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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OP THE 



FIFTY-NINTH MEETING 



OP THE 



BEITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVMOEMENT OF SOIENOE 



'11 



HELD AT 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE IN SEPTEMBER 1889. 



to ■- 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURKAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1890. 

Office of the Association : 22 Albemakle Street, London, W. 



rniNTED BY 

SPOTTISTVOODE AND CO., NEW-STEEET SQUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and, Rules of the Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxiviii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xlvii 

List of Evening Lectures Ixiii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Lxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Meeting Ixvii 

Officersand Council, 1889-90 Ixix 

Treasurer's Account Ixx 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee lixiv 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne Meeting in September 1889 Ixivii 

Other Resolutions adopted by the General Committee Ixxxv 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association Ixxxv 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable Ixxxv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxxvi 

Places of Meeting in 1890 and 1891 Ixxxvii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes Ixxxviii 

General Meetings c 

Address by the President, Professor W. H. Flowek, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.R.C.S., Pres. Z.S., F.L.S., F.G.S 1 

REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson (Secre- 
tary), J. G. MacGregor, J. B. Cheeriman, and H. T. Bovey and Mr. C. 
Cakpmael, appomted for the purpose of promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 27 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord Ratleigh (Chairman), 
Professor Catley, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. G. Greenhill, 
Professor W. M. Hicks, Professor B. Price, Sir William Thomson, and 
Professor A. Lodge (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of considering 
the possibility of calculating Tables of certain Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessary, of taking steps to carry out the calculations, and to publish the 

results in an accessible form 28 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report of the Committee, consistiug of Professor Fitzgerald (Chairman), 
Professor Baerett (Secretary), and Mr. Trotjton, appointed to investigate 
the Molecular Phenomena connected with the Magnetisation of Iron 33 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Murray (Secretary), 
Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, the Abbe Renard, Mr. A. 
BucHAN, the Hon. R. Abercrombt, and Dr. M. Geabham, appointed for 
the Collection and Identification of Meteoric Dust 34 

Eighteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Pro- 
fessor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. 
A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly. Professor Edward Hull, 
Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Heeschel, 
Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph 
Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahan, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Under- 
ground Temperature downwards in various Localities of Dry Land and 
under Water. (Drawn up by Professor Everett, Secretary) 35 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. Stokes (Chairman), 
Mr. G. J. Symons (Secretary), Professor Schuster, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain Abney, and Mr. Whipple, appointed 
for the purpose of considering the best methods of recording the direct 
Intensity of Solar Radiation 40 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. 
G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. MuiRHEAD, Mr. W. H. Peeece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, 
Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
80N, Professor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Mr. T. Gray, appointed for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing Practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments 41 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of the Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 
Dr. A. BucHAN, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. J. Willis Bund, Professor 
Chrystal, Mr. D. Cunningham, Professor Fitzgerald, Dr. H. R. Mill 
(Secretary), Dr. John Murray (Chairman), Mr. Isaac Roberts, Dr. H. 0. 
SoRBY, and the Rev. C. J. Steward, appointed to arrange an investigation 
of the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries 
in various parts of the United Kingdom in co-operation with the local 
societies represented on the Association 44 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, Mr. W. H. M. 
Christie, Sir R. S. Ball, and Dr. Longstaff, appointed to consider the 
proposals of M. Tondini db Quaeenghi relative to the Unification of 
Time, and the adoption of a Universal Prime Meridian, which have been 
brought before the Committee by a letter from the Academy of Sciences of 
Bologna 49 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Grylls Adams 
(Secretary), Mr. W. Lant Carpenter, Mr. C. H. CARPMAEL,Mr. W. H. M. 
Christie, Professor G. Chrystal, Captain Creak, Professor G. H. Daewin, 
Mr. William Ellis, Sir J. H. Lefroy, Professor S. J. Perry, Professor 
Schuster, Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. G. M. Whipple, appointed 
for the purpose of considering the best means of Comparing and Reducing 
Magnetic Observations 49 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Roberts-Austen (Chair- 
man), Mr. T. Turner (Secretary), and Professor J. W. Langley, ap- 
pointed to consider the best method of establishing International Standards 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by Mr. Thomas Tuenbe, 
Secretaiy) 50 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and 
Ramsay and Dr. Nicol (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the Proparties of Solutions 53 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, McLeod, 
Pickering, Ramsay, and Young and Drs. A. R. Leeds and Nicoi 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Bibliography of 
Solution 53 

Report (Provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professors McLeod and 
W. Ramsay and Messrs. J. T. Cutstdael and W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), 
appointed to investigate the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity 
on Oxygen and other Gases , 54 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Dewae, E. Fkankland, 
Percy F. Feankland (Secretaiy), and Odling and Mr. Crookes, ap- 
pointed to confer with the Committee of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science with a view of forming a uniform system of record- 
ing the results of Water Analysis " 55 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Rttssell (Chairman), 
Dr. A. Richardson (Secretary), Captain Abney, and Professors W. N. 
Hartley and W, Ramsay, appointed for the investigation of the action of 
Light on the Hydracids of the Halogens in presence of Oxygen. (Drawn 
up by Dr. A. Richaedson) 59 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheeidge, Dr. H. 
WooDWAED, and Professor T. Rupeet Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 63 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson (Chair- 
man) and Mr. W. Cash (Secretary), appointed to investigate the Flora of 
the Carboniferous Rocks of Lancashire and West Yorkshire. (Drawn up 
by Professor W. C. Williamson) 69 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mi-. James W. Davis, Mr. W. Cash, 
Dr. H. Hicks, Mr. Clement Reid, Dr. H. Woodward, Mr. T. Boynton, 
and Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating an Ancient Sea-beach near Bridlington Quay 70 

Fifteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. W. Ceosskey, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor G. A. Lebour, and 
Messrs. James Glaisheb, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, AV. Pengelly, 
James Plant, J. Peestwich, I. Robeets, T. S. Stooke, G. J. 
Symons, W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. Wetheeed, AV. AVhitakee, 
and C. E. De Range (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Circulation of Underground AA'^aters in the Permeable Formations of 
England and AVales, and the Quantity and Character of the AVater supplied 
to various Towns and Districts from these Formations. (Drawn up by 
C. E. De Range, Reporter) 71 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. AVoodwaed (Chairman), Mr. 
J. Staekie Gardner (Secretary), and Mr. Clement Reid. appointed for 
the purpose of exploring the Higher Eocene Beds of the Isle of AVight. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 89 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge (Chairman), 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of reporting upon the ' Manure ' Gravels of AVexford. (Drawn up by Mr. 
A. Bell) 92 



Vi CONTENTS. 

Page 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Flower (Chairman), 
Mr. D MoKRis (Secretary), Mr. Gakeutheks, Dr. Sclatek, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dyek, Dr. Shakp, Mr. F. DuCane Godman, and Professor Newton, 
appointed for the purpose of reporting on the present state of our know- 
ledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, and taking 
steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 93 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Rat Lankestek, 
Professor A. Milnes Marshall, Mr. A. Sedgwick, and Mr. G. H. Fowler 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Development of 
the Oviduct and connected structures in certain fresh- water Teleostei 95 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Rat 
Lankester, Professor Cossae Eavaet, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table 
at the Zoological Station at Naples 95 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors E. A. ScH.iFEE and W. 
A. Heedman and Mr. W. E. Hotle (Secretary), appointed to improve and 
experiment with a Deep-sea Tow-net, for opening and closing under water . Ill 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thiselton-Dyer (Secretary), 
Mr. Caeeuthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, and Mr. Forbes, appointed 
for the purpose of continuing the preparation of a Report on our present 
knowledge of the Flora of China 112 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), 
Mr. W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Professor M. Foster, and Mr. S. F. Harmee 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of taking steps for the investigation 
of the Natural History of the Friendly Islands, or other groups in the 
Pacific, visited by H.M.S. ' Egeria ' 113 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton, Mr. John Cor- 
deaux (Secretary), Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barrington, 
Mr. W. E. Clarke, and the Rev. E. P. Knubley, appointed to make a digest 
of the observations on Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightvessels, 
which have been carried on during the past nine years by the Migrations 
Committee of the British Association (with the consent of the Master and 
Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and the Commissioners of Northern 
and Irish Lights), and to report upon the same 114 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Foster, Professor 
Bayley Balfour, jMr. Thiselton-Dter, Dr. Teimen, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Mr. Carruthers, Professor Hartog, and Professor Bower (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of taking steps for the establishment of a 
Botanical Station at Peradeniya, Ceylon 114 

Seventeenth Report of the Committee, consisting: of Professors J. Prestwich, 
AV. Bo YD Daweins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonney, Dr. H. W. 
Crosskey, and Messrs. C. E. De Rance, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and 
R. II. TiDDEMAN, appointed for the purpose of recording the Position, 
Height above the Sea, Lithological Characters, Size, and Origin of the Erratic 
Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest 
connected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. 
(Drawn up by Dr. Crosskey, Secretary) 115 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Schapee (Chairman), 
Michael Foster, and Lankester and Dr. W. D. Hallibueton (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Physiology of the 
Lymphatic System ", 128 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), 
Professor Aemsteong (Secretary), Mr. Stephen Bouene, Miss Lydia 
Beckee, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir Richard 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

Temple, Bart., Sir IIenet E. Roscoe, Mr. James Hey wood, and Professor 
N. Stoet Maskeltne, appointed for the purpose of continuing the inquiries 
relating to the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 131 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. 
Y. Edgeworth (Secretary), Professor H. S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Gifpen, 
Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, 
Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrate, and Professor H. Sidgwick, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the test methods of ascertaining and measur- 
ing Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard 133 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth (Secretary), Professor H. S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Giffen, 
Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, 

. Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrate, and Professor H. Sidgwick, appointed for the 
purpose of inquiring and reporting as to the Statistical Data available for 
determining the amount of the Precious Metals in use as Money in the 
principal Countries, the chief forms in which the Money is employed, and 
the amount annually used in the Arts , 164 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, Mr. H. W. 
Bates (Secretary), General R. STRACHEr, Mr. W. T. Thiselton-Dtee, 
and Professor W. I3oyd Dawkins, appointed to investigate the Geography 
and Geology of the Atlas Ranges in the Empire of Morocco 165 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and Arm- 
strong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric 
Naphthalene Derivatives. (Drawn up by Professor Armstrong ) 172 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson, Mr. Bent (Secretary), 
Mr. Pengellt, Mr. Rudler, Mr. Bloxam, and Mr. J. Stuart Glennie, 
appointed to investigate the Habits and Customs and Physical Character- 
istics of the Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor, and to excavate on sites of ancient 
occupation. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 176 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. G. W. 
Bloxam, General Pitt-Rivees, Dr. J. Beddoe, Dr. H. Muirhead, Mr. 
C. Roberts, Dr. G. W. Hambleton, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Dr. J. G. Garson, and Dr. A. M. Paterson, appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the effects of different occupations and employ- 
ments on the Physical Development of the Human Body 186 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. Beddoe, 
Professor Flower, Mr. Francis Galton, Dr. E. B. Tylor, and Dr. J. G. 
Garson, appointed for the purpose of editing a new Edition of ' Anthro- 
pological Notes and Queries.' (Drawn up by the Secretary, Dr. Garson) . . . 186 

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor A. VV. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt- 
Rivers, and Mr. W. Topley 187 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Fitzgerald (Chair- 
man), Aemsteong and O. J. Lodge (Secretaries), Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, Schustee, Poynting, Crum Brown, 
Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hartley, S. P. Thompson, McLeod, 
Roberts-Austen, Rijcker, Reinold, Carey Foster, and II. B. Dixon, 
Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and Fleming, and Messrs. 
Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, W. N. Shaw, J. Laemor, J. T. Bottomley, 
R. T. Glazebrook, J. Brown, E. J. Love, and John M. Thomson, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis in its 
Physical and Chemical Bearings 223 



yiii CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Festing (Chairman), Dr. 
H. E. Akmstrong (Secretary), Captain Abnet, and Professor W. iN. 
Hartley, on the Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds 2.n 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. Aemsteong, 
Professor AV. R. Dxjnstan (Secretary), Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Mr. A. G. 
Vernon Haecotjet, Professor H. M'Lbod, Professor Meldola, Mr. Patti- 
soN MuiR, Sir Heney E. Roscoe, Dr. W. J. Russell (Chairman), Mr. 
W. A. Shenstone, Professor Smithells, and Mr. Stallaed, appointed 
for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting upon the present methods of 
teaching Chemistry ^"^ 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and W. 
Chandler Robeets-Atjsten and Mr.T. Tuenee (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Influence of Silicon on the properties of 
Steel 267 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Baueeman, Mr. F. W. Rudlee, 
Mr. J. J. H. Teall, and Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, appointed for the in- 
vestigation of the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood. 
(Drawn up by Dr. H. J. Johnston-Latis, F.G.S., Secretary) 283 

Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheeidge, Professor 
Thomas Geat, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating tlie Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of 
Japan. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 295 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Hon. Ralph Aberceomby (Chair- 
man), Professor Ceum Beown Mr. Milne-Home, Dr. John Mueeat, Lord 
McLaren, and Dr. Alexander Buchan, appointed for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteorological 
Observations on Ben Nevis ^1^ 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Ltjbbock, Dr. John 
Evans, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. R. Muneo, Mr. W. Pengelly, Dr. 
Henry Hicks, Professor Meldola, Dr. Muiehead, and Mr. James W. 
Davis, appointed for the purpose of ascertaining and recording the localities 
in the British Islands in which evidences of the existence of Prehistoric 
Inhabitants of the country are found. (Drawn up by Mr. James W. Davis) 318 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Peeece (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor H. S. Hele Shaw (Secretary), Messrs. B. Baeee, \V. Anderson, 
and G. Kapp, and Professors J. Perry and R. 11. Smith, appointed to 
report on the Development of Graphic Methods in IMechanical Science . . . 322 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. N. Doxiglass, Professor W. C. 
Unwin (Secretary), Professor Osboene Reynolds, and Messrs. W. Topley, 
E. Leader Williams, W. Shelpord, G. F. Deacon, A. R. Hunt, and 
W. H. Wheeler, appointed to investigate the Action of Waves and 
Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means of Working 
Models 327 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor McLeod (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor Roberts-Austen (Secretary), and Professor Reinold, for the 
Continuation of the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 344 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. Gaeson, 
and Mr. Bloxam, appointed for the purpose of calculating the Anthro- 
pological Measurements taken at Bath. (Drawn up bv Dr. Garson, Secre- 
tary) ; 423 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. W. Wills (Chairman), 
Mr. E. W. Badger, and Professor Hillhouse, for the purpose of collecting 
information as to the Disappearance of Native Plants from their Local 
Habitats. (Drawn up by Professor Hillhouse, Secretary) 435 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

The Incidence and Effects of Import and Export Duties. By 0. F. Bastable 440 

Experiments upon the Transmission of Power by Compressed Air in Paris 
(Popp's System). By Professor Alexander B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., 
M.Inst.C.E 448 

The Comtist Criticism of Economic Science. By W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc 462 

On the Advisability of assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency in the Examina- 
tion of Candidates for the Public Services. By Feancis Galton, F.R.S.. 471 

On the Principle and Methods of assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency. By 
Feancis Galton, F.R.S '.. 474 

Experiments at Eton College on the Degree of Concordance betvreen different 
Examiners in assigning Marks for Physical Qualifications. By A. A. 

SOMERVILLE 477 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Page 
Address by Captain W. de W. Abney, C.B., R.E., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 481 

1. Fifth Report of the Committee for promoting Tidal Observations in 

Canada 488 

2. Report of the Committee for preparing Instructions for the practical Work 

of Tidal Observation 488 

3. Fifth Report of the Committee for the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Ob- 
servation 488 

4. On the Heliocentric Longitudes of Come tic Perihelia. By Henry Mttir- 
HEAD, M.D., LL.D 488 

5. On Cometic Nebulae. By Professor A. W. Ruckee, M.A., F.R.S 489 

6. Re-examination of the Spectra of 23 Gas- Vacuum, End-on Tubes, after 

six to ten years of Existence and Use. By 0. Piazzi Smyth 490 

7. On the Tones of Bells. By Lord Rayleigh, LL.D., Sec.R.S 491 

8. Seismological Work in Japan. By Professor .Tohn Milne, F.R.S 492 

9. On the Vibration of Railway Trains. By Professor John Milne, F.R.S. 492 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. On the Quantity of Deposit of Silver produced by the development on a 
Photographic Plate in terms of the intensity of Light acting. Bv Captain 
Abney, C.B., R.E., F.R.S „ ., •;...... 493 

2. On Pin-hole Photography. By Loed Rayleigh, LL.D., Sec.R.S 493 

^' 0" Boscovich's Theory. By Sir William Thomson, D.C.L., LL.D., 

^•^•^ 494 

4. On the Determination of ' v ' by means of Electric Oscillations. Bv 0. J. 

Lodge, F.R.S., and R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S 497 

5. On the Instruments used in the recent Magnetic Survey of France. Bv 
Professor A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S 497 

6. Report of the Committee on the Molecular Phenomena connected with 

the Magnetisation of Iron 407 

7. On Magnetic Viscosity in Iron. By Professor J. A. Ewinq, F.R.S 497 



CONTENTS. XI 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 

1. First Report of the Committee on the possibility of calculating Tables of 
certain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, of taking steps to carry 

out the calculations and to publish the results in an accessible form 497 

2. On some Formulae connected with Bessel's Functions. By Dr. Meissel 498 

3. On the relations between Ray-Ourvatures, Brachistochrones, and Free 

Paths. By Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S 498 

4. On Curves in Space. By Professor Cayley, F.R.S 499 

5. On the Extension and Bending of Cylindrical Shells. By A. B. Basset, 
M.A., F.R.S 499 

6. Simplified Proofs (after Euler) of the Binomial Theorem (i.) for any 
Positive Fractional Exponent ; (ii.) for any Negative Exponent. By 

T. Woodcock, M.A 501 

7. On the Extensibility of Liquid Films. By Lord Ratleigh, LL.D., 

Sec.R.S 502- 

8. On Hysteresis in the relation of Strain to Stress. By Professor J. A. 
EwiNs, F.R.S 502 

9. On the relation of the Ether to Space. By Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
F.R.S 504 

10. On the E.M.F. produced by an Abrupt Variation of Temperature at the 
point of contact of two portions of the same Metal. By Professor Henry 
Stroxtd, M.A., D.Sc 504 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Fourth Report of the Committee for inviting Designs for a good Dif- 

ferential Gravity Meter 504 

2. Report of the Committee for the Collection and Identification of Meteoric 
Dust 504 

3. Fifth Report of the Committee for considering the best methods of re- 
cording the direct Intensity of Solar Radiation 505 

4. On the Black Bulb Thermometer in Vacuo. By Professor Herbert 
McLeod, F.R.S 505 

5. Fifth Report of the Committee for considering the best means of Com- 
paring and Reducing Magnetic Observations . 506 

6. On Atmospheric Electricity. By Professor Leonhard Weber ..., 506 

7. Electrification of Air by Combustion. By Masnus Maclean, M.A., 
F.R.S.E., and Makita Goto 506 

8. Notes on Atmospheric Electricity and the use of Sir William Thomson's 
portable Electrometer in the Tropics. By Professor C. Michie Smith 507 

9. On PhotogTaphs of Lightning. By Professor Leonhard Weber 507 

10, On Dark Flashes of Lightning. By A. W. Clayden, M.A 507 

11, Fourth Report of the Committee appointed to co-operate with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in making Meteorological Obsei'vations on Ben 
Nevis 608 

12, The Determination of the Amount of Rainfall. By Professor Cleveland 
Abbe 508 

13, Hygrometry in the ' Meteorological Journal.' By C. Piazzi Smyth 508 

14, Eighteenth Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature 509 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

15. Second Report of the Committee appointed to arrange an inTestigation of 
the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries 

in various parts of the United Kingdom 509 

16. On the Temperature of the Tidal Estuaries of the South-east of England. 

By H. C. SoEBT, LL.D., F.R.S 509 

17. Apparatus for reading Indications of distant Meteorological Instruments. 

By T. J. MuEDAT 509 

18. On the Periodical Return of Storms. By T. J. Mttedat 509 

19. On the Periodicity of Mild Winters. By R. E. W. Goodkidqe 510 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Some Experiments on Radiation v?ith Professor Hertz' Mirrors. By F. T. 
Teouto:n^ 510 

2. Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing Practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 510 

3. Fourth Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 510 

4. Report on the present State of our Knovs^ledge in Electrolysis and Electro- 

chemistry. By W. N. Shaw, M.A 510 

5. The Passage of Electricity through Gases. By Professor Aethttr 
SCHUSTEB, F.R.S 510 

6. On the Discharge of Electrification by Flames. By Professor A. M. 

WOETHINGTON 510 

7. On the Failure of Metal Sheets to screen oif the Electrostatic Action of a 
Moving or Varying Charge. By Professor Olitee J. Lodge, F.R.S 510 

8. On a new form of Current- Weigher. By Professor James Blyth, M.A., 
F.R.S.E ; 511 

9. On a Phenomenon in the Electro-chemical Solution of Metals. By Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Ph.D 512 

10. On the Employment of Chromic Acid instead of Nitric Acid in the Bunsen 
Cell. By J. Wilson Swan , 512 

11. A Variable Standard of Self-induction. By Professor J. Peeet, F.R.S.... 512 

12. Hot Twisted Strip Voltmeter. By Professor J. Peeet, F.R.S. 512 

13. On the Relative Effects of Steady and Alternate Currents on different 
Conductors. By William Henet Peeece, F.R.S 513 

14. A new Thermometric Scale. By Geoege Foebes, F.R.S., and William 

Henet Peeece, F.R.S ." 514 

15. Exhibition of Leyden Jars with Multiple Fracture. By J. T. Bottomlet, 
F.R.S., and Sir Aechibalb Campbell, Bart 515 

16. On Sparkless Electro-magnets. By Professor S. P. Thompson, Ph.D. ... 515 

17. On the Correspondence between the Molecular Refraction, Dispersion, and 
Magnetic Rotation of Carbon Compounds. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
F.R.S., and Dr. W. H. Peekin, F.R.S 515 

18. On Kerr's Magneto-optic Phenomenon: its Laws and Application for 
Measuring purposes. By H. E. J. G. Dr Bois, Ph.D 515 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Report of the Committee for considering the desirability of introducing a 
Uniform Nomenclature for the Fundamental Units of Mechanics 516 



CONTENTS. Xiii 

Page 

2. Stereometry. By W. W. Haldaitb Gee, B.Sc, and Arthxtr Harden, 
M.Sc, Ph.D 516 

3. The Specific Heat of Caoutchouc. By W. W. Haldane Gee, B.Sc, and 

Hubert L. Terry, A.I.C 510 

4. On the Temporary Thermo-current in Iron. By F. T. Trotjton 517 

5. On Recalescence in Iron. By Professor Barrett 518 

6. The Cardium, illustrating the true nature of Prime Movers. By J. 

Gamgee 518 

7. An Experiment in Colour-blindness. By J. Spileer, F.C.S 518 

8. On a new method of Printing Photographic Negatives, employing Living 
Leaves in place of Sensitive Paper. By Walter Gardiner, M.A 51& 

9. A Mode of Photography. By John Hancock 519 

10. A new form of Self-registering Actinometer. By Dr. A. Eichardson . . . 519 

11. The Action of Magnetism on Photographic Plates. By Philip Braham, 
F.C.S .'519 

12. The Physical and Chemical Constitution of Comets and Meteorites. By 

Philip Braham, F.C.S 520 

13. Eeport of the Committee on certain proposals relative to the Unification 

of Time and the adoption of a Universal Prime Meridian 520 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSBAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., D.O.L., F.R.S., F.C.S., M.Inst.C.E., 

President of the Section 521 

1. Third Report of the Committee for investigating the Influence of Silicon 

on the properties of Steel 533 

2. Eeport of the Committee for considering the best method of establishing 
International Standards for the Analysis of Iron and Steel .° 533 

3. On Eikonogen, a new Photographic Developer. By Professor G. D. 

LrvEiNG, F.R.S 533 

4. A Note on the Volatilisation of Lead Oxide and its Action upon Glass at 
Low Temperatures. By T. W. Hogg 534 

5. On the Molecular Weights of the Metals : an application of Raoult's 
Method to Alloys. By C. T. Hetcock, M.A., and F. H. NeviLle, M.A. 534 

6. The Manufacture of Prussiate of Potash. By J. B. Readman, D.Sc. 
r.R.S.E : .'635 



FRIBAT, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Second Report of the Committee on the present methods of teaching 
Chemistry 535 

2. The Manufacture of Aluminium from Cryolite. By Professor P. Phillips 

Bedbon, D.Sc, F.C.S 535 

3. On Chilian Manganese Ore. By John Pattinson, F.I.C, and H. S. 
Pattinson, Ph.D 637 



Stiv CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. On Barium Sulphate in Water-box Deposits from the Durham Coal-mine 

Waters and in Nottingham Sandstone. By Professor Frank Clowes, 
D.Sc S38 

5. The Manufacture of the Alloys of Aluminium in the Electric JFui-nace. 

By J. H. J. Dagger 538 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Third Report of the Committee on the Bihliography of Solution 640 

2. Third Report of the Committee for investigating the Properties of Solu- 

tions • 540 

3. Report of the Committee on the Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds 540 

4. Second Report of the Committee for the investigation of the action of 
Light on the Hydracids of the Halogens in presence of Oxygen 540 

5. Report (Provisional) of the Committee for investigating the Influence of 
the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 540 

6 . Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 540 

7. A new form of Self-registering Actinometer. By Arthur Richardson, 
Ph.D " 640 

8. Explosion of a Mixture of Hydrogen, Chlorine, and Oxygen. By Professor 

H. B. Dixon, F.R.S 54] 

9. On the Action of Light on Dry Hydrogen and Chlorine. By Professor 

H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., and J. A. Harker 541 

10. On Artists' Colours. By A. P. Laurie, M.A., B.Sc 541 

11. Specific and Latent Heat in relation to the combining Heats of the 

Chemical Elements. By Dr. W. Newton 541 

12. The Composition of Water by Volume. By Dr. A. Scott 544 

13. A Spectroscope without a Lens. By Philip Bp.ahaji, F.C.S 544 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Fourth Report of the Committee for investigating Isomeric Naphthalene 
Derivatives 644 

2. Report of the Committee for conferring with the Committee of the 

American Association with a view of forming a uniform system of re- 
cording the results of Water Analysis 644 

3. Contributions to the Study of Pure Fermentations. By Professor Percy 

F. Frankland, Ph.D., B.Sc, Grace C. Frankland, and J. J. Foi 544 

4. The Constitution of the Aromatic Nucleus. By S. A, Sworn, B.A., 

Assoc R.C.Sc.1 545 

5. Oh the Reaction of Benzoquinone with Potassium Cyanide. By S. A. 

Sworn, B.A., Assoc.R.C.Sc.1 546 

6. A new White Lead. By J. B. Hannat, F.R.S.E 546 

7. The half of the Hydrogen Atom regarded as a primordial or formative 
element ; and the representation of the Chemical Elements by Physical 
forms on that basis ; with models of the 25 elements from hydrogen to 
nickel constructed in accordance therewith. Bv Isaac Ashe, M.D., 
T.C.D ', ; ; 546 

8. Researches on Sulphites. By P. J. Hartog, B.Sc 549 

■9. Metallic Aluminium as a Chemical Reagent. By J. B. Cohen, Ph.D., 
and R. Ormandt 550 



CONTENTS. XV 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Page 
Address by Professor James Geikie, LL.D., F.R.SS.L. & E., F.G.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 551 

1. Ninth Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan .564 

2. The Bandaisan Eruption, Japan, July, 1888. By 0. Michie Smith, B.Sc, 
F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S 664 

3. Terrestrial Magnetism as modified by the Structure of the Earth's Crust, 
and Proposals concerning a Magnetic Survey of the Globe. By Dr. 
Edward Naumann 565 

4. Notes on the numerous newly discovered Fossil Footprints on the Lower 

Garboruferous Sandstones of Northumberland near Otterburn. By Alder- 
man T. P. Barkas,F.G.S 565 

6. The Physiography of the Lower Trias. By T. Meliaed Reade, C.E., 
F.G.S 560 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. On the Origin and Age of some of the Crystalline Schists of Norway. 
By Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., Director-General of the Geological 
Survey 567 

2. Dynamic MetamorpbLsm of Skiddaw Slates. By J. E. Maee, M.A., 
Sec.G.S , 568 

3. On the Lower Silurian Felsites of the South-East of Ireland. By Dr. 

F. H. Hatch 568 

4. The Age of the Granites of Dartmoor and the English Channel. By 

A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S 569 

5. The Island of Paros, in the Oyclades, and its Marble Quarries. By Robert 

Swan, F.C.S 570 

6. Preliminary Note on the alleged Occurrence of Fossils in the Crystalline 

Schists of theLepontine Alps. By Professor T. G. Bonnet, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.G.S 571 

7. Exhibition of Specimens of Belemnites from Luckmanier. By W. AV. 

Watts, M.A., F.G.S 571 

8. The Effects of Pressure on Crystalline Limestones. By Professor T. G. 
Bonnet, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.G.S 571 

9. The Amygdaloids of the Tynemouth Dyke. By J. J. H. Teall, M.A., 

F.G.S ; 57^> 

10. Observations on the Greenland Ice-sheet. By Dr. Fridtjof Nansen. ... 573 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Report of the Committee for investigating the Flora of the Carboniferous 
Rocks of Lancashire and West Yorkshire 570 

2. Seventh Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 577 

3. Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its neighbourhood ... 577 

4. On the Presence of Coral-like Forms in the Crystalline Limestone of Inis- 

howen, Co. Donegal. By Professor Edward IIull, LL.D., F.R.S 677 



xvi CONTENTS. 

Page 
5 Exliibition of a small block of Magr^etically Polar Diorite. By Professor 

' Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 677 

G. Note on the recent Exposures of Kellaway's Rock at Bedford. By A. 0. 

G. Cameron, F.G.S 577 

7. The Polyzoa of the Hunstanton Red Chalk. By G. R. Vine 578 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Devonian Rocks of Great Britain. By W. A. E. Ussher, F.G.S. ... 578 

2. Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the Cleveland and South Durham Salt 
Industry, and on the Extension of the Durham Coal-field. By Professor 

G, A, Leboue, M.A., F.G.S., and John Marlei 580 

a. Fifteenth Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters 580 

4 On the Spinal Column of Loj-omma Allmanni, Huxley, from the Northum- 
berland Coal- field. By D. Embleton, M.D., F.R.C.P. 580 

5. On the Bone Caves of Cresswell, and Discovery of an Extinct Pleiocene 
Feline {Felts brevirostris) new to Great Britain. By Dr. R. Laing 582 

G On the Fossil Fishes of the Devonian Rocks of Scaumenac Bay and Camp- 
bellton, Canada. By Dr. R. H. Traqtjaie, F.R.S., F.G.S 584 

7. On the Occurrence of the Devonian Ganoid Onychodus in Spitzbergen. 

By A. Smith Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S 584 

8. Notes on some new and little-known British Jurassic Fishes. By A. 

Smith Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S 585 

i). On the relations between the Geological Constitution and the Magnetic 
State of the British Isles. By Professors A. W. Ruckbr, F.R.S., and 
T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S 586 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Notes on the Geology of Torres Straits. By Professor A. 0. Haddon, 
M.A., M.R.I.A 587 

2. Report on an Ancient Sea-beach near Bridlington Quay 588 

3. Seventeenth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 588 

4. On a Deep Channel of Drift in the Valley of the Cam, Essex. By W. 
Whitakee, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E 588 

5. A CriticLsm of the extreme Glacial Views of Agassiz and his Scholars. 

By Henry H. Howorth, M.P., F.S.A 589 

6. Note on a new Locality for the Arctic Shell-beds of the Basement Boulder 

Clay on the Yorkshire Coast. By G. W. Lamplugh 590 

7. Did the Great Rivers of Siberia flow Southwards and not Northwards in 

the Mammoth Age ? By Henry H. Howorth, M.P., F.S.A 591 

8. On the Witwatersrand Gold6elds. By Edward Bates Dorset, Mem.Ain. 

Soc.C.E., Mem.Am.Inst.M.E ,592 

9. Third Report on the ' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 594 

10. On Barium Sulphate in Water-box Deposits from the Durham Coal-mine 
Waters and in Nottingham Sandstone. By Professor Frank Clowes, 
D.Sc ." 594 



CONTENTS. XVli 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18 

Page 

1. Second Report on the Higher Eocene Beds of the Isle of Wight 597 

2. A word or two about the so-called Concretionary Structures in the Mag- 
nesian Limestone of Durham. By Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.R.S. 597 

8. The Work of the Geological Survey in Northumberland and Durham. 
By W. ToPLET, F.R.S.,F.G.S 597 

4. On Concurrent Faulting and Deposit in Carboniferous Times in Craven, 
Yorkshire, with a Note on Carboniferous Reefs. By R. H. Tideman, 
M.A., F.G.S 600 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor J. S. Buedon Sanderson, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.SS. L. 

and E.. President of the Section 604 

1. Report of the Committee on the Natural History of the Friendly Islands, 

or other groups in the Pacific, visited by H.M.S. 'Egeria'-. 615 

2. Second Report of the Committee for reporting on the present state of our 
knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, and 
taking steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 615 

3. Second Report of the Committee on the development of the Oviduct and 
connected structures in certain fresh-water Teleostei 615 

4. Second Report of the Committee for collecting information as to the Dis- 
appearance of Native Plants from their Local Habitats 615 

6. Report of the Committee for making a digest of the observations on the 
Migration of Birds 616 

6. Report of the Committee to arrange for the occupation of a Table at 

the Zoological Station at Naples 615 

7. Third Report of the Committee for continuing the preparation of a Re- 
port on our present knowledge of the Flora of China 615 



Zoological Department. 

1. Notes on the Fauna of the Louisiade and d'Entrecasteaux Islands. By 
Basil H. Thomson 615 

2. On the Peculiarities of the Avifauna of the Canarv Islands. By the Rev. 

Canon H. B. Tristram, F.R.S '. 616 

3. On Syrrhaptes paradoxus as a Native of Britain. By Professor A. Newton, 
M.A., F.R.S 616 

4. On the Morphologv of the long flexors of the digits of the Mammalian 
Hand. By Professor B. C. A. Windle 616 

6. On certain Congenital Abnormalities in Fishes. By Professor B. C A. 
Windle 616 

6. On the Caeca of a Tinamou. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A 616 

7. Contributions to our Knowledge of the Freshwater Annelids. Bv Frank 

E. Beddard, M.A ' 616 

8. Note on the Tarpon. By Professor McIntosh, M.D., F.R.S 617 

1889. a 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Page 
9. On the larval and post-larval stages of the Sole and other Food-Fishes. 
By Professor MclNTOSH, M.D., F.R.S 618 

10. Notes on new and rare Forms at the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory. 

By Professor McIntosk, M.D., F.R.S 618 

Botanical Department. 

1. The Occurrence of Arenaria norvegica in Yorkshire. By J. G. Baker, 
F.R.S 618 

2. The Meristern of Ferns as a Study in Phylogeuy. By Professor F. 0. 
Bowee, F.L.S 618 

3. The Structure of the Nucleus in Saprolegnia. By Professor M. M. Harxog, 
D.Sc 618 

'4. Ohservations on the Structure of the Nuclei in Peronosjmra, and on their 
behaviour during the formation of the Oosphere. By Haeold W. T. 
Wagee 618 

5. The Antherozoids of Cryptogams. By Alfred W. Bennett, M.A., 

B.Sc, F.L.S 619 

6. A Hybrid Desmid. By Alfred W. Bennett, M. A., B.Sc, F.L.S 620 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Discussion on Acquired Characters — 

(ff) On the supposed Transmission of Acquired Characters. By E. 

B. Pottlton, F.R.S 620 

(6) Feasible Experiments on the Possibility of transmittins' Acquired 

Habits by means of Inheritance. By Francis Galton, F.R.S. 620 

2. The Palfeontological Evidence for the Transmission of Acquired Cha- 

racters. By Professor Henry F. OsBOEN 621 

3. Report of the Committee for improving and experimenting with a Deep- 
sea Tow-net for opening and closing under water 623 

4. An improved form of Deep-sea Tow-net. By G. 0. Botjene, M.A 624 

5. Third Report of the Committee for taking steps for the establishment of 

a Botanical Station at Peradenija, Ceylon 626 

6. On the Shape of the Oak-leaf. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 626 

7. On the Leaves of the Guelder Rose. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 627 

8. On the Modifications of Electric Organs in Elasmobranch Fishes. By 
Professor J. Cossar Ewart, M.D 627 

9. Observations on the Migration of Fishes. By Professor J. Cossae Ewart, 
M.D 627 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Specific Characters as useful and indifterent. By Professor G.J. Romanes, 
F.R.S , 628 

2. The Limit between the Continental and Abyssal Marine Fauna. By the 
Eev. Canon Noeman, M.A., D.C.L 628 

3. The Secretion of Silk by the Silkworm. By Professor Gustave Gilson 628 

4. On the Placentation of the Dugong. By Professor Sir William Tuenee, 
F.R.S :. :629 



CONTENTS. XIX 

Page 

•6. Observations on the Myolopry of the Gorilla and Chimpanzee. By John- 
son Symington, M.D., F.R.S.E 629 

6. On the Structure and Function of the Dorsal Papillaj in Nudibranchiata. 

By Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.L.S 630 

7. On the Electric Light as a means of attracting Marine Animals. By 
Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.L.S 633 

8. On the (Caudal Respiration of Periophthabnus. By Professor A. 0. 
Haddon, B.A., F.Z.S -. 635 

0. The Stomach of the Narwhal : the bearing of its Histology on Turner's 
and Max Weber's Nomenclature of the Stomach of the Ziphioid and 
Delphinoid Whales. By G. Sims Woodhead, M.D., and R. W. Gray . 635 

10. On the Secretion of Carbonate of Lime by Animals. By Robert Irvine, 
F.C.S., and G. Sims Woodhead, M.D 637 

11. On the Solubility of Carbonate of Lime in Fresh and Sea Water. By 

W. S. Anderson 637 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER. 17. 

Zoological Department. 

1. On the Restoration of Asterolepis maximus (Agassiz), with Remarks on the 

Zoological Affinities of the Pterichthyidse. By Dr. R. H. Traquaik, 
F.R.S 638 

2. On some new and rare Copepoda recently found in Liverpool Bay. By 
Isaac C. Thompson, F.L.S., F.R.M.S 638 

'.i. On Photography as an aid in Anatomical, Histological, and Embryological 
Work. By Professor Eraser, M.B 639 

4. Our Local Industries in their Social and Pathological Aspects. By 
Thomas Oliver, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P 639 

6. Note on the Importation and Colonisation of Parasites and other Natural 
Enemies of Insects injurious to vegetation. By C. V. Riley, Ph.D 640 

6. The Uses of the Testacese or Conchiferous Molluscs in Nature, Science, 

and the Arts. By B. W. Gibsone 642 

7. On the work done at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion in the past year. By G. C. Bottrne, M.A 642 

8. The Morphology of the Antipatharia. By G. Brook, F.L.S 642 

9. Some Remarks on the Functional Equivalency of certain Parts of Limbs. 

By Professor R. J. Anderson, M.A.,M.D 642 



Botanical Department. 

1. On the State of the Water in Living Protoplasm. By Professor M. M. 

Hartog, Ph.D. ...... 645 

2. On Epinasty and Hyponasty. By Professor S. H. Vines, F.R.S 645 

5. On some recent Progress in our Knowledge of the Anatomy of Plants. 

By D. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S 647 

4. On Botanical Gardens for Elementary Schools. By Philip Sewell 648 

6. The Protection of Buds against the Sun. By M. C. Potter, B.A 648 

6. The Biology of Erythrina Lithosperma. By M. C. Potter, B.A 648 

a2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. On the Effects of Root-section on the Vitality of Pasture Plants. By 

Professor W. Fream, B.Sc, LL.D., F.L.S 648 

8. On a Monadine Parasitic on Saprolegnise. By Professor M. M.- Haktos, 
D.Sc 649 

9. On Tuchungia, a new Genus from Central Africa. By Dr. F. W. Oliver 649 

10. On a case of Mycorhiza. By Dr. F. W. Oliver 649 

11. On Floral Contrivances in the Genus Thesium. By Miss E wart 649 

12. On the Development of a Sclerotium from Botrytis. By Professor H. 

Marshall Ward, F.R.S 649 

13. On the recognition, by means of Microscopic Sections, of Woods dug by 
Mr. Spurrell from the Forest Beds of the Thames. By Professor H. 
Marshall Ward, F.R.S 649 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 

Address by Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S., 

President of the Section 650 

1 . Cyprus. By General Sir Robert Biddulph, G.C.M.G 659 

2. The Congo Railway. By Captain Thts 659 

3. The Physical Basis of Commercial Geography. By Hugh Robert Mill, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E 659 

4. Buganda (Uganda). By the Rev. R. P. Ashe 660 

5. The Commercial Geography of Yoruba, West Africa. By His Excellency 
Governor Moloney,' C.M.G 660 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. On the Great Central Asian Trade Route from Peking to Kulja and 
Semirechensk, and to Yarkand and India. By Colonel Mark S. Bell, 
V.C.,R.E I .'660 

2. Industrial and Commercial Progress in China. By R. S. Gritndt 663 

3. The Central Asian Railway in relation to the Commercial Rivalry of 
England and Russia. By the Hon. G. Ctjezon, M.P 663 

4. Wind-action in Egypt. By W. M. Flinders Peteie 663 

5. On Lake Tanganyika. By Captain Edward Coode Hore 663 

6. Portuguese Explorations in Austral Africa during the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. By J. Batalha-Reis, F.R.G.S 663- 

7. Nyassaland and its Commercial Possibilities. By Captain Ltjgard 665 

8. On the Zambezi Delta. By B. Daniel J, Rankin 666. 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Present and Future of Queensland. By Carl Lumholtz, M.A 667 

2. Notes on the recent Development, Exploration, and Commercial Geography 

of British North Borneo. By Alexander Cook 667 

3. Recent Explorations in Peru and BoUvia, By H. Gttillaume 667 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

4. Geographical Co-ordinates in the Valley of the Upper Nile. By E. G. 

Ratenstein, F.R.G.S '. 668 

5. The Resources of Siberia, and the Practicability of the Northern Sea 

Route. By R. Sttlivan 668 

6. Greenland, By Dr. Fridtjof Nansen^ 668 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Report ol' the Committee for investigating the Geography and Geology 

of the Atlas Ranges in the Empire ot Morocco 668 

2. On the Exploration of the Louisiade and d'Entrecasteaux Islands. By 
Basil H. Thomsox 668 

3. On the Bahrein Islands in the Persian Gulf. By J. Theodore Bent ... 668 

4. On some remarkable Monuments in the neighbourhood of Tiaret in 
Algeria. By Colonel Sir Lambert Platfaik, K.C.M.G 668 

6. On Two Models illustrating the Action of the Winds in relation to Ocean 

Ounents. By A. W. Clayden, M.A 669 

€. The North- West Territories of Canada. By J. G. Colmer, C.M.G 669 

7. The South Coast of West Java. By H. B. Guppy, M.B., F.R.S.G.S. ... 669 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor F. Y. Ebgeworth, M.A., F.S.S., President of the 

Section 671 

1. The Incidence and Effects of Import and Export Duties. By Professor 

C. F. Bastable 696 

2. Index-numbers as applied to the Statistics of Imports and Exports. By 
Stephen Bourne, F.S.S 696 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. The Comtist Criticism of Economic Science. By the Rev. W. Cunning- 

ham, D.D., F.S.S 702 

2. On the Present State and Future Prospects of our Coal-supply. By Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 702 

5. Our AVest African Possessions : their Economic Opportunities and how 
they are abused and neglected. By II. R. Fox Bourne 702 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Agricultural Statistics. By William Botlt, M.R.A.S.E 70S 

2. On the Methods of Forecasting the Yield of Crops. By Professor W. 
Fream, LL.D., B.Sc, F.S.S 703 

3. Improved Dwellings for the Poor. By D. G. Hoet 704 

4. The Increase in Europe and America of Nominal or Fictitious Capital. 

By Hyde Clarke, F.S.S 706 



Xxii CONTENTS. 

" MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

Page 

1. The Relations between Industrial Conciliation and Social Eeform. By 

L. L.Price, M.A 706 

2. The DiiEculties of Arbitration. By Robert Spence Waxson, LL.D. ... 707 

3. On the Relation between Wages and the Remainder of the Economic 
Product. By SiDNEr Webb, LL.B 708 

4. Report of the Committee on the teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools 709 

5. Apprenticeship in the Engineering and Shipbuilding Trades. By Sir 
Benjamin Browne, D.C.L., M.Inst.C.E 709 

6. Technical Education. By Dr. J. H. Rutherford 710 

7. On Manual, or some form of Technical Instruction a necessary element of a 
Compulsory System of Education. By Edward J. Watherston 712 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. On the Rate of Production of Coal during the present Century. By Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 713 

2. Poor Law Progress and Reform, exemplified in the Administration of an 
East London Union. By William Vallance 713 

3. Poor Law Administration. By the Rev. W. Bury 715 

4. A National Pension Fund. By the Rev. W. Moore Ede, M.A 715 

5. Home Colonisation. By the Rev. Herbert V. Mills 717 

6. Third Report of the Committee on the best methods of ascertaining and 
measuring Variations in the "Value of the Monetary Standard 717 

7. Report of the Committee appointed to inquire and report as to the Statis- 
tical Data available for determining the amount of the Precious Metals 
in use as Money in the principal Countries, the chief forms in which the 
Money is employed, and the amount annually used in the Arts 717 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., President of the Section 718 

1. Experiments upon the Transmission of Power by Compressed Air (Popp's 
System). By Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E 732 

2. Water-gas in the United States. By Alex. C. Humphreys, M.E 732 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. An Apparatus for providing a Steady Platform for Guns, Search Lights, 

lelescopes, &c. ByBEAUCHAMP Tower 735 

2. On the Vibration of RaUway Trains. By Professor John Milne, F.R.S. 736 

3. Machinery for the Manufacture of Bottles. By H. M. Ashley 736 

4. The Utilisation of Fibrous Peat for the Manufacture of Brown Paper, 

W rappers, and Millboards. By J. A. London 737 

5. Hydraulic Apparatus for Railway Signalling. By C. E. Carr 737 



CONTENTS. XXlll 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER U. . 

Page 

1. Keport on the Investigation of the Action of Waves and Currents on the 
Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means of Working Models 738 

2. Report on the Development of Graphic Methods in Mechanical Science... 738 

3. Ships for the Carriage of Petroleum. By A. li. Liddell 738 

4. The ('orrosion and Fouling of Ships and Antifouling Compositions. By 

M. HOLZAPFEL 739 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 



1. The Distrihution of Electricity from Accumulators. By Major-General 

Webber 740 

2. Precautions to be adopted when the Electric Light is supplied by means 

of Transformers. By Killingwoeth Hedges, M.Inst.O.E 740 

3. The Design of Transformers. By J. Swinbukne 741 

4. Electric Launches on the Thames. By G. Forbes, F.R.S 741 

5. Series Electrical Traction (Northfleet Tramways). By Ebward Man- 
viLLE, M.I.EE 742 

6. Telephonic Communication between London and Paris. By W. H. 

Preece, F.R.S. : 744 

7. On the Purification of Sewage and Water contaminated with Organic 

Matter by Electrolysis. By W. AVebstee 745 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 
Sub-Section \. 

1. Blast Furnace Practice. By Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R.S 746 

2. Ohemin de fer glissant. By Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S 746 

3. The Strength of Alloys at different Temperatures. By Professor W. C. 

Unwin, F.R.S 746 

4. Records of River Volumes and Flood Levels. By C. E. De Rance, 
Assoc.Inst.C.E., F.G.S., F.R.G.S 748 

5. Central Station Heating and Power Supply, Boston, U.S. (Prall's System). 

By Wilson W. Phipson, M.Inst.O.E 749 

6. Note on the Godillot Furnace. By A. Godillot 750 

7. The Hopcraft Smokeless Furnace. By Lieut.-Colonel W. J. Engledue, 

R.E.... 751 



Sub-Section II. 

1. A Curve Ranger. By Alex. P. Trotter 751 

2. On the Comparative Cost of working English and American Railways. 

By E. B. Dorset, M.Am.Soc.C.E 752 

3. The Draught of Horses. By T. H. Briggs 754 

4. The Ap))lication of the Transporting Power of Water to the deepening and 
improvement jof Rivers. By W. H. Wheeler, M.Inst.O.E 754 



Xxiv CONTENTS. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Page 

1. On the Advisability of assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency in the Ex- 

aminations of Candidates for the Public Services. By Feancis Galton, 
F.R.S 756 

2. On the Principle and Methods of assigning Marks in Examinations on 
Bodily Efficiency. By Francis Gaitox, F.R.S 756 

Address by Professor Sir William Turner, M.B., LL.D., F.R.SS. L. & E., 

President of the Section 756 

3. On the Early Failure of Pairs of Grindiug-Teeth. By W. Wilberfoece 
Smith, M.D., M.R.C.P.Lond 771 

4. Note on the Development of the Wisdom-Teeth. By Ridolfo Livi, M.D, 773 

5. Left-leggedness. By W. K. Sibley, M.B 776 

6. The Occasional Eighth True Rib in Man, and its possible relationship to 

Right-handedness. By Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D 777 

7. The Proportion of Bone and Cartilage in the Lumbar Section of the 
Vertebral Column in the Ape and dift'erent races of Men. By Professor 

D. J. Cunningham, M.D 777 

8. Exhibition of the Model of the Head of a Man stated to be 106 years old, 
■vnXh the Brain exposed in situ. By Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D, 777 

9. Exhibition of the Model of the Head and Shoulders of a young Orang 

Utan, with the Brain exposed in situ. By Professor D. J, Cunningham, 
M.D 778 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. HyiDotLesis of a European Origin of Early Egyptian Art. By the Rev. 

J. Wilson, M.A 778 

2. African Airs and Musical Instruments. By His Excellency Governor 
Molonex, C.M.G 779 

3. The Vikings, the Direct Ancestors of the English-speaking Nations. By 

Paul B. Du Chaillu 779 

4. Further Researches as to the Origin of the Aryans. By Canon Isaac 
Taylor, Litt.D., LL.D 780 

5. The Ethnological Significance of the Beech. By Canon Isaac Taylor, 

Litt.D., LL.D [ 782 

6. The Right of Property in Trees on another's Land, as an origin of Rights 

of Property. By Htde Clarke 783 

7. Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Habits and Customs 
and Physical Characteristics of the Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor, and to 
excavate on sites of ancient occupation 784 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Report of the Coaimitteo for editing a new Edition of ' Anthropoloo-ical 
Notes and Queries ' _ 734 

2. Report of the Committee for calculating the Anthropological Measurements 
taken at Bath yg^^ 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 
8. Exhibition of a new Anthropometric Instrument, specially designed for 
the use of Travellers. By Dr. J. G. Garson 784 

4. An Instrument for measuring Reaction Time. By Francis Galton, F.R.S. 784 

5. The Smithsonian Institution in the United States of America, and its 

work relating to Anthropology. By Dr. Thomas Wilson 785 

6. The Study of Ethnology in India. By H. H. Risley 785 

7. On some former Customs and Beliefs of the Torres Straits Islanders. By 
Professor A. C. Haddon, M.A., M.R.I.A 786 

8. Anthropological Notes collected at Mowat, Daudai, "New Guinea. By 
Edward Beardmore 786 

9. The British Race in Australia. By Dr. MacLaitrin 786 

10. Observations on the Natural Colour of the Skin in certain Oriental Races. 

By Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S., President Anthr. Inst 787 

1 ] . The Normal Temperature of Soudanese, Negroes, and Europeans iu Tropical 

Africa. By R. W. Felkin, M.D., F.R.S.E 787 

12. The Differences of Sensibility between Europeans and Negroes, and the 

Effect of Education in increasing the Sensibility of Netrroes. By R. W. 

Felkin, M.D., F.R.S.E :. 787 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Esquimaux. By Dr. Fridtjof Nansen 788 

2. Northumberland in Prehistoric Times. By the Rev. G. Rome Hall, 

F.S.A .•: : 788 

3. On Implements of Stag's Horn associated with Whales' Skeletons found in 

the Carse of Stirling. By Professor Sir William Turner, M.B., F.R.S. 789 

4. The Origin of Human Faculty. By Professor G. J. Romanes, F.R.S. ... 791 

6. On the relations between Brain-Functions and Human Character. By 
Bernard Hollander 792 

6. On a new Method of illustrating the Topography of the Brain in relation 

to the External Surface of the Head. By Professor Eraser, M.B 794 

7. Notes on Classification in Sociology. By George Weddell 794 

8. Fire-making in North Borneo. By S. B. J. Skertchly 795 

9. On some Borneo Traps. By S. B. J. Skertchly 795 

10. The Tribes of South Africa. By the Rev. James Macdonald 795 

11. Report of the Committee for investigatmg the effects of different occupa- 
tions and employments on the Physical Development of the Human 
Body 795 

12. Fifth Report of the Committee for uivestigating and publishing reports 
on the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social condition 

of the North- Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 796 

13. Third Report of the Committee for ascertaining and recordmg the locali- 
ties in the British Islands in which evidences of the e.xistence of Pre- 
historic Inhabitants of the country are found 796 



XXVI CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX. 



Page 
Fifth Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Dr. G. M. 
Dawson, General Sir J. H. Lefeox, Dr. Daniel Wilson, Mr. R. G. 
Halibttkton, and Mr. George W. Bloxam (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating and publishing reports on the physical characters, 
languages, and industrial and social condition of the North-Western Tribes 
of the Dominion of Canada 797 

Index 901 



LIST OF PLATES. XXVU 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I.— IX. 



Illustrating the Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Action ot 
Waves and Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means of 
Working Models. 

PLATES X.— XV. 

Illustrating the Fifth Report of the Committee for investigating and publishing 
Reports on the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social con- 
dition of the North- Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the Biitish Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
oflBces of the Association. 

Annual Sdbsckibees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. Xxix 

gratuitously the Reports of tlie Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay xoithout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to j?»nr A ^sp it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a farther sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members tvho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription . 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who bave paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subsci'iptiou. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.* 
Application to be made at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, London, W. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can. 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Go'inmittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Bide to the decision of the Council, they must 
he sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Associa- 
tion. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Associa- 
tion to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.* 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to he sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

' Revised by the General Committee, 1884. 

^ Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

^ Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of tlie Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

thereon, and on the oi'der in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organizing Sectional Committees.' 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organizing Committee shall cease. '^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section wlio may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'* Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 
before , addressed thus — 'General Secretaries, British Associa- 
tion, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For Section ' If it should be incon- 
venient to the Author that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is 
requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors 
•who send in their MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers 
are accepted, will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their 
Reports and abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual 
Volume unless it is lianded either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, 
hefore the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at 
Southport, 1 883. 



XXXii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organiz- 
ing Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees. 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minnte-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organizing Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charo-ed with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday 

in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days,- 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute- Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entei-ed 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxx), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be ofi"ered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Repoi-ts or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee shonU be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plj'mouth, 1877. 
" This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlll 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in ivriting his ivtllingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the respotisibilifi/ of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due lime ; and further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should he appointed to actus Secretary, for 
insuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient working. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommp.ndation 
of each Section shotdd be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

TJiat on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com,' 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they maj^ require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case whei-e no such Report has been received.^ 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Chairman of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
(previously to the next Meeting of the Association) forward to the General 
Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been ex- 
pended, and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting ; nor is the 
Treasurer authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the priginal or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

^ Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 

1889. b 



Xxxiv RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

of the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Chairman is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, 17 Buckingham 
Street, London, W.O., for such portion of the sums granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

Ir orants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to. include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scien- 
tific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Rooms arid approaches thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. — To require of eveiy person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 
hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 
to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 

Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dar- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

' The sectional meetings on Saturday and on Wednesday may begin at any time 
which may be tixed by the Committee, not earlier than 10 or later than 1 1. Passed by 
the General Committee at Bath, 1888. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

Committee of Recom/mendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 



Gorresjpondinq Societies} 

(1.) Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

(2.) Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

(3.) A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual" work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

(4.) Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
up, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(5.) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

(6.) A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

(7.) The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is 
empowered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committie. 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 

b2 



XXXvi EDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(8.) The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conferen'ce, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding- 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

(9.) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

(10.) The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit ta 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates ^hall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

(11.) It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Belfast, 1874. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. SXXVll 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinaiy Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rnle, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2ud, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of General Com- 
mittee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

OflBcers of the Association, 



Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his zught of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECBETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHTSIOS. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Piof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835, 

1836 

1837. 

1838, 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
184.5. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
184',l. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
JIanchest er 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swan.sera ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich . . 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Wliewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Wliewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A'., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wieatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. SteveUy, Rev, 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof." Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. He}', Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D". SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



xlviii 



REPORT 1889. 



Date and Place 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 



Presidents 



The Earl of Kosse, M.A., K.P., 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.B.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Geors:e Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. O. Henrici, Ph.D., F. R. S., 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L. F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rermison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. -J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F- 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. ClifEord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley,^ 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harlpy. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof . W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley,. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher,. 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richard- 
son. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 
Johnson, Prof. O. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 
M.ncAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Presidents 



Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. 8. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 



Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 



R.E., F.R.S. 



A. Lodge, W. 
Stroud. 



N. Shaw, Prof. H. 



I 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



.John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin, 
1889. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 



Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell.F.R.S, 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming- 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Pla)rfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.6., 
M.R.I.A. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Gelding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr.Kd wards, Dr.Gladst one, Dr.Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 



1 



EEPOET — 1889. 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C. B., F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

W. ' Odiing, M.B., F.R.S., 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S.. 

F.C.S. 
Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. Gladstone, W. Odiing, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odiing. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odiing, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell. Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Arm.strons:, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 
W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 
Thomson. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
T. Gough. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
J. L. Notter. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 
Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson. H. B. Dixon, 
T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 
Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 
J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



f 



Presidents 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A. Tildon, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. P. PhiUips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, R. E. Moyle, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 
Dr. H, Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, 

Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattin- 

son, jun. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMIITEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



18.^2. Oxford 

18.33. Cambridge. 
1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol, 



1837. Liverpool... 

1 838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 

1S40. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh' 



SECTION C 

R.J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F R S 
C. Lyeli, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, Y.B..^.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 

graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 



Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. 0\d\\7ixa.— Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beetc Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved 'That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,"' for Presidents and Secretaries of which sec page Ivii. 

c 8 



lii 



REPORT — 1889. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

185.3. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 



SECTION c {contimied) 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, E.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay. LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

P.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



— GEOLOGY. 

C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 
Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengell}% T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'ReiUy, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 



PBESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Bovd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Glaypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 
Teall, W. Topley. 

W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 
Topley, W. W. Watts. 

J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Tofiley, W. 
W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 
W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, lY. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh, 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Tarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



183.5. Dublin. 
1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 
J 842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 'j. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

I Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart !j. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E, Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

, , , J. Couch,Dr.Lankester, R.Patterson. 

Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S. ...G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

j Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., i Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H, 

F.R.S. j Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F,R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

[ Wollaston. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ivi. 



liv 



REPORT 1889. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION D (continued). — zoolog? and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ivi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1 849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



185.3. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

"William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 



Rev. Prof. 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



Henslow, M.A., 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S- ... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. B. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter. 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Bep., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Bep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H, 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T, Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 



At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved :—' That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology;' and 'That for the word "Subsection," 
in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department" 
be substituted.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol .... 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin . 



1879, Sheffield 



1880. Swansea 



1881. York. 



Presidents 



Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D 
F.R.S., ¥.h.S. — Dejj. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,'PTOt.'M.. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.—Bej). 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i>e/A of Bot. and 
ir«((Z.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Beji. of Anthrojwl., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burden Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— i>('j;. o} 
Anat.and Pliynol.^xoi. Ru- 
therford, M.D.— i>("j;. ufAn- 
thropol.. Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, U.D.—Bep. of 
Zool. and But., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— i>^'i;. ofAn- 
throp.,SiT W.R.Wilde, M.D 
L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anat.andPhysiol.yFTof. Cle 
land, M.D., F.n.S.—Bejj.of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Bc2). of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bc'p. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJefEreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Bep. of AnthrojJoL, 
Francis Gal ton, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. Geoi-ge Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye- Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D.,F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H, 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Tbiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W, 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



Ivi 



KEPOET — 1889. 



Date and Place 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 

1884. Montreal 2... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
- Bep. of Zool. and Sot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M. A., 
F.R.S.— Z>e/^. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. L. & E. 

W. Camithers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 

Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. B. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGT. 

1833. Cambridge |Dr. Haviland : Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinbui-gh IDr. Abercrombie iDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr.Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. B. Headlam, M.D. ........ 

John Yelloly. M.D., F.R.S... 
James Watson, M. D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart, 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

184.S. Cork 

1844. York 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Pogham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
ot zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated, 
qpnf^;:/ /''*S°"-J °! *^® General Committee, Anthropology was made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. liii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



Presidents 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.K.S. . 



Secretaries 



Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham.' 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L.&; E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D,, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smi tli. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C. 
p. li.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1 846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY, 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

18.53. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of 'Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology' (see p. liv.). The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

- Vide note on page liv. 



Iviii 



EEPOET 1889. 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 
1863. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 
1873. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



Presidents 



Sir R. L Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. L Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempri^re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 

LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.B.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.L.&E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 

C.B.,K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, .1. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. B. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 
Rye. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 

1888. 
1889. 



Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Bath. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Presidents 



Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.r.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., G.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir F. de Winton, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev.AbbSLaflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 
E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 

J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 
Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Raven.stein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Raven- 
stein. 

J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 
Sulivan, A. Silva White. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.R.S I J. E. Drinkwater. 

183i. Edinburgh I Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



183,5. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswicli ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon ; 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R.Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. . . . 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 

cock* 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Kelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Nelson. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, Jam«s 

Mac Adam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W, H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



Ix 



KEPOET 1889. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



856. Cheltenham 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 

1860. 
18G1. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884, 

1885. 

1886. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Pljnnouth... 
Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.E.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt . Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Heywood, M. A., F.R.S 

Pres.S.S. 
SirGeorge Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., P.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
ProL Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans' 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, B. 
Macrory. 

A. M-Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

RcT. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, ProL H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECEETARIES OF THE gECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Robert GiflEen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S.! Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 
gant. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 
LL.D., F.R.S. I Prof. H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. 

] Price. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 
F.S.S. I F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1864. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863, 

1864. 



Bristol 

LiTcrpool... 
Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow .... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
l^ewcastle 

Bath. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA. ... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert, Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Me«urier, W. P. Struv6. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt, 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1889. 



Date and Place 



1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee... 

1868. Norwich 



Presidents 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 



1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol , 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 



Secretaries 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W . J . Macquorn Rankine , 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B, Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.B. S . 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S. E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V. P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S. E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Tnst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.In.st.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, 

J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. P>rowne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. i'. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1881. Montreal ...IE. B. Trior, D C.L., F.R.S. ... 
1885. Aberdeen... I Francis Gallon, M.A., F.R.S. 

i 



G. AV. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 
Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1 886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 


Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 


G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garsor 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Gar.son, 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 


W. 

Dr. 

.J. 
Dr. 


1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York, 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 

1851. 
1852. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 

Ipswich . . . 
Belfast 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S... . 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. .... 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. , 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
.John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday. F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of tlie Mis.sissippi. 

PropertiesoftheExplosivesubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his owti on 
the Decomposition of AVater by 
Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidim ineptux). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and ils neiglibourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851 . 

Recent discoveries in the propertie.s 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
pract ical considerations connect ed 
with it. 



Ixiv 



REPORT — 1889. 



Date and Place 



1853. Hull. 



18.54. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 



Lirerpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
CoL E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L... . 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof.W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S... 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S.... 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.. 

Alexander Herscbel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Some peculiar Phenomena in the 

Geology and Physical Geography 

of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Cuneiform research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

ArchiBology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulfe. 

Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modem 
Civilization. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixv 



Dal 


e and Place 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow . . . 


1877. 


Plymouth ... 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1884. Montreal, 



I 



1885. Aberdeen. 



1886. 
1887. 



Hirmingham 
Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



1889. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Lecturer 



Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Wil liamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart. ,M. P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D., F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.r.oyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pre.s. R.S. 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S, 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dailinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



Subject of Discourse 



Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Lnstruments of Scien- 

titic Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypotliesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarized Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The Challenger Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvani and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves ia 

the Struggle for Existence. 



1889. 



Ixvi 



HKl'OKT— 1889. 



LECTUKES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



18G7. 
1868. 
186'J. 



Dundee... 
Norwich 
Exeter ... 




1870. Liverpool 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 

1889. 



Brighton 
Bradford 
Belfast . . , 
Bristol .., 

Glasgow 



Plymouth 
Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Subject of Discourse 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southp ir 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 
Bath 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.E.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas. R.S. 



Newcastle 
upon-Tyne 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

•p T) (J 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

B. Baker, M.Tnst.C.E 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tionof the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten Histoiy, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 



Ixvii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— GaYttSiinW. de W. Abney, C.B., R.E., D.C.L., F.R S F R A S 

p.c.s. ' ■ ■' 

Vice-Presidents. — The Right Hon. Lord Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor Arthur Cayley, F.R.S. ; Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, b'.'R.S. ; 
James Glaisher, F.R.S.; Captain A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S.; Lord 
Rayleigh, Sec.R.S. ; Professor A. Schuster, F.R.S.; Sir William 
Thomson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. ~R. B. Baynes, M.A. (Recorder); R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S.; 
Professor A. Lodge, M.A. ; W. N. Shaw, MA. ; Professor H. Stroud] 
D.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

President.Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S,, F.C.S. 
Vice-Pre-ide7its.— Sir F. A. Abel, F.R.S. ; Professor P. Phillips Bedson 

»D.Sc.; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Professor P. R. Japp, F.R.S ' 
Professor G. D. Liveing, F.R.S. ; Professor H. M'Leod, F.R.S 
Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, F.R.S. ; Dr. \V. J. Russell F R S 
Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S. ; Professor W. A. Tilden, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— U. Forster Morley, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; D. H. Nagel M A • 
Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, M.A. ; H. L. Pattinson, jun. 

L* SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor James Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— n. B. Brady, F.R.S. ; Professor A. H. Green, F.R.S. ; 

Chevalier Max von Hantken ; John Marley ; Pierre de Tchihatchef! 
Secretaries. — Professor G. A. Lebour, M.A. ; John E. Marr, M.A. ; W. W. 

Watts, M.A. (Recorder) ; Horace B. Woodward, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

Presi(7eH^.— Professor J. S. Burdon Sanderson, M.A., M.D D C L 
LL.D., F.R.S. ' ■' 

Fice-Presi(^en<s.— Professor G. S. Brady, F.R.S. ; Rev. Canon Norman, 
F.L.S. ; O. Salvin, F.R.S. ; Rev. Canon Tristram, D.D., F.R S •' 
Professor S. H. Vines, F.R.S. ' ' ' 

d2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1889. 

Secretaries.— C. Bailey, F.L.S. ; F. E. Beddard, M.A. ; S. F. Harmer^ 
M.A. ; Professor T. Oliver, M.D. ; Professor H. Marshall Ward, 
F.k.S. (Recorder). 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.C.L., Sec. 

R.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— General Sir H. E. L. Tliuillier, C.S.I., F.R.S. ; R. 

Spence Watson, LL.D. ; J. Batalha-Reis. 
Secretaries.— J. S. Keltie (Recorder) ; H. J. Mackinder, M.A. ; R. Snlivan ; 

A. Silva White. 



SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Vroiessor ¥. T. Edgeworth, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Stephen Boarne, F.S.S. ; Hon. 0. W. Fremantle, C.B. ; 
G. W. Hastings, M.P. ; Professor H. Sidgwick, Litt.D. 

Secretaries.— Re-v. W. Cunningham, D.D., F.S.S. ; T. H. Elliott, F.S.S. 
(Recorder) ; F. B. Jevons, M.A. ; L. L. Price, M.A., F.S.S. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— yvmiam Anderson, D.C.L., M.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lord Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir F. J. BramweU,. 
Bart., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. ; Sir B. C. Browne ; Principal Garnett, 
D.C.L. ; Professor Alexander B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E.; 
Percy Westmacott, M.Inst. C.E. 

Secretaries. — Conrad W. Cooke ; W. Bayley Marshall, M.Inst.C.E. ; Hon. 
C. A. Parsons, B.A. ; E. Rigg, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION n. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— VroiessoT Sir W. Turner, M.B., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Evans, V.P.R.S. ; Francis Galton, F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor G. H. Philipson, M.D. ; General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A. (Recorder) ; J. G. Garson, M.D. ;, 
Rutherford Morison, M.D. ; Robert Howden, M.B. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1889-90. 



PRESIDENT. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM HENRY FLOWER, C.B., LL.D., P.R.S., F.H.C.S., PnE.s.Z.S., P.L.S., P.G.8., 

Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., 
D.O.L., LL.D., Lord-Lieutenant of Northum- 
berland. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Durilam, Lonl 
Lieutenant of Durham. 

The Riglit Hon. the Eajil of Ravensworth. 

The Right Rev. the Loud Bishop of Newcasixe, 
D.D. 

The Right Hon. Lord Armstrong, C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



The Right Hon. .John Morlby, LL.D., M.P. 

The Very Rev. the Warden of the University of 

Durham, D.D. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor op New- 

castlk. 
The Worshipful the Mayor of Gateshead. 
Sir I. LoWTHLA.N Bell, Bart., F.R.S., F.C.S., 

M.Inst.CE. 
Sir Charles Mark Palmer, Bart., M.P. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

SIR FREDERICK A. ABEL, C.B., D.C.L., P.R.S., F.C.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace the Dcke of Devon.^hire, K.G., M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Most Hon. the Marquis of Riton, K.G., 

G.0.S.I.,C.1.E.,D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.K.G.S. 
•The Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwiluam, K.G., 

F.R.G.S. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bisuor of Ripox, D.D. 

• Nominated by the Council. 



"The Right Hon. Kir Lyon PlaypaiR, K.C.B., 

Ph.D., LL.D., M.P., F.R.S., F.C.S. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor op Leeds. 
Sir James Kitson, Bart., M.Inst.CE., F.R.G.S. 
Sir Andrew Fairbairn, .I.P., D.L. 
*W. L. Jackson, Esq., M.P., P.S.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT LEEDS. 
J. Rawlinson Ford, Esq. I Professor L. C. MiALL, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Sydney LurrON, Esq., .M.A., F.C.S. | Professor A. Smithklls, B.Sc, F.C.S. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT LEEDS. 

E. Beckf.ti" Faber, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF 
Ayrtox, Professor W. E., F.R.S. 
B.VKER, B., Esq., M.Inst.CE. 
B.VLL, Sir R. S., F.R.S. 
Blanford, W. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwix, Professor G. H., F.R.S. 
DotiGL.\ss, Sir J. N., F.R.S. 
Evans, Dr. J., Treas.R.S. 
F1TZGK11.VLD, Professor G. F., F.R.S. 
Gamgee, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Geikfe, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
JUDD, Professor J. W., F.R.S. 



THE COUNCIL. 
LivEiXG, Professor G. D., F.R.S. 
M'Leod, Professor H., F.R.S. 
Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., CB., F.R.S. 
Preece, W. H.,Esq., F.R.S. 
Roberts- Austen, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
Rucker, Professor A. W., F.R.S. 
Schafer, Professor E. A., F.R.S. 
SCHUS-IER, Professor A., F.R.S. 
SIDQWICK, Professor H., M.A. 
Thorpe, Professor T. E., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



Laxkestbr, Professor E. Ray, F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 
A. G. Vbrson Haroourt, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, Oxford. 

SECRETARY. 
Arthur T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., I'.R.S., K.C.S., 17 Buckingham Street, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer ani 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.CL., LL.D., Sec.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
Bir G. B. Airy, K.U.B., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Bir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., Pres. Ril. 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, LL.D. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., P.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.CL., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir A. C Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Prof. Gaylcy, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Sec.R.S. 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B. 

Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Sir H. E. Rosooe, F.R.S. 

Sir P.J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 



P. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OPFICBRS OP FORMER YEARS. 

I Dr. Michael Foster, Sec.R.S. I P. L. Sclat«r, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

I George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S. | Prof. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Dr. W. H. Perkin, P.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
Dr. J. n. Gladstone, F.Il.S. 



I W. T. Thiselton-Dycr, Esq., F.R.S. 



Ixx 



REPORT 1889. 



THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR 



L, 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACC0U:NT 



1888-89. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance of account rendered at Bath Meeting 

By Life Compositions 

New Annual Members 

Annual Subscriptions 

Associates' Tickets at Bath Meeting 

Ladies' Tickets at Bath Meeting 

Sale of Publications 

Sale of Reports, by Mr. Murray, 1887-1888 

Sale of Reports, by Mr. Murray, 1888-1889 

Rent received from Mathematical Society, for year ended 
September 29, 1888 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 

Dividends on Consols 

Dividends on India 3 per cents 

Return of grants paid to Mr. S. Bourne for ' Precious Metals 
in use ' and ' Monetary Standards' 

Unexpended balance of Grant for Ceylon Botanical Station 

Unexpended balance of Grant for ' Nomenclature for Funda- 
mental Units of Mechanics' 



£ 


S. 


d. 


239 


10 


5 


450 








244 








706 








621 








509 








47 


18 


6 


108 








108 


16 





12 


15 





10 


19 


5 


243 


9 


1 


105 


6 





30 








7 


6 


5 


7 


2 


5 



£3451 3 3 



Inventments Accmnt : Sejjtemher, 1888, to September, 1889. 



Debit. 



New Consols 8500 

India 3 per cents 3600 

Exchequer Bills 500 

Cash 239 

Excess of Receipts over 

Expenditure 812 14 7 



s, 







10 



Total £13,652 5 



Credit. 

£ s. 

New Consols 8500 

India 3 per cents 3600 

Exchequer Bills 500 

Cash 1052 5 



d. 







Total £13,652 5 



BALANCE SHEET, 1888-89. 



Ixxi 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



(not includiui,' receipts at the Newcastle Meeting). 



Cr. 



1888-89. PAYMENTS. 

£ I. a. 
To Expenses of Bath Meeting, including Printing, Advertising, 

&c., also Expenses of Lecture by Professor Ayrton 339 17 -t 

„ Salaries, one year (1888-89) 525 

„ Rent of Otiice at Albemarle Street (1888-89) 117 0' 

Gll.^NTS. 

£ s. d. 

Volcanic Plienomcna of Japan 25 

Geology and Geoerapliy of AtUn Range 100 

Observations on Surface Water Temperature 30 

Bath ' Baths Comniittee ' for further Researches 100 

Flora of China 25 

Natural History of Friendly Islands 100 

Physiology of Lymphatic System 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

Charateristics of Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Fossil PI lyllopoda of Palivozoic Rocks 20 

Investigation into North-W'LStern Tribes of Canada 150 

West Indian Explorations 100 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Experiments with a Tow Net 5 16 3 

Geological Record 80 

Marine Biological Association 200 

Naples Zoological Station 100 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of Wight 15 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Methods of Teaching Chemistry 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids of the Halogen in presence of 

Oxygen 10 

Electrical Standards 75 

Action of Waves and Currents in Estuaries by means of 

Working Models 100 

Electrolysis 20 

Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen 6 4 8 

1417 II 

By Balance at Bank of England, Western Branch 1052 5 

£3451 3 3 



Ale.x. W. Williamson, Treasurer. 



Ixxii 



EEPORT — 1889. 
Table showing the Attendance and Receipt 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 

1832, June 

1833, June 

1834, Sept. 

1835, Aug. 

1836, Aug. 

1837, Sept. 

1838, Aug. 

1839, Aug. 

1840, Sept. 

1841, July 

1842, June 

1843, Aug. 

1844, Sept. 

1845, June 

1846, Sept. 

1847, June 

1848, Aug. 

1849, Sept. 

1850, July 

1851, July 

1852, Sept. 

1853, Sept. 

1854, Sept. 

1855, Sept. 

1856, Aug. 
18.57, Aug. 

1858, Sept. 

1859, Sept. 

1860, June 

1861, Sept. 

1862, Oct. 

1863, Aug. 

1864, Sept. 

1865, Sept. 

1866, Aug. 

1867, Sept. 

1868, Aug. 

1869, Aug. 

1870, Sept. 

1871, Aug. 

1872, Aug. 

1873, Sept. 

1874, Aug. 

1875, Aug. 

1876, Sept. 

1877, Aug. 

1878, Aug. 

1879, Aug. 

1880, Aug. 

1881, Aug. 

1882, Aug. 

1883, Sept. 

1884, Aug. 

1885, Sept. 
18S6, Sept. 

1887, Aug. 

1888, Sept. 

1889, Sept. 



27 . 

19 . 

25 . 

8 . 

10 . 

22 . 

11 . 
10 . 

26 . 
17 . 

20 . 

23 . 

17 . 
26 . 

19 . 

10 . 
23 . 

9 . 

12 . 

21 . 

2 . 
1 . 

3 . 

20 . 

12 . 
6 . 

26 . 

22 . 
14 . 

27 . 

4 . 
1 . 

26 . 

13 , 
6 , 

22 , 

4 , 
19 . 

18 . 

14 . 
2 

14 '. 
17 , 

19 , 
25 , 
6 , 
15 
14 , 

20 , 
25 , 
31 , 

23 . 
19, 

27 , 
9 , 
1 . 
31 . 

5 . 

11 . 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

B irmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester ... 

Bath .]', 

Nowcastle-on-Tyne 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S, 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart, 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D, 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L..., 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. .., 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A, 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S, 
The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B, 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 
Sir John Hawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S, 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S, 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Rayleigh, FR.S. ... 
SirLyonPlayfair,K.C.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof.W.H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S, 



Old Lite 
Members 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections on 





ATTENDANCE AND 


RECEIPTS 


AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 


Ixxiii 


it Annual Meetings of 


the Association 


• 






Attended by 








Amount 


Sums jiaid on 
















V<M>(>) \7l>ll 


A^rrinn^. rtf 




OMAi 

Memt 


iimal New Annual 
eis Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


I <JUL1 V l-'-l 

during the 
Meeting 


Grants for Scien- 
tific Purposes 


Tear 


"4 

7 


6 31*7 
5 376 


33t 

"9t 
407 
270 
495 


1100* 

60* 
331* 


34 

40 

28 


353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
13.53 
891 
1315 






1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 












£20 

167 

435 

922 12 6 

932 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 


















7 
4 


1 185 
5 190 


160 
260 








1565 10 2 
981 12 8 


1843 
1844 




9 

6 

19 


i 22 
5 39 
7 40 


172 

196 
203 


35 
36 
53 


1079 

857 

1320 




831 9 9 
685 16 

208 5 4 


1845 
1846 

1847 






5 


4 25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£767'o"o 


275 1 8 


1848 


9 


3 33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 


12 


8 42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


18.50 


6 


1 47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 


6 


3 60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 


6 


6 57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 


12 


1 121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 


14 


2 101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 


10 


4 48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 


15 


6 120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 


11 


1 91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 


12 


5 179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 


17 


7 59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1004 


766 19 6 


1860 


18 


4 125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 


15 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 


15 


4 209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 


18 


2 103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 


21 


5 149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 


21 


8 105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 


19 


i 118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 


22 


6 117 


720 


682 


45| 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 


22 


9 107 


678 


600 


17 


18.56 


1931 


1622 


1869 


3a 


? 195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 


31 


1 127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 


28 


3 80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 


23 


7 99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


23 


2 85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


30 


T 93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 


33 


I 185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 


23 


i 59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 


29( 


3 93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 


23 


J 74 


.529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 


17 


I 41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 


31. 


i 176 


]2;30 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 3 1 


1881 


25 


i 79 


516 


189 


21 


12.53 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 


33( 


) 323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 


31' 


r 219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1538 


1173 4 


1884 


33! 


J 122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 


42i 


i 179 


lOf.7 


29 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 


61( 


) 244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 


395 


) 100 


6159 


509 


35 


1984 


2107 


1611 5 


1888 


4i: 


J 113 


1024 


579 


12 


2t37 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 


Includ 


tog Ladies. { 


Fellows of 


the Ameri 


3an Assoclati( 


>ii were adi 


uitted as Hon. 


Members for this 


Ueetiog 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1889. 



( 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the year 1888-89, 'presented to the General 
Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on Wednesday, Sepfemher 11, 1889. 

The Council have received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the Meeting at Bath the following have been elected Corre- 
sponding Members of the Association : — 



W. H. Dall, U.S. Geological Survey. 
G. K. Gilbert, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Dr. Max von Haiitken, Budapest. 
Horatio Hale, Ontario. 



Prof. G. Stefanesou, Bucharest. 
Wladimir Vernadsky, University of St. 
Petersburg. 



The Council have nominated Sir Charles Mark Palmer, Bart, M.P., a 
Vice-President of the meeting at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

An invitation for the year 1891 will be presented from Cardiff. 

The General Committee having granted a sum of 2001. at their last 
meeting to the Marine Biological Association, thus making up the total 
sum given by the Association to 5001., the Association became entitled 
to nominate a Governor of the Marine Biological Association, and the 
Council have nominated Professor Flower to the oflBce. 

It having been reported that the Committee on the Prehistoric In- 
habitants of the British Islands, appointed on the recommendation of the 
Committee of Section H, had, through an oversight of the Sectional 
Secretary, not been reappointed, the Committee have been informed that 
if they will make a report to the Section, as if duly appointed, the Council 
are prepared to bring the matter before the Committee of Recommenda- 
tions, with a view to the appointment of the Committee, and the publica- 
tion of their Report. 

