-64 


100-2 


12-44 


102-7 




5.20 


13-83 98-9 


12-85 


100-0 


12-58 


99-8 


11-91 


98-4 




5.40 


13-38 95-7 


12-77 


99-4 


12-59 


99-8 


11-82 


97-6 




6. 


14-50 103-7 


12-86 


100-1 


12-65 


100-3 


12-15 


100-3 




6.20 


14-47 103-5 


12-89 


100-3 


12-61 


100-0 


12-24 


101-1 


Mean 13-98 lOO-Q 


12-85 


100-0 


12-61 


100-0 - 


12-11 


100-0 


Mlller'.s New— 










Lamp A— 




April 24 


4.45 


12-10 91-4 


12-32 


99-4 


12-40 


99-9 


11-46 


97-6 




5. 


13-36 100-9 


l-.i-35 


99-8 


12-42 


100-0 


11-87 


101-1 




5.20 


13-28 100-3 


12-48 


100-9 


12-38 


99-8 


11-87 


101-1 




5.40 


13-43 1111-4 


12-33 


99-7 


12-44 


100-2 


11-72 


99-8 




5.55 


13-54 102-3 


12-34 


99-8 


12-36 


99-6 


11-73 


100-0 




6.15 


13-74 103-8 


12-40 


100-2 


12-48 


100-6 


11-78 


100-3 


1 ,: > 100-0 


12-37 


100-0 


12-41 


100-0 


11-74 


100-0 


Miller's New — 










Lamp A— 




April 25 


5.15 


13-14 98-2 


12-33 


99-8 


12-38 


99-6 


11-89 


100-4 




5.35 


12-49 93-4 


12-35 


100-0 


12-41 


99-8 


11-80 


99-7 




6. 


14-CO 109-1 


12-36 


100-1 


12-55 


100-9 


11-86 


100-2 




6.20 


14-18 106-0 


12-36 


100-1 


12-44 


100-1 


11-86 


100-1 




6.35 


13-57 101-4 


12-35 


100-0 


12-40 


99-8 


11-81 


99-8 




6.50 


12-34 92-2 


12-35 


100-0 


12-44 


100-0 


11-83 


99-9 


Mean 13-38 100-0 


12-35 


1000 


12-43 


100-0 


11-84 


100-0 


Miller's — 










Lamj- a 




April 26 


5.20 


13-68 102-8 


12-35 


100-2 


1-2-35 


99-7 


11-87 


100-2 




5.40 


12-79 96-2 


12-34 


100-0 


12-45 


100-5 


1177 


99-4 




6. 


13-37 100-6 


12-35 


100-2 


12-37 


99-8 


11-86 


100-2 




6.15 


13-24 99-5 


12-31 


99-S 


l-.i-38 


100-0 


11-86 


100-1 




6.36 


13-26 99-7 


12-31 


99-8 


rj-37 


99-8 


11-90 


100-5 




6.45 


13-49 101-4 


12-34 


100-0 


12-41 


100-2 


11-80 


997 


Mean 13-30 100-0 


12-33 


100-0 


12-39 


100-0 


11-84 


100-0 


Brec knell's — 










Lamp B— 




April 27 


4.45 


13-38 100-S 


12-34 


99-8 


12-37 


100-1 


11-78 


99-9 




5. 


13-30 100-2 


1-2-35 


99-9 


12-37 


100-0 


11-77 


99-8 




5.15 


13-57 102-2 


12-36 


100-0 


12-36 


100-0 


11-83 


100-3 




5.50 


12-87 96-9 


12-38 


100-2 


12-35 


99-9 


11-81 


100-2 


Mean 13-28 100-0 


12-36 


100-0 


12-36 


100-0 


11-79 


100-0 



















-44 



REPORT — 1888. 
Table I. — continued. 



Date 


Time 


Caudles 


Pentane 
Standard 


Pentane Lamp 


Amyl-acetate Lamp 






MnxER's New— 










Lamt B — 




1888 


P.M. 


Per cent 




Per cent 




Per cent 




Per cent. 


April 30 


4.50 


13-14 94-1 


12-37 


1(10-0 


12-43 


99-8 


11-93 


100-5 




5. 5 


15-05 107-7 


12-38 


100-1 


12-45 


99-9 


11-91 


100-3 




5.20 


13-77 98-6 


12-35 


99-8 


12-46 


100-0 


11-84 


99-8 




5.45 


13-98 100-1 


12-42 


100-4 


12-46 


100-0 


11-82 


99-6 




6. 


13-95 99-8 


12-36 


99-9 


12-51 


100-4 


11-84 


99-8 


Mean 13-97 100-0 


12-37 


100-0 


12-46 


100-0 


11-87 


1000 


BRECKNELL'.'! — 










Lami- C— 




May i 


5. 


14-48 107-5 


12-35 


100-1 


12-35 


100-2 


11-71 


100-6 




5.20 


13-19 97-9 


12-38 


100-4 


12-36 


100-3 


11-69 


100-4 




5.40 


13-64 102-7 


12-36 


100-2 


12-30 


99-8 


11-71 


100-6 




6. 


13-01 101-0 


12-30 


99-8 


12-31 


99-9 


11-50 


98-8 




6.20 


12-22 90-7 


12-29 


99-7 


12-28 


99-7 


11-57 


99-4 


Mean 13-47 100-0 


12-33 


100-0 


12-32 


100-0 


11-64 


100-0 




Special Pentane, 


Special Pentane, 










Miller'.';— 


Sp. G 


-. -632 


Sp. Gi 


. -632 


Lamp C— 




May 2 


4.30 


13-78 101-0 


12-28 


99-8 


12-38 


100-1 


11-89 


100-5 




4.50 


13-86 101-6 


12-28 


99-8 


12-38 


100-1 


11-83 


100-0 




5.10 


13-67 100-2 


12-28 


99-8 


12-37 


100-0 


11-72 


99-1 




5.30 


13-29 97-4 


12-38 


100-6 


12-31 


99-8 


11-87 


100-3 


Mean 13-65 100-0 


12-30 


100-0 


12-37 


100-0 


11-83 


100-0 


MrLLEn's New— 










Lamp C— 




May 4 


4.30 


12-68 93-7 


12-34 


99-9 


12-35 


99-8 


11-74 


99-8 




4.50 


13-28 98-2 


12-33 


100-0 


12-35 


99-9 


11-85 


100-7 




5.10 


14-26 105-4 


l'2-35 


100-2 


12-42 


100-4 


11-71 


99-6 




5.30 


13-77 101-8 


12-29 


99-7 


12-37 


100-0 


11-82 


100-4 




5.50 


13-65 100-9 


12-35 


100-2 


12-35 


99-9 


11-73 


99-7 


Mean 13-53 100-0 


12-33 


100-0 


12-37 


100-0 


11-77 


1000 


Mjlleii's— 










Lami- A— 




May 8 


5.30 


12-84 99-0 


12-35 


100-0 


12-35 


100-0 


11-98 


100-2 




5.50 


12-70 97-9 


12-35 


1000 


12-34 


99-9 


11-95 


100-0 




6.10 


13-25 1U2-2 


12-34 


99-8 


12-35 


100-0 


11-93 


99-8 




6.30 


13-08 100-9 


12-37 


100-2 


12-36 


100-1 


11-94 


99-9 


Mean 12-97 100-0 


12-35 


100-0 


12-35 


100-0 


11-95 


100-0 


BllECKNELI.'S — 










Lam I' C— 




May 10 


.5-10 


13-06 98-2 


12-34 


108-1 


12-35 


100-0 


11-90 


99-3 




5-.30 


13-67 102-0 


12-33 


100-1 


12-37 


loo-i 


12-03 


100-4 




6-50 


13-26 99-7 


12-25 


99-4 


1-2-34 


99-9 


12-08 


100-8 




6-10 


13-69 1U2-9 


12-34 


100-2 


lJ-37 


100-2 


11-95 


99-8 




6-30 


12-92 97-1 


12-35 


100-2 


12-35 


100-0 


11-95 


99-8 


Mean 13-30 100-0 


12-32 


100-0 


12-35 


100-0 


11-98 


100-0 


Miller's New— 










Lamp C— 




May 11 


4-45 


12-83 93-4 


12-37 


99-9 


12-31 


99-0 


12-06 


100-6 




5-10 


14-09 102-6 


12-35 


99-8 


12-48 


100-4 


11-95 . 


99-7 




5-30 


13-99 101-9 


12-44 


100-5 


12-42 


99-9 


11-97 


99-8 




5-50 


14-03 102-2 


12-.37 


99-9 


12-52 


100-7 


n-99 


100-0 


Mean 13-73 100-0 


12-38 


100-0 


12-43 


loo-o 


11-99 


100-0 


MlLLER'.S— 


Sp. Or 


.-628 






La Ml" B — 




May 14 


5- 


12-76 94-2 


12-27 


100-5 


12-31 


89-8 


11-78 


99-6 




5-20 


13-87 102-4 


1-2-27 


100-5 


12-36 


100-2 


11-76 


£9-4 




5-40 


13-65 100-8 


12-16 


99-6 


12-34 


100-0 


11-87 


100-3 




6- 


13-90 102-6 


12-14 


99-4 


12-34 


100-0 


11-91 


100-6 


13-55 100-0 


12-21 


100-0 


12-34 


100-0 


11-83 


100-0 



Oi\ Sl'ANDAKWS OJ! LIGHT. 

Table l.—confinved. 



45' 



Date 


Time 


Candles 


Pentane 
Standard 


Pentane Lamp 


i 

Amyl-acetate Lamp 






MnXER'S 7"— 










Lamp B — 




1888 


P.M. 


Per cent. 




Per cent. 




Per cent. 




Per cent. 


May 15 


5- 


14-54 103-9 


12-20 


99-3 


12-33 


99-9 


11-74 


99-5 




5-29 


14-21 101-5 


12-32 


100-2 


12-30 


99-7 


11-74 


99-5 




5-40 


13-96 99-7 


12-22 


99-4 


1-2-36 


100-2 


11-85 


100-4 




6- 


1404 100-3 


12-34 


100-4 


1-2-32 


99-8 


11-75 


99-6 




6-20 


14-07 100-5 


12-35 


lCO-5 


12-38 


100-3 


11-90 


100-8 




6-40 


13-19 94-2 


12-33 


1O0-3 


12-37 


100-2 


11-80 


100-0 


Mean 14-00 100-0 


12-29 


100-0 


12-34 


100-0 


11-80 


100-0 


BnECKN"EI,LV — 










Lamp B— 




May 17 


5-30 


12-88 96-3 


12-32 


99-8 


12-43 


99-6 


12-00 


99-5 




5-50 


13-33 99-6 


12-34 


100-0 


12-52 


100-3 


12-09 


100-2 




6-10 


13-82 103-3 


12-36 


100-1 


12-51 


100-2 


12-11 


100-4 




6-30 


13-44 100-4 


12-36 


100-2 


12-48 


100-0 


12-03 


99-8 


Mean 13-38 100 


12-34 


1000 


12-48 


100-0 


12-06 


100-0 


Miller's— 










Lamp A— 




Mayl^ 


4-15 


14-00 100-3 


12-47 


100-6 


12-36 


100-0 


11-67 


99-6 




4-35 


13-59 97-3 


12-37 


99-8 


12-59 


100-2 


11-76 


100-3 




4-55 


14-14 101-3 


12-42 


100-2 


12-.57 


loo-i 


11-74 


100-2 




5-15 


14-12 101-1 


12-34 


99-5 


12-53 


99-8 


11-72 


100-0 


Mean 13-96 1000 


12-40 


100-0 


12-56 


100-0 


11-72 


100-0 


MrLLEn'.s— 










Lamp B— 




Mav 25 


4-50 


12-94 93-4 


12-34 


99-8 


12-43 


99-6 


11-70 


99-6 




5-10 


14-47 104-5 


12-36 


100-0 


12-52 


100-3 


11-80 


100-4 




6-30 


13-90 lCO-4 


12-36 


100-0 


12-54 


100-5 


11-75 


100-0 




5-50 


14-10 101-8 


12-38 


lUO-2 


12-42 


99-0 


11-74 


99-9 


Mean 13-85 100-0 


12-36 


100-0 


12-43 


100-0 


11-75 


100-0 


MiLLBR'.s New 7"— 










Lamp A — 




May 28 


4.15 


14-21 103-7 


12-32 


99-0 


12-56 


100-1 


11-82 


99-9 




4.35 


14-00 102-2 


12-46 


100-1 


12-46 


99-3 


11-83 


100-0 




5. 


13-08 95-5 


12-53 


100-6 


12-58 


100-2 


11-83 


100-0 




5.30 


13-53 98-8 


12-47 


100-2 


12-59 


100-3 


11-84 


101-1 


13-70 100-0 


12-45 


100-0 


12-55 


100-0 


11-83 


100-0 




[Special Pentai 


le, Sp. Gr. -629] 










Brecknell'.s— 










Lamp B— 




May 29 


4.45 


13-29 99-4 


12-46 


100-1 


12-60 


99-8 


11-79 


99-6 




5. 5 


13-20 98-7 


12-43 


99-8 


12-65 


100-3 


11-87 


100-2 




6.25 


13-59 101-6 


12-46 


100-1 


12-68 


100-5 


11-84 


100-0 




5.45 


13-11 98-0 


12-45 


100-0 


12-57 


99-6 


11-84 


100-0 




6.10 


13-68 102-3 


12-45 


100-0 


12-62 


100-0 


11-86 


100-2 




6.30 


13-37 lUU-0 


12-45 


100-0 


12-60 


99-8 


11-84 


100-0 


13-37 100-0 


12-45 


100-0 


12-62 


100-0 


11-84 


100-0 


MiLLER'.S— 










Lamp A— 




May 30 


6.50 


13-92 99-8 


12-50 


99-7 


12-56 


99-7 


12-03 


100-4 




6.10 


13-82 99-1 


12-53 


99-9 


12-63 


100-3 


11-96 


99-8 




6.30 


13-85 99-3 


12-52 


99-8 


12-58 


99-9 


11-99 


100-1 




7. 


13-95 100-1 


12-56 


100-2 


12-60 


100-1 


11-96 


99-8 




7.20 


14-17 101-6 


12-59 


100-4 


12-59 


100-0 


11-98 


100-0 


Mean 13-94 100-0 


12-54 


100-0 


12-59 


100-0 


11-98 


100-0 


MnxER's New 6"— 










Lamp B— 




May 31 


5.50 


12-60 89-2 


12-56 


100-0 


12-65 


99-9 


11-89 


99-5 




6.10 


13-46 95-2 


12-52 


99-7 


12-64 


99-8 


11-93 


99-8 




6,30 


14-35 101-5 


12-57 


100-1 


12-68 


100-2 


11-98 


100-2 




7. 


16-30 108-2 


12-58 


100-2 


12-65 


99-9 


12-01 


100-5 




7.20 


14-99 106-0 


12-56 


100-0 


12-68 


100.2 


11-96 


100-1 


U-14 100-0 


12-56 


100-0 


12-66 


100-0 


11-95 


100-0 



46 



REPORT 1888. 

Table I. — continued. 



Date 


Time 


Caudles 


Pentaue 
Standard 


Pentane Lamp 


Amyl-acetate Lamp 


1888 
June 4 

June 6 


P.M. 

4.20 
4.40 
5. 
5.30 

5. 

.5.20 
5.40 
6.30 
6.50 


MlLLEB'S— 

Per cent. 
13-48 100-0 
13-56 lCO-5 
13-09 97-1 
13-81 102-4 


Per cent. 
12-57 99-8 
12-56 99-8 
12-63 100-2 
12-63 100-2 


Per cent. 
12-67 100-2 
12-63 99-S 
12-64 99-9 
12-67 100-2 


Lamp A— 

11-97 
11-96 
11-95 
11-99 


Per cent. 
100-0 

99-9 

99-8 
100-2 


Mean 13-48 100-0 


12-60 100-0 


12-65 100-0 


11-97 


100-0 


Miller's New 6"— 
13-77 99-2 
13-51 97-3 
13-42 96-7 
14-09 101-5 
14-61 105-3 


12-58 99-8 
12-57 99-7 
12-59 99-8 
12-66 100-4 
12-63 100-2 

12-61 100-0 


12-69 ieo-1 

12-67 09-9 
12-68 100-0 
12-68 100-0 
12-67 99-9 


Lamp C— 
11-93 
11-97 
11-95 
12-00 
11-96 


99-7 
100-1 

99-9 
100-3 
100-0 


Mean 13-88 lOO'O 


12-68 100-0 


11-96 


100-0 



Note. — The testings were taken alternately by Messrs. Wood and Grimwood. 



Table II. 



Date 


Miller and 

Bi-ecknell's 
Candles 


Miller's New 
Candles 


Pentane 
Standard 


Pen- 
tane 
Lamp 


Amyl-acetate Lamp 


1888 










A 


B 


C 


April 16 


11-88 M 


— 


— 


12-08 


12-14 


1203 


— 


,. 17 


, 


13-00 


12-14 


12-18 


— 


11-99 


— 


,. 18 





12-73 


12-16 


12-10 


— 


11-53 


— 


„ 23 





13-98 


12-85 


12-61 — 


12-11 


— 


., 24 





13-40 


12-37 


12-41 11-74 


— 


— 


„ 25 





13-38 


12-35 


12-43 i 11-85 


— 


— 


„ 26 


13-30 M 


— 


12-33 


12-38 ! 11-84 


— 


— 


„ 27 


13-28 B 


— 


12-36 


12-36 




11-79 


— 


„ 30 





13-97 


12-37 


12-46 


— 


11-87 


— 


May 1 


13-47 B 


— 


12-33 


12-32 


— 


— 


11-64 


,, 2 


13-(i5 M 


— 


12-30 [-632] 


12-37 


— 


— 


11-83 


,, 4 





13-53 


12-33 


12-37 


— 


— 


11-77 


„ 8 


12-97 M 


— 


12-35 


12-35 


11-95 


— 


— 


„ 10 


13-30 B 


— 


12-32 


12-35 


— 


— 


11-98 


,. 11 





13-73 (6") 


12-38 


12-43 


— 


— 


11-99 


„ 14 


13-55 M 


— 


12-21 [-628] 


12-34 


- 


11-83 


— 


„ 15 


— 


14-00 (7") 


12-29 


12-34 


— 


11-80 


— 


,, 17 


13-37 B 


— 


12 34 


12-48 


— 


1206 


— 


„ 18 


13-96 M 


— 


12-40 


12-.o6 


11-72 


— 


— 


„ 25 


13-85 M 


— 


12-36 


12-48 


— 


11-75 


— 


„ 28 





13-70 (7") 


12-45 


12-55 


11-83 


— 


— 


„ 29 


13-37 B 


— 


12-45 [-629] 


12-62 


— 


11-84 


— 


„ 30 


13-94 M 


— 


12-54 


12 59 


IMIS 


— 


— 


„ 31 


— 


14-14 (6") 


12-56 


12-66 


— 


1195 


— 


June 4 


13-48 M 


— 


12-60 


12-65 


11-97 


— 


— 


» G 


■ — 


13-88 (6") 


12-61 


12-68 


— 


— 


11-96 


Mean of 








A 


B C 




Miller's 13-41 


13-(")2 


12-39 


12-43 


11-89 


11-88 


11 86 




Mean of Breck- 
















nell's 13-36 










• 


1 



ON STANDARDS OF LIGHT. 47 

Appendix II. 
Incandescent Platinum. 

The attention of the Committee was naturally directed to the pro- 
posed Frencli standard suggested by M. Violle, namely, the light 
emitted by a square centimetre of liquid platinum at the solidifying 
point. The apparatus required for the production of such a standard is 
of necessity very cumbrous and inconvenient and extremely ill-suited for 
photometrical measurements. The attention of the Committee was there- 
fore directed to methods of obtaining the same result in a more con- 
venient manner and on a smaller scale, with the view of constructing 
apparatus which could without inconvenience be introduced into an 
ordinary photometer. 

For this purpose the apparatus employed by Mr. Dibdin in his recent 
experiments was first tried. This consists of an arrangement by means 
of which a roll of platinum foil was stretched over two rollers, having an 
interval of about three inches between them, across which the foU was 
stretched. In front of the foil a steatite plate having a circular aperture 
of a quarter of an inch was placed, and immediately behind the foil was 
an oxyhydrogen burner so arranged that when a full flame was turned on 
it impinged upon the foil in a dii'ection horizontal with the aperture in 
the steatite plate and thus heated the platinum to fusion. Although the 
mechanical part worked as satisfactorily as could be desired, the results 
obtained on the photometer were so variable that no reliance could be 
placed upon them. The method was then modified by placing the foil 
between two plates of perforated steatite so as to inclose the portion to be 
heated in a steatite cell. It was found, however, that the close contact of 
the steatite conducted the heat away from the platinum so rapidly that 
only an ii-regular portion in the middle of the cell was actually fused, and 
the results were even more unsatisfactory than before. 

It was next considered desirable to vary the method by heatino- a 
thick rod of platinum to its melting-point and allowing the light from 
the fused bead of metal thus obtained to pass to the photometer disc 
through a small opening in a suitable mask. This method was found to 
be all but impracticable, but it gave results of value as indicatino- one 
cause of the uncertainty in the quantity of light emitted from molten 
metallic surfaces. It was observed that small scum-like particles were 
constantly floating over the surface of the molten platinum, and that 
these particles gave far more light than the mass of metal itself. Con- 
sequently as there existed no means of ensuring the absence of such 
particles it was obvious that there could be little certainty in the light 
emitted from such unevenly illuminated surfaces. 

In addition to the blowpipe experiments, it appeared desirable to try 
the experiment of fusing platinum by means of the electric current as it 
seemed probable that by this means the platinum could be kept in any 
given condition of incandescence for a longer period, and that the experi- 
ment would be more under control. An apparatus for the purpose was 
consequently arranged. A strip of platinum was held between two metal 
•clips insulated from each other. Close in front of the platinum was 
j)laced a small screen having a perforation of a quarter of an inch in 



48 EEPOKT — 1888. 

diameter through which the incandescent surface could be observed. 
This arrangement was placed in circuit with eight or ten cells of a 
secondary battery, an ammeter and an adjustable resistance being included 
in the circuit. It was necessary that the resistance should be capable of 
being taken out very slowly, so that the current might be gradually and 
regularly increased. 

The arrangement devised answered very well in practice. It consisted 
of a frame across which was stretched a series of lengths of germao 
silver wire, some of them being straight and others coiled so as to give 
varying amounts of resistance in each length. By means of plugs any or- 
all of the lengths could be put in and out at pleasure, and by this means the- 
resistance could be roughly adjusted. The fine adjustment was given by 
a cross-piece working along two of the straight wires and moved by a 
moderately fine screw. As the cross-pieces moved along the length of 
the wires it, by connecting the two, brought more or less resistance into 
the circuit. The resistance of the whole arrangement amounted to about 
one ohm. It was found that with this arrangement the strip of platinum 
could be rapidly raised to incandescence, and could be kept close to the- 
melting-point for a considerable time, a very slight increase in the- 
current being then sufficient to cause fusion. The photometric tests- 
made with this arrangement confirmed those which had been made when 
the platinum was fused by the oxyhydrogen jet ; that is to say, the 
observations showed considerable irregularity, so much indeed that it 
did not seem worth while to make, as had originally been intended, a long 
series of them, nor to construct apparatus more accurate than the first 
experimental one. 

A decided defect in the apparatus was the buckling of the platinum. 
As it was tightly gripped at each end there was no room for expansion,, 
and before melting there was considerable expansion and consequent 
buckling. Had it seemed worth while to do so, it would not have been, 
difficult to devise an apparatus by which this might have been obviated, 
but the results were not sufficiently encouraging. 

A few photographic tests were also made by permitting the light from 
the incandescent platinum to fall through a screen with openmgs in it 
upon a sensitive plate, a number of exposures from diS'erent pieces of 
platinum being made on the same plate. These of course could only be 
looked upon as rough tests, but they also seemed to indicate that the 
amount of radiation from a given surface of platinum at the moment of 
fusion is not absolutely constant under the conditions we have described, 
and so far as they are worth anything they may be taken as confirming the 
conclusion obtained by the other methods. 



ON MEXEOBOLOGICAI. OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 49 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Browx 
{Secretary), Mr. Milne-Home, Dr. John Murray, Lord McLaren, 
and Dr. Buchan, appointed for the purpose of co-operating ivith 
the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteorological 
Obsei^ations on Ben Nevis. 

The laborious work of observing hourly by night and by day has been 
carried on by Mr. Omond and his assistants during the past year with the 
same enthusiasm and continuity as in previous years ; and the tive daily 
observations at Fort William, in connection with the observatory, have 
similarly been made with the greatest regularity by Mr. Livingston. 

The state of the health of the observers, occasioned by their continuous 
residence on the top of the mountain, where active exercise in the open 
air is practically precluded during most of the year, rendered it abso- 
lutely necessary to give them relief daring last winter. Accordingly 
the services of Mr. Drysdale, B.Sc, were secured for six months, thus 
affording Messrs. Omond and Rankin three months' residence each in 
Edinburgh, during which they gave assistance in the office of the 
Scotti.sh Meteorological Society. In this way effective help was given 
in the preparation of the report, for the ' Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh,' of the Ben Nevis observations from the opening of 
the observatory in November 1883 to December 1887, to which date the 
report has been brought down. To thesd observations have been added 
the five daily observations made at the low-level station at Fort William. 
All of these observations are already printed, and as the report itself is 
now nearly all in type, the volume will shortly be ready for publication. 
The delaj- of publication has been occasioned by the extension of the 
period to December last and by a pressure of other wox'k, which has 
precluded ]\[r. Buchan from giving more than a small portion of his time 
to the preparation of the I'eport. 

A grant of 251. was obtained from the Government Research Fund in 
May last for the purchase of the necessary apparatus for photographing 
clouds and other meteorological phenomena at the observatory. Atten- 
tion is meantime chieiiy directed to clouds, halos, and other optical 
phenomena, and much interest is attached to the questions which have 
been already raised by these lines of research that give good promise of 
leading to a knowledge of the constituents of clouds, but more particu- 
larly of the exact forms of the ice-crystals of which many of them are 
composed. 

During the year Mr. Omond has continued the observations on earth- 
currents, begun by Mr. H. N. Dickson in a previous year, and has traced 
an important connection between them and the general state of the 
weather. Mr. Rankin has collected the eighteen cases of St. Elmo's Fire 
wliich have occurred at the observatory and discussed the observations 
of pressure, temperature, winds, &c., for thirty hours previous and 
eighteen hours subsequent to their occurrence, together with the cyclones 
and other weather phenomena which, as shown by the daily weather- 
maps of the Meteorological Office, had occuri'ed in North-western Europe 
at the times. The papers on these subjects will shortly appear in the 
'Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society.' As regards the cases 
1888. E 



50 



KJiPOKT 1888. 



of St. Elmo's Fire it may be enough liere to say that they occur at 
certain well-defined phases in the non-periodic fluctuations of atmospheric 
pressure, temperature, humidity, changes of wind, and arrival from the 
Atlantic of equally well-defined types of weather with their characteristic 
cyclones. 

In addition to these researches and the preparation of the Ben Nevis 
observations for the press Messrs. Omond and Rankin have been con- 
ducting, as time and opportunity permitted, the investigations referred to 
in last year's report. 

For the year 1887 the following were the monthly mean pressures 
and temperatures, the hours of sunshine, the amounts of the rainfall, and 
number of days without rain as recorded at the observatory, the mean 
pressures at Fort Wilham being reduced to 32° and sea-level, those of 
Ben Nevis Observatory to 32° only : — 



Jan. Feb. Marchl April I May I June July Aug. I Sept. Oct. I Nov. Dec. Year 



Ben NevisOb- 1 25-159 

servatory 
Fort William 29-753 
Difference . 4-594 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
DifEerence 



25-494 



30-128 
4-634 



25-390 

30-433 
4-643 



Mean Presmres in Inches. 



25-3751 25-472 



29-993 30-044 
4-618 4-572 



25-680 



30-168 
4-488 



25-426 



29-903 
4-477 



25-424 



29-911 
4-487 



25-359 



29-875 
4-516 



25-445 

30-047 
4-602 



26-086 



29-656 
4-570 



25-089 

29-699 
4-610 



Mean Temperatures. 



o 
24-9 




2?-l 


O 

21-0 


25-6 


o 
32-2 


o 
45-4 


o 
41-3 


40-0 


36-6 


o 
28-4 


26-0 


o 
22-7 


39-2 
14-3 


40-5 
13-4 


38-8 
14-8 


42.5 
16-9 


49-3 
17-1 


58-3 
12-9 


57-6 
16-3 


56-4 
16-4 


51-1 
14-5 


44-8 
16-4 


40-2 
14-2 


36-0 
13-3 



Rainfall in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 

Days of no 
Hain 

Port William 



17-80 

7 

12-73 



13-30 
12 

11-40 



6-90 
14 
3-50 



7-53 
15 
3-49 



3-97 

ir 

1-87 



7-51 
18 
3-23 



11-54 
4 
7-90 



8-71 

9 

3-03 



10-99 
11 
4-55 



12-19 
8 

6-22 



8-99 
9 

5-09 



17-58 
4 
8-18 



25-366 

29-934 
4-568 



31-2 

46-2 
15-0 



126-01 
128 
71-19 



Hours of Sunshine to nearest Whole Hours at Ben JVeris Observatory. 



No. of Hours I 23 I 56 
Possible H"urs 231 264 



74 
365 



120 
426 



129 
508 



206 
529 



58 
528 



57 
467 



84 
381 



32 
319 



31 I 28 I 898 
242 210 4,470 



For the year the mean temperature at Fort William was a degree 
below the average, the greatest defects from the means being 3°-0 in 
April, 2°-9 in December, 2°7 in October, and 2°-3 in March. On the 
other hand, February was l°-6 above the average temperature of the 
month, and June 2°-6. At the top of the Ben the mean temperature of 
June was even relatively higher that at Fort William, being 45°-4, which 
is the highest monthly mean hitherto observed. 

The minimum temperature on Ben Nevis for the year was 9°-0 on 
March 12 at 2 a.m., which closely agrees with the minimum of previous 
years. The maximum was 67"-0 on June 24, which is 7°-0 higher 
than any previously recorded maximum. On seven days of this month 
the temperature rose above 60°-0, and on September 20 a temperature 
of 58°-8 was recorded. Indeed, an unusual occurrence of high tempera- 
tures was an outstanding feature of the meteorology of Ben Nevis during 

the year. 

The registrations of the sunshine recorder showed 898 hours of sun- 
shine during the year, the smallest number of hours, 23, occurred in 



ON METKOROLOGICAL OBSEKVATIONS OxN BKN NEVIS. 



51 



-January, and the largest, 206, in Jane, the latter number being the largest 
for any month recorded down to the end of 1887. In June of 1888, 
bo-wever, there have been 250 hours' sunshine recorded, being nearly half 
the possible sunshine — an amount equalled at but few places in the 
British Islands last June. The hours of sunshine were 680 for 1885, 576 
for 1886, and 898 for 1887, the amount of sunshine being thus greatly 
in excess of the two preceding years. In 1887 the amount was thus 20 
per cent, of the possible sunshine, but in June the amount was 40 per 
cent. The distribution of the sunshine during the hours of the day from 
6 A.M. to 6 P.M. was 29, 42, 62 ; 81, 90, 87 ; 88, 83, 76 ; 70, 51, and 46 ; 
.a distribution closely agreeing with that of 1884, 1885, and 1886. 

The amount of the rainfall for the year was 126'01 inches, the month 
•of least rainfall, 3"97 inches, being May, and of greatest rainfall, 17'80 
inches, January, the month of December, however, following close with a 
rainfall of 17-58 inches. The number of days on which the precipitation 
was nil, or leas than O'Ol inch, was 128, being thus 31 dry days in excess of 
1886. On the other hand the number of days on which one inch of rain, 
or upwards, fell were 37, or about one day in ten, being less frequent 
than in previous years, when such heavy rainfalls occurred once a week 
on the average. The unusually heavy rainfalls with the dates of their 
occurrence were 3"57 inches on January 27, 3-48 inches on December 
3, 2-97 inches on December 4, 2-85 inches on February 23, 2"52 
inches on the 24, and 2*47 inches on January 19. For longer periods 
the results are 7'19 inches for the four days ending January 28, 7'87 
inches for the four days ending February 25, and 7"40 inches for 
the three days ending February 3. 

Atmospheric pressure was considerably above the average for the year, 
the mean at Fort William being 29 934 inches instead of 29834 inches. 
In November, December, and January it was considerably under the 
monthly means, but in every other month the means were exceeded, 
the greatest excess, 0-260 inch, being in June. Thus the June of 1887 is 
noteworthy in the meteorology of Ben Nevis for the prevalence of an 
unwonted high atmospheric pressure and for an equally unwonted high 
temperature, due to an unusual predominance of anticyclones over this 
part of Europe during at least the last two-thirds of the month, with the 
characteristic high temperatures and extremely dry states of the atmo- 
sphere which accompany them. 

These warm, dry states of the atmosphere were most marked from 
the 22nd to the 25th. During these four days the means from the 24 
hourly observations were : — 



Day of Month 


Dry 


Wet 


Pressure, Inches 


22 
23 
24 
25 


58°2 
59-3 
60-7 
58-3 


50°6 
48-0 
49-9 
50-3 


25-943 
25-912 
26-931 
25-865 


Means 


59-1 


49-7 


25-913 


Means at Fort William 


66-1 


60-4 


30-332 


Differences 


7-0 


10-7 


4-419 



E 2 



52 KEPOKT — 1888. 

Thus, Instead of the normal difference of 16°'0 between the top and 
bottom of the monntain, it -was only 7°'0 during these four days, and, 
instead of the air at the top being moister than at the bottom, it was 
greatly drier. Hence the air at the top did not owe its great dryness 
and high temperature to ascending enrrents from lower levels up the 
sides of the mountain, heated by the strong insolation prevailing at the 
time, but to descending currents from great heights, which are charac- 
teristic of anticyclones, by which dryness and heat are developed much in 
the same way as happens in the case of the Fohn of the lower Alps. So 
markedly and so frequently did this type of weather prevail during June 
that the mean temperature of the month at the observatory was only 
12°-9 lower than that at Fort William, being the least monthly difference 
hitherto observed during any season of the year. 

It may be here suggested that this peculiarity of anticyclones plays 
a highly important and beneficial part climatically in mitigating the 
rigours of winter_over those portions of Asia and America which are 
almost continuously within extensive anticyclones during the winter 
months. For the investigation of this phase of weather and cHmate it is 
evident that the Ben Nevis observations afford data of the most invalu- 
able description. 

To this report is appended Table I., giving the hourly deviations 
from the mean atmospheric pressure for the months and the year, and 
Table II. the deviation from the mean temperature calculated from the 
four years' observations ending with 1887. 

It was hoped that the work of discussing the Ben Nevis observations 
would by this time have extended farther than it has done beyond the 
determination of the hourly constants of the more prominent meteoro- 
logical elements in the direction of the investigation of the relations of 
the observations to the weather of North-western Europe. But it was 
found that the preparation of the observations for the press, and seeing 
them through it, occupied much more time than had been anticipated. 
Indeed, this work occupied the whole time of Messrs. Omond and Rankin 
when they were in the office of the Scottish Meteorological Society, to- 
gether with nearly the whole of the time of the treasurer's clerk ; and, 
besides, since the beginning of the year less time has been at Mr. Buchan's 
disposal for personally carrying out the laborious work of the discussion. 

In these circumstances the directors of the observatory have taken 
into consideration the whole question, and are maturing a plan for a 
thorough discussion of the Ben Nevis and Fort William observations 
in their scientific and practical bearings, which they hope to complete in 
the course of the autumn. This plan will require for the carrying of it 
out a small additional staff working in conjunction with the office in 
Edinburgh and the staff of the Ben Nevis Observatory for a period of at 
least three years. 

In connection with the practical side of the inquiry your Committee 
refer with the greatest satisfaction to the publication by General Greely, 
chief signal officer of the United States Army, of Daily Weather Charts 
of the Atlantic, beginning with October 1886. These charts have been 
partially examined in connection with the Ben Nevis observations, and it 
is not possible to overestimate their importance in the large inquiry now 
in contemplation by the directors as to the relations of these observations 
to the weather of North-western Europe, which is truly an international 
undertaking. With the United States charts will be conjoined the obser- 



ON METEOBOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



53 



nations of storms and other pheDomena made at the Scottish lighthouses, 
as described in previous reports, and the bi-daily charts of the Meteoro- 
logical Office. One of the points to which attention will be specially given 
■will be to ascertain the earliest time at which storms, seen to be advancing 
over the Atlantic towards Europe, could be signalled from the Ben Nevis 
observations in combination with observations at lower levels ; and, 
further, to endeavour from an investigation of the bearings of the Ben 
Nevis observations on the movements and courses of anticyclones and 
cyclones to ascertain the path the advancing cyclone will take, whether 
to the north of, across, or to the south of the British Islands in its 
easterly course. 

As the British Association is aware, youi* Committee have from the 
commencement insisted on the necessity of an observatory at Fort 
"William, near sea-level, at which hourly observations can be recorded, in 
order that the observations made at the top of Ben Nevis may be properly 
utilised in their scientific and practical bearings. 

With reference to this low-level observatory a copy of the Report of 
the Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society, dated July 23, is sent 
herewith, with a passage marked on page 2 giving a correspondence with 
the Meteorological Council, who offer a grant towards the maintenance 
of the low-level observatory, ' which they regard as a very important 
adjunct to the existing high-level observatory,' and further to equip the 
observatory with the required outfit of meteorological instruments. The 
directors have applied to the Association of the Edinburgh International 
Exhibition of 1886 for a grant from their surplus fund towards the 
building of the observatory at Fort William, and they are in good 
hopes that they will in a month or two be in a position to commence the 
building. 



Table I. — Showing the Hourly Variations from the Mean Atmospheric 
Pressure {expressed in Thousandths of an Inch) from the four years^ 
observations ending with 1887. 



1 A.M. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Marcli 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


6 


5 


1 


- 3 


- 1 


1 


- 1 


- 2 


- 1 


- 1 


8 


7 


1 





1 


1 


- 4 


- 8 


- 8 


- 6 


- 7 


- 8 


- 6 


- 8 


2 


4 


— 4 


3 „ 





- 5 


- 8 


-12 


-11 


-12 


-15 


-13 


-11 


-14 


- 3 


2 


- 9 


4 „ 


- 4 


-12 


-10 


-16 


-15 


-14 


-17 


-17 


-16 


-17 


-U 


— 4 


-13 


5 „ 


- 7 


-13 


-12 


-20 


-20 


-17 


-21 


-19 


-22 


-20 


-15 


-10 


-16 


6 „ 


- 9 


-14 


- 9 


-17 


-15 


-15 


-18 


-17 


-19 


-20 


-14 


-12 


-15 


7 „ 


- 8 


-11 


- 7 


-15 


-11 


-11 


-14 


-12 


-13 


-13 


-14 


-13 


-12 


8 „ 


- 2 


- 7 


- 2 


- 9 


- 7 


- 7 


-10 


- 8 


- 7 


— 6 


- 7 


- 9 


- 7 


9 „ 


2 


- 3 


1 


- 4 


- 4 


- 3 


- 6 


- 3 


- 2 


1 


- 4 


- 5 


- 3 


10 „ 


4 


1 


3 





1 


- 1 


- 3 


1 


2 


7 


- 2 





1 


11 „ 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


2 


1 


3 


4 


9 


2 


1 


4 


Noon 


1 


6 


6 


8 


8 


5 


5 


7 


7 


10 


- 1 


- 1 


5 


1 P.M. 


- 6 





4 


9 


10 


7 


8 


9 


9 


8 


- 3 


- 6 


4 


2 „ 


-10 


1 


4 


11 


15 


9 


13 


13 


11 


8 


- 3 


- 3 


5 


3 „ 


-10 


- 2 


2 


10 


12 


7 


14 


11 


7 


5 


- 1 


- 3 


4 


4 „ 


- 5 


- 2 


- 1 


7 


10 


8 


12 


8 


4 


5 








4 


5 „ 


- 4 


- 1 


- 4 


2 


5 


6 


8 


4 


2 


2 





- 1 


1 


6 „ 





2 


- 1 


3 


3 


5 


6 


4 


2 


5 


3 


3 


3 


7 ,. 


3 


6 


2 


4 


3 


6 


5 


4 


5 


8 


8 


3 


5 


8 „ 


7 


10 


5 


9 


7 


7 


9 


8 


10 


11 


12 


10 


8 


9 „ 


10 


9 


6 


10 


8 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 


14 


12 


9 


10 „ 


9 


8 


6 


7 


8 


11 


9 


9 


8 


8 


12 


12 


9 


11 „ 


12 


7 


5 


4 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


11 


10 


7 


Midnight 


10 


5 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 





3 


1 


11 


9 


4 



54 



KEPORT 1888. 



Table II. — Showing the Hourhj Variations from the Mean Temperature 
from, the four years' observations ending with 1887. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April 


May 


June 


.July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1 A.M. 


-0-1 


-0-3 


-0-5 


-0-8 


-1-2 


-1-1 


-0-9 


-0-8 


-0-7 


-0-4 


-0-2 


0-0 


-0-6 


2 „ 


-0-1 


-0-4 


-0-6 


-1-0 


-1-3 


-1-3 


-1-1 


-1-1 


-0-7 


-0-e 


-01 


-0-2 


-0-7 


3 V 


0-0 


-0-4 


-0-7 


-1-1 


-1-4 


-1-4 


-1-3 


-1-2 


-0-9 


-0-5 


-0-1 


-0-2 


-0-7 


4 „ 


-0-2 


-0-3 


-0-6 


-1-3 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-1-6 


-1-4 


-0-9 


-0-5 


0-0 


-0-2 


-(1-8 


5 „ 


-0-3 


-0-4 


-0-8 


-1-3 


-1-4 


-1-6 


-1-6 


-1-6 


-1-1 


-0-5 


-0-1 


-0-3 


-0-9 


6 „ 


-0-1 


-0-4 


-0-r 


-1-3 


-1-1 


-1-4 


-1-5 


-1-5 


-1-2 


-0-5 


-0-1 


-0-4 


-0-8 


7 „ 


-0-1 


-0-6 


-0-7 


-1-1 


-0-9 


-1-1 


-1-2 


-1-3 


-1-1 


-0-4 


0-0 


-0-3 


-0-7 


8 >, 


-0-1 


-0-6 


-0-5 


-0-8 


-0-5 


-fl-8 


-0-8 


-1-2 


-0'6 


-0-3 


-0-1 


-0-3 


-0-6 


!> .. 


-0-1 


-0-4 


-0-2 


-0-2 


-0-2 


-0-3 


-0-4 


-0-.5 


-0-2 


0-0 


0-0 


-0-3 


-0-2 


10 „ 


0-1 


0-0 


0-1 


0-1 


0-3 


0-0 


0-1 


0-1 


0-3 


0-3 


0-4 


0-0 


0-2 


11 „ 


0-2 


0-4 


0'5 


0-7 


0-7 


0-5 


0-7 


0-6 


0-6 


0'6 


0-6 


0-2 


0-5 


Noon 


0-3 


0-6 


0'8 


1-0 


1-2 


1-1 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


0-8 


0'8 


0'3 


0-9 


1 P.M. 


0-3 


0-8 


0-8 


1-1 


1-4 


1-5 


1-4 


1-5 


1-6 


0-9 


0-6 


0-4 


11 


2 „ 


0-2 


0-8 


1-0 


1-3 


1-6 


1-8 


1-7 


1-9 


1-7 


0-8 


0-6 


0-4 


1-2 


3 „ 


0-3 


0-7 


0-9 


1-3 


1-6 


1-9 


1-7 


1-9 


1-6 


0-8 


0-3 


0-3 


l-l 


4 „ 


0-1 


0-5 


0-7 


1-3 


1-6 


1-8 


1-7 


1-8 


1-3 


0-5 


0-1 


0-1 


1-0 


5 „ 


0-0 


0-2 


0-3 


1-2 


1-1 


1-7 


1-4 


1-6 


' 0-8 


0-2 


-0-1 


0-0 


0-7 


6 „ 


-0-1 


0-0 


0-2 


0-9 


0-9 


1-3 


1-0 


1-1 


0-3 


0-0 


-0-2 


0-0 


0-5 


7 „ 


-0-1 


-0-1 


0-1 


0-5 


0-6 


0-9 


0-9 


0-5 


0-0 


0-1 


-0-2 


-0-1 


0-3 


8 „ 


-0-1 


-0-1 


0-0 


0-2 


01 


O'l 


0-4 


0-1 


-0-2 


0-0 


-U-2 


-d-l 


0-0 


9 .1 


-0-2 


0-0 


-0-1 


0-0 


-0- 


-0-3 


O-l 


-0-2 


-0-2 


-0-1 


-0-2 


0-0 


-O'l 


10 ., 


-0-2 


-0-1 


-0-3 


-0-3 


-0-6 


-0-5 


-0-2 


-0-5 


-0-2 


-0-1 


-0-2 


-0-1 


-0-3 


11 „ 


-0-2 


-0-1 


-0-3 


-0-5 


-0-9 


-0-7 


-0-5 


-0-6 


-0-4 


-0-1 


-0-2 


-0-2 


-0-4 


Midnight 


-0-2 


-0-2 


-0'4 


-0-7 


-1-0 


-1-0 


-0-7 


-0-8 


-0-6 


-0-2 


-0-2 


0-0 


-0-5 



Second Report of the Gomrtiittee, consisting of Professors Tilden,. 
McLeod, Pickering, Eamsay, and Young and Drs. A. E. Leeds 
and NicoL {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting: 
on the Bibliography of Solution. 

During the past year the following journals have been searched : — 

PoggendorfE's ' Annalen ' (completed) ; 

' Annales de Chimie et do Physique ' ; 

' Chemical News ' ; 

' Philosophical Magazine ' ; 

' Philosophical Transactions ' ; 

' Proceedings of the Royal Society of London ' (in part) ; 

in all 350 volumes; with the result that 194 papers have been addeJ. 
to the list. These papers are distributed as follows : — 

A. 1 = 8; 2 = 4 12 

B. 1 = 29; 2 = 1; 3 = 2 32 

C. 1 = 21; 3 = 6; 4 = 17; 5=10; 6 = 13; 7 = 5; 8 = 1; 10=1 74 

D. 1 = 15; 2 = 2 17 

Miscellaneous 59 

The number of papers obtained in all is 549. 

The Committee is indebted to Mr. T. J. Baker, B.Sc., King Edward's- 
School, Birmingham, for assistance in searching the ' Annales de Chimie 
et de Physique.' 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRIC.A.L MEASUREMENTS. 



00 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr. Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. Gr. Adams, Lord Kayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. 
John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. 
Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor Gr. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. GtLAZe- 
BROOK (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Pro- 
fessor W. Gtarnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. BoTTOMLEY, and IVIr. T. GtRAY, appoi^tted for the 
purpose of constructing and issuing Practical Standards for 
use in Electrical Measurements. 

[Plate I.] 

The Committee report that the work of testing resistarce coils has 
been continued at the Cavendish Laboratory, and a table of the values 
found for the various coils is given. 







Legal ( 


Ohms. 






No. of Coil 




Resistance in Legal Ohms 


Temperature 


Elliott, 193 
Elliott, 201 


• • 


. ^ No. 178 
. "^^ No. 181 


■99971 
100005 


15°-5 
14°-8 



B.A. Units. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in B.A. Units 


Temperature 


Elliott, 200 . . . :^ No. 71 
Elliott, 43 . . . . ^ No. 72 


100049 
•99955 


13°-8 
140.7 



In conformity with the opinion expressed by the Committee in their 
last report some steps have been taken towards the construction of an 
air-condenser. 

A meeting was held in London and Dr. Alex. Muirhead exhibited 
an air-condenser, capacity about 'OOSS mf. This condenser consist.s 
of a series of concentric cylinders of brass insulated from each other by 
glass rods. 

Dr. Muirhead expressed his willingness to lend this condenser to 
the Committee with two others of similar construction, and it was agreeil 
that the Secretary should be requested to test them and to make a 
determination of their absolute capacity. Some delay in sending the 
instruments to Cambridge unavoidably took place, but the experiments 
requisite are now in progress ; so far, of the 80Z. granted last year for the 
purpose only 21. 10s. has been expended. 

During the year the original resistance standards of the Association 



56 REPORT— 1888, 

have been compared with each other by the Secretary and Mr. T. C. Fitz- 
patrick ; an account of the experiments is given in an appendix to the 
report, togfether with a chart giving the values of their resistance between 
10° and 20°. The general result of the comparison is that with two 
exceptions the relative values of the standards between the tempera- 
tures of 10° and 20° have not seriously changed since they were con- 
structed in 1865 until June 1888. A change of about "0002 B.A. Unit 
has been observed in the coil F since the end of June 1888. 

The attention of the Committee has been directed by several practical 
electricians to the desirability of a redetermination of the value of the 
specific resistance of copper. It is known that copper wire is now made 
having a resistance 3 or 4 per cent, less than Matthiessen's standard. 

In view of the importance of copper to electricians the Committee 
have undertaken to make experiments on the specific resistance of copper, 
and wish to thank the various gentlemen, who have brought the matter 
forward, for their offers of help. 

At the last meeting of the Committee it was resolved, on the motion 
of Mr. W. H. Preece, to adopt the name ' Therm ' for the Gramme-Water 
Degree Centigrade Unit of Heat. 

Thus one ' Therm ' is the quantity of heat required to raise one 
gramme of water at its maximum density one degree Centigrade. 

It was also agreed to adopt the name ' Joule ' for 10^ C.G.S. units of 
work. Thus a Joule is equal to 10^ ergs. It is the work done in one 
second by the power of one Watt, or again the work done when a 
current of one Ampere flows for one second between two points between 
which the difi'erence of potential is one Volt, and hence a power of one 
Watt is one Joule per second. 

Hence, also, if we take the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat 
as 42 X 10^ ergs, we have 

1 Therm=4-2 Joules. 

In accordance with a suggestion made at the Manchester meeting the 
value of the resistance of mercury in terms of the B.A. Unit has been 
again determined by the Secretary and Mr. Fitzpatrick.^ 

They find that a column of mercury 1 metre long 1 sqr. mm. in 
section has at 0° C. a resistance of -95352 B.A. Unit, and that the value of 
the ohm in centimetres of mercury is 106"29. 

The Committee are of opinion that they should be reappointed, with 
the addition of the name of Mr. T. C. Fitzpatrick, to continue the experi- 
ments already referred to ; they ask for a grant of 1001. They propose 
that Professor G. Carey Foster should be the Chairman and Mr. R. T. 
Glazebrook the Secretary. 

Appendix. 

Ow the Permanence of the Original Standards of Resistance of the British 

Association and of other Standard Coils. By R. T. Glazebrook and 

T. C. Fitzpatrick. 

The original standards were compared together by Messrs. Matthiessen 

and Hockin in 1865 and 1867, by Messrs. Chrystal and Saunder in 1876, 

by Dr. Fleming in 1879-81, and by the Secretary and Mr. Fitzpatrick in 

1887-88. The details of Dr. Fleming's observations have never been 

' Proc. Royal Soc. vol. xlir. ; Phil. Trans. 1888. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



57 



published, and we have to thank him for having placed his note-book and 
papers at our disposal. 

The question of the pennanence of wire standards has been discussed 
recently by Professor Himstedt, ' Wied. Ann.' xxxi. p. 617, and it seemed 
desirable to bring together all the information attainable as to the original 
coils of the Association and others used by Messrs. Matthiessen and 
Hockin in 1867. 

The original coils of the Association are six in number, and the tem- 
.peratures at which each has a resistance of 1 B.A.U. are given by Mr. 
Hockin in the Report for 1867. In addition to these six coils Messrs. 
Chrystal and Saunder examined the coil No. 29, marked F by them, and 
also a coil known as Flat, which are not mentioned in Mr. Hockin 's re- 
port. The results of these two comparisons are given in the following 
table : — 

Table I. — Table giving the results of comparisons in 186? and 1876. 



Material of 


No. in 1867 


Mark in 1876 


Temperature at which 


Temperature at which 


Coil 


Report 


Report 


CoU is 1 B.A.U., 1867 


Coil is IB.A.U., 18761 


Ptir 


2 


A 


16° 


16-1 


Ptir 


3 


B 


15-8 


15-8 


Au Ag 


58 


C 


15-3 


15-3 


Pt 


35 


D 


15-7 


16 


Pt 


36 


E 


15-7 


15-8 


PtAg 


29 


F 


not given 


(19-4?) 


PtAg 


43 


G 


15-2 


18-2 



It will be noticed that the coil G of Pt Ag is the only one for which 
the table shows any marked alteration. 

Now Matthiessen gives as the percentage increase of resistance per 
1° C. for Pt Ir the value '032. Our own experiments show it to be lower 
than this, and the value found for G by Dr. Fleming after a most careful 
series of experiments is 0278. I can find no record of the temperature 
at which Hockin actually worked. If it were below 15° and the tempera- 
ture at which the coil was right was found by the use of the coefficient 
*032 the temperature so found would be too low. 

If we assume Hockin's measurements to have been made at 0° C. and 
take Fleming's value "028 for the coefficient we find the temperature at 
which the coil was right to be 18°" 1. 

We have next to consider the very complete series of measurements 
taken by Dr. J. A. Fleming in 1879-81 ; the results of these measure- 
ments were tabulated on a chart which has been kept with these coils 
since that date. For the details of the experiments we have to thank 
Dr. Fleming, who placed at our disposal his note-books. The principle of 
his observations was as follows. If X, Y be two coils to be compared, 
■one X, say, was kept at 0° C, while the temperature of Y was varied 
from 0° to 20°. The difierences between the resistance of X at 0° and Y 
at various temperatures were measured by Carey Foster's method in 
terms of the wire of the Fleming bridge. The values of this difference 
were plotted as ordinates, the temperatures being the abscissae, and thus 
a curve was obtained giving the variation of resistance with temperature 

' In obtaining this column it was assumed that B remained unchanged between 
1867 and 1876. 



58 



REPORT — 1888. 



for the coil Y. For the standard coil Flat this carve is accarately a 
straight line. This coil was then kept at 0°, and the temperature of X 
varied, and so on for all the coils. 

Now, at the temperatures given in Table I., column 4, taken from 
the 1867 Report the resistances of all the coils should be the same. 
Fleming found that this was not quite strictly true. He defines therefore 
as the Mean B.A. Unit the mean of the values of the coils at the temper- 
atures at which they were originally said to be equal. This value is 
shown on his diagram by a red horizontal line. 

For the coils of platinum silver alloy, which is now used for standards, 
Fleming's results are accurately represented by straight lines for the tem- 
perature curves. This, however, is not so strictly the case for the coils 
A and B of platinum iridium "alloy; thus for these two coils Fleming 
took observations in the neighbourhood of 0°, 4°, 8°, 15°, and 21°, 
numerous observations being made at each temperature ; the straight line 
on the chart joining the means of the observations at 15° and 21° passes 
considerably above the observations at 0°, 4°, and 8°. The same too is 
the case, though in a less marked degree, for the platinum coils D and B. 
In the chart as drawn by Fleming it has been assumed that the tempera- 
ture curves are straight lines, and these have been drawn to represent all 
the observations as closely as possible, but the differences are considerable. 

If we draw curves instead of straight lines to represent Fleming's 
experiments these curves between 10° and 20° are in all cases nearly 
straight, and the differences, at the two temperatures, from Flat at 0° are 
given in bridge wire divisions in Table II. 

Table II. 





Temperature 10° 


Temperature 20° 


A 


-88 


205 


B 


-97 


196 


C 


11 


165 


D 


-280 


338 


E 


-263 


348 


F 


44 


100 


G 


40 


94 


Flat 


56 


112 



We could determine from this table the temperatures at which the 
various coils are equal, and hence compare Fleming's results with those 
of previous observers ; it will be easier to do this after discussing our 
own observations. 

During the past year and a half the coils have again been examined- 
by ourselves. We find that between the temperatures of about 10° and 
20° Centigrade the resistances of the coils, including an eighth coil H 
(No. 6 of the Report of 1867), may be represented by the formulae given, 
in Table III. 

In obtaining the table it has been assumed, in accordance with the 
observations of Dr. Fleming, confirmed by Lord Rayleigh and ourselves, 
that the resistance of one division (about 1 mm.) of our bridge wire at a 
temperature of 15° is -0000498 B.A.U. The table gives in B.A. Units 
the value of R,— Flat^, R^ being the resistance of the coils in order at 
temperature t°, F]at„ that of Flat at 0°. 



V 






111,1 iiiimiiillllll = 7!----T-. 

PUADTfiunwiMR THE RESISTANCE OF THE B. A. STANDARD _ - -// '^ 


IK 1887 AND 188a _.._:-;::--:; u _l_ ---^- 




Tbi vcrUcjil .hvisions corrvspoiid to ten bridge diviaioiiB, Or iV ' + T' 


■OOMON B A t' ; .nd tlie honjonlal dimions to 0',2 centi ,, i-T 


urada. - ^- - -' A'- ,'''" i 










tores at whichtboy ware originaUy correct. V \::. U , ^^_ .^--^Lj^ "_- 


[ _ui U' U 1- " i// '<i^i-^'^'' ' i ' 




1] /E'i 1, .,— ^-^ iil^^ ::^i^^S =^ * - 


\i^~ _H- .. t ■ t,— -^T^^ " ' ^ " " "^ ' ^^ '"^^''^^^^^'^'^ 


' -■-'—-_;■ ^Tjp ■ 1 . ■ .-^ Z— ^-^ tl^^ZP~ ^^^S '^' " ^:^-^T^ ■ |T ■ T"" " X "Jx- 


1 . i .^ — v-v • . J t ■ -• _^— — lTHI^^— -- "Tl!^^^^^ :^^=^ — TJ-^^ ' ' ' I - - _L 






'-1 :-::: i_ ._ j; ."tr*: ^^T!;! jj/liX - 1 - --- - '4+ 


"-- TT;^d^'±ri--l 44 "-^^ tt" - - 'T:::::::::::::::; $:= i i 


■■" " " ~ '^ t-'^ft' "' ^ ' ' A'' ' M' - 44- 




i -<.'■' -tL ' Jt ' '^V\ ... ....... '.- ;..:..;± 








y.'i- 1 // X ___::!:::;;::::. _j::_:l:„_:441l 
















1 - J — - yy - - - 4 








:;;;;:i::;-^^!L__:Mt::^___:4.. _:::... .::4_:__:;:_:_:;;;^:^;:;::::::":. 


4t-t-r -/A _^ \- .- - A 41- -■.-■■__- \\\\-- - 



Uiiistratm^ the HepartorUi£(Jma/uMeefircmjstru£iififfAfj^^ 



.'i>merMj4 iCUA la-JfH 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



59 











Table III. 


Coil 


Rj-FlatoinB.A.U. 


A . 
B . 
C . 
D . 

E . 
F . 
G . 
H . 

Flat 








- -00386 + -001426 (t-10) 

- -00431 + -001436 (t-10) 
+ -00057 + -000710 (!!-10) 

- -01434 + -003078 (t-10) 

- -01330 + -003023 (^-10) 
+ -00227 + -000286 (t-10) 
+ -00192 + -000274 (t-10) 
+ -00202 + -000281 (^-10) 
+ -00279 + -000279 (i^-lO) 



The results of these observations are given in the chart,' Plate I. 

The vertical divisions are ten bridge divisions, and the horizontal 
divisions 0'''2C. In the original chart, which is retained with the stan- 
dards, the vertical divisions were one bridge division, or -0000498 B.A.U. 

About eleven observations on each coil are recorded in the chart, and 
in but few cases is the error between observation and the corresponding 
straight line greater than that which would arise from an error of one- 
tenth of a degree Centigrade in the temperature of the coil. 

If as above we adopt as the Mean B.A. Unit the mean of the value of 
the coils at the temperature at which each was said to be originally 
correct we find that this mean lies on our chart at a distance of 78'3- 
divisions above the value of Flat at 0°, so that 

Flat at 0°=1- 00390 B.A.U. 

The value given on Fleming's chart is Flat at 0°=1 — -00410 B.A.U., and 
the difference is within the errors of reading on his chart. 

We have thus the data for finding the resistance of any of the coils in 
Mean B.A.U. at any temperature between 10° and 20°. 

It remains to compare these results and those of previous observers. 
We will take Fleming's. observations first, and for this purpose have given 
in Table IV. the differences in bridge wire divisions between the coils at 
temperatures of 10° and 20° and Flat at 0°. For the sake of comparison 
Table II. is repeated. 

Table IV. 



Coil 


ValueofR-Flaf>atlO° 


ValueofR-Flatoat20° 


1880 


1888 


1880 


1888 


A 
B 

C 
D 

E 
F 
G 
H 

Flat 


-88 

-97 

11 

-280 

-263 

44 

40 

56 


-77-5 
-86-5 
11-5 
-288 
-267 
45-5 
38-5 
40-5 
56 


205 
196 
155 
338 
348 
100 
94 

112 


209 
202 
154 
330 
340 
103 

93-5 

97 
112 



' Note. — The smaller letters in brackets after some of the observations on the chart 
give the initials of the observer. 



<60 



BEPORT — 1888. 



A comparison of the corresponding columns shows that the differences, 
except possibly in the case of A and B at the lower temperature, are 
probably not greater than the error of experiment. It must be remem- 
bered that A and B change by 28 bridge divisions for 1° Centigrade, 
while for D and E the change is about 60 divisions per degree; the 
temperature of the coils is hardly certain to 0°'l Centigrade and the 
■differences are within that error. As to the platinum silver coils it would 
seem possible that F ' has risen relatively to Flat by -0001 B.A.U. and 
that G has fallen by '00005 ; but these differences are almost too small to 
make certain of. With regard to the results for A and B at 10° it may 
be remarked that Fleming's line for these coils is more curved than for 
any of the others, and that his observations at 6°'9 and at 3° lie distinctly 
above the line which seems to represent best the observations at 0°, 9°, 
15°, and higher temperatures. The observations are not at sufficiently 
close intervals of temperature to enable the curved line to be drawn with 
accuracy, and it is clear when plotting them that the curve near 10° may 
be wrong by as much as 5 or 6 bridge wire divisions. 

We would conclude then that there is no certain evidence for a change 
in the coils in the interval 1880 to 1888. A comparison with the results 
of Hockin and Chrystal is not quite so easy. It is clear from the chart 
that the coils are not exactly equal at the temperatures originally stated, 
and any table of temperatures at which they may be said to have the value 
of 1 B.A. Unit will depend on the assumption made as to possible 
<;hanges in any of the coils. Chrystal in 1876 found that the coils B and 
•C were equal at the temperatures at which they were originally stated 
to be each 1 B.A. Unit. He supposed these coils had not altered and 
founds on that assumption a table of standard temperatures which agrees 
well with that of Hockin except for the coil G. According to our obser- 
vations the coils now marked as B and C are no longer equal at the tem- 
peratures mentioned. We find, however, that D, E, and G are practically 
«qual at the temperatures given by Chrystal, and if we suppose G has not 
altered we get the following table of standard temperatures : — 

Table V. 



Coil 


Standard Temperature, 1876 


Standard Temperature, 1888 


A 


16-1 


15-7 


B 


15-8 


16 


C 


153 


151 


D 


16 


16 


E 


15-8 


15-8 


F 


19-4? 


16-9 


G 


18-4 


18-4 


H 


— 


17-9 


Flat 


— 


15-2 



The change in C, as shown in this table, is not large, probably hardly 
■greater than would be accounted for by experimental error, while D, E, 
and G agree very closely. 

The differences in the case of A, B, and F are important. To take F 
first. It is a platinum silver coil, No. 29 of the original report. Its 

' 'I'lie results of other experiments confirm this rise in the value of F. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 61 

temperature is, however, not given in the Report for 1867, p. 483, nor is 
it marked out in coil itself. Chrystal says that it was used in some of the 
experiments ' because its variation coefficient was small, but otherwise we 
have not bestowed much attention on it. ' In his first table he states 
that the results given for F came from a single experiment, aud he gives 
as its variation coefficient per 1° Centigrade 28 divisions of his bridge, while 
Flat and G, also platinum silver coils, have coefficients of 34 and 35 divi- 
sions. Now the observations of Fleming and ourselves show that without 
any doubt these coils Flat, F, and G- have practically the same coefficient, 
viz., -00028 B.A.U. per 1° C. Taking Chrystal's bridge wire as -075 ohm- 
as stated by him, his value for Flat and G comes to '00026 B.A.U., which 
is in fair agreement ; while for F we find "00021, a value which is now un- 
doubtedly too low. We must infer either that the value of F has changed 
considerably or that there is some accidental error in the one observation 
given in Chrystal's table. The change necessary to account for the tem- 
perature difference recorded in Table V. would he an increase in resist- 
ance of -00067 B.A.U. 

Let us now examine the numbers for A and B. It will be seen at 
once that they have altered appreciably, having, in fact, just changed 
places. Their temperature coefficients are nearly the same, and there is 
no doubt that throughout Chrystal's observations the coil he called B 
was slightly higher in value than A, while throughout the obser- 
vations of Fleming and ourselves the reverse has been the case. The 
question naturally arises, have the coils been interchanged ? Chrystal 
(Report, 1876, p. 17) states that, though they have no proper labels, they 
are marked in some way or other so as to be identifiable. At the present 
time they have brass labels screwed on to the ebonite of the frame bearing 
the stamp B.A. 76 A and B.A. 76 B respectively. These were placed on 
at the time of Chrystal's observations, and there seems just the possibility 
of an accidental interchange. 

The coil H, No. 6, of the original report is marked as correct at 15°'3. 
It is now correct in the sense used above at 17°*9, and here again we have 
apparently a large change. The resistance would appear to have gone 
down by about '00070 B.A.U. in the twenty-two years which have 
elapsed since it was made. This corresponds closely to the change in G 
observed by Chrystal between 1867 aud 1876. Now we know that G has 
not changed relatively to C, D, and E, since 1876 — unfortunately H was 
not examined by Chrystal— and we are led to ask whether the change 
was a real one, or due in some way to the observations. The suggestion 
already made in case of G applies again. The temperature coefficient used 
by Matthiessen and Hockin is certainly too high, '00032 instead of '00028. 
If his observations on the platinum silver coils were made at low 
temperatures, and then the value of the temperature at which the coil is 
correct were found by the use of the temperature coefficient, the result 
would be too low. It will be seen shortly that all the platinum silver 
coils examined, not merely those already mentioned, appear to have fallen 
appreciably in value relative to the others. 

But we have another method of comparing the results. Chrystal has 
given a table of the differences at 10° between each of the coils and Flat. 
Now we have seen reason to believe that there is not much change in 
C, D, B, and G. Let us find from Chrystal's table the valueof the difference 
between G and the various coils at 10°, and compare these with our results. 
In doing this some uncertainty is introduced from the fact that the value 



«2 



HKPOKT — 1888. 



of the bridge wire in Chrystal's observations was only determined approxi- 
mately as "075 B.A.U. In this way we get the following Table VI. 

Table VI. 





Value of G-X at 10° in B.A.U. 




X 


1876 


1888 


Difference 


A 


•00693 


■00583 


■00110 


B 


■00648 


•00635 


•00013 


C 


■00162 


•00135 


■00027 


D 


■01596 


•01632 


- -00036 


B 


•01506 


01527 


-•00021 


F 


-•00018 


- •oooss 


•00017 



On examining these differences it would seem that A has changed 
^eatly, while B has remained unaltered. This is not in accordance with 
the conclusions derived from Table V., and will require further considera- 
tion. With regard to the otter four coils, the differences are almost 
within errors of observation and are in fair agreement with Table V. 
Coil C appears to have risen relative to G by '00027 ; thus, since its tem- 
perature coefficient is "00071, this would correspond to an apparent fall 
in the temperature at which it is right of about 0°'3 Centigrade. Table V. 
shows that there has been a fall in this temperature of 0°'2. 

The temperature coefficients of D and B are about "00308, so that the 
differences recorded for these coils would be accounted for by an error 
of 0"! in the temperature, while the change in F relative to G is so small 
as to be within the experimental errors. We are thus led to infer that, 
while C may have risen slightly, the others have not changed by any but 
a very small amount. This conclusion as regards F is at variance with 
the one derived from Table V. In fact, while at 10° F is above G in 
value ; owing to the small temperature coefficient used by Chrystal for F, 
its curve of resistance crosses that of G, and at temperatures near 18°, at 
whicb G is about right, F is considerably below it. 

If we take Chrystal's value for F at 10° and the temperature co- 
efficient '00026 instead of "00021 used by him, we find that F would be 
right at about 17°"6 instead of at 19°"4, as given by Chrystal. This is 
much closer to 16°'9, the value given by our observations ; if we take it 
instead of the 19-4 of Table I., the results of this Table VI. and of Table V. 
would point to a rise in the value of F of about "00017. 

The conclusion then that would seem to follow from a comparison of 
these two series of observations in 1876 and 1888 would seem to be that, 
while considerable uncertainty attaches to the coils A and B, changes 
in the other five coils, C, D, B, F, and G, if they have occurred at all, 
are probably not so great as "0002 B.A. Unit. C and F may possibly 
have risen by this amount, while D, B, and G have not varied at all. 

Professor Chrystal's observations in 1876 are in accordance with those 
of Messrs. Matthiessen and Hockin in 186-4! and 1867, while the results of 
Dr. Fleming's work in 1880 agree, as we have seen, with our own at the 
present date. 

The observations recorded and discussed above were made mostly at 
temperatures between 10° and 20°. A considerable number more were 
made during the cold weather in January and February of the present 
jear at temperatures near 0°, and we must now consider them. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



63 



At these low temperatures the observations are not nearly so con- 
cordant as those already considered. The tei^minals of the coils are stout 
rods of copper, and whenever the temperature of the room is different 
from that of the bath in which the coils are placed heat is conducted to 
them through the copper rods and the temperature becomes uncertain ; 
besides this it is difficult to prevent the deposition of moisture on the 
paraffin with which the cases are filled, and this again becomes a source 
of error. Table VII. gives a series of the differences observed between 
the various coils and Flat. The coils were in a north room of which the 
windows were open, and the temperature in the room was on the average 
about 2° C. The differences are given in bridge wire divisions. 

Table VII. 



Coil 


Feb. 2, 
Morning 


Feb. 22, 
Afternoon 


Feb. 23 


Feb. 24, 
Afternoon 


Feb. 25, 
Morning 


Feb. 25, 

Afternoon 


March 


Mean 


A 


433-9 


422-4 


424-4 


428 


422-7 


422-6 




425-9 


B 


459-9 


452-4 


454-7 


455-8 


452-0 


— 


451-5 


454-7 


C 


136 


— 


— 


— 


— 


134-6 


135-5 


134-3 


D 


913-8 


922-4 


— 


927-4 


921-0 


— 


— 


921-7 


E 


894-2 


895-4 


— 


905-8 


907-0 


— 


— 


901-1 


F 


6-4 


5-4 


5-3 


7-5 


7-8 


9-6 


9 


7-3 


G 


14-1 


16-8 


— 


16-8 


16-7 


18-4 


18 


16-5 


H 


15-7 


15-7 


16 


16-7 


15-4 


17 


16 


16-1 



Now from Tables III. or IV. we can easily calculate what these 
differences ought to be if we suppose that the temperature curves are 
straight lines. In making a comparison of the results of this calculation 
with the observed values given in Table VII. some allowance must be 
made for the fact that the bridge wire referred to in IV. was at a mean 
temperature of about 15°, while in Table VII. the temperature was about 
2°. Now the temperature coefficient of the bridge wire — platinum 
iridium — is about •00143 ; thus the change in resistance for 13° of tem- 
perature will be '0185 of the resistance at 2°, and we shall have to reduce 
each of our observed values by this fraction of itself. 

We thus get the following Table VIII. of values of the difference at 
0° between Flat and the various coils. 





Table VIII. 






Observed Yalue of Flat-X 


Value of Flat-X 




Coil 


corrected for temperature 


at 0° obtained from 


Difference 




of bridge 


Table III. 




A 


417-7 


364 


63-7 


B 


446-1 


375 


71-1 


C 


131-8 


131 


0-8 


D 


904-2 


906 


- 1-8 


E 


884-0 


874 


-10 


F 


7-2 


12 


- 4-8 


G 


16-2 


165 


- 0-3 


H 


15-8 


16 


0-2 



On examining these it is at once clear that the supposition that the 
temperature curves for A and B are straight lines is false. 



64 



KEPOBX 1888. 



The other coils, with perhaps the exception of F, would lie at 0° on the 
straight line which represents the observations between 10° and 20" 
■within the limits of the errors of experiments. 

The numbers given in Table VIII. agree well with those found by 
Fleming in 1880 with the exception of the coils A and B. 

Some observations made at intermediate temperatures are in agree- 
ment with the statements just made. • Thus on March 2, the tempera- 
ture of the room being 12°, we found that at 4°9 C. the difference between 
A and Flat at was 256 bridge wire divisions, while for B at 4°'8 the 
difference was 280 bridge wire divisions. 

Thus in conclusion we infer that while the observations in 1880 and 
1888 are in close accord for temperatures between 10° and 20° there is a 
discrepancy between them at lower temperatures for the two coils of 
platinum iridium A and B. The other coils, however, do not show any 
marked evidence of change. For the same two coils there is a discre- 
pancy between our results and those of Chrystal in 18/G and Hockin in 
1867. For the other coils the agreement between Chrystal and ourselves 
is as close as can well be expected, and our results as well as those of 
Chrystal agree with Hockin's for the gold silver coil C and the platinum 
coils J) and E. According to both Chrystal and ourselves the platinum 
silver coils have fallen in value relatively to the others by something like 
•0006 B.A.U., corresponding to change in the temperature at which they 
are correct of some 2° Centigrade. We have seen, however, that G, the 
only one of these coils which was carefully examined by Chrystal in 1876, 
has not altered since. In its case the whole fall, if it occurred at all, took 
place between 1867 and 1876, and we suggest that possibly the fall has 
not been a real one, but merely apparent, owing to the use of the wrong 
temperature coefficient by Hockin. 





Table IX.- 


-Giving tl 


e Values in 


1888. 




Coil 


Original No. 

See Report, 

1867 


Materi.al 


Temperature 
at which 
coil is cor- 
rect, 1867 


Value of coil 
in Mean C.A. 
Units at the 
temperature 
given in 1867 


Temperature 

at which 
coil is 1 B.A. 
Units, 1888 


Temperature 

Coefficient 

in B.A. Units 


A 

r. 

c 

D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
Flat 


2 
3 

58 
35 
36 
29 
43 
6' 


Ptir 
Ptir 

Au Ag 

Pt 

Pt 

PtAg 

PtAg 

PtAg 

PtAg 


o 

16 

15-8 

15-3 

15-7 

15-7 

15-2 
15-3 


1-00075 
1-00010 
1-00050 
■999.30 
1-00000 

-99940 


o 

15-4 
15-7 
14-8 
15-9 
15-7 
15-7 
17-3 
16-8 
140 


-00143 
•00144 
•00071 
•00308 
•00302 
-00028 
-00028 
-00028 
■00028 



As has been said already, the value that has been assumed as the 
Mean B.A. Unit since Fleming consti-ncted his chart in 1876 is the mean 
of the values of the six coils A, B, C, D, E, and G mentioned in the 
Report for 1867 at the temperatures at which they were then said to be 



' This coil is not mentioned in the Report of 1867. 
the label. 



The details given are from 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL 3IEASDREMENTS. 



65 



correct. In terms of this unit we find, Table IX., tlie present values at 
the temperatures of 1867. We also give in the last colnmn but one the 
temperatures at which these coils have the value I B.A. Unit, and in the 
final column the temperature coefficients per 1° Centigi-ade also in B.A. 
Units. 

There remains now for consideration the result of comparisons which 
we have made on various other standard coils originally issued by the 
Committee, and which have most kindly been put at our disposal by their 
owners for the purposes of the report. 

Messrs. Elliott Bros, have three coils. One, No. 41 of the original 
set, was made by Matthiessen in 1864. A second, No. 56, was first 
examined by Lord Rayleigh in 1882 : these two are B. A. Units, while the 
third, Elliott, No. 117, is a legal ohm, first tested by R.T.G in 1884. 
These coils are all of platinum silver, with a temperature coefficient of 
•00028. Table X. gives the temperatures at which they were found 
correct at different dates. 

Table X. 



Coil and Mark on it 
at present 


Matthies- 
sen, 1864 


Hockin, 
1879 


Hockin, 

1880 


Lord 
Ravlcigh, 

1882 


GLize- 

brook, 

1884 


Glaze- 
brook, 
1885 


Glaze- 
brook, 
1887 


No. 41 ^ No. 55 
No. 56 "^ No. 50 
No. 117^ No. 63 


152 


132 


14-2 


14-5 
141 


15 5 
15-4 
17-8 


15 


6-2 

147 

' lG-8 

1 



The observations made in 1887 are separated from the others by a 
double line because daring 1886 it was observed that the paraffin used 
in the insulation was becoming green, and it was therefore removed and 
replaced by pure ozoherit. In consequence of this some change may 
easily have taken place in the coils, and the record after 1884 must be 
treated as a fresh one. 

In the first coil the most noticeable point is the drop of 2° between 
1864 and 1879 ; but since this drop is followed by a rise of 1° in the next 
twelve months one may feel uncertain as to whether it is real or due to 
some error in 1879. 

In the nest five years there appears to be a gradual rise in tempera- 
ture corresponding to a fall in resistance ; the total amount would cor- 
respond to a change in resistance of about '0004 B.A. Unit. The 
removal of the paraffin has seriously affected No. 41. 

The next coil also of platinum silver, is one belongiiig to Professor 
Carey Foster. He writes as follows : — ' It professed to be equal to 

1 B.A. Unit at I4°-2 C. 

I had it direct from Matthiessen, who, I believe, adjusted it specially for 
me from his standards.' On comparing it with F in May 1887 we find 
that it has a resistance of "99983 Mean B.A. Unit at 16°'2. It would 
therefore be right at 16"8. 

This, of course, shows a considerable change, corresponding apparently 
to a fall in its resistance of about -00073 B.A. Unit. It will be noticed 

1888. F 



66 



EEPOBT — 1888. 



that this fall is just abont the same as that observed in tlie platinum 
silver units of this Committee- — F, G, and H. We shall refer to it again 
in connection witb the next series of observations. 

But by far the most important series of coils are a set belonging to 
Mr. H. A. Taylor. Witli regard to tbem he writes : — ' Most of my coils 
belonged to Hockin long before I knew him, and at his death they were 
given to me by his father.' ' The early history of these coils is lost, unless 
it can be found in Matthiessen's note-books. I am informed, however, 



that the one unit coil I sent you both last year and this, !^ No. 68, was 

copied by Hockin from the B.A. coils you now have at Cambi-idge at the 
time when he had regular access to them. Whether from a particular 
standard or from the mean of several, I do not know ; bat he considered 
it to be at 15°-5 C. less than B.A. Unit by -0003. I presume the Au Ag 
coils, Nos. 19 and 34, were verified by Matthiessen and Hockin, as they 
have the formal B.A. stamp. With regard to the tens, one, I think, 
belonged to Hockin and the other was purchased by Messrs. H. C. Forde 
and Fleeming Jenkin of the Committee in the n.sual manner.' 

Table XI. gives Mr. H. A. Taylor's observations on his coils on the 
assumption that Hockin's standard has not changed. 

Table XI. — -Assuming a Coil (Hockin's Standard) tested hy Electrical 
Standards Committee ( 'M, No. 08) to he, as stated hy HocJcin, smaller 

ihanl B.A. Unit hy ^ ° / ^^ {three-hmdredihs per cent.) at 15°'5 C. The 
Tahle slicivs the Resistance in terms of 1 B.A. Unit of other Standards 
15°'5 C. at the dates given. 



1 (C. F. T.) copy called right) 

at 16°-1 Centigrade ) 

1 (No. 19) B.A. coil issued as) 

right at 15°-5 C. \ 

1 (No. 34) B.A. coil issued as j 

riglit at 15° 8 C. f 

10 (C. F. T.) copy called right 1 

atl5°-6C. I 

10 (No. 3) B.A. coil issued as | 

right at (?) / 

10 (No. 4) B.A. coU issued as 1 

right at 16°-0 C. ] 



'u 


o 

<D O 

&.§ 
Is 
^6 


December 1874. 

Observations 

at 15°-5 C. 


January 187.'i. 

Observations 

at 17'^-3 C. 


rtAg 


2-6 


•99994 


•99997 


AnAg 


6-5 


— 


•09069 


AuAg 


6-9 


1-00007 


1-00014 


PtAg 


2-6 


— 


10-0001 


PtAg 


3-1 


10-0008 


10-0021 


PtAg 


3-1 


10-0009 


— 






03 



en 



30 s 

■"".SO 

I' rt . 

OJ --I 
CO 



•99986 
■99980 
1-00023 
0-9992 
10-0013 
9-9995 



•99084 
•90970 
1-00023 
9-9991 
10-0013 
99999 



« 




£20 


• go 


2^T^ 


»-S7 


o>S, 


^rs 


•99985 


H"^ 


— 


•909C3 


— 


1-00016 


1-00020 


9-9991 


— 


10-0012 


10-0011 


9-9997 


9-9991 



Where the temperature of observation differs from i5°-5 C. the reductions to that 
temperature are made by the temperature coefficients given. 

The evidence of a change is very small. The observations have lasted 
over 14 years. For the first coil there would seem possibly to have been 
a drop of abont '0001 between 1875 and 1879. The next coil may have 
risen by as much and fallen again, while the third coil would seem to 
have risen by -00015. The results for the ten ohm coils are much the 
same. From the six coils, some of platinum silver, some of gold silver, 
we conclude that there is certain evidence no change greater that 1 in 
10,000 has occurred in the last fourteen years. 

The next table enables us to compare these coils with the standards at 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



67 



Cambridge. It will be noticed at once that relatively to the Cambridge 
standards the coils have all fallen. 

Table XTI. 



Coils 


Col. I. 


Col. II. 


01. III. 


CI. IV. 


Col. V. 


Col. VI. 


Nominal Value 
as Issued 


Glazebrook's 
Determination 


Temperature 
Coefficient 
(Hockin's) 


Temperature 
Coefficient 
(Taylor's) 


Present Resist- 
ance of the Coils 
at the Tempera- 
tures given in 
Col. I. 










Per 


From 


From 




Cent. 


Cent. 


Hun- 
dredths 


cent. 
perl° 


Cols. II. 
and III. 


Cols. II. 
and IV. 


No, 19 


1-00000 at 15 5 


•99959 at 16 5 


G-5 


6-97 


-99894 


-99889 


No. Si 


1-00000 at 15-8 


l-OOOSa at 16-7 


6-9 


7-4 


-99968 


-909G3 






f -99920 at 16-6 
J (1888) 
-99983 at 18-25 
L (1887) 


31 


2-8 


-99892 


-99895 


1 H ^ G8 


-99970 at 15'5 


3-1 1 2-8 


■99900 


-99908 






Assumed 




10 No. 3 = ^69 


10-00000 at 15-5 


10-00209 at 18-1 


31 


9-99403 



Let us take fir.st Hockin's standard "^S* 68. Using Taylor's tempera 



ture coefficient we find as its present valne — the mean of the two given 
in the last column — at 1.5°-5, -99901. It has therefore fallen relatively 
to the Mean B. A. Unit by '00069, practically the same fall as that found for 
all the other platinum silver coils examined. The coil C.F.T. (the first 
coil in Table XI.) will also clearly have fallen by the same amount. 
Similarly with the ten unit platinum silver coil '^_ 69 ; it has fallen from 



10 to 9-9940, or by '006, nearly the same percentage ; and since, accord- 
ing to Table XL, the coils have not changed relatively to each other and 
to the gold silver coils by more than one-sixth of this amount since 1874, 
there is some probability that the change, if it has taken place at all, 
occurred between 1867 and 1874. It will be remembered that we arrived 
at a similar conclusion with regard to G. The difference between the 

values of ^ 68, found by myself in 1887 and 1882 as recorded in the 

two last lines of Table XII., arises from the fact that in 1887 the coil was 
compared with F, and in 1888 with Flat and G. In making the calcu- 
lation it was assumed that the values of F, Flat, and G in terms of the 
Mean B.A. Unit had remained unchanged since Fleming's time. The 
results of our comparisons given in Tables IV., Y., &c., would, as has been 
said, point to a slight rise in F of possibly as much as -0001, and this 

would reconcile the two values for 1 H or ^ 68. As regards the gold 

silver coils Nos. 19 and 34, if we take the value as issued, the one has 
fallen by -00111, the other by -00037. We must remember that the tem- 
perature coefficients for these coils are much greater than for the platinum 
silver coils. 

If, however, we compare the values as issued with those found by 
Taylor in 1875 — Table XL, column five — we find that while Xo. 19 was 



68 REroKT 1888. 

then -99969 at 15-5, showing a fall of -00031, No. 34 was 1-00014., show- 
ing a rise of -00014. Since this date No. 19 has fallen therefore by -0008, 
and No. 34 by -00051, and these numbers are within the limits of error 
of the fall of "00065 found for the platinum silver coils. We would infer 
then that while apparently there was a serious change in these coils rela- 
tively to the platinum silver standards between the date of issue and 1875, 
since that date there has been no change. On referring to Mr. Taylor's 
letter on p. 66 it will be noticed that the history of these coils previous 
to 1875 is uncertain ; all that is known is that they have the foi'mal B.A. 
stamp, and it is stated in the Fourth Report of the Committee, 1866, that 
all the coils issued are correct to "0001 at the temperatures stated. 

There is still another coil of some interest. This is now marked ^^ 54. 
It was made in accordance with the suggestion of Chrystal in 1876, with 
a thermoelectric junction attached. Fleming compared it with his 
standards in 1879 and 1880. In 1884 it Avas again compared by us and 
found to have the value "99658 B. A.U. at 8"3, with a temperature coefficient 
of -000295. It was then sent to Professor Kohlrausch at "Wiirzburg for 
comparison with some mercury units constructed by Strecker, and was 
returned by him at the end of his experiments. 

In 1888 it was again compared and found to be "99653 B.A.U. at 8"3, 
■with a coefficient of -000290. It will be seen that the change is "00005, 
which is within the temperature errors. 

Thus we conclude, from this general account of the condition of the 
coils at present, that with the exception of the platinum iridium coils A 
and B there is no evidence of ar!y change of as much as "0001 B.A.U. since 
the years 1874 or 1876, but that all the platinum silver coils and the two 
gold silver coils belonging to Mr. Taylor changed apparently by about 
"0007 B.A.U. between the time of their construction and the time at -which 
they were examined by Chrystal and by Taylor respectively. This change 
may of course be a real one ; we incline, however, to suppose that it is 
apparent only, and offer the following explanation, already several times 
referred to. 

Hockin says in a note to his Table of Temperatures, ' British Associa- 
tion Report,' 1867, which gives the temperatures for the standard coils of 
the Association : ' The values given in the above table are deduced from 
the german-silver coil called B ^ used in your Committee's experiments 
in 1864.' 

He does not seem to have compared among themselves the standards 
of various materials, but to have referred each to B. Now we are ignorant 
of the temperature at which the comparison was made, but we know he 
used the coefficient "00032. This at present is too high by "00004. If 
we suppose that Hockin made his determinations with the coils in ice, 
then this error in the temperature coefficient would lead him to a valuB 
for the coil at 15°, which would be too high by -0006. 

Having once got a platinum silver coil supposed to be known, it would 
be natural to use it as a standard rather than any of the others, because 
of its low temperature coefficient, and the error made in the original 
determination of G would thus be pei-petuated. This conclusion is borne 
out by the observations on Messrs. Elliott's coil No. 41, Table X. Its 
standard temperature fell apparently by 2° between the time of its issue 
by Matthiessen in 1864 and Hockin's comparison in 1879, and then rose 

' This is not the same as our B. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 69 

again between 1879 and 1882. This would be accounted for if we sup- 
pose that Hockin's platinum silver standard was too low. 

P.S. — November 1888. — Since the experiments detailed above were 
completed a considerable change has taken place in F. It is now almost 
exactly equal to Flat, that is, it has risen in value by '00048 B.A. Unit. 
Further investigations as to the cause of this must be left till the next 
report. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden 
and W. Chandler Roberts-Austen and Mr. T. Turner {Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the In- 
fiaence of Silicon on the pjroperties of Steel. {Draivn up by 
Mr. T. Turner.) 

In the previous Report of this Committee, presented at the Manchester 
meeting, an account was given of a series of experiments undertaken in 
order to determine the eiFect produced by silicon on the properties of the 
purest variety of iron met with commercially. For this purpose metal was 
taken from the basic Bessemer vessel at the end of the blow, before any 
carbon or manganese was introduced, and to this fluid metal weighed 
quantities of silicon pig, containing about 10 per cent, of silicon, were 
added. It was then shown that silicon rendered the metal quiet in the 
mould, and that in the proportions employed the metal was tough when 
cold, and welded well. The elastic limit and tensile strength were both 
increased by the presence of silicon, while the elongation and contraction 
of area were diminished ; the appearance of the fracture also changed 
from silky to crystalline, and with over 013 per cent, of silicon in all 
cases the metal was so red-short that the ingots crumbled to pieces under 
the rolls. 

The present Report has to do with a series of experiments very similar 
to those described last year, the chief difference being that ordinary basic 
ingot metal was used instead of the specially pure iron previously 
employed. In these experiments, therefore, the metal has been taken 
in the condition in which it would be sent into commerce, definite 
quantities of silicon have been added, and the product examined both 
chemically and mechanically. The method of procedure was as follows : 
In a covered fireclay crucible a weighed quantity of the silicious iron was 
melted, and into the red-hot crucible was run about 40 lbs. of molten 
metal, which was taken from the ladle about the middle of a cast. After 
allowing the contents of the crucible to stand for about a minute, the 
metal, which was still thoroughly fluid, was poured in to another red-hot clay 
crucible, in which the mixture was allowed to solidify. By this means a 
very thorough incorporation of the materials was obtained. The experi- 
ments were conducted, as before, at the works of the South StaSbrdshire 
Steel and Ingot Iron Co., Bilston. Mr. F. W. Harbord kindly super- 
intended the works tests of the material •, the mechanical tests were con- 
ducted by Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, and in each case duplicate experi- 
ments were made ; the chemical analyses have been performed by Mr. 
J. P. Walton. 



70 



EEPOBT 1888. 

















•8101 


cidaojad 










ssanpjBH aAijupji 




^1 


30IB0S 


gq oj ST? 


jjBois OS S90ngi9j;i(j 






^0) O -H 


2 >o 





!M 


(M 





—1 




<M 


«D 


to 





in 








00 

lb 


i-H 

to 


00 

lb 


to 


CO 

to 




to 
to 


CO 

lb 


C3 


lb 


rH 

to 


i°$-^ 


00 


t- 


10 


f— 1 


tH 


t- 




to 


to 


rH 


t- 


00 


-gg^s-i 


a: 





1— 1 


Ai 


1— 1 


cb 




tb 


C2 


to 





■^ 


03 <H 


-* 


-*i 


10 


•^ 


10 


•* 




10 


-*l 


CO 


CO 


CO 


f-W 


K 'i; 






























^ 


^ 


C5 


-*i 


to 


Ci 




CO 


to 


t-- 





rH 


2l0g| 

H^ to 


cc 





(N 


C5 





I-H 




■^ 


t- 


tb 


00 


03 


<N 


(N 


C^ 


t-H 


c^ 


<M 




c^ 


r^ 


rH 


f—i 


1-1 




° •- -S 


M 


CO 


CO 





-H 


<>» 




■«*< 





rH 


CO 


t~ 


< t- 


■-S "J- g o § 


■^ 





I-H 





CO 


^H 




cq 


■tH 


t- 





T—i 


w S 


oj o .5 -t^ K 


t^ 


!>. 


t- 


to 


to 


t^- 




t- 


to 


to 


to 


tr 


o S 


K 1-1 P3 




















' 


• 


* 


63 u 






















































f^ P 


.!. -^ 


w -+I 


^^ 


1—t 


to 


l^ 


to 




(M 





CO 


t- 


Cl 


P-c 




-S ^ 





10 


to 

CO 


10 

CO 


00 

»-H 






l^ 

-* 




CO 


to 
lb 


tb 


K 


*^(M 


CO 


IM 


CO 


CO 


CO 




(M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 






























■"t: ri, >^ 


o- 


1— 4 


10 


CO 


to 







G5 


CO 


Cl 


Cl 


10 




£ «*-. c: .ti 


c 


(M 


C 


-* 


M 


w 




C-l 


CI 


CO 


t-- 


CO 




.« c— o 


£^' 


CT 


^ 


CT 


^ 


CT 




■^ 


CI 


Cl 


rH 


tb 




t-3 "-^ '-W 


(M 


<M 


(M 


o\ 


IM 


C>1 




CI 


CI 


Cl 


Cl 


Cl 




fco 


-t^ 


























a 































0) 


























'c 


t*; 


- 


•* 


^ 


;; 


* 




;; 


;; 


s 


r 


r 






i~* 


























<u 





























> 


Ph 
























/ — ^ 


•■^ 


















































-+j 




























^ 


o 

C3 


■^ 






% 





















M 
10 


tr: 


o 


;-( 







t^ 















u 


pq 




O 


(Si 







^ 















Pi 




























tt 














t-i 


^ ?-« 












"^ 


O 




























t-H 














" 


Cj 





































































o 




^ 
























K~. 




CJ 
























r=: 


fcC 

3 

























































K 


1 — 1 

P? 




































'i* 


e-i 


to 






CI 




CO 


10 




a 





i~~* 





CO 


to 


t^ 




CO 


-rH 


<Zi 


CO 


10 




^ 





to 


la 





to 


10 




-H 


to 


rH 


m 


-*i 






6 








6 


6 







6 


6 


6 


6 


6 






00 


.-4 


■^ 


to 


CO 




t~ 


-+< 


T—i 


t^ 


, 


Ph 


CO 


10 


in 


to 


to 


to 




10 


1^ 


CO 


00 


Cl 


































rH 


^2 




6 


6 


6 








6 




6 








6 


6 


































CO 


^ 


-* 


CO 


-* 




CO 


ao 





Cl 


rH 


£/: 


la 


(M 


CO 


CC' 


CI 


to 




C<I 


Cl 


Tt* 


rH 


C3 


1'^ 






















9 

























6 


6 










6 


6 


6 


6 


ti >. 




























^« 




to 


to 


lO 


^H 


CO 


03 




CO 


C5 


10 


to 


00 


S ^^ 


o 


i-H 


T— < 


T— 1 


CI 


r— 1 






T-H 


•-H 


rH 


rH 


1—t 


o 







6 


6 













6 


6 


6 


© 


6 






7—i 





CT 


IM 


^H 




10 


t^ 





Cl 


rH 






1-H 


to 




Ci 





C-l 




CO 


-* 


Cl 


00 







K 
















r-H 




«-H 


CI 


CO 


CO 


10 


























6 











6 




d 


r— 4 


(M 


C.-5 


rH 


lO 







t^ 


00 


as 





f-< 




I2; 






















1^ 


T-t 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SILICON ON THE PKOPERTIES OF STEEL. 71 

A general summary of the results is given in Table A., wLicli contains 
both the chemical analysis, the works tests, and the mean of the mechanical 
tests of the specimens prepared as before described. 

Specimen No. 1 was prepared from the metal taken from the ladle, it 
being poured into a red-hot crucible, and afterwards treated in exactly 
the same way as in the ten succeeding experiments. In this case, how- 
ever, no silicious iron was added, and the values given are intended 
merely for comparison with those which follow. The analysis of this 
specimen was not made fi-om any of the samples actually tested, but is 
what may be considered an average composition of such metal. The 
mechanical values are the mean of four experiments with metal from two 
separate charges. 

The silicon pig used had the following composition : — Carbon, 1-96 j 
silicon, lO'SO ; sulphur, 0U2 ; manganese, 1"90 ; phosphorus, 017. 

On examining the results in detail, the following observations will 
be made : — 

1. Chemical Composition. — The silicon gradually increases from 
specimen No. 2, through the series to No. 11. The other constituents, 
though tolerably uniform, still show sufficient variation to influence the 
properties of the product, and allowance nmst be made for these 
differences in composition in drawing any conclusion as to the influence 
exerted by silicon. 

2. Works Tests. — It will be noticed that all the specimens examined 
rolled well, and that, with one slight exception, all behaved satisfactorily 
Tinder the hot test. This is in very marked contrast to what was observed 
in the previous experiments, when silicod produced distinct red-shortness ; 
the difference in the present case is doubtless due to the presence of man- 
ganese in the ingot metal. The cold or bending test was also satisfactory 
in all cases, with the single exception of No. 11, which contained 0504 
per cent, of silicon and 0121 per cent, of phosnhorns. In this sample it 
is not certain that the metal would have behaved in the same way if the 
phosphorus had been as low as in the other cases. In the welding tests 
the metal behaved well in every instance, showing that the presence of 
silicon has no perceptible influence on the welding property. In the cold 
and welding tests the i-esults are the same as was noticed in the previous 
series of experiments. 

Mechanical Tests. — In the original metal both the limit of elasticity 
and the breaking load, which are given in tons per square inch, ai'e rather 
higher than usual in this class of metal, while the extension and reduction 
of area ai'e rather lower than is common. These diS'erences are, however, 
not great, and may be accounted for by the comparatively small scale on 
which the experiments were performed. 

Limit of Elasticity. — This varies in the first six specimens (Nos. 2 to 
7) over a maximum I'ange of l'G5 tons, and these small variations are of 
such a kind as may be explained by differences of composition other than 
those of silicon. In the specimens with more silicon, however, there is a 
distinct increase in the elastic limit due to silicon. 

Brealdnrj Load. — This varies in a manner which closely resembles 
that observed with the limit of elasticity. In the first six specimens the 
variations are irregular, the maximum range being 41 tons, and this 
variation can be accounted for apart from any influence due to the silicon 
present. With more silicon, however, there is a distinct increase of the 
breaking load, and this is doubtless due to silicon. 



72 EEPORT— 1888. 

Exfevsion. — The specimens 2 to 7 have an extension which, thouo'hi 
sh'ghtly lower than usual, still accords with what would be inferred from 
the elastic limit and breaking load. If silicon has exerted any influence 
in these specimens, it is not well marked, though the low extension may 
be partly due to this cause. With more silicon the extension is distinctly 
reduced. 

Eedudion of Area. — This follows mucb in the same order as the exten- 
sion, and is distinctly lowered with the higher proportions of silicon. 

These results may be summarised as follows : — 

On adding silicon in proportions not exceeding 0"5 per cent, to ingot 
iron containing manganese, the metal rolls well, and does not show any 
signs of red-shortness ; it welds perfectly with all proportions of silicon, 
and (with the somewhat doubtful exception containing 0-5 per cent.) is 
not brittle when cold. With less than about 0-15 per cent, of silicon the 
limit of elasticity, the breaking load, the extension, and reduction of area, 
are but little, if at all, appreciably affected by the presence of silicon, but 
with more than O'lS per cent, of silicon the limit of elasticity and break- 
ing load are increased, while the extension and reduction of area are 
distinctly decreased by the presence of silicon. The effect exerted by 
silicon in increasing the tenacity of ingot iron is not nearly so great as 
that of carbon. The relative hardness is very slightly affected by the 
proportions of silicon used in these experiments. 

It is to be regretted that, largely on account of the outlay it would 
have involved, these experiments have been conducted on a comparatively 
small scale, the ingots used weighing only about 40 lbs. On this account it 
has not been tbund practicable to perform tests connected with resistance 
to shock, a point to which the attention of the Committee has been several 
times directed, and which is, from a practical point of view, of consider- 
able interest.' 



Third Rejjort of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. 
Walker, Sir William Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, General 
E. Strachey, Professors A. S. Hersceel, G. Chrystal, 
C. NivEN, J. H. PoYNTiNG {Secretary), and A. Schuster^ 
aoid jNIr. C. V. Boys, appointed for the ptcrpose of inviting 
designs for a good Difereniinl Gravity Meter in supersession 
of the pjendulum, whereby satisfactory restdts may he obtained 
at each station of observation in a feiu hours instead of the 
many days over tvhich it is necessary to extend penduluv% 
observations. 

Mk. Boys has not yet been able to construct the instrument referred 
to in the last report. Meanwhile no new design has been received. 

The Committee ask for reappointment and a renewal of the grant of 
lOZ. made last year. 

' A more complete account of the above experiments is in type, and will be 
published in the Journal of the Chemical Society. 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 73 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Mr. J. T. Dunn, Professor W. R. Dunstan {Secretary), 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Mr. A. Gr. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. Francis 
Jones, Professor H. M'Leod, Professor Meldola, Mr. Pattison 
MuiR, Dr. W. J. Eussell, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Professor 
Smithells, and Mr. Stallard, appointed for the pitrpose of 
inquiring into and reporting on the present methods of teach- 
ing Chemistry. {Draivn up by Professor Dunstan.) 

The Committee decided at first to restrict their inquiries to the teaching of 
cliemistry in schools. With this object, in December last they addressed 
the following letter to the Head Masters of Schools and the Principals of 
Training Colleges, both in Great Britain and Ireland, in which chemistry 
forms a part of the curriculum. The list of these schools was compiled 
from the ' Educational Tear-Book.' 

Committee on Chemical Teaching. 

Dear Sir, — At the meeting of the British Association held at Man- 
chester in September last, Professor H. E. Armstrong, F R.S., Mr. J. T. 
Dunn, Professor W. R. Dunstan, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., Mr. A. G. 
Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S., Mr. Francis Jones, Professor M'Leod, F.R.S., 
Professor Meldola, F.R.S., Mr. Pattison Muir, Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S., 
Professor Smithells, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, and Mr. Stallard were appointed 
as a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into, and reporting on, the 
pi'esent methods of teaching chemistry. 

It is felt that great difficulty exists at the present time in teaching 
chemistry to elementary students, owing chiefly to the absence of agree- 
ment among teachers as to the best modes of giving instruction and to 
the diverse views of examiners. It is hoped that aii inquiry by this 
Committee will be valuable not only to teachers of elementary chemistry, 
but also to those who have the responsibility of examining in this subject. 
The members of the Committee venture, therefore, to hope that you will 
assist them by furnishing, at as early a date as possible, such a report on 
the chemical teaching in your school as you consider will be most likely 
to aid their inquiry, more particularly with regard to the following 
points : — 

1. The objects with which chemistry should be taught in schools. 

2. The difficulties that are met with in teaching, and the best way of 

obviating them ; the influence exerted by external examiners on. 
the character of the teaching. 

3. The methods which, in your opinion, are most likely to render 

the teaching effective as a mental discipline, and as a preparation, 
for subsequent instruction in the higher branches of the science 
or in applied chemistry. 

The Committee will also be greatly obliged for information on any 
other points directly connected with the teaching of elementary chemis- 
try ; any data with which you rvdy favour them will be regarded as con- 



74 EEPOKT— 1888. 

fidential, and nothing of a personal nature will be published without your 
previous consent. 

In making any commnnication to the Committee, it will be convenient 
if you will kindly affix to the manuscript the paper which is enclosed. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
Honorary Secretary to tlie Committee. 

Five hundi-ed copies of this letter were circulated, but only eighty-six 
more or less extended replies have been received ; they include the majority 
of the largest public schools in Great Britain. These replies have been 
the subject of careful consideration by the Committee. 

The schools which have reported represent a total number of 23,350 
pupils, and of these 8,418 receive instruction in chemistry; that is, 36 per 
cent. It will be useful to summarise in this Report, by means of extracts 
from typical replies, the chief points of general interest which have been 
alluded to, particularly those that were raised by the three questions sug- 
gested by the Committee in their letter. 

' 1. Ihe olj'ccts tvith ivliich chemistry should he taught in schools.' 

There is almost unanimous agreement as to the high educational 
value of the science of chemistry. Teachers seem agreed that chemis- 
try should be taught in schools with two objects : first, and mainly, on 
account of the mental training and intellectual discipline it affords ; and 
secondly, for the sake of its applications in the different professions and 
trades which the boys may subsequently follow and also in its direct 
bearing on the facts of everyday life. This view of the importance of 
chemistry as a part of the school curriculum is well exemplified by the 
following extracts taken from the reports made by various schools, both 
large and small, and representing boys who afterwards follow a diversity 
of trades and professions. 

I. ' Chemistry should be taught in schools — (1) As an educational 
subject or mental discipline. In studying chemistry the pupils are led 
to cultivate habits of observation, because the statements made in chemistry 
are based on facts actually seen ; of reflection, because the accurate state- 
ment of even the simplest observed fact requires not a little reflection ; 
and of reasoning, because reasoning is required before one can decide that 
any one particular result in an experiment is due to some one particular 
antecedent circumstance out of several. Chemistry also is especially the 
science in which experiment can be most readily had recourse to by the 
pupil. (2) As a valuable branch of instruction. Supposing that the 
mental powers were not developed and strengthened by the study of 
chemistry, it might still be desirable that pupils should not leave our 
public schools wholly ignorant of the composition, properties, and uses of 
the materials of everyday life.' 

II. ' Science and history alone of the subjects taught in schools per- 
form a twofold function. They give connection of ideas, logical power, 
and education in the fullest sense, while at the same time they store the 
mind with useful facts likely to make the possessor a more valuable 
member of the body politic. Hence chemistry may be taught to all boys 
just in the same way as ancient languages and higher mathematics, with- 
out any thought of the future career of the pupil, or whether chemical 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 75 

knowledge is likely to be of practical use to liim or not. In this way tlie 
practical demonstration of cliemical facts becomes a great object-lesson, 
while chemical theory becomes an introduction to logic. Chemistry may 
be taught for other reasons : — (i) To enable boys who show no special 
aptitude for any other subject to obtain a scholarship and university 
education, (ii) As a special subject, likely to be useful for those who, 
having passed the preliminary arts' examination, intend to adopt a 
medical career.' 

III. ' The objects with which chemistry should be taught in schools : — 
1st. To make lads take a keener interest in natural phenomena. A few 
well-chosen experiments will excite their wonder, and at the same time 
create an interest in the secrets of nature. 2nd. To teach lads to see, 
i.e., to develope their powers of observation. 3rd. To impress upon lads 
that there is a definite law of order in Nature. Lads soon see that from 
the same bodies under similar conditions certain fixed results must 
follow. 4th. To make boys logical and not too hasty in generalisation 
from a few isolated observations. Chemistry is peculiai'ly well fitted for 
this purpose. 5th. To direct the powers of destructiveness and con- 
structiveness which are always so pronounced in boys, since they soon 
learn to be interested in simplifying many complex forms and in building 
up others. 6th. To impress upon lads, as soon as possible, that everyday 
life must necessarily be influenced beneficially by a knowledge of the 
chemical properties of a very few simple bodies and the laws which 
determine their mutual interaction.' 

IV. ' There are, I think, two considerations to be kept in view : — fa) the 
general educational value of the work which gives chemistry a claim to 
be considered a necessary part of any hberal education, whatever be the 
profession in view ; (y8) the necessity of teaching chemistry on such lines 
that the instruction given may be a sound and valuable apprenticeship 
for such boys as may be led to devote themselves specially to this subject 
in the future.' 

The following sentences (V.) were written by the head-master of one 
of the first public schools in England. 

V. ' I think that the objects with which chemistry should be taught in 
schools are three : — (a) To make every boy acquainted with common 
scientific facts, useful to him in every branch of life. (^) To give oppor- 
tunity to boys with special aptitude for science to take up and develope the 
study ; many a boy who seems dull at languages brightens over science, 
(y) To enlarge the mind by the suggestion of new methods and processes 
and by the illustration of the mode in which Nature works.' 

VI. ' I have found that the teaching of chemistry, besides its direct 
value for professional and business purposes, is of great importance as a 
means of developing the minds of boys who have no aptitude for other 
subjects. I have found that many boys who cannot get on at classics and 
mathematics take an interest in and learn chemistry, thus being greatly 
encouraged in their other work by the knowledge that there is something 
that they can do.' 

VII. ' Chemistry should be taught chiefly for mental discipline. 
Practical chemistry is almost the only school subject in which hands and 
brains are equally employed.' 

VIII. ' In schools chemistry, like other subjects, is, no doubt, taught 
with a double view — mental training and the imparting of valuable know- 



76 EEPOET— 1888. 

ledge. As to the former of tbese, the subject is not, in the opinion of the 
present writer, of great value, for the methods of demonstration as they 
can be exhibited in a school laboratory are not very rigorous and logical, 
and at the best seem rather to afford a strong presumption than a satis- 
factory assurance in favour of any particular conclusion. As to the latter 
object, it may be said that it is not one about which educationists generally 
are very enthusiastic. At the same time, if there is any subject more than 
another the knowledge of which is desirable it is chemistry. The entire 
change of mental attitude towards physical surroundings, which even a 
slight knowledge of the principles of chemistry induces, is most noticeable, 
and boys find it both a source of healthy wonder and, though they do not 
observe it themselves, a great mental stimulus. There is, of course, one 
other object with which chemistry maybe taught, namely, for the sake of 
those who will find it directly useful in after-life. But as they are, after 
all, only a small percentage of the whole, the argument of practical utility 
is one which cannot be advanced as in itself a justification for teaching 
the subject.' 

IX. ' Chemistry should be taught in schools while boys are com- 
paratively young, in order that those who have no taste for classics may- 
find some work in which they can take a practical interest. There are 
boys who, without being stupid, have no taste whatever for books, and 
the chance of practical work, like chemistry, for which they can see some 
use of an obvious kind, may prevent many a boy from becoming a con- 
firmed idler. The study of chemistry, therefore, should be encouraged as 
a distinct benefit to the character of many bo^^s. It should also be 
encouraged for the public good, because any boy so interested in early 
life may be led to devote his after-years to the pursuit of scientific 
subjects. And again, it should be taught in schools to enable boys who 
go into business now very young to have some slight knowledge of 
scientific facts of an elementary kind while they still have time to learn.* 

X. 'AH my experience shows that even to young children chemistry 
may be made the threshold of the fairyland of science, and that by means 
of it they may early acquire a profound sense of the rigorous, unyielding 
nature of law and of the unity in the midst of diversity which pervades 
the world around us. Again, as a mere discipline for the intellect, I 
believe chemistry is destined to take the place of Latin and Greek 
grammar, when a definite course of teaching has been laid down, and 
teachers have themselves mastered that course as thoroughly as former 
teachers had mastered their accidence and syntax. To make the pupil 
aware of the existence of an unknown, unexplained, inscrutable side to 
every, and even the simplest phenomenon, is to awaken desire, expectation, 
pleasure — all the antecedents of healthy mental effort, and the difference 
between the daily, hourly life of one who has thus become conscious of the 
literally infinite, ineffable nature of things around him, and that of one 
who thinks he knows all about them, is immense.' 

XI. ' Too much weight may easily be attached to the objection often 
urged against chemical teaching (and, indeed, against the study of other 
branches of natural science), that it fails to cultivate good taste and good 
style ; that the learner is brought into contact merely with material facts 
and not with human thoughts, and so acquires a character and mode of 
expressing himself as hard, rough, and unsympathising as the laws of 
Nature with which he deals. It is certainly impossible to avoid noticing 
that the abstracts of lectures and answers to examination papers shown 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 77 

np by those who have been, or are being, well trained in " the humani- 
ties " are composed in much better style than the productions of boys who 
have had less advantages of the kind, or who, from their dulness in other 
subjects, are considered to be exactly fitted for learning natural science. 
But the power of refuting this objection rests with the teacher. If he 
refuses to pass over bad spelling and bad grammar, if he takes the trouble 
not merely to point out slovenliness of expression, but to show how it 
may be corrected, and if the learner is compelled to rewrite any careless, 
inaccurate work in better form, there seems no reason why an account of 
the two oxides of carbon, including an intelligent comparison of their pro- 
perties, may not be made as good an exercise in English composition as 
an essay on points of Greek and Roman history.' 

2. ' The difficulties that are met with in teaching, and the hest way of obviating 
them ; the influence exerted by external examiners on the character of the 
teaching.^ 

Much might be written about the various difficulties which are 
alluded to in these reports in answer to the second question suggested by 
the letter of the Committee. The chief difficulties are stated to be those 
which arise from : — (i) Defective organisation and considerations of 
expense ; (ii) the lower value attached to chemistry, as compared with 
other subjects of the school curriculum ; (iii) the time which is devoted 
to the subject ; (iv) preparation for various examinations ; (v) absence 
of good text-books ; (vi) dearth of properly qualified teachers. 

(i) The expenses incidental to chemical teaching and the defective 
organisation, which is often the result of insufficient endowment, are the 
subjects of general complaint. Sometimes no laboratory is provided ; fre- 
quently the laboratory accommodation is inadequate ; and it appears that 
the details of the preparations for lectures and practical work genei'ally 
devolve on the teacher himself. The following statements may be quoted. 
The first two are from the reports of small schools. 

XII. ' We have no laboratory or other facilities for practical work, 
and so our experiments have to be very simple and oar work very 
elementary.' 

XIII. ' The chemical teaching is quite elementary, and there is no 
apparatus, so that it is only taken as a lesson with figures drawn and 
explained on the black-board.' 

XIV. ' Thus our difficulties are : — (a) Having too many to teach. I am 
responsible for about 160 boys, and have no help. (&) The want of a 
large laboratory. We have a small but very good laboratory. There is, 
however, only accommodation for 12 boys, while I always have about 
70 doing practical chemistry in an aggregate of 6 hours a week. Hence 
each boy gets only one hour a week, (c) The want of sufficient time to 
prepare for experimental work. The whole of my school time, except 
three hours, is taken up in teaching, so that all preparation has to be 
done either before or afterwards, the practical result being that I am 
obliged to limit my experimental teaching to the two lowest and the 
highest forms.' 

XV. ' The chief obstacle to the effective teaching of chemistry here 
is the poorness of the laboratory — a room in the basement, low pitched, 
ill lighted, and worse ventilated, accommodating only 15 boys, and in 
such connection with the other class-rooms as to make some of them 



78 REPORT — 1888. 

almost unbearable -when experiments are made -witb any foul-smelling 
gas.' [This school contains 500 boys.] 

XVI. ' To lecture properly, a master must have an assistant for the ex- 
periments. I do not know what is the rule ; I hope I am an exception, for I 
am without one. I make use of one of the promisinj^ boys to help in the 
preparation preceding a lecture. This is not sufficient. A master cannot 
easily conduct his experiments, keep order, and carry on a judicious 
questioning and explanation at the same time.' 

XVII. ' Every teacher of chemistry who has several lectures to 
deliver in the course of the week ought to have the services of a fairly 
intelligent assistant, who can get ready most of the experiments for him, 
or he ought to have extra time allowed him to do this himself. Of 
course it is possible to utilise the services of the more advanced pupils 
for the purpose, but this does not effect so much saving of time as might 
be thought, owing to the want of experience on the part of the boys, 
Avho in many cases require so much supervision that it is shorter for the 
teacher to do the work himself.' 

XVIII. ' We have just abandoned the subject owing to its ruinous 
expense if taught thoroughly.' 

XIX. ' We have no laboratory and have to do the best we can with a 
table in a class-room. Experiments are shown, but not performed by the 
boys for this reason.' 

XX. ' Schools are often badly equipped with a suitable lecture- 
room, laboratory, and apparatus, partly from poverty and partly some- 
times from inability on the part of the head- master or governing body to 
appreciate the needs of the subject.' 

XXI. ' Another difficulty is that in many cases the teacher has not 
time to prepare adequate experimental illustration. Until recently the 
chemical teaching in this school was done by the second master, who had 
tfie whole of the school hours not engaged in teaching science occupied 
in his own form in general subjects. A public day-school does not usually 
(like a science college) possess paid demonstrators and assistants, hence, 
unless the teacher has a considerable amount of time not actually occupied 
in teaching, it is impossible for him to make and set up apparatus for 
experiments in a proper manner, and experiments that constantly fail are 
worse than none.' 

(ii) The following statements deal with the difficulties that ensue from 
the relatively low place which is generally afforded to chemistry in the 
school curriculum, and the low value which is assigned to it in public exami- 
nations as compared with the value attached to other subjects. This, it is 
said, often leads to the restriction of chemical teaching to inferior boys, 
some of whom may have failed in classics and other subjects. The best 
boys may leave the school having received little or no instruction in 
chemistry. 

XXII. ' One difficulty arises from the low standard of public opinion 
as regards science. This is chiefly due to the extraordinary and utterly 
unaccountable view (confined, I think, to England and America) which 
classical men have always had of scientific studies. In this school, owing 
to the exceptional liberal-mindedness of the powers that be, this evil is 
unknown, but in other schools where I have taught the jealousy between 
thosa who represented different kinds of study was enormous, and clever 
boys were therefore more attracted to literature than to science.' 

XXIII. ' As regards the difficulties in teaching chemistry, I think per- 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 79 

haps the first is non-classification. The boys are sent to chemistry lec- 
tures grouped according to classics ; the result is confusion. Take the 
fifth form, for example. It is sent into the laboratory for an hour's lecture. 
In that form you have some of your promising boys, also some of the 
weak ones, very good classics possibly, whom to teach chemistry is, you 
know, hopeless. But the work must be done, so you take a medium 
course, pitching your discourse to suit the average boy ; you must be very 
careful to aim low or you will certainly hit nothing. In doing this your 
lecture is below the promising boys, who feel a growing contempt for 
you or your subject, and at the same time the lowest boys are wearied by 
matter which they cannot grasp.' 

XXIV. ' Two difficulties are : — (i) Want of sympathy with natural 
knowledge on the part of the majority of university men who take to 
school work ; (ii) strong adverse ti'aditions in many schools backed up 
by the fashionable superstition that literaiy rather than scientific studies 
constitute the education of a gentleman.' 

XXV. ' The difficulty is that parents do not yet recognise chemistry 
as a " paying " subject, consequently their boys neglect it.' 

XXVI. ' A serious difficulty is caused by the fact that boys may join 
a class in any term. This may not be a great evil in the case of languages 
or mathematics, but where from the very nature of the subject it is neces- 
sary, in order to understand and benefit by a lesson, that the preceding 
lesson should be first mastered, the case is altogether different, and it is 
not clear how this and the kindred difficulty of grouping in one set boys 
of very unequal powers and attainments can be obviated, seeing that 
schools are classified on other lines, generally according to proficiency in 
classics.' 

XXVIT. ' I believe that one of the great stumbling-blocks in the way 
of chemical teaching in day-schools is, that boys are often sent to the 
science master in classes determined by their position in classics or Eng- 
lish subjects, so that there is no proper gradation in the teaching. This 
obtained here until recently, but now, by simultaneous teaching by three 
masters on two afternoons a week, it is possible to group the boys in the 
senior school according to their proficiency in science (mainly chemistry) 
alone. The result has been a considerable improvement in the quality of 
the woi'k.' 

XXVIII. ' The scholastic disrepute in which chemistry is held is 
apt to lead a head-master to devote to it the least mentally qualified boys, 
who have absolutely failed on the classical side.' 

(iii) It appears that the time which is usually allotted to chemistry in 
schools is altogether inadequate, and frequently this defect seems to con- 
stitute one of the teacher's greatest difficulties. 

XXIX. ' I suppose few grammar schools give more time to chemistry 
than four hours a week, and so long as competitive examinations assess 
chemistry at one-quarter the value of mathematics, and one-eighth that of 
classics, more time cannot be expected. When it comes to be recognised 
that the mind which is scientifically trained is most likely to produce work 
valuable to the community, and at the same time is best suited to grapple 
with the practical problems of everyday life, all this will be changed.' 

XXX. ' This school contains 500 boys. The average number of those 
who receive instruction in chemistry is 30 and the time allotted to the 
subject is three hours a week.' 



80 EEPORT— 1888. 

XXXI. ' The difficulty is f o make all pupils take a real interest in tke 
work. In tke short time which is allowed to the subject it is apt to be- 
come a mere collection of facts in the boy's mind. It is a curious fact 
that a double labour is expected from the teacher of science, namely, a 
general development and quickening of the reasoning faculties, and the 
teaching of examination-chemistry at the same time ; and all this has to 
be done in two hours a week ! Parents at any rate tacitly pay a veiy 
high compliment to the resources of science when they expect this. As 
a matter of fact, the unfortunate science master very naturally leaves the 
great work of development to the master who monopolises the remaining 
26 hours of the week's work.' 

XXXII. ' The time allowed to the 65 boys who learn the subject is 
one period a week of 45 minutes.' 

XXXIII. 'AH the pupils who are taught chemistry — 491 — devote two 
hours per week to the subject, and 110 of these have in addition a weekly 
lesson in laboratory practice, lasting one hour and a half.' 

(iv) A consideration of these replies has fully established the im- 
portant fact that the chemical instruction which is given in schools is 
very largely influenced and guided by the rsquirements of the various 
Examining Boards, such as those of Oxford and Cambridge and of the 
Science and Art Department. Abundant testimony has been received ou 
this point, and it is fi'equently declared to be a great, though apparently 
an inevitable, evil. The quotations cited below are selected as represent- 
ing schools of very different grades. 

XXXIV. 'The influence exerted by external examiners on the cha- 
racter of the teaching. This has always been to me the most subversive of 
good teaching and most damaging to the character of the work. I have 
had a large experience in the working of the various public examinations, 
and I unhesitatingly say that they cripple the work of teachers, afl'ord no 
safe index as to the quality of the work, and lead to a system of book- 
work cram which militates against anything like menial discipline and 
against subsequent instruction in the higher branches of the subject.' 

XXXV. ' But all difficulties are nothing compared with those that 
arise from the personal peculiarities of examiners. Unless with special 
pupils who, having spent most of their time on chemistry, have been able 
to acquire some knowledge of all its branches, a teacher is never sure that 
he will be able to prove to an examiner that he has taught any chemistry 
at all.' 

XXXVI. ' It will be seen that the examinations for which our pupils are 
prepared are those of the Cambridge Local, the College of Preceptors, and 
the Science and Art Department, and the preparation for each is so varied 
that it has a very bad influence.' 

XXXVII. ' The influence of external examiners, in my opinion, is too 
often to encourage mere cramming to meet out-of-the-way questions.' 

XXXVIII. ' A class was formed from the pick of the school in con- 
nection with the Science and Art Department. My salary to a certain 
extent depended on the results of the May examinations. Since the 
number in the class had to be limited, I naturally chose only those boys 
who I thought would have the best chances of getting through. For a 
great part of the year chemistry would be treated as a by-subject, it was 
only for a month or so that it had its due share in the curriculum of the 
school, and I must conscientiously admit that during the short period 
before the examination I simply crammed the minds of my pupils with 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 81 

equations, properties, graphic formulag to sucli a degi-ee as to ensure 
passing, wliich they all did. I was not surprised to find that in a short 
time all had been forgotten. This system is adopted at many places.' 

XXXIX. ' The teaching of chemistry here is entirely regulated by the 
Science and Art Department, for the simple reason that it would not 
exist as a class subject without the pecuniary aid rendered by the 
Department. 1 believe some really good work is being done ; but the 
teacher is very much of a machine, and, however conscientious he may 
be, he must primarily, under the circumstances, teach for examination, and 
at times neglect what would be useful to his pupils because it would not 
be useful for examination.' 

XL. ' In this school chemistry is optional, and the primary object 
of its existence is the advantage of those boys who are going in foi- 
examinations in which it will prove useful. ' 

XLI. ' There is great variation in the standards and methods of 
various examinations. Three things are specially to be complained of : — 
(a) the bookish nature of some examination papers ; (b) estimation of 
the value of answers by comparison with text- books by inferior men, not 
always the authors of the papers or themselves real chemists ; (c) want, 
of judgment in setting papers arising often from ignorance at first hand 
of the conditions of school woi'k.' 

XLII. 'With respect to examinations, I do object to men examin- 
ing boys under sixteen who have never taught them, and who, therefore, 
do not understand that the work of such students must differ not only in 
quantity but also in quality from that of older pupils.' 

XLlII. ' I believe that 90 per cent, of those who are now taught 
chemistry in this country are taught with the view of passing one or 
other of the examinations held on the subject. Further, I believe that 
most of the difi&culties of teaching chemistry are difiiculties of teaching- 
it so as to comply with the requirements of examinations. Some one 
has said that in the regulations of the Science and Art Department so 
much is required to be known that there is no time for anything to be 
done, which is an exaggeration of what I mean. With ordinary teachers 
one thing is necessary — their pupils must pass. When that is secured 
they may indulge in such novelties of method and procedure as they 
like, but not until then. It would avail me nothing to say that my 
instructions were faulty, that I knew and followed a more excellent way. ' 

XLIV. ' As to the influence of examiners. In my own teaching it 
has been for the last few years )iH. I have given up trying to fit the 
chemical instruction to the doubtful requirements of examination ; to do 
so would take the vitality out of one's teaching and contract it.' 

XLV. 'With regard to the influence of external examiners on 
the teaching, there is no doubt that this is very great, and that the 
character of the teaching in our schools must depend in these high- 
pressure examination-days on the requirements of the examiners.' 

^ XLVI. ' We have subjected our boys to two examining bodies — the 
Science and Art Department and the University Board. In successive 
years the boys from the same teaching universally succeeded under the- 
former and almost universally failed under the latter.' 

XLVII. ' The examinations have been chiefly those held in connection 
with the Science and Art Department, South Kensington. These 
examinations have been for some years back highly satisfactory, and no- 
undue prominence has been given to any one branch of chemical science 

1888. G 



82 REPORT— 1888. 

They certainly do exert an influence on the character of the teaching, 
bui it is a restraining and beneficial influence.' 

XLVIII. ' The influence exerted by external examiners on the teach- 
ing is decidedly beneficial lolien the examiners are experienced men.' 

XLTX. ' The influence exerted by external examiners on the 
character of the teaching is practically 'tiil. They send their questions 
and substances, examine the results, and write their reports, and, with 
rare exceptions, never make a suggestion as to how the teaching may be 
improved or better results obtained.' 

(v) The absence of good text-books suitable for use in schools is 
frequently stated to be a source of diflioulty. 

L. ' One of the chief difiiculties in class teaching is the want of a 
suitable text-book, more especially when preparation is an important 
factor. A text-book should without any great amplification on the part 
of the teacher make itself intelligible to the boy on reading it for the 
first time, and it should not be overladen with facts.' 

LI. ' We want a good school text-book. Existing books entirely lack 
connection in their various parts, and are generally made up of a series 
of more or less isolated facts grouped loosely under various heads. They 
are also too difi"use and wordy, and, therefore, very unsuited to a boy 
with but a limited time to prepare his lessons.' 

LII. ' An additional difiiculty is found in the absence of a satis- 
factory text-book, notwithstanding the multitude already extant, and 
this difficulty is not diminished by the consideration that, as a rule, the 
science master is required to devote a great portion of his time to teach- 
ing other subjects. According to my idea, the kind of book required is 
one that recognises the close connection between the lecture work and 
the jjractical work of the pupil ; in fact, a book something after the plan 
of Huxley and Martin's "Biology." ' 

LIII. ' The greatest difliculty we meet in teaching chemistry is the 
want of a suitable text-book on which all our lecturers can base their 
teaching. Boys sometimes get diS'ereut definitions of the same term, 
and a master does not know exactly how much boys have learnt in 
another class.' 

LIV. ' Text-books ai'e another difliculty. I have never found one 
yet that I liked to put into the hands of boys, for I have generally found 
that they are too elaborate and complete, using, sometimes, language which 
the- ordinary schoolboy does not understand, and describing here and 
there experiments which he certainly cannot grasp. 1 have not found a 
book which I could put between the " Chemistry Primer" (which with 
the " Physics Primer " is always my preliminary course) and such a 
volume as Thorpe's or Roscoe's ; these contain a great deal of matter too 
difiicnlt and minutely exact for class work.' 

LV. ' Further, there is the eternal text-book difficulty. A book at 
once clear, brief, and accurate is a desideratum.' 

(vi) Some head-masters complain that they are unable to obtain 
properly qualified teachers of chemistry. 

LVI. ' Difficulties arise from the circumstance that there stands before 
the class a chemist who is not a teacher, or a teacher who is not a chemist.' 

LVII. ' The scholastic disrepute in which the subject is held is apt to 
affect the teacher. It is much easier to obtain a well-qualified teacher of 
classics than an equally well-qualified one of natural science.' 

LVIII. ' Our two great difiiculties here are : — (1) To get men, for 



ON TEACHIiNG CHEMISTRY. 83 

tanything we can oSei', who are at once chemists and teachers. Mere 
chemists ai'e of no nse from a pedagogic point of view, and even they 
would be hard to get. I am convinced that a teacher who had a strong 
grasp of the principles of the science could, and would, make it an emi- 
nently valuable means of mental training. (2) The entire non-recognition 
of chemistry by the two universities in the eai'lier stages of their arts 
courses.' 

3. ' The methods which, in your opinion, are most likely to render the teaching 
effective as a mental discipline, and as a preparation for siibsequent 
instruction in the higher branches of the science or in applied chemistry.^ 

A great deal has been written in reply to the question as to the 
methods which ought to be followed in teaching elementary chemistry. 

It is clear that the older plans of teaching, which are still largely used, 
are felt to be partly unsatisfactory, and that by modifying them chemistry 
might be made much more valuable as a mental discipline for boys. In 
particular protest is made against the undue proportion of time which is 
frequently assigned to qualitative analysis ; indeed, the majority of teachers 
do not consider this to be the most valuable part of the subject. Others 
hold that it presents many advantages, and is, on the whole, the best 
adapted to school work, especially when instruction has to be given to 
large classes of boys. But while most teachers strongly deprecate a rigid 
adherence to the present system, and a few are able to point out the 
general lines on which the teaching might be more usefully conducted, it 
is evident that very few, if any, have yet put into operation a remodelled 
system of instruction. In fact, it appears that teachers stand very much 
in need of advice and assistance in preparing a modified scheme of teach- 
ing suitable for general adoption in schools. It has several times been 
suggested that this Committee might be able to render important help 
in this direction. 

The following quotations are typical of many of the replies which have 
been made. They are written by the head-masters or science masters of 
both large and small schools, and are here reproduced, not only because 
they allude to some of the pi-incipal defects of the present methods, but 
also on account of suggestions they contain which seem likely to be 
valuable to those who are anxious to make chemical teaching more 
•effective than it is at present. 

LIX. ' The teaching should be experimental in all cases. The 
■experiments need not be numerous, but apposite, and the utmost got out 
of them, both directly and indirectly. I find, for example, that I can get 
a good hour's work out of boys in the lower forms with such subjects as 
the sepai'ation of sand from a solution of salt, the action of water on lime, or 
the action of nitric acid on copper. I find that the same plan of limiting the 
attention to one or two important points is also most effective in the upper 
forms when the exigencies of examination- work admit of this kind of treat- 
ment. Notes of lessons should be relied on rather than text-books. I find, 
for example, that the ground covered at previous lessons is always known, 
but that I get next to nothing out of a set lesson from a book. This will 
be sure to follow from an experimental method of treatment. Above all, 
I would suggest the entire remodelling of all school examinations and the 
placing them in the hands of men who have had experience in teaching, 



84 KEPOKT— 1888. 

and know, therefore, what to expect of boys, rather than in those of men 
fresh from the " schools," and with only the experience of university 
teaching. I should also like to see the range limited and the examination 
papers graded. The extent of the ground covered by the Local Examina- 
tion papers of the universities is too great for such schools as this, though 
Oxford has recently much curtailed them. 

' I am led to hope that your Committee may see its way to step in and 
produce something like uniformity and system. Would it not be possible 
to draw out a scheme of teaching divided into " gi'ades," and suited to a 
progressive course, as also to issue yearly sets of examination papers 
adapted to these different grades ? I sincerely trust that this may be 
one of the results of your inquiry, for I feel sure that examination by so 
high an authority will have a most beneficial effect on science teaching, 
and have a value in the hands of examiners impossible under any of the 
present systems.' 

LX. ' It is, in my opinion, no use crying out against the system 
of examinations in this country. For years to come the nation will go 
on demanding results and getting them. Can those results be made more 
worth having ? I believe they can. It lies entirely within the power of 
the eminent and working chemists of the country to effect great and 
useful reforms almost at once. It should be acknowledged that the 
present requirements are obsolete. Looking at the enormous and ever- 
increasing number of important and interesting facts, has not the time 
come when chemistry should be taught to beginners as biology is taught ? 
Instead of reading about hundi-eds of plants and animals, a student 
becomes practically acquainted with about a dozen of each at first hand. 
Why should not a similar plan be followed in chemistry ? Why should 
not a thorough study of chlorine include all that an elementary pupil 
needs to know about the halogens ? The principal member of each group 
of the non-metallic elements might be selected for special study. As to 
the metals, half-a-dozen, which might be varied from year to year, if really 
mastered, would be much better than the knowledge which is required of 
them under the present system. Room would thus be found for a few 
oi'ganic compounds. It is pure pedantry to maintain any longer the 
arbitrary distinction of inorganic and organic chemistry in a first and 
general course. As to analysis, I think the present comparatively com- 
plete course should give place to a sound knowledge of the separation of 
some half-dozen substances, and the time thus saved could be devoted to 
easy exercises in quantitative analysis. There can be no doubt that quan- 
titative analysis is within the reach of any student who can perform a 
good qualitative analysis. What I have proposed amounts to rewriting 
a syllabus for a first or general course of chemistry, on the basis of 
selecting a few typical substances and making a more or less complete - 
study of them, and, with regard to analysis, to restrict the substances to 
be studied, but to require the elements of gravimetric and volumetric 
determinations . ' 

LXI. ' To render the teaching of chemistry of educational value it must 
be made inductive, and not chiefly and largely deductive. The guiding 
motto should be, " Prove all things." Experiments should be made with 
as simple apparatus as will secure the desired result. In the earlier 
lessons avoid all definitions, all hypotheses of atoms and molecules, of 
atomic weight and of " bonds," but early establish the constancy of com- 
position of compounds and the equivalent weights of certain elements in ;• 



I 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 85 

-combining with or displacing one another. I should like to see some 
encouragement given to the historical aspects of chemistry. I have 
found that explanations of when and how the chief elements, acids 
and alkalies came to be known add much to an intelligent interest in the 
subject.' 

LXII. ' It has always appeared desirable that a boy should approach 
<!hemistry in the same way that all the founders and builders-up of the 
science have done : viz., not by first reading a printed account of facts 
■and then verifying them or seeing them verified, but by studying the 
different forms of matter as substances hitherto unknown, the properties 
of which have to be investigated for the first time and compared with 
those of other substances. With this view the experiments shown are 
considered as questions put to Nature, the answers to which are as little 
known to the lecturer as to the learners. No predictions are made as to 
the results, although boys are not unfrequently asked what, arguing from 
-experiments previously shown or the properties of analogous substances 
previously examined, may be expected to occur. All apparatus used is 
-described ; the reasons for any special arrangement of it being explained 
fully. Elaborate forms of apparatus with a profusion of drying tubes, 
Woulf's bottles, fantastically bent leading-tabes, are avoided as far as 
possible, their tendency being to draw off attention from the main point 
of the experiment. The arithmetical side of chemistry is not very much 
■enlarged upon ; it seems hardly desirable that boys should look upon 
experiments as pegs on which numerical problems ai'e to be hung. Too 
much time may easily be spent in elaborate calculations on the quantity 
of zinc required to obtain enough hydrogen to decompose the nitrogen 
monoxide produced fi-om ten grammes of ammonium nitrate. Innumer- 
able examples, however, illustrative of important laws, such as those of 
Gay-Lnssac and Avogadro, and of calculations actually required in 
quantitative work, are frequently set, generally at the beginnino- of each 
lecture, in reference to some point explained in the preceding one. No 
symbols, formulae, or equations are used at first — not, in fact, until the 
properties of three or four elements, and of some of their compounds, 
have been studied and the laws of chemical combination deduced from 
them. Then, and not till then, it is thought that a learner can appreciate 
the value of Dalton's atomic theory in accoanting for the facts he has 
observed, and can see the advantage of a system of chemical shorthand, 
and use it with intelligence and discrimination.' 

LXIII. ' The method, in my opinion, most likely to render the teaching 
effective as a mental discipline is mercilessly to sweep off a large pro- 
portion of the facts at present dealt with, to confine the attention of the 
pupil to those that for various reasons are the most important, and to use 
them always as illustrations of general laws. For this purpose, there must 
be agreement among teachers and examiners. I do not think it beyond 
the scope of your inquiry to suggest that, to make chemistry or any 
matural science do all that it can do towards mental discipline, there must 
be an attempt to use it as a means of destroying the contempt which 
familiarity breeds in us all towards common things. Unless you can call 
forth the interest of your pupil, his admiration, even his reverential awe 
towards the mystery of Nature, you have perhaps done more harm than 
good.' 

LXIV. ' Eternal analyses of simple salts and mixtures such as are 
required by examinations of the present day weary and worry the student, 



86 REPORT— 1888. 

waste his valuable time, and throw away labour which in nearly every 
individual case would be most profitably spent in carefully studying andl 
testing some important laws or principles of chemistry, and which would 
make the student's knowledge of the subject thorough and personal. 
Chemistry is essentially an experimental science. The great value of the 
study of the whole subject lies in the practical work done and in the 
method of building the theoretical structui-e on the practical knowledge. 
It is therefore absolutely necessary to have a thoroughly good laboratory 
with a lecture-T'oom attached, so that collective and individual work may 
be carried on with equal facility. At the present time, in our schools and 
colleges there is too much working for examinations, and the require- 
ments to j^ass such examinations are as narrow as paper legislation can 
make them. The student is for ever testing mixtures or performing 
some exceedingly simple gravimetric analyses. He is tied down, has his 
knowledge fettered instead of having it expanded, and never reaches the 
more advanced and useful principles of chemical science, which he can 
only dream of from the hearsay of his text-book.' 

LXV. ' There is no scale of value of the different parts of chemistry ; 
there is no recognised system as to which should be taught first. I have 
known boys obtain scholarships simply because their teacher had been 
recently a pupil of their examiner and knew the kind of questions he was 
likely to set. The ordinary text-books, lectures, and practical work do 
but little for even the hardest worker. We want an authorised code of 
work issued by a consensus of the highest authorities.' 

LXVI. ' I object strongly to boys in a laboratory being allowed to mix 
different solutions in test-tubes, day after day, to find out whether pre- 
cipitates are formed or not. I have a high Opinion of the advantages 
derivable from the teaching of chemistry when none of the harder parts 
are shirked, as a valuable mental discipline, and as giving, with drawing, 
the best means of teaching an oi'dinary boy the use of his hands as well 
as his head.' 

LXVII. ' The result of the absence of practice in quantitative experi- 
ments is to create an unnatural breach in the minds of pupils between 
the actual phenomena of chemical action and the theories by which such 
phenomena are to be explained. It might be found possible to treat the 
subject more logically if some attempt were made to teach the facts in a 
more natural order. The historical sequence by which the science has; 
attained its present proportions might form the basis of a rational 
arrangement of the parts of the subject. In this way, by placing the 
pupils in the attitude of mind of original discoverers, the logical necessity 
of theories to account for the facts would give them more real meaning 
and interest. I am not acquainted with a text-book suitable for school 
use in which such an order is followed.' 

LXVIII. ' Boys have been lectured to as if they were students, thereby 
producing a condition of things described by some writer as the perfect 
paradise of a boys' school, where the masters learnt the lessons and the 
boys heard them. Chemistry should be taught as everything else is- 
taught — by making the boys do the work themselves — and the lesson 
should be a system of question and answer.' 

LXIX. 'The calculation of chemical quantities, involving atomic 
weights, ought to come quite late in the course, so that the atomic theory 
is kept in the background at first. The pupil should make several experi- 
ments on the diffusion of gases and liquids which will lead up to the idea 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 87 

of molecules. I must say that I think that " equivalents " should be used 
for some time before any reference is made to atomic weights. As to 
cramming a boy in the methods of writing equations, and finding how 
mu.ch sulphuric acid and zinc will make so much hydrogen, I can only say 
that, as the boy never attempts to carry it out in practice, and that if he 
did he would find his calculations all wrong as compared with his results, 
he had better leave them until late in his course, for their symbolic value 
and, in many cases, real worthlessuess can only be estimated by a worker 
in quantitative analysis. I think a boy's practical work should undergo 
great alteration. At present he is examined in " simple salts," so of 
course he is prepared for that by a system of "test-tubing " which teaches 
him very little. He ought to start as far as possible with elements which 
he knows, such as sulphur and iron, and he should prepare certain com- 
pounds which contain them. He should then study the action of metals 
on acids, and the salts formed; cases of oxidation and reduction; prepara- 
tion and properties of gaseous elements and compounds.' 

LXX. ' In order that chemistiy may be a useful subject for the edu- 
cation of boys, it seems to me necessary that it should be taught from ex- 
periments involving measurements. Other experiments may be amusing, 
Wt do not appear to afford food for severe or productive thought. It 
seems to be now generally admitted that boys should be led as far as pos- 
sible to make inferences from chemical experiments for themselves. If 
they are to be taught the principal facts of chemistry in this way, it 
follows that the experiments must be of the former nature. It seems 
to be an evil that so much importance is attached in many examinations 
to qualitative analysis, which appears, from an educational point of view, 
to be one of the least valuable parts of the subject. The result is that 
teachers are compelled to spend the time given to laboratory work on 
this, to the detriment of experiments of a more instructive kind.' 

LXXI. ' For beginners the illustrated lecture, well supplemented by 
periodical questioning, examination of note-books, &c., seems the only 
feasible way of teaching large classes of, say, thirty or forty. When the 
class is very small the lecture can be largely replaced by laboratory work, 
in which the experiments are performed by each individual student. This 
seems to me the best method ; but my experience is that it is impossible 
to satisfactorily conduct large classes of young boys in the laboratory 
except in such simple experiments as the action of metals on acids, 
"which can be done with a few test-tubes and other very simple and 
inexpensive apparatus, the breakages being too serious in an ordinary 
school if it is attempted to go through the preparation of all the com- 
moner gases with a large class of beginners, in laboratories as they are 
usually arranged. I think more satisfactory results might be obtained 
with such classes if a part of the laboratory were specially arranged for 
the purpose, a bench (with only a few necessary reagents) in the form 
of a semicircle being used, the students facing the teacher, who would 
stand inside the semicircle. In such a class the students would all 
perform the same experiment after being shown it by the teacher. With 
rather more advanced students I think the separate system is better, all 
students not working at the same experiment, as this obviates the 
necessity of providing a large number of pieces of apparatus of the 
same kind, and allows a quicker student to make more rapid progress. 
I think it is very important that quantitative experiments should be 
made as early as possible ; but here again my experience is that young 



88 EEPOET— 1888. 

beginners cannot be trusted witli balances sufficiently delicate to be of 
much value. The stereotyped "test-tubing" course examination of 
simple salts and mixtures is certainly a very inadequate laboratory 
course taken by itself; but it has, I believe, its advantages for school 
purposes in teaching care, order, and cleanliness, and it serves well for 
the middle classes of the school if properly supplemented by class- 
teaching, in which the chemical actions concerned in the testing are 
carefully considered.' 

LXXII. ' Chemistry cannot properly be taught apart from physics ; 
there is a physical side to every chemical phenomenon. Lecture work 
should precede laboratory work, and continue pari passu with it. 
Analysis rationally (not mechanically) taught is an excellent mental 
training. The two should be closely correlated ; exercises should be 
given in the laboratory preparatory to or suggested by the subjects 
treated in the lectures, and facts learnt in the laboratory should be 
turned to account in the lectures. The teacher must not be tram- 
melled by text-books : these must be his instruments, not his mastei's. 
Quantitative treatment of subjects in the lectures should be introduced 
as far as possible from the first, and as pupils advance they should be 
trained individually in the use of the balance. Numerical exercises 
based on (not as a substitute for) lecture demonstration help to give 
fixity and precision to ideas. Pupils should be trained to think out in 
their note-books the connection between experimental demonstration 
and theory, and not have notes dictated to them to be committed to 
memory. Their knowledge should be tested by frequent short examina- 
tion papers.' 

LXXIII. ' With regard to the practical work in the laboratory, the value 
of which cannot be over-estimated as a means of bringing a boy into real 
touch with his bookwork and developing in him those valuable qualities 
of patience, accurate obsei'vation, and powers of deduction, so especially 
necessary to the student of science, analyses of complicated mixtures 
not found anywhere in the universe are no longer now considered as the 
object to be aimed at. But there is still too much tendency to regard mere 
analysis as the aim and object of laboratory work. Rather should a boy 
be introduced to a progressive course of work which illustrates the more 
important principles of chemistry, and so be enabled to test the truth of 
these for himself Here especially a good text-book of practical work is 
required, as a busy teacher finds it so difficult to get time to devise as 
well as supervise. Such a course of work must necessarily be limited in 
many schools, owing to the want of sufficient apparatus or the short houre 
of work. But still something may be done in this direction, and the 
mental training will not only be of infinitely more value to the special 
student, but also to the ordinary boy, who will not be much the wiser for 
having gone through a course of simple and complex analysis only. I 
think your Committee might do much towards smoothing the path of 
teachers by drawing up a memorandum addressed to the head-masters of 
schools suggesting points for their consideration, and asking them to meet 
the Committee's views on the subject as far as lies in their power.' 

The Committee feel that these reports have put them in possession 
of the actual facts connected with the teaching of chemistry in schools, 
and have made it clear that something should be done in the du-ection 
of promoting a more uniform and satisfactory treatment of the subject. 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTKY. 89 

The Committee think that some suggestions might now be made as to 
the method of teaching chemistry which should be followed in schools. If 
this can be done, it will certainly confer a great benefit on both teachers 
and examiners, and will be likely to lead to a more emphatic recognition of 
"the merits of the science as an instrument of elementary education. The 
■Committee accordingly ask for reappointment. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Russell, Captain Abney, 
Professor Hartley, and Dr. A. Richardson (Secretary), appointed 
for the investigation of the action of Light on the Hydracids 
of Halogens in presence of Oxygen. {Drawn up by Dr. A. 
Richardson.) 

During the past year this Committee has made numerous experiments 
on the decomposition of gaseous hydrochloric acid, under the combined 
inflnence of sunligrht and oxygen. 

A series of bnlbs containing a mixture of moist hydrochloric acid and 
varying quantities of moist oxygen were exposed to light for five months 
(from December 9 to May 26) ; the amount of free and combined chlorine 
was then determined (the details are given in Table I.). It will be seen 
that in bulbs 1, 2 the percentage of free chlorine is only 3'6 to 3"4, rising 
suddenly, however, in bulb 3 to 92" 5 per cent. : in No. 4 the amount of 
chlorine liberated reaches the maximum, viz., 92'77 per cent. ; when more 
oxygen is added the percentage of liberated chlorine is lowered, the effect 
Ijeing probably to dilute the hydrochloric acid gas. The next series con- 
sisted of bulbs similarly prepared, but exposed for sixty-nine days (from 
May 31 to August 7). From the analysis given in Table IT. it will be 
seen that oxidation of the acid has taken place, even in presence of a small 
excess of oxygen ; in many cases the whole of the acid has been oxidised 
to chlorine and water, and in some cases hypochlorous acid (or some other 
oxygen acid of chlorine) has been formed ; this accounts for the percentage 
amount of free chlorine coming out too high. 

It appears probable that the oxidation takes place in two stages, the 
first aotion of light being to oxidise part of the hydrochloric acid to hypo- 
chlorous acid : this is at first decomposed into chlorine and water by the 
excess of acid present, as is shown in the first series ; but when the greater 
Tjart of the hydrochloric acid has been removed the hypochlorous acid 
does not further suffer decomposition. 

Itate at luliicli oxidation takes place. — When gaseous hydrochloric 
acid and oxygen are first exposed to light the decomposition goes on with 
extreme slowness ; it rapidly increases, however, with the amount of 
chlorine liberated. An experiment was made on this point in which a 
tube containing hydrochloric acid and oxygen was exposed to light to- 
gether with a tube containing a similar mixture, which had, however, been 
previously exposed to light until 92*6 per cent, of free chlorine had been 
set free ; when the chlorine was estimated in the two bulbs it was found 
-that the first bulb contained 0*9 per cent, free chlorine, whereas the other 
tube had gained 7 per cent., making a total of 99 per cent, free chlorine. 

Lifluence of free chlorine. — Experiments were made to determine what 
influence free chlorine had on the decomposition of the acid. For this 



yU REPORT— 1888, 

purpose four bulbs were filled witli a mixture of hydrochloric acid and 
oxygen ; a known quantity of chlorine was added to three of them. The 
four bulbs were exposed for the same length of time and the chlorine was 
then estimated, when it was found that the mixture to which no free 
chlorine had been added contained 75 "9 per cent, free chlorine, whilst the 
bulbs containing free chlorine in the first instance gave 100"93, 105'37, 
and 1:'7"29 per cent, of free chlorine. Further experiments are being made 
in this direction ; it appears, however, likely that the presence of chlorine 
renders the mixture less transparent to those rays which promote the 
oxidation of the acid. 

Influence of bromine. — A weighed quantity of bromine was added to a 
mixture of hydrochloric acid and oxygen, and exposed in bulbs, together 
with those just described; when the gas was analysed it was found that 
onlylO'85 percent, of chlorine had been liberated in one bulb, and 5'05 per 
cent, in the other (the latter contained a larger quantity of bromine). It 
does not appear likely that this retarding action of the bromine can be due 
to its union with the chlorine liberated m the presence of excess of hydro- 
chloric acid, and it will be interesting to observe the influence of bromine 
vapour on the oxidation of hydrobromic acid. 

Influence of moisture. — It has already been stated that a mixture of 
dry hydrochloric acid and oxygen is unacted on in sunlight, and it was 
at first supposed that the partially dry mixture was completely stable in. 
the light ; at has, however, been found that a very prolonged exposure 
brings about slow oxidation, the rate depending on the amount of 
moisture present. The results obtained after four months' exposui'e 
show that when two-thirds of the gas was dried 236 per cent, of chlorine 
is set free ; when one-third only of the gas was dried 42'8 per cent, is 
liberated ; in the case of both gases saturated, as nearly as possible, 88 per 
cent, of chlorine is liberated. 

Decomposition of chlorine water. — Experiments have been made on 
the action of light on chlorine water and chlorine and aqueous vapour; 
the results given on Table III. show that the amount of decomposition 
increases wiiii the volume of water taken ; the ultimate strength of acid, 
however, varies in each case, becoming more concentrated as the volume 
of water taken diminishes. On the other hand, the volume of oxygen 
set free diminishes with the water. With a dilute solution of chlorine 
water the decomposition is arrested by a comparatively large volume of 
oxygen acting on a weak solution of acid ; with a strong solution a small 
volume of oxygen is tending to decompose a concentrated acid. These 
results can be represented graphically in the form of a curve by mapping 
the percentage of combined chlorine found after exposure against the 
volume of water taken. 

Chlorine gas and water vapotir. — A known volume of carbon dioxide 
saturated with water vapour was mixed with enough chlorine to theore- 
tically decompose all the water ; after exposure for thirty-three days l'3f» 
per cent, of chlorine had been converted into hydrochloric acid. In a 
second experiment oxygen was substituted for carbon dioxide. In this 
case 3 per cent, of chlorine was found to be present as chloride. 

Further experiments are being made in which a large volume of moist 
gas is taken, the gas being only partially saturated, as it is possible 
that condensation took place on the sides of the flask. 

Some preliminary experiments have been made with chlorine water 
exposed to light in coloured solutions. From these it appears that decora- 



ACTION OF LIGHT ON THE HTBEACIDS OF HALOGENS. 



91 



position takes place in rays considerably below the bine. How far this is 
due to beating effect has yet to be proved ; an apparatus is being pre- 
pared to stndy with greater accuracy the influence of different parts of 
the spectrum on chlorine water and on hydrochloric acid and oxygen. 

The influence of oxygen on a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen has 
been observed ; the gases were exposed for periods varying from three 
hours to three days. At first it was found that, with increased ex- 
posure, the amount of free chlorine was reduced ; but when all the hydro- 
gen present had been converted into hydrochloric acid the green colour of 
the chlorine gradually returned, owing to the slow decomposition of the 
acid by the oxygen. Analysis gave — ■ 

After three hours' exposure, 41-2 per cent, free chlorine. 
„ five „ „ 311 „ „ 

,, D'^y ,, ,, 

20-3 
,, oi y <• 5, 



seven „ 
two days' 
three ,, 



Little has been done on the oxidation of the other halogens. We 
hope, however, to be able to report on these when the Association meets 
next year. 

Table I. — Decomposition of Gaseous Eydrochloric Acid and Oxygen in 
Sunlight after 170 days' exposure, from December 9 to May 26. 



No of 


Proportion of 


Weight in 


Weight in 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Bulb 


HCl to by 
Volume 


Grams ot 
Free CI 


Grams ot 
Total CI 


Free CI 


Combined CI 




HCl 










1 


4 2 


■00532 


■147S 


3-608 


96-39 


2 


4 3 


■00335 


•09656 


3-460 


96-54 


3 


4 4 


•13135 


•1420 


92-50 


7-50 


4 


4 5 


•1349 


•1562 


92-77 


7-23 




4 fi 


•07455 


•0852 


87-50 


12-50 


fi 


4 7 


•07100 


•07668 


92-59 


7-41 


t 


4 !< 


•0t>39 


■1278 


50-0 


50-0 


S 


4 10 


•04615 


•0852 


54-16 


45-84 


9 


4 16 


•0284 


•03996 


71-0 


29-00 



Table II. — After 69 days' exposure, from 


May 31 to A 


tigust 7. 