A request having been received from the Honorary Secretaries of the 
International Congress of Hygiene and Statistics, that the Association 
would nominate two members to serve on the General Committee to be 
formed for organising the Congress, the Council have nominated Sir 
Frederick J. Bramwell and Sir H. E. Roscoe for that purpose. 

The following resolution was referred by the General Committee to 
the Council for consideration and action if desirable : — 

' That the Council be recommended to consider what measures, if any, it might 
be desirable to take with respect to the apparatus from time to time purchased by 
funds voted by the Association.' 

The Council, after consideration of the question, are of opinion that 
the attention of the Chairmen and Members of Committees should be 
specially directed to the existing rules, viz. : — 

' Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money for collect- 
ing specimens of Natural History are requested to reserve the specimens so obtained 
for distribution by authority of the Association. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. IxxV 

All instruments, papers, drawings, and other property of the Association, are to 
be deposited in the office, 22 Albemarle Street, London, when not employed in 
carrying on scieiitKic inquiries for the Association,' 

and that they should be requested in each year, prior to the dissolution 
of the Committee, to furnish a list of any apparatus which may have 
been purchased out of the grant made b^^ the Association, distinguishing 
the apparatus which in their opinion may continue to be useful for the 
rceearch in question or for other scientific purposes. 

The following resolution was referred by the General Committee to 
the Council for consideration and action if desirable : — 

' That the Council of the Association be requested to urge upon the Corporation 
of Bath the desirability of laying bare a further portion of the unique Koman Baths 
at that city, with a view to their permanent preservation ; and that the part already 
laid bare should be protected from the weather.' 

The Council resolved that the views set forth in the resolution should 
be embodied in a letter and forwarded to the Corporation of Bath, to- 
gether with a cheque for the sum of lOOL, which the General Committee 
had resolved to place at the disposal of the Baths Committee of the Bath 
Corporation for the prosecution of their investigations. 

The following resolution was referred by the General Committee to 
the Council for consideration and action if desirable : — 

' That the Council be requested to memorialise her Majesty's Government in 
favour of establishing a permanent census sub-department, and taking the census of 
the United Kingdom every five years.' 

The Council are of opinion that it is inexpedient to take action in the 
matter. 

A request was made on behalf of the Committee of Section H that 
the Council would communicate to the Canadian Government the fact 
that the Association had granted 150Z. to a committee for investigating 
the North -West em Tribes of the Dominion, and would express the 
desirability of this grant being supplemented to an equal amount by 
the Canadian Government. A letter was written to the Canadian 
Government in accordance with the above request, asking them to con- 
tribute a similar amount to that granted by the Association, and a letter 
from the Secretary of the High Commissioner for Canada was subse- 
quently received transmitting a copy of an Order in Council recommend- 
ing that the application should be granted. 

Early in the present year Mr. Atchison, the Secretary, informed the 
Council that his health had materially suffered during the past winter ; 
that his medical advisers stated that it was imperative for him to spend 
the next three winters in a warm climate ; and that, under those circum- 
stances, he did not propose to offer himself for re-election at the next 
meeting of the Association. The Council received this announcement with 
great regret; but as there appeared to be no prospect of Mr. Atchison being 
able to avoid this absence from England, they took into consideration the 
duties of the office which he had held and the appointment of a successor. 

The Council resolved that it is desirable that the officer to be appointed 
in Mr. Atchison's place, to act under the direction of the General Secre- 
taries, should be named, as formerly, Assistant General Secretary, that 
the salary should be fixed at 300/. a year, and that the expense of jour- 
neys undertaken on behalf of the Association should be repaid. 



Ixxvi 



REPORT — 1889. 



The Council Lave nominated Mr. Hubert Llewellyn Smith for tlie 
appointment. 

The report of the Corresponding Societies Committee is herewith 
submitted to the General Committee. 

The CoiTesponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Professor A. W. 
Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson 
Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. Topley, and 
Professor T. G. Bonney, is hereby nominated for reappointment by the 
General Committee. 

The Council nominate Mr Francis Galton, F.R.S., Chairman, Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., Vice-Chairman, and Professor G. A. Lebour, 
F.G. S., Secretary to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies to be held during the Newcastle-upon-Tyne meeting. 

In accordance with the regulations the five retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 

Capt. W. de W. Abney. I 

W. H. Barlow, Esq. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen. 



Prof. O. Henrici. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distin- 
guished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



*AjTton, Prof. W. E., F.R.S. 
*Baker, B., Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 
Ball, SirE. S., F.R.S. 
Blanford, W. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Prof. G. H., F.R.S. 
Douglass, Sir James, F.R.S. 
*Evans, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
♦Fitzgerald, Prof. G. F., F.R.S. 
Gamgee. Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Geikie, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Judd, Prof. J. W., F.R.S. 
^Lankester, Prof. E. Ray, F.R.S. 



T.iveing, Prof. G.D., F.R.S. 

Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 

M'Leod, Prof. H., F.R.S. 

Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.R.S. 

Preece, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Roberts-Austen, Prof. W. C, F.R.S. 

Riicker, Prof. A. W., F.R.S. 

Schuster, Prof. A., F.R.S. 

Sidgwick, Prof. H., M.A. 

Scbafer, Prof. E. A., F.R.S. 

Thorpe, Prof. T. E., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



Ixxvii 



Committees appointed by the Gteneral Committee at the 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Meeting in September 1889. 

1. deceiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Inviting Designs for a good DiSe- 
rential Gravity Meter in super- 
session of the Pendulum, where- 
by satisfactory results may be 
obtained at each station of 
observation in a few hours 
instead of the many days over 
which it is necessary to extend 
pendulum observations. 

To co-operate with Dr. Kerr in 
his researches on Electro-optics. 



For Calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, if 
necessary, of taking steps to 
carry out the calculations, and 
to publish the results in an ac- 
cessible form. 

The Volcanic and Seismological 
Phenomena of Japan. 



Carrying on the Tables connected 
with the Pellian Equation from 
the point where the work was 
left by Degen in 1817. 

Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Chairman.— General J. T. Walker. 

Secretary. — Professor Poynting. 

Sir William Thomson, Sir J. H. 
Lefroy, General R. Strachey, Pro- 
fessors A. S. Herschel, G. Chrystal, 
C. Niven, and A. Schuster, and Mr. 
C. V. Boys. 



Chairman. — Dr. John Kerr. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 
Sir W. Thomson and Professor 
Eiicker. 

Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 

Sir William Thomson, Professor Cay- 
ley, Profebsor B. Price, and Messrs. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, A. G. Greenhill, 
and W. M. Hicks. 

Chairman. — Sir W. Thomson. 
Secretar//. — Professor J. Milne. 
Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. 

Bottomley, and Professor A. H. 

Green. 

Chairman. — Professor Cay ley. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 
Professor Sylvester and Mr. A. R. 
Forsyth. 

Chairtnan. — Professor Carey Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir William Thomson, Professors 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and Lord Rayleigh, Drs. O. J. 
Lodge, John Hopkinson, and A. 
Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. Preece 
and HertDert Taylor, Professors 
Everett and Schuster, Dr. J. A. 
Fleming, Professors G. F. Fitz- 
gerald and Chrystal, Mr. H. Tom- 
linson. Professors W. Garnett and 
J. J. Thomson, Messrs. W. N. 
Shaw, J. T. Bottomley, and T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, and Professor J. 
Viriamu Jones. 



Grants I 

£ 
10 



50 



25 



75 



15 



50 



Ixxviii 



REPOUT — 1889. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Considering the subject of Elec- 
trolysis in its Physical and 
Chemical Bearings. 



The Properties of Solutions . 



To consider the best Method of 
establishing an International 
Standard for the Analysis of 
Iron and Steel. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 



The Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on Oxygen 
and other gases. 



Inquiring into and reporting on 
the present Methods adopted 
for teaching Chemistry. 



Absorption Spectra of Pure Com- 
pounds. 

Conferring with a Committee of 
the American Association v.'ith 
a view of forming a Uniform 
System of Recording the PiC- 
sults of Water Analysis. 



Members of the Committee 



CJtairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 

Secretaries. — Professors Armstrong 
and 0. J. Lodge. 

Professors Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Poynting, Crum Brown, 
Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hart- 
ley, S. P. Thompson, M'Leod, 
Roberts- Austen, Riicker, Reinold, 
Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, 
Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, 
Hopkinson, and Fleming, and 
Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, 
W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. 
Bottomley, R. T. Glazebrook, J. 
Brown, E. J. Love, and John M. 
Thomson. 

Cliairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor Roberts- Aus- 
ten. 

Secretary. — Mr. Thomas Turner. 

Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Riley and 
J. Spiller, Professor Langley, Mr. 
G. J. Snelus, and Professor Tilden. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Chairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor Ramsay and Mr. J. T. 
Cundall. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. J. Russell. 

Secretary. — Professor W. R. Dunstan. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professor H. E. 
Armstrong, Professor Meldola, Pro- 
fessor M'Leod, Dr. J. H. Glad- 
stoDe,Mr. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 
Mr. M. M. Pattison Muir, Professor 
Smithells, Mr. W. A. Shenstone, 
and Mr. G. Stallard. 

Chairman. — General Festing? 
Secretary. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 
Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Professor Dewar. 
Secretary. — Professor P. F. Frank- 
land. 
Professor Odling and Mr. Crookes. 



Grants 



£ 
5 



10 



15 



10 



30 



10 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENEKAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receit'ing Oranti of Money — continued. 



Ixxix 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Action of Light on the Hy- 
dracids of the Halogens in 
presence of Oxygen. 



Recording the Position, Height 
above the sea, Lithological Cha- 
racters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Hlocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and tak- 
ing measures for their preserva- 
tion. 

The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius and its neighbourliooi. 



The Description and Illustration 
of the Fossil Phyllopoda of the 
Palieozoic Rocks. 

Carrying on the ' Geological 
Ilecord.' 



The Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable 
Formations of England, and 
the Quality and Quantity of 
the Waters supplied to various 
Towns and Districts from these 
Formations. 



To carrj' on Excavations at Old- 
bury Hill near Ightham in order 
to a.scertain the existence or 
otherwise of rock shelters at 
that spot. 

Preparing a Report on the Creta- 
ceous Polyzoa. 



The Collection, Preservation and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological in- 
terest. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman.- Dr. Russell. 
Si-cretanj. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney and Professors Noel 
Hartley and W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Prestwich. 

Secreta.ri/.—})v. H. W. Crosskey. 

Professors W. Boyd Dawkins.T. McK. 
Hughes, and T. G. Ronncy and 
Messrs. C. E. De Ranc, D. Mackin- 
tosh, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. 
H. Tiddeman. 



Chairmmi. — Mr. H. Bancrman. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis. 
Messrs. F. W. Rudler and J. J. H. 
Teall. 

Cluiirman. — Mr. R. Etheridge. 
Secretary — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Sccretarij. — Mr. W. Topley. 

Dr. G. J. Hinde and Messrs E. T. 
Newton, R. P). Newton, F. W. Rud- 
ler, and J. J. H. Teall. 

Chairman. — Profes.sor E. Hull. 

Secretarij. — Mr. C. E. De Ranee. 

Dr H. W. Crosskey, Sir D Gallon, 
Professor J. Prost wich,and Messrs. 
J. Glaisher, E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, J. Parker, W. Pengelly, 
J. Plant, I. Roberts, C. Fox-Strang- 
ways, T. fS. Stooke, G. J. Symons, 
W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. 
Wethered, and W. Whitaker. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. Evans 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Harrison. 
Professors Prestwich and H. G. See- 
lev. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary.— 'Mr. G. R. Vine. 
Drs. P. M. Duncan and H. C. Sorby 
and Mr. 0. K. De Ranee. 

Cliairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 
Secretary.— lU. O. W. Jeffs. 
Professors Bonney and Royd-Daw- 

kins and Messrs. S. A. Adamson, 

A. S. Reid, and W. Gray. 




10 



20 



20 



100 



15 



10 



10 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1889. 

1. Receirhif/ Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To work the very fossiliferous 
transition bed between the 
Middle and Upper Lias in Nortli- 
amptnnsbire, in order to obtain 
a full series of Upper Liassic 
Gasteropods, and fix the hori- 
zon of a fine collection of Liassic 
Fish. 

To arrange for the Occupation of 
a Table at the Laboratory of the 
Marine Biological Association 
at Plymouth, and to nominate 
students to work thereat. 

For taking steps to establish a 
Botanical Station at Peradeniya, 
Ceylon. 



To improve and experiment with 
a Deep-sea Tow-net. 



To arrange for the Occupation of a 
Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples. 



To report on the present state of 
our knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India 
Islands, and to take steps to in- 
vestigate ascertained deficien- 
cies in the Fauna and Flora. 



The best method of ascertaining 
and measuring Variations in the 
Value of the Monetary Standard. 



Inquiring and reporting as to the 
Statistical Data available for 
determining the Amount of the 
Precious Metals in use as Money 
in the principal countries of the 
world, the chief forms in which 
the money is employed, and 
the amount annually used in 
the arts. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Mr. Beeby Thompson. 

Messrs. W. D. Crick, T. G. George, 
W. Htill, E. A. Walford, E. Wil- 
son, and H. B. W^oodward. 



Chairman. — Professor Flower. 
Secretary. — Mr. S. F. Harmer. 
Professors M. Foster, E. Kay Lan- 
kester, and S. H. Vines. 

Chairman. — Professor M. Foster. 

Secretary. — Professor F. O. Bower. 

Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thisel- 
ton-Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Professor 
Marshall Ward, Mr. Carruthers, 
and Professor Hartog. 

Chairman. — Professor Haddon. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 
Professor W. A. Herdman. 

Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 
Secretary. — Mr. Percy Sladen. 
Professors E.Kay Lankestur, J. Cos- 

sar Ewart and M. Foster, Mr. A. 

Sedgwick, and Professor A. M. 

Marshall. 

Chairman. — Professor Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. D. Morris. 

Mr. Carruthers, Dr. Sclater, Mr. 
Thiselton-Dyer, Dr. Sharp, Mr. F. 
Du Cane Godman, Professor New- 
ton, Dr. A. Giinther, and Colonel 
Fielden. 

Chairman. — Dr. Giffen. 

Secretary.— Viot. F. Y. Edgeworth. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Professor H. S. Fox- 
well, Professor Alfred Marshall, 
Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. 
Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave, and Professor H. Sidgwick. 

Chairman. — Dr. Giffen. 

Secretary.— Troi. F. Y. Edgeworth. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Professor H. S. Fox- 
well, Professor Alfred Llarshall, 
Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. 
Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave, and Professor H. Sidgwick. 



Grants 



£ 
25 



30 



50 



10 



100 



100 



10 



15 



i 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxxi 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 




The Action of Waves and Currents 
on the Beds and Foreshores of 
Estuaries by means of Working 
Models. 



To report on the Development of 
Graphic Methods in Mechanical 
Science. 



The Physical Characters, Lan- 
guages, and Industrial and So- 
cial Condition of the North- 
western Tribes of the Dominion 
of Canada. 



The Effects of different Occupa- 
tions and Employments on the 
Physical Development of the 
Human Body. 



Editing a new Edition of ' Anthro- 
pological Notes and Queries.' 



Calculating the Anthropological 
Measurements taken in the An- 
thropometric Laboratory. 



The Geography and the Habits, 
Customs and Physical Characters 
of the Nomad Tribes of Asia 
Minor and Northern Persia, and 
to excavate on sites of Ancient 
Occupation. 



The Habits, Customs, Physical 
Cliaracteristics and Religions of 
the natives of India. 

1889. 



Chairman. — Sir J. N. Douglass. 

Secretary. — Professor W. C. Unwin. 

Professor Osborne Reynolds and 
Messrs. W. Topley, E. Leader Wil- 
liams, W. Shelford, G. F. Deacon, 
A. R. Hunt, W. H. Wheeler, and 
W. Anderson. 



Mr. W. H. Preece. 
Professor H. S. Hele 



Chairman. 
Secretary. 

Shaw. 
Messrs. B. Baker, W. Anderson, and 

G. Kapp and Professors i. Perry 

and R. H. Smith. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. Bloxam. 

Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Daw- 
son, General Sir H. Lefroy, and 
Mr. R. G. Haliburton. 



Chairman. — Dr. Beddoe. 
Secretai-y. — Mr. Bloxam. 
General Pitt-Rivers, Sir Rawson 

Rawson, Dr. H. Muirhead, Mr. C. 

Roberts, Dr. G. W. Hambleton, 

Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Drs. J. G. 

Garson, J. Rutherford Morison, 

and C. S. Jeaffreson. 



Chairman. — General Pitt-Rivers. 
Secretary. — Dr. Garson. 
Dr. Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. 
Francis Galton, and Dr. E. B. Tylor. 



Chairman. — General Pitt- Rivers. 
Secretary. — Dr. Garson. 
Mr. Bloxam. 



Chairman. — Dr. Garson. 

Secretary. — Mr. Bent. 

Messrs. H. W. Bates, Bloxam and 
J. Stuart Glennie, Sir Frederic 
Goldsmid, and Messrs. Pengelly 
and Rudler. 



Chairmam. — Sir William Turner. 
Serretan/. — Mr. Bloxam. 
Professor Flower, Dr. E. B. Tylor 
and Mr. H. H. Risley. 



£ 
150 



100 



20 



10 



Ixxxii 



EEPORT — 1889. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject of Investigation or Purpose 



For clerical assistance in drawing 
up the annual report of the 
Corresponding Societies' Com- 
mittee. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. Francis Galton. 

Secretary. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir 
Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Dr. John Evans, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. G. J. S^'mons, General Pitt- 
Eivers, Mr. W. Topley, and Pro- 
fessor Bonney. 



Grant 

£ 
20 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Promotion of Tidal Observations in 
Canada. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Molecular Phenomena connected 
with the Magnetisation of Iron. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. John Murra)'. 

Secretary. — Mr. John Jlurray. 

Professor Schuster, Sir William Thom- 
son, the Abbe Renard, Mr. A. Buchan, 
the Hon. R. Abercromby, and Dr. M. 
Grabham. 

Chairman. — Professor Johnson. 
Secretary. — Professor Johnson. 
Professors Macgregor, J. B. Cberriman, 

and H. T. Bovey and Mr. C. Carp- 

mael. 

Chairma n . — Professor Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor Everett. 

Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. 
J. Symons, Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. 
Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Pro- 
fessor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. 
Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Stra- 
han, and Professor Michie Smith. 

Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

SecrHary. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Sir W. Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, Pro- 
fessors G. H. Darwin, G. Chrystal, and 
S. J. Perry, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, Pro- 
fessor Schuster, Mr. G. M. Whipple, 
Captain Creak, the Astronomer Royal, 
Mr. William Ellis, Mr. W. Lant Car- 
penter, and Professor A. W. Riicker. 

Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 

Secretary. — Professor Barrett. 

Messrs. Trouton and H. F. Newall. | 



COMMIT! EJES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxxiii 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Considering the advisability and possi- 
bility of establishing in other parts 
of the country Observations upon the 
Prevalence of Earth Tremors similar 
to those now being made in Durham 
in connection with coal-mine explo- 
sions. 



Seasonal Variations in the Temperatures 
of Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in 
various parts of the United King- 
dom in cooperation with the Local 
Societies represented on the Associa- 
tion. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation. 



Cooperating with the Scottish Meteo- 
rological Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



Reporting on the Bibliographj^ of Solu- 
tion. 



The Influence of Silicon on the Proper- 
ties of Steel. 



To report on recent inquiries into the 
History of Chemistry. 

The Continuation of the Bibliographj' 
of Spectroscopy. 



Preparing a new series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectraof the Elements. 



Reporting upon the < Manure Gravels ' 
of Wexford. 



An Ancient Sea-beach near Bridlington. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Sj'mons. 

Secretary. — Professor Lebour. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. E. A. Cowper, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor 
Ewing, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, Dr. John Evans, Professors Prest- 
wich, Hull, Meldola, and Judd, Mr. M. 
Walton Brown, and Mr. J. Glaisher. 

Chairman.- — Mr. John Murray. 

Secretary. — Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Professor Chrystal, Dr. A. Buchan, the Rev. 
C. J. Steward, the Hon. R. Abercromby, 
Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. David Cun- 
ningham, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Professor 
Fitzgerald, Mr. Sorby, and Mr. Willis 
Bund. 

Chairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 
Secretary. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Professor Schuster. Mr. G. Johnstone 

Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 

Abney, and Mr. Whipple. 

Chairman. — Hon. R. Abercromby. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Messrs. Milne-Home, John Murray, and 
Buchan and Lord McLaren. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professors M'Leod, Pickering, Ramsay, 
and Young and Dr. A. R. Leeds. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Mr. Thomas Turner. 
Professor Roberts- Austen. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Professor John Ferguson. 

Chairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts-Austen. 
Professor Reinold and Mr. H. G. Madan. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretari/. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, Liveing, 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott 

Gibbs, and Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Mr. R. Etheridge. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Bell. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. W. Davis. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Mr. W. Cash, Dr. H. Hicks, Jlr. Clement 

Reid, Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. T. 

Boynton. 

e2 



Ixxxiv 



REPORT 1889. 

2. l^ot recehnng Grants of Money. — continued. 






Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of 
England and Wale?, and the Influence 
of the Artificial Abstraction of 
Shingle or other material in that 
action. 



Reporting on the Tertiary and Second- 
ary Plants of the United Kingdom, 
and on the Higher Eocene Beds of the 
Isle of Wight, 

To consider the best methods for the 
registration of all Type Specimens of 
Fossils in the British Isles, and to re- 
port on the same. 

To make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels, which have been 
carried on by the Migration Commit- 
tee of the British Association, and to 
report upon the same at Leeds. 

Collecting Information as to the Dis- 
appearance of Native Plants from 
their Local Habitats. 



The Invertebrate Fauna and Cryptoga- 
mic Flora of the Fresh Waters of the 
British Isles. 



To reprint the Rules of Zoological No- 
menclature, if required. 



The Teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools. 



Ascertainingand recording the localities 
in the British Islands in which evi- 
dences of the existence of Prehistoric 
Inhabitants of the country are found. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. R. B. Grantham. 
Secretaries.— TAessrs. C. E. De Ranee and 

W. Topley. 
Messrs. J. B. Redman, W. Whitaker, and 

J. W.Woodall, Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Clarke, 

Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, Sir J.N. 

Douglass, Capt. Sir G. Nares, Capt. 

J. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, 

Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. E. 

Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. 

Vernon Harcourt. 

Chairman.— T>r. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. S. Gardner. 
Professor J. W. Judd and Messrs. W. 
Carruthers and C. Reid. 

Chairman. — Dr. Woodward. 
Secretary.— 'Kt. J. E. Marr. 
Mr. R. Etheridge, the Rev. G. F. Whid- 
borne, and Mr. R. Kidston. 

Chairman. — Professor Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Messrs. John A. Harvie-Brown, R. M. 

Barrington and W. E. Clarke and the 

Rev. E. P. Knubley. 



Chairman. — Mr. A. W. Wills. 
&c»'rfar(/.— Professor W. Hillhouse. 
Messrs. E. W. Badger and George Clar- 
ridge Druce. 

Chairman. — Canon A. M. Norman. 

Secretary. — Professor J. C. Ewart. 

Professors I. B. Balfour, J. Geikie, A. C. 
Haddon, W. R. McNab, W. J. Sollas, 
and Lap worth, Dr. H. Scott, and Mr. 
F. E. Beddard. 

Chairman. — Canon Norman. 
Secretary. — Mr. Howard Saunders. 
Mr. 0. Salvin and Professor Newton. 

Cliairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor Armstrong. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Miss Becker, Sir J. Lub- 
bock, Dr. Crosskey, Sir R. Temple, Sir 
H. E. Roscoe, Mr. J. Hey wood, and 
Professor N. Story Maskelj'ne. 

Chairman. — Sir John Lubbock. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Davis. 

Dr. J. Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
Dr. R. Munro, Messrs. Pengelly and 
Hicks, Prof essor Meldola,and Dr. M air- 
head. 



HESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IxXXV 

Other Resolutions adopted hy the General Committee. 

That Mr. J. Larmor be requested to draw up a Report on the present state of 
our knowledge in Thermodynamics, specially with regard to the second law. 

That Mr. W. N. Shaw be requested to continue his Report on the present state o£ 
our knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 

That Mr. P. T. Main be requested to continue his Report on our experimental 
knowledge of the Properties of Matter with respect to Vulume, Pressure, Tempera- 
ture, and Specific Heat. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Anmial Report 

of the Association. 

Professor A. B. W. Kennedy's paper ' On the Transmission of Power by Com- 
pressed Air (Popp's System).' 

Mr. Francis Galton's papers 'On the advisability of assigning Marks for Bodily 

Efficiency in the Examinations of Candidates for the Public Services,' and ' On the 

Principle and Methods of assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency,' together with a 

full abstract of Mr. Somerville's 'Remarks on the Results of Experiments at Eton 

" College.' [Proofs of these papers to be supplied for present distribution.] 

Besoliitions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be recommended to urge upon the Government of India— 

(1) The desirability of procuring anthropometric measurements of a repre- 

sentative series of tribes and castes in the Punjab, Bombay, Madras, the 
Central Provinces, and Assam; it being understoodthat trained observers 
are alread}' available. 

(2) Also that in the Enumerators' Schedule of the Census of 1891 provision 

should be made for recording not only the caste to which a man belongs, 
but also the cndogamous and exogamous groups within the caste of which, 
he is a member ; it being believed that this was actually done in the last 
Census of the Punjab, that it will not add to the cost of the Census, and 
that it will materially enhance its accuracy and scientific value. 

That the two following papers be printed in extcnso in the Report of the 
Association : — 

(1) Professor C. F. Bastable: ' The Incidence and Effects of Import and Ex- 

port Duties.' 

(2) Rev. Dr. Cunningham : ' The Comtist Criticism of Economic Science.' 

That the Council of the Association be requested to consider the following Reso- 
lutions of the Committee of Section H, and if approved to bring them under the 
notice of II. M. Civil Service Commissioners and of the chief authorities of the Army, 
Navy, and Indian Civil Service Departments : — 

(1) That the Committee concur in the opinion of H.M. Civil Ser\-ice Commis- 

sioners (Report xxxiii. page 15) that there is no especial difliculty in 
assigning marks for physical qualifications with adequate precision. 

(2) They urge that it is reasonable to include marks for physical qualifications 

among those by which the place of a candidate is determined in com- 
petitive examinations for posts where high physical efficiency is advan- 
tageous. 
That the Council be requested to urge upon the Canadian Governrnent the 
desirability of again making a supplementary grant to the Committee appointed for 
the purjMse of investigating the habits, customs, and physical characteristics of the 
North-Western tribes of the Dominion of Canada, in view of the urgent necessity of 
pushing forward operations with as much rapidity as possible in consequence of the 
anticipated speedy extinction of many of the native tribes. 



IxxXVi REPORT — 1889. 



5. 


d. 













































Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Neivcastle-upon-Tyne 

Meeting, in September, 1889. The Names of the Members 

entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the respective 
Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

* Walker, General J. T.— Dififerential Gravity Meter 10 

Kerr, Dr. Jolin. — Electro-optics 50 

*Rayleigh, Lord. — Calculating Tables of certain Mathematical 

Functions 25 

*Tiiomson, Sir W.— Volcanic and Seismological Phenomena 

of Japan 75 

Cayley, Professor. — Pellian Equation Tables 15 

*Foster, Professor G. Carey, — Electrical Standards 50 

* Fitzgerald, Pi-ofessor. — Electrolysis 5 

Chemistry. 

*Tilden, Professor W. A. — Properties of Solutions 10 

*Roberts- Austen, Professor. — Establishing an International 

Standard for the Analysis of Ii'on and Steel 10 

*Tilden, Professor W. A. — Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 15 
*M'Leod, Professor H. — The Influence of the Silent Discharge 

of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 5 

*Russell, Dr. W. J.— Methods of teaching Chemistry 10 

*Festing, General. — Absorption Spectra 30 

*Dewar, Professor. — Forming a Uniform System of record- 
ing the Results of Water Analysis 10 

*Russell, Dr. W. J. — Oxidation of Hydracids in Sunlight ... 15 

Geology. 

*Prestwich, Professor J. — Erratic Blocks 10 

*Bauerman, Mr. H. — Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

*Etheridge, Mr. R. — Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palasozoic 

Rocks 20 

*Whitaker, Mr. W.— Geological Record 100 

*Hull, Professor E. — Circulation of Underground Waters ... 5 

Evans, Dr. J. — Excavations at Old bury Hill 15 

Woodward, Dr. H. — Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 







Carried forward £510 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixxxvii 

£ s. d. 

Brouglit forward ^1*^ ^ ^ 

Geikie, Professor J.— Geological Photographs 10 

Woodward, Dr. H.— Lias Beds of Northamptonshire Zu U u 

Biology. 

^Foster Professor M.— Botanical Station at Peradeniya 50 

*Haddo'n, Professor.— To improve and experiment with ^ ^ ^ 

Deep-sea Tow-net •••••■•■•;•■■'.• ■V^V;: -,,,,, ^ a 

*Sclater Dr P. L —Table at the Naples Zoological Station iUU U U 

•Flower,' Professor.— Zoology and Botany of the West India ^^^ ^ ^ 

Islands V ' 'i " liV " • 

Flower, Professor.— Table at the Laboratory of the Marine 

Biological Association dU 

Economic Science and Statistics. 
*Giffen, Dr. R.— Variations in the Value of the Monetary ^ 

Standard ••••••••". i^ n a 

*Giffen, Dr. R.— Precious Metals m Circulation u u ^ 

Mechanical Science. 
* Douglass, Sir J. N.— Action of Waves and Currents in 

Lstuaries '.■"AV , j 

*Preece, Mr. W. H.— Development of Graphic Methods ^^ ^. ^ ^ 

Mechanical Science 

Anthropology. 

Tylor Dr. E. B.—North-Western Tribes of Canada 100 

*Beddoe, Dr. J.— Effect of Occupations on Physical Develop- ^q q q 

ment V " V .V. 

*Pitt-Rivers, General.— Editing a New Edition of ' Anthropo- 

logical Notes and Queries ' in n A 

*Pitt- Rivers, General.— Anthropometric Calculations iU U U 

*Garson, Dr.— Geography and Characteristics of Nomad 

Tribes of Asia Minor and Northern Persia ^^ U U 

Turner, Sir W.— Natives of India 10 U 

*Galton Mr. F.— Corresponding Societies •• ^^ ^ ^ 

£1,265 

* Reappointed. 



« 



I 



T/ie J.nmtaZ Meeting in 1890. 
The Meeting at Leeds will commence on Wednesday, September 3. 
K Place of Meeting in iS9i. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Cardiff. 



k 



Ixxxviii 



EEPORT — 1889. 



Gener^al Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions ■■■ 20 

1885. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Iclathyology ... lO-'') 

£'lt)7 U 

1836. 

Tide Discussions 16.3 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Oljservations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Kain-Gauges 9 13 

Eefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observat ions on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological OKservations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers .3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ...' 31 











1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology no 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



s. d. 

2 

18 6 

11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 






7 8 
2 9 




£ 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ...166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 

£1595 11 

1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 d 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 



Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 







8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxix 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 60 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railwav Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnet ical Observations 61 18-8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

±°1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anopiura Britannia 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British FossirMammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



184.3. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 







£ 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth . 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


</. 














12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 




11 









5 




8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



xc 



EEPORT — 1889. 



£ s. d. 
1844. 
Meteorological Observations 

at Kinjjussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Ke vision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory .... 56 7 3 

.Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Dravrings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Sliells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

uEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

G eographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

t lie Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 

Jlagnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



11 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£831 9 9 



15 






































7 


















14 8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmosijheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 



1847. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observator y 107 8 6 

£208 5~4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCl 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 1) 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations l.S 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores ■■■ 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

184'J) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 

1852. 

^laintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates.. ..^_10__0_0 

£304 6 7 



£ *. d. 
185.3. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 (> 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredg-intr near Belfast 4 





5 
11 



4 



_£480_16 

1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonj-ms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 \^9 



575 



w 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



xcu 



REPORT — 1889. 



£ *. d. 

Iavestis:at-ions into the Mol- 

lusca^of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Kesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

lleport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

:g507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredo:ing on the West Coast > 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

lleport on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Eeport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British MedusidiB 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Jlarine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Drrdging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into tlie Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 
Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



£1111 










72 
























5 10 

5 10 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



GENEEAL STATEMENT. 



xcni 



£ ». d. 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Terformance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 



18G3. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of kew Observatorj'... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Tliermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida •■■ 10 

£1608 3 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Slietland 75 

Dredging Nortliumberland ... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Ra3's 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 

1865. "'^'^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida... 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£T59r 

1866. '"^^''^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in AVater 50 

Polycyanidesof Organic liadi- 

cals 29 



t. d. 







8 



15 











8 




9 
















10 10 





7 10 









13 


4 

























































































(> 














XCIV 



KEPOKT— 1889. 



£ g. d. 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalot,'ue of Crania 60 U 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands ^'^ ^ ^ 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund ... 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c.. Leaf- Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ s. d. 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna - 100 

£1940 
1869. -^^^^ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Comniittee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 1.50 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopi c Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ,. . 60 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCV 



£ s. d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewajje 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mecbanical Equivalent of 

Heat 60 

£1572 



J 871. 
Maintainins: the Establisli- 

ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf - Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£U72 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, itc 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285" 























































2 


6 












































































































































































£ ». d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Clicmistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... l.W 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. ^''^^"'^'^ 

Zoological Record lOO 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions ]00 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

■fcc 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden E.xplorat ions... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

i:il51 16 o 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 o 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



XCVl 



EEPORT 1889. 



£ 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave' Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

■Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration •■■ 100 



s. d. 





























£960 



1876. 
Printing Mathematical Tables 159 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 
Specific Vohame of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate ^ 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles l.S 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam Vessels 5 



4 2 



15 























10 











15 







£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 117 

Zoolo!.;ical Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dicteiocajpae, Report ou 20 



Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle "Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red'Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity In 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimafion of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c ••• 15 

£1128 



35 



1878. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 

Geological Record 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Sj^hon 
Recorder 

Zoological Station at Naples 

Investigation of Underground 
Waters 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 

Calculation of Factor Table 
of Fourth Million 

Anthropometric Committee... 

Chemical Composition and 
Structure of less known 
Alkaloids 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 

Zoological Record 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 

Thermal Conductivity of 
Rocks 

Luminous Sleteors 

Ancient Earthworks 



















7 



100 








100 








10 








75 








15 








30 








100 








66 








25 








50 








100 








15 








4 


16 


6 


10 








25 









£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph . 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCVll 



I 



£ 

Exploration of Caves in 
Korneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Eecord of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves E.Kplorat ion 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 2.5 

Anthropometric Committee... .50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 
Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heal 12 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Survej' 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 
Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 
tlie Speed of Ships 17 

Tidal Observations in the 
English Channel 10 

£1080 



i. 


d. 























































15 6 







14 9 





1 8 




11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent cf 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Sjiecific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 

1889. 



£ *. d. 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland • 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£73 W 7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish! Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human lieings 30 

Electrical Standards 25 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Specific Refractions 7 

£476 

1882. 
Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

Exploration of Caves of Soutli 

of Ireland 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

British Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Migration of Birds 15 

Earth<juake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 





























































































3 


1 



3 1 









1 II 





(J 

















XCVIU 



EEPORT — 1889. 



£ s. d. 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Photoa:rapliing Ultra-Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Exploration of Kaygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Geological Record 100 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

£1126 1 11 

1883. " 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily E.xercise 38 3 3 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Fossil Phvllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Eocks 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 

1884. 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

International Geological Map 20 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 



£ s. d. 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Bibliography of Groups of 

[uvertebrata 50 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan '. 75 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Migration of Birds 20 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Ultra-Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 

Tidal Observations 10 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

£1173 4 



1885. 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 
Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Calculating Tables in Theory 
of Numbers 100 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Ro- 
raima 100 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Biological Stations on Coasts 
of United Kingdom 150 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Marine Biological Station at 
Granton 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseozoic 
Rocks 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 
Ocean 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Geological Record 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Raygill Fissure 15 

£1385 







































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCIX 



1886. £ 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Kxpluration of New Guinea... 150 

Secretion of Urine 10 

lie.searclies in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 

Electrical Standards 40 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Jleteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Exploration of Caves in North 

Wales 25 

Migration of Birds 30 

Geological Record 100 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palfeozoic 

Rocks 15 

Solar Radiation 9 

Magnetic Observations 10 

Tidal Observations 50 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 75 

Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

£995 

1887. 
A'olcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(188G grant) 50 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 
Exploration of Cae Gwyn 

Cave, North Wales 20 

Investigation of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Plymouth Biological Station 50 
Naples Biological Station ... 100 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Provincial Museum Reports 5 



s. d. 



































10 6 

10 









6 




















































































































£ s. d. 
Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 
Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

MigTation of Birds 30 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Electrical Standards 50 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

£1186 18 

1888. ' 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Flora of China 75 

Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 

Properties of Solutions VB 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Action of Light on Hydracids 20 
Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 
Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Precious Metals in Circula- 
tion 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

Palajontographical Society ... 50 
Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 

Lymphatic System 25 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 
Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

Magnetic Observations 15 



EEPOET — 1889. 



£ s. d. 

Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Geological Kecord 50 

Mi^alion of Birds 30 

Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Kegions 5 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Peradeniya Botanical Sta- 
tion 50 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Electrolysis ■ 30 

£1511 5 
1889. "■ 
Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Geology and Geography of i 

Atlas Range 100 ] 

■Observations on SurfaceWater ' 

Temperature 30 

Dath ' Baths Committee ' for i 

further Researches 100 ! 

Flora of China 25 

Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 



£ i. d. 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Characteristics of Nomad 
Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 20 

Investigation into North- 
western Tribes of Canada 150 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 

Geological Record 80 

Marine Biological Association 200 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 
Wight 15 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 
of the Halogen in presence 
of Oxygen 10 

Electrical Standards 75 

Action of Waves and Currents 
in Estuaries by means of 
Working Models 100 

Electrolysis 20 

Silent Discbarge of Electricity 
on Oxygen 6 4 8 

£1417 11 



1 







































16 


3 


























































General Meetingis. 

On Wednesday, September 11, at 8 p.m., in St. George's Drill Hall, 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., resigned the 
office of President to Professor W. H. Flower, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.R.C.S., Pres.Z.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Director of the ]S"atnral History 
Departments of the British Mnsenm, who took the Chair, and delivered 
an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 12, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Xatural History Mnseum. 

On Friday, September 13, at 8.30 p.m., in St. George's Drill Hall, 
Professor W. C. Roberts-Ansten, F.R.S., F.C.S., delivered a discourse on 
' The Hardening and Tempering of Steel.' 

On Monday, September 16, at 8.30 p.m., in St. George's Drill Hall, 
Walter Gardiner, Esq., M.A., delivered a discourse on ' How Plants main- 
tain themselves in the Struggle for Existence.' 

On Tuesday, September 17, at 8 P.M., a Soiree took place in the 
Katural History Museum. 

On Wednesdaj-, September 18, at 2.30 p.m., in St. George's Drill 
Hall, the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings 
of the General Committee and the Grants of Money for ScientiBc Purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Leeds. [The Meeting is appointed 
to commence on Wednesday, September 3, 1890.] 



PBESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1889. 



i 



4 



ADDRESS 

BY 

PROFESSOR W. H. FLOWER, 

C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., Pees.Z.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
PRESIDENT. 



It is twenty-six years since this Association met in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
It had then the advantage of being presided over by one of the most 
distinguished and popular of your fellow-townsmen. 

Considering the age usually attained by those upon whom the honour 
of the presidency falls, and the length of time which elapses before the 
Association repeats its visit, it must have rarely happened that any one 
who has held the office is spared, not only to be present at another meeting 
in the town in which he has presided, but also to take such an active part 
in securing its success, and to extend such a hospitable welcome to his 
successor, as Lord Armstrong has done upon the present occasion. 

The address which was delivered at that meeting must have been full 
of interest to the great majority of those present. It treated of many 
subjects more or less familiar and important to the dwellers in this part 
of the world, and it treated them with the hand of a master, a combina- 
tion which always secures the attention of an audience. 

When it came to my knowledge that in the selection of the President 
for this meeting the choice had fallen upon me, I was filled with appre- 
hension. There was nothing in my previous occupations or studies from 
which I felt that I could evolve anything in special sympathy with what 
is universally recognised as the prevailing genius of this district. I was, 
however, somewhat reassured when reminded that in the regular rotation 
by which the equal representation in the presidential office of the different 
branches of science included in the Association is secured, the turn had 
come round for some one connected with biological subjects to occupy 
the chair, which during the past seven years has been filled with such dis- 
tinction by engineers, chemists, physicists, mathematicians, and geologists. 

B 2 



4 EEPORT 1889. 

I was also reminded that the Association, though of necessity hold- 
ing its meeting in some definite locality, was by no means local in its 
character, but that its sphere was co-extensive, not with the United King, 
dom only, but with the whole of the British Dominions, and that our 
proceedings are followed with interest wherever our language is un- 
derstood — I may say, throughout the civilised world. Furthermore, 
although its great manufacturing industries, the eminence of its citizens 
for their skill and intelligence in the practical application of mechanical 
sciences, and the interesting and important geological features of its 
vicinity, have conferred such fame on Newcastle as almost to have 
overshadowed its other claims to distinction in connection with science, 
this neighbourhood is also associated with Bewick, with Johnson, with 
Alder, Bmbleton, Hutton, Atthey, Norman, the two Hancocks, the two 
Bradys, and other names honoured in the annals of biology ; it has long 
maintained a school of medicine of great repute ; and there has lately been 
established here a natural history museum which in some of its features 
is a model for institutions of the kind, and which, I trust, will be a 
means of encouraging in this town some of the objects the Association was 
designed to promote. 

There can be no doubt that among the vai-ious methods by which 
the aims of the British Association (as expressed in its full title, the ad- 
vancement of science^ may be brought about, the collection and preservation 
of objects available for examination, study, and reference — in fact, the for- 
mation of what are now called ' museums ' — is one of very great practical 
importance ; so much ao, indeed, that it seems to me one to the considera- 
tion of which it is desirable to devote some time upon such an occasion as 
this. It is a subject still little understood, though, fortunately, be- 
ginning to attract attention. It has already been brought before the 
notice of the Association, both in presidential and sectional addresses. 
A committee of our members is at the present time engaged in collect- 
ing evidence upon it, and has issued some valuable reports. During 
the present year an association of curators and others interested in 
museums has been founded for the purpose of interchange of ideas upon 
the organisation and management of these institutions. It is a subject, 
moreover, if I may be allowed to mention a personal reason for bringing it 
forward this evening, which has more than any other occupied my time 
and my attention almost from the earliest period of my recollection, and 
I think you will agree with the opinion of one of my distinguished pre- 
decessors in this chair, ' that the holder of this office will generally do 
better by giving utterance to what has already become part of his own 
thought than by gathering matter outside of its habitual range for the 
special occasion. For,' continued Mr. Spottiswoode, ' the interest (if any) 
of an address consists not so much in the multitude of things therein 
brought forward as in the individuality of the mode in which they are 
treated.' 



ADDEESS. 5 

Tbo first recorded institution which bore the name of museum, or 
temple or haunt of the Mus: s, was that founded by Ptolemy Soter at 
Alexandria about 300 B.C. ; but this was not a museum in our sense of the 
word, but rather, in accordance with its etymology, a place appropriated 
to the cultivation of learning, or which was frequented by a society or 
academy of learned men devoting themselves to philosophical studies 
and the improvement of knowledge. 

Although certain great monarchs, as Solomon of Jerusalem and 
Augustus of Rome, di.'jplayed their taste and their magnificence by assem- 
bling together in their palaces curious objects brought from distant parts 
of the world — although it is said that the liberality of Philip and Alex- 
ander supplied Aristotle with abundant materials for his researches— of 
the existence of any permanent or public collections of natural objects 
among the ancients there is no record. Perhaps the nearest approach 
to such collections may be found in the preservation of remarkable 
specimens, sometimes associated with superstitious veneration, sometimes 
with strange legendary stories, in the buildings devoted to religiourj 
worship. The skius of the gorillas brought by the navigator Hanno from 
the West Coast of Africa, and hung up in the temple at Carthage, afford 
a well-known instance. 

With the revival of learning in the Middle Ages, the collecting 
instinct, inborn in so many persons of various nations and periods of 
history, but so long in complete abeyance, sprang into existence with 
considerable vigour, and a museum, now meaning a collection of miscel- 
laneous objects, antiquities as well as natural curiosities, often associated 
with a gallery of sculpture and painting, became a fashionable appendage 
to the establishment of many wealthy persons of superior culture. 

All the earliest collections, comparable to what we call museums, 
were formed by and maintained at the expense of private individuals ; 
sometimes physicians, whose studies naturally led them to a taste for 
biological science ; often great merchant princes, whose trading con- 
nections afforded opportunities for bringing together things that were 
considered curious from foreign lands ; or ruling monarchs in their private 
capacity. In every case they were maintained mainly for the gratifica- 
tion of the possessor or his personal friends, and rarely, if ever, associated 
with any systematic teaching or public benefit. 

One of the earliest known printed catalogues of such a mnseum is that 
of Samuel Quickelberg, a physician of Amsterdam, published in 1565 in 
Munich. In the same year Conrad Gesner published a catalogne of the 
collection of Johann Kentmann, a physician of Torgau in Saxony, consist- 
ing of about 1,600 objects, chiefly minerals, shells, and marine animals. 
Very soon afterwards we find the Emperor Rudolph II. of Germany busily 
accumulating treasures which constituted the foundations of the present 
magnificent museums by which the Austrian capital is distinguished. 

In England the earliest important collectors of miscellaneous objects 



6 EEPORT 1889. 

were the two Jolm Tradescants, father and son, the latter of whom pub- 
lished, in 1656, a little work called ' Masisnm Tradescantianum ; or, a 
Collection of Rarities preserved at South Lambeth neer London.' The 
wonderful variety and incongruous juxtaposition of the objects contained 
in this collection make the catalogue very amusing reading. Under the first 
division, devoted to ' Some Kindes of Birds, their Egges, Beaks, Feathers, 
Clawes and Spurres,' we find ' Divers sorts of Egges from Turkic, one 
given for a Dragon's Egge ' ; ' Easter Egges of the Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem ' ; ' Two Feathers of the Phoenix Tayle ' ; ' The Claw of the bird Rock, 
who, as Authors report, is able to trnsse an Elephant.' Among ' whole 
birds ' is the famous ' Dodar from the Island Mauritius ; it is not able to 
flie, being so big.' This is the identical specimen, the head and foot of 
which has passed through the Ashmolean into the University Museum of 
Oxford ; but we know not what has become of the claw of the Rock, 
the Phoenix tayle, a,nd the Dragon's egg. Time does not allow me to 
mention the wonderful things which occur under the head of ' Garments, 
Vestures, Habits, and Ornaments,' or the ' Mechanick, Artificial Workes in 
Carvings, Turnings, Sowings, and Paintings,' from Edward the Confessor's 
knit gloves, and the famous ' Pohatan, King of Virginia's habit, all 
embroidered with shells or Roanoke,' also still at Oxford, and lately 
figured and described by Mr. E. B. Tylor, to the ' Cherry-stone, upon 
one side S. George and the Dragon, perfectly cut, and on the other 
side 88 Bmperours' faces'; or the other 'cherry-stone, holding ten 
dozen of tortois-shell combs made by Edward Gibbons.' But before 
leaving these private collections I cannot forbear mentioning, as an 
example of the great aid they often were in advancing science, the 
indebtedness of Linnjeus in his early studies to the valuable zoological 
museums, which it was one of the ruling passions of several kings and 
queens of Sweden to bring together. 

Upon the association of individuals together into societies to promote 
the advancement of knowledge, these bodies in their corporate capacity 
frequently made the formation of a museum part of their function. The 
earliest instance of this in our country was the museum of the Royal 
Society in Crane Court, of which an illustrated catalogue was published 
by Dr. Grew in 1681. 

The idea that the maintenance of a museum was a portion of the 
public duty of the State or of any municipal institution had, however, 
nowhere entered into the mind of man at the beginning of the last 
centuiy. Even the great teaching bodies, the Universities, were slow in 
acquiring collections ; but it must be recollected that the subjects con- 
sidered most essential to the education they then professed to give were 
not those which needed illustration from the objects which can be 
brought together in a museum. The Italian Universities, where anatomy 
was taught as a science earlier and more thoroughly than anywhere else 
in Europe, soon found the desirability of keeping collections of preserved 



ADDRESS. 



specimens, and the art of preparing them attained a high degree of 
excellence at Padua and Bologna two centuries ago. But these were 
generally the private property of the professors, as were nearly all the 
collections used to illustrate the teaching of anatomy and pathology in 
our country within the memory of many now living. 

Notwithstanding the multiplication of public museums during the 
present century, and the greater resources and advantages which many 
of these possess, which private collectors cannot command, the spirit of 
accumulation in iadividuals has happily not passed away, although 
usually directed into rather different channels than formerly. The 
general museums or miscellaneous collections of old are now left to 
governments and institutions which afford gi-eater guarantee of their 
permanence and public utility, while admirable service is done to science 
by those private persons with leisure and means who, devoting them- 
selves to some special subject, amass the materials by which its study 
can be pursued in detail either by themselves or by those they know to be 
qualified to do so ; which collections, if they fulfil their most appropriate 
destiny, ultimately become incorporated, by gift or purchase, in one or 
other of the public museums, and then serve as permanent factors in 
the education of the nation, or rather of the world. 

It would be passing beyond the limits of time allotted to this 
address, indeed going beyond the scope of the Association, if I were to 
speak of many of the subjects which have pre-eminently exercised the 
faculties of the collector and formed the materials of which museums are 
constructed. The various methods by which the mind of man has been 
able to reproduce the forms of natural objects or to give expression to 
the images created by his own fancy, from the rudest scratchings of a 
savage on a bone, or the simplest arrangement of lines employed in 
ornamenting the roughest piece of pottery, up to the most lovely com- 
binations of form and colour hitherto attained in sculpture or in painting, 
or in works in metal or in clay, depend altogether on museums for their 
preservation, for our knowledge of their condition and history in the past, 
and for the lessons which they can convey for the future. 

Apart from the delight which the contemplation of the noblest ex- 
pressions of art must produce in all cultivated minds, apart also from the 
curiosity and interest that must be excited by all the less successfully exe- 
cuted attempts to produce similar results, as materials for constructing 
the true history of the life of man, at different stages of civilisation, in 
different circumstances of living, and in divers regions of the earth, such 
collections are absolutely invaluable. 

But I must pass them by in order to dwell more in detail upon those 
which specially concern the advancement of the subjects which come 
under the notice of this Association — museums devoted to the so-called 
' natural history ' sciences, although much which will be said of them 
will doubtless be more or less applicable to museums in general. 



8 REPORT — 1889. 

The terms ' natural history ' and ' naturalist ' have become deeply 
rooted in our language, but without any very definite conception of their 
meaning or the scope of their application. Originally applied to the study 
of all the phenomena of the universe which are independent of the agency 
of man, natural history has gradually narrowed down in most people's minds, 
in conseqnence of the invention of convenient and generally understood 
and accepted terms for some of its various subdivisions, as astronomy, 
chemistry, geology, &c., into that portion of the subject which treats 
of the history of creatures endowed with life, for which, until lately, no 
special name had been invented. Even from this limitation botany was 
gradually disassociating itself in many quarters, and a ' naturalist ' and a 
'zoologist' have nearly become, however irrationally, synonymous terms. 
The happy introduction and general acceptance of the word ' biology,' 
notwithstanding the objections raised to its etymological signification, 
have reunited the study of organisms distinguished by the possession 
of the living principle, and practically eliminated the now vague and 
indefinite term ' natural history ' from scientific terminology. As, how- 
ever, it is certain to maintain its hold in popular language, I would 
venture to suggest the desirability of restoring it to its original and 
really definite signification, contrasting it with the history of man and 
of his works, and of the changes which have been wrought in the universe 
by his intervention. 

It was in this sense that, when the rapid growth of the miscel- 
laneous collections in the Bi'itish Museum at Bloomsbury (the expansion 
of Sir Hans Sloane's accumulation in the old Manor House at Chelsea) 
was thought to render a division necessary, the line of severance was 
effected at the junction of what was natural and what was artificial ; the 
former, including the pi'oducts of what are commonly called ' natural ' 
forces, unafi'ected by man's handiwork, or the impress of his mind. The 
departments which took cognisance of these were termed the ' Natural 
History Departments,' and the new building to which they were removed 
the ' Natural History Museum.' 

It may be worth while to spend a few moments upon the consideration 
of the value of this division, as it is one which concerns the arrangement 
and administration of the majority of museums. 

Though there is very much to be said for it, the objection has been 
raised that it cuts man himself in two. The illustrations of man's bodily 
structure are undoubtedly subjects for the zoologist. The subtile gra- 
dations of form, proportion, and colour which distinguish the different 
races of men, can only be appreciated by one with the education of an 
anatomist, and whose eye has been trained to estimate the value of such 
characters in discriminating the variations of animal forms. The subjects 
for comparison required for this branch of research must therefore be 
looked for in the zoological collections. 

But the comparatively now science of ' anthropology ' embraces not 



ADDRESS. 9 

only man's physical structure : it includes his mental development, his 
manners, customs, traditions, and languages. The illustrations of his 
works of art, domestic utensils, and weapons of war are essential parts of 
its study. In fact it is impossible to say where it ends. It includes all 
that man is or ever has been, all that he has ever done. No definite line 
can be drawn between the rudest flint weapon and the most exqiaisitely 
finished instrument of destruction which has ever been turned out from 
the manufactory at Elswick, between the rough representation of a 
mammoth, carved by one of its contemporary men on a portion of its 
own tusk, and tlie most admirable production of a Landscer. An 
anthi'opological collection, to be logical, must include all that is in not 
only the old British Museum but the South Kensington Museum and 
the National Gallery. The notion of an anthropology which considers 
savages and pre-histnric people as apart from the rest of mankind may, 
in the, limitations of human powers, have certain conveniences, but it is 
utterly unscientific and loses sight of the great value of the study in 
tracing the gradual growth of our complex systems and customs from the 
primitive ways of our progenitors. 

On the other hand, the division first indicated is as perfectly defi- 
nite, logical, and scientific as any such division can be. That there are 
many inconveniences attending wide local disjunctions of the collections 
containing subjects so distinct yet so nearly allied as physical and psychical 
anthropology must be fully admitted; but these could only have been 
overcome by embracing in one grand institution the various national col- 
lections illustrating the different branches of science and art, placed in 
such order and juxtaposition that their mutual relations might be apparent, 
and the resources of each might be brought to bear upon the elucidation 
of all the others — an ideal institution, such as the world has not yet seen, 
but into which the old British Museum might at one time have been 
developed. 

A purely ' Natural History Museum. ' will then embrace a collection 
of objects illustrating the natural productions of the earth, and in its 
■widest and truest sense should include, as far as they can be illustrated by 
museum specimens, all the sciences which deal with natural phenomena. 
It has only been the difficulties, real or imaginary, in illustrating them 
which have excluded such subjects as astronomy, physics, chemistry, and 
physiology from occupying departments in our National Natural History 
Museum, while allowing the introduction of their sister sciences, minora- 
logy, geology, botany, and zoology. 

Though the experimental sciences and those which deal with the laws 
which govern the universe, rather than with the materials of which it ia 
composed, have not hitherto greatly called forth the collector's instinct, or 
depended upon museums for their illustration, yet the great advantages 
of collections of the various instruments by means of which these sciences 
are pursued, and of examples of the methods by which they are taught, are 



10 REroRT— 1889. 

yearly becoming more manifest. Museums of scientific apparatus now 
form portions of every well-equipped educational establishment, and under 
tbe auspices of the Science and Art Department at South Kensington a 
national collection illustrating those branches of natural history science 
which have escaped recognition in the British Museum is assuming a 
magnitude and importance which brings the question of properly housing 
and displaying it urgently to the front. 

Anomalies such as these are certain to occur in the present almost 
infantile though rapidly progressive state of science. It may be taken for 
granted that no scientific institution of any complexity of organisation 
can be, except at the moment of its birth, abreast of the most modern 
views of the subject, especially in the dividing lines between, and the pro- 
portional representation of, the various branches of knowledge which it 
includes. 

The necessity for subdivisions in the study of science is continually 
becoming more apparent as the knowledge of the details of each subject 
multiplies without corresponding increase in the power of the human 
mind to grasp and deal with them, and the dividing lines not only become 
sharper, but as knowledge advances they frequently require revision. It 
might be supposed that such revision would adjust itself to the direction 
taken by the natural development'of the relations of the different branches 
of science, and the truer conceptions entertained of such relations. But 
this is not always so. Artificial barriers are continually being raised to 
keep these dividing lines in the direction in which they have once started. 
Difficulties of readjustment arise not only from the mechanical obstacles 
caused by the size and arrangements of the buildings and facilities 
for the allocation of various kinds of collections, but still more from the 
numerous personal interests which grow up and wind their meshes 
around such institutions. Professorships and curatorships of this or 
that division of science are founded and endowed, and their holders 
are usually tenacious either of encroachment upon or of any wide en- 
largement of the boundaries of the subject they have undertaken to teach 
or to illustrate ; and in this way, more than any other, passing phases of 
scientific knowledge have become crystallised or fossilised in institutions 
where they might least have been expected. I may instance many Euro- 
pean universities and great museums in which zoology and comparative 
anatomy are still held to be distinct subjects taught by different profes- 
sors, and where, in consequence of the division of the collections under 
their charge, the skin of an animal, illustrating its zoology, and its skele- 
ton and teeth, illustrating its anatomy, must be looked for in different 
and perhaps remotely placed buildings. 

For the perpetuation of the unfortunate separation of palaeontology 
from biology, which is so clearly a survival of an ancient condition 
of scientific culture, and for the maintenance in its integi'ity of the 
heterogeneous compound of sciences which we now call ' geology,' 



ADDRESS. 



11 



the faulty organisation of our museums is in a great measure responsible. 
The more their rearrangement can be made to overstep and break down 
the abrupt line of demarcation which is still almost universally drawn 
between beings which live now and those which have lived in past times, 
so deeply rooted in the popular miad and so hard to eradicate even from 
that of the scientific student, the better it will be for the progress of 
sound biological knowledge. 

But it is not of the removal of such great anomalies and incon- 
sistencies which, Avhen they have once grown up, require heroic methods 
to set them right, but rather of certain minor defects in the organisation 
of almost all "existing museums which are well within the capacity of 
comparatively modest administrative means to remedy, that I have now 

to speak. 

That great improvements have been lately effected in many respects 
in some of the museums in this country, on the Continent, and especially 
in America, no one can deny. The subject, as I have already indicated, 
is, happily, exciting the attention of those who have the direction of 
them, and even awakening interest in the mind of the general public. It 
is in the hope of in some measure helping on or guiding this movement 
that I have ventured on the remarks which follow. 

The first consideration in establishing a museum, large or small, 
either in a town, institution, society, or school, is that it sbould have 
some definite object or purpose to fulfil ; and the next is that means should 
be forthcoming not only to establish but also to maintain the museum in 
a suitable manner to fulfil that purpose. Some persons are enthusiastic 
enough to think that a museum is in itself so good an object that they 
have only to provide a building and cases and a certain number of speci- 
mens, no matter exactly what, to fill them and then the thing is done ; 
whereas the truth is the work has only then began. What a museum really 
depends upon for its success and usefulness is not its building, not its 
cases, not even its specimens, but its curator. He and his staff are the life 
and soul of the institution, upon whom its whole value depends ; and yet in 
many— I may say most of our museums— they are the last to be thought of. 
The care, the preservation, the naming of the specimens are either left to 
voluntary effort— excellent often for special collections and for a limited 
time, but never to be depended on as a permanent arrangement— or a 
grievously undersalaried and consequently uneducated official is expected 
to keep in order, to clean, dust, arrange, name, and display in a manner 
which will contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge, col- 
lections ranging in extent over almost every branch of buman learnmg, 
from the contents of an ancient British barrow to the last discovered 
bird of paradise from New Guinea. 

Valuable specimens not unfrequently find their way into museums thus 
managed. Their piiblic-spirited owners fondly imagine that they will 
be preserved and made of use to the world if once given to such an 



12 "" REPORT— 1889. 

institatioD. Their fate is, unfortunately, far otherwise. Dirty, neglected, 
without label, their identity lost, they are often finally devoured by in- 
sects or cleared away to make room on the crowded shelves for the new 
donation of some fresh patron of the institution. It would be far better 
that such museums should never be founded. They are traps into which 
precious — sometimes priceless — objects fall only to be destroyed ; and, 
"what is still worse, they bring discredit on all similar institutions, 
make the very name of museum a byword and a reproach, hindering 
instead of advancing the recognition of their value as agents in the great 
educational movement of the age. 

A museum is like a living organism — it requires continual and tender 
care. It must grow, or it will perish ; and the cost and labour required to 
maintain it in a state of vitality is not yet by any means fully realised or 
provided for, either in our great national establishments or in our smaller 
local institutions. 

Often as it has been said, it cannot be too often repeated, that the real 
objects of forming collections, of whatever kind (apart, of course, from 
the mere pleasure of acquisition — sometimes the only motive of private 
collectors), and which, although in very different degrees^ and often 
"without being recognised, underlie the organisation of all museums, are 
two, which are quite distinct, and sometimes even conflicting. The first 
is to advance or increase the knowledge of some given subject. This is 
generally tlie motive of the individual collector, whose experience shows 
him the vast assistance in forming definite ideas in any line of research 
in which he may be occupied that may be derived from having the 
materials for its study at his own command, to hold and to handle, to 
examine and compare, to take up and lay aside whenever the favourable 
moment to do so occurs. But unless his subject is a very limited one, or 
his means the reverse, he soon finds the necessity of consulting collections 
based on a larger scale than his own. Very few people have any idea of 
the multiplicity of specimens required for the purpose of working out 
many of the simplest problems concerning the life-history of animals or 
plants. The naturalist has frequently to ransack all the museums, both 
public and private, of Europe and America in the endeavour to compose 
a monograph of a single common genus, or even species, that shall include 
all questions of its variation, changes in different seasons, and under 
different climates and conditions of existence, and the distribution in 
space and time of all its modifications. He often has to confess at the 
end that he has been baffled in his research for want of the requisite 
materials for such an undertaking. Of course this ought not to be, and 
the time will come when it will not be, but that time is very far off yet. 

"We all know the old saying that the craving for riches grows as the 
wealth itself increases. Something similar is true of scientific collections 
brought together for the purpose of advancing knowledge. The larger 
they are the more their deficiencies seem to become conspicuous ; the 



ADDRESS. 



13 



more desirous we are to fill up the gaps -which provokiugly interfere with 
our extracting from them the complete story they have to tell. 

Such collections are, however, only for the advanced student, the man 
who has already become acquainted with the elements of his science and 
is in a position, by his knowledge, by his training, and by his observing 
and reasoning capacity, to take advantage of such material to carry on 
the subject to a point beyond that at which he takes it up. 

But there is another and a far larger class to whom museums are or 
should be a powerful means of aid in acquiring knowledge. Among such 
those who are commencing more serious studies may be included ; but I 
especially refer to the much more numerous class, and one which it may 
be hoped will year by year bear a gi'eater relative proportion to the 
general population of the country, who, without having the time, the 
opportunities, or the abilities to make a profound study of any branch of 
science, yet take a general interest in its progress, and wish to possess 
some knowledge of the world around them and of the principal facts 
ascertained with regard to it, or at least some portions of it. For such 
persons museums may be, when well organised and arranged, of benefit 
to a degree that at present can scarcely be realised. 

To diffuse knowledge among persons of this class is the second of the 
two purposes of museums of which I have spoken. 

I believe that the main cause of what may be fairly termed the failure 
of the majority of museums — especially museums of natui-al history — to 
perform the functions that might be legitimately expected of them is that 
they nearly always confound together the two distinct objects which they 
may fulfil, and by attempting to combine both in the same exhibition 
practically accomplish neither. 

In accordance with which of those two objects, which may be briefly 
called research and instruction, is the main end of the museum, so should 
the whole be primarily arranged ; and in accordance with the object for 
which each specimen is required, so should it be treated. 

The specimens kept for research, for advancement of knowledge, for 
careful investigations in structure and development, or for showing the 
minute distinctions which must be studied in working out the problems 
connected with variations of species according to age, sex, season, or 
locality ; for fixing the limits of geographical distribution, or determining 
the range in geological time, must be not only exceedingly numerous (so 
numerous, indeed, that it is almost impossible to put a limit on what 
may be required for such purposes J, but they must also be kept under 
such conditions as to admit of ready and close examination and com- 
parison. 

If the whole of the specimens really required for enlarging the boun- 
daries of zoological or botanical science were to be displayed in such a 
manner that each one could be distinctly seen by any visitor sauntering 
through the public galleries of a museum, the vastness and expense of the 



14 BEPOKT — 1889. 

institution would be out of all proportion to its utility ; the specimens 
themselves would be quite inaccessible to tlie examination of all those 
capable of deriving iustruction from them, and, owing to the injurious 
effects of continued exposure to light upon the greater number of pre- 
served natural objects, would ultimately lose a large part of their per- 
manent value. Collections of this kind must, in fact, be treated as the 
books in a library, and be used only for consultation and reference by 
those who are able to read and appreciate their contents. To demand, as 
has been ignorantly done, that all the specimens belonging to onr national 
museums, for instance, should be displayed in cases in the public galleries, 
would be equivalent to asking that every book in a library, instead of 
being shut up and arranged on shelves for consultation when required, 
should have every single page framed and glazed and hung on the walls, 
so that the humblest visitor as he passes along the galleries has only to 
open his eyes and revel in the wealth of literature of all ages and all 
countries, without so much as applying to a custodian to open a case. 
Such an arrangement is perfectly conceivable. The idea from some 
points of view is magnificent, almost sublime. But imagine the space 
required for such an arrangement of the national library of books, or, 
indeed, of any of the smallest local libraries ; imagine the inconvenience 
to the real student, the disadvantages which he would be under in read- 
ing the pages of any work fixed in an immovable position beneath a glass 
case ; think of the enormous distances he would often have to traverse to 
compare a reference or verify a quotation, and the idea of sublimity soon 
gives place to its usual antithesis. The attempt to display every bird, 
every insect, shell, or plant which is or ought to be in any of our great 
museums of reference would produce an exactly similar result. 

In the arrangement of collections designed for research, which, of 
course, will contain all those precious specimens called ' types,' which 
must be appealed to through all time to determine the species to which a 
name was originally given, the principal points to be aimed at are — the 
preservation of the objects from all influences deleterious to them, espe- 
cially dust, light, and damp ; their absolutely correct identification, and 
record of every circumstance that need be known of their history ; their 
classification and storage in such a manner that each one can be found 
without difficulty or loss of time ; and, both on account of expense as well 
as convenience of access, they should be made to occupy as small a space 
as is compatible with these requirements. They should be kept in rooms 
provided with suitable tables and good light for their examination, and 
within reach of the necessary books of reference on the particular sub- 
jects which the specimens illustrate. Furthermore, the rooms should be 
so situated that the officers of the museum, without too great hindrance 
to their own work, can be at hand for occasional assistance and super- 
vision of the student, and if collections of research and exhibited specimens 
are contained in one building, it is obvious that the closer the contiguity 



ADDRESS. 1 5 

in which those of any particular gronp are placed the greater will be the 
convenience both of students and curators, for in very few establishments 
will it be possible to form each series on such a scale as to be entirely 
independent of the other. 

On the other hand, in a collection arranged for the instruction of the 
general visitor, the conditions under Avhich the specimens are kept should 
be totally different. In the first place, their numbers must be strictly 
limited, according to the nature of the subject to be illustrated and the 
space available. None must be placed too high or too low for ready 
examination. There must be no crowding of specimens one behind the 
other, every one being perfectly and distinctly seen, and with a clear 
space around it. Imagine a picture-gallery with half the pictures on the 
walls partially or entirely concealed by others hung in front of them ; 
the idea seems preposterous, and yet this is the approved arrangement of 
specimens in most public museums. If an object is worth putting into 
a gallery at all it is worth such a position as will enable it to be seen. 
Every specimen exhibited should bo good of its kind, and all available 
skill and care should be spent upon its preservation and rendering it 
capable of teaching the lesson it is intended to convey. And here I can- 
not refrain from saying a word upon the sadly neglected art of taxidermy, 
which continues to fill the cases of most of our museums with wretched 
and repulsive caricatures of mammals and birds, out of all natural propor- 
tions, shrunken here and bloated there, and in attitudes absolutely 
impossible for the creature to have assumed while alive. Happily there 
may be seen occasionally, especially where amateurs of artistic taste and 
good knowledge of natural history have devoted themselves to the sub- 
ject, examples enough — and you are fortunate in possessing them in ]S"ew- 
castle — to show that an animal can be converted after death, by a proper 
application of taxidermy, into a real life-like representation of the original, 
perfect in form, proportions, and attitude, and almost, if not quite, as 
valuable for conveying information on these points as the living creature 
itself The fact is that taxidermy is an art resembling that of the painter 
or rather the sculptor ; it requires natural genius as well as great culti- 
vation, and it can never be permanently improved until we have aban- 
doned the present conventional low standard and low payment for ' bird- 
stuflBng,' which is utterly inadequate to induce any man of capacity to 
devote himself to it as a profession. 

To return from this digi-ession, every specimen exhibited should have 
its definite purpose, and no absolute duplicate should on any account be 
permitted. Above all, the purpose for which each specimen is exhibited, 
and the main lesson to be derived from it, must be distinctly indicated by 
the labels afiixed, both as headings of the various divisions of the series, 
and to the individaal specimens. A well-arranged educational museum 
has been defined as a collection of insti'uctive labels illustrated by well- 
selected specimens. 



16 EEPOBT— 1889. 

What is, or stould be, the order of events in arranging a portion of a 
public museum ? Not, certainly, as too often happens now, bringing a 
number of specimens iogether almost by haphazard, and cramming them 
as closely as possible in a case far too small to hold them, and with little 
reference to their order or to the possibility of their being distinctly seen. 
First, as I said before, you must have your curator. He must carefully 
consider the object of the museum, the class and capacities of the persons 
for whose instruction it is founded, and the space available to carry out 
this object. He will then divide the subject to be illustrated into groups, 
and consider their relative proportions, according to which he will plan 
out the space. Large labels will next be prepared for the principal head- 
ings, as the chapters of a book, and smaller ones for the various subdivi- 
sions. Certain propositions to be illustrated, either in the structure, classi- 
fication, geographical distribution, geological position, habits, or evolu- 
tion of the subjects dealt with, will be laid down and reduced to definite 
and concise language. Lastly will come the illustrative specimens, each 
of which as procured and prepared will fall into its appropriate place. 
As it is not always easy to obtain these at the time that they are wanted, 
gaps will often have to be left, but these, if properly utilised by drawings 
or labels, may be made nearly as useful as if occupied by the actual 
specimens. 

A public exhibition which is intended to be instructive and interest- 
ing must never be crowded. There is, indeed, no reason why it ever should 
be. Every such exhibition, whether on a large or small scale, can only 
contain a representative series of specimens, selected with a view to the 
needs of the particular class of persons who are likely to visit the gallery, 
and the number of specimens exhibited should be adapted to the space 
available. There is, therefore, rarely any excuse for filling it up in such a 
manner as to interfere with the full view of every specimen shown. A 
crowded gallery, except in some very exceptional circumstances, at once 
condemns the curator, as the remedy is generally in his own hands. In 
order to avoid it he has nothing to do but sternly to eliminate all the less 
important specimens. If any of these possess features of historical or 
scientific interest demanding their permanent preservation, they .should 
be kept in the reserve collections ; if otherwise, they should not be kept 
at all. 

The ideal public museums of the future will, however, require far 
more exhibition space than has hitherto been allowed; for though the 
number of specimens shown may be fewer than is often thought necessary 
now, each will require more room if the conditions above described are 
carried out, and especially if it is thought desirable to show it in such a 
manner as to enable the visitor to realise something of the wonderful 
complexity of the adaptations which bring each species into harmonious 
relation with its surrounding conditions. Artistic reproductions of natural 
environments, illustrations of protective resemblances, or of special modes 



ADDRESS. 1 7 

of life, all require much room for their display. This method of exhibition, 
•wherever faithfully carried out, is, however, proving both instructive and 
attractive, and will doubtless be greatly extended. 

Guide-books and catalogues are useful adjuncts, as being adapted to 
convey fuller information than labels, and as they can be taken away for 
study during the intervals of visits to the museum, but they can never 
supersede the use of labels. Anyone who is in the habit of visiting 
picture-galleries where the names of the artists and the subject are 
affixed to the frame, and others in which the information has in each 
case to be sought by reference to a catalogue, must appreciate the vast 
snpeiiority in comfort and time-saving of the former plan. 

Acting upon such principles as these, every public gallery of a 
museum, whether the splendid saloon of a national institution or the 
humble room containing the local collection of a village club, can be 
made a centre of instruction, and will offer interests and attractions 
which will be looked for in vain in the majority of such institutions 
at the present time. 

One of the best illustrations of the different treatment of collections 
intended for research or advancement of knowledge, and for popular 
instruction or diffusion of knowledge, is now to be seen in Kew Gardens, 
where the admirably constructed and arranged herbarium answers the 
first purpose, and the public museums of economic botany the second. 
A similar distinction is carried out in the collections of systematic botany 
in the natural history branch of the British Museum, with the additional 
advantage of close contiguity ; indeed, as an example of a scheme of good 
museum arrangement (although not perfect yet in details) I cannot 
do better than refer to the upper story of the east wing of that institu- 
tion. Tbe same principles, little regarded in former times in this coun- 
try, and still unknown in some of the largest Continental museums, are 
gradually pervading every department of the institution, which, from its 
national character, its metropolitan position, and exceptional resources, 
ought to illustrate in perfection the ideal of a natural history museum. 
In fact, it is only in a national institntion that an exhaustive research 
collection in all branches of natural history, in which the specialist 
of every group can find his own subject fully illustrated, can or ought to 
be attempted. 

As the actual comparison of specimen with specimen is the basis of 
zoological and botanical research, and as work done with imperfect 
materials is necessarily imperfect in itself, it is far the wisest policy to 
concentrate in a few great central institutions, the number and situation 
of which must be determined by the population and the resources of the 
country, all the collections, especially those containing specimens already 
alluded to as so dear to the systematic naturalist, known as author's 
' *'ypcS)' required for original investigations. It is far more advantageous 
to the investigator to go to such a collection and take up his temporary 
1889. 



18 EEPOKT — 1889. 

abode there, -while his research is being carried out, -with all the material 
required at his hand at once, than to travel from place to place and pick 
up piecemeal the information he requires, without opportunity of direct 
comparison of specimens. 

I do not say that collections for special study, and even original 
research, should not, under particular circumstances and limitations, be 
formed at museums other than central national institutions, or that 
nothing should be retained in provincial museums but what is of a directly 
educational or elementary nature. A local collection, illustrating the 
fauna and flora of the district, should be part of every such museum ; 
and this may be carried to almost any amount of detail, and therefore in 
many cases it would be very nnadvisable to exhibit the whole of it. A 
selection of the most important objects may be shown under the con- 
ditions described above, and the remainder carefully preserved in cabinets 
for the study of specialists. 

It is also very desirable in all museums, in order that the exhibited 
series should be as little disturbed as possible in arrangement, and be 
always available for the purpose for which it is intended, that there should 
be, for the use of teachers and students, a supplementary set of com- 
mon objects, which, if injured, could be easily replaced. It must not be 
foi'ffotten that the zealous investisjator and the conscientious curator 
are often the direst antagonists : the one endeavours to get all the know- 
ledge he can out of a specimen, regardless of its ultimate fate, and even 
if his own eyes alone have the advantage of it ; the other is content if a 
limited portion only is seen, provided that can be seen by everyone both 
now and hereafter. 

Such, then, is the primary principle which ought to underlie the 
arrangement of all museums — the distinct separation of the two objects 
for which collections ai'e made ; the publicly exhibited collection being 
never a store-room or magazine, but only such as the ordinary visitor can 
understand and profit by, and the collection for students being so arranged 
as to afibrd every facility for examination and research. The improvements 
that can be made in detail in both departments are endless, and to enter 
further into their consideration would lead me far beyond the limits of 
this address. Happily, as I said before, the subject is receiving much 
attention. 

I would willingly dwell longer upon it — indeed I feel that I have only 
been able to touch slightly and superficially upon many questions of 
practical interest, well worthy of more detailed consideration — but 
time warns me that I must be bringing this discourse to a close, and I 
have still said nothing in reference to subjects upon which you may expect 
some words on this occasion. I mean those great problems concerning 
the laws which regulate the evolution of organic beings, problems which 
agitate the minds of all biologists of the present day, and the solution of 
which is watched with keen interest by a far wider circle — a circle, in 



ADDRESS. 19 

fact, coincident with tlic intelligence and education of the world. Several 
commnnications connected with these problems will be broufrht before 
the sectional meetings during the next few days, and we shall have the 
advantage of hearing them discussed by some of those who by virtue of 
their special attention to and full knowledge of these subjects are most 
competent to speak with authority. It is therefore for me rather delicate 
ground to tread upon, especially at the close of a discourse mainly devoted 
to another question. I will, however, briefly point out the nature of the 
problems and the lines which the endeavour to solve them will probably 
take, without attempting to anticipate the details which you will doubt- 
less hear most fully and ably stated elsewhere. 

I think I may safely premise that few, if any, original workers at any 
branch of biology appear now to entertain serious doubt about the general 
truth of the doctrine that all existing forms of life have been derived 
from other forms by a natural process of descent with modification, and 
it is generally acknowledged that to the records of the past history of 
life upon the earth we must look for the actual confirmation of the truth 
of a doctrine which accords so strongly with all we know of the present 
history of living beings. 

Professor Huxley wrote in 1875 : ' The only perfectly safe foundation 
for the doctrine of evolution lies in the historical, or rather archreological, 
evidence that particular organisms have arisen by the gradual modifica- 
tion of their predecessors, which is furnished by fossil remains. That 
evidence is daily increasing in amount and in weight, and it is to be 
hoped that the comparisons of the actual pedigree of these organisms with 
the phenomena of their development may furnish some criterion by which 
the validity of phylogenic conclusions deduced from the facts of embryo- 
logy alone may be satisfactorily tested.' 

PalfBontology, however, as we all know, reveals her secrets with no 
open hand. How can we be reminded of this more forcibly than by the 
discovery announced scarcely three months ago by Professor Marsh of 
numerous mammalian remains from formations of the Cretaceous period, 
the absence of which had so long been a source of difficulty to all zoolo- 
gists ? What vistas does this discovery open of future possibilities, and 
•what thorough discredit, if any were needed, docs it tlii-ow on the value 
of negative evidence in such matters ! Bearing fully in mind the neces- 
sary imperfection of the record we have to deal with, I think that no 
one taking an impartial survey of the recent progress of pala2ontologIcal 
discovery can doubt that the evidence in favour of a gradual modification 
of living forms is still steadily increasing. Any regular progressive series 
of changes of structure coinciding with changes in time can of course 
only be expected to be preserved and to come again before our eyes 
nnder such a favourable combination of circumstances as must bo of 
most rare occurrence ; but the links, more or less perfect, of many snoh 
series are continually being revealed, and the discovery of a single intcr- 

c 2 



20 REPORT — 1889. 

mediate form is often of immense interest as indicating the path along- 
which the modification from one apparently distinct form to another may 
have taken place. 

Though palajontology may be appealed to in support of the conclusion 
that modifications have taken place as time advanced, it can scarcely 
afford any help in solving the more difficult problems which still remain 
as to the methods by which the changes have been brought about. 

Ever since the publication of what has been truly described as the 
'creation of modern natural history,' Darwin's work on the ' Origin of 
Species,' there has been no little controversy as to how far all the modi- 
fications of living forms can be accounted for by the principle of natural 
selection or preservation of variations best adapted for their surrounding 
conditions, or whether any, and if so what, other factors have taken pari. 
in the process of organic evolution. 

It certainly cannot be said that in these later times the controversy 
has ended. Indeed those who are acquainted with scientific literatui'e 
must know that notes struck at the last annual meeting of this Associatiou 
produced a series of reverberations, the echoes of which have hardly yet 
died away. 

Within the last few months also two important works have appeared 
in our country, which have placed in an accessible and popular form many 
of the data upon which the most prevalent views on the subject are based. 

The first is ' Darwinism : an Exposition of the Theory of Natural 
Selection, with some of its Applications,' by Alfred Russel Wallace. No 
one could be found so competent to give such an exposition of the theory 
as one who was, simultaneously with Darwin, its independent originator, 
but who, by the title he has chosen no less than by the contents of the 
book, has, with rare modesty and self-abnegation, transferred to his fellow- 
labourer all the merit of the discovery of what he evidently looks upon 
as a principle of overwhelming importance in the economy of nature •, 
' supreme,' indeed, he says, ' to an extent which even Darwin himself 
hesitated to claim for it.' 

The other work I refer to is the English translation of the remark- 
able ' Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems,' by Di*. 
August Weismann, published at the Oxford Clarendon Press, in which is 
fully discussed the very important but still open question — a question 
which was brought into prominence at our meeting at Manchester two 
years ago — of the transmission or non-transmission to the offspring of 
characters acquired during the lifetime of the parent. 