No. of 


Proportion of 


Weight in 


Weight in 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Bulb 


HC;i to by 
Volume 


Grams of 
Free CI 


Grams ot 
Total CI 


Free CI 


Combined CI 




HCl 










1 


4 1 


-11147 


-12192 


90-60 


9-40 


2 


4 1-5 


•17182 


-16898 


101-68 


— 


3 


4 2 


•1775 


•17267 


101-67 


— 


4 


4 2-5 


•11093 


•11093 


100^0 





5 


4 3 


•11537 


•11537 


1000 





6 


4 3-5 


•15975 


•15265 


104-65 


— 


7 


4 4 


•1198 


-11980 


100-0 





8 


4 4-5 


•08065 


-08162 


98-811 


1189 


9 


4 8 


•11658 


•1170 


• 99-63 


•37 


10 


4 10 


•55025 


•57813 


95-16 


4^84 


11 


4 16 


•09762 


•10561 


92-34 


7 66 



i)2 



REPORT — 1888. 



Table HI. — Tiecomposition of Chlorine Water in Sunlight after 44 days' 

Exposure. 



No. of 
Bulb 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 



Proportion of Weight in (^^^^^g ,,£ \ Weight of : Per- 



CI to HoO by 
Volume 



Grains of 
Free CI 



Combined 
CI 



Liberated 
Oxygen 



CI HoO 

100 40 

100 20 

100 15 

100 10 

100 5 

100 1 
100 



07 1 



centage 
Free CI 




•09317 
•1579 
■2(;09 
•3372 
•1408 
•0814 



■7718 
•5492 
•4469 
•2602 
•2224 
■0568 
•0028 



•1740 
•1230 
•1009 
•0586 
•0487 
•0344 
•00063 




1455 
26-11 
500 
6155 
85^73 
96^78 



Per- 


Per- 


centage 


centage 


Combined 


HClin 


CI 


HoO 


100 


•6507 


85^45 


1176 


73-88 


1445 


50^0 


1292 


3845 


3-147 


14^27 


4-262 


322 


14-18 




ON THE NATURE OF SOLUTION. 93 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tildek 
and Eamsat and Dr. Nicol (Secretary), afjxjointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Nature of Solution. 

The mukial solubility of salts which do not act chemicalhj on one another^ 

"While it has been long known that the presence of one salt greatly 
inflaences the solubility of another salt dissolred in the same mass of 
water, nothing is known of the laws regulating this phenomenon. Much 
of our ignorance on this point is doubtless due to the difficulties attending 
the determination of solubility in general, but more to the fact that 
experimenters have confined themselves to the task of ascertaining the- 
effect of one salt on another when both are dissolved simultaneously 
to saturation. 

An extended series of experiments has been made on the following; 
lines : — 

Solutions containing definite quantities of one salt have been prepared 
and a second salt dissolved to saturation in these. Thus solutions contain- 
ing 2, 4, and 6 molecules of NaCl in IOOH2O were prepared and KOI 
was dissolved to saturation in these, a special apparatus being employed 
by means of which complete saturation was ensured without any loss of 
water by evaporation. Similar converse experiments were made with 
KCl solutions in which NaCl was dissolved and in all the mutual action 
of the following pairs was examined : 

1. NaCl in KCl 5. KCl in KNO3 

2. KCl in NaCl 6. KNO3 in KCl 

3. NaCl in NaNO^ 7. NaNO^ in KNO3 

4. NaN03 in NaCl 8. KNO, in NaNO, 

In addition the densities of mixtures of the above salts in various 
definite proportions up to near the saturation point were determined, and 
also the mutual solubility to saturation of both members of each pair. 

Time has not permitted us to complete the working out of the data 
thus obtained, but the general results may be stated as follows : — 

In the first six cases the solubility of the first salt is diminished by 
the presence of the second when compared with the solubility in pure 
water. But if each salt is assumed to have its proportionate share of the 
•water present then the solubility of both salts is increased. 

In pair 7 the solubility of NaNOj is increased by the presence of 
KNOs, while in pair 8 the presence of a small quantity of NaNOg. 
diminishes the solubility of KNO3, but a larger quantity increases it. 
Whether or not this anomalous behaviour is due to the isodimorphism 
of the two salts, as has been already suggested,' further experiments 
alone will show ; but it may be here noted that the rhombic form of KNO3 
is mnch more soluble than the ordinary prismatic form, as is easily 
proved by allowing a drop of potassium nitrate to evaporate slowly on a 
glass plate and after rhombic crystals have separated, on touching the drop 
with a wire, instant crystallisation in the prismatic form results. This also 
is one of the few instances, if not the only one, of supersaturation in the case 

' Nicol, PJill Marj., June 1884. 



94 ll£POKT— 1»88. 

of a salt crystallising without water, and the dimorphism, and consequent 
sapersaturation, lends support to the view that supersaturation is due to 
the fact that the individual in solution differs from that which crystallises 
out. 

Soluhility of salts in aqueous solutions of alcohol. 

That salts are less soluble in alcohol than in water has been shown 
by the experiments of Schiff and Girardin, but hitherto the attempts to 
trace out the connection between the solubility and the amount of alcohol 
present have entirely failed. 

A series of experiments on this subject has been commenced and 
considerable progress has been made towards completion. The method of 
experiment is as follows : Solutions of alcohol of definite strengths are pi*e- 
pared by diluting absolute alcohol with weighed quantities of water. The 
composition of the solutions thus obtained is checked by a comparison of 
their densities with the table given by Mendeleef ; 10 to 15 cc. of these 
solutions, which are of definite molecular strength (5, 10, 15, &c., mole- 
cules of alcohol to lOOHgO), are placed with excess of salt in the saturation 
appai'atus referred to above, and after 24 hoars, during which time the 
contents of the tubes have been shaken 20,000 times, the clear solution is 
poured off, evaporated to dryness, and weighed. 

The salts suitable for these experiments are few in number. No 
hydrated salts can be used and the anhydrous salts must be freely 
soluble in water, otherwise their solubility in dilute alcohol sinks so low 
that the experimental error becomes too high. 

Up to the present only four salts have been examined, NaCl, KCl, 
K'aNOg, and KNO3, in four solutions of alcohol up to 20 molecules, but 
the densities of solutions of these salts in the alcohol solutions have also 
been determined. The results have yet to be worked out. 

The Committee propose to complete the experiments in these two 
branches of the subject and then turn their attention to the vapour- 
f)ressures of water from solutions, the special apparatus for which has 
been long ready. With this view they desire to be appointed for another 
year. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Eay Lankester 
Mr. P. L. ScLATER, Professor INI. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
Mr. Walter Heape, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor Moseley, 
and Mr. Percy Sladen {Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of maJcing arrangements for assisting the Marine Biological 
Association Laboratory at Plymouth. 

Your Committee have the pleasure to report that on June 30 last the 
laboratory and tanks of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth 
were formally declared open and ready for work. 

Immediately afterwards Mr. Cunningham, Mr. Weldon, and Mr. 
Bourne, assisted by Mr. Garstang, secretary to the Director, began to 
explore methodically that part of Plymouth Sound lying within the 
breakwater. The results of the exploration are not j-et ready for publi- 



ON ASSISTING THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 95 

cation, but it has proved that the fauna lying inside the breakwater is 
poor in comparison with that outside. 

Mr. Cunningham has continued his special investigations upon the 
development of teleosteau fishes. 

Mr. Weldon has continued his work on Crustacea with special regard 
to the development of Homarus and Palinurus. 

Mr. Bourne has devoted some time to an examination of the Hydroidea 
of the distinct. 

Mr. Garstang is working out the Mollusca. 

Mr. Hardy, of Caius College, Cambridge, arrived at the laboratory in 
July, and at once commenced an investigation upon the development of 
sponges (Asconidce), which is proceeding. During the month of August 
Mr. Beddard has been investigating the marine oligochaete worms of the 
district, and Dr. C. A. MacMunn has been engaged in investigating the 
colouring matter of vai'ions marine invertebrates. Dr. Burdon Sanderson 
and Mr. Gotch are expected during September, and will continue their 
investigations on the electric organs of skates and rays. 

Although the buildings are practically ready, and can be used for 
research, some delays and hindrances have occurred in the stocking of 
the aquarium attached to the laboratory, and the want of certain fittings, 
now supplied, has hindered the staff in making a complete collection of 
the fauna of the district. 

At present Mr. Bourne and Mr. Weldon are making a sei-ies of 
observations with the surface-net, principally by night, with the view of 
gaining accurate knowledge of the pelagic fauna of the Channel. 

It has been found that the work of the Association has been sadly 
hampered by the want of a small but seaworthy steamboat, such as the 
Naples steamboat ' Johannes Mliller.' The Association does all its 
present work with a small hook-and-line boat of about five tons, and it is 
found that in calms, rough weather, and contrary winds much time is 
wasted. It is also a great disadvantage that the trawl or dredge 
has to be hauled in by hand, an operation which could be performed by 
a small steam winch on a steamboat. The Council of the Biological 
Association has authorised the Director to make a special appeal for 
funds towards purchasing and maintaining such a steamboat, and should 
the General Committee of the British Association be prepared to make a 
further grant towards the Plymouth laboratory, your Committee would 
venture to suggest that it should take the form of a donation to this 
special fund. 

Your Committee have paid to the Marine Biological Association the 
sum of lOOZ., placed at their disposal for that purpose ; and the Council 
of the Biological Association have tendered to your Committee their 
thanks for the support given to the Biological Association by the Council 
of the British Association. 

Your Committee beg to point out that it would, in their opinion, be 
desirable for the Council of the British Association to complete its con- 
tributions to the Marine Biological Association to the total of 500Z., and 
thus acquire the power of nominating a life governor of the Marine 
Biological Association. 



96 



EEPOET — 1888. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden: 
and Armstrong {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of in- 
vestigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. {Drawn up by 
Professor Armstrong.) 

The folio-wing is an outline of the -work accomplished during the past 
year in the reporter's laboratory chiefly with the invaluable co-operation 
of Mr. W. P. Wynne, B.Sc. 

In discussing the laws of substitution for naphthalene, attention was 
directed in the tirst report to the alpha-lav: as the dominant law; and it 
was pointed out that whenever departures from this law occur, as a rule, 
either the conditions are such as to favour secondary changes — as in the 
formation of /3-sulphonic acids at high temperatures in presence of an 
excess of sulphuric acid — or a radicle such as OH or NH2 is present 
which exercises a special influence. It was mentioned, however, in the 
same report, that when /D-chloronaphthalene is sulphonated by means of 
SO3HCI, two isomeric acids are formed which there is reason to believe 
a.re represented by the formulae : — 
SO3H 




or 



HSO. 



a-acid. SO^H /3-acid. 

The conditions are such that the formation of the /5-acid cannot be- 
attributed to the occurrence of secondary changes such as in all pro- 
bability take place when sulphuric acid is the agent ; the production of this 
derivative, therefore, cannot well be reconciled with the alpha law, but 
is suggestive of the existence in the naphthalene molecule of a ' plane of 
symmetry ' passing through the /t3''^/3"''-carbon atoms in which an influence 
is exercised. The observations on isomeric change briefly described in- 
the last report prompted us, however, to determine whether the a-acid 
could not readily be converted into the /3-acid by heating : the results 
entirely favour the view that the latter acid is in reality the product of 
isomeric change, and that its formation is in no way an exception to the 
alpha-law. When the snlphonation was effected in the cold, only three 
to four per cent, of the product consisted of the /3-acid ; after heating the 
product at 100° for half an hour the amount rose to eleven per cent.; 
heating at 150° for one hour increased the proportion of /3-acid to twenty 
per cent. ; and no less than fifty-three per cent, was present after heating 
at 150° for five hours. 

These results have led us to study the behaviour of the chloro- 
naphthalenesulphonic acids generally when heated, in order to determine 
whether, and in what way, they undergo isomeric change. In preparing 
the necessary material for these experiments we have converted the four 
isomeric modifications of betanaphthylaminesulphonic acid by Sandmeyer's 
method into the corresponding chloronaphthalenesulphonic acids, and 
by distilling these with phosphorus pentacbloride have prepared the cor- 
responding dichloronaphthalenes. The designation of the amido-acid, the 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



97 



melting-point of the sulpho-cliloride of the chloro-acid, and the designation 
and melting-point of the dichloronaphthalene are as follows : — 

Sulphochloride Dichloronaphthalene 

betanaphthylaminesulphonic acid (a) ( Badische) . 
„ „ (0) (Bronner) . 

„ (7)(Dahl). 
„ „ (5) (Bayer and 

Duisberg) 

Isomeric dicMoronapMJialenes. — No less than 12 isomeric dichloro- 
naphthalenes have now been described. The conventional plane symbol of 
naphthalene serves to exhibit only ten, but a geometrical symbol may be 
constructed in accordance with the method followed by Herrmann in the 
case of benzene ('Berichte,' 1888, 1949), which foreshadows no less than 
sixteen. The following is a list of the reputed dichloronaphtbalenes : — 



m. p. 




m. p. 


129° 


(ff) 


63°-5 


109° 


(0 


l.S5° 


70° 


(')) 


48° 


8G° 


(S) 


1U° 



(1) 
(^) • 

(3) . 

(4) . 

(5) . 

(6) . 



• V 



. m.p, 
. . . m.p. 
0'. . . m.p 
/8 . . . m.p. 



m.p. = 34° 
m.p. = 38° 
= 48° 
= 61°-5 
= 65° 
= 68° 



(7) 



m.p. 



8.3° 



(8) . 


. K . 


. m.p.= 94° 


(9) . 


■ y ■ 


. m.p. = 107° 


(10) . 


. s . 


. m.p. = 114° 


(11) . 


. » . 


. m.p. = 120° 


(12) . 


. e . 


. . m.p. = 135° 



a-a-dichloronapJdhalenes. Nos. 6, 7, and 9 in the list belong to this 
category and represent the three possible a-a-derivatives : ft-dicMoro- 
najplithalene is undoubtedly the u^:a^homonudeal modification, being 
obtainable from naphthalene tetrachloride and from naphthionic acid ; 
7- and ci-dichloronapMhalenes are heteronucleal compounds, and if no other 
evidence -were forthcoming, the fact that the y- compound has the higher 
melting-point would alone justify us in regarding it as the symmetri- 
cal o^K^'derivative; since, however, it is obtainable from the nitro- 
sulphonic acid isomeric with the a-a-acid known as the Scholkopf acid, 
which -taking Bamberger's researches into account — is a so-called peri or 
hetero-ortho derivative, there cannot be any doubt that y- is 1 : 4' and 
that 4 is 1 : 1' dichloronaphthalene. 

p-ly-dicMoronapJithalenes. — Of the three possible /3-/3- modifications, 
c. and (- dichloronaphthaleve are the two possible hetero-compounds ; and. 
from the high melting-point of the latter there can be practically no 
doubt that it is the symmetrical 2 : 3' modification, the c-componnd being 
therefore the 2 : 2' derivative. 

a-ij-dicJdoronaphfhaJenes. — Four are possible, two hetero- and two 
homonucleal. rj- and 6' (m.p. 6.3°'5) dichloronaphthahnes may be prepared 
as above stated from Dahl's and the Badische modification of Z)etenaphthyla- 
minesulphonic acid respectively, and also from two n-nitro-acids obtained, 
by Cleve by nitrating naphthaleneZ/e/asulphonic acid ; they are therefore 
undoubtedly a- ft- compounds, and are probably both heteronucleal. If these 
arguments be correct, the one is 1 : 2', the other 1 : 3' dichloronaphtha- 
lene, 

Q-dichloronaplitlialene (m.p. 61°-5) is either the 1 : 2 or the 1 : 3 modi-- 
fication. u-dicMoronaplitlialene, the product of the action of alkali on 
naphthalene tetrachloride, is undoubtedly a homonucleal compound. The 
modification melting at 34°, prepared by Cleve from chlorobetanaphthol 
and chlorobetanaphthylamine, is also homonucleal ; this latter is an alpha- 
chloronaphthalene derivative (Cleve), so that the dichloronaphthalene 
melting at 34° if not the 1 : 2 is the 1 : 3 variety. By exclusion, it 

1888. H 



98 



EEroET — 1888. 



would follow that a-dicUoronaplithalene is the third ;8-/S-, i.e., ft^- jS'-dichlo- 
ronaphthalene. 

K and t-dichloronaplithalenes have thus far been omitted from con- 
sideration ; the former is probably non-existent, the method by which it 
is said to have been prepared being one which is very unlikely to afford 
a dichloronaphthalene. It is not improbable that the i-compound will 
also be found non-existent : if on treating naphthalene with chlorine a 
small quantity of an isomeric heteronucleal tetrachloride be formed, and 
this lose its a-chlorine atoms, e- dichloronaphthalene would result, and it 
is possible that this substance in an impure state may have been reo'arded 
by mistake as a distinct substance. 



ECl 



HCl 



HCl 



HCl 

HCl 

Naphthalene homo- 
tetrachloride. 



HCl 



HCl 

HCl 

Naphthalene hetero- 
tetrachloride. 



6-dichloro- 
naphthalene. 



Isomeric clichloroyiapJitJtalenesulpJionic acids. — With the object of further 
characterising and determining the individuality of the dichloronaphtha- 
lenes, the study of their sulphonic acids, to which reference was made in 
the last report, has now been extended to all. The chief result of interest 
is the fact that the dichloronaphthalene melting at 34^° yields certainly 
two, perhaps three, isomeric sulphonic acids ; the sulphochloride of the 
one acid crystalhses in minute prisms melting at 168°, that of the other 
in massive prisms melting at 105°. 

The dichloro-acids prepared by Widman by chlorinating naphthalene- 
a- and /3-sulphochlorides have also been examined. That from the /3-sul- 
pho-chloride yields when hydrolysedyS-, that from the alpha-sulphochloride 
what appears to be ^-dichloronaphthalene, m.p. Gl°'5. 

Addendum. — Since the meeting of the Association, Brdmann and Kirch- 
hoff (' Annalen,' 247, 366) have described the results of experiments on the 
synthetic production of chloronaphthalene derivatives which they contend 
afford proof of the constitution of the y, rj and varieties of dichloro- 
naphthalene. Their method consists in preparing chlorophenylparaconic 
acids by interaction of succinic acid and chlorobenzaldehydes ; by distilling 
the acids, chloronaphthols are obtained from which corresponding dichloro- 
naphthalenes are prepared by distillation with phosphorus pentachloride. 
The conversion of phenylparaconic acid itself into alphanaphthol is 
supposed by Fittig and Erdmann to take place in the manner indicated 
by the following symbols : 



CO 

O ^CH^ 
I CH-COOH = 

\CH 



C(OH) 



CH 



Phenylparaconic acid. 




+ CO2 + H2O. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



99 



Assuming that the chloro-acids undergo a similar change, the acids 
derived from ortho- and parachlorobenzaldehyde should each yield but a 
single chloronaphthol, and that from the metachlor-aldehyde should alone 
be capable of yielding two isomers, viz.: — 

CI OH OH 



1' : 1 



3' : 1 



Actually they obtained eventually from the metachloro-acid 7;-di- 
chloronaphthalene (m.p. 48°) ; and as ^-dichloronaphthalene (m.p. 83°) 
is undoubtedly the 1 : 1' derivative, they regard the ?; as the 1 : 8' 
derivative. The orthochloro-acid was found to yield y-dichloronaph- 
thalene, and hence they regard this as the 1 : 4' derivative — a conclusion 
which harmonises with previous views. 0-dichloronaphthalene (m.p. 61°'5) 
■was prepared from the parachloro-acid, and accordingly this is represented 
to be the 1 : 2' derivative. 

But these conclusions are entirely based on the assumption that the 
naphthol-hydroxyl is derived from one of the carboxyl groups of the 
succinic acid, as indicated by the symbols given above : there is, 
however, no reason why it should not be derived from the COH group of 
the aldehyde, and in this case the rj would be the 1 : 2' and the 6 the 1 : 3' 
derivative. In any case, this objection entirely deprives Erdmann and 
Kirchhoff's arguments of their force: as in the case of benzene, there 
is little doubt that the constitution of naphthalene derivatives will be 
determined eventually by the study of naphthalene derivatives and not 
by synthetic methods of the character of those in question. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson, Mr. 
Pengelly, Mr. F, "W. EuDLER, Mr. Gr. W. JBloxam (Secretary), 
Mr. J. Theodore Bent, and Mr. J. Stuart G-lennie, appointed 
for the purpose of investigating the Prehistoric Race in the 
Greek Islands. 

This spring Mr. Bent commenced researches on the promontories jutting 
into the Korean Sea alons: the coast of Asia Minor. On the most 
southern of these, opposite the island of E.hodes, was discovered near the 
ancient Loryma, vfhich was identified by Leake, a curious little harbour, 
and near it the ruins of a town. After working here for two days, from 
inscriptions on tombs and the sites of temples, it was identified as having 
anciently been called Kasarea, or, as Ptolemy and Pliny respectively call 
it, Kprjacra Xifx-qv and Portus Cressa. 

Proceeding eastwards, on a promontory to the west of the Gulf of 
Makri, he found the ruins of another hitherto unknown town. Here he 
was able to work for many days and found much of interest, including 
33 inscriptions, which informed him that this town was anciently Lydte, 

H 2 



100 BEPOET — 1888. 

an important city of Lycia and the seat of a Roman proconsul. From these 
inscriptions mncb was gathered concerning the local government, its 
division into denies, the gods here worshipped, and the names of its chief 
families and benefactors. 

About five miles inland, buried in a forest, he further identified the 
ruins of another town called LissiE, and found two inscriptions of the 
date of the third century B.C., many tombi?, and sites of buildings. Over 
one of the rock-cut tombs in this neighbourhood was found an inscription 
which appears to be a mixture of Lycian and some other language in use 
in this district, but which has not yet been deciphered. 

The inhabitants of this district are all nomad and form an interesting 
subject for study. The difiiculty of approaching them arising from their 
suspicion of strangers was only overcome after a few days' residence 
amono- them. It would appear that they are almost entirely self-governed, 
ownino- allegiance to the ak-saJcal or white beard who dwells up in the 
mountains, whilst they wander from one pasturage to another, dwelling 
in hnts and acting as woodcutters. Each division of a tribe is called a 
raela, with its chief Yuruk Agha-si. Some few become sedentai-y and till 
the ground, others wander from place to place for pasturage. Mr. Bent 
Lopes to return to these parts next winter and to make further investiga- 
tions amongst them. 

The thincs found during Mr. Bent's excavations arc now deposited in 
the Briti.sh Museum. 

The Committee ask for reappointment with enlarged powers, and 
that the grant may be increased to 40L 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Rawson Kawsox, General 
PiTT-RivEES, Dr. MuiRHEAD, Mw C. RoiJERTS, Dr. J. Beddoe, 
Mr. H. H. HowoRTH, Mr. F. W. Eudler, Dr. Gr. W. Hambletox, 
Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. Gr. W. Bloxam, Dr. Garsox, and Dr. 
A. M. Patersox, appointed for the pntrpose of investigating the 
effects of different occupations and empdoyments on the Physical 
Development of the Human Body. 

The Committee met frequently during the past year. A circular has 
been issued asking for the active assistance of employers of labour and 
others who have access to large bodies of working men, and the Committee 
has received many promises of assi.stance. 

Cards for recording observations have been printed, and a paper of 
instructions to ensure, as far as possible, uniformity in taking the obser- 
vations has been drawn up. 

It has benn resolved to confine the operations of the Committee to one 
larfs centre of population at a time, and Manchester has been selected as 
a starting point. A sub-committee has been formed there, and the 
Committee anticipate valuable results during the ensuing winter, but no 
returns have yet been received. 

The Committee respectfully ask for reappointment and for a renewal 
of the grant. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 101 



Sixteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. 
Pkestwich, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. Gr. 
BoNNEY, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, and Messrs. C. E. De Range, H. 
Gr. FoRDHAM, D. MACKINTOSH, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and 
K. H. TiDDEMAN, appointed for the puoyose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and 
origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, 
reporting other matters of interest connected xvith the same, 
and taking measures for their preservation. {Drawn up by 
Dr. Crosskey, Secretary.) 

It was expected that this Committee -would be able at an early date 
to summarise and conclude its reports ; but as its existence and object 
are becoming more generally known, so large a number of new observa- 
tions are being forwarded, that it is necessary that its work should still 
be carried on. 

Among the important points that are being brought to light are : (1) 
the very distinct grouping of erratics in various localities, showing clearly 
that they have travelled in definitely marked courses ; (2) the determi- 
nation of the character of these groups by the physical geography of the 
country — ridges of existing highlands and hills effectually stopping or 
diverting the courses of the streams of boulders ; (3) the occasional 
crossing of the groups of boulders — the meeting places of different 
streams being determinable ; (4) the deposition of erratics at different 
periods. 

When the summary of the reports is prepared, these facts will be 
found to stand out with great clearness and their bearing upon the glacial 
theories will prove to be of large importance. 

YOKKSHIRE. 

Very remarkable facts were recorded in last year's report, respecting 
the boulders in the parish of Ingleby Greenhow, Northallerton ; where 
blocks from the Lake district, from the S.W. of Scotland, from the 
Cheviot hills and adjoining districts, from more distant northern parts 
of Scotland, are intermixed with glaciated blocks of local origin. 

The Rev. John Hawell supplements the information previously given 
and has examined 3G5 boulders (Professor Bonney and Mr. C. T. Clough 
giving their kind assistance in the determination of some of the specimens) 
with the following results : — 

(1) Shan granite .......... 3 . 

(2) Granite of Criffel type 1 

(3) Dolerites 9 

(4) Sj'enite or diorite (Scotch) 1 

(5) Quartzite .......... 1 

(6) Quartzose rock ......... 1 

(7) Quartzose gieywacke 1 

(8) Vein quartz 1 

(9) Quartz-felsite (from St. John's Vale?) 2 

(10) Felsite 1 

<11) Porphyrites from Cheviots 67 

(12) Porphyrites from Cheviots or S. Scotland ... 7 



102 



KEPORT 1888. 



as 

(14 
(15 
(16 
(17 
(18 
(19 
(20 
(21 
(22 
(23 
(24 
(25 
(26 
(27 
(28 
(29 
(30 
(31 
(32 
(33 
(34 
(35 
(36 
(37 
(38 
(39 
(40 
(41 
(42 
(43 
(44 



Porphj^rite (from near Kelso ?) . 
Porphyrite from Cheviots or near Kelso 
Felsite or porphyrite (Scotch) . 
Hornbleudic porphyrite . 
Hornblendic felsite or porphyrite 
Porphyrites from Borrowdale series 
Augite-andesites from Clieviots 
Old augite-andesites 
Augite-andesites from Cleveland Dyke 
Doubtfully from the Cleveland Dyke 
Basalt of uncertain derivation . 
Basalt or augitic andesite 
Very compact basalt (Scotch) . 
Porphyritic basalt (from Carter Fell ?) 
Indurated volcanic ashes from Borrowdale 
Felstones from Borrowdale series 
Doubtfully felstones from Borrowdale series 
Felstone ? . 

Hilllellinta? 

Sandstones from local Inferior Oolite 
Sandstones, Oolitic and otherwise . 
Coarse grits ..... 

Millstone grits 

Fine quartz grit .... 
Calciferous sandstone 
Argillaceous limestone 
Calcareous cherty limestones . 
Limestones ..... 

Mudstones 

Brown calcareous rock 
Of uncertain character 
Notes too imperfect, or specimens mislaid 



series 



Total 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 

57 

1 

4 

1 

3 

3 

13 

7 

3 

1 

1 

81 

11 

11 

2 

1 
1 



38 
4 
1 
4 
6 



365 



(1) No. 234 — In stream below Ingleby Mill Dam ; rounded; 33 X 21 
xlSin. No. 306 — In Mr. H. Bainbridge's field ; Greenhow ; rounded; 

15 X 13 X 10 in. No. 328 — Near Mr. H. Bainbridge's house ; in stream ; 
rounded ; 22 x 18 X 16 in. 

(2) In bed of stream below Ingleby Manor House ; rounded; diameter 
about 18 in. 

(3) The dolerites may not improbably have been derived from the 
Whin Sill of Teesdale. Mr. Clough, however, says, ' The "Whin Sill 
also occurs with much the same character in parts of Weardale, 
Northumberland, and there are also various dykes in N. of England 
of same character.' No. 243 — In Ingleby Mill Dam ; imperfectly rounded ; 
19 X 16 X 14 in. No. 265 — By side of railway near Mr. (bill's farm ; 
rounded; 27x22x13 in. No. 364 — On Kirby-Moorside Road, above 
Bank Foot; rounded; 22x20x13 in. 

(4) No. 349 — In stream below Ingleby Manor ; subangular ; 8 X 6 
x6 in. 'Syenite or Diorite — Scotch' (Bonney). 'Might be from the 
shoulder of "Criffel' (Clough). 

(5) No. 268 — In Mr. Gill's field; well rounded; 6x5x4 in. 
' Quartzite ; possibly derived from an Old Red Conglomerate ' (Bonney). 

(6) No. 39 — Ingleby Vicarage Garden ; rounded ; 13 X 11 X 10 in. 

(7) No. 176 — Ingleby Mill Dam ; rounded ; ? x6 x6 in. ' Quartzose 
Greywacke — probably S. Scotch' (Bonney). 

(8) No. 352— Stream below Ingleby Mill Dam; rounded; 20 X 
16 xl3 in. ' Vein quartz — Chalcedonic ' (Bonney). 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCiS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 103 

(9) No. 98— Ingleby Mill Dam; hard, sabangular ; 13x12x6 in. 
No. 158 — Ingleby Mill Dam ; angular; ? x 7 x5 in. ' Felsite or porphy- 
rite (Bonney). These blocks may not improbably have been derived 
from the quartz-felsite of St. John's Vale, Cumberland. 

(10) No. 93 — Ingleby Mill Dam; sabangular; 8x4x3 in. 

(11) No. 125 — Ingleby Mill Dam ; sabangular; 17x8x? in. ' Por- 
phyrite — old andesite (Cheviot?)' (Bonney). ' Possibly from the Che- 
viots, but not a common type there, and should think more probably from 
some of the porphyritic areas in the S. of Scotland ' (Clough). No. 138 
— Ingleby Mill Dam; moderately rounded; 24 x 15 X Pin. No. 139 — 
Ingleby Mill Dam ; subangular ; 21 x 18 x 10 in. The above are some of 
the largest of these common blocks which so strongly characterise oar 
local drift. 

(18) No. 839 — On right bank of stream below Ingleby Mill Dam ; 
snbangular; 16x?xl4in. ' Porphyrite — probably an old andesite ' 
(Bonney). ' Very like some of the upper Old Red traps of the neigh- 
bourhood of Kelso. I have also noticed these rocks mixed with Cheviot 
rocks in considerable quantities in Bridlington Bay boulders ' (Clough). 

(14) No. 2.32— Ingleby Mill Dam; angular; 8x7x5 in. 'Might 
well be from the Lower Old Red porphyritic district of the Cheviot Hills ' 
(Clough). 

(15) No. 275 — In Mr. Gill's field, Ingleby ; subangnlar ; smoothed ; 
4 X 8 x 6 in. ' Felsite or porphyrite — Scotch ' (Bonney). 

(16) No. 303 — In stream below Ingleby Mill Dam; subangular; 
10 X 6 X 6 in. ' Hornblendic porphyrite — S. Scotland ' (Bonney). ' Not 
unlike portions of the lowest of the porphyritic flows at the head of 
Coquetdale, Cheviot Hills ' (Clough). 

(17) No. 319 — -In stream near Mr. H. Bainbridge's farm, Greenhow ; 
rounded ; 21 X 17 X 14 in. ' Hornblendic felsite or porphyrite ' (Bonney). 
' Very like some igneous masses in the Highlands near the head of Loch 
Katrine, Loch Lomond, &c.' (Clough). 

(18) The largest of these is No. 302. In stream below Ingleby Mill 
Dam; subangular; 17x10x6 in. 

(21) As the Cleveland Dyke at its nearest point, near the village of 
Great Ayton, is distant only some four miles from the present position of 
the boulders to which these notes refer, and as the ice-sheet must have 
ploughed across it almost at right angles in the immediate direction of 
our locality, we should naturally expect to find what, in point of fact, we 
do find — numerous angular and subangular fragments derived from it, 
intermixed with the other boulders. The ' Whinstone,' as it is locally 
termed, is described in the memoir of the Geological Survey relating to 
the district as ' a bluish-grey augite-andesite, consisting of a ground mass 
apparently made up of angitic and felsitic mattej', with small crystals of 
felspar and augite. Scattered through this are glassy crystals of triclinic 
felspar of much larger size, very distinctly visible to the unaided eye, 
and which give the rock a distinctive character by which it can be easily 
recognised.' As other dykes of a very similar character occur in the 
direction from which the ice-sheet came, it is possible that one or two 
from other sources may have been put down as from this source. The 
largest measures 48x35x34 in. Others measure respectively 39 in., 
33 in., 29 in., 28 in., 27 in. in their longest diameter. 

(22) No. 113 — Ingleby Mill Dam ; imperfectly rounded, with smooth 
faces ; 11 x 8 x 6 in. 



104 REPORT— 1888. 

(24) No. 274— In Mr. Gill's field ; moderately rounded ; 13 X 9 X 7 in. 
'Basalt or angitic andesite— Northern ' (Bonney). 

(2(3) ' Porphyritic basalt — Scotch or north of England ' (Bonney). 
' Looks as if it might be from the porphyritic basalt rock of Lumsden 
Law or the Carter Fell or from some other of the similar basaltic rocks of 
the Border country ' (Clough). 

(27) Two in Greenhow measure respectively 31x20x13 in. and 
27x17 X Pin. 

(28) The largest of these measures 13 x 12 x 10 in. 

(29) A subangular boulder at Ingleby Mill Dam measures 18 x 13 
X 7 in. 

(30) No. 326 — In Mr. H. Bainbridge's field, Greenhow ; rounded ; 
10 X 6 X 4 in. 

(31) No. 73 — By side of road near Ingleby Church ; imperfectly 
rounded; hard; green; 14x9x5 in. ^ Not igneous — a Halleflinta' 
(Bonney). ' Should strongly suppose this to be one of the rocks of the 
volcanic series of Borrowdale ' (Clough). 

(32) The real proportion of these blocks is somewhat higher than is 
represented by the number 81, since some small ones have been passed 
over where more unfamiliar rocks would have been noted. The following 
are the measurements of a few of the largest : 36 X 20 X 17 in. ; 33 X 18 

Xl2in. ; 30x22x ? in.;29xl4x? in.; 29 X ? X 12 in. ; 24 X ? xl6in. ; 
23 x 22 X 14 in. The majority of the above consist of a somewhat com- 
pact sandstone, not easily worn and resisting decomposition. 

(33) Some of these are probably from the Oolite ; others from the 
Carboniferous. The largest measures 16 X 10 X 7 in. 

(34) These are probably all from the Inferior Oolite. The largest of 
them, which is at the Ingleby Mill Dam, measures 29 X ? X 8 in. ; others 
measure 24 X 17 X ? in. ; 23 X ? X 19 in. 

(36) No. 1.50— Ingleby Mill Dam ; 6 X 6 x4 in. ' Fine quartz grit ; 
probably Carboniferous ' (Bonney). 

(37) No. 145 — Ingleby Mill bam ; subangular; ? x9x4in. 

(38) No. 351 — In stream below Mill Dam ; subangular ; 22 x 19 X ? in. ; 
argillaceous limestone : perhaps from the Oolite. 

(39) No. 166— Ingleby Mill Dam ; subangular ; 17 X ? X 10 in. No. 
299 — In stream below Mill Dam ; angular ; 10 X 6 X 4 in. 

(40) The majority, bat not all, of these are from the Mountain Lime- 
stone. Some are greenish or yellowish ; others very light coloured ; 
a few nearly black. No. 165 — Ingleby Mill Dam ; a flat slab ; finely 
stratified ; 28 X ? X 5 in. No. 282 — In stream immediately below Mill 
Dam, having recently fallen from left bank ; angular ; cubical ; ordinary 
mountain limestone, full of fossils, including Spirifera bisulcata, Syringo- 
pora geniculata, Athyris avibigua, Terebratula vesicularis, and a shell which 
I take to be Spiriferina cristata, var. octoplicata ; 22 x 19 X 14 in. 

(41) No. 256 — Marsh Lane; rounded and flattened; stratified; 
striated on one side in various directions; 18x14x5 in. 'Mudstone' 
(Bonney). No. 48 — Ingleby Vicarage Garden; discoidal ; 9x7x3 in. 
'Mudstone — Scotch Silurian (?) ' (Bonney). 'Very like one of the 
Coniston flagstones of the English Lake district ; probably came over the 
■watershed W. of Bowes with the Shap granite boulders' (Clough). 

(42) No. 350 — In stream below Ingleby Mill Dam ; angular ; 
1x18x3 in. 

The Committee have received the subjoined valuable reports from the 



ON THE ERKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 105 

' Yorkshire Boulder Committee,' formed in connection with the ' York- 

shire Naturalists' Union.' . c -o n 

That Committee have had the advantage of the services ot Frotessor 
Green, F.R.S., as chairman, and Mr. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S., as secretary, 
and have examined and passed all the reports which are subjoined. 

The Rev. B. M. Cole, M.A., Wetwang, forwards the following re- 

^"^In a field, about 350 yards north of Gristhorpe station, near Filey, and 
about 50 yards east of the railway, is an isolated boulder of basalt ; sub- 
angular ; 4 ft. 7 in. X 2 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 11 in. Partially imbedded m 

^^°In the North Skeugh Field, Stillington, near Easingwold, is a boulder 
4 ft. 3 in. X 3 ft. X 2 ft. 7 in. ; rounded ; has not been moved ; longest axis 
N.E. and S.W. No strise apparent. A very hard cherty limestone. 
About 150 feet above sea-level. Rests upon Middle Lias. . 

In and around the village of Muston, near Filey, are the following 
boulders : — 

No. 1. 3 ft. X 2 ft. X 11 ft., basalt, smoothed. 
„ 2. 1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 6 in., basalt, sharp edges. 
„ 3. 2 ft. X 3 ft. X 1 ft. 8 in., basalt, smoothed. 

4. 4 ft. 5 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft., basalt, triangular-shaped end. 
", 6.3 ft. « 2 f t. 4 in. x 1 ft. 8 in., basalt, angular. 

6. 1 ft. 8 in. X 2 ft. 6 in x 2 ft. 11 in., basalt, smoothed on one side. 
" 7. 4 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 3 in., grit. 

Round the sign- post in the centre of Muston village are two boulders : 
Basalt— 2 ft. 7 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. x 8 in. (embedded in ground), and 2 ft. 9 m. 
X 2 ft. (embedded in ground). 

A boulder at the corner of a house close by ; basalt, 2 ft. 3 m. X 1 ft. 
8 in. X 9 in. 

There are at least half a dozen others from 1 ft. to 2 ft. cubes. 

In a bank, surmounted by a hedge, at the Hunmanby end of the 
village, are three gritstone boulders : 3 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. ; 

2 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. ; 3 ft. x 1 ft. 5 in. 

In the middle of a grass field, half-way between Muston and Hun- 
manby, in a straight line, is an isolated boulder of basalt; rounded, 

3 ft. 6in. x 3 ft. X 1 ft. liin. Embedded in the ground. 

There are two groups of boulders at Bempton and Buckton (East 

Riding) : — .pi 

3 ft. X 2 ft. and 2 ft. cube is the ordinary shape. A few angular, a 
few sub-angular, but mostly rounded. The stones referred to have all been 
moved by man, built into foundations of houses, set up at corners of 
streets ; also used as seats. There is no doubt whatever the boulders 
have been removed from adjacent fields. By far the greater number 
are whinstone. There are many blocks of various sandstones, but 
four-fifths are whinstone. 250 feet above sea-level. They are abundant 
in the villages of Bempton and Buckton. Speaking only of the large 
ones : 5 may be seen at the well ; 10 at the pond close by ; 10 more in 
the cottages towards CUff Lane ; 5 forming steps in the lane itself ; hun- 
dreds in the walls of smaller size but upwards of 1 ft. cube ; 10 in Buck- 
ton, upwards of 2 ft. ; 15 at lea.st in Old BridUngton at the corner of 
streets, upwards of 2 ft., some smoothed ; 24 by the pond at Flambro', 
removed thither from adjacent fields. 



106 REPOET— 1888. 

All the above mentioned are whinstone : it is the characteristic bonlder 
of the Bnckton, Bempton, and Flambro' cHfFs, and seems ubiquitous. 

Two boulders occur at Bempton (E. Riding) in the fields known as 
' The Leys,' a few yards from the top of Bempton Cliffs, opposite Scale 
Nab; the boulders are about 50 yards apart. 

Boulder No. 1. — 4 ft. x 3 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. Sub-angular. North, in- 
clined to W. Whinstone. Above sea-level, 275 ft. Isolated. 

Boulder No. 2. — 4ft. X 4ft. x 1ft. Gin. Sub-angular. Above sea- 
level, 280 ft. Isolated. 

Both rest on a thin boulder clay on chalk. 

At Carr Naze, Filey Brigg, are the following erratic blocks : — 

1. Rounded block on surface of third field from Filey Church, due 
north, near cliff, 2 ft. 7in. x 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. Whinstone. 

2. A similar but flatter block, lying at base of boulder clay, partially 
exposed, on north side of Naze, just above Oolitic rocks, 2 ft. 11 in. 
X 2 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. Direction E.N.E. Beautifully furrowed with ice- 
marks. Whinstone. 

3. A mass lying exposed on Oolitic rocks, about 50 ft. above sea-level, 
evidently washed out of boulder clay above, 3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. X 1 ft. 4 in. 
Smooth edges, flat surface. Mica trap. 

4. Small block, on ledge, fallen as above. Quartz felsite. 

5. In boulder clay on S. side of Naze. Black earthy limestone with 
iron pyrites. 

6. Fine mass of Lias, all Lower Lias fossils (Gryphcea, Mya, &c.), 1 ft. 
X 1 ft. 5 in. X 7 in. Washed out of boulder clay on N. side of the Naze. 

7. Mass of freestone lying partially exjDosed half-way up N. face of 
boulder clay at Carr Naze, 3 ft. 10 in. X 2 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. Direction N. 
No markings. 

Dr. Carter Mitchell, Topcliffe, Thirsk, reports a boulder of Shap 
granite in the parish of Cundall, on the Leckby estate, five miles from 
Boroughbridge, about a quarter of a mile above ' Elmire Ings,' as given 
on the Ordnance Map. It is in the bed of the river Swale, close to the 
Leckby bank. It is entirely out of the water when the river is very low ; 
4 ft. 3 in. X 3 ft. X 2 ft. 9 in. Is more or less rounded. No strite or 
groovings. Is about 50 ft. above sea-level. There is a long ridge of 
gravel and sand about a quarter of a mile from where the boulder lies. 

Mr. H. M. Platnauer, B.Sc, F.G.S. (Curator of the York Museum), 
records the following erratic blocks which were obtained from the 
boulder clay that was dug out when the York new station was built, and 
are now placed about the grounds of the Philosophical Society of that 
city :— 

1. Shap granite, irregular shape, smooth, 2 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. X llin. 

2. Shap granite, irregular parallelepiped, rough surface, 1 ft. 4 in. 

X 1 ft. 4 in. X 10 in. 

3. Shap granite, roughly ellipsoidal, smooth surface, 2 ft. 2 in. 

X I ft. 1 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. 

4. Shap granite, irregular mass, rounded but not smooth, 3 ft. 1 in. 
X 2 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. 

5. Shap granite, irregular oval, smooth, 2 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft, 10 in. 
X 1 ft. 7 in. 

6. Whitish limestone, flat piece, polished and striated on one side, 
3 ft. X 1 ft. 3 in. X 8 in. 

7. Estuarine sandstone, rounded mass, 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. X 9 in. 



ON THE EEEATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 107 

8. Dark-colonred Mountain limestone, polished and striated, 1 ft. Sin. 

X 1 ft. 2 in. X 9 in. 

9. Limestone (Oolitic, but of what horizon I cannot say), smooth, 
striated on one side, 1 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. X 9 in. 

10. Similar to No. 9, 1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 7 in. 

11. Sandstone (probably estuarine), angular, irregular, 1 ft. 5 in. 
Xlft. 2 iu.xl ft. 1 in. 

12. Grey arenaceous limestone (probably Jurassic), irregular, 
smoothed on one side, 1 ft. 1 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. X 10 in. 

13. Similar to No. 12, smooth on one side, 1ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. 
Xlft. 1 in. 

14. Light coloured limestone, smooth, egg-shaped, striated, 2 ft. 

XI ft. 2 in.xl ft. 6 in. 

15. Lithostrotion, small, polished, and rounded mass, 1 ft. X 9 in. X 7 in. 

16. Greenish-grey trap, probably a hornblende-andesite. An ir- 
regular quadrate mass, trapezoidal in section at one direction ; the faces at 
an obtuse angle are polished and somewhat striated, 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 

X 1 ft. 4 in. 

The Rev. Thomas Parkinson, Vicar of North Otterington, near 
Northallerton, reports as follows : — 

In the centre of the village of Thornton-le-Beans, near Northallerton, 
at the left or north side of the street going eastwards, parish of North 
Otterington, is a block of Shap granite. Length, 3 ft. 10 in. E. and W. 
Breadth, 3' 2" N. and S. Above ground 2ft. 4 in., and probably about the 
same in the ground. Rounded. Uncertain whether it has been moved 
or not. Longest axis E. and W. No stride or groovings. Isolated. Rests 
on clay. 

In the township of Thornton-le-Moor, parish of North Otterington, 
are three boulders. 

1. In an open field, near a well named ' Stockeld's Well.' About 4 ft. 
6 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. Somewhat wedge-shaped. Rounded. Cannot 
say whether it has been moved or not. Longest axis N. and S. (nearly). 
Granite, ice-worn. Isolated. Rests on clay. 

2. In a lane called ' Endecon,' about 300 yards from south end of 
village of Thornton-le-Moor, 3 ft. 2 in. x2 ft. x 2 ft. Was considerably 
broken a few years ago. Has been moved. Coarse dolerite. Isolated. 
Rests on clay. 

3. On the roadside, near farmhouse called Hill Top or Thief Hole 
Farm, 3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 9 in., all above ground. Rounded a 
little, angular in some parts. Has been moved — taken out when foundation 
was dug of an adjacent building. Close grained trap or highly altered 
fine ash. Isolated. Rests on clay. 

In township of North Otterington, on Otterington Farm, in field near 
the entrance gate from Northallerton road, and about 300 yards on the 
road from North Otterington Church ; 4 ft. X by 2 ft. 11 in. Height 
above ground, one side, 1 ft. 6 in. ; the other, 3 to 4 in. Somewhat 
wedge-shaped. Angles all rounded. Has been moved. There are four 
ruts running longitudinally on the top and in the direction of longest 
axis. Granite. Rests on gravel. 

Mr. Robert Mortimer, of Fimber, reports that at Yonlthorpe, between 
Bishop Wilton and Stamford Bridge, is a large isolated boulder of pare 
white very quartzose sandstone. Had not been moved by man until 
recently, when it was carted into the farmyard of Mr. Hawkins. Is now 
used as a mounting block, 3 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. 



]08 EEPORT- 1888. 

Toulthorpe is on the Keuper marl, and not far from tLe foot of the 
chalk escarpment of the Wolds. 

The Rev. R. A. Summerfield, Vicar of North Stainley, reports that in 
the parish of North Stainley, near the hamlet of North Leys, and about 
100 yards from the ' Smithy ' (so marked on the 6 in. Ordnance Map), on 
the west side of the road to North Stainley, is a block of Carboniferous 
grit, 3 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. Sub-angular. It has been moved 
from the adjoining field to the place it now occupies about twenty years ago, 
being a hindrance to ploughing, &c. About 170 ft. above sea-level. Con- 
nected probably with a long gravel ridge which abuts on the river bank 
and underlies all the parish, in which are a large quantity of scratched, 
grooved, and polished blocks, varying much in size. One block, 5 ft. 
X 3 ft. X 1 ft. 3 in., is a mass of large Producti. 

The Rev. Arthur Watts, F.G.S., Vice-Principal of Bede College, 
Durham, reports that there is a block of encrinital Carboniferous lime- 
stone in the grounds of R. L. Hawthorne, Esq., Hawthorne Tower, Sea- 
ham Harboui', on north side of Hawthorne Drive and west of the tower. 
Was removed from an adjacent field when draining to its present 
position, 5 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. Weight, 1 ton 18-79 cwt. 
Sub-angular. It originally pointed by its long axis '20° E. of N., 42° E. 
of N. true bearing. There are seven grooves across the stone, five perfect, 
two imperfect. There are two sets of striae : the one set of six are nearly 
obliterated by the other, numbering about seventy. The smaller group of 
stri« are nearly in the line of the longest axis ; the larger group make an 
angle of about G0° with the long side. 

The nearest similar rock known in situ is 25 miles due west at 
Frosterley. 

The boulder has no popular name or legend. Is about 80 ft. above 
sea-level. It was discovered in March 1879, and is not indicated on any 
map. It formed part of a mass of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders that 
is seen in a coast section to be in a hollow in the magnesian limestone, 
about 100 yards wide and 60 ft. or more deep. 

Mr. Wm. Gregson, Baldersby, Thirsk, reports upon two boulders in 
the Priory Grounds, Guisborough, both resting on the Lower Lias. 

Boulder No. 1 : 4 ft. X 3 ft, 6 in. x 1 f t. 3 in. Sub-angular. No groov- 
ings or striations. Grey granite 300 ft. above the sea. Isolated. 
Eesting on Lower Lias : 

Boulder No. 2 : 3 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. Sub-angular. No groov- 
ings or striations. Grey granite. 300 ft. above the sea. Isolated. Rest- 
iug on Lower Lias. 

Dr. W. T. Veitch, Middlesbro', records a Shap-fell granite boulder 
at Saltburn 30 feet from the top of the road leading up from the beach, 
almost opposite the Zetland Hotel ; 3 ft. 8 in. high, 14 ft. in circum- 
ference ; is entirely out of ground on one side ; rounded ; has no long 
axis, no groovings or striations; has no popular name and is without a 
legend ; about 150 feet above sea-level ; is not indicated upon any map. 
It rests upon Middle Glacial drift. 

Mr. C. Brownridge, F.G.S., Leeds, reports on two boulders on the 
west front of Lindholme Hall, which is about four miles to the S.E. of 
Hatfield. The hall is upon slightly elevated ground in the centre of 
Hatfield Chase, a wide extent of bog. The deposits in the vicinity of the 
hall consist of gravel and sand resting upon Triassic sandstone. The 
boulders extracted from the gravel include magnesian limestone, Car- 



ON THE EKRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 10[) 

boniferous sandstones of various kinds, gannistei- and millstone grit, 
porphyries and basalts, quartzite, vein quartz, black flints, chert, &c. 

Boulder No. 1. — 1 ft. 10 in. xlft. 9 in, xl ft. 8 in. ; longest axis N.E. 
to S.W. ; sub-angular ; Halleflinta, not unlike some Lake Country rocks 
in character ; no groovings or striations observed. 

Boulder No. 2.-2 ft. i 1 in. x 2 ft. 0| in. x 1 ft. 7 in. ; longest axis N.E. 
to S.W. ; rounded ; a coarse grit, almost a conglomerate, with large 
quartz pebbles ; no groovings or striations observed. 

A mythical personage, half giant, half hermit, known as William of 
Lindholme, is said to have lived at Lindholme and to have brought the 
above stones, known traditionally as the ' Thumb Stone ' and the ' Little 
Finger Stone,' to their present position. 

Mr. J. W. Davis, F.G.S., Hon. Sec. Yorkshire Geological and 
Polytechnic Society, furnishes the following note on the groups of 
boulders at Norber, near Clapham : — 

All sizes up to 16 to 20 feet in diameter ; angular ; slight striations ; 
under surface rarely striated. Rock identical with that of the boulders 
is found in the valley to the north at various spots, varying from a mile 
to a mile and a half from the place where the boulders are most thickly 
congregated. They are composed of Silurian grit and rest on mountain 
limestone ; 800 to 1,250 feet above the sea ; area covered is three-fourths 
of a mile square ; several hundreds in number ; all exposed on the surface. 
In many instances the masses of Silurian grit have protected the lime- 
stone immediately beneath, whilst the surrounding surface has been 
removed, and they now stand on pedestals of limestone, 12 to 18 inches 
in height. 

References to the Norber Blocks. 

Phillips, 'Trans. Geol. Soc.,' vol. iii. p. 13; 'Elvers, Mountains, and Sea Coast of 
Yorks.,' p. 111. 

Hughes, ' Proceeds. Yorks. Geol. and Polytech. Soc' (1867), vol. iv. p. 574 ; ' Quar. 
Joum. Geol. Soc' (18S6), xlii. 527. 

Tiddemau, ' Quar. Journ. Geol. Soc' (1872), vol. x^xviii. p. 477. 

Davis, 'Proceeds. Yorks. Geol. and Polytech. Soc.,' vol. vii. p. 266. 

Davis and Lees. 'West Yorkshire,' pp. 200, 201. 267. 

Adamson, 'Trans. Leeds GeoL Assoc,' Part I. (1885), pp. 32-34. 

Mr. W. Hodgson Gill, of Stourton, reports the following boulders: — 

At Filey, Yorkshire, on the beach behind the wooden piles at the base 
of cliff, near Ravine Villas. 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. ; is rounded ; 
no groovings or striations ; Shap-fell granite ; it rests on boulder clay. 

At Hunmanby, at the end of the road leading to the beach, 3 ft. 7 in. 
X 2 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. Sin. ; is sub-angular ; no groovings or striations ; Shap- 
fell granite ; it rests on boulder clay. 

At Filey, on the beach between Primrose Valley and Hunmanby 
Road; 4 ft. 1 in. x2 ft. 9 in.x2 ft. 1 in.; angular; no groovings or 
striations ; calcareous sandstone with nodules and pebbles ; it rests on 
boulder clay. 

Mr. Samuel Chadwick, Curator of the Malton Museum, sends the- 
following reports : — 

In the parish of Cropton, four miles from Pickering, North Ridincr, 
and in a grass-field belonging to Mr. James Dixon, Loand House farm, 
3 ft. 4 in X 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. out of ground. Rounded. Its longest 
axis is nearly E. and W. Sandstone, approaching quartzite ; not unlike 



110 EEPORT 1888. 

some of tlie Toredale sandstones of the Yorkshire dales. No striations. 
Rests on fine loamy soil, about 200 ft. above the sea. 

On the farm occupied by jMr. Grundon (estate of J. R. Grimston, 
Esq.), Neswick, S W. of Driffield. At present 4 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 3 in., 
but some portion has been broken away. Sub-angular. Not moved by 
man. Is long-shaped. Longest axis E. and W. Whinstone. 250 ft, 
above the sea. Isolated. Boulder clay, restingf upon chalk. 

Grosmont, near Whitby, on the estate of ]Messrs. Bagnall, Grosmont 
Iron Works, 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. Well rounded. Has been 
moved. No striiB or groovings. Shap-fell granite. About 100 ft. above 
the sea. Was origiually found in the bed of the river Esk, which is 
300 yards E. of the railway station, and the boulder -was found about 
50 yards to the N. of the first railway bridge crossing the stream. The 
boulder rests upon the alum shales of the Lias, through which the river 
Esk cuts its way. 

In Sleights parish, near Whitby ; on the Sleights Hall estate, about 
300 yards W. of Sleights railway station, and on the E. side of the river 
Esk, 2 ft. xl ft. 6 in. xl ft. 6 in. out of ground. Sub-angular. Rather 
long-shaped, but has been moved. No strife or groovings. Granite. 
100 ft. above the sea. Was originally in a small bed of gravel, cut 
through at the making of the railway. On gravel resting upon the Lias 
alum shale. 

In a grass field three-quarters of a mile due E. from Kirkby Under- 
dale and half a mile S. of Uncleby are two boulders. One is 5 ft. 
X 3 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. ; angular ; longest axis N. and S. The other is G ft. 
3 in. X 3 ft. x2 ft. 6 in. above ground ; sub-angular ; longest axis direct 
N. and S. These are both composed of ferruginous Oolitic limestone 
(Inferior Oolite), resting upon the red chalk. No strise or groovings are 
visible upon exposed surfaces. Are about 300 ft. above sea-level. 

Speeion, near Filey. On Mr. Wilson's farm, in a field, and going 
from the high road to the house, is a boulder, 2 ft. 9in. x2 ft. 9 in. x2 ft. 
Nearly a square angular block. Whin.stone. About 350 ft. above sea- 
level. Is isolated. Rests on boulder clay. 

In a field near the mill belonging to Mr. Plews is a boulder, 3 ft. 7 in. 
xl ft. 3 in. xl ft. 3 in. Oblong; rounded at each end. No strite or 
groovings observed. Whinstone. About 350 ft. above sea-level. Rests 
on boulder clay, with chalk underlying. 

At the corner of Mr. Wilson's garden are three boulders. No. 1 — ■ 

1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. ; angular. No. 2—3 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. ; 
rounder. No. 3 — 3 ft. x 2 ft. X 2 ft. ; sub-angular. No striae or groovings 
observed. All are whinstone. About 350 ft. above sea-level. Rests on 
boulder clay, with chalk underlying. 

In the village road leading from the high road are twenty- three 
boulders, the three largest being of the following dimensions : No. 1 — 

2 ft. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. No. 2—1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. x 1 ft. No. 3— 
1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. Irregularly shaped and angular. The 
majority are whinstone, the remainder fine sandstone. About 350 ft. 
above sea-level. 

jfOTE. — In various parts of the village whinstone boulders may be 
found, some rounded, others angular. The average size about 1 ft. 3 in. 
X 1 ft. Many of them have been moved and are now used for support of 
stacks and other purposes. 

On a farm known as ' Airy Hill,' occupied by Mr. Woodcock, about 



ON THE EEKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. Ill 

one mile E. of Hanmanby and two and a half miles S. of Filey, 
2 ft. 4 in. X 2 ft. 2 in. X 5 in. A square angular block. Has been moved. 
No groovings or strife. A bard sandstone very like Kellaway's rock, 
150 ft. above sea-level. Was found on the top of a knoll which is com- 
posed principally of boulder clay. 

On the same farm are several boulders, in front of the house, which 
have been collected from adjacent fields. Five are composed of whinstone, 
varying in size from 2 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. to 1 ft. 6 in. 
X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. There are also three of Shap granite and one of grey 
granite, the largest being 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. x 11 in. They are rounded 
to snb-angular. The surface in this district undulates and any sections 
are through boulder clay. 

On the Glenton farm, on "W. side of road leading from Reighton to 
Filey, are two boulders, 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. ; grey granite ; 
rounded, 3 ft. X 2 ft. 10 in. x2 ft.; mountain limestone; rounded. No 
stvise or groovings. Have doubtless been taken from an adjacent ridge of 
gravel, which runs nearly N. and S. 

On Colonel Mitford's estate, and on a farm occupied by Mr. Hornby, 
a mile and a half E. of Hunmanby and three and a half miles S. of Filey, 
are two boulders, 1 ft. 3h in. X 1 ft. X 9 in. ; 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. x 7 in. 
Both are hard, fine-grained sandstone, and have been removed from 
adjacent land. They originally rested npon the top of a bank close to 
the cliO". All the above are from 150 ft. to 200 ft. above sea-level. 

On the GrafStoe farm, about 100 yards E. of farmstead, two miles E. of 
Hnnmanby, and three miles S. of Filey, are two boulders. No. 1 — 2 ft. 2 in. 
xlffc. 11 in. xl ft. 4 in. Sab-angular. Has been moved, but formerly 
rested npon boulder clay iuterniixed with gravel. No striae or groovings. 
Red sandstone. No. 2 — 4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. Oblong and sub- 
angular. Has been moved, but when found its longest axis was direct 
N. and S. No striae. Grey granite. Formerly rested on same bed as 
preceding boulder. 

At the base of a cutting on the North-Eastern Railway, about a mile 
S. of Filey Railway Station, 3 ft. 6 in. x2 ft. 11 in., and projects above 
the ground about 1 ft. 6 in. Oblong and sub-angular. Has not been 
moved. Longest axis N. to S. No striae or groovings. Dark blue 
whinstone, 150 ft. above sea-level. Is about midway in the centre of a 
ridge of boulder clay, sand, and gravel. 

On the property of Mr. GuUan, Reighton, near Filey, and on the south 
side of St. Helen's Road (2^ miles from Hunmanby E. and 4^ miles S. 
from Filey), are two bouldei-s : 2 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. x 1ft. 6 in.; 
1ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 10 in. Both are snb-angular and are dark blue 
whinstone. They were taken from a ridge of gravel and boulder clay 
close by, about 150 ft. above sea-level. No striae or groovino's. 

On Mr. Crow's Manor farm, about 100 yards W. of Reighton village, 
are two boulders : 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. ; 1 ft. 10 m. 
X 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. Both are oblong and sub-angular, and are dark blue 
whinstone. They were both taken from a field close by and were 
exposed on the surface. No striae or groovings. Are about the same 
level as preceding blocks. 

At the entrance to Reighton village are four boulders : 3 ft. 5 in. 

X 1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. ; 2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. ; 3 ft. 5 in. 

X I ft. 1 in. X 11 in. ; 2 ft. 3 in, X 1 ft. 4 in. X 9 in. All are oblong and 
sub-angular, and are dark blue whinstone. Have no striae or groovings. 



112 REPOET— 1888. 

Have been in present position beyond memory, but there is little doubt 
have been originally upon surface of adjoining fields and removed for 
agriculture, but could not be bi'oken for repairing of roads. 

At Cayton, near Scarhrd'. — On Dr. Taylor's estate and in the farm- 
yard of Mr. N. Smith, on the west side of the village ; 2 ft. 8 in. 
X 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. Angular. Has been moved. No striae or 
groovings. Whinstone. It is now used as a mounting block ; 150 ft. 
above sea-level. It rests upon drift composed of gravel, sand, and 

On Mr. Hodgson's estate. It is close to Mr. Smith's blacksmith's 
shop, and used for a seat ; also for a mounting stone ; 2 ft. X 1 ft. 8 in. 
X 1 ft. 3 in. Sub-angular. Has been moved. No strife or groovings. 
Whinstone ; 200 feet above sea-level. It rests now upon surface soil. 

On Mr. Stead's estate. It now forms the foundation-stone at the 
south corner of an old house inhabited by W. Fowler, shoemaker, on the 
side of the village main street; 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. :] in. Flat 
angular block. Has been moved. No striae or groovings ; 150 ft. above 
sea-level. Whinstone. 

Is about 100 yards E. of the railway station ; at the N. side of the 
road, close to the gate, leading into the valley field occupied by Mr. N. 
Smith; 2 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. Sub-angular. Probably has been 
moved. No striae or gi'oovings. Whinstone; 150 ft. above sea-level. 
Rests on surface soil. 

In the foundations of an old cottage, belonging to Mr. Stephenson, 
on the B. side of the street. This cottage is about 250 yards N. of the 
church ; 2 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft. 2 in. Rounded and oblong. Has been 
moved. No striie or groovings exposed. Coarsely grained dolerite ; 
150 ft. above sea-level. Rests on surface soil. 

On Mrs. Wilson's estate ; in the centre of the village on the W. side 
of the Scarbro' and Filey road ; 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 
Rounded. Has been moved. No strice or groovings. Dolerite. 200 ft. 
above sea-level. 

Note. — The possession of this boulder is at present in dispute. It ori- 
ginally was in the foundation of some very old thatched cottages, and 
when the new property was built some years ago a large block of 
sandstone was given in exchange, and now that the sandstone is a 
fixture they dispute the other being taken away. 

On Dr. Layton's estate, Cayton Carr, about a mile and a half W. of 
Cayton village. It was taken out of a ridge of gravel that runs through 
the centre of a field, called the Six Acre Strip, in the occupation of Mr. 
Smith. Its present position is close to the gate entering the field in 
which it was found ; 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 7 in. X 9 in. Sub-angular. No 
strife or groovings. Whinstone ; 250 ft. above sea-level. 

Note. — In a heap close by are several smaller boulders taken out of 
the same field, comprising grey granite, red granite, mountain limestone, 
whinstone, and sandstone. 

Is at the S. corner of a wall surrounding the engine-house of the 
Scarbro' Waterworks Company, about one mile E. of the village of 
Cayton ; 2 ft. x 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. Rounded. Long-shaped. No 
striae or groovings. Mountain limestone. 

IfOTE. — It was brought from the beach below to strengthen the corner 
of the wall. 

In a by-road leading from Cayton to Scarbro' is a large number of 



ON THE EERATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLA^D, WALES, AND IRELAND. 113 

boulders of vsfhicli upwards of thirty will average 1 ft. 4 in. x9 in. and 
over seventy others are over a foot in diameter. The larger ones are 
sub-angular ; the smaller ones rounded. All have no doubt been con- 
veyed from adjacent fields. No striffi or groovings are to be seen on 
exposed surfaces. They are different kinds of sandstone. They are about 
150 ft. above sea-level. 

On Miss Craven's estate, in the village of Cayton, about 300 yards N. 
of the church, and on the main road to Scarbro', is a group of nine 
boulders, four of which are whinstone, and upon an average 1 ft. 11 in. 
X 1 f t. ; the other five are sandstone and average 1 ft. 8 it. x 1 ft. 2 in. 
The whinstones are mostly sub-angular ; the sandstones angular. 
There are no strife or groovings exposed. They are about 150 ft. 
above sea-level. Some of them are entirely exposed, the rest being 
partially covered with other stones and soil. 

On Miss Craven's estate in the village of Cayton, and about 250 yards 
N. of the church, in a by-road called North Lane, are a number of 
boulders, the seven largest of which I have noted as follows : — No. I — 
1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. ; red sandstone ; angular. No. 2 — 2 ft. 6 in. 
X 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. ; whinstone ; angular. No. 3 — 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. 
X 1 ft. 3 in. ; whinstone; rounded. No. 4—1 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. ; 
hard, grey sandstone ; sub-angular. No. 5 — 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. X 9 in. ; 
whinstone ; rounded. No. 6 — ^1 ft. 4 in. X 9 in. X 7 in. ; mottled granite ; 
sub-angular. No. 7 — 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. x 6 in. ; whinstone ; angular. 
I could not observe any strias or groovings. The rising ground is prin- 
cipally composed of drift, gravel, sand, and clay, whilst the hollows are 
filled with deep peat bogs. 

Note. — The great bulk of the boulders in this district are com- 
posed of sandstone and whinstone; of these thousands have been broken 
up and used to mend the roads from time unknown. There is no doubt 
about the roads having received their supply of metal from this source. 
Those left behind (as above) are those which could not be broken up, 
or which have been taken out of the land at a recent date. 

Lebherston, near 8carhro\ — On Mr. Wardell's estate, in a grass-field 
at the E. end of the village, and about 100 yards W. of the Scarbro' 
and Filey road, 4 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. x 2 ft. 7 in., but evidently one-half 
of it is embedded ; sub-angular. Longest axis N.W. to S.E. ; should think 
it has not been moved. There are remains of several groovings, which 
are much worn, and there are also striae on the side of the block, in the 
direction of the longest axis. "Whinstone. Is 200 feet above sea-level. Is 
near the top of a ridge of gravel drift. 

On Mr. Jackson's estate, at tbe E. end of the village, near a yard door 
on the W. side of the road, 2 ft. 3 in X 1 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. Angular, 
and is used as a stepping or mounting stone. Has been moved, but is 
known to have been in its present position for more than a century. No 
striae or groovings. Whinstone. 200 ft. above sea-level. No doubt has 
been obtained from gravel drift in vicinity, but now rests on the surface 
soil. 

On Mr. H. Watson's estate. Is in a grass-field, about a quarter mile 
N. of the Gristhorpe Railway Station, Hull and Scarbro' branch, 
4 ft. 2^ in. X 2 ft. 5 in. X 3 ft. 6 in., and partially embedded. Sub- 
angular, flat on one surface. Long-shaped ; its bearing N. and S. There 
appear to be some striae, which have become very faint from exposure, 
but the stone being grown over with lichen, they are difficult to determine. 
1888. I 



114 REPORT— 1888. 

Uj)on the under side, however, is a well-defined groove about 1 ft. long. 
Whinstone. The popular tradition is, that it was thrown by his Satanic 
Majesty at one of his satellites for staying out too long. An old farmer 
avers he found it one morning, but the previous evening it was not there. 
200 ft. above sea-level. Rests on boulder clay. 

On Mr. Welburn's estate, and upon a farm in the village occupied by 
Mr. E,. Brown, are two boulders, 150 ft. above sea-level. Dimensions of 
No. 1 boulder : 3 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. Sub-angular. Has 
been moved. Whinstone. Dimensions of No. 2 boulder : 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 

X 1 ft. 8 in. Angular. Has been moved. Whinstone. Both have 
evidently been found in the land. No. 2 was dug out of the garden in 
front of the house close to the street, and moved to its present position. 
Lebberston village is situated on a ridge of gravel. 

In Leys Lane, at the entrance to the village of Lebberston, on the 
N. side of the lane and W. end of village, is a group of boulders. 
No. 1—2 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 9 in., and No. 2—2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 
X 10 in. : whinstone; sub-angular. No. 3 — 2 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft.l in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; 
coarsely grained dolerite ; rounded. No. 4 — 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. x9 in., and 
No. 5 — 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. ; sandstone ; sub-angular. There 
are no striae or groovings upon them. They are about 100 ft. above sea- 
level ; are all close together and exposed on the surface. 

There is a boulder in the North-Eastern Railway cutting, about one 
mile N. of Filey, in the direction of Gristhorpe, 2 ft. 10 in. x 2 f t. 3 in. 

X I ft. 4 in. Rounded ; pear-shaped. Has been moved ; is now at the 
base of the cutting laid across a gutter or waterway. No strise or 
groovings. Dark blue whinstone. 200 ft. above sea-level. Was con- 
nected with a long ridge of gravel, sand, and clay, which was cut through 
when making the line. 

There is a boulder in the North-Eastern Railway cutting about 200 
yards N. of Gristhorpe Station, and on the east bank of the cutting. It 
is in the parish of Gristhorpe, near Scarbro', 2 ft. xl ft. lOin. xl ft. 
Angular, almost square ; longest axis N. and S. Has not been moved. 
No groovings or strias can be seen, but it is now almost covered with 
soil which has fallen from above. It is a light-coloured sandstone, like 
the moor grit near Scarbro' ; 200 ft. above sea-level. It is in a bank 
of rough gravel, clay, and sand. 

In the parish of Seamer, near Scarbro' (N. Riding), about three 
miles S.S.W. of Scarbro' and about two miles S.E. of Seamer village, and 
close to Seamer Junction, North-Eastern Railway, on the estate of Lord 
Londesborough, is a group of boulders. No. 1 — 1 ft. X 9 in. x 6 in. ; red 
granite. No. 2—2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. ; Shap granite. No. 3— 
1 ft. X 1 ft. X 9 in. ; Shap granite. No. 4 — 1ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. x 9 in. ; Shap 
granite. No. 5 — 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. X 8 in. ; Shap granite. No. C — 1 ft. 8 in. 
X 1 ft. 6 in. X 9 in. ; Shap granite. No, 7 — 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. X 8 in. ; 
mica schist. No. 8 — 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; red granite. All 
are rounded. They have been moved, but were obtained from the Seamer 
gravel drift. No striae or groovings are visible. About 200 ft. The 
gravel drift of Seamer overlies the Coralline Oolite. 

The Committee Jiave been favoured hy the Rev. A. W. Rowe, of Felstead, 
with the following Report xipon boulders in N.W. Essex. 

The boulders mentioned in the accompanying list are all lying within 
the limits of a small district in the N.W. of Essex : a few only have been 



ON THE EBKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND, 115 

specified -whicli are less tlian 12 inches in length, thoagh there are an 
immense number which fall only a little short of that limit, especially 
boulders of igneous rocks: but even with the omission of these the list 
is not by any means an exhaustive one, as some portions of the district 
have scarcely been examined. They have been found within six miles of 
the village of Felstead, which will be found marked on the Ordnance 
Map nearly mid-way between Braintree on the east, Dunraow on the 
■west, Little Saling on the north, and Great Waltham on the south. The 
general character of the district is that of a tableland, ranging from 200 
to 250 feet above sea-level, intersected by small valleys cut out chiefly by 
local streams. The superficial deposits are chalky boulder clay and beds 
of glacial gravel : these gravel beds really underlie the chalky boulder 
clay, as could be well seen in the railway cutting | mile west of 
Dunmow Station before it was overgrown, but owing to the extensive 
denudation of the clay the beds of gravel are frequently found at the 
surface on the high ground. London clay underlies all these superficial 
deposits, and in several valleys, notably that of the Chelmer, the streams 
have cut their way down to it ; nearly all the larger boulders have been 
found on the high ground. Some of these seem to require special 
mention. Of the sandstone boulders three measure respectively 
77 X 36 X 20 in. and 6-i x 63 x 14 in. and 61 X 34 x 17 in., this last having 
a circumference of 158 inches, and nine others exceed 40 inches in 
length, including the conglomerates : nearly all appear to be unfos- 
siliferous, but in one, which in texture and general appearance may 
be considered characteristic of the greater number, I found some small 
fragments of Crinoid stems and some casts of portions of Aviculopecten : 
in another rounded boulder of about 12 in. in diameter I found some 
very well defined casts of Productus (P. semireticulatus, P. Martini, 
P. orthoceras, P. hemisphericus), Streptorbynchus crenistria, Euom- 
phalus pentangulatus, Bellerophon, showing that the boulder was mill- 
stone grit ; and Mr. H. Keeping, who also examined the casts, tells me 
that it agrees very well with the beds of buff sandstone near Oswestry. 
Li two other large boulders, which 1 have described in a previous paper 
CQ. J. G. S.' August 1887, p. 360) as being masses of a greyish yellow- 
sandstone permeated with a thin film of calcite, giving them a peculiar 
glazed appearance wherever fractured, I found fragments of Pecten 
orbicularis. Mr. Whitaker informed me that a great number of boulders 
of this rock are found in the boulder clay in Norfolk, and Mr. Keeping 
identified it as being of the same character as that which occurs in the 
Spilsby beds in Lincolnshire. Another very large boulder of a buff 
coloured sandstone, fine-grained but not very compact, was dug out of 
the bottom of a pond a few weeks ago : it contains Belemnites in 
abundance, some of a large size. Among numerous boulders of Hert- 
fordshire pudding-stone there are two which measure respectively 
52x23x16 in. and 52x43 in., this latter being so completely buried 
in the ground that its thickness could not be ascertained. The lime- 
stone boulders are fragments of Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Cretaceous 
rocks. The Carboniferous are almost without exception so exceedingly 
fine that scarcely any fossil shells can be detected in them without the 
aid of the microscope, the one exception being a boulder lately dug up at 
Bocking Place almost entirely composed of shells of Productus giganteus. 
Of the Jurassic rocks two boulders of Kimmeridge clay, taken out of 
the chalky boulder clay in the cutting near Dunmow, were wonderfully 

i2 



116 REPORT— 1888. 

striated with deep grooves of almost parallel striae on two sides, and 
many of tlie boulders of clunch and hard chalk are also clearly striated, 
but the direction of the strife is very irregular. Among the whitened 
flints also there are some exceedingly good examples of cross-striation. 
Striffi are not often to be seen on the hard sandstones and the igneous 
boulders, though there are a few good examples of it ; but most of these 
boulders are quite smoothed and some are highly polished. Of the 
igneous rocks some are so much weathered that the outer surface comes 
oflf in successive coats, like a thick-coated onion, whereas others, and 
especially the larger boulders, are perfectly unweathered and have a very 
dark almost black polished surface, so hard and rounded that it is often 
exceedingly ditBcult to get a hand specimen. They consist mainly of 
fine-grained dolerites and microcrystalline basalts, with a fair sprinkling 
of quartz-porphyrites, mostly containing tourmaline, felspar-porphyrites, 
and hornblende schists and gneiss. Amid the almost complete absence of 
boulders, or even pebbles, of granite or syenite, one boulder which I have 
lately found is remarkable : it is a large boulder of a pinkish grey syenite, 
of very distinct rather coarse texture and containing abundant orthoclase, 
not much quartz, not a great amount of hornblende, and a little biotite. 
Dr. A. Geikie has seen a hand specimen and microscopic section of it, 
and he informs me that he cannot identify it with any British rock 
known to him, and that Dr. Hatch cannot find any specimen at tho 
Jermyn Street Museum really like it. I have also been informed by Dr. 
Crosskey that nothing like it has been found among the erratics in the 
Midlands, though a considerable number of boulders of syenite have been 
found there. I have sent a hand specimen to Christiania to see if it can 
be identified there. In a gravel pit on the high ground near Felstead I 
dug out a remarkable boulder of quartz and tourmaline, almost round and 
highly polished and striped with parallel bands of black and yellow, and 
among tho specimens of erratics in the Midlands which Dr. Crosskey has 
collected I found one that was identical with it. Of the boulders of 
dolerite it is somewhat remarkable that, although smaller boulders occur 
in all directions, yet all the larger boulders which I have at present 
found lie north of the old Roman road which runs through Braintreo 
and Dunmow ; as many as six large boulders are lying within a com- 
paratively small area, one of these being distinctly columnar in form and 
one being very clearly striated. As regards the dolerites generally I 
have already stated (' Q. J. G. S.' August 1887, p. 35G) that some of then> 
are strikingly similar in specific gravity, in general appearance, and in 
some remarkable microscopic points with some specimens of dolerites 
sent me from Sweden, and that others are almost identical with the rocks 
of the Whin Sill in the north of England, though these also might well 
be Scandinavian boulders, as I understand that the Hunneberg rocks- 
have been shown to be of the Whin Sill type. But one of the most 
remarkable of the boulders which I have as yet found was exposed in 
digging the foundations of a new house at Booking Place, Braintree 
(Mr. S. Courtauld) : it was found at a depth of eight feet from the 
surface and measures 22 x 18 x 11 in. ; it is rounded and smoothed, 
roughly triangular in shape, and has two more or less flat surfaces : both 
of these surfaces are very distinctly grooved with irregular strife. I sent 
a hand specimen and a miscroscopic section to Professor Bonney, who 
kindly examined both and wrote as follows : ' The rock is a curious one 
and must have come a long distance. ... So far as I can venture to 



ON THE EERATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 117 

pronounce, the aspect of the slide reminds me rather of a modified 
crystalline rock than a partially crystallised sedimentary rock. It is 
therefore now a kind of gneiss — what I should call a pressure-gneiss — 
resulting from the modification of a crystalline rock -which may have 
been a quartziferous mica-diorite. The fragmental aspect I attribute to 
the result of pressure which has acted on a crystalline rock, and has been 
followed by a certain amount of mineral change in the constituents ; of 
course an arlcose of the right constituents might give a similar appear- 
ance, but though the enlargement of fragments in situ is not unknown, it 
is not common and generally occurs (except in the case of quartz) in 
very ancient rocks only. The boulder must have had a long journey, for 
such a rock could not be found in situ nearer than the Scotch Highlands 
or Scandinavia.' 

BouLDEKS IN Essex, N.W. 

District on the Ordnance Map, Little Saling, N. ; Great "W'altham, S. ; 
Braintree, E. ; Dunmow, W. ; centre of district, Felstead ; radius, from 
five to six miles. 

Parish, Great Saling, 4 miles N.B. 

1. In Village Street — Boulder of dolerite, 33x29x18 in.; roughly 
conical in shape ; rounded and polished ; no striae visible ; olivine-dolerite. 

2. In Newbister Lane — Three smaller boulders of dolerite, less than 
12 in. in diameter ; one olivine dolerite, the others plagioclase-augite rock. 

Parish, Little Baling, 5 miles N.N.E. 

1. By the church wall — Boulder of calcareous sandstone, 61 X 34 x 17 in. ; 
circumference, 158 in. ; pudding-shaped ; rather soft loose texture ; dark 
grey colour ; fine-grained, with fragments of shells. 

2. At farm near the church — Boulder of sandstone, 45x35x24 in.; 
oblong ; slightly striated ; rather soft ; fine-grained ; buff-coloured ; 
containing many Belemnites ; quite lately dug out of the bottom of a 
pond; Kellaways rock (?). Boulder of dolerite, 37 x30 xl8 in.; roughly 
triangular ; distinctly striated on two surfaces with parallel striae ; rest 
polished ; olivine-dolerite. 

3. At "Woolpits Farm — Boulder of dolei-ite, 39x38x19 in.; nearly 
square ; distinctly striated and polished ; dug out of a ditch on the farm ; 
plagioclase and augite ; no olivine. 

Parish, Stehhing, 3 miles N. 

1. At Mount Farm — Boulder of sandstone, 64 x 63 X 14 in. ; flat, sub- 
angular ; fine-grained ; white colour ; lately dug up on the farm. 
Boulder of sandstone, 22x20x12 in. ; sub-angular; fossiliferous. Boulder 
of sandstone, 23x19x9 in.; rounded; gritty; grey colour; unfossili- 
ferous. Boulder of dolerite, 30x26x17 in.; columnar dolerite; shape 
well marked ; microcrystalline ; no striaa, but highly polished. 

2. Stebbing Green — Boulder of dolerite, 30 X 27 X 24 in. ; conical 
shape, with semicircular base ; no striae, but highly polished. 

3. In fields near the Green — Five smaller boulders of dolerite under 
12 in. in diameter, one being a highly vitreous olivine-basalt. 

4. At Green Farm — Boulder of quartz rock, 20 x 16 x 11 in. ; rounded ; 
polished ; yellow colour. Boulder of quartzite, 16 xl2 x 11 in. Boulder 
of felsite, 12x10x9 in.; oblong ; dark grey ; very compact and hard. 



118 EEPOET— 1888. 

Boulder of dolerite, 29 x 24 x 11 in. ; oblong ; rounded ; very much 
weathered. 

5. At Scallops Farm — Boulder of limestone, 29x24x8 in.; sub- 
angular ; Carboniferous limestone. Boulder of sandstone, 22 x 21 x 10 in. ; 
sub-angular ; compact ; bright red colour. Boulder of porphyrite, 
12 x 11 X Bin.; rounded; quartz-porphyrite (?). 

Parish, Little Easton, 6 miles N.W. 

1. Near the Park Gates — Boulder of sandstone, 42x40x21 in.; 
rounded ; oblong ; fine-grained ; compact ; pinkish yellow. Boulder of 
sandstone, 36 x 80 X 20 in. ; oblong ; fine-grained ; compact, greyish yellow ; 
very clearly striated, and in parts highly polished. Boulder of sandstone, 
27 X 24 X 20 in. ; very similar to last mentioned, but not striated. Boulder 
of sandstone, 24x24x13 in.; very similar to last two. Boulder of 
limestone, 28 X 24 x 10 in. ; rounded oblong ; exceedingly fossiliferous ; 
Oxford clay (?). Two boulders of conglomerate (pudding-stone), 
34 X 20 X 14 in. and 30 x 24 x 13 in. 

Parish, Little Dunmow, 2 miles N.W. 

1. At BIatche.s Farm — Boulder of sandstone, 48 X 41 x 13 in. ; oblong ; 
fine-grained ; sub-angular ; traces of strife on upper surface. Small 
boulder of olivine-basalt. 

2. At Bourchiers Farm — Boulder of flint, 19 x 14 x 6 in. Boulder of 
syenite, 22x15x0 in.; oblong, rounded ; rather coarse-grained ; greyish 
yellow. Two boulders of limestone (Carboniferous), 27 x22 x6 in. and 
30x22x11 in.; pinkish colour; fine-grained, much cracked. Boulder 
of calcareous grit, 21 x 18 x 11 in. ; very coarse, and rather loose texture. 
Two boulders of sandstone, 40 X 22 x 17in.and 36 x 30 X 19iu.; fine-gi-ained ; 
compact ; whitish yellow ; rounded and polished. Boulder of dolerite, 
18 X 12 X 6 in. ; oblong ; much weathered ; crust peeling off in coats. Small 
boulder of olivine basalt ; rounded and very much weathered. 

At Parsonage Farm — Boulder of sandstone, 48 x 42 x 19 in. ; oblong ; 
rounded ; slightly striated ; micaceous. Boulder of limestone (Carboni- 
ferous), 23 X 14 X 12 in. ; oblong ; smoothed ; clearly striated indirection of 
longer axis. Boulder of sandstone, 18 x 15 x 5 in. ; rounded ; exceedingly 
compact. 

In Cap Lane — Large jDebble of grey syenite. 

Road near village — Boulder of felsite ; spherulitic. 

At Burnt Cottage — Two boulders of clunch (Oxford clay ?), 
13x8x5 in. and 12 x 8 X 7 in. ; just dug out of chalky clay ; very clearly 
striated. Several large whitened flints, al,~o striated. In gravel pit — 
Boulder of quartz - tourmaline rock ; rounded and highly polished ; 
curiously striped. 

Parish, Barnston, 2 miles W. 

At Absol Park Farm — Boulder of limestone (Carboniferous) ; oblong ; 
rounded and smoothed ; finely crystalline. 

Near Rectory — Small boulder of mica schist ; ve^ small boulder of 
syenite. 

Parish, Great Waltham, North JEnd, U mile S.S.W. 

At North End Place — Boulder of sandstone, 35xl9xl8in. ; sub- 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 119 

angular ; no stride ; very fine-grained ; white. Boulder of sandstone, 
25x16x14 in.; sub-angular; no striae; fine-grained; yellow. Two 
boulders of conglomerate (pudding-stcne), 21x18x11 in. and 16x11 
X 6 in. ; one very coarse and pebbles varying in size, the other with much 
smaller pebbles and all of a size. 

In lane — Large boulder of felspar porphyrite ; rounded and polished, 
and very hard. 

Parish, Great Waltham, Ford or Fourth End, 3 miles S. 

Ford End Hill — Boulder of sandstone, 19 xlOin. ; buried in ground ; 
grey ; micaceous. Boulder of limestone (Carboniferous), 16 X 16 in. 
Boulder of flint, 19 X 14 in. Boulder of sandstone, 16 X 11 in.; gritty, red. 

At Hill Farm — Boulder of sandstone ; 30 X 19 X 11 in. ; ridge-shaped ; 
sub-angular ; fine-grained ; yellow. Boulder of sandstone, 29 X 22 x 20 in. ; 
oblong ; rounded ; gritty and loose ; white. Four boulders of sandstone, 
respectively 28 X 24 x 16 in. ; compact ; yellow, 21 X 17 X 16 in. ; conical ; 
compact; yellow, 17x16x12 in.; sub- angular ; hard; greyish yellow, 
16 X 13 X 7 in. ; sub-angular ; gritty ; micaceous. Two smaller boulders 
of dolerite. 

At Littley Park, 2 miles S.S.E.— Boulder of sandstone, 33x25 
X 22 in. ; roughly columnar ; much polished ; compact ; yellow. 

At Littley Green, 2^ miles, S.S.E. — Boulder of limestone (Carboni- 
ferous), 28 X 26 X 12 in. ; nearly square; striated; hard; compact; 
fine-grained. 

Parish, Little Leighs, 4 miles S.E, 

Near Leighs Priory — Boulder of dolerite, 13 X 9 X 6 in. ; much 
weathered. Smaller boulder of dolerite. Large boulder of felspar por- 
phyry broken in several jjieces ; matrix bright red ; felspar very clear. 
Sandstone, 26 X 16 x 7 in. ; much polished ; compact ; yellow. 

Parish, Great Leighs, 6 miles S.E. 

At Fulbourn's Farm — Boulder of conglomerate, buried in ground so 
that surface is level with ground, 52 x 43 in. ; Herts, pudding-stone. 
Boulder of sandstone, 48x20x12 in.; ridge-shaped; compact; yellow. 

Parish, Braintree, 6 miles E.N.E. 

At Bocking Place — Boulder of gneiss, 22 x 18 x 11 in. ; roughly tri- 
angular, with two flat surfaces, deeply striated irregularly. Boulder of 
limestone (Carboniferous) almost composed of large shells of Productus. 

Parish, Felstead. 

At Princes Halfyards Farm, IJ mile N. — Boulder of sandstone, 
77 X 36 X 20 in., fixed deeply in ground, so that 36 in. does not represent 
its real height ; gritty, yellowish, grey. Three boulders of dolerite, 
broken up before being measured, but none exceeding 12 in. in diameter. 

At Moor Farm, 1^ mile N.E. — Boulder of dolerite and boulder of 
porphyrite, both broken up, not exceeding 12 in. in diameter. 

At Cock Green, 2 miles S.E. — Boulder of dolerite, almost circular, 
scarcely weathered, rather over 12 in. in diameter ; hypersthene-bearing 
ophitic dolerite. 

At French's Green, 3 miles E. — Very large boulder of compact 
yellow sandstone, since removed. A large heap of several hundred 



120 BEPORT— 1888. 

smaller boulders lately dug up in land- ditching, chiefly flints, but con- 
taining also porphyrite, olivine-basalt, dolerite, Mountain limestone, 
Jurassic limestone, and ferruginous sandstone. 

At Whelpstones Farm, 2^^ miles E.S.E. — Large boulder of compact 
yellow sandstone split into two halves, one half being left in the ground, 
the half removed to farmyard measuring 27x21x16 in. Boulder of 
sandstone, 20 x 1 6 x 10 in., soft, buff-coloured. 

At Pond Park, 1^ mile S.E. — Boulder of sandstone, 40x39x17 in. ; 
oblong, much smoothed, glazed with calcite. Lower Cretaceous. Two 
boulders of septaria with veins of calcite, 25 x 21 x 8 in. and 22 x 16 x 12 in. 
Two boulders of flint, 20x13x8 in. and 20x9x11 in., whitened, not 
striated. Boulder of sandstone just dug up, 32 x 22 x 11 in., subangular, 
polished, whitish yellow, compact. Five boulders of sandstone, 24x12 
X 11 in. compact, light yellow ; 18 X 15 X 7in., compact, deep red ; 17 X 8 
X 6 in., compact, grey ; 14 X 6 x 7 in., compact, light yellow ; 13 X 11 x 6 in., 
compact, yellowish white. Boulder of conglomerate (pudding-stone), 
19 X 14 X 6 in. Several smaller boulders of dolerite. 

At Potash Farm, 1 mile S.S.E. — Boulder of sandstone, 40 x 33 X 16 in., 
much polished, but not striated ; compact, yellow. Boulder of sandstone 
dug up in May and brought to farmyard, 31 X 30 X 15 in., oblong, yellow, 
not very compact. Boulder of sandstone, 1 7 X 15 X 8 in., rather coarse and 
gritty, red. Five smaller boulders, all measuring 12 in. or over. Two 
boulders of quartz rock, 14 X 8 X 7 m. and 14 X 13 X 7 in. 

At Causeway End, ^ mile S. — Four boulders of sandstone, all exceed- 
ing 12 in. and polished. Large boulder of dolerite dug out in clay pit 
from boulder clay, and found to be split into several large fragments ; 
olivine dolerite, containing unusual quantity of magnetite. 

In Snows Lane, 1 mile S.W. — Two boulders of olivine dolerite not 
exceeding 12 in. 

At Mill House, 1 mile S.W. — Boulder of sandstone, striated and 
polished. 

At Bury Farm, in the village — Boulder of conglomerate (pudding- 
stone), 52x23 X 16 in. Boulder of contorted gneiss, 15 X 15 X 14 in., rounded 
and much polished, hornblende gneiss. Seven boulders of sandstone, 
35 X 20 X 11 in., compact, yellow ; 30 x 21 x 6 in., very compact, yellow ; 

19 X 18xl2in.; 18 X9x8in., gritty, yellow; 17xl4x 11 in., fine, compact, 
yellow ; 16 X 15 X 6 in., compact, grey ; 14 X 11 X 5 in., gritty, yellow. Two 
boulders of flint, 20 x 11 X 8 in. and 18 x 13 X 3 in. Boulder of quartzite, 
15 X 15 X 5 in. Boulder of quartz rock 14x 11 x 6 in., rounded and polished. 
Four boulders of limestone (Carboniferous), 23 X 12 x 7 in. and 19 x9x 7in.; 

20 X 17 X 5 in. and] 5 x 10 x 9 in., much smoothed and rounded, of fine texture 
and grey colour. Three boulders of mica-schist, one being garnetiferous, 
the garnets being decomposed. Two boulders of quartz porphyrite, one 
containing schorl. One large fragment of silicified wood, coniferous (?). 
Two boulders of dolerite, very much weathered. 

At Chequers Inn — Boulder of limestone (Carboniferous), 26x18 
X 12 in., much rounded and smoothed. Boulder of calcareous sand- 
stone, 30 X 24 X 18 in. 

At Vicarage — Boulder of sandstone dug up in the churchyard, 
32 X 16 X 15 in., oblong, yellow, gritty. 

At Sewell's Farm — Boulder of millstone grit not exceeding 12 in., 
containing abundant casts of shells, soft, buff-coloured. 

At Felstead Place — Boulder of dolerite, broken up before it could be 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, "WALES, AND IRELAND. 121 

measured. Boulder of sandstone, 37 x 17 x 12 in., oblong, mucli sraootlied, 
compaot. 

At Coal Yard — Boulder of sandstone, 34 X 20 X 15 in., oblong, rounded 
and smoothed, compact, greyish yellow. 

In Village Street — b'ourteen boulders of sandstone, smoothed and 
rounded, 21 x IG X 6 in., fine-grained, compact, yellow ; 24 x 18 x 6 in., fine- 
grained, compact, yellow; 18 xlOx 11 in., gritty, loose, very dark, almost 
black; 26x10 in. (buried), 23x9 in. (buried), and 18 X 7 in. (buried), 
very compact, mottled, bright)red and yellow, fine, compact ; 31 X 11 X 11 in., 
fine, compact, yellow; 17x11x11 in.; 14x13x10 in., grey brown, 
gritty, glazed with calcite ; 17 X 12 x 9 in., very compact, reddish yellow ; 
20x10x9 in., fine, compact, grey; 22x17x13 in., fine, grey; 17x11 
xlOin. and 22x19x6 in., coarse, gritty, glazed with calcite. Two 
boulders of flint, 27x10x6 in. and 23x11x5 in. Three boulders of 
dolerite, 15 x 9 x 8 in. and 12x9x10 in., and one under 12 in. 

Lancashire and Cheshire. 

A valuable list and desci'iption of erratics which have been found 
in the drainage areas of the Oldham Corporation Waterworks by Mr. W. 
Watts will be found in the ' Transactions of the Manchester (Geological 
Society,' Session 1887-88, p. 584 et seq. 

In the ' Transactions ' of the same society (Feb. 7, 1888) Mr. Herbert 
Bolton describes the boulders in the high level drift of Bacup. 

Mr. Ratcliffe furnishes the following description of the erratics in 
Dukinfield, Stalybridge, Millbottom, and Micklehurst. The term 
' boulder clay ' is used to denote the clays, marls, sands, and gravels 
containing boulders, but must not be taken as always synonymous with 
the lower boulder clay or 'till.' 

At Dukinfield the boulder clay rests upon the edges of the Upper, 
Middle, and Lower Coal measures, from the river Tame to Line Edge, 
and beyond to the base of Harrop Edge the drift consists of alternate 
layers of clay, sand, and gravel ; in some cases thick layers of marl come 
in between the upper sand and gravel. 

The top clay is extensively used for brick-making, the sand for 
building and moulding purposes. The gravel contains often large 
boulders, and almost in every case yields large quantities of water. 

At Dukinfield Hall there is a total depth of 20 ft. 7 in. to the rock 
head, whilst to the north at Ashton Moss Colliery the section in the 
sands, clays, and gravels, of which the boulders are formed, is as follows : — 

ft. in. 

Soil turf and sand 4 

Strong marl 11 

Sand and marl 16 

Dark wet sand 8 2 

Strong marl 11 4 

Sand and gravel 2 

Dry sand 8 6 

„ gravel 6 

„ sand . . . - 26 4 

,, marl . . . 6 

„ sand 11 6 

Wet , 17 6 

Strong marl 26 8 

Marl and stones mixed .7 11 

♦ 142 11 



122 EEPOET— 1888. 

To the east of the Ashton Moss Colliery the Lords' Field Colliery 

passed through the following : — 

ft. in. 

Soil and clay 6 

Strong marl ......... 43 6 

Dry sand 24 

Wet , 4 

Strong brown marl 101 9 

Wet gravel, 7,000 gallons of water per hour ... 7 9 

To rock head 187 

Returning to the Cheshire side of the river Tame the drift covers 
the edges of the middle series, the dip of which is west at an angle 
varying from 18° to 42°, and along the line of Chapel Hill, where it 
covers the lower seams of the middle series. The following is a section at 
Victoria Colliery : — 

ft. in. 

Soil 6 

Clay 2 

Marl 9 6 

To rock head 12 

The boulders distributed over this area, extending from the river 
Tame at Dukinfield Hall to Lyne Edge, varying in size from a few 
hundredweight to three tons, are found mostly resting upon the marl at 
the base of the gravel beds, and consist of felsites, hornblendic granites, 
andesite, and andesitic ash, some raicro-granites and Eskdale granites. 
They are mostly rounded, sub-angular, and in some cases striated. 

Beyond Lyne Edge to the base of Harrop Edge, where the millstone 
grit appears, are strong marls, with sand and gravel beds beneath. In the 
marl a few feet below the soil are boulders, smooth and well rounded, con- 
sisting of andesitic ash, rhyolitic breccia, Eskdale granite, vein rock, 
and crushed altered ash. 

Along the base of Shaw Moor the boulder clay is upwards of 
30 ft. thick, containing a variety of small boulders, pieces of gannister, 
&c. One large boulder, a felsite from the Lake district, is upwards of 
seven tons in weight ; another is rather smaller in size, a felsite with 
epidote, also from the Lake district ; another is about thirty hundred- 
weight, and is a Criffel granite from the S.W. of Scotland. 

The boulder clay from the river Tame to the base of the hills, from 
Millbottom to Micklehui'st, consists of boulder clay resting upon sand, 
and gravel, from which a good supply of water can bo readily obtained. 

The clay contains a large number of small boulders, often intermixed 
with thin bands of sand and small gravel, and occasionally larger boul- 
ders of the Eskdale series : andesitic ash (crushed), felsites, syenite, 
vein rock, and hornblendic granite from Buttermere. These are 
rounded, smooth, the softer portions showing slight striations. 

The following sections show the exact positions of some of the 

erratics at different points in the area described : — 

ft. in. 

SoU 6 

Sand 5 

Boulders— 

Loam and sand 7 6 

Gravel 2 

Sand with water 6 

Bock base 21 



I 



ON THE EERATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 123 

ft. in. 

Soil 6 

Yellow clay 3 

Sand 15 

Gravel 2 

BOTJLDEES — 

Marl 4 

Eock base . . , , 24 6 

it. in. 
Soil 10 

Gravel and sand (with water) 9 9 

BOULDEES — 

Marl 4 

Rock base 14 9 

ft. in. 
Soil and gravel ........ 12 

Boulders— 

Marls 8 7 

Kockbase 20 7 

Mr. Plant continues his reports and describes the erratic blocks at 
Spinney Hills, near Leicester. 

A fine group of blocks has been uncorered on the Spinney Hills, to the 
east of Leicester ; they were scattered over about two acres of land, and 
lying on the lower Rbgetic beds, under about 6 ft. of a stiff upper boulder 
clay which covers these hills, and varies from 3 to 12 ft. deep, and is suc- 
ceeded by the hard white clay and shales of the Rhsetic beds. All the 
blocks except two are granite from Mount Sorrel, 6^ miles distant due N. 
The following is a list : — 

Length. Breadth. Depth. 

No. 1 3 ft. 3 iu. X 3 ft. in. x 2 ft. (3 in. 

No. 2 3 ft. in. X 2 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. in. 

No. 2 block is unique, being the first I have found that has a smooth 
2MlisJied surface and slightly striated, the edges and angles clean and 
sharp. The above will be removed to the Museum grounds at Leicester. 
The other blocks are as follows : — 

Length. Breadth. Depth. 

No. 3 2 ft. in. X 2 ft. in. x 1 ft. C in. 

No. 4 2 ft. in. X 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. in. 

No. 5 2 ft. 6 iu. X 1 ft, 6 in. X 1 ft. in. 

No. 6 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. in. 

The above blocks are roughly cubical, the angles and edges are sharp 
and some of the sides quite fresh, i.e., not weather-worn. Besides these, 
seven other smaller blocks, rough cubes, of 1 ft. 6 in. on the face ; these 
are of Mount Sorrel granite, 6^ miles distant ; two others about the same 
size, but much rounded and worn, were coar.^e sandstones or miUstone- 
grit, which must have come from the north some 30 miles. Two others', 
one Oolite and the other Lias limestone, must have come N.E. distant 12 
or 14 miles. Height above the sea about 280 ft. 

Blocks at Newfound Pool, near ancient Roman Boad, ' The Fosse Way.' — 
Some large blocks have been uncovered in the excavations for new 
streets at the above place, which is about 1^ mile on the west side of the 



12-t BEPOET— 1888. 

town. All were in Upper Bonlder clay, containing more sand than 
usual, which must have been derived from the beds below the Upper 
Keuper sandstone, which extends for some miles on that side of Leicester, 
the ' drift ' varying from G ft. to as many inches in different places. The 
blocks were associated with a unique find (as far as this county is con- 
cerned), viz., a huge tin-bone, U ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 8 in. wide, of some 
species of whale. This was under about 4 ft. of drift of the Upper 
Bonlder clay. Nearly all the animal tissue had been taken out of the 
bone, owing to its lying so little below the surface in the sandy drift. 
No other bones or teeth of the whale were found. It has been placed in 
the Leicester Museum. 



Description 


of blocks : — 






Length. Breadlh. 


Depth. 


No. 1 


. .5 ft in. X 3 ft. in. 


X 2 ft. 6 in. (snb-angular) 


No. 2 


. 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. 


X 1 ft. 2 in. (angles very sharp) 


No. 3 


. 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. 


X 1 ft, in. 



All syenite from Groby or Markfield, distant about 4 miles. Height 
above the sea 210 ft. 



Report of the Committee, consistinrj of Professor Valentine B.a.ll, 
Mr. H. G. FoRDHAM, Professor Haddon, Professor Hillhouse, 
Mr. John Hopkinson, Dr. Macfarlane, Professor Milnes Mar- 
shall, JNIr. F. T. Mott (Secretary), Dr. Traquair, and Dr. H. 
Woodward, reappointed at Manchester for the purpose of pre- 
paring a further Report upon the Provincial Museums of the 
United Kingdom. 

The Report of this Committee which was presented last year dealt 
mainly with the statistics of museums throughoixt the United Kingdom. 
The Committee was reappointed for the purpose of considering the ideal 
to which provincial museums should endeavour to attain, and of suggest- 
ing practical methods for approaching that ideal. 

The provincial museums now existing may be classified roughly into 
the following six groups, viz. : — 

1. Museums of Science and Art on a large scale, supported by Govern- 
ment, as at Edinburgh and Dublin. 

2. Municipal Kate-supported Free Museums. 

3. University Museums. 

4. Teaching Museums attached to schools and colleges. 
6. Museums belonging to local societies. 

6. Proprietary Museums. 

Of these typical groups the first must always be few in number, while 
the third, fourth, fifth and sixth have special objects, in pursuit of which 
they may properly diverge from any fixed standard. 

The second type, the Municipal Rate-supported Free Museum, is 
already numerous, and is becoming annually more so. Its objects 
include those of all the others, and it may fairly be taken as a standard 
by which others may be gauged. 

We propose, therefore, to consider what is the complete ideal which, 
the authorities of a free rate-supported museum should keep before 



ON THE PEOVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 125 

ttem ; not merely what is practicable under existing circumstances, but 
wliat would be the best under ideal conditions, and therefore what are 
the aims to be kept in view, and the lines upon which labour and money 
should be chiefly expended. 

The general objects common to all museums are : — 

1. To preserve, for the purpose of comparison and study, such speci- 
mens, whether of natural or artificial production, as may illustrate the 
history of the earth and its inhabitants. 

2. So to arrange and display these specimens as to make them most 
available for such purposes. 

The special objects of a free rate-supported museum in a provincial 
town should be : — 

1. To contribute its share to the general scientific statistics of the 
country by collecting and preserving specimens of the natural and arti- 
ficial productions of the district in which it is situated. 

2. To procure such other specimens as may be desirable for illus- 
trating the general principles of science, and the relations of the locality 
to the rest of the world. 

3. To receive and preserve local collections or single specimens 
having any scientific value which the possessors may desire to devote to 
public use. 

4. So to an'ange and display the specimens collected as to afford the 
greatest amount of popular instruction consistent with their safe preser- 
vation and accessibility as objects of scientific study. 

5. To render special assistance to local students and teachers of science. 

Eespecting the general objects of all museums, we do not think that 
thei'e is much difference of opinion, and on this point little need be said. 
These objects, however, can be fully carried out only in such extensive 
buildings and with such large resources as are rarely attainable except in 
metropolitan cities. To represent the history of the entire inorganic 
world, and of the development and present condition of its vegetable and 
animal life, as far as these things are known to science, is an object 
worthy of a great State department but impracticable in any ordinary 
provincial town. Nor could even a State department hope to accomplish 
this work in full detail unless it could command much more extensive 
buildings and a much larger income than any nation has ever yet devoted 
to such a purpose. 

What a national museum can practically do is to represent the history 
and present condition of the woi'ld and its inhabitants in an epitomised 
form, illustrating all the salient points and filling in the details of a few 
selected periods and types. It will also be the repository for important 
special collections and for very rare and costly objects which have a wide 
general interest. 

In the series of specimens preserved in such a museum the national 
territory will be represented as a matter of course in its proper place, 
and in its due proportion to the whole. There may indeed be an 
additional department for that section of the earth's surface, with its 
geology, natural history, and archeology represented as a distinct group, 
and somewhat more elaborately than in the general collection ; but to 
illustrate the full details of nature in the varied aspects presented by 
each parish and county, even within the limits of a single empire, would 
be impracticable in a museum devoted to the history of the world. 



126 REPORT— 1888. 

It is here that the provincial museums should take up the work, and 
should find their legitimate and most useful sphere. Every provincial 
museum ought, in the first place, to be a fulhj illustrated monograph of 
its own district. The details of each district can be worked up more 
thoroughly and more cheaply by the local museums than by any other 
agency, and if the entire history of the district and its inhabitants is 
thus represented, special attention being given to any group of objects 
for which the district is remarkable, this will be almost as much as any 
local institution can accomplish. 

But science is daily becoming more exacting in its demands. Details 
which were thought ample in any provincial museum twenty years ago 
would now be regarded as quite insufficient. 

In the department of geology every local variety of rock, with its 
fossils and its minerals, must be illustrated by specimens, by microscopic 
slides, and by chemical analysis ; the stratigraphy and its relations to 
the physiography, the drainage, and the water supply, must be shown by 
diagrams, maps, and models, and careful records of every boring, sinking, 
and cutting, systematically procured and pi'eserved. 

In natural history the animal and vegetable life of the district must 
be represented in the most complete manner possible. There must be 
specimens of every indigenous animal from the highest vertebrate to the 
amoeba, and of every plant, including the lowest cryptogams, and at least 
those forms which are characteristic of the district must have their whole 
life histories illustrated by specimens of male, female, young in various 
stages, the skeletons and the nests or habitations of animals, and the soils 
and habitats natural to the plants. 

The history of man in th& district must be elaborately represented 
from the earliest pre-historic relic up to the latest phase, every local 
speciality of food, art, dress, customs, and language being recorded. 

Thus much must be accomplished by every provincial museum if it 
is to ' contribute its share to the general scientific statistics of the 
country.' But if its collections are also to serve the purpose of interesting 
and instructing the local population, much more will be required. 

For the purposes of general science, and for the use of experts, it is 
best to keep nearly all museum specimens in drawers and closed cabinets, 
protected from light, air, and dust ; but for the instruction of the public 
a considerable number must be displayed in such a manner that they can 
be seen, studied, and compared without being handled. To do this 
involves without doubt the sacrifice of many specimens which will be 
destroyed in a few years by exposure to light and dust, and must be 
frequently replaced ; and of much money which might be otherwise 
devoted to the furtherance of scientific investigation. This sacrifice, 
however, is absolutely necessary. The people who pay for the 
museum will insist upon its being administered for their direct and 
immediate benefit, as well as for their indirect advantage through the 
cultivation of science in its higher branches. And their demand is 
justifiable. It is as important to social progress that the millions should - 
be educated as that the few should advance knowledge beyond its existing 
limits. The ideal Free Rate-supported Museum must do its best in both 
directions. While therefore a complete collection of all local specimens 
of a perishable nature must be carefully preserved for reference in closed 
cabinets, the imperishable ones, such as most geological and archfeological 
objects, as well as duplicates of those perishable kinds which can be 



ON THE PBOVINCIAL MUSEUMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 127 

readily replaced, must be displayed in glazed cases for the inspection of 
the public. 

The difficult question here arises : In what manner shall this display 
be carried out so as to secure the maximum of instruction with the 
minimum of expense, and so as to make the museum attractive and inte- 
resting, yet not a place for mere idle amusement ? 

The Rev. H. H. Higgins, in his pamphlet on ' Museums of Natural 
History,' has pointed out that the public who visit museums may be 
divided into three classes, viz. : (1) Those who are already interested in 
science and come for information. (2) Those who have enough general 
culture to wish for more, and who come in the hope of learning some- 
thing. (3) The very ignorant, who care only to be amused. To these 
classes he gives the appropriate designations of Students, Observers, and 
Loungers. Of the weekly visitors to a popular museum, the students 
probably do not form more than 5 per cent., the observers perhaps 75, 
and the loungers 20 per cent. It is obvious that, neglecting altogether 
the small proportion of loungers, a great deal may be done for the 
scientific instruction of those who come prepared to take intelligent 
interest in what they see. 

The value of scientific instruction lies mainly (1) in the insight which 
it gives into the laws and processes of nature, thus greatly enlargino- the 
mental purview ; (2) in its training of the senses by the habit of accurate 
observation, and of the reasoning powers by the tracing out of causes 
and effects ; (3) in its revelation of facts which may be turned to man's 
practical advantage. 

In placing any scientific collections before the public with an educa- 
tional object, all these points should be borne in mind. Accurate 
observation is to be cultivated chiefly by frequent comparisons of allied 
forms, and when a series of such comparisons reveals the lines of change, 
and the large effects of many small changes, the intellectual faculties are 
stimulated to investigate the forces which have been in operation. 

Comparison, therefore, should be made easy, and the observer should 
be led up to the groupings and the lines of divergence in each depart- 
ment, and induced to look back into the past history and forward into 
the future prospects of the earth and its various inhabitants. 

For these purposes it is not enough to place in the cases rows of 
specimens with their names and localities only. The natural groupings 
must be very conspicuously marked, and their points of connection and 
of divergence very clearly indicated. Attention must be drawn to the 
special characters of families, genera, and species, to geographical distri- 
bution, and to the varied aspects of nature in different localities. 

The method of labelling in a public museum is of vital importance, 
and should receive the fullest attention of the curator. If a label contains 
too much, it will not be read ; if it contains too little, its purpose is not 
effected. The titles of the large groups should be visible at some 
distance ; their limits and their subdivisions should be so marked as to 
be very easily grasped by the mind of the observer. If Greek or Latin 
terms are used in these titles, English equivalents, wherever it is possible, 
should be added. Probably it is wiser at the present time to place the 
English first. 

Nature draws no hard and fast line between the life of past ages and 
of the present epoch. The organic world is a continuous current, and to 
separate palaeontology from biology cannot represent the actual facts in 



128 EEPOBT— 1888. 

their natural connection. Such separation naay be convenient for students, 
but for the instruction of the public selected examples of fossil organisms 
should be in some manner associated with the living forms. It may not 
be easy to accomplish this, and it is not necessary that it should be done 
in any uniform method. Thoughtful curators who recognise the advantao'e 
will do the best they can with the means at their command. 

The same may be said of the much-debated question — How best to 
display the forms of existing life ? Methods may vary in detail, if the 
essential principles are carried out, viz., that comparison of allied forms 
must be rendered easy ; that the grouping must be conspicuous ; that the 
connections and divergences of groups must be indicated ; that the 
labelling must be distinct and full ; that as many of the facts of nature 
must be got into the allotted space as can be made clearly visible there, 
and that their practical bearing upon the wants of man must be shown, 
if possible. 

Professor Herdman's phylogenetic system of arrangement has the 
great merit of presenting the life-groups in the true order of nature, as 
far as this is known. In a building suitable for such an arrangement, it 
would be an excellent scheme, and its leading idea should be borne in 
mind in all cases, but it could not generally be carried out in detail. Un- 
doubtedly some orderly arrangement of groups should be adopted as a 
foundation in every museum. To have one room devoted to birds, the 
next to insects, and the next to fishes, would be wrong under all 
circumstances. 

In considering the best form for cases and the best arrangement of 
the specimens, it must be remembered that the strength of every pro- 
vincial museum ought to lie in its local collections. It is the special 
business of the local museum to collect the utmost possible amount of 
information respecting the locality, and as much of this should be laid 
before the public as can be made clear to them without risking the 
destruction of rare and perishable objects. 

These local collections should form the central and most prominent 
display. Local objects can be obtained in the greatest abundance and at 
the least cost, and they will always have a peculiar attractiveness for the 
local public, who can best be instructed by being led from familiar objects 
of which they have some knowledge to those which are comparatively 
strange and unfamiliar, and which, if presented without such associations, 
would often be incomprehensible. Geological collections must be accom- 
panied by maps, diagrams, sections, and models, so that the relation of 
each rock to the general series maybe readily perceived. These maps, &c., 
may be of small size, but they are wanted in juxtaposition with the 
specimens, not hanging on distant walls, although, of course, large wall 
diagrams of a more general character are iiseful also. The building up 
of sections with slabs of the actual rocks has been adopted in some 
museums with very good effect. Such sections on a large scale erected 
in the surrounding grounds may give a good idea of the stratigraphy of 
the district. The relations between the rocks and the physiography, the 
drainage and the water supply, is best shown by relief models in clay, 
paper, or other material. In the display of minerals, their connection 
with various commercial products ought to be indicated. Throughout 
the whole of the geological department the results of chemical and 
microscopical analysis of the various rocks and minerals must be 
briefly stated. 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MDSEDMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 129 

Taking the local geology as tlie fonndation, and confining to the local 
rocks the details above referred to, the relation of these to the known 
geology of the world requires to be very clearly represented. Specimens 
of all the principal strata not occurring in the district must be exhibited, 
and their absence from the district distinctly pointed out. To display a 
typical series of the rocks of the world in one line, and those of the 
district in a separate and parallel line, with the tablets or the labels of 
contrasted colours, is perhaps the best arrangement ; but if space cannot 
be spared for this, a single line with differences of colour may be adopted. 

In the geological department the arrangement must be chronological 
and stratigraphical. Bach fossil-bearing rock must be accompanied by 
specimens of at least some of its characteristic fossils ; in the case of local 
rocks these should be as numerous as space will admit. 

In the natural history department a zoological arrangement will form the 
basis and the local species the principal display, the chronological evolu- 
tion of these species being shown by duplicate ibssils and drawings of 
extinct forms, and their relations to the fauna of the world by foreign 
types on a separate but pai'allel line as in the geological department. 

It seems necessary that the vertebrates should be separated from the 
invertebrates. The immense difference in individual size and in the num- 
bers of species compels a distinctly different method of display. 

In each of these two great branches of zoology the same fundamental 
system must be adopted, viz., to give precedence to the local forms, 
to treat these in full detail, giving the utmost amount of information 
respecting them which can be satisfactorily shown within the given 
space, and to indicate their relations to the fauna of the world, and their 
evolution in geological periods. 

The information which can be given to the public respecting the local 
forms of life will relate chiefly to their organic structure and their life- 
histories. The structure of invertebrates must be chiefly shown by draw- 
ings or models, and of vertebrates by skeletons. The life-history can be 
illustrated by specimens of the sexes, of the young in various stages, of 
the nests or other habitations, of the food, and of the habitats. If these, 
while remaining in their proper place in the series, can be grouped to- 
gether in a pictorial manner so as to be fairly true to nature, the interest 
of the public will be greatly increased, additional instruction will be con- 
veyed by them, and science will not suSer. But isolated groups are of 
much less value, and the tendency to set these up in a dramatic or artistic 
manner merely as sensational ornaments should be rigidly repressed. 

It is of the first importance that the stuffing and mounting of verte- 
brates should be skilfully done. A large proportion of those at present 
displayed in provincial museums are mere delusions. They do not repre- 
sent nature. An unstufiTed skin is much more useful in every way than 
one which is set up untruthfully. 

In the archaeological and anthropological departments the same sys- 
tem must be carried out, but the arrangement here must be chronological. 

Starting with the earliest relics of man discovered in the district, the 
series of examples of his work and habits should be continued even to the 
current date, particular attention being devoted to any local peculiarities. 
The changes which have taken place from age to age in his tools, his 
clothing, his architecture, pottery, ornaments, coinage, weapon?, &c., as 
illustrated by purely local specimens, will be of the utmost interest and 
importance ; and the whole local series should be supplemented by a few 
1888. K 



130 REPORT— 1888. 

examples of corresponding dates from various other parts of the world 
placed in a parallel arrangement for easy comparison. 

The developments of the agriculture, the manufactures and the com- 
merce of the district, will require to be exhibited in a distinct technological 
department, which, if well ari-anged, will be to a large number of visitors 
the most interesting and valuable part of the museum. 

The botanical department is perhaps the most difficult to deal with in 
a public gallery. The herbarium in its usual form is scarcely available 
for the general use of the public, while collections of seeds, woods, and 
vegetable products, though of great value in themselves, give no insight 
into plant life. The modelling of plant forms is now carried to great 
perfection in decorative art. If typical plants of each order in the local 
flora were exhibited in this way, with corresponding examples of remark- 
able foreign species behind, and fossil forms in front, much interesting 
instruction would be afforded, and the cost would not be excessive. 

Dried specimens of the whole local flora might well be exhibited in a 
cabinet of very shallow glazed drawers which the public could draw out 
but not remove. 

The glass jar as now used for zoological purposes might be effectively 
applied to botanical specimens for the illustration of the life-history of 
typical species. 

Provincial museums have made their collections hitherto in a very 
unsystematic manner, by donation or purchase as opportunities occurred. 
In order that the scientific statistics of the country may be thoroughly 
investigated and made known as quickly as possible, a much more 
business-like system of collection should be adopted. The district should 
be divided into sections, and a paid collector appointed for each of them, 
whose whole time should be occupied for several years in obtaining speci- 
mens and records in every branch of science represented in the museum. 
In nearly every part of the kingdom competent men could be found to 
do this work for very moderate salaries. The necessary apparatus must be 
provided for them, they would generally require some amount of instruc- 
tion, and during the period of their operations a sufficient staff of assistants 
must be employed at the museum to deal with the specimens brought in. 
To carry out the work in this systematic manner, funds on a more liberal 
scale than is now usual must be provided for the first few years, but the 
value of the museum would be immensely enhanced, and when the local 
collections were made tolerably complete the permanent income required 
for maintenance would be very much less. 

Taking, as an example, a town of 100,000 inhabitants, the centre of a 
district included within an average radius of ten miles, it may be roughly 
estimated that the cost of erecting a building thoroughly suitable for a 
museum, including the site and fittings, would not be less than 10,000Z., 
and that during the first three years an annual income of 1,500L would 
be required, with a permanent income thereafter of not less than 600L 
For smaller towns or smaller districts the estimate might be considerably 
less, but the penny rate authorised by the Public Libraries and Museums 
Act is insufficient to support both library and museum in one town on a 
satisfactory scale. 

Every well-appointed museum should contain, in addition to its public 
galleries, an office for the curator, work rooms for the assistants, store 
rooms, a students' room with table, microscope, books of reference, and 



ON THE PROVINCIAL MDSECilS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 131 

a few chemical re-agents ; and a keeper's residence. A residence for the 
curator, that he may be always on the spot, is desirable, if not essential ; 
and, unless the town contains a separate college of science, a class-room, 
lecture theatre, and laboratory would be valuable additions. A library of 
standard scientific works, comprising not less than 500 volumes, is ab- 
solutely essential to the proper working of a museum. No curator can 
undertake to name and properly label the specimens collected without 
constant reference to books. All local scientific societies should be 
encouraged to hold their meetings at the museum, where a suitable room 
with lock-up cupboards might advantageously be provided for them, 
small rents being charged, except where this would involve the ratino- of 
the whole premises. 

When donations are offered to a public museum the authorities should 
consider that they are concerned only for the public interest, and that 
they have no right to occupy space by the storage of objects which are of 
no public value. It is generally undesirable to accept any donations 
with restrictions as to what should be done with them. When they are 
given to the museum they become public property, to be dealt with freely 
for the public benefit. When presented they may be considered good 
examples of their kind, but if superior ones afterwards come to hand the 
authorities should have power freely to exchange or sell. Exceptions to 
this rule may be made in special cases. Collections brought together by 
eminent scientists often acquire a classical reputation and should not be 
broken up, or single specimens, even though of little value in themselves, 
may have a place in the history of science which should render them 
sacred. Such objects may be accepted under any reasonable conditions. 

A movement has recently been inaugurated at York for bringing the 
curators of museums into closer communication and assisting in the 
exchange of dujslicates. Something of the kind is much needed. A 
periodical publication, in which curators could from time to time describe 
portions of their duplicates, would probably be found i;seful. If it were 
possible to appoint a travelling inspector, who should devote his time to 
visiting the provincial museums in rotation, arranging exchanges, spread- 
ing the knowledge of new inventions in museum apparatus, assisting in 
the naming of doubtful specimens, taking notes of desiderata which 
might be supplied by other museums, and acting as a general medium of 
communication and consulting visitor, such an officer might be of very 
great service. An adequate salary would have to be provided, either by 
Government or by some independent society, with contributions from the 
museums visited. It might be difficult to find a man of sufficient tact, 
judgment, and knowledge who would undertake the post, but without 
doubt there is much to be done in this direction. 

The town museum should be the place to which all students and 
teachers of science in the district should naturally go for assistance. To 
land fide students every encouragement and facility should be given, and 
loan collections should be prepared for teachers. A system of travelling 
museums which circulate among the principal schools of the town has 
been adopted at Liverpool with great success. 

The practical value of museums as important factors in all adequate 
systems of education is not yet recognised by the general public. Too 
many of these institutions have hitherto been but toys and hobbies, and 
require complete re-organisation. We are not aware of a single free rate- 

K 2 



1 32 REPORT— 1888. 

supported provincial rauseurn in the kingdom which has attained to the 
ideal recommended in this report. 

In the first report of this Committee, published in the Manchester 
volume, the following corrections and additions should now be made, viz. : — 
Page 4, after No. 10. — Birmingham. Insert ' Mason College Museums — Professors 

Lapworth, Bridge, and Smith. Class 1. Coll.-general, Zoo., 

Geo., Mech. Free daily.' 
„ 4, No. 15.— Bootle. For ' 1885' rmd ' 1887.' I/ise7-t ' J. J. Ogle, 43 Brook 

Eoad,' curator. Visitors, 600. Strihe out 'not yet opened.' 
„ 6, No. 24. — Cambridge. /««'/!;' M. of Zoology. S. W. Clark, cur. Class 1. 

Coll.-general, Zoo. ; Com[). Anat.' 
„ 6, No. 'iL—Strnie out ' Trin. Coll.' 

„ G, after No. 37, Insert ' Christchurch, Hants. Hart, owner. Coll. -local. 

Ornith.' 
„ 0, No. 44. — Derby. Insert ' weekly visitors, 2,000.' 

„ 6, No. 45. — Devizes. For 'Cunningham' read ' Cunnington,' and insert 

'deceased.' 
„ 6, No. 46. — Devonport. For 'Eome' read 'Rowe.' 

„ 6, No. 47.--Dorchester. After ' Moule ' insert ' M.A.' 

„ 8, after No. 61, J?ww^ ' Guernsey. Guille-AUe M.' 
„ 8, No. 66. — Huddersfield. For 'Mossley' rea^Z ' Mosley.' 

„ 10, No. 106.— Norwich. For ' Reade ' read ' Peeve.' 

„ 10, No. 110.— Oxford, Bodleian. Insert date ' 1598,' and for ' G. B. Nichol- 

son ' read ' E. B. Nicholson.' 
„ 10, No. 112. — ^Oxford, Ashmolean. /wArrt date '1679,' and /or 'J. H.Parker, 

C.B.' read 'Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A.' 
„ 10,after No. 113, Insert 'University Galleries, 1841. Joseph Fisher, keeper. 

Coll.-general Arch. Art, supported by the University.' 
„ 12, after No. 130, Sheffield, insert 'St. George's M. Founded by Mr. John 

Kuskin for Objects illustrating the Beautiful in Nature and 

Art.' 
„ 12, No. 132. — Southampton. J7^spr^; under Coll. -local 'Geo.' 

„ 12, No. 157. — Woolwich. Sfrihe out ' Royal Artillery Institution.' Insert 

date ' 1820.' For ' Harman ' read ' Crookenden.' Under 

Coll.-general add ' and Military Models.' 
„ 14, No. 159.— York. Insert date ' 1823.' 

„ 16, No. 211. — The Powys-Land M. has been transferred to the Corporation 

of Welshpool, the town having recently adopted the Museum 

Act. 
„ 18, Number of Museums estimated as First Class, for ' 56 ' read 

' 59.' Second Class, for ' 55 ' read ' 58.' Total, for ' 211 ' read 

'217.' 
,, 20, Under 'Archeology,' insert 'Roman from Cambridgeshire, 

&c. Cambridge, M. of Archa3ology,' also ' from Ribchester, 

Blackburn.' 
After ' Alnwick ' insert ' Oxford, Ashmolean.' 
After ' Cambridge ' insert ' M. of Archfeology.' 
After ' Cambridge ' insert ' Fitzwilliam M.' 
After ' College ' insert ' Oxford, Ashmolean and M. of Arch- 

Eeology.' 
For ' Fitzwilliam M.' read ' M. of Archseology.' 
At end of list of Anthropology add : — 

Ethnological Library . . Oxford, M. of Archseology. 

Anglo-Saxon, with K. Alfred's 

Jewel Oxford, Ashmolean. 

The Tradescant Collection . „ „ 

Greek Vases . . . . „ „ 

Arundel Marbles . . . „ ,, 

„ 22, line 29. — The annual receipts at York vary between 150Z. and 350Z. 

„ 30, line 4, For ' Newcastle ' read ' Northumberland.' 

Note. — The pages refer to the Report as printed separately, not as in the volume. 



21, 


line 18, 


21, 


line 20, 


21, 


line 21, 


21, 


line 31, 


21, 


line 34, 


21, 





ON THE 'MANURE GRAVELS OF WEXFORD. 133 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. Etheridge, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell {Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of reporting upon the ' Manure ' Gravels of 
Wexford. {Draiun up by Mr. A. Bell.) 

Note. — In the following I'eport it bas been endeavoured to trace the 
nature, limits, and contents of, first, the so-called ' manure ' gravels, their 
mode of occurrence and geological position ; secondly, that of the sea- 
coast marls ; and thirdly, the relations in v^^hich these stand to the drift 
deposits south of Dublin with which they have been correlated. 

The fossils obtained have been transferred to the Geological Depart- 
ment, British Museum. 

Nature of Ground. 

Before entering upon the main purpose of this report a few words 
descriptive of the ground upon which the Wexford deposits rest may be 
desirable. 

The bed-rocks of the district consist of purple conglomerates, slates, 
and sandstones of Cambrian and Cambro- Silurian age metamorphosed 
by the intrusion of vast masses of quartz rock into schists and felsites 
of varying hardness, and forming considerable elevations, upon whose 
summits the quartz stands out in precipitous masses. These elevations 
rise from the shore of the Slaney river, forming the ridge, upon part of 
whose seaward face Wexford city is built, to about 300 feet, and then 
descend rapidly before rising again to produce the Forth Mountain, a 
ridge extending 3 to 4 miles N.E. to S.W., with a height of 690 feet. A 
ridge of Palseozoic rocks also continued across the present Slaney valley to 
the north before the drainage of this part of Ireland was altered by the 
breaking down of a portion of it at Ferry Carrig, by Fitzstephen's Castle, 
forming the gorge of the modern Slaney river. 

Between the Wexford and Wicklow Railway and the sea the ground 
rises into high hills and ranges, with occasional bog-lands at foot. Gneiss 
and granite are present at the extreme S.E. at Carnsore Point, and black 
calp limestones at Driuagh, near Wexford. 

The later deposits of Wexford fall into three divisions, viz., (1) the 
so-called ' manure ' gravel series ; (2) marls and clays ; (3) an illusory or 
fictitious drift. The first of these occur onlij on the landward side of the 
elevations and hills just referred to; the second on their seaward faces and 
cover in part the previous gravels ; the third is forming wherever the 
bed-rock is exposed to atmospheric influences. 

(i) The 'Manure^ Gravel Series. 

These consist in ascending order of fine sands passing up into a com- 
minuted shell gravel covered by a debris of, for the most part, local rocks. 
Of these the sands are lowest and most persistent, appearing in the banks 
of the Slaney river, which has cut through them since their deposition. 
In a sandpit near St. Peter's College, Wexford, various igneous rocks, as 
quartz and granite, are present on the floor ; but as in the side of the pit 



134 EEPOBT — 1888. 

near the top a large mass of felsite, one face measuring 2 feet or more, is 
in si7!6, pressing down and contorting the water-sorted gravel seams, these 
are doubtless not in their original place. The granite has probably come 
from the Carnsore horizon. Large transported rocks are, however, not 
common in these sands. From the shore at Artraraon, on the eastern 
bank of the Slaney, all the way up the ascent to Castlebridge, the road 
exhibits this sand, which in a pit near Pulregan is beautifully exposed, 
passing up into comminuted shell gravel. 

The section at Little Clonard is a veiy instructive one, and is the 
deposit referred to by earlier writers as being on the Forth Mountain. 
More accurately it is upon the land face of the Wexford ridge, opposite tn 
the mountain. Down the slope of this ridge it extends for a distance of 
150 yards, with a vertical thickness of about 20 to 2^ feet. At the base 
of the section is a sheet of concreted or cemented gravelly sand a few 
inches thick. Upon this reposes a thick mass of sand with many pebble 
seams containing much small limestone, the fossils being most plentiful 
in these seams. Over this is a drift of stones very local in position, in 
some places absent, in others 3 feet thick. The upper beds having been 
much turned over during the 100 years the section has been open and the 
sand removed, no accurate idea can be conveyed as to the original con- 
dition of this portion of the pit ; but in a continuation of the sheet of 
gravel a few perches away a pit has been opened within the last three 
years that may supply the deficiency. Here, below the surface soil, is a 
bed of clean sand with a brown marl 4 feet in thickness, this covering 
the fine limestone gravel. The larger drift is here absent, but may be 
seen farther on the road in Mr. Moody's grounds at Rathaspick. The 
largest stones occur in the surface soil. 

The next place where these shell gravels occur is on the side and top 
of the hill near Castlebridge at Pulregan ; here the gravels are finer and 
sandier, and the local covering drift is less conspicuous. 

For purposes of comparison with other deposits elsewhere, which have 
been considered as the equivalents of these gravels, a careful examination 
was made as to the nature and condition of this covering debris, and to 
this end the mean of several gi'oups of twenty specimens, each picked at 
random from the face of the section, gave the following results: — 

Little Pulregan 

Clonard No. 1. No. 2 

Quartz and quartz rock .... 6 7 10 

Cambrian or Ordoviciau .... 8 9 8 

Limestone ....... ^ 1 1 

Chalk flint 2 1 

Granitic pebble 1 1 

20 20 20 

The examination of a heap piled at one side in Little Clonard pit 
yielded a larger proportion of quartz and Cambrian and less of limestone. 
At neither place did the stones bear those marks of glaciation, striae, and 
polishing that occur in the limestone drift proper. The pebbles are also 
more rounded. 

Professor Harkness, ' Geol. Mag.,' vol. vi. p. 543, remarks on an 
exposure of these beds at Castle Ellis, about eight miles to the N.W. of 
Pulregan, that the sands and gravels are covered by a boulder clay 
40 feet thick, ' abounding in angulai', sub-angular, and rounded blocks, 



ON THE 'MAMURE' GKAVELS OF WEXrORD. 135 

cliiefly Cambrian and Silurian, many beautifully striated.' This descrip- 
tion so strongly applies to wbat I have termed an illusory drift that at 
present I am inclined to consider it a similar accumulation. 

This is a drift, or rather a clay, resulting from the decomposition of the 
metamorphosed Palaeozoic rocks wherever exposed to atmospheric in- 
fluences. This is well seen between the Slaney and the Forth Mountain, 
and in and about Wexford, at Killurin and Macmine Junction, and almost 
everywhere at the foot of the hills along the railway line, wherever a 
cutting or excavation has been opened. This clay is full of blocks in 
various stages of degradation, occasionally covered and coloured by iron- 
froth. The soft nature of the metamorphosed Cambrian rocks renders 
their situation of less value in this point of view than if they were lime- 
stones. 

The fauna contained in the gravels is very interesting ; the only 
hitherto available lists are those made so many years back by Captain 
James and Professor Forbes, their usefulness being impaired by the un- 
certainty as to whether the fossils came from the gravel or the marl. I 
have therefore given in the following only those which I have obtained 
directly from the gravels, adding subsequently those of the earlier lists. 

A large proportion of the shells are much abraded fragments, very 
few of the Pelecypoda being intact, the Gastropods suffering less damage. 

The condition in which the remains occur does not altogether suggest 
more than a normal amount of violence or far removal, since equally 
broken fragments are to be seen in any ancient or modern sea-beach, such 
as the raised beach at Thatcher Island, or on the level stretch of sands at 
Paignton, both in Torbay. 

Their distribution is rather capricious. Professor Forbes, op. cit., 
p. 377, speaks of the abundance of Purpura lapillns and the presence of 
Littorina littorea as especially characteristic of the Wexford shelly gravels 
containing Fusus contrarius. These are rare in the southern parts of the 
district, where Venus verrucosa, doubtfully recognised by Professor Forbes 
as a Wexford fossil, is, on the contrary, not uncommon. 

Many of the pits formerly oiJeu are now closed or water-logged. 
Kilbride, co. Wicklow, the locality given in the ' Fossil Catalogue ' of 
the School of Mines, London, for some of Captain James' rarer fossils, 
has not been worked for forty years past, I am told by Mr Gawan, who 
has been resident there during that time, and directed my attention to 
one or two exposures of gravel. Only the local upper gravel with sand 
was visible. In the same manner as the Slaney in the south cut through 
the series since their deposition, so also has the Ovoca in the north, the 
ilbride gravels being on the Wicklow side of the river. 



(1) Shells collected by A. Bell in the Wexford Gravels. 



Buccinum undatum. 
Cj'praea europea. 
Dentalium entalis. 
Fusus gracilis. 

„ antiquus. 

,, contrarius. 

„ islandica jav. 

„ Menapii, M.S. (n. sp.) 
Fissurella grasca. 
Murex erinaceus. 



Nassa incrassata. 
„ reticulata. 
„ nitida. 
,. pj-gmsa. 
Natica greenlandica. 
Purpura lapillus. 

„ incrassata. 
Pleurotoma pyramidalis. 
,, rufa. 

„ (var. semicostata.) 



136 



REPOET — 1888. 



Pleurotoma (var. Ulideana.) 

„ turricula. 

Tropbon muricatns. 
,, clathratus. 
„ truncatus. 
,, craticulatus. 
Turritella incrassata. 

„ terebra 

Astarte borealis. 
„ compressa. 
„ elliptica. 
,, (var. sulcata.) 
Cardium edule 

„ cchinatum. 
„ rusticum. 
Cyprina islandica. 
Mactra .siibtruncata. 
Mya areiiaria. 

AncT several other forms still undetermined. 



j\Iya truncata. 
Mytilus edulis. 

„ modiolus. 
Nucula Cobboldiag ? 
Ostrea edulis. 
Pinna. 

Pectuncnlus glycimeris. 
Pecten pusio. 

„ opercularis. 

„ maximus. 
Solen marginatus. 
Tapes decussatus. 
Tellina Balthica. 

„ crassa. 
Venus casina. 

„ verrucosa. 
Cliona. 
Balanus. 



(2) Species recorded by Captain James ' not found ly A. Bell. 



Aporrhais pes pelicani. 
Cyprseca ? sp. 
Fusus crispns ? 
Lacuna putcolus. 
Littorina nidis. 

„ littorea. 
Mitra ( ? cornea) ? 
Melampus pyramidata. 
Nassa semistriata. 
Patella vulgata. 
I'leurotoma. 
Scalaria Trevelyana. 
„ greenlandica. 



Trochus exasperatus. 
Trichotropis borealis. 
Trophon Barvicensis. 
Anomia ephippium. 
Leda pusio 1 

„ pcrnula. 

,, oblongoides ? 
Mactra solida. 
Nucula nucleus. 

„ prosiuia? 
Pholas crispata. 
Saxicava arctica. 
Venus exoleta. 



Of these a number are either extinct or only found in seas north or 
south of Britain, and such an association in the same area needs some 
explanation. The species are: 

North — Astarte borealis, *Leda oblongoides, L. pernula, *N"ucula 
Cobboldia), *N. proxima, Scalaria greenlandica. Purpura incrassata, 
Pleurotoma pyramidalis, Trophon clathratus, T. craticulatus, Meyeria 
pusilla. 

South — *Leda pusio, *Cypr£ea sp., Turritella incrassata, *Nassa 
pemistriata, *Mitra sp., * Pleurotoma, 2 sp. 

Habitat unknown. Fusus (Menapii M.S.), F. n. sp., or allied to *F. 
crispus, Melam|ius pyramidata. 

Those marked * are uncertain ascriptions according to Professor 
Forbes, and the Mitra, Nassa, Fusus, and Ledas, like Cajjtain James* 
notes, are no longer in evidence, being either lost or mislaid. Of Nncula 
Cobboldice, a living Japanese species, I have a rolled fragment, which 
seems to exhibit the peculiar sculpture of the shell. The Cyprsea now 
(with Melampus) in the Museum of Practical Geology, London, requires 
confirmation. 

The Mitre, according to Forbes, was an imperfect specimen, too 



' Journ. Buhlin Gcol. Soc, vol. iii. Some of these may have been obtained from 
the marls and not from the gravels. 



ON THE 'manure' GRAVELS OF WEXFORD. 137 

mucli broken for identification of species ; it might be either M. green, 
landica or M. cornea, both of which Mr. R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, in 
' The Natural History of the European Seas,' p. 262, states to occur here. 
This is, I venture to think, an error on his part. 

Of the existence of the other species in tlie list there can be no doubt, 
and the question arises, by what routes did they come, and where do 
similar accumulations occur ? On the latter point Melampus pyramidata 
is valuable evidence ; its last appearance as a fossil occurring in Eastern 
England, in the Chillesford beds of Suffolk, in association with Leda 
oblongoides, Nucula Cobboldia?, Turritella incrassata, Scalaria green- 
landica, Trophon clathratns, and others in the list just given. 

On the west coast of England it, in company with numerous other 
shells of southern origin and Pliocene age, occurs in the St. Erth valley 
in Cornwall, Turritella incrassata being a very abundant form ; and the 
conclusion arrived at by the writer is that the Wexford scries cannot be- 
placed earlier than at or about the close of the Pliocene stage of East 
Britain, such as the Weybourn beds of Norfolk. 

Professor Forbes was the first to suggest that ' there was a communi- 
cation between the Mediterranean and the North Seas during this period.' 
Messrs. Dolfuss and Dautzenberg have also pointed out that the Cotentin 
deposit in North France is but an extension in continuation of the late 
Miocene seas. 

The deposit at St. Erth' is evidently a further extension in a westerly 
direction, and a still further prolongation in a line northerly from St. Ertb 
to the Avest of Carnsore Point would strike the valley between the Wex- 
ford ridge and the Forth Mountain, and continuing round the inland face 
of the hills already referred to reach the present coast-line just north 
of Arklow. 

Such an extension would account for the presence of these southern 
species in the Wexford area. By what route the northern species arrived 
will be considered in the final report. 

(ii) Marls and Clays. 

On the survey maps it is said, ' The low lands of this coast and the 
interior up to a height of between 200 and 300 feet are covered by Pleis- 
tocene deposits, consisting of marls interstratified with sand and gravel 
containing arctic and other shells, chalk flint, pebbles of Antrim chalk, 
jasper, coal, and magnetic iron-sand.' 

This description is not very definite, as the deposits vary much in 
character and are apparently of difiFerent ages. In Rosslare Bay, near 
Ballygeary, the lowest bed rests directly upon the base rock, and is a 
stiff black clay, originating from the black Carboniferous limestone a short 
distance away, and is only occasionally relieved by a few quartz pebbles, 
Cambrian rocks, or a limestone pebble or fossil. A bed of sand, more or 
less intermittent, ranging from thi-ee inches to three feet in thickness, 
separates this from an overlying very dai'k clay, with a few large stones 
and occasional seams of gravel. Fossils are present, but are fragmentary 
and difficult to find in the clay, but are better preserved in the pebble 
seam.s, from one of which, situated towards the top of the cliff to the west 
of the pier, the following species were obtained : — 

' On the Pliocene beds of St. Erth, by P. F. Kendall (the late), K. G. Bell, 
F.G.S., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Lend., 1886, p. 202 et seq. 



138 EEPOKT— 1888. 



Cj'praia europea. 
Helcion pellucid um. 

,, var. Isevis. 
Hydrobia ulvse. 
Lacuna puteolus. 
Littorina neritoides. 
,, obtusata. 
„ littorea. 
Murex erinaceus. 
Nassa pygm<Ba. 

,, reticulata. 
Purpura lapillus. 
Patella vulgata. 
Trochus cinerarius. 

,, zizyphinus. 



Trochvis umbilicatus. 
Astarte sulcata. 
Cardium edule. 
Lutraria elliptica. 
Leda pernula. 
Lucina borealis. 
Mactra elliptica. 
Mytilus edulis. 
Nucula nucleus. 
Ostrea edulis. 
Pecten opercularis. 

,, varius. 
Tapes virginea. 
Crab claw. 
Balanus. 



Above this layer were embedded in the face of the cliff numerous land 
shells, such as Helix hispida, Helix ericetorum, &c. These may be of 
no great age. Traces of upland peat occur, and the freshwater Limnea 
truncatnla is not uncommon, embedded in the cliff face. 

The marine shells are also present in the railway cutting, and frag- 
ments may be noticed in the more finable clay or marl beds on either side 
of Wexford Harbour from the water level to some distance up the sides 
of the elevations already referred to. Near Wexford the clay becomes 
more sandy and yellowish, due probably to an admixture of the sands of 
the earlier series. Here traces of an old layer of oysters are visible. 
Elsewhere, as in the cliffs south of Arklow, it puts on the look of a rain- 
wash or brick earth, with few included rocks and without fossils. 

The sand at Ballygeary yielded a broken Trophon Barvicensis, and 
the stiff black clay a fragment each of Astarte sulcata and Pectunculus 
glycimeris. 

The only northern species obtained after close search were Leda pernula 
and, doubtfully, Astarte borealis. 

Captain James described (1839) the cliffs at Ballygeary as consisting 
of dark tenacious clays, with rows of Nullipores. The only trace of this 
alga found was on a limestone pebble in the lowest clay, with a serpula 
attached to it. 

(iii) The Coast from Delgany to Killiney. 

To ascertain what relations (if any) the Wexford series of deposits had 
to the so-called Lower, Middle, and Upper drifts of the Dublin area, it 
became necessary to examine the coast-line with some attention, from the 
rise of the cliffs at Delgany past Greystones to the sides of Bray Head, 
and thence to the granite boundary at Killiney and Dalkey, espe- 
cially the fine exposure at Ballybrack in Killiney Bay, where, according to 
Professor Hull, the three sections are to be seen, as well as elsewhere. 
However it may be elsewhere, I was unable to detect any traces of an 
Upper drift ; a conclusion I have since discovered was arrived at some 
years ago by Mr. G. H. Kinaham,' who, in discussing the question, states 
his opinion ' that there is no deposit between Killiney Hill and the Bray 
river that could possibly be called an Upper boulder clay drift,' as given 
by Professor Hull in the section in his paper upon Irish drifts.^ 

The older drift in Killiney Bay is made up of large and small rocks, 

' Geol Maff. vol. ix. p. 265 et seq. (' Middle Gravels of Ireland '). 
- Ibid. vol. viii. p. 295. 



ON THE 'manure' GEAVELS OF WEXFORD. 139 

limestone, quartz, schists, and granites (many of the limestones being 
beautifully striated), intermixed "with thick beds of sand, often tilted at 
an angle of 70° to 80° to the beach, beneath which they pass, reappearino- 
at intervals near the Shanganagh and Bray rivers. 

Resting upon, and in places overlying it, are the beds associated with 
the Middle drifts, made up of loose sands, gravel, and occasionally large 
blocks of granite and quartz, the cliffs gradually declining towards the 
south, where they sink to the shore a short distance north of the Shano-a- 
nagh river. The upper portion of the section is composed of smaller 
gravel, and is so similar to the older drift that it is impossible to separate 
them, water action having mixed them together. The fossils in this 
horizon are chiefly confined to the lower portion of the section and are 
rather local in their distribution. 

A shell-bearing gravel has been recognised for many years past as 
existing high up the Three Rock and Kilmashogue Mountains at eleva- 
tions of 1,000 to 1,200 feet. Beyond the facts that these mountain 
gravels are largely limestone, and the shells all included in the fauna of 
the lower ones, there is nothing to connect the two. On the contrary, 
the shells, unlike the lower-lying species, are many of them scratched, 
and none of the arctic forms are at present known ' to occur there. 

The Shanganagh river flows by the base of a perpendicular cliff, about 
fourteen feet high, sloping rapidly from the coast inland. The base is a 
limestone drift (lower drift), passing upwards into a marly clay full of 
large, rounded granites, angular limestone blocks, and quartz rocks. 
Coastwise it is of limited extent, soon disappearing beneath the sandy 
marls referred to in the next section as occurring north of the Bray river. 
A few fragments of shell are present in the marl, which contains a few 
seams of pebbly gravel. It may be worth notice that where the marl is 
seen resting upon the limestone drift lai-ge blocks of granite abound, and 
limestone is almost, if not altogether, wanting. One out of a large number 
of granite blocks lying upon the shore I found to be 16 feet in circum- 
ference. 

The shell gravels at Ballybrack have yielded an interesting series of 
fossils. I have, as in the case of the Wexford lists, given those collected 
by myself and then those obtained by other searchers not included in my 
own finds : — 



Aporrhais pes pelicani. 
Buccinum undatum. 
Dentalium entalis. 

„ Tarentinum. 

Fusns antiquus. 
Hydrobia ulvfe. 

„ ventricosa. 
Littorina littorea. 
„ rudis. 
„ obtusata. 
Nassa reticulata. 
„ pygmsa. 
„ nitida. 
„ granulata, 
Natica Alderi. 

„ catena ? 
Pleurotoma costata. 



Kissoa parva. 

„ membranacea. 
Succinea oblonga. 
Turritella terebra. 
Trophon trnucatus 
Astarte borealis, 
„ compressa. 
„ sulcata. 
Cardium edule. 

„ echinatum. 
» pygmsum. 
Cyprina islandica. 
Corbula nucleus. 
Leda pernula. 
„ buccata. 
„ minuta. 
Lutraria elliptica. 



> See lists in ' The Elevated Shell-bearing Gravels near Dublin,' Eev. Maxwell 
Close, M.A., Jourti. Roy. Geol. Soc. Dublin, 1874, vol. iv. p. 36. 



140 KEPOET— 1888. 



Mya truncata. 
Mytilus edulis. 
Mactra elliptica. 
Ostrea edulis. 
Pecten tigrinus. 
Pectunculus glycimeris. 
Psammobia ferroensis. 
Pholas dactylus. 
Saxicava arctica. 



Scrobicularia piperita. 
Tellina Balthica. 
„ calcarea. 
Tapes decussatus. 
Venus gallina. 

„ verrucosa. 
(Artemis) exoleta. 
Balanus. 
Fish vertebra. 



Found by Canon Grainger (G.), W. W. Walpole (Appendix, Dr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, ' Brit. Conch.' vol. v.) (W".), Professor Oldham (0.) : — 



Cypraia europea (G.). 
Pleurotoma rufa (W.). 
Troclius cinerarius (G.). 
Loripes divaricatus (W.). 



Mya arenaria (G.) 
Psammobia vespertina (W.). 
Woodia digitaria (W.) 



A comparison of these lists with those given as from the Wexford 
gravels efi'ectually disposes of the suggestion that the fauna of the two 
deposits are identical. 

(iv) From Delgany to the Bray River. 

In this district the cliffs rise from the shore a little S. of Greystones, 
and passing northwards thicken considerably, the deposits rising to more 
than 300 feet up the sides of Bray Head. The lowest beds at Delgany 
are limestone drift, containing the usual quartz, granite, and Cambrian 
boulders, capped by another gravel largely made up of Cambrian slates, 
micaceous schists, grits, quartz, and granitic rocks. Old Red sandstones, 
chalk flints, with comparatively little limestone. Yellow clay or marl, 
resembling a brick earth, occurs, at first sparingly, with seams of fine 
pebbles, thickening out northwards and infilling the hollows in the under- 
lying beds. North of Bray Head it appears in the cliffs, dying out near 
the beach at the Shangauagh river, as already mentioned. South of 
Greystones, at the top of the gravel, a few fragments of Mytilns modiolus, 
with adherent epidermis and a portion of Tapes virginea, were the only 
fossils obtained. 

Between Greystones and the Head the gravels overlie sands, to which 
they are presently seen to lie unconformable, the sands and pebbly seams 
beneath exposing strong current bedding, at an angle of about 20°, for a 
short distance, when an irregular mass of limestone debris appears, resting 
upon a thick bed of dark clay, with seams of sand and small gravel, exhi- 
biting much contortion — even to the doubling of the seams upon them- 
selves — the overlying debris pressing down into the hollows left by the 
contortions. 

Evidences of water sorting are very prevalent all through the mass in 
the seams of pebbly sand which are interspersed in the drifts. Small 
fragments of shells are not uncommon in the gravel, especially in the 
rise above the line of railway before it enters the tunnel (Astarte sulcata 
and compressa, Cardium echinatum, Tellina and Cyprina), but are seldom 
determinable. 

The like conditions are found north of Bray Head, where the gravel 
and bedded seams are seen to pass down to the sandy marls before men- 
tioned. The bivalves just referred to are present here also, with a few 
pieces of Purpura and Tarritella. 



ON THE 'MANDEE' GEAVELS OF WEXFORD. 141 

rrom the results obtained and described in the foregoing notes it 
would appear that — 

1st. The "Wexford gravel series proper are the sole remains of a series 
of sands and gi-avel deposited in an arm of the sea. occupying a channel 
opened out from a southern direction prior to the existence in this neigh, 
bourhood of the Slaney and Ovoca rivers, their fauna indicating their a^e 
to be immediately pre-Glacial. 

2nd. That the gravel beds in Killiney Bay ai"e of newer age,' and 
the contents do not bear out the suggestion that has been made as to their 
being coequal in time. 

3rd, That the series of marls, clays, and brick earths of the coast had 
their origin and were formed subsequently under submersion, and are the 
newest deposits of all. 

In a final report I propose to give a resume of the Irish fossiliferoua 
drifts in general, with a view to their bearings upon the distribution of 
the moUusca in other parts of Britain. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors McIntosh 
(Secretary), Allman, Lankester, Bdrdon S.vnderson, Cleland, 
EwART, (Stirling, and McKendrick, Dr. Cleghorn, and Dr. 
Traquair, for continuing the Researches on Food-Fishes at the 
St. Andrews Marine Laboratory. 

Since September 1887, the period included under the present grant, 
considerable additions have been made to the researches on the 
development and life-histories of the food-fishes. Thus the larval 
stages of the gadoids have been followed to the early post-larval 
stages, so that a fairly complete history, in several instances, can now 
be produced. Nevertheless it is true that in the earlier post-larval 
stages of the round fishes, it is diflBcult, e.g., to distinguish between the 
cod, haddock, and whiting ; at least this may be predicated of all the 
post-larval forms hitherto procured in May, the period when they first 
become conspicuous in the large mid-water net. It is only when the 
pigment assumes its definite character, for instance, the tessellated 
condition in the young cod, or when the barbel appears, and the fins 
become clearly outlined, that certainty is reached. In the case of the 
young cod, recognition is readily made on June 1, though the pigment 
has not yet assumed the distinctive tessellated condition ; and the 
differences between this species and the young green cod at an early post- 
larval stage were also minutely examined this season. 