It is generally recognised that it is one of the main elements of Dar- 
win's, as well as of every other theory of evolution, that there is in every 
individual organic being an innate tendency to vary from the standard 
of its predecessors, but that this tendency is usually kept under the 
sternest control by the opposite tendency to resemble them, a force to 
which the terms ' heredity ' and ' atavism ' are applied. The causes. 



ADDKESS. 



21 



<yf this initial tendency to vary, as well as those of its limits and pre- 
vailing direction, and the circumstances which favour its occasional burst- 
ing through the constraining principle of heredity offer an endless field 
for speculation. Thongh several theories of variation have been sug- 
gested, I think that no one would venture to say we have passed beyond 
the threshold of knowledge of the subject at present. 

Taking for granted, however, as we all do, that this tendency to 
individual variation exists, then comes the question, What are the agents 
by which, when it has asserted itself, it is controlled or directed in 
fluch a manner as to produce the permanent or apparently permanent 
modifications of organic structures which we see around us ? Is ' survival 
of the fittest ' or preservation by natural selection of those variations best 
adapted for their surrounding conditions (the essentially Darwinian or 
still more essentially Wallacian doctrine) the sole or even the chief of 
these agents ? Can isolation, or the revived Lamarckian view of the direct 
action of the environment, or the effects of use or disuse accumulating 
through generations, either singly or combined, account for all ? or is it 
necessary to invoke the aid of any of the numerous subsidiary methods 
of selection which have been suggested as factors in bringing about the 
great result ? 

Anyone who has closely followed these discussions, especially those 
bearing most directly upon what is generally regarded as the most 
important factor of evolution— natural selection, or ' survival of the 
fittest '—cannot fail to have noticed the appeal constantly made to the 
advantage, the utility, or otherwise of special organs or modifications of 
organs or structures to their possessors. Those who have convinced 
themselves of the universal application of the doctrine of natural selection 
hold that every particular structure or modification of structure must be 
of utility to the animal or plant in which it occurs, or to some ancestor 
of that animal or plant, otherwise it could not have come into existence ; 
the only reservation being for cases which are explained by the principle 
which Darwin called ' correlation of growth.' Thus the extreme natural 
selectionists and the old-fashioned school of teleologists are so far in 
agreement. 

On the other hand, it is held by some that numerous structures and 
modifications of structures are met with in nature which are manifestly 
useless; it is even confidently stated that there are many which are 
positively injurious to their possessor, and therefore could not possibly 
have resulted from the action of natural selection of favourable variations. 
Organs or modifications when in an incipient condition are especially 
quoted as bearing upon this difficulty. But here, it seems to me, we are 
continually appealing to a criterion by which to test our theories of which 
we know far too little, and this (though often relied upon as the strongest) 
is, in reality, the weakest point of the whole discussion. 

Of the variations of the form and structure of organic bodies we are 



22 EEPOET — 1889 

beginning to know sometliing. Our museums, when more complete and 
better organised, will teach us much on this branch of the subject. They 
■will show us the infinite and wonderful and apparently capricious modifi- 
cations of form, colour, and of texture to which every most minute portion 
of the organisation of the innumerable creatures which people the earth 
is subject. They will show us examples of marvellously complicated 
and delicate arrangements of organs and tissues iu many of what we 
consider as almost the lowest and most imperfectly organised groups of 
beings with which we are acquainted. But as to the use of all these 
structures and modifications in the economy of the creatures that possess 
them, we know, I may almost say, nothing, and our museums will never 
teach us these things. If time permitted I might give numerous examples 
in the most familiar of all animals, whose habits and actions are matters 
of daily observation, with whose life-history we are as well acquainted 
almost as we are with our own, of structures the purposes of which are stili 
most doubtful. There are many such even in the composition of our own 
bodies. How, then, can we expect to answer such questions when they 
relate to animals known to us only by dead specimens, or by the most 
transient glimpses of the living in a state of nature, or when kept under 
the most unnatural conditions in confinement ? And yet this is actually 
the state of our knowledge of the vast majority of the myriads of living 
beings which inhabit the earth. How can we, with our limited powers of 
observation and limited capacity of imagination, venture to pronounce an 
opinion as to the fitness or unfitness for its complex surroundings of 
some peculiar modification of structure found in some strange animal 
dredged up from the abysses of the ocean, or which passes its life in the dim 
seclusion of some tropical forest, and into the essential conditions of 
whose existence we have at present no possible means of putting our- 
selves in any sort of relation ? 

How true it is that, as Sir John Lubbock says, ' we find in animals 
complex organs of sense richly supplied with nerves, but the functions of 
which we are as yet powerless to explain. There may be fifty other 
senses as different from ours as sound is from sight ; and even within the 
boundaries of our own senses there may be endless sounds which we can- 
not hear, and colours as different as red from green of which we have no 
conception. These and a thousand other questions remain for solution. 
The familiar world which surrounds us may be a totally different place to 
other animals. To them it may be full of music which we cannot hear, of 
colour which we cannot see, of sensations which we cannot conceive.' 

The fact is that nearly all attempts to assign purposes to the varied 
structures of animals are the merest guesses. The writers on natural 
history of the early part of the present century, who 'for every why 
must have a wherefore,' abound in these guesses, which wider know- 
ledge shows to be untenable. Many of the arguments for or against 
natural selection, based upon the assumed utility or equally assumed 



ADDRESS^ 23 

uselcssnoss of animal and vegetable structure?, have nothing more to 
recommend them. In fact, to say that any part of the organisation of an 
animal or plant, or any habit or instinct with which it is endowed, is 
useless, or, still more, injurious, seems to me an assumption which, in 
our present state of knowledge, we are not warranted in making. The 
time may come when we shall have more light, but infinite patience and 
infinite labour are required before we shall be in a position to speak dog- 
matically on these my^taries of nature — labour not only in museums, 
laboratories, and dissecting-rooms, but in the homes and haunts of the 
animals themselves, watching and noting their ways amid their natural 
surroundings, by which means alone we can hope to unravel the secrets 
of their life-history. But until that time comes, though we may not be 
quite tempted to echo the despairing cry of the poet, ' Behold, we know 
not anything,' a frank confession of ignorance is the best that we have 
to offer when questioned upon these subjects. 

However much we may be convinced of the supreme value of scientific 
methods of observation and of reasoning, both as mental training of the 
individual and in the elucidation of truth and advancement of knowledge 
generally, it is impossible to be blind to the fact that we who are engaged 
with the investigation of those subjects which are commonly accepted as 
belonging to the domain of physical science are unfortunately not always, 
by virtue of being so occupied, possessed of that most precious gift, * a 
right judgment in all things.' 

No one intimately acquainted with the laborious and wavering steps 
of the progress of biological science can look upon that progress with a 
perf(!ct feeling of satisfaction. 

Can it be said of any of us that our observations are always accurate, 
the materials on which they are based always sufficient, our reasoning 
always sound, our conclusions always legitimate ? Is there any subject, 
however limited, of which our knowledge can be said to have reached 
finality ? 

Or if it happens to any of us as to 

A man who looks at glass 

On it may stay his eye, 
Or if he pleases through it pass 

And then the heavens espy, 

are not those heavens which are beyond the immediate objects of our 
observation coloured by our prejudices, prepossessions, emotions, or 
imagination, as often as they are defined by any profound insight into 
the depth of nature's laws ? In most of these questions an open mind 
and a suspended judgment appear to me the true scientific position, 
whichever way our inclinations may lead us. 

For myself, I must own that when I endeavour to look beyond the 
glass, and frame some idea of the plan upon which all the diversity in the 
organic world has been brought about, I see the strongest grounds for 



24 EEPORT — 1889. 

the belief, difficult as it sometimes is in the face of the strange, incompre- 
hensible, apparent defects in structure, and the far stranger, weird, ruth- 
less savagery of habit, often brought to light by the study of the ways of 
living creatures, that natural selection, or survival of the fittest, has, among 
other agencies, played a most important part in the production of the 
present condition of the organic world, and that it is a universally acting 
and beneficent force continually tending towards the perfection of the 
individual, of the race, and of all living nature. 

I can even go further and allow my dream still thus to run : 

Oh yet we trust that somehow good 
Will be the final goal of ill, — 

That nothing walks with aimless feet. 

That not one life shall be destroyed 

Or cast as rubbish to the void 
When God hath made the pile complete. 



KEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. 
Johnson {Secretary), J. G. Macgregor, J. B. Cherriman, and 
H. T. BovEY and Mr. C. Carpmael, appointed for the purpose 
of promoting Tidal Observations in Canada. 

The Committee desire to refer to a previons report, in which it was 
announcecl that the then Minister of Marine (the Hon. G. Foster) had 
directed that some preliminary investigations should be made by Lieut. 
Gordon, E..N., who was to put himself in communication with Prof. 
Darwin. The Minister, however, said that the existing expenditure on 
hydrographic surveys made it necessary to postpone for the time the 
consideration of further steps concerning tidal observations. 

Your Committee was reappointed last year to keep the subject before 
the notice of the Government, in the hope that this systematic tidal work 
would be begun this year. In May last an interview was obtained with 
the Hon. C. Tupper, the present Minister of Marine, at which Sir Wm. 
Dawson was present. The Minister expressed himself as entirely favour- 
able to the institution of the proposed tidal observations, but said that 
the financial position as regards the expenditure on hydrographic surveys 
was the same as last year, and that therefore no further steps could be 
taken as yet in the matter. 

It is believed that since the interview some of the expenditure in 
hydrographic surveys has ceased, and as there is reason to believe that 
other Cabinet ministers are in favour of the proposed measure, the Com- 
mittee deem the prospects of carrying it into execution very satisfac- 
tory. 

There is no doubt about the anxiety of shipmasters to have the tidal 
investigations set on foot immediately, and the Royal Society of Canada 
deem the matter of such great practical importance, that at their last 
meeting they appointed a special Committee to give enerj^etic support to 
the action of this Committee. 



28 REi'OET— 1889. 



First Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord RATLEion (Chair- 
man), Professor Cayley, Mr. J. W. L. Glaishee, Professor A. 
Gr. Greenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, Professor B. Peice, Sir 
William Thomson, and Professor A. Lodge {Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of considering the possibility of cal- 
culating Tables of certain Mathematical Functions, and, if 
necessary, of talcing steps to carry out the calculations and to 
publish the results in an accessible form. 

The tables -which have first come under the consideration of the Com- 
mittee are those of the Bessel Functions, viz., the solutions of the diffe- 
rential equations : 

■^'£'+4><'''-'>=° • • • (^)' 

and 

^'?-^ + ^?+(^'+"> = • • • (2)- 

The two solutions of equation (1) are denoted by ZJ^x) and T„(re). 
No tables appear to have been made of YJx), but there are several tables 
of J,^*)- The most complete tables of JoC*) and Jj ix), and the only tables 
of these functions which are published separately, have been published (at 
Berlin) during the present year by Dr. Meissel, of Kiel, giving the func- 
tions to 12 decimal places for values of x from to 15'50 at intervals of 
001. A shoi't table is given by Bessel ('Uber die planetarischen Storun- 
gen '), and others are to be found in Lommel, ' Uber die Bessel'schcn 
Functionen,' and Lord Rayleigh, ' Theory of Sound,' vol. i. Lommel's 
and Lord Rayleigli's tables were originally calculated by Hansen, and 
published by him, but the notation adopted by Hansen was different from 
that now used, What is usually called J„(a;) he denoted by J„(^a;). 
Lommel's tables give Jo(.t) and J,(.-);) to 6 places from a; = to 20-0 at 
intervals of 01, and a few values of J„(*) for other integral values of n. 

The two solutions of equation (2) the Committee propose to call \,fx) 
and K„(a;), in accordance with that adopted by Mr. Basset in the second 
volume of his treatise on Hydromechanics. They have calculated ^,f^x) 
for integral values of n from to 11, from a- — to 6 at intervals of 0-2. 
The calculations are to 12 significant figures, except in the case of \^^{x), 
some of which are given to 12 and some to 11 figures. The last figure is 
approximate. A series of 7; zeros between the decimal point and the first 
significant figure is expressed by 0". It is proposed to interpolate to the 
interval O'Ol in, at any rate, the cases of Jo(a;) and Ii(a-), and to continue 
them to higher value s of x, with a view to publishing the various series 
of functions in book form. 

The Committee desire to thank Professor M'Leod for the temporary 
loan of his ' Edmondson's Calculating Machine,' and Mr. Walter G. 
Gregory and Miss B. C. Lodge for considerable assistance in the calcu- 
lations. 



ON CALCULATING TABLES OF MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



29 



X 


lo(^) 


iiOO 


Ij(x) 


00 


1-00000000000 


nil 


nil 


0-2 
0-4 
0-6 
0-8 


101002502780 
104040178223 
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1-2 
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18 


1-39372558413 
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4-88079258586 


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38 


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11-3019219521 


9-75946515371 


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7-86835133327 
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5-0 


27-2398718236 


24-3356421424 


17^5056149666 


52 
5-4 
5-6 

5-8 


32-5835927106 
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29-2543098818 
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60 


67-2344069764 


61-3419367775 


46-7870947172 



30 



BEPOET 1889. 



X 


l3(^-) 


U^) 


U^) 


00 


nil 


nil 


nil 


0-2 
0-4 
0-6 
0-8 


•0'167083750232 
•0=134672011869 
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• 1-0 


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•0393590030648 
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-0=580066622187 
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20 


•212739959240 


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•0=982567932312 


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•297627709533 
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•234079089848 


-0163735913822 
-0262565006355 
-0407858678054 
-0616860125932 


30 


•959753629490 


•325705181936 


•0912064776610 


32 
3-4 
3-6 

3-8 


1-24888076598 
1-61191521679 
2-06609880918 
2-63257822397 


•446647066782 
•604902664549 
•810456197666 
107575157832 


-132263099020 
•188614829615 
-265085036586 
•367838059088 


4-0 


3-33727577843 


1-41627570765 


•504724363113 


4^2 
4-4 

4-6 
4-8 


4-21195220660 
5-29550364442 
6-63554425495 
8-29033717554 


1-85127675241 
2-40464812914 
3-10601585905 
3-99207544030 


•685710773430 
•923416136884 
1-23377754356 
1-63687810838 


50 


10-33] 1501691 


5-10823476364 


2-15797454732 ' 


6-2 
5-4 
56 
5-8 


12-8451290635 
15-9388023977 
19-7423554848 
24-4148422891 


6-51063229818 
8-26861530445 
10-4677818331 
13-2137134973 


2-82877168171 
3-68900194663 
4-78838143757 
6-18903056865 


60 


30-1505402994 


16-6365544178 


7-96846774238 



-1 

I 



OS CALCULATING TABLES OF MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



31 



X 


leW 


I7W 


IsC-"^) 


0-0 


nil 


nil 


nil 


0-2 

0-4 

' 0-6 

o-s 


•0«1 39087425642 
•0'S93980971214 
•0n02r.59132723 
•0=582022868887 


•0"'198660852119 
•08255240920874 
•0'438834749717 
•0«331639053615 


•0'=248291584037 
•0'»637748154995 
•0''164357788982 
•0'165452506106 


1-0 


■0'224886614771 


•0^59921823120 


•0-996062403333 


1-2 
1-4 
1-6 

1-8 


•0*682085631142 

•0n75196213558 

•0^398740613950 

. •0^827978932673 


•0*580928790861 
•on 73686673046 
•0*450598913012 
•0»104953102941 


•0''433537513798 
•0^150954051219 
•05446656506452 
-0*116770209099 


20 


•0=160017336352 


•0'224639142001 


•0*276993695123 


2'2 
2-4 
2G 
2-8 


■0=291946711786 
•0'508136715570 
•0=850453706344 
•0137719020155 


•0'449225284743 
•0^849664857007 
•0=153415828186 
'0=266357538382 


•0*607607604085 
•0^124988823159 
•0'243684776533 
•0'454025096400 


30 


•0216835897328 


•0=447211872992 


•0=813702326455 


3-2 

3-4 
3fi 

3-8 


•0333248823452 
•0501531656813 
•0741088738166 
•107756685981 


•0=729479022559 
•0116036566222 
•0180554571973 
•0275537875687 


•0=141017510822 
•0=237340311951 
•0=389320693838 
•0=624273178058 


40 


•154464799871 


•0413299635012 


•0=980992761666 


4-2 
4-4 

4« 

4-8 


•218632053769 
•305975090770 
•423890764347 
•581912714514 


•0610477626605 
•0889386166028 
•127975549614 
•182096322090 


•0151395115677 
•0229885833970 
•0343999611745 
•0507984417519 


50 

5-2 
5-4 
5-6 
5-8 


•792285668997 


•256488941728 


•0741166321596 


1 •07068675643 
1^43713021810 
r91710069457 
2-54297113760 


•357956089960 
•495379239735 
•680308520630 
•927710973612 


•106958821921 
•152813670643 
•216329392995 
•303668787505 


60 


3-35577484714 


1^25691804811 


•422966068203 



32 



KEPORT — 1889. 



X 


l9(0 


Iio(.^) 


Iii(^) 


00 


nil 


nil 


nil 


0-2 
0-4 
0-6 
0-8 


•0"275848890728 
■0"141658875600 
•0'«547312431307 
•0''734041402172 


•0"^275823817735 
•0'=283214795193 
•0"164059590224 
•0'»293190617555 


•0*825072993 174 
•0*5514780037287 
•0'=447130560011 
•0"106485828421 


10 


•08551838586274 


•0'275294803983 


•0'»124897830849 


1-2 
1-4 
1-6 
1-8 


•0-287877246335 
-0''116775736690 
•0«394240656000 
■0ni5736151949 


•0«172164429560 
•0«813818331745 
•0'313576845153 
•0''103405714922 


•0"'9365304020 
•0»51597501248 
0'*22695995590 
•0884091314720 


20 


•0''304418590271 


•0''301696387935 


■0'272220233597 


2-2 
2-4 
2-6 
2.8 


•0^732884540826 
•on 64060359505 
•0*345596570386 
•0*691462615510 


•0«797479795484 
•0^194355352977 
•0^42561241924 
•0^951341501153 


•0-79029085679 
•0''20975653574 
•0''51648458289 
•0^1932971830 


30 


•0=132372988831 


•0*194643934705 


•0*26103656940 


3-2 
3-4 
3-6 

3-8 


•0^243914684482 
•0=434700765661 
•0=752315248879 
•0-126860112417 


•0*381550080109 
•0*720461248306 
•0=131630693989 
•0=233568660836 


•0*544588441373 
•0*109000313633 
•0*210336156069 
•0*39292909243 


40 


■02209025303452 


•0=403788961327 


•0*713082278832 


4-2 
4-4 
4-6 
4-8 


•02337343287863 
•0^534376788633 
•0^832351074598 
•0127681829170 


•0=681942087915 
•0-112771477116 
•02182970173372 
•0^291775581322 


•0=126089602839 
•0=217791653765 
•0=36828581676 
•0=61086702855 


5-0 


•0193157188168 


•0=458004441917 


•0=995541140110 


5-2 
5-4 
5-6 
5-8 


•0288520225117 
•0425979933861 
•0622245406441 
•0900039735967 


•0=708643630312 
•0108203593556 
•0163219409248 
•0243461108260 


•0=159649826893 
•0=252258836536 
•0=393189448412 
•0=605186730033 


60 


•129008532906 


•0359404694846 


•0=920696795753 



ON THE MAGNETISATION OF IKON. 33 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Fitzgerald 
(Chairman), Professor Barrett (Secretary), and Mr. Trouton, 
appointed to investigate the Molecular Phenomena connected 
luith the Magnetisation of Iron. 

(DwiNG to various causes, it is not proposed on the present occasion to do 
more than present a formal interim report, reserving to next year the 
full report of the Committee. 

So much work has of late been done on the general subject of the 
molecular phenomena attending magnetisation, that it would now be 
beyond the scope of the Committee adequately to report on the whole 
matter. We propose, therefore, . in the first instance, to confine our 
report to those phenomena accompanying the so-called critical tempera- 
ture of iron — that point in or near which the magnetic state is lost in 
heating and regained on cooling. Here, at a dull red heat a series of 
profound and remarkable changes occur in iron and steel, to which atten- 
tion was called in a paper ' On certain remarkable Molecular Changes 
occuri'ing in Iron Wire at a Low Red Heat,' read by the Secretary of 
this Committee at the meeting of the British Association at Bradford 
in 1873, and subsequently published in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for 
December 1873. In this paper the phenomenon known as the rerxilescence of 
iron was first published, it having been discovered by the author early in 
September 1873. The principal points in that paper were as follows : — 

(1) Mr. Gore, in 1869, had discovered that a momentary elongation of 
iron occurred in cooling after heating a wire of that metal to a white 
heat. In 1873 the author fonnd a similar but reverse action took place 
in heating the wire. (2) This anomalous deportment was found, both in 
heating and cooling, approximately to coincide with, on the one hand, 
the Zoss, and on the other with the resumption of the magnetic state of 
iron or steel. (3) At the critical temperature the wire, having cooled 
down to a dull red heat, suddenly flashed into a bright glow ; likewise, 
during the heating of the wire the temperature remains stationary for a 
short time when the critical temperature is reached ; a rise in the specific 
heat of iron and steel therefore occurs at the critical temperature. (4) 
A curious crepitating sound occurs at the critical temperature, similar to 
that heard in the magnetisation of iron, or in the production of the scales 
of oxide on the wii-e. (5) Professor Tait's remarkable thermo-electric- 
change ia iron occurs at this same temperature. (6) Hard iron wire and 
steel wire exhibit recalescence, but certain specimens of good soft iron 
failed to show it, and even \n the wire that exhibits it the phenomenon 
grows less marked after repeated heating and cooling. 

To these observations may be added that a recent investigation by the 
Secretary of the Committee on the properties of 14- per cent, manganese 
steel wire (' Proceedings,' Royal Dublin Society, December 1886) shows, 
that this body, which is almost a non-magnetic metal, does not exhibit 
the anomalous deportment observed in ordinary steel wire. This fact i& 
of considerable interest, as linking the foregoing phenomena more 
closely with the magnetic state of iron and steel. 

Estimating the temperature of the critical point approximately from 
the expansion of platinum brought to the same degree of redness, it was 

1889. D 



34 BEPOET — 1889. 

found, some years ago, to be not above 800" C. The recent admirable 
investigation of this point by Dr. J. Hopkinson has shown it to be 680° 
C, rising to 712° C. during recalescence. Dr. Hopkinson has also shown 
that the temperature at which steel ceases to be magnetic is 690° C, so 
that he has definitely established the important fact of the identity of the 
two temperatures. 

When we remember that the mechanical, electrical, and thermal pro- 
perties of iron and steel are of the utmost practical importance, and that 
all these properties appear to undergo a remarkable change at the critical 
temperature, the need of a searching investigation ou the question is 
obvious. Moreover, the interest is no less, from a theoretical point of 
view, in connection with theories as to the molecular structure of magne- 
tised iron and steel. 

Recalescence being feeble in soft iron, but marked in hard iron and 
in steel, it -was conjectured that the phenomenon might be due to an 
action depending on the presence of carbon in iron, creating an effect 
analogous to that observed when water or super-saturated solutions are 
cooled below the solidifying point ; a slight disturbance of the liquid 
thereupon producing a sort of explosive action, solidification occurring 
with a sudden rise of temperature. Professor Roberts- Austen has drawn 
attention to the fact that lately M. Osmund, in Prance, has made recal- 
escence the starting-point of a new inquiry, tracing the efi'octs of Carbon, 
Mn, Cr, S, P, and Si, on the points at which recalescence occurs or is 
destroyed by the alloy. That whilst pure iron does undergo a molecular 
change at a red heat, carbon retains its position as an important factor in 
determining the point of recalescence in hard iron and steel. Messrs. 
Barus and Strouhal have recently published in America a series of impor- 
tant papers on the tempering of steel, and shown that a critical tempera- 
ture of between 500° and 1,000° C. exists, which is intimately connected 
■with the hardening or annealing of steel. They also draw attention to 
the numerous phenomena observed to occur at this temperature. Numerous 
other experimenters have worked at recalescence, notably Mr. Tomlinson, 
of King's College, and Mr. Newall, at Cambridge, but the bibliography 
and discussion of the whole subject will be reserved to the report next 
year. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John Murray (Secre- 
tary), Professor Schuster, Sir William Thomson, the Abbe 
Eenard, Mr. A. Buchan, the Hon. R. Abercromby, and Dr. 
M. Grabham, appointed for the Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 

Several of the members of this Committee have had informal meetings, 
and collections of dust have been received from several important stations 
in Oceanic Islands. Others are expected soon, and it is believed a detailed 
report can be drawn up before the next meeting of the Association. No 
money grant is required. 



ON THE KATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGKODND TEJirEBATDRE. 35 



Eighteenth Report of the Committee, consistinrj of Professor Everett, 
Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Sir A. C. 
Ramsay, Dr. A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve 
Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. 
A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahan, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Under- 
ground Temperature dowmvards in various Localities of Dry 
Land and under Water. {Draiun up by Professor Everett, 
Secretary.) 

Very important observations have been publisbed ' during the past 
year by Herr Dnnker, whose observations in a very deep bore at Speren- 
berg were embodied in our Report for 1876. The new observations were 
taken at Schladebach, near Diirrenberg, in a bore of greater depth and 
smaller diameter than that at Sperenberg, and with similar precautions 
against convection currents. The depth was 1,748 metres, the bore 
passing through new red sandstone (Buntsandstein), maguesian lime- 
stone (Zechstein), lower Permian sandstone (Rothliegendes), and coal- 
measures (Steiukohlengebirge), to the upper Devonian beds (Oberdevon). 

It was tubed to the depth of 1,240 metres. For the first 584 metres 
the diameter was 120 millimetres ; for the next 104 m. it was 92 mm. ; 
then for 393 m.. it was 72 mm., and for the next 159 m. it was 50 mm. 
From this point to the bottom the diameter gradually diminished to that 
of a man's little finger. The diamond borer was the instrument employed 
in sinking it. 

Indiarubber bags, such as were used at Sperenberg for preventing 
convection currents, being deemed imsuitable for such a narrow bore, a 
plugging of moist clay was employed, constructed as follows : — 

On a cylindrical rod, which might be of tough wood for bores of 
moderate depth, but was of iron in the actual observations, are two 
wooden discs of such size that there is only just room for them to move 
in the bore. The lower disc is fixed, and tlie upper movable on the rod. 
The part of the rod below the fixed disc has a length equal to that of the 
water-column which it is desired to isolate. The maximum thermometer 
with wliich the temperatures are taken has its bulb half way down this 
portion of the rod. It is fastened beside the rod if thei-e is room for it ; 
and when the bore is too narrow for this arrangement, the thermometer 
is placed in a metal box which may be described as forming part of the 
rod, the rod being divided into two portions screwed to the two ends of 
the box. The movable disc is removed to a measured distance from the 
fixed one, and the space between them is then filled with clay which has 
been made plastic by kneading it with water, so that it forms a cylinder 
with the two discs. 

When the pole presses on the bottom of the bore, part of the weight 
of the boring rods is supported on the upper disc, thus squeezing the 
clay against the sides of the bore and forming a water-tight plug. 

' J\^aie» JahrhtchfUr Mineraloglc, &c , 1889, B<3. 1. 

D 2 



36 EEPOBT — 1889. 

The above description applies especially to tlie taking of observations 
at the bottom of the bore. When it was desired to isolate a column of 
■water at a considerable distance from the bottom, the apparatus employed 
consisted of two portions. The above description applies to the upper 
portion, and the lower portion was similar to it but inverted, resting upon 
rods which extended to the bottom. The two masses of clay in this case 
cut off a water-column between them. 

Experiments with a model, in which the bore was represented by a 
cylindrical glass vessel 26 cm. high and 55 mm. wide, filled with water, 
showed that the isolation was very good, and that it remained so though 
the immersion lasted more than ten hours. In tearing away the clay 
from the vessel a portion of the clay fell into the water, but such an 
accident occurring in the bore would be of no consequence. 

The construction of the isolating appai'atus was entrusted to Bore- 
Inspector Kobrich, under whose management the observations were to be 
carried out. 

Besides the thermometer in the isolated wa'er-column, there was a»- 
second maximum thermometer in the open wate." just above the upper- 
plug, for comparison, the height of its bulb above that of the principal 
thermometer being 2'8 m. 

The thermometers were very similar to those employed at Sperenberg, 
They were overflow-thermometers, generally without scales, and were- 
enclosed (for protection against pressure) in a hermetically sealed case of 
stout glass with an external diameter of 15 mm. To take the reading, 
the thermometer, after being drawn up, was put with a normal ther- 
mometer into a vessel of water at a temperature a little below that which 
was expected. Warm water was then gradually added, and the whole 
kept stirred till the mercury in the overflow-thermometer reached the- 
open end. The temperature at this moment was then read by the other 
thermometer. 

In the annexed figure, ah is the thermometer, enclosed in the strong 
glass tube c, to which it is not fastened. A quantity of loose 
mercury, the surface of which is shown at x, is also contained in 
this tube. Overfiow takes place at the end h, which is cut off 
obliquely so that any mercury which issues from the tube will 
run down the slope. To refill the thermometer, the instrument 
is warmed till overflow commences, and is then promptly in- 
verted. The thermometer thus slips down to the other end of 
the case, and its open end, h, is immersed in the loose mercury, 
some of which is drawn into the thermometer as it cools. 

The first observations taken were in the untubed portion of 
the bore, which at that time extended from the depth of 1,240 m. 
to 1,376 m. ; and as the bore was deepened to 1,748 m. the 
observations were continued. In this way the last sixteen observa- 
tions of Table I. were obtained, forming a series at intervab of 
30 m. from 1,266 m. to 1,716 m. of depth. 

A pause which subsequently occurred in the sinking of the 

bore, through having to wait for a new tube, was utilised for 

taking the observations which form the remainder of the Table. We 

have thus a complete series of observations, at equal intervals of 30 m., 

from the depth of 6 m. to that of 1,716 m. 

The Table is arranged in five columns. The first column contains the 
natural numbers from 1 to 58, for convenience of reference to the observa- 






ON THE BAIE OF INCREASE OF UKDERGKOUND TEMPERATUUE. 37 



Table I. 



Distinctive 


Depth in 


Temperature 


Non-isolated 


Increase for 


number 


metres 


Reaumur 


colder by 


80 m. 








o 


o 


o 


1 


6 


8-3 


0-4 




2 


36 


8-8 


0-3 


05 


3 


66 


9-6 


0-2 • 


0-8 


4 


96 


10-3 


0-7 


0-7 


5 


126 


109 


0-8 


0-6 


6 


156 


11-3 


0-4 


0-4 


7 


186 


12'2 


0-9 


0-9 


8 


216 


130 


0-9 


0-8 


9 


246 


13-6 


0-2 


0-6 


10 


276 


14-3 


01 


0-7 


11 


306 


14-5 


01 


0-2 


12 


336 


15-2 


0-6 


0-7 


13 


366 


15-4 


0-3 


0-2 


14 


396 


16-6 


1-0 


1-2 


15 


426 


171 


0-5 


0-5 


16 


456 


17-7 


0-5 


0-6 


17 


486 


183 


0-5 


0-6 


18 


516 


190 


0-6 


07 


19 


546 


19-8 


0-3 


0-8 


20 


570 


20-6 


01 


08 


21 


606 


21-1 


0-2 


0-5 


22 


G36 


21-3 


0-1 


0-2 


23 


666 


22-0 


00 


0-7 


24 


696 


229 


01 


0-9 


25 


726 


23-3 


01 


0-4 


26 


756 


23-9 


00 


0-6 


27 


786 


24-8 


00 


0-9 


28 


816 


25-2 


0-2 


04 


29 


846 


26-3 


01 


M 


30 


876 


27-2 


01 


09 


31 


906 


27-8 


01 


06 


32 


936 


28-5 


00 


0-7 


33 


966 


29-3 


01 


0-8 


34 


996 


29-8 


0-2 


0-5 


35 


1,020 


301 


0-1 


03 


30 


1,050 


30-4 


00 


0-3 


37 


1,086 


31-3 


00 


0-9 


38 


1,116 


32-2 


01 


0-9 


39 


1,146 


32-7 


01 


0-5 


40 


1,176 


33-7 


03 


10 


41 


1,206 


34-4 


01 


0-7 


42 


1,236 


35-2 


00 


0-8 


43 


1,266 


36-2 


0-3 


10 


44 


1,296 


36-9 


01 


0-7 


45 


1,326 


37-7 


00 


0-8 


46 


1,356 


38-8 


0-2 


11 


47 


1,386 


39-7 


01 


0-9 


48 


1,416 


40-4 


0-4 


0-7 


49 


1,446 


40-9 


00 


0-5 


50 


1,476 


41-5 


00 


0-6 


51 


1,506 


423 


0-2 


0-8 


52 


1,536 


42-5 


0-2 


02 


53 


1,566 


42 8 


0-6 


0-3 


54 


1,596 


43-6 


01 


0-8 


55 


1,626 


440 


0-1 


0-4 


56 


1,656 


44-4 


0-4 


0-4 


57 


1,686 


45-2 


01 


08 


58 


1,716 


45-3 


00 


01 



38 



IlEPORT — 1889. 



tions at the 58 different depths; the second column contains the depths 
in metres ; and the tliird column, the temperatures observed at these 
depths in isolated water-columns. The fourth column contains the excess 
of the temperature so observed above the temperature observed by means 
of the secondary thermometer in the free water just above the plug. 
The fifth column contains the differences between the successive numbers 
in the third column — in other words, the increase of temperature for 
each 30 m. of depth. 

The smallness of the effect of isolation, as shown, in the fourth column 
of the Table, is very noteworthy, its greatest value being 1° R., and its 
average value about ^ of 1° R. At Sperenberg it amounted in several 
cases to about 3" R. The smallness of the effect in the present case 
is attributable to the narrowness of the bore, which tells in two ways : 
there is more frictional resistance to the movement of the water ; and the 
thermal capacity of a given length of column is less in comparison with 
its surface of contact with the sides of the bore. 

As a further experiment on the prevention of convection, a wooden 
plug was driven into the bore at the depth of 438 m., thick mud was 
introduced till it filled all the bore above this plug, and observations 
were taken with a maximum thermometer in the mud at depths from 
426 ni. to 126 m. A second plug was then driven in at the top of the 
tubing, which was 120 m. beneath the surface of the ground, and the 
observations were continued upwards from 118 m. to 6 m. The observa- 
tions thus taken in the mud are given in the second column of Table II. 
They are rather higher than those previously obtained at the same depths, 
which are repeated from Table I. for comparison, the greatest difference 
occurring at the depth of 276 m., where it amounts to 0°"9 R. Herr 
Dunker suggests that the difference may have arisen from insufficient 
time being allowed for the muJ to take the permanent temperature. 

Table IT. 





Observations iu 




thick mud 


isolated column 


Depth 














Temperature 


Increase 


Temperature 


Increase 




Keaumur 


for 30 m. 


Reaumur 


for 30 m. 


111. 


o 


o 


o 


o 


6 


8-2 




8-3 




36 


8-6 


0-4 


8-8 


0-5 


66 


9-0 


0-4 


9-6 


0-8 


96 


9-9 


0-9 


10-3 


0-7 


118 


10-6 


. — . 


— 


— 


126 





— 


10-9 


0-6 


156 


— 


— 


113 


0-4 


186 


— 





12-2 


0-9 


216 


12-5 


— 


130 


0-8 


246 


12-9 


0-4 


13-6 


0-6 


276 


13-4 


0-5 


14-3 


0-7 


.^06 


14-2 


08 


14-5 


0-2 


;i36 


14-6 


0-4 


15-2 


0-7 


366 


15-2 


0-6 


15-4 


0-2 


396 


16-4 


1-2 


16-6 


1-2 


426 
Total increase 


170 


0-6 


171 


0-5 


8-8 


8-8 



ON THE BATE OF INCREASE OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 39 

Upon tlio whole it is clear that in this great bore the disturbing effect 
of convection is very small, and that, such as it is, it has been almost 
annihilated by the very efficient system of plugging adopted. The series 
of observations now before us, extending as it does by regular stages 
from the surface to a depth of 5,G30 feet, in a new bore where there has 
not been time for the original heat to be lost by exposure, forms un- 
doubtedly the most valuable contribution ever made to the observation of 
■underground temperature. The official to whose initiative the observa- 
tions are due is Chief-Mining-Captain Hnyssen of Berlin. The expense 
of sinking the bore was 10,000Z. sterling, the time required for hauling 
up the boring rods was 10 hours, and their united weight was 20 
tons. 

On plotting the temperatures so as to exhibit temperature as a 
function of depth, the curve obtained approximates very closely to a 
straight line. A straight line joining its two ends meets the curve 
Boveral times in the part corresponding to the tubed portion of the bore, 
which is about three fourths of the whole ; while in the remaining fourth, 
(forming the deepest portion of the bore) all the temperatures except 
the first and last lie above the straight line. In this statement it is to 
be understood that depth is represented by distance laid off horizontally, 
and temperature by distance laid off vertically upwards. 

The question whether the curve on the whole bends upwards or 
downwards is of some interest, because it is equivalent to the question 
whether the rate of increase is accelerated or retarded as we go deeper. 
The evidence on this point is undecisive. The curve for the untubed 
portion, from 1,266 m. to 1,716 m., lies slightly above its chord; but the 
curve from either 6 m. or 36 m. to 1,500 m. lies for the most part below 
its chord. 

Taking the observation at 36 m. as the first which is free from 
atmospheric disturbance, and comparing it with the deepest observation 
of all, which is at 1,716 m., we have an increase of 36"5° Reaumur in 
1,680 m. This is a difference of 82-1° Fahrenheit in 5,512 feet, which 
is at the rate of 1° F. in 67-1 feet. 

Herr Dunker, after an elaborate discussion of the question whether 
the curve on the whole bends upwards or downwards, arrives at the 
conclusion that it is best represented by a straight line. He applies the 
method of least squares to find the slope of this straight line, and 
thus obtains a mean rate of increase of '0224276 of a degree Reaumur 
per metre, which is equivalent to 1° F. for 65'0 feet. 

The Secretary has been in correspondence with Mr. George Westing- 
house, junr., of Pittsburgh, President of the Philadelphia Company, with 
the view of obtaining observations of temperature from some of the deep 
oil and gas wells belonging to the Company. Mr. Westinghouse has 
purchased three of the Committee's maximum thermometers, and has 
entrusted the taking of the observations to Mr, A. Cummins, the Com- 
pany's Mining Engineer and Geologist. Some attempts have been made 
at ob.servation, but owing to press of business they have not been 
thoroughly carried out. Mr. Cummins states that ' there has been a 
constant strain to bring up the supply of gas to the requirement of the 
city's needs, and every hour of delay is watched very jealously.' 

The most successful attempt was made in a well at Homewood in the 
city of Pittsburgh, known as the Dilworth well, where the following 
results were obtainnd • — 



40 



EEPOET — 1889. 



Depth in feet 


Temperature F. 


Air at surface 


3,600 


o 

96 


o 

70 


3,710 


89 


76 


3,920 


102 


60 


4,002 


108 


62 


4,215 


111 


62 


4,295 


114 


62 



The well was sunk to a depth of 4,625 feet, but no observations were 
made except at the depths specified. The thermometer remained only 
from five to ten minutes during each test ; and as there were only 40 feet 
of Avater in the well, the observations must have been taken in air. The 
diameter of the well was 6 inches. The rock was chiefly slate, and was 
bored by 'jumping.' The mean air temperature at Pittsburgh is 52° F., 
and the height above sea-level about 900 feet. Comparison of the mean 
surface-temperature (taken as 52°) with the temperature, 114°, recorded 
at 4,295 feet shows an increase of 62°, which is at the rate of 1° F. for 
69'3 feet ; but comparison of the observations inter se would give a rate 
about twice as rapid as this ; hence no safe conclusion can be drawn. 
After the hurry and worry of the gas business is over, Mr. Cummins 
hopes to get the temperature of some deep wells in a way that will be 
satisfactory. 

We may mention, as a contribution to the literature of Underground 
Temperature, the recent publication of results obtained at the Old 
Observatory, Allahabad, with thermometers whose bulbs were at the 
depths 3 feet, 1 foot, and half an inch respectively. Harmonic reduction 
has been applied to deduce both the annual and the diurnal variation, and 
from the former a fairly consistent determination of the ' diffusivity,' or 
quotient of conductivity by capacity, has been obtained. Its value, "0054 
C.G.S., is smaller than any values that have been found elsewhere. The 
soil is a sandy loam, which in dry weather becomes almost as hard 
as brick. The observations extend over six years, and similar observa- 
tions are now being carried on at the New Observatory. The gentleman 
who is reponsible for the reductions and the description of the observa- 
tions is Mr. S. A, Hill, B.Sc, Meteorological Reporter to Government 
for the North-Western Provinces. 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Gr. Gr. Stokes 
(Chai')'man),'Mr. G. J. Stmons (Secretary), Professor Schuster, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Captain Abney, 
and Mr. Whipple, appointed for the jpurpose of considering the 
best methods of recording the direct Intensity of Solar Radia- 
tion. 

The actinometer devised by the late Professor Balfour Stewart for the con, 
tinuous measurement of solar radiation, which was described in the Report 
of the Association for 1887 (p. 32), is now ready for the preliminary 
trials, the internal thermometer, with a flat bulb of green glass, having been 
made since the date of that report. The construction of this thermometer 



ON THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR BADIATION. 



41 



occasioned a good deal more trouble than had been anticipated. No 
attempt has at present been made to render the instrument self-register- 
in"-, as it would obviously be unwise to incur the outlay wliich any 
construction for this purpose would involve, unless the result of preliminary 
trials were such as to encourage a hope that the instrument might be really 
useful if rendered self-recording. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. 
John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. 
Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor Gr. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Pro- 
fessor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, jNIr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Mr. T. Gray, appointed for the 
purpose of constructing and issuing Practical Standards for 
use in Electrical Measurements. 

The Committee report that the work of testing resistance coils has been 
continued at the Cavendish laboratory. A table of the values found for 
the various coils is appended. 







Legal Ohms. 




No. of Coil 


Resistance in Legal Ohms 


Temperature 


Nalder Bros., 1429 . 


. ^ No. 182 


100027 


12°-6 


Nalder Bros., 1427 




^ No. 183 


■99875 


12°-6 


Elliott, 208 




'^ No. 184 


•99876 


12°-4 


Jas. White, Glasgow 




. No. 


•99955 


12°^1 


Jas. White, Glasgow . 




. No. 


9-9974 


12° 


Elliott, 209 




J^ No. 185 


•99977 


14°-6 


Elliott, 210 




^ No. 186 


■99973 


14°-7 


Elliott, 218 




;^ No." 187 


■99974 


14°-9 


Elliott, 221 




^^ No. 188 


100095 


18°1 



In March 1889 a coil of platinum silver, marked 'Elliott, No. 95,' 
which had been tested for Professor Roiti, of Florence, in November 1883, 
was again compared. It was found to have the value of •90903 B.A. 
units at 128° Centigrade. The value given to Professor Roiti in 1883 
was: — 

R = -99977 (1 + -00031 (t - 15-2)} 

This leads, at 12-8°, to exactly the same value, -99903, as found in 1889. 



42 , REPORT — 1889. 

Thus, in the five-and-a-half years between these two tests, this coil has not 
changed relatively to the standards. 

Further steps have been taken towards the construction of an air- 
condenser. As stated in the last report, Dr. Alexander Muirhead kindly 
placed at the disposal of the Committee, for the purpose of experiment, 
three such condensers which he had constructed. A series of tests of 
these condensers was carried out by the secretary, and laid before a meeting 
of the Committee in London on April 15th. It was then decided to adopt 
Dr. Muirhead's form of condenser for the new instruments of the Com- 
mittee, and two condensers, each having a capacity of about "01 microfarad, 
have been ordered from the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company. 
It was hoped that these would have been completed early this summer, 
but great difficulties have been met with in obtaining the brass tubes 
required for their construction, and, though well advanced, they are not 
yet finished. A detailed description of their design is therefore left to 
the next report. 

A second subject of investigation has been the specific resistance of 
copper. During the year Mr. T. C. Fitzpatrick has made a large series 
of experiments to determine this, and the Committee desire to thank 
cordially those manufacturers and others who have given him assistance 
in this research. They would specially mention the firms of Messrs. 
Thomas Bolton and Sons, of Cheadle, and Messrs. Frederick Smith and 
Co., of Halifax. 

Before publishing the results of this investigation, Mr. Fitzpatrick is 
desirous of experimenting on some copper which is being prepared for 
him by chemical means — all which has been used hitherto has been 
electrically deposited- — and of attempting still further to purify some of 
the copper already in his possession. 

Two members of the Committee, Sir William Thomson and Mr. 
Preece, were present at the recent Electrical Congress in Paris. They 
report that the following resolutions, several of which have already been 
agreed to by the Committee, were unanimously adopted. 

(1) L'unite pratique de travail est le joule. II est egal a 10'^ unites 
C. G. S. de travail. C'est I'energie depensee pendant une seconde par 
un ampere dans un ohm. 

(2) L'unite pratique de puissance est le watt. II est egal a 10^ unites 
C. G. S. de puissance. Le watt est egal a nn joule par seconde. 

Dans la pratique industrielle, on exprimera la puissance des machines 
en kilowatts, au lieu de I'exprimer en chevaux-vapeur. 

(3) Pour evaluer I'intensite d'ane lampe en bougies, on prendra corame 
unite pratique, sous le nom de bougie decimale,' la vingtieme partie de 
I'etalon absolu de lumiere defini par la Conference Internationale de 
1884. 

(4) L'unite pratique de coefficient d'induction est le quadrant. 

1 quadrant ^ 10^ centimetres. 

(5) La periode d'un courant alternatif est la duree d'une oscillation 
complete. 

(6) La frequence est le nombre de periodes par seconde. 

(7) L'intensite moyenne est definie par la relation 

1 P 



•moy 



4f 

••• Jo 



' La bougie dficimale, ainsi d6finie, se trouve gtre trfes sensiblement 6gale k la 
bougie anglaise (^Candle ftandard) et au dixi&me de la Carcel. 



ON STANDARDS FOB USB IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 43 

(8) L'intensite efficace est la racine carree du carre moyen de I'in- 
tensite du courant. / 

(9) La force electromotrice efficace est la racine carree da carree moyen 
de la force electromotrice. 

(10) La resistance apparente estlefacteur par lequel il faut multiplier 
l'intensite efficace pour avoir la force electromotrice efficace. 

(11) Dans un accumulateur, la plaque positive est celle qui est reliee 
au pole positif de la machine pendant la charge, et qui est le pole positif 
pendant la decharge. 

(12) Le Congres recommande comme moyen de determiner le degi-e 
d'incandescence d'une lampe, la methode proposee par M. Crova. 

Ces diverses propositions sont adoptees a I'unanimite. 

As an English equivalent of the above the Committee have adopted 
the following resolutions, which they hope will meet with general ac- 
ceptance. 

(1) The name of the practical iinit of work shall be the Joule. The 
Joule is equivalent to 10^ C.G.S. units of work, ft is the energy ex- 
pended during 1 second by a current of 1 ampere when traversing a 
resistance of 1 ohm. 

(2) The name of the practical unit of power shall be the Watt. The 
Watt is the rate of woi-king of a machine performing 1 joule per 1 
second. The power of a machine would naturally be expressed in kilo- 
watts instead of in horse-power. 

(3) The name of the practical unit of light intensity shall be the 
Candle.' The Candle is equal to the twentieth part of the absolute 
standard of light as defined by the International Conference of 1884. 

(4) The name of the practical unit of induction shall be the ' Quadrant.' 
One Quadrant is equal to 10° centimetres. 

(5) The ' Period ' of au alternating current is the duration of a complete 
oscillation. 

(6) The ' Frequency ' of an alternating current is the number of com- 
plete oscillations per second. 

(7) The ' Mean Current ' through a circuit is the time average of the 

1 f^ 
current and is defined by mean current^ ^1 idt, i being the current at 

TJo 

each instant of the time T. 

(8) The ' Effective Current ' io the square root of the time average of the 

square of the current. Thus, effective current=^ / < j-^ v^dt > 

(9) The ' Effective Electromotive Force ' is the square root of the time 
avei'age of the square of the electromotive force. Thus, effective electro- 
motive force =./< e^dt y ,e being the actual electromotive force at 

each instant of the time T. 

(10) The ' Impedance * is the factor by which the effective current 

' It will be seen that the Committee recommend the names ' Candle ' and ' Impe- 
dance ' as the equivalents for the French terms ' Bougie d6cimale ' and • R6sistance 
apparente ' respectively. With regard to the latter, they are of opinion that it is 
desirable to restrict the term ' Resistance ' to actions purelj' dissipative. 

The candle is also very approximately equivalent to the English standard candle 
and to one-tenth of the Carcel. 



44 BEPOET — 1889. 

must be multiplied to give the effective electromotive force. Thus, in the 
case of a circuit of resistance R ohms, and self-induction L quadrants, in 
which a simple harmonic electromotive force of frequency, nj 2-77, is acting, 
Impedance = a/ [R^ + 1? «^} . 

(11) In an Accumulator the positive pole is that which is connected 
with the positive pole of the machine when charging, and from which 
the current passes into the external circuit when discharging. 

Of the lOOZ. voted to the Committee last year, Ihl. has been drawn from 
the treasurer; 60^. towards defraying the cost of the air-condensers, and 
15/. for some resistance coils and thermometers required for testing. 

The Committee are of opinion that they should be reappointed, with 
the addition of the name of Prof. J. Viriamu Jones, and with a grant of 
50Z. to continue the experiments which are now in progress. 

They propose that Prof. G. Carey Foster should be the Chairman and 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook the Secretary. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of the Hon. Ralph 
Abercromby, Dr. A. Buchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. J. 
Willis Bund, Professor Chrystal, Mr. D. Cunningham, Pro- 
fessor Fitzgerald, Dr. H. R. Mill (Secretary), Dr. John 
Murray {Chairman), Mr. Isaac Roberts, Dr. H. C. Sorby, 
and the Rev. C. J. Steward, appointed to arrange an 
investigation of the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in 
Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in various parts of the United 
Kingdom in co-operation luith the local societies represented on 
the Association. 

No formal meeting of the Committee has been held, but some of the 
members have occasionally met informally, and the whole Committee has 
been consulted by letter on all the arrangements which have been com- 
pleted. It is inadvisable to attempt at present to summarise the results of 
observations made, as, although more than a year's observations are avail- 
able on some rivers, it is only a few months since the work has been begun 
on others. At the end of another year it is expected that sufficient data 
will be found to justify a comprehensive report on the subject. 

Several members of the Committee have taken much trouble in 
collecting observations. Dr. Sorby has been good enough to collect and 
discuss a great mass of temperature observations which he had made from 
his yacht Glimjpse, in the estuaries of the south-east of England during 
the summer months of five successive years. This will be published 
separately. Professor Fitzgerald took charge of the observations in 
Ireland, where he induced a number of observers to take up the work. Mr. 
Willis Bund had already inaugurated similar researches on the Severn. 
Rev. C. J. Steward and Mr. Isaac Roberts rendered important services in 
their districts. 

A circular was sent to all the Corresponding Societies in connection 
■with the Association, requesting their co-operation, and favourable replies 
were received from several, intimating that observations had been com- 
menced. 

Many observers came forward in response to a letter in the newspapers, 



ON THE SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF TEMPERATUKE. 



45 



and records of river teinj)erature extending over several years were 
offered by some previous observers. Amongst these Mr. Chapman, of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, has offered observations on the Cherwell ; Mr. 
John Hunter, of Belper, on the Derbyshire Derwent ; Mr. F. C. Bayard, 
on the Wandle ; and Mr. N. Whitely, of Truro, on the Allen. 

The form of thermometer employed is described in last year's report. 
The instructions issued to observers are given as an appendix to the pre- 
sent report. 

The observers at work for the Committee now are : — 



River, &c. 


Observer 


Residence 




In England. 


Aire 


Rev. E. P. Knubley . 


Leeds 


Avon 


Mr. C. Duke . 




Hill Wooton 


,1 . . • 


Mr. S. W. Sutcliffc . 




Clifton 


Bristol Channel 


— 




Lightship 


Cherwell 


Mr. J. Chapman 




Oxford 


Derwent . 


Mr. J. Hunter . 




Belper 


Dove 


Mr. H. H. r.rindley . 




Uttoxeter 


Kennet . 


Mr. W. r.. Maurice . 




Marlborough 


Lugg 


Mr. A. Ward . 




Aymstrey 


Neue 


Mr. Eunson 




Northampton 


,, ... 


Mr. H. Hill 




Oundle 


Nidd 


Mr. G. Paul 




Knaresborough 


Stour (Worcester) . 


Mr. E. Collins . 




Stourport 


Stour (Kent) . 


Mr. W. P. Mann 




Canterbury 


Luff 


Mr. Pettigrew . 




— 


Thames . 


Mr. J. Hepworth 




Rochester 


)» ... 


— 




' Warspite ' training-ship 


Trent 


Mr. T. S. Morris 




Burt on-on-Trent 


Wandle . 


Mr. F. C. Bayard 




Croydon 


Waveney 


Rev. C. J. Steward . 




Somerleyton 


Waterworks . 


Mr. H. Preston 




Grantham 


»> JJ • • 


Mr. W. Watts . 




Manchester 


Sea . 


Mr. McDakin . 




Dover 




In Scotland. 


Almond . 


Mr. J. Paterson 


Almond Bank 


Aray 


Mr. G. Taylor . 




Inveraray 


Ayr .... 


Mr. A. Donald . 




Muirkirk 


Clyde 


Mr. W. W. B. Rogers 




Greenock 


Dee 


Mr. McKay 




Kincardine O'Neil 


Don 


Mr. W. Muirhead . 




Aberdeen 


Earn 


Mr. J. Ellis 




Bridge of Earn 


Eden 


Mr. F. G. Peddie . 




Cupar Fife 


Forss 


Mr. Smith 




Forss 


Glass 


Rev. C. C. McKcnzie 




Fasnakyle 


Leithen . 


Mr. J. McKenzie 




Innerleithen 


Nith 


Rev. Mr. Andson 




Dumft-ies 


Tay and Braan 


Dr. Dickson 




Dunkeld 


Thurso . 


Mr. D. Campbell 




Thurso 


i» • • ■ 


Mr. A. Harper . 




Halkirk 


Tummel . 


Mr. J. Kennedy 




Logierait 


Tweed 


Mr. W. Burgess 




Peebles 


Wick 


Mr. J. Simpson 




Wick 


Water Works . 


Mr. J. Wilson . 




Greenock 


Sea . 


Mr. W. Kerr . 




Scrabster 



46 



BEPORT — 1889. 



Kiver, &c. 


Observer 


Kesidence 




In Ireland. 


Annabuoj- 


Mr. M. H. Westropp 


Carrigaline 


Bann 


Mr. A. Mulligan 




Itathfriland 


Barrow . 


Mr. P. R. Burchell 






Graigrie 




Mr. H. H. Jellet 






Monasterevan 


Belvidere Lake 


Mr. J. Bayliss . 






Mullingar 


Jilackwater 


Mr. McClure . 






Kenmare 


Boyne 


Mr. P. Malone . 






Trim 


Shannon . 


Mr. F. A. Waller 






Banagher 


Waterworks . 


Mr. G. B. Eiley 






Woodburn 


Sea . 


Mr. W. Towrie . 






Moville 


»» • • • 


Mr. B. Kernan . 






Warrenpoint 




In Isle of Man. 


Sea .... 


1 Mr. J. Henderson . . . i Douglas 



In many cases observers willingly paid for their thermometers, but a 
number of instruments had to be supplied gratis in order to secure obser- 
vations at interesting places. 

The Committee have to thank Mr. John Gunn for his services in for- 
warding thermometers and observation books and corresponding with 
observers. 

The Committee ask to be re-appointed, with the addition of tbe name 
of the Rev. Mr. Andson and with a grant of 501. 



APPENDIX. 

Directions to Observers acting under a Committee Ob^ the British 
AssocuTiON, appointed to Investigate the Seasonal Variation of 
Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in various parts ob' 
the United Kingdom. 

1. Purpose of the Worlc. — The Committee wisb to ascertain the rela- 
tion between the climate and weather of different parts of the country 
and the temperature of the surface water ; this can only be done by the 
co-operation of a large number of observers with instruments of the same 
kind used in the same manner. 

2. Care in Observing. — Observations are quite useless unless they are 
trustworthy. It is very easy to read a thermometer, and on this account 
mistakes are often made through carelessness. The most vigilant atten- 
tion to details is absolutely essential in every separate observation. 

3. The Thermometer. — The thermometer is sent enclosed in a paste- 
board cylinder, packed inside the tin case in which it is to be fixed for 
use, the whole being enclosed in a tin cylinder, and surrounded by paper 
folded so as to reduce the shock of an accidental fall in transit. Great 
care must be taken in unpacking and handling the thermometer. The 
slit in the cross-bar at the upper end of the japanned tin case is to be 
widened, if necessary, by. pushing, a pencil through it, and the thermo- 
meter is then to be shpped in bulb first, without forcing it, until the 
shoulder, iust above the bulb, rests in the hole of the lower cross-bar. 



ON THE SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF TEJirEEATURE. 47 

Care mnst be taken never to turn the case upside down while the thermo- 
meter is in it. 

4. Heading the Thermometer. — The paper scale inside the wide glass 
tube, and behind the narrow tube containing the thread of mercury, is 
divided into degrees ; the mark of each ten degrees is numbered from 10 
to 140 ; and the mark of each five degrees is a little longer than the 
others. The thermometer should be read to tenths of a degree, and the 
reading put down as a decimal fraction. To read the thermometer, the 
instrument must be held perpendicularly, with the top of the mercury 
thread on a level with the eye. Suppose the top of the thread of mercury 
to be exactly at the second degree mark above the long one numbered 
40, then the temperature it records is to be written down as 42'0 ; should 
the top of the mercury just barely appear above this mark, it is to be 
written 42'1 (that is, 42 degrees and one-tenth) ; if decidedly above the 
second mark above 40, and apparently not quite one- quarter of the way 
to the third mark, it is 42-2 ; if scarcely beyond a quarter of the way, 
42'3 ; if almost half way 42'4 ; if exactly half way between the two marks, 
it is 42-5 (that is, 42 degrees and five-tenths, or one-half) ; if a little 
beyond half way, it is 42'G ; if very nearly three-quarters of the Avay, 
42*7; if a little over three-quarters, it is 42-8; and if almost up to the 
third mark above 40, it is 42'9. The same way of reckoning applies to 
the position of the mercury thread between any two degree marks. A 
tenth of a degree is a very small amount, and the observer need not be 
discouraged if at first he fails to read so closely ; if ho perseveres, by 
cautious guessing he will soon become proficient. Mistakes are more 
often made in reading the degree than the fraction ; for instance, one is 
more apt to write 443 than 43"4 when the true reading is 43'3. Special 
care must be taken to avoid this. 

5. Selection of Observing Station. — In a lake, an estuary, or the sea, the 
observation should be made in a boat at some distance from the shore ; fail- 
ing this, an observation may be made at the end of a pier or a steep rock, 
provided the depth at low tide is at least three feet, and that the current 
does not flow over rocks or ground which remain dry at low tide. 

In a river it is best to note the temperature in mid-channel from a 
boat ; but in rapid streams an observation from the shore is equally satis- 
factory. The best position is in a rapid run where the depth exceeds 
three feet. Quiet pools and shallow shelving shores are to be avoided. 

It is important to describe minutely the nature of the river at the 
point where observations are made, the direction in which it flows, the 
height of the banks, the degree of exposure to the sun, and especially to 
wind ; and a sketch map should be made in the observing book, to show 
exactly at what point the thermometer is used. It is necessary to observe 
always at the same place, which should be near the observer's house, or in 
the line of his regular walks. 

6. Hozir of Ohservinff. — The temperature should be observed once 
every day at the same hour. The Committee recommend 9 a.m., when 
that is practicable ; or, failing this, 10 or 12. If convenient to the ob- 
server, a second observation may be made in the afternoon or evening, 
but at the same hour every day. 

7. Observing the Weather. — The date and precise hour of observation is 
to be entered in the observing book. The column ' Remarks on State of 
River and Weather ' is then to be filled up with as much accuracy as 
possible. If there is a flood-gauge in the neighbourhood, its indication 



48 EEPOKT — 1889. 

should be recorded ; if not, the state of the river as regards flood must be 
put down from general recollections of its average state ; the terms very 
low, low, average height, slight flood, flood, heavy flood may be conveniently 
employed. The direction and force of the wind should be carefully re- 
corded ; this is very important, especially in work on lakes, estuaries, and 
the sea. The amount of cloud at the time, and the state of the weather 
since the last observation, should be put down generally, noting especially 
the fall of rain, snow, or hail. 

8. Taking the Temperatxire.- — The thermometer is to be drawn carefully 
out of its case, held by the glass ring at the top, and examined to see that 
the thread of mercury is in free connection with the bulb. See that the 
thread runs up vphen the fingers are laid lightly on the bulb, so as to 
warm it, and that the thread runs down again on withdrawing the fingers. 
If the thread has got detached from the mercury in the bulb, it may be 
restored to its position by swinging the tube held at arm's-length by the 
upper part through a vertical semi-circle downwards ; this may require to 
be repeated several times. 

Temperature of Air. — Having seen that the thermometer is in order 
and the bulb perfectly dry, hold it perpendicularly by the upper glass ring 
exposed to the wind, and, if possible, shaded from the sun, for two 
minutes ; read it as explained in No. 4, and enter the result under 
' Temperature of Air.' 

Temperature of Water. — Slip the thermometergently into the japanned 
tin case to the ring of which a cord about six feet long should be attached. 
Let the instrument sink in the water, well clear of the shore or the side 
of the boat, until only the ring and the upper inch of the case are above 
water ; keep it in this position, moving it gently about, for two minutes, 
raise it carefully, so that the water retained in the cup surrounding the 
thermometer-bulb is not spilled ; hold it by the ring of the tin case, 
having the top of the mercury-thread on a level with the eye, and read 
as directed in No. 4, recording the result under ' Temperature of 
Water.' 

After the observation, withdraw the thermometer, dry it carefully, dry 
the tin case also, re-insert the thermometer, and hang it up in a safe place 
out of the sun, and not too near a fire, until required for use again. 

9. The Observation Boole. — The observer's name, station, and the 
number of his thermometer to be entered on the first page. All the 
observations should be entered in the book at the time they are taken ; 
the best memory must not be trusted. Each day the readings should be 
copied into a spare book, to be kept by the observer. When the original 
book is filled, it is to be posted to John Guun, Esq., F.R.S.G.S., Royal 
Scottish Geographical Society, 80a Princes Street, Edinburgh, to whom 
all communications regarding thermometers or observing books are to be 
addressed. 

Letters connected with the observations, especially with reference to 
thermometers, ought to be marked ' Temperatures ' on the envelope. 

10. Accidents to Thermometers. — If a thermometer is broken in transit, 
or otherwise, it should be immediately returned, together with its case 
and packing cylinders, and a statement of the way in which the accident 
happened, to Mr. Gunn, who will forward another as soon as possible, so 
that the least delay may take place. 



ON THE UiNIKICATION OF TIME. 49 



Report of the Committee, consistinrj of Mr. Glaisher, Mr. W. H. M. 
Christie, Sir K. S. Ball, and Dr. Longstaff, appointed to con- 
sider the proposals of M. TondIxNI de Quakexgiii relative to the 
Unification of Time, and the adoption of a Universal Prime 
Meridian, luhich have been brought before the Committee by a 
letter from the Academy of Sciences of Bologna. 

Mu. Christie and Dr. Longstaff (neither of whom was present at the 
mooting at Bath) declined to serve on the Committee. The remaining 
two members of the Committee are of opinion that the question of a 
universal prime meridian is one that cannot usefully be considered by a 
Committee of the British Association at the present time. 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Gtrtlls 
Adams (Secretary), Mr. W. Lant Carpenter, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, 
Mr. W. H. M. Christie, Professor Gr. Cheystal, Captain Creak, 
Professor Gr. H. Darwin, Mr. William Ellis, Sir J. H. Lefrot, 
Professor S. J. Perry, Professor Schuster, Professor Sir AV. 
Thomson, and Mr. Gr. M. Whipple, appointed for the pur- 
pose of considering the best means of Comparing and 
Reducing Magnetic Observations. 

The Committee are able to report the establishment of regular magnetic 
observatories, where continuous photographic records of the magnetic 
elements are taken, at the United States Naval Observatory at Washing. 
ton, and also at Los Angelos in Califoi-nia. The instruments used are of 
the Kew pattern, with the same time-scale, and the scale-coefScicnts for 
horizontal and vertical force instruments at Washington are very nearly 
those recommended by the Committee in their Third Report (1887), and 
which are in very near agreement with those at Vienna, St. Petersburo-, 
and some other observatories. 

The Committee report, further, that the plan proposed by them in their 
Third Repoi-t for the Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Observa- 
tions, has been adopted at the United States Naval Observatory at 
Washington, which is now prepared to take part in the general scheme of 
co-operation proposed by the Committee. Copies of the photographic 
registers of the three elements for April 21-30, May 1-31, and ibr June 
1-30 have been forwarded to the Committee from Washington, with 
tables of scale and temperature coefficients. There are also forwarded 
two prints showing the reduction of the declination for the year 1888, by 
means of a graphic composite curve, made by tracing over one another 
with a pantograph the daily curves of the month, and then drawing a 
curve througli them to show the monthly means. 

There are also forwarded from Washington a set of prints showiu"'. 
the comparison of the disturbances of declination and horizontal force at 
Washington for ninety-nine days of 1888, and another set of prints show- 
ing the comparison of disturbances of declination on certain selected 
1889. B 



50 



hepoet — 1889. 



days at Washington, Los Angelos, and Toronto, all reduced to the same 
time-scale of 30-6 mm. for two hours, i.e., the time-scale of instruments 
of the Kew pattern. 

Days in 1888 selected hij United States Naval Observatory for comparison 
of magnetic disturbances of Declination and Horizontal Force. 

7, 14,15,23,24,27. 
10, 11, 18, 19, 20, 21. 

8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. 30. 

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,20,26. 
3, 4, 5, 6, 21, 22, 23, 24. 

2, 7, 8,16,19,20,21,22,27,28. 

3, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 30. 
8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 25, 26, 27. 

5, 11, 19, 20, 30, 31. 

4, 6, 16, 17, 18. 

7, 13, 14, 23, 24. 

The Committee are more than ever of the opinion expressed in their 
Third Report, ' that the establishment of regular magnetic observatories 
at the Cape of Good Hope and in South America would materially con- 
tribute to our knowledge of terrestrial magnetism.' 

The Committee consider that it would be desirable to publish annually 
in a collected form for certain selected days the curves of the three mag- 
netic elements, i.e., declination, horizontal force, and vertical force, taken 
at the difierent English and Colonial Magnetic Observatories, choosing 
for selection in 1888 the days for which the curves are published in the 
' Greenwich Observations.' 



Januaiy . 






7, 


February 






10, 


March 






7, 


April 






2, 


May- 






1, 


June 









July 






1, 


August . 






a. 


September 






7, 


October . 






5, 


November 






. 3, 


December 






.'5, 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Eobeets-Austen 
{Chairman), Mr. T. Turner {Secretary), and Professor J. W 
Langlet, appointed to consider the best method of establishing 
International Standards for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. 
{Drawn up by Mr. Thomas Turner.) 

The Committee, which was appointed at the Bath meeting with the object 
above mentioned, requested the co-operation of several gentlemen of 
special experience in the analysis of iron and steel, and is at present con- 
stituted as follows : — Professor Roberts-Austen (Chairman), Sir P. Abel, 
Professor Langley, Mr. Edward Riley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, Mr. John 
Spiller, Professor Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Turner (Secretary). 

The Committee have held several meetings during the year, and con- 
siderable correspondence has taken place in connection with the matters 
which it was appointed to consider. Ultimately the objects of the 
Committee were defined, and a number of suggestions were drawn up in 
order to assist in carrying out these objects. These suggestions were 
then published in various technical papers, before being finally revised, in 
order to allow persons interested to make any further suggestions which 
might appear advisable. After revision these proposals assumed the 
following form : — 



on standaiids fop. the analysis of iron and steel. 51 

Objects. 

It is proposed that the Committee shall co-operate with other similar 
Committees in the more important iron-producing countries, in order to 
provide standard specimens of iron and steel, the chemical composition of 
which shall have been carefully determined. The specimens adopted as 
standards shall be entrusted to some recosfnised official authority, such as 
the Standards Department of the Board of Trade, and sliall be used either 
for reference in the determination of the accuracy of any proposed method, 
of analysis, or for controlling the results of analyses in any cases of 
importance, which may from time to time arise. 

SUGGESTIOXP. 

1. Professor J. W. Langley, of the University of Michigan, U.S.A., 
to be requested to superintend the production of the samples ; these to 
be prepared and preserved in accordance with the directions to be 
furnished by the Committee, and an equal portion of each sample to bo 
forwarded to the several Secretaries of the respective Committees in the 
United Kingdom, America, France, Germany, and Sweden. 

2. The specimens, which are eventually to be adopted as standards, to 
be supplied to not more than seven representative chemists of repute in 
each of the countries above mentioned, who shall be requested to analyse 
the specimens by any method or methods they may prefer. 

3. In the event of the analyses giving results which in the opinion of 
the Committee may be regarded as sufficiently concordant, the means of 
the analytical results of each of the several constituents to be adopted as 
representing tlie composition of the standards. The report on the ana- 
lytical results not to be issued before the various analysts to whom the 
samples have been submitted shall have had an opportunity of examining 
it. The standards to be hereafter distinguished only by letters or 
numbers. 

4. The attention of the Committee to be for the present confined to 
five samples of steel, selected as containing as nearly as possible 1'3, 0*8, 
0-4, 0'15, and 0'07 per cent, of total carbon, respectively. In addition to 
the determination of the amount of carbon present in each condition, the 
phosphorus, sulphur, silicon, manganese, and chromium also to be 
determined. 

5. 200 kilos, of the samples selected for examination as standards to 
be prepared in all. This would give, after allowing sufficient for the 
required analyses, quite 5 kilos, of each standard for each of the five 
countries interested. Allowing say 10 grammes for each applicant who 
might desire to use the standards, this would permit of 500 appeals to 
each of the five standards in each country, or at least 12,500 appeals 
in all. 

6. The metal of which the samples are to be produced to be cast in 
small ingoto, special care being taken to prevent any irregularity of 
composition. After the removal of the outer skin the metal to be cut by 
a blunt tool in the form of thin shavings, and mixed as intimately as 
possible. 

7. The samples thus prepared to be preserved in separate small 
quantities (say of 30 grammes each), which shall be hermetically sealed 
in glass tubes so as to prevent oxidation. 

s 2 



52 REPOBT— 1889. 

8. The samples to be analysed, in the United Kingdom, bj Mr. A. H. 
Allen, Sheffield ; Mr. W. Jenkins, Dowlais ; Mr. G. S. Packer, Steel 
Company of Scotland ; Mr. J. Pattinson, Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Mr. E. 
EUev, London ; the Royal School of Mines ; and Mr. J. E. Stead, Middles- 
brough. 

Progress of the "Work. 

Under date July 14 1SS9, Professor Langley states that he has not as 
yet received a conclusive reply firam the State Department at Washington 
to his application asking the Government to forward the samples through 
its consular agencies, so that they might reach their destination with the 
seals of the American Committee unbroken by the Custom House in- 
spectors. The first four standards are ready to go as soon as word is 
received from Washington. They are packed iu lead-lined hermetically 
sealed boxes, four for each counn-y, and are enclosed by a larger wooden 
case, the whole weighing about 400 lb. 

The material was prepared as nearly as possible in accordance with 
the directions of the British Association Committee. Ingots of crucible 
steel were selected from a lot of some twenty-five tons, which came nearest 
to the required carbon for the first three standards. The last, C=01o. 
was too low to be made in a cracible, for after melting up a ntunber of 
charges it was not found po^ible to get below 020 in the plumbago 
crucibles used. Professor Langley accordingly took a large billet of 
Open Hearth steel, and after forging had a piece weighing about 100 lbs. 
cut out of the centre. 

The original weight of the ingots was 90 lbs., but after turning ofi' 
the skin and allowing for the pipe and some inevibible loss in turning, 
not much over 50 lbs. coidd be recovered in drillings. This will cause the 
weight of the standards to be somewhat less than specified, but it seems 
as though there was no help for it, because to have attempted to make 
the quantity up fi\)m two ingots woidd have intixiduced metal of a 
slightly difierent carbon, and so brought about an objectionable lack of 
uniformity. 

The metal was turned in a lathe at a very slow speed, and with a 
bltmt tool. The whole time of turning was between three and four 
months. 

In regard to pulverising the drillings as originally proposed. Professor 
Langley found it utterly impossible to do so by any means which would 
not introduce a notable quantity of foreign matter. Between chilled rolls 
the shavings only flattened. They were sifted through a 30- mesh sieve, 
and the fine material so obtained, which is small in qnautity. is in a 
separate enclosni-e. The i-est of the drillings are as nearly homogeneotis 
as it is possible to make them, because they have been made from * dead 
melted ' stock formed at one heat fi-om a single crucible. 

The vi^rions committees ai-e as follows : — Sweden, Professor Richard 
Akermau, Seci-etary ; Germany, the Grovernment Department of Tests ; 
France, Mous. Ferd. Gautier, Secretary ; England, the British Associa- 
tion Committee ; United States, three members of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers, viz., William Metcalf, Thomas Rod, and A. E. Hunt ; 
and three members of the faculty of the Univei"sity of Michigan, viz., 
Professors J. W. Langley, A B. Piescott, and M. E. Cooley. 

The material for the standards and the mechanical work on them have 
been furnished by the Crescent Steel Works of Pittsburgh gratoitoosly, 



ON STANDARDS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF IRON AND STEEL. 53 

because of the interest this firm has always shown in promoting the 
cause of scientific metallurgy. 

Professor Langley further says: — 'lean make the fifth standard, the 
0"08 carbon suggested by your Committee, only it will take probably 
about two montlis. I will start upon it in a short time, as soon as I 
can make the right kind of stock, which will have to be Bessemer, for I 
can blow a heat as low as that without trouble.' 

Within the last few days a letter has been received from Professor 
Langley as representing the University of Michigan, and from Mr. 
William Metcalf, on behalf of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
stating that the samples have been despatched to each of the four 
conntrios previously mentioned (Great Britain, France, Germany, and 
Sweden). It is hoped that the analyses will be commenced almost im- 
mediately, and that by the next meeting of the Association the work may 
be in a forward condition. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden 
and Eamsat and Dr. Nicol (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Properties of Solutions. 

The Committee have to report that the work of investigating the solu- 
bility of salts in the solutions of other salts has been continued during 
the past year. Further experiments have also been made with the object 
of determining the law governing the solubility of various salts in 
alcohol and mixtures of alcohol and water of diti'erent strengths. In this 
way a vast amount of additional data has been gathered together, but 
the work of generalising from these has not progressed to the extent that 
it was hoped last year, and the Committee must thei'efore ask for re- 
appointment. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tildex, 
M'Leod, Pickering, Ramsay, and Young and Drs. A. E. Leeds 
and Nicol (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on the Bibliography of Solution. 

The Committee have to report that considerable advance has been made 
in their work, with the following result : — 

Journals Searched. 

2. ' Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,' completed. 14 vols. 

4. ' Annals of Philosophy,' completed. 28 vols. 

5. ' Philosophical Magazine,' completed. 186 vols. 

6. ' The Edinburgh Journal of Science.' Completed, 16 vols. 

7. Nicholson's ' Journal,' completed, 41 vols. 

14. ' Philosophical Transactions,' K.S.L. 

15. Proceedings of above. 

16. Philo.sophical Transactions,' R.S.E. 

17. Proceedings of above. 

20. liiebig's ' Annalen,' 80 vols. 

21. Gilbert, PoggendorfF, and Wiedemann, 'Annalen,' completed. 240 vols, 

22. Schweigger's ' Journal,' completed. 69 vols. 
2.5. Carl's ' Repertorium,' completed. 12 vols. 

29. • Annales de Chimie et Physique,' completed. 204 vols. 
In all 950 volumes. 



54 



REPORT 1889. 



These journals were found to contain 675 papers on tlie subject of 
Solution, and these papers may be classified as follows : — 



— 


4 


5 


G 


7 


14 


V> 


IG 


17 


20 


21 


22 


25 


29 




A 1 




2 




_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


2 


5 





1 


5 


17 


2 





6 





— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


4 


1 


— 


— 


2 


14 


B 1 


4 


25 








1 


1 


— 


— 


32 


14 


18 


— 


33 


128 


2 


, 











— 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


2 


— 


— 


3 


5 


3 


4 


14 








1 


— 


1 


— . 


2 


7 


2 


— 


9 


40 


C 1 


1 


16 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— . 


1 


6 


19 


3 


1 


15 


64 


2 


— 


4 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


5 


— 


1 


8 


20 


3 


— 


2 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5 


— 


— 


10 


19 


4 


— 


5 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


2 


26 


2 


2 


11 


49 


5 


— 


4 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


12 


— 


2 


9 


29 


C 


— 


11 


1 


. 


2 


1 


— 


— 


3 


15 


1 


2 


5 


41 


7 


— 


2 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 







— 


1 


1 


10 


8 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


1 


— 


1 


1 


11 


9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


. — 


— 


— 


1 


10 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


4 


D 1 


— 


8 


— 


— 


2 


. — 


— 


— 


2 


20 


— 


— 


6 


33 


2 


— 


7 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


8 


5 


— 


— 


30 


52 


Miscellaneous 


2 


40 


3 


— 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


48 


6 


— 


33 


138 


11 


143 


5 


— 


13 


7 


5 


74 


191 


32 


11 


181 


675 



The Committee have to thank Miss Lloyd and Mr. A. J. Cooper, of 
Mason Collegje, Birmingham, for their assistance in searching the 
' Annales de Chimie et de Physique.' The Committee desire reappoint- 
ment. 



Report (Provisional) of a Gommittee, consisting of Professors 
M'Leod and W. Eamsay and Messrs. J. T. Cundall and W. 
A. Shenstone (Secretary), appointed to investigate the Influence 
of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other 

Gases. 

The Committee was appointed to ascertain, if possible, the mode of action 
of the silent electric discbarge in the ozonisiug of oxygen ; to investigate 
the influence of such conditions as temperature and pressure on ozonifi- 
cation more exactly than has hitherto been done. Also to gain, if possible, 
further and more direct evidence concerning the molecular weight of 
ozone, and to study the action of the discharge on other gases. 

In previous reports the prejoaration and storage of veiy pure oxygen 
has been described. It has been shown that very pure oxygen is readily 
converted into ozone, and that in some respects the proj^erties of ozone 
when thoroughly dry differ from those of the same gas when it is con- 
taminated with a trace of water vapour. 

Although a considerable amount of work has been done since our last 
report was presented, vai-ious difficulties and several unavoidable accidents 
have prevented us from completing any part of our work. Immediately 
after the meeting at Manchester two members of the Committee pro- 
ceeded to make quantitative experiments with specimens of pure oxygen. 
In these experiments known volumes of the gas at 0°C. and at known 
and nearly uniform pressures were submitted to the silent electric dis- 



ON THE SILENT DISCHAKGB OF ELECTRICITY. 55 

charge in apparatus so constructed that the whole mass of the gas was, 
practically, simultaneously exposed to the action of the discharge ; hence 
the maximum effect was quickly arrived at. The amount of ozone formed 
was calculated (on the assumption that the density of its original ozono 
is 24) from the pressure at which the gas occupied unit volume before 
and after the action of the discharge. The discharge from a large 
Ruhmkorff coil was used. 

The results obtained varied exceedingly. Under what appeared to bo 
nearly identical conditions the yield of ozone was sometimes almost 
nominal, at others fairly good ; whilst on one occasion nearly 20 per 
cent, of the oxygen employed appeared to have been converted into ozone. 
Subsequent experiments showed us that this was probably caused by the 
very variable action of the contact-maker of the coil, and it was therefore 
necessary to devise and construct a new contact-maker which should act 
with great regularity and be subject to perfect control. This involved 
considerable delay, and, unfortunately, just as the new apparatus was 
completed circumstances compelled us to suspend operations for many 
months. 

Lately, however, work has been resumed, and the results since obtained 
justify the hope that our difhculties are now overcome. We hope, there- 
fore, that at the next meeting of the Association we shall have made 
substantial progress with the investigation. 

Since our last report was printed an interesting paper on ozone has 
been published by MM. Bichat at Guntz.^ Some of their work bears upon 
the points we are investigating, and, as in some respects their results 
may seem not to offer us much encoui'agement, it is worth while to add 
tiiat our method of experiment seems to us to be in certain respects better 
than that adopted by these investigators, and that consequently we still 
see good reason to hope for ultimate success. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Dewar, E. Frank- 
land, Percy F. Frankland (Secretary), and Odling and Mr. 
Crookes, ajopointed to confer %uith the Committee of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science xvith a view of 
forminrj a uniform system of recording the results of Water 
Analysis. 

Having during the past two years given this matter our careful con- 
sideration, we beg herewith to submit the following report. 

In order to ascertain the general feeling of chemists in this country 
on the subject, we have circulated the following series of questions 
amongst the leading water-analysts, upon whose co-oj^eration the adoption 
of any uniform scheme must necessarily depend. 

1. What is the system of recording the results of Water Analysis 
whicli you adopt ? 

(a) For the Mineral matters. 
{h) For the Organic matters, 
(c) For the Gaseous matters. 

' Comjftes rendus, 1888. 