Though it cannot yet be proved that a general migration of theyouno- 
round fishes, e.g., cod, haddock, and whiting, takes place from deep to 
shallow water, there are certain facts which bear upon such a habit. 
Thus, the post-larval cod are rarely met with on the grounds frequented 
by the adults, but appear in considerable numbers at a somewhat later 
stage in St. Andrews Bay, and in June at the margin of the tidal rocks 
at low water. As formerly mentioned, they increase in size as the season 
advances. Some remain for a year off the rocky coasts, and are cauo^ht 

• Whether these Killiney gravels correspond to the Middle drift of the English 
and North Wales districts is not clear. I hope to trace the connection, if any, in 
the final report. At present the evidence is rather against than for such being 
the case. — A. B. 



142 KEPOET— 1888. 

(as rock-cod) by hand-lines; wliile others of the same size, but having a 
less raddy hue, abound at a somewhat greater distance from shore, e.g., 
south-east of Girdleness in Aberdeenshire, and off the Bell Rock, and are 
caught in numbers by both liners and trawlers. The large cod frequent 
the deeper water at some distance from shore as a rule, though in pur- 
suit of herrings they approach the shore more closely at certain seasons. 

The post-larval stages of the haddock have hitherto escaped recogni- 
tion ; though G. O. Sars speaks of distinguishing the early post-larval 
haddock by their shorter and stouter form as contrasted with the young 

cod. 

The life-history of the whiting has especially been elucidated during 
the year, and further additions made to the post- larval stages of the ling. 
It is interesting that two yellowish longitudinal bands occur along the 
sides of the former in the adult condition, especially in connection with 
the characteristic yellowish larval pigment. The development of the 
Clupeoids of the bay has also been followed, and observations made on 
their growth. The larval and post-larval stages of the sand-eel, so very 
abundant in the bay, have likewise been studied. 

Amongst flat fishes (Pleuronectid*), the post-larval stages of the com- 
mon flounder, the long rough dab and other forms, have been examined, 
and their life-histories followed more or less completely. The eggs 
apparently of the sole have been found late in summer near the surface of 
the bay, and though the adults are few, there is no reason why they should 
not be increased by artificial aid, such as the introduction of a number of 
adults from Scai'borough and other convenient localities. The food of 
the sole is very abundant in St. Andrews Bay, and the only difficulty 
will be competition with the hardy plaice so numerous in this ground. 
The post-larval stage apparently of the turbot was procured towards the 
end of August, and is remarkable for its peculiar yellowish coloration. 
Several unknown eggs probably belonging to the same group (Pleuronec- 
tidse), and which were first met with in the trawling expeditions of 1884, 
were also again observed, and further steps made to their identification. 

A post-larval Lahrus maculatus, 11 mm. in length, procured by the mid- 
water net in September, showed some intei-esting featui-es in coloration, 
the chief being a series of white touches on a greenish ground, with 
brown bands on the head. The soft rays of the dorsal fins have not yet 
attained the proportionally elongated condition of the adult organ. The 
pectorals are large, and their rapid vibratory movement resembles that of 
Hippocampus and the Sygnathidse. A brown bar marks their basal region, 
which in this and many other post-larval fishes is much larger in propor- 
tion than in the adult — a condition probably connected with increased 
functional activity. The ventral fins are opaque white, with a brownish 
belt in front (anterior rays). The anal fin, like the dorsal, has a brown 
patch in front. None of the blue, yellow, or orange, so common in the 
adult, has yet appeared. 

Additional observations have also been made on the spawning period 
of various fishes about which little is at present known, such as the bass, 
Yarrell's blenny, wrasse, &c. Remarkable cases in which mussels (Mytilus 
edulis) have grown to a considerable size on the branchias of the haddock 
have likewise been observed. 

Besides the food-fishes, further advances have been made on the 
development of the gunnel, the adults of which remain with their ova in 
holes {e.g., those bored by Pholas) in rocks, and on the larval and post- 



ON RESEARCHES ON FOOD-FISHES. 143 

larval stages of Agonus, Motella, and other forms. The early post-larval 
stage of Agonus is peculiar from its fusiform outline and yellowish colora- 
tion. The former is due to the great median development of the marginal 
fin dorsally and ventrally. The post-larval condition oi Liparis montagui 
has likewise come under notice when about 10 mm. in length. The noto- 
chord still projects superiorly from the tip of the tail, and the hypural edge 
is almost vertical. The caudal region, with its fin-rays, is bluntly conical. 
A marked feature is the elevation of the first region of the dorsal fin and 
its wider rays, a differentiation, perhaps, indicating the relationship with 
a form in which such is present in the adult. The head and cheeks have 
a few black specks, and these also occur on the anterior region of the 
body. The pectorals are speckled in a similar manner. The elongated 
rays of these fins are not yet developed, so that this is a subsequent cha- 
racter. Their margins trend evenly from the anterior part of the sucker 
backward and upward. The difierence in regard to the size of the eye 
of such a species as this and one of the post-larval gadoids is marked, the 
large eyes of the latter being diagnostic, and probably associated with 
their greater adroitness and activity in catching minute prey. 

The researches on the development and life-histories of the food- and 
other fishes made by the Secretary (Professor Mcintosh) and Mr. E. E. 
Prince, B.A. (Cantab.), comprising upwards of 400 pages MS. and 31 
quarto plates, containing many coloured figures, have recently (June 18) 
been communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

A special research was carried out by Mr. E. E. Prince on the 
Morphology of the Limbs of Teleosteaus, and illustrated by three quarto 
plates. This work, like that already published or about to be published, 
reflects great credit on its author, both for the careful nature of the 
observations and the beauty and accuracy of the drawings. 

Another investigation, no less able, is that of Dr. Marcus Gunn, M.A., 
M.R.C.S., one of the surgeons of Moorfields Hospital, London, on the 
Embryology of the Retina of the Teleosteans. A preliminary paper on 
this important subject appears in the ' Annals of Natural History ' for 
this month (September). 

Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D., M.R.I. A., is also engaged on the 
Development of the Teleostean Vertebral Column; while Professor 
Burdon Sanderson and Mr. Gotch ' carried on during the summer an 
investigation (in the living skate) of the caudal electrical organ. Many 
embryo skates have since been sent to Dr. Minot of America and Professor 
Ewart for microscopic purposes in connection with this research and 
other investigations. Mr. Kennedy, B.Sc. of Glasgow University, also 
spent a few weeks in working at the development of the haddock, and 
Mr. Grabham, B.A. of Cambridge, a similar period in examining the 
spinal nerves of the cod. 

One of the most interesting results of the steady use of the mid- water 
and other nets for some years in St. Andrews Bay and elsewhere has 
been the testing of the Pelagic life at various seasons, so as to elucidate 
the nature of the food of the post-larval food-fishes, and also throw light 
on other questions. For the year 1888 the continuation of this work 
has been specially undertaken for the Fishery Board for Scotland, and 
will therefore be dealt with elsewhere. Independently, however, of the 
bearings of the fauna and flora (diatoms, &c.) on the food of fishes, some 
remarkable forms have come under notice, and the growth and habits of 

' Vide Proc. Roy. Soc, 1888. 



144 BEPOBT— 1888. 

others less rare have also been periodically noted. No group is more 
interesting in this respect, perhaps, than the Ctenophores, and certainly 
none is more abundant. Besides the ordinary forms at all stages, a new 
British species, viz , Lesueuria vitrea, M. Ed., has been procured in St. 
Andrews Bay in great profusion and for an extended period. The 
examples ranged from the most minute up to those 2^ inches in length, 
but of all the British Ctenophores, or even Medusa, it is the most delicate. 
The mere pouring of the water containing it from one vessel to another 
is sufficient to rupture it irretrievably, and indeed any undue commotion 
in the water has the same effect. It is well known as an inhabitant of 
the Mediterranean since it was originally described by Milue Edwards, 
and it has also been found on the American coast by Alex. Agassiz. An 
allied form, again, was procured on the shores of Norway by M. Sars. 

During this summer, also, the great abundance of the ecto-parasitic 
larvae of Peachia on Thaummdias has been a conspicuous feature, and 
many have been preserved for the further researches of Professor Haddon, 
M.A., D.Sc, M.R.I.A., who this month (September) contributes an 
interesting paper on the subject to the ' Annals of Natural History.' 

In the winter, numerous examples of the common star-fish (Asterias 
Tiihens), brought from the bay on the lines of the fishermen, showed many 
ecto-parasitic crustaceans (Podalirius ti/picus, Kroyer). These generally 
adhered by the posterior legs, with their bodies projecting at right 
angles from the rays of the star-fish. In previous descriptions of this 
form the habitat seems to have been overlooked, for Spence-Bate and 
Westwood simply state that it was procured in the Forth, upon a shell 
brought up by a haddock-line, and in the recent catalogue of the Mediter- 
ranean Fauna * no allusion to coramensalism occars. 

Further observations have also been made on the development and 
life-history of the common mussel, which forms a valuable 'bed' in the 
estuary of the Eden. These have chiefly been carried out by Mr. John 
Wilson, B.Sc, who lately published an important paper with four quarto 
plates on the subject in the Fifth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for 
Scotland.'^ 

Mr. Herbert E. Durham, B.A., lately Vintner Exhibitioner at Cam- 
bridge, continued the interesting researches of last year on the Amoeboid 
corpuscles in the star-fish, and also on the madreporite of Gribrella 
sangidnolenta.^ 

Besides the use of the yacht ' Dalhousie,' the services of the steam 
tender ' Garland ' were placed at the disposal of the fcecretary for some 
days by the courtesy of the Fishery Board for Scotland for work in the 
deeper water at a distance from shore. Certain well-known fishing and 

' Prodromtis Faunw Mediterranecp, pars ii. p. .390, 1885. 

- Previous to a lecture on this subject in the University of St. Andrews in 
November 1883, the Town Council requested the convener to give a report dealing 
with the preservation and increase of the mussel-beds of the Eden. The work for 
H M. Trawling Commission, however, supervened, and occupied the whole of the 
following j'car. Thereafter the subject was steadily kept in view, as indicated in 
the Third Annual Report of the Fishery Board (1885, p. 57). A short abstract was 
also published in the Annals of Natural History for February 1885. It being appa- 
rent that a thorough knowledge of the development and life-history of the species 
was indispensable for advancing the subject on a sound basis, Mr. John Wilson took 
up this portion of the work, his observations being published in the Fourth Annual 
Eeport of the Fishery Board (1886, p. 218), and next year in the Fifth Report with 
three quarto plates (1887, p. 217). 

' Proc. Hoij. Soc. January, 1888. 



ON RESEAECHES ON FOOD-FISHES. 145 

trawling grounds were thus examined in connection with the observations 
on the development and life-histories of the food-fishes. 

Considering the importance of the work in relation to our knowledge 
of the food- and other fishes, and the advances in Invertebrate Zoology, 
the Committee beg to recommend a renewal of the grant (50Z.J for the 
ensuing year. 



Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. W. Crosskey, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Gr. A. Lebour, 
and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, 
W. Pengelly, James Plant, J. Prestwich, I. Egberts, T. S. 
Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden - Wright, E. 
Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Kance (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Circulation of 
Underground Waters in the Permeable Formations of England 
and Wales, and the Quantity and Character of the Water 
supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Forma- 
tions. (Drawn up by C. E. De Eance, Reporter.) 

The drought to which your Committee drew attention in their report last 
year was continued up to June of the present year, and had a very marked 
influence in diminishing the volume of water yielded by a large number 
of spi'ings, and a very considerable diminution of the supply afforded by 
the remainder, over the greater portion of the central area of England, an 
area in which underground stores give the larger proportion of the daily 
water-supply of the population. 

Much useful information has been obtained as to the amount of dimi- 
nution experienced, but it has been thought advisable to combine it with 
information now being collected, showing the efiect of the recent heavy 
rains in re-charging the underground stores. 

Statistics of this nature collected during the past season, probably 
the most exceptional season of the present century, will necessarily have 
a permanent value in future calculations as to the actual yield likely 
to be obtained from a given area after successive years of minimum 
rainfall. 

It has been thought advisable to defer publishing the information 
already obtained until next year, when it can be given in a more complete- 
and useful form. Tour Committee hope that the attention of the Dele- 
gates of the Associated Scientific Societies may be drawn to the import- 
ance of this inquiry, and that local observers will give special attention 
to the date at which the springs of their neighbourhood diminished in 
yield and subsequently increased ; the date at which any springs ceased' 
to flow, and that on which they recommenced ; the amount of flow of 
any springs either daily, weekly, or monthly ; similar records of the 
heights of the water in wells and borings, whether for long or short 
periods. The value of such observations would be much enhanced if 
descriptions be given that will enable the locality to be identified on the 
one-inch map of the Ordnance Survey and the levels referred to the 
Ordnance Datum. 

Tour Committee seek re-election, but do not require a grant to carry 
on their investigations. 

1888. L 



146 KEPOKT — 1888. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Cordeaux (Secre- 
tary), Professor A. Newton, ]\Ix. J. A. Harvie-Bro^vn, Mr. 
William Eagle Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. 
G-. More, reappointed at Manchester for the purpose of 
obtaining {with the consent of the Master and Brethren of the 
Trinity House and the Cominissioners of Northern and Irish 
Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Lightvessels, and of reporting on the same} 

Altogether about two hundred lighthouses and lightships on the coasts 
of Great Britain and Ireland, and the outlying islands, were supplied 
with printed tables for recording the movements of migratory birds. The 
collected results of the observations have been again published by the 
Committee in their ninth report. There has been a considerable increase 
in the number of schedules sent in, and it is satisfactory to note that 
the majority of the returns show increased care, and much intelligent 
interest on the part of the observer. 

Commencing with the east coast of Scotland, Mr, John Nichol, the 
principal of the North Unst Lighthouse, reports that several pied-ravens, 
presumably visitors from the Faroes, were seen in June and July near 
Lerwick ; one of these had white wings, another with white head and tips 
of wings, others also variously marked. 

At the Pentland Skerries a cirl-bunting was obtained on November 2. 
This species has only been recorded four or five times in Scotland, and 
never so far north in the country. 

At the same period there was at this station a large ' rush ' of field- 
fares, redwings, thrushes and blackbirds, gold-crested wrens, snow- 
buntings and woodcocks with a south-east wind. A hoopoe was also 
seen on October 9. 

Between the middle of August and up to October several pied- 
flycatchers are also recorded at Pentland Skerries. 

A considerable number of schedules from the chief stations on the 
east coast of Scotland have been filled with the movements of the gannet, 
and these, with other accounts already published, will, at some future 
date, constitute materials for a thorough treatment of the wanderings of 
this species, and their relations to the migration of the herring in the 
northern seas. 

The number of schedules sent in from thirty-four stations on the 
east coast of England was eighty-four. 

After January 2 depressions of a very considerable size passed by 
our north-western and northern shores, with sudden changes of tem- 
perature of an unusual character, and great magnitude ; showers of cold 
rain, sleet and hail, from day to day, and very severe frosts at night. 
There are verj' clear indications in the diary of migration that a ' great 
rush' of birds, going southward along the coast, was concurrent with 
these atmospheric disturbances. The birds chiefly noted being fieldfares, 
blackbirds, thrushes, redwings, larks, chafl&nches, linnets, starlings, and 
some crows. 

• ' Report on the Migration of Birds in the Spring and Autumn of 1887.' McFar- 
lane and Erskine, 19 St. James's Square, Edinburgh. 



ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 147 

In the latter part of February and throughout March there are 
indications of the passage of crows, rooks, daws, starhngs, larks, and 
others to the Continent ; also the same species moving in the reverse 
direction to the south-east coast of England. Great numbers of star- 
lings, thrushes, and larks were observed at the lanterns at night, show- 
ing that the movement was very general and of very considerable extent. 

A remarkable ' rush ' of the smaller summer visitants occurred on 
the south-east coast, from Thanet to Hunstanton, at early morning of 
April 29. A very strongly-pronounced movement was also observed 
at Hanois L. H., Guernsey, on May 2, and on the 3rd and 4th. There 
were extraordinary ' rushes ' of summer immigrants at the Eddy stone and 
Nash stations, and at Helwick L. V., South Wales, on the 5th, when 
wheatears, whitethroats, sedge-warblers, willow-wrens, wood-warblers, 
blackcaps, reed- warblers, redstarts and pied-flycatchers, and also some 
swallows, were killed, some of these in considerable numbers ; the weather 
at the earlier period, April 29, being very rainy and unsettled in the 
south-east, and very cold over England, with north-east winds. On the 
30th, there was a thunderstorm in the south-west of France, with very 
cold, unsettled, and rainy weather generally in the south of Europe. 

The autumn movement of birds commenced early in July, but did not 
become very distinctly pronounced before the beginning of August. One 
of the most interesting features of the autumnal migration has been the 
simultaneous occurrence of the pygmy curlew (Tringa suharquata) and 
the little stint (T. minuta) on the coast, between the Tees and Yannouth. 
The former is first recorded from Redcar on August 16, and from the 
Spurn on August 23 ; the little stint on the 25th. 

The woodcock is first recorded at Seaton-Carew, Durham, on September 
19, and at Cromer L. H. on the 25th from 12.30 to 2.30 a.m. (S.E. 4). 
Our observer, Mr. Comben, says, ' I never saw so many woodcocks at 
one time before ; there seemed to be a constant stream flying round the 
lantern ; none struck.' Woodcocks appear to have come in at irregular 
intervals between September 30 and November 3, the great ' rush ' or 
flight, on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of October. It is somewhat remarkable 
that the only notice of this species on the east coast of Scotland occurs 
at the Pentland Skerries and Dunnet Head L. H., Caithness, early in 
November and again in December. 

Throughout September there was a steady, and almost daily increasing, 
migration observed at the east coast stations, and from the 29th, through- 
out October, and to November 3, an almost continuous night and day 
rush of immigrants, the chief of those recorded being crows, rooks, daws, 
starlings, larks, chafBnches, linnets, and sparrows; much the greater 
proportion of the entries in the schedules during this period consisting of 
these readily distinguishable species. The weather during the period of 
this great and continuous ' rush ' was up to October 25 mainly anti- 
cyclonic, cold, quiet, and dry ; the prevailing winds, north and north- 
easterly ; after the 25th, cyclonic, with west and south-westerly winds, 
wet, rough and milder. The average temperature of the month was 
much colder than the corresponding months in the two preceding years. 
There is no evidence that the change of weather and of the wind after 
the 25th had the slightest influence in controlling the migratory move- 
ment, birds continuing to arrive in undiminished numbers. 

The direction and force of the wind at the time appear to have little 
eSect in controlling the great autumnal ' rushes,' for when the period of 

L 2 



148 BEPOET— 1888. 

the year has arrived birds cross the North Sea independent of weather. 
There can, however, be no doubt that the prevailing wind at the time of 
crossing is an important factor in governing the direction in which 
migrants travel, and the angle at which the line of flight will intersect 
the coast. To changes of temperature, either sudden or more gradual, 
rather than the force and direction of winds, we must probably look for 
the impelling cause of these seasonal phenomena. After the 3rd and to 
the 19th of November birds continued to arrive, but in greatly reduced 
numbers, the throbs and pulsations of the great inrush becoming daily 
more feeble and less sustained. 

On the west coast of England migration, although considerable in 
October, was more strongly pronounced in November, particularly from 
the 7th to the 19th. On the afternoon of the 11th an anti-cyclonic period 
commenced, and prevailed, with little break, until the 17th. And there 
were important general movements on the 11th, 13th, and 14th, and on 
the 17th and 18th at south-west stations. 

The entries in the schedules show that swans and geese have been 
remarkably scarce, brent geese fairly numerous — ducks of various species 
have occurred in unusually large numbers in all favourable localities. 
The common scoter in enormous flocks, also several velvet scoters, and 
very considerable numbers of the long-tailed duck have visited the coast 
between the Farn Islands and Yarmouth. A bearded reedling {Panurusr 
iiarmicus) was seen at the Languard L. H. on February 16, at 7.40 a.m., 
and at Yarmouth on November 13 many are said to have come in at a 
great height from the east. 

Amongst the rare and more interesting wanderers to our shores we 
may notice the occurrences of Temminck's stint at the Spurn and the 
eared-grebe at the same place, Richard's pipit on the Lincolnshire coast, 
the Alpine swift, avosets, and the pectoral sandpiper of America neai' 
Yarmouth, also an osprey obtained at the Cromer Lighthouse. The 
isabelline wheatear, a spring visitor from the south to south-eastern 
Russia, was shot at Allonby, Cumberland, on November 11. 

From the Irish coasts the schedules received from the light-keepers 
in 1887 were perhaps the best and most carefully filled of any year so far. 
They number about 70 besides many letters inquiring the names of par- 
ticular species or remarking on special movements of birds. These have 
been furnished by about 30 stations situated all round the Irish coast. 
Over 150 legs and wings and specimens in the flesh have been received, 
being a larger number than on any previous occasion. This is satisfac- 
tory because the species can be ascertained with certainty. 

Two birds have been added to the Irish list, i.e., the Lapland! 
bunting and the red-breasted flycatcher. The former was found dead 
at the Fastnet Rock Lighthouse, October 16 ; the latter was killed 
striking the Arklow South Light-ship on October 23. Both speci- 
mens were forwarded in the flesh. A magnificent old male Falco can- 
dicans was shot by the light-keeper on the Great Skelly Rock, co. 
Kerry, on September 28. This bird is occasionally met with on the 
west coast of Ireland at light-stations, and the inquiry has shown thafc 
it occurs more frequently than was formerly supposed. 

Among other rarities received may be mentioned a redstart from the 
Fastnet (a rare species in Ireland), killed October 6 ; a woodlark and 
spotted crake from the Tearaght Rock, co. Kerry, also killed in October ; 
and a hoopoe from Eagle Island, off Mayo (April 12) 



ON THE MIGEATIOX OF BIRDS. 149 

Of the warblers tte sedare warbler strikes the lanterns more fre- 
qnently than any other, but the western and northern stations are almost 
a blank, few warblers striking. 

The great bulk of the summer migrants an'ive in Ireland on the south 
coast and the southern portion of the east coast below Drogheda. 

During the second and third weeks of November the waterrail was 
forwarded from stations all round Ireland. It has not occurred in such 
numbers before. 

A large immigration of the siskin and brambling took place in 
October and November. These birds have seldom been received from 
the light-keepers until 1887. 

Tbe autumn rushes of most species were on a larger scale than usual 
in 1887, and both summer and winter migrants seem to prefer the south- 
rast portion of Ireland when arriving. The snow-bnnting is one of the 
few birds which is rarely met with during the season of immigration on 
our south-east coasts. 

The woodcock seldom strikes the lanterns anywhere. 

So far as waders are concerned there is no clear evidence derived from 
the light-stations to show that they arrive in greater numbers on our 
northern stations in the autumn than on the south-east and south coasts. 

This inquiry has now been continued for nine years, and an immense 
"number of facts have been collected and brought together in the Annual 
Reports in connection with the seasonal movement of birds on the British 
coasts. The value of the materials thus acquired has been very consider- 
ably increased by the wings and legs sent in from the lighthouses and 
lisrhtvessels of birds killed against the lanterns. Tour Committee are 
aware that if this inquiry is to lead to any practical scientific results, much 
yet remains to be done ; they would, therefore, respectfully suggest that 
the collection of further facts and materials should for the present be 
suspended, and an attempt rather be made to utilise, digest, and classify 
the mass of information already at their disposal. This your Committee 
ai-e anxious and willing to undertake, and have already made ai-range- 
tnents for carrying into effect, so as to show in a concise form the results 
both statistically and otherwise on strictly scientific lines, and in as con- 
densed and clear a method as possible. 

The Committee have much pleasure in stating that one of their number, 
Mr. William Eagle Clarke, of the Museum of Science and Art in Edin- 
burgh, has undertaken the laborious task of thus reducing the mass of 
observations collected. This will not be executed from the reports already 
published, but from an examination cle novo of the schedules sent in. 
When it is accomplished, the question of publishing the results will arise, 
and the Committee trust that, if necessary, the aid of the British Associa- 
tion may again be successfully invoked. The Committee are quite 
sensible of the liberality with which the Association has for so many- 
years responded to, and even more than once anticipated, their demands, 
and have to express their gratitude for the generosity not only of the 
Association, but of private individuals towards their investigations ; but 
the Committee must point out that the crowning work has yet to be 
done, and, while abstaining at this time from any application for pecuniary 
help, they hope that it may be forthcoming, if required, at some future 
date. 



150 EEPOET— 1888. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson 
and Mr. W. Cash, appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Flora of the Carboniferous Rocks of Lancashire and West 
Yorkshire. {Drawn up by Professor W. C. Williamson.) 

As I tad occasion to report to the Association at Manchester last year, 
much labour has now to be expended in order to reap a very small 
harvest. Our many years of persevering research have well-nigh ex- 
hausted the supply of the more conspicuous facts connected with the 
organisation of the Carboniferous vegetation. At the same time there is 
still much respecting which more information is needed, and the work of 
the past year has not been devoid of some important observations. 

One of the most curious structural and physiological facts revealed 
by the study of the exogenous Carboniferous Cryptogams relates to the 
development of their conspicuous piths. This is especially the case 
amongst the arborescent Lycopodiaceoe. I have from time to time 
called attention to some curious facts bearing upon this matter. I have 
shown that in tlie young twigs of some of these plants the central 
vascular bundle, corresponding to what the late Professor De Bary would 
designate as the ' leaf-trace ' in contradistinction to a Cauline one, is 
composed of a number of scalariform vessels, as is the case with the twigs 
of many of the living Lycopodiacece. But unlike these living represen- 
tatives of the group, there lurked in the centre of each of these palaeozoic 
bundles, an invisible germ or germs of a parenchymatous tissue which 
developed as the plant grew, and ultimately expanded into a conspicuous, 
persistent pith of large dimensions ; not only so, but portions of this 
medullary tissue assumed the functions of a Cambium by developing 
additions to the vascular ring by which it was surrounded. Botanists 
Avill at once recognise the differences between this mode of development 
of a medulla and what occurs amongst ordinary living Exogens. 

Some of my most important results obtained during the past year 
consist of new facts relating to this curious physiological and morpho- 
logical feature of the Palaeozoic Flora ; explanations which I previously 
advanced hypothetically now assume the appearance of unquestionable 
truths. Hence I believe I am now in a position to publish what I hope 
to do with little delay, viz., a fairly complete history of the anomalous 
development of these palaeozoic medullary organs. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Eay Lankester, 
Mr. P. L. ScLATER, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
Professor A. M. Marshall, Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
Moseley, and Mr. Percy Sladen {Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. 

Your Committee have to report several notable advances in the scope of the 

Zoological Station, which give promise of important results in the future. 

The past year has been marked by the opening of the pliysiological 

laboratory, which occupies a new and handsome building adjacent to. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 151 

and nearly as large as, the original Station. The progress of the work 
has been mentioned in several previous Reports ; and the Direction is now 
to be congratulated on the completion of this costly undertaking. Most 
of the rooms are already occupied.' 

A bacteriological laboratory, which is placed under the direction of 
Dr. Frank, formerly assistant to Professor Koch, was opened on May 1. 
This department, which is especially maintained by Italian coiitributions, 
and is intended to promote a knowledge of marine bacteria, will in the 
first instance co-operate with the local efforts to investigate the sanitary 
condition of the Port of Naples and the neighbouring coast. Two or 
three naturalists are now devoting themselves to these researches. 

The chemical department of the physiological laboratory has been 
completed under the direction of Dr. W. v. Schroeder, of Strasburg, who 
Las previously carried out physiological investigations at the Station. 
Several universities and states are already taking an interest in this 
department — a circumstance which it is anticipated will contribute 
towards the success as well as the support of the new branch. 

Investigations of a practical bearing on the fishery industry, carried 
out primarily at the instigation of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture 
and Commerce, have been prosecuted with energy. An important memoir 
on the question of the propagation of fishes and the nature of their ova has 
been published in the ' Mittheilungen ' and the official 'Bulletin,' by 
Dr. Raffaele, of Naples, one of the assistants in the Station. Special 
arrangements have been made for these studies in the new building and 
the researches are being carried on actively. Additional proof of the 
urgent need of such practical investigations was furnished by an agita- 
tion on the question of trawl-fishing, which was got up last year in 
Naples and the neighbourhood, and resulted in numerous contradictory 
demands being addressed to the Ministry upon the subject. 

Several ofiicers belonging to the Italian and Russian navies have 
received instruction during the past year in the methods of collecting 
marine animals and plants. These gentlemen are now embarked on men- 
of-war, and interesting results may be anticipated from the labours of 
collectors thus thoroughly qualified. 

During the past year two tables have been taken by Austria. This 
circumstance is especially significant, as hitherto when applications were 
made either by Austrian naturalists or by Professor Dohrn himself to the 
Austrian Government, soliciting the engagement of a table in the Naplea 
Station, the applications have been rejected on the ground that the 
existence of a zoological station at Trieste rendered it unnecessary for 
Austria to lease a table in the Naples Station. It was urged against this 
argument that the Naples Station ought to be considered as a central 
institution, and that whatever local institutions might be founded, the 
international character of the Neapolitan establishment rendered it not 
only desirable but necessary to secure a footing there. At last two tables 
have been taken, in consequence of a collective requisition made by the 
four Austrian universities, in which it was stated that in spite of possessing 
a zoological station at Trieste the participation of Austria in the Naples 
Station was still desirable ; its highly- developed organisation, the richness 
of the local fauna, the excellence of the library, and the association there 
of scientific workers from all countries, rendering such a participation 
necessary in the interests of Austrian naturalists. 

Negotiations for securing three tables for Spain are proceeding, and 



152 EEPORT— 1888. 

a royal decree charging the Ministry with direct propositions to Professor 
Dohrn has been published. 

The Puhlicatiuns of the Station. — The progress of the various works 
undertaken by the Station is here summarised : — 

1. Of the ' Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel ' the following 
two monographs have been published since the last Report : 

XV. Gr. von Koch, GorgonidcB. 

XVI. H. Eisig, Capitellidce. 

The plates for the following works are in the press : Falkenberg on 
' Rhodomelese ' ; Spengel on ' Balanoglossus ' ; Delia Valle on ' Amphi- 
poda ' ; Giesbrecht on ' Copepoda ' ; and Vosmaer on ' Porifera incal- 
carea.' The text for the last-mentioned work will be in English. 

2. Of the ' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel,' 
vol. vii., parts ii., iii., and iv., with 24 plates, have been published. 

3. Of the ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht ' for 1885, parts i. and iv. and 
a ' Nachtrag (Vermes) ' have been published ; and the whole ' Bericht ' 
for 1886 (dealing no longer with systematic and faunistic papers). 

Extracts from the Oeneral Report of the Zoological Station. — The oflBcers 
of the Station have courteously furnished lists (1) of the naturalists 
who have occupied tables since the last report, (2) of the works published 
during 1887 by naturalists who have worked at the Zoological Station, 
(3) of the specimens sent out by the Station during the past year. These 
details show a large increase in the number of naturalists who have worked 
at the Station, as compared with any previous year, and an increase also 
in the total value of the specimens distributed. 

The British Association Table. — Three naturalists have occupied the 
British Association Table during the past year. Mr. John Gardiner, who 
had occupied the table for five months during the preceding year, was 
still in possession at the commencement of the past year, and had intended 
to occupy the table until December, in accordance with the permission of 
your Committee. Unfortunately a dangerous illness prevented the carry- 
ing out of these intentions, and the climate of Naples being considered 
unsuitable for Mr. Gardiner's restoration to health, he was obliged to 
resign the table after occupying it a little more than two months in the 
year with which the present report is concerned. Mr. Gardiner sent an 
interesting report on the result of some of his work to the Committee, 
which was submitted at the last meeting of the Association, and the 
supplementary report on the remainder of his occupation, which Mr. 
Gardiner has sent from Colorado, will be found appended. 

The use of the table has been granted during the past year to Mr. 
Andrew David Sloan, of Edinburgh, and subsequently to Professor E. J. 
Anderson, of Queen's College, Cralway, both of whom have furnished 
reports on the nature of their investigations. The reports are appended. 

Your Committee have received two applications for permission to use 
the British Association table during the current and coming year, which, 
they approve ; and hope that the Council will enable them to sanction 
the applications by renewing the grant (lOOZ.) for the ensuing year. In 
the opinion of yonr Committee the report now submitted fully justifies 
them in strongly recommending the renewal of the grant. 

I. Beport on the Occupation of the Table, by Mr. John Gaedinee. 

Soon after the date of my last report, I began to study the local 
species of Sargassum. At first I merely familiarised myself with the 



ON THK ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 153 

histology of the plant, then later I investigated the development of the 
' Fasergrubchen,' on which subject I am disposed to come to conclusions 
opposed to those of Valiante in his monograph on the Cystoceirce. But 
the greater part of the time was employed in investigating the develop- 
ment of the reproductive organs, and of the embryos of Sargassxim. I 
was able to follow the development of the antherozoids up to the time of 
their discharge, which, however, I did not see. I also followed out the 
development of the oosphere, but did not observe the process of fertilisa- 
tion. I reared and carefully observed a large number of embryos, which 
in their early stages much resembled those of Cystoceira, though many 
exhibited peculiarities of cell-division and growth partly due to the con- 
ditions under which they were grown. I had collected a large amount of 
well-preserved material, besides drawings and notes from fresh specimens, 
and it was my hope to have suflBcient for a monograph of the Mediter- 
ranean species of the genus. 

My health, however, which had been failing for some time, finally 
compelled me to leave Naples on August 20, 1887, four months before 
the end of the period granted me by the Committee. I hoped to be able 
to return after a short rest, but I was disappointed. Since then I have 
been unable to do any work, and for that reason I beg the Committee to 
excuse the brevity of this report. 

I must express my gratitude to the Committee for the great privilege 
they granted me in allowing me to study at Naples, and my regret that 
I have been able to do so little work. I wish also to express my thanks 
to Dr. Dohrn and the staff of the Zoological Station for the great 
kindness which they showed to me, as to everyone who studies there, 
and for the valuable assistance they often gave me. 

II. Report on the Occupation of the Table, by Mr. Andrew David Sloan. 

For the past year I have been deeply interested in the subject of 
electric organs. While assistant in the Natural History Department of 
Edinburgh University my attention was directed to the so-called pseudo- 
electric organs in the skate, and the large number of specimens obtained 
for dissection by the students afforded me ample material for their study. 
My interest in the investigation was greatly intensified by the confir- 
matory work of Dr. Sanderson, which supported from a physiological 
point of view the opinion urged by Robin after a study of its structure, 
viz., that the organ in tbe rays hitherto regarded as pseudo-electric really 
discharged the functions of an electric organ. I found, however, that I 
should be greatly aided in coming to just conclusions regarding the organ 
in the skates were I fully prepared for its study by a personal examina- 
tion of the analogous organ of the Torpedo, which had to a much greater 
extent received the attention of histologists, and thus I welcomed the 
opportunity of effecting this purpose, which the kindness of the Committee 
afforded me in placing at my disposal their table in the Zoological Station 
at Naples. 

Immediately on my arrival at the Station on March 16, everything 
was in readiness forme, and an abundance of living torpedoes (T. ocellata) 
at hand, and I at once began my study of the electric organ, being guided 
by the recent researches of Ranvier, Babuchin, Boll, Krause, &c., in the 
methods of treatment and observation. I was thus able to make pre- 
parations which showed me the distribution and final terminations of the 



154 KEPORT— 1888. 

nerves, and gave me an idea of the minute structure of the electric 
plates. Of Wagner's ' bouquet,' a name which well denotes the appearance 
presented by the remarkable behaviour of the nerves before entering the 
plates, and of the beautiful ramifications of the branches on the plate 
itself, I made preparations, which, however, do no more than confirm the ob- 
servations of Ranvier. The final terminations of the nerve-twigs were well 
brought out by the gold and silver methods, the former giving a positive 
and the latter a negative picture of the tei'minal nerve-branchings. On 
the disputed point as to whether the twigs from neighbouring branches 
communicate so as to form a network, my preparations throw some light. 
In many places a distinct network is visible, although very commonly 
the reticulation is only apparent, observation by means of a high power 
and more exact focussing showing a want of continuity. It is quite 
possible, however, that the want of continuity in these places is due to rup- 
ture of the network during the treatment or to unequal action of the stain. 

The ' Punktirung ' of Boll, corresponding to the ' Palisade ' of 
Remak and the ' electric cilia ' of Ranvier and Ciaccio, and of such 
doubtful significance, is well seen in my gold preparations, being repre- 
sented by numerous violet-coloured points regularly disposed on the 
terminal nerve-branchings. I am sorry that I have not yet had time to 
make a careful examination of transverse sections of the ' electric plates,' 
which would reveal the httle rods or ' Stabchen ' of which the ' Piinktchen ' 
are the inferior ends. I further regret this, as I might have been able 
to express an opinion as to the nature of the intermediary layers of the 
plate, in which Krause mentions the presence of sinuous fibres. 

The organ in the rays, which must now be regarded as electric, 
although functionally it is not of such importance as the corresponding 
structure in other electric fishes, would appear to be represented in all 
the members of the group. I have found it present in the species Raia 
clavata, R. batis, R. oxyrhyncJms, R. oniraletus. Couch (=iJ. circulans. 
Day), in all of which it is large and well developed, and in R. radiata, in 
which it consists of a small slender cylinder. It was first noticed in 
R. clavata by Stark (1844) and was later described by Robin in R. clavata, 
R. ruhus, and R. batis, while Professor Ewart, iu a series of papers read 
quite recently before the Royal Society, gives an account of the develop- 
ment of the organ in the species R. batis, R. fullonica, R. circularis, and 
R. radiata. The form which occurred most commonly at Naples was 
named R. asterias in the Aquarium Catalogue, and is evidently identical 
with our species R. clavata. Making use of this form, I employed my 
time in going over some of the ground already traversed by Robin in 
following out the nerve-supply and general relations of the organ. The 
results compared with the condition observed in the torpedo, and briefly 
stated, are these : — The organ is long and cylindrical in form, and taper- 
ing both anteriorly and posteriorly; it occupies a position on each side 
of the tail for the posterior two-thirds of its length. Its origin is in the 
centre of the sacro-lumbar nauscle, which after the appearance of the 
organ gradually ceases, the electrical apparatus in like gradual manner 
taking its place. Indeed, embryological research shows that the electrical 
organ arises from a transformation of this muscle, in which the con- 
tractile substance has undergone a change. It reaches its maximum 
diameter about the beginning of the first dorsal fin, and after continuing 
of uniform thickness for several centimetres it gradually diminishes 
towards the tip of the tail, into which it, however, extends. In the 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 155 

torpedo, on the other hand, the electric organ is somewhat flat and 
uniform in thickness, and occupies the entire region bounded laterally by 
the head and branchial sac and the margin of the body, anteriorly by the 
anterior boundary of the body and posteriorly by the cartilages of the 
pectoral fins. 

In both forms the organ consists of a large number of pillars or 
columns, but -while in the torpedo these run vertically and occupy the 
whole thickness of the organ, and are on the whole of a similar and 
uniform diameter, in the rays they run lougitudinally, are of variable 
thickness, and have pointed extremities ; nor do they extend the whole 
length of the organ, but after a somewhat oblique course they very soon 
die out. Indeed, the constituent elements of the electrical apparatus of 
rays are much less regularly disposed than is the case with torpedoes. 
The walls of the pillar consist of connective tissue, in which the nerves 
and blood-vessels run, and in torpedoes adjoining columns maybe separated 
from one another, but this I have not found possible in the rays. 

The columns are found to consist of a large number of superimposed 
plates, the electric plates, separated from each other by thin transverse 
partitions of connective tissue, and on one side of these the nerves ramify 
to a great extent and then terminate. In rays the number of plates is 
much less numerous than in torpedoes, the individual plates or discs are 
a great deal smaller in diameter, and of a much greater thickness ; and," 
further, the ramification of the nerves takes place on the ventral face of 
the plate in torpedoes, while in rays it is on the anteriorly directed surface. 

In the case of rays I have not been able to find any division of the 
nerves to supply the plates corresponding to Wagner's bouquet ; they 
seem rather to branch in the usual way, and distribute themselves along 
the transverse ])artitions by which the columns are divided. In the 
torpedo the nerves run from the partition to the ventral surface of the 
electric plate, and there divide again and again very frequently in a 
perfectly dichotomous manner ; this ramification takes place pretty nearly 
in the same plane, so that by simply placing the plate on a slide with its 
ventral face upwards one is able to make a study of the nerve-branch- 
ings. In rays, on the other hand, the nerves run backward from the 
partition immediately in front of the plate, and on their way undergo 
many divisions, and so reach it in the form of very delicate branches, 
which run perpendicularly to the surface of the disc. This can only be 
seen to any advantage in longitudinal or very oblique transverse sections 
of the organ. Before giving rise to the fine perpendicular twigs the 
branches of adjoining nerves anastomose, and frequently at the point of 
union a large nucleus is present. It is not improbable that this ana- 
stomosis may correspond to the final branching and network in the plates 
of the torpedo, while the fine delicate twigs may have as their homologues 
the ' Stabchen ' of Boll. What becomes of the nerve-fibres after they 
reach the plate I have not been able to make out ; that they give rise to 
a second reticulation, and by further division become smaller and smaller 
and gradually pass into the substance of the plate as is stated by Schultze, 
I have not succeeded in confirming, and consider far from likely, the 
structure and development of the plate showing its elements to be 
muscular, and not nervous, as Schultze maintained. 

The disc on which the nerves end consists anteriorly of a finely 
granular groundwork in which large nuclei are embedded ; then follows 
a layer of considerable thickness characterised by the presence of 



156 EEPOEX— 1888. 

numerous long wavy lines, which according to Schultze indicates a 
lamellar structure, and this in turn is followed by a still thicker layer of 
fiuely granular substance containing large oval nuclei similar to that first 
described, but excavated and tunnelled to such an extent as to receive 
the name of ' Schwammkorper ' from an early observer. These layers 
pass quite insensibly into one another, the striated appeai-ance often 
occurring on the trabeculis bounding the vacuolations, and the oval nuclei 
occasionally occurring amidst the sinuous lineations of the central por- 
tions. The homologue would appear to be the intermediary nucleated 
layer in the plate of the torpedo in which Krause describes the presence 
of transverse linear markings. As Robin has shown, the electrical 
apparatus is supplied exclusively by spinal nerves, but a point of great 
interest, suggested to me by Dr. Meyer, and which I hope some day to 
investigate, is the question as to where the fibres originate. There is 
strong reason to believe that they do not spring from the spinal column, 
but have their source in the brain. 

In observing the movements of the torpedo and of the skates in the 
Aquarium I was struck with the difference in their modes of locomotion. 
The torpedo employs the tail with its powerful muscles to discharge the 
function of a propeller, while the skate makes use only of the pectoral 
fins, the tail remaining quite rigid and evidently serving to some extent 
•as a rudder. This fact appears to me worthy of remark, and brings into 
prominence the importance of the organ in the skate, for it is inconceiv- 
able that a structure involving for its accommodation the transference of 
the entire function of locomotion to a difiFerent system of muscles should 
not subserve some very important function. 

I frequently endeavoured to obtain a ' shock ' from the skate by 
grasping the tails of living specimens, but although I have repeatedly 
made an attempt both with the smaller specimens I got at Naples and 
with the much larger forms which I secured when recently superintend- 
ing the work of the ' Garland ' for the Fishery Board for Scotland, I 
never succeeded in experiencing a perceptible discharge. 

But besides giving attention to the structure of the electric organs in 
the torpedo and in the skate I devoted a considerable amount of time to 
the search for homologous organs among their nearest allies. This 
appeared to be necessary in order to throw light on the obscure problem 
as to how the transformation of a muscular into an electric organ could 
have been effected — a transformation which the researches of Babuchin, 
and more recently of Ewart, prove beyond a doubt. It is clear that the 
discovery of an imperfectly developed or of an abortive organ in any 
member of a neighbouring group would aid greatly in the elucidation of 
the question. 

First of all I examined the organ in the skate, which M'Donnell de- 
scribed and regarded as the homologue of the electric organ in the torpedo, 
h.is work receiving a welcome recognition from Mr. Darwin ; but I find it 
is present in a well-developed condition also in the torpedo, along with 
the electric organ, and exists more or less perfectly in other Elasmo- 
branchs, e.g., in SqxMtina angelus and Mustelus laevis. Indeed, it is no 
other than the thymus gland, and its structure has no characters in 
common with electric organs. I studied it both in a fresh condition and 
by means of sections, and find it both in its intimate structure and in 
the nature of its contents to present a close resemblance to the thyroid, 
so that it evidently performs a similar function. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 157 

I further examined the tails of several other Elasmobranchs in 
search of an organ homologous with that of the skate, but without 
success. In Torpedo ocellata, T. viarmorata, Mustelus laevis, Scyllium 
canicula, Notidanus cinereus, Scymnus liclda, the tails of which I carefully 
studied, I was unable to discover any trace of the structure so well de- 
veloped in rays. The condition of the sacro-lumbar muscle in Squatina 
angelus, however, is worthy of remark. Its outer part is quite different 
in appearance from that nearest the vertebrae, being divided by connec- 
tive-tissue septa into a number of longitudinal columns. The resemblance 
to an electric organ is, however, purely macroscopical, an examination of 
the more intimate structure showing no traces of change from ordinary 
muscle. The matter, nevertheless, is worthy of further attention, and it 
is interesting to note that this peculiar condition of the muscle occurs in 
a form which is intermediate between the round (Selachoidei) and the 
flat (Batoidei) members of the Elasmobranch group. 

Another question which I set myself to elucidate was in how far the 
electric organ of the skates, which varies considerably in the different 
species in form and size, and relation to surrounding muscles, might be 
made a character in determining species, but I have not yet suflBciontly 
studied my notes to justify the expression of an opinion. 

In concluding my report, I take the opportunity of expressing my 
deep gratitude to the Committee for their kindness iu affording me sucla 
splendid facilities for prosecuting my research, and further I desire to 
convey my sincerest thanks to Dr. Dohrn and all the members of the 
staS" at the Zoological Station for their unfailing courtesy and the willing 
help which they were always ready to render. 

III. Beport on the Occupation of the Table, hy Professor R. J. Anderson. 

I arrived in Naples on June 4. The table was furnished immediately 
with instruments and preserving fluids. I decided to examine the 
myotomes in a great number of fishes. The importance of the subject 
at once appears. The muscles are less complex than in other vertebrates, 
the primitive arrangement is largely maintained, and we have, to start 
with, the works of Cuvier, Meckel, Miiller, and Stannius, and of Owen, 
Schneider and Humphry, together with the special work of Vetter, Fiir- 
bringer (whose work has some bearing on the subject), Albrecht, Goette 
and others. English readers are most familiar with the myological work 
of Humphry through his contributions to the English Journal of Anatomy 
and his special work on ' Myology.' The whole subject is, however, so 
difiBcult that we require abundance of facts to make any certain advance. 
I have, therefore, measured and noted the arrangement of the metamers 
in a great many fishes. I have made no reference to the embryological 
conditions. The general condition of things is to be found in Miiller's 
myxinoid fishes. His description is adopted by everyone, and my work 
goes mainly to tease out some of the observations of that anatomist. 

The fibrous partitions that separate the metamers are not planes, and 
the line of outcrop is a curved line. The number of the metamers, their 
thickness, and the number and character of the bendings all vary. The 
distance to which the anterior metamers reach in the cranium is not 
constant. I have, then, recorded — 

1. The number of metamers. 

2. The exact length of each segment of a number of metamers, as it 
appears on the surface. 



158 REPORT— 1888. 

3. The breadth of the metamer at the surface (lateral part). 

The amount of the overlap is given in some cases. Additional facts 
of interest have also been given, as for instance : (a) the distinct 
presence of a rectus ; (h) the separability of the dorsal part of the 
dorso-lateral muscle mass ; and (c) the position of the limits with reference 
to the metamers. The term rectus is used to indicate the median ventral 
rauscles running from the anus (each side) along each side of the median 
line to the pelvis, or from the pelvic to the pectoral girdle. 

The actual deviation from aline on the surface formed by a transverse 
plane, is in many cases very considerable. The second metamer in Sargus 
anmdaris gives a measurement for the outcrop of its dorsal portion of 
17 mm., and this runs beyond the tenth part of the entire animal. The 
metamer (dorsal piece) is directed from before backwards and downwards. 
The dorsal part of the sixth metamer reaches 24 mm. and therefore tra- 
verses one-sixth of the length of the fish. The thirteenth metamer gives 
28 mm. for the first or dorsal piece. The entire length of the surface 
line is nearly one half the length of the animal. 

Again the sixth metamer of Gohius capHo, which has a supero-inferior 
diameter of 35 mm., is 67 mm. in length ; the length of the fish being 
187 mm., and the number of metamers, 27. The twenty-third metamer 
of the same fish gave a length of 52 mm. for a breadth of 20 mm. These 
measurements take no account of the overlap. This overlap was 24 mm. 
for the seventeenth metamer. 

The twenty-third metamer of ilugil cejjhalus reaches 11 mm. beneath 
the antecedent metamers, and projects 5 mm. beneath the succeeding. In 
some metamers I have noted 36 mm. as the range, and this means that for 
an antero-posterior extent of 36 mm. an individual metamer by its zigzag 
windings has a situation. The seventh metamer is 92 mm. long, whilst 
the semi-circumference is 46 mm. The seventeenth is 72 mm. long, with 
a sem.i-circumference of 29 ram. 

Trachinus Draco, one of Miiller's examples, shows 12 mm. for the 
dorsal portion of the first, and 25 mm. for the twenty-fifth metamer. The 
semi-diameter is 35 mm. in the first case and 18 mm. in the second. 

The dorsal part of the dorso-lateral mass is not easily distinguished as 
a separate mass in all fishes. In Trigla I was able to separate it. In 
Umbrina it can be separated for 10 metamers. 

In some fishes a distinct terminal bend is to be seen in the ventral 
region as well as in the anterior part of the median line behind. In 
Mustelus the bends are sharp. In various fishes, in Corvina, for example, 
the dorsal curve is very distinct anteriorly. The dorsal bend is also seen 
well in Belone, In Gohius the ventral and lateral. The rectus is seen in 
Pagellus. Bands on each side of the anus run forwards to the pelvis. These 
bands correspond to the bend inwards of the myotomes, and I am inclined 
to think that there is some connection. The dorsal bend is well seen in 
Uranoscopus scaber. 

Without giving any undue importance to the varieties in the ap- 
pearances presented by the myotomes, I may state that between the 
condition in which there are three sharp angles anteriorly and two pos- 
teriorly superficial markings and that condition in which we have the myo- 
tome running a direct course from the median dorsal line to the median 
ventral, we have a great many varieties. How far the dorsal bends have a 
connection with the separation of the dorsal fin muscles, the dorsal, &c., I 
am not yet prepared to ofier any opinion whatever. The bend in the lateral 



OK THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



159 



line wliicli breaks the continuity of tlie dorsal portion of the myotome into 
the ventral portion in the posterior region of some fishes is another diflB- 
culty. The full details of the observations I hope soon to complete. 



rV. A List of Papers loliich Jiave leen published in the year 1887 hij 
Naturalists who have occupied Tables at the Zoological Station. 



Dr. F. Zschokke 

Dr. J. Euckert 
Dr. K. Semon 

Dr. F. S. Monticelli 

Dr. F. RafEaele 
Dr. G. Jatta . 
Dr. A. Ostroumoff 
Prof. W. Preyer 
Dr. L. Plate . 
Prof. J. Steiner 
Prof. C. Emery 

Dr. F. XoU . 



Dr. A. A. Tichomiroff 
Prof. S Trinchese 



Dr. E. de Daclay 
Dr. S. v. Apdthy 
Dr. B. Rawitz 
Dr. M. de DavidofB 



Studien iiber den anatomischen u. histologischen Bau der 

Cestoden. ' Centralblatt fiir Bacteriologie u. Parasiten- 

kunde,' Bd. i. 1887. 
Helminthologische Bemerkungen. ' Mitth. Zool. Station, 

Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Ueber die Anlage des mittleren Keimblatts u. die erste 

Blutbildung bei Torpedo. ' Anat. Anzeiger,' 1887. 
Beitriige zur Naturgeschichte der Synaptiden des Mittel- 

meeres. ' Mitth. Zool. Station,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Synaptiden des Mittel- 

meeres. 2. Mittheilung. 15 plates. Ibid. 
Osservazioni intorno ad alcune specie di Acantocefali. 

' BoUettino Soc. dei Naturalisti in Napoli,' vol. i. 1887. 
Note elmintologiche. Sul nutrimento e sui parassiti deUa 

Sardina (Clupea pilchardus, C. V.) del Golfo di Napoli 

Ibid. 
Uova e larve di Teleostei. !• nota. ' BoUettino Soc. dei 

Naturalisti in Napoli,' vol. i. 1887. 
Sopra il cosidetto ganglio olfattivo dei Cefalopodi. Ibid. 
La vera origine del nervo olfattivo nei Cefalopodi. Ibid. 
Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der cyclostomen Seebryo- 

zoen. ' Mitth. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Ueber die Bewegungen der Seesterne. II. Hiilfte. 

' Mitth. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Ueber einige ectoparasitische Rotatorien des Golfs von 

Neapel. ' Mitth. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Sur la fonction des canaux semi-circulaires. 'Comptes 

Rendus,' t. civ. 1887. 
Intorno alia muscolatura liscia e striata della Nephthys 

scolopendroides D. Ch. (con 13 tav.). 'Mitth. Zool. 

Station, Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Ueber Membranwachsthum u. einige physiologische 

Erscheinungen bei Siphoneen. ' Bot. Zeit.,' 1887, No. .SO. 
Experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber das Wachsthum der 

Zellmembran. 'Abh. Senckenbergische Ges., Frankfurt 

a/M.' 1. Tfl., 15. Bd. 
Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Hydroiden. 'Nachr. 

d. Ges. Freunde d. Naturw., Moskau,' Bd. sxx. 
Come le fibre muscolari in via di s\'iluppo si uniscono alle 

fibre nervose. Comm. preliminare. 'Rendic. Accad. 

Lincei,' vol. ii. 
Nuove osservazioni sulla Rhodope Veramii (Kolliker). 

Comm. prelim. 'Rendic. Accad. Napoli,' 1887. 
Monographic der Familie der Tintinnodeen. ' Mitth. Zool. 

Station, Neapel,' Bd. vii. 1887. 
Methode zur Verfertigung langerer Schnittserien in 

Celloiden. Ibid. 
Die Fussdriise der Opistobranchier. ' Abh. Preuss. Akad 

Wiss.,' 1887. 
Ueber die ersten Entwickelungsvorgiinge bei Distaplia 

inagnilarva, Della Valle, einer zusammengesetzten 

Ascidie. ' Anat. Anz.,' 2. Jgg. 1887. 
Ueber die freie Kernbildung in Zellen. 'Vortr. Ges 

Morph. Phys. Miinchen,' 1887. 



160 



REPORT 1888. 



V. A List of Naturalists who liave ivorTced at the Station from the end of 
June 1887 to the end of June 1888. 



Num- 
ber on 
List 



400 
401 
402 
403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
409 
410 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 
417 
418 
419 
420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 
429 
430 
431 
432 
433 
434 
435 
436 
437 
438 
439 
440 
441 
442 
443 
444 
445 
446 
447 
448 
449 
450 
451 
452 



Naturalist's Name 



Dr. F. Sanfelice 
Dr. Ficalbi 
Dr. D. Carazzi . 
Sr. Bias Ldzaro e Ibiza 
Mr A. de KrasnofE 
Dr. N. Kastschenko 
Prof. R. Klunzinger 
Dr. W. Miiller . 
Prof. A. Mosso . 
Dr. A. Strubell . 
Prof, de Famintzin 
Dr. J. Thiele . 
Dr. P. Mingazzini 
Dr. G. Tacchetti 
Lieutenant Guarienti 
Dr. P. Oppenheim 
Prof. A. Weismann 
Dr. Ishikawa 
Dr. C. Hartlaub 
Dr. W. IssaefE . 
Dr. M. de DavidofE 
Prof. A. Mosso . 
Dr. G. Jatta 
Dr. F. RafEaele . 
Dr. F. Balsamo 
Dr. F. S. Monticelli 
Dr. T. Boveri . 
Dr. J. van Rees . 
Dr. H. Henking 
Dr. H. Debus . 
Mr. H. Bury . 
Dr. O. von Eath 
Dr. W. von Schroder 
Stud. C. Sapper 
Dr. M. P. Traustedt 
Dr. E. Pergens . 
Dr. G. Kalide . 
Mr. A. D. Sloan 
Prof. D. C. Rabl 
Dr. M. Joseph . 
Dr. J. Kohl 
Dr. J. Vosseler . 
Dr. G. Frank . 
Dr. L. Plate 
Prof. B. Eatschek 
Dr. Cori . 
Dr. J. Riickert . 
Prof. G. von Koch 
Dr. B. Rawitz . 
Dr. F. Went . 
Dr. C. Fisch . 
Prof. R. J. Anderson 
Prof. A. Delia Valle 



State or University 

■whose Table 

■was made use of 



Italy 



Spain 
Russia 

»i • • 

Wiirtemberg . 
Prussia . 
Italy 
Saxony . 
Russia 
Prussia . 
Italy 
Italian Navy . 

1' » • 

Prussia . 
Baden 

Zoological Station 
Hamburg 
Russian Navy . 
Zoological Station 
Italy 



Province of Naples 

Bavaria . 
Holland . 
Prussia . 
Hesse 
Cambridge 
Strasburg 
Zoological Station 
Wiirtemberg . 
Zoological Station 
Belgium . 
Berlin Academy 
British Association 
Austria . 
Prussia . 



Wiirtemberg 
Zoological Stai 
Prussia 
Austria 



Bavaria 

Hesse 

Prussia 

Holland 

Bavaria 

British Association 

Italy 



ion 



Duration of Occupancy 



Arrival 



Departure 



Aug.- 1, 


1887 







» 3, 


J» 


Sept.19,1887 


„ 16. 


J> 


»> "j 


,, 


„ 23, 


)I 


Nov. 1, 


,» 


„ 30, 


)» 


Sept. 30, 


,» 


Sept. 5, 


99 


May 10, 


1888 


„ 15, 


)» 


Oct. 10, 


1887 


„ 30, 


» 


Feb. 27, 


1888 


Oct. 13, 


»» 


Oct. 16, 


1887 


„ 16, 


>» 


Apr. 11, 


1888 


„ 21, 


>» 


„ 29, 


»» 


Nov. 1, 


)» 


„ 30, 


>» 


» 25, 


» 


— 




Dec. 3, 


»> 


May 10, 


>» 


), 3, 


)) 


„ 8, 


)> 


» 7, 


J» 


„ 2, 


>» 


,, 28, 


)> 


„ 16, 


»» 


,, 28, 


)» 


„ 16, 


»> 


,, 29, 


)J 


„ 11, 


)* 


„ 30, 


)> 


June 11, 


>» 


,, 30, 


>» 


May 29, 


)» 


., 31, 


?» 


Feb. 15, 


>» 


Jan. ], 


1888 


— 




» 1. 


)» 


— 




,. 1, 


»» 


— 




,. 1, 


J> 


— 




» 7, 


»» 


Apr. 11, 


J) 


„ 7, 


5> 


„ 11, 


J» 


„ 7, 


)» 


,. 17, 


f) 


„ 16, 


»J 


Mai-. 1, 


»» 


„ 24, 


J> 


May 28, 


y> 


Feb. 2. 


J» 


Apr. 30, 


}) 


» 14, 


)> 


May 12, 


)» 


„ 18, 


J) 


Apr. 24, 


)i 


„ 21, 


J» 


Mar. 10, 


>» 


Mar. 5, 


>> 


June 23, 


J) 


J, <^, 


)) 


— 




„ 16, 


)) 


May 15, 


)» 


» 18, 


J> 


Apr. 8, 


>} 


„ 19, 


»> 


„ 18, 


>» 


„ 19, 


»> 


„ 12, 


»» 


„ 19, 


J» 


May 23, 


)j 


„ 20, 


» 


— 




„ 27, 


)J 


May 10, 


)» 


Apr. 6, 


»> 


Apr. 20, 


Ji 


>l ^» 


)) 


„ 20, 


11 


„ 14, 


») 


May 10, 


j> 


„ 28, 


jy 




»> 


., 28, 


»> 


June 27, 


)» 


„ 28, 


>> 


— 




„ 28, 


)) 


— 




June 4, 


it 


— 





ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



161 



VI. A List 


q/- 


1887. July 


5 


>» 


)» 


it 


ft 

y 

12 


11 
1» 


13 




» 

15 

20 
30 




31 


Aug. 


3 




4 




5 
12 
16 


»> 


1» 

22 


f* 


24 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



1888. 



Naturalists, Sfc, to xuliom Specimens have ieen sentfr 
end of Jime 1887 to the end of June 1888. 



Zoolog. Institut, Kiel 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, Dublin 
Dr. O. Hamann, Gottingen 
Museo Civico, Venice 
Mr. A. Wenke, Jaromer 
Laboratoire de Zoologie, Geneva 
Veterinar-Institut, Dorpat 
Conte Peracca, Turin 
Prof. P. d'Oliveira, Coimbra 
Museo Zoologico, Palermo 
Stiidt. Museum, Barmen . 
Dr. Krukenberg, Jena 
Morphological Laboratory, Cam- 
bridge ..... 
Prof. Ciaccio, Bologna 
Dr. W. Patten, Milwaukee 
Prof. Wiedersheim, Freiburg 

i/B \ 

Prof. A. Froriep, Tubingen 
Dr. Krukenberg, Jena 
Mr. K. D. Darbishire, Manchester 
Stud. R. Driesch, Wiesbaden . 
Obergymnasium, Sarajevo 
Dr. Stein, Frankfurt a/M. . 
Prof. Rabl, Prague . 
Morphological Laboratory, Cam- 
bridge ..... 
Prof. A. Korotneff, Kiew . 
Laboratoire d'Anatomie, Geneva 
Mr. A. Kreidl, Praaue 
Mr. W. Schliiter, Halle a/S. 
Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris 
Istituto Tecnico, Verona . 
Polytechnikum, Stuttgart 
LandwirthschaftlicheAkademie, 
Holienheim .... 
Dr. C. F. Jickeli, Hermannstadt 
University College, London 
Prof. A. Froriep, Tiibingen 
Prof. A. Babuchin, Moscow 

Mr. Putze, Hamburg. 
„ Dr. P. Pelseneer, Brussels 
,, University Colleije, London 

27 Prof. Batelli, Pei-ugia 

28 R. Museo dei " Vertcbrati, 

Florence .... 
5 Prof. Mosso, Turin 

7 Zool. Institut, Breslau 

8 Prof. Moriggia, Rome 

„ Mr. E. Penard, Wiesbaden 

„ Prof. Delia Valle, Bluseo Zool., 

Modena 

14 Realschule, Ludwigshafen 
„ Realschule, Brunswick 

15 Prof. Ludwig, Zool. Inst., Bonn. 
„ Prof. Mosso, Turin . 

17 Zool. Institut, Gottingen 



Otn 



the 



27 



14 

17 
22 
2(; 



10 
26 





Lire c. 


Siphonophora 


. 140-60 


Actinia 


58-95 


Bchinodermata . 


43-25 


Various 


77-55 


Various 


40- 


Various 


28-35 


Collection . 


. 376-35 


Elaphis 


55- 


Various 


. 182-55 


Collection . 


. 589-50 


Collection . 


. 1250- 


Chimaera 


19-50 


Sepia. Sipunculus 


. 303-25 


Torpedo 


. 23-85 


Cymothoa . 


23-30 


Petromyzon . 


58-05 


Embryos of Pristiun 


is. 43-05 


Murex . 


3-90 


Cephalopoda 


. 28-10 


Various 


29-80 


Various 


. 111-85 


Embryos of Torpedo 


30-70 


Embryos of Torpedo 


15-60 


Pelagia 


. 232-50 


Collection . 


. 385-40 


Cerianthus . 


23-40 


Collection . 


. 453-60 


Collection . 


. 125-80 


Mollusca 


48-55 


Collection . 


. 1.37-45 


Collection . 


. 374-20 


Collection . 


, 133-90 


Starfish 


23-30 


Scorpions . 


14-50 


Embryos of Torpedo 


16-90 


Electric Organs 


of 


Torpedo . 


10-50 


Various 


56-60 


Fissurella . 


1-90 


Various 


35-55 


Bonellia 


24-70 


Thymnus 


72- 


Pectunculus 


6-40 


Amphioxus . 


15-75 


Electric Organs 


of 


Torpedo . 


22-30 


Various 


. 21-85 


Collection . 


. 136- 


Collection . 


. 124-90 


Collection . 


62-50 


Various 


. 165-45 


Area Noae . 


7-40 


Collection . 


. 349-40 




M 



162 



REPOBT — 1888. 



1S87 Nov. 17 
„ 18 



19 



L888. 



9> 


20 
21 




23 

28 


f * 


») 


11 


)» 


Dec. 


3 


19 


12 



14 

15 

20 

22 
26 

30 



Jan. 


7 


>i 


16 


j» 


17 


11 


20 


u 


22 


JJ 


^> 


M 


26 


») 


30 


»> 


31 


>» 


») 


Feb. 


17 


)* 


»1 


>> 


20 


)» 


23 


») 


25 


j» 


»» 


»» 


>» 


»» 


») 


>» 


27 


Marcl 


1 3 


»» 


14 


»» 


15 


>» 


>» 


»» 


»» 


»i 


)» 


j» 


20 


9t 


29 


April 


6 



Seminario, Caserta . . . Collection . 

Museo Civico, A''enice . . Various 

Mr. E. Marie, Paris . . . Various 

Dr. Korschelt, Berlin . . Various 

Dr. Kiikenthal, Jena. . . Ophelia, &c. 

Mr George Brook, Edinburgh . Lepadogaster 

Dr. F. Noll, Wiirzburg . . Caulerjia 

Ecole de M6decine, Cairo . . Collection . 

Dr. A. Kaufmann, Bern . . Cephalopoda 

Mr. Misslowitz, Habercorn. . Sepia . 

Labor, de Zoologie, Nancy. . MoUusca 

Zool. Museum, Warsaw . . Collection . 

Dr. P. de Vescovi, Rome . . Various 

Prof. P. d'Oliveira, Coimbra . Various 

Mr. Baraldi, Zool. Mns., Turin . Anemonia . 
(Cabinet Zootomique, Univ. St. 

Petersburg .... Myzostomum 
Dr. C. J. Jickeli, Hcrmannstadt Antedon 
Ecole de la Marine, St. Peters- 
burg Collection 

Prof. Vitzou, Univ. Bucarest . Collection 

Mr. V. Fric, Prague . . . Various 

Prof. Hubrecht, Utrecht . . Cerebratulus 

Mr. E. Schulz, Glogau . . Various 

Prof. P. d'Oliveira, Coimbra . Collection 

Baron de S. Joseph, Paris . . Various 
MM. Andre and Lientier, 

Marseilles .... Collection 

Mr. W. Schliiter, Halle . . Collection 
Queen's College, Prof. Anderson, 

Galway Collection 

Mr. Shipley, Cambridge . , Worms 

Mr. A. Amrhein, Vienna . . Diatoms 

Prof. P. d'Oliveira, Coimbra . Collection 

Museo Zoologico, Naples . . Collection 

Conle Peracca, Turin . Lacerta 

Prof. Ciaccio, Bologna . . Lophius 

Museo Zoologico, Bologna . . Physophora, &c. 

Mr. R. Damon, Weymouth . Collection 

Prof Steenstrup, Copenliagcn . Cephalopodi 

Dr. P. Pelseneer, Brussels . . Mollusca 

Mr. Marqua, Linz . . . Amphioxus 

School of Physic, Dublin . . Collection 

Realgymnasium, Sprottau . . Various 

Prof. Wiedersheim, Frieburg i/B Scyllium 

Mr. A. Certes, Paris . . . Various 

University College, London . Various 

Museo Zoologico, Pisa . . Collection 

Zoolog. Museum, Dorpat . . Collection 

Mr T. Tempere, Paris . . Various 

Prof. G. Schwalbe, Strasburg . Dogfish 

Conte Peracca, Turin . . Lacerta 

Prof. J. van Ankuiu, Groningen. Siphonophora 

Mr. C. Weber-Sulzer, Winterthur Various 

Labor, de Zoologie, Nancy . . Various 

Dr. P. Pelseneer, Brussels . . Mollusca 

Prof. Ciaccio, Bologna . . Salpa . 

Zool. Institut, Univ. Berlin . Collection 

Mr. C. Bassi .... Tavernelle 

Mr. Fullartou, Univ. Glasgow . Various 

Dr. H. Debus, Strasburg . . Collection 

Dr. Traustedt, Herlufsholm . Collection 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



163 



1888. April 6 Mr. E. Marie, Paris . 
,, ,, Dr. van Wijhe . 
„ 10 Prof. Carnoy, Louvain 
,, „ Miis6e d'Histoire Isat., Paris 
„ 11 Mr. F. Bernard, Paris 
,, 16 Botanical Institute, Piostock 
„ „ Prof. Hubreclit, Utrecht . 
,, ,, Morphol. Laboratory, Cam- 
bridge . . . . . 
,, „ Prof. P. d'Oliveira, Coimbra 
„ ,, Museo Zoologico, Naples . 
Mr. P. Krause, Dresden 
Collegio Pontano, Naples . 
O Feusege Josef Agost, Alesuth 
Zool. Zoot. Institute, Gottingen 
Zool. Museum, Bern . 
May 8 Museum der Khein. Naturf. Ge- 
sellschaft, Mainz . 
Anatom. Instit., Munich . 
Lab. de Zoologie, Nancy . 
Dr. B. Hofer, Konigsberg. 
Mr. E. Kestleven, London 
Mr. W. H. Tyas, Manchester . 
Realgvmnasium, Pensa 
Mr. W. Schluter, Halle . 
Mr. C. Bellotti, Milan 
Dr. Riickert, Munich 
Gros.sherzgl. Museum, Darm- 
stadt ..... 
University College, London 
Realschule, Fih-th 
R. Scuola Tecnica, Rome . 
Prof. Krimmel, Reutlingen 
Prof. Mosso, Turin . 
Prof. S. Matsubara, Tokio. 
„ „ Prof. P. d'Oliveira, Coimbra 
June 4 Cabinet Zootom., Univ. St. 
Petersburg .... 
„ „ Ma.son College, Birmingham . 

„ „ Laboratoire de Zoologie, Lau- 

sanne ..... 
,, 9 G. B. Paravia & Co., Rome 
„ 11 Dr. Miinder, Gottingen 



26 
27 

30 

8 

10 



14 



18 



23 
24 
25 

28 



12 

14 
16 
17 

20 
26 



30 



Anatom. Inst. Munich 
Mr. J. C. Rinnbock, Vienna 
University College, London 
Rijks Museum, Leyden 
R. Jluseo dei Vertebrati, Flo- 
rence . . . . . 
Museum d'Hist. Nat., Lyons 
Mr. H. C. Chadwick, Man- 
chester . . . . . 
Owens College, Manchester 
Mr. H. Meller, Manchester 
Dr. Ziegler, Freiburg i/B 
Prof. G. Vimercati, Florence 
Prof. Gilson, Louvain 





Lire c. 


. Various 


. 120-80 


. Ampliioxus . 


5-75 


. Various 


19-35 


. Siphonophora 


66-10 


. Siphonophora 


31-50 


. Sargassum . 


34- 


. Aplysia 


45-25 


Lepas, Sepia, Sec. 


. 68515 


Various 


10- 


Various 


53-96 


Living specimens 


29-95 


Collection . 


33- 


Collection . 


46-05 


Various 


. 10515 


Various 


40-55 


Collection . 


1405- 


Embiyos of Torpedo 


51-70 


Various 


14-85 


Various 


14-75 


Amphioxus . 


5- 

5- 

289-70 


Collection , 


Collection . 


118-55 


Scorpa;na . 


10- 


Young Pristiurus 


36-40 


Various 


67-95 


Amphioxus . 


4-85 


Collection . 


100- 


Collection . 


300- 


Coelenterata 


50-05 


Mur«na 


11-70 


Collection . 


209- 


Portunus 


2-20 


Collection . 


645-10 


Various 


115- 


Amphioxus . 


2-80 


Collection . 


600- 


Turbo rugosum, oper- 




cula. 


2- 


Petromyzon 


38-95 


Alga3, Diatoms . 


9-95 


Sepia, Sipunculus, &c. 


180-20 


Annelides . 


98-15 


Lampris luna 


99- 


Siphonophora, &c. 


187-15 


Various 


21-45 


Collection . 


710-25 


Polyophthalmus . 


2-20 


Embryos of Torpedo . 


33-10 


Various 


35-25 


Coleoptera . 


4-45 




22,258-65 



M 2 



164 KKPOKT — 1888. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone 
{Secretary), Professor Armstrong, IMr. Stephen Bourne, Miss 
Lypia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Crosskey, 
Sir KiCHARD Temple, BaH., Sir Henry E. Eoscoe, Mr. James 
Heywood, and Professor N. Story Maskelyne, appointed for 
the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating to the teaching 
of Science in Elementary Schools. 

When your Committee made their last report in August 1887, the 
Government had just abandoned their Technical Instruction Bill for 
England, but had expressed their intention of proceeding with the Scotch 
BilL The latter passed the House shortly afterwards, and provides that 
any School Board, after the next election, may provide and maintain 
Technical Schools, or that two or more School Boards may join for that 
purpose. A copy of the Act is given in Appendix 1. A circular was 
issued by the Scotch Education Department in February last, calling the 
attention of the School Boards to the matter, and discussing the subject 
at considerable length. The defiiiition of technical education given in this 
circular is set out in Appendix II. The Scotch Code of this year has been 
considerably modified in consequence of this Act; besides which it has r. 
provision which is very interesting in its bearing on your Committee's 
previous recommendations. Instead of English being the subject whicli 
must be taken as the first class subject, the article now runs : ' Not more 
than three class subjects may be taken, and if any such subjects are 
taken, one must be English or Elementary Science.' 

No alteration has been made in the English Code this year ; and the 
disabilities under which the Brighton School Board and the Beethoven 
Street School (London) were sufiering at the date of last report have not 
been removed. 

Manual instruction has, however, been given by the London School 
Board, through the assistance of the City and Guilds of London Technical 
Institute, who have provided the sum of 1,OOOL for one year for the equip- 
ment and maintenance of classes. A joint committee of representatives of 
the School Board and Institute have selected six centres, three north and 
three south of the Thames, and have appointed two special teachers and 
two artisan assistants who devote all their time to the work. In this 
way about 600 boys are receiving nearly three hours' instruction a week 
in the scientific principles and the practical work of carpentry. The 
School Board has asked for a further grant for a second year in conse- 
quence of no legislation having taken place this session. 

The return of the Education Department for this year shows that the 
diminution in the teaching of the science subjects, noted in previous 
reports, still continues. The statistics of the class subjects for five years 
are given in the subjoined table, which shows an actual decrease in 
Geography and Elementary Science, notwithstanding the increase in the 
number of departments examined. The growing practice of taking needle- 
work in girls' schools as the second class subject (and thus obtaining for 
it a larger grant than would be paid for it otherwise) is gradually 
excluding geography. 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 165 



Class Subjects. — Departments 


1882-3 


1883-4 


1884-5 


1885-6 


1886-7 


English .... 

Geography 
Elementary Science. 
History .... 
Drawing .... 
Needlework 

Total . 


18,363 


19,080 


19,431 


19,608 


19,917 


12,823 

48 

367 

5,286 


12,775 
51 

382 

5,929 


12,336 

45 

386 

6,499 


12,055 

43 

375 

240 

6,809 


12,035 

39 

383 

605 

7,137 


18,524 


19,137 


19,266 


19,522 


20,099 



The return of scholars individually examined in the scientific specific 
subjects shows again an actual falling ofi" in the total, and either an actual 
or relative falling ofi" in every subject except mechanics A and chemistry, 
which have both considerably increased. The figures are given in the fol- 
lowing table : — 



Specific Subjects.— Children 


1882-3 


1883-1 


1884-5 


1885-6 


1886-7 


Algebra .... 


26,547 


24,787 


25,347 


25,393 


25,103 


Euclid and Mensuration 


1,942 


2,010 


1,269 


1,247 


995 


Mechanics A . . . 


2,042 


3,174 


3,527 


4,844 


6,315 


B . . . 


— 


206 


239 


128 


33 


Animal Physiology 


22,759 


22,857 


20,869 


18,.o23 


17,338 


Botany .... 


3,280 


2,604 


2,415 


1,992 


1,589 


Principles of Agriculture 


1,357 


1,859 


1,481 


1,351 


1,137 


Chemistry .... 


1,183 


1,047 


1,095 


1,158 


1,488 


Sound, Light and Heat 


630 


1,253 


1,231 


1,334 


1,158 


Magnetism and Electricity . 