56 BEroRT— 1889. 

2. Have you any objections, and if so what are they, to the use of a 
Decimal system — such as parts per million, per 100,000, per 10,000, or 
per 1,000 ? 

3. In recording the results of complete Analysis of the Mineral matters 
present in water, is it your custom to state the proportion of each indi- 
vidual Base and Acid as actually determined, or to combine the Bases and 
Acids so as to form salts ? 

4. Should it be your custom to combine the Bases and Acids, explain 
the principles by which you are guided in so combining them, and state 
what, in your opinion, are the advantages attaching to such combi- 
nation. 

5. If your present method of recording results is more or less influ- 
enced by special circumstances, such as the custom of professional Chemists 
generally, what other method of recording results would you yourself select 
as the most rational and the most convenient for universal adoption ? 

6. Would you support the adoption of the following method, recom- 
mended by the American Committee, of stating the constituents of a 
Mineral Water ? — 

'That the parts per thousand of each basic element, K, Na, Li, Ca, 
Mg, Fe ' (Fco), etc., be given, and of each acidic element, such 
as CI, I, S, etc., that is combined dii'ectly with a basic element, or 
that may reasonably be supposed to be so combined, the rest of 
the acidic elements to be given in connection with all the oxygen 
of their salts, as usually written in our present emjiirical formulas, 
as SO4, CO3, PO4, etc' 

From the answers we have received to the above questions, as well as 
from our own personal experience, we gather that there would be nc 
reluctance on the part of British chemists to adopt a uniform and ra- 
tional scheme, but for the great difficulty of rendering such a method of 
statement popularly understood. Thus the majority of analysts employ 
the ^ grain- gallon ' system of statement, as being the one most intelligible 
to their clients, and this system undoubtedly possesses certain advantages 
in the case of analyses for technical purposes, in which the analytical 
figures have to be applied to large volumes of water which in this country 
are almost invariably measured in gallons. 

We find, however, a general readiness on the part of most analysts to 
adopt a uniform and prescribed system only to be departed from in special 
cases, and we are of opinion that it would be impossible to secure more 
than such a qualified consent to any one system. 

Although there is but little possibility of directly influencing the 
custom of professional chemists in their private practice, we are of 
opinion that it is of great importance to urge upon water-analysts the 
desirability of adopting some uniform system in the case of such analyses 
as are communicated to scientific societies or other learned bodies, and 
which are therefore calculated to have a circulation in countries where 
the imperial gallon is not recognised, and if such uniformity could be 
secured, there is but little doubt that the system would before long 
establish itself even in the case of analyses of a non-public character. 

As regards the method of statement which would be most suitable for 
general use in such published analyses, we are of opinion— 

(1) That it should be on the decimal system, -prekTSihly parts per mil- 
lion (mgrms. per litre), or 2oaris per 100,000, as parts per 1,000 (grms. per 



ON RECORDING THE RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSIS. 57 

litre) would too frequently give rise to fractional results. The special 
advantages attaching t« ' parts per 100,000 ' are that the figures for 
mineral waters are not inconveniently large, nor those for potable waters 
inconveniently small, whilst their conversion into grains per gallon is a 
very simple operation. 

We cannot agree with the American Committee that different scales 
should be adopted for mineral and potable waters respectively, for such 
a dual system must, in our opinion, inevitably lead to confusion. 

(2) We attribute the greatest importance above all to the clear 
statement, in every case, of the actual determinations made, and that all 
results derived by calculation should be sharply distinguished from those 
obtained by direct determination. 

Thus we view with particular disapprobation the statement of the 
mineral ingredients combined as salts, unless accompanied by a clear 
account of the analytical data upon which this statement is founded. 

(3) As regards the statement of the mineral ingredients, we have 
considered the method suggested by the American Committee, and which 
consists in recording the proportion of each metallic element (K, Na, Li, 
Ca, Mg, Fe", Fej, &c.), as well as that of each electronegative element (P, 
CI, Br, I, S, &c.) contained in binary compounds, whilst in the case of 
oxy-componnds the electronegative element is given as combined with 
the whole of the oxygen (SOj, PO^, ^03,00,), Ac), and we are of opinion 
that this arrangement is decidedly the most convenient for all purposes 
of calculation, although the absence of any recognised names for these 
acid-groups, as well as the prevailing custom of estimating the metallic 
elements in the condition of bases (KoO, NaoO, CaO, &c.) are undoubted 
objections to this system. 

(4) That the amount of dissolved gases (0, N, CO.,, SHj, &c.) may 
be most conveniently expressed either in cubic centimetres per litre or in 
volumes of gas per 100 volumes of watei-, the latter being the more 
general practice in this counti-y. 

The system of statement which we wish to recommend will be most 
readily understood from the following form for a complete analysis : — 

RESULTS OF ANALYSIS EXPRESSED IN P.\RTS 

PER 100,000. 

Potable M'atcr ;— 

l'(ff) In suspension. . 



Total solid matters . 

t(&) In solution.. 



Organic carbon. 
Organic nitrogen. 



Oxj-gen consumed, as indicated by decolouration of permanganate.. 
Ammonia expelled on boiling with sodium carbonate. 



Ammonia expelled on boiling with alkaline permanganate. 

Nitrogen as nitrates and nitrites. . 

Chlorine. 



58 REPORT— 1889. 

Potable Water (contd.) :— 

' Temporary. 



( 

Hardness I Permanent. 
Itc 



> Total. 



'Mineral Water : — 

Carbonate of lime (CaCO.,). 



Carbonate of magnesia (MgCOa). 



Carbonate of soda (Na^COj) (calculated from residual alkalinity after 
boiling and filtering off precipitated CaCOa and MsCO.,'). 

Total calcium (Ca). 



Total magnesium (Mg)-. 

Total potassium (K). 

Total sodium (Na). 



Iron (ferrous) (Fe"). 
Iron (ferric) (Fe^). 



Sulphuric radical (iSO^)._ 
Nitric radical (NO3). 



Nitrous radical (NOj)._ 



Phosphoric radical (PO^). 

Silicic radical (SiOj). 

Chlorine (CI). 

Bromine (Br). 

Iodine (I). 



Sulphur as Sulphide (S)._ 



DISSOLVED GASES. 
Cul'ic centimetres of Gas at 0° C, and 760 millimetres in 1 litre of water. 

Carbonic anhydride (COo). 

O-xygen (0). 



Nitrogen (N). 



Sulphuretted hydrogen (H;S)._ 



ON THE ACTION OF LIGHT ON THE IIYDRACIDS OF THE HALOGENS. 59 



Second Report of the Committee, consistinrj of Dr. Russell {Chair- 
man), Dr. A. KicnAiiDSON {Secretary), Captain Ahxp:v, and Pro- 
fessors W. N. Hartley and W. Ramsay, appointed for the 
investigation of the action of Light on the Hydracids of the 
Halogens in presence of Oxygen. {Drawn xvp by Dr. A. 
Richardson.) 

An extended series of experiments has been made during the past year on 
the following lines : — 

Solutions of chlorine water were mixed with equal volumes of dilute 
hydrochloric acid of strengths varying between "029 per cent, and 1'44 
per cent. ; these solutions were exposed in sealed tubes to sunlight. 

After seven days (August 17 to August 24) the free and combined 
chlorine contained in the liquids was estimated. A glance at the following 
table will show that the addition of even a small percentage of hj^dro- 
chloric acid exerts a very material influence on the stability of the 
chlorine water. A parallel series of experiments was made with hydro- 
chloric acid of the same strength as that used in the previous experiments, 
free chlorine being absent ; these solutions were exposed in presence of 
free oxygen for a similar period. It was found tliat no chlorine was 
liberated from the acid, but that on increasing the strength of the acid 
to 15 per cent, a trace of chlorine was set free, whilst a 30 per cent, 
solution gave 1"01 per cent, free chlorine. On comparing these two 
sets of experiments it is seen that the oxygen liberated by the decom- 
position of water by chlorine decomposes hydrochloric acid present in 
the solution, whereby free chlorine is restored to the liquid, although the 
same strength of acid is stable under the influence of light in free oxygen, 

HydrocJdoric Acid and Chlorine Water exposed to Light for seven days, 

August 17-24. 



No. 

I 


Grammes 

free 
CI taken 


Grammes 
HCI added 


Per cent. 
HClin 

Solution 


Grammes 

CI as HCI 

found 


Grammes 

free 
CI found 


Per cent. 

com- 
bined CI 


Per cent, 
free CI 


0-5689 


0-0434 


0-02899 


0-5556 


0-0133 


97-66 


2-34 


2 


0'5419 


0-4343 


0-2899 


0-473(; 


0-0683 


87-39 


12-61 


3 


0-5218 


0-{;514 


0-4009 


0-3727 


0-1491 


71-42 


28-57 


4 


0-580!t 


0-8812 


0-5874 


0-3529 


0-2280 


60-75 


39-25 


5 


0-5807 


1-0853 


0-7239 


0-2399 


0-3408 


41-29 


58-71 


6 


0-56.->9 


1-7374 


1-1583 


0-0689 


0-4970 


12-18 


87-82 


7 


0-5830 


2-1717 


1-4478 


0-0265 


0-55659 


4-53 


95-47 



Further, it was noticed tliat the rate at which chlorine water was 
decomposed was unaltered, whether oxygen or an inert gas like carbon 
dioxide occupied the space above the solution. 

The action of ozone on gaseous hydrogen chloride has been studied. 
Tubes of about 300 mms. in length -were filled with a mixture of equal 
parts of hydrogen chloride and oxygen containing ozone, and exposed to 
light. 

A rough estimate of the relative rates of decomposition of the gas in 
the different tubes was obtained by observing the colour of the gas ; as 
seen by looking through the length of the tube against a white back- 



60 EEPOET— 1889. 

ground, minute quantities of chlorine liberated gave a green tinge to the 
gas. The following is the order in time in which a green tint was first 
observed in the different tubes : — 

After 1 day moist ozone and moist hydrogen chloride. 

„ 3 days „ oxygen „ _ „ 

„ 5 „ partially dry ozone, partially dry hydrogen chloride. 

,. 96 „ „ „ oxygen „ „ „ „ 

Ozone and hydrogen chloride were dried over phosphorus pentoxide 
and exposed to light for 96 days (May 24 to August 28) ; the gas in the 
tube was then drawn through a solution of potassium iodide, but no trace 
of free chlorine could be detected. 

Similar tubes containing dry and moist hydrogen chloride and ozone 
were kept in the dark for 96 days. After that time no trace of green 
colour could be detected in the tubes, and on the addition of solution of 
potassium iodide to the contents of the tube, chlorine and ozone were 
proved to be absent. Although gaseous hydrogen chloride is not de- 
composed by ozone in the dark, yet it was found that when ozone was 
allowed to pass through a 30 per cent, solution of the acid (in the dark) 
a decided smell of chlorine was observed, especially after allowing the 
solution to stand for some time in a stoppered bottle. A solution of 
hydrogen dioxide added to a 15 per cent, solution of hydrochloric acid in 
the dark also liberated chlorine, which was at once detected by the smell. 
Experiments in this direction are still being made. 

In a previous report it has been pointed out that dry hydi-ogen chloride 
and dry oxygen are unchanged even after long exposure to sunlight, but 
that the presence of liquid water very much hastens the decomposition of 
the acid, the oxidation being most rapid when water is present sufficient 
to form a saturated solution of the gas. 

In this, as in many other cases, it is the combined influence of water 
and oxygen in presence of sunlight which causes oxidation, and in seeking 
for an explanation of the part played by water in promoting decom- 
position the possibility of the formation of hydrogen dioxide suggested 
itself. In order to decide this point a very large number of experiments 
have been made, only a few of which need be quoted. It is quite obvious 
that in the absence of any substance upon which the peroxide can act, 
minute quantities which may be formed in pure water will readily be 
decomposed and so escape detection. In the first experiments varying 
quantities of pure ether were added to the water, as it is known that the 
presence of this substance increases the stability of the peroxide without 
itself being acted upon. 

100 CCS. of water were mixed with 25 ccs. of pure ether ; this liquid 
was exposed to light in an atmosphere of oxygen for 66 days (Dec. 10 to 
Feb. 4). After this time some of the ether was shaken with a solution 
of potassium bichromate, when the presence of hydrogen peroxide was at 
once shown by the decided blue colour imparted to the ether. Tubes 
containing pure ether and water were exposed to sunlight in presence of 
oxygen from Feb. 7 to May 16 (98 days) : these solutions after exposure 
readily liberated iodine from a 5 per cent, solution of potassium iodide ; 
this was estimated by ^'"^^^ solution of sodium thiosulphate. After addi- 
tion of the iodide, the solution was shaken and allowed to stand in the 
dark for some hours before titration with the thiosulphate. 

Before giving the results of these experiments it may be mentioned 



ON THE ACTION OF LIGHT ON THE UYDKACIUS OF THE HALOGENtJ. 61 

that the ether used was very carefully purified, and when tested by the 
iodoform reaction it gave only a very minute trace of alcohol ; the oxygen 
used was purified by passing through solutions of potassium iodide, sodium 
hydrate, and water. The mixture of ether and water was tested in one 
experiment after exposure ; it was found to be neutral to litmus, and 
contained only a trace of alcohol, whilst the gas above the liquid was 
free from carbon dioxide ; the ethereal solution, however, freely liberated 
iodine from potassium iodide. 

The results of seven experiments are given in the following table : — 



No. 
1 


CCS. IIoO 


CCS. (CoH5)20 


CCS. 


CCS.TOTO 

required 


Equivalent 
in grms. I. 


Equivalent 

in grins. 

H2O2 


100 


5 


75 


60 


000765 


00010 


?, 


100 


15 


80 


1040 


001326 


000176 


3 


80 


30 


70 


184-1 


002347 


0-00313 


4 


Water vapour 
contained in 
saturated at 0° 


5 


1,000 


128-0 


001632 


0002176 


5 


Water vapour in 
saturated 
at 0° 


3 entirely con- 
verted into 
gas 


1,312 




Absent 


Absent 


6 


100 


15 


replaced 
by CO.. 


— 


Absent 


Absent 


7 


100 exposed to 
heating effects 
of sunlight only, 
tube wrapped 
in tinfoil 


15 


65 




Absent 


Absent 



It will be seen from these experiments that the amount of hydrogen 
peroxide which is formed is dependent on the proportion of ether to 
water present. Thus in No. 1 there was no excess of liquid ether, but 
it was completely dissolved in the water ; again, when the water and 
ether are present as gas no peroxide is formed (see No. 5) ; this is also 
the case when oxygen is absent (No. 6), and when the solutions are 
exposed to the same temperature changes in the dark in an atmosphere 
of oxygen. 

The next experiments were made with water and oxygen, the ether 
being omitted. 

Two bottles of 900 ccs. capacity were charged with 600 ccs. of water 
containing 2'5 per cent, of pure suliihuricacid ; the space above the water 
was filled with oxygen. In one experiment the exposure was made in 
sunlight, whilst in the other case the liquid was exposed to rays of low 
refrangibility only, by allowing the light to pass through a cell containing 
a strong solution of potassium bichromate. 

The exposure was started on July 28, and 50 ccs. of the solutions 
were tested from time to time with ^^ potassium permanganate. In each 
case the number of ccs. of the permanganate required to produce a pink 
tint in 50 ccs. of pure water was determined, and deducted from that 
required for the same volume of the solution. The following table gives 
the results of these analyses, the terras ' red ' and ' white ' being used 
to distinguish between the two sets of experiments. In Nos. 2 and 4 the 
analyses were made after prolonged periods of cloudy weather, whil.st in 
7 and 8 the solutions had been exposed to bright sunshine. Nos. 5 and 6 



62 



REPORT — 1889. 



.show that, whatever the agent may be which decolourises the per- 
manganate, it readily becomes inactive on standing in the dark, bnt that 
it is again formed by exposing the liquid to light ; this process can be 
repeated indefinitely. In these experiments the temperature was kept 
below 25°C. Another experiment was made to determine to what ex- 
tent evaporation and condensation of the liquid due to changes in tem- 
perature bring about the formation of the peroxide. Acidified water 
was exposed in two flasks : in one case the flask was rendered impervious 
to light by a covering of opaque paper, whilst the other flask was exposed 
to light. After one week's exposure to bright sunshine (Aug. 20 to 
Aug. 27) the liquid was tested with permanganate, when it was found that 
50 CCS. water fi'om the flask in the dark registered 1 cc. permanganate 
(50 CCS. pure acidified water required 1 cc. permanganate), showing 
absence of peroxide of hydrogen. 50 cos. of water from the exposed flask 
registered 2'4 ccs. permanganate, subtracting 1 cc. for pure water = 
1"4 cc. due to the peroxide ='00047 per cent. 



Table sJioiving the Action of Liijlit on Water and Oxygen. 
Ea'jjosure July 28 to August 30. 





Nature 




CCS. KMnOj 


CCS. KMnO.! 


Corrected 


Equiva- 
lent in 
terms, of 


Per- 


No. 


of the 


Exposure 


for 50 CCS. 


for 50 CCS. ol 


number 


centage 




Light 




of Solution 


pure HoO 


of ccs. 


of HoOj 


1 


Red 


23 davs . 


1-4 


1-2 


0-2 


0-000034 


0-000068 


2 


White 


23 days . 


2-8 


1-2 


1-6 


0-000272 


0-000544 


3 


Red 


56 days . 


1-0 


0-8 


0-2 


0-000034 


0-000068 


4 


"White 


5G days 


2-5 


0-8 


1-7 


0-000289 


0-000578 


5 


White 


Kept 2 days in 
the dark 


1-8 


0-9 


11 


0-000187 


0-000374 


6 


White 


After G days in 
the dark 


1-0 


10 


— 


— 


— 


7 


White 


After 4 days' 
sunshine, Aug. 
20-24 


30 


1-0 


2-0 


0-00034 


0-00068 


8 


White 


After 10 days' 
sunshine, till 
Aug. 30 


6-9 


1-3 


5-6 


0-000951 


0-00190 


9 


Red 


Aug. 30 . 


1-G 


1-3 


0-3 


0-000051 


0-000102 



Dry and moist oxygen were exposed to light, but no trace of ozone or 
hydrogen peroxide was detected. 

These experiments seem to show that hydrogen peroxide is formed 
when oxygen and liquid water are exposed to sunshine, and tbat the rays 
of high refi'angibility are influential in bringing this change about. 

The influence of -moisture in bringing about the oxidation of hydrogen 
chloride is now easily explained, for it seems probable that when a 
saturated solution of the chloride is exposed to light in presence of 
oxygen, hydrogen dioxide is first formed, and it is this substance which 
decomposes the hydrogen chloride. Further, the oxidation of the 
sulphides and of certain pigments by light is explained, though no clue is 
afforded to rhc explanation of reductions by light, since in many instances 
this takes place in dry air. 

Numerous experiments are being made in other directions, but these 
are not sufiiciently advanced for publication. 



ON THE FOSSIL PHYLLOPODA OF THE PALiEOZOIC ROCKS. 



63 



I. 


ArisUnoc n.nd Callizoe. 


II. 


Bactroptis. 


III. 


Tropidoraris. 


IV. 


Echinocaris. 


V. 


Kothozoe. 


VI. 


Protocarix. 


m. 


Cvratiocaris. 




1. Patula, Ludlow. 




2. Patula, Dudley. 




3. Pusilla. 




4. Cowmancnsis. 




5. Grandis. 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of ]\Ir. R. Etiieridge, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T, Eupert Joxes (Secretai-y), 
on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palceozoic Rocks. 

VIII. Caridolitcs ( Ceratiocarls ?). 

IX. Bitlnjrovaris. 
X. lAngulocaris. 

XI. Disc'nwcaris. 
XII. Estheria and Fstheriella. 

1. Wenjuh)ff's. 

2. Zudivii/'s. 

3. Kratom's, 

4. Weiss' s. 

5. Scotch. 
XJII. Ribeiria. 
XIV. Proricaris. 

I. Aristozoe and Callizoe. — Mr. C. D. Walcotfc, of the U. S. Geol. 
Survey, refers two Lower- Cambrian fossils, from the Olenellus-zone of 
the eastern part of the State of New York, to Aristozoe, namely, A. Troy- 
ensis (Ford), and A. rotundata, Walcott. ' Amer. Journ. Science,' ser. 3 
vol. xxxiv. (1887), p. 193, pi. 1, figs. 8 and 9. Fig. 8 more nearly 
approaches Barrande's Callizoe in appearance. 

To this closely allied genus, Callizoe, Barr., belongs Richter's Bey- 
ricMa armata, 'Zeitsch. d. g. Ges.,' vol. xv., 1863, p. 672, pi. 19, figs 
16-18 ; see ' Geol. Mag.,' 1881, p. 342. This is from the Upper Silurian 
Tentaculite-beds of Thuringia. 

Linnarson's Lepenlitia primordalis, ' Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Hand- 
lingar,' vol. viii., 1869, p. 84, pi. 2, figs. 6-5, m, from the Olenus-Schist 
of Westergotland, belongs to the same genus; and a closely-allied species 
of Callizoe is represented in Angelin's unpublished ' Plate A ' of Scandi- 
navian Entomostraca, figs. 9, 9a, 96, 9c. 

II. Bactropns. — The Badropus referred to in our Sixth Report on the 
Fossil Phyllopoda > (September, 1888) has been figured and described 
by the Rev. G. F. Wliidborne, P.G.S., in the First Part of ' A Monograph 
of the Devonian Fauna of the South of England,' Palteontographical 
Society, 1889, p. 43, pi. 4, fig. 21, as B. decoratus, a segment of the. 
abdomen of an Aristozoe. 

III. Tropidocaris. — In the same Monograph, p. 44, pi. 4, fio-s. 20 a, h, 
Mr. Whidborne also describes and figures a fragment of a phyllocaridal 
cephalothorax, probably belonging to the genus Tropidocaris, Beecher. 

IV. Echinocaris. — Another and more perfect Phyllocaridal specimen 
has been discovered in Devonshire, namely one half (left valve) and rather 
more of the cephalothorax of an Echinocaris, by Mr. Dufton in the leaden- 
blue shales of the Livfjula-squamiformis beds in a quarry near Sloly, close to 
the three-milestone. on the Barnstaple and Ilfracombe road. The shales 
here interstratified with very micaceous frilled sandstones, belong to the 
Cucullrea-zone of tlie Marwood Beds. This Echinocaris, first recoo-nised 
by the Rev. G. F. Whidborne, is related to E. socialis, Beecher,- but the 

• Peport Brit. A.<isoc. (for 1888), 1889, p. 175. 

- Second Geol. Siirr. Pc7ui.ii/lvania, vol. PPP, 1884, p. 10, pi. 1, figs. 1-12; and 
Hall's Iteport Geol. N.Y., Pakcont., vol. vii., 1888, p. 174, pi. 20, tigs. 1-12. 



64 EEPORT — 1889. 

carapace-valve is rounder. This unique specimen belongs to the Wood- 
wardian Museum, Cambridge. 

V. Nothozoe. — If NotJiozoe, Barrande, be reckoned among the Phyllo- 
poda ^ R. P. Whitfield's Nothozoe? Verinontana should be noticed. It is 
nearly ovate in shape, |x| inch in dimensions. From the Potsdam 
sandstone of Vermont, U.S. ' See ' Bullet. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.' vol i., 
No. 5, p. 144, figs. 14 and 15 (1883 ?). 

VI Protocaris. — Protocaris Marslii, "Walcott, ' Bullet. U.S. Geol. 
Survey,' No. 10 (1884-5), p. 50, pi. 10 ; No. 30 (1886), pp. 147, 148, 
pi. 15, fig. 1, appears as a compressed Apudiform organism, with a 
flattened, subquadrate, obscure cephalothorax, and a tapering body or 
abdomen of ' 30 narrow segments, a large terminal segment or telson, 
with two rather strong caudal or terminal spines.' ' Total length, 42 mm. ; 
length of carapace, 21 mm. ; width, 26 mm. ; length of body, 15 mm., 
exclusive of caudal spines ; width of body where it passes beneath the 
carapace, 10 ram. ; at telson, 4 mm.' From the ' Middle Cambrian, 
Georgia Formation ; Parker's farm, town of Georgia, Vermont.' 

VII. Gerattocaris. — 1. In the ' British Association Report for 1855 ' 
(1856),' Trans. Sections, (Part II.), pp._ 98, 99, the late Rev. W. S. 
Symonds recorded the discovery by Mr. Lightbody in the Upper-Ludlow 
Shales on the banks of the Teme, near Ludlow, of a fine specimen of the 
caudal trifid appendage of a Phyllopodal Crustacean, and in the ' Edinb. 
New Philos. Journ.,' new series, vol. ii. (1855), p. 404, pi. 8, he gave a 
descriptive note, together with a careful drawing made by Mrs. Humphrey 
Salwey. We have not been able to trace the ultimate disposition of this 
interesting fossil. If the drawing gives the natural size, the specimen 
might be said to be a gigantic form of Ceratiocaris patula, T. R. J. and 
H. W., ' Monogr. Brit. Pal. Phylloc' 1888, p. 46, pi. 11, fig. 11. 

2. The British Museum (Natural History) has obtained the trifid 
caudal appendage of a small Ceratiocaris (I 1007) from the Wenlock 
Limestone of Dudley, which also resembles G. patula. 

3. A new species of Ceratiocaris has been published in the ' Trans. 
Royal Society of Canada,' Section IV., 1888. In his memoir ' On some 
remarkable Organisms of the Silurian and Devonian Rocks in Southern 
New Brunswick,' p. 56, pi. 4, fig. 9, Mr. G. F. Matthew gives the 
following : — 

Ceratiocaris pusilla, n. sp. — A small, elongate, and delicately shaped 
Ceratiocaris, carapace 15 mm., and altogether about 30 mm. long, 5 mm. 
wide. ' This little species occurs in myriads in the black fissile shales of 
Division 2 of the Silurian succession at Cunningham Brook, Westfield 
Station, N.B.' These strata are regarded as being of the age of the 
Mayhill Sandstone. In the same black shale Mr. Matthew has found the 
fossil fish Biplaspis, n. gen., op. cit., pp. 49-55. 

4. A Lower- Silurian (Ordovician) species of Ceratiocaris (C Geno- 
manensis, Tromelin) is referred to in the Report of the ' Assoc. Pran9aise 
pour I'Avancement des Sciences ; Compte rendu de la 4™^ Session, 
Nantes, 1875 ' (8vo. Paris, 1876), p. 623, as occurring in the ' Calcaires 
ampeliteus ' of Lusanger, and in the ' Bullet. Soc. Geol. France,' ser. 3, 
vol. iv. 1876, in Table B, as in the same limestone at Chamire-en-Charnie, 
Dep. Sarthe. M. Paul Lebesconte, of Rennes, has obligingly given us 
the opportunity of examining a large series of the palaeozoic fossils from 

' Third Keport (for 1885), pp. 358, 359. 



ON TUE FOSSIL THYLLOrODA OF THE TALiEOZOIC ROCKS. 65 

Sarthe, Ille-et-Vilaine, and Mayenne, but only one small Ceratiocarid 
fragment (in the Schisto ardoisiei* inferiear, below the Gres de May), 
from Laille, was met with, and nothing corresponding to what M. Gaston 
Le Goarant de Tromelin described as (J. Ceiiomnnensis in <he ' Lettre sar 
le terrain silnrien de la Sarthe,' addressed to M. Guillier by M. do 
Tromelin, ' Bulltt. Soc. agriciiltnre, sciences et arts do la Sarthe,' 
vol. xxii. (1874), pp. 582-590. This work being rather rare, we transcribe 
the original description (p. 586) : ' Cette espece se distingue de C. Bo- 
hemicus et C. incequalis en ce qne les trois branches du gouvernail sont a 
pen pros lisses et n'offient quo quolques faibles rainures longitndinales. 
La branche principale est plus robuste que les branches secondaires ; 
tontes trois, assez fortes a leur naissance, se reduiscnt rapidement, et ne 
paraissent pas d'avoir depasse la longueur de 30 millimetres ; elles sont 
un pen aplaties dans le sens lateral. Dans tons nos exemplaires elles 
Bont inclinees a 45 degres par rapport au dernier segment du corps. 
Celui-ci semble sub-cylindrique, et I'empreinte du test offre qnelques stries 
longitndinales sans continuite. La forme la plus aiialogao est C. Scharyi, 
Barr., do Boheme, dont le gouvernail est imparfaitement connu. L'especo 
portugaise figuree par Sharpe sous le nom de Dithyrocaris lomjicauda ' et 
la notre ponrraient bien etre idcntiques.' No figure is given. 

M. de Tromelin also determined Ceratiocaris Bohemica, Barr., from 
Saint-Sauveur (Manche), and C. incequalis, Barr., from Chamire (Sarthe), 
op. cit. p. 585. 

5. The Ceratiocaris grandis, described and figured in outline by 
Dr. Julius Pohlman in the ' Bullet. Buffalo Soc. Nal. Hist.' vol. iv. 1881, 
p. 19, fig. 5, appears to have been a symmotrically oval plate, with sub- 
acute ends, once convex, but now flattened and marked by a crack on 
one side, reaching rather more than half-way across. Its relationship is 
obscure. In size, if the figure be one-fourth more than the natural size 
(' xi '), the specimen is really about 2 x H inches in dimensions. 

VIII. CariJoUtes {Geratiocaris?). — In the ' Proc. Royal Soc.,' 
May 8, 1873, p. 289, Dr. H. A. Nicholson, in his paper on annelid marks, 
noted some fossil ' tracks apparently produced by crustaceans belonging 
to the genus Geraiiocaris, and for which he proposes the generic name of 
Caridoliies ' ; distinguishing: them as C. Wibo7ii at p. 290. See also 
'Geol. Mag.' 1873, pp. 309, 310. The author has very kindly enabled 
ns to study some of the marks referred provisionally to Ceratiocaris in a 
dark-grey, finely micaceous, laminated, hard mudstone (Upper Silurian) 
from Grieston-on-Tweed, in Peeblesshire. The marks are very narrow, 
some concave (furrows), some convex (casts) ; some nearly parallel, others 
differing in direction, and nearly all branching off at various angles to 
apparently tapering terminations. Their origin is obscure. 

IX. Dithyrocaris. — M. Lebesconte's collection, above mentioned, com- 
prises two specimens of Dithyrocaris, one from Coi'smos (I!le-et-Vilainc). 
and one from Renaze (Mayenne), both in the ' Schiste ardoisitr supcrieur 
(Faune 2'^^, Barrande),' above the Gres de May. 

X. Lingulocaris. — Another interesting specimen in 'M. Lebesconte's 
collection is from the ' Schiste ardoi.sier inferienr (Fauno 2'''^) ' of 
Angers (Maine & Loire), and very closely resembles Lingulocaris 
Salteriana, J. and W., shown by fig. 6, at p. 179 of our Sixth Report 

' This is described in detail in our Monngr. Brit. Pal. PhijU., p. Gl, pi. 11, 
fig. 10. Its generic position is still uucertain. 

1889. p 



66 DEPORT — 1889. 

(for 1888). Uufortunately it is badly preserved and not quite per- 
fect. 

XI. Discinocnris. — Discinocaris gigas, H. W., was referred to in our 
Second Report (for 1884), as having possibly a diameter of seven inches. 
Mr. James Dairon, F.G.S., of Glasgow, has sent us a careful sketch of a fine 
specimen of this Discinocaris, found by Mr. William Brown (of Birkhill, 
Dumfriesshire) in the graptolitic shales of Dobbs Linn, Moffat. It has 
somewhat the outline of the bottom of a horse's hoof, boldly curved ou 
one edge, and broadly indented with a shallow triangle on the other. 
It has been much more convex than it is now, being somewhat crushed, 
and radiately cracked towards the curved margin. It measures about 
3 inches (73 centimetres) transversely from one side of the curve to the 
other, and about 2 inches (5^ centimetres) from the apex of the trian- 
gular indentation to the opposite edge. 

XII. Es{liena and Estheriella. — l. In his memoir on the Fauna of the 
Devonian system in North-western and Central Russia (in Russ and 
German), 8vo., St. Petersburg, 1886, pp. 223,224, P. K Wenjukoff gives 
an account of the EstJieria memhranacea (Pacht) and its synonymy. 

2. Ludwig's CijcJas ohuncula in his memoir on ' The Freshwater Shells 
of the Coal-formation of the Ural,' 1861, in the ' Palisontographica,' 
vol. X., p. 23, pi. 3, figs. 3 and 3a, is probably an EstJieria,^ from the 
Permian or Permio-Carboniferous bituminous marl with Aiithracomija (?) 
Uralica (Ldwg.) and A. (?) ohslijui (Ldwg.), on the left bank of the 
Uswa, near Nischni Parogi, in the Government of Perm. It is referred 
to, with a wrong reference, by P. Kratow in the 'Memoires du Comite 
Geologiqne,' St. Petersburg, 1888, vol. vi., Lief. 2, p. 510. 

3. In his ' Geologische Forschungen am westlichen Ural- Abhange in den 
Gebieten von Tscherdyn und Ssolikamsk ' ; ' Memoires du Comite Geo- 
logiqne ' ; St. Petersburg, vol. vi., Lief. 2, 4to., 1888, Herr P. Kratow 
describes and figures the following Palaeozoic Phyllopods : — Estheria sul- 
concentrica, nov., pi. 2, fig. 26, pp. 469 and 556 ; Estheriella trapezoidalis, 
nov., fig. 27, pp. 469 and 557 ; EstJieriella oUonga, nov., fig. 28, pp. 
470 and 557, from the Permio-Carboniferous formation of the west side 
of the Ural (Districts of Tscherden and Ssolikamsk) ; and from the 
Permian formation of the same region : Estheria, sp., pi. 2, fig. 25, pp. 
510 and 559 ; Estheria, sp., pp. 511 and 559. 

4. In 1875 Herr Weiss described Estheriella as being like Estheria, 
but bearing radial riblets (6-12 in number), ' Zeitsch. d. G. Gesell.,' vol. 
xxvii., 1875, pp. 711, 712. Estheriella lineata and costata are his types, 
both from the Lower Buntersandstein of Durrenberg, Saxony. See 
also Zittel's ' Handbuch der Palseontologie,' &c., p. 560, vol. i., part 2, 
No. 4 (vol i.. No. 8), 1885. 

5. Figures and descriptions of Estheria functateUa, Jones, from the 
Glasgow Coal-field, and some allied forms, including an Estheriella from 
the same Carboniferous series, are being prepared for publication. 

XIII. Biheiria.—ln the ' Geol. Mag.', vol. i. (1864), p. 12, Mr. Salter 
stated that Biheiria pholadiformis, Sharpe, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', 
vol. ix., pp. 157-8, pi. 9, fig. 17, may very possibly be a bivalved crus- 
tacean belonging to the same group (Phyliopod) as that to whicli his 
Myocaris ^ (' Geol. Mag.', he. cit.), p. 11, belongs. 

' For other Palaeozoic EsfJieria; see out Fiith Keport (for 1887), pp. G8, 69, and 
Sixth Report (for 1888), p 181. 

2 Catalogued as a Fhyllopodous Crustacean in our First Keport (1883), p. 217. 



ON THE FOSSIL PUYLLOPODA OF THE PALEOZOIC BOCKS. 67 

After describing Myocaris hdraria as a bivalve crustacean related to 
Cerafwcaris, in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xx. (18G4), p. 292, 
Mr. Salter stated with regard to Ribeiria, that ' the strong internal sub- 
cardinal ridge, marking the position of the cervical furrow, leads me to 
suspect that liibeiria, a Lovver-Silnrian genus which has not yet found 
its place, may be a cognate form. A univalve carapace would be nothing 
remarkable among the allies of Nehdlia, but is very puzzlino- if referred 
to Lamellibrancli, while the whole aspect is unlike tliat of any of the 
Calyptrseiform shells. I think that we may have here the true affinity, 
but the suggestion is only given to induce research. The strong muscular 
scar behind the beak is asrainst it.' 

Salter, however, seems to have regarded Eiheiria as a mollusc in 
1866, ' Mem. Geol. Survey ,' vol. iii. p. 346, where his Eiheiria complanata 
(pi. 11b, fig. 16), from the Lower Llandeilo of Shropshire, is described; 
but with the words ' There is some uncertainty as to the group to which 
this curious fossil belongs.' In ' Silnria,' also, in the '4th' (really the 
3rd) Edition, 1867, at pp. 48 and 49, it seems to be regarded as a mol- 
lusc : but at p. 521 its molluscan position lias a note of interrogation. 
Baily ('Figures of Characteristics of Biitish Fossils,' Part 1,'^1867) 
copied Salter's figure and placed it in the Conchifera, p. 21, pi. 8, fig. 9. 

E. Billings, in ' Canad. Geol. Surv., Pal. Foss.', vol. i. (1865), referring 
sorne fossils to Sharpe's liibeiria, but of uncertain alliance (' incertce 
sedis ') and, if subgenerically distinct, to be provisionally named Biheirina, 
regarded them as being possibly byssns-bearing molluscs. These were 
Bibeiria (?) calcifera, p. 340, fig. 326, and B. (?) loncjiuscula, p. 340, fig. 

^In Dr. Bigsby's 'Thesaurus Siluricus,' 1868, p. 141, Eiheiria, Sharpe, 
1853, is catalogued as a Dimyarian Mollusc, with the following species: — 

CCtlctTSTCL I 

long'iuscula J ^i'^'^g^- Calciferous Sandstone ; Grenville, Canada. 
complanata, Salter. Lower Llandeilo ; Salop. 
ZX^^l ] ^^'^^^- Budleigh-Salterton pebbles. 

pholadiformis, Sharpe. Fauna D d, 1, 4, 5, Caradoc ; Portugal, 
Spain, Bohemia. 

At page 168 Bibeiria is grouped with the Gasteropoda, and B. 
Sharpei, Barrandc, D d, 3, Bohemia is added. 

Under the heading of ' Phyllopodes ' belonging to the Gres de May 
(Calvados) M. G. de Tromelin has cited two species of Bibeiria. In the 
' Bullet. Soc. Linn. Normandie,' ser. 3, vol. i., 1887, p. 35 and p. 74, IM. G. de 
Tromelin stated that Mr. Salter had named but not described two species 
of Bibeiria from Mr. Vicary's coliecti(m of the pebbles from Budleio-h- 
Salterton, and which had been found also in the May Sandstone'^ of 
Normandy, namely:— 1. J?, covfortnis, Salter, Bigsby, ' Thes. Silur.' p. 
141 (1868) ; Tromelin and Lebesconte, ' Bullet. Soc. Geol. France,' ser. 
3, vol. iv., table D, No. 43, 1876. B. Bussacemis [pholadiformis], Sharpe, 
Q. J. G. S., vol. ix. pi. 9, fig. 17 (1853). From May and Jurques 
(Calvados). 2. B. mof/vifica, Salter, Bigsbv, op. cit. (1868) ; Trom. and 
Lebesconte, No. 42 (1876). From Com pa nd re (Calvados). 

In Nicholson's 'Manual of Palajontology,' 2ud edit. 1879, vol. i. p. 
351, the zoological position o( Bibeiria is left doubtful. 

F 2 



68 REPORT— 1889. 

In the 'Bullet. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.' vol. i. No. 8 (1886), pp. 343, 
344, Prof. R. P. Whitfield describes two species of Bibeiria (B. compressa, 
pi. 33, figs. 3-5, and B. ventricosa, figs. 1 and 2), and refers them "with 
some doubt to the Geratiocaridce (Phyllocaridce, Packard), as having the 
shell bent double, but not hinged. 

In R. Etheridge's ' Catal. Pateoz. Fossils,' 1888, this genus is placed 
with the Conchifera (Anatinidse) at p. 109, and with the Gasteropoda 
[Calyptr£eid« ?] at p. 549, as indicated by Barrande also. 

[We do not know of any Phyllocarid having the internal structure 
which is sbown by the casts of Biheiria.'] 

XIV. Proricaris. — Proricaris MacHenrici,^ B^'ilj) referred to in our 
First Report ^ (for 1883) as ' Protocaris, Baily, 1872 (not well known),' 
has now been carefully examined by us. The several specimens from the 
Upper Old-Red- Sandstone of Kiltorcan, co. Kilkenny, on which the 
genus and species were established by the late Mr. W. H. Baily, have 
been kindly lent to us, by favour of Dr. B. Hull, Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Ireland. 

Mr. Baily had courteously given us a pencil sketch of the form which 
he considered that Proricaris would show if the fragments were pieced 
together — namely, a subquadrate cephalothorax (as seen sideways), in- 
dented in front, and boldly curved behind, and eight abdominal segments, 
tapering rather rapidly to the last, which might have been furnished, he 
thought, with caudal spines. We find, however, that most probably the 
part taken for the cephalothorax is a detached joint of one of the 
swimming feet of Eurypterus or Pterygotus,^ and that other parts of such 
limbs, as well as portions of the body-segments of the same kind of 
animals, supplied the material for the supposititious body of Proricaris. 

Addenda, 

I. Kolmodin's Leperditia megalops, ' Bidrag till Kannedomen om 
Sverges Siluriska Ostracoder,' 1869 (8vo. Upsala), p. 15, pi. -, fig. 7, is 
also a Callizoe, like that figured by Angelin. 

IV. The EcJiinocaris from Devonshire has been described and figured 
in a paper on some Devonian Bntomostraca, by Prof. T. R. Jones and 
Dr. H. Woodward, in the ' Geological Magazine ' for September 1889, as 
E. Whidbornei, page 385, pi. 11, fig. 1. 

XII. Robert Etheridge, Esq., junior, has figured and described in the 
' Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales ; Palfeontology, 
No. I : The Invertebrate Fauna of the Hawkesbury-Wianamatta Series 
of NS.W.' 1888 (fol. Sydney), Estheria Coglani, p. 6, pi. 1, figs. 1-5, 
and Estheria (?), sp. loc. cit. figs. 6-10. 

' Referred to in Dr. Bigsby's Thesaurus Bei-omco-Car'boniferiis, 1878, p. 27, as 
' Proricaris McHcnrici, W. H. Baily, Passage-bed, U[pper Devonian], Kiltorkan, co. 
Kilkenny, Ireland; Geol. Mag. ix. p. 91 ; ' also at p. 253, as ' Proracaris MoHcnrlei, 
Baily? LLS. [Lower Limestone Shale, including Yellow Sandstone (Ire- 
land)?] Kiltorkan.' 

2 Report Brit. Assoc. 1884, p. 217. 

' We may notice that both of these genera are recorded as occurring in the sand- 
stone of Kiltorkan ; Gcol. Mag. vol. ix. p. 91, 1872. 



ON THE FLORA OF CARDONIFEBOUS ROCKS. 69 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson 
(Chairman) and Mr. \V. Cash (Secretary), appointed to in- 
vestigate the Flora of the Carboniferous Mocks of Lancashire 
and West Yorkshire. (Drawn up by Professor W. C. William- 
son.) 

On the present state of the Inquiry into the Microscopic Features of ih^ Coal 
of the World, and into the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal- 
Measures. 

In the year 1881 I determined to undertake the microscopic examination 
of as many of the coals of the entire world as I could obtain. My chief 
object was to learn how far such examinations would throw light upon 
the origin and formation of these coals, and especially on the two dominant 
features of the nature of the mineral charcoal contained in many of them, 
and of the extent to which these coals contained the spores of cryptogamic 
forms of vegetation. My applications, issued in various directions, for 
specimens upon which to work, soon met with a noble response. The 
time which could be devoted to the inquiry has been limited through 
the prior claims of my inquiries into the organisation of the fossil plants 
of the coal-measures. Nevertheless considerable progress has been 
made. At the York meeting of the British Association in 1831 I made 
a few preliminary observations on the results obtained up to that date 
from the study of the coals of Eastern Scotland and of South Wales. 
But since then much more work has been done, the coals from the 
following coal-producing regions having been already investigated : — 



Eastern Scotland 

South Wales 

Forest of Dean 

Whitehaven 

Durham 

South Africa 

Japan 

New Zealand 

India 



Australia 

Sweden 

Arctic regions 

Nova Scotia 

Borneo 

Flintshire 

North Staffordshire 

Belgium, in part 



Sections — 271 in number — have been prepared of all the above coals, 
■with the exception of the two last, and the mineral charcoals of all these, 
including the North Stafford and Belgian examples, have been studied. 
Three thousand four hundred and fifty-nine (3,459) fragments of mineral 
charcoal have been examined, and microscopic preparations of 211 of 
the most characteristic of these are also stored in my cabinets. 

I have a definite object in making this personal communication. As 
you must have already inferred, I have been under immense obligations 
to many friends in various parts of the globe for the collection of the 
materials upon which I have been working, and the cellars of my house 
contain numerous still unopened cases from additional localities. Hearing 
nothing in the way of results from their kind exertions, 1 am afraid that 
some of those who have thus aided me may deem their labour thrown 
away, and I am anxious to let them know that this is very far from being 
the case. 



70 REPORT — 1889. 

The farfclier question arises. What are the future prospects of this 
inquiry ? 

I am still carrying on my investigations, but the cause of interruptions 
already referred to is not yet exhausted. Still more important is the fact 
that at ray advanced age I can scarcely expect to live to complete my 
task. But I am taking every precaution that the work already done 
shall not be thrown away. Specimens of every coal examined are being 
preserved in the museum of Owens College. When the time comes that 
I must lay down my pen and pencil, all my records of observations, 
and of illustrative microscopic preparations made, will be found in the 
museum of the same college. Hence it will be open to some of the 
younger generation of histologists, who may oare to do so, to utilise 
my materials, and to carry the work to a final issue. 

In the department of carboniferous vegetation much progress has also 
been made. The fact that the stems of Calamites, Lepidodendra, and many 
other cryptogamic plants grew exogenously, first announced at Edin- 
burgh in 1871, and which was then and long afterwards rejected almost 
universally, is now as universally accepted by geologists and botanists. 
The only exceptional plants have until lately been the ferns. Hitherto 
no proof has been available that their stems ever grew exogenously. I 
am now, however, in a position to prove that the fine exogenous arborescent 
stem to which 1 long ago gave the name of Lt/ginodendron OldJiaminm 
is part of the same plant as the fern petioles and leaves to which I gave 
the name of liachiopferis aspera ; so that the ferns must now be added to 
the remarkable group of Carboniferous cryptogams of which the stems 
and branches grow exogenously. But another botanical heresy now comes 
to the front. In all the Carboniferous Lycopods the vascular bundle was 
primarily solid and contained no medulla. As the twig enlarged into a 
branch, this bundle expanded into a gradually enlarging vascular ring, 
enclosing a medulla which enlarged pari passu with the ring. Many 
botanists now decline to believe this. But, as in the case of the exogenous 
theory, the fact will fight its way into acceptance, though contrary to 
most known analogies amongst living plants. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James W. Davis, Mr. W. 
Cash, Dr. H. Hicks, Mr. Clement Eeid, Dr. H. Woodward, Mr. 
T. BoYNTON, and Mr. Gr. W. Lamplugh {Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of investigating an Ancient Sea-beach near 
Bridlington Quay. 

No further excavation of the buried cliff beds has been undertaken by 
your Committee during the past year ; but further investigations, should 
they be considered desirable, will have been greatly facilitated by the 
removal of the talus-heaps of previous workings by the action of the sea. 

The tedious task of gelatinising and repairing the bones obtained last 
year has been proceeded with, and a part of them are now in a condition 
for determination. When further progress has been made, it is proposed 
to place the whole collection in the hands of competent osteologists for 
critical examination, the results of which we hope to embody in oar next 
report. 

The excavated section was visited last autumn by a party which 



ON AN ANCIENT SEA-DEACII. 71 

included several foreign geologists, after the meeting of the Geological 
Congress in London. 

Your Coniraittee ask to be reappointed, without grant, for the imme- 
diate purpose of arranging for the determination and disposal of tho 
specimens. 



Fifteenth Report of the Comviittee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. W. Ckosskky, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Gr. A. Lebour, 
and Messrs. James Glaisher, E. J3. Marten, G. H. Morton, 
\V. Pexuelly, James Plant, J. Prestwich, I. Egberts, T. S. 
Stooke, G. J. Sy.mons, W. Toplev, Tvlden-Wright, E. 
Wethered, W. Wihtaker, and C. E. De Range (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of investir/ating the Circulation of 
Underground Waters in the Permeable Formations of England 
and Wales, and the Quantity and Character of the Water 
supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Forma- 
tions. (Draion up by C. E. De Eance, Reporter.) 

Since your Committee were appointed at Belfast, fourteen years ago, the 
recognition of the great value of our underground water stores has made 
wide progress, as affording efficient supplies of water to corporations, 
local boards, and public companies, free from organic impurity, regular 
in quantity during periods of drought, yielded at a constant temperature 
throughout the year, and obtained, as a rule, at a smaller cost than gravi- 
tation supplies, and almost invariably at a less cost as regards legal or 
Parliamentary expenses. The publication of the results already obtained 
by your Committee has been greatly appreciated by engineers and con- 
tractors, and has undoubtedly helped and supported recommendations 
of water supplies from underground sources. As time goes on, a large 
number of borings are annually made, and there being no other recording 
agency of the results obtained than tliose collected by your Committee, 
they ask for reappointment ; but they note with satisfaction that numerous 
provincial societies, represented by delegates to the Association, are giving 
attention to this subject, and publishing results, as the Liverpool Geolo- 
gical Society, the Hampshire Field Club, and the Hertfordshire Natural 
History Society. 

Looking to the comparatively small circulation of the Transactions of 
these societies, your reporter has thought it well to include the more im- 
portant results so obtained in the present Report, as they were obviously 
the outcome of the suggestions made by Section C as to inquiries that 
might be taken up with advantage by provincial societies. 

Your Committee, in the present Report, almost entirely follow the 
lines of their first instruction, to inquire into the waters yielded by the 
Permian and Trias, following those formations from Teignmouth in Devon- 
shire to the mouth of the Tyne in Northumberland. 

Your Committee think it advisable to combine the results obtained 
during the past two years, as to the clfcct of rainfall on tho varying 
height of wells, and to publish them in a graphic form in their Report 
next yeai', should they be reappointed. 

Your Committee this year have to ask for a grant of 5Z., should yoa 
approve their reappointment. 



72 REPORT— 1889. 

Appendix I. — Permian and Triasslc Wells. 
Devonshire. 

Information coUected from Mr. G. W. Ofmerod, F.G.S. Well and Vl-inch 
boring at the 'ieiijnmouth Local Board Waterivorks, Coombe Vale, N.W. 
of Tei<jnmouth, sunk btj Mr. ViviAN, C.E., 1887. 



1 



Feet. 



82 



332 



Details not given 

Soft rock (iron cylinders) . 

Conglomerate (bottom of old weU) 

Sandy rock, with angular and sub-angular 

Sandy rock, with pebbles . 

Soft rock, with few pebbles 

Hard rock 

Soft conglomerate 

Soft rock, with fragments . 

Fine red rock {Jirst water in B.H.') 

Fine sandstone, with pebbles . 

Sand, with large pebbles . 

Conglomerate soft 

Fine rock, with pebbles . 

Conglomerate, small pebbles 

Compact conglomerate, hard pebbles 

Sandstone, with pebbles . 

Large pebbles .... 

Sandstone, with pebbles . 

Compact sand, with few pebbles 

Soft sand, with pebbles 

Sand, with few large pebbles {water') 

Eather loose sand, with clay 

Harder rock (water') . 

Soft crumbling rock (no fragments) 



fragment: 



Feet. 
18 
20 
44 
41 

Of 
281 

3 
17 

2 

8 
11 

3 

7 

2 

3 

1 
11 

2 

3 

5 

5 

5 
68 

4 
20 



Mr. Ormerod states that the volume of water was not much increased 
by the boring. For details refer to the ' Trans. Devon. Assoc, of Science, 
Lit., and Art, 1888,' pp. 391-97. 

Worcestershire. 

Information collected hy C. E. De Range from Mr. "Walter T. Latton, C.E. 

1. Burcot Pumping Station of the East Worcestershire Waterworks Company. 
Xa. Well and bore-hole constructed in 1881. 2. 3. Well, 100 feet; 

bore-hole, 200 — total, 300 feet. 3a. None. 4. When pumping is suspended for six 
hours, the water rises and overflows the surface. 5. Could obtain 2^- million gallons. 
Yield at present, pumped down to 70 feet from the surface, 516,000 gallons per day. 
6. Does not vary. 7. No. 

8. Analysis hj William A. Tilden, D.Sc, F.R.S. Sample talien, April 1881. 



Total dissolved solids 
Nitrogen in the form of nitrates 
.1 „ „ nitrites 

Free ammonia .... 
Chlorine ..... 



Hardness, temporary . 
„ permanent 



Parts per 100,000. 
12-250 
•390 



■003 
1-300 



2-320 \ 
3-250/ 



. .„^ / AVater 
^"^^ Iturbid. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERG HOUND WATERS. 



73 



Anali/sia by C. JIbymott Tidy, M.B. Sam2>le taken March 29, 1887. 

Grains per gallon. 



Total ."^olid matter 
Nitrogen as nitrates and n 
Organic carbon . 
„ nitrogen 
Lime 

Magnesia . 
Sulphuric anhydride 
Chlorine 

Hardness, temporary 
„ permanent 



Aiiali/su hij Dr. E. Fkanklaxd, F.K.S. 
Total solid residue . 



trites 

008 \ Parts per 
0-024 J 100,000. 



9-60 
0-426 



6-2 \ 
3-8 J 



3-47 
0.504 
0-88 
1-08 

100 



/Water 
1 clear. 



Nitrogen as nitrates and n 
Organii; carbon . 

„ nitrogen 
Magnesia . 
Chlorine 
Hardness, temporary 

„ permanent 



trites 



Samjjle talten Aj)ril 28, 1887. 

11-72 
-407 
•020 
-012 
•71 
1-2 



1-1\ 
3-9J 



-0 



/Water 

|_ clear. 



9. No section preserved. It commences in the upper bunter and probably ter- 
minates in the pebble beds, or middle bunter. 9a. All pervious. lO, 11. None. 
12-14. No. 

Information collected from Mr. S. G. PuRCHAS, M.Tnst.C.E., Worcester. 

1. Trial boring at Oharford.near Bromsgrove, 100 yards of the road from Bromsgrove 
Station to Stoke Heath, and about 30 yards N.E. of the Spadesbourne Brook, which 
lower down the valley becomes the Salwerpc. la. March, 1882. 2. About 238 feet 
above mean sea level. 3. Boring, 300 feet ; diameter, 2]- inches. 4. Overflowed and 
still does so ; never pumped. 5. Quantity gauged flowing away in January, 1885, 
was 100 gallons per minute ; in July, 1887, it was reduced to 86-6 gallons per minute ; 
in October of this year to 36 gallons per minute, -which was the quantity gauged by 
C. E. De Ranee on April 25, 1888. 7. The top of the bore-hole is about 4 feet above 
the stream. 8. Analyses of the water were made by the following :^ 

J3y Mr. J. Alford Wanklyk. Sample talun March 7, 1887. 

Hardness, about 20 degrees. 

Parts per million. 

Free ammonia . 0-02 

Albuminoid ammonia 0-01 



Carbonate of lime . 

„ magnesia 

Sulphate of magnesia 
Chloride of magnesium 



Grains per gallon. 
7-4 
51 
0-7 

• Jl? 
14-4 



Mr. Wanklyn comments on the unusual quantity of magnesia. 



Sample taken game time, analysed by Mr. G. H. Ogston. 

Grains per gallon. 

Chlorine 091 

Sulphuric acid 1-71 

Nitric acid -72 

Lime 3-80 

Magnesia 3-02 

Hardness, temporary . . . . 07 "1 - - 

„ permanent .... 7- J 



74 



REPORT 1889. 



Excellent water for drinking and manufacturing purposes. Total 
solid matter per gallon, 16-60 grains. 

Samj)Ic falicn March 29, 1887, analysed hy Dr. C. Metmott Tidy, M.B. 







Grains per gallon. 


Total solid matter 


18-88 


Chlorine 






1-368 


Sulphuric acid . 






118 


Nitric acid . 






none 


Lime .... 






4-81 


Magnesia 






3-243 


Organic carbon . 






021 "1 parts per 


,, nitrogen 






0-008/ 100,000. 


Hardness, temporary 




■sn 


15-3 


„ permanent . . . 7'2 | 




Analysis made hy Dr. E. Feankland, F.'R.S., of samjile taken Ajjril 28. 


Parts per 100,000. 


Total solid residue 


23-80 


Chlorine 


• • 


1-3 


Magnesia ..... 


■ 


4-41 


Organic carbon .... 


, 


0-012 


nitrogen 


, 


0-00.5 


Hardness, temporary 


13-6\ 
5-3/ 


18-1 


„ permanent 


AO «/ 


Hardness in grains per gallon. 




Temporary 9-52 \ 


iq.Q'l 


Permanent . 


. 


3-71/ 


i^tt t^t> 



9. The boring appears to be wholly in the Keuper sandstone, -which is here 
traversed by three calcareous beds of 'rag,' -which are probably impermeable. Mag- 
nesia occurs in marly partings in the adjacent district. 

Jiiformaiion collected from Mr. PuRCHAS, M.Inst.C.E., City Engineer of 
Worcester, hij C. B. De Range. 

Analysis of Malveen Watee. By Dr. Sheeidan Muspeatt, M.D. 



Carbonate of lime 








Grains per cfallon 
0-43 


„ „ magnesia 
„ iron 








0-41 
003 


„ „ soda 








0-28 


Sulphate „ lime 
„ „ soda 








0-15 
0-43 


Chloride „ sodium 








0-87 


„ „ magnesia 








0-14 


Iodide ,, potassium 
Silicic acid . , . . 








. Traces 
0-20 



Leicestershire. 

Collected hy Mr. James Plant. 

Borings to the Upper Keuper Sandstone at Leicester. 

1. Messrs. Fielding, Johnson & Co., Spinners, Bond Street, Leicester. Xa. Un- 
certain. No. 2. 214 feet. 3. Well— depth, 50 feet; diameter, 7 feet. Bore — 
depth, 80 feet; diameter, 7 inches. Total depth, 131 feet. 3a. None. 4. 20 feet 
from top. S. Increase of quantity of 200 per cent, entirely from the boring, 7. Yes, 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGRODND WATERS. 75 

8. Very hard from carbonate and sulphate of lime. This water is not pumped into 
the boiler, but only used for condensing the steam, and the hardness is of no conse- 
quence. It is quite free from impurity. 

Foet. 

9. fSoil I 

Drift beds . . .J Upper boulder clay .... 5 

I. Lower boulder clay .... 9 

„ T' 1 /■ Upper Keuper marls . . . -"l o- 

Upper Keuper marl . [n l!.-TwoVyp-''um beds yielding water/ ^'^ 

I Keuper shales with gypsum, A . .16 
Upper Keuper sandstone < Middle sandstone, B . . . .14 

(_ Lower shales, C 11 

Red marl, with four gypsum beds, and thin beds of white sand- 
stone, all yielding water 40 

Total . . . .151 

9a. All the sandstone beds and the gypsum. 10. There may be. IX. Yes. 
12, 13. None. 14. No. 15. None are known. 16. For every gallon from the well 
before boring, they have now three gallons after boring. 

Messrs. Davis ^ Co., Manufacturers, Leicester. 

1. London Road. la. Uncertain. 2. 220 feet. 3. Well, 70 feet deep, C feet 
diameter. Bore, SO feet deep, 6 inches diameter. 3a. None. 4. 20 feet. 5. In- 
crease 1.50 per cent, since boring. 6. Not known. 7. Yes. 8. Hard from carbonate 
and sulphate of lime, but used only for condensing purposes. 

Feet. 

9. Drift Drift beds 20 

Upper Keuper marl . . Upper Keuper marl, with gypsum beds 2."> 
Upper Keuper sandstone . Upper Keuper sandstone and shales . 45 
T-, , , r Red marl, with gTOsum beds, and thin 1 „rt 

Red marl . . . .| beds of sandsVone . . . .)_^ 

Total . . . .150 

10. There may be. 11. Yes. 12-14. None. 15. None known. 16. Increase 
oE water more than 150 per cent, entirely through the boring. 

Messrs. Haven ds Co., Manufacturers, Leicester. 

1. Wharf Street, Leicester, la. October 1887. 2. 186 feet. 3. Bore, 120 feet 
deep, 7 inches diameter. Bore, 84 feet deep, 6 inches diameter. Total depth, 204 
feet. 4. 20 feet from the surface. 6. Yes. 8. Very hard from carbonate and sul- 
phate of lime. This water is not pumped into the boiler, but only used for condensing 
the steam, and the hardness is of no consequence. It is quite free from impurity. 



9. Boulder clay . . . Drift and soil .... 

TT -rr if Uppcr Kcupcr marls 

Upper Keuper marl • | Upper shaly sandstone, A . . 
_ _ , , f Middle sandstone, B 

Upper Keuper sandstone | ^ower shaly sandstone, C . . 

fGypsum bands and red marl . 
Red marl . . .s Red marl, with bands of shaly sand 

(, stone 



Ffct. 
8 
25 
30 
20 
22 
69 

I 30 

Total . . . .204 

10. Probably. 11. Yes. 12-15. None known. 16. An abundant supply of 
water is found. 

Lincolnshire. 
Collected hy C. E. De RAXCE/ro7n. Mr. James Pilbrow, M.Inst. C.E. 

1. Bourn, Lincolnshire, Waterworks, in higher part of the town. la. 1856. No. 
2. 3. Bore-hole, 4 inches diameter ; 94 feet in depth. The last 2 feet being 



76 



REPOBT — 1889. 



a natural cavity containing' a strong natural spring. 4. On entering the cavity, the 
water rose to the surface with great rapidity, and rose 39 feet 9 inches above. 
5. The yield was 575,201 gallons ; it has been pumped. 6, 7. No. 8. By Professor 
Brand's test gave 19-4 degrees of hardness, chiefly bicarbonate of lime. 



9. Gravel . 

Hard shelly limestone 
Various beds . 
Compact hard rock . 
Cavity with water . 
Hard rock 



Feet. 
? 

32 
? 
6 

o 

(+) 

94 



lO. The surface springs in the top gravel were cut oS by a cast-iron pipe driven 
tightly into the hard shelly limestone. 

The water supplies Bourn and the town of Spalding, 10 miles distant. 



Lancaslnre. 

Throughthecourtesy of Mr. Mather, M.P.,the details of the Liverpool 
Corporation boring for water at Liverpool have already been given. 
In abstract they were as follows : — 



Feet. 



1,300 



Fee\ 
Ked sandstone with few pebbles . . . 1,026 
\ Compact hard red sandstone, with millet- ~| 
( seed grains, but cemented together . .J 



274 



The following analysis, by Dr. Campbell Brown, D.Sc, of the beds 
passed through are of interest in their bearing on beds since discovered in 
borings to the east : — 

Specimen A. — Hard sandstone composed of angular grains, taken from the pebble 
beds at 700 feet. 

Specimen B. — Eed sandstone, rounded grain, taken from lower mottled at 1,180 
feet. 

Specimen C. — Slightly marly sandstone, composed of granular or powdery particles, 
taken at a dejith of 1,280 feet. 

Resnlt of analysis in parts per cent. : — 

Sand and insoluble matter . 
Alumina and oxide of iron . 
Lime ....... 

Magnesia 

Carbonic acid in combination with "I 
lime and magnesia . . j 
•Traces of other substances . 

10000 10000 10000 

The hardness of the water at 600 feet was less than at the surface or at the 
bottom. The proportion of common salt increased from 600 to 1,300 feet. 

Information collected hy C. E. De Range /rom A. Timmins, A.M.I.C.E. 

Boring for water at Halewood, near Hunt's Cross, made for the 
Cheshire Lines Railway in 1882. 



A. 


B. 


C. 


95-16 


94-20 


86-72 


0-86 


1-94 


2-66 


1-15 


1-03 


4-74 


0-88 


0-36 


0-82 


1-43 


1-00 


4-30 


0.52 


1-47 


0-76 



I 



1380 
414-0 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 

Feet 

StiflEclay 45 

Quicksand 10 

Stiff sandy clay 38 

Sandy clay 2 

Stiff clay 20 

Loamy sand 4 

Clay with small stones 10 

Sandy gravel 8 

Vein of sand or rock 1 

Eed marl 276 



77 



The age of these marls at the base of this section is doubtful ; they 
were examined microscopically by the late Mr. John A. Phillips, F.R.S., 
who found a clay containing fragments of angular quartz with a sub- 
stance resulting from the decomposition of felspars. Chemical analysis 
of the marls made by Mr. A. Timmins showed : — 



Oxide of iron and alumina 
Calcium carbonate 
Jlagnesium 
Insoluble matter 



At 303 feet. 
. 3-21 
. 18-66 
. -00 
. 77-67 



At 373 feet. 

7-68 

16-68 

-07 

75-40 



99-64 



99-47 



Mr. Timmins finds the average amount of oxide of iron and alumina, 
in the marls of Permian age, to be 3-6 per cent., and in those of Keuper 
asre to be 13-4. 

Eccleston Summit. 

Feet. Peet 

Loamy soil and stones 20 

33 Eed loamy soil 13 

Fine red sandstone, pebble 10 

Marl, salmon-coloured 2 

Sandstone 4 

Marl red 5 

Fine red sandstone 7i 

Eed loam 9a 

Light red sandstone 3 

Eed marl 6 

Fine light red sandstone 13 

Eed loam 23 

Fine red sandstone 54 

Grey marl 5 

Sandstone, coarse grey, pebble 6 

Sandstone, fine red 5| 

Eed and grey marl 3§ 

Fine light red sandstone 41 

247 Loamy sandstone 16 

The whole of the above section is on the Pebble Beds ; it is interest- 
ing as showing the frequent occurrence of beds of marl. 



Boring at Gateacre Bridge, Childwall Valley, made for the Liverpool 
Corporation, 1887, by Messrs. Timmins & Sons, Runcorn, about 500 
yards from the Bellevale and 1,100 yards from the Netherby borings 
already reported, nearly in a line between the two. 



78 



REPORT — 1889. 



East of Prescot. M 

Boring at Poi'tico Lane Bridge, on the Hnyton and St. Helens Branch 
Eailway (L.N.W.R.) :— 

Feet. ' Feet. 

Ked sandstone, millet-seed grain . . . . . .54 

9.5 Red sandy marl 41 

11-4 Fine red sandstone 19 

125 Red marl 11 

160 Light red sandstone 35 

162 Red marl 2 

195 Light red sandstone . . . . . , . .33 

215 Fine dark „ 20 

581 Coarse red sandstone, millet-seed 366 



Mr. Timmins gives the following interesting analyses : 



L.N.W.E. Co., Portico Lane 
Sample from 54 ft. 


Per cent. 


Liverpool Corporation, Bootle. 
Sample from 1,2'JO ft. 

Per cent 


Iron oxide and alumina . 


. 3-46 


Iron oxide .... 1-03 


Calcium carbonate . 


. 9-90 


Alumina 7-71 


Magnesia 


. 0-91 


Calcium carbonate . . . 10-63 


Insoluble matter 


. 83 59 


Magnesia .... 1'44 
Insoluble matter . . . 76 69 



The samples chemically and lithologically resembling each other, they 
are referred by some to the Lower Mottled sandstone, by others to the Per- 
mian. 

Half a mile south of the railway boring is that at Holt Lane Quarry, 
carried out at the bottom of the quarry, which is excavated in undoubted 
Pebble Beds dipping west at 25°. 

The section met with is as follows. The boring is not completed. 

Feet. 
. 130 
. . . 35( + ) 



Sandstone with pebbles 

' Millet-seed' grained sandstone 



L.N.W.R. boring at the Eccleston Summit, at the entrance of the 
Thatto Heath deep cutting in the Bunter Pebble Beds. 



Feet. 



273 



342 



433 

435 
440^ 



Gateacre Section. 

Clay and gravel . 

Light red sandstone . 

Grey sandstone 

Light red sandstone . 

Grey sandstone 

Hard red massive sandstone 

Grey marl 

Fine red sandstone 

Coarse brown sandstone 

Hard red massive sandstone 

Fine grey sandstone . 

Dark red „ 

Very fine red sandstone 

Giey sandstone with pebbles 

Dark red marl 

„ sandstone 
Dark purple and grey saponaceous marl 



Feet. 

8 

170 

15 

4 

22 

54 

1^ 
IH 
10" 
38 

3i 
2H 
67' 

G 

n 



ON THE CinCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



79 



The whole of the first 435 feet belongs to the pebble beds ; the under- 
lying sandstone first recognised at the Bootle boring of the Liverpool 
Corporation Waterworks by your reporter appears to be absent, and the 
middle bunter rests directly on 5h feet of coal-measure shales. 

The new borings at Knowsley and Kirby made for the St, 
Corporation Waterworks are now completed. The following 
are furnished by the Corporation Engineei", Mr. D. M. F. 
M.Inst.C.E.:— 



Helens 
sections 
Gaskin, 



Feet. 



115 



352^ 



460 



Kirly Boring. 



Turf . 
Clay . 
Red sand 

„ sandstone 
Yellow „ 
Red „ 

Mottled , 



Grey 
Red 



coarse 

pebbles 
with yellow 
pebbles 



„ ,, witli white 

„ „ pebbles 

Variegated stindstone 
Red sandstone and pebbles 
Coarse-grained sandstone 
Red sandstone 
Variegated sandstone . 
Red ,, 

Variegated „ 
Red „ pebble: 

White 
Red „ „ 

„ marl .... 

„ sandstone, with bands of white stone 
Soft red sandstone .... 



veins 



Feet. 

H 

4 

H 

-'a 
2 



3 

''a 

6ir 
78i 

3" 
26 

3 
28 

9 
70 

0| 
7 

0^ 
38 
Oi 

52" 

0^ 
40 
67^ 



The lower 107J feet are referable to the beds occurring between the 
base of the Pebble Beds and the Coal-measures at Winwick, Parkside, 
and Collins Green, and, like them, full of sulphuret of iron. 



Feet. 
9 



198 



Knowsley Watenvorks Boring, 

Feet. 

Surface soil and sand 3 

Brown marl 3 

Red and yellow marl 3 

Red sandstone ........ 6 

Soft „ 42 

Red „ veins of yellow 72 

Close-grained sandstone, veins of yellow . . .33 
„ „ without veins . . .28 

Gritty grey sandstone 9 

Red marl 1 

Red sandstone 27 

Red, with veins of calcitc 6 

Red sandstone 25 

„ „ close-grained 1 

Red marl 3i 

White sandstone &\ 

Grey „ 3 



80 EEPORT — 1889. 

Feet. Feet. 

Red and white sandstone 22 

Red marl 1^ 

Coarse red sandstone ....... 20| 

Red marly „ 20 

Red marl 28 

Soft grey sandstone 47 

Hard white „ 16 

478 / Fine soft red sandstone 52 

479 Red sand 1 

640 ■ Soft red sandstone 161 

Blottled „ 3 

687 ^ Soft red „ 44 

The lower soft beds were found very water-bearing ; the di]} was to 
the north, at 6h°- 

Yorlcshire and Durham. 

Professor Lebour states : for -water-supply purposes it does not 
appear necessary to notice any of the subdivisions generally recognised 
in the Durham Magnesian Limestone above the marl slate. The following 
classification gives the important divisions for water-supply purposes : — 

1. Magnesian limestone : concretionary, brecciated, compact and cel- 
lular ; varies from an eminently hard and crystalline condition to an 
earthy one, and from containing many fossils to none at all. 

2. ' Marl slate,' a compact, flaggy, dark grey, calcareous or sandy 
shale, often forming a ' fish bed,' generally impervious, and a yard in 
thickness. 

3. Magnesian limestone, resembling that below, generally 6 feet to 
10 feet thick, sometimes absent. 

4. Yellow sands : generally a loose, incoherent, coarse sand, with more 
or less calcareous cement, often concretionary, sometimes solid ; very 
irregular in thickness, from 60 feet downwards, and sometimes absent ; 
contains a lai'ge amount of water. 

Uncovformity , — Red Sandstone with Coal Plants (Upper Coal-mea- 
sures). 

Professor Lebour has mapped the Durham coal-pits, and indicated the 
outcrop of the Permian series, as well as the position of all sinkings and 
borings that have been put down to the coal-measures, through the 
Permian. 

The numerous sections obtained in boring for rock salt, from Middles- 
borough to the district south of Hartlepool, have clearly defined the 
area where potable water may not be looked for. The boring put down 
in 1859, for Messrs. Bolckow & Vaughan, was made to procure a water 
supply for their well-known ironworks. Large supplies of water were 
obtained from the upper pervious strata ; but it contained so large a 
quantity of sulphate of lime as to be useless for the purpose requii-ed, 
and the boring was discontinued at a depth of 1,313 feet, the details of 
which are given in the Sixth Report of your Committee. ^ 

Since the publication of these details, papers have appeared by Mr. 
E. Wilson, P.G.S., and Mr. W. J. Bird. The latter author gives a classi- 
fication of the measures passed through, which is valuable in correlating 

' In the Sixth Report, 1881. The beds bored throug-h are described by your 
Reporter as belonging to 'the Keuper waterstone, lower mottled sandstone, and 
Permian.' In the Seventh Report this classification is again alluded to. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



81 



the various beds passed through, in the sections published and unpub- 
lished, occurring in this area. The sequence is as follows, in descending 

order : — 

Max. thickness. 
Upper gypseous marls 450 feet 



I 



Red sandstones and marls 
Lower gypseous marls . 
Saliferous beds, anhydrite and salt 
Magnesian limestone 
Red and grey sandstone . 
Coal-measures . . . . 



1,117 
279 
267 



Mr. Bird points oat that a bed of anhydrite invariably forms the top 
of the saliferons beds. It is worthy of note that the Zechetein of Saxony 
contains rock salt alternating with anhydrite. Immediately over the 
anhydrite is a bed known as the ' rotten marl,' which occasionally leads 
to the collapse of the borings. 

A boring made at Oughton in 1827, published in the Sixth Report, is 
stated to be unreliable, the coal noted as occurring being probably an 
error. 

A boring at Greatham, a mile to the south of Onghton, has proved 
the following section, communicated by Mr. Bird, bored at Marsh House, 
Greatham, for the Greatham Salt Boring Company, Lim. : — 



Red 
Sandstone , 
and marls. "* 
587' 6" 



Ft. in. 
71 11 



579 3 



\659 5 



Lower 
gypseous 

marls. 
203' 7" 



1,803 



Saliferous 

beds. 
109' 9" 



Drift 

Red sandstone .... 
Red sandstone with beds of marl 
Red sandstone .... 
Red sandstone with beds of marl 
Red sandy marl .... 
Red marl with blue joints . 
Red sandy marl .... 

Red marl 

Red marl with blue joints . 
Red marl with veins of gypsum 
Red marl, veins of gypsum, and 

blue joints .... 
Red marl, veins of gypsum, and 

blue spots .... 
Red marl with veins of gypsum 
Anhydrite ..... 
Red marl (rotten) 
Rock salt ..... 
Salt and anhydrite mixed . 

Rock salt 

Anhydrite 



Ft. 


in. 






71 


11 




300 


7) 


Red sandstone 


77 


6 


with subordinate 


15 


2 


beds of marl. 


114 


7) 


507' 1" 


8 

8 


6 


\ 


21 


3 






20 


3 






21 


8 


Red marls 




18 


8 


with gyp- 
r sum and 


cc 








106 


11 


salt. 








309' 9" 


68 


2 







10 






11 







p. 

CA 


15 


0^ 






57 


2\ 






14 


3 


Rock salt. 




11 


4 


" 83' 9" 




1 





J 





The left-hand column gives the classification adopted by Mr. Bird 
('Trans. Man. Geol. Soc' vol. xix. part xx. p. 572), the column on th& 
right that of Mr. Wilson, F.G.S. (' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc' Nov. 1888). 



Ft. 



33 
1889 



Boring at Seaton Carew, 18S7-89, from Mr. "W. J. Bird. 

Ft. in. 

Brown clay . 60. 

Red clay ■ . , .60 

Red pinnul and cobbles 9 }■ Drift. 

Soft red sandy marl 12 

Red sandy marl •.«. ••. . . .30' 



82 



REPOET — 1889. 



Ft. in. 



289 



483 



522 



1,400 
1,427 G 



Red and grey sandstone . 

Bed maii 

Grey sandstone 

Eed marl, beds of sandstone 

Bed sandstone 

Grey sandstone 

Red sandstone 

Grey sandstone 

Red sandy marl 

Red and grey sandstone 

Red marl 

Red marl, beds of grej' and red stone 

Red marl with blue joints 

Red marl with beds of grey stone . 

Red marl with beds of grey marl . 

Eed marl with blue joints 

Eed marl with blue joints and veins of gypsu 

Red marl and veins of gypsum 

Anhydrite ..... 

Blue marl and veins of gj^Dsum 

Anhydrite 

Red marl with veins of gypsum 
Dark marl and gj^psum mixed 
Anhydrite with black joints . 
Magnesian limestone, spots of gypsum 
Light grey magnesian limestone, spots and 

of gypsum 
Dark grey limestone, with spots and 

gypsum . 
Dark blue shale (slight feeder of rock oil) 
Anhydrite, with beds of dark blue shale 

gypsum 

Light grey limestone and gj'psum 

Blue shale ..... 

Light grey limestone 

White limestone .... 

Hard white limestone and gypsum 

Dark grey limestone and anhvdrite 

Light grey limestone and gypsum . 

Light grey limestone 

Limestone and gypsum mixed 

Grey limestone and gypsum . 

Light grey limestone and gypsum . 

Light grey limestone 

Light grey limestone, spots of gyjosum 

White limestone .... 

Light grey limestone 

Broken light grey limestone (brim feeder) 

Light grey limestone 

Light grey limestone with spar cavities 

Light grey limestone 

White limestone .... 

Light grey limestone with a little gypsum 

Dark grey limestone with gypsum 

Dark limestone, spots of gj'psum 

Dark grey limestone 

Dark grey shaly sandstone 

Red and grey shaly sandstone 

Black shal^ . 

Dark grey shale . ... 
Dark grey sandstone 
Grey sandstone and black joints 
Very coarse grej: sandstone . . 



vems 



of 



and 



Ft. in. 




7 




2 




.5 




10 




20 




2 




13 


Eed sand- 


1 > stones and 


47 


marls. 


10 




15 




8 




35 




24 




33 




24 


171 


7 5 


13 


3 


1 


10 


2 7 


25 


27 


38 


Ifi 


3 


35 


7 


2 


11 


90 


12 


20 


18 


29 


31 


11 


33 


50 


45 


107 


23 


23 


9 


9 


7 


82 


23 


17 6 


59 6 


40 


10 


17 6 


6 


1 


1 


40 6 


16 





ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND TiVATERS. 



83 



Ft. in. 

Dark grey sandstone 

Black sliale . 

Red and grey sandstone 

Black shale 

Shaly sandstone 

Black shale 

Grey sandstone 

Dark grev sandv shale 

Coal '. .' . 

Dark brown fireclay 

Black sand}' shale . 

Dark grey sandy sliale 

White sandstone 

Dark grey sandstone 

Light grey sandstone 

Dark shaly sandstone, coal parting 

Black shale 

Coal 

Dark black shale and prickh' 
White and grey sandstone 
Black shale 
1,600 Fine grey sandstone 

Dark grey sandstone 

Black shale 

Black shale with beds of dark grey sandstone 

Black shale . 

Black shale with beds of gre}' sandstoni 

Coal and shale 

Dark brown fireclay 

Dark grey sandstone 

Dark shaly sandstone 

Yellow sandstone . 

Coarse light grey sandstone 

Hard yellowish sandstone? 

Coarse light grey sandstone 

Coarse grey sandstone . 

Dark grey shaly sandstone 

Black shale 

Dark grey sandy shale . 

Dark blue shale 

Black shale 

Dark brown shale . 

Grey shaly sandstone 

Coarse grey sandstone (coal 

Dark tjrey shaly sandstone 

Yellowish shal}' sandstone 

Dark shaly sandstone 

Black shale 

Grey sandstone with black shale 

Coarse grey sandstone, black joints 
1,814 Grey sandstone 



The boring was commenced with a diameter of G inches ; at 1,340 feet 
it was contracted to 4i inches. The 10 feet of red marl and gypsum is the 
' rotten marl ' overlying the salt-measures of the district. The first mag- 
nesian limestone met with contained 4235 per cent, of carbonate of 
magnesia, and it is proposed to utilise it. At 1,150 feet occurred a brec- 
ciated limestone, with a strong feeder of saturated brine, the flow of 
which appears to be well maintained. 

The following is the abstract of the above section : — 



Ft. 


in. 





6 





6 


1 


7 


12 


4 


2 


C 


10 





4 








7 





10 


1 


2 


2 


8 


1 


8 


2G 


8 


5 





12 


8 


I 


4 


i) 


r> 


1 


2 





4 


fi 





8 





fi 





3 


G 


7 





e, 


G 


a 





7 


11 





1 


2 





6 





^ 





8 


9 


16 


6 


2 


3 


a 


6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


8 





:\ 





7 





4 





3 





10 





21 





.5 





6 





8 





24 





10 





10 





14 


6 



84 



EEPORT 1889. 



Ft. 


in. 


33 





289 





483 


5 


522 





1,400 





1,814 


6 



Drift. 

Red sandstone and marls 
Lower gypsum marls 
Anhydrite beds . 
Magnesian limestone 
Coal-measures . 



Ft. 

33 
256 
194 

38 
878 
414 



in. 


5 
7 

6 



About half-a-mile north-west of the Seaton Carew, 
and Co., Limited, put down the following boring in 
their Cement Works at "West Hartlepool : — 

Ft. in. 

30 Well, details unknown .... 

Red sandstone ..... 

Red sandy marl ..... 

Red sandstone with beds of red marl . 

Red sandstone and marl .... 

Red marl, beds of red sandstone 

Red and grey sandstone, beds of red marl 

Red sandstone ..... 

Red marl ...... 

Red marl with beds of sandstone . 

Red marl ...... 

Red marl, thin beds of sandstone . 
385 Red marl 

Red marl with veins of gypsum 

Red marl, veins of gypsum and bine joints 

Red marl with blue joints 

Red marl with blue spots, veins of gypsum 

Red marl with blue joints 

Red marl with red sandstone . 

Strong marl, thick veins of gypsum 
605 6 Red marl, veins of gypsum, and blue joints 

Anhydrite 

Anhydrite with veins of gypsum . 

Anhydrite 

Blue marl ...... 

Red marl, blue joints, and veins of gypsum 

Anhydrite ...... 

Anhydrite with black joints and gypsum 

Anhydrite with black joints . 

Anhydrite with spots of gypsum . 
714 4 Anhydrite with gypsum .... 

Anhydrite mixed with limestone . 
770 Limestone with gypsum 



Messrs. Casebourne 
1887 for water for 

Ft. in. 

30 
9 

10 

31 
67 
27 
26 



35 

20 
38 
32 
45 
95 
55 

4 2 

4 6 

24 10 

10 

21 6 



6 




12 

2 6 

8 

27 10 

7 

11 

16 

• 18 6 

9 4 

15 8 

40 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF DNDERG ROUND WATIiRS. 



85 



Appendix II. — 'Eerljordshire Chalk Wells. 

Table of Observations of Water-level at Barley, Herts, made by the late Mr. 
John Pearce, 1864-86, showing the number (f feet ;« the well, in the 
middle of the village, on the north side of Mr. Pearce' s hoxise, on the \st 
of each month. Level of curb 305 feet (about) above Ordnance datum, 
(iiearest B.M. 317'0), about 80 yards distant. Depth of well from curb 
165 feet, sunk entirely in the middle chalk. Inforniatioyi collected by 
Mr. H. G. FORDHAM, F.G.S., from Mr. John Pearce, who died at an 
advanced age in May 1887. The mean monthly level and the mean 
height for the year are calculated by Mr. H. G. FoRDHAM. The rainfall 
at Boyston was furnished by Mr. Hale Wortham. 





1864 


1865 


1866 


1867 


1868 


1869 


1870 


1871 


1872 


1873 


1874 


1875 


January . 


2 


7i 


30 


42 


36 


20 


28 


6 


11 


51 


29 


12 


February 








8 


7i 


47 


56 


46 


36 


36 


11 


14 


GO 


28 


13 


March 








8A 


9 


59 


60 


51 


55 


39 


12 


22 


G9 


27 


15 


April 








14 


17 


84 


61 


51 


57 


46 


14 


26 


— 


27 


14 


May 








191 


17 


64 


61 


49 


55 


42 


17 


40 


fi2 


27 


15 


June 








24* 


15), 


50 


GO 


43 


53 


37 


18 


42 


57 


24 


IG 


July 








20 


10 


48 


56 


36 


51 


30 


18 


42 


54 


19 


16 


August 








12 


9 


43 


50i 


31 


45 


25 


18 


37 


48 


15 


16 


September 






6 


7 


40 


4^ 


28 


ii 


20 


14 


33 


45 


12 


17 


October . 






9 


11 


38 


45 


24 


38 


16 


12 


28 


36 


10 


15 


November 






7 


15 


33 


42 


21 


34 


14 


9 


25 


33 


10 


16 


December 






8 


28* 


33 


47 


20 


30 


10 


10 


25 


— 


11 


40 


Mean level for year . 


11 


m 


44 


621 


3Gi 


43 


28* 


13i 


28} 


6U 


20 


17 


Rainfall at Rovston 
in 1863—17-87 


I 


16G7 


29-33 


26-48 


24-86 


22-62 


24-58 


17-16 


19 07 


28-52 


21-09 


17-79 


26-36 





1876 


1877 


1878 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


1884 


1886 


1886 


Mean 
•64-'86 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May . 

June 

July 

August 

Septeiubci 

Ot-tober 

November 

December 








40 
48 
57 
51 
49 
50 
42 
39 
3G 
28 
27 


51 

57 
66 
58 
52 
51 
60 
67 
61 
48 
42 
41 


48 
54 
57 
54 
63 
64 
52 
48 
43 
39 
33 
36 


48 
60 
69 
72 

78 
75 
80 
78 
73 
72 
66 


61 
64 
57 
67 
64 
63 
48 
49 
48 

67 
C3 


6.9 
72 
78 
75 
72 
69 
68 
57 
51 
60 
49 


68 
«9 

69 
68 

66 
60 

48 
43 

40 


63 
76 
66 
63 


62 

57 

48 
42 
36 

27 

22 


20 
18 
19 
27 
27 
30 
30 
2-2 
22 
21 
17 
24 


32 
48 
61 
51 
61 
57 
64 
61 
45 
40 


34^ 
394 

*:■,' 

43 

45J 

44 

38* 

354 

32i 

30 

31 


Mean level for year . 


42i' 


63 


47i 


70 


64J 


64* 


69 




— 


23 


48 


39 


Rainfall at Royston . 


26-78 


27-22 


23-36 


30-00 


27-39 


24-03 


26-20 


27-37 


16-68 


24-40 


26-12 


24-05 



Appendix III. — Borings in the Tertiaries of the Hampshire Basin. 

Communicated by the Aldershot Gas and Water Company. 
Collected by Mr. Whitaker. 

1. Aldershot Waterworks, southern side of Boxall's Lane, half a mile south-west 
of St. Micliael's. la. 1878, two borings. A third made in 1884. 2. About 250 feet 
above Ordnance datum. 3. Boring 210 feet. 4. Water level same in Nos. 1 and 2, 



86 



REPORT 1889. 



14 feet 2 inches and Ifi feet 3 inches respectively. Level not affected by 24 hours' 
pumping. 5. Daily yield 2:^0,000 ; could pump more. 

Feet. 

9. Gravel and yellow clay 17 

London clav i ^^^ ^^^ yellow dirty clay (basement beds of 110 
^ ■ 1 the London claj') 



Eeading'- 
Woolwich 
beds 

239J 



f Pot clay ........ 5 



I Light red dirty clay with sand 
I ,, „ clay with sand 
"I Dark cla}', with thin bed of sand 

>» »» J) 

^ Light and dark sandy clay 
Chalk with flints 



7 

23 

5 

6 

13 



Aldersliot, D. Lines, South Gamp, 1856. 
Communicated hij the War Office to Mr. Whitaker. 



1«. Sunk in 1856. 2. About 320 feet above Ordnance datum. 
Bored to 500 feet. 4. Water rose to 481 feet of the surface. 



3. Shaft 84. 



Feet. 



Brocklesham 
beds. 

53 
88 



Lower Bag- 
shot beds. 



168 



^Yellow loam . 

Green sand 

Grej' sand 

Mixed green sand 

Dark green sand 

Streaky blue clay 

V Blue clay 

( Black sand 

I Blue clay 

/ Mixed sand 

Stone (? only at bott 

Mixed sand 

Mixed clay and sand 

Blue clay 

Yellow clay 

Sand and rock . 

Mixed sand 
/ Blue clay 

Green sand 

Red sand . 

Blixed sand 

Light (coloured) sand 

Blue clay 

Mixed clay 

Mixed sand 
\ Mixed clay and sand 



:om of bed) 



Fee^ 
15* 

12| 

10 

6 



% 



3 

4 

15 

20 

22 

4 

1 

8 

1 
5 
1 
1 
5 
1 
5 
2 
4 
2 
6 
6 



1. Alton Local Board Well, near the stables at Ashdell. Communicated by SIi. 
F. Crowley. Collected by Mr. W. Whitaker. la. Sunk 1882. 2. 

. 3. Shaft IGO feet, boring 400. 4. Before boring there 
was often 32 feet of water in the well, but it was soon pumped out, and the quantity 
gradually decreased. Now there is 17 feet of water, which is quickly replaced after 
pumping. 



Feet. 

140 Chalk 

208 Lower chalk and grey chalk 

258 ? Chalk marl, 50 or perhaps . 

268 ? Chloritic marl, 10 or perhaps 

348 Malm rock (Upper greensand) 

498 Gault 

540 Gault (? partly hard lower greensand) 



Feet. 

140 
68 
80 
15 
80 

150 
42 



ON THE CIRCDLATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



87 



Bournemoiith Gas and Water Works. 187G. 
Sunk and communicated hy Messrs. S. F. Baker & Sons. 



Drift 



Hi- 



«: 



o 



80 



a . 



o 
S '-' 

<U I — I 

a +-. 

O C/3 

&'— ' 



White sand .... 
Yellow loam .... 
Yellow tjravel 

Yellow loam .... 
Coarse gravel and stone 

Bright red sand . 

Yeliow sand .... 

Mottled clay 

Yellow sand (water-bearing) 

Fine grey sand . 

Tough clay . . . • 

Grey loam and sand 
^ Grey sand (water-bearing) . 
") Sharp grey sand . 

Veins of loam and sand 

Sharp grey sand (water-bearing) 

Fine grey sand . 

Sharp grey sand . 

Coarse grey sand (mineral water) 

Clay, very compact 

Dark clay, close and tough . 



Feet. 

U 
3' 

8 

U 
Oi 
2 

2.V 
1" 

o 
4 

2 

H 

H 
5 

1 

8 



Farnborough. 

Collected hj Mr. Whitakek. Communicated hy Messrs. Tilley & Son. 

1. Waterworks. Western side of Alexandra Road, just S.E. of Alma Cottages. 
1«. 1884. 2. About 260 feet above Ordnance datum. 3. 25i) feet. 4. Water level 
23 feet down until July 29, 1881, when it was pumped down to 41 feet, after which 
the rest level was 29 feet. 



Gravel 

Brown loamy sand, r.ither coarse 

Buif sand, rather coarse (water) . 

Yellow clayey sand, tine .... 

Green loam (turning grey when dry) . 

Fine green sand (water) .... 

Light grey tine sand (water) 

Dark grey clay, with some large flint pebbles 

Green grey loam ...... 

Flint pebbles, in green grey clayey sand . 

Green grey loam and sand, with pebbles 

Fine grey sand, with water 
I Green sand and water ..... 
J Green sand, with thin layers of clay . 
I Strong green loam, with layers of clay 
I Green sand and water . . . - • 
259J London clay 



1(!C:| 



Feet. 

7 
83 
33 

8 
12 
29 

m 

Of 
17 

^3 
10 

22 
22 

3 
12 

3 
, 31 



Furdinghridge. 

Bored and communicated by Messrs. TiLtEY. 



Collected by Mr. WmiAKER. 

1. Ga-sworks. By the stream, at the western end of the village, la. 1887. 
a. About 90 feet above Ordnance datum. 3. 219 boring. 4. Water from the sand 
or 125 feet rose to 13 above the ground. 



88 



EEPOBT — 1889. 



Feet. 



9i 




Ballast (river gravel) 


14 




/Sand and clay ...... 


14 






Sand and pebbles 


2 






Sand and clay, hard stone at base 


30 




London clay, 
1241 feet. ^ 


Blue clay, 6 inches of hard stone @, 24' & 32' 


32 




Sand and clay, with 17 ins. at 12 feet. 


331 






Sand and water 


3 






Clay 


7 


138i 




^Sand, shale, and pebble .... 


3 






Clay and sand 


6 






Green loamy sand, with 4 ins. of stone at base 


llf 
3| 




Beading beds 


Light brown clay ..... 




73 1 feet. 


Brown clay 


2 






Coloured (mottled) clay .... 


40 


212 




Dead sand ....... 


10 


219 




Chalk 


7 



Gosport. 

Information collected by Mr. "Whitaker. 

1. Waterworks, Bury Cross, la. About 1859. 2. 

3. No. 1 well. Shaft 10 feet. Larger 
cylinders to a depth of 83 feet ; smaller to 110 feet ; remainder bored. No. 1 shaft 
is the most easterly in the eastern engine-house ; No. 2 is close by, to the N.N.W., 
just outside the engine-house; No. 3 is a pumping shaft, by the western engine- 
house ; No. 4 is further west, by the north-western corner of the field, beyond the 
works. The water from No. 2 flows into No. 1 by a pipe. Nos. 1, 3, and 4 are con- 
nected by a conduit at the base of the shafts. 4. Water rose to 9 feet below the 
surface. It was pumped down to 80 feet, and rose to 35 feet ; if left for a time, would 
rise to 25 feet. 5. Tested up to half a million gallons a day. 8. Quality good. 
9. Section of No. 4 shaft, 40 feet, with bore-holes to 120, 220, and 330 feet. 



Feet. 



12 



a 

.a 

M 

r—l 

o 



303 

320 

334 



River f Brown loam .... 

drift. \ Gravel 

/ Brown and grey clay 

Grey clay and sand laminated 

Light grey sand, clay, and shells 

Coarse grey sand and shells . 

Brown clay 

Sand and peat 

Clay and sand 

Light-coloured sand 

Clay with sand 

Hard clay 

Light grej' sand 

Clay and sand, laminated 

Clay with a little sand .... 

Sandy clay, with flint pebbles 
L. Bag- /Light-coloured sand, with some flint pebbles 

shot. L Light-coloured sand 

London!™ -, ■, ■ 

clay. J ^^^^' ^^^^y clay, iron pyrites 



[ 



Feet. 

3 

9 

1 
10 
57 
22 
15 

S^ 
19" 

22 
36 
22 
16 
59 

5 

4 
13 

14 



Milton. 

Communicated hy Mr. W. Hill, of Gosport. 

1. Portsmouth Lunatic Asylum, la. In 1885. 3. Cylinders 48 feet; rest 
bored to 604 feet from surface. 4. Greatest height of water 11 feet from surface.. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDEKGROUND WATERS. 



89 



9. 

Feet. 



37J 



Drift. 



t 

I 



London 
clay. 



290^ 



604 



Mould .... 

Brick earth 

White running sand 

Ordinary gravel 

Blue basic clay 

Hard sandstone (7 septaria) 

Blue clay and sand 

Hard blue clay 

Hard blue boulder (? septaria) 

Hard blue clay 

Black sand 

Hard sand boulder (? septaria) 

Dark green sand (water) 

Hard boulder (? septaria) 

Hard blue clay 

Kock with metal . 

Stiff red clay . 

Pipe clay 

Brown clay (brick earth) 

Light red clay, with 3 inches of sand 

Black loamy sand . 

Dark red clay 

Grey clay 

Red plaster clay . 

Hard stone . 

Plaster clay and slime 

Chalk, with occasional flints 



Feet. 
U 
5' 

29 

3 
23 

82 

Ok 

8 

3^ 
3 
22 

1^ 

78i 

lot 

10 

H 

5i 
2^ 

n 
3 

177 



Monks Sherborne. 

Collected hy Mr. Whitaker. 

Communicated and made by Messrs. Legrand and Sutcliff. 

1. The Kectory, Monks Sherborne. Xa. 1887. 3. Shaft 30 feet, rest bored. 
9. 

Feet. Feet. 

London /Clay with septaria 30 

35 clay. X „ „ shells 5 

, Mottled clay 25 

„ ,. Sandy clay 16 

^f^^°^ Mottled clay 9^ 

^^'l^- I Hard clay 141 

^ Black sand 2 

130 Chalk with flints 28 

For numerous Hampshire wells of less importance, see Paper by Mr. 
Whitaker in the ' Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club,' 
No. III. 1889. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Woodward (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. Starkie Gtardner (Secretary), and Mr. Clement 
Reid, appointed for the purpose of exploring the Higher Eocene 
Beds of the Isle of Wight. (Draiun up by the Secretary.) 

The anticipation that varied and well-preserved plant remains would be 
obtained from among the mottled clays of the Osborne series has not 
been realised. Mr. Clement Reid and myself searched them both in the 



90 REPOKT— 1889. 

east and west end of the Isle of Wight, and were unable to find any bed 
in which plant impressions were either distinct or varied, and those we 
obtained were merely reeds and the so-called cinnamon leaves common to 
so many of the tertiary floras. It seems that we must definitely recognise 
that the Oligocenes in England were deposited under conditions that did 
not permit the accumulation in them of those masses of forest debris so 
characteristic of almost every stage of onr Eocenes. These latter were 
the direct deposits of rivers of large volume, which swept down leaves, 
flowers, fruit, seeds, twigs, bark, stipules, and every organ shed naturally 
by forest trees, their undergrowth and parasites, which overhung the 
river banks, or were carried to them by wind. The only absentees are 
the fruits without buoyancy, and the tender herbaceous or heavy succulent 
leaves, which wither on the stem, or decay very rapidly in water. The 
lagoons or shallow estuarine water of the Oligocene bore no such spoils 
from distant woods, and scarcely did their sluggish currents transport 
and deposit the remains of the vegetation proper to their swampy shores or 
islets. These drifted remains are found in patches, which some accident 
has kept here and there in an unusual state of preservation, and it is by 
the discovery of these that our knowledge of our Oligocene flora is, as a 
whole, extended. One or two species are usually found occupying them 
to the exclusion of all others, and their discovery is so fortuitous, and 
destruction so rapid, that we can only look to local collectors to rescue 
them. Mr. A' Court Smith, and more recently Mr. Colenutt, have been 
particularly successful in localities that were previously regarded as 
almost barren. The floras of the Hamstead beds, and of the Bembridge 
marls, rich in ferns, pines, Doliostrobus, large palm leaves, Engelhardtia, 
Myrica, &c., have already been described in previous reports. We now 
find that the Osborne flora contains Doliostrobus, Athrotaxis, Myrica, 
Cinnamon, reeds, palms, &c., and in no way differs from that of the rest 
of the Oligocenes, which probably underwent but little change from 
beginning to end. 

In looking over the Hamstead beds Mr. Clement Reid discovered 
some layers crowded with a new fruit, about the form and size of a damson 
stone, though completely flattened, and probably of a leathery rather than 
woody texture. We were also fortunate enough to discover a large patch 
of splendidly preserved Athrotaxis (Sequoia Couttsice, Heer) partly in clay 
and partly in concretionary sand. This fortunately yielded cones in good 
preservation, and which it was possible to dissect. They are identical 
with the Hordwell specimens described in a former report, and do not 
belong to Sequoia, bat distinctly to Athrotaxis. None of the specimens 
previously known from the Hamstead beds showed the structure of the 
cones, and it is remarkable that even in first describing the species from 
Bovey Tracey, as Sequoia Couttsice, Heer did not allude to the internal 
structure of the fruit, by which alone Sequoia can be separated from 
Athrotaxis. 

I have taken the opportunity to reinvestigate the grounds on which 
the highest member of the Isle of Wight Oligocene and the Bovey Tertiary 
basin were correlated. As a result I am able to place a fine series of the 
so-called Sequoia Couttsice from the two localities side by side, and find 
that their correlation is due to a case of mistaken identity. On a cursory 
examination the great similarity between the foliage and cones of the two 
series from Hamstead and Bovey is striking, but on closer inspection we 
see that the resemblance in the foliage is confined to the most slender 



ON THE HIGnER EOCENE BEDS OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 91 

shoots, and that even in these tlie tiny leaves are less rigid and of less sub- 
stance in the Hamstead specimens. These annual shoots are in both cases 
invariably simple and shed in the greatest profusion. The stouter branches 
are in the Hamstead examples densely clothed with short, falcate, needle- 
like leaves, whilst those of similar substance in the Bovey species are 
covered with .scale-like leaves. The woody axis of the former is also 
relatively much more slender, and the articulated base does not broaden 
into a ball-like joint. In fact, tho similarity in the foliage does not 
extend beyond the annual shoots, the permanent foliage being acicular in 
the one case, and imbricated in the other. The comparison of the fruit 
is more difficult owing to the fuct that the Bovey cones are compressed 
to the thickness of millboard, the Hamstead cones are compressed to 
about a quarter of their original diameter, and the Hordwell cones are 
uncompressed. The Bovey cones consisted, it appears, of fewer, larger, 
and more tender scales, and the internal structure of the cone is quite 
different. The Bovey species may in fact be a Sequoia, while the Isle of 
Wight species can only be an Athrotaxis. 

So far these might be considered as mere variations of one species, 
but among the Bovey remains are somewhat comma-shaped and very flat 
seeds, margined with stout narrow wings, which Hcer states he found 
lying in situ under the scales of the cones. These are not only totally absent 
at Hamstead, but their place is taken by a small, uncompressed, crusta- 
ceous and wingless seed. I have not found them in situ, for the cones 
are opened, but they are scattered ai'ound the cones, and even among 
the scales, as if scarcely washed out, and appear as if they would exactly 
fill the ovaries. The seeds of the three recent species appear all to be 
bilaterally winged, but assuming the associated seeds in each case to 
belong to the conifera), the difference would constitute them distinct 
species. A cone, recently described by Ettingshausen, from the Aus- 
tralian Tertiary, and very unnecessarily placed in the genus Sequoia, is 
hardly distinguishable. It is scarcely necessary to allude to the danger 
of describing Tertiary Conferre from foliage, as we have seen in former 
reports, that this, in spite of its apparent identity, may belong to many 
different genera ; but the transfer of this conifer from Sequoia to Athro- 
taxis modifies considerably our former ideas of the aspect of the vegetation, 
for we have, in place of hills clothed with trees of the imposing stature of 
Sequoia, better known perhaps as Wellivgtonia gigantea, merely the 
riverside bushy conifers of Tasmania. 

Further than this, the identification of the two species as one by Heer 
had much to do Avith the equally erroneous correlation of the Bovey 
basin with the Hamstead beds. In each deposit there are a few very 
characteristic and easily identifiable plants, particularly certain well- 
marked fruits. Chief among these at Bovey are the fruits known as 
Anona, which abound at Bournemouth, and have never been seen in the 
Hamstead beds. On the other hand, at Hamstead the chief fruits 
are Carpolithes globulus and Cyperites Forbesii, never found at Bovey, 
Nymphaja Doris, which I have not compared, and Carpolithes Websteri, 
■which is undoubtedly common to both localities. This fruit first appears 
away from Bovey, in the Lower Headon of Hordwell. Among Bovey 
leaves we have Osmunda lignitum, abundant at Bournemouth, but quite 
absent from the Isle of Wight Oligocene, and Goniopteris Stiriaca absent 
from both. Lastly, the very curious palm spines, which abound at Bovey 
and Bournemouth, are never seen in the Hampshire Oligocenes. There 



92 KEPoitT— 1 889. 

are probably no other plants common to the Bovey and Isle of Wight 
beds, and certainly none that do not also range down into the Bourne- 
mouth Eocene. 

The evidence of the Osmunda, Palmacites, and Anona must outweigh 
that of Carpolithes Websteri, even if we attach no importance to the 
absence at Bovey of the rest of the characteristic Hamstead and even 
Bembridge fossils. In the absence of the 0. Websteri there would be no 
reason for not absolutely assigning the Bovey basin to the Bournemouth 
or Middle Eocene age, but as matters stand, it would perhaps be safest to 
regard the Bovey formation as a mass of coarse river grits, enclosing in 
places some considerable patches of lignite, of probably Bracklesham age, 
but certainly not newer than Lower Headon. As a mass they are entirely 
indistinguishable from the Lower Bagshot beds of Wareham, and certainly 
cannot be regarded as in any sense lacustrine, unless the river deposits 
of the Middle and Lower Bagshots are to be assigned a similar origin. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. Etheridge 
{Chairman), Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. A. Bell (Secretary), 
appointed for the purpose of reporting upon the 'Manure' 
Gravels of Wexford. (Dratvn up by Mr. A. Bell.) 

The writer greatly regrets not being able to complete the final report on 
the Wexford ' manure ' gravels and other deposits in time for the present 
meeting of the Association. Since the last (second) report the explora- 
tioGS carried out in the area of the gravels, in Ballybrack, Balscaddin, 
and Balbriggan Bays, in Larue Lough and the vicinity, and Portrush, 
have so much augmented the material accumulated in years past that a 
postponement till next year is requisite in order that the facts may be 
properly assimilated and the specimens accurately named. 

The exigencies of building and road-making have practically obliterated 
the most prolific portion of the drifts in Ballybrack (or Killiney) Bay 
and the deposit at Portrush, the only traces of the shell-bed at the latter 
place occurring between the rocky masses on the shore above high- water 
mark. Fortunately, previous to these operations a quantity of material 
was obtained by the reporter, and a list of about 120 species will be 
given in the sequel, wherein a brief notice of the principal deposits 
will be found, with lists of fossils obtained by the writer and previous 
observers. The line of research to which an examination of the fossils has 
led the writer is to the effect (1) that the so-called Lower, Middle, and 
Upper drifts in Ballybrack Bay have no connection whatever with the 
equally so-named deposits in the English and Welsh areas, but are a 
continuation northward of the Cotentin-St. Erth-Wexford sea-bed re- 
ferred to in the second report, 1888, further traces of this extension 
obtaining in the glacial clays of the Isle of Man, Nassa reticosa, among 
other Pliocene moUusca, occurring in the northern portion of the island. 

Coeval with the Pliocene fauna of Wexford, Ballybrack, and the Isle 
of Man are numerous species of northern origin, and examination of these 
suggests a Scandinavian rather than an American or Greenlandic origin — 
a suggestion intensified by the presence of a true Scandinavian fauna in 
.several parts of the Scottish lowlands from the Clyde to the Forth and 



ON THE 'manure' GRAVELS OF ■VVEXFORD. 93 

the eastern side of Scotland ; and it is not perhaps too improbable to sup- 
pose that the Pliocene shells obtained by Mr. T. i\ Jamieson in Aberdeen- 
shire came by this ro\ite rather than from the Suffolk crag-beds. From the 
absence of the Pliocene fauna northward of the before-quoted localities 
on the Irish coast and Mauxland, the writer is of opinion that the Irish 
Channel was closed when the strata at these places were beinfr accumu- 
lated, and 

(2) That the Severn drifts from Worcester northwards into Lancashire 
are of much later date, not originating till the south of Ireland was 
separated from the continent. And lastly, that the faunao obtained both 
in England and Ireland, near Dublin and Wicklow, at elevations of 1000 
feet and more, are ' remainie ' and not in their original habitat. 

An examination of the gravelly and shelly sand dredged from the 
Turbot bank in the Irish Sea has long convinced the writer that the 
accumulation is in the main of post-glacial age, intermixed with a few 
recent forms, easily distinguished from the older species by their appear- 
ance. The material is very rich in other groups than the molluscan, cata- 
logued already by Mr. Hyndman. Of all these I propose giving a list. 

It may be well to say that the matter first examined was sent to the 
writer some years back by Mr. E. Waller, who wo).ked with Mr. Hynd- 
man on the mollusca ; and, secondly, from a quantity of Mr. Hyndman's 
own washings, placed at my disposal by Mr. S. A. Stewart, of Belfast. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Floweu 
(Chairman), Mr. D. Morris {Secretary), Mr. CARuoTnERS, Dr. 
ScLATER, Mr. Tiiiselton-Dyer, Dr. Sharp, Mr. F. DuCane God- 
man, a7icZ Professor Newton, appointed for the pui^ose of report- 
ing on the present state of our knowledge of the Zoology and 
Botany of the West India Islands, and taking steps to investi- 
gate ascertained deficiencits in the Fauna and Flora. 

This Committee was appointed in 1887, and reappointed in 1888. At 
a meeting held on December 5, 1888, it was decided to invite the co- 
operation of Dr. Giinther, F.R.S., a member of the Subcommittee ap- 
pointed for a similar purpose by the Government Grant Committee of the 
Royal Society, and Colonel Feilden, of the Army Pay Department, at that 
time acting as Local Secretary to the Committee at Barbados. 

The services of Mr. G. A. Ramage were retained as collector at 
Dominica and St. Lucia, and several collections were received from him 
during the past year. Owing to ill-health Mr. Ramage returned to this 
country in June last, and he has now retired from the post of collector to 
the Committee. Mr. F. DuCane Godman has generously assisted the 
work of the Committee by sending out, at his own expense, the well- 
known naturalist and collector, Mr. H. H. Smith, to the Island of St. 
Vincent, to make collections in as many branches as possible of Natural 
History. These collections have not yet reached this country, but it is 
anticipated that they will prove of considerable value. 

Colonel Feilden obtained numerous botanical and zoological specimens 
in Barbados and the neighbouring islands. He has published a paper on 
tho reptiles, and another on the birds ; papers on the mammalia and 
land mollusca will follow. He also obtained a living specimen of the 



94 REPORT — 1889. 

green monkey of "Western Africa which has become feral in Barbados 
(Cercopitheciis calUtrichtis). This was presented by the Committee to the 
Zoological Society of London. 

Dr. H. A. Alford NichoUs, F.L.S., Local Secretary to the Committee 
at Dominica, has rendered valaable assistance, and he will be engaged for 
six weeks this autumn in exploring Montserrat and the isolated rock 
called Redonda, which is a dependency of Antigua. 

The particulars of the collections received during the past year are as 
follows : — 

Zoology. — The zoological specimens obtained by the Committee up to 
June 1889, including those collected by Mr. Ramage in Dominica and St. 
Lucia, have been placed in the hands of specialists for examination and 
determination. Mr. Oldfield Thomas has determined the mammalia, Dr. 
Sclater the birds ; Dr. Giinther has published a paper on the reptiles, 
Mr. E. A. Smith three papers on the mollusca, Mr. R. I. Pocock two on 
the myriopoda and Crustacea, and Mr. Kirby one on the phasmidse. 

Botany. — The botanical specimens collected by Mr. Ramage in 
Dominica and St. Lucia, up to May 1889, have been determined at Kew ; 
the flowering plants by Mr. R. A. Rolfe, the ferns by Mr. J. G. Baker, 
and the cellular cryptogams by Dr. Cooke and Mr. C. H. Wright. 

From Dominica about 394 species were received, of which (excluding: 
the cryptogams) about 40 could only be provisionally determined ; and 
of these a few, perhaps about half, are probably undescribed. The great 
majority belong to ah'eady well-known species, most of which were pre- 
viously known from the island. 

From St. Lucia about 189 species have been sent, of which (excluding 
the cryptogams, as before) over 30 were not determined, and possibly 
about half of these may prove to be undescribed. This island was less 
completely known than Dominica, and several additions to our knowledge 
of its flora have been made by Mr. Ramage. During the working up of 
the collections a strong affinity with Dominica, and perhaps still more so 
with Martinique, has become apparent. From the latter island large col- 
lections ai'e well represented at Kew, though the materials have never 
been thoroughly worked up. 

The specimens which it was not found possible to determine belong 
for the mo.st part to large genera of woody plants, as guttiferffi, legu- 
minosce, myrtaceee, myrsine^, laurinece, and a few others, which renders 
it the more probable that a fair proportion of them may prove unde- 
scribed. 

The number of novelties is perhaps not so great as was originally ex- 
pected, and this may arise either from the ground having been worked 
over before, or, what is perhaps more probable, from the fact that a 
considerable uniformity prevails in the flora of this chain of islands, with 
a corresponding paucity in endemic types. 

The Committee would draw particular attention to the botanical and 
zoological bibliography of the Lesser Antilles prepared under their direction, 
and published as an appendix to the Report for 1888. This bibliography 
has been widely distributed in the West Indies and in Europe, and has 
proved of considerable service in carrying out the objects for which the 
Committee were appointed. 

The Committee recommend their reappointment, with the addition of 
those gentlemen who have co-operated with them in the work of the past 
year. They further recommend that a grant of 180Z. be placed at their 
disposal. 



ON CERTAIN FnESIIWATEU TELEOSTEI. 95 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Ray 
Lankestek, Professor A. Milnes Makshall, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
and Mr. G. H. Fowleu (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of investigating the development of the Oviduct and connected 
structures in certain fresh-water Teleostei. 

The Secretary re<?i'ots that, owing to the failure for a second year of 
several fisli-batchinti: establishments to supply in any quantity ova and 
fry of the special (ish required for this purpose, it has not been possible 
to carry out the investigation. The money granted for apparatus and 
similar needs has therefore not been expended. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor 
Ray Lanicester, Professor Cossar Ewart, Professor M. Foster, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor A. M. JNIarshall, and Mr. Percy 
Sladen {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging 
for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 

It is the pleasant duty of your Committee to report that the Zoological 
Station maintains its course of steady progress and success, each year 
being marked by some impi-ovement in the building or the development 
of some new line of research, -whereby additional advantages are affoi'ded 
to those who have the privilege of working at the Station. 

Your Committee have also the satisfaction of drawing attention to the 
fact that the table at their disposal has been fally occupied during the 
whole year, four naturalists having been accommodated since the last 
report. Indeed, for the long period of nearly five months two tables were 
placed at their disposal through the kindness of Professor Dobrn, to avoid 
disappointment on the part of those who wished to work at Naples at a 
particular time of year. Your Committee desire to place on record their 
appreciation of Professor Dohrn's liberality and readiness to oblige in 
every way possible. 

The completion of the chemical department of the new physiological 
laboratory, under the direction of Dr. von Schroeder, was announced in 
last year's report. Unfortunately, the state of Dr. von Schroeder's health 
renders him unable to remain in Naples. He will be succeeded by Dr. 
Herter, of Berlin, who will assume the duties of Director of the laboratory 
in October, at the end of the hot season. This department is now fully 
equipped with instruments, chemicals, &c. In the experimental depart- 
ment of the laboratory the rooms are now being fini-shed, and the Direc- 
torate hopes that this department will be ready and in working order 
during the course of next year. 

Investigations having a practical bearing on fishery questions are 
being actively continued. The results are watched with great and appre- 
ciative interest by the Italian Ministi-y of Agriculture and Commerce, on 
account of the many contradictory opinions in vogue and the continual 
agitation for and against the present fishery laws and regulations. In 
furtherance of these inquiries Professor Dohrn noAv proposes to examine 



96 REPORT— 1889. 

extensively the * take ' of the Neapolitan trawlers, with the view of testing 
the results already obtained. In the new physiological laboratory parti- 
cular attention will be paid to the preservation of fish for the purposes of 
food — a question which is of great importance in the Mediterranean, 
especially during the hot season. 

In the Bacteriological Laboratory all the available places have been 
occupied during the year. Attention is drawn to the importance of the 
investigations carried out by Professor de Giaxa,' of Pisa, and Dr. F. 
Sanfelice,^ of Naples, which have recently been published. Professor de 
Giaxa's conclusions are: 1. Sterilised sea-water — independently of the 
common micro-organisms it contains, and perhaps independently of the 
changes produced by the presence of organic and mineral matters coming 
from sewers — is an excellent nutritive medium for the reproduction of 
the bacilli of cholera, carbuncle, typhus, and of Staphylococcus pyogenes 
aureus. These micro-organisms can reproduce and propagate in it to a 
considerable degree. 2. In non-sterilised sea-water the reproduction of 
the above-named four micro-organisms is prevented by the com- 
petition which takes place between them and the common micro- 
organisms present in the water, the intensity of the influence being 
principally and perhaps entirely dependent on the number of the latter 
present. 3. The bacilli of carbuncle and cholera introduced into the 
stomach of fishes were destroyed after a short time. Their destruction is 
due partly to the gastric juice and partly to the comjjetition which takes 
place between the pathogene bacilli and the common bacteria existing in 
the stomach and intestines of fishes. In like manner the bacilli of car- 
buncle and cholera do not live in molluscs. 

Dr. F. Sanfelice limited his researches to the bacteriological analysis 
of the sea- water in certain localities on the east and west coasts of the 
Gulf of Naples. He has examined the water in proximity to sewers, and 
at distances of 100, 200, 300, and 400 metres. The result of counting the 
colonies on gelatine plates demonstrated that there is in the vicinity of 
the coast a great number of micro-organisms, and that this number 
diminishes sensibly as the distance from the shore increases. The number 
is more considerable where the larger sewers open, and it diminishes very 
sensibly in the open water. Other papers bearing on these questions will 
be found in the list of publications for next year. 

The negotiations with the Spanish Government, referred to in last 
year's report, have resulted in three tables having been secured by the 
Ministries of Marine, Public Instruction, and the Colonies, respectively. 
Two naval officers have already completed their course of instruction, and 
several other officers and naturalists are expected at the Station. One of 
the Russian officers at present on duty in Japanese waters is making 
large collections of specimens, which promise to be of the highest scien- 
tific interest. 

On the subject of the participation of universities and States in the 
advantages of the Station, together with increased privileges, and on the 
mode of obtaining means necessary for conducting this expensive part of 
the establishment, the Directorate proposes to report specially next year. 

' ' Ueber das Verhalten einiger pathogener Mikroorganismen in Meerwasser.' 
Zeitschrift far Hygiene, vol. vi. p. 162, 1889. 

- ' Ricerche batteriologicbe delle acque del mare in vicinanza dello sbocco delle 
fognature ed in lontananza da qneste.' Boll. Soc. di JVaturalisti, Napoli, vol. iii. 
part I., 1889 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 97 

The Vuhlicatimis of the Station. — The progress of the various works 
nndertaken by the Station is here summarised : — 

1. Of the 'Faona und Flora des Golfes von Neapel ' no monographs 
have appeared since the last report ; but it is intended to publish during 
the course of 1889 monographs by Dr. Falkenberg on ' Rhodomelea?,' 
and by Dr. Delia Valle on ' Gammarini.' 

2. Of the ' Mittheilungeu aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel,' 
vol. viii., parts i., ii., iii., iv., with 25 plates, and vol. ix., part i., with 
7 plates, have been published. 

3. Of the ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht,' the whole ' Bericht ' for 1887 
has been published. 

Extracts from the General Report of the Zoological Station. — The officers 
of the Station have courteously furnished lists (1) of the naturalists who 
have occupied tables since the last report, (2) of the works published 
during 1888 by naturalists who have worked at the Zoological Station, 
(3) of the specimens sent out by the Station during the past year. 
These details are appended, and speak for themselves as to the activity of 
the Station. 

The British Association Table. — Four naturalists have occupied the 
British Association table during the past year : Mr. F. Ernest Weiss for 
four months; Mr. W. L. Calderwood, for a little longer than four months; 
I )r. N. A. Cobb, for eleven weeks ; and Mr. Arthur Willey for three' 
weeks. All of these gentlemen have furnished reports on the nature of 
their investigations, which are appended. 

Two applications for permission to use the British Association table 
daring the current and coming year have been received. The Committee 
hope the Council will enable them to sanction these applications by re- 
newing the grant (lOOZ.) for the ensuing year. In the opinion of your 
Committee the assurances of the utility of the British Association table 
now presented fully justify them in strongly recommending the renewal 
of the grant. 

I. Report on the Occupation of the Table, by Dr. N. A. Cobb. 

I received in Munich early in November the welcome permission to 
use for a limited period the British Association table in the Zoological 
Station at Naples. I started at once for Italy, and with the kind a°sis- 
tanco of the genial officers of the station was soon settled and at work. 

I proposed to make some comparative studies among worms, and to 
pay particular attention to the affinities of the Nematodes. Abundant 
material was supplied me, and I soon had a collection of common annelids 
and parasitic nematodes ready for investigation, and next turned my 
attention towards the free-living marine nematodes. 

Here I met a difficulty. To study these worms under the microscope 
one by one in a living condition seemed to me very tedious, and hardly 
to answer all my purposes. I wished for a large number of successfully 
preserved specimens for comparative study. It became apparent at 
once, however, that the common methods were too rough to give good 
results with these delicate little creatures. I resolved therefore to 
grapple once more with the problem of avoiding shrinkage during the 
process of hardening and preserving. 

This was no new battle-field to me. A number of years a^o. while 
at work on some delicate freshwater alga) {Spyrogijra), I had^tried to 

1889. jj 



V8 



REPOllT — 1889. 



B A 



overcome these same difficulties, but not with perfect success. I at that 
time made use of osmosis, and invented several instruments, all in some 
degree resembling that of which Schultze has more recently given a 
description. The apparatus was, however, complicated, and therefore 
difficult to prepare as well as to use, the method tedious, and the results 
not altogether satisfactory. 

The importance of the matter being once more brought home to me, 
I determined to see whether it was not possible, by some simple means, 
to attain the desired result, and to devote, if necessary, a long time to 
experiments directed towards that end. Fortunately I soon hit upon a con- 
trivance which, while it is extremely simple, is correspondingly efficient. 
Without burdening this report with an account of my more or less 
unsuccessful experiments, I will proceed at once to describe this simple 
and efficient instrument which has rendered me such good service. It is 
made from glass tubing, which may vary in intei'nal diameter from 3 mm. 
to -g- cm. or more. The instrument is double in its nature. If the objects 
arebeing transferred from a heavy fluid to a lighter, Form A is used ; if 
from a light fluid to a heavier, Form B is used. 

Bach form consists of three pieces of tubing, bent as shown in the 
ficrures. Two of the pieces, h and c, are common to both forms, a and a' 
differ from each other in that a' is longer, and is doubled 
on itself below, I will call a and a' reservoirs ; h the 
object-hox or object-cylinder ; and c the filter. All are 
shown in position m the figures. In use the object- 
box is joined to the reservoir and filter by rubber tub- 
ing, which, for the sake of simplicity, is not shown in 
the figures. The termination of the filter c is made 
into a capillary tube having an internal diameter of "1 
to '2 mm. 

The object, supposed to be previously fixed in sub- 
limate or other fixing agent, is placed in the object-box 
in some of the fixing fluid, and is kept in place by 
plugs of cotton, asbestos, shreds of linen, or other 
similar material. The filter is also filled with the fix- 
ing fluid, and it will be found best to insert here also 
a plug of cotton, otherwise particles of carmine, &c., 
may stop up the terminal capillary part. The filter 
and box are now joined together by rubber tubing, no 
bubbles being admitted. To avoid bubbles in the 
cotton, boil it, or soak it in alcohol and rinse in water. 
Suppose now the object has been fixed in subli- 
mate, and is to be mounted in balsam after straining 
in borax carmine. I bring the object first into 'SO per 
cent, alcohol, a lighter fluid, as follows : 

The box and filter, joined together as just des- 
cribed, are connected with a reservoir as in A. The 
reservoir is then filled to 1 with 5 per cent, alcohol, 
from 1 to 2 with lu per cent, alcohol, from 2 to 3 with 
15 per cent., from 3 to 4 with 20 per cent., from 4 to 5 with 25 percent., 
and from 5 to the top with 30 per cent. By taking sufficient care these 
different alcohols may be allowed to flow in that they will remain distinct 
from one another, or they may be run in so forcibly that the whole 
contents of the reservoir will be a nearly uniform mixture of about 15 



1 



/z 



b- 



<t 



3i' 



f 



ON TUB ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 99 

per cent, alcohol. Between these two extremes lies the desirable mean. 
Theoretical l}"- the change, in passing from the bottom of the reservoir to 
(he top, should be perfectly gradual and uniform from per cent, to 
:10 per cent. This would justify the name which I have given the 
instrument, ' Tiie Differentiator,' and, in fact, the approximation to the 
theoretical perfection may be so close a one that I retain the name first 
suggested by the mathematical analogy. 

Even before the reservoir is full the pressure causes a slow flow 
through the filter, and, drop by drop, the whole contents filter through, 
and the object is thereby slowly transferred to 30 per cent, alcohol. 
Hurtful diffusion currents are completely avoided. 

The rate of flow is governed by the size of the capillary part, the 
tightness of the plugs, and the inclination of the instrument. The first 
two of these factors are approximately controllable, the third exacfhj so. 
The rate of flow, and therefore the period of time occupied by the change, 
may consequently be accurately regulated. I find it best to prolong the 
period to ten hours in the following cases : Sublimate to 30 per cent. ; 
30 per cent, to borax carmine ; borax carmine to 50 per cent. ; 50 per 
cent, to 70 per cent. ; 70 per cent, to 90 per cent. ; 90 per cent, to abso- 
lute ; absolute to ^ turpentine ; ^ turpentine to turpentine ; turpentine 
to dilute balsam. It is well to bear in mind that at length the flow is 
slower than at first, owing to a decrease of pressure, though the diS"erence 
is not so great as might be expected (on account of the influence of the 
capillary tube). This forethought will lead to the insertion of rather 
greater quantities of the heavier fluids than would otherwise be the case. 
The next change, from 30 per cent, alcohol to borax carmine, a 
heavier fluid, is accomplished in a similar manner, but by means of 
reservoir a'. This latter, held in a vertical position, is filled halfway to 
the top of the short arm with carmine, and the whole of the carmine is 
then sucked into the long arm, which is now hermetically closed at the 
top, either with the finger or (better) a small stopper. The now empty 
short arm is filled up as follows : Make three mixtures — 

No. 1 . Equal parts carmine and 30 per cent, alcohol . 50 per cent, carmine 
No. 2. „ „ No. 1 „ „ „ . 25 „ „ 

No. 3. „ „ „ „ carmine ... 75 „ „ 

Fill the short arm up to 1 with No. 3, from 1 to 2 with No. 1, from 2 to 3 
with No. 2, and from 3 to the top with 30 per cent, alcohol. Now move 
the box and filter from a to a', avoiding bubbles, and finally remove the 
hermetic seal from the long arm of a' and fill it up with carmine. The 
flow begins as before, but the object is now transferred from the lighter 
30 per cent, alcohol to the heavier borax-carmine, a change which would 
be impracticable in Form A. 

The differentiator being now described, it remains to add some sugges- 
tions brought to mind by my experience with it : 

1. Caoutchouc is soluble in turpentine, ether, &c. In case any of 
these fluids are used the caoutchouc tubing should be fresh and thick, 
and, further, be firmly tied to the glass parts. 

2. Small objects get lost in the cotton. If, however, each plug is 
done up in fine, new linen cloth, no loss will occur. 

3. Notes, if plainly written with pencil, are legible even after passing 
through carmine. 

4. In making a' the glass tubing must be gradually and thoroughly 
heated in a good Bansen flame. The capillary termination of the filter is 

n 2 



100 EEPORT 1889. 

made by heating the tubing and pulling out to arm's length. Most of 
the narrow part thus made is broken off and thrown away, only two to 
three inches of it being allowed to remain intact. This is bent at right 
angles with the original tubing in a low alcohol flame, and then again 
drawn out in the alcohol flame to capillary size. 

5. All corners had better be rounded ofl" in a Bunsen flame. 

Thanks to the differentiator, I have lying on slides, ready for investi- 
gation, about 3,000 excellent specimens of free-living nematodes, about 
half in glycerine and half in balsam. In spite of the fact that many of 
the species are delicate little creatures only half a millimetre long, the 
shrinkage is in the strict sense of the word scarcely perceptible. 

What I liave said concerning nematodes applies also to such infusorians, 
diatoms, desmids, and mould-filaments as I have come across among my 
specimens (therefore killed at the same time and treated in the same 
manner as the nematodes). 

I find that vorticella, young platyhelminthes, rotifera and infusoria, 
which generally defeat the process of fixation by untimely contractions, 
become limp and manageable with sublimate, &c., if they are first 
changed to 30 per cent, alcohol (or weaker) in the differentiator. 

The instrument may be found of general application. It recommends 
itself on account of its simplicity. Anyone can make it in a few minutes' 
time. 

I shall make the results of my studies while at Naples the subject of 
a paper shortly to be published. 

I desire to take the opportunity at the end of this report to express 
my hearty thanks to the Committee of the British Association for the 
profit and pleasure I have enjojed in the use of a table at a zoological 
station so happily situated and skilfully managed as that at Naples. 



II. Eeport on the Occupation of the Table, by Mr. F. Ernest Weiss. 

I occupied the table of the British Association at the Zoological 
Station at Naples from January 1, 1889, to May 1, 1889, and dur- 
ing the whole of my stay everything that could facilitate my work 
was done by the authorities. As the eggs of Sepia and Loligo, on 
which I had intended chiefly to work, were still scarce, I started 
on some anatomical investigations of Amphioxus, and was able to confirm 
the observations of Professor Lankester, published while I was still 
working at Naples. 

Having the living material at hand, I also undertook some observa- 
tions with regard to the currents of water passed through the pharynx 
and gill-chamber, and some physiological experiments on the absorption 
of food particles and on the excretion. Carmine granules were readily 
taken up in a finely divided state by the intestinal epithelium, and the 
carmine was found later in the vascular system no longer as granules, 
but colouring the corpuscles, and, to a certain extent, the liquid. 

This fact enabled me to confirm the statements of Schneider, which, 
according to Professor Lankester, needed confirmation — namely, that the 
dorsal aortas send off lateral vessels both into the j'fimary and into the 
secondary bars of the pharynx. 

With regard to the excretion I did not arrive at any definite results, 
owing partly to the lack of time, as Dr. Eisig pointed out that in the case 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLKS. 101 

of many of his experiments on CapitellidiB the excretion of carmine lasted 
for several months. The Araphioxus, indeed, retained the pink colonr 
they assumed after feeding with carmine in undiminished intensity during 
several weeks. The fact, too, that the carmine was no longer in the 
form of granules would render it less easily detected unless in large 
quantities. 

In the cojlomic funnels, described by Professor Lankester as probably 
excretory organs, I was unable to detect the presence of carmine, and 
these organs probably excrete directly fi'om the coelomic fluid in which I 
discover any carmine, whei'eas the vascular system possibly excretes 
through the highly vascular gland in the pre-oral region. 

Later on in my stay I had the opportunity, with a plentiful supply of 
material, to observe the segmentation stages, especially of Loligo and 
Sepia, but unfortunately could not obtain any eggs of Octopus. 

I also examined the coelomic fluid of a large number of Chistopod 
worms, with special regard to the excretory particles contained in the 
coelomic corpuscles. 

I had, too, the opportunity of extending my knowledge of the general 
marine fauna, and especially of the Pelagic forms in which the Bay 
of Naples is so wonderfully rich. Such a general study is, perhaps, 
for younger students of Biology of greater importance when occupy- 
ing a table at the Zoological Station than the more specialised research 
work, especially on the first visit to a marine station. 

By no means the least important feature of my stay at Naples was 
the opportunity it gave me of intercourse with such eminent workers 
as Dr. Dohrn, Dr. Eisig, and Dr. Mayer, from whom no student could 
fail to gain in experience, through their readiness to give counsel and 
advice. Lastly, the opportunity of discussing subjects of biological 
interest with the students of other nations, representing as they do at 
Naples almost all the schools of Europe, makes a stay at the Zoological 
Station conducive to a widening of our point of view, and is of the 
utmost importance. 

For the vast amount T have gained during my stay at Naples in 
knowledge, experience, and I may say also in friends of kindred interests, 
I desire to express my thanks to the Committee of the British Association, 
who, in granting me the table, conferred uj/on me so lasting a benefit. 



HI. Report on the Occupation of the Table, Inj Mr. W. L. Calderwood. 

Having had the privilege of working at the British Association 
table in the Zoological Station at Naples, I have now the pleasure to 
leport on the results 1 have obtained. At the outset I must thank Prof. 
Dohrn for his kindness in making the necessary arrangements, and like- 
wise his staff for their assistance during my work. 

I commenced, first of all, a general study on those animals which, 
easily obtained in the Mediterranean, are not to be found in the colder 
seas surrounding the British Isles. 

After passing over much well-trodden ground in the Invertebrate 
Group, I turned my attention to fishes, and eventually concentrated 
my work particularly upon the so-called Flying Gurnard, Vactylopterus 
volitans. In the study of this fish, therefore, the most of my four months' 
stay was taken op. 



102 REPOKT— 1889. 

The head of Dacbjlopferus voUtans is superficially covered by a com- 
plete bony layer. In the natural condition this shows no appearance of 
satares, and is prodaced backwards, dorsally, beyond the region of the 
skall. Here it bifarcates, each branch forming a lai-ge flat plate resting 
on what is popularly known as the ' shoulder,' and each ending in a 
flattened spine. For convenience I have called these the dorsal plates. 
After maceration in a very strong solution of caustic potash this layer is 
separable into distinct areas, and can be removed, leaving the true skull 
bones exposed beneath. It is then seen to be a true sheath arranged 
with a view to strengrth. 

Each superficial suture is above the body of a true bone, and each 
deep suture in the skull proper is below the body of one of these areas. 

Of the skull itself tbe occipital arch is the only one deserving of 
special attention. It is peculiar, but will be better understood after 
examining the swimming-bladder itself. The vertebral column is 
already well known to be peculiar. As in Fistidaria, a Japanese pipe- 
fish, the first four vertebrce have coalesced so as to form a rigid tube ; 
their neural spines have also united to form a vertical plate. I can gain 
no information concerning Fistularia, but in IDactylopterus it appears to 
me that this peculiarity is subservient to the uses of the swimming- 
bladder, just as I think the dorsal plates are. Both give rigidity and 
strength to this segment of the fish. 

The swimming-bladder, so far as I am aware, has a unique position, 
inasmuch as it is not situated below, but above, the vertebral column, not 
forming part of the abdominal contents, but situated dorsally in a special 
cavity of its own. When the abdominal cavity is opened ventrally, and the 
viscera removed, only the ventral surface of the bladder is seen, forming 
part of the dorsal boundary of the cavity. Seen from this point of view, 
it is formed of a broad central portion, white and tendinous, and of two 
lateral portions, strongly muscular. 

The kidneys overlap the swimming bladder posteriorly, and the oeso- 
phagus and pericardial cavity partially obscure its anterior end. 

On removing the abdominal walls so as to obtain a view of the side, 
and also of the back, the lateral muscles are seen to continue upwards, to 
curve inwards towards the median line, to be reflected downwai'ds on 
each side of the vertical neural plate, and finally to become attached to 
the bodies of the vertebrEe, whose spines go to form that plate. 

Leydig ' gives a short description of the swimming-bladder of 
Dacti/lopteruD, the result probably of a somewhat cursory observation, as 
he seems to have had the impression that there was only one large muscle 
covering the dorsum of the bladder. But, as the four coalesced vertebrae 
of the spinal column necessarily intervene, it will be at once evident that 
the bladder is here partially divided into equal portions, forming, as will 
be seen later, its two primary divisions. Giinther ^ recognises the bladder 
as being divided into ' two halves, each having a large muscle.' A 
lateral view of one of those muscles gives an elliptical ontline, the long 
axis running, from the posterior end, forwards and slightly upwards. 
Tracing, however, the dorsal surface forwards, and on its inner or median 
aspect, we find that here there is, on each side, a secondary portion con- 
cealed immediately below the dorsal plate before mentioned. Carefully 
scraping away this plate, it is seen to be composed of an extremely thin 



Lehrhuch der Histologie. = Introduction to tlie Study of FiiJies. 



i 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLE.S. 103 

transparent membrane, we might say merely the lining membrane to the 
bony cavity in whicii it is contained. In shape it is triangular, the 
base being towards the median line of the body ; the dorsum, on account 
of its close relation to the dorsal plate, is necessarily flat ; the ventral 
(uspect or floor is somewhat spoon-shaped, being enclosed in a prolonga- 
tion backwards of the exoccipital boiic. This prolongation also forms 
the lateral margins of the cavity, and is united to the dorsal plate 
above. 

This secondary portion of the bladder is therefore entirely surrounded 
by bone, excepting the foramen, by which it posteriorly communicates 
with the primary portion. 

Making now a vertical longitudinal section through the primary por- 
tion of one side, so as to obtain a view of the interior, we see that centrally 
there is a thin membrane perforated in one place by a foramen, dividing 
it transversely into two. Immediately behind this membrane there is a 
tunnel seen passing in a transverse manner from one primary division to 
the other ; this passes below the vertebral column, and is the only portion 
situated below. In this way, therefore, the bladder, instead of being 
composed only of two, is seen to be divided into six compartments. 

A. Moreau ' describes an interesting experiment which he made on 
Trigla liirundo. Observing two nerves passing to the swimming-bladder, 
having their origin below the pueamogastric, near to the first dorsal pair, 
he stimulated them with electricity, and produced the characteristic 
grunting sounds of the Triglidoe. 

On studying the bladder, he found in the dividing septum (which he 
calls the diaphragm) radiating and circular muscular fibres tormina a 
kind of sphincter round the central circular opening. 

On removing the posterior end of the bladder, and stimulatiri"' a^^ain, 
although naturally no sound was produced, this sphincter was seen to 
contract. He therefore concludes that the sound is produced by vibra- 
tions caused by the contraction of this diaphragm. 

While killing two of my specimens of Badylopterus sounds exactly 
similar to those of the Gurnard wei-e distinctly heard, and simultaneously 
with eacli sound a distinct contraction of the bladder could be felt from the 
exterior. These contractions were quite independent of any movements 
of the mouth or operculum. After examining the diaphragms of Trigla 
hirundo, T. lyra, and Dadyhpierus, and finding their structures all exactly 
similar, I am inclined to support Moreau's conclusion. 

Studying now more carefully the bones forming the cavity for the 
secondary portion, we find that from the basi-occipital the neural arch 
slopes forwards, while the exoccipitnls have branches projecting back- 
wards and upwards, spreailing out superiorly so as to form a broad basis 
of attachment to the dorsal plate. As has been already noticed, these 
processes form the floor and external margin of the cavity. The basis 
occipital with its forward projection forms the boundary. The inner side 
is formed by the paroccipitals, and the roof by a joint arrangement of 
supraoccipital and parietal. 

The situation of this secondary portion, snrrounded as it is by skull 
bones, made me at first apprehend a connection with the ear, as is the 
case in some Silurida>, Characinidoe, Cyprinidce, and Gymnotidaj,'^ and 

' Siir la Voijr des Pohsonx. 

' Gunthur: Jntroductiun to the Stuchj of Fhhcs, 'Organ of Hearing and Air- 
Bladder.' 



104 EEPOET— 1889. 

also as observed by Professor Parker in the Red Cod, Lotella baccJms.^ But 
after the most careful dissection the bladder still appeared to end blindly, 
and without coming in contact with any modified bones which might 
serve as ossicles of the auditory apparatus. 

I may here mention also that there is no communication between the 
bladder and oesophagus. 

The histology of the bladdei', although interesting in many respects, 
cannot be entered into here, but must form the subject of a future paper. 

The flying powers of Dactylopterus are by some, I find, called into 
question. Making inquiries about such habits of the fish as are known, 
I am informed by Signer Lo Bianco, of the Naples station, that it is met 
with in the Bay at a depth of from 20-60 metres, say 10-30 fathoms, but 
is never seen on the surface. 

In the literature on the subject there are two or three very old notes, 
merely saying that the fish flies or has been seen flying. Then Miibius, 
who has written largely on the flying powers of Exor.oiius, describes its 
flight when discussing whether flying fish move their wings or not. He 
compares the flight to that seen in many grasshoppers, ' which raise 
themselves from the ground with a spring, and, eking out their momen- 
tum as much as they can by buzzing their wings, fall to the ground after 
a short flight.' 

Moseley - refers twice to their flight, the second time when he was 
collecting amongst the weed of the Sarago-sa Sea. This instance seems 
to me to be conclusive, I therefore quote it. 'I watched these little flying 
fish fly along before the boat at a height of about a foot above the water 
for distances of 15 or 20 yards, and I chased them and caught one or two 
with a hand-net amongst the weed.' 

Prom a study of the young Dadi/loptenis, i.e. the fish formerly known 
as Gephalacanthus, it is evident that only the adults can have the power of 
' flight.' The smallest specimen I had an opportunity of examining was 
1^ inches. The pectorals, when placed along the side, reached to a level 
of the second dorsal fin-ray — a fin so short as to be quite insignificant 
as a flying organ. In the full-grown fish the pectorals, when placed in 
the same position, reach quite to the base of the caudal fin, and when 
spread out in an extended position form huge, beautifully-coloured wings. 
This condition is approached to some extent in Trigla lyra, a gurnard not 
uncommon in British waters. Although very closely allied to the Triglidse, 
Giinther does not include Dactylopterus in that genus, but places it in the 
Cataphractidae, a small group repi'esented on our shores only by the 
Pogge, Agonus caiaphractus, a fish living amongst the weeds at the 
bottom. 

Without doubting the flying powers of Dadylnpterus, I am inclined to 
think that it is also in the main a non-pelagic fish. The peculiar struc- 
ture and position of the swimming-bladder, amongst other things, point, 
I think, in this direction. 

The bladder of the gurnard is well known — thin-walled and non- 
muscular — situated in the dorsum of the aldominal cavity. When a 
gurnard is brought suddenly to the surface it almost invariably turns 
belly upwards and swims or floats in this position. This is caused, I 
think, by the sudden expansion of the contained gas, consequent upon 



' Parker, T. Jeffrej- : Trans. N. Z. Instit. vol. xv., ] 882, p. 234. 
^ Moseley: A'otcs by a Naturalist im the 'ChaUnitier,' p. SG2. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 105 

the relief of pressure. The liue of least resistance is naturally the 
ventral one, therefore the bladder expands downwards amongst the 
abdominal viscera. If the expansion has been too great, the bladder is 
incapable of recovery, and the fish remains in this position till it dies. 
I have seen gurnards swim in this inverted position for several days 
before death ensued. 

This seems to me to throw considerable light upon the bladder of 
Dactylopterus. If, let us say, to escape from an enemy, it has to make a 
sudden ascent and to leap out of the water, the conditions which prove 
fatal to the gurnard are overcome by the peculiar structure and position 
of the bladder. The only line of possible expansion is again towards the 
abdominal viscera, but it is in this direction counterbalanced by the 
action of the two strong muscles. 

The bladder, then, being prevented from expanding when the pressure 
from the surrounding water is suddenly removed, the high dorsal position 
of the secondary portion becomes of the greatest possible advantage. 

For, comparing Dactylo2)terus with Exocoetus, we find that it has not 
got, in cross section, that deep elliptical circumference, nor is it provided 
with small keels to aid its balance when in the air. A transverse section 
of Dadi/loptertis at any part of the body shows an almost circular out- 
line. Therefore the swimming-bladder, placed, as it is, right np in the 
back, must be of the greatest service in enabling the fish to maintain a 
proper position when in the air. 

Concluding, I would sum up therefore as follows : that Vadylojiterus, 
although retaining its gurnard shape and habit of life, has, nevertheless, 
taken to the air as a means of escaping from its enemies. To compensate 
for its somewhat clumsy form, the swimming-bladder has been developed 
in an unusually high dorsal position, and, to prevent sufl'ering fi-om a 
sudden alteration of pressure, has been provided with two strong 
muscles. 



IV. Report on the Occupation of the Table. By Mr. Arthur Willet. 

I had been staying at Faro, near Messina, upwards of two months, 
from the beginning of jMay, collecting larvoe of Amphioxus ; and. after 
having preserved a sutficient quantity up to a certain stage in the 
development, I had to wait some weeks for the final larval stages. In 
order to make the best use of my time, I came here on July 15, by the 
kind permission of the British Association Committee, for the purpose of 
examining my material and finding out the best method of conservation. 

I made preparations in tuio, and also cut sevci-al series of sections 
■with a ' Jung ' microtome, and in this way I found that osmic acid was 
the best reagent for killing the larvae as it causes the least amount of 
histological disturbance. This was obviously a most important point to 
decide upon for my future preparations. 

I have also made use of the library for reading up the literature on the 
subject, and have paid some attention to the fauna of the Gulf of Naples. 
I am now returning to Messina. Although I have been at Naples such 
a short time, less than three weeks, I consider that it has been a great 
advantage to me to work here, and I am extremely obliged to the 
Committee of the British Association for permitting me to use their 
table. 



106 



REPORT 1889. 



V. A List of Naturalists who have worhed at the Zoological Station from 
the end of June 1888 to the end of June 1889. 



Num- 




State or University 


Duration of 


Occupancy- 




ber on 
List 


Naturalist's Name 


whose Table 










■was made use of 


Arrival 


Departure 


453 


Dr. S. Pansini . 


Italy 


July 1,1888 


Dec. 31, 1888 


454 


Prof. C. Emery . 


» ... 


,, 18, 


)» 


Sept.28, 




455 


Prof, de Giaxa . 


») . . - 


Aug. 2, 


J) 


Oct. 21, 




456 


Dr. R. Semon . 


Prussia . 


S» ") 


J» 


„ 18, 




457 


Prof. Ussow 


Russia 


,, 14, 


»» 


Sept.lO, 




458 


Stud. Gribowsky 


»i ... 


„ 14, 




„ 10, 




459 


Dr. Jablonowski 


Academy, Berlin 


„ 22, 


)) 


„ 11, 




460 


Dr. Beiida 


Prussia . 


„ 31, 


J> 


Oct. 18, 




461 


Dr. D. Baldi . 


Italy 


Sept. 13, 


)> 


Sept.21, 




462 


Prof. V. Graber . 


Austria . 


„ 15, 


)> 


Oct. 24, 




463 


Dr. F. Schiitt . 


Prussia . 


„ 16, 


)» 


Apr. 24, 1889 i 


464 


Dr. B. Friedliinder . 


). ... 


„ 24, 


it 


— 




465 


Teniente Borja de 
Goyeneche 


Spain 


Oct. 1, 


» 


Apr. 1, 


" 


466 


Teniente Shelly y 
Correa 


)) ... 


„ 1, 


J) 


>, 1, 


,» 


467 


Dr. A. Fritze . 


Baden 


„ 1, 


»j 


Oct. 26, 1888 i 


468 


Dr. M. Bedot . 


Switzerland 


„ 24, 


)j 


Apr. 22, ] 


L889 


469 


Prof. G. Vigliarolo . 


Italy 


Nov. 5, 


)> 


— 




470 


Dr. N. A. Cobb . 


British Association . 


„ 11, 


)) 


Jan. 27, 


»> 


471 


Dr. G. C. J. Vosmaer 


Holland . 


„ 14, 


it 


„ 10, 


>, 


472 


Dr. B. LvofE 


Russia 


„ 19, 


>> 


May 20, 


J> 


473 


Dr. C. Pictet . 


Switzerland 


Dec. 3, 


t) 


Apr. 26, 


)» 


474 


Mr. G. Bidder . 


(/amb. University . 


„ 17, 


i» 


— 




475 


Dr. M. de Davidoff . 


Zoological Station . 


„ 17, 


>» 


June 19, 


>, 


476 


Mr. F. E. Wei.ss 


British Association . 


„ 30, 


)» 


May 2, 


)> 


477 


Dr. G. Jatta 


Italy 


Jan. 1,1889 


— 




478 


Dr. F. Sanfelice 


>i ... 


„ 1. 


J) 


— 




479 


Dr. F. RafEaele . 


)> ... 


„ 1, 


»i 


— 




480 


Dr. P. Mingazzini 


,, ... 


„ 1, 


J» 


— 




481 


Dr. S. Pansini . 


)> • * . 


„ 1, 


»> 


— 




482 


Dr. G. Arnheim 


Prussia . 


„ 2, 


JJ 


Apr. 20, 


'> ! 


483 


Dr. 0. Lubar.sch 


)i ... 


» "» 


t» 


June 1, 


tt 


484 


Dr. A. Bontyrkine 


Russia . 


„ 13, 


)* 


„ 12, 


„ \ 


485 


Prof. L. Savastano 


Italy 


., 14, 


)> 


— 


1 


486 


Mr. W. L. Calderwood 


British Association . 


„ 20, 


>» 


May 27, 


)* 


487 


Dr. C. de Bruyne 


Belgium . 


„ 25, 


5> 


„ 27, 


>, t 


488 


Dr. S. Apathy . 


Hungary . 


„ 30, 


JJ 


— 


1 


489 


Mr. H. Kisshng. 


Wiirtemberg . 


„ 30, 


r» 


„ 10, 


" 


490 


Dr. G. Brandes . 


Saxony . 


Feb. 2, 


}i 


— 


1 


491 


Dr. G. Cano 


Italy 


„ 27, 


»» 


— 




492 


Dr. J. VVortmann 


Strasburg 


Mar. 5, 


>) 


Apr. 21, 


)» 


493 


Dr. H. Ambronn 


Saxony . 


„ 6, 


»> 


„ 19, 


>j 


494 


Dr. A. OstroumofE 


Russia 


„ 8, 


ft 


— 




495 


Dr. H. Virchow 


Prussia . 


>, 8, 


ti 


— 




496 


Dr. T. Boveri . 


Bavaria . 


„ 8, 


ii 


„ 24, 


»» 


497 


Prof. V. Graff . 


Austria . 


„ 19, 


)) 


„ 17, 


,» 


498 


Sr. Rioja y Martin . 


Spain 


Apr. 2, 


)) 


— 




499 


Prof. A. Meyer . 


Prussia . 


„ 4, 


)* 


„ 24. 


>, 


500 


Prof. F. Vejdowsky . 


Austria . 


„ 6, 


»» 


„ 22, 


,t 


501 


Dr. F. Quentell . 


Hesse 


„ 23, 


)> 


June 3, 


)J 


502 


Dr. J. M. Janse . 


Holland . 


„ 26, 


i> 


— 




503 


Dr. H. Griesbach 


Prussia . 


May 5, 


ti 


„ 26, 


j» 


504 


Dr. W. Wagner 


Russia 


June 11, 


»* 






505 


Dr. W. Schimkewitsch 


J) . . . 


„ 11, 


)) 


„ 26, 


J, 



ON TUE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES'. 



107 



VI. A List of Papers ivhich have heen puhUshed in the year 1888 hy 
the Naturalists ivho have occupied Tables at the Zoul(,(jical Station. 



Dr. F. S. Monticell 



Dr. N. Kastscbenko 

Dr. K. Semon 

Dr. A. Fleisclimann 

Dr. F. Sanfelice 

Mr. H. Bury . 

Prof. A. Mosso 

If 
Dr. B. Eawitz 
Dr. M. Joseph 



Dr. P. Pelseneer 



Dr. J. Eiickert 



Dr. S. V. Apathy 



Dr. T. Boveri . 
Prof. A. Delia Valle 



Contribuzioni alio studio dclla fauna elmintologica del 

Golfo di jMapoli. ' Mitth. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. viii. 

1888. 
Intorno alio Scolex polyinorphus, Hud. Nota preliminare. 

' Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli,' vol. ii. 1888. 
Saggio di una Morfologia dei Trematodi. Napoli, 1888. 
Osservazioni sul Bothriocephalus microcephalus. Napoli, 

1888. 
Sulla Cercaria sctifcra, Miill. ' Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli,' 

vol. ii. 1888. 
Zur Frage iiber die Herkunft dcr Dotterkerne im Sela- 

chierei. 'Anat. Anz.' 1888. 
Zur Entwickolungsgeschichte des Selachierembryos. 

'Anat. Anz.' 1888. 
Die Entwickelung der Synapta digitata, etc. 'Jen. 

Zeitscbr. f. Naturw.' Bd. xxii. N. F. 15, 1888. 
Die Entwickelung des Eics von Ecbinocardiiun cordatum. 

' Zeitscbr. wiss. Zoologic,' Bd. xlvi. 2, 1888. 
Spermatogenesi dei Vertebrati. ' Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli,' 

vol. ii. 1888. 
Intorno alia Rigenerazione del Tcsticolo. Ibid. 
The Early Stages in the Development of Antedon rosacea. 

' Proc.Koyal Soc' vol. xliii. 1888 (abstract). 
The Early Stages in the Development of Antedon rosacea. 

' Phil. Trans. Eoyal Soc' London, vol. clxxix. 1888. 
II sangue nello stato cmbrionale e la mancanza di leucociti. 

'Rendiconti R. Accademia dei Lincei, Roma,' vol. iv. 

fasc. 8, 1888. 
II Veleno dei Pesci e deUe Vipere. ' Nuova Antologia,' 

ser. iii. vol. xvi. 1888. 
Der Mantelrand der Acephalen. I. Theil, Ostracea. ' Jen. 

Zeitscbr. f. Naturw.' Bd. xxii. 1888. 
Zur feineren Structur der Nervcnfaser. 'Arch. Anat. 

Physiol.' Phys. Abth. 1888. 
Die vitale Metbylenblau-Nen'enfiirbungs-Methode bei 

Heteropoden. 'Anat. Anz.' Bd. iii. 1888. 
Ueber einige Bestandtheile der peripheren markbaltigen 

Nervcnfaser. ' Sitz.-Ber. Kon. Pr. Akad. der Wiss. 

Berlin,' 1888 
Sur la valeur morphologique des bras ct la composition du 

S3'steme nerveux central des Cephalopodes. 'Arch. 

Biol.' tome viii. 1888. 
Ueber die Entstehung der Escretionsorgane bei Selachiern. 

'Arch. Anat. Physiol.' Anat. Abth. 1888. 
Ueber die Entstehung der endotlielialen Anlagcn des 

Herzens u. der ersten Gefiissstiimme bei Selachier- 

Embryonen. ' Biol. Centralblatt,' 1888. 
Analyse der iiusseren Korperform der Hirudinecn. ' Mitth. 

Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. viii. 1888. 
Siisswasser-Hirudineen. Ein systematischer Essay. ' Zool. 

Jahrbiiclier,' Bd. iii. 1888. 
Systematische Strciflichter. I. Marine Hirudincen. 

' Archiv f. Naturgesch.' 54. Jgg. Bd. i. 1888. 
Ueber partielle Befruchtung. ' Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Morphol. 

Physiol.' Miincben, 1888. 
Sopra le Glandole Glutinifere o sopra gli Occhi degli 

Ampeliscidi del Golfo di Napoli. 'Atti della Soc. dei 

Natural, di Modena,' ser. iii. vol. vii. 1888. 



108 

Dr. P, Mingazzini 

Dr. P. Rafiaele 

» 

Dr. G. Kalide . 
Dr. F. NoU . 



Dr. F. A. F. C. Went 
Dr. J. van Rees 

Dr. E. de Daday . 



RKrORT — 1889. 

Ricerche anatomiche ed istologiche sul tube digerente 

delle larve di alcuni Lamellicorni fitofagi. ' Boll. Soc. 

Nat. Napoli,' vol. ii. 1888. 
Le uova galleggianti e le larve dei Teleostei nel Golfo di 

Napoli. ' Mitth. Zool. Station, Neapel,' Bd. viii. 1888. 
Osservazioni sopra rOrthagoriscus mola. ' Boll. Soc. Nat. 

Napoli,' vol. ii. 1888. 
Vorlaufige Mittheilung iiber Studien am Gastropoden- u. 

am Pectenauge. 'Zool. Anz.' 1888. 
Die Farbstoffe der Chromatophoren von Bangia fusco- 

purpurea.' ' Arbeiten a. d. bot. Institut in Wurzburg,' 

Bd. iii. 1888. 
Ueber die Function der Zellstofffasern der Caulerpa pro- 

lifera. IMd. 
Ueber den Einfluss der Lage auf die morphologische Aus- 

bildung einiger Siphoneen. Ibid. 
Verslag omtrent de onderzoekingen verricht aan de Neder- 

landsclie Tafel in bet Zool. Station te Napels. 1888. 
De beteekenis der Chorocyten.voor den graad der voeding 

van snel groeiende weefsels. Nederland. Tydschrift 

voor Geneeskunde. 'Feestbundel Donders-Jubil^um,' 

1888. 
System. Uebersicht der Dinoflagellaten des Golfs von 

Neapel. ' Termeszetrajzi Fiizetek,' vol. xi. 1888. 
Eine f reischwimmende Acinete aus dem Golf e von Neapel. 

Ibid. 



YII. A List of Naturalists, Sfc, to ivliom Specimens have been 



1888. July 



Aug. 



11 
12 
13 



15 
16 



20 
18 
19 
24 
25 
26 

27 

28 

2 

27 



28 
31 



Laboratoire d'Anatomie Comp., 
Geneva 

Liceo Virgilio, Maniua 

Mr. G. Brook, Edinburgh . 

Bing fils et Gans, Paris 

Dr. Stachow, Bremen 

University of Wisconsin, Madi- 
son 

Faculte des Sciences, Nancy 

School of Physic, Dublin . 

I-aboratoire d'Anatomie Comp., 
Geneva 

Bryn Mawr College . 

Cab. d'Anat. Comp., Moscow 

Zool. Museum, Copenhagen 

' Linnsea,' Berlin 

Zool. Institut, Marburg 

Zool. Institut, Gottingen . 

Prof. Klug, Klausenbnrg . 

University College, London 

Prof. Weismann, Freiburg 

Mme. Vimont, Pavis . 

Mr. K. Burdet, Merges 

University College, London 

Gal Freres, Nice 

Mr. Gardeau de Kerville, Rouen 

Dr. G. Kohl, IMarburg 

Mr. Stroell, Amberg . 

Haverford College, Pa. 

University College, London 

Williams College, Williamstown 



mens have been sent from the 


June 1889. 






Lire c. 


Ascidia 


13-70 


Collection . 


92-65 


Antipathes . 
Various 


26-40 
98-20 


Various 


34-25 


Collection . 


1439-50 


Collection 


395-40 


Various 


36-75 


Salpa . 


13-80 


Various 


153-75 


Collection . 


. 277-65 


Various 


54-50 


Collection . 


337-60 


Various 


71-50 


Natica . 


335 


Mollusca 


10- 


Amphioxus . 
Pedicellina . 


7-10 
2-05 


Torpedo 
Various 


10-50 
35-65 


Scorpions 
Various 


107-40 
. 19-75 


ChiBtopterus 
Lithothamnion . 


8-70 
13-25 


Corallium . 


12-35 


Various 


96-65 


Aplysia 
Arthropods . 


144-10 
. 163-50 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



109 



1888. 



Sept. 



8 
8 

10 
12 
17 

20 
28 



Oct. 10 



19 
20 
22 
27 
24 
20 
25 



Nov. 



31 



» 
5 



7 
9 
13 
16 
15 
14 
16 
20 

23 
24 

27 



Dec. 



» 


» 


»» 


>» 


»> 


7 


J> 


10 


» 


1» 


3J 


15 


• > 


14 


>I 


15 


» 


12 


» 


20 


1> 


21 


5» 


28 


1) 


20 



19 

1889. Jan. 3 
7 
5 



Prof. Vitzou, Univ. Bucarest 
Prof. Ussow, Zool. Inst.. Kasan 
Anatom. Institute, Leipzig 
'Linnaea,' Berlin 
Zoolog. Genotschap, Amsterdam 
Municipality, Berlin . 
Mr. Gadeau do Kerville, Kouen 
Prof. Hatpchck, Prague 
Zootom. Institute, Dublany 
Ateneo Galileo Galilei, Naples . 
l)r. F. Keibel, Strasburg . 
Dr. J. Beard, Freiburg 
Zootom. Museum, Christiania . 
JIme. Vimont, Paris . 
Dr. Edinger, Frankfurt a/M. 
Instit. d'Anat. Comp., Naples . 
Musee Royal, Brussels 
Rijks Museum, Ley^den 
Dr. Detlefsen, Wismar 
Mr. H. C. Chadwick, Manchester 
Prof, de Famintzin, St. Peters- 
burg 
Prof. Arndt, Greifswald . 
Zool. Inst., Munich . 
Mme. Vimont, Paris . 
Prof. Reinke, Kiel 
Prof. Hansen, Copenhagen 
Dr. B. Rawitz, Berlin 
Dr. C. Hartlaub, Bremen . 
Prof. G. Vimercati, Florence 
Zool. Inst., Czernowitz 
Queen's College, Galway . 
Mr. B. M. Gunn, London . 
Dr. Peracea, Turin . 
Museo Zoologico, Naples . 
Veterinar-Institut, Dorpat 
Zoolog. Museum, Upsala . 
Dr. Kiikenthal, Jena. 
Museo Zoologico, Modena 
Prof. Pantanelli, Modena . 
Prof. A. Mosso, Turin 
Mr. Doebeli, Aarau . 
Mr. G. Krause, Glogau 
Mr. E. Schulz, Glogau 
Mr. Dair Eco, Florence . 
Labor, de Zoologie, Nancy 
Mme. Vimont, Paris . 
Zool. Museum, CharkofE . 
Miss Schaepman, Leyden . 
Istituto Zoologico, Perugia 
Museo Zoologico, Pisa 
Dr. E. Pergens, Maeseyck 
Rev. Dr. Norman, Burnmoor 

Rectory 
AccademiadeiFisiocritici, Siena 
Presidency College, Madras 
Morphological Laboratory, Cam- 
bridge 
Zoolog. Institute (Prof. Chun), 

Konigsberg 
Anatom. Inst , Bonn . 
Scuola di Agricoltura, Milan 
Dr. L. Eger, Vienna . 





Lire c. 


Collection . 


828-25 


Collection . 


322-90 


Embryos of Selachians 


5105 


Corallium . 


20-25 


Collection . 


300- 


Collection . 


482-50 


Pelagia 


1015 


Collection . 


1094-35 


Various 


110- 


Collection . 


100- 


Embryos of Selachians 


20-90 


Embryos of Selachians 


47-55 


Amphioxus . 


2-20 


Eggs of Octopus, &c. . 


37-45 


Brains of Selachians . 


25-50 


Collection . 


431-94 


Fish . . . . 


446-35 


Arenicola . 


5-85 


Caulerpa 


5-70 


Agalma 


24-75 


Algre . . . . 


46-30 


Amphioxus . 


11-15 


Various 


27-05 


Various 


184-80 


Algas . . . . 


3-10 


Larvae of Squilla . 


— 


Mollusca 


10-55 


Various 


9-10 


Various 


44-65 


Collection . 


253-70 


Collection . 


402-25 


Charybdaea . 


8-75 


Lacerta 


12-50 


Collection . 


227-45 


Collection . 


145-80 


Collection . 


202-70 


Vermes 


12-35 


Mollusca 


121-25 


Various 


7-90 


Scyllium (blood) . 


4-15 


Living specimens 


6-60 


Various 


27-20 


Various 


14-50 


Various 


8-50 


Various 


11-70 


Collection . 