3,643 


3,244 


2,864 


2,951 


2,250 


Domestic Economy 
Total. 


19,582 


21,458 


19,437 


19,556 


20,716 


82,965 


84,499 


79,774 


78,477 
393,289 


78,122 


Number of Scholars in Stan- 


286,355 


325,2»5 


352,860 


432,097 


dards v., VI., and VII. 













The rapid and serious decrease of attention paid to these science sub- 
jects is shown by the percentage of children who have taken them, as 
compared with the number of scholars that might have taken these 
subjects, viz. : — 



[n 1882-3 . 


. 29 per cent 


„ 1883-4 . 


. . . 26-0 „ 


„ 1884-5 . 


. . . 22-6 „ 


„ 1885-6 . 


. . 19-9 „ 


„ 1886-7 . 


. 18-1 „ 



and it must be remembered that children who have taken two of these 
subjects count twice over. 

The Special Committee of the London School Board ' on the subjects 
and modes of instruction in the Board's schools,' which was referred to 
on the last occasion, has presented its report. The report itself, prepared 
by Mr. W. Bousfield, which is a lengthy and important document, is 
strongly in favour of much greater attention being paid to science. The 



166 EEPORT— 1888. , 

appendix contains valuable evidence fi'om several scientific men, amongst 
others ; and statistical tables relating to the instruction now given in the 
schools under the Board. From these it appears that object lessons are 
given in all the infant schools, occupying on an average about one and a 
half hours per week, and in 91 per cent, of the boys' and girls' schools ; 
but in the case of many of these they are confined to the lower standards, 
and the average time devoted to them is less than three-quarters of an 
hour per week. This is in strange contrast with the ten and a quarter 
hours per week, which is the average quantity given in the boys' schools, 
and nine and a quarter in the girls' schools, to the literary subjects of 
instruction — reading, writing, spellmg, and grammar — and to the four 
hours at least per week which the gii^ls are expected to give to needle- 
work. Though these object lessons are the principal means by which a 
knowledge of science is given, about half of the elder boys get some 
instruction in some scientific specific subjects. The principal recom- 
mendations in which your Committee are interested are : — 

1. That the methods of Kindergarten teaching in infants' schools be 
developed for senior scholars throughout the standards in schools, sa 
as to supply a graduated course of manual training in connection with 
science teaching and object lessons. 

2. That the teaching of all subjects be accompanied, where possible, 
by experiments and ocular demonstration, and that the necessary ap- 
paratus be supplied to the schools. 

10. That greater attention be paid to the teaching of mechanics as a 
specific subject, and that models for illustrating the instruction be placed 
on the requisition list. 

16. That, in order to allow time for experimental teaching and manual 
work, the time now given to spelling, parsing, and grammar generally, be 
reduced. 

28. That application be made to the Education Department that the 
new Code be revised, as follows: — 

(6.) By applying to senior departments the regulation made with 
regard to infants' departments in Article lOG (b.) of the new Code, viz., 
that the award of a merit grant should have ' regard to the provision 
made for . . . simple lessons on objects, and on the phenomena of nature 
and of common life.' 

(c.) By providing that more freedom of choice may be given to 
managers and teachers in the selection of class subjects, in order that the 
first class subject need not necessarily be English. 

(/.) By rendering it obligatory upon pupil-teachers to exhibit a 
knowledge of elementary science in some form at their annual examina- 
tions. (Schedule V.) 

A lengthy discussion on the general principles of the Report ha» 
taken place, and the first recommendation has been carried, with the 
addition of the words, ' but not so as to include teaching the practice 
of any trade or industry, and that the method of Kindergarten in 
the senior schools be tried first in a few special schools throughout 
London.' 

Two Technical Instruction Bills have been brought into Parliament 
again this year — the one by Sir Heni'y E. Roscoe and the other by the 
Government — but each of them considerably varied from those of the pre- 
ceding year. Neither of them progressed beyond the first reading ; the 
former having been supplanted by the Bill of the Government, which,. 



ON THE TEACHINa OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 167 

however, met with little approval, and was withdrawn in July along with 
several others. 

The reason generally given why legislative and executive changes 
have not been made during the year is that the Government is waiting 
for the Report of the Royal Commission on the working of the Elementary 
Education Acts of England and Wales. Since the Manchester meeting 
the Royal Commission have published another volume of evidence, and 
an analysis of the whole ; but they have not yet finally settled their 
recommendations. 

In the meantime public opinion has considerably ripened upon the 
subject of scientific and practical education. This is evident by the 
earnest manner in which it is now discussed by politicians and teachers, 
and in the columns of the periodical press. 

Appendix I. 
Technical Schools (^Scotland) Act, 1887. 

Be it enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, 
in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, 
as follows : 

I. This Act may be cited as the Technical Schools (Scotland) Act, 
1887, and shall in so far as consistent with the tenor thereof be construed 
as one with the Education (Scotland) Acts, 1872 to 1883. 

II. This Act shall commence to have effect in each parish and burgh 
in Scotland from and after the next ensuing triennial election of a school 
board therein respectively, and shall apply to Scotland only. 

III. (1.) A school board may pass a resolution that it is expedient 
to provide a technical school for its district, and thereupon may, subject 
to the provisions of this Act, provide such a school accordingly, and pay 
the expenses of providing and maintaining the school, including the 
expense, if any, of providing tools, apparatus, and drawing and other 
miaterials, in so far as the same remain the property of the school board, 
out of the school fund. The subjects to be taught in the school shall be 
such as may from time to time be approved of by the Scotch Education 
Department. 

The school board shall fix the school fees to be paid for attendance at 
each technical school under their management, and such fees shall be 
paid to the treasurer of the board, and a separate account shall be kept 
of the amount of the fees derived from such school, and it shall be lawful 
for the school board, if they see fit, to pay to the teachers of a technical 
school the fees derived from such school, and to divide the same among 
them as the school board shall determine. Any deficiency which may 
exist on the technical school account shall be payable out of the school 
fund provided under the Education (Scotland) Acts, 1872 to 1883. 

(2.) If the resolution is not confirmed as hereinafter mentioned, it 
shall not be carried into effect, and shall not be again proposed until the 
expiration of not less than twelve months. 

IV. A resolution of a school board, as in the last section mentioned, 
shall be of no effect unless and until — 

(1.) It is confirmed at a subsequent meeting of the school board held 
after the resolution has been published in the prescribed manner, and 



168 BEPOKT— 1888. 

after the expiration of the prescribed time, being not earlier than one 
month after the first publication of such resolution ; and 

(2.) It is confirmed by the Scotch Education Department by a Minute 
or Order. 

V. (1.) Every school provided under this Act if it claim a grant 
from the Department of Science and Art shall, with respect to any sub- 
ject for which such grant is claimed, be conducted in accordance with 
the conditions specified in the Minutes of the Department of Science and 
Art in force for the time being, and required to be fulfilled by such a 
school in order to obtain a grant from that D'^partment. 

(2.) Those conditions shall, amongst other things, provide that a 
grant shall not be made by the Department of Science and Art in respect 
of a scholar admitted to the school unless or until he has obtained such 
a certificate from the Scotch Education Department as is hereinafter 
mentioned. 

(3.) A Minute of the Department of Science and Art not in force at 
the passing of this Act shall not be deemed to be in force for the purposes 
of this Act until it has lain for not less than one month during one session 
on the Table of both Houses of Parliament. 

VI. Every school provided under this Act shall, in respect to all 
subjects other than those for which a grant is claimed from the Science 
and Ai't Department, be conducted in accordance with the conditions 
which may from time to time be set forth in the Scotch Education Code 
annually laid before Parliament under tbe heading 'Technical Schools.' 

VII. (1.) Every school board providing a technical school shall, 
subject to the provisions of this Act, maintain and keep efficient the 
school so provided. 

(2.) For the purpose of providing any such school, a school board 
shall have the same powers, but subject to the same conditions, as a 
school board has for providing sufficient school accommodation for its 
district. 

(3.) For the purpose of maintaining any such school, a school board 
shall have the same powers, but subject to the same conditions, as a 
school board has in regard to the maintenance of a higher class public 
school under section eighteen of the Education (Scotland) Act, 1878. 

(4.) A school board may, with the consent of the Scotch Education 
Department, use for the purposes of a technical school any buildings, or 
part of any buildinga, vested therein for the purposes of the Education 
(Scotland) Acts, 1872 to 1883, and a school board, or combination of 
school boards, may, with the consent of the Scotch Education Depart- 
ment, use for the purposes of the Education (Scotland) Acts, 1872 to 
1883, any buildings, or part of any buildings, authorised by this Act. 

(5.) A school board may, with the consent of the Scotch Education 
Department, spread the payment of the expense of providing a technical 
school over a number of years, not exceeding thirty-five years, unless with 
the sanction of the Treasury, and in any case not exceeding fifty, and may 
borrow money for that purpose ; and for the purpose of such borrowing 
section forty-five of the Education (Scotland) Act, 1872, shall be held to 
apply to the loan, and such provision shall be deemed to be a work for 
which a school board is authorised to bori'ow, and the Public Works 
Loan Commissioners are authorised to lend, within tbe meaning of the 
ninth section and the First Schedule of the Public Works Loans 
Act, 1875. 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 169 

(6.) Where a scliool board lias provided any sncli school, it may dis- 
continue the school, or change the site thereof, if it satisfies the Scotch 
Education Department that the school to be discontinued is unnecessary, 
or that the change of site is expedient. 

VIII. Any two or more school boards may resolve to combine together 
for the purpose of providing and maintaining a technical school under this 
Act common to the districts of such school boards, provided that no such 
resolution shall have any effect unless and until it has been published and 
confirmed in manner hereinbefore provided ; and if such resolution is 
confirmed as aforesaid, the same provisions shall have effect as in the case 
of a resolution to provide a technical school, and if the resolution is 
carried into effect the expenses of providing or maintaining the school, 
and the sum necessary to meet any deficiency on the technical school 
account, shall be paid out of the school funds of the combining school 
boards in terms of the said resolution. 

IX. The provisions of sections thirty-eight and thirty-niue of the 
Education (Scotland) Act, 1872, with respect to the transference of 
schools in pursuance of those sections, shall apply to technical schools now 
existing, or which may hereafter exist, in the same manner as they now 
apply to the schools which may presently be transferred in pursuance of 
those sections. 

X. No scholar shall be admitted to a technical school unless or until 
he has obtained a certificate under section seventy-three of the Education 
(Scotland) Act,- 1872, as amended by section seven of the Education 
(Scotland) Act, 1883, or an examination equivalent thereto. 

XI. A technical school provided and maintained under this Act shall 
be deemed to be a public school, but attendance thereat shall not be 
reckoned as attendance for the purpose of any grant from moneys voted 
by Parliament under the Education (Scotland) Acts, 1872 to 1883. 

XII. In this Act— 

The expression ' technical school ' means a school or department of a 
school in which technical instruction is given, and school board shall 
include combination of school boards. 

The expression ' technical instruction ' means instruction in subjects 
approved by the Scotch Education Department, and in the branches of 
science and art with respect to which grants are for the time being made 
by the Department of Science and Art, or in any other subject which may 
for the time being be sanctioned by that Department. 

The expression ' prescribed ' means prescribed by the Scotch Educa- 
tion Department. 

Appendix II. 

' However desirable it might be, it is scarcely possible to frame a 
■definition of technical education which can be satisfactory from all points 
of view ; but without any such comprehensive definition it may be possible 
to lay down certain outlines of the operations permissible under the Act. 
Their lordships assume that such instruction may be held to cover not 
only the general scientific principles which underlie the leading manufac- 
tures and industries of the kingdom, but also some knowledge of the 
manner in which these general principles are applied, and some acquaint- 
ance with the practical conditions under which they are applied in various 
industries, and in various localities. Besides this general description, they 
apprehend that the ordinary interpretation of the term covers some 



170 KEPOIIT — 188S. 

practical training of Land and eye, some adapting of the ordinary lessons 
of the school to the affairs of life, and to the acquiring of aptitude in the 
special occupation in which the scholar is to be engaged.' 

Postscript. 

Since the foregoing report was prepared Mr. Samuel Smith's Con- 
tinuation Schools Bill has been printed, and the final report of the 
Royal Commission on the Working of the Elementary Education Acts, 
England and Wales, has been issued. 

The former provides that in the Continuation schools proposed to be 
created instruction must be given in at least three of the subjects speci- 
fied in the First Schedule, which includes, inter alia, elementai'y mathe- 
matics, mechanical drawing, and elements of agricultural science, and 
may be given in any of the subjects specified in the Second Schedule, 
which includes use of tools, and art handwork generally. 

The final report of the Royal Commission is a very lengthy document, 
and contains a large amount of matter bearing upon the subject with 
which your Committee have to deal. The following are some of the prin- 
cipal recommendations affecting the teaching of science in elementary 
schools : — 

' (15.) That in making future appointments to the office of inspector, 
it would be desirable, in regard to a lai-ger pi-oportion of them than at 
present, to give special weight to the possession of an adequate knowledge 
of natural science. 

' (89.) That, as far as practicable, the children should be grounded in 
all the four class subjects, and that when only some of them are taken 
the selection should be left to the school authorities. 

' (90.) That the provision of the Code, which requires that if only 
one class subject is taken it must be " English," should be repealed. 

' (93.) That geography, if properly taught, is a branch of elementary 
science, which should not be separated from the other branches, and 
might well be taught along with object lessons, in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction. 

' (94.) That in Standard VII. the time allotted to geography might 
advantageously be devoted to specialising some particular branch of th© 
subject. 

' (114.) That the following subjects of elementary instruction are to 
be regarded as essential, subject to the qualifications we have already 
made :— 

... . . . • 

Geography, especially of the British Empire. 

Lessons on common objects in the lower standards, leading up to a 
knowledge of elementary science in the higher standards. 

'(118.) That though boys while at school should not be taught a 
trade, some elementary instruction in science is only second in import- 
ance to the three elementary subjects. 

' (120.) That the curriculum of elementary scientific subjects might 
vary according to the special requirements of each locality. 

' (121.) That object lessons should be continued in the lower stand- 
ards in succession to similar teaching in the infant school. 

' (123.) That the curriculum in the ordinary elementary schools might 
often include not only instruction in the elementary principles of science. 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 171 

but also, in certain standards, elementary mannal instruction in the use of 
tools ; and in higher schools and evening schools this work might be 
carried still further. 

' (124.) That if technical instruction of this kind is to be given in our 
schools, it should not be applicable to boys under ten yeai-s of age. The 
ultimate object of such instruction, however, might be furthered by judi- 
cious systematical science teaching given to the younger scholars, in which 
they should be associated in preparing specimens, helping to make models 
on their geography lessons, and so forth. 

' (125.) That examinations in science should as far as possible be 
conducted orally and not on paper, especially in the first five standards. 

' (12G.) That if it should be thought that children ought to receive 
some instruction in manual employment other than that which the elemen- 
tary schools available for their use can give, the best way of meeting the 
need would be by the establishment in connection with some higher insti- 
tution of a workshop for boys of exceptional ability, or for others to whom 
it was considered desirable to give this instruction. 

' (127.) That arrangements might be made to substitute attendance at 
such a centre on one or two afternoons in the week for attendance at the 
elementary school. 

' (128.) That the higher grades of elementary schools in which more 
advanced science is taught, and where a certain number of children stay 
beyond the seventh standard, may be regarded as continuation schools. 

' (136.) That it is desirable that the management of technical instruc- 
tion should be entrusted to the Education Department, and not to the 
Science and Art Department. 

' (142.) That the evening school system should be thoroughly revised - 
that a special curriculum and special schedules of standards and subjects 
should be allowed, suitable to the needs of a locality, and that the local 
managers should be encouraged to submit such schedules to the Depart- 
ment for approval ; that the provision embodied in the Code requiring all 
scholars in evening schools to pass in the three elementary subjects as a 
condition of taking of additional subjects should cease to be enforced;, 
and that no superior limit of age should be imposed on the scholars. 

'(1-51.) That a knowledge of the principles of agriculture, which 
might be taught in higher elementary schools, where such existed in 
country places, would be of great value to those children who might 
hereafter be engaged in agricultural labour. 

' (152.) That in certain cases the object of higher elementary schools 
might be secured by attaching to an ordinary elementary school a class 
or section in which higher instruction was provided for scholars who had 
passed the seventh standard. That liberal grants made, as in Scotland, 
to the managers of elementary schools for advanced instruction to scholars 
who have passed the highest standard, would facilitate the provision of 
such higher instruction in the smaller and less populous school districts.' 

These recommendations were signed by fifteen out of the twenty-three 
Commissioners. The remaining eight presented an entirely separate 
report, as they differed from their colleagues on many other points ; but 
they agree in principle with the above recommendations so far as your 
Committee have quoted them. The following are some of the comments 
of the minority, which will show that they are at least equally desirous 
of seeing greater facilities given for instruction in science in elementary 
schools. 



172 BEPORT— 1888. 

'We agree tL at the present special preference of English above the 
other class subjects sliould be removed from the Code. 

' We agree that higher elementary schools are a useful (we would 
rather say a necessary) addition to our school machinery for primary 
education. . . . That where such schools cannot be founded, higher 
classes for children who have passed the seventh standard should be 
attached to an ordinary elementary school. 

' We dissent from the recommendations of onr colleagues as to the 
management of technical schools when established. . . . We would 
say . . . that these schools, which should be the crown and development 
of elementary education, should be in touch and close sympathy through 
their management with our elementary school system. 

' In reference to the subject of technical and scientific instruction, we 
draw an important distinction between technical instruction or instruction 
which is designed with special reference to, and as a preliminary training 
for, the commercial or industrial occupations of life, and manual instruc- 
tion regai'ded as a training of the hand and eye so as to bring them under 
the control of the brain and will, as a general preparation for the future 
career in life, whatever it may be. 

' Bearing in mind the age of children in elementary schools, it may be 
a question whether technical instruction, as we have defined it, should be 
commenced any earlier than the sixth standard. But we are of opinion 
that, after the children have left the infant school, transitional methods 
should be adopted, which will develop their activity and train their powers 
by drawing in ail cases, and by such other means as, for instance, 
modelling, or the collection and mounting of botanical specimens. 

' This training would, on the one hand, be advantageous as naturally 
leading up to technical instruction, and, on the other hand, far from 
interfering with the more literary studies, the latter would, we believe, 
benefit considerably by the variety and relief which would thus be 
introduced. 

* We recommend that the examination of the scientific teaching given 
in our elementary schools should be mainly oral, especially up to and 
including the present fifth standard. If science is to be well taught, 
care should be taken that where the ordinary teachers are not qualified, 
specially trained teachers should be employed. 

'Higher grade schools should be encouraged which will prepare 
scholars for advanced technical and commercial instruction. 

' Technical teaching in the school cannot replace the practical teaching, 
which is best learnt in the woi'kshop. 

' In ordinary elementary schools good teaching of drawing and of 
elementary science are the best, and in the lower classes the only fitting 
preparation for the work of the technical school, and these subjects should 
be generally taught. 

' Technical instruction should cover commercial and agricultural as 
•«vell as industrial instruction.' 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS. 



173- 



Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridue, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. Eupert Jones {Secretary), 
on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palceozoic Rocks. 



§ I. Monograph of the PalEeozoic Cera- 

tioaarUhe. 
§ II. Ceratiocaris tyranmis from Trout- 
beck. 
§ III. Scandinavian Phyllocarida, and 

teeth of Ceratiucaru. 
§ IV. M. Novak's Aristozoe solitaria, 

Ceratiocaris, spp., and note on 

Cryptocaris. 
§ V. M. Novak's note on Ptyclwcaris (?) 

Jaschei, F. A. Koemer. 
§ VI. Mr. Clarke's Devonian Pkyllocarida 

of New- York State. 



§ VII. Bactropui in Devonshire. 
§ VIII. Tremadoc Fossils. 

1. Saceocaris major, Salter. 

2. Linyiikwaris Saltenana 

nov. 

3. Lingulocarig siliquiformu 

J." &: W. 

4 . Ceratidcans ( 1 ) 

5. Hymeruicaris vermicaudar 

Salter. 
§ IX. Estheria from Orkney. 
§ X. Devonian Phjilocarids of New- 
York State, &c. 



§ I. Monograph. — -' A Monograph of the British Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 
(Phyllocarida, Packard), Part I., Ceratiocaridce,' based on our former 
Reports to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, waF 
published in January of this year by the Palseontographical Society. 
The genera and species treated of are those enumerated in the table at 
page 234 of the Report for 1886, excepting that Ceratiocaris attenuaia wan 
found to be Salter's G. tyrannus; to this species also may be referred 
pi. 2, fig. 4, pi. 4, fig. 3, pi. 5, fig. G, and pi. 6, fig. 11 of the Monograph, 
the style or telson being strong and straight (not curved as in its near 
ally, G. Miirchisoni). The Portuguese fossil Phyllocarid, first named and 
described by D. Sharpe asDithyj-ocaris(?) longicauda (?) is also included, 
with illustrations (being within reach at the Geological Society of London), 
as a doubtful Ceratiocaris. 

§ II. Ceratiocaris tyrannus. — Professor Sven Leonhard Tornquist, of 
Lund, has sent to us for examination some fragments of the caudal ap- 
pendage of a Ceratiocaris from the Upper Coldwell Beds, near Troutbeck,. 
Westmoreland. The specimen consists of a style and two stylets, im- 
perfect at the ends, in a sandy mudstone. One stylet lies close to the 
style, and the other is indicated by a cast at an angle with its fellow. 
They are all straight and the style shows a lateral row of pits (bases of 
spinules). It is too straight for C. 3Iiorchisoni, and the pits are too small 
for C. gigas. It may belong to C. tyrannus, like the specimen (also from 
Westmoreland), referred to C. valida, perhaps wrongly, ' Monogr. Foss. 
Phyll. ' p. 21, pi. 6, f. 11. The specimen shown by pi. 4, fig. 3, is also 
probably C. tyrannus and not C. Murchisoni. 

§ III. Ceratiocaridce from Sweden. — The Scandinavian Phyllocarida 
mentioned in the last ' Report ' (Manchester meeting, 1887), pp. 60-62, 
have been fully described and figured in the ' Geological Magazine ' for 
March 1888, pp. 97-100, pi. 5, and for April, pp. 145-150, pi. 6 and 
woodcuts. Ceratiocaris valida has been added with some probability as 
occurring in Sweden. In G. Angelini the style (telson) was probably 
only 7 (not 15) mm. longer than in pi. 5, fig. 1, p. 97; and the row of 
little pits (bases of prickles) is on the right-hand (not left-hand) side of 
the cast as figured, ibid., see also ibid., p. 150. 



174 PvEPOia-— 1888. 

With this revised and enlarged desci'iption of the Phyllocaridal 
remains from Sweden are associated descriptions and figures of both 
Scandinavian and British specimens of the masticatory organs (' teeth ') 
of Ceratiocaris. 

We ought to have added that Mr. T. P. Barkas has given two rough 
figures of a similar tooth, belonging probably to Dithyrocaris,^ in his 
'Manual of Coal-measure Paleontology,' or 'Illustrated Guide to the 
Fish, Amphibian, Reptilian, and supposed Mammalian Remains of the 
Northumberland Carboniferous Strata,' 8vo, and ' Atlas of Carboniferous 
Fossils from the Northumberland Carboniferous Strata,' fol., 1873. 
'These enlarged views of a Crustacean tooth are figs. 161 and 162 in 
pi. 5, and the specimen is described as the Anthropodontoides Bailesii, at 
p. 45. 

§ IV. Bohemian Phylhcarida, ^"c. — M. Ottomar Novak has further 
■enlarged our knowledge of the Palteozoic Phyllopodous Crustaceans 
during his critical examination of the ' Barrande Collection,' of which he 
has the charge in the Prague Museum. 

In the Stage F-/"!, of the Hercynian Formation, he finds an un- 
described telson, relatively short and stout, 39 mm. in length, swollen for 
about 10 mm. from the top, afterwards neatly ridged and fluted dorsally, 
:and bearing a row of small pits along each outer ridge. This he defines 
as Aristozoe soUtaria, at p. 15, pi. 1, figs. 15-19, of his ' Zur Kenntniss der 
Fauna der Etage F-/1 in der paliiozoischen Schichtengruppe Bohmens ' ; 
' Sitzungsber. k. bohm. Gesell. Wissensch.,' Jahrgang 1886. At p. 15 
M. Novak explains that Aristozoe had only one caudal spine, namely, the 
telson or style. In the Table at p. 17 he mentions two new species 
■of Ceratiocaris (not described, G. modesta and G. Damesi) from the same 
Stage. 

In our Second Report (for 1884), at p. 87, we offered the remark that 
most of Barrande's species of Gryptocaris and Zonozoe were probably 
opercula of some Shells, or possibly of some Corals such as Ooniopliyllum. 
M. Novak finds evidence that some at least of the Cryptocarides are 
referable to the Conularian Orthotheca or Hyolithes, and that Gryptocaris 
3uavis, Barrande, in particular, is the operculum of Orthotheca (Hyolithes) 
intermedia, Noviik. ' Sitzungsb. bohm. Ges. Wiss.' 1886, pp. 7-14, pi. 1, 
ligs. 9-13. 

We may add that in his ' Illustrations of the Fauna of the St.-John 
Group, No. iTi.,' in the 'Transact. Roy. Soc. Canada,' Section TV., 1885, 
Mr. G. F. Matthew has described and figured some fossil Pteropoda 
{Hyolithes, &c.), together with their opercula (p. 48, &c., pi. 6, figs. 1, 2, 
•5, 6, 7). These latter are evidently the same as Barrande's Gryptocaris. 
Other probable opercula are figured and described in the same work 
(pp. 61-66, pi. 6, figs. 16-21), under the generic names of Lepiditta, 
Lepidilla, Hijyponicharion, and Beyrichona ; some being regarded as 
Ostracods, and others doubtfully as Phyllopods. 

§ V. Ptychocaris (?) JascJiei. — M. Ottomar Novak has favoured us with 
the following note : — 

' Bithyrocaris Jaschel, figured by Kayser in the " Abhandl.," &c., pi. 1, 
fig. 13, and mentioned in the Fifth Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of 
the Palaeozoic Rocks, p. 66, shows some resemblance to my Ptychocaris 

' Similar to those described and figured in tlie Geoh Mag., 1865, p. 401, pi. 11, 
tig. 8; and 1873, p. 486, pi. 16, lig. 2g. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALiMOZOlC ROCKS. 175 

■(see Fourth Report, &c., p. 233), which occurs at an equivalent horizon 
— the " Hercyniau " of Beyrich and Kayser, = " Stages F, G, and H," of 
Barrande.' 

§ VI. Devonian Phyllocarida of Neiv- York State. — In the ' Bulletin 
of the U. S. Geological Survey,' No. 16, 8vo, 1885, Mr. John M. Clarke 
has given a memoir ' On the Higher Devonian Faunas of Ontario County, 
New York,' in which he describes and figures the following Phyllo- 
carida : — 

1. Ceratiocaris simplex, J. M. C, p. 43 (7"?), pi. 2, fig. 2. Carapace- 
valve nearly oval in outline, 30 mm. long and about 10 mm. wide (high). 

2. G. Beecheri, J. M. C, p. 44 (78), pi. 2, fig. 1. Three abdominal 
segments and three caudal spines, not well preserved. Proportionally too 
large for the foregoing species. The ultimate segment is apparently 
shorter than usual in this genus. 

3. Echinocaris WhitfielcU, J. M. C, p. 45 (79), pi. 2, figs. 3 and 4. 
Carapace- valve 27 mm. long and 16 mm. wide (high) ; with the middle 
and one of the lateral caudal spines, the latter longer than the former. 

4. Equisetides Wrightiana, Dawson, 1881 (Echinocaris Wrightiana, 
J. & W. ' Geol. Mag.,' 1884, p. 395, pi. 13. fig. 1), is mentioned at p. 66 
(100). See also our Third Report (for 1885), p. 360. 

5. Spathiocaris Emersoni, J. M. C. Notes on the genus and localities 
for this species are given at pp. 46 (80) and 47 (81). 

In the Table at p. 69 (103) Ceratiocaris longicauda, Hall, is noted as 
•occurring in the ' Genessee Shales ' and the ' Portage Beds,' in which 
latter occur also Dipterocaris p>ennai.I)cedali, CI., I) . pes-cervm, CL, and B. 
Procne, CI. The ' Naples Shales ' have yielded Ceratiocaris simplex, CI., 
G. Beecheri, CI., Echinocaris Whiffieldi, CL, Ech. Wrightiana (Dawson), 
and Spathiocaris Emersoni, CI. See also our Second Report (for 1884), 
pp. 78, 80, 81. 

§ VII. Bactropus in Devonshire. — The Rev. G. F. Whidborne, F.G.S., 
has identified from the Devonian strata of Torquay a specimen oi Bactropus 
longipes(?), Barrande, which M. Ottomar Novak > has shown to be really 
the chief abdominal segment (or ' post-abdomen ') of Barrande's Aristozoe 
regina ; whilst Ceratiocaris deiilis, Barrande, is the style (telson) of the 
same bivalved Crustacean (Phyllocarid). 

§ VIII. Tremadoc Fossils. — In the First Report on the Palfeozoic 
Phyllopoda (1883) a tabular synopsis of the known fossil genera was 
published, together with descriptive notes on some of the species, from 
the Tremadoc and other old rocks, including Hymenocaris, Caryocaris, 
and Lingulocaris. The well-known Hymenocaris vermicauda is therein 
described from specimens obtained from many localities of the Lingula- 
flag and Tremadoc-slate series of North Wales, and preserved in the 
•collections of the British Museum, Geological Survey, Cambridge Uni- 
versity, and Owens College. The track-marks on Lingula-flags, near 
Tremadoc, ascribed by Salter to Hymenocaris, are also alluded to. 

The 'Hymenocaris (Saccocaris) major' of Salter is also referred to at 
pp. 219, 220. Though three specimens have been thus labelled in the 
Cambridge Museum, with some doubt and possibly by Salter himself, 
only one of them answers to Salter's brief generic description, and on 
this the following determination is founded. 

' Sitzungshcr. Ji. hdhm. Gesell. WissenscJi., Jahrgang 1885, pp. 239-243, pi. 1. See 

also our Report for 1885. p. 359. 



17t> KEPORT 1888. 

1. Saccocaris majok, Salter. (Woodcut, Fig. 1.) 

Saccocaris, Salter, 1868. ' Report Proc. Geol. Polytech. Soc. West 
Eiding of Yorkshire ' ^for 1867), vol. iv. 1868, p. 588. 

Mymenocaris (Saccocaris) major, Salter, 1873. ' Catal. Palseoz. Fossils, 
Cambridge Museum,' p. 7. Referring to ' Halifax Trans.' 1867,' by 
mistake. 

The particular specimen which most neai-ly corresponds with the 
original description, namely, ' a large ovate carapace, strongly emai-ginate 
behind, and larger than H. vermicauda,' is a relatively large, thin, filmy, 
compressed valve, 4-j-y inches long and 2 inches high,' suboblong, with 
nearly parallel dorsal and ventral borders, the former straighter than the 
latter, which has a slight outward (downwai'd) curve. Obliquely elliptical 
in front, the acme of the curvature being above the mesial line, thus 
making the antero-dorsal much shorter than the antero-ventral curve. 
Apparently blunt or truncate behind, with a gentle outward curve rather 
above the middle. The exact line of this posterior margin is not clearly 
seen, owing to its being shredded or frayed otf, thus passing into the sub- 
stance of the black schistose mudstone ; the valve having been delicately 
plaited (with the stone) by lateral pressure acting at right angles to its 
length, and this longitudinal plaiting being transverse to the hind border. 
The front edge has not been affected nearly so much, having probably been 
thicker, or even slightly rimmed. This pressure has, perhaps, somewhat 
elongated the valve, and lessened its original height, besides giving it a 
gentle undulation, as well as the plaiting (pleating), throughout. 

The valve, slightly hollow, is probably the right-hand valve, showing 
its inside. Several concentric, irregular, narrow foldings, following the 
contour of the anterior and antero-ventral border, are apparently due to 
the compression of the convexity of the valve. 

This specimen, No. 1, at p. 220 of the First Report, and fig. 1 of the 
accompanying woodcuts, is marked -j^:^, oTfy, in the Woodwardian 
Museum of the Cambridge University, and was collected by Mr. D. 
Homfray from the upper part of the Lower Lingula-flags at Caer-y-coed, 
near Maentwrog. 

This was at first (in 1867) regarded by Mr. Salter as a flat carapace, 
' after the manner oi Apus' ; but afterwards (in 1873) he referred it to 
the bivalved, folded, or Nebalioid forms of carapace, and placed it as an 
ally of Hijinenocaris, with the name Saccocaris. In shape it differs much 
from the valves of that genus, as it wants their triangular form, due to the 
dorsal line forming an angle with the front edge, which slopes rapidly 
downwards and backwards all along the ventral, to join the posterior 
margin with a bold, oblique, postero-ventral curve. Differing also remark- 
ably in size, it must be assigned to a different generic group ; and it will 
be best to recall the name Salter was at first inclined to give it, namely, 
Saccocaris. 

2. LiNGULOCARis Saltertana, sp. nov. (Woodcuts, Figs. 6 & 7.) 

The British Museum has lately acquired a fine specimen of one of the 
old Cambrian Phyllocarids, from the Tremadoc-slate scries. It is a black, 

' H. rermicauda rarely attained more than an inch in length along the back, 8- 
or 9 tenths of an inch in height, and one and 3 or 4 tenths of an inch in the greatest 
angular length from antero-dorsal to postero-ventral region 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC EOCKS. 177 

shining, and filmy valve (or compressed bivalved carapace), seen as an 
impression and counterpart on a split slab of hard, grey, micaceous mud- 
stone, which has been subjected to the usual lateral pressure. The valve 
(3^? xlg^ inch) is acutely subovate, or sharply boat- shaped in outline, 
convex below and straight above, and was acute probably at each end, 
though one of them is damaged. It retains a remnant of one of the 
small, subtriangular, terminal extensions of the dorsal edge, such as are 
present in L. siliquiformis. See fig. 6 of the annexed woodcuts. 

The surface is peculiarly marked with what seem to be modifications 
of ornamental strise or linear plaits, namely, very small lenticular and 
bead-like elevations, which may have resulted from raised longitudinal 
strise being crossed by the delicate plaiting of lateral pressure at slightly 
different angles. 

We dedicate this fine species to the memory of our friend, Mr, J. W. 
Salter, whose labours in elucidating these old Phyllopodous forms are 
well known. It was found by Dr. R. Roberts in the Tuhwntirbwlch 
quarry at Portmadoc. 

Another of the old associates of SijmenorAiris in the Tremadoc series 
is the 'second specimen ' mentioned at p. 220 of our First Report (1883). 
Though smaller than the foregoing (2!;XiJ? inch), it is of a similar 
shape, having been acute at both ends (probably, though one is broken), 
elliptically curved below and nearly straight above, thus having the outline 
of a sharp-ended boat (fig. 7 of the annexed woodcuts). It is not really 
' emarginate ' at one end, as stated at p. 220 of the Report, that appear- 
ance being due to a slight transverse crack and some inequality of the 
surface near the end, which was probably acute, but has been squeezed out 
of shape and frayed away by the longitudinal plaiting of the hard, com- 
pressed, slaty shale or mudstone. The cross-pressure has also coarsely 
plaited the valve throughout, and somewhat lengthened it. 

From the upper part of the Lower Lingula-flags, at Caer-y-coed, near 
Maentwrog. Collected by Mr. D. Homfray. In the Woodwai'dian 
Museum, Cambridge. 

A somewhat similar, but badly preserved, fossil from the Brethay 
Flags of Long Sleddale (Marr Coll. in the Cambridge Museum) is 
probably a hingulocaris of the same, or a closely allied, species. 

3. LiNGULOCARis SILIQUIFORMIS, J. and W. (Woodcuts, Figs. 8 & 9.) 
' Geol. Mag.,' 1883, p. 464. 

At p. 228 of the First Report (1883) we described this Cambrian Phyllo- 
carid as differing from Salter's L. lingulaecomes ' by being longer, sharper 
at one end, and more nearly resembling a pea-pod in shape. One speci- 
men (fig. 8 of the annexed woodcuts), rather wrinkled by crush, from the 
Upper Tremadoc series at Garth Hill, Portmadoc, was presented to the 
British Museum by the Rev. J. F. Blake. Another (fig. 9), also in the 
British Museum, is marked '48654 from the Bala Schist at Bwlch-y- 
gaseg, near Cynwyn, Corwen ; J.P., March 14, 1868.' 

A fragmental specimen from the Upper Tremadoc series at Garth, 
Portmadoc, is in the Museum of Practical Geology, marked f ; and 
referred to L. lingulcBcomes at p. 15, ' Catal. Cambr. and Silur. Foss. 
M. P. G.,' 1878. 

' Besides the two specimens, ^^^ in the Woodwardian Museum (see First Report 
p. 223), from Garth, there is one in the British Museum, No. 48,001, from the same 
locality. 

1888. M 



178 llBPOKX — 1888. 



4. Cebatiocaris (?), sp. Fig. 10, of the Woodcuts. 

A posterior portion of a valve like that of Ceratiocaris was described at 
p. 220 of the First Report (1883). It is j^^ X ^ inch in measurement ; from 
Wern, near Portmadoc ; and marked y-j^ in the Woodwardian Museum, 
Cambridge. 

The body-pieces known as Salter's Ceratiocaris (?) lata, from Garth, 
and C. (?) insperata, from Penmorfa (see our First Report, p. 221, and 
Third Report, 1885, p. 351), appear to be too large for this species from 
Wern. 

5. Htmenocakis. (Woodcuts, Figs. 2- 5.) 

In illustration of Hymenocaris vermicaucla, Salter, outline sketches 
of some of the best known specimens are given in figs. 2-5 of the 
accompanying woodcuts. The modified shapes of the valves, and of 
the body-rings variable in number, are here indicated to illustrate the 
descriptions in the First Report, pp. 218, 219 ; and to serve for comparison 
with their associates Saccocaris, Lingulocaris, and Ceratiocaris (?), above 
described (figs. 1, 6-10). 

Explanation of the Figures (^Woodcuts'). Natural size. 

Fig. 1. Saccocaris major, Salter. Caer-y-coed, near Maentwrog ; upper part of the Lower 

Lingula-flags. 
Fig. "2. Jfi/nienncaris vermicauda. Salter. Carapace much narrowed by transverse pressure. 
Borth, Portmadoc ; Ffestiniog group. 

Fig. .3. Carapace and abdomen modified by pressure. Borth. 

Fig. 4. Carapace and abdomen the former somewhat shortened and widened by 

pressure, but nearly of the original shape. Borth. 

Fig. u. Carapace and abdomen modified by pressure. Borth. 

£ 2^^ I —Fig. G. Lingnhcaris Salteriana, sp. nov. Flattened carapace; damaged at the ends. 
Tuliwntirbwlch quarry, Portmadoc. 

,v,^. Fig. 7. (?). Smaller individual. Carapace flattened, and somewhat narrowed 

■' 3 and lengthened by transverse pressure. Caer-y-coed, near Maentwrog ; Lower 

Lingula-flags. 

J ISO-, _ Yiu. 8. siliguifnrviis, J. &W. Garth Hill, Tremadoc ; Upper Tremadoc series. 

, , Fig. 9. Bwlch-y-gaseg, near Cynwyd, Corwen ; Bala-schist. 

""* Fig. 10. Ceratiocaris (?), si[>. Hinder moiety of valve. Portmadoc; Ffestiniog group. 

§ IX. Estheria. — Some specimens of Estheria memhranacea (Pacht), 
in a black limestone, including the long variety (p. 16 : ' Monogr. Foss. 
BstheriEe,' 1863), collected lately by Mr. Jex, in Orkney, have been placed 
in the British Museum. 

§ X. Devonian Phyllocarids of Neiv-York State, Sfc. — The following 
genera and species are fully noticed and carefully figured in Prof. Dr. James 
Hall's last volume of the ' Palaeontology of the State of New York,' just 
lately published. They are of Devonian age, and with few exceptions 
from the district mentioned. The title of this important volume is 
'Geological Survey of the State of New York. Palaeontology: Vol. VII. 
Text and plates. Containing descriptions of the Trilobites and other 
Crustacea of the Oriskany, Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage, 
Chemung, and Catskill Groups. By James Hall, State Geologist and 
Palaeontolosrist. Assisted by John M. Clarke.' 4to, Ixiv. and 236 pages, 
45 plates. Albany, N.Y., 1888. Together with a ' Supplement to Vol. V., 
Part 2, of the Palaeontology of New- York State. Pteropoda, Cephalopoda, 
and Annelida,' 42 pages, and plates 114 to 129. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF IHE PALEOZOIC ROCK-S. 179 




« 2 



180 REPOKX — 188». 

The groupings of families, genera, &c., are as follow: — 
I. Phtllocabida. 

A. Ceratiocarid^. 

I. Ceratiocaris, McCoy, 1849. Occurring in the Genessee and Portage 
formations. 

1. C. longicauda. Hall, p. 163, pi. 31, fig. 1. 

2. G. Beecheri, Clarke, p. 164, pi. 31, fig. 3. 

3. C. (?) simplex, Clarke, p. 165, pi. 31, fig. 2. 

II. JEcldnocaris, Whitfield, 1880. Occurring in the Hamilton, Portage, 
and Chemung formations. 

1. E. punctata, Hall, p. 166, pi. 27, fig. 10 ; pi. 28, figs. 1-7 ; pi. 29,. 
figs. 1-8. Prof. Hall prefers to keep punctata rather than armata 
for the specific name (p. 170) : see our Third Report, 1885, p. 360. 
The Mandibles of Phyllocarida are treated of at pp. 170, 171 ;. 
pi. 30, figs. 13-19. 

2. E. Whitfieldi, Clarke, p. 172, pi. 29, figs. 20, 21. 

3. E. condtjlepis, n. sp., p. 173, pi. 29, figs. 14-17. 

4. E. socialis, Beecher, p. 174, pi. 30, figs. 1-12. 

5. E. sublcevis, Whitfield, p. 176, pi. 29, figs. 11-13. 

6. E. pustulosa, Whitfield, p. 178, pi. 29, figs. 9, 10. 

7. E. multinodosa, Whitfield, p. 180, pi. 29, figs. 18, 19. 

The Equisetides Wrightiana, referred by Woodward and Jones to 
Echinocaris (Third Report, 1885, p. 360), is provisionally placed by 
Prof. Hall with Stylonurus, by reason of the character of the spinona 
elevations, pp. 161, 162. 

III. Eltmocakis, Beecher, 1884. Occurring in the Hamilton and 
Chemung formations. 

1. E. capsella, n. sp., p. 181, pi. 31, fig. 4. 

2. E. siliqua, Beecher, p. 182, pi. 31, figs. 5, 6. 

rV. Tropidocaris, Beecher, 1884. Occurring in the Hamilton and 
Chemung formations. 

1. T. hicarinata, Beecher, p. 184, pi. 31, figs. 7-12. 

2. T. interrufta, Beecher, p. 185, pi. 31, fig. 13. 

3. T. alternata, Beecher, p. 186, pi. 31, figs. 14, 15. 

B. Pinacarid^. 

I. Mesothyra, n.g. Occurring in the Marcellus, Hamilton, and, 
Portage formations. 

1. M. Oceani, n. sp., p. 187, pi. 32, figs. 1-6 ; pi. 33, figs. 4-7 ; pi. 34, 
figs. 1-5. Separated from M. (formerly Dithyrocaris) Neptuni, 
Hall, on account of some differences in the caudal appendages. 

2. M. Neptuni, Hall, p. 191, pi. 32, fig. 7 ; pi. 33, fig. 1. 

3. M. spumcea, n. sp., p. 193, pi. 32, figs. 8, 9 ; pi. 34, fig. 2. 

4. M. {Dithyrocaris ?) Veneris, n. sp., p. 193, pi. 33, fig. 3. 

[II. Dithyrocaris, Scouler, 1843.] In the Hamilton formation. 
1. D. Belli, Woodward, p. 184 (Gaspe). 

C. Rhinocarid^. 

I. Rhinocaris, n.g. (J. M. C.) Occurring in the Hamilton formation. 
Eh. columbina, n. sp., p. 195, pi. 31, figs. 16-21. 
Rh. scaphoptera, n. sp., p. 197, pi. 31, figs. 22, 23. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHTLLOPODA OF IHE PALEOZOIC ROCKS. 181 

D. DlSCINOCARID^. 

I. Spathiocaris, Clarke, 1882. In the Portage formation. 
1. 8p. Emersoni, Clarke, p. 199, pi. 35, figs. 12-18. 

II. DiPTEROCARis, Clarke, 1882. In the Portage and Chemung 
formations. 

1. D. pennce-DaidaM, Clarke, p. 200, pi. 35, fig. 24. 

2. D. Procne, Clarke, p. 201, pi. 35, figs. 25-27. 

3. D. pes-cervce, Clarke, p. 202, pi. 35, figs. 20, 21. 

II. Phtllopoda. 
A. Limnadud^;. 

I. Estheria, Riippel, 1857. In the Hamilton formation. 
1. E. pulex, Clarke, p. 206, pi. 35, figs. 10, 11. 

II. ScHizoDiscus, n.g. (J. M. C), p. 203. In the Hamilton formation. 
1. S. capsa, n. sp., p. 207, pi. 35, figs. 1-9. 



■Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, 
Professor F. Y. Edgeworth {Secretary), Professor H. S. Fox- 
well, Mr. Egbert Gtiffen, Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. 
B. Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, Mr. K. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave, and Professor H. Sidgwick, appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the best method of ascertaining and m.easuring 
Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard. {Drawn 
up by Mr. Giffen.) 

In their reports last year the Committee discussed fully the theoretical 
aspects of the problem of measuring variations in the value of the 
monetary standard. It was abundantly clear, from this discussion, they 
think, that even if statistical data were more complete than they are 
the question is a most complicated and difficult one : how to measure 
variations in the value of the monetary standard would in no case be a 
simple matter. They desire now to report on one or two of the 
more definite issues involved as connected with problems of immediate 
practical interest, of which it may be possible for the public to attempt 
an approximately correct practical solution. 

The main practical uses for which the measurement of variations in a 
monetary standard has been desired appear to be the following : — - 

1. The fixation of rents or other deferred payments extending over 
long periods of time, for which it has been desired to obtain a currency 
of a more stable sort than money is supposed to be. This has been a 
pi-actical question of great importance from the days of Fleetwood's 
' Chronicon Preciosum,' which begins, as is well known, with a remark- 
able case of conscience — whether a man in order to receive a bursary or 
scholarship, for which a declaration that his private income does not 
exceed, say, five pounds a year, is required, is justified, the value of 
money having fallen proportionately, in making the declaration upon an 
income not exceeding thirty pounds a year. In recent times there is at 
least one instance of a difierent standard from metal being deliberately 



182 BEFOBT— 1888. 

substituted on a large scale, viz., the tithe averages, these being made ta 
vary with the value of grain, so that in effect the tithe is so much grain, 
and not so much money. The Scotch Fiars prices have existed for more 
than two centuries for similar purposes. 

2. To enable comparisons to be made between the value of money 
incomes in different places, which is often an object of great practical 
interest, not only individuals contemplating residential changes having to 
consider it, but Governments and other large spending bodies, spending 
money in widely distant places, having to do the like. Apart from di- 
rectly business issues of this sort, such questions are of obvious practical 
interest to economic students, and through them to the general public. 

3. To enable historians and other students making comparisons 
between past and pi'esent to give an approximate meaning to the money 
expressions which they deal with, and say roughly what a given fine,^ 
or payment, or amount of national revenue or expenditure in a past age 
would mean in modern language. To the student of history from the 
economic point of view some such method of giving a meaning to 
money expressions is indispensable. 

And it has been seen theoretically that the only way to accomplish 
these objects is to form ' index-numbers,' that is, to substitute for money 
some other measure by which the value of money or any other single com- 
modity relative to an aggregate of commodities may be ascertained. If 
all commodities could be included in such an index-number, and a proper 
weight assigned to each, and if the same commodities existed in the same 
proportion in past times and at different places as exist now at a given 
place, the new measure would be perfect for the purposes required, pro- 
vided that there were any possihility of ascertaining the prices themselves, and 
approximately, apart from this special difficulty of obtaining prices, there 
may be such a new measure which will be useful, though it is not ideally 
perfect. For the purposes above stated, it is obvious something that is 
very useful may be obtained without even an approach to ideal perfection. 
The intervals of time and the differences of place may be so great that 
useful distinctions may be drawn out, even although there is a wide 
margin of error, and although it is certain that from such causes as the 
introduction of new commodities and the dropping out of others, and the 
continual changes in the proportions in use of all the others, absolutely 
exact comparisons cannot be made. 

But, apart from all such difiBculties, which were fully discussed in last 
report, it may be stated broadly that hitherto both students and practical 
politicians have been limited even more effectually in their means of 
measuring variations in the monetary standard by the absolute deficiency 
of the data. It is practically, for instance, unnecessary for tbem to 
consider whether they are to use the retail prices which must be used if 
an ideal index-number based on desiderata is to be employed, because 
there is no complete record of retail prices even at the present time, and 
certainly there are no such records of retail prices in many different 
places, and going back over historical periods. Similarly there can be 
no question, as regards the past or present, of such an ideal standard as 
that suggested by Professor Nicholson, which depends on a valuation of 
the property in a country, for no valuation approximately accurate 
enough for such, a purpose could be made in any country at the present 
time, much, less could it be carried backwards for any lengthened period. 

For these reasons nracticallv the best must be made of wholesale 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 183 

prices, for these are the only prices of which there are records — of which 
it may ahnost be said there can be records, retail prices being subject to 
many difficulties, including the degree of ' retailing ' which may exist, 
to become the basis of records capable of solving the practical problems 
stated. 

In actual fact students and politicians have been still more limited. 
There are prices and prices. Practically it is found that only the prices 
of leading commodities, capable of being dealt with in large wholesale 
markets, can be made use of, while the assumption must be made, so 
numerous and varying are quaHties, that certain articles may be taken 
as types. For instance, in dealing with the values of wheat it is con- 
venient to take English wheat, as represented by the Gazette average, as 
a type, and assume that all wheat sold in England varies in price as 
English wheat does ; but the assumption may not be quite correct, while 
the Gazette average itself, if we look at the question historically, only 
goes back a hundred years, and previous to that the historical student 
must fall back on the records of the value of wheat at a particular place, 
such as Windsor. Even greater difficulties arise with regard to other 
articles, while for some purposes the prices of large masses of articles, 
which are obtained by such means as the division of the aggregate 
quantities of the imports by aggregate values, are deficient, owing to 
the changes in the qualities of the constituents of the group from year to 
year or from period to period. In dealing with the question practically, 
therefore, those concerned must always have an eye upon the data 
and consider what is practically obtainable and what use may be made 
thereof. 

Looking at the subject in this way, then, the most important con- 
clusion seems to be that for such practical purposes as those above 
mentioned the methods already followed may be and have, in fact, been 
approximately successful. With improvements they may be made more 
useful, although ideal perfection is unobtainable, and even inconceivable. 
What has to be considered is that the prices of leading commodities are 
likely to vary on the average as all commodities vary on the average ; 
that, if such commodities are selected without bias, the result, as regards 
the selected articles, may be accepted as representative of the average re- 
sult ; that wholesale and retail prices will vary in much the same way, and 
that consequently the mean of a number of prices taken almost at random, 
if there is a sufficient number to get rid of chance errors, may be de- 
pended on to measure variations in the monetary standard in lien of a 
standard composed of all articles whatsoever, each receiving its proper 
weight. Rough approximations only are possible, but according to the 
logic of statistics the defectiveness of the statistical data, though it has 
to be recognised, is not an insuperable barrier to the adoption of rough 
approximations which are valuable. Let us see what has been accom- 
plished. 

The ' Chronicon Preciosum,' dealing with the chief articles only, as to 
which records of price happened to remain, and using a plan of means in 
which each article was considered to be of equal importance, showed 
approximately that the value of money had changed from century to 
century; that, measured by the common articles of trade and consump- 
tion, a sovereign did not go so far in the time of that book as it did 
several centuries before — that it only commanded a sixth part of the 
average of leading commodities which it had commanded several centuries 



18-4 EEroKT— 1888. 

previously. The whole calculation was very rough, but it conveyed a 
sound historical idea which was useful and fruitful in the absence of 
a better. It also may be held to justify the action Bishop Fleetwood 
suggested in the case of conscience referred to. 

Adam Smith, substituting wheat alone as a standard, was able to 
show changes in the purchasing power of money, though, of course, it 
would have been better to use more articles. Still the conclusion for 
wheat alone, considering its great importance in those times, was good 
enough to prove a change in the value of money. 

Sir George Evelyn's index-number, submitted to the Royal Society in 
1798, led to a broad conclusion not substantially different from those of 
Adam Smith and Fleetwood. 

In later times the researches of Professor Jevons and the index- 
numbers of the Economist, Sauerbeck, and others, have demonstrated 
conclusively that there has been a common movement in the prices of 
leading wholesale commodities, proving a variation in the value of money, 
relative to an aggregate of these leading commodities, which can, no 
doubt, be made use of by historians and economic students when they 
wish to give meaning to the money expi-essions of different periods. 
There is, no doubt, a great lack of quantitative exactness in the past 
discussions, and it may be fairly urged that more consideration should 
be given to the question of how to allow for the changes in the efficiency 
of the human unit — a question raised by Adam Smith's selection of 
wheat on the express ground that the labour employed in producing a 
quarter of wheat had remained unchanged ; but to suggest that a parti- 
cular method which has produced useful ideas may be improved upon 
and made to yield more exact results is not to show that it is useless. 

The Gazette average prices of grain used for the tithe averages have 
also proved conclusively, on a large scale, that a currency different from 
money may be practically made useful in deferred payments — that the 
process can be put into a working Act of Parliament. 

The considerations we have to suggest as now most important 
practically, in preparation for more exact and complete measurements in 
the future, are the following : — 

1. In the absence of retail prices — which it would be most convenient 
to use in forming a standard of desiderata — use must necessarily be made 
of wholesale prices only. No other prices are obtainable, and those prices 
must be preferred, in the selection of typical articles, where the records 
are best. 

It appears, however, fi-om the best consideration of the subject, that 
the differences likely to be made from the true result which would be 
obtained from a more complete record of prices are not likely to be 
material. On this head the Committee would refer to a paper by Mr. 
Edgeworth, which has been prepared for their use, and which is appended. 
The prices of articles taken without bias from a group are likely to be 
fairly representative of the average course of prices of that group. 

2. While an index-number assigning relative weight to diffei'ent 
articles so selected is an important means of arriving at a useful result, 
it cannot be said, in the present state of the data on the subject, to be an 
altogether indispensable means. The articles as to which records of 
prices are obtainable being themselves only a portion of the whole, nearly 
as good a final result may apparently be arrived at by a selection with- 



ON 



YAKIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETAKY STANDARD. 185 



out bias, according to no better principle tban accessibility of record, 
as by a careful attention to weighting. On tbis head the Committee may 
refer to the above paper of Mr. Bdgeworth, which seems conclusive on 
the subject. 

3. Practically the Committee would recommend the use of a weighted 
index-number of some kind, as, on the whole, commanding more con- 
fidence. But they feel bound to point out that the scientific evidence is 
in favour of the kind of index-number used by Professor Jevons — provided 
there is a large number of articles — as not insufficient for the purpose in 
hand. Nothing is more remarkable in the comparisons of the recent 
index-numbers than the correspondence of the curves of general course 
of prices indicated. K weighted index-number, in one aspect, is almost 
an unnecessary precaution to secure accuracy, though, on the whole, the 
Committee recommend it. 

4. The Committee have had before them a suggestion for a new index- 
number, which might be used for some official and private purposes, based 
on the practical considerations referred to, and making use of the best 
wholesale prices, while having regard to the ultimate standard of de-» 
siderata. The nature and object of this index-number is explained in 
the accompanying memorandum, which has the general approval of the 
Committee, though they do not consider it necessary here to go into all the 
details. The object is to provide something for which it would be possible 
to obtain and publish official prices, and by reference to which contracts 
could be made, and it is submitted for discussion and future reference. 

5. It would be most desirable to supplement any such index-number 
by a good statistical account from time to time of the aggregate income 
of the people and the relative numbers and aggregates of incomes of 
different amounts. In some index-numbers in past times the wage of a 
day-labourer is inserted as one of the articles. This may have been 
correct enough for some purposes, and in the circumstances would not 
prevent the index-number from indicating the general changes in the 
value of money in the periods compared. But the more useful method 
would seem to be to distinguish between the human unit in production 
and the thing produced. Among the most important comparisons for which 
such figures are used at all are the effectiveness of labour at different 
times and places, and the command of the labourer or other earner over the 
amounts produced ; and these comparisons can only be made when an 
independent standard of the production and consumption of the labourer 
is set up, with which his earnings may be compared. No argument is 
needed to show that, along with index-numbers as to prices of commo- 
dities, there should be an endeavour to ascertain the aggregate earnings 
of a community and the distribution of the earnings so as to show on the 
one side the command over commodities which different classes possess — 
the real as distinguished from the nominal incomes — and on the other 
side the relative effectiveness of the labour of a community at different 
times or of one community compared with another. 

The matters referred to them not being fully exhausted, the Committee 
would recommend their reappointment, with a view especially to con- 
sidering the question of an official index-number or numbers for future 
use in contracts, and what are the chief points to be looked at in the 
necessary enactments, both for obtaining the necessary price data and for 
settling forms in which contracts may be expressed. 



186 



REPORT 1888. 



MEMORANDUM ON AN OFFICIAL INDEX- NV3IBER. 

Table for the Construction op an Index-number. 

Statement showing the estimated amount of the expenditure on the undermentioned 
articles in the United Kingdom and the proportion of the amount in each case to 
the total expenditure on all such articles, with suggestions for an index-number 
based approximately on the propoHions stated, but with modifications so as to 
substitute percentages in round ^gwes ; shmuing also the description of the spe- 
cific wholesale article, the price of which it is proposed to use in the calculation 
of the index-number; giving also the price-list or other source from which 
guotatio7is are to be obtained. 



1 


2 


3 

Estimated 
expenditure 
per ann. on 
each article 


4 


5 


6 


7 


1 
■s 

a> 

K 


Articles 
consumal 
or used up 


Per- 
centage 
of each 
amount in 
column 3 
to total 


Relative 
importance 
proposed for 
each article 
in index- 
number 
reduced to 
percentages 


Description of the 

specific article of 

which the price is to 

be quoted as typical 


Price-list or other 

source for price 

quotations 


O 


Wheat . . 
Barlev ' . 
Oats . . 
Potatoes, 1 
rice, &o. J 


£ 000,000 

60 

30 

50 

50 

100 

20 

60 


6-5 

3-25 

5-4 

5-4 


5\ 
5 

5^20 

5 


English wheat . . . 
„ barley. . . 
„ oats . . . 

„ potatoes . . 


Gazette average 
Average import price 




Meat . . 

Fish. . . 

Cheese ) 
Butter f . 
Milk J 


11 
2-2 
6-5 


10 


Mean of live meat 
per stone of Slbs. 
Smithfield 

Average per cwt. 
landed 

Cheese 

Butter 


Weekly market quota- 
tions 

Official returns (Board 
of Trade) 

Average import price 
» fi >i 


•a 

03 


Sugar . . 

Tea . . . 
Beer . . 
Spirits . . 
Wine . . 
Tobacco . 


30 

20 
100 
40 
10 
10 


3-3 

2-2 
11 
4-3 

1 


2i^ 

2i 

9 

2i 

i 

n) 


^-20 


Refined sugar im- 
ported 
Tea imported . . . 
Beer exported . . . 
Spirits imported . . 
Wine imported . . 
Tobacco imported 


Average import price 

»t j> •» 

Average export price 

Average import price 

)> » tt 

»» >j j» 


bo 
1 


Cotton . . 
Wool . . 
Sillc. . . 
Leather . 


20 
30 
20 
10 


2-2 
3-3 
2-2 
11 


24) 
2ji 


Cotton imported . . 
Wool imported . . . 
Raw silk imported . 
Hides imported . . 


Average import price 

» » 5> 

)» >» »» 
)» i> » 


-S.S 
^3 


Coal . . 
Iron . . 
Copper 
Lead, zinc, 
tin, &c. 


100 
50 
25 
25 


11 

5-4 
2-7 
2-7 


2* 20 
24 i 


Coal exported . . . 
Scotch pig-iron . . 
Copper ore imported 
Lead ore imported . 


Average export price 
Market price 
Average import price 
)» »» J) 


i 

% 
O 

i 


Timber . 
Petroleum 
Indigo . . 
Flax and 

linseed 
Palm oil . 
C a u t - 

chouc 


30 
5 

.5 
10 

5 
5 


3-3 
■6 
•6 

11 

•6 
•6 


3\ 

1 
1 
3 

1 
1 


.10 


Timber imported . . 
Petroleum imported . 
Indigo imported . . 
Flax imported . . . 

Palm oil imported . 
Caoutchouc imported 


Average import price 

5> » )) 

»J »» )» 
)> )» ?) 




Totals . 


920 


100 


180 


* 





In this table the first column indicates six leadinsr arenera which 
comprehend the twenty-seven classes of articles specified in the second 

' There is a large consumption of barley, exclusive of its use in the manufacture 
of bepr. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 187 

column. These articles are either finished products (things ready for 
consumption, like cheese and milk) or represent such things by entering 
into their production, as coal (used in manufacturing) and timber, for 
instance, go to the production of houses and iumiture. 

The third column gives in round numbers (000,000's being omitted) 
the average national expenditure on each class of article at present and 
for the last few years, and presumably also for the immediate future the 
proportions at least, if not the absolute amounts, of expenditure (such 
proportions, as shown in Mr. Gifl'en's reports on the variation in the 
prices of exports and imports, remaining pretty constant during a period 
of years). In the estimated amount of consumption allowance is made 
for the addition to the value made before the articles are in the form in 
which they are finally consumed. 

In column 4 these amounts (or proportions) are reduced to percentages 
(of the total amount expended on such articles). 

In column 5 the relative importance proposed to be assigned to each 
article in the index-number is stated, mainly on the basis of the per- 
centages in column 4, but with modifications so as to substitute even 
figures for the convenience of handling. 

In column 6 the specific articles are described, of which it is proposed 
to obtain the prices as typical of the group really included on the corre- 
sponding line in column 2. Wheat, for instance, consists of many different 
kinds and qualities ; the one quality and kind it is proposed to quote as 
typical of the whole is English wheat as returned officially to the Comp- 
troller of the corn returns, which itself no doubt comprises many quahties. 
Of iron, again, there are innumerable qualities and kinds ; it is proposed 
to take Scotch pig-iron, in which there are large dealings, as typical of 
the -whole. The same with other articles. In most cases large groups 
are dealt with because the article selected is the average imported or 
exported, which includes many qualities, but it should be distinctly 
understood that in any case the most that can be done is to select specific 
articles which are typical of large groups. 

In column 7 the source from which the quotation of the specific 
articles mentioned in column 6 is to be obtained is stated. 

The above is of course only a rough suggestion for an index-number. 
Even if the method is generally approved of, many questions might be 
discussed as to the amounts of the annual consumption of each group of 
articles specified in column 2, as to the relative importance to be assigned 
practically in column 5, and as to the selection of the article in column 6 
which is to be treated as typical of the group. It would be possible to 
introduce two or more quotations instead of one for a particular group if 
thought desirable, but this would be troublesome in working. For 
practical purposes there must not be too many articles. Mr. Bdgeworth's 
mathematical deductions as to the consequences of taking the price of 
an article selected at random from a group, instead of the general average 
course of prices for the group, appear to justify the expediency of this 
procedure. 

Were such a general index-number introduced, and prices calculated 
upon it backwards and forwards, it would be easy to rearrange it for any 
special purpose, such as to give more or less weight to one or more 
oTonps according as they are assumed to enter into the consumption of a 
particular class of persons whose position at different times as affected by 
L the course of prices is to be specially investigated. The index-number could 



188 REPORT— 1888. 

also be compared with otlier index-numbers upon some other objective 
basis, such as the relative importance of each article in the import and 
export trade of a country ; and index-numbers for one country and place 
could be compared with those for other countries or places. The index- 
number now suggested is only put forward as a convenient one, illus- 
trating the variations in prices in England according to what is called 
the standard of desiderata, and which could be made use of — not neglecting 
others — in many investigations. 

It would also be an index-number on which, if people were so in- 
clined, they could make contracts in a way analogous to the contracts for 
the commutation of tithe ; in which the tithe is made to vary according 
to the prices of corn. To make the index-number useful for this purpose 
an Act would have to be passed prescribing the way in which the prices 
are to be obtained and published, and defining and giving a form for the 
contracts which might be made for payments, to vary according to the 
variation in the aggregate index-number. This would be a practical 
Tabular Standard such as Joseph Lowe, Jevons, and lately Professor 
Marshall, have suggested. 

All such index-numbers are liable to the observation that innumerable 
articles are, and must be, in the nature of things, wholly excluded. The 
Tariety of small articles is almost infinite. The assumption may also be 
made, I think, that on balance the permanent tendency is for such articles 
on the average, through the progress of invention, to increase in aggregate 
importance in proportion to the other articles which can be got into an 
index-number and, at the same time, individually to fall relatively in 
price. In investigations general facts of this kind would, of course, have 
to be borne in mind as qualifying deductions based upon the precise 
figures which the index-numbers may give. People making contracts 
based on index-numbers would also require to study what the effect 
■would be likely to be on the result they wish to arrive at. 



.MEMORANDUM BV THE SECRETARY, PROFESSOR F. Y. EDGE- 
WORTH, ON THE ACCURACY OF THE PROPOSED CALCU- 
LATION OF INDEX-NUMBERS. 

ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS. 

Paoe 

Theoretical estimate of the discrepancj^ likely to exist between the results 
obtained by the Committee and those which they might obtain if the 

materials were perfect 18S-198 

Practical verification and summary statement of this estimate . . . 198-201 
Comparison of the Committee's Index-number with other schemes . . 201-210 
"Where the data are the same for the compared methods .... 201-209 

The Simple Arithmetic Mean 201-204 

The Weighted Arithmetic Mean 204-205 

The Geometric Mean 205-206 

The Median 206-209 

Where the data are not the same for the compared methods . . 209-213 

Appendix showing the extent and significance of the difference between the 

Committee's scheme and others 213 

The usefulness of our result will be enhanced by an estimate of its 
accuracy. It would be desirable, if possible, to ascertain a numerical 
limit which the error ' incurred by our calculation cannot possibly, or at 

' The use of the term ' error ' to denote a deviation from an unknown ideal is 
.somewhat infelicitous. But the advantage which the term has in being familiar to 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. IS^' 

least with any reasonable probability, exceed. But it is doubtful whetber 
such a limit admits of being fixed with precision. The erroneousness of 
the conclusion could only be ascertained by inference from the inaccuracy 
of the premises. But it is difficult to appreciate with mathematical pre- 
cision the error to which our data are liable. We may, however, argue 
that, if the erroneousness of the premises is approximately of a certain 
amount, if the error of the data is of a certain order, then the error of the 
conclusion will be of a certain other order. 

Of course, it will be understood that, in attempting to evaluate 
mathematically the error of our result, we mean its deviation from the 
real numerical value of that quantity which we have here taken as our 
qticBsitum : namely, the total national expenditure on material products at 
any given time comparative with an initial epoch (abstraction being 
made of any change in the total quantity of products which may have 
occurred between the epochs).' The philosophical error which may be 
committed by taking this sort of index-number as our ideal is the subject 
of another sort of analysis. 

The subject of our investigation being thus defined, we may show 
that the erroneousness of the result is less than that of the data. There 
are two lines of proof converging to the truth of this theory. First, we 
may reason a priori by the Calculus of Probabilities that the index-number 
is subject to a smaller percentage of error than the weights and price- 
variations (given or referred to in columns 5 and 6 of the table). 
Secondly, this deduction may be verified by actual trial. We may assign 
a certain set of weights and price- variations as correct, and construct 
several sets of variants diverging from the ' correct ' figures in haphazard 
fashion. Then, operating with each set of variant data, we may calculate 
several variant index-numbers. These, it will be found, diverge less— 
that is by a smaller percentage— from the correct index-number than any 
set of variant data from the corresponding correct datum. 

The second part of the evidence cannot be fully appreciated without 
the prior reasoning. By itself it conveys only a moiety of the truth. 
Those who are content with that fraction of knowledge are advised to 
skip the small type and close reasoning of the immediately following 
paragraphs and to pass on to the more easily read lessons of experience. 

The index-numher which is the result of our calculation ia subject to a less 
error than the data which enter into it, for two reasons. First: The numerator 
and denominator of the fraction which constitutes the iudex-munher form each an 
aggregate of elements or parts, whereof each element is suhject to a presumably 
independent error. Now, by a well-known principle of the Calculus of Probabilities, 
the percentage error of such an aggregate is less than the percentage error incident 
to each element (or at least to an element of average erroneousness). This prin- 
ciple applies to the errors both of the weights and the observations (price-variations). 
The next consideration apphes only to the former class of data. An error in any 
7veight affects both the numerator and denominator in the same direction, whether 
of excess or defect, and thus is to a certain extent self-corrected. 

This reasoning may be exhibited more fully by the aid of symbols. Let us put 
the series p-^, p^, &c. . . ■ p„ for the real price-variations. These price-variations 

the student of Probabilities may, it is hoped, preponderate over the disadvantage 
that it suggests to the general reader a more gross, blameworthy, and avoidable nus- 

I take than is contemplated here. 

I ' For a more exact definition of the queesitum, see in the First Report of the Com^ 

mittee the formula for the ' Principal Standard.' 



190 KKPOiix — 1888. 

mav be conceived as percentages obtained after the manner of Mr. Pal^rave (see 
Table 26 of Memorandum in Appendix to ' Third Report of the Commission on 

Depression of Trade ') by multiplying the ratio qj-j-^-^ — dJ 100. Let us denote 

the opjjareMf price-variations, the erroneous observations, as ^,(1 + e,), js, (l + e„) 
. p„(l + e„), where e,, e^ . . . e„ are each positive or negative errors, usually 

proper "fractions. Similarly let Wj, w.,, &c., be the real weights; and iv^^ (l + «i), 

.f^^ (1 + e.,^ &c., be the apparent, or erroneous, weights. 
The index-number obtained from such data is 

tPj {l + fi)xpi (1 + e j + W.J (1 + fo) X po (1 + eg) + &c. ^ 

Wl (1 + f{) + W, (1 + €2) + &c- 

Alike in the numerator and denominator of this expression we may segregate 
tlie correct and the errojieous portion ; and reason by the first of the principles 
above mentioned that the incorrect portion is of a smaller order than the sum of 
the correct terms (the number of observations being sufficiently great). Accord- 
ingly it will be allowable to expand by Taylor's Theorem and neglect higher terms. 
We shall thus obtain a simple expression for the error of the resultant index- 
number in terms of the errors to which each class of the data is liable. 

This investigation may be broken up into three steps : we may consider suc- 
cessively three cases in an order of increasing complexity. First (1) we shall 
suppose that the weights only are liable to error. Then (2) we shall introduce the 
circumstance that the observations, the price-variations, are themselves incorrect. 
Lastly (3) we shall talce account of the fact that certain categories of articles may 
be altogether unrepresented. 

(1) Under the first head we shall first consider the simple case when the weights 
are really equal, though apparently somewhat unequal. In this preliminary case 
the symbohc expression above written becomes simplified by the disappearance both 
of the e's and the tda. Expanding and segregating the hetei'ogeneous elements in 
the manner indicated, we may wi-ite our result thus : — 

P\ +Pl + ^'^^ J 1 . i^l^l +Pl^-i + ^^- _ f I + ^2 + ^^' \ 

n I Pi+p.2 + &c- n /' 

where the term outside the brackets is the correct index-number, and the difference 
of the second and third terms within the bracket is the error of the index-number : 
the relative error, as it may be called, or (if multiplied by 100) the percentage 

error in symbols — , if I is the correct index-number. The result obtained may 
be written 

I « I ^sp nJ \ap w J 

In this expression call the factors of €„ f,, &c., respectively -Ej, -E2, &c. 

Then ^- the error whose magnitude we have to estimate, is - (Ejej -|- Ejej + &c.). 

I ^* 

To determine the probable and improbable limits of this quantity we require to 
Ivnow the magnitude, or at least the average extent, both of the E's and the e's. The 
former datuuT depends upon the dispersion of the observations (the price-variations) 
.about their mean. For any E, e.g., 

fSp_ \ /Sp 



\sp nf isp hp 



n 

= the deviation or error incurred by the individual price-variation as compared with 



on VAKIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETART STANDARD. 191 

the average of a whole set ; relative to (divided by) the average. Such a deviation 
might be symbolised as —^, if we put^ for the average price-variation. 

We may now proceed in two ways : (a) we may either suppose the deviations 
Ej, E^, ascertained for the particular year or epoch to which the calculation in 
hand may refer ; (p) or we may seek a measure for general use, and available 
without the trouble of examining the dispersion of the price-variations for a parti- 
cular year. In either case we are to regard the e's as errors grouped in random 
fashion about a mean, which is zero. The coefficient which measures the dispersion 
of these errors, the modulus for the e-fluctuation, must be supposed knowable. 
Call it K. 

(a) On the former understanding, we are to regard Ej, E^, &c., as known factors. 
Accordingly by a well-known theorem we have for the modulus, which measures 
the extent of the error, 

- (El €i + £3^2 + &c.), 



«\/^i 



^ + E„ + &C. X K, 



(/3) Otherwise we are to regard Ej, E,,, as samples, so to speak, taken from an 
indefinite number — a complete series (in Dr. Venn's phrase) of E's. We must 
suppose the coefficient of fluctuation, or modulus, for this series to be given by 
prior experience. Let it be C. Then we may put as the most probable value for 

the measure or modulus of — , the error under consideration, 

1 C 

But this viost prohahle measure cannot safely be used as the best measure. We 
must take into accoimt that the real measure may be larger, and accordingly that, 
by adopting the measure described as ' most probable,' we may be underrating the 
probability of each extent of deviation (from zero) to which the quantity 

- [EjEi + Ejfj, &c.] is liable. However, the error thus introduced is only of the 

order —/=, that is, the —r^th part of the magnitude to be evaluated. Now that 

vn vw 

degree of error has been already incurred by the neglect of the higher terms in 

the expansion of — . Accordingly it would be nugatory to apply correctives 

to the error now under consideration. 

We have now to introduce the circumstance that the weights, both real and 

apparent, difi'er from unity. It is easy to see that in the new expression for _ 

the coefficient of any weight-error e,. is '^rPs_^ ■ which may be put in the form 

Stop biv 

^— E'r, where E'^ is now the proportional deviation of p^ from the weighted mean 
few 

of the p \ viz., -^. Accordingly the modulus of ^ becomes 

Sw 
In evaluating the coefficient of < there are, as before, two courses. Either (a) 
we operate upon the known values of E',, E'j, &c., for the particular year or epoch 
with which we are concerned ; or (/3) we may make a general estimate based upon 



192 REPORT— 1888. 

several years' experience, and roughly applicable to the unexamined data of any 
year. 

(a) In the former case there is nothing more to be said, except that it will be 
legitimate in the evaluation of the modulus to put for w^, w.,, &c., their apparent 
values ; which may be written w, + A2v^, w,, + Aw.,, &c. For the error thus 
introduced into the modulus is of a neglectible order. 

((3) The general expression in terms of the E-fluctuation is found by consider- 
ing that the most probable value of the quantity under the radical sign in the last 

written expression is a/Cw/ + ^v■i^ + &c.) ^ » ^^^ere — is the mean square of error 
measured, not, as before, from the simple (arithmetical) mean (of many batches of 
^'s), but from the weighted mean ^^ ; a difference which may easily be shown to- 
be for our purpose of an order which may be neglected. 

This may be proved thus : 

The deviation of any p from the Weighted Mean — the relative or proportionate- 
deviation — E' 

Sp2U 
sin ^ '* 



Spw 

SIV 



This ratio may be thus expressed in terms of E,, the deviation of pr from the 
Simple Arithmetic Mean. Put v for the difference between the weighted and 
simple means. Then we have 



S;, 



1 " 
— u i — - 

n p 

if we put p for the Arithmetic Mean of the ^'s. 

Sp Sjojo py +p.^ + &c. p^tVy +Pi^i + &t:. 
JNow v= ,j — gj„ - ,j - Wi + t<;2 + &c. 

Substitute for^, its value j:> (1 + Ej) (where p is the Arithmetic Mean of the- 
p's) ; and we have 

[E, + E2 + &c. _ WxE, + w „E„ + &c. ~j 
n v>^ + W2 + &c. J 

Sw Siy 

1 ' w, 2 — — w., 

= - »Ei 2L. — + - pE„ — — : + &c. 

n n 

Put for the relative deviation of any w from the Arithmetic Mean of all the ?f;'s 
(the coefficient of - p^r in the last written expression) r)^. Then we have 

v = ~ p [Ei»;, + E.,i?., + &c.]. 
n 

The expression in brackets hovers about the value zero according to a law of error 

whose modulus is — ^-^r-; where C, as before, is the modulus of the E's, and 5" is 
V 2 

the mean square of the »>'s. Hence - is of an order a/^ times smaller than Cx- 

But from the equation connecting E' and E it appears that the sum of squares 
E'l^ + E'2* + &c. which occurs in the complete expression for the modulus of 

may be written 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 193 



1 






whence, aa SEr^ = n — , it appears that the influence of - may be neglected, 

n being supposed large. 
We may therefore write 

Modulus of ^ = ^^"-y ^K ; 
or, employing the notation which we had lately occasion to introduce : 

Modulus of = —r- X » /l X ^ X ___ X K. 

I Vii V -2 V2 

This formula may be employed to utUise present as well as past experience. If 
we treat ^ and -_ as respectively the mean square of deviation obtained from 

the set of weights and price-returns entering into the index-number which we are 
computing, we shall thus have an approximate formula more convenient than the 
complete expression for the Modulus. 

(2) We have now to introduce the circumstance that each p is liable to an 
error pe. Each element of error of the form Ilf,. is now aggravated by an element 
of the form Pe^- Accordingly the modulus of the total error will be Vn - -t PV-, 
where k and e are the moduli for the independent partial errors respectively, n is 

the coefficient of k in the expression for the modulus of -^ in case (2) aixl P" is 

easily seen to be equal to "''"-^'' . 

There may now be required, as before, a general formula applicable without 
any examination of the prices and weights on a particidar occasion ; or without 
other data than the coefficients expressing the dispersion of the prices and weights 
respectively. With this view, employing the notation already explained, and 
rejecting terms which may be shown to be of an inferior order, we may put for 

^g^,theexpression(l+|)(l+_). 
Hence for the modulus of — in the general case we have 



3sVi-?Vt''^(i*t)' 



(3) So far we have been estimating the errors due to the weights and prices 
of the articles which enter into our index-number not being accurate. We have 
now to take into account that not only are all those articles misrepresented, but also 
that certam other articles may be wholly unrepresented. For it is unlikely that all 
the classes of products which ought by rights to enter into an index-number can, 
even constructively, put in an appearance. 

We have now to superinduce the error due to such omission upon the errors 
already estimated. To effect this we proceed in the same way as when compoimd- 
ing the errors proper to our first and second headings. That is, we shall separately 
evaluate for the third species of error its modulus squared, or Jluctuation, as the 
present writer has proposed to term this important coefficient. Then we shall add 
the third fluctuation to the sum of the two preceding : that is, to the square of the 
formula given at the end of the second heading. 

To find the fluctuation proper to the third heading, let us begin with the simple 
case in which the weights are aU equal. As before, let Sp represent the sum of the 

1888. ' ^ f ^ 



194 REPOET— 1888. 

observed (comparative) prices ; let n be tbeir number ; and for '-^ put simple p. 
Let S'^ be tbe sum, and w' the number, of tbe it7wbserved prices. Then the error 
incurred by putting j) for tbe Mean of all tbe prices, tbe relative error —, is 

\ n + n' n I ' n + 7i' 

Tbe most probable value of tbis expression is zero ; while its fluctuation is 
found to be, in terms and by methods alreadj' explained, 

1 2nn' ^„ 
n {n + n'y- 

Now superadd tbe circumstance that the weights are various, dispersed about 
their mean according to the modulus _;^. The effect of tbis attribute is to multiply 

tbe fluctuation last written by 1 + ^. The resulting expression is to be added to 

the square of the formula given at the end of heading (2). The effect of this 
addition is to insert a new term under the last i-adical in the formula for the 
Modulus. This new term is 

2nn' p2 
{n + n'f- 

This formula will require modification, if there is reason to believe that the 
omitted articles have not the same average weight as those which are included ; 
for instance, if, as is likely, the omissions are many in number, but inconsiderable 
in weight. 

It will be noticed that in passing from (tbe dispersion of) the observed prices 
and weights to what has not been observed there is an inductive hazard greater 
than is involved by solutions of cases (1) and (2) in their more exact form, and 
while we suppose (as in the examples which will be adduced below) that the errors 
of weight and price emanate from regular and stable sources, so as to admit of safe 
prediction. 

As in case (2), we may suppose the coefficients x *nd C based either on prior 
experience or on the data appertaining to the particular calculation which is in 
hand. 

It will be observed that these coefficients do not contribute equally to the re- 
sultant error represented by our formula. C, expressing the dispersion of the prices, 
is more efficacious than Xj appertaining to the weights. Similarly c, the measure of 
tbe error incident to the prices, affects the error of the index-number more than k, 
the corresponding modulus of the weights. 

It is proposed now to illustrate the formulae which have been given by working 
a few examples. In these examples the statistical materials, tbe prices and 
weights, are taken out of Mr. Palgrave's Memorandum, from tables 26 and 27 
respectively. The unstatistical arbitrary assumptions which will be made are that 
any price, and likewise any weight, is as likely as not to be out, in excess or defect, 
of the true figure by 10 per cent., but very malikely to be out by 40 per cent., or, 
more exactly, that the apparent values fluctuate about the real one in conformity 
with a modulus which is 21 per cent. 

Of tbe immense variety of cases which might be constructed by combining in 
different ways the attributes which define the preceding paragraphs, it will be 
sufficient here to discuss the most important case (2) of both weights and prices 
subject to error — divided into two species, according as (a) we wtUise aU tbe data 
special to the calculation in hand, or (j3) content oui-selves with the most summary 
estimate. 

Let us appty these tests to Mr. Palgrave's computation of a weighted mean for 
the year 1885 {3Iemwcmdum in Appendix to Third Report on tJi» Depression 
of Trade). First, according to method (a), the expression for the (proportionate) 
error due to a particular element of the index-number, the weight and price of a 
particular commodity, is 



ON VAEIATIONS IN THE VALUE OB' THE MONETARY STANDARD. 195 



Sivp L stv -1 siv 



"Whence, as the Modulus of the error to which the computed index-number is 
liable, we have — putting/)' for the loeighted mean of the price-returns, and remem- 
bering that c and k are the Moduli of "the errors e and € respectively — 



— ^ySw,\2/-PryK- + SwvVc' 



Sivp 

The w's are given in Mr. Palgrave's column headed ' Relative Importance,' 
(table 27, year 1885). The ^'s are to be extracted from his table 26. The 
weighted mean /)' is, according to him, 76. And Sirp is the sura of his column (for 
the year 1885), headed ' Comparative,' &c., imtUiplied by 100 ; that is 166,900. 
The rest of the expression above written is evaluated in the following table ; of 
which the materials are taken from the sources named. The third column is 
formed by subtracting from each of the entries for 1885 in Mr. Palgrave's table 
2Q—e.g., 38 the price of cotton (comparative with 1865-9) — the weighted mean 
76. The last three columns in Mr. Palgrave's table 26, relating to Cotton Wool, 
Cotton Yarn, and Cotto7i Cloth, are omitted, as they do not figure in this table 27, 
and, it may be added, cannot be supposed independent of the price of cotton. 
The last column in our table is formed by squaring each entry in Mr. Palgrave's 
•column headed ' Comparative,' &c. (table 27, year 1885), and omitting the last 
digit :— 



No. of 
Article 


Name of Article 


w 


w- 


iPr-p') 


[p'-PrY 


w'(p'-pyy 


w,-p,- 








OO's 
omitted 






00,000's 
omitted 


00,000's 
omitted 


1 


Cotton . . . 


263 


691 


-38 


1,444 


998 


1,000 


2 


Silk . 








12 


1 


-23 


529 





4 


3 


Flax, &c. 








49 


24 


-15 


225 





90 


4 


Wool . 








142 


202 


- 7 


49 


10 


980 


5 


Meat . 








524 


2,745 


+ 26 


676 


1,855 


28,622 


6 


Iron . 








150 


225 


+ 6 


36 


8 


1,510 


7 


Copper 








39 


15 


-27 


729 


11 


53 


8 


Lead . 








13 


2 


-19 


341 


1 


5 


9 


Tin. . 








15 


23 


+ 2 


4 





14 


10 


Timber 








164 


269 


+ 31 


961 


258 


3,099 


11 


Tallow 








28 


8 


+ 8 


64 





58 


12 


Leather 








80 


64 


+ 34 


1,156 


73 


774 


13 


Indigo 








5 





+ 35 


1,225 





4 


14 


Oils . 








49 


24 


- 7 


49 


1 


116 


15 


Coffee . 








8 


1 


-14 


196 





3 


16 


Sugar . 








149 


223 


-23 


576 


128 


624 


17 


Tea . 








71 


50 


- 7 


49 


2 


240 


18 


Tobacco 








29 


8 


+ 27 


729 


6 


90 


19 


Wheat 








410 


1,681 


-16 


256 


430 


6,856 


Sums 




2,200 


6,256 






3,781 


43,142 



o 2 



196 



EEPORT 1888. 



According to the hypotheses above made let us put c and « each 
for the soug-ht Modulus we have 



•21. Then. 



•21 



v/378,100,000 + 4,314,200,000 



•21 X ^41 (nearly). 



l6«,yoo 

Thus the error incident to each of the data has been reduced by a half in the 
result. It may be observed that the prices contribute much more largely thaa 
the weights to the total error. If we reduce the error incident to each price-return 
by a half, making its modulus •I, instead of •21, the total error of the result will 
be reduced by nearly a half — from modulus '086 to modulus ^046. If we suppose- 
the price-return to be quite correct, then the error of the result due to the weights- 
alone would be nearly half as small again, namely, of modulus ^025. This is agree- 
able to what was said above, that an error of the prices affecting only the nume- 
rator of the index-number is not, as in the case of the weights, compensated by aa 
error affecting the denominator in the same sense. 

Let us see now (/3) how we should have fared if we had based our estimate on the- 
grouping of the weights and prices in prior experience. 

The dispersion of the price-returns, the coefficient C in the general formula, 
is thus to be found — in the case of the year 1884 for example. The arithmetic 
mean of the first nineteen entries in table"26 for 1884 is 81 nearly. The ' differ- 
ences' and squares of differences are computed in the accompanying table. The 
mean square of difference 353 divided by the square of the mean 6561 forms an 

approximate, a pt-imd facie value for -^ , namely, •04. 



Name of Article 


Differences 


Squares of Differences 


Coffee . 

Sugar 

Tea. 

Tobacco 

Wheat 

Meat 

Cotton 

Silk 

Flax, ice. 

Wool 

Indigo 

Oils 

Timber 

Tallow 

Leather 

Copper 

Iron 

Lead 

Tin. 










— + 
11 
4 



y 

8 

22 

44 

15 

22 

8 

26 


24 
28 
25 
11 
5 
20 

9 


121 
16 

81 
64 

484 
1,936 

225 

484 
64 

676 

576 
784 
625 
121 

25 
400 

81 


Sums 


148 143 


6,765 



Mean square of difference = 



6765 
ly 



353. 



For the year 1880, taken similarly as a random specimen, the mean (of the 
nineteen prices) is found to be 93-5, and the mean square of differences 434. 

Accordingly the value for -^ is •OS. Proceeding similarly for 1873, another year 

taken at random, we find for — - again -05. As the mean of the three values we 
may put '05. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 197 

To find the dispersion of the w's we proceed similarly. The arithmetical 
•mean is for every year 2200 -^ 19, or 116 nearly. The ' differences ' are to he 
■formed hy subtracting this figure from each of the entries in Mr. Palgrave's 
column headed Relative Importance. The sum of the squares of the differences is 
to be divided by 19 for the absolute mean square of difference as it may be 
called. This result, divided by 116-, gives the mean square of error relatively to 
the mean weight. The values thus extricated for the years 1873, 1880, and 1884 
respectively are, in round numbers. 354,000, 35,100, 357,000 : each divided by 
255,664 ( = 19 X 116'^) ; whereof the mean value is 1-38. 

Substituting in the general or summary formula for the modulus of -= the values 

ifor C* and x" just ascertained, and for C and k the assumed value -21, we have 

-^ X V2^ X n/-05 X -044 + 1-05 X -044 = jtsr x 1"54: x -22 (nearly) = -077 ; 

whereas the answer found by the more exact method was -086. This consihence 
seems greater than might have been expected, considering the small number of the 
■ elements entering into.the computation — only nineteen — and the scantiness of the 
induction by which we determined the coefficients C and x- 

If we employ the summary formula as a short method of utilismg the data 

special to the index-number of 1885, we shall find that — as based upon the flue- 

tuationofpricesforthisyear is -08; and^ the mean square of deviation for the 
•ws is stUi 1-38. Hence, as the approximate expression for the modulus, we have 

^ xl-54x-2lA/n6 = -08. 



4-36 

Thus we reach much the same result by the shorter as by the more tedious route. 
We shall presently — in the portion of this paper addressed to the general 
reader — try an experiment calculated to verify our deductive reasoning — so far as 
a theorem in the Calculus of Probabilities can be verified by a single experiment. 
We shall aflect each of the elements in Mr. Palgrave's index-number for 1885, 
each weight and price, with a figure taken at random from a series of figures 
hovering about unity in conformity with a modulus equal to -21. Such a series 
-the writer happens to have ready to hand : consisting of sums of twenty digits 
taken at random from mathematical tables, where the mean value is 90 and the 
absolute modulus 19. The relative modulus, therefore, the modulus for the series 
-when we divide each aggregate by 90, is -21. Accordingly it will be sufficient 
to multiply each weight both in the numerator and the denominator with one of 
the sums (of twenty digits) taken at random, and similarly affect each price enter- 
'ing into the numerator, while the denominator is multiplied by 90. 

To resume now, in popular language, this somewhat teclinical inquiry. 
The subject under investigation is the error to which our computation of 
index-numbers is liable — the error relative to, or per cent, of, the true 
value which we seek. We want to know, for instance, whether it is as 
Uikely as not that our calculation exceeds (or falls short of) the correct 
result by 10 per cent, of that result ; whether it is very improbable that 
tbe excess (or defect) should be as great as 25 per cent. 

The error thus conceived is found to depend in a definite manner upon 
six distinct circumstances. The erroneousness of the result is greater, the 
;greater the inaccuracy of the data, viz., the weights, and the (comparative) 
prices. The erroneousness of the result is also greater, the greater the 
■inequality of the weights, and the greater the inequality of the price- 
returns. Lastly, the result is more accurate, the greater the number of 
the data, and the smaller the number of omitted articles. 

These circumstances are not all equally operative. Other things being 
the same, the inaccuracy of the price-returns affects the result more than 



198 



EEPOKI — 1888. 



inaccuracy of the weights ; and the iBequality of the price-returns more 
than the inequality of the weights. 

The only proof of the theory which can be offered to the unmathema- 
tical reader is to verify it by actual trial. We may assume a certain set 
of data as perfectly correct : then affect each of them with an error such 
that the modified datum is, say, as likely as not to be in excess or defect 
by 10 per cent. ; is very unlikely to be out by 30 or 40 per cent. ; and 
cannot, humanly speaking, be out by more than 50 per cent. A simple 
method of affecting a given set of figures with an error of this degree is 
to multiply each of them with a figure formed by adding together twenty 
digits taken at random from mathematical tables or statistical returns ; 
dividing each product by 90 (the mean about which aggregates of twenty 
random digits hover). The data thus artificially aff'ected with error are 
now to be used in the computation of an index-number, an erroneous 
number, which is to be compared with the result assumed to be true as 
having been deduced from the unfalsified data. A great number of such 
trials having been made, it will appear that the erroneous index-numbers 
deviate from the true one with the fi-equency and to the extent predicted 
by theory. 

A specimen of this verificatory process is subjoined here. The data 
employed by Mr. Palgrave in his computation of an index-number for 
1885 ' are assumed to be correct ; then each datum is displaced or falsi- 









zn 








■4J O 




t/i 


^ 






^' 


(U 











iS> 








t£ t^ a; 


Articles 












l! 






1— I 


en "' 

E 
s 

CO 


a. 


P5 


s 

s 


ei 

< 


Appare 
X appa 
0,000's 


Cotton 


263 


81 


18903 


38 


82 


3316 


6268 


Silk . -, , . 




12 


69 


828 


53 


99 


5247 


434 


Flax, &0, 




49 


97 


4753 


61 


97 


5917 


2812 


Wool 




142 


80 


11360 


69 


81 


6589 


6349 


Meat , 




524 


68 


35632 


102 


74 


7548 


26913 


Iron . 




150 


81 


12150 


82 


88 


7216 


8767 


Copper 




39 


87 


3393 


59 


87 


5133 


1739 


Lead 




13 


6 


858 


57 


85 


4845 


415 


Tin . 




15 


85 


1275 


78 


104 


8112 


1034 


Timber . 




164 


71 


11644 


107 


110 


11770 


13705 


Tallow 




28 


87 


2436 


84 


94 


7896 


1924 


Leather, &c. 




80 


110 


8800 


110 


84 


9240 


8131 


Indigo 
Oils . 




5 


74 


370 


111 


110 


12210 


4518 




49 


89 


4361 


69 


69 


4761 


20805 


CoflEee 




8 


85 


680 


62 


62 


3844 


2613 


Sugar 




149 


80 


11920 


53 


109 


5777 


6886 


Tea . 




71 


96 


6816 


69 


79 


5451 


! 3438 


Tobacco . 




29 


93 


2697 


103 


89 


9167 


i 2478 


Wheat 




410 


81 


33210 


60 


111 


6660 


22118 

1 


Suma .... 


— 


— 


172486 


1427 


1714 


129697 


141348 






— 


— 


— 


75-1 


— 


75-7 


81 



' See above, p. 195. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STAMDARD. 199 

fied in the manner above described, and a new (erroneous) index-number 
is deduced. 

In this table the first column contains the names of articles in the 
order adopted by Mr. Palgrave in his table 27. The second column 
contains the ' weights ' assigned by him under the heading of ' Relative 
Importance.' The third column consists of multipliei's formed by adding 
twenty digits at raudom, and thus calculated to deflect the weights from 
their respective true values to the extent of, say, 12 per cent, on an 
average. The fourth column gives the new system of weights thus 
affected with error. The fifth column contains (comparative) prices 
taken from Mr. Palgrave's table 26. The sixth column furnishes a new 
set of multipliers assigned by chance. The seventh column gives the 
prices affected by error, and multiplied by 90 (the average value of 
the chance-multipliers). The eighth column gives the product of the 
ei'roneous weights and the erroneous prices ( x 90). The sum of this 
last column, 1,413,480,000, divided by ninety times the sum of the 
erroneous weights, which sum is 172,486, gives the erroneous index- 
number 81 ; whereas the true index-number, on the assumption here 
made that Mr. Palgrave's data are absolutely correct, is, as computed by 
him, 76.^ 

Thus the falsified result is too great by -j^, or about 6 or 7 per cent. 
That is a result quite consonant with the theory wliich assigns such a 
measure of the error to be expected ^ that the result is as likely as not to 
be out by 4 per cent., and that the odds are only five to one against the 
error being so large as 8 or 9 per cent. It would have been nothing 
miraculous if the result had been out by sixteen per cent. ; nothing more 
extraordinary than, for instance, the fortuitous sequence which may be 
observed in our third column of eight random aggregates falling below 
the average about which they should oscillate, namely 90.^ 

The same table furnishes another verification, if, making abstrac- 
tion of Mr. Palgrave's weights, we assume the index-number calculated 
on the principle of the economist to be correct, and regard the figures in 
our sixth column as erroneous weights (the true weights being all equal). 
Upon this understanding we have the true result, the Simple Arith- 
metic Mean of the comparative prices, 75"1 ; whereas the erroneously 
Weighted Mean is 75'7, that is, it is in excess by about '8 per cent. Now 
the measure of error here predicted by theory* is such that an error of 
■7 per cent, is as likely as not to occur. The occurrence of "8 per cent, 
is therefore eminently consonant with the theory.''' 

' Third EepoH on Bepression of Trade, Appendix B. Memorandum by R. I. Pal- 
grave. Tables 26 and 27. 

^ Taking 8-5 as the Modulus of the resultant error. See above, p. ]97. 

^ The probability of an error exceeding 1-9 times its modulus is -0072. The prob- 
ability of the sequence referred to is -0078 ( = 57). 

1 /sv - SE - 

* By case (1) above, p. 11, the modulus is -7- x a / ' - x k. Here n is 19 ; - — ' 

■^''^ V n n 

is found to be -08, and k is -21. Whence the modulus is about -Ol-l, or I'o per cent. 

' Perhaps it may be asked here whether the example given is suited to exemplify 
our estimate of the third species of error (see above, p. 193) : that due to the total 
omission of certain articles. The answer is that this estimate, involving a larger 
element of induction, does not profess to be so amenable to veriti cation as those 
which are derived from known and steady ' sources of error,' like our aggregate.-^ of 



200 REPORT— 1888. 

It might be desirable to apply this sort of test on a large scale to the 
computation recommended by the Committee, and to prove by specific 
experience the conclusions ■which are dedncible from the Theory of Prob- 
abilities concerning the accuracy of any index-number. 

These conclusions cannot be stated in their most exact form until 
the price- returns, as well as the weights which enter into the computa- 
tion to be tested, are assigned. But even at the present stage of our 
procedure, and without reference to the price-returns of a particular 
year, we may approximately estimate the accuracy of index-numbers of 
the kind proposed by the Committee. For the purpose of a rough esti- 
mate it is enough to know the weights (which are assigned in the Second 
Report of the Committee) and to utilise past experience concerning the 
course of prices in this country. A certain datum,' which had better be 
determined precisely from the price-returns from the particular year 
to which the index-number relates, may be apjji-oximately obtained by 
induction from the experience of past years. 

Eliciting the required da,tum from the prices recorded by the Econo- 
mist,"^ we may provisionally assert the following propositions concerning 
the accuracy of index-numbers such as the Committee has proposed. 
These, it will be recollected, involve twenty-seven English price-returns 
and twenty-seven assigned weights.^ 

(1) In such an index-number, if the weights alone are supposed sub- 
ject to error, then the average error of the result, its erroneousness as one 
may say, is twenty times less than the error to which each weight is liable. 

(2) If the price-returns alone are liable to error, the erroneousness of 
the result is ahout four-a^id-a-half times less than that of each datum. 

(3) In the general case, when both prices and weights are liable to error, 
then, if that error be the same for both species of data, the error of the re- 
sult is still about four-and-a-half times less than that same. If the error 
of the weights become twice as great as that which is incident to the 
prices, other things being the same, the error of the result is not materially 
increased. The error of the weights would need to he five times as great as 
that of the pi'ices in order to increase the error of the result by 50 per cent, 
(making it only three times less than the error incident to the prices alone). 

The practical conclusion from these propositions ajipears to be : Take 
more care about the prices than the weights. 

More detailed statements cannot be made without some assumption 
as to the degree of inaccuracy to which our data are liable, the extent to 
which our estimates of weights and prices deviate from the figures which 
would be assigned if our knowledge and theory were perfect. In enter- 
taining any suppositions as to the extent of this discrepancy, it is proper 
to conceive that the lai'ger deviations, the more extensive errors, are less 
frequent in the long run, or more improbable. Thus, if we suppose that 
a deviation of each datum, weight or price, to the extent of 10 per cent. 

digits. Moreover, such verification as the theory admits would require a larger 
number of items than the table in the text contains. For in general it must be 
assumed that the numbers both of the included and excluded articles are large. Now 
it is impossible to carve two sets of ' large numbers ' out of nineteen. 

' The coefiicient C defined above, -p. 191. 

- As given in Mr. Palo-rave's table 26 (see above, p. 196). 

s Namely, 5, 5, 5, 5 ; 10, 2i, 1\ ; 2\, 2|, 9, 2^, 1, 2i ; 2i, 2^, 2J, 2i ; 10, 5, 2i, 2^ ; 

3, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1. Whence the value of /c-;;;.. (see above, p. 193) is found to be 'Oo. 



ON VABIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 201 

is as likely as not, then it may be presumed that a deviation of 20 
per cent, is not likely, of 30 per cent, very nnlikely. Upon this hypothesis, 
according to the general formulEe above investigated, the error, or fortuitous 
deviation from the ideal, to which the Committee's index-number is liable 
is as likely as not to be as large as 2 or 3 per cent., but is unlikely 
to be 6 per cent., and very unlikely to be 10 per cent. Now let us 
entertain the more unfavourable and almost certainly extravagant 
hypothesis that each datum is as likely as not to be out by 25 per 
cent., and may just possibly ei'r to the extent of cent, per cent, (an 
error which, if possible in excess, is almost inconceivable in defect). Upon 
this hypothesis our index-number is as likely as not to be out 5 per 
cent, but is not likely to be out by 10, and very unlikely to be out by 
15, per cent. 

The presumption that our calculation is not likely to be far out is 
confirmed by comparing the results obtainable by our method with those 
obtained by other operators upon different principles. If the corapared 
figures differ little from each other it is presumable that they differ little 
from the true, the ideally best, figure : that which would be obtained if 
"the data were perfect. 

The index-numbers which challenge comparison with that proposed 
by the Committee may be arranged under four categories, namely : 

I. Those which are formed by taking the Simj^le Arithmetical Mean of 
the given price- variation ; the principle of the Economist's index-number, 
or rather what would be the principle of that operation if the prices 
operated on had not been selected with some reference to the quantity of 
the corresponding commodities. 

II. what may be called the Weighted Arithmetical Mean, each price- 
variation being affected with a factor proportioned to the quantity of the 
corresponding commodity, the principle adopted by the Committee. 

III. The Geometric Mean, as employed by Jevons. 

IV. The Median, proposed by the present writer as appropriate to 
certain purposes.' It is (in its simplest variety) formed by arranging 
the given price-variation {e.g., 98, 80, 88, 87, 85) in the order of magni- 
tude {e.g., 80, 85, 87, 88, 98) and taking as the Mean the middle figure 
(in the above example the third figure, i.e., 87). 

Under each of these headings it is desirable to supplement actual 
verification with a priori reasoning based on the principles laid down in 
the earlier part of the Memorandum. 

We may begin with the case (A) in which the price- variations are 
supposed the same for the compared index-numbers. Later on (B) we 
shall take examples in which both the price-variations and the mode of 
combining them are difierent. 

A. 

I. Let us take the prices which are to hand for 21 (out of the 27) 
items of our index-number in Mr. Sauerbeck's well-known paper on the 
prices of commodities.- Let us form the Simple Arithmetic Mean of these 
prices for the year 1885, and compare it with the Mean obtained by 
applying our system of weights to the same prices. The operation is 

' See sect. ix. of Jlemorandum ' On the Methods of measuring Variations in the 
Value of the Monetary Standard,' Brit. Assoc. RejJort, 1887. 
'^ Journal of the Statistical Society, 1886. 



202 



REPORT 1888. 





1885 


i 


1873 




1 


2 


3 


4 


i 5 


6 


7 




Price- 


Weights 




Price- 


Weights 




Articles common to 


variationfe 


assigned 


Product 


variations 


assigned 


Product 


Sauerbeck and 


for 1885 


bv the 


of 


for 1873 


bv the 


of 


the Committee 


niven bv 


Com- 


columns 


given bv 


Com- 


columns 




Sauerbeck 


mittee 


2 and 3 


Sauerbeck 


mittee 


6 and 7 


Wheat .... 


60 


5 


300 


108 


5 


540 


Barley .... 


77 


5 


385 


104 


5 


520 


Oats .... 


79 


5 


395 


98 


5 


490 


Potatoes and rice . 


67 


5 


335 


116 


5 


580 


Meat .... 


88 


10 


880 


109 


10 


1090 


Butter .... 


89 


7i 


668 


98 


7* 


735 


Sugar .... 


59 


2* 


147-5 


101 


n 


252-5 


Tea 


64 


H 


160 


102 


^ 


255-5 


Cotton .... 


62 


n 


155 


100 


2i 


250 


Wool .... 


73 


n 


182-5 


118 


2| 


345 


Silk .... 


55 


2h 


137-5 


95 


2i 


237-5 


Leather .... 


94 


2| 


235-5 


117 


24 


2925 


Coal .... 


72 


10 


720 


145 


10 


1450 


Iron .... 


60 


5 


300 


170 


5 


850 


Copper .... 


57 


2i 


142-5 


112 


24 


280 


Lead .... 


57 


2^ 


142-5 


117 


24 


292-5 


Timber .... 


81 


3 


243 


111 


3 


333 


Petroleum 


55 


1 


55 


122 


1 


122 


Indigo .... 


72 


1 


72 


92 


1 


92 


Flax .... 


73 


3 


219 


97 


3 


291 


Palm oil . 


77 


1 


77 


97 


1 


97 


Sums 


1,471 


81-5 \ 


5952 


2329 


81'5 \ 


9394-5 
115 


Means . 


70 


70-6 


110-4 



exhibited in the annexed table, the latter columns of which present a 
similar comparison for the year 1873. The two results may thus be 
summed up : 





1885 


1873 


Simple Arithmetic Mean 


70 


110-5 


The Committee's Weighted Arithmetic Mean . 


70-6 


115 



The relation between these results is predictable by, and consilient 
with, the conclusions of a priori reasoning. Accordingly the inference 
that the deviation between the two computations is not likely to exceed a 
small percentage may safely be extended to adjacent cases. 

It follows, from the principles laid down in the earlier part of this Memorandum^ 
that the discrepancy to be expected between the two results depends on three cir- 
cumstances : the number of items, the inequality of the price-Tariations, and th& 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE TALDE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 203 

inequality of the weights. The measure or modulus of the discrepancy is, in our 
notation, 

where n is 21 ; C is presumed (by a sufficient, but certainly not very copious, induc- 
tion) to be from '2 to "3 ; and x is found to be about "O.^ 

It follows that of the observed discrepancies, '6 and 5, one is, a priori, move 
likely than not to occur, and the other not unlikely. A rapidly increasing improb- 
ability attaches to the higher degrees of divergence. 

Of course it must be understood that this theorem in Probabilities, this state- 
ment of what will occur in the long run, is based upon the supposition that the 
weights are distributed impartially among the price-variations. But if through- 
out the whole run the largest weight is attached to the largest, or smallest, 
observation, the then fortuitous character of the phenomenon is impaired. In 
fact the ' long run ' of which the theory may be expected to be true is a series of 
heterogeneous index-numbers not of consecutive years. Something of this sort 
is observable in the case of Mr. Palgrave's Weighted Mean compared with the cor- 
responding Simple Arithmetic Mean. The enormous weights attached to the 
continiialiy low-priced Cotton and the continually high-priced Meat seem to afi'ect 
the Weighted Mean abnormally. To effect the comparison, we must not take the 
averages given in Mr. Palgrave's table 26, but those which are obtained by 
omitting from that table the three items Cotton Wool, Cotton Yarn, and Cotton 
Cloth, which do not occur in the compared table 27. The annexed comparison 
does not present the appearance of pure chance. The discrepancies are rather less 
in magnitude than the theory I'equires. For the modidus, as deduced from Mr. 
Palgrave's system of weights, proves to be about 8o per cent, of the Mean 80 or 90 :- 
that is about 7, corresponding to a probable error of about 3'6. The set of dif- 
ferences above registered seems to ranore a little within the limits so defined. 





187C 


1871 


1872 


1873 


1874 1875 


1876 


1877 


1878 1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


1884 


1885 


Mr. Palgrave's Weighted 
Mean for 19 articles 


90 


93 


100 


104 


108 


97 


99 


100 


9S 


82 


89 


93 


87 


88 


80 


76 


The Simple Arithmetic 
Mean for the same 
articles 


94 


95 


102 


107-5 


107 


92 


99 


101 


93 


82 


93-5 


86 


89 


85-5 


81 


75 


Excess of Arithmetic over 
■Weighted Mean 


+4 


+ 2 


+ 2 


+ 3-5 


-1 


-5 





+ 1 


-2 





+4-5 


-7 


+3 


-2-5 


+ 1 


-1 



The reason is, doubtless, that the impartial sprinkling of the prices among the 
weights, presupposed by theory, is not fulfilled in fact. Had it happened that 

• See above, p. 196, where the present ^nriter records the Mean Square of Deviation 
for the price-variation of nineteen different articles (given bj' the Uconomist) in 
different years. The Mean Square of Deviation for the figures given by Mr. Sauerbeck 
seems to be much the same. Again, the writer has, with much the same result, 
ascertained (by the Galton-Quetelet method) the quartiles for a few groups of 
English prices, like those given bj' Jevons. For example, in the case of the thirty- 
nine figures of the prices for prime articles in lS()0-62 comparative with 1845-50 
(^Currency and Finance, pp. 51, 52) the quartile (half the interval between the tenth 
and the thirtieth) proves to be 11, corresponding to a modulus of about 22 per cent. 
If, however, we take in all the 118 articles given on the same page the quartile is 17. 
The groups of thirty-nine on Jevons' page 44, so far as they have been examined, give 
much the same result as the thirty-nine on pages 51, 52. Jevons himself gives 2^ 
as the ' probable error ' incident to the Mean of thirty-six price-variations ( Currency 
and FiTiance, p. 157) — corresponding to a probable eiTor of 15, a modulus of 30 
for the individual price-return. Doubtless the dispersion may be expected to be 
greater the more distant the base. If precision could be expected, it would be proper 
to express the coefficient as a percentage of the mean price-variations at each 
epoch rather than of the initial price or basis. 

2 See end of last note. 



204 EEPORT— 1888. 

throughout the whole run all the largest weights had been attached to the articles 
whose prices were contiuuallj' low, e.g., cotton, and (for the last few years at least) 
silk and Jla.r, then the discrepancies (between the weighted and simple mean) 
would have been rather larger than theory predicts. Thus, for the year 1885 I make 
silk exchange weights with meat, and thus bring down the index-number to 64 ; a 
discrepancy from the Arithmetic Mean which, if continued — as it probably would be 
— from year to year, would be a little too great. Similarly, when wheat exchanges 
weight with lecither, and cotton with indigo, the index-number works out to 92 — a 
discrepancy of two moduli, which is much too large for a continuance. 

This sort of abnormality is less likely to occur in the case of our scheme, where 
none of the weights are so large as some of Mr. Palgrave's. Still, before pressing the 
theory, it is proper to examine whether the larger weights — in our case those of 
meat, fish, and coal — are, from year to year, coupled with extreme price-variations. ^ 

Whenever law of this sort is discernible the doctrine of Chances hides its 
inferior light, which is serviceable only in the night of total ignorance. The pure 
theory of Probabilities must be taken cum grano when we are treating concrete 
problems. The relation between the mathematical reasoning and the numerical 
facts is very much the same as that which holds between the abstract theory of 
Economics and the actual industrial world — a varying and undefiuable degree of 
■ consilience, exaggerated by pedants, igTiored by the vulgar, and used by the wise. 

II. Next let us compare our result with that obtained by using some 
other system of weights, e.g., Mr. Sauerbeck's. In the annexed table, page 
205, column 1 is the same as column 2 of the last table, containing Mr. 
Sauerbeck's prices. Column 2 gives Mr. Sauerbeck's weights (for 1885) 
reduced to percentages of the total weight assigned by him to the 
twenty-one articles which ai"e common to him and the Committee. 
For example, 61 is the weight actually assigned by him to wheat. This, 
multiplied by 100, and divided by 559, the sum of all the weights assigned 
by him to the twenty-one articles, gives 11 (nearly). 

It is an interesting result of theory that the difference to be expected between 

the two weighted inde.x-numbers (for the same twenty-one price-^-ariations) is 

. about the same as, or only a little less than, that between one of them and the 

Simple Unweighted Arithmetic Mean. This result is found by putting for — in the 

formula given above'- » where e', e", express deviations for the two systems 

of weights respectively. 





1885 1873 


The Committee's System of Weights .... 


70-6 


115 


Mr. Sauerbeck's System of Weights .... 


73 


115 



The comparison between the two systems is presented in the accom- 
panying summary. The slightness of the difference between the com- 

' The effect of large weights combined with high prices is strikingly shown in an 
index-number (attributed to Dr. Paasche) which is published in Conrad's Jahr- 
Jiic/i^r, vol. xxiii. p. 171. There are twenty-two items, among which Rye obtains 
about thirty per cent, of the total weight, and tlie Cereals generally (between whose 
prices there is a certain solidarity) about seventy per cent. It is no wonder that in 
the year 1868, when the price of the Cereals was exceptionally high, the Weighted 
Mean should be 118, while the Simple Arithmetic Mean of the twenty-two compara- 
tive prices is only 104. 

- The expression proves to be equal to '4. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 



205 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Price- 


Weights 


Product of 


Price- 


Product of 


variations 


assigned bv 


columns 


variations 


columns 


for 1885 


Sauerbeck 


1 and 2 


for 1873 


2 and -4 


60 


11 


660 


108 


1188 


77 


5 "5 


423 


104 


572 


79 


(5 


474 


98 


588 


67 


6 


402 


116 


696 


88 


155 


1364 


109 


1689-5 


89 


3 


267 


98 


294 


59 


5-5 


325 


101 


555-5 


64 


2 


128 


102 


204 


62 


10 


620 


100 


1000 


73 


7-5 


537-5 


118 


885 


55 


1 


55 


95 


95 


94 


8 


752 


117 


936 


72 


13 


936 


145 


1885 


60 


5 


300 


170 


850 


57 


1 


57 


112 


112 


57 


0-5 


28-5 


117 


58-5 


81 


2 


162 


111 


222 


55 


0-5 


27-5 


122 


61 


72 


0-5 


36 


92 


49 


73 


1 


73 


97 


97 


77 


0-2 


15 


97 


19 


Sum . . . 


105 ^ 


1 7652 


— 


12052 


Mean . . 


73 


— 


115 



pared results might have been predicted by theory, and may be predicted 
safely of adjacent cases. 

III. We come next to the index- number of Jevons : the Geometric 
Mean of the price-variations appertaining to a number of groups. The 
definition of these groups is not wholly iiTespective of their importance to 
the consumer and producer. There is evinced more or less concern that 
each article of equal importance should ' count for one ' in the composi- 
tion of the index-number. But Jevons does not affect precision of weight. 
Pepper, for instance, forms one of the constituent thirty-nine articles.' 

The analogue of this operation for our materials appears to be the 
Simple Geometric Mean of the price-variations for each of the articles 
specified in our scheme ; except, indeed, those to which a very small 
weight, namely 1, has been assigned. Accordingly Petroleum, Indigo,. 
Palm Oil, and Caoutchouc may, with propriety, be lumped into one group, for 
which the mean price-variation is to be ascertained geometrically. For 
the sake of comparison with Mr. Sauerbeck's result, Caoutchouc (not 

' In the ' Serious Fall,' republished in Currency and, Finance, p. 44. In the 
•Variation of Prices ' (i&ifZ., p. 142) Jevons seems to' have employed the practice of 
weighting rather more extensively. He says, ' Several qualities of one commodity 
have been joined and averaged before being thrown as one unit into larger groups' 
— in the case of certain articles which are not very clearly indicated. For the period 
after 1844 the [unweighted] ' average prices, as calculated from the price-lists of the 
JEconomist . . . were mostly used.' 



^06 



REPORT 1888. 



recorded by him) may be omitted from this little group. The Mean of 
the group so constituted is to be placed along with the price- variations 
for the remaining eighteen articles common to us and Mr. Sauerbeck, and 
the Geometric Mean of all the nineteen is to be taken. It proves to be 
€9, presenting the comparison herewith exhibited.' 



The Committee's Weisrhted Mean of 21 articles 



The slightly adjusted Geometrical Mean of the same 



70-6 



69 



The slightness of this divergence is conformable to theory. For it has been 
shown that the Weighted Mean (of twenty-one articles) is not likely to differ very 
much from the Simple Arithmetic Mean of the same. And it may be shown that 
the Arithmetic Mean is not likely to differ very much from the Geometric when the 
number of price-observations is large, and if they are not very unequal. This pro- 
position may be illustrated by the following figures, the first row of which is 
obtained by taking the Arithmetic Mean of the thirty-nine price-percentages given 
by Jevons in his paper on a 'Serious Fall,' &c. (^Currency and Finance, p. 44.) 
The second row consists of the Geometric Means, as given by him at p. 46, for the 
same figui-es. The superior magnitude of the Arithmetic Mean will be noticed. 
This circumstance (which Jevons thought an advantage on the side of his pro- 
cedure) could not be predicated of a Weighted Arithmetic Mean (such as our index- 
number), as compared with the Geometric : — 





1851 
92-4 


1852 


185.3 


1855 
117-6 


1857 
128-8 


1859 


Geometric Mean for 39 articleii . 


9.3-8 


111-3 


116 


Arithmetic Mean for same . 


94-6 


94-6 


112-4 


119 


134 


119 



IV. We come now to the Median, which has been recommended by 
the present writer as the formula for the most objective sort of Mean be- 
tween prices, not directed to any special purpose, such as the wants of the 
consumer or the difficulties of the producer, but more impersonal and 
absolute. 



Below 70 


Between 70 and 80 


Above 80 


• 


72 72 73 73 

77 77 79 




Ten below 70 


Median = 72 


Four above 80 



Of the twenty-one price- variations for 1855 given in column 1 of 
table 1, we have to take that which is the eleventh in the order of magni- 
tude. To ascertain this we need not arrange all the figures in order. 
Having an inkling that the Mean is between 70 and 80, we shall find it 
sufficient to note the number of returns which lie outside those limits, and 
to write down in the order of magnitude only the returns which lie 
between 70 and 80. Thus, running our eye down the column of figures, we 
make a dot on the right for every return which is greater than 80, on 
the left for every one less than 70 ; and write down in the central com- 
partment the figures which lie between 70 and 80 inclusive. Whence it 

' If we lump together Barlet/ and Oatt into one group, Sugar and Tea into 
another, and again Copper and Lead, the Geometric Mean of the sixteen returns 
thus presented is 70' 2. 



ON VAEIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDAED. 207 

appears that 72 is the figure eleventh in the order of magnittide : that is 
the Median. 



1 


2 


3 


Price-variations 


Precisions determined 
by mass 


Arbitrary precisions 


60 
67 
59 
64 
62 
55 
60 
57 
57 
55 


2 

2 

1-5 

1-5 

1-5 

1-5 

2 

1-5 

1-5 

1 


2 
1 
2 

2 

1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 




16 


15 


72 

72 
73 
73 

77 
77 
79 


3 
1"5 

I'O 


2 
1 
1 

1 
1 
2 

1 




12 


9 


88 
89 
94 
81 


3 

2-5 
1-5 
1-5 


2 
1 
1 
2 




85 


6 




365 


30 



This is the Simple or Unweighted Median. There is a variety consti- 
tuted by assigning special importance to those returns which we have 
reason to suppose are specially good representatives of the changes 
aflPecting the value of money. If, as in the writer's Memorandum often 
referred to,' we take mass of commodity as the principle of ponderation, we 
shall have to proceed as follows with our twenty-one articles : 

As before, make three compartments for returns below 70, for those 
Ijetween 70 and 80, and for those above 80 respectively. Write down in 
the first and third compartments the returns in the order in which they 
occur (in any order) ; but in the central compartment in the order of 
magnitude.^ In the second column of each compartment write the figures 
representing the relative precision assigned to each return. If these esti- 
mates of precision are based upon the quantities of commodities, it is 
recommended that they should be equal to, or rather less than, the square 
roots of the proportionate masses. Accordingly 2 has been put for the 
square root of 6, 1"5 for the square root of 2^, and so on. Add together 

' Sect. ix. of 'Memorandum' in Heport of Brit. Assoc, 1887. 
^ It will probably be convenient to write these returns first in the order of their 
occurrence, and then rearrange them. 



208 



REPOKT 1888. 



the sums of all the second columns. Thus, 16 + 12 + 8'5:=3do. Find the- 
central figure of the total second column : that is the figure which as 
nearly as may be has 18 for the sum of figures above it and below it. 
This figure proves to be the 3 at the top of the second compartment 
opposite 72. Then 72 is the required Mean. 

In the third column another system of precisions has been tried to 
illustrate the effect of treating some price- variations as more typical of 
the change in the value of money than others. Tossing up a coin, the 
writer has stuck down (corresponding to each figure in the first column) 
2 if heads turned up, 1 if tails. The sum of these arbitrary coefficients 
of precision is 30, and accordingly the adjusted Median is the point inter- 
mediate between 72 and the return next below in the order of magnitude^ 
wliich proves to be 67. The adjusted Median is, therefore, 69'5. 

By operating similarly on the price-returns for 1873 (given above) it 
is found that the Simple Median is 108, the Median adjusted by taking 
account of quantities still lOS. 

The deviation between the Median and the Simple (or other) Arithmetic Mean 
cannot, so far as the wi-iter knows, be formulated exactly. It diminishes with the 

number of observations, being of the order - .=^ A superior limit is given by the 

expression n/I + ^tt x Modulus of the observation; in our case say •!, or 10 per 
cent.' This limit is probably very superior, as the following trials, in addition to 
those given above, suggest : 





1851 


1852 


1853 


1855 


1857 


1859 


Arithmetic Mean for 39 articles 


9i-6 


94-6 


112-4 


119 


134 


119 

116-5 
116 


Median for the same 


S2 


92 


108 


111 


127 


Geometric Mean for the same 


92-4 


93-8 


111-3 


117-6 


128-8 



The thirty-nine figures are those above referred to, given by Jevons 
at p. 4?4 of his Currency and Finance. The Geometric Means have been 
cited again here in order to bring out the curious fact that the Median 
seems to keep closer to the Geometric than the Arithmetic. This property 
(which it would be desirable to verify more fully) is agreeable to the 
theory, first advanced by the present writer so far as he is aware, that 
prices are apt to group themselves in an unsymmetrical fashion after the 
pattern of the annexed curve, whose ordinates indicate the frequency of 




each price-variation. In the year 1857, for instance, the smallest figure 
was 91, the largest 247 ; while the Geometric, Median, and Arithmetic 
Means were respectively 129, 127, and 134. There is some reason to 
believe that the Geometric and Median — especially the latter — are more 
apt to be coincident with the point at which the gi-eatest number of 
returns cluster, the greatest ordinate of the curve. 

If then we take as our qu^situm that figure which would he presented 
hy the greatest numher of price-variations in the complete series of returns 

' See the writer's paper in ' Problems in Probabilities,' Phil. Mag., Oct. 1886. 



ON VARIATIONS IN TIIE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDAUD. 209 

for all articles great and small, then, regarding our twentj-one, or it maj 
be forty-five, articles as specimens of this series, we shall best operate on 
them by taking their Median. 

And, even if this reasoning is not accepted, if the asymmetry of the 

price-curve should not be regarded as serious, and the central point of 

the supposed symmetrical complete curve or series be taken as the 

quassitum, still, even upon this hypothesis, the Median would have 

. special claims.' 

Another advantage — or the same otherwise viewed — on the side of the 
Median is its insensibility to accidental alterations of 'weight.' You 
may considerably increase or lighten the weights without causing this 
Mean to be depressed or elated. In the Arithmetic Mean a large weight 
happening to concur with an extreme price- variation produces a derange- 
ment which with reference to the present objective'^ (as distinguished 
from the 'consumption') standard may be regarded as accidental. The 
Median is free from this fortuitous disturbance. The rationale of this 
stability is supplied by the Calculus of Pi'obabilities, 

It appears, therefore, that our index-number, though not likely to he wide of 
any mark which has been proposed, is not the one which is most accurately directed 
to a particular, or rather, indeed, the most general object. It is no matter for sur- 
prise or complaint that we should not hit full in the centre an object which has not 
been our aim ; our index-number being mainlj' a Standard of Desiderata, measuring 
the variation in value of the national consumption. Our primary aim, indeed, is 
more comprehensive, not this special, but a collective, or ' compromise,' scope ; 
not so much to hit a particular bird, but so to shoot among the closely clustered 
covey as to bring down most game. But then we are brought back to, or nearly to, 
the directer aim and simpler object by a consideration which has great weight in 
practical economics, the necessity of adopting a principle — as Mill says with 
respect to convertible currency — ' intelligible to the most untaught capacity.' 
Now every tyro in our subject makes straight for the Consumption Standard ; but 
the more delicate distinctions of the Producers' Standard and the typical or quasi- 
objective index-number evade popular perception. 

In view of this practical exigency it may well be that the Committee's index- 
number is the one best adapted to purposes in general — the principal standard as 
■defined in the First Report. What is here contended is that, with respect to a 
certain purpose other than the consumers' interest, the Committee's index-number 
is on the one hand likely to be a very good measure, and on the other hand not 
the very best possible. 

B. 

We have now to compare index-numbers differing as to the prices 
operated on as well as the methods of operation. One important case 
is where the prices of the principal articles are the same for the com- 
pared index-numbers, the data differing only as to ii small part of the 
total value. For example, of the total value covered by Mr. Sauerbeck's 
index-number about -^^ is common to the Committee's scheme. For 
Mr. Sauerbeck's weights (or ' nominal values ') of the twenty-one 
articles common to both calculations make up (for the year 1885) 659, 
while the sum for all the items treated by him is 617. 

' The problem would then be analogous to the reduction of symmetrical observa- 
tions relating to a physical quantity. On account of the ' discordance ' of the price- 
observations, their very different liability to fluctuation, the writer would recommend 
the use of the Median on the grounds which he has stated in the paper on ' Discordant 
Observations,' Phil. Mag., April 1886. 

^ See ' Memorandum,' Rej)ort of Brit. Assoc, 1887, and also Journal of the Statis- 
tical Society, June 1888. 

1888. P 



210 



REPORT 1888. 



Let us see, then, -what difference is caused by operating on all 
Mr. Sauerbeck's forty-five articles instead of only the twenty-one principal 
items which are common to his price list and ours. He himself at 
p. 595 (of the ' Jouru. Stat. Soc.,' 1886) gives us the Means of Comparison : 





1885 


1873 


Mr. Sauerbeck's Weighted Mean for 45 articles . 


71-3 


115-2 


The Committee's Weighted Mean for 21 of those articles 


70-6 


115 



It is interesting to observe that the Median does not suffer any 
change by being extended from twenty-one to forty-five articles. The atten- 
tion of the reader is invited also to the ease of this method. In order to take 



Above 80 


Between 70 and 80 


Below 70 


Dots to 
the num- 
ber of 12 


79 


78 


77 77 


7G 75 75 73 73 73 


72 72 71 


70 


Dots to 
the num- 
ber of 1& 



in the twenty-four additional articles we have only to write down a few 
more figures in the central compartment, to add a few more dots in the ex- 
treme compartments, as shown in the annexed diagram. Indeed it is not 



1 


2 


3 


1 (^continved) 


2 (^continued) 


3 (continued) 


Price- 
variations 


Precision 


Another 
System of 
Precision 


Price- 
variations 


Precision 


Another 
System of 
Precision 


60 
62 
63 
64 
59 
62 
65 
64 
60 
59 
57 
57 
62 
63 
63 
50 
55 
55 
60 


2 
3 
3 

2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
2 

1 

2 

2 

2 

1 
1 
2 

1 

2 
3 

2 
2 

1 


.3 
3 

3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 
3 

1 
2 
3 


72 
73 
73 
73 
75 
75 
76 
77 
77 
78 
79 


1 

2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
3 
3 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 


3 

1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 
1 
] 
1 
2 




70 
71 

72 


Sums 


43 


47 


— 


43 


47 



ON YARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 211 

necessary to record the number of observations (by way of dots) in more 
than 07ie of the extreme compartments. The Median is the hvenfy-third 
figure in the order of magnitude, that is, 7'i. Proceeding similarly for the 
year 1873, -we find the Median of Mr. Sauerbeck's forty-five price- 
variations 109. 

Now let us try the efiect of weighting. Running my eye over some 
pages of statistics, I assign the digits 1, 2, 3 as they occur to the price- 
variations, which are in pell-mell order up to 70 ; between 70 and 80 in 
the order of magnitude ; and above 80 not represented at all. The sum 
of the whole second column thus formed is 86. The central point corre- 
sponding to half that sum is at the foot of the fir.st half of the second 
column, corresponding to the entry 72 in the first column. Accordingly 
72 is the adjusted Median. I try another system of precision-factors 
arbitrarily assigned. And still the Median is 72 ! 

The comparisons offered by Mr. Sauerbeck's materials are summed up 
in the accompanying table : 





1885 


1873 


The 21 arti- 
cles common 
to the Com- 
mittee and 
Sauerbeck 


Sauerbeck's 
45 articles 


The 21 arti- 
cles common 
to the Com- 
mittee and 
Sauerbeck 


S.iuerbeck's 
45 articles 


The Simple Arithmetic Mean 


70 


74 


110-5 


111 


The Committee's Weighted Mean . 


70-6 


— 


115 


— 


Sauerbeck's Weighted Mean . 


73 


72-5 


115 


115-2 


Jevons' adjusted Geometric Mean . 


69 


— 


— 


— 


The Simple Median 


72 


72 


108 


109 


The Median adjusted accordiDg to 
quantity 


72 


— 


108 


— 


The Median adjusted on an arbi- 
trary principle 


69-5 


72 


— 


— 



For estimating the extent of difference to be expected between two index- 
numbers which overlap as to some of their items, the following formula is derivable 
from the reasoning at p. 194. Let n be the number of items common to both 
schemes, n' the number special to one, and n" to the other. Put x'' for the 



fluctuation of one system of weights, and x"~ fo^ the other ; and for 



S(e'-e")- 



(above, p. 204) put x'- Then for the modulus of the diflPerence between the com- 
pared results we have 

^-^"^ V 2 w + n'V ^ 2 / n + n"V 2/ 
where C, as before, is the measure of the dispersion incident to returns of com- 
parative prices. In practice we may put for ^ , the ratio between the summed 

weights of the item special to each index-number and the sum total for all the 
items. These fractions are derivable from the third and fourth columns in the last 
table of the Appendix. In calcidating the fifth and sixth columns of tliat table 

p2 



212 



REPORT — 1888. 



the formula just given has been used. But it has been thought allowable to 
deduce x not from the Mean square of error (as theoretically best), but from the 
Mean error given in the second column of the table, putting x = </"■ x Mean error. 
The calculations of x' and x" have been similarly rough. 

Of course, as the number of items common to two compared index- 
numbers is diminished the chances of their dissUience are increased. 
The art of conjecturing can in such a case throw only a very feeble light — 
offered by the third formula above — on the relation between two such 
index-numbers. For instance, it could hardly have been predicted that 
the Simple Arithmetic Mean for Mr. Sauerbeck's forty-five articles should 
differ so little as '5 from the same Mean for twenty-one articles, as 
proved to be the case for the year 1873. It is even more surprising that 
if for 1885 we complete our index-number, taking account of the six 
items belonging to our scheme not included by Mr. Sauerbeck, there is 
a marked rise in the index-number owing to all these six returns being 
above the average. The annexed little table is formed by comparing the 
prices in 1885 with the average for 1866-77 as given in the Statistical 
Abstract : — 



Articles omitted hitherto 


Price-variations 
for 1885 


Weight assigned 
by the Committee 


Product of 
Columns 2 and 3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Fish' .... 


104 


2h 


260 


Beer .... 


76 


9 


68 


Spirits- .... 


120 


H 


300 


Wine .... 


100 


1 


100 


Tobacco .... 


85 


H 


212i 


Caoutchouc . 


109 


1 


109 


Sums .... 


594 


18-5 


1665 


Means .... 


97 


— 


90 



If we add the outcome of this table to that of the first table repre- 
senting the other twenty-one articles, we have 1665 + 5952= 7617 ; which, 
divided by 100, gives the new index-nnmber 76. 

Of course in applying the doctrine of Chances to this problem we 
must abstract all animus. If you pick out the large variations of price 
and the large weights you will doubtless succeed, like Mr. Forsell, in 
producing discrepancies — though even his success in that attempt seems 
less than might have been expected. 

In concluding this comparison of results the writer may say, in the 
phrase of Jevons, that he has taken more than reasonable pains to secure 
arithmetical accuracy. No doubt mistakes will have come. But, as the 
calculations have been performed without any conscious bias, any animus 
mensv.randi, it may be hoped that the errors will neutralise each other, 
and that the general impression left by the work is correct. 

' Fish imported. ' Spirits other than rum and brandy. 



ON VAKIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETART STANDARD. 213 



APPENDIX. 

Statement of the Extent, and Estimate of the Significance, of the 

DiFFEEENCE BETWEEN THE CoMMITTEE'S ScHEME AND OTHEES. 





Table I. 








Articles common to the 
Committee and Mr. Sauer- 
beck's Weighted Index- 
number 


Weights actually 
assigned 


Weights as Percentages 

of Total Weight of the 

Common Articles 


Differences 
between 
Columns 
4 and 5 


The Com- 
mittee 


Mr. Sauer- 
beck 


The Com- 
mittee 


Mr. Sauer- 
beck 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Wheat .... 


5 


61 


6 


11 


5 


Barley .... 


5 


30 


6 


6-5 


•5 


Oats .... 


5 


32 


6 


6 





Potatoes and rice 


5 


32 


6 


6 





Meat .... 


10 


88 


12 


15-5 


35 


Butter .... 


n 


23 


9 


3 


6 


Sugar .... 


2| 


30 


3 


5-5 


2-5 


Tea .... 


n 


13 


3 


2 


1 


Cotton .... 


2h 


57 


3 


10 


7 


Wool .... 


n 


42 


3 


7-5 


45 


Silk .... 


n 


4 


3 


1 


2 


Leather 


H 


10 


3 


2 


1 


Coal .... 


10 


74 


12 


13 


1 


Iron .... 


5 


27 


6 


5 


1 


Copper. 


n 


7 


3 


1 


2 


Lead .... 


n 


3 


3 


•5 


2-5 


Timber 


3 


17 




2 


2 


Petroleum . 


1 


3 




•5 


•5 


Indigo .... 


1 


3 




•5 


•5 


Flax . . . . 


3 


4-5 




1 


3 


Palm oil . . . 
Sums . 


1 


1-5 







1 


81o 


564 


98 


98 


46-5 



214 



EEPORT 1888. 



Table II. 





Weights as Percentages of Total 




Articles common to the Com- 
mittee and Mr. Palgrave 


Weight of the Common Articles 


Differences 

between Columns 

2 and 3 








The Committee 


Mr. Palgrave 




1 


2 


o 
O 


4 


Wheat .... 


10 


19 


9 


Meat . 








20 


25 


5 


Sugar 








5 


7 


2 


Tea . 








5 


3-5 


1-5 


Tobacco 








5 


1 


4 


Cotton 








5 


12 


7 


Wool . 








5 


6-5 


1-5 


Silk . 








5 


•6 


4-5 


Leather 








5 


3-5 


1-5 


Iron . 








10 


7 


3 


Copper 
Lead . 








5 
5 


1-5 
•5 


3-5 
4-5 


Timber 








6 


7'5 


1-5 


Indigo 




i . 


2 





2 
4 


Flax . 




* • 


6 


2 


Oil' . 




1 • ■ 


2 


2 





Sums 






• 


101 


98-5 


54-5 



' Palm oil in the Committee's scheme ; oils in Mr. Palgrave's. 
Table III. 



Articles common to the 
Committee and Mr. Sauer- 
beck's Unweighted 
Index-number 


Weights actually 
assigned 


Weights as Percentages 

of Total Weight of the 

Common Articles 


Differences 
between 
Columns 
4 and 5 


The Com- 
mittee 


Mr. Sauer- 
beck 


The Com- 
mittee 


Mr. Sauer- 
beck 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Wheat . 
Barley . 
Oats . 
Potatoes and 
Meat . 
Butter . 
Sugar . 
Tea . 
Cotton . 
Wool . 
Silk . 
Leather 
Coal . 
Iron . 
Copper 
Lead . 
Timber 
Petroleum 
Flax . 
Indigo . 
Palm oil 


rice 




5 
5 
5 
5 
10 

a 

n 

10 
5 

2k 
3" 

1 
3 
1 

1 


3 
1 
1 
2 
6 
I 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


6 

6 

6 

6 
12o 

9 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 
12-5 

6 

3 

3 

4 

1 

4 

1 

1 


8-5 
3 
3 
6 
17 
3 
6 
3 
6 
6 
3 
6 
6 
6 
8 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


2-5 

3 

3 



4-5 

6 

3 



3 

3 



3 

6-5 







1 

2 

1 

2 

2 


Sums 




• 


81-5 


35 


99 


103-5 


45-5 



ON VARIATIONS IN 



THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 215 
Table IV. 



Articles common to the 

Committee and 

Dr. Soetbeer 



Weights actually 
assigned 



1 



Wheat . 
Barley . 
Oats . 
Potatoes and 
Meat . 
Fish . 
Butter, milk 
Sugar . 
Tea . 
Beer . 
Spirits . 
Wine • 
Tobacco 
Cotton . 
Wool . 
Silk , 
Leather, &c 
Coal . 
Iron , 
Copper 
Lead , 
Timber 
Indigo . 
Flax , 
Palm oil 
Sums 



nee 



and cheese 



The Com- 
mittee 



5 
6 
5 
5 
10 

n 



2i 

■^2 



9i 

■^2 



n 



2| 
2i 
2h 

2| 
10 
5 



n 



n 



3 
1 
3 
1 

98 



Dr. Soetbeer 



2 

2 

1 

2 

4 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

3 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

o 

1 
1 

3 
1 
1 
1 

43 
' Hops. 



Weights as Percentages 

of Total Weight of the 

Common Articles 



The Com- 
mittee 



Dr. Soetbeer 



a 

a 

o 

m 
OS 

a> 

B 

d 



P^ 



Differences 

between 

Columns 

4 and 5 



98 



4-5 

4-5 

2 

4-5 

9 

4-5 

4-5 

45 

2 

2 

7 

4-5 

2 

2 
2 
2 
7 
2 
7 
2 
2 
7 
2 
2 
2 
94-5 



•5 

•5 

3 

•5 

1 

2 

3 

2 
•5 

7 

4-5 

3-5 
•5 
•5 
•5 
•5 

45 

8 

2 

•5 

•5 
4 
1 
1 
1 
53 



216 



REPORT — 1888. 
Table V. 



Articles common to 

tlie Committee 

and Jevons 


Weights actually 
assigned 


Weights relative to 
the Total Weight of 
the Common Articles 


Differ- 
ences be- 
tween 
Columns 

6 and 5 


Differ- 
ences be- 
tween 
Columns 
7 and 6 


The 
Com- 
mittee 


Jevons 


The 
Com- 
mittee 


Jevons 


a' 


/>2 


ai 


i2 


al 


i2 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Wheat . 


5 




I 


7 


3-5 


2 


3-5 


5 


Barley . 


5 




I 


7 


3-5 


2 


3-5 


■ 5 


Oats 


5 




I 


7 


3-5 


2 


> 3-5 


' 5 


Jleat . 


10 




5 


14-5 


11 


9 


2-5 


55 


Butter and clieese . 


7| 




3 


11 


3-3 


6 


7-5 


5 


Sugar . 


^ 




3 


4 


3-5 


5 


-5 


I 


Tea . . . 


H 




4 


4 


3-5 


7 


'5 


'> 
J 


Spirits 


2J 




3 


4 


3-5 


6 


■5 


2 


Cotton . 


H 




3 


4 


11 


6 


7' 


2 


Wool . 


2J 




2 


4 


3-5 


4 


•5 


O 


Silk 


n 




3 


4 


3-5 


6 


•5 


2 


Leather . 


H 


2 


4 


4 


7 


7 


3 


3 


Iron 


5 




3 


7 


11 


6 


4 


I 


Copper . 


H 




I 


4 


3o 


2 


•5 


2 


Lead 


2i 




4 


4 


3-5 


7 


■5 


■ 3 


Timber . 


3 




6 


4-5 


7 


II 


2-5 


65 


Flax . 


3 




I 


4-5 


3-5 


2 


1 


2-5 


Indigo . 


1 




I 


1-5 


3-5 


2 


2 


•5 


Palm oil 


1 




I 


1-5 


3-5 


2 


2' 


•5 


(Wine) . 

Sums 


(2i) 


— 


4 


W 


— 


7 


-^ 


3 


68 


27 


54 


101 


100 


lOI 


45-5 


57-5 




(70-5) 


— 


— 


(105) 


— 


— 


— 


— 



' First form of index -number based upon 39 articles (' Serious Fall '). 
* Second form of index-number based upon 118 articles (iHd.) 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 217 



Table VI. 



Index-numbers compared with the 
Committee's 






u 






Jevons 




a 


b 
20 


Number of articles common to the 
Committee's and other index-num- 
bers 




21 


16 


21 


25 


19 


Mean difference (per cent.) between 
the weights of the common articles 
according to the Committee's and 
other schemes 


• 


47 


54 


45 


53 


45 


58 


Weight of the common articles per 
cent, of the weight of all the arti- 
cles in the Committee's scheme 




815 


50-5 


81-5 


98 


68 


70-5 


Weight of the common articles perl 
cent, of the weight of all the arti- j- 
cles in other schemes j 


90-5 


98 


78 


44 


70 


54 


Discrepancy as likely as not to occur] 
between the Committee's and other ■ 
results j 


2 


25 


2 


2 


2-5 


2-5 
11 


Discrepancy very unlikely to occur] 
between the Committee's and other ■ 
results j 


8 


11 


8 


8 


10 



Remarks upon the 'preceding Tables. 

These tables present a comparison between the index-number proposed 
by the Committee and some other well-known constructions of the same 
kind. In the first five tables the feature of comparison consists of those 
articles or items which are common to the Committee's and the compared 
schemes. The tables show the different importance or ' weight ' assigned 
to the same items in the Committee's and each of the other schemes. For 
the purpose of exhibiting this difference it is proper to contrast, not the 
actual weights employed by the Committee and each compared index- 
number, but the weights relative to the total weight assigned to the 
common items by the Committee's and the compared scheme respectively. 
Thus, in the first table, the first column states the articles, twenty-one in 
number, which are common to the Committee's index-number and to one 
which has been given by Mr. Sauerbeck (' Journ. Stat. Soc' 1886, p. 595). 
The second and third columns give the weights actually affixed by the 
Committee and Mr. Sauerbeck respectively to the comparative prices of 
those twenty-one articles. The third and fourth columns give the 
weights relative to the total weight of the coincident portions of the 
two systems. Thus, 61 being the weight actually assigned by 
Mr. Sauerbeck to wheat, while 564 is the sura of the weights attached 
by him to all the articles common to him and the Committee , /g'j, or the 
same fraction multiplied by 100 (=11 neatly), is taken as tiie proper 



218 REPORT— 1888. 

weight according to Mr. Sauerbeck for wheat; in a curtailed index- 
number covering only those articles common to him and the Committee. 
By parity -g'^.j x lUO, or six nearly, is the weight for the same article 
according to the Committee. In the sixth column the differences — the 
absolute differences without regard to sign — between the respective 
weights are given. To appreciate the importance of this difference of 
weight, we must consider it in relation to the absolute (mean) weight. 

mi Mean difference of weight ■ .-, n ,• , t,- t j i taa j.i 

Thus ■ — IS tbe traction (or, multiplied by 100, the 

Mean weight 

percentage) which most, or at least very, properly measures the dis- 
crepancy between the two systems. Now the Mean weight for each of 
the two compared systems is ^^x . Therefore we have for the required 

Sum of differences .inn • ^ Sum of differences / 
measure — — Vy', or simply — — (or, ex- 

pressed as a percentage, the sum of differences). Thus in the case before 
us the average deviation between the compared weights is 46'5, or 47 per 
cent, (nearly). This figure is useful as enabling us (taking into account 
the number of common items) to predict the extent of discrepancy which 
is likely to exist between the results of the two methods of treating the 
common data. 

The second table presents a similar comparison between the Com- 
mittee's and Mr. Palgrave's index-number (' Third Heport of the Com- 
mittee on Depression of Trade,' Appendix B). It has not been 
thought necessary to record the actual weights. Those employed in the 
computation of the ' relative ' weights according to Mr. Palgrave were the 
figures of compa7-ative importance given by him for the year 1885, which 
differ very little from the corresponding entries in previous years. The 
coefficient of discrepancy between the two systems being much the same 
as in the former comparison, we may expect much the same difference 
between the results ; or rather one somewhat larger, since the number of 
common items (sixteen) is here somewhat smaller (than twenty-one). 

The remaining index-numbers do not equally admit of being laid 
alongside that of the Committee for the purpose of comparison. 
They are as it were in a different plane, adopting a different formula 
(as well as different constants) from the Committee. In these 
schemes, unlike the Committee's, each comparative price is not affected 
with a factor or weight corresponding to its importance. Prima facie 
every price- variation counts for one ; but the principle of weight is to 
some extent asserted by introducing as independent items several species 
belonging to one genus. Thus in Mr. Sauerbeck's umveighted index- 
number, our Table 3, there figure tivo species of wheat and also one of 
flour ; in effect assigning a weight of three to wheat. There is indeed 
something arbitrary in such interpretation. For in comparing this sort 
of index-numbers with the Committee's it is hardly possible — as in the case 
of the explicitly weighted index-numbers — to suppose the prices (for the 
common articles) to be the same in the two compared calculations. For 
example, our price of wheat is taken from the ' Gazette ' ; theirs may be 
a Mean of that price and the price of flour. Accordingly the estimate of 
the difference to be expected (proportioned to the total of the last column) 
is apt to be less accurate, to be under the mark, in these cases. A further 
inaccuracy affects this estimate in the case of Jevons' index-number, our 
Table 5, namely, that he adopted the Geometrical method of combining 
price- variations. In fact, our estimates apply only to the Arithmetic com- 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 219 

bination of Jevons' materials, to be supplemented by the observed fact 
tbat the Arithmetic and Geometric Means of prices do not much differ. 

The last table resumes the results of the first five in its first and 
second rows. The first row states the number of items common to the 
Committee with each of the compared schemes — a necessary datum for 
the estimate of the discrepancy likely to exist between the results. 
Cceteris paribus, this discrepancy is inversely proportioned to the square 
root of the number of common items. The second row gives the mean 
difference between the respective weights as above defined. The third 
and fourth rows compare the Committee's index-number with each of 
the others as to the extent of the materials not common to both. The 
comparison may be thus illustrated. Let CO represent by its length the 



^/t- 



C O C 

quantity of weight common to the Committee and the other index-number. 
Let CC represent the total weight of all the articles in the Committee's 
system, and 00' that of the other system. The third row gives the 
ratio of CO to CC, and the fourth column the ratio of CO to 00'. 

The last two rows give an estimate of the discrepancy likely or 
unlikely to occur between the results of the compared computations. 
This estimate involves (in addition to the data contained in the preceding 
rows) a constant or coefficient deduced from the course of English prices 
in past years : the inequality or dispersion of price- variations, which 
keeps pretty constant from year to year. The estimates are therefore only 
applicable to England. They are to be taken cum grano, with the reser- 
vations stated in various parts of the Memorandum. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth {Secretary), Professor H. S. Foxwell, Mr. Egbert 
GiFFEN, Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor 
J. S. Nicholson, and Mr. E. H. Inglis Palgrave, appointed for 
the purpose ofinquirinc/ and reporting as to the Statistical Data 
available for determining the amount of the Precious Metals in 
use as Money in the principal Countries, the chief forms in 
%vhich the Money is employed, and the amount annually used 
in the Arts. (Dratun up by the Secretary.) 

(The bracketed numerals refer to the Remarks appended to the Report.) 

Upon the first head of the proposed inquiry the Committee are unable to 
report favourably. They have not found data available for determining 
with any degree of precision the amount of gold in use as money in the 
United Kingdom. Several ways of making an estimate have been indi- 
cated by eminent statisticians. But it appears to the Committee that all 
these computations, as applied to the tjnited Kingdom, fail ; owing, 
not to the incorrectness of the reasoning, but the unsoundness of the 
data. They remark in detail upon the three methods which appear to 
deserve most consideration. 

I. Newmarch's method, as developed by later statisticians (1), consists 
of the two following steps : — 1. Estimate the amount of precious metal in 



220 REPORT— 1888. 

circulation at some initial epocli when there has occurred a general or 
partial recoinage, or other event favourable to the formation of a precise 
estimate. 2. Add thereto the coin issued from the mint in subsequent 
years and the coin imported, and subtract the coin withdrawn from cir- 
culation as light, the coin exported, and the coin used in the arts. 

On this method it may suffice to remark that, as applied to the United 
Kingdom, it breaks down at the first step. For the only initial datum 
available is the one which Newmarch employed (2). This is based upon the 
fact that the light gold in 1848 amounted to 12,000, OOOZ., and the estimate 
that the light gold formed a third or a fourth part of the total circulation. 
But this estimate is too rough to permit much confidence in the result, 
whether 36,000,000Z. or 49,000,000/. as the circulation in 1844. 

But, even if that datum were admissible, the reasoning would still be 
nugatory, failing an estimate of the amount of coin used in the arts 
during the last forty years, not to insist on the imperfection of statistics 
relating to the export and import of coin (3). 

II. The general idea of Newmarch 's method is embodied in a somewhat 
different scheme, which is largely employed by M. Ottomar Haupt (4). In 
this second as in the first method we start with the amount of circulation 
at an initial epoch, and we proceed to add thereto and subtract there- 
from. But the mode of estimating the increment and decrement is less 
direct. The influx and efilux are, so to speak, now observed at a greater 
distance from the reservoir whose contents it is desired to ascertain. The 
addendum is now the amount of precious metal imported into (or produced 
within) the country : not specie only, as before, but also bullion and, we 
may add, ore (5). The subtrahend is the precious metal exported, 
together with that which has been consumed in the arts. 

The initial datum of this method being the same as for the first 
method is open to the same objections. And the reasoning built upon 
that loose foundation is rendered additionally insecure by the proved un- 
soundness of the statistics which profess to record the exports and imports 
of precious metal for the United Kingdom (6). 

III. There remains Jevous' method (7). His well-known reasoning 
turns upon two data : 1, the proportion between the number of coins 
of a certain date which are now in circulation and the total number of 
coins of all dates which are in circulation ; 2, the absolute number of 
coins bearing the assigned date which are now in circulation, or at any 
rate a number greater than, a superior limit to, the number of those 
coins. 

The first datum appears to admit of being determined with some 
precision by the inspection of samples taken at random from the circu- 
lation. But for the absolute number of the coins bearing an assigned 
date it seems in general impossible to find a limit which is at once 
accurate and serviceable. If we take as the limit the number of coins 
issued from the mint during the assigned period, we are certainly on the 
safe side. The number of coins issued is indubitably a superior limit to 
the number of coins circulating. The superior limit to the total circu- 
lation which is deduced from this datum may be accepted with peculiar 
confidence. But this limit is too superior to be of any use for the 
purpose of making an approximation. Thus Mr. J. B. Martin, operating 
with the periods 1871-2 and 1876-7 respectively, has found by this 
method, as superior limits to the circulation of the United Kingdom, the 
figures 162,803,000/. and 182,321,000/. ! It seems to be obvious, from 



ON rRECIOUS METALS IN USE AS MONET. 221 

the known facts as to the paper circulation of countries which use paper 
instead of gold, and which are in circumstances otherwise analogous to 
those of gold-using countries — e.g., Scotland, which uses one-pound notes 
where sovereigns are used in England — that the above figures as to gold 
used in England must be greatly exaggerated. 

But if we attempt after the manner of Jevons to make corrections for 
tlie amount of coin exported, the imperfection of the statistical material 
recurs upon us with aggravated force (8). 

There is added, in the case of the United Kingdom, the special 
difficulty that the superior limit afforded by the statistics of coinage must 
be enormously in excess, consisting as it does (for recent years) of the 
number of coins issued from the mints in Australia as well as the United 
Kingdom. 

Altogether it appears to us that none of these methods can at present 
afford other than the most vague estimate of the amount of coin circulating 
in the United Kingdom. With respect to other countries indeed the 
objections which we insist upon may be less forcible (9). 

The Committee have cast about how to remedy the defects which have 
been noticed (10). The suggestion has been made to reason from the 
known number of one-pound notes in Scotland to the unknown number of 
sovereigns in England after this manner. As the volume of transactions 
in Scotland is to the volume of transactions in England, so is the number 
of one-pound notes to the number of sovereigns (11). But however good 
this suggestion may be by way of criticism, and if it is carefully handled, 
it would not of course be sufficieutly trustworthy by itself to yield a con- 
elusion that could be relied on. 