. 112-70 


Siphonophora 


. 100- 


Collection . 


. 161-15 


Various 


23-55 


Spatangus . 


11-25 


Bryozoa 


5-40 


Collection . 


. 355-90 


Collection . 


. 11810 


Collection . 


. 279-90 


Ciirmarina, Amphioxi 


IS 74-90 


Siphonophora 


— 


Loligo . 


2-80 


Various 


73-35 


Various 


50-20 



110 



REPORT — 1889. 



1889. Jan. 6 Trof. A. Mosso, Turin 

8 University, Jlelbounie 

7 Prof. Hubrecht, Utrecht . 

- 12 Zool. Inst., Munich . 

„ Inst, of Teohnolo.o-j'', Boston 

1(5 Mr. G. Krause, Glogau 

19 Zool. fjammlung, Berlin . 

21 Dr. B. Strubell, Frankfurt a/M . 

19 Mr. Alfred Heath, London 

20 Dr. F. Keibel, Strasburg . 
24 Mr. A. Kreidl, Prague 

„ Mr. F. Bernard, Paris 

26 Dr. Peracca, Turin 
„ Thomas-Gymnasium, Leipzig . 

27 Gabin. d'Anatom.Compar., Rome 

28 Morphological Laboratory, Cam- 
bridge 

,, Mr. W. Garstang, Plymouth 

31 Istituto Zoologico, Genoa . 

„ Academie, Lausanne . 

„ Prof. D. Carazzi, Spezia . 

,, Anatom. Inst., Wiirzburg . 

„ Dr. Verworn, Jena . 

Feb. i Dr. B. Kawitz, Berlin 



») 


7 


Prof. Claus, Zool. In.st., Vienna. 


J> 


9 


Geol. Inst., Freiburg . 


)» 


7 


Prof. Mosso, Turin . 


)» 


8 


Dr. W. Miiller, Greifswald 


»> 


It 


Andre et Lieutier, Marseilles . 


»> 


19 


Comp. Anatomy Museum, La- 
hore 


)» 


»» 


Zool. Inst., Vienna . 


5» 


20 


Zool. Inst., Gottingen 


J> 


21 


Baron de S. Joseph, Paris . 


>» 


22 


Prof. Joyeux-LafEuie, Luc-sur- 
Mer 


»» 


27 


Zool. Instit., Berlin . 


March 


2 


Zool. Instit., Leipzig 


)9 


i> 


University, Edinburgh 


»» 


)j 


Municipality, Berlin . 


St 


,. 


Zool. Instit., Leyden . 


?» 


3 


Dr. Jickeli, Hermannstadt 


)J 


»* 


Anatom. Instit., Munich . 


99 


5 


Museo Zoologico, Perugia . 


>> 


6 


Gal Freres, Nice 


»> 


»t 


Museo Zoologico, Naples . 


J» 


9 


Mr. J. Tait, Leith . 


39 


)» 


Dr. P. Pelseneer, Ghent . 


J» 


11 


Kathedralskole, Aalborg . 


JJ 


>» 


Dr. Hagen. Niirnberg 


99 


15 


Dr. A. Appellof, Upsala . 


»> 


16 


Musee d'Hist. Nat., Douai 


9> 


19 


Andree et Lieutieur, Marseilles 


)> 


23 


Dr. Bousfield, London 


99 


30 


Ministerio de Marina, Madrid . 


April 


10 


Mme. Vimont, Paris . 


») 


»» 


Anatom. Inst., Bonn . 


j» 


12 


'Linnffia.' Berlin 


5» 


1» 


Calderoni k Co., Budapest 


»» 


15 


Museo Zoologico, Siena 


»> 


17 


Gymnasium, Constanz 



Lire c. 

Pristiurus (blood) . 5-20 

Collection . . . 90875 

Amphioxus . . . 10-65 

Amphiosus . . . 5-10 

Collection . . . 48055 

Various . . . 30- 

Collection . . . 1357-45 

Mollusca . . . 21-90 

Murex, Pagellus . . 9-55 

Embr5'os of Pristiurus . 17-90 

Collection . . . 286-10 

Mollusca . . . 17-95 

Lacerta . . . 12-50 

Collection . . . 80-60 

Various . . . 4225 

Dromia, Callianassa . 23-65 

Perophora Listeri . 3- 

Collection . . . 322-60 

Echinodermata . . 37-50 

Various . . . 12-90 

Electric organs of 2-90 

Torpedo 

Algre .... 5-95 

Mollusca, Embryos of 42-65 

dogfish 

Collection . . . 168-60 

Cephalopoda . . 70-75 

Scyllium (blood) . . 8-05 

Ostracoda . . . 6- 

Various . . . 21-20 

Collection . . . 608-80 

Various . . . 8-30 

Various . . . 13-45 

Annelida . . . 15-90 

Chsetopterus . . 11-15 

Collection . . . 1089- 

Embryos of Torpedo . 22-20 

Embryos of Torpedo . 16-15 

Collections . . . 401" 

Collections , . . 220-85 

Echinodermata . . 15-15 

Embryos of Pristiurus 26-40 

Phoronis . . . 3-60 

Various . . . 40-85 

Cephalopoda . . 15-55 

Amphioxus . . . 4-60 

Solenomya . . . 2-80 

Various . . . 34-20 

Various . . . 24-75 

Sepia .... 17-05 

Collection . . . 603-70 

Tunicata . . . 11-25 

Chiton . . . 6-30 

Collection . . . 500- 

Torpedo, Petromyzon . 18-35 

Scyllium, Kaja . . 10" 

Collection . . . 270- 

Collection . . . 996-30 

Collection . . . 246-70 

Pennatula ... 8- 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



Ill 



188J>. April 17 Prof. Whitman, ]\Iilwaukee 

,, 27 Bruiuiscliweiler & Solin, S. Gall 

„ „ Mr. G. Schneider, Basel 

May 4 University, Warsaw . 

,, „ Zool. Inst., Giessen . 

„ 5 Anatom. In.stit., Munich 

„ ,, Dr. B. Rawitz, Berlin 

„ 8 Mr. I. Tempore, Paris 

,, 10 Zr.olog. Instit., Leyden 

,, ,, Gymnasium, Miilheim a/R 

„ 8 Mme. Vimont, Paris . 

„ 12 Zoolog. Inst., Tiibingcn 

„ „ Prof. d'Olivcira, Coimbra 

23 Dr. P. Canusi, Naples 
„ „ Zoolog Inst., Jena . 
,, „ Zoolog. Inst., Odess.T, 
,, „ Prof. U. Grobben, Vienna 
„ 25 Mr. W. Karavaicff, Kiew 
,, 26 University, Edinburgh 
,, 28 Zoolog. Instit., Bonn 

June 1 Pathol. Instit., Zurich 

,, „ Zoolog. Instit., Munich 

„ 7 Realschule, Eisenach 

„ 8 Mr. H. Sontag, Wolgast 

„ 12 Zoolog. Inst., Munich 

„ „ Zoolog. Inst., Leyden 

,, „ Realschule, Gr. Umstadt 

„ ,, Miidchenschule, Worms 

„ „ Volksschule, Worms . 

„ 17 Scuola Superiore Femminile, 
Florence 

24 Mr. E. W. Serpell, Plymouth 
,, ,, Dr. R. Schneider, Berlin . 
„ „ School of Physic, Dublin . 
„ „ Sig. G. Schlatter, Catania . 
„ „ Mr. A. de Firsoff, Karlsruhe 
„ 25 Faculte des Sciences, Mont- 

pellier 

„ 30 Zoolog. Museum, University, 
Tomsk (Siberia) 



Various 

Sepia (colouring mat 

ter) 
Siphonophora 
Various 
Various 

Embryo.s, Pristiurus 
Embryos, Pristiurus 
Various 
Various 
Collection . 
Various 
Siphonophora 
Crustacea . 
Various 
Various 
Distaplia 
Astarte 
Siphonophora 
Amphioxus . 
Collection . 
Various 
Oceania, Sphajrozonm 
Collection . 
Collection . 
Dogfish 
Moilusca 
Collection , 
Collection . 
Collection . 
Collection . 

Collection . 

Moilusca 

Amphioxus . 

Various 

Various 

Various 



Collection 



Lire c. 

40-45 

51-30 

18t)-(;5 

136-25 
24-!t5 
22-30 

137-65 

100- 
64-85 
61 05 

175-75 

10-05 

16-45 

14-45 

5-85 

1-80 

20- 

;)-9.". 

232-25 
31-35 
14-75 

125- 
75- 
4440 
13-05 

12.'r 

125- 

110-25 

164-55 

395-70 
28-65 
10-90 
10-75 
21-50 
49-50 

1000- 



24151-74 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors E. A. Schafeu 
and W. A. Herdman and Mr. W. E. Hoyle (Secretary), ap- 
pointed to improve and experiment with a Deep-sea Toiv-net, 
for opening and closing under xuater. 

The following report has been drawn up by Mr. Hoyle and Profcs.'^or 
Herdman, by whom the work of the Committee has been jointly carried 
out: 

Since the last meeting of the Association we have modified and im- 
proved the piece of apparatus (known as the ' lock ') by which the two 
rods attached to the net are successively let go. The new lock avoids 
certain possibilities of failure, which were present in the provisional one 
first constructed. 

A full description of it, with figures, has been drawn np and published 
in the ' Proceedings of the Liverpool Biological Society,' vol. iii. 



l]2 HEPORT — 1889. 

On April 18 the apparatus was taken on board the salvage steamer 
' Hyaena,' on one of the expeditions of the Liverpool Marine Biolog^y 
Committee, but the weather was so unfavourable that no experiments 
could be attempted. 

After several unsuccessful attempts to arrange another cruise, the use of 
the steam tug ' Spindrift ' was procured from the Liverpool Steam Tug 
Co., and on July 20 an expedition set out from Holyhead for the purpose of 
conducting the experiments. Several hauls were taken with the net, and 
the materials obtained were placed in the hands of Mr. I. C. Thompson, 
F.L.S.,tbe results of whose investigation will appear in the ' Proceedings 
of the Liverpool Biological Society.' The apparatus worked without a 
hitch, save once, when a small piece of rope which was floating in the 
water became twisted round the line and thus prevented the descent of 
the messengers. 

The possibility of such an occurrence had always been foreseen, but, 
in our opinion, it is not sufficiently serious to militate against the use of 
the apparatus in shallow water. The operation does not take long, and if 
one haul should fail it is easy to make another. 

In the exploration of great depths, to which it is hoped this tow-net 
may shortly be applied, the case is different. The period occupied in let- 
ting out and hauling in the line, taken in conjunction with the time required 
for dragging the net, is so great that it becomes imperative to remove 
every possible risk of losing an observation. Furthermore, the time occu- 
pied by the messengers themselves in descending the line is a not unim- 
portant factor in the case. 

We were so much impressed by these considerations, that it was 
resolved to attempt the construction of a lock which should bring 
about the opening and closing of the net by naeans of an electric current, 
transmitted along wires passing down the interior of the line by which 
the net is drawn. This plan has so far succeeded that a provisional model 
has been constructed, which will be exhibited to the present meeting of 
the Association. The lock contains an electro-magnet, the armature of 
which actuates an escapement which, the first time contact is made, liber- 
ates the opening rod, and the second time the closing rod of the net. 
Such an arrangement is obviously instantaneous in its action, and not 
liable to interference from external causes. 

In conclusion, we desire to express our indebtedness to Messrs. B. & 
S. Massey, who have constructed the apparatus for us. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thiselton-Dyer 
(Secretary), Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Ball, Professor Oliver, and 
Mr. Forbes, appointed for the purpose of continuing the pre- 
paration of a Report on our present knowledge of the Flora of 
China. 

SixcE the last meeting of the British Association two additional parts of 
the Index Florce Sinensis have been published, bringing the enumeration 
of known and the description of new species as far as the Loganiacece. The 
Committee now, therefore, look forward with some confidence to the 
completion of their labours at no distant date. 

i^'urther extensive and valuable collections have been received from 



r 



ON TUE FLORA OF CHINA. 113 



Cliina in aid of the work, more especially from Dr. Augustine Henry, late 
of Ichang. The novelty and richness of the material obtained by this inde- 
fatigable botanist far exceeds any expectations the Committee could have 
formed. It is to be regretted that his duties as an ofhccr of the Chinese 
Imperial Maritime Customs have necessitated his removal to Hainan. 
It is probable, however, that he had practically exhausted the immediate 
neighbourhood of Ichang, and that without opportunities of travelling 
over a wider radius, which the Committee regret tliey were unable to 
])rocure for him, he would not have been able to add much of material 
novelty to the large collections already transmitted by him to Kew. 

The Committee have met with the kindest sympathy and assistance 
In their labours from Dr. C. J. de Maxiinowicz of the Academic Imperials 
of St. Petersburg, who has long been engaged on the elaboration of the 
collections made by Russian travellers in China, and from M. Franchet 
uf the Museum d'Histoire Naturello .at Paris, who is describing and 
publishing the extremely rich collections made by the French missionaries 
in Yunnan. 

The Committee have received striking proofs of the appreciation of 
their labours by botanists of all countries. They permit themselves to 
quote the following passage from a letter received early in the present 
year from Baron Riehthofen, than whom no one is more competent to esti- 
mate the value of work connected with the scientific exploration of China: — 

' It 13 of great value to have, now, a Flora of China, embodying all 
the species known from that country. You have evidently succeeded at 
Kew in' getting a very complete collection. At the same time, in looking 
over the localities mentioned in the book, it strikes me that large portions 
of China are still unexplored botanically. There remains a splendid 
field for a good collector in the Tsingling Mountains, the province of 
Sz'chuen, and chiefly its elevated regions west of Ching-tu-fu. Work 
in those parts will be greatly facilitated by the solid foundation laid 
through the work of Forbes and Hemsley.' 

The Committee derive an independent existence as a Sub-Committee 
of the Government Orant Committee of the Royal Society. They are at 
present in possession of sufficient funds to enable them to carry on the 
work. They do not therefore ask for their reappointment at the hands 
of the British Association. 



Report of the Committee, consistincf of Professor A. Xewton (Chair- 
man), Mr. W. T. Tiiiselton-Dyer, Professor iNI. Foster, and 
Mr. S. F. Harmeu (Secretary), appointed for the piayose of 
talcing steps for the investigation of the Natural History of the 
Fnendly Islands, or other Groups in the Pacific, visited by 
H.M.S. 'Egeria: 

The Committee have not yet received information which puts them in a 
position to give any detailed report of the work which is being done in 
connection with the above subject. The grant has been paid to Mr. J. J. 
Lister, who reached Tonga on March 19. After devoting two mouths to 
the investigation of the natural history of that group, Mr. Lister joined 
H.M.S. Eijeria, on her arrival at Tonga, with the intention of visiting 
Samoa, where, by the latest accounts, he was carrying ou his researches. 
1889. I 



114 EEPORT— 1889. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton, Mr. John 
CoEDEAUX {Secretary), Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. 
Barrington, Mr. W. E. Clarke, and the Eev. E. P. Knubley, 
appointed to make a digest of the observations on Migration of 
Birds at Lighthouses and Lightvessels tvhich have been carried 
on during the past nine years by the Migrations Committee of 
the British Association {with the consent of the Master and 
Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and the Commissioners of 
Northern and Irish Lights), and to report upon the same. 

Tour Committee have to report that one of their number, Mr. W. Eagle 
Clarke, of the Museum of Science and Art at Edinburgh, has, with the 
approbation of your Committee, undertaken to prepare the digest of the 
observations ; and all the materials for making the same, including 1,500 
skeleton maps of the British Islands, provided for the purpose, have 
accordingly been placed in his hands. The labour of reducing the obser- 
vations, to show in a concise form and on strictly scientific lines the results 
of the investigation which was carried on from 1879 to 1887 inclusive, 
will be easily understood to be enormous ; and when it is borne in mind 
that this heavy work can only be carried on after official hours, your Com- 
mittee feel that no apology is necessary for the non-completion of the 
digest this year. They would respectfully solicit their reappointment 
•with the same object as before. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Foster, 
Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, Dr. Trimen, 
Professor Marshall Ward, Mr. Carruthers, Professor Hartog, 
and Professor Bower {Secretary), apjjointed for the jpurpose of 
taking steps for the establishment of a Botanical Station at 
Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

The Secretary of the above Committee reports that Mr. Potter, of St. 
Peter's College, Cambridge, has, during the past year, spent about four 
months at Peradeniya, for purposes of collection and research, and that 
he has brought back with him a large number of specimens, together 
with materials for researches on abnormal stems, and other subjects, the 
results of which will be published as soon as time permits. Before he 
started, steps were taken to provide him from the grant of 501. (which was 
drawn in 1888) with such apparatus as would be useful to him, and at 
the same time would remain permanently in the laboratory for the use of 
those who may follow him. This apparatus, which covers the ordinary 
requirements of a working botanist, has been left by him in good order. 
A suitable room having been set apart by Dr. Trimen in the Botanic 
Garden, part of the grant was expended in furnishing it, and the 
furniture remains in the laboratory. Thus the Committee has been able, 
by an expenditure which is within the limits of the grant, to equip a 
small room in such a way as to meet the first needs of botanical students. 
There is much, however, that should be added, both in reagents and 
apparatus ; while a proper water supply and sink are also urgently re- 
quired. Therefore the Committee, while requesting that they may be 
reapcoiuted for the ensuing year, ask also for a further grant of 601. 



\ 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, TVALES, AND IRELAND. 115 

Seventeenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors J. 
Prestwicii, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, and T. Gr. 
BoNNEY, Dr. H. W. Crosskey, and Messrs. C. E. De Range, 
W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and R. H. Tiddeman, appointp.d for 
the purpose of recording the Position, Height above the Sea, 
Lithologlcal Characters, Size, and Origin of the Erratic Blocks 
of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of in- 
terest connected with the same, and taking measures for their 
preservation. {Draiun up by Dr. Crosskey, Secretary.) 

It is still too soon to summarise the reports which this Committee has 
presented, since new facta are constantly being brought to light. It 
would be of great service if a committee like the ' Yorkshire Boulder 
Committee ' were formed in every county ; were that done, the record 
of English erratics could soon be made complete, to the great advantage 
of the students of glacial geology. 

The Yorkshire Committee carefully examines the reports presented 
to it by individual observers, and collects typical rocks to aid them in 
the determination of the specimens sent. 

The valuable map of the distribution of erratics in the Midlands, 
by Mr. Fred. W. Martin, F.G.S., which was exhibited in an unfinished 
state at the Birmingham meeting of the Association, is approaching com- 
pletion. It is strongly recommended that similar maps should be pre- 
pared in other districts, erratics of different types being recorded in 
various colours. Only by mapping will the remarkable facts connected 
with their distribution be brought clearly out. 

The investigations of each year give fresh emphasis to the important 
points which were noted in last year's report as being gradually brought 
to light, viz. : 

(1) The grouping of erratics from distinct regions in distinct localities, 
erratics from a special district being often found without the intermixture 
of others. 

(2) The occasional intermixture of groups of erratics from different 
localities, this intermixture being connected with the physical features of 
the district, i.e., with the paths open for the ice to take, whether it de- 
scended as a glacier from the higher hills, or floated in the shape of ice- 
bergs over the submerged land. 

(3) The occurrence of erratics at such different levels as to necessitate 
different explanations of the method by which they were distributed, the 
high-level erratics demanding special consideration. 

(4) The distribution of trails and groups of low-level erratics in 
accordance with the present arrangements of mountains, valleys, and 
plains, so that their ' flow ' may be traced from their distant sources along 
natural passages. 

It is not the duty of the Committee to submit any theories, but simply 
to record the facts which have to be explained. What these facts are, 
however, will become more apparent when a summary of these reports is 
prepai-ed. 

TOKKSIIIRE. 

From the Yorkshire Boulder Committee the subjoined series of valuable 
reports has been received ; Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., having acted as its 
chairman, and Mr. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S., as its secrotaxy. Mr. Samuel 

I 2 



116 EEPOUT— 1889. 

Chadwick, F.G.S. (Hon. Curator of the Malton Museum), reports the 
following erratics : — 

Strensall, near Yorlc. — (1) lu the village of Strensall, on the east side 
of the main road, and forming the corner-stone of a road leading into the 
farm of Mr. Hodgson, is a boulder. It is 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 8 in., 
rounded and oblong ; has been moved ; no striae or groovings ; coarse 
gritty, Carboniferous sandstone; about 100 ft. above sea-level; rests upon 
sand and clay. 

(2) In the village of Strensall are about twenty scattered boulders, 
varying from 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. X 11 in. to 1 ft. X 9 in. x 8 in. ; subangular to 
rounded ; they are generally isolated ; they are chiefly sandstones and 
whinstones, and upon some of the latter are distinct grooves, 5 in. to 6 in. 
long, in the direction of their longest axes ; about 100 ft. above sea-level. 

Note. — Below the surface soil in this district there is a great depth 
of boulder clay, which for the last 100 years or more has been worked 
for the purpose of marling the land, and during the excavation the 
boulders met with were carefully preserved, some for road metal, the 
larger and harder ones for corner-stones, mounting-blocks, cheese-presses, 
&c. The clay deposit varies considerably ; although that of a dark-blue 
nature predominates, yet there are beds of sand and light red clay in other 
places. 

Flaxton. — (3) Near the signpost in the centre of the village of 
Flaxton is a boulder. It is 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 9 in.; subangular; 
has been moved ; no strice or groovings ; mountain limestone ; about 
120 ft. above sea-level. 

Note. — This stone formerly marked the boundary between the parishes 
of Foston and Bossall, and was called the ' Rambleations Stone,' this being 
a local word signifying an assemblage of people. A dole of bread was 
at stated periods distributed, but, it is said, to avoid jealousy or favouritism, 
it was thrown from this stone amongst the crowd, leading often to free 
fights. This custom is discontinued, money being now distributed, and 
the stone removed. 

(4) In the village of Flaxton, about a mile S.E. of the railway- 
station, on Mr. G. Lobley's estate, is a boulder 4 ft. 8 in. x2 ft. 4 in. x 
1 ft. 6 in.; subangular; no strife or groovings ; mountain limestone ; has 
been moved from adjoining land ; about 120 ft. above sea-level ; rests on 
sand and clay. 

Note. — This stone has also been used as a boundary-stone between the 
parishes of Foston and Bossall. 

(5) At the noi-th end of the village of Flaxton, in a small grass-field, 
and not far from a pond, also about half a mile S.E. of the railway- station, 
is a boulder. It is 4 f t. x 3 ft., but is being covered up, as it hinders vege- 
tation ; subangular; has not been moved; longest axis E. and W., but 
could not discern any stri« ; about 150 ft. above sea-level ; rests on sand 
and clay ; mountain limestone. 

Note. — There are several smaller boulders about the village, but they 
are being broken up for road metal. 

Burniston, near Scarhro\ — (6) In the parish of Burniston, near Scar- 
borough, on the estate of Lord Londesborough, and on the N.E. side of 
the Burniston and Scalby road, about half-way betwixt the two villages, 
is a Shap Fell boulder ; 3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 10 in. X 2 ft. above ground ; 
rounded ; was brought from the field adjoining (tenant, Mr. D. Cockerill) 
to its present position ; no groovings or strife ; rests upon boulder clay. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 117 

JJOTE. — The district of Barniston and Scalby is undulating in cha- 
racter, and is overlaid by boulder clay and gravel. 

Seamer, vear Scarbro". — (7) On East Field Farm, occupied by Mr. 
Taylor (parish of Seamer, estate of Lord Londesborough), a little east of 
Seamer station, there are six boulders in a field close to the house. 

They vary in size from 2 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. to 1 ft. 6 in. 
X 10 in. X 8 in. ; three of them are hard blue whinstone, one a fine hard 
sandstone, and the two remaining ones a rough-grained soft sandstone ; 
are about 120 ft. above sea-level; they have recently been brought from 
adjoining fields, and show no striaa or groovings. 

Mitston, near Filey. — (8) On Mount Pleasant Farm (estate of Barley's 
trustees), in the parish of Muston, and about H milesW. of Filey, are twelve 
boulders, varying in diameter from 2 ft. to 9 in. ; rounded to subangular ; 
they have been collected from the adjacent land, and brought as founda- 
tions for buildings &c. ; three of these are hard sandstone, the remainder 
granite and whinstone. 

(9) In Mr. Atkinson's garden, at the north end of the village of Muston, 
is a boulder 1 ft. 5 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. out of ground ; sub- 
angular ; no strisB or groovings ; whinstone ; 150 ft. above sea-level ; 
rests on gravel. 

(10) At the north end of the village of Muston, upon an open space of 
grass at the junction of the roads leading to Malton, Filey, and Bridlington, 
are about 20 boulders, varying in size from 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. to 1 ft. x 1 ft. ; 
generally subangular ; whinstone and sandstones ; no strias or groovings 
observed ; have been collected from adjacent land. 

(11) At the south end of the village of Muston, at the corner of tbe 
house occupied by Mr. Nellist, is a boulder 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. 
X 1 ft. 5 in.; subangular; whinstone; about 150 ft. above sea-level ; no 

striae or groovings observed. 

(12) Near the cross-roads in Muston village is a footpath the 
boundai-y stones of which are boulders, varying from 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. 
to 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. ; rounded and subangular ; whinstone, granite and 
sandstone ; no striae or groovings exposed ; they have been thus placed 
beyond the memory of the ' oldest inhabitant,' but have been brought, 
without doubt, like the others, from the adjacent land. 

(13) On Mr. ISTellist's farm, at the south end of Muston village, is a 
boulder 4 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. out of ground ; subangular ; 
is long-shaped, and the direction of its longest axis was (until recently 
moved) N. and S. ; striae can be seen; about 150 ft. above sea-level; 
whinstone. 

(14) At the north end of Muston village, at the corner of Mr. Chap- 
man's house, is a boulder 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. above 
ground ; rounded ; has been moved ; no strios ; granite. 

(15) In the centre of Muston village is a plot of ground which has 
been levelled and planted with trees, and upon it are from 20 to 30 
boulders, varying from 4 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. to 2 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; no striae or 
groovings observed ; sandstone, whinstone, limestone, and granite. 

Note. — The district around Muston is composed of long ridges of 
gravel, sand, and clay running noi'th and south. 

York. — (16) la making a siding for the York Gas Company, Foss 
Islands, York (parish of St. Cuthbert), a boulder was taken out at a 
depth of 15 ft. below the surface; 2 ft. 5 in. X 2 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 11 in. ; 
subangular ; no striae can be seen ; mountain limestone with product! ; 



118 REroKT— 1889. 

the excavation would be about the level of the river. It is now at the 
east end of the Malton goods-station. 

Whitby.— (17) On the shore in front of the West Cliff Saloon, Whitby, 
is a boulder 4 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. ; subangular ; no striae 
or groovings ; mountain limestone with fine sections of coral. This boulder 
has doubtless fallen from the adjacent boulder clay which overlies the 
estuarine deposits, the latter forming here the base of the cliff. It is 
covered over at high water. 

Foston-le-Olmj. — (18) On the roadside, at the east end of Foston 
churchyard (estate of Sir E. Lechmere), is a boulder. It is 3 ft. 9 in, 
X 3 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. out of the ground ; angular, and almost square 
at its longest axis ; no stri;e or groovings, the block having been partially 
destroyed ; limestone ; about 200 ft. above sea-level ; is nearly at the top 
of a long ridge of boulder clay running nearly N. and S. 

(19) At the east end of a house occupied by Mrs. Ettie, in the village 
of Foston, is a boulder. It is 2 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. out of the 
ground ; angular ; has been moved ; no strife or groovings ; grey granite ; 
about 150 ft. above sea-level ; on the same ridge as No. 18. 

(20) On Mr. Barker's farm in the village of Foston is a boulder. It 
is 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. out of ground ; rounded ; no strias or 
groovings ; Shap Fell granite ; about 150 ft. above sea-level ; on the same 
ridge as No. 18. 

(21) On the same farm has been constructed a raised footpath round 
the fold yard, and entirely composed of boulders. Probably 100 of these 
(flanking the path) are 1 ft. x 8 in., and 1,000 from 6 in. to 8 in. in dia- 
meter. They are rounded to subangular, and a few show strise in the 
direction of their longest axis. They are sandstones, limestones, granites 
and whinstones. This farm is on the boulder-clay ridge of Foston. 

(22) A footpath runs through the village of Foston, constructed 
also of boulders collected from the adjacent lands. There are at least 
3,000 ranging from 1 ft. G in. to 6 in. in diameter. They are principally 
rounded, although a few are angular and subangular. Three-fourths of 
them are various kinds of sandstone, the remainder being mountain and 
liassic limestones, a few whinstones, and red, grey, and Shap Fell granites. 

Note. — An aged woman, some 80 years old, remembers in her girlhood 
this footpath being constructed by the Rev. Sydney Smith, who induced 
the farmers to gather them from the laud for this purpose for 5s. or 6s. 
per load. She assisted personally to gather them, and states that at that 
time (some 70 years ago) the land was thickly strewed with them. She 
also stated that at the commencement of the Rev. Sydney Smith's charge 
the cottage houses in Foston were mainly built of boulders and clay ; 
many of these hovels were pulled down by his orders, and replaced by 
superior dwellings. 

(23) On the same farm, and placed in various positions about the 
farm buildings, are 20 boulders, varying from 1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 5 in. X 

1 ft. 4 in. to 1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft. ; they are rounded and subangular, 
and show little traces of any striae ; they are chiefly sandstone and lime- 
stone, and have all been collected from adjacent land. 

Note. — Foston is situated about half-way betwixt York and Malton, and 
is about a mile W. of the Barton Hill station of the North Eastern Railway. 

Thornton-le-Clay .—{2^) Near a house occupied by Mr. Spaven (estate 
of Mr. Weatherell), in the village of Thornton-le-Clay, is a boulder; it is 

2 ft. 10 in. X 2 ft. X 10 in. out of the ground ; appears to have been 



ON THE EBU.VTIC BLOCKS OF EXGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 119 

originally rounded, but has weathered away; no striro or groovings ; 
mountain limestone, with casts of producti and encrinites ; it rests on 
boulder clay, about 150 ft. above sea-level. 

Note.— This stone was used for mounting purposes in the days of the 
grandparents of the present occupants. 

(25) In front of this house, forming a broad footpath, are about 200 
boulders, averaging 8 in. in diameter ; they are composed of limestone, 
whinstone, and sandstone, the latter predominating; they are rounded 
to subangular, but of course, from wear and tear, no striae or groovings 
are now visible. 

(2(3) In the parish of Thornton-le-Clay is a footpath over a mile in 
length ; it is paved with boulders varying from 1 ft. 6 in, x 7 in. x 6 in. 
to t> in. in diameter ; the footpath is about 4 feet wide, and is flanked by 
the larger boulders. Thoy are composed principally of Carboniferous 
sandstone, a few whiustones, granitiis, and mountain and liassic lime- 
stone. Percentage about the following: granite,!; whinstone, 3; 
mountain and liassic limestones, 18 ; Carboniferous sandstones, 78. 
Generally speaking, they are rounded from usage, but a few of the 
larger are subangular. 

Note. — This footpath has a certain degree of celebrity, as it was con- 
structed by the orders of the famous Sydney Smith from stones collected 
from adjacent fields. It will be remembered that Sydney Smith filled 
the benefice of Foston-le-Clay (the adjoining village) from 1809 to 1831, 
and his memory is still green in the neighbourhood. 

(27) About the centre of the village of Thornton-le-Clay (nearest 
railway-station is Flaxton, N.E. of York) is a boulder forming a corner- 
stone in Mr. Danby's timber-yard, 2 ft. 5 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. 
out of ground ; subangular ; has been moved to its present position ; no 
stria) or groovings ; mountain limestone ; now rests upon boulder clay and 
gravel, 150 feet above sea-level. 

Group. — (28) In the parish of Thornton-le-Clay, upon farms in the 
occupation of Messrs. John Buckton and W. Spaven, and also upon 
premises occupied by Mr. Danby, are upwards of 1,100 boulders. _ The 
largest measures 2 ft. X 1 ft. 11 in. X 10 in., the smallest being 10 in. x 
9 in. X 6 in. They are principally subangular to rounded. The whole of 
these have been taken from the adjoining fields, and are now in heaps 
for mending of the roads, &c. No stria3 were observed. They are chiefly 
composed of mountain limestone, Carboniferous sandstone, lias, basalt, 
and granite. They were derived from boulder clay and gravel, 150 ft. 
above sea-level. 

(29) At the east end of the village of Thornton-le-Clay is a boulder 
on the roadside, 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. out of ground ; sub- 
angular ; long-shaped ; no striae now visible (it has been used for years 
as a mounting-block) ; mountain limestone ; about 250 feet above sea- 
level ; is the boundary stone between Thornton-le-Clay and Foston, and 
has been, according to tradition, the scene of many disputes between the 
inhabitants of the two villages. 

Note.— The country around is slightly undulating. Thornton-le-Clay 
is built upon a flat, broad ridge of boulder clay. 

Staxton, near Scarbro\— (SO) In the centre of the village of Staxton 
(parish of Willerby) is a boulder close to the horse-trough. It is 
1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 5 in. ; subangular : has been moved ; no 
striaj or groovings ; Carboniferous sandstone. It is said to be one of 



120 REPORT— 1889. 

many blocks which were carted from the adjoining fields a generation or 
two ago for road repairs, corner-posts, cheese-presses, &c. It rests upon 
mixed gravels, 150 ft. above sea-level. 

(31) At the junction of two roads in the village of Staxton is a 
boulder, on the estate of Mr. Rivis. It is 2 ft. x 2 ft. x 1 ft. oat of the 
ground ; rounded ; has been moved ; no striie or groovings ; dark blue 
whinstone ; about 120 ft. above sea-level ; was originally brought from 
one of the numerous hillocks in the Carrs below, which are composed of 
boulder clay, sand, and gravel. 

ISToTE.- — Staxton village is about three miles south of Seamer railway- 
station, near Scarbro', and is built upon the chalk rubble or talus from 
the wolds, which form a commanding range above the village. 

Flixton, near Filey.— (32) In the village of Flixton (parisli of Folkton), 
about six miles N.W. of Filey, is a boulder forming a corner-stone in the 
garden of Mr. Coxworth, on the estate of Mr. Wilson of Malton. It is 
2 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. x 11 in. ; in shape a rounded oblong ; has been 
moved; no striae or groovings; Carboniferous sandstone; about 150 ft. 
above sea-level ; the subsoil is sand mixed with chert. 

Group. 

(33) In the village of Flixton the following boulders form a protection 
around the spring-head. (This spring is one of the numerous ones 
flowing from the lower chalk in this vicinity.) 

1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 1 in. Coarse dark brown sandstone. 

2 ft. S in. X 1 ft. 10 in. X 11 in. Fine-grained light red sandstone. 
1 ft. V) in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. in. Blountain limestone. 

1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. X 6 in. Hard sandstone. 

3 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 11 in. X 9 in. Close-grained hard sandstone. 

2 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. x 6 in. Light red sandstone. 
1 ft. 2 in. X 10 in. X 8 in. Whinstone. 

They vary from angular to rounded ; the mountain-limestone block 
shows striasin the direction of its longest axis, the others are smoothed 
without striae ; tradition states they have been brought from the Carrs 
about a mile below. (The Carrs are principally composed of peat bog^ 
with here and there hillocks of boulder clay and gravel, from which 
boulders are obtained at the present day.) The district is about 120 ft. 
above sea-level. 

(34) Eunmanhij. — The corner-stone at the junction of Bridlington 
Sti-eet^. and Garton Lane in Hunmanby village is a boulder 3 ft. 3 in. x 
2 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. ; subangular ; no strife or groovings observed ; 
a fine-grained light brown sandstone ; about 100 ft. above sea-level. 

(35) In the village of Hunmanby are various boulders. Near the 
Hull are : — 



1ft. 


8 in. 


X 1 ft. 


7 in. 


X 




11 in. 


Eark red sandstone. 


1ft. 


4 in. 


X 1 ft. 


2 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


in. 


Coarse, gritty red sandstone. 


1 ft. 


5 in. 


X 1 ft. 


in. 


X 


1 ft. 


in. 


VVliinstone. 


1 ft. 


6 in. 


X 


8 in. 


X 




6 in. 




1ft. 


2 in. 


X 


10 in. 


X 




4 in. 




1 ft. 


Sin. 


X 1 ft. 


Oin. 


X 




8 in. 




1 ft. 


9 in. 


X 


11 in. 


X 




10 in. 




2 ft. 


4 in. 


X 2 ft. 


3 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


8 in. 




1 ft. 


10 in. 


X 1 ft. 


8 in. 


X 




11 in. 


,1 



Corner of Scarbro' and DriflBeld roads are four boulders varying from 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 121 

3 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. to 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. x 7 in. ; these 
are sandstones and wliinstones. 

South of village is a boulder of red sandstone 1 ft. 11 in. x 1 ft. 
10 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. ; close by, one of dark brown sandstone 1 ft. 6 in. X 
1 ft. 7 in. X 8 in. ; they are principally rounded and subangular ; could 
not observe any stria) or groovings ; about 100 ft. above sea-level. 

Note. — Hunmanby is on the east slope of the Yorkshire wolds, and 
on the line of fault running nearly N. and S., one half of the village thus 
being upon the Speeton or Neocomian clays, the other part more or less 
upon the lower chalk. 

Bridlington. — (36) In the parish of Bridlington, on the estate lately 
purcha.sed by the churchwardens, and occupied by Mr. Taylor, and 
situated in Applegarth Lane, about 100 yards S.E. of the Priory church, 
occur a number of boulders, viz. : — 



5 ft. 


in. 


X 


1ft. 


10 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


4 in. 


Elliptical. 


Sandstone. 


3 ft. 


in. 


X 


1ft. 


10 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


1 in. 


Angular. 


Sandstone (fine-grained). 


3 ft. 


3 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


10 in. 


X 


1ft. 


11 in. 


Rounded. 


Whinstone. 


2 it. 


6 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


4 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


4 in. 


I) 


». 


1 ft. 


10 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


9 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


4 in. 


»» 


Sandstone. 


2 ft. 


in. 


X 


1ft. 


Sin. 


X 


1 ft. 


in. 


Subangular. 


Whinstone 


3 ft. 


4 in. 


X 


1ft. 


8 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


2 in. 


)) 


Light red sandstone. 


2 ft. 


8 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


3 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


5 in. 


ft 


Shap Fell granite. 


3 ft. 


11 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


2 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


7 in. 


Angular. 


Sandstone. 


2 ft. 


10 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


3 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


Tin. 


tt 


»» 


2 ft. 


9 in. 


X 


1ft. 


8 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


3 in. 


ly 


Whinstone. 


2 ft. 


11 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


1 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


2 in. 


i> 


Fine-grained light browm 
sandstone. 


2 ft. 


11 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


2 in. 


X 




10 in. 




A flat slab of dolerite. 


2 ft. 


9 in. 


X 


1ft. 


9 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


in. 


Rounded. 


Sandstone. 


1ft. 


3 in. 


X 


] ft. 


Oin. 


X 




7 in. 


>» 


Shap Fell granite. 


2 ft. 


8 in. 


X 


2 ft. 


2 in. 


X 


1ft. 


6 in. 


)t 


Sandstone. 


2 ft. 


6 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


9 in. 


X 


1ft. 


5 in. 


t> 


Mountain limestone. 


2 ft. 


in. 


X 


1ft. 


4 in. 


X 


1ft. 


in. 


»» 


Sandstone. 


1 ft. 


3 in. 


X 


1 ft. 


in. 


X 




8 in. 


Subangular. 


>» 



They are all exposed on the surface, and. have been collected from 
adjacent fields ; no strias or groovings are now visible ; about 100 ft. 
above sea-level. The underlying deposits are principally gravel, but 
further details as to the geology of this district will be found in Mr. 
Lamplugh's memoirs. 

East Luiton. — (37) In the village of East Lutton, on the Yorkshire 
Wolds, there is a boulder in the stackyard of Mr. Pt-xton (estate of Mr. 
T. J. Bell). It is 2 ft. X 2 ft. x 1 ft. 1 in. ; subangular ; has been moved ; 
there are traces of striae and four or five groovings (about ^ in. deep) 
across its shortest axis ; hard blue whinstone ; it was formerly on the side 
of Park Lane in this village, but had been the subject of litigation between 
Buccessive road surveyors, until removed to its pi-esent harmless position. 

Note. — East Lutton is at the bottom of a wide deep valley, the chalk 
hills rising to a height of nearly 600 ft. on each side. 

Driffield. — (38) In the Roman Catholic churchyard in the town of 
Driffield is a boulder. It is 2 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. out of 
the ground ; subangular ; has been moved ; no stria; or groovings ; hard 
blue whinstone. 

Note. — It is said that a gentleman who lived formerly in the house 
next to the church had it placed there as a stepping-stone, and obtained 
it from the clay excavated in the construction of the Driffield Canal. 



122 



REPORT — 1889. 



(39) On Mr. Holtbj's estate, about 150 yards east of Driffield parish 
churcli, are a nnmber of boulders. 

Twelve of these average 1 ft. x 10 in. x S in. ; subangular to 
rounded ; their composition was mountain and liassic limestones, red 
granite, whinstone, and Carboniferous sandstone, the latter having the 
largest percentage ; no strisB or groovings were observed ; they had been 
derived from the boulder clay which overlies the upper chalk in this 
district. 

Note. — This boulder clay has a wide difference in composition and 
texture, and occurs in patches. Some is of a hard, tough, blue nature, 
whilst others arc light red to cream-coloured, with a large percentage of 
sand, and a sprinkling throughout of rounded chalk pebbles and angular 
flints. The latter species of clay are covered with about 5 feet of gravel. 

Heigliton, near Filey. — (40) On the farm occupied by Mr. Beauvais, 
about half a mile from the coast, is a boulder. It is 2 ft. 6 in. x 
1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. out of ground ; subangular ; no striae ; dark bine 
whinstone ; about 50 ft. above sea-level ; was taken out of a bed of 
boulder clay overlying gravel in the neighbourhood. 

Rev. R. A. Snmmerfield, Vicar of North Stainley, furnishes the 
following reports upon boulders near Tanfield : — 

In parish of West Tanfield. on left bank of river Ure, long. 1° 33' 55", 
lat. 54° 11' 47", is a large boulder 12 ft, 6 in. x 7 ft. x 1 ft. 9 in. above 
ground ; triangular ; it has never been moved by man ; its longest axis is 
N.N.E., S.S. W. ; it is highly polished, with a few slight strife on the sides 
in the direction of longest axis ; mountain limestone, containing numerous 
specimens of producti and turbinolia ; it is embedded in gravel, which I 
removed to the depth of 18 inches, without finding the base of the boulder. 

On a little green outside the village of Thornborough is a boulder, 
long. 1° 33' 10", lat. 54° 12' 41", 3 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. Sub- 
angular with rounded ends ; was removed to its present position about 
50 years ago, from a field in the vicinity ; top and sides smooth but not 
striated ; fine gritstone. 

Mr. W. F. K. Stock, F.C.S., F.I.C., public analyst for the County of 
Durham, reports upon the Greystone, Manfield, N. Riding : — 

This boulder is in the parish of Manfield, Stanwick Estate, and on 
the Greystone Farm (so called after the boulder), the nearest town being 
Darlington ; 12 ft. 1 in. x 5 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. ; subangular ; longest axis 
N.N.W. by S.S.E. ; its surface weathered to such an extent as to render 
character of markings very doubtful. Felspathic trap ; specific gravity, 
2'66, Its analysis gives — 
Silica 



Alumina . . . . . 






1617 


Protoxide of iron 






3-60 


Peroxide of iron . 






1-83 


Protoxide of manganese 






0-43 


Lime ..... 






4-57 


Magnesia . . . . . 






3-35 


Potash • . , . 






1-48 


Soda ...... 




'. 2-73 


Carbonic acid and water 






6-60 



100-53 
Although well known as the ' Greystone ' no legend is known to be 



ON THE ERHATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IISELAND. 123 



connected with it. It is isolated and entirely exposed on the bank of a 
small rivulet. It rests upon boulder clay. 

Rev. E. M. Cole, M.A., Wetwang, President of the Geological Section 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, describes the following boulders at 
Neswick, in the parish of Bainton, East Riding : — 

No. 1 was found in a field, 250 yards E. of Bracken Road, and distant 
from Neswick Farm about ^ of a mile. It interfered with ploughing, 
hence dug out; attempts have been made to break it up, and three barrow- 
loads of the block were removed by hammers. The present size is 4 ft. X 
3 ft. X 1 ft. (J in. It is very compact ; one side has a joint face ; edges 
sharp, rest rounded. 

No. 2 is 2 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 fc. 4 in.; rectangular; surfaces 
fairly flat. 

No. 3 is 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. G in. x 1 ft. 

No. 4 is 2 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. ; the two latter were excavated in the 
railway-cutting passing throngh the same field. 

All the above are basalt. 

There is also a block of siliceous limestone 1 ft. G in. xl ft. xl ft. 

Mr. William Watts, F.G.S., of Rochdale (engineer to the Oldham 
Corporation Waterworks), reports upon erratics on the west of the 
Yorkshire Pennines (South-West Riding of Yorks) : — 

In the Strinesdale Valley is a large variety of boulders intermixed 
with boulder clay and the upper gravels. Silurian grits predominate, 
then the syenites from the lake district ; also mountain limestone, 
quartzites, and trap. Along with these are local grits, mostly gannister, 
all of which are much rounded, especially the smaller ones, and many are 
striated. 

The erratics are not large, 2 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. being a fair average. 
They are well rounded ; a few are subangular, but I have not found any 
quite angular. Some are striated on one side. The pebbles are numerous, 
almost legion, foreign and local, making a splendid gravel but for seme 
black shale intermixed. 

Note. — As you ascend this valley the right hand is in the South-West 
Riding of Yorkshire. 

The hills rise to an altitude of nearly 1,200 feet above sea-level. The 
area examined lies between the 740 and 830 feet, Ordnance datuu;. 
Character of strata — Lower Coal Measure shales. 

Physical features — gently sloping valleys and rounded hills. 

In the Castleshaw Valley few boulders have as yet turned up ; those 
which have been gathered are small syenites, about 12 inches square, and 
Silurian grits. The syenites are round, but the silurian grits arc 
angular, one specimen (1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. x8 in.) having very sharp 
angles. Small Eskdale granites turn up occasionally*, much worn as 
usual. One specimen of silurian grit in my possession is nicely striated 
and smoothed. 

Near Waters's Mill an isolated erratic lies in the middle of a small 
field, 4 ft. G in. X 2 ft. 6 in. ; hornblendic trap ; elongated and subangular ; 
longer axis trends south-west ; upper face only exposed. 

Notes. — This valley is carved in the Yoredale shales. The surround- 
ing hills are capped with Kinderscout grit. Grey shale, fully 250 feet 
thick, lies between the Kinderscout and the hard and somewhat massive 
Bakestone shale, which is unchanged in character for more than fifty feet 
without coming to its base. The hills at the top of the valley rise to 



124 REPORT— 1889. 

1,300 feet above the sea. The hills at the bottom end of the valley are 
mamillated. The slopes are gentle. 

This valley is recent, and conclusive evidence of a former lake exists 
•which had a large area. Boulder clay none ; local clay and loam, an 
ample supply. Coarse gravel in the centre of the valley at one place, 14 ft. 
thick ; sand about 3 ft. thick ; both freshwater, and partially lacustrine. 
A few pebbles. 

Area examined between 700 and 1,200 ft , Ordnance datum. 

I found in the Denshaw Valley a number of boulders at New Year's 
Bridge, 940 ft. above sea-level. They averaged 2 ft. 6 in. xl ft. 9 in. 
xl ft. 6 in., and consisted of syenites and diorites. I have found no 
traces of striae on any of the boulders, which are all rounded except one 
or two. I found no isolated boulders. 

Notes. — This valley is carved in the Third Grits of the Millstone Grit 
series. 

The hills rise to an elevation of 1,500 to 1,G00 ft. above sea-level. 
The valley in the main is deep and tortuous, and the hills mostly saddle- 
backed. 

Vegetation dwarfish and scanty ; very few trees exist ; the winds are 
too strong, and the climatic conditions generally are too severe for tree- 
growth ; besides, the soil is scanty and wet. 

Boulder clay is absent above the 850 ft.. Ordnance datum. Gravel is 
also absent, and no sand worth the name is met with. Pebbles are few. 
Valley alluvium coarse and scanty. The Yoredale shales crop out at 
Rag Stones and Readycon Dean ; at the latter places the shales are very 
carbonaceous and much-faulted. 

Area examined between the 850 and 1,268 ft. Ordnance datum. 

The Boulders of Rohin Hood's Bay are reported wpon hy S. Chadwice, F. G.S., 

and C. Brownridge, F.0.8. 

Group No. 1. — On each side of the principal street running through 
the village of Baytown are the following boulders, which have been 
removed from the adjacent boulder clay resting on the Lower Lias. 

Twenty-four of whinstone, varying from 2 ft. 7 in. xl ft. 9 in. X 

1 ft. 2 in. to 1 ft. 1^ in. X 11^ in. X 7 in. Subangular. 

Two of sandstone (possibly Moor grit), 1 ft. 1 in. xl ft. xlO in. and 

2 ft. 1 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft. 5 in. Subangular. 

One of. Gritstone. 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. x 9 in.; rounded. 

Three of Mountain Limestone. 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 

1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. x 10 in. 

2 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. x 10 in.; all subangular. 
One of Dolerite. 2 ft. 2 in. x 11 in. x 1 ft. 10 in.; rounded. 

Group No. 2. — Lying in the bed of the stream that passes through the 
village are three boulders — 

2 ft. 8 in. X 2 ft. 1 in. X 1 ft. 6 in.; Sandstone (possibly Moor Grit) ; subangular. 
4 ft. 1 in. X 2 ft. fi in. X 1 ft. 2 in.: Felstone ; rounded to subangular. 

1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 8 in. ; Sandstone or Quartzite ; rounded. 

Group No. 3. — Lying in the valley of Mill Beck, about half a mile south 
of the village, are four boulders — 

1ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. X 11 in.; Sandstone (possibly Moor grit) ; subangular. 

3 ft. 4 in. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. „ „ rounded. 
1 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 9 in.; Gneiss, or gneissose granite ; subangular. 
3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.; Whinstone ; subangular. 



ON THE EEUATIC ULOCKS OF ENGLA>D, TVALES, AND IRELAND. 125 

The boulders of the second and third group have been exposed by the 
washing away of the boaldor clay, and in some cases have evidently rolled 
down from slightly higher elevations to their present positions. 

The following Shap granite boulders at Marton-cum-Graftou are 
reported upon by Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A. (Vicar of Stavcley) : — 

At Marton-cum- Grafton, 3 miles S.E. by S. from Boroughbridgc, are 

two Shap granite boulders. 

No. 1 measures 3 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. ; greatest girth 9 ft. 9 in. 
No. 2 „ 2 ft. 5i in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. ; „ 8 ft. 

Both are rounded ; no grooves or striations ; they have been moved 
from a narrow lane leading to Scruddle Dyke Pond, at the bottom of the 
village, to the Vicarage Gardens. Their former position is about 100 ft. 
above sea-level. There are long ridges of gravel in the parish. 

Note. — Shap Fells are 64- miles N.W. of Marton. 

Reports upon Boulders at Staveley, Arkendale, and Claro Hill are given by 

Rev. E. P. Kndblet, M.A. 

At Staveley, which is three miles S.W. of Boroughbridge, and 100 ft. 
above sea-level, there are on either side of the church, ridges of gravel, 
which run parallel to the Ure on the one hand, and the Nidd on the 
other. The gravel, which covers about ten acres, consists for the most 
part of rounded sandstone, interspersed with a small proportion of Car- 
boniferous limestone, ranging from the size of a small pebble to a block 
2 ft. 5 in. X 2 ft. X 2 ft. The smaller of these are rounded and polislied, 
the laro-er subangular. The latter show numerous fine striations which 
run parallel with the longer axis. The lower Wensleydale series, to which 
the laro^er rocks belong, is about 25 miles to the N."W. I have found one 
piece of Shap granite which was round and about a foot long. 

At Arkendale, which lies 4 miles due south of Boroughbridge, and 
about 180 ft. above sea-level, there are several erratic blocks of Car- 
boniferous limestone. The largest of these, which lies by the road-side, 
within 20 feet of the east end of the church, is 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. x 
2 ft. G in., and is subangular. 

Claro Hill, the mound from which the wapentake is named, is composed 
entirely of glacial drift of the same chai'acter as that found at Staveley, 
except that the pebbles of mountain limestone are more numerous and 
more polished. This mound, which is rather more than four miles south 
of Boroughbridge, is situated at the angle formed by the junction of the 
road from Clarcton with that which runs from Wetherby to Borough, 
bridge. The summit is about 230 ft. above sea-level. The largest 
boulder at Claro Hill is of mountain limestone, subangular, and is about 
4 ft. square. 

Mr. William Gregson, Baldersby, Thirsk, reports upon York.shire 
coast boulders : — 

On the West CliflP Sands, Whitby, is a boulder of Shap Fell granite. 
No strioe ; subangular ; 4 ft. X 2 ft. X 2 ft. 3 in. Is on the shore. Rests 
upon Lower Oolite. 

In Runswick Bay, north of Whitby, are four boulders, three of which 
are composed of Shap Fell granite, the fourth being of grey granite. 
They are on the shore ; are rounded ; without any strise ; and are about 
4 ft. across each way ; they rest upon Middle Lias. 

Mr. Robert Mortimer, of Fimber, reports that at Southburn, near 



126 EEPORT— 1889. 

Driffield, is a boulder; lat. 53° 57' 45", long. 0° 29' 47". Whinstone, 
4 ft. 3 in. X 3 ft. 5 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. Longest axis E. and W. About 100 ft. 
above sea-level. Is near a chalk pit, a short distance from the new 
railway between Driffield and Market Weigbton. Has not been moved. 
Is on boulder clay resting upon Upper chalk. 

Some large Yorkshire blocks which have been erroneously described 
as erratics have been examined by the Yorkshire Committee, and, to pre- 
vent further errors, their report is subjoined : — ■ 

The 'Fourstones' near Bentham. — The ' Fourstones ' was reported to 
the Yorkshire Boulder Committee in 1887 as an isolated boulder, but there 
were several points of similarity between this block and the ' Hitching- 
stone.' As the latter had been erroneously reported to the British 
Association in 1874 by a private individual as an erratic, whereas it 
was demonstrated in 1887 that it is not one, it was deemed desirable 
that the ' Fourstones ' should be closely examined before a report was 
forwarded. 

Mr. C. D. Hardcastle, Vice-Chairman of the Yorkshire Boulder Com- 
mittee, has visited it, and thus reports : — 

The so-called ' Fourstones ' boulder forms a prominent feature in the 
landscape for some distance in every direction. It stands on the open 
moor, about two miles south of High Bentham, and within a few hundred 
yards of Fourstones Farm-house, a shooting-box belonging to the Fosters 
of Hornby Castle. 

The stone is of irregular form, about 10 yds. by 6 yds. in extreme 
length and width, 29 to 30 yds. in circuit, and nearly 4 yds. high. It is a 
moderately fine sandstone grit, similar to the stone quarried in several 
places about Bentham. It appears to be in or near its original position, 
and at first sight gives the impression of having been tilted, weathered 
grooves, apparently along bedding lines, crossing the top at the southern 
end with an inclination towards the south or south-west; but this perhaps 
may be from false bedding. In composition it is the same as the stone 
beneath it, as evidenced by an exposed portion in a hollow about 18 yds. 
distant, generally filled with water. 

The ' Fourstones ' is evidently a relic of denudation, and there is no 
probability of its having travelled. 

The ' HaddocJcstones,' near Uipon. — Note by the Yorkshire Boulder 
Committee. — The attention of the Committee has been called by the 
Rev. J. Stanley Tute, B.A., Vicar of Markington, to a group of remark- 
able blocks, which give the name to the farm of Haddockstones, 4 miles 
S.W. of Ripon. The word ' haddock ' is a local name for a shock of 
corn. 

The Chairman and other members of the Committee, accompanied by 
Mr. Tute, visited the farm on June 1. The blocks are of sufficient size 
to be visible at a distance of several fields, and lie among a low escarp- 
ment of the same rock as that from which they are derived, viz., a sand- 
stone in the Third Grit series. Few of the blocks are undisturbed, and 
their planes of stratification rarely coincide with the bedding of the rock 
beneath. Some exhibit apparently modern surftices, as if pieces had 
been removed by wedges. 

From the position of these blocks along an outcrop of precisely 
similar sandstone, the Committee consider it likely that they are merely 
weathered fragments, nearly in situ, and concur with Mr. Tute that they 
cannot be claimed as erratics. 



on the krratic blocks of england, wales, and iceland. 127 

Durham. 

Rev. Arthur Watts, F.G.S., Ace, Vice-Principal of Bede College, 
Durham, describes the following boulders in the village of Harton, near 
South Shields (co. Durham) : — 

No. 1. At the Ship Inn, nearly opposite the church ; 3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft, 

9 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. ; greatest circumference (just above ground) 10 ft. 3 in. ; 
subangular, but rounded on top by attrition ; has not been moved ; no 
stria; or groovings. 

No. 2. The ' Preaching Stone,' opposite the hall ; 3 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 

10 in. X 2 ft. 2 in.; greatest circumference 9 ft. 9 in. ; subangular, but 
rounded on top ; no stri«e or groovings ; has not been moved. 

No. 3. In the Back Lane, near the Duck Pond ; 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 ft. 
6 in. X 1 ft. ; no stri^B or groovings ; has not been moved. 

No. 4. In the field on W. side of White Horse Farm ; dimensions 
cannot now be given, as it has been sunk by the farmer to escape the 
plough. It was too heavy to remove and too hard to break. 

There are many smaller ones, in walls or on roadsides, scattered over 
the parish, varying from the size of No. 3 downwards. They are all 
of basalt or whinstone, locally called ' blue stone'; the nearest dyke is 
about 3 miles N., near Tynemouth and Cullercoats ; the size of the largest 
suggests that they may have travelled from the Great Whin Sill. Harton 
is from 50 to 60 ft. above sea-level. They arc seen only when on the 
surface, but the plough frequently reveals them, and draining still more 
frequentlj', so that they occupy the whole of the clay deposit, which 
covers this area to a thickness which varies greatly in different localities. 

Lancashire. 

Mr. Chas. E. R. Bucknill, of Rawtenstall, near Manchester, i-eports as 
follows : — 

An isolated boulder is to be seen on the hill known as Seat Naze, in 
a pasture-field of Seat Naze Farm, in the parish of Newchnrch-in-Ros- 
sendale, township of Whalley. The land is the property of Mr. Har- 
greaves of Blackburn, and is farmed by Dr. Wilson of Newchurch. The 
boulder is situated on the south side of the hill, about 50 yards south of 
a circular enclosure of stone, formerly containing some few trees. The 
greatest length is 5 ft., the greatest Avidth 3 ft. 6 in. The higher and 
northern end stands 2 ft. out of the ground, the lower and southern end 
only a few inches. May be described as a foreshortened coffin in shape, 
the angles being only slightly worn. The boulder has not been moved, 
and has its longest axis pointing N. and S. There are no ruts, striations, 
or groovings on the exposed surfaces. The upper surface is concave, but 
this has not the appearance of being produced by grinding or wearing. 
The rock is a quartzose volcanic agglomerate from the Borrowdale series. 
Has long been known as the Bellstone, but for what reason I have not 
been able to ascertain ; is 960 feet above the sea. Is not marked on the 
Ordnance Survey maps. Perfectly isolated. It rests upon a coarse sand- 
stone, one of the rough rocks of the Feather Edge, which constitutes the 
upper boundary of the millstone grit. 



128 EEFORT — 1889. 



Third Report of the Gomrtiittee, consisting of Professors Schafer 
(Chairman), Michael Foster, and Lankester and Dr. W. D. 4 
Halliburton {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inves- " 
tigating the Physiology of the Lymphatic System.'^ 

DuMNG the past year work on the chemical physiology of blood corpuscles 
and on the proteid constituents of the aqueous humour has been continued 
by Dr. Halliburton in the Physiological Laboratory of University College, 
London. 

In the two previous reports of the Committee the special subject dealt 
with has been that of the pi-oteids of the colourless corpuscles, or, more 
strictly speaking, of lymph cells ; that is, the cells obtained from lymphatic 
glands and also from the thymus gland. Lymph-corpuscles being typical 
animal cells, this research was in other words directed to the determina- 
tion of the varieties of proteid that occur in protoplasm. The proteids 
found were as follows : — 

1. A globulin which coagulates at 48°-50° C. Cell-glolulin (a). 

2. „ „ 75° C. Gell-glohidin (/3). 

3. An albumin „ 73° C. Cell- albumin. 

4. A peculiar proteid which swells up into a jelly-like mass with 

solutions of sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate, and which 
was found to possess the chemical characteristics of a nucleo- 
albumin. 

The special subject investigated this year has been that of the proteids 
contained in the stromata of the red corpuscles of mammalian (sheep's) 
blood. The red discs are cellular in origin ; the presence of a large 
quantity of hsemoglobin in them shows that they possess something 
which is not present in typical cells ; the absence of a nucleus shows that 
they have lost something present in typical cells. The question, however, 
still remains, How far do the stromata {i.e., the colourless residues after the 
extraction of the pigment) retain the properties and constituents of 
unaltered protoplasm ? 

The quantity of proteid contained in the discs is relatively very small 
in amount; there are in addition small quantities of lecithin, cholesterin, 
and inorganic salts, of which the most important is potassium phosphate. 

It has, however, been the proteid which has especially engaged our 
attention, and in investigating this substance Dr. Halliburton has secured 
the co-operation of Dr. Walter M. Friend, of Boston, U.S.A. 

Dr. Eriend has also performed experiments in another direction, 
namely, the constitution of the aqueous humour of the eye. 

It will, therefore, be convenient to divide this report into two parts, 
the first dealing with the stromata of the red corpuscles, the second with 
the aqueous humour. 

The Stromata of the Red Corpuscles. 

The method which was found to be the best for the preparation of the 
stromata was that introduced by Wooldridge.^ Freshly whipped blood is 

' This report is written by Dr. Halliburton, by whom, and under whose direction, 
the work has been carried on. 

« Du Bois-Reymond's ArcMvf. Physiol., 1881, p. 387. 



ON THE rnYSIOLOGT OF THE LYMniATIC SYSTEM. 129 

mixed -with many times its volame of a 2 per cent. ' sodium chloride 
solution, and the corpuscles separated from the salted serum by the uso 
of the centrifugal machine ; the mass of corpuscles is then mixed with 
more salt solution of the same strength, and the process repeated several 
times. The corpuscles thus ultimately obtained free from serum are 
mixed with five or six times their volume of water, and a little ether 
added until the solution is perfectly transparent. The white corpuscles 
which are unaltered by this treatment sink to the bottom of the vessel, 
and again the separation may be hastened by the use of the centrifuge. 
The supernatant fluid is then treated with a 1 per cent, solution of acid 
sodium sulphate, drop by drop, until the fluid, at first clear, becomes as 
thick as the original blood. The precipitate which consists of the 
stromata soon collects into coarse flocculi, which are collected on a filter. 

This precipitate is washed free from adherent pigment by a very 
weak solution of acid sodium sulphate as quickly as possible, as prolonged 
exposure to this reagent renders the stromata insoluble. 

They may then be extracted by saline solutions, such as a 5 per cent, 
solution of sodium chloride or magnesium sulphate, and these extracts 
examined by the methods of heat coagulation, and precipitation by 
neutral salts. 

The following are the results obtained : — 

1. On heating a saline extract of the stromata there was never the 
appearance of cloudiness, much less of a precipitate, below the temperature 
of 60° C. Cell-globulin a is therefore absent. 

2. Cell-globulin fi, or cell-globulin, as it will be called in subsequent 
parts of the paper, is present, and is practically the only proteid of the 
stromata. Its characteristics are as follows : — 

a. In solutions containing a minimal amount of salt, or from 5-10 per 
cent, of magnesium sulphate, it is coagulated at a temperature of 75° C. 

b. In solutions containing 5-10 per cent, of sodium chloride, it is 
coagulated at a much lower temperature, 60°-65° C. 

c. It is precipitable from its solutions by carbonic acid, by dialysis, 
and by saturation with sodium chloride incompletely ; by saturation with 
magnesium sulphate or ammonium sulphate completely. 

d. It possesses fibrino-plastic activity — i.e., it has the power of hasten- 
ing the formation of fibrin in dilute salted plasma, or of pericardial, 
hydrocele, and similar fluids. Solutions lose this activity when the 
globulin is removed, or when its characteristic properties are destroyed, 
as by a temperature of 75° C. The globulin is thus either closely con- 
nected to the fibrin ferment, or, as it seems more probable to us, is 
identical with it. 

Stroma-globulin has all these characteristics. Cell-globulin and 
stroma-globulin are thus probably the same ; they resemble paraglobulin 
(or serum-globulin) in characteristics a and c. They differ from it in 
characteristics b and cl. 

3. TJie stromata do not contain cell- albumin, or it is only present in the 
merest traces ; this conclusion is arrived at after examining the extracts 
from which the globulin is removed by saturation with magnesium sul- 
phate. 

4. The stromata do not contain nticlein or nncleo-albumin. — Neither they 
nor the unaltered corpuscles swell into a slimy mass on admixture with 
sodium chloride or magnesium sulphate ; lecithin appears to be the only 

' We found a 1 per cent, solution better to use. 
1889. K 



130 DEPORT— 1889. 

phosphorised constituent of the red discs. This confirms the statement 
of Hoppe-Seyler,' that nuclein is only present in the nucleated red blood 
corpuscles of the lower vertebrates. 

5. Albumoses and peptones are also absent. — After the separation of the 
globulin the extracts were never found to give the characteristic reactions 
of these substances. 

General conclusions. — The mammalian red blood corpuscle is not a cell 
in the strict morphological sense of the word; it has no nucleus. It is 
also not a cell in the chemical sense, for not only is nuclein absent, but 
the only proteid present of the four normally existing in typical cells is 
cell-globulin, and this exists in the stroma in small quantities only. 

The presence of fibrin ferment in the red discs suggests the question 
whether they contribute to the formation of fibrin in coagulation as it 
normally occurs in shed blood. There is certainly no necessity to sup- 
pose that they shed out any ferment, as they undergo little or no disinte- 
gration in shed blood ; but it is nevertheless possible that under certain 
circumstances they may assist in the formation of fibrin, and that 
Landois' ' stroma-fibrin ' may be possibly accounted for in this manner. 

Bonne ^ suggests that in cases of disease in which the red corpuscles 
are disintegrated within the blood-vessels (hsemoglobinEemia), the febrile 
disturbance that accompanies this condition may be due to the presence 
of fibrin-ferment derived from the stromata of the discs so dissolved. 

The Aqueous Hctmouk. 

Chavvas ^ showed that the anterior chamber of the eye must be looked 
upon as _ essentially a lymph space, since the formation of the aqueous 
humour is dependent upon the arterial pressure. Lohmeyer's * analyses 
of aqueous humour are also not antagonistic to the supposition that the 
fluid in the aqueous chamber is lymph. 

Water in parts per 1,000 , . 986-87 

Proteids 1-23 

Extractives 4.-21 

Sodium chloride 6-89 

Other salts ' o-81 

1,00000 

We are, however, not aware that hitherto the individual organic 
constituents of this fluid have been examined. 

The fluid was obtained from the freshly-removed eyes of oxen by 
means of an ordinary hypodermic syringe. It was clear, colourless, 
limpid, and free from formed elements. 

_ In most cases it did not clot spontaneously, but sometimes it did so ; 
this was perhaps owing to admixture with blood during its removal from 
the eye, as in all cases there was a well-marked formation of fibrin on 
admixture with fibrin ferment or cell-globulin. 

This was filtered ofi", and the filtrate was found to contain a proteid 
precipitable by saturation with magnesium sulphate, and coagulated by 
the temperature of 75° C. (serum-globulin). The filtrate also contained 
a proteid which coagulated at about the same temperature, but which 
was not precipitable by saturation with magnesium sulphate (serum- 
albumin). 

> Handhvch, 5th Aufl., p. 429. « Ueher das Mbrin-ferment. Wiirzburg, 1889. 
» Pfluger's Arcliiv, xvi. 143. * See Gorup-Besanez, Lchrhuoh (1878), p. 401. 



ON THE PHTSIOLOGY OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. 



131 



On heatin];^ the fresh aqueous humour to 56° C. a precipitate of coa- 
gulated proteid was obtained. This is another proof, in addition to the 
formation of fibrin already mentioned, that atjueous humour contains 
fibrinogen. 

We sought for mucin, but found that it was absent. Albumoses and 
peptones are also absent. 

Kuhn ' and Gruenhagen * have recently described a substance of 
doubtful nature in the aqueous humour which, like sugar, reduces 
copper salts, but which is not sugar, as it does not undergo the alcoholic 
fermentation. We have not made extensive observations in this direc- 
tion ; we can, however, state that in the eyes of the oxen we have ex- 
amined this substance is not present in sufficient quantities to produce 
any visible reduction of Fehling's solution, if the aqueous humour be 
used either fresh or after the separation of the proteid s from it by acidu- 
lation and heating. 

The examination of the proteids of the aqueous humour thus shows 
that although they are present in small quantities they are in kind like 
those existing in the plasma of the blood (viz., consisting of fibrinogen, 
serum-globulin, and serum-albumin) ; that therefore the supposition that 
the aqueous humour is, like lymph, an exudation from the blood rather 
than a true secretion is fully confirmed. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. GtLadstone 
(Chairman), Professor Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. Stephen 
Bourne, Miss Lydia Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. 
W. Crosskey, Sir Richard Temple, Bart., Sir Henry E. Roscoe, 
Mr. James Heywood, and Professor N. Story Maskelyne, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of continuing the inquiries relating to 
the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. 

This year has been one of continued depression in regard to the teaching 
of science in elementary schools, and of disappointment in regard to 
legislative action. 

The return of the Education Department for this year shows again a 
diminution in the teaching of the science subjects. The statistics of the 
class subjects for six years are given in the subjoined table, which shows 
an actual decrease in elementary science, and a comparative decrease in 
geography :— 



Class Subjects. — Departments 


1882-3 


1883-4 


1884-5 


1885-6 


1886-7 


1887-8 


English .... 

Geography 
Elementary Science 
History .... 
Drawing. 
Needlework . 


18,363 


19,080 


19,431 


19,608 


19,917 


20.041 


12,823 

48 
367 

5,286 


12,775 
51 

382 

5,929 


12,336 

45 

386 

6,499 


12,055 

43 

375 

240 

6,809 


12,035 

39 

383 

505 

7,137 


12,058 

36 

390 

7,424 



The return of scholars individually examined in the scientific specific 
subjects shows an actual or relative falling off in every subject except 

» Pfliiger's ArcJiir, xli. 200. * Ibid, xliii. 377. 

K 2 



132 



EEPOET — 1889. 



meclianics and chemistry, 
table : — 



The figures are given in the following 



Specific Subjects.— Children 


1882-3 


1883-4 


1884-5 


1885-6 


188G-7 


1887-8 


Algebra .... 


26,547 


24,787 


25,347 


25,393 


25,103 


26,448 


Euclid and Mensuration 


1,942 


2,010 


1,269 


1,247 


995 


1,006 


Mechanics A . 


2,042 


3,174 


3,527 


4,844 


6,315 


6,961 


„ B . . . 


— 


206 


239 


128 


33 


331 


Animal Physiology . 


22,759 


22,857 


20,869 


18,523 


17,338 


16,940 


Botany .... 


3,280 


2,604 


2,415 


1,992 


1,589 


1,598 


Principles of Agriculture 


1,357 


1,859 


1,481 


1,.351 


1,1.37 


1,151 


Chemistry 


1,183 


1,047 


1,095 


1,158 


1.488 


1,808 


Sound, Light, and Heat . 


630 


1,253 


1,231 


1,334 


1,158 


978 


Magnetism and Electri- ) 
citv ) 


3,643 


3,244 


2,864 


2,951 


2,250 


1,977 


Domestic Economy 
Total 


19,582 


21,458 


19,437 


19,556 


20,716 


20,787 


82,965 


84,499 


79,774 


78,477 


78,122 


79,985 


Number of Scholars in~j 
Standards v., VLjand } 
VII. J 














286,355 


325,205 


352,860 


393,289 


432,097 


472,770 















The rapid and serious decrease of attention paid to these science sub- 
jects is shown by the percentage of children who have taken them, as 
compared with the number of scholars that might have taken these 
subjects, viz : — 

In 1882-3 29-0 per cent. 



1883-4 
1884-5 
1885-6 
1886-7 
1887-8 



260 
22-6 „ 
19-9 „ 
18-1 
16-9 „ 

taken two of these 



and it must be remembered that children who have 
subjects count twice over. 

The Government laid upon the table of the House a new Code, which 
would have had a slightly beneficial effect upon the teaching of science ; 
but it has been entirely withdrawn. The Government has introduced no 
Technical Instruction Bill this year — except just at the last moment — and 
that does not apply to ' scholars receiving instruction in an elementary 
school in the obligatory or standard subjects prescribed by the minutes 
of the Education Department.' It was hurried through the Committee 
and final stages during the last week of the Session. 

Sir Henry E. Roscoe, however, reintroduced his Bill with some modi- 
fications, and it passed the second reading at a comparatively early period 
of the Session ; but the Government would only give facilities for its 
progress through the House on the understanding that very serious 
changes were to be made in it. As he could not accept these, it has not 
passed the Committee stage; and it was ultimately withdrawn. 

Mr. Samuel Smith has again brought in a Continuation Schools Bill ; 
but there has been no opportunity of discussing it since the first reading, 
and it was therefore withdrawn. The subject has, however, grown in the 
estimation of the public ; and the whole question of the teaching of 
science in State-aided schools requires to be pressed more and more 
upon the legislature. 



ON VABIATIONS IX THE VALUE OF TUB MONETABT STANDAED. 133 



Tldrd Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, 
Professor F. Y. Edgewortii {Secretary), Professor H. S. Foxwell, 
Mr. Robert Giffex, Professor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. 
Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inulis Palgrave, 
and Professor H. Sidgwick, appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the best methods of ascertaining and measuHng Varia- 
tions in the Value of the Monetary Standard. 

The Committee have had under consideration the preparation of an 
official Index-number which might be employed by parties making 
contracts with respect to a distant future. They have met repeatedly 
and discussed the bases of this scheme. They have been in communica- 
tion with the International Committee, which has been reappointed for two 
years by the International Statistical Institute. As it is desirable that 
the subject should receive further consideration, they recommend that they 
should be reappointed. 



MEMORANDUM BY THE SECRETARY. 

ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS. 



KECTIO^ PAGE 

I. Professor Newcomb's Method . 133 

IL Professor Foxwell's Method .134 

III. Mr. Giffen's Methods . . 139 

lY. Mr. Bourne's Method . .150 



SECTION PAGE 

V. Sir Eawson Eawson's Method 152 

YI. The present Writer's Method. 156 

YII. Eicardo's Method . . .161 

Conclusion 162 



This paper is designed as a supplement to the Memorandum appended 
to the First Report of the Committee. It will be remembered that the object 
of that Memorandum was to distinguish the different definitions which 
the proposed problem might present ; and to construct the formula ap- 
propriate to each phase of the investigation. 

Section I. 
Professor Neivcomb's Method. 

One additional definition of the quoasitum which has come under 
the writer's notice since the completion of that Memorandum is that 
which has been propounded by the eminent mathematician Professor 
Simon Newcomb, of the Johns Hopkins University. He proposes to 
measure the variation in the value of the Monetary Standard by the 
change in the volume of value which is produced by the labour of an 
average individual in a unit of time.' He writes : ' One possible hypothesis 
would be this. Wo might assume that the absolute value of everything 
produced by the population of the country remains unchanged, except 
that as a population increases the total value produced increases in the 
eame ratio. In other words, we may suppose the average productiveness 
of each individual to remain the same from year to year.' 

Now this hypothesis may appear doubtful in the light of the statistics 
furnished by Mr. Edward Atkinson and others. There is reason to think 
that in an improving country the productivity of labour increases. But 



Principles of Political Econoviy, Book 3, ch. ii. § 



§ 10. 



134 REPORT— 1889. 

an intelligible rationale can still be assigned to Professor Newcomb's 
scheme considered as a standard for deferred payments. It may be 
regarded as jnst that the debtor should pay, the creditor receive, a con- 
stant proportion of the goods produced by an average man's labour. If 
the productivity of the average man increases, the creditor gains without 
the debtor losing. The principle may be illustrated by the present 
vrriter's proposal (in the former Memorandum) that the standard might 
be a constant proportion of the average income.' It is a principle vrhich 
appears to be countenanced by some high authorities. Thus Sir Thomas 
Earrer, in his able Memorandum on Gold and Credit prepared for the 
Commission on the Precious Metals, asks : ' If prices fall, not by 
reason of any change in the measure of value, but by increased 
abundance of the things sold, what considerations of justice or of con- 
venience are there which call for an alteration in the measure of value ? ' • 

There is, however, a more important difficulty in the way of adopting 
Professor Newcomb's plan as a standard for deferred payments. Appa- 
rently there would be no distinction between articles of immediate con- 
sumption and those which are only agents of production ; articles of each 
class would figure equally in the ' value of everything produced ' per year. 
Suppose that the national consumption might be divided into two classes 
of articles, one consumed nearly raw, the other elaborated through several 
stages of production, at each of which the transformed material changes 
hands by a mercantile transaction. Suppose the prices of the former 
category to rise on an avei'age, while the prices of the latter category — 
both the long series of materials and with them the finished articles — 
fall on an average. It might happen that the value-in-use of the same 
monetary income, say lOOL, would remain nearly constant for the average 
citizen. Yet, according to the new index-number, money might seem to 
be appreciated. Thus the annuitant or creditor might suffer, as he would 
receive, say, only 90Z. or 80L for every lOOL, if this scheme were adopted 
as a standard for deferred payments. 

It should seem, then, that for the purpose of deferred payments the 
scheme contemplated in theory by Professor Newcomb has no advantage 
over that which he adopts in practice,^ and which has been described in the 
former Memorandum: namely, the Consumption Standard. But the con- 
ception of qua.ntity of marketable articles produced per unit of economic 
time may well be valid for some other purpose. What that other purpose 
is will appear in the following sections. 

Section II. 

Professor FoxweU's Method. 

The conception of quantity produced, or rather sold, per unitof time has 
been embodied by Professor Foxwell in a distinct definition, which it was 
an omission on the part of the present writer not to have presented more 

* Compare the definition of variation in the Monetary Standard which Mr. GifEen. 
implies in the following passage of his important paper ' On Recent Changes in 
Theories and Prices' (^Journ. Stat. Soc. Dec. 1888) : 'There may be a case of what 
raay properly be described as depreciation of money where prices do not rise. . . . 
Measured by incomes, tliough not by the prices of commodities, there may unquestion- 
ably in such case be depreciation.' Cf. Professor Walras's conception of a general 
diminution of the rarity (or final utility) of commodities. Elements (f Econoviie 
]}olHique pure, Lecjon xxxix., § ,390. 

^ Principles, Book 3, ch. ii. § 11. 



ON TABIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 135 

clearly in the former Memorandum. Professor Foxwell is understood i 
to regard as the ideal measure of the variation in general prices an Index- 
number which is based upon all vendible commodities whatever. He 
■would make no distinction between articles of consumption and agents ot 
production. In averaging the respective price- variations he would assign 
to each an importance proportioned to the corresponding value, or rather 
to that value multiplied by the number of times it changed hands (in a 
day, month, or year) by way of a monetary transaction. This plan is 
regarded as par excellence the measure of appreciation or depreciation. 

''if pressed with the objection which has just been addressed to 1 ro- 
fcssor Newcomb, namely, that the Index-number thus obtained is not the 
exactest possible measure of the change in the purchasing power of money 
experienced by the consumer. Professor Foxwell would reply that t^e con- 
sumer is not everyone. The interest of the producer, damnified by 
appreciation of money, is also to be regarded. The question set to us is 
a pure currency-question ; and the answer to be sought primarily is not 
by how much are debts to be scaled up or down, but by how much the 
metallic currency is to be multiplied in order that the monetary status in 
<7Mo may be restored. _ 

An extreme example may serve to bring out the character ot the , 
method. Suppose that the national consumption were divisible into two 
categories of commodities, the one involving only two mercantile trans- 
actions in their production, the other sold or re-sold some twenty times 
at different stages of its production. Suppose the prices of the former 
class drop on an average five per cent., while those of the latter drop as 
much as fifteen per cent., other things, and in particular the National 
taste, remaining constant. Then, according to the Consumption Standard, 
the Index-number will be of the form ix95 + ix8o . ^^^^ ^^ qq^ g^t 

u ■,, * x 2^x95 -14x20x85. ,,.. 
the new Index-number may be written i^_^x^20 ' 

proximately 86. This is not a Tabular Standard adapted to the interest 
of creditors and annuitants. It is the measure of the seriousness of ap- 
preciation for the community. 

It will be observed that the example derives its force from the occur- 
rence of a displacement in the rates of exchange between two classes of 
consumable articles ; for without such displacement, if the drop of price in 
both categories were the same, there would be no difference between the 
results of the contrasted methods. Now (it may be said) such displace- 
ment is not one of the evils which ' laws and kings can cause or cure. 
Let debtors and creditors regulate their private affairs by a special Index- 
number if they like. That is not the affair of statesmen and financiers. 
But currency is within the province of government. It is competent to 
governments so to augment the currency, that the appreciation accused by 
the proper Index-number may be reduced. 