The Committee entertain the possibility of making inquiry as to the 
amount of coin held by different localities or by different classes (12). Such 
a monetary census would undoubtedly be very incomplete. But if the 
enumeration, though not exhaustive, were sufficiently impartial and 
sporadic, it seems possible by a cautious and methodical inference from 
samples to attain a rough estimate (13). 

The most that can be expected from the converging lines of inquiry is 
that three or four very imperfect estimates should be reached by inde- 
pendent methods. The Mean of such estimates — a mean weighted accord- 
ing to the presumed trustworthiness of the different sources — appears to 
be the best result attainable (14). That the best will be imperfect is 
to be feared. 

The second and third inquiries (as to the chief forms in which money 
is employed and as to the amount of money annually used in the arts) 
are intimately connected with the first. Accordingly we have thought 
it best to postpone recommendations under these heads until we have 
instituted the first investigation more perfectlv. To this end, and in 
view of the extent and difficulty of the subject, we recommend that the 
Committee should be re-appointed for the ensuing year. 



KEMARKS. 



(1) Mr. Kimbal, Director of the Mint at Washington, and his predecessors have 
elahorated ' Newmarch's Method.' 

(2) See ' History of Prices,' vol. vi. Appendix XXII. There is not much objection 
to the met/iodhy which Newmarch obtains the estunate 49,000,000/. : namely, deter- 



222 



REPORT 1888. 



mining the proportion of light gold by an inspection of samples taken from the circula- 
tion, and multiplying the quantity of light gold withdrawn for recoinage by the ratio 
which the total circulation was found to bear to the light gold. The chief doubt 
is whether the inspection was made sufficiently carefully. The materials for 
a more accurate estimate on the occasion of the next recoinage exist in the 
statistics relative to the state of our coinage obtained by Mr. J. B. Martin (' Journal 
of the Bankers' Institute,' 1882) ; supposing them, of course, to be continued up to 
the date of the recoinage, whenever that may be. 

(3) The returns of exported and imported coin published in the Annual State- 
ment of the trade of the United Kingdom do not extend back to the year 
1844. There is also the difficulty of estimating the amount of coin in the 
pockets of travellers ; a difficulty which is perhaps peculiarly insuperable in the 
case of the United Kingdom, owing to the currency of the sovereign on the Continent. 

(4) See ' Histoire Monetaire ' and ' VVahrungs-Politik,' by Ottomar Haupt. The 
distinction between methods I. and II. is well defined by Mr. Kimbal, the Director 
of the Mint at Washington, in his Report for 1886 (p. 46). 

(5) The import of Silver ore into the United Kingdom is not inconsiderable, as 
pointed out by Mr. Giflen in the First Report of the Committee on Precious Metals. 

(6) As pointed out by Dr. Soetbeer (' Materials,' Exports and Imports, Taussig's 
translation, p. 532), there is a total failure of consilience between the recorded 
imports of precious metal into England from France and exports from France to 
England, and vice versa. Not even when an average over many years is taken 
does an appearance of regularity arise {loc. cit.). And we may add that if the 
difference between the efflux from and influx into England — the datum with which 
we are immediately concerned — be deduced from the English and French statistics 
respectively, the results are still found to be totally disparate. 

The annexed table, compiled from Dr. Soetbeer's materials (loc. cit.}, shows the 
net influx of gold and silver into England, as deduced from the English and French 
statistics respectively (OOO's omitted). 



Periods of 
Years 


Net Influx of Gold 


Net Influx of Silver 


English Statistics 


French Statistics 


English Statistics 


French Statistics 


1871-75 


-766 


-38,601 


- 705 


-48,125 


1876-80 


-600 


-55,414 


+ 666 


- 8,438 


1881-84 


+ 616 


- 2,971 


+ 1,506 


- 672 



On the other hand the returns of the trade in precious metals between the 
United Kingdom and the United States may mspire some confidence (Soetbeer, 
loe. cit.). 

(7) ' Journal of the Statistical Society,' 1868 ; republished in ' Currency and 
Fmance.' It is as if we should take the census of a population by, 1, ascertaining the 
ratio between the number of infants, say three years old, and the population of all 
ages ; 2, the actual number of such infants. This absolute number divided by that 
ratio gives the total population. 

A brilliant application of Jevons' method to the statistics of the circulation in 
France has been made by M. de Foville (' Journal de Statistique de Paris,' 1879 
and 1886). 

(8) It may well be that the return of exported and imported coin, or rather — 
what we are concerned with — the difference between these two amounts, is very 
inaccurate for any single year ; but that in a series of years the errors tend to 
tompensate each other. Suppose, for example, that for any single year the estimate 
of the difference in question is liable to an error of Jiffy per cent. ; then the sum of 
such dirf'eiences for twenty years — the sort of datum required for our first method 
— would be liable only to an error of eleven per cent. In such a case the first 



ON PRECIOUS METALS IN USE AS MONET, 223 

method might be fairly accurate ; while the third method, relying on the exports 
and imports of a single year (or a biennial period), would be fatally inaccurate. 
Moreover, there exists in the third method a difficulty from which the first is 

fi-ee as to the incidence of the exports for any year on the different strata of the 

circulation. This difficulty is considered by Mr. Edgeworth in_ a Me7norandum on 
Jevons' method which he has prepared for the British Association. 

(9) The careful computations made by Mr. Kimbal, Director of the Mint at 
Washington (' Reports,' 1886 et seq.), inspire confidence. In the case of the United 
States there is, Jirst, a pretty accurate initial datum for the year 1873— on the 
occasion of the resumption of specie payments. Secondly, the statistics of exports 
and imports are perhaps specially deserving of confidence (cf. above, Kemark 6). 
Mr. Kimbal seems to regard them as satisfactory. Thirdly, some attention has been 
paid to the amount of coin used annually in the arts, though hardly so much 
attention even yet as to command complete confidence. 

(10) It has been suggested by Mr. Edgeworth, in the Memorandum above 
referred to, that Jevons' method may admit of improvement. Fu-st, the ratio on 
which the reasoning turns might be determined with greater precision by a more 
careful and methodical sifting of the data. This correction by itself would not 
come to much in view of the extreme incorrectness of the other datum (above. 
Remark 6). But it is further submitted that in some countries the coinage for a 
particular year or short period may have sufiered particularly little from exporta- 
tion. In fact, something of the sort appears to have occurred in France according 
to the statistics given by M. de Foville in the papers above referred to. 

To revert to the metaphor above employed, the monetary census is effected 
according to Jevons' method : 1, by ascertaining from samples the proportion of, 
say, three-year-old infants to the total population; 2, in the absence of accurate 
data for the number of three-year-old infants now alive, the number of infants born 
three years ago. Now suppose, as M. de Foville shows grounds for supposing, that 
a particular generation escaped in an extraordinary degree the maladies to which 
infancy is liable ; then it might be the best plan to operate, not on infants, as 
usually taken for granted, but upon that favoured generation, already, perhaps, 
adult or even superannuated, always supposing that the other datum, the ratio 
determined by sampling, can be ascertained for the favoured generation with ade- 
quate precision. But this appears to be doubtful, owing to the circumstance that the 
generations appearing to enjoy extraordinary longevity consist each of comparatively 
few individuals. Now a deserved suspicion attaches to the use of small numbers in 
statistics. At any rate, it is not contended that the correction would have any 
application to the United Kingdom. 

(11) In comparing the use of sovereigns in England and one-pound notes in Scot- 
land it would be desirable if possible to make an allowance for the difference which 
may exist in the use of half-sovereigns in the two countries ; and for other differences. 

(12) As a specimen of the results which may be attainable, we submit an 
estimate obtained by Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave with respect to a particular town. 
This town contains about 6,000 inhabitants. It is a railway junction, and also 
stands upon a river by which seagoing vessels can reach the place. _ There is also 
a considerable inland navigation connected with it. The surrounding district is 
agricultural. The town may be regarded as above the average in prosperity for 
the agricultural districts. In this town Mr. Palgrave estimates, as the result of 
investigations set on foot by him, that there woidd be on an average, taking one 
time with another, about 4,000^. in coin in the hands of the population ; that is to 
say, about 15s. a head in gold and silver. This estimate does not include the 
specie held by the banks. The proportion of gold to silver is about 4 : 5. Mr. 
Palgrave is more certain about this proportion than about the absolute arnounts. 
He thinks the latter may be exaggerated, as the country districts surrounding the 
town are to a certain extent included in the supply of specie mentioned. If this 
estimate were a fair average it is quite possible that, including the country popu- 
lation referred to in the districts surrounding the town in question, the whole 
specie in active circulation may not exceed 125., or even 10s., a head. Further 
investigation on the point is highly desirable. 



224 EEPOET— 1888. 

(13) Laplace— Toy a calculation strikingly analogous to Jevons' method above 
stated — has shown (' Thdorie Aaalytique des Probabilities,' Book II. Chapter VI.) 
how the method of inference from samples may be used to ascertain the ' popula- 
tion of a great empire.' There is no doubt that this method of reasoning is agree- 
able to a sound theory of Probabilities, although in incompetent hands it has often 
produced absurd results. We must guard against proceeding like the statistician 
mentioned by M. de Foville, who, in order to determine the production of potatoes 
in France, simply multiplied the production in his own commune by the number 
of communes in France — with a result out by a hundred per cent. 

(14) Supposing the quantity of the circulation as estimated by four differ- 
ent methods of varying trustworthiness were respectively Qp Q^, Q^, and Q^ (in 
ascending order of worth), then the proper Mean might be 

Q, + 2Q, + 3Q, + 4Q,, 
1+2+3+4 



MEMORANDUM BY THE SECRETARY ON JEVONS' METHOD 
OF ASCERTAINING THE NUMBER OF COINS IN CIRCULA- 
TION. 

Pakt I. — Exposition. 

Jevons' method consists of two stages : (1) the main line of argument, 
and (2) what may be called a second approximation. 

(1) The first step is to ascertain the proportion in the existing circula- 
tion of coins bearing each date, or, as ' Jevons puts it, the number of coins 
bearing any assigned date, ' now existing in 100,000 [coins] circulating.' 
This datum is obtained by examining a great number of coins taken at ran- 
dom from the circulation.^ It is assumed that the proportions in which 
this collection of samples comprises coins of different dates are approxi- 
mately identical with the proportions which would be presented if we 
could examine the whole existing circulation. We have thus : 

Total number of coins in circulation : Number of coins of a certain date 

in circulation : : Total number of samples : Number of samples bearing the 

assigned date. Whence 

™ , , , p . Total number of samples -vt 

Total number of coins=— , — -. 1- : — - — xNum- 

JN umber oi samples bearmg a certain date 

ber of coins of that date in circulation. 

Now the number of coins of any date now in circulation is less than 

the number of coins of that date issued from the Mint. Whence it follows 

that the total number of coins in circulation is less than 

Total number of samples , tvt r. <> • <• . i . j . 

,j= — :; „ , — ; i- : — = — X Number of coins of that date 

Number of samples bearing a certain date 

issued from the Mint. 

We have thus a figure certainly greater than — a ' superior limit ' to — the 

total number of coins in circulation. Or rather we have, or may have, a 

' Jour. Stat. Soc, 1868, p. 440 ; Currency and Finance, p. 264. 

- The principal instances of this operation known to the writer are, for England 
165,510 coins (sovereigns and half-sovereigns) examined by Jevons in 1868; 251,107 
by Mr. Martin in 1882 {Journal of the Institute of Bankers, 1882); by the French 
Government 2,222,965 coins (of different kinds) examined in 1878, 1,791,808 in 1885 
(^Bulletin de Statistique, France, 1878, 1885) ; in Belgium, 1878, 103,475 coins by the 
Banque Nationale, 83,599 by the 3Iinistire des Finances {Bulletin de Statistique, 
France, 1878). Of the enquete said to have been made in France in 1868 the writer 
has not been able to tind any particulars. 



ON PRECIOUS METALS IN USE AS MONET. 225 

great many superior limits, one being afforded by each year (or at any 

rate each short period ' of years) as far back as our data reach : in England 

as far back as 1817, in France 1803. 

It remains then to consider which of all these data it is best to employ. 

Evidently the smallest superior limit will be afforded by the year (or short 

• j\ i< u- u ii, Number of coins issued . . . 

period) for which the r- — -. ; -, -, — is a minimum ; 

Number ot coins nowm circulation 

in other words, that year whose coinage has suffered least loss. Now « 
priori there is a presumption that the coinage which has been longest in cir- 
culation will have lost most. And this theoretical conclusion is corroborated 
by observation. It is shown by Jevons that the ' proportions of coinage 
surviving ' are smaller for the older coinages.^ The general truth of 
the proposition is similarly confirmed by the results of the French 
enquetes. 

It is proper, therefore, to select a recent coinage as that which should 
enter into the formula above given. ^ Accordingly Jevons (writing in 
1868) takes the period 1863-4 as his basis. The number of sovereigns 
coined in that period, 14,678,000L, is to be diminished ■* by 600,000 
known not to have entered into circulation. The remainder, 14,000,000 
(nearly), is to be multiplied by W^Wt 5 ^^i^ being the ratio of the 
total number of sample sovereigns to the number of samples of sovereigns 
dated 1863 or 1864. The result is 75,000,000, to which may be added 
certain sums known not to have entered into circulation, but to be ' lying 
in bags as received from the Mint ' in the Bank of England. 

By similar reasoning ^ De Foville finds, as a superior limit to the 
number of twenty-franc pieces in France, 175,000,000. 

De FovUle places this reasoning in a somewhat different shape, or rather in two 
different shapes. The substantial identity of the various forms may best be 
contemplated by the aid of symbols. Let E be the required total number of coin.s 
in the existing circulation. Put S for the total number of samples, and s^, s.^ . . . 
•s,. ... for the number of samples bearing date year 1,2, 3, &c., respectively (the 
years'"' being reckoned either onwards from the date of the oldest coin in circulation, 
or backwards from the most recent period). Let the number of coins issued from the 
Mint for the corresponding years be Cj, c, . . . c^. By the reasoning above stated 

' Owing to the practice which used to prevaU of coining with dies which had 
become out of date, it may not be safe to treat the yearly return as perfectly accurate. 
See, on the practice alluded to, Jevons, Currency and Finance, p. 280 ; Martin, Journal 
of the Institute ofBanliers, 1882, p. 311 ; De Foville, Journal de Statistique, 1886, p. II. 

^ Currency and Finance, p. 281. Jevons, in the passage referred to, is calculating 
what may be called the absolute ]M-oportion of each coinage surviving ; but for our 
present purpose it is sufficient to know how many times the diminution, or mortality 
so to speak, of one coinage is greater than that of another. For this purpose we need 
not suppose, with Jevons in the passage referred to, the total number of coins in cir- 
culation to be known. We are concerned here only with the projxtrtiong between the 
figures in the second column of Jevons' table at p. 281 ; and for that part of Jevons' 
conclusion we do not require the whole of his premisses. We can deduce immedi- 
ately from the table at p. 2(14 that part of the table at p. 281 which we here require ; 
namely, that the proportion surviving of coins issued in '63-64 is greater than the 
corresponding proportion for the period '.59-62, and still greater than the proportions 
for the earlier periods. 

' This general rule and the possible exceptions are illustrated by the diagram 
on p. 8. The whole matter is placed by De Fovilie in a clear light {Journal de 
Statistique, 1879, p. 36 ; 188.5, p. 12). 

* Currency and Finance, p. 265. 

* Journal de Statistique de Paris, 1878 and 1885. 
" Or short periods. See note 2 above. 

1888. Q 



EEPORT — 1888. 
One of the forms into which De Foville throws this inequation is 
(' Journal de . . Statistique/ 1886, p. 14). Another form (suggested in his 



226 

E< ~c, 

Sr 

E < ^c,. 
&<■ 

paper dated 1879) is Cj + p.^.^ + p^c^ + &c. ; where the years (or short periods) are 

reckoned hackwards from the jjresent, and where p.,, pj, &c., are fi-actions 

corresponding to the greater loss whicli the coinages of earlj periods, as compared 

with the most recent, have undergone. 

Let Cj, e„ he the (unknown) numher of coins bearing each date in the existing 

circulation. By hypothesis 

Xi _ fij _ Cj _ ^>- {"W 

fc> s, s.. 



Also 



1 "2 
E = Cj + e, + i&C. + Br 

e„ 



(2) 



Cr 



Co Cr 

Cj +Co- +&C. + Cr — 



C, + Co- + &C. + r- 
"^ Cr 



Now each of the fractions of the form -i is reducihie to -i ; multiplying both the 



E 



numerator and denominator by ^ and taking account of equation (1). The 

o 

factors in this new shape are known quantities derivable from our data. Call them 
1, p„, p3 . . . pr, respectively. Then we have 



E = -1 Ci + p.,e., + &c. + PrCr I 



Whence, as J^ is a proper fraction (or at any rate not greater than units), we have 

E< (or at most = ) C, + p.,c.y + «S:c. + prC^. 

A geometrical illustration may put the matter in a clearer light. In the 
annexed diagram the line SS' represents the total number of samples, and its 
segments «i, Sr,, &c., the number of samples bearing date 1, 2, 3, &c. The line 
EE', divided into the proportionate segments e^ e., &c., represents the total number 
of coins in circulation and the numbers thereof bearing each date. The numbers 
of coins issued from the Mint each year are represented by the lines Cj c._, &c. In 
general, the more recent the year, the less has the coinage of that year lost, the 

smaller is the ratio - . But, as we shall have occasion to remark afterwards, there 

may be an exception to this rule, as the figure shows in the case of the year 5. 

Now the essence of the reasoning is that EE'<CiC/ (and than any correspond- 
ing line, e.g., CoC'^). Whether is it easier to say (a) with us, EE' <C - - Cj or (/3) after 

De Foville's second redaction (1885) EE'< SS' ^-\ or (y), in the spirit of his first 

paper, EE'<:Ci +«„ + a<j + &c., where a.,, a^, &c., are the remaining segments of the 
line * CjC'j. Any of these segments a may thus be expressed in terms of Cr and 
other known quantities : 

' ^, 183 &c. might be used to designate the ' remaining ' segments of Cj C\. 



ON PBECIOCS METALS IN USB AS MONET. 



227 



_ CC' _ CO' s. 



Cl Sy. 



Whence 



wvi/ —^ir~'=<^r z — = say c p 
'EE'<c^ + p.-fi., + p^c^+ &c. 




(2) Jevons attempts to improve upon the result which has been 
obtained by means of a second approximation. He seeks a nearer limit 
to the total number of coins by subtracting from the number of coins 
issued from the Mint in the most recent period (which forms the datum of 
the first approximation) a certain proportion which may be known to have 
been exported.' The coinage of 1863-64 forming the basis of his calcula- 
tion, he ascertains the quantity of coin exported during the short interval 
of time (1865-67) between the end of that period and the date at which 
te wrote, which quantity proves to be 8,664,653. He then goes on : 
* There are no means of determining from the above, with accuracy, how 
much of the coinage of 1863-64 has been exported ; but as exporters prefer 
the newest and heaviest coin, we are probably within the truth in assum- 
ing that the sovereigns of 1863-64, which form about one-fifth of the 
sovereign currency, also form one-fifth of the above exports.' Accord- 
ingly he subtracts from 14,578,000, the number of sovereigns issued from 
the Mint in 1863-64 (which constituted the uncorrected datum of the 
simpler- calculation) one-fifth of 8,664,653. He thus succeeds in obtain- 
ing a considerably lower limit than by the uncorrected method. 

This reasoning- admits, or should admit, of being expanded and illustrated as 
follows. In the annexed figure let the height of each column up to the unbroken 



Cxvrrency and Finance, p. 267. 



Above, p. 225. 



Q3 



228 



EEPOET — 1888. 



line represent the numbers of coins of each date existing in the circulation at the- 
end of the most recent period designated 1. At that time let exportation act for a. 
short period. Its ravages falling unequally on columns 1, 2, 3, &c., the elevation of" 



the hroken lines will represent the new distribution of proportions. Call the new 
heights h\, h\, &c., the old heights being Aj, h„, &c. At the beginning of the short 

period of exportation at least -— of the initial exportation falls upon column 1. At 

the end of the period at least ^^ of the later drains are taken from that column. 

Sh 

Now — is greater than — Hence for the ivhole period at least —- , of the total 



all 



Sh 



Sh' 



h' 



exportation falls xipon column 1 ; -—, being the proportion of coins dated 1 exist- 
ing in the circulation at the end of the period of exportation- 
It is thus that Jevons argues, or must be supposed to argue : that, as the couiage 
of 1863-64 constituted in 1868 about one-fifth of the then existing circulation, 
therefore at least a fifth of the exportation during the period 1865-67 must have 
fallen upon the coinage of 1863-64. 



Part II. — Oeiticism and Correction. 

In criticising this method we may adopt the same order as in expound- 
ing it, and separately consider the reasoning which constitutes the first 
and the second approximation. (1) The fundamental position of the 
argument is undoubtedly sound, provided that the proportions derived 
from the inspection of sample collections are sufiBciently accurate. For 
the validity of these data (in the case of one of them at least) we have 
the high authority of Jevons. ' I feel certain,' he says, ' after drawing up 



ON PRECIOUS METALS IN USE AS MONET. 229 

many averages, that this proportion must be very near the truth.' ' Still 
stronger evidence is supplied by the consilience between the results of the 
French enquetes made in 1878 and 1885. The two curves which repre- 
sent the proportions in which the circulation in the years 1878 and 1885 
respectively comprised coins of each date earlier than 1878 correspond, not 
only in their general character, but even as to their minuter traits.^ 

If farther accuracy is required, it would be proper to apply the 
Mathematical Method of Statistics, the doctrine of Errors, to the data. 
The case is as if we had observed the proportion of males in a great number, 
say 100,000, births taken at random, so to speak, from the general popu- 
lation. We might suppose a number of subdistricts all over the country 
selected on some random principle (such as the alphabetical order of 
their initial letter) and the birth-rate observed for the heterogeneous 
aggregate thus formed. It is required to determine with what accuracy 
we can infer, from this aggregate of samples, the proportions prevailing 
in the total number of births, say 1,000,000, appertaining to the entire 
population. Suppose that for the aggregate of 100,000 the observed 
ratio was "51. What extent of deviation from that ratio are the returns 
for the entire population likely to present ? 

The proper course would be to break up the aggregate of 100,000 
samples into a good number, say 50 (or 25), of smaller parcels consisting 
each of about 2,000 (or 4,000) units. Let the proportion of male births in 
each of these small groups be observed. Call these partial ratios r , r, 
&c. . . . r^; the ratio for the entire aggregate being "51. Form the 
mean-square-of-error 

(•51-r,)^+(-51-r,)^-h&c.-K-51-r,,)=' 
50 ' 

and put the square-root of double the mean-square-of-error, say fi, for 
the modulus, that constant upon w'hich all the higher operations of the 
Calculus of Probabilities turn. The modulus for the proportion of male 
births in a group of 2,000 being /x. say 016,^ the modulus for the same 

ratio in an aggregate of 100,000 births should be — ^= ; or some rather 

\/50 
larger figure which good sense tempering theory may prescribe, say "OOS. 
Then we may affirm with confidence that the ratio presented by 100,000 
bii'ths will not difier I'rom that which would be presented by a much 
larger number by more than 3 X "003 ; and, therefore, that the proportion 
of males in 1,000,000 births does not differ from '51 (the observed pro- 
portion in 100.000) by more than the calculated limit of eri'or, say •01. 

These are not mere anticipations of theory, but practical rules which 
liave been verified by copious experience. 

For illustrations of the Theory of Errors applied to statistical reasoning see the 
writer's ' Methods of Statistics,' Journal of the Statistical Society, jubilee vol. 1885, 
and ' Methods of Ascertaining Rates,' ibiil. Dec. 1885. It may be observed that in 
the illustration just given we are not, as in most statistical inductions, inferring 
from what has been observed of one time or place, to what is true of another time 
or place ; but, from the constitution of samples selected at random to the constitu- 
tion of the aggregate from which they were taken. The validity of the inference 
■depends upon the impartiahty of the selection. 

' Currency and Finance, p. 265. 

2 See De Foville, Jmirnal de Statistique, 1886, p. \2,a.ndi Bulletin de France, 1885. 

^ As may be gathered from the researches of Professor Lexis. 



230 KEPORT— 1888. 

Another illustration may make this point clearer. Suppose that we took 700 
hexameters from the '^neid,' not en bloc from one or two books, as described in the 
papers referred to, but by a perfectly random process from the whole poem indis- 
criminately. Suppose (as is likely enough) that these samples being examined 
should yield the same modulus for the proportion of dactyls as was afforded by the 
actual specimens examined by the writer : namely '3 (for lines of four feet, the 
almost unvarying last two feet of the hexameter being left out of account"). In 
this case we may be fairly certain that the proportion of dactyls presented by the 
sample, say '4, will not ditfer from the proportion in the whole ' ^neid ' by more 

.o 

than 3 x , say '035. He who carefully considers the verifications adduced 

V7U0 
in the second of the papers referred to caimot reasonably doubt this proportion, or, 
rather, will not feel more than the theoretical degree of uncertainty about it.' 

But when, as in the actual statistics to which reference has been made, the 
specimens have not been selected with indiscriminate impartiality, then the induc- 
tive hazard in inferring from a part to the whole becomes more serious. Even 
then, however, the inference may be sufficiently safe if inspection has convinced us- 
of the general homogeneity of the total aggregate concerning which we wish to 
draw a conclusion. The 700 Virgilian lines examined by the writer, though far 
from being perfect samples, seem still to justify an inference as to the constitution 
of the whole '^neid.' There being in the whole poem some 9,900 lines, it is reason- 
ably certain that a superior limit to number of dactyls in the '^neid ' is given by 
the followuig formula, in which account is taken of the Jifth foot and of the 
unfinished lines ; whose number we shall call n. 

Total number of dactyls in the '^Eneid ' is less than 

.o 

4(9900 — n)( '4 + 3 . — \ + number of dactj-ls in the n unfinished lines- 

+ (9900 — n — number of spondaic lines). 

We ought similarly to test the validity of the ratio which constitutes 
the foundation of the Jevonian argument. We should break up the 
aggregate of samples into some fifty parcels, observe the ratio for each 
batch, and thence extricate the necessary coefBcient. Of course it would 
be desirable to employ judgment in testing the worth of our result. We 
might notice, for instance, whether the modulus derived from one half 
our samples was much the same as that which the other half yielded. 
We should observe whether the modulus for batches of 4,000 is as much 
less as it ought to be than the modulus found for batches of 2,000. Such 
inspections intelligently performed would suggest to what extent the- 
general rule above exemplified might require some relaxation iu view of 
the specially loose character of our materials. 

We shall thus determine the utmost extent of error whicli we are likely 

to commit in putting the observed ratio 

Number of samples bearing a certain date / Sj \ 

Total number of samjjles \ ^ S / 

. Number of coins of that date in circulation 

for the (unknown) ratio m"rr"i — ■ 1^ 

^ ^ iotal circulation 

Call this maximum of error (which may be either in excess or defect) 
X. By means of this datum we can correct the superior limit (to the 
circulation) obtained lately. 

That superior limit, it may be recollected, was — 
Total number of samples 



Number of samples bearing a certain (recent) date 



X coins issued 



' One source of uncertainty is that the determination of the modulus from a 
limited number of observations is liable to a certain error. 



ON PRECIOUS METALS IN USE AS MONET. 231 

g 
from the Mint at that date ; * in symbols — c,. But we have now to take 

S ii 

account that - may be too small. It may be as much too small as S 

S 
may be too large. The true ratio which — represents cannot then be 



larger than_Si_^. That expression, multiplied by c,, constitutes a 

s 
perfectly safe superior limit — comparable to the safe load or breaking load 
of mechanical construction. 

No doubt a similar degiee of evidence might be attained by repeated 
enquetes, such as those performed by the French Government. The 
marvellous consilience between most of the ratios yielded by the samples 
of 1878 and 1885 goes far, as already observed, to establish the accuracy 
of those ratios. It is, however, desirable, for the purpose of exact com- 
putation, to have a numerical limit to the possible error of each proportion 
which we utilise. And, at any rate, it is philosophical not to expend 
labour in increasing our materials, when the same amount of evidence 
could be crushed out of a smaller quantity of material by a properly 
directed scientific process. 

Moreover, if this operation be performed, we shall be able, so to speak, 
to cut the argument much more finely ; to obtain a smaller, perhaps much 
smaller, superior limit than would be safe for the empirical statistician. 
It will be recollected that a coinage of recent date was selected as the 
basis of our calculation, because, in general, recent coinages have suffered 
less loss. But there is some evidence that there are exceptions to this 
rule. Now, if this evidence were confirmed by rigid application of the 
mathematical test, we might obtain a much more favourable basis for the 
calculation than it has hitherto been safe to employ. 

The matter is placed in a very clear light by the French statistics, 

, . 1 , , 1 , „ , ,, ,. Number of samples 

wnicn tabulate tor each year the ratio -^ ; ? — ■ -■ r (m De 

JN umber ot coins issued ^ 

Foville's notation tj). Now the expression for the superior limit may, 

after De Foville, be written 

Number of coins issued 

Number of samples ^ ^°*^^ °™^^'' of samples. 

For our purpose, to find the smallest superior limit, the largest value 
of the ratio designated by the French as y would be the best, provided 
that it is accurate. 

2 

De Foville employs a ratio of about -txtj-t ; but there occur in the 

French statistics the entries 7, 12, 17, nay 26 (each to be divided by 
1000) ; and in the Belgian statistics much more startling proportions. 

Supposing we were assured that :j-7^ was a genuine ratio (the coinage 

of the particular year corresponding having suffered particularly little — 
a quite reasonable supposition, as De Foville shows), then, the number 

' See above, p. 225 and p. 227. 



232 EEPORT— 1888. 

of samples being 384,302, for our superior limit we should have 

OQA ^00 000 

' "' = 96,000,000 (pieces of 20-fraTics) nearly ; whereas De Foville 

has 175,000.000. 

(2) We have now to criticise the logic of the 'second approximation. ' 
which takes into account the exportations of coin. The reasoning which 
has been described appears to be formally correct provided that the 
period during which the exportation is supposed to act is suflBciently 
small ; ideally diminished in the spirit of the differential calculus. But 
it is a matter of delicacy extending the conclusion to cases in which the 
' period ' cannot be regarded as infinitesimal. An illustration, Jevons' 
own, will best exhibit the difficulty. Jevons argues that, as the coinage 
of 1863-4 constitutes about one-fifth of the existing circulation, there- 
fore at least a fifth of the exportation during the period 1865—7 must have 
fallen upon the coinage of 1863-4. But how is it known that the main 
part of the exportation of 1867 (or even 1866) did not fall upon the 
coinage of 1865 ? 

But it is needless to examine how much the reasoning leaks here, if 
a more serious gap is caused by the omission of all reference to imported 
coin. How do we know that the imports during the later portion of the 
period of 1865—7 did not bring back many of the coins which the exports 
at the beginning of the period had taken away ? 

The following correctives are suggested. For a certain period (such 
as Jevons selected, 1865-7, or shorter) observe samples of the exports and 
imports (opening and examining many outward-bound treasui-e-chests) 
and thereby determine the proportion both of the exports and of the 
imports (for that period) which consists of coins belonging to a certain 
recent period cori-esponding to Jevons' 1863^. Then we may reason 
thus ; placing ourselves in imagination at Jevons' epoch 1868 (or, mutatis 
mutandis, in 1888). 

(1) Number of coins dated '63-4 now in circulation =:at most number 
of coins issued '63-4 minus (proportion of exports '65-7, consisting of coins 
'63-4) X (exports '65-7) plus (proportion of imports '65-7, consisting of 
coins '63-4) x (irajDorts '65-7) minus bags in Bank of England, as men- 
tioned by Jevons (and other known items). 

(2) (Total number of coins (of all dates) in circulation) x proportion 
of coinage '63-4 in existing circulation (found by sample) =number of 
coins dated '63-4 in circulation. 

(3) Total number of coins in circulation is greater than the right-hand 
member of equation, or rather iw-equation (1), divided hy proportion of 
coinaofe '63-4 in existing: circulation. 

This reasoning takes for granted that the invisible or unregistered 
exports are compensated, or at least not exceeded, by the imports 
of the same species. It must be assumed also— what has been 
doubted upon good authority ' — that the statistics which we have are 
fairly accurate. A chink in the logical structure may be filled up ; but 
rottenness of the statistical material is irreparable. 

' See Soetbeer's Maferinlrn, p. 4S. It is possible that the conditions necessary 
for the application of Jevons' method maj' fail for the United Kingdom, but may be 
partiaEy fulfilled for some other of the ' principal countries ' which are comprehended 
in our province. 



ON THE NORTH-VTESTEEN TEIBES OF CANADA. 233 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, 
Dr. Gr. M. Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefroy, Dr. Daniel 
Wilson, Mr. E. Gr. Haliburton, and Mr. GtEORge W. Bloxam 
{Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating and 
publishing reports on the physical characters, languages, and 
industrial and social condition of the North-Western Tribes of 
the Dominion of Canada. 

The Committee report that, iu addition to Mr. Wilson, of Sault Ste. Marie, 
who contributes some valuable remarks upon the Sarcee Indians, they have 
been enabled to secure the services of Dr. Franz Boas (now of New York, 
and one of the editors of ' Science'), who has been for several years engaged 
in ethnological investigations in America, particularly among the Eskimo 
and in British Columbia, and who has consented to return to that province 
for the purpose of continuing his researches there on behalf of the Com- 
mittee, and in accordance with the instructions comprised in their 
' Circular of Inquiry.' Only eight or nine weeks — in May, June, and 
July last — were available for his trip, but, with the advantage of the 
experience and information obtained in his previous journey, he has been 
able to gather a large mass of valuable material. The results of his 
inquiries will be given in his final report, to be presented nest year. For 
the present occasion he has prepared some preliminary notes, with an 
introductory letter (addressed to Mr. Hale), containing a brief account 
of his proceedings, and some important suggestions concerning- future 
inquiries and the condition of the Indians of that province. The letter is 
as follows : — 

' I beg to transmit the foUowiug report of my proceedings, with 
preliminary notes on the results of my researches in British Columbia. 
In your instructions dated May 22, 1888, you made it my particular 
object, on the present trip, to obtain as complete an account as possible 
of the coast tribes and their languages. As on my previous journey, in 
the winter of 1886-87, I had collected a considerable amount of material 
respecting the southern tribes, I turned my attention at once to the 
Indians inhabiting the northern parts of the coast, including the Tlingit. 
On June 1 I arrived in Vancouver, and after ascertaining certain doubt- 
ful points regarding the Skqomish, who live opposite the city, I proceeded 
to Victoria on June 3. Mayor J. Grant, of that city, kindly gave me 
permission to take anthropometric measurements of such Indians as were 
in gaol. This proved the more valuable, as the natives were very reluctant 
to have any measurements taken. I sought to obtain measurements and 
drawings of skulls in private collections in Victoria, and was fortunate 
enough to be able to measure eighty-eight skulls from various parts of the 
coast. The results of these measurements must be reserved for the final 
report. I will mention only the remarkable fact that skulls of closely related 
tribes show great and constant differences. Comparisons of ten skulls 
each from Victoria, Sanitch, and Comox give the following results : — 

Length-height 
Index 
7.5-0 
80-8 
Comox . . 176-6 77-9 77-4 





Length 


Length-breadth 




MiU 


"index 


"Victoria 


184-5 


77-7 


Sanitch 


161-0 


95-5 



234 REPORT— 1888. 

These differences are ia part due to artificial deformation. It seems, 
however, that this explanation is not sufficient. These tribes belong to 
the Salish stock. 

' As soon as an opportunity offered to start northward, I left Victoria 
and stayed the greater part of June in Port Essington, where I studied 
the customs and language of the Tsimshian, and obtained notes on the 
Haida. When returning to Victoria a few Heiltsuk from Bella Bella 
were on board the vessel, and I obtained notes on this tribe, which sup- 
plement to some extent my former observations. After my return ta 
Victoria I took up the Tlingit and Haida languages, and when several 
canoes from the west coast of Vancouver Island arrived, that of the 
Nutka. In the beginning of July, Father .1. Nicolai, who is thoroughly con- 
versant with the Nutka language, arrived there from Kayokwaht, and in 
a number of conversations gave me valuable information regarding the 
grammar of that language. I obtained information respecting their 
legends and customs from a few natives, and on July 11 went to the main- 
land. After staying two days in Lytton I proceeded to Golden and up 
the Columbia river, in order to devote the rest of the available time to- 
the Kootenay. On July 26 I returned east. 

' The results of my reconnoissance are necessarily fragmentary, as I was 
not able to devote more than a few days to each tribe. I obtained, how- 
ever, sufficient material to determine the number of linguistic stocks, and 
the number of important dialects of those stocks which I visited. The 
vocabularies which I collected during my former and on the present trip 
contain from 500 to 1,000 words, and embrace the following languages : 
Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakiutl (Heiltsuk and Lekwiltok dialects),. 
Nutka, Salish (Bilqula, Pentlatsh, Comox, Nanaimo, Lkungen, Sishiatl, 
Skqomish, Ntlakapamuq dialects), and Kootenay. I obtained, also, gram- 
matical notes on all these languages, and texts in some of them. 

' I may be allowed to add a few remarks on future researches on the 
ethnology of British Columbia. Only among the tribes from Bentinck 
Arm to Johnson Strait the customs of the natives may be studied 
uninfluenced by the whites. But here, also, their extinction is only a 
question of a few years. Catholic missionaries are working successfully 
among the N^utka ; the fishing and lumbering industries bring the 
natives of the whole coast into closer contact with the whites. In all 
other parts of the country, except on the upper Skeena, the student is, 
to a great extent, compelled to collect reports from old people who have 
witnessed the customs of their fathers, who heard the old myths told over 
and over again. In the interior of the province even these are few, and it is 
only with great difiBculty that individuals well versed in the history of olden 
times can be met with. After ten years it will be impossible in this i-egion 
to obtain any reliable information regarding the customs of the natives in 
pre-Christian times. Even the languages are decaying since the advent 
of the whites and on account of the extensive use of Chinook. Young 
people neither understand the elaborate speeches of old chiefs nor the old 
songs and legends when properlj^ told. Even the elaborate grammatical 
rules of these languages are being forgotten. For instance, old Nutka 
will never form the plural of the verb without reduplication, while young 
men almost always omit it. Instead of the numerous modi, phrases are 
used — in short, the languages are decaying rapidly. The study of the 
anthropological features of these races is also becoming more and more 
diSicult on account of their frequent intermarriages with whites ; and the 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 235' 

consequent difficulty of finding full-blood Indians. The once abundant 
material of old native crania and skeletons lying scattered all over the 
province is becoming more and more scarce as it decays and the country 
is being reclaimed. 

' It is nowhere sufficient to study languages alone in order to solve 
ethnological problems ; but in this province the study of a large amount 
of anthropological material is an absolute necessity on account of the 
diversity of languages and the great dialectic diiferences in some of them. 
The Salish stock in British Columbia, for instance, is spoken in eleven dia- 
lects, which are each unintelligible to the speakers of the others. It would 
be of great importance to study the anthropological featui'es of this race, 
the northern tribes of which are physically very much like the Kwakiutl. 

' Last of all I mention the antiquities of the province. Valuable relics 
are destroyed every day. They are turned up by the plough and thrown^ 
away : graves and mounds are levelled, shell heaps are used for manuring 
purposes, cairns are removed. The destruction will be very thorough, as 
those parts in which relics are found are at the same time those which are 
the earliest to be reclaimed. 

' For all these reasons an early study of the ethnology of the province 
must be considered a necessity. In the course of a few years much might 
be done to preserve the most important facts. The languages might be 
reduced to writing, the interesting poems and songs that are still afloat 
might be preserved, we might obtain a complete account of the mythology, 
and sufficient material for anthropological researches. A few years hence it 
will be impossible to obtain a great part of the information that may now 
be gathered at a comparatively slight expense. 

'I cannot close these remarks without adding a few words on the 
present state of the Coast Indians. It is well known that they have been 
greatly reduced in numbers since the advent of the whites, and that they 
are still diminishing. It is also well known that, with few exceptions, 
they have made no progress whatever. The reasons for these facts are 
easily understood : the natives become accustomed to products of our 
manufacture, and in order to purchase them become servants where they 
have been masters before. At the same time their native industries 
decay. This process is hastened by the influence of missionaries, who 
discourage all native arts, as connected with their heathenish customs, 
without being able to supply anything in their stead. Thus the psychical 
life of the natives is impoverished, and this, I think, accounts principally 
for their rapid degradation after their first contact with the whites. The only 
way to civilise these tribes is clearly shown by Mr. W. Duncan's success at 
Metlakahtla. He made the Indians of Metlakahtla a self-sustaining, in- 
dependent community. Similar results are gradually being obtained in 
other places, and these results show that the establishment of independent 
industries on co-operative principles will educate the Indians and make 
them capable of becoming useful members of the State. The easiest and 
soundest way to do this is to encourage native industries and arts — fish- 
ing and working in wood. At the same time the natives ought to be 
educated to a more sanitary way of living. This can be attained only by 
putting energetic medical men in charge of Indian districts. There can 
be no doubt that an intelligent man, capable of adjusting his argument to 
the mind of the Indian, would easily induce them to a thorough sani- 
tation. The Indians do not individually give up their old customs, but 
invariably do so in coi^ncil. By gaining their confidence, the council. 



236 EEPOKT— 1888. 

could be easily induced to listen to sound advice. I do not believe that 
it is too late to save the Indian frora utter destruction ; and we may still 
hope that the spectacle of an intelligent race becoming more and more 
degraded and vanishing from the earth's surface will cease to exert its 
saddening influence upon the traveller who visits the shores of British 
■Columbia.' 

To this letter Dr. Boas adds the following : — 



Preliminary Notes ox the Indians op British Columbia. 

Although the Indians of the north-west coast of America belong to a 
great number of linguistic stocks, and although their physical peculiarities 
suggest that they belong to various races, their customs are so much 
alike that it is impossible to describe one tribe without having reference 
to all the others. For this reason it is necessary in a general survey to 
treat their languages and their physical and ethnographical character 
separately, although from the standpoint of the psychologist it would 
seem more desirable to describe each tribe by itself. 

The following are the principal races inhabiting the province, including 
the coast strip of Alaska: 1. the Tinne (or Tinneh), who occupy the 
interior from the extreme north to Quesnelle and Chilcot in the south. 

2. The Tlingit, on the coast of Alaska ; and the Haida, on Queen Char- 
lotte Islands and the southern part of Prince of Wales Archipelago. 

3. The Tsimshian, on Nass and Skeena Rivers and the adjoining islands. 

4. The Kwakiutl, from Douglas Channel to the central part of Vancouver 
Island, excepting the west coast of that island and Dean Inlet and Ben- 
tinck Ai'm. 5. The Nutka, of the west coast of Vancouver Island and 
Cape Flattery. 6. The Salisb, on the south-eastern part of Vancouver 
Island, on the mainland as far as Quesnelle Lake and Selkirk Range, and 
on Bentinck Arm. 7. The Kutonaqa, on Kootenay Lake and River, and 
■ on the Upper Columbia. 

[Dr. Boas here gives brief notes on the grammatical structure peculiar 
to each of the six linguistic stocks which he has studied — the Tlingit 
(and Haida), Tsimpshian, Kwakiutl, Nutka, Salish, and Kutonaqa. It 
has seemed advisable, however, to defer the publication of these notes 
until they can appear in fuller form in the final report, where they will 
be accompanied by the comparative vocabularies and the ethnographical 
map, and can have the benefit of the author's revision of the proofs. 

In the Indian words compinsed in this report the vowels are to be 
pronounced as in Italian, and the consonants, for the most part, as in 
English. The letters k' and g' represent deep gutturals corresponding to 
the ordinary h g. The // represents the German c/t in icli. The q denotes 
the sound of the Scotch ch in locli. By tl an exploded I is indicated, and 
by Z;' an exploded h^i, the u pronounced very indistinctly.] 



Social Organisation. 

I confine myself, in these preliminary notes, to a brief description of 
the totemism of these tribes, leaving a more detailed discussion of the pre- 
rogatives of the chiefs and of certain families to the final report. Among 
the Tlingit and Haida we find a great number of crests, which, however. 



ON THE NORTH-WESTEKN TRIBES OF CANADA. 237 

are divided into two groups — the raven and the wolf among the Tlingifc, 
the raven and the eagle among the Haida. The Tsimshian have four 
totems, the raven (called Kanha'da), the eagle (Laqski'yek), the wolf 
(Laqkyebo'), and the bear (Gyispotue'da). The Heiltsuk and their northern 
neighbours have three totems; the killer (De7jo/mms orca) (Ha'nq'aiZ/tenoq),. 
the raven (Ko'i/ttenoq), and the eagle (Wik'oaq/ttenoq). It is a very 
remarkable fact that among the other tribes of Kawkiutl lineage no 
totemism, in its strict meaning, is found. The tribes enumerated above 
have the system of relationship in the female line. The child belongs 
to the mother's crest, and, although the wife follows her husband to his 
village, the children, when grown up, always return to their mother's 
tribe. I conclude from the fact that the Kwakiutl, south of Rivers Inlet, 
have the system of relationship in the male line, or, more properly 
speaking, in both lines ; that the Heiltsuk adopted their system of totems 
from the Tsimshian. I have not heard a single tradition to the eS'ect 
that the gentes consider themselves the descendants of their totem ; the 
Tlingit and Haida, as well as the Tsimshian and Heiltsuk, have certain 
traditions referring to ancestors who had encounters with certain spirits 
or animals who gave them their crests. It is true that the Haida and 
Tlingit claim to have been created by the raven, but the legend has no 
reference whatever to the totem. The Kwakiutl and Salish tribes are also 
divided into gentes, but these are not distinguished by animal totems, but 
derive their origin each from a man who was sent down from heaven by 
the deity, and who, in some way or other, obtained his crest from a 
spirit. These legends are of the same character as the corresponding 
ones of the Tsimshian. The crest of the family is represented on paint- 
ings on the house fronts, on the 'totem posts,' and on tattooings. The 
latter are probably not used by the Tlingit, while the Haida tattoo 
breast, back, arms, and legs. The Tsimshian tattoo only the wrists, 
according to their crest. Tattoo marks are also used by the Nutka. The 
figures on posts and houses have always a reference to the being encoun- 
tered by the ancestor, but sometimes also figures of the father's crest are 
used by the owner, the father having the right to permit his child to use 
them. The posts do not represent a continuous story, but every figure 
refers to one tradition. Each gens has also names of its own, which 
among the Tsimshian must have a reference to the father's gens. Thus, 
on hearing a name a Tsimshian knows at once to what gens both the 
bearer and his father belong. Among the Salish and Kwakiutl the child 
follows, as a rule, the father's gens, but he may also acquire his mother's 
gens. By marriage he always acquires the prerogatives of his wife's 
family. It is only here that such prerogatives are connected with the 
gentes. They refer generally to the use of masks and certain ceremonies 
of the winter dance, the most important of which is the Ha'mats'a, the 
man-biter. But the accession to these privileges is not only a right of 
the young man, it is also his duty to accept them. Among the Salish 
tribes of the Gulf of Georgia the division into gentes is not as clearly 
defined as farther north. Here a group of gentes forms a tribe, each 
gens inhabiting one village. In removing the village from one place to 
the other they retain the same name, which, however, is not the name of 
the people, properly speaking, but that of their village. Bach gens derives 
its origin from a single man who descended from heaven, and whose sons 
and grandsons became the ancestors of the gens, the child always be- 
longing to his father's gens. While among the northern tribes marriages 



■238 EEPORT — 1888. 

in the same gens, or phratry, are strictly proliibited, there exists no such 
law among the Salish. 

T have not found any trace of a division into gentes among the 
Kutonaqa. 

Mythology. 

It is one of the most interesting problems of ethnology to study the 
■development of a system of mythology. On the noi-th-west coast of 
America this study is the more interesting, as we can show how legends 
migrated from ti'ibe to tribe. The great hero of the mythology of the 
northern tribes is the raven, who created daylight, mountains, trees, men. 
These raven legends have spread very far south, being even known to 
the Cowitchin of Vancouver Island, and probably still farther south. 
The hero of the mythology of the southern tribes, on the other hand, is 
the great wanderer, the son of the deity, who, on his migrations all over 
the world, transformed men into animals, and animals into men. It 
appears that this legend, which is known from the mouth of the Columbia 
to Bella Bella, originated with the Salish tribes ; however, we do not 
know how far it extends inland. Another legend belonging to these 
tribes has spread far north. It refers to a visit to heaven, and the mar- 
riage of a young man to the sun's daughter. Traces of this tale are 
found among the Tsimshian. The myths of the Kutona'qa and of the 
Okanagan refer principally to the coyote. I shall proceed to describe 
■briefly the myths of the various tribes, at the same time pointing out 
their connection among each other. 

The Tlingit say that the world was originally swinging to and fro in 
space. There was something underneath it that was to serve as a rest 
for the world ; the latter approached it, but never succeeded in joining it. 
All animals tried in vain to fasten the world to it. At last a female 
spii'it, Harishane'ko (=the woman under us), smeared her belly with deer 
tallow, lay down under the world, and when the latter approached the 
underworld again the tallow fastened both together. The earth is con- 
sidered square, the corners pointing north, south, east, and west. In the 
north there is an enormous hole into which the water of the ocean gushes, 
and from which it returns, thus causing the tides. There is another idea, 
to the efEect that the world is sharp like a knife's edge, but this seems to 
be said more in a moral aspect, the meaning being that the road of right 
doing is narrow ; whoever does wrong falls from the road and dies. The 
earth rests on Harishane'k5, and when the latter moves there is an earth- 
quake. The moon is the sun's husband. There is a chief in heaven 
called Tahi't, the ruler of those who fall in war. These fighting souls 
produce the aurora. It is worth remarking that this belief is also found 
among the Eskimo. On the same level with the earth, but outside its 
borders, is the country of those who died of sickness. 

The creation legend of the Tlingit is as follows: — In the beginning 
there lived a great chief and his sister. The chief killed all his sister's 
sons as soon as they were born. One day when the woman went to the 
beach mourning the death of her children, a seagull advised her to swallow 
three stones. She obeyed, and after a few days gave birth to three boys, 
the oldest of whom was Yetl, the raven. He wanted to avenge the death 
of his brothers, and challenged his uncle. The latter tried to drown Yetl 
by making the waters rise until the whole earth was covered. He kept 
himself afloat by means of his hat, which grew higher as the waters were 



ON THE NOHTH-WESTEEN TRIBES OF CANADA. 239 

rising. Yetl, however, flew up to the sky, and at last pi-essed down his 
uncle's hat, thus drowning his enemy. The waters disappeared again, 
and then Yetl obtained the sun, which was in possession of a chief, and 
the fresh water, which was owned bj' the fabulous K'anii'k'. He made 
trees and mountains next, and finally tried to create man. First he 
shaped human figures out of stone and wood, but did not succeed. Then 
he made man out of grass, and for this reason men are mortal. After 
this Yetl began to wander all over the world, and in all his further ad- 
ventures he is described as extremely voracious and greedy. 

The mythology of the Haida is substantially the same as that of the 
Tlingit. The raven is called Yetl by the Kaigani, while on Queen 
■Charlotte Island his name is Qoia. His uncle's name is Nenkyilstla's. 

The Tsimshian have also traditions referring to the raven, but he is 
not considered the creator of men. They consider the Nass River region 
as their original home, and the Nass language the oldest dialect of the 
Tsimshian. The origin of men is thus accounted for : — A long tinae ago 
a rock and an elder, near the mouth of Nass River, were about to give 
birth to men. The children of the elder were the first to be born, there- 
fore man is mortal. If the children of the rock had been born first, he 
would have been immortal. From the rock, however, he received the 
nails on hands and feet. 

The Tsimshian worship the deity in heaven, Leqa', who lives above 
the sun. The raven myths were evidently imported from some foreign 
sources, and then the raven was made the descendant of this deity in 
order to account for his supernatural powers. This legend, which is found 
from Nass river as far south as the northern portion of Vancouver Island, 
is substantially as follows : — A chief's wife, who was with child, died and 
was buried. In the grave she gave birth to a boy, who grew up feeding 
upon his mother's body. Eventually he was discovered and claimed by the 
chief, who grew to be very fond of him. The boy used to shoot birds and to 
skin them. One day he put on a bird's skin and flew up to heaven, where 
he married the deity's daughter. They had a son, who, when born, 
dropped from his mother's hand and fell into the ocean. He was found 
by a chief, and in course of time became Tqertsem, of whom the same 
adventures are told which Yetl is said to have accomplished. He appears 
generally in the shape of the raven. 

The flood, of which the Tsimshian also tell, is said to have been sent 
by heaven as a punishment for the ill-behaviour of man. First, all people, 
with the exception of a few, were destroyed by a flood, and later on by 
fire. Before the flood the earth was not as it is now, but there were no 
mountains and no trees. After the flood Leqa' created these too. The 
earth is considered to be round, and resting on a pillar that is held by an 
old woman. 

The most important of the Kwakiutl legends is that of the wanderer 
K a'nikila. He is the son of the deity, and descended from heaven to 
earth, where he was born again of a woman. When he came to be 
grown up he wandered all over the world, transforming his enemies into 
animals and making friends with many a mighty chief. Another im- 
portant legend is that of the mink, Tle'selakila (meaning the son of the 
sun), who made a chain of arrows reaching from the sky to the earth, on 
which he climbed up and visited his father, who let him cai'ry the sun in 
his stead. When, however, he went too fast, and set the earth on fire, 
his father cast him into the sea. While the northern tribes of this race 



240 EEPOKT— 1888. 

are acquainted with the raven legends, those farther south ascribe all the 
adventures of the j-aven to the mink. Another class of legends of tbe 
Kwakiutl is of great importance as referring to the spirits of the dances. 
I will mention in this place that these remarkable dances have evidently- 
originated with the Kwakiutl, although they are at present practised by 
the Tsimshian and Haida, and by some of the southern tribes. The 
Tsimshian practise only a few of them, the names of the dances being all 
of Kwakiutl origin. According to their own statements they were 
obtained by intermarriage with tbe Heiltsuk. The Haida adopted them 
from the Tsimshian. In all these dances ornaments of cedar bark, dyed 
red, are used, and it appears that this custom also originated among 
the Kwakiutl. The most prominent figure of this winter dance is the 
man-eater, called Ha'raats'a (the eater) by the Kwakiutl, Elaqo'tla by the 
Bilqula, O'lala by the Haida and Tsimshian. The latter call his dance 
also the Wihalai't (the great dance). The Ha'mats'a is initiated by a 
spirit, referring to which numerous traditions exist. It is a peculiarity 
of Kwakiutl mythology that it treats of many supernatural beings, while 
farther north almost exclusively the heaven, the sun, moon, and raven 
have supernatural power. Among these beings the following ave of im- 
portance: — The Tsono'k'oa (probably a mythical form of the grizzly bear), 
the Thunderbird, the Si'siutl (the double-headed snake), and a cuttlefish 
of enormous size. The myths of the Heiltsuk are much influenced by 
those of the Bilqula, their eastern neighbours. 

The legends of the Nutka ti'eat also principally of the great wanderer, 
and embody, so far as I am aware, no element which is not found among 
the Kwakiutl. 

The legends of the Salish vary to a oreat extent among the various 
tribes, those of the coast tribes resembling the myths of the Kwakiutl. 
The wandei'er and the sun are here the heroes of the greater part of the 
myths. The legend of the wanderer does not differ from that of the 
Kwakiutl, except in that he is himself the deity. Each remarkable stone or 
rock is described as being a man transformed by him. He made a great 
fire in order to destro}" man, and later on made the ocean rise and cover 
the land. The ascent to lieaven on a chain of arrows is one of the prin- 
cipal objects of their legends, the tale treating frequently of a murder of 
the old sun and the origin of the new one. Besides this, the double-headed 
snake is of importance, even more so than among the Kwakiutl. 

The mythology of the Bilqula, whose language is closely related to that 
of the dialects of the Gulf of Georgia, differs greatly from that of the 
other Salish tribes, being evidently influenced by their neighbours. Their 
mythology, on the other hand, has influenced that of the Heiltsuk. I do 
not think that the wanderer legend is found among them. They tell of 
the raven who created daylight, and of two men, Masmasala'niq and 
Tula'tioiot, who descended from heaven, created man, and gave him his 
arts. This legend is one of the most beautiful of those found on the coast. 
Its origin is doubtful. It would benecessaiy to study the mythology of 
the tribes of the interior more closely in order to arrive at a satisfactory 
understanding of this myth. The Bilqula have also the legend of the 
mink caiTying the sun. They call him T'otk-oa'ya. 

I am not well acquainted with the myths of the tribes of the interior, 
having collected only a limited number among the Ntlakapaniuq. They 
also tell of the wanderer who transformed men into stones, but it is 
doubtful whether he is in any way connected with the deity. Their 



ON THE NOKTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 241 

legends referring to the sun are numerous, one of the most important 
being the visit to the sun. There are many legends referring to the raven 
and to the mink, and here for the first time we find the coyote playing an 
important part in the mythology. 

The heroes of the myths of the Kutonaqa are the sun and the coyote. 
These myths are more closely connected with those of their south-eastern 
neighbours than with those of the north-west coast Indians. It is, how- 
ever, of interest to notice that the legend of a chain of arrows reaching 
up to the sky, and a conquest of the sky, which is so important in the 
Salish tales, occurs here also. One of the most interesting legends is that 
of the origin of the sun. The animals tried by turns to act as the sun, 
but none succeeded. The coyote almost succeeded, but as he made it 
too hot, and as he told everything he saw going on upon the earth, he 
was also compelled to give up his place in the sky, and then the two sons 
of the lynx became sun and moon. Later on, the coyote became the 
father-in-law of the sun, and many are the tales that refer to his adven- 
tures. He plays a part similar to that of the raven in the tales of the 
Tlingit. 

Keligton, Shamanism, Moktuary Customs. 

A study of mythology and of customs shows that the Indians of this 
province worshipped principally the sun or the heaven. The Tlingit 
and Haida pray to the moon, and in praying blow feathers up as an 
offering. They also pray to mountains, and believe that the animals 
of their crest protect them, although they are not forbidden to kill them. 
They believe in the transmigration of souls, the soul of the deceased being 
born again in a child of the same gens. The souls of animals return in 
the same way in their young. Sickness is to a great extent ascribed to 
witchcraft, and it is the duty of the shaman to cure the sick and to find 
out the witch. The shaman is initiated by acquiring a spirit. Cleanli- 
ness is considered as being agreeable to the spirits ; therefore the novice 
must bathe frequently. Great powers are ascribed to people who 
abstained from sexual intercourse. The dead, except shamans, are 
burned, and the ashes put up in small boxes. Shamans are buried near 
the beach, one cofiBn being deposited on top of the other. 

The Tsimshian have a supreme deity called Leqa'. Prayers are fre- 
quently not addressed to him directly, but to spirits, the Neqno'q, who 
convey them to him. Most of the prayers have conventional forms. In 
praying for clear weather for instance, they say : ' Neqno'q, Neqno'q, chief,, 
chief, have mercy ! Look down upon thy people under thee. Pall up • 
thy foot and wipe thy face ! ' They think that the existence of man is 
pleasing to the deity, and that he enjoys the smoke rising from their 
fires. They pray: ' Have mercy upon us! Else there will be nobody to- 
make the smoke rise up to thee. Have pity upon us ! ' The Tsimshian 
believe that the dead live in a country similar to our own, and that they 
are never in want. The dead are buried, but the heart is taken out and 
buried apart. Chiefs are sometimes burnt, and so are shamans. If a 
series of deaths occurred in a family, the mourners used to cut off" the 
first joint of the fourth finger, in order to put an end to the misfortunes 
of their family. 

The Kwakiutl worship the sun. It is not quite clear whether they 
worship K'anikila, the wanderer, besides, or whether they address their 
prayers only to the sun. Their dances are closely connected with their 
1888. E 



242 KEPOET— 1888. 

religious ideas, particularly the dance Tlok'oala (:= something unexpected 
coming from above), which, in course of time, has pai'tly been adopted by 
all their neighbours. There are a great number of spirits of this dance, 
each of which has his own class of shamans, the duties and prerogatives 
of whom vary according to the character of their genii. The Kwakiutl 
bury their dead in boxes, which are placed in small houses or on trees. 
Posts, carved according to the crest of the deceased, are placed in front 
of the graves. Food is burnt for the dead on the beach. Their mourning 
ceremonies are very complicated and rigorous. 

The Coast Salish worship the sun. They pray to him and are nofc 
allowed to take their morning meal until the day is well advanced. The 
wanderer, called Kumsno'otl by the Comox, Qiils by the Cowitchin and 
Lkungen, and Qais by the Skqomish, is also worshipped. They believe 
*hat he lives in heaven and loves the good, but punishes the bad. The 
art of shamanism was bestowed by him upon the first man, who brought 
it down from heaven. 

The Kutonaqa are also sun- worshippers, even more decidedly so tban 
any of the other tribes. They pi'ay to the sun. They offer him a smoke 
from their pipe before smoking themselves, and sacrifice their eldest 
children in order to secure prosperity to their families. They believe 
that the souls of the deceased go towards the east, and will return in 
course of time with the sun. Occasionally they have great festivals, 
during which they expect the return of the dead. They have also the 
custom of cutting off the first joints of the fingers as a sacrifice to the 
sun. They pierce their breasts and arms with sharp needles and cut off 
pieces of flesh, which they offer to the sun. It is doubtful whether 
they practise the sun-dance of their eastern neighbours. The dead are 
buried, their heads facing the east. It is of interest that the positions of 
the body after death are considered to be prophetic of future events. 
The mourners cut their hair and bury it with the deceased. Warriors 
are buried among trees which are peeled and painted red. Each shaman 
has his own genius, generally a bird or another animal, which he acquires 
by fasting in the woods or on the mountains. The shamans are able to 
speak with the souls of absent or deceased persons, and are skilful 
jugglers. 

Report on the Sarcee Indians, hy the Eev. E. F. Wilson. 

The Sarcee Indians belong to the great Athabascan or Tinneh stock, 
to which the Chipewyans, Beavers, Hares, and others in the North- West 
and, it is said, the Navajoes, in New Mexico, also belong. They were 
formerly a powerful nation, but are now reduced to a few hundreds. 
Their reserve, which consists of a fine tract of prairie land, about a 
hundred square miles in extent, adjoins that of the Blackfeet, in Alberta, 
a little south of the Canadian Pacific Railway line, and seventy or eighty 
miles east of the Rocky Mountains. Although friendly and formerly 
confederate with the Blackfeet, they bear no affinity to that people ; they 
belong to a distinct stock and speak an altogether different language. 
They are divided into two bands — the Blood Sarcees and the Real 
Sarcees. 

During my visit, which lasted seven days, I had several interviews 
with their chief, ' Bull's Head,' a tall, powerful man, about sixty years of 
age ; and it was from him and one or two of his leading men that I 



ON THE NOETH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 243 

gathered most of my information. I found, however, tliat the Sarcees 
•were not so ready to converse, or to tell either about their language or 
their history, as were the Blackfeet, whom I visited last summer. Tea 
and tobacco seemed to be with them the chief desiderata, and except 
with gifts of this kind it seemed almost impossible to gain anything from 
them. And after all, even when plied with these commodities, the infor- 
mation they gave was very meagre, and often far from satisfactoiy. 
From what little I saw of these people I should be inclined to say that 
they are of a lower order and inferior in mental capacity to the Blackfeet; 
I judge this chiefly by the style in which they told their stories and 
traditions, such as they were, and by their having no elaborated theories 
as to certain phenomena in nature, about which many other of the Indian 
tribes have always so much to say. 

Chief • Bull's Head,' in reply to my questions as to their early history, 
made a great show of oratory, both by voice and gesture, but much of 
what he said was very childish and confused, and seemed to be scarcely 
worth the trouble of putting down. 

These people call the Blackfeet ' Katce,' the Crees ' Nishinna,' the 
Sioux ' Kaispa,' and themselves ' Sotenna.' The Indians of tbeir own 
stock, as I understand, they call ' Tinnatte.' These two last names seem 
certainly to connect them with the great ' Tinneh ' or Athabascan nation. 
Sarcee (or rather Sarxi) is the name by which they are called by the 
Blackfeet. 

Whence these People Came. 

' Formerly,' said ' Bull's Head,' ' the Sarcee territory extended from 
the Rocky Mountains to the Big River (either the Saskatchewan or the 
Peace River). Our delight was to make corrals for the buffaloes, and to 
drive them over the cut bank and let them fall. Those were glorious 
days, when we could mount our swift-footed horses, and ride like the 
wind after the flying herd ; but now the buffalo is gone we hang our 
heads, we are poor. And then, too, we used to fight those liars, the 
Crees : we engaged in many a bloody battle, and their bullets pierced our 
teepees. Thirty battles have I seen. When I was a child the Sarcees 
were in number like the grass ; the Blackfeet and Bloods and Peigans 
were as nothing in comparison. Battles with the Crees and disease 
brought in among us by the white man have reduced us to our present 
pitiable state.' 

Another Indian told us how the Sarcees were at one time one people 
with the Chipewyans, and gave us the myth which accounts for their 
separation. ' Formerly,' he said, ' we lived in the north country. We 
were many thousands in number. We were travelling south. It was 
winter, and we had to cross a big lake on the ice. There was an elk's 
horn sticking out of the ice. A squaw went and struck the horn with an 
axe. The elk raised himself from the ice and shook his head. The 
people were all frightened and ran away. Those that ran toward the 
north became the Chipewyans, and we who ran toward the south are the 
" Sotenna " or " Sarcees." ' 

' The Chipewyans,' said ' Bull's Head,' 'speak our language. It is twenty 
years since I saw a Chipewyan. We call them " Tcohtin." They live up 
north, beyond the Big River' (probably the Peace River). 

b2 



244 BEPORT — 1888. 

Their Traditions, Beliefs, &c. 

' There was a time,' said 'Bull's Head,' 'when there were no lakes. 
The lakes and rivers were occasioned by the bursting of the belly of the 
buffalo. It was when the belly of the buffalo burst that the people 
divided ; some went to the north and some to the south. For years and 
years I have been told that the Creator made all people, and I believe it. 
I have heard my mother and other old people speak of the days when 
there were no guns and no horses, when our people had only arrows, 
and had to hunt the buffalo on foot ; that must have been a very long 
time ago.' 

The Sarcees have a tradition similar to that of the Blackfeet about 
men and women being first made separately, and then being brought 
together through the action of the mythical being ' Napiw.' 

They have also a tradition of the flood, which accords in its main 
features with that of the Ojibways, Crees, and other Canadian tribes. 
They say that when the world was flooded there were only one man and! 
one woman left, and these two saved themselves on a raft, on which they 
also collected animals and birds of all sorts. The man sent a beaver- 
down to dive and it brought up a little mud from the bottom, and this 
the man moulded in his hands to form a new world. At first the world 
was so small that a little bird could walk round it, but it kept getting- 
bigger and bigger. ' First,' said the narrator, ' our father took up his 
abode on it, then there were men, then women, then animals, then birds. 
Our father then created the rivers, the mountains, the trees, and all the 
things as we now see them.' 

When the story was finished I told the narrator that the Ojibway 
tradition was very mnch the same as theirs, only that they said it was a 
musli-rat that brought up the earth and not a beaver. Upon this five or 
six of the men who were squatting around inside the teepee smoking- 
cried, ' Yes, yes ! The man has told you lies ; it was a musk-rat, it was 
a musk-rat ! ' 

Tt seems dubious whether the Sarcees are sun-worshippers ; but, like 
the Blackfeet, they call the sun ' our father,' and the earth ' our mother.' 
They also engage each summer in the ' sun-dance.' They depend also for 
guidance in their actions on signs in the sky and on dreams. They think 
they know when there is going to be a fight by the appearance of the 
moon. One of their number, named 'Many Swans,' says he is going to 
have a good crop this year, for he dreamed that a white woman came 
down from above and asked to see his garden, and he showed his garden 
to the woman, and it was all gi'een. 

' Bull's Head ' had no theory to give as to the cause of thunder ; he 
knew that Indians of other tribes said it was a big bird flapping its 
wings, but his people did not say so ; they did not know what it was ; 
neither had they anything to say about an eclipse. 

Manner op Living. 

The Sarcee Indians are at present all pagans ; they appear to have no 
liking for the white people, and the white people seem to have little 
liking for them, and would gladly deprive them of their Lands and drive 
them away farther into the wilderness were they permitted to do so. 
But the paternal Government, as represented by the Indian Department, 



ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 245 

takes care that tliey are not imposed upon. There is an Indian Agent 
stationed on their reserve, who twice a week doles out to them the 
Government rations, consisting of excellent fresh beef and good flour; and 
there is also a farm instructor, who has charge of the farming stock and 
implements, and does what he can to induce these warriors and hunters 
to farm. 

They have also residing among them a missionary of the Church of 
England, who visits them in their teepees, and does his best to collect 
their little blanketed children to school, giving two Government biscuits 
to each scholar as a reward for attendance. But the people are evidently 
averse to all these things, which are being done for their good. Their 
only idea of the white man seems to be that of a trespassing individual, 
who has more in his possession than he knows what to do with, and may 
therefore fairly be preyed upon. 

The dress of these people consists, as with other wild Indians, of a 
breech-clout, a pair of blanket leggings, beaded moccasins, and a blanket 
thrown loosely, but gracefully, over one or both shoulders. They wear 
their long black hair in plaits, hanging vertically, one plait on each side of 
tlie face, and one or more at the back. Some of them knot their hair on 
the top of the head ; and some, I noticed, wore a coloured handkerchief 
folded and tied round the temples. This, I believe, is one distinguishing 
mark of the Navajo Indians in New Mexico. Very often the leggings 
and moccasins are dispensed with, and the man appears to have nothing 
on except his grey, white, or coloured blanket. The women wear an 
ordinary woman's dress of rough make and material, and short in the 
skirt, next to the skin, leggings and moccasins, and a blanket round the 
shoulders. Ornaments are worn by both sexes, but chiefly by the men. 
They consist of brooches and earrings made of steel, necklaces and brace- 
lets made of bright-coloured beads, bones, claws, teeth, and brass wire, 
and finger- rings, also of brass wire, coiled ten or twelve times, and cover- 
ing the lower joint of the finger. Every finger of each hand is sometimes 
covered with these rings. Both men and women paint the upper part of 
the face with ochre or vermilion. The people live in ' teepees,' conical- 
shaped lodges, made of poles covered with tent cotton, in the summer, 
and in low log huts, plastered over with mud, in winter. They 
depend for their subsistence almost entirely on the rations supplied by 
Government. They keep numbers of ponies, but seem to make little use 
of them beyond riding about. They keep no cattle or animals of any 
kind beyond their ponies and dogs. The latter are savage, and are said 
to be descendants of the wolf and the coyote, with which animals they 
still often breed. They seem to have no manufactures ; they make no 
canoes, baskets, &c., but they know how to prepare the hides and skins of 
the animals they kill, and they make their own clothing, saddles, bows 
and arrows, and moccasins. Some of the women do very excellent bead- 
work. Bridles they do not use ; a rope or thong fastened to the pony's 
lower jaw takes the place of a bridle ; their whips are a short stout stick, 
studded with brass nails, and provided with two leathern thongs as lashes 
at one end, and a loop for the wrist at the other, Their bows are of 
cherry wood, strung with a leathern thong, and their arrows of the 
Saskatoon willow, winged with feathers, and pointed with scrap-iron, 
filed to a sharp point. The shaft of the arrow has four shallow grooves 
down its entire length. 



246 KEroET— 1888. 

Gambling. 

The Sai'cees, like most other wild Indians, are inveterate gamblers. 
They will gamble everything away — ponies, teepees, blankets, leggings, 
moccasins — till they have nothing left but their breech-clout. In my 
report of the Blackfeet last year I mentioned the use of a little hoop or 
wheel for gambling purposes. I find that the Sarcees also use this, and 
two of them showed me how they play the game. A little piece of board, 
if procurable, or two or three flattened sticks, laid one on the other, are 
put for a target, at a distance of eighteen or twenty feet from the starting- 
point, and the two players then take their places beside each other ; one 
has the little wheel in his left hand, an arrow in his right ; the other one 
has only an arrow. The play is to roll the wheel and to deliver the two 
arrows simultaneously, all aiming at the mark which has been set up. 
If the wheel falls over on one of the arrows, it counts so many points, 
according to the number of beads on the wire spoke of the wheel that 
touch the arrow. Nothing is counted unless the little wheel falls on one 
of the arrows. The articles for which they play are valued at so many 
points each. A blanket is worth, perhaps, ten points, a pony fifty, and so on. 

Another method by which these people gamble is as follows : Two 
men squat side by side on the ground, with a blanket over tlieir knees, 
and they have some small article, such as two or three brass beads tied 
together, which they pass from one to another under the blanket ; and 
the other side, which also consists of two persons, has to guess in which 
hand the article is to be found — very much like our children's ' hunt the 
whistle.' The Sarcees use also the English playing cards, but it is a 
game of their own that they play with them. Whoever gets the most 
cards is the winner. 

Mateimont. 

The Sarcees are polygamous, the men having two, three, or four 
wives. The time of moving camp is generally looked upon as a pro- 
pitious time for love-making. The camp is in the form of a ring, with 
the horses picketed in the centre. Early in the morning the young men 
drive the horses to a swamp or slough to water them. They are thinking, 
perhaps, of some young squaw whom they wish to approach, but they 
are ashamed to speak to her. Then, as soon as all is ready for the move, 
the chief gives the word, and the callers summon the people to start on 
the march. The chief goes first and leads the way. Now is the oppor- 
tunity for the bashful young swains ; they drop behind the rest and 
manage to ride alongside the young women of their choice, and to get a 
few words into their ears. If the young woman approves the ofi'er, she 
follows her white sister's example by referring the young man to her 
parents. If the parents consent, mutual presents are exchanged, such as 
horses, blankets, &c. ; the girl is dressed in her best, and her face painted, 
and the young man takes her away. A husband can divorce himself 
from his wife at any time if he pleases, but he has to restore the presents 
that he received with her, or their equivalent. Girls are often betrothed 
at ten years of age and married at fourteen. A betrothed girl may not 
look in a man's face until after her marriage. A man may not meet his 
mother-in-law ; if he chance to touch her accidentallj^ he must give her 
a present. At a feast among the Blackfeet at which I was present an 
impatient mother-in-law was standing without and sending messages to 
the son-in-law within to make haste and leave before all the good things 



ON THE NOKTH-WESTEKN TBIBES OF CANABA. 247 

were done, so that she might come in and get her share ; but he sent 
word back that he was in no hurry. Parents do not often punish their 
children, but sometimes, in a fit of ill-temper, will beat them cruelly. 
They are more cruel to their wives than to their children. While I was 
making these notes a Sarcee woman came into the lodge with her nose 
cut off; her husband had done it as a punishment for her keeping 
company with another man. 

Medicine. 

The Sarcees are not considered to be much versed in the use of medi- 
cinal roots and herbs ; they are much more ready to take the white man's 
medicine than are their neighbours, the Blackfeet. 

Among themselves they depend chiefly on magic and witchcraft for 
recovery from sickness. There are about a dozen so-called ' medicine- 
men ' in the camp, but most of them are loomen. Chief among them is 
an old squaw named ' Good Lodge.' They are always highly paid for 
their services, whether the patient recovers or not. A medicine-man 
when called in to see a sick person will first make a stone red-hot in the 
fire, then touch the stone with his finger, and with the same finger press 
various parts of the patient's body, to ascertain the locality and character 
of the sickness. Then he will suck the place vigorously and keep spitting 
the disease (so he pretends) from his mouth. This is accompanied by 
drum -beating and shaking a rattle. The Sarcees do not bleed or cup, 
but they blister (often quite efficaciously) by applying the end of a piece 
of burning touchwood to the affected part. They also use the vapour- 
bath. To do this a little bower, about three feet high, is made of pliable 
green sticks, covered over closely with blankets. Several stones are 
heated red and placed in a small hole in the ground inside the bower; 
and over these the patient sits in a state of nudity and keeps putting 
water on the stones, which is supplied to him by an attendant from, 
without. When thoroughly steamed, and almost boiled, he rushes out, 
and plunges into cold water. This treatment sometimes efiects a cure, 
but more often induces bad results and death. The vapour-bath, as 
above described, is used very extensively by Indians of many different 
tribes ; some, however, omit the plunge into cold water. 

Burial Customs. 

I had a good opportunity to investigate the burial customs of these 
people. Riding across the prairie with a young Englishman who had 
spent several years in the neighbourhood, we came upon a 'bluff,' or 
small copse, of fir and poplar trees, covering some two or three acres of 
ground. We suspected it was a burial-ground, and, dismouting from 
our horses, entered it. No sooner had we done so than we found our- 
selves in t