It should be explained that this scheme does not commit its pro- 
pounder to any of the extreme views which in the former Memorandum 
■were connected with the conception of amount of sales and the work 
which gold has to do. He is not bound to refer to the quantity of gold 

> The present writer is responsible for the exposition and illustration of the 
views which he has obtained in the course of repeated conversations with Protessor 
Foxwell. * Section IX. 



136 



BEPORT — 1889. 



actually existing in currency, or relative to an initial epoch. He need 
not pretend to calculate the amount of gold in use as money at present, or at 
the initial epoch. He need not pretend to calculate the ratio in which the 
quantity of gold at the initial period requires to be multiplied in order to 
equate the present with the original level of prices. He need not state 
the amount which for that purpose should be added to the present cur- 
rency. What he professes to obtain is that ratio in which, if the quantity 
of currency were increased, other things remaining constant during 
the increase, the level of prices would be restored. But the amount 
of coin to be actually added is not necessarily deducible from the ratio 
thus conceived; because (1) the quantity of precious metal in use as 
money may not be ascertainable with any degree of precision, and (2) 
other things, in particular the condition of credit, may alter during the 
process of augmentation. In short our Professor is not to be confounded 
with the currency-quack who pretends to calculate the exact dose of 
currency which ought to be administered in order to keep the circulation 
in a healthy condition. Professor Foxwell's Index is rather of the nature 
of a diagnosis than a prescription ; or at least it only enables him to pre- 
scribe the general character of the treatment — whether increased aliment 
or depletion — but not the exact quantity to be taken. 

The Currency Standard, as Professor Foxwell's special protege may 
be designated, is to be distinguished as follows from the Consumption 
Standard, which the Committee, in their collective capacity, have 
favoured. According to each method, the variation in the value of 
money is measured by a change in the monetary value of a certain quan- 
tity of commodity, supposed to be constant. But the standard quantity 
is not the same for the two methods. The choice is between the sum of 
valuables consisting of all the finished goods which pass into the hands 
of the consumer yearly, and that consisting of all goods whatever which 
change hands yearly. The basis of the one standard is, to use a bold 
phrase, the mass of final utility ; the basis of the other standard is, to use 
a bolder phrase, the momentum of final utility. 

The choice between the Consumption and Currency Standards may per- 
haps be assisted by a parable. Let us imagine a new game called Trade 
and Industry. It is to be played with pieces, something like chessmen, 



A8 








A7 


Y7 




AS 




\ 


A5 






A4- 






A3 






A2 






Al 










A 













upon a very imperfect sort of chessboard, represented in the above 
figure. As in chess pawns become queens when they reach that base 
towards which they move, so in this game, the pieces trend towards the 



ON VABIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 137 

base line AZ ; on reaching which they become, as it were, consummated. 
Bat here, at each step in advance, a piece becomes transformed to one of 
higher value ; and the final or consummating transformation is not to a 
higher piece, but to an actual prize, say a certain number of sugar- plums, 
which are distributed among the children who take part in the game, 
according to laws which will be described. 

The players in this commercial chess are very numerous. There 
is, at least, one player to each of the compartments, whereof a few 
only are shown in the figure ; each player is against all the rest. For 
instance, in the column designated A there are eight compartments 
(there might be many more), each under the care of at least one indepen- 
dent player. 

We may suppose, initially, a pawn at the compartment Ag (the eighth 
above the part of the base-line marked A). Player Ag moves his pawn to 
compartment A7, and receives in exchange for that pawn from player 
A7 a counter, or rather a batch of, say, five counters. Player A7 is en- 
titled to replace that pawn by a higher piece, a two-pawn piece, which 
he (having received one pawn) is competent to produce. This two- 
pawn piece is passed on by player A7 to player Ag in exchange for two 
batches of counters. Thus the volume of value, like a snowball, rolls on, 
increasing; until A, parts with an eight-pawn piece, or queen, for eight 
batches of counters. 

So far there is a continual stream of pieces downwards and of counters 
upwards. But now sets in a contrary movement. For the queen are 
substituted eight sugar-plums, which are transmitted to the players, 
each plum in exchange for a batch of five counters. There is thus a 
stream of sugar-plums upwards and of counters downwards. 

The game, or turn, being finished, the initial pawn is again produced 
from limbo, and again exchanged for a unit batch of counters ; and so 
the great Wheel of Trade revolves. 

That is confining ourselves, for the purpose of description, to one 
column. In reality it is to be thought that many of the pieces move, 
like knights or bishops, in a skew direction. Thus the pawn in the 
compartment Y; immediately on the right of Ay is not to be considered 
as the head of a stream which descends straight down to the base, cul- 
minating near A. The piece which starts in the compartment mentioned 
may move off to the right, and, joined perhaps by some other stream, 
• queen ' at T. 

Now, suppose that, in the course of time, the number of players and 
pieces have increased, and that the managers of the public place of 
entertainment in which this game is played have failed to provide a 
proportionately increased number of counters. It might become neces- 
sary to economise counters by using four instead of five as the unit- 
batch, the counters being thus appreciated by 20 per cent. Or, if the 
change were brought about less symmetrically, by a gradual irregular 
contraction, the question might arise. How is the appreciation to be 
measured ? What is that ratio of decrease to correct which is the 
business of the managers ; that ratio which, being brought up to unity, 
we may say to the replenishers, ' Hold, enough ' ? 

There are two views before us. We may measure the appreciation of 
counters either by the change in the value of the sugar-plums which are 
eaten, or in that of the pieces which are put in motion in each game or 
turn of the wheel. 



138 KEPOET— 1889. 

Suppose there were a set of outsiders, too young or too old, too wise,' 
or who thought themselves too grand to take part in the game, but do 
not refuse to accept a pension from the bounty of the players — a pension 
enjoyed in sugar-plums but paid in counters. For this class, certainly, 
it would be most convenient that the appreciation should be based npon 
sugar-plums, so that pensions should afford a constant value in use. 
But in the interest of the actual players, puzzled and damnified by the 
change of denomination, ought not the measurement to be grounded on 
the pieces ? It is tenable that the ratio in which the number of counters 
should be increased is (the reciprocal of) the ratio of the total value in 
counters of the whole number of pieces moved, in a game at the first 
period at the rate then prevailing, and the total value of the same pieces 
at the rate prevailing in the second period. 

Suppose that the counters consisted of two sorts, one metal and the 
other paper, exchanging indiscriminately with each other, and with 
pieces and sugar-plums, yet demarcated by some material differences. In 
particular the metal symbols are more under the control of the managers ; 
while the paper tickets are provided by the players themselves. Should the 
appreciation be expressed by the deficiency in metal counters, or in 
counters generally ? Prima facie surely in terms of the latter, though, as 
indicating the duty of the managers, the result may sometimes be 
expressed as a deficiency in metal ; in terms of dose rather than 
diagnosis. 

Upon the whole, it appears that the Currency Standard deserves more 
attention than it has received. The stone unaccountably set aside by 
former builders of Index-numbers may become the corner-stone of future 
constructions. 

It is not to be thought because the proposed method is likely not to 
be so revolutionary in practice as it is distinctive in speculation,^ that 
therefore it is unbefitting a separate and high place here. For we are 
concerned here with distinctions of method rather than differences of 
result. There is attempted here — to illustrate small things by great — 
for a particular province of industry, the sort of analysis which an 
eminent member of our Committee has performed upon the ' Methods ' of 
conduct in general. In the sphere of Finance, as well as Ethics, theo- 
retical distinctions arc important, although they may not correspond in 
practice to such marked discrepancies as might have been expected. 

Nor is it a fatal objection to the scheme that it would be impossible to 
ascertain with precision the proportions in which each commodity 
absorbs, or exercises a pull upon, the currency ; that here the number of 
resales, and there the exceptional use of credit, would defy calculation. 
For, regarding the proposed Index-number as a Weighted Mean of nume- 
rous given variations of price, we see that the objection amounts to saying 
that the weights are liable to a considerable error. But, as shown in a 
former Memorandum, and to be insisted on again in the present one, the 
erroneousness of the weights is likely to produce much less error in the 
computed mean than might have been expected. 

' The most direct application of the Consumption Standard is in the interest of 
annuitants, fellows of colleges, and those whom Mill calls ' idle ' landlords. 

^ Thus the example which we have Imagined is probably an extreme one ; yet it 
presents a difference between the compared Index-numbers of only seven per cent, ; 
which, in view of the 'probable error,' say two or three per cent., to which a»jy Index- 
number is liable, cannot be considered as colossal. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 139 

Nor is it to be objected that, in the present state of statistics, it would 
be impossible to obtain returns under several of the headings, that many- 
important articles would have to bo omitted altogether. For the plan 
still may pi-esent an ideal in the direction of which it may be thought ad- 
visable to move as far as possible. It may supply a rationale to some 
practical method. Thus, any large aggregate of miscellaneous articles, 
finished and unfinished, may be regarded as a sample taken at random 
from the immense incalculable series which forms the data of the ideal 
Index-number. For instance, such a sample may be afforded by the 
statistics of foreign trade, which we now proceed to consider. 

Section III. 
Mr. Olffeii's Methods. 

The next solution of our problem which calls for some additional 
remarks is that which is deduced from the Statistics of Foreign Trade. 
It is proposed first to examine the principles upon which Mr. Giifen's 
masterly calculations are based. • 

The primary object of the whole investigation appears to have been to 
compare the volume of trade in different years. ^ The purpose is, in 
the language of this Committee's first report, to enable us, ' given the 
increase of value [of exports or imports in one year as compared with 
another], to estimate the increase in quantity of the class of commodities 
under consideration.' 

But there is room for casuistical discrimination when we inquire 
what is the meaning and measure of increase in the volume of trade or 
quantity of commodities. 

At first sight the following method of comparing the volume at dif- 
ferent epochs might seem plausible. Compare the (given) quantity of 
one article, say a, in one year, say year x, with the quantity of the same 
commodity in the compared year y. We thus obtain a ratio 

Quantity of commodity a in year y 
Quantity of commodity a in year x 

Form now a similar ratio for article h, and again for c, and so on. The 
circumstance that the unit of a is avoirdupois, that of h, it may be, liquid 
measure, and so on, need not clog these calculations of ratio. We shall 
thus obtain as many ratios as there are articles, say fifty, as approximately 
in some of Mr. Giffen's computations. Now take the mean of these fifty 
ratios. That mean ratio represents the variation in the volume of trade 
between the years x and y. 

This solution of the problem is by no means to be despised as naif. 
It presupposes no doubt a certain sympathy and conformity to a common 
type on the part of several augmentations of which an average is taken. 
But it will be shown first that this hypothesis is adequately verified ; and 
Becondly, that it is equally postulated by the more familiar solutions of 
the problem. 

As to the first point, consider the following figures, which are obtained 
by dividing the quantity of every export in 1883 by the corresponding 

' Pari. Paper/, 1878-9, C 2247 ; 1880, C 2484 ; 1881. C 3079 ; 18S4-5, C 445G. 
* Consider the title and introductory sentences of the Reports. 



140 



EEPORT — 1889. 



quantity in 1880. The quantities are taken from Mr. Giffen's Table V., 
Part I. ; ' and the quotients are given in the order in which those quan- 
tities occur. Thus for Alkali the quantity (of cwts.) is for 1880, 6,888, 
and for 1883, 6,947 ; the figures after the first four being neglected. 
Accordingly, the quotient is 1"01, or I'O. The figures are true to the 
first place of decimals. 



Ratios of Quantities in 1883 
to Quantities la 1880 


Continued 


Continued 


Continued 


10 


0-6 


11 


1-2 


1-4 


0-8 


10 


0-9 


10 


1-2 


11 


1-4 


11 


10 


0-4 


10 


0-9 


10 


1-0 


10 


2-2 


11 


0-7 


1-3 


1-3 


1-4 


1-3 


1-2 


10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


0-9 


0-9 


1-3 


1-4: 


1-3 


11 


0-9 


1-2 


1-2 


11 


1-0 


1-2 


1-2 


1-3 


1-0 


1-4 


11 


1-2 


1-2 



The grouping of these ratios is exhibited in the annexed diagram ; 
where each upright line, surmounted by a figure expressing its length, 
represents the number of times that a certain ratio occurs. Thus the 
ratio I'l is presented eleven times ; the ratio 1"2 ten times. The median, 
is 1*1 ; a result which agrees with that obtained by Mr. Giffen's more 
elaborate and accurate method. He, in effect, weighting each of 
tiiese ratios witb the values of the corresponding article for 1883, finds 
for the ratio of the volume of 1883 to the volume of 1880 the quotient 
146,371,015 -J- 188,032,674 = 1-06, or approximately 1-1. 

Again, comparing 1886 with 1883, and taking each of the fifty-two 
ratios to two decimal places, I find for the median I'OO ; while Mr. Giffen's 
Weighted Mean is -98. 

This consilience might have been predicted by the Calculus of 
Probabilities, if cotton and perhaps one or two other articles whose values 
constitute abnormally large weights had been omitted.^ The fact that 
even without that omission the results coincide shows an even greater 
symmetry in the movement of trade than might have been expected. 

The objection to this plan of taking a simple average between the 
ratios of quantities is that equal importance is assigned to a growth in 
the quantity of an insignificant article like valonia and a staple like wheat, 
of which the quantity imported had in 1875 a pecuniary value some 150 
times as great as that of the unimportant dye-stuff instanced. We re- 
quire, then, a measure of the importance to be attached to different articles 
of trade. It is assumed that such a measure is afforded by money, or 
should be, but that the Monetary Standard is itself liable to variation. 
We require, therefore, to measure the variation of that standard, and thus 

' ' Reports on Recent Changes in the Valuf of Foreign Trade, Pari. Papers, 1885, 
«. 4456 ; and 1888, c. 5386, Part III. table 2. 

- The verification holds good when one, or more than one, of the returns for 
cotton are omitted. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 141 

are brougbt up against the problem which has been proposed to thia 
Committee. 

This problem, as we have seen, presents a variety of phases. But 
for the particular purpose in hand it will be sufficient to make two divi- 
sions. First, we may suppose the variation in the Monetary Standard 
ascertained by examining a wider sphere of industry tha,n foreign trade, 
or we may confine ourselves to the statistics of exports and imports. The 
first alternative has not been entertained by Mr. GifFen in his Reports ;. 
and it will bo dismissed here as leading back to varieties of our problem 
which have been already considered. Again, the following distinction 
may be taken. In combining the comparative prices or ratios between 



11 11 



1 ] 




1 1 



]0 



■o 



10 11 1-2 1-3 li 



the prices of each article at two compared epochs we may assign a cer- 
tain weight to each ratio proportioned to the importance of the corre- 
sponding commodity, or else we may suppose a change in the level of 
prices propagated over a whole zone of trade in such wise that we may 
take a simple average of the given ratios without attending to the cor- 
responding masses of commodity. For a farther enunciation of this 
hypothesis the reader is referred to the former Memorandum,' and to 
the sixth section of the present one. Of these alternatives Mr. Giffeu has 
adopted the former. 

' Brit. Assoc. lirjiort, 1887, p. 280. 



142 BEPORT— 1889. 

It is submitted that this course commits us to some such hypothesis 
as the following. If, in order to compare the volume of trade for a series 
of years, we assign a weight to the price of each article proportioned to 
the importance of that article, we must regard the relative importance of 
each article as constant for that series of years. If, then, the relative 
importance of each article is to be measured by the pecuniary value of 
the quantity bought or sold, the proportions which the value of each 
article bears to the value of any other article, or to the total value of all 
the articles, ought to be pretty constant during the whole series of years. 
This assumption is strikingly verified by Mr. Giifen's Table II. Again, if 
the proportionate amount expended on each article is pretty constant from 
year to year, we may conceive a purchasing public (whether the com- 
munity in whose interest the computation is being made, or the foreigners 
with whom they deal) constant as to the nature of their wants [though 
it may be increasing in numbers in the course of years]. Accordingly 
the rates of exchange between the different articles ought to be constant. 
In other words, the ratio between the prices of the different articles 
ought to be constant during the series of years. This assumption is 
verified as well as could be expected by Mr. Giffen's Table I. and Table 
III., A.i 

The values and prices being constant, it is implied that the propor- 
tionate quantities also, the number of tons, or it may be gallons, of each 
article exported or imported, have a degree of constancy. This propo- 
sition also may be verified by glancing at the quantity columns in Mr. 
Giffen's Table IV., or the same figures in the statistical abstract. 

These assumptions as to the steadiness of the course of foreign trade 
being admitted, a definite interpretation may be assigned to the otherwise 
vague idea of increase in the volume of exports and imports. Or rather 
two or three definitions become possible. The primary significance of an 
increase in the volume of foreign trade is as a measure of the benefit 
which the community desires from foreign trade.^ This conception is 
particularly germane to the case where the articles on which the compu- 
tation is based are commodities imported for the consumption of the 
community. 'In some countries,' writes Mr. Giffen, 'the whole imports 
less the re-exports may be treated as imports for final consumption.' If 
the imports are materials as distinguished from finished products, still the 

• There are reasons why Mr. Giffen's table of price variations (Table III., A) should 
present the appearance of stability in a less degree than his table of proportionate 
values (Table II.) First, each entry in the former table is obtained by comparing 
one item with another item, viz., the price of an article in any year with the price 
of the same article in 18G1 ; whereas each entry in the latter table is obtained by 
comparing an item (the value of an article) with an aggregate (the total value), 
which of course is apt to be more stable than an item. If the suggestion made 
below of referring each price to the mean price of the article for adjacent years were 
adopted this contrast would doubtless be diminished. 

- Tlie variation in the volume of trade as thus conceived is very similar to Coumot's 
definition of ' real gain,' or loss, of social revenue {Recherches sur Ics Principes 
Mathematupies de la Thiome des Rlchesses, ch. x. ; and later redactions). But Cournot, 
who seems not to have seized the idea of ' final utility,' strains the monetary measur- 
ing rod beyond its legitimate application when he propounds his paradox that freeing 
a commodity from a prohibition results in a loss of real gain to the country which 
becomes an importer thereof {Ibid. Ait. 89). For this case implies a change in the 
qvalitg of trade, a diversion of the streams of commodity into new channels with 
which our methods are unable to deal, through failure of the hypothesis enunciated 
in the text. 



ON VAKIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETART STANDAUD. 143 

UBfinished articles may be taken as more or less perfect representatives 
of consumable commodities. 

The case of exports may be thus fitted to this interpretation. It is to 
be assumed that, given the steadiness in the course of trade which we 
have postulated, an increase in tlie volume of exports normally corresponds 
to an increase in that of imports. Thus exports afford a measure of tho 
advantage derived from foreign trade of the same sort as that which 
imports afford.' 

There is a special difficulty in the case of those articles which are 
imported like cotton in order to be re-exported at a subsequent stage of 
manufacture. Take the extreme case, mentioned by Mr. Giffen, of tea, 
which figures as part of the domestic produce exported from France. 
The French of course derive some advantage from tho handling of this 
article. But the interest which they have in the tea thus transmitted is 
not proportioned to the value of the article in the same sense as the value 
of a genuinely native export measures its importance to the nation. 

With regard to this special difficulty, and indeed the whole computation, 
it is to be remarked that we are concerned — not so much with the 
absolute volume of trade — as the relative volume in one year as compared 
with another. The relative volume as already stated may be regarded as 
a sort of mean of the ratios between the quantity (in tons, gallons, &c:) 
of each commodity in one year and the coiTCSponding quantity. It is 
a weighted mean, the weights being the respective values of the 
commodities.^ Grant, now, that in the proposed case of tea transhipped 
from France the weight is exaggerated. Yet, as pointed out by the 
writer in a former Memorandum, some inaccuracy of the weights is not 
likely to affect the result much. It is only in the case of the larger values, 
notably cotton imported into the United Kingdom as the material for 
future manufacture, that the difficulty is serious. Such items ought no 
doubt to be placed in a separate category, and considered on their own 
merits ; not merely on account of their inaccuracy, but also on account of 
their mere magnitude. The domineering pre-eminence of one or two items 
is fatal to the application of the Calculus of Probabilities which flourishes, 
so to speak, only in a republic of numerous independent not very unequal 
constituents. 

Implicated with this definition of the volume of trade there is a de- 
finite method of measuring the variation in the value of money. This 

' It may be objected that the volume of trade is per se, and apart from hypo- 
thesis, an interesting datum, or rather qiicesittim, as sifiording the measure of profits 
accruing to the country, or for some such reason. This remarlc seems just if the cor- 
rections of the Monetary Standard which are made for the purpose of estimating the 
volume of trade are based upon some principle extraneous to the trade, or at least 
some other principle than that of assigning to each article an importance pro- 
portioned to the value exported or imported. All that is contended here is that the 
received method of measuring the trade by itself, so to speak, postulates a certain 
analogy between this species of Index-number and the more general one which is 
based on national consumption. Indeed, it is partly on account of this analogy 
that the subject appears to deserve such full treatment here. 

' In the symbols to be presently introduced the ratios of quantity are of the form 

£iw, ?^, &c. 
The correspondiDg weights are ^ar i'on ffsr Pbxt &c. Thus the weighted moan is 

Qcu Pax + Iby 2'bx + &0« 



144 REPORT — 1889. 

method is of the same general character as that proposed by the Com- 
mittee, but more partial and imperfect, as concerned only with a fraction 
of the national consumption, and that fraction often very indirectly 
represented. 

A slightly diflFerent conception of the method may be distinguished 
by an exhaustive casuistry. The measure of the variation in the value 
of money, which is afforded by the statistics of foreign trade, may be 
of the species which was defined in the third section of the former 
Memorandum. This is a standard, adapted indeed to deferred payments, 
yet for which the items entering into the Index-number ' are not copied 
from the statistics of national expenditure, but are selected on some other 
principle.' It is presumed in virtue of the general sympathetic move- 
ment of prices that the change in value of the articles of national con- 
sumption is adequately represented by the change of value in certain 
other articles selected on what may be called a random principle from 
the whole mass of trade. Whichever of these two slightly distinct views 
we take, we may perhaps describe the principle of measurement as a qimsi- 
consumption standard. 

Again, as suggested at the end of the last section, the Index-number 
based on foreign trade may be regarded as an imperfect Currency 
Standard of the sort described at the end of last section. It may be, 
and indeed it has been, asked, What is the use of thus drawing out to an 
additional degree of tenuity distinctions already somewhat fine-spun ? 
Referring to the first report of the Committee for a general indication of 
the bearing which the theory of our subject has on its practice, the writer 
would observe, with especial reference to the first and second sections of 
this Memorandum, that the principle connected with the name of Professor 
Foxwell affords a rationale for an Index-number, which is admitted to be 
of great practical importance — that based on foreign trade. An equally 
intelligible explanation of received practice is not afforded by all the first 
principles which different theorists have proposed. The Capital Standard, 
for instance, could hardly be regarded as the theoretical basis on which 
Mr. Giffen's work, or Mr. Bourne's, may be rested. This reference to first 
principles is by no means otiose. It assists in deciding what differences 
of method are fundamental, how far our choice may be governed by 
regard for mere elegance and ease, and we may say of rival methods — 

* Whate'er is best administered is right.' 

Thus it will be maintained that Mr. Bourne's dissent from Mr. Giffen's 
practice is not justified by first principles. On the other hand, reasons 
will be given for differing from the opinion which Mr. Giffen seems to 
entertain, that his second method, set forth in the fourth table of his 
earlier Reports, is less serviceable than the method to which his first three 
tables refer.' 

The discussion of the questions raised maybe facilitated by the use of 
symbols. Let a, b, c, &c., denote the commodities of which we are given 
the quantities and prices for a series of n years. Let the successive years 
be designated by the numerals 1, 2, 3, &c. Let g„, be the quantity (im- 
ported or exported) of the commodity a in the year 1 ; q,,^ the quantity 
of commodity b in the same year, and so on. And let q^2j q,^,,, &c., 
represent the quantities in the year 2, and so on. The absolute magni- 

» Pari. Papers, 1878-9, C. 2247, p. 4, par. 4. 



Article a 


Article J 


Article r 




1h2 


• In 
• • In 



ON VAUIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 145 

tude of the quantities of commodity increases in general from year to 
year; but the proportions between the respective masses of commodity 
are, by hypothesis stated at page 142, constant. Thus we are to imagine 
each set of ratios q„^ : jj,, j^j ■ !Z62> ^^-^ %n '■ iimi as quantities of the same 
order hovering about a mean or diverging from a type which we may 
denote by y^ '. ji- Similar suppositions are made with respect to the 
other articles. The annexed arrangement of the symbols brings these 
relations clearly under view : — 

Year I 
Year 2 



Here each y stands for any of the g's in the column above it ; or, rather, 
the ratio of any one y to another ; e.g., y^ '■ Jb stands for the ratio of the 
corresponding g's for any year. , 

Similarly let pa\ denote the price of the article a in the year \,Pa2 
the price of the same article in the year 2, and so on. Here the abso- 
lute magnitude of the prices varies from year to year with the apprecia- 
tion or depreciation of money ; but the proportions between the prices of 
the respective commodities are regarded as fairly constant. Then we 
have a scheme for the ^'s like that of the j's : — 

Yearl 
Year 2 



Year n p„„ i',,„ 



Article a 


Article b 




Article r 


Pox 

Pat 




• • 


Pn 
■ Pri 



Tft 



Here each of the tt's is typical of the column above it ; or, rather, the ratio 
of any one -k to another is typical of the ratio between the corresponding 
^j's for any year. 

Upon these hypotheses the following appears to be the most general, 
or at least a sufficiently general, representation of the proportionate 
volumes of trade for the series of years. 

Volume of imports [or exports] in year x is proportional to value of 
imports [or exports] in year.?; -f- Index-number indicating the ratio of the 
price-level in the year x to the level of prices which is taken as standard. 

.*. Volume of imports [or exports] in year x is proportional to value 
of imports [or exports] in year x 

7a T„ + y6 Tj + Ac. ' 

where, as already explained, y,., y;,, &c., tt,,, itj,, &c., are the typical quan- 
tities and prices. 

So far we have supposed both the quantities and prices of the articles 
imported or exported to be given. In the concrete case where these data 
are wanting for a considerable set of articles of which the value only ia 

1880. L 



146 KEPOET— 1889. 

given, the formula is still the same, viz., Volume in year x oc Value in 
year x -;- Index-nnmber indicating ratio of the level of prices in the 
year x to the standard level. The only difference is that we must now 
base our Index-number upon a part only of the total trade whose volnme 
is required, assuming that what is true of a part is true of the whole. 

How now are we to determine the <(/pes which enter into our formnla ? 
First as to the quantities. The most obvious course is to take the g's 
of a particular year for the typical y's, e.g., q^.^ for •/„, and so on. In the 
absence of special reasons in favour of or against certain years, we may 
select any one of the n years to furnish the typical quantities. We have 
thus at once ?«• different schemes. But it need not be postulated that the 
same system of quantities should be adopted for each of the series of 
years. In fact, in the scheme of Mr. Giffen's Table IV. different factors 
are employed for each comparison, namely, the factors furnished by each 
year which is being compared in respect of its level of prices with the 
standard year (1861). If this additional liberty is used to its full extent 
for every one of the n schemes already enumerated, we have now n 
variants ; that is, in all we have n^ different formute. However, it may 
be admitted that these additional schemes, with the important exception 
of the particular one used by Mr. Giffen in his Table IV., are, if not less 
accurate, at least less elegant than those which were mentioned first. 
We shall therefore dismiss these variants with the exception of that 
one which seems peculiarly appropriate. So far, then, we have (?i + l) 
schemes presented by the varieties of the quantity-types, the price-type 
being supposed fixed. 

But the price-types also are manifold. A system of such types is fur- 
nished by the actual prices of every year — in the absence of special reasons 
against some particular year. Thus Mr. Giffen has chosen 1861 as the 
year of standard prices, Mr. Bourne 1883. We have thus n additional 
cases, which, compounded with the (w-f 1) above ground give ?i (71 -J- 1) 
distinct schemes or formulEe for comparing the series of volumes. 

Out of this whole number there are 2n which deserve particular atten- 
tion, namely, those in which the quantities or factors employed in each 
comparison are supplied by one of the compared years. One system of 
such schemes in number n is obtained by using in every comparison 
the factors supplied by the year of standard price ; in other words, by 
taking the types of price and quantity from the same years. The other 
system, also numbering n, is that which was noticed in the last paragraph 
but one as having been used by Mr. Giffen in his Table IV. The quan- 
tities in this system are supplied by the year which is being compared in 
respect of its level of prices with the year of standard price. Of course, 
if we were concerned with only one comparison at a time, if each comparison 
were an independent operation, these selected schemes would be entitled 
to a decided preference. But where the object is to find a series of 
numbers, representing by the ratio of any one to any other the proportion 
between the volumes of trade for the corresponding years, there seems to 
be no advantage in constructing our measuring-rod with the factors of 
one year rather than another. The whole computation presupposes some 
such hypothesis as that which has been enunciated above ; and on that 
hypothesis one year has no claim to be preferred before another. 

What may be said in favour of the selected schemes is that they are 
very slightly more convenient than the other ones. In general, it may be 
observed that we have n operations, each of a kind illustrated by the for- 



ON YABIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETAET STANDAED. 147 

mation and addition of the columns in Mr. Giffen's Table III., B. One 
such operation is required to construct the denominator of the Index- 
numbers which express the ratio between the level of prices in the standard 
year and each other year. That denominator is in general terms, as we 
have seen, y„ v^ + yb 7rj + &c. ; or, if we take the y's from one year, say x, 
and the tt's from another year, say ij, the denominator becomes 

To be compared with this denominator there are (?i — 1) numerators one 
for each of the years except the standard one, each numerator of the form 

where s is a year compared with y in respect of the level of price. 

There are, in general, then, n such operations: (n — 1) for the 
numerators, and one for the denominator. But in the particular case 
where the types of price and quantity are taken from the same year, 
where x = y, the denominator reduces to 

Qax Pax + ^ix Pbx + &C- = Valuo for year re, 

a given figure which requires no computation. Accordingly one opera- 
tion — that of calculating the denominator — is spared. Again, if we take tlie 
factors from the particular year, say z, which is being compared in respect 
of the level of prices with the standard year, that is, if in the last paragraph 
we put X = z, the numerator reduces to 

qa,Paz + qb=lh^ + &'C., 

forming the total value for the year c, which is a given figure. But 
meanwhile, in employing a different scheme of factors for each numerator, 
we have necessitated the use of (n — 1) different denominators, each of the 
form 

qa.zPa.z + qbzPb.+&C. 

The valuation of each of these forms will require (n — 1) operations of 
the kind described. 

In addition to this slight advantage in respect of ease there may also 
be ascribed a peculiar elegance to the selected formulte. But they have 
no claim to the highest degree of accuracy. That distinction belongs to 
a more complicated system, which is now to be described. We have so 
far taken for granted that each typical quantity y is furnished by some 
q which is the actual quantity for a particular year. But it is more agree- 
able to the Calculus of Probabilities to take som.e Mean of the given q's for 
the type y. This principle has been recognised in the First Report of 
the Committee, where it is proposed that for the purpose of comparing the 
level of prices at two different epochs the factors employed should be the 
mean of the respective quantities. In the variety of the problem with 
which we are at present concerned we may suppose a whole series of 
corresponding quantities, e.rj., for the article a g,,,, ?u2, &c., q^n- The mean 
of all or any number of these quantities may be taken for our type. 
Now, out of n quantities (2" — 1) distinct combinations may be formed. 
Instead, therefore, of the n diSerent arrangements of factors which we at 
first found we have now 2" — 1; which, being combined with the one 
peculiar scheme employed in Mr. Gifien's Table IV., makes 2". 

Similar remarks apply to the types of price. "We have so far taken 
actual prices for our types. But it may be better to imagine a sort of 



L 2 



148 EEPORT — 1889. 

mean year with normal or typical prices formed by arranging tlie actual 
prices of several years. This principle has been employed to some extent 
by Jevons, Dr. Soetbeer, Mr. Palgrave, and Mr. Sauerbeck. In virtue of 
this principle the n different bases of price which we found before are 
swelled to 2"— 1. Altogether, therefore, we have 2"x(2" — 1) distinct 
schemes of Index-number. 

This account may be further multiplied if we have a choice, as would 
often be proper, between the Arithmetic Mean and a certain other species 
of average which is noticed below. However, it may be well to leave 
some margin for the occurrence of abnormal years (like 1873) whose data 
cannot be used freely. So let us be content with the modest estimate 
just furnished, as resulting from that degree of liberty of choice which 
we have so far contemplated. 

That is, however, a very narrow view. For each q which we have 
employed may be replaced by an expression which is by hypothesis of the 
same order. For instance, we are entitled to put for q^,j, q,^y, &c., the 

expressions g„y^', qi,,—, &c. ; say q'a,j, q'h,j, &c. This is, in effect, what 

Pax Vbx 

Mr. Giffen has done in the classical computations comprised in the first 
thi'ee tables of his reports. His formula for the volume of any year, z, may 
be written in our notation : — 

(?«75|^)Fa.+ {qm:^^Pi.z+ Ac- 
Volume of year zoc Value of year z-i- ~ —^ ^-^^ 

{?«r5^Mi5«Cl + ((^675^MP661+ &c. 

The reader will easily see the equivalence of this formula to that which 
Mr. Giffen has made familiar, if the symbols p^^^, p^gj, &c., are brought 
outside the brackets both in the numerator and denominator. The de- 
nominator, for instance, will become (qa7oPa75) + (9'675 25w3) + &c. ; corre- 
sponding to the column headed 1875 in Mr. Giffen's Table II. 

By parity it may be shown that the Index-number constructed by 
Mr. Palgrave implies the following formula for volume : — 

Volume of year z oc Value of year " '' 



(?-f^) X '^a+ (^'^ ~) "^ + &°- 



where tt^, ttj, &c., are types of price obtained by taking an average over 
certain years.' In fact, Mr. Palgrave's scheme may be regarded as a 
variant of the plan employed in Mr. Giffen's Table IV., which was above 
commended to particular attention. 

These ^''s may be combined with each other in the same way as the 
q's ; and, indeed, the q"s and the q's may be mixed. However, these 
operations would be laborious and inelegant. We shall, therefore, cull 
from the infinite field which has just been opened up only just such a 
number as to double the estimate already reached. It may be useful to 
show how this additional contingent is reached, taking as a conspicuous 
instance the materials of Mr. Giffen's work. It was open to him to have 
taken for the basis of prices some year other than 1861. In fact, in his 

' See, on Mr. Giffen's and Mr. Palgrave's Index-numbers, sect. ii. of the present 
writer's first Memorandum, Brit. Assoc. Jlej)., 1887, p. 265. 



ON VAEIATIONS IN TIIK VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 149 

fourth table he has so used both 1873 and 1883. Or the base line might 
have been composed by taking the average prices of each article for several 
years, after the manner of Sir. Palgrave or Mr. Sauerbeck, except that 
the years entering into the average need not be consecutive. It may be 
asked. What reason could there be for taking half-a-dozen years — some at 
the beginning, it might be, and some in the middle, or at the end, of the 
period under review ? The reason might be the very absence of a reason. 
Suppose it were thought desirable, in order to avoid accidents, to take a 
mean of half-a-dozen years, and not worth the trouble of including more 
than half-a-dozen. In the absence of special objections to certain years 
any one half-dozen is as good as any other. There are, therefore, as many 
half-dozens as there are combinations of six to be formed out of the n years. 
To avoid the suspicion of cookery it might be best to make a selection 
at random — by spinning a teetotum, or by some equally arbitrary process. 
It should be observed that the labour of taking averages over several 
years need not be so formidable as might be supposed, {^Medians instead 
of Arithmetic Means be employed. In view of abnormalities like the 
irregular rise of prices in 1873, there vfould be a peculiar propriety in the 
use of the Median.' 

Exactly similar considerations apply to the factors or proportions 
■which form Mr. Giffen's second table. It was open to him, as he points 
out, to take these proportions from some other year than 1875. In fact, 
he tried several years with substantially identical results.'^ There are, 
therefore, at once as many factors as there are years in the series. More- 
over any mean of these factors may be taken. Here, again, then, we have 
2" — ! schemes to choose from. 

Well, then, any one of these (2" — 1) measuring-rods may be used in 
connection with any one of the (2" — 1) price-scales above mentioned. 
Thus arise (2" — 1)(2" — 1) arrangements for comparing the years in 
respect of the level of prices. To these may be added Mr. Palgrave's 
system of factors combined with any one of the (2"— I) price-scales. 
This addition swells the contingent to 2" x (2" — 1). This number is to 
be added to the previous estimate, viz., 2"x(2'' — 1), which is thereby 
doubled, becoming 2»+ ' (2« - 1 ) . 

The question may now arise, How large is n to be ? It may be sug- 
gested that it should be as small as possible, namely, 2. We should 
proceed according to the method recommended by Professor Marshall,^ and 
exhibited at length in the former Memorandum."* We should compare 
the present year with last year only, next year with the present, and so 
on. The fact that Professor Marshall refers to the general problem of a 
measure based on articles of consumption, whereas we are now particu- 
larly concerned with the volume of trade, does not appear to atiect the 
reasons on which his recommendation is based. However, it may be well 
to combine that principle with the practice of averages over several years. 
At any rate, the latter procedure is countenanced by the most eminent 
statisticians. Extending their review over a considerable tract of time, 
they have, in effect, taken for granted that sort of solidarity between tho 
years which we have all along supposed. Ten years, twenty years, nay, 
even forty years, have thus been compared bdcr se. Let us take tho 

' See below, Sect. V., and the papers to which reference is there made. 
^ Parliamentary Papers, 1878-9, c. 2217. 
' Contemporary Review, March 1887. 
« Brit. AsHOC. Report, 1887, p. 2G9. 



150 REPORT— 1889. 

period of twenty years as quite permissible ; then by the formula above 
reached we find the total number of available arrangements to be more 
than a billion. All these billion schemes are on the whole about equally 
good, some having a slight advantage in respect of safety, and others 
of ease. 

Section IY. 
Mr. Bourne's Method, 

These elucidations assist us in discerning the character of a method 
which was proposed by Mr. Bourne so long ago as 1873, and more 
recently has been submitted to the British Association together with 
some criticism of Mr. Giffen's celebrated computations. > It will be found 
that Mr. Bourne has discovered, not the method, but only a method — a 
very good method, no doubt, but not much better than many others, not 
more serviceable than hundreds, not more accurate than millions that 
are available. 

A little attention will show that the reasoning is virtually identical 
with that which Mr. Giffen employs in his fourth table when he compares 
the quantities in any year at the prices of that year with the same quan- 
tities at the prices of 1883 ; and goes on, as, for instance, in his first Report, 
page V, to compare the measure (for the level of prices) so obtained in 
order to deduce the comparative volume of any year from its value. It is 
not to be denied, indeed, that this method, under the neat handling of 
Mr. Bourne, has acquired great elegance. But we must take care not 
to exaggerate its pre-eminence over other methods. 

In the first place it does not seem to have any advantage over the 
twin-method which was noticed along with it above.^ This method is, in 
brief, to take as the measure of changed level of prices 

Quantities of 1883 at prices 1887 
Quantities of 1883 at prices 1883' 

There is no reason to think that this method would be less accurate 
than its converse. And it would enjoy the distinction of not having 
been worked out in detail by Mr. Gifien (in his latter tables). 

A certain precedence, perhaps, attaches to these twin-methods in virtue 
of a slight superiority in ease and elegance.-* But this slight distinction 
must not be mistaken for a serious ditference in worth or power. Nor is 
Mr. Bourne's position defensible when he disapproves the method set 
forth in Mr. Giffen's first three tables. The gist of Mr. Bourne's objec- 
tions is contained in the following passage, of which the context should 
be studied : — * 

' The proportions of [quantities of] cotton yam for 1865, 1875, 1883 
stood as 104 : 216 : 265, but by value as 10 : 13 : 14, and the percentages 
of increase or decrease from the standard of 1861 were as +91-23 
: -1-16-91 [misprinted in the Report 41-63] : —2-3. It is difficult to see 
how any combination of these factors, so widely diS'ering in their ratios, 
can bring about the result that the Index-numbers for cotton yarn should 
be altered as -}-5-38 : +1-00 : —0-14 as shown in the Board of Trade 
tables.' 

' Brit. Assoc. Rejport, 1885 and 1888. 2 Above, p. 146. 

s Above, p. 147. « Brit. Assoc. Report, 1885, p. 868. 



ON TARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 151 

This passage, with its context, presents great difficulties. As Mr. 
CJifi'en's 'Index -numbers' do not purport to be measures of volume, but 
of changed level of prices, there is no reason for surprise that the 
' factors ' of quantity and value should have no visible cfi'ect on^the 
'result that the Index-numbers for cotton yarn should be altered' by 
certain additions. The additions to the Index-number are proportional 
to the percentages of increase or decrease of price ( + 5'38, +1, —014; 
proportional to +91-23, +16-91, —2-31), and that is all that is to be ex- 
pected. It seems as if the original writer had stated the relation between a 
yard and a metre as a preliminary to comparing the height of an English- 
man and Frenchman, the former height having been given in yards, the 
latter in metres. The critic gives the relative height of the Englishman 
and Frenchman, and then complains that this factor has no correspondence 
with the relation between a yard and a metre. 

Such appears at first sight to be the drift of the passage above cited. 
It will be found, however, from the context that the critic has not over- 
looked the fact that the object of the ' Index-number ' in question is, to 
continue our metaphor, the comparison of the two scales, yard and 
metre. But he seems under the mistaken impression that this comparison 
can best be effected by giving the Frenchman's height in metres and also. 
in feet, and comparing these figures. Now, it is here contended that the 
two scales may equally well be compared by taking the Englishman's 
height both in metres and feet.' Nay, a German will do equally well for 
the purpose of comparing the two scales of measurement.^ But, in order 
to bring out the truth which is here implied, it will be well to employ a 
metaphor which is more nearly an analogy. 

The following apologue may put the whole matter in a clear light. 
Suppose there Avere given the increase per cent, in the number of births 
in a certain district, the increase per cent, in the number of the popula- 
tion, and in the number of persons to a birth (or the inverse birth-rate) 
for several years. There would, of course, be a visible connection between 
these figures ; and any one set, in particular the proportionate popula- 
tion, could be deduced from the other two. Now, if a statistician had 
assigned an Index-number purporting to represent the alteration in the 
numbers of the population, and the alterations so assigned were not de- 
ducible from the first and third sets of data, and not coincident with the 
second, it would, no doubt, be reasonable to complain that it was difficult 
to see how the given factors brought about that result. 

But our problem is by no means so simple. It is like those problems 
in vital statistics which Laplace, in the absence of a complete census, 
proposed to solve by the aid of the Calculus of Probabilities. He supposes 
that the total number of births in a country has been ascertained from 
registers of baptisms, and that the birth-rate, or its reciprocal, the 
number of persons to one birth, has been observed at two or more epochs 
in several districts, which are taken as fairly representative of the whole 
country. If the birth-rate were constant from year to year, we might 
reason thus : — 
Population in year y : Population in j-ear z :: Total No. of births in y 
: Total No. of births ina; (x being the standard year). 

But if the birth-rate is considered as varying between the two epochs 
• Tlie twin-method alluded to on our page 150. = Mr. Giffen's first method. 



152 REPORT— 1889. 

compared a correction must be made for this circumstance. We havft 

then : — 

^ , , . . 1 . • • Total No. of births in ?/ 

Population in w oc population m x X — — — — ; — , — "^- 

^ ./ i- x' rpQta^^ jSIo. of births m x 

Average birth-rate in ?/' 

Average birth-rate in x 

Now, the last-written fraction may on certain suppositions be deter- 
mined by taking a measure of the variations in birth-rate (at one epoch 
compared with another) in each of the observed districts, with due 
attention to the varying size of the districts, the different importance (for 
the purpose in hand) of these rates. In other words, if the districts ara 
named a, b, &c., we may write 

Average birth-rate in y 

Average birth-rate in x 

Population of a in ?/ x birth-rate of a in i/ 

+ population of & in 7/ X birth-rate of & in ?/ -|- &c; 

Population of a in ?/ x birth-rate of fi in a; 

-1- population oi b in y x birth-rate of h in .r-h&c.-' 

This is the analogue of Mr. Bourne's method, in which it will be seen 
that there is postulated a certain constayicy in the proportions between tho 
population of each district to that of the others and of the lohole country. 

Suppose a writer had employed the proportions furnished by the yeau 
1883 in order to determine the relation between the birth-rate of that 
year and of the year 1865.^ He, in effect, postulates the constancy of 
proportions (between the different districts and the whole country) to 
prevail over that period. It is not open, then, to him to complain of 
another writer who employs the proportions furnished by the year 1875 
in order to compare the population for a series of years between 1865 
and 1883. But, if the use of those proportions is admissible, then the sort 
of verification which the writer of the vexed passage under review appears- 
to expect was not to be expected. 

In short, given the hypothesis which has been hinted metaphorically 
here, and stated explicitly above, the method which Mr. Bourne has pro- 
pounded has no great advantage over the other methods. That hypo- 
thesis not being given, Mr. Bourne's method, equally with the others, 
falls. Of the varied ramifications of the problem he has occupied a 
particular, and no doubt an eminent, branch. He cannot hope that this 
particular branch should stand when the others have fallen. One can. 
only bring them down by striking at the root of the whole reasoning. 

From this class of methods we shall now proceed to a substitute for 
them, which has recently been proposed by Sir Rawson Rawson. 

Section V. 

Sir Rawson Rawson'' s Method. 

Sir Rawson Rawson's original method may be contemplated under 
two aspects, according as the primary object is to measure variations in 
the volume of trade or — our peculiar care — in the value of the monetary 

' Compare the general formulEe given above, p. 145. 
2 Cf. Brit. Assoc. Rej). 1885, p. 865 et seq. 



ON VABIATIONS IN TUB VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 1 oS 

standard. Sir Rawson's solution of tlie problem in its former pliase i» 
simple : to put the tonnage of ' ships cleared or entered with cargoes ' ^ 
as representing the volume of exports and imports. 

Now, we have seen above that volume of trade must be understood in 
Bome such sense as equivalent, or rather proportional, to volume of value 
estimated in a corrected monetary standard, or, if the expression is not 
too harsh, volume of utility as measured by money. Therefore, in order 
that the new method should be available for the comparison of volumes 
in different years, say x and y, the following equation ought to hold 
approximately : — 

Tonnage in year y Corrected value in year y 

Tonnage in year x Corrected value in year x' 

where * corrected value ' is used as a short title for the figure which is 
obtained by reducing the total value for each year to a standard or normal 
level. In other words, 

Tonnage in year y 
Tonnage in year x 
_ Quantity of a in y x normal price of g + quantity of b in ?/ x normal price of & + &c. 
Quantity of a in. x x normal price ot a + quantity ot b in x x normal price of b + &c. - 
Now, ' tonnage ' is the measure of a ship's capacity for cargo. Ton- 
nage is, or is proportioned to, the cubical capacity of that part of a ship 
which is available for cargo. ^ Accordingly the first step towards esta- 

' Given in the Statistical Abstract. 

- Accordingly Sir Rawson Rawson's priority is not affected by Drobisch's sugges- 
tion (noticed in the former Memorandum) to put the number of tons or hundred- 
weights in the total mass of commodities as the measure of their volume. Mutatis 
mutandis, the tests here applied to Sir Rawson's method are applicable to that of 
Drobisch. The validity of the latter is confirmed by the statistics of the German 
foreign trade for 1885 and 188G, which have recently been published by the Board 
of Trade, along with an estimate of the change in volume between 1885 and 
ISSG, based upon the method emploj'ed in Mr. Giffcn's Table IV. {Pari. Papers, 1888, 
c. 5507). The 'quantities' of the German exports and imports are all expressed ia 
(German) tons, so that Drobisch's method is readilj' applicable. The following tables 
exhibit the results of that method in contrast with the theoretically more perfect 
computation. The results are expressed as Index-numbers for the volume and the 
level of prices in 188G as compared with 1885. The imports and exports of the 
precious metals have not been included in the data : — 



German Imports of 1886 pomparative with 
those of 1885 


Drobisch's Method 


Mr. Giffcn's 
Method 


Index-number for Volume .... 


•95 


•98 


Index-number for Price-level 


103 


•99 


German Exports of 1886 comparative with 
those of 1885 


Drobisch's Method 


Mr. Gitfen's 
Method 


Index-number for Volume .... 


101 


1-04 


Index-number for Price-level 


104 


•97G 



This complete consilience affords an indirect verification of Sir Rawson Rawson's 



154 EEPORT— 1889. 

blisTiing the relation above stated is to show that the capacity for cargo 
bears from year to year a constant ratio to the space actually occupied by 
cargo. In other words, we require to be assured that an average ship 
(entering or clearing with cargo) is as fully loaded in one year as another. 
Sir Rawson Rawson, whose sagacity and candour have anticipated every 
objection, is satisfied that we may dismiss this scruple. 
We may therefore write the postulated equation : — - 

Bulk of a in ?/+bulk of h in y + &c. 
Bulk of a in a; + bulk of b in X + &C. 

Quantity of a in 7/ x normal price of a 4- &c. 

Quantity of a in x X normal price of a + <fcc. 

where ' bulk of a in 1/ ' is short for the total space, the volume in cubic 

yards, occupied by the whole mass of commodity a which is exported, or 

as the case may be imported, in the course of the year y. The relation 

of these two fractions may be better seen by putting each of them in 

the form of what may be called a ' weighted mean ' of the ratios of bulk ; 

(or, as implied in the last note, we might take as the ratios to be operated 

Quantity (in tons or gallons) of a in 7/ „ ^ m rr , ,1 • • . i i ri. 
on : :^ ■i-^ .J — . 1 -1^ &c.) . To effect this m the left- 
Quantity ot CD in a; 

hand member of the equation, we should leave the denominator as it is, 

and we should alter each term of the numerator thus : For Bulk of a in y 

write Bulk of a in a;x— !^- ^', and so on. The left-hand side of 

Bulk ot a in x 

the equation is now in the form of a weigbted mean of the ratios, 

.f-—- — - — : — -, &c., the weights being bulk of a in x, bulk of h in x, &c. 
Bulk ot a in a; o o 

Treating the right-hand member in the same spirit, we obtain a weighted 

mean of the same ratios, each weight being of the form, bulk of a in 

iBxNo. of tons [gallons, pieces, &c.] in unit of bulk x normal price often 

[gallon, piece, &c.], or, as it may be more shortly written, value of Bulk 

of a in a; at standard prices — that is, assuming that the number of tons, 

&G., in a unit of bulk is constant from year to year. But if tbis cannot be 

assumed we must add a remainder, of which the numerator is made up 

of terms like the followina: : — 

Bulk of a in 2/ (No. of tons in unit bulk of a in 7/— No. of tons in unit bulk 
of a in a;) X normal price of a ; and the denominator is the total value in x. 

Omitting this remainder for the present we have now to compare two 
weighted means of the same set of quantities (the ratios above specified), 
the weights being in the one expression each of the form, bulk of a in a; ; 

method, in so far as it is on the same footing with Drobisch's ; each admitting of 
being regarded as an arbitrarily weighted mean of certain ratios, such as 

tons of commodity a in 1886 
tons of same commodity in 1885 

(the" ratios of quantity described at p, 140 above). Whereas the theoretically correct 
expression is the value of commodity a at normal (or corrected) prices ; Drobisch 
puts tons avoirdupois of a, and Sir Kawson Eawson puts (in effect) tonnage (or 
cubical volume) of a. 

From this point of ^^ew it will appear that both methods derive confirmation 
from the experiment tried above, at p. 140, of taking an altogether unweighted mean 
of the ratios between quantities. 



ON VAKIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 155 

in tho other expression of the form, value of a in f. Now, it has been 
shown by the present writer in a memorandum on the Accuracy of 
Index-numbers, published in the Report of the British Association for 
1888, that, in forming a mean of any given set of quantities, the difference 
between the results obtained by adopting diQ'erent systems of weights is 
apt to be inconsiderable. This proposition has been established both by 
reasoning from the theory of probabilities and by pretty copious examples. 
It is shown that the divergence between the two results tends to 
diminish as the number of (supposed independent) items entering into 
the average increases ; the probable deviation being proportioned to the 
inverse square root of the number of items. This tendency to evanes- 
cence is resisted by three circumstances : the inequality of the given 
items which are to be averaged, the inequality of the weights which con- 
stitute the set or system which is regarded as true, and the largeness of 
the difference between each weight in that one system and the correspond- 
ing weight in the other system. It can be shown that the last two 
circumstances are equivalent to, or, rather, are contained under, one attri- 
bute, namely, the inequality of the weights in either system.' 

These criteria are now to be applied to the case before us. In the first 
place we have a very large number of elements to deal with — much larger- 
than the number of enumerated articles which enter into Mr. Giffen's 
Index-numbers. For Sir Rawson Rawson's Index-number includes the 
unenumerated as well as the specified articles. Thei'e is, therefore, a 
strong prima facie presumption that the divergence between the two 
compared expressions will prove to be unimportant; even smaller than 
in the case of the Index-numbers compared in the paper referred to, the 
number of items being larger here than there. 

Then, as to the counter tendencies. There is no reason to apprehend 

any fatal inequality in the ratios of the form .;-— ; — - — ■. — ^. At least it 
^ ^ ^ Bulk of a m x 

would only be in cases of articles where the bulks were very small that 
such an influence need be apprehended, the ratio in such a case tending 
to infinity. It is easy to see, however, that this tendency would be cor- 
rected by the ' weights ' ; that such an article would not be likely to have 
much efl'ect on the whole expression. There seems no reason to appre- 
hend any much more marked inequality in comparative bulks than in 
comparative quantities, which, as we know from Mr. Giflen's tables, aro 
not fatally unequal. 

There remains tho twofold condition that the weights of either 
system should not inter se be very unequal. The most serious violation 
of this condition seems to be coal in the case of exports. It appears from 
Sir Rawson Rawson's statistics that the bulk of coal takes up an inor- 
dinate proportion of the total bulk of all commodities. Accordingly 
he has very properly excluded coal from his Index-number. It is interesting 
to observe that, as shown in Tables I. and VII., the inclusion of coal does 
not, as a matter of fact, distort the result so much as might have been 

' The measure of ' inequality ' is the square root of the sum of squares of all the 
weights in a system -f- their sum. The divergence between the results is directly pro- 
portionate to this expression. If the weights are perfectly equal the factor reduces 
to vnity-i- Vn. But suppose one weight preponderates over its fellows to such an 
extent as to constitute half of the total mass, the remainder of which we may 
imagine split up among a number of small weights ; the resulting expression is no 
longer of the order 1 -j- -^^n, but equals, at least, \. 



156 REPORT — 1889. 

expected, or indeed in any considerable degree. The tables referred to 
should be compared with the Appendix at p. 159, as strikingly illustrating 
how different principles of averaging bring out the same mean result ; in 
short, that in our sort of work it is not very easy to go wrong. 

Among imports, grain and timber are suspicious. But with regard to 
timber Sir Rawson Rawson shows that, though the ' weight ' (determined 
by its bulk) is large, yet it is not materially different from what it ought to 
be as determined by value. However, he is no doubt judicious in excluding 
such-like items from his final Index-number. 

With regard to the inequality of values, as this has not proved fatal 
to Mr. Giffen's and the cognate methods, there is ci fortiori less reason to 
apprehend it in the case of an argument which is based on a greater 
number of independent items. However, it might be well to examine 
specially the influence of cotton. 

There remains to be considered the remainder, which is made up of 
differences between the density of packing in different years. It is natural 
to suppose that these should compensate each other except so far as in the 
course of years a general tendency to increased economy of room makes 
itself felt. Sir Rawson Rawson sets off against this tendency the increase 
of passenger traffic ; a quantity which he has abundantly shown to be of 
an order which may be neglected. For short periods, at any rate, the new 
method appears to constitute an important adjunct to, if not a complete 
substitute for, the received methods. 

Sir Rawson Rawson's method may be regarded in another aspect as 
affording a measure of the level of prices in different years. If the 
hypotheses made in the earlier part of this pajDer are conceded, no ad- 
ditional remark is called for here. We have simply to write Index-number 
for level of prices in year y as com pared with x -- average price in y 

. „„„ ^ • • Value in v Value in x [ Value in -?/ 

-f- average price m x ^ — ^ ^-J— _:_ , ( or =; 

Volume in y ' Volume in .c \ Value in x 

-7- -T^^n -■ — ~ 1 ; where the values are given figures and the volumes are 

Volume va. x) o o 

proportioned to the respective tonnages. We thus obtain a new and 

remarkably easy solution of cur problem. 

Section VI. 

Tlie present Writer's Method. 

We have so far been supposing that the importance attached to each 
variation in price is, or ought to be, proportioned to the value of the 
corresponding article. But we have now to entertain a different sup- 
position and distinct method. We are now to imagine a general change 
coming over the monetary world — or some zone of it like wholesale 
prices — like a general variation in temperature or atmospheric pressure 
over a physical region which is not perfectly level and uniform in its 
conditions. In reading a barometer or thermometer in any particular 
place with a view of ascertaining the fact and amount of a general 
change it would not be appropriate to attach importance to the mere 
size of the tube and quantity of the rising or falling liquid. In fact the 
smaller thermometer has so far the preference, as it takes on more 
quickly changes of temperature in the surrounding medium. Sensitive- 
ness, not size, is the criterion of these indicators. So also, in virtue of 



ON VAKIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 157 

well-known analogies between the unity of price in the same market and 
the equilibrium of fluids in the same vessel, the change of price in a 
large market is not more indicative of the sought mean variation than a 
change of price in a small market. F rim a facie, for tlie purpose in hand, 
each observation should count for one. Or, if more weight attaches to 
a change of price in one article rather than another, it is not on account 
of the importance of that article to the consumer or to the shopkeeper, 
but on account of its importance to the calculator of probabilities, as 
affordinf an observation which is peculiarly likely to be correct — 
peculiarly likely to coincide with that type which he is seeking to elicit. 

This type of mean variation may be generally defined as that figure 
which Avonld be presented most frequently if we were to continue in- 
definitely the long series of price-ratios, or at least that return in whose 
neio'hbourhood the greatest number of these statistics cluster. It is, in 
other words, the Greatest Ordinate of the complete curve, or the highest 
column of the rectilinear diagram, which represents by its abscissa ratio 
between the prices of two compared epochs, and by its ordinate the fre- 
quency with which that ratio would be returned if the statistics were 
extended over every region of industry which is subject to independent fluc- 
tuations. It is even allowable to imagine series of statistics still longer,' 
namely, those which would ideally occur if we could go on and on mul- 
tiplying observations under unchanged conditions. As Dr. Venn says : — 

' We say that a certain proportion begins to prevail among the events 
in the long run ; but then, on looking closer at the facts, we find that we 
have to express ourselves hypothetically, and to say that, if present cir- 
cumstances remain as they are, the long run will show its characteristics 
without disturbance.' 

The grounds for thus defining our qticesitum were stated in that part 
of the former paper which referred to semi- objective averages or types. A 
reference should be added to the sections on the Greatest Ordinate in 
Dr. Venn's ' Logic of Chance.' ^ Compare also the following weighty 
words in the masterly study on ' Cambridge Anthropometry ' which he has 
recently contributed to the Anthropological Institute : ' The ordinary 
mean here is obviously an imperfect guide. . . . What we ought to do, 
owing to the obvious asymmetry of the curve of frequency, is to take, not 
the arithmetic mean, but what is called "the point of maximum frequency," 
as this is a far truer index of what may be considered the normal length of 
vision.' Dr. Venn is discussing a problem analogous to ours, namely, how 
to extricate from an unsymmetrical group of observations that mean value 
which may be taken as a representative type. 

Such being the question, it might seem appropriate to put as answer 
that return which occurs most frequently in the statistics actually given. 
But it must ever be remembered, though it is often forgotten by statis- 
ticians, that the statistics of prices with which we have to do are of the 
nature of samples : specimens taken at random from a much larger, if not 
an indefinitely large series. In interpreting these evidences, in inferring 
the typo from a limited number of individuals, we must be guided by the 
methodical rules which the Calculus of Probabilities prescribes. The 
theory of errors of observation is here as high above ordinary induction 

' Compare Dr. Venn, Logic of Chance, cliap. i. § 14. 

- The third edition of this unique work, especially the first two chapters and the 
last two chapters, should be studied by all who wish to contemplate that phase of 
our problem which is now under consideration. 



158 REPORT — 1889. 

as in tlie general field of modern science the received inductive methods 
transcend the simple enumeration of the ancients. Now, the Calculus of 
Probabilities teaches that the best answer to our question will not be 
obtained by taking that which on the face of the evidence seems to be 
manifested.^ 

The need of this caution is illustrated by the annexed statistics. 
Looking at these three groups of statistics you might conclude that the 
first one, designated A, emanated from and, if prolonged, would converge 
to 30, as that number is the one most frequently repeated. It might 
similarly be inferred that B in the same sense represents 38. With 
regard to C, there might be more hesitation, since no one place or figure 
preponderates. If, however, we double the size of our compartments 
and consider which is the fullest of these enlarged places, that distinction 
will be found to belong to 57-58. Accordingly 57*5 might seem the type 
represented by this group. 

But in fact all these groups appertain to the same series, each figure 
in all of them being formed in the same way, namely, by the addition of 
ten digits taken at random from mathematical tables. If this series 
were indefinitely prolonged the figure most frequently repeated would 
be 45, a figure which in two of the groups does not even occur once. 
A much better approximation to the greatest ordinate of the complete 
series is obtained by taking an average other than the greatest ordinate 
of each set of samples. For instance, the median — or figure which has 
as many of the given observations above it as below it — is for A 42, that 
being the fourteenth figure in the group of twenty-seven. Similarly the 
median of B is 44 ; of C 50. The median of the whole set, numbering- 
eighty-one, is 45 ; whereas the greatest ordinate is prima facie 88, or 
perhaps 57*5.''' 

' Well does Dr. Venn say in the context of the passage cited from his Cainhndge 
Antho-opometry : ' Any successful appeal to this [the point of maximum frequency] 
requires far more extended statistics than those at our disposal.' Yet he has 520 
returns before him 1 

- See Jovrnal Royal Statistical Society, June 1888, where it is attempted to meet 
the difficulty presented by such ambiguity. The method there recommended is to 
rearrange the statistics in larger groups defined by a new ' degree ' or ' unit ' which 
is some multiple of the given one (that is, of unity in our example). The unit to be 
adopted is the smallest interval which will bring out the one-headed character of the 
curve ; in the cases above instanced generally 6 or 7. Now, we may begin this opera- 
tion not only from either extremity of the given discontinuous curve (as stated in the 
paper referred to), but also with equal plausibility from any intermediate point. 
There are thus about as many systems as the new degree is greater than the old one ; 
in the cases before us usually six or seven. The apex of any of these arrangements 
giving an equally plausible solution, it is proper to take the Mean of them all. I 
have performed this operation on each batch of twenty-seven figures (given in the 
text), and on the united eighty-one, with results in each case differing very little from 
the Arithmetic Mean, which is the best answer that can be extracted from these data. 

Professor Unwin, to whom this problem has been submitted, recommends forming 
a derived curve by joining the tops of each pair of adjacent ordinates in the given 
discontinuous curve ; and continuing this process of graphical derivation until we 
reach a smooth (one-headed) curve. He has been so kind as to subject to this treat- 
ment the eighty- one figures above given, and after eight repetitions of the process 
finds for the eighth derived curve one whose greatest ordinate is 4.S— a very 
respectable approximation, when we consider that what may be called the real point 
is 45 ; that the result given by the Arithmetic Mean, which is here the best solution, 
is 45-2 ; and that the probable error to which even that best solution is liable is 1-4. 

These processes are, however, very troublesome. Still, in doubtful cases, it may 
be well to check the Median by recurring to first principles and ascertaining the 
whereabouts at least of the Greatest Ordinate. 



ox YABIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDAHD. 159 

A27 3031323334 3637 40414243 46 47 4849505152 59 64 



3031323334 


3637 40414243 46 47 4849505152 


30 
30 


41 42 46 


52 


31323334 


36 3839 41 43444546 
38 4546 
38 4& 
38 


49 50 5253 



29 31323334 36 3839 41 43444546 4950 5253 5657 59 62 



C 38 404142 44 4647 49 505152 54 5758 61 

4041 44 46 50 5758 

40 50 57 58 

It appears, then, that, though our end is tho greatest ordinate of the 
complete series, the best mean — if we may be excused a pun which it is 
not easy to avoid — is not necessarily the greatest ordinate of the sample 
group. The position of greatest frequency is an object, like happiness, 
best reached by not aiming at it too directly. 

The indirect and ancillary average need not be the one which we 
have taken for the sake of illustration in the last paragraph. In fact, in 
the case there instanced the arithmetic mean would be the preferable 
method. But in the case of prices there is reason to believe that tho 
median is peculiarly appropriate. The nature and varieties of this mean 
have been fully discussed by the present writer both in his former 
Memorandum on the same subject as the present one, and also in the 
Memorandum of 1888 On the Accuracy of Index-numbers. 

However, it may not be out of place here to give an additional 
example taken from the statistics of exports. In the annexed table each 
figure in the first column (on tho left hand) expresses a proportion 
between the price of an article in 1887 and the price of the same article 
in 1883. Thus, the price of gunpowder per lb. being in 1887 6"46d. and 
in 1883 5'83(Z., we have the proportion, or comparative price, 111=10Q 
X6-46-HO-83. 

Opposite each comparative price are written in the second column or 
space the values of the corresponding articles for 1887, the proportionate 
values or actual values divided by a certain figure which is the same for 
all the entries, viz., 240,000. For instance, the value of gunpowder is 1, 
being, in round numbers, its actual value 260,000 divided by 240,000. 
With the reason for adopting this divisor we are not here concerned. 
Any other basis would serve our purpose as well. It often happens that 
the same proportion of price is enjoyed by two articles. Thus the com- 
parative price 127 appertains both to arms (fire) and to silk, of which 
articles the proportionate values are respectively 1 and 6. Accordino-ly 
against the entry 127 are Avritten (it does not matter in what order) the 
figures 1 and G. Both the prices and the proportions of value are taken 
from the table given by !Mr. Bourne in the paper on Index-numbers con- 
tributed by him to the Report of the British Association for 1888. 

Well, then, the simple or unweighted median is thus found. There 
being in all G4 proportions (some of them coincident), we are to select 
that one which has as many returns above it as below ; in short, a point 
between the thirty-second and thirty-third in the order of magnitude. 
This is easily effected by counting up the numbers of the * proportionate 
values ' in the right-hand space. Tho thirty-second and thirty-third, 



160 



EEPORT 1889. 



counting from tbe highest, are 12 and 4, both corresponding to the 
ratio 89. The simple median is thas 89. 



127 



1,G 



113 


4 


112 


2 


111 


1 


110 




109 




108 


1 


107 




lOti 




105 




104 


2,41 


103 




102 


2 


101 


17 


100 


2,> 1, 2 


99 




98 


2 


97 




96 


7,7,4 


95 


1 


94 


0,6,1 


93 





92 


7,5 


91 


11 


90 


42, 2, 5, 3, 3, 


89 


47, 12, 4 


88 


79,4 


87 


137, IC. 2 


86 


5 


85 


17 


84 


4,1 


83 


29 


82 


3 


81 


1.6 


80 


1 


79 


3 


78 


8, 1, G, 3 


77 


11,- 20 


76 


1 


75 




74 




73 


19 


72 




71 




70 


1, 5, V 2. 3 


69 




68 




67 


4 


66 


6 


62 


2 



It was pointed oat in the former Memorandum that there is a plau- 
sible hypothesis on which, even for the present purpose, it is proper to 
•attach some importance to the values of the commodities, though not 
mecessarily that degree of importance which is prescribed for the standard 
based on national consumption. The simplest method of attaching im- 
portance to the values is to take the simple median of the ratios on 
the supposition that each of them occurs as often as the number which 
indicates the corresponding value, or the sum of such numbers where 
there are more than one of them. Upon this understanding there are in 
all G66 constructive observations — as near as may be, half above and 
half below 88. That figure then is the weighted median. 

It is pretty certain that this complex median assigns too much im- 
•portance to the values. And it is probable that the simple median 
assigns too little. Accordingly a good solution is afforded by combining 
or comparing the two results, in the example before us taking 88' 5 for 
the answer. Should the two results be markedly different, inquiry may 
be made as to the cause of the difference, and a preference should be 
•given in general to the simpler combination, 

A more elaborate method of weighting the median by taking the 
square roots of the values was recommended in the former Memorandum. 
But on second thoughts it appears that the special advantages which this 
plan may confer hardly compensate for the additional trouble which it 
involves. 

' Comparative price of stocMngs per dozen ; not explicitly given by Mr. Bourne 
but inferrible from the entries in his valve and volume columns. 

- Not explicitly given by Mr. Bourne, but inferrible from his data. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 161 

For further illastrationa and suggestions the reader is referred to the 
writer's paper, On some new Methods of ascertaining Variation in general 
Prices, in the ' Journal ' of the Royal Statistical Society for June 1888. It 
is hoped that the familiarity of the arithmetic mean will not prevent 
statisticians from attending to the reasons for preferring in certain 
circumstances the Median. 

Section VII. 
Bicardo's Method. 

Ricardo suggests a method of measuring variation in the value of 
money, when he lays down that a commodity ' which at all times requires 
the same sacrifice of toil and labour to produce it ' is invariable in value.' 
From this point of view the Labour Standard is to be regarded as inde- 
pendent and substantive, not subsidiary to the ' Consumption' (or any 
other) Standard, as represented in the first report of the Committee. 
The Labour Standard thus conceived and the Consumption Standard 
are to each other as 'value' and 'riches' in Ricardo's terminology. 
' The labour of a million of men in manufactures will always produce the* 
same value, but will not always produce the same riches .... A million of 
men may produce double or treble the amount of riches of '■ necessaries, 
conveniences, and amusements," in one state of society that they could 
produce in another, but they will not on that account add anything to 
value.' ^ The Consumption Standard measures the change of money 
with respect to ' riches ' ; the Labour Standard with respect to ' real 
value.' The former relates to the utility of consumption; the latter to 
the disutility of toil. 

Ricardo only proposes the idea of an invariable commodity, of which 
' we have no knowledge, but may hypothetically argue and speak ^ about 
it as if we had.' He does not assist us to ascertain the change in the 
pecuniary worth of that hypothetical commodity. A more definite scheme 
is suggested by the remarkable passage of Professor Marshall's evi- 
dence before the Royal Commission on Gold and Silver, where he says, 
speaking of appreciation of gold : ' When it is used as denoting a rise in 
the real value of gold, I then regard it as measured by the diminution in 
the power which gold has of purchasing labour of all kinds — that is, 
not only manual labour, but the labour of business men and all others 
engaged in industry of any kind.' 

It may be remarked on this that the Labour Standard and the Con- 
sumption Standard present a certain analogy, the former standing in 
much the same relation to the fundamental laws of Supply as the latter 
to those of Demand. As before we posited as normal certain quan- 
tities of purchasable commodities, and compared the pecuniary worth at 
different epochs of that constant sum of commodities ; so now we should 
posit certain amounts of work of various sorts, and compare the pecu- 
niary wages required at different epochs for the same quantity of work. 
Or, in other words, we should form the ratio of 'new' to 'old ' rate of 
wages in each department of industry, and take the mean of this set 

' Principles, iii. Chapter XX. (On Value and Riclies). = Ibid. 

' ' And,' he adds, in the exclusive spirit -wliicli has characterised .almost every 
propounder of an original method, ' may improve our knowledge of the science, by 
showing distinctly the absolute inapplicability of all the standards which have been 
hitherto adopted.' 

1889. M 



]62 REPOET— 1889. 

of ratios, each weigJited by the amount usually paid in the corresponding 
department. 

Moreover, since upon Ricardian principles the value in exchange of 
commodities is proportioned to the ' comparative quantity of labour 
expended on each,' there may be expected some correspondence between 
the two expressions, not only as to their general form, but also as to the 
constants which they involve, the weights with which the variations of 
wages and prices are respectively to be affected. But the idea of such a 
correspondence is marred by the fact that the denominations of finished 
products do not coincide with the classification of wages. Also the sug- 
gested analogy is vitiated by a circumstance which is of great theoretical 
importance : that values in exchange — and accordingly the proportions 
which form the weights of the Consumption Standard — depend not only 
on quantity of labour, but also on interest, according to the different 
degrees of durability of the capital employed in producing them. This 
circumstance, as it creates a difiiculty ' with regard to Ricardo's first 
principles, so it suggests a scruple about the method which is here con- 
nected with those principles. When we ' hypothetically argue and 
speak ' of an invariable commodity ' which at all times requires the 
same sacrifice of toil and labour to produce it,' ^ should we include in 
the idea of ' sacrifice ' not only bodily and mental labour, but also absti- 
nence ? Shall we introduce into our Index-number the variation in the 
rate of Interest, weighted by the total amount paid in the way of 
Interest ? Or shall we follow the example of the great theorist himself, and 
omit the consideration of Interest as often as convenience and rotundity 
of statement and the purpose of a rough approximation may require ? 
The management of these and other difficulties connected with the 
Labour Standard must be resigned to the abler hand which has already 
touched this part of the subject. 



Conclusion. 

In conclusion it may be useful to enumerate and summarily charac- 
terise the principal definitions of the problem, or ' Standards,' ^ which 
have been discussed in this and the preceding Memorandum. An alpha- 
betical order will be adopted, the order of merit being not only invidious, 
but also impossible in so far as difierent methods are the best for difi'erent 
purposes. 

1. The Capital Standard takes for the measure of appreciation or 
depreciation the change in the monetary value of a certain set of articles. 
This set of articles consists of all purchasable things in exsitence in the 
community, either at the earlier epoch or at the later epoch, or some 
mean between those sets. This standard is due to Professor Nicholson. 
It is stated by him (in terms a little less general than those here adopted) 

> Cf. Sidgwdck, Pol. Econ. Book I. ch. ii. ' It is rather a perplexing question how 
Ricardo and M'Culloch could deliberately adhere to the statements above quoted 
[that labour is the measure of the real value of things, &c.], while they at the same 
time drew attention to the differences in the value of different products, due to the 
different degrees of durability of the capital employed in producing them.' 

- Ricardo, loc. cit. 

^ The methods discussed in connection with the names of Jlr. GifEen, Mr. Bourne, 
and Sir Eawson Rawson are rather solutions than statements of the problem. 



ON VARIATIONS IN THE VALUE OF THE MONETARY STANDARD. 163 

in his book on Money. It is discussed in the sixth and the tenth sections 
•of the former Memorandum. 

2. The Consumption Standard takes for the measure of appreciation 
■or depreciation the change in the monetary value on a certain set of 
articles. This set of articles consists of all the commodities consumed 
yearly by the community either at the earlier or the later epoch, or some 
mean between those two sets. This standard has been recommended by 
many eminent writers, in particular by Professor Marshall in the 'Contem- 
porary Review ' of 1887. It is proposed by the Committee as the principal 
standard. It is discussed in the second section of the former Memorandum. 

3. The Ourrencij Standard takes as the measure of appreciation or 
depreciation the change in the monetary value which changes hands in a 
certain set of sales. These sales comprise all the commodities bought and 
sold yearly at the earlier epoch or at the later epoch, or some mean 
between those quantities. This standard appears to be implicit in much 
that has been written on the subject, but to have been most clearly stated 
by Professor Foxwell. It is discussed in the second section of this 
Memorandum. 

4. The Income Standard takes as the measure of the appreciation or - 
depreciation the change in the monetary value of the average consump- 
tion, or in the income per head, of the community. This standard is 
proposed in the fourth and fifth sections of the former Memorandum. 

5. The Indefinite Standard takes as the measure of appreciation or 
depreciation a simple unweighted average of the ratios formed by divid- 
ing the price of each commodity at the later period by the price of the 
same commodity at the earlier period. The average employed may be 
the Arithmetic Mean used by Soetbeer and many others, or the Geometric 
Mean used by Jevons, or the Median recommended by the present writer. 
This standard is recommended by the practice of Jevons ' and the theory 
of Cournot.2 It is discussed in the eighth and ninth sections of the 
former Memorandum, and the fifth section of the present one. 

' Most of Jevons' celebrated calculations (^Currency and Finance, Yi.., III., and 
IV.)., and in particular his calculation of the Probable Error incident to his result 
{Ihiil., p. 157), involve this conception. 

- Cournot has considered our problem in each of the five volumes in which he has 
treated of, or touched on, Political Economj' {Diotioiuiry of Political Economy, Art. 
Cournot). It is sufficient here to refer to the first and the last of those works, the 
Recherchesot 1838 and the Reime Sommaire of 187G— the Alpha and almost the t)mega 
of economic wisdom. From these it is clear that variation in the ' absolute ' or ' in- 
trinsic' value of money, in Cournot's view, corresponds to the ' Indefinite Standard ' as 
defined in Section viii. of the predecessor to this Memorandum. Cournot illustrates 
the variation due to a change on the part of money, by that change in the position 
of the earth with respect to the stars, which is due to the motion of the earth. In 
this analogy the stars are treated as ^ Taints' {Becherches, Art. 9). No account is 
taken of their mass. The context shows that Cournot contemplates a simple average 
of distances between the earth and each star ; not a /(vvV/ZttoZ average, or the distance 
between the earth and the centre of ijraiity of the stars. In his later works he ex- 
pri^ssly declares against, or at least thinks unbefitting highest place, the measure of 
what he calls the 'power of money ' (Ilevue Sommaire, Sect. 3), that is, in our terms, 
the Consumption Standard ; the analogy of which is the distance of the earth from 
the centre of gravity of the stars, or rather of certain select stars — say those which 
are nearest to our human sphere. Tlie Currency Standard, of which the analogy is 
the distance of the earth from the centre of gravity of all stars whatever, does not 
seem to have been entertained by Cournot. 

Cournot, alluding to Jevons' treatment of the problem in J/o«c;/, not unjustly takes 
him to task for not having distinguished ' assez nettement ' variations in the ' intrinsic 

M 2 



164 REPORT— 1889. 

6. The Production Standard is a designation which may be applied io 
a method which is related to the Currency Standard very nearly as the 
Income Standard is related to that based on Consumption. The Pro- 
duction Standard takes as the measure of appreciation or depreciation 
the change in the monetaiy value per head of the total amount of things 
produced in the community yearly. This standard is proposed by Professor 
Simon Newcomb in his ' Political Economy.' It is discussed in the first 
section of this Memorandum. 

7. The Wages (and Interest ?) Standard takes as the measure of 
appreciation or depreciation the change in the pecuniary remuneration 
of a certain set of services, namely, all (or the principal) which are 
rendered in the course of production, throughout the community, during 
a year, either at the initial or the final epoch ; or some expression in- 
termediate between, the two specified. The theoretical basis and 
practical construction of such a standard are indicated in Ricardo's 
' Principles of Political Economy ' (ch. xx. and elsewhere), in Professor 
Marshall's evidence before the Gold and Silver Commission (' Parlia- 
mentary Papers' 1888, C. 5,512, Question 9,625), and in the papers con- 
tributed by Mr. Giffen to the second volume of the bulletin of the 
International Statistical Institute. The standard is discussed in the last 
section of this Memorandum. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth {Secretary), Professor H. S. Foxwell, Mr. Egbert 
Giffen, Professor Alfred Maeshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor 
J. S. Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave, and Professor H. 
SiDGWiCK, appointed for the purpose of inquirincj and reporting 
as to the Statistical Data available for determining the amount 
of the Precious Metals in use as Money in the principal 
Countries, the chief forms in which the Money is employed^ 
and the amount annually used in the Arts. 

The Committee hope to have shortly more materials to work on. The 
withdrawal of the pre- Victorian gold coin, which is the object of the 
Coinage Act of this year, will provide some data on which to base a more 
definite estimate of the amount of the actual circulation than has yet been 
possible. Pending the action of Government, and the result of certain 
inquiries which are being conducted by two members of the Committee, 
Messrs. Martin and Palgrave, the Committee recommend that they should 
be reappointed. 

value of money ' [of which the measure is our Indefinite Standard] from variations 
in the ' power of money ' [of which the measure is our Consumption Standard] 
(Hevue Sommalre, p. 121). Referring to Jevons' proposal to construct a Tabular 
Standard of Value, Gouruot expresses his approbation in words which may fittingly 
conclude the present study : — ' Ce sont 14 des idces qu'il faut laisser murir. Quand 
le moment sera venu de construire effectivement I'etalon monetaire, les geomfetres 
pourront y trouver une application interessante de leur Tticorie des Morjennes, telles 
qu'ils I'ont dejA construite pour les besoins de I'astronomie et de la physique.' 



1 



ON THE GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY OF THE ATLAS KANOES. 165 



Report of the Committee, consisting of General J. T. Walker, Mr. 
H. W. Bates {Secretary), General E. Strachey, Mr. W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, and Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, appointed 
to investigate the Geography and Geology of the Atlas ranges 
in the Empire of Morocco. 

Report to the Committee. By Joseph Thomson. 

In laying before the General Committee of the British Association a 
general report on the results achieved by my expedition to the Atlas 
Mountains, I gladly take the opportunity of cordially thanking the Com- 
mittee for its substantial and welcome grant of lOOZ. towards the expenses 
of the work. 

Briefly stated, I left England on March 9, 1888, and returned home 
in October of the same year, my explorations prematurely, and, as it 
turned out, quite unnecessarily, cut short by a summons to take command 
of an expedition for the relief of Bmin Pasha. 

In summarising the results of these seven months' travel in what Sir 
Joseph Hooker describes as the most difficult of all countries to explore 
(an opinion in which I heartily agree), it will perhaps be well to consider 
them under their various heads of Geography, Geology, &c. 

1. Geography. — It is unnecessary to dwell on my travels in the more 
frequented parts of Morocco. New ground was first touched on my 
arrival at Demnat among the lower ranges of the Atlas. 

From Demnat I made two excursions across the secondary heights of 
the great range, on both occasions reaching close to the central crest. By 
these trips I was enabled to map out the upper course of the Wad Demnat, 
and partially of the WadTessaout. Among other discoveries of an inter- 
esting nature in this region, I may refer to the remarkable natural bridge- 
aqueduct of Iminifiri, which spans a deep narrow gorge, and not only 
carries a stream of water from one side to the other, but is also used as 
a bridge by the inhabitants. Noteworthy also were some extensive ancient 
ruins on the top of Mt. Irghalnsor, and a great series of artificial caves at 
Tasiraset. 

My next line of exploration lay up the glen of the Wad Gadat from 
Sidi Rehal. By this glen I penetrated to the very heart of the Atlas, 
and crossed to the southern side of the mountains by the Tizi-n- Telnet. 
From the valley of Teluet I made several minor excursions, in one of 
■which I ascended Jebel Taurirt (11,168 ft.), the first occasion on which 
the summit of the Atlas had been reached in this part. 

Proceeding further west, a new attempt was made on the mountain 
fastnesses from Amsmiz. Following the Wad Amsmiz to its source, the 
Atlas was again crossed by the pass of Nenieri (9,902 ft.), the head- 
waters of the Wad Nyfis were explored, and the southern slopes reached 
by penetrating the canyon of the Wad Agandice. Returning to the 
Plain of Morocco, the lower mountain course of the Wad Nyfis was traced 
out, and Amsmiz reached by the Tizi-n-Gerimt (7,215 ft.). 

Further west from Amsmiz the Asif-el-Mel offered a new means of 
access to the main chain. This glen 1 explored as far aa was practicable, 
and then, leaving it, crossed by a new pass, the Tizi-n-Nsht (9,715 ft.), to 



166 EEPOET— 1889. 

the head-waters of the Wad Nyfis, from which I made the ascent of Jebel 
Ogdimt (12,734 ft.), the highest point of the Atlas west of the Wad ISTyfis. 
Amsmiz was again reached by traversing the lower ranges. 

Six weeks were unavoidably passed in the city of Morocco, the time' 
being profitably enough spent in a study of the social and political life of 
the Moors. 

On leaving the city an attempt I made to penetrate the glen of 
Wad Urika failed. 

I was more fortunate by way of the Reraya. The glen of its principal 
tributary, the Wad Iminnen, was followed to its head, from which an 
ascent of the central crest was again achieved at the Tizi Likumpt 
(13,150 ft.). From this point the Tizi-n-Tamjurt could be seen to rise 
1,500-2,000 ft. higher, being probably the highest peak in the entire 
range. 

From Reraya I passed on to Imintanut, from which I made my final 
passage of the range, and determined to my satisfaction that the Atlas 
Mountains properly so called end at the Asif Ig, thirty miles from the 
coast, the further continuation of the elevated land being in the form of 
a triangular plateau 4,000-5,000 ft. in height. From Agadir, where the 
coast was reached, the base of this triangular plateau was skirted as far 
as Mogador. 

From Fez as a centre it had been my intention to make a series of 
trips into the mountains, similar to those undertaken from the city of 
Morocco ; but the summons already alluded to stopped me en route at 
Casablanca, and prematurely put an end to my explorations. 

Such as it was, however, from what I was able to do, a clearer and 
more exact idea of the Atlas Range west of Demnat has been obtained, 
and its glens and mountains mapped with some approach to scientific 
accuracy by means of astronomical observations, careful triangulation 
with the prismatic compass, and route protraction with the ordinary 
compass. The central crest of the range has been reached at seven 
independent points, and heights attained exceeding previous travellers as 
much as 2,000 ft. Sevei'al new glens have been explored, and six passes 
crossed, and generally much new light has been thrown on the physical 
configuration of the Atlas. On these points it is unnecessary here to 
enter upon further detail, as I have the honour to forward along with 
this report the paper and map submitted to the Royal Geographical 
Society. 

11. Geology. — Turning to geology, 1 am happy to report that, in spite 
of manifold difliculties and obstacles, I have been able to gather together 
sufficient material from which to construct a geological map of the Atlas 
Range between Demnat and the Atlantic. With the exception of the 
work done by Maw and Hooker in 1872, absolutely nothing has hitherto 
been done to throw light upon the geological structure of these moun- 
tains. The comparative absence of vegetation, and the numerous deep 
gorges and glens cutting right into the heart of the range, in some sort 
went to counterbalance the incessant espionage and suspicion which 
dogged my every movement, and made the collecting of specimens an 
impossibility. 

The results of my geological investigations have been embodied in a 
paper on the Geology of the Atlas and Southern Morocco, which, along 
with a number of diagrammatic sections and a map, I propose to lay- 
before the Geological Society of London. 



ON THE GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY OF THE ATLAS RANGES. 167 

Briefly stated, my exploration of the monntains between Demnat and 
the sea show that they consist — 

(1) Of a central core or nucleus of metamorphic slates and crystalline 
limestones, at places much disturbed by intrusive bosses, dykes, and 
veins of porphyrites, basalts, and diorites. 

(2) Of an enormous series of red and purple shales, marls, and sand- 
stones forming the great mass of the chain, at some points, as at Taurirt, 
rising to an elevation of even 11,000 feet. These, as far as can be ascer- 
tained, belong to the Cretaceous series. 

(3) Of an upper series of Cretaceous cream and grey- coloured lime- 
stones and sandstones, with fossils at places, among which have been 
determined Trigonia, Area, Rhynchonella, Astrea, Gryphma, Astarte, and 
I/ucina. These series attain but a small development in the Atlas, as 
compared -with the lower series, and are to be found only in the lower 
outer mountain terraces or steps. They are characterised by numerous 
intrusive bosses and great dykes of amygdaloidal basalts, which break 
through them along the whole length of the mountains from Demnat 
westward. In the plateau of Southern Morocco the red shales and sand- 
stone series are masked by the limestones, except where some disturbance • 
has brought the former to the surface. 

(4) Of later formations nothing has been satisfactorily determined. 
Of glacial deposits there were little more than indications at the heads of 
some of the glens, and at one or two places in sheltered nooks, as in the 
glen of the Wad Nyfis. Slightly more important accumulations were 
observed in the valley of Giudafy, Wad Nyfis, and in the glen of the 
Urika. Moraines were detected between the Wads Gadat and Mi&fiwa ; 
and in the Valley of Telnet. On the Plain of Morocco transported 
boulders were remarked. Upon the whole, evidences of glaciation were 
insigniBcant, and in those parts I explored I saw nothing anywhere in 
any way comparable to the enormous deposits described by Maw, of the 
soundness of whose conclusions as to their being: of srlacial origin I have 
the gravest doubt. 

III. Botany. — On the botany of the expedition I have little to say, 
beyond explaining the extreme smallness of the collection brought back — 
a list of which, drawn up at Kew, accompanies this report. The whole of 
the time spent in the mountains was in the very driest and hottest season 
of the year, when for nearly eight months scarcely a drop of rain falls. The 
consequence is that the mountains, even to the highest points, are quite 
bare, and only along the courses of the streams are any plants to be found. 
I left Morocco just as the first autumnal rains began to fall. 

Very much the same remarks apply to the collection of beetles. A 
list of specimens secured is appended. 

Geology. 
Atlas Expedition. Joseph Thomson. 

Asif-el-Mel, Marossa. — Hard cream-coloured limestone, largely com- 
posed of casts of shells, badly preserved, among which Triyonia and Area 
seem to be most abundant, but none are specifically determinable. Pro- 
bably of Oolitic age. 

District of Ait Musa, Mtuga. — Hard dark limestone, weathering red 
and brown, filled with large globular Rhynchonellee, much resembling 
B. tetrahedra. Possibly Liassic. 



168 EEPORT— 1889. 

Imintanut. — Soft shaly limestone, with numerous oysters allied to 
Ostrea suhnigulosa. Probably Oolitic. 

Head Waters of the Asif-el-Mel, Marossa. — Hard, cream-coloured, with 
three or four shells of uncertain genus. 

Loe (?) — A rubbly limestone, containing many shells of Gryphcea, Tri- 
gonia, Area, Astarte, and Lucina. Probably Oolitic. 

G. Sharman and B. T. Newton. 

Geological Survey Office, London, 
Avgust, 1889. 

Botany. 
Clematis flammula, L. 
Adonis cestivalis, L. 

,, microcarpa, DC. 
Ranunculus, sp. nov. (to figure). 

,, cha',rophyllus, L. forma. 

,, hulbosus, L., var. neajpolitanus. 

Sarcocapnos crassifolia, DC, iorraa parvijlora ? 
Nasturtium officinale, R. Br. 
Arabis auriculata, Lam. 
Barharea (?) n. sp. 

Alyssum alpestre, L., var. serpyllifolium. 
„ montanum, L. ? (scrap). 
,, spinosum, L. 
Erophila verna, E,. Br. 
Sisymbrium Thalianum, J. Gay. 

,, Sophia, L. 

Erysimum australe, J. Gay (forms ?) 
Brassiea humilis, DC. 

Biscutella apula, L., var. (B. onicrocarpa, DC.) 
Lepidium yiebrodense, Raf., var. atlanticum. 
Isatis tinctoria, L., var. Icetivirens, J. Ball. 
Cranibe hispanica, L. (O.filiformis, Boiss. an Jacq.) 
Cossonia platycarpa, Coss. 
Gapparis spinosa, L. 
Reseda propinqua, R. Br. var. ? 

,, luteoJa, L., var. ? 
Helianthemum glaucum, Pers. 
„ rubellum, Prese. 

Silene, sjj. n. (to figui-e in Ic. PI.) 
„ mellifera, Boiss. and Reut. 
,, inflata, L. 
„ an 8. longicaulis var. ? 
Arenaria serpyllifolia, L. forma. 
,, pungens, Claus. 
„ procumhens, Vahl. 
Cerastium arvense, L. 
Linum angustifolium. Hud. 
Geranium pyrenaicum, L. 

,, Bobertiamim, L. 
Erodium cicutarium, L. forma. 

,, ,, sub. sp. E, Jacquinianum ? 

„ malachoides, Willd. 



ON THE GEOGKArHY AND GEOLOGY OF THE ATLAS RANGES. 169 

Ruta chalepehsis, L., var. a. (R. angustifolia, Pers.) 
Adenocarpus anagrjrifolius, Coss. et Bal. 
Oenista florida, L., var. maroccana. 
{Jytisus Balansce, Boiss., var. atlanticus. 
Ononis Thomsoni, Ball MSS. (to figure). 

,, viscosa, DC, var. angnstifolia ? 
an Medicago suffruticosa, Ram. ? 
Trifolmm, cf. T. humile, Ball. 
Anthyllis vulneraria, L. 
Ennacea pungens, Boiss. 
Astragalus ochroleucus, Coss. 
Lotus corniculatus, L. 
Potentilla replants, L. 
Saxifraga gramdata, L. var. 
Ribes grossularia, L., var. atlantica, Ball. 
Cotyledon umbilicus, L., var. horizontalis. 
Sedum altissimum, Poir. ? 

Apium nodiflorum, Bth. and Hk. {Slum nodiflorum, L.) 
Pithranthus scoparia (^Deverra scoparia, Coss.) 
Galium corrudcpfolium, Vill. 
„ Poiretianum, Ball. 
„ actimhmtum, Ball. 
Asperula hirsuta, Desf. 
Valerianella pumila, DC. 
Bellis sylvesiris, Cyr. 

„ ccenilescens, Coss. 

„ ,, forma radiis albescenlibus. 

Gnaphalium helich-ysoides, Ball. 
Anacyclus depressus, Ball. 
Achillea Ugustica, All. 

Anthemis arvensis ? an potins J., tuherculata. 
,, tuberculata, Boiss. 

„ hetprophylla, Ball, ' Journ. Linn. Soc.,' xvi., 507. 
Chrysanthemum catananche, Ball. 
A. 
B. 

At first sight I should refer the specimens marked B to G. aManticum, 
Ball, and regard those marked A as a distinct and new species ; but I am 
at present inclined to think that these, with Pyrethrum ]\[aresii, Coss., 
must be united and regai'ded as forms of one species. What name that 
species should bear is another question. Pyrethrum Maresii is the older 
name, but C. atlanticum, Ball, will, I suppose, be taken by those who 
refer all these to Chrysanthemum. 

I do not think, however, that the preliminary question can be decided 
until we have mature fruits of all the forms. It appeared to me long 
ago that the achene of C. atlanticum is somewhat different from that of 
P. Maresii^ but there may be intermediate forms. — [Note by Mr. Ball.] 

Centaurea salmantica, L. 
Calendula suffruticosa, Vahl. 
Catananche ccerulea, L. 
Hieracium Pilosella, L. var. 



170 EEPOBT— 1889. 

Andryala tenuifolia, Coss. an DC. 

„ integrifolia, L. var. 
SypoclicEris radicata, L. 
Leontodon autumnalis, L. 

,, hehvinthoides, Coss., var. nisi sp. nov. ; desunt achenia^ 
Lactuca tenerrima, Pourr. 
Picridium ? 

MicrorrhyncJms spinosus, B. and Hk.f. 
Sonchus asper, Vill. (bis). 
Campanula pilicaulis, Dur. (bis). 
Armeria allioides, Boiss (bis ?). 
Cynoglossum pictutn. Ait. 
Myosotis sylvatica, var. alpestris (bis). 

„ stricta, Link (bis). 
JEchiu77i plantagineum (L.) 
Linaria grceca, Bory and Chamb. 

,, ventricosa, Coss. 

,, heterophylla, Desf. (bis). 

,, galioides, Ball. 

,, Tournfortii, var. 'minor, Lge. 
Anarrhinum fruticosum-, Desf. 
Ferom'cft Anagallis, L. (bis). 

„ Cuneifolia, Don., var. atlantica, Ball (bis). 
Verbena officinalis, L. 
Scrophularia canina, L., var. 
Lavandula temdbeda, Coss ? 
Thijmus lanceolatus, Desf., var. crispus. Ball. 
Micromeria microphylla, Benth. var. 
Calamintha Acinos, B. 
,, alpina, B. 

,, Ciinopodium., B. var. vel sub sp. 0. atlantica, Ball. 

Salvia taraxacifolia, Coss. 
Nepeta atlantica. Ball. 
Sideritis villosa, Coss. (4 sheets). 
Manubrium vidgare, ft lanatum, Benth. 
liamium amplexicaule, L. 

„ flexuosum, Trn., new to South Morocco. 
Teucriium collinum, Coss., var. ? 
Ajuga Iva, Schreb. 

Plantago Coronopus, L., var. cupani (bis). 
Olobularia alyssiim, L. 
Paronychia argentea. Lam. 
» „ var. ? 

Bumex pidcher, L. 

,, thyrioides, Desf. 

„ scutatus, L. 

,, ,, var. induratus. 

„ atlanficus, Coss. 
Euphorbia luteola, Coss., new to Morocco. 
,, j:>M6escews, Vahl. 

,, helioscopia, L. 

Salix purpurea, L., var. Helix. 
Orchis latifolia, L., var. Durandii. 



ON THE GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY OF THE ATI.AS IIANGES. 171 

Omitliogalum wnibellatum , L. ? 

„ ienuifoUum, Guss. ? 

Dactylis glomerata, var. hispanica. 
Feshica ? 

Cistopteris fragilis, Bernh. 
Asplenium Tricliomanes, L. 

„ Ceterach, L. 

NotochlcBna vellea, Desf. 



List of Goleoptera taken by Mr. Joseph Thomson on fhe Aflas Mountains^ 
Morocco. By B. G. Nevinson, M.A., F.Z.S. 

This collection consists chiefly of species of the Heteromerous section of 
the order, and, though a small one, contains some very interesting forms. 
It is curious to observe that most of the species diS'er more or less front 
the normal types, and that this difference is mostly in the direction of 
smoothness of surface. Possibly this may be accounted for by the eleva- 
tions at which the collection was formed (6 to 10,000 ft.). All the speci- 
mens come from Glauvva and Amsmiz, the majority from the latter locality. 
Number of specimens, 138, belonging to 31 species : — 
Pachychila, Esch. 

AncjuUcollis, Fairm. 
glabra, Stev. 
Morica, Sol. 

Favieri, Luc. 
planata, Fabr. 
Ahis, Herbst. 

elegans, Charp. 
Heydenii, Haag. 
Scaurus, Fabr. 

sticticus. Germ. 
uncinns, Forst, 
Blaps, Fabr. 

Arvieniaca, Fald. 
barbara, Sol. 
Emondi, Sol. 

tceniolata, Men. Although this is a very westerly locality for 
this species, I can find no character to separate the two 
specimens procured by Mr. Thomson from those labelled 
toBuiolaia by Mons. Allard in Mr. F. Bates's collection, now 
in the British Museum. 
Ptmelia, Fabr. 
Boyeri, Sol. 

malleata, Woll. Of this pretty species there are two examples 
in the British Mnseum in the collection which formerly 
belonged to Mr. F. Bates, one of which bears the label 
' MdlU'iita. Wollast. type.' They were also brought from 
the Atlas Mountains, having been taken by Messrs. Hooker 
and Ball. Mr. Thomson collected thirteen specimens. 
simplex, Sol. 
rotundi'pennis, Kraatz. 
Thomsoni, Nev. Ent. Mo. Mag. vol. xxv. p. 255. 



172 REPORT— 1889. 

Hopatrum, Fabr. 

EooJceri, F. Bates. 
Omophlus, Sol. 

distinctus, Cast. 
Meloe, Linn. 

Scabriusculus, Brandt ? prox. — The solitary specimen is too much 
damaged for positive identification, but it has the same 
very short thorax as scabriusculus, and similar sculpture 
on the elytra. 
Mylahris, Fabr. 

circumjiexa, Chevr. 
duodecimpunctata, Oliv. 
Silbermanni, Chevr. 
variabilis, Pall., var. tricincta, Chevr. 
Included in the collection there are also a few species belonging to 
■other families of Coleoptera : — 
Fam. GarabidcB. 

Oalosoma sijcophanta, Lin. — A fine variety, in which the elytra 

are almost entirely of a brilliant golden coppery hue. 
Acinopus, sp. ? 
Fam. Trogositidce. 

Trogosita {Alindria, sp.). 
Fam. Scarabceidce. 

Phijllognathus Silenus, Fabr. 
Oryctes nasicomis, Lin. 
Tropinota, sp. 
Oxythyrea stictica, Lin. 
Oxythyrea amina, Fairmaire. 
Fam. Ghrysomelidce. 

Timarclia scabripennis, Dej. 
,, turbida, Erichs. 
,, pimelioides, Schaf. ? 
Fam. Goccinellidce. 

Coccinella septempunctata, Lin. 
Fam. Buprestidce. 

Julodis intricata, Redt. ? ? 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden 
and Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of in- 
vestigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. {Drawn up by 
Professor Armstrong.) 

The study of naphthalene derivatives has been prosecuted in the 
reporter's laboratory during the past year with far greater success than 
could have been anticipated, chiefly owing to the untiring energy and 
skill of Mr. W. P. Wynne ; valuable assistance having also been rendered 
by several students. The results are, it is believed, of considerable 
importance from a theoretical point of view, not merely in relation 
to naphthalene derivatives, but in connexion with the general problem 
of the nature of the changes involved in the production of isomeric 
compounds. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



173 



Constitution of the isomeric dichloronaphthalenes. — A list of the twelve 
reputed dichloronaphthalenes was given in the last report, and their 
constitution was provisionally discussed. The results since obtained 
render it possible to finally assign the proper formulae to the several 
modifications, the method adopted affording almost if not quite as 
absolute a determination of their constitution as that employed by 
Korner in the case of the dibromobenzenes : an account thereof is given 
in the ' Proceedings of the Chemical Society,' 1888, pp. 104-1 07 ; 1889, pp. 
34-37 ; pp. 48-64. The conclusions arrived at by Erdmann and Kirch- 
hoff are confirmed ; as the synthetic method which these chemists had 
adopted was one which did not exclude the possibility of the occurrence 
of isomeric change, objection was taken to their proof in the last report, 
but it is now clear that they had correctly interpreted their results. 

The so-called a-dichloronaphthalene, m.p. 38", obtained by the 
action of alcoholic potash on naphthalene tetrachloride, has been proved 
to be a mixture of 1 : 4 (/S) dichloronaphthalene, m.p. 68°, and 1 : 3 (^) 
dichloronaphthalene (m.p. 61°). (Cf. 'Chem. Soc. Proceedings,' 1888, 
106.) It has previously been pointed out that the so-called K-dichloro- 
naphthalene of Glaus has no claim to recognition, and that it is doubtful 
whether the t-dichloronaphthalene described as melting at 120° was 
a pure substance : consequently at present but nine of the ten possible 
dichloronaphthalenes are to be regarded as beyond doubt existent ; their 
constitution is as follows : 



— 


M.P. 


Position of Radicles 


oo. Modifications : — 






/3. Dichloronaphthalene . 


68° 


1 : 4 


C ., ■ • 


83° 


1 : 1' 


7- .1 • • 


107° 


1 :4' 


fiP. Modifications: — 






S. „ ... 


114° 


2 : 2' 


e. „ ... 


135° 


2 : 3' 


aB. Modifications: — 








34° 


1 : 2 


6. " . ' 


61° (about) 


1 : 3 


e'. „ ... 


63° „ 


1 : 2' 


V- „ ... 


48° 


1 : :v 



The alpha-law. Spontaneous ocairrence of isomeric change on stdphona- 
tion. — In previous reports attention has frequently been directed to the 
circumstance that, as a rule, aZp7m-derivatives are formed, and that beta- 
derivatives are only obtained either when a group is present in an alpha 
position which determines the entry of the new group into the contiguous 
beta position, or owing to the occurrence of secondary change : it has in 
fact been argued that an isolated beta position is never directly attacked. 
Further evidence tending to strengthen this conclusion has recently been 
obtained. When either ;8-chloro- or /3-bromouaphthalene is sulphonated, 
the chief product is the 2 : V a-acid ; and a relatively very small amount of 
the isomeric 2 : 3' /8-acid is also obtained, and it was suggested that this 
was formed by spontaneous isomeric change from the 2 : 1' acid, as it 
was found possible to convert the a- into the ^-acid by heating. /8-iodo- 
naphthalene in like manner was found to yield two sulpho-acids, but it was 
pointed out in the second of these reports that the melting point of the 
Bulphochloride of the acid found in small quantity was remarkably low. 



174 REPORT — 1889. 

Eecent experiments of Mr. Houlding (cf. ' Chem. Soc. Proceedings,' 1889, 
74) have served to show that the minor product is not the 2 : 3' derivative. 
Subsequently Mr. Wynne and I have found (ibid. 18S9, 119) that the 
chief product of sulphonation in the case of/3-iodonaphthalene corresponds 
with the chief product afforded by y8-chloro- and yS-bromonaphthalene, and 
that the minor product obtained from /3-iodonaphthalene is the second 
heteronucleal 2 : 4' aZp/ia-sulphonic acid : so that whereas only one 
alpha-acid is obtained on sulphonating ^-chloro- and yS-bromonaphthalene, 
/3-iodonaphthalene yields the two possible heteronucleal alpha-acids. Both 
jS-iodo a-sulphonic acids, however, are found to yield the same 2 : 3' 
/3-sulphonic acid when heated at about 150°. It is therefore not 
improbable that on sulphonating the chloro- and bromo- compounds, two 
aZp7ia-acids are initially formed, and that one of these forth with under- 
goes spontaneous isomeric change into the 2 : 3' acid. 

The results obtained in the case of the dichloronaphthalenes tend to 
support this view. Thus 1:3 {9) dichloronaphthalene affords but a 
single sulphonic acid ; this product is identical with that prepared by 
Widman from naphthalene-a-sulphonic acid and is in all probability the 
1:3:4' acid. 

1 : 2 dichloronaphthalene, however, yields two isomeric acids, the 
chief product (about 2-3rds) being the 1:2:4' (a) acid, the subsidiary 
product the 1:2:3' (/3) acid ; as the latter is almost the sole product if 
the original product of sulphonation be heated at 150°-160° during several 
hours, it is probable that the ;S-acid in the original product is formed by 
spontaneous isomeric change at the moment of sulphonation. 

1 : 4 (/3) dichloronaphthalene, however, yields as sole product the 
1:4:2' {(3) sulphonic acid, and it would appear that isomeric change 
takes place in this case spontaneously and with exceptional facility and 
completeness. 

1 : 4' (y) dichloronaphthalene yields as chief product (about four- 
:fifths), the 1 : 4' : 2' betasulphonic acid (m.p. of sulphochloride 139°- 
140°), together with what appears to be the isomeric 1 : 4' : 3' beta-acid 
(m.p. of sulphochloride 98°-100°) ; in this case it is possible that an 
alpha acid is first formed, which at once changes, but more probably the 
two alpha positions are ' protected ' by the two alpha-chlorine atoms, the 
1 : 4' : 3' beta acid being first formed, and at once partly converted by 
spontaneous isomeric change into the more stable 1 : 4' ; 2' acid. It is 
obvious that much important information is to be obtained by further 
study of the subject. 

Azo-dye stuffs derived from naphthalene.- — In the second of these reports 
it was argued that the azo-dye stuffs from betanaphthol were all 1 : 2 
a-/3 derivatives, and as a matter of course the argument would apply 
equally to betannphthylamine. Experiments were commenced with the 
object of obtaining the data required to verify this theory, but their 
continuance became unnecessary in consequence of the publication of a 
valuable paper by Dr. O. N. Witt ('Berichte,' 1888, 34-68), in which it 
is demonstrated that the azo-colours from the free isomeric betanaphthyl- 
aminesulphonic acids and a number of others are all 1 : 2 derivatives. 
In pointing out (cf. second report) that the formation of the azo-colour 
involves an isomeric change which apparently can take place only in the 
one direction, and that on this account it is impossible to effect the 
introduction of the azo-group into any other position than that con- 
iiguous to the OH or NHj group, no special note was taken of the 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 



175 



peculiar constitution of tbe colouring matters themselves ; the further 
study of this question, however, has led me to the conclusion that even if 
the transference could be effected in any other way azo-colours would 
only result provided that ' quinonoid ' compounds were formed ; at 
present this is only known to obtain in the case of the 1 : 2 and 1 : 4 
compounds (cf. 'Chem. Soc. Proceedings,' 1888, p. 27). 

The symhol of naphtlialene. — There appears to be a tendency on the 
part of some recent investigators of naphthalene derivatives to consider 
that the naphthalene molecule is dissymmetric. Without discussing this 
question in detail I would express my conviction that this is not the 
case, and that the behaviour of naphthalene, and especially its character- 
istic tendency to form alpha-derivatives, may be satisfactorily expressed 
by means of a symbol similar to that which I have suggested for benzene 
(' Phil. Mag.,' Feb. 1887), viz. : 



Kkx> 



Notation of napMlialene derivatives. — Throughout these reports, &c., 
the system of notation introduced many years ago by the Chemical 
Society and in ' Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry ' has always been made 
use of, and its general adoption was advocated in a recent paper by 
Mr. Wynne and myself (cf. ' Chem. Soc. Proceedings,' 1889, p. 64). It 
consists in numbering the positions in the one nucleus 1, 2, 3, 4, and the 
corresponding positions in the second nucleus 1', 2'. 3', 4'. The practice 
of numbering the positions 1 to 8 appears less desirable and rational in 
view of the fact that naphthalene consists of two like nuclei, and of the 
importance of at once being able to recognise which are corresponding 
positions. In a recent conference at Paris it was, however, resolved to 
recommend the system of numbering the positions 1 to 8, but this 
decision appears to have been arrived at without any sufficient discussion 
of the question or pains being taken to consult those who have the right 
to express an opinion. The desirability of numbering correspondino- 
positions similarly in all multinuclear compounds cannot be denied, and 
it is very easily carried into practice ; thus in the case of anthi-acene the 
positions in the one lateral nucleus are 1, 2, 3, 4, in the other 1', 2', 3' 4' 
and in the central nucleus Co, C.j ; in the case of phenanthrene those in 
the central nucleus are C,, C„ those in the one lateral nucleus 1, 2 3 4 
those in the other 1', 2', 3', 4'. Thus : ' ' ' 




Vi 



< 



Anthraquinone is a 1 
3 cen<ri-di-derivative. 



4 cenfrt-di-derivative, phenanthraquinone a 



176 EEPORT — 1889. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. G-arson, Mr. Bent 
(Secretary), Mr. Pengelly, Mr. Kudler, Mr. Bloxam, and 
Mr. J. Stuart GtLENnie, appointed to investigate the Habits 
and Customs and Physical Characteristics of the Nomad 
Tribes of Asia Minor, and to excavate on sites of ancient 
occupation. {Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Our researches into the mannei's and customs of nomad tribes this last 
spring were carried on in the district known as Azerbeijan, bordered on 
the west by Lake Urmia, on the south by Kourdestan, on the north by 
the Russian province of Transcaucasia, and on the east by the Persian 
province of Irak Adjemi. Azerbeijan repi-esents the ancient Atropatene, 
the kingdom of Media, and is composed of vast, and in many cases in- 
accessible, mountain ranges, overrun during the summer months by tribes 
of Kurds and Tatar-Turks and Arabs who come up from the burnt-up 
district of the Germseer to find pasturage for their flocks. The low- 
lyino- ground around Lake Urmia, Urumia, or Lake of the Armenians 
(darya i Armeni), as the Persians call it, has a settled population, in- 
habiting such towns as Maragha, Binab, Mianduwab, Urmia, &c., 
consisting of a mixed population of Persians, Tatar-Turks, Armenians, 
Nestorians, and the remnants of the ancient race of the Chaldeans. For 
ethnological study the province of Azerbeijan, therefore, oifers one of the 
most profitable fields, but owing to the unsettled state of the country it 
was necessary for us to take a considerable escort with us, and to secure 
the friendship of the chiefs of the various tribes through whose territory 
we passed. 

The preparations for our journey were made at the town of Zenjan, 
the border town of Persia proper, and the first district where the Tatar- 
Turkish language is spoken ; it has obtained a disagreeable notoriety in 
later years as the centre of the Baabi conspiracies against the present 
dynasty in Persia, and has sufiered much from the outbreak of revolu- 
tionists. We left this town, accompanied by Mirza Hassan Ali Khan, 
chief secretary of Animi-Sultan, the Persian Grand Vizier, a yuz-bashi, 
or captain, and several other attendants. 

The first part o£ the country we traversed was very fertile, and at a 
distance of 12 miles from Zenjan we halted in a garden of the village of 
Gul-i-Khandi, before commencing the mountainous tracks ; here the 
inhabitants all spoke Tatar-Turkisb, and Persian ceased to be under- 
stood. Passing over several ridges of mountains we reached the village 
of Gul-tepe, close to which were several mounds with ramifications of 
minor construction, betokening the existence of a town of considerable 
importance during the Median epoch. Close to here gold has been found, 
and we were shown several shafts that had been sunk into the mountain 
side by the late Grand Vizier, but now abandoned, as the results were un- 
satisfactory. 

At a distance of 28 miles from Zenjan we halted for the night, at the 
mud village of Dehshir, the first of many villages inhabited by the Afshah 
tribe, one of the most important of the Tatar-Turkish tribes. These 
villages during the colder months of the year are inhabited ; when the 
summer heats come on the inhabitants migrate to the mountains with 



I 



ON THE NOMAD TRIBES OF ASIA MINOR. 177 

their flocks and tents. The history of the Afsbah tribe vvonld appear to 
be lost in obscurity ; all that is known of thera is that, in 1508, this tribe, 
in conjunction with six others, succeeded in assisting Shah Ismail in his 
wars, and obtained from him certain privileges, one of which was that of 
wearing a dress peculiar to themselves, and a red cap, which gained for 
them the Turkish name of Kizil-b.ashi, or red-heads. 

The mud villages inhabited by the tribes closely resemble one another : 
they are principally conspicuous for certain round constructions standin"' 
about 15 feet in height, and built in the form of a dome. These are made 
of dried cakes of dung, and are the only fuel possessed in the district. 
Each house has one, and the cakes are made by spreading the dung of 
their animals on a flat space before the house, mixing it with mud, and 
when it has assumed the desired consistency they plaster the cakes on to 
the walls to dry, and then build them up into the round structures called 
kusks or kiosks, and the fuel is called banians ; women are generally em- 
ployed in making this kind of fuel. Over the houses of most of the 
inhabitants may be seen the skulls of horses or donkeys placed there 
to keep off the evil eye. On entering the village we interrupted a 
Passion Play of the most primitive description. Many gelims and 
nummuds, or carpets made by the tribe, were spread over the chief place 
of the village. The performers, dressed in coats-of-mail and brandishing the 
daggers and weapons commonly found amongst them, performed the play 
of Houssein and Hassan ; whilst the male spectators wept as if their hearts 
would break, and the women uttered screams of distress. After the 
happy denouement they all got up, and with hands spread towards 
Kerbela, thanked Allah for mercies vouchsafed. I have seen these plays 
often in Persian towns, but never with the inten.sity of feeling and passion 
shown amongst these wild mountaineers. The collection of individuals at 
the play gave us an opportunity of noticing the principal features of the 
inhabitants : their eyes are small, they have high cheek-bones, their beards 
thin and straggly, and their frames very robust. 

Out.side the village is the grave-yanl, in the centre of which is a tiny 
circular tomb of mud over the body of a Seid, or holy man of the tribe. 
On either side of his tomb were poles for decoration at the annual festival 
of the Mohurrim. The Afshah tribe belongs to the Shiah faith, as do 
most of the Tatar-Turkish tribes, whereas their hereditary enemies of the 
Kourdish tribes are almost universally Sonuee. At funerals they gene- 
rally take the riderless horse of the deceased to the grave. 

About four miles from Dehshir, at the village of Tschaierli, we com- 
menced the ascent of a very high pass, and then descended into the bed 
of the Kizil-Uzen river. This pass is called Ali-panj-Angoost, or the 
five fingers of Ali, from some peculiar pointed rocks which are greatly 
venerated by the tribes, and all around were little piles of stones placed 
by passers by in token of respect — the same idea commonly seen through- 
out Persia, for whenever travellers come within sight of some sacred 
shrine they add a stone to the many piles around them. There are 
several villages on a plain of considerable fertility, by the banks of the 
Kizjl-Uzen river, Dooskhandi, or salt-diggers' village, so named fiom the 
tact that rock-salt is obtained from the mountains behind. The Kizil- 
Uzen is one of the most important rivers of Media, rising in Mount 
Zagros, in Kourdestan, and after a meandering course of about 45'0 
mile.><, flowing into the Caspian. It is supposed to be the river Gozan (2 
Kings xvii. 6), and is certainly the most important stream between the 

1889. N 



178 REPORT— 1889. 

Caspian and the lakes of Urmia and Van. We crossed it with consider- 
able difficulty, owing to the swollen waters, at the village of Bagtash, 
and then ascended bj the side of a stupendous gorge to a level plateau 
covered with horses and animals belonging to the tribes, enjoying a rich 
pasturage. The horses are mostly bred from Arab sires, and with the 
rich pasturage become very fine specimens. 

Our next halt was at the village of Savandi, where we were accom- 
modated in a newly-constructed house belonging to Kerim Khan, the 
chief of the Shah-Savand tribe, of all the tribes of this district the 
most conglomerate and the most aristocratic. It was founded by the 
great Shah Abbas, who ruled in Persia at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, to counteract the influence of the Kizil-bashi, or Red-caps, 
one of the Afshah tribe at that time having aspired to the throne. He 
summoned volunteers from all the tribes of his dominions and enrolled 
them as his body-guard, and by this means got together a body of men 
10,000 strong. He gave them grants of land, and incorporated them as 
the Shah-Savand tribe, or ' fi'iends of the Shah.' During all the period 
of the Sufi dynasty they had great influence in Persia, but when the 
present family came to the throne their position was eclipsed by the 
Kadjar tribe, from which the present ruling-house has sprung. Kerim 
Khan was absent in attendance at Court when we were there, but we had 
the pleasure of prescribing for his wife, who lay ill of congestion of the 
lungs, and before we left we heard of her favourable progress towards 
recovery. Amongst the Shah-Savand tribe are many Kourds ; we saw a 
wedding going on amongst them, and witnessed, for the first time, the 
Kourdish dance of Tchopee. A ring of dancers, not joined at the ends, is 
formed ; these go through certain evolutions bearing a close resemblance 
to the dances I have witnessed in the Greek islands, called the Syrtos. 
The women, in red with gold ornaments and uncovered faces, looked 
highly picturesque. The music consisted of a flute (surmeh) and a drum 
(dnhool). Each woman carried in her hands a red handkerchief, which 
she flourished as she went round. 

We learnt a good deal at Savandi about the constitution of the 
tribes. The chief is usually made a Khan by the Persian process of 
sending him a coat-of-honour and other dignities, for which he has much 
to pay. He remains with his people, but he has a vakeel or representa- 
tive at Court, generally a son or near relative, who combines the office of 
transacting business with that of acting as a hostage for the good be- 
haviour of, his tribe. Any man of rank in the tribe can demand a council 
of the elders or white-beards ; the moUahs or priests expound the law 
at these assemblages. The office of chief, called the ' pir ' or elder of the 
tribe or ' eel,' is hei'editary, and the ' pir' generally traces his descent from 
some holy man, whose worship is general throughout the tribe, and 
called the Ojak ; his tomb is generally in some well-known spot amongst 
their summer haunts, and a great object of veneration. 

Bach tribe has its recognised district and lines of demarcation of 
pasturage, which have been observed from remote ages, and are visited 
summer after summer by the flocks with unceasing regularity. In the 
district through which we travelled the Afshah held most of the pasture 
land, and are very jealous of the encroachments of the Shah-Savand, who 
occupy their pasturage only by a very recent tenure. Concerning right 
of pasturage constant blood feuds arise amongst the shepherds, resulting 
' in the extermination of whole families. 



i 



ON THE NOMAU TRIBES OF ASIA MINOR. 179 

At the next village of Ghar-dare we first made the acquaintance of 
the underground houses, where the nomad tribes usually reside with their 
flocks during the winter months ; these zerder, as they are called, are of 
different kinds. Here they are detected only by mud domes with holes at 
the top, over which the road passes, and at the top of which the village-life 
is carried on ; not unfreqaently accidents happen and a donkey or horse 
descends through the ceiling on to the family below. On the plain of 
Mianduwab, to the south of Lake Urmia, they are of a different form, 
slanting roofs appearing above ground, made of thatch. You descend 
into the rooms below by a sloping path ; here you see the rooms, cup- 
boards, and shelves (tarcheh) all hollowed out of the ground, but having 
Been one is quite sufficient, as yon reach the surface one mass of fleas. 

We passed many villages on our road in fertile valleys ; of animal life 
we did not see much except wolves and vultures. 

At Genjabad we were again entertained in the house of a chief of a 
branch of the Afshah tribe, Mousa Khan by name, and another day's 
journey brought us to the mud village of Baba Nazere, inhabited by Kourds, 
and close to some ruins which we proposed to study, so we here put up 
for several days and had ample opportunity of studying the inhabitants. - 

The chief of the village, Sarmas Beg, gave us up his house, a miser- 
able mud tenement consisting of two rooms. The climate at this elevated 
spot was intensely cold and wet, even though it was in May, and for fuel 
we had nothing but the dung cakes which I have already alluded to. 
Sarmas Beg had three wives and seven stalwart sons, who always rode 
out to protect us when we went out, and performed for ns many of the 
Kourdish horseback games. One, the ' bazi,' consisted of riding at full 
gallop in twos or threes before us with lances posed and trembling as if 
for casting; then, at the word of command, they executed a sharp turn 
and charged back again. Then they did for us the Kaygatch, or shoot- 
ing at an object with a gun when at full gallop. The dexterity they 
displayed at shooting backwards when in the saddle and at full gallop, 
reminded us forcibly of Xenophon's account of the skirmishing capabilities 
of the Parthian archers. All Kourdish games are wild — beating with a 
rope at anyone who tries to catch an individual placed in their midst, 
dragging by the leg a man tied to another, who tries to touch one of his 
opponents without letting go of the unfortunate victim. But what 
interested us most at Baba Nazere was studying a peculiar form of 
religion which is common.to many of these wandering races, and though 
our material for this study was collected at many other points I cannot 
do better than set it all out here. 

By the Persians these people are called the Ali-ullah-hi, or sect who 
affirm that Ali, the son-in-law of Mahomed, is God ; they call themselves 
' the friends of the Seid,' or followers of Nazere, who is said to have 
founded this religion. One of the great centres of this religion is 
Genjabad, the village we passed through before reaching Baba Nazere, 
the name of which place I have little doubt is derived from their prophet. 
One Iman Kooli of Genjabad is reported to have dreamt that a land- 
slip would destroy part of the village, which came to pass, and by reason 
of his prophecy many were saved. Each community of Ali-ullah-hi has 
a Seid, who presides at their .secret meetings held in a room in the 
village. They have freemasonry signs by which they know each other, 
and, like the howling dervishes, they are great at fii-e-eating and other 
hori'iblc tricks of juggling. These meetings, or zekker as they are called, 

N 2 



180 EEPOBT — 1889. 

are carious, inasmuch as they contain many elements of Christianity. 
Each person as he or she enters kisses the hand of the Seid and takes up 
his place at the right of the last comer. A sheep is killed and roasted 
whole ; it must be without blemish, and its horns and hoofs are first 
taken off; the man who cooks it must not taste it, and when all are 
assembled it is brought in, and the Seid distributes portions of it to each, 
each person's share being equal, be he great or small They have, too, a 
form of baptism, and pass children through fire, and at their assemblages 
they have cups of wine handed round. They have no mosques, only 
sacred tombs, where their Seids are buried, places where they say the 
holy light has come down, which, together with their worship of fire, 
connects them with the ancient Zoroastrians who lived in this district. 

Their tradition is curious. Nazere, they say, was All's representative 
on earth ; seven times was he killed by Ali, and seven times was he 
brought to life. Mahomed they assert to be God. Ali, his son, was also a 
part of the Godhead, who was sent to earth to convert people from their 
evil ways, and on his return to heaven he left an incarnation of the Deity 
always on earth, which incarnation is represented by Nazere and the 
succeeding Seids. 

There is so much that is similar to Christianity in their religion as to 
make me hazard the suggestion that they are a branch of decayed 
Christians (many other branches occurring here, such as the Nestorians, 
Chaldeans, &c.), who, to preserve themselves from persecution, substituted 
the name of Ali, the great saint of the Shiah sect, for that of Christ, and 
in the lapse of ages have got a mixture of the two creeds The very 
name of Nazere is suggestive of Nazareth ; then there is the passover, the 
baptism, and the curious fellowship between them, which is handed down 
from father to son. Many of the Beliants, or wandering tribes, who come 
up to the mountains in the summer months, belong to this sect, and 
Sarmas Beg and his sons are said to be shining lights in the community. 
The Mahomedans proper attribute to this sect many horrible crimes ; 
they say they are communists, and have their wives and property in 
common, but from personal observation I should say this is a libel pure 
and simple. My wife had occasion to visit Sarmas Beg's wives on 
several occasions for photography, and found them much as other women 
of the Mahomedan faith. To the casual observer the only outward 
feature noticeable in these Ali-uUah-hi villages is the absence of mosques, 
baths, and prayer, all such marked features in Mahomedan countries. 
My information on the subject has been obtained from varied sources, 
from Mirza Hassan Ali Khan, a Persian of great intelligence, from a con- 
verted Seid in the Ali-uUah-hi village of Ilkatchee, and from Armenian 
missionaries, and in the main the information from all these sources 
agrees. 

Before Sarmas Beg's house stood his long lance, the evidence that 
the chief of the tribe dwelt within. When he is in his tent this lance 
stands before it. 

About a mile from Baba Nazere are the ruins of Takht-i- Suleiman, 
ruins of doubtful origin, but probably dating only from the Suljnkian 
period ; they are situated in a very fertile hollow amidst the mountains, 
and are remarkable chiefly for a pond in the centre, which in overflowing 
petrifies all around it, so that excavating we found practically impossible. 
Close to it is a conical hill 200 feet high, with a hole a quarter of a 
mile round, sinking to the depth of the hill and formed by the same 



ON THE NOMAD TRIBES OF ASIA MINOR. 181 

action of water, which has since found another outlet, presumably the 
one in the centre of the ruins of Takht i-Suleiman. A lofty mountain 
near has a fortress at the top, but owing to the depth of snow we were 
unable to visit it ; this is known as Takht-i-Bulgais or Belkis, Bulgais 
being the name for the Queen of Sheba. The legends of Solomon in these 
parts are very curious. The rains themselves are called Solomon's 
throne ; a curious long formation of petrifaction which runs across the 
valley is supposed to be a serpent turned into stone at Solomon's 
command. The hole in the mountain is called Solomon's prison, and 
the ruins of a building are known amongst the peasants as Solomon's 
bath ; these ruins are favourite summer quarters for the tribes with 
their flocks, and on casually asking their ideas respecting Solomon I was 
seriously told that inasmuch as Solomon was the wisest of mankind of course 
he chose the best spot in the world for his residence. In summer-time 
this may be true, but when we visited it the cold season was hardly 
suflBciently over to enable us to endorse this opinion. 

At Baba Nazere we were joined by Mahomed Housein Khan, the 
third son of Haidar Khan, the chief of the Afshah tribe, together with a 
large retinue, who had been despatched to conduct us safely through 
the dangerous country which borders on Kourdestan. Haidar Khan 
apologised that his health would not permit him to come in person, but 
he sent us presents of a lamb, several loaves of sugar, and packets of tea. 
Some of these we distributed to our host, and we were much struck by 
the graceful way in which the Kourdish chiefs received the presents. 
They first kissed it, put it to their forehead, and then bowed ; pre- 
sently they brought us in return presents of cream, bread, and cakes, 
and on my wife saying that the bread was the best we had eaten on this 
journey, Sarmas Beg's son put his hand to his heart, and bowed like a 
Parisian. 

On leaving Baba Nazere, Sarmas Beg and his sons, with the long 
lance, accompanied us for several miles, the old Persian custom of istikbal, 
to speed the parting guest, and then they took farewell of us with many 
protestations of good will, and we were handed over to the protection of 
Mahomed Housein Khan and the Afshahs. At the village of Akbulak 
our new protector had ordered a sumptuous repast to be prepared 
for us in the house of a relative, consisting of a large tray groaning 
under a weight of pilaw, kabobs, meat prepared with pi-nnes and rice, 
thickened cream, mast, or curdled milk, fried eggs, sherbet in a blue 
bowl, sour milk, and bread wrapped up in a handsome cloak. He then 
conducted us to the village of Paderlu, inhabited by Afshahs, and close 
to a curious natural phenomenon — a floating island in the centre of a small 
highland lake. This floating island is called Chamli-gul, or the meadow of 
water, and consists of a thick mass of roots and reddish clay about 40 
feet by GO ; the thickness of the island at its edge is one yard and a half, 
and it moves from one side of the lake to the other according as the wind 
blows, approaching the edge of the lake so near that we could easily 
jump upon it. It is all covered with grass and reeds, and in the summer 
is a favourite pasturage for flocks. The lake itself is very deep, far 
deeper than I had any means of fathoming ; it is surrounded by rich 
marl hills, covered with green, and backed up by the stupendous range 
of Seehend. During our stay at Paderlu the island changed its position 
four times. 

The Afshahs of Paderlu have a bad rei)utation, and we were thankful 



182 KEPORT — 1889. 

to be under the immediate protection of their chief. They are all shep- 
herds, and possess a fierce race of dogs to keep oflF the wolves. We had 
an opportunity here of seeing how expert these people are in treating 
mud, mixed with dung, and bringing it into use for most purposes. 
Besides the kusks, or fuel domes, before alluded to, and on the top of 
most of which storks had built their nests, called here Hadgi laclacs, 
from the general idea that they always go to Mecca during the winter 
season, they make beehives of the same material, long bai'rels, which are 
stuck into the walls of houses, the inner end projecting into the apart- 
ment, and stopped up with a cake of dung ; to take out the honey, the 
owner makes a noise in his room, drives out the bees, I'emoves what 
honey he wants, and claps on another cake of dung ; then, again, bowls 
for household purposes are made of it — in fact, it supplies everywhere in 
these parts the place of wood, which is exceedingly scarce in these tree- 
less mountains. 

Their chief food is 'mast,' or curdled milk, and bread; on the tops of 
the houses we noticed many roand white balls, which are made by press- 
ing the curdled mast, mixing it with salt, and making a sort of very 
coarse cheese ; the peasants in these villages eat little else. Outside the 
village we found that in the graveyards the tombs are covered with slabs 
made of the same mud and dung preparation. Most of the tombs are 
empty, for the wolves of the neighbourhood seldom leave the bodies long 
in the graves. 

A two days' ride from Paderlu brought us to the Kourdish village of 
Gouaragatch, and for some time we found ourselves in quite a different 
element. These Kourds are purely agricultural, and belong to the Jass 
or race of wandering Kourds. Their women go about with uncovered 
faces ; they are a fine, handsome race, dark hair, high complexion, and 
large noses ; their faces are all tattooed, and their heads hung with all 
sorts of ornaments, cowrie beads and savage jewellery. The women wear 
large, baggy trousers, and heavy headdi-ess, and a loose red di-ess. We 
were, with some difiiculty, able to obtain photographs of some groups. 
The turban is the distinguishing feature of the male Kourd, no sheepskin 
hat or red cap being worn by them ; the turban is made of chequered 
silk, red, yellow, and blue, with gold and silver thread. A Kourdish 
chief in travelling dress wears a light blue jacket, long flowing shirt- 
cuffs, and magnificent things in the way of daggers. 

Everything here shows a tendency to superior art. Stone is intro- 
duced into the construction of the houses, a relief after the many mud 
villages we had passed through of the Afshah tribe. Red ornamentations 
made with henna adorn the doors and windows, and the construction of 
the compounds is interesting ; by a low wicker gate you enter a court- 
yard, this gate bemg covered with dung cakes ; an outer covered shed 
contains the tripod for hanging the skin on for making ' mast,' and the 
blacksmith's bellows, with double funnel, ornamented at the top and at 
the bottom, having feet formed like birds with beaks ; the family rooms 
open into this shed ; they are only lighted from the roof, and full of 
smoke, and have great store cupboards for grain, also made of dung 
and mud, and ornamented with rosettes and other patterns. There are 
many and elegantly-shaped waterpots, made of a clay found close to the 
village, where we found the women busily engaged in digging ; any 
number of quaint-shaped copper utensils for boiling milk stood around a 
cauldron, and several dark, handsome women, with two dark tufts of hair 



ON THE NOMAD TRIBES OF ASIA MINOR. 183 

on either side of their faces and wearing round fezes bound to the head 
by red handkerchiefs, with noses pierced for silver solitaires, were busily 
engapjed in preparing the evening meal. 

The home-coming of the flocks at evening was interesting. At a given 
spot outside the village crowds of women and children were assembled at 
the hour appointed, and when the bleating was heard, each one rushed 
forward to seize his own, wildly screaming, and creating a perfect pande- 
monium of noises. Children of five were left in charge of two or three 
kids as large as tliemselves, for the Kourd begins early to make himself 
useful. The Kourds are nearly all Sonnee, and we were shown the 
village mosque and bath — a thing unknown in the districts of the Shiah 
faith. 

On the following day we rode over a mountain- pass, with rich moor- 
land scenery, amongst the mountains of Kourdestan, with acres of fennel 
growing where in England we should find bracken ; a dervish is seated at 
the highest point begging alms, for many pilgrims pass over this road 
on their way to Kerbela. The ground gradually descends towards the 
level of lake Urmia, and we begin to pass encampments of nomads on 
their way to their summer quai'ters, the poorest of them being armed 
with guns and daggers, for this part of Kourdestan on the border of 
Azebeijan is exceedingly dangerous, and the scene of frequent feuds ; 
blood-tieuds are perpetual, which end in the extirpation of whole families, 
and there is no Government here to keep them in check. The tents of 
the nomads are black, of thick goat's hair, with tufts at the top, the walls 
are of matting, to allow of a current of air during the summer heats, be- 
fore the tents boil cauldrons of milk, and there is always the tripod for 
making mast by vigorously shaking a skin suspended from the centre. 
As they travel their cavalcades are most amusing to watch — on one cow 
is strapped its lately born calf, another cow carries two or three kids, and 
perhaps the mother goat, who has just been confined, other cows carry 
the tents and poles, with men perched on the top : the donkey is laden 
with the household utensils, on the top of which are tied the cocks and hens. 
The women generally walk, and the young and active go before with 
the flocks ; thus they march day after day till their summer quarters 
are reached, up in the vast mountain range of Seehend. 

We arrived in the afternoon at another Kourdish village called Sin- 
jate, favourably situated in a gorge, and surrounded by many Sinjate 
trees, from which presumably comes its name. The Sinjate or jujube 
tree is a common one in most of these villages ; it resembles the olive in 
foliage, and its date-like fruit is a common means of sustenance amongst 
the inhabitants ; it is sweet but very woolly and disagreeable to eat. 

Here, again, many amusing scenes of Kourdish life were brought before 
our notice in our compound. We entered one room and found several 
women seated on their haunches around the heated tanure or oven, made 
of a large earthenware jar and stuck in the ground ; it is heated with 
brushwood and connected by a flue with the outer air. At Sinjate the 
women wore an immense number of cowrie beads, their caps and aprons 
being trimmed with them, and even bracelets made of them. They were 
busy making bread after the following fashion : — One woman makes the 
dough into balls, the size of her fist, this she beats with her hand into 
flat cakes, about a \ inch thick and 10 inches across. This she hands to 
the chief bakeress, who presides over the ianure, and who, by some 
mysterious legerdemain, merely by throwing the cake from hand to hand, 



184 , EEPORT— 1889. 

expands it to a thin oval sheet, the thickness of paper ; this she deposits 
on a very dirty pillow, one end of which is open to let in her hand ; and thus 
poised she dashes it against the heated side of the tanure, and when 
baked lo her satisfaction she removes it with two sticks. 

The village of Sinjate is one vast expanse of mud-roofs, over which we 
could wander from end to end. The inhabitants were very civil in show- 
ing us their houses, and the women always greeted us as we passed by 
holding up their hands. 

Just below Sinjate we joined a stream, which is the source of the 
Checkatoo, a considerable river flowing into the southern end of Lake 
Urmia, and after a few hours' ride along its banks we reached Sainkalla, 
a large village around a mud fort on a hill ; this place acts as a sort of 
capital for the Afshah tribes, who frequent the neighbouring mountains, and 
here Haidar Khan holds his court during half the year, but unfortunately 
he was absent just then ; however, we were comfortably lodged in his 
house and took the opportunity of resting for two days after our tedious 
journey through the mountains. Sainkalla boasts of a little bazaar, 
where we were able to obtain several much-needed commodities, but it 
is a most desolate spot, having been entirely ruined during the invasion 
of the Kourds a few yeai-s ago under Sheik Albidowleh ; the wild tribes 
under his leadership overran most of this district and did irreparable 
harm. Siaukalla from its position is a place of strategical importance, 
inasmuch as it commands the entrance into Eastern Kourdestan, by the 
way of the source of the Checkatoo down which we had come. 

After leaving Sainkalla at the distance of a few miles we came across 
a very interesting place and an interesting tribe. This is Mahmond- Jute, 
where Norooz Khan, the head of the Chehar-dowleh tribe lives in almost 
regal state. 

The Chehar-dowleh is a small tribe, but has a great reputation for 
bravery ; originally they came from the south of Persia but were trans- 
planted to the neighbourhood of Kasvin by Fattiali Shah, the grandfather 
of the present sovereign; Mahmoud Shah, Nasr-ed-din's father, again 
transplanted them to the banks of the Checkatoo, and here they have 
flourished exceedingly. 

Norooz Khan, their chief, was the only one in this neighbourhood 
who succeeded in keeping back the Kourds from his district, consequently 
his castle and village of Mahmoud-Jute was the only one we passed 
through in this district which did not show traces of the ravages of war. 
Here he lives, and may almost be said to be an independent sovereign, for 
though he wears the uniform of a Persian general yet he refuses to pay 
any taxes, refuses to go to Teheran, and exercises regal authority over 
his small kingdom. He received us graciously in his large palace, with 
a lovely reception-room or talya with a view over the rich valley of the 
Checkatoo and Kourdish mountains. Around the palace, which covers 
two acres or more with its buildings and gardens, runs a mud wall with 
innumerable bastions, on tlie top of each of which a stork has built its 
nest, as also they have done on every available vantage ground, so that 
the whole place is alive with these sacred birds — a sure sign of peace and 
prosperity. 

Norooz Khan told us much about his tribe ; he owns, he said, 2,000 
houses, and he has about 5,000 reyet or dependents; his territory stretches 
from Sainkalla to Mianduwab, and his subjects are chiefly sedentary and 
engaged in tilling the fertile valley of the Checkatoo ; though there are 



ON THE NOMAD TRIBES OF ASIA MINOR. 185 

several nomad families who dwell in the villages during the winter 
months and go up to the yaela or mountain pasturages daring the 
summer. The legend in the tribe is that once they beat a combined force 
of four other tribes and took the name of ' four governments,' Chehar- 
dowleh, but this I should imagine to be a fable ; from their physique and 
also South Persian origin I should imagine the tribe to be of Arabian 
descent. Norooz Khan himself, with thick lips and stunted stature, might 
have some negro blood in his veins. His meal was excellent, served up 
for us on a table, whilst the others ate on the floor, and performed feats 
of wonderful dexterity in feeding themselves with their fingers. All 
around the palace are mud houses and underground abodes ; there is also 
a bazaar, and a general air of prosperity about the place. 

The banks of the Checkatoo, especially as Mianduwab is approached, 
are very fertile. At the village of Karyagdeh we first came across a 
wheeled vehicle consisting of a cart, a triangular plateau 15 feet long, at 
the apex of which bufi'aloes are fastened and the whole supported by an 
axle joining two wheels without spokes, in many instances plain, circular 
pieces of wood. For threshing corn they use a spiked cylinder attached 
to a pole which is drawn round and I'ound by buffaloes, and acts the 
part of a flail. Buffaloes are here in constant use; they wallow and swim 
in the river, and naked urchins may be seen washing and scraping their 
backs to prevent a cutaneous disease to which these amphibious animals 
are very liable if not properly cared for. The valley of the Checkatoo 
produces tobacco in small quantities, corn, and castor-oil, this latter com- 
modity being used here for lamps and all household purposes. In each 
village there is a large stone, generally an old gravestone, put up near 
the mosque, which is public property, and where women take their turn 
in bruising the castor-oil pods for their use. By the side of the river 
where there is no cultivation, we passed the tents of several nomads, 
waiting here with their flocks for the season to go up to the mountains. 
Before the tent of the chief stands the lance, the emblem of authority, 
reminding one forcibly of Saul (1 Sam. xxvi. 7) sleeping in his tent with 
his spear stuck in the ground at his bolster. The family here is the 
basis of society, the chief is the head of the family ; they are strong, 
powerful individuals, capable under a good government of great develop- 
ment, and could Turkey or Persia ever reform its rnliiig classes, they 
would find the wandering tribes a new and powerful backbone to the 
nations. 

By the banks of the Checkatoo, north of Mianduwab (which, by the 
way, means the place between two rivers, the Tatoo and the Checkatoo), 
there are many curious underground villages inhabited by the nomads in 
the extreme colds of winter, the thatched roofs of the houses alone ap- 
pearing above ground ; they reminded us forcibly of Xeuophon's account 
of this part of the world, when returning with the 10,000 through the 
wild mountains of the Karduchi or Kurds. ' The houses are under- 
ground,' he says, ' the mouth resembling that of a well, but spacious 
below ; there is an entrance dug for cattle, but the inhabitants descend 
by ladders.' 

On crossing the Checkatoo by a boat shaped like half a barge, we 
came across a large plain running between the Seehend range and Lake 
Urmia. The inhabitants here are chiefly sedentary members of the Afshah 
tribe, with very fertile gardens around their villages ; most of them keep 
pigeons for the dung, which is used in the production of melons and 



186 REPORT — 1889. 

other fruits, pigeon towers being almost as conspicuous objects here as 
they are in the neighbourhood of Ispahan. Kourdish ravages are every- 
where visible in the shape of ruined villages and fields neglected. Before 
reachino- the town of Binab we tarried to lunch in a mud fort erected by 
one Khaleel, in which the scattered inhabitants of a neighbouring ruined 
village are gradually collecting and making for themselves mud huts. 
They call the place Khaleelevan, and as for the traces of their old homes 
they will soon be obliterated. 

A series of photographs has been prepared of types and local idiosyn- 
crasies, and the Committee beg to request to be reappointed, and that a 
sum of 501. be placed at their disposal. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Kawson Kawson, Mr. Gr. 
W. Bloxam, General Pitt-Rivers, Dr. J. Beddoe, Dr. H. MuiR- 
HEAD, Mr. C. Roberts, Dr. Gr. W. Hambleton, Mr. F. W. Rudler, 
Mr. Horace Darwin, Dr. J. Gr. Gtarson, and Dr. A. M. Paterson, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the effects of different 
occupations and employments on the Physical Development of 
the Humo,n Body. 

Owing to various circumstances the work of the Committee has been 
practically at a standstill during the past year, and the grant has not 
been drawn. 

The Committee ask for reappointment and that the grant may be 
renewed. 



Report of the Gomndttee, consisting of Greneral Pitt-Rivers, Dr. 
Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. Francis Gtalton, Dr. E. B. 
Tylor, and Dr. J. G. Garson, appointed for the purpose of 
editing a new Edition of ^Anthropological Notes and Queries.^ 
{Drawn up by the Secretary, Dr. Garson.) 

The Committee have to report that the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland readily undertook the work of editing the new edition 
of ' Anthropological Notes and Queries,' as was recommended in the last 
report of this Committee. 

During the year considerable progress has been made, and the Com- 
mittee have much pleasure in placing before the Association the proof- 
sheets of a large part of the new edition. The Editing Committee of the 
Institute hope to have the work completed and ready for publication during 
the course of the present year. 

The Committee have not drawn any of the grant of 50Z. placed at their 
disposal at the Bath meeting, but liabilities have been incurred for setting 
up in type that portion of the work now before the Association, which 
will require to be met during the ensuing year, and money will be required 
to meet the cost of printing the remaining portions now or about to be 
placed in the printer's hands. The Committee therefore seek to be re- 
appointed, and to have the grant of 50L from last year again placed at 
their disposal. 

The Committee desire to render their best thanks to the Council of the 



ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. 



187 



Anthropological Institute for the hearty response it made to the 
invitation to undertake the work, and for the efficient manner in which 
the duties undertaken have been discharged. 



Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. 
Francis Galton {Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir 
Douglas G-alton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Ravvson, 
Dr. J. G-. Garson, Dr. John Evans, Mr. J, Hopkinson, Professor 
R. Meldola [Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, and Mr. W. 

TOPLEY. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association beg 
to report to the General Committee that the two meetings of the Confer- 
ence of Delegates were held on Thursday, September 6, and Tuesday, 
September 11, 1888, at 3.30 p.m., in the Grammar School at Bath. 
The following Delegates were nominated for the Bath meeting : — 



Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. 

Mr. Wm. Gray, M.R.I.A. 

Mr. John Brown . . . . 

Mr. Charles Pumphrey . 



Mr. J. Kenward 

Rev. T. Hincks, F.R.S. , 

Mr. H. T. Browu, F.G.S. 



F.C.S. 



Mr. T. H. Thomas . 

Rev. J. M. Mello, M.A., F.G.S. 

Mr. T. Gushing, F.R.A.S. 

Mr. G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

Mr. J. C. Mansell-Pleydell, J.P. 

Mr. A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. . 
Mr. Robert Brown, R.N. 

Mr. Ralph Richardson, F.R.S.E. 
Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Mr. D. Corse Glen, F.G.S. 
Prof. F. O. Bower, M.A., D.Sc. 
Dr. H. Muirhead . 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

The Deemster Gill . 

R 

Mr. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S. . 

Mr. G. F.: Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Mr. F. T. Mott, F.G.S. . 

Mr. G. H. Morton, F.G.S. 
Mr. Eli Sowerbutts, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 



Bath Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophi- 
cal Society. 

Birmingham Natural History and Micro- 
scopical Society. 

Birmingham Philosophical Society. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and 
Archaeological Society. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society. 

Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- 
tution of Engineers. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural His- 
tory Club. 

Cumberland and Westmorland Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Literature 
and Science. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club. 

East Kent Natural History Societ)'. 

East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' 
Societies. 

Geological Society of Edinburgh. 

Essex Field Club. 

Geological Society of Glasgow. 

Natural History Society of Glasgow. 

Philosophical Society of Glasgow. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society 
and Field Club. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 

Leeds Geological Association. 

Liverpool Engineering Society. 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical 
Society. 

Liverpool Geological Society. 

Manchester Geograpliical Society. 

Manchester Geological Societj'. 



188 REPORT— 1889. 

Mr. K. G. Durrant .... Marlborough College Natural History 

Society. 

Mr. E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.L.S. . Midland Union of Natural History Socie- 
ties. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, M.A., F.G.S. . North of England Institute of Mining 

and Mechanical Engineers. 

Dr. J. T. Arlidge, M.A. . . . North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field 

Club. 

Mr. C. A. Markham . . . Northamptonshire Natural History So- 
ciety and Field Club. 

Mr. Matthew Blair, F.G.S. . . Paisley Philosophical Institution. 

Mr. Robert Brown, E.N. . . Perthshire Society of Natural Science. 

Mr. H. K. Mill, D.Sc. . . . Royal Scottish Geographical Society. 

Mr. W. Andrews .... Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archeeulo- 

gists' Field Club. 

Mr. J. W. Davis, F.G.S. . . . Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 

Society. 

Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A. . . Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

At the first Conference the chair was taken by Dr. John Evans, 
the Corresponding Societies Committee being represented by General 
Pitt-Rivers, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Professor T. 
G. Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Topley, Dr. 
Garson, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. White, and Professor R. Meldola 
(Secretary). 

The Chairman moved that in order to save time the Report of the 
Corresponding Societies Committee to the General Committee, printed 
copies of which had been distributed among the Delegates, should be 
taken as read. This was put to the meeting and carried. 

The Delegates were invited to make any statements respecting the 
work done by the Committees appointed last year, or in connection with 
other subjects referred to in the Report. 

The Ancient Monuments Act. % 

A discussion with respect to the working of this Act took place, in the 
course of which Dr. Muirhead pointed out that a Bill was then before 
Parliament which, if passed, would place the bye-paths in Scotland 
under the control of a public officer, and he suggested that the ancient 
monuments might be dealt with in the same way. Dr. Mill stated that 
the Royal Scottish Geographical Society had appointed a sub-committee 
to take the matter into consideration. 

The Deemster Gill said that the provisions of the Ancient Monuments 
Act did not apply to the Isle of Man, but it would doubtless interest the 
meeting to know that an Act had lately (1886) been passed by the Manx 
legislature somewhat, though not exactly, on the lines of the Imperial 
Act for the preservation of ancient monuments, of which there were many 
of great interest in the island. The Act was permissive only, and owners 
might place monuments under its protection either permanently or pro- 
visionally. The monuments which were thus protected were vested in 
seven trustees, three ex officio and four appointed by the Governor. 
These trustees resided in different parts of the island, and thus local 
interest was secured for the different localities. A copy of ^he Manx 
Act had been forwarded to the Secretary of the Conference. 

Mr. Wm. Gray called attention to the desirability of drawing up cor- 
rect lists of existing remains, and of having their positions registered on ap- 
proved maps on a uniform plan and by means of some generally recog- 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 189 

nised system of signs. He thought that the Delegates might see that 
Bucli lists and maps were prepared for their own localities, the results 
being finally collected and transferred to one general map of the whole 
kingdom. The Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, which he represented, 
■would be glad to assist in the work, and had already prepared maps and 
lists for the north of Ireland, which were only waiting for the approved 
Bet of signs. 

Professor Boyd Dawkins alluded to the necessity of having the work 
done as rapidly as possible, and ^Ir. J. W. Davis pointed out that the 
International Archaeological Congress, which met at Stockholm in 1874, 
had adopted a set of signs which had been published in the ' Comptes 
Rendus ' of the Cungress as well as in the ' Journal of the Anthropological 
Institute.' He thought that these signs might well be adopted and used 
on the one-inch ordnance map. Mr. P. T. Mott siiggested that it would 
be an advantage if these signs could be reprinted and circulated among 
the local Societies willing to take part in the work. 

The Chairman (Dr. Evans) stated that two distinct bodies were now 
at work upon this proposed catalogue of ancient remains, the British 
Association Committee, of which Mr. Davis was the secretary, and the 
Society of Antiquaries. The last-named Society proposed to summon a 
congress of Delegates from all the local Archaeological Societies in the 
course of the year, with the object of promoting a complete archaeological 
survey of the whole country. This, of course, need not interfere with 
the surveys by the local Societies. With respect to maps he remarked that 
a small scale, viz., -^ inch to the mile, had been adopted in the ' Archseo- 
logia,' and in the course of the year a survey of Kent would appear in 
that publication. 

General Pitt- Rivers, Inspector of Ancient Monuments, pointed out 
that the proposed archaeological survey was quite distinct from the Ancient 
Monuments Act, the working of which he had fully explained in his address 
to the Anthropological Section.' After remarking that none of the local 
Societies had rendered any assistance in getting the landowners in their 
districts to place their monuments under the protection of the Act, the 
Inspector stated that these Societies were, in the present state of the law, 
in a better position to see to the preservation of their ancient monuments 
than any Government Inspector, and he urged upon the Delegates the neces- 
sity of recommending their respective Societies to take this duty upon 
themselves. The Bill as at first drafted was intended to have been com- 
pulsory, but in its present form it was only permissive. He did not think 
the Government should be made responsible for the preservation of all 
the ancient monuments, but he was decidedly of opinion that the Act should 
be modified, and that more authority should be given to the Inspector. 
As he had stated in his Presidential Address, he had obtained eleven new 
monuments during the year, but had been obliged to resign three because 
the Government would not consent to take them over. 

Sir John Lubbock observed that as the Act was originally framed the 
proposal was as follows : — The monuments mentioned in the schedule to 
the Bill, and any others subsequently included in the list by the authority 
constituted, were declared to be ancient national monuments within the 
meaning of the Act. If, then, the owner of any such monument wished 
to destroy or mutilate it, he was bound before doing so to give notice to 
the proper authority, who then had three months to consider whether it 

' Report, 1888, p. 825. 



190 BEPOET~1889. 

should be purchased for the purpose of being preserved. This would 
have enabled local authorities and local Societies to acquire such pro- 
perties. The present Act was inoperative unless owners voluntarily placed 
their monuments under it. He (Sir John Lubbock) was glad to see that 
so many owners had done so, and he was surprised to hear that the 
Government had hesitated to accept any ancient monument. The expense 
was small, and he was sure that Parliament would not grudge the money. 
He thought it would be very desirable if local Societies would either 
induce the local authorities or would themselves take over the preserva- 
tion of monuments in their own neighbourhood. They would thus be 
much more effectively preserved, and in that case it was probable that 
the numbers placed under the protection of the Act might be considerably 
and quickly increased. He was not sure whether this could not be done 
under the Act as it stands, but if not he should think it might be amended 
without much difficulty. At the same time he confessed he should like 
to go further. These monuments were of national interest, and he 
thought it was not too much to ask, as a general provision applying to 
all such remains, that the owner before destroying them should at least 
give the nation the opportunity of purchasing and preserving them. 

Work of other Cor)imittees, and Suggestions. 

Temperature Variation in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries. — Dr. H. R. 
Mill stated that the report of this Committee had been drawn up, and 
would be presented to Section A ; he proposed to submit the result to 
the Delegates at the next Conference. 

Earth Tremor Committee. — Professor Lebour reported that the Com- 
mittee was about to apply for reappointment with the object of, in the 
first place, prosecuting inquiries as to the best form of instruments and 
the best conditions with respect to locality, foundation, &c., for fixing up 
such instruments. Several Societies and individuals had expressed their 
willingness to co-operate as soon as these conditions had been determined, 
and the Birmingham. Philosophical Society had made a grant towards 
the expenses of these preliminary trials. 

Professor Lebour stated also that the North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers had recently appointed a Committee 
armed with a substantial grant to make a series of experiments on so- 
called ' Flameless Explosives.' This Committee was now at work, and 
would gladly receive assistance in any way from kindred Societies. The 
same Institute had joined with the Mining Institutes of South Wales and 
Scotland in forming another Committee to conduct a series of experi- 
ments on fan-ventilation. He thought that these were examples of the 
kind of co-operation which the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies was likely to bring about. 

At the second Conference the chair was first taken by the Secretary, 
Professor R. Meldola, and afterwards by the Vice-Chairman, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, the Committee being further represented by Mr. J. Hopkinson 
and Mr. W. White, and towards the close of the meeting by Dr. Evans, 
who had been detained at the Committee of Recommendations. 

The Chairman in opening the proceedings said that it would be best 
to adopt their usual plan, and consider the suggestions and recommenda- 
tions from the difierent Sections in their proper sequence. 



t 



CORUBSPONDINa SOCIETIES. 191 

Section A. 

T&inperature Variation in Lakes, Ilivers, and Estuaries. — Dr. Mill said 
that he wished to point out some of the results that had been obtained by 
the Committee appointed to make the investigations in conjunction with the 
local Societies represented in the Association. He had a diagram which 
showed the work done more precisely than he could explain in a short 
time. The Committee had twenty observers working at various rivers ; 
most of these rivers were in Scotland, only one or two being in England, 
while no observations had been started in Ireland. Their investi- 
gations showed that while in some rivers, particularly the Aray, the 
temperature was increased by rainfall, in others this condition was 
reversed, the temperature being found to suddenly fall during rain. 
He wished to impress upon the Delegates the advisability of extending 
their observations throughout Scotland and England, and also of ex- 
tending them to Ireland. Professor Fitzgerald, the President of Sec- 
tion A, who was a member of the Committee, took a great interest in the 
subject, and had expressed an opinion that Mr. Symons's rain-gauge ob- 
servers micht make personal observations. Dr. Mill advised all observers 
to use the thermometer which he exhibited, and which he said was durable 
and cheap. He trusted that Delegates on returning home would lay the 
subject before their Societies, give them some idea of the work of the 
Committee, and induce them to co-operate and make ob.servations in their 
respective localities. Circulars, he added, would be sent to the Societies 
and to Mr. Symons's rain-gauge observers, and it was hoped that this 
would bring the question well before them. It would give local Societies 
an opportunity of doing what they professed to do, and he was perfectly 
certain they were anxious to promote real scientific work. The observa- 
tions could be made with very little training, and the investigations of 
conscientious observers would lead to interesting results, as they would 
be considered by the Committee in connection with the temperature and 
rainfall of the districts in which they were made.' 

In reply to questions by Mr. Cashing and the Rev. E. P. Knubley, 
Dr, Mill said that the thermometer readings were taken at a depth of 
six inches below the surface of the water, and that the fullest particulars 
would be supplied by the Committee to any Society wishing to take part 
in the observations. 

Section B. 

No recommendations sent or suggestions made. 

Section C. 

Professor Lebour, who had been nominated as the representative of 
the Committee of this Section, said that the Committees on (1) Sea-Coast 
Erosion, (2) Underground Waters, (3) EiTatic Blocks, and (4) Earth 
Tremors, the working of which had been explained to the Delegates on 
former occasions, had been recommended for reappointment. 

Oeological Photography. — Professor Lebour further informed the Dele- 
gates that in consequence of a paper read before Section C by Mr. O. W. 
JefiFs on local geological photographs, it was proposed by the Committee of 
the Section that a Committee should be appointed to collect and register 
such photographs. The proposal at present was so indefinite that there 

» liejiort, 1888, p. 326. 



192 EEPORT— 1889, 

was no chance of the Committee of Recommendations dealing with it that 
year, but they gave the suggestion their cordial sympathy, and it was 
formally passed on to the meeting of Delegates. It was hoped that 
Delegates of Corresponding Societies, by discussing the matter among 
themselves, would have it so organised and ready to place before the 
Committee of the Section next year, and ultimately before the Committee 
of Recommendations, in such a form that a Committee of the Association 
might be appointed, with a small grant, to work the scheme satisfactorily. 
It was thought by the Committee of the Section that too many restric- 
tions as to the uniformity of the photographs should not be enforced in 
the early stages of the scheme. The simple collection and registration of 
photographs was all that was at present aimed at. 

The following suggestions with reference to this subject were for- 
warded by the Committee of the Section to the Secretary of the Con- 
ference : — 

' 1. That a Committee be formed, having representatives for each 
county, charged with the arrangement of a local photographic survey for 
geological purposes in each district. 

' 2. The Committee will gather together — 

(a) Names of Societies and individuals who have already assisted 

in this object, or who are willing to do so ; 
(h) Copies of geological photographs already taken ; 
(c) List of localities, sections of rocks, boulders, and other features 
desirable to be photographed ; 

and will arrange with local Societies for the work to be done as may be 
convenient or possible. 

' 3. Each photograph to be accompanied by the following particulars: — 
(a) Name and position of locality or section ;• 
(6) Details of features shown (with illustrative diagram or sketch 

whenever necessary for such explanation) ; 
(c) Scale of height and length, or figure introduced to indicate 

size in nature ; 
{d) Name of photographer and Society under whose direction the 

view is taken ; 
(e) Date when photographed. 

'4. Size of photograph recommended: 12 in. xlO in., but this is not 
compulsory. 

' 5. Original negative to be the property of the Society or individual 
under whose direction it is taken, and who shall also fix a price at which 
copies may be sold. 

' 6. One copy of each photograph to be the property of the British 
Association, and one other copy to be given to the Geological Society of 
London. 

' 7. Each photograph ofiicially received to be numbered and recorded 
in a reference-book, and a list published and circulated showing price at 
which members and others may purchase them. 

' 8. A circular to be issued to all geological Societies inviting their 
co-operation.' 

Mr. Jefi's said that a large number of Societies in difierent parts of the 
kingdom had taken from time to time photographs of various geological 
sections and features as they came under their notice, but there had been 
' Including Compass Direction. — Sec. Corr. Soc. Comm. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 193 

no systematic way adopted either of collecting the photographs or of 
recording them, so that geologists interested might really know what 
had been taken. He thought that if some arrangement could be made, a 
great deal of good might be done, not only for the benefit of geological 
science, bat also for educational purposes. Regarding regulations, he was 
not desirous of laying down any strict rules, but he thought that if the 
scheme were to be carried out at all satisfactorily and at a minimum 
expenditure, some few regulations would be necessary. 

Mr. Whitaker thought it a very fit subject for the Conference, and 
trusted that Delegates would get their Societies to think it over. The 
object was to interest all the Societies and to have an harmonious result. 

Some further discussion took place with reference to the requirements 
of the pi-o posed Committee and the mode of procedure in the field, in the 
course of which it was pointed out that the chief object was to secure 
photographs of typical and especially of temforary sections. The details 
of manipulation, the size of the photographs, method of mounting, regis- 
tration of scale, &c., could only be settled when the Corresponding 
Societies had taken action in the matter and the Committee had been 
formally appointed. 

International Geological Congress. — Mr. Hopkinson called the attention 
of the Delegates to this Congress, which met in London last year, and 
pointed out the conditions under which Societies could get the volume 
of Proceedings. He suggested that every Society which intended to 
publish geological maps should ascertain the rules as to nomenclature 
aad colouring adopted by the Congress, so that some degree of uniformity 
might be arrived at. 

Section D. 

The Committee of this Section was represented by Professor Hill- 
house. 

Life-histories of Native Plants. — Professor Meldola said that since 
their last meeting at Manchester, Professor Bayley Balfour had received 
several applications for further particulars with reference to the sugges- 
tion which he communicated to the previous Conference. Professor Balfour 
was unable to be present at Bath, but had forwarded the following : 

' Suggestions for those studying the Life-histories of British Flowering 
Plants : — 

' 1. Seeds should be collected, and opportunity may be taken at the 
time of collection to note how they are disseminated in nature— whether 
the fruit opens or not, whether they have appendages for promoting 
transport by animals or otherwise, whether they have colour or other 
features of attraction, &c. 

' 2. The seeds being sown, their germination should be watched ; its 
rapidity and manner noted. The variations and differences between 
albuminous and exalbuminous seeds are worthy of special note. The 
movements of the parts of the embryo in germination until it acquires 
its fixed position are also deserving of study. Further, the form of the 
parts of the embryo is various and instructive. 

' 3. The development of the seedling into the adult can be readily 
watched in annuals and biennials and smaller perennials. The succession 
of leaves after the cotyledons should be noted, and the forms which the 
leaves assume and their positions and spread. The relative succession 
of buds in or adjacent to the axils of the later leaves and of the cotvledons 

1889. • o 



194 KBPOBT — 1889. 

stoTild be observed, as also the ultimate fate of the buds developed. This 
will give a clue to the branching of the main axis of the plant, upon 
which its whole form and habit depend. 

' 4. An important point to look at in the development is the amount, 
character, and position of any clothing of hairs the seedling may possess. 

' 5. The development of the undergroiind part of the seedling must 
not be neglected. The continuance of the primary root and its branching 
or its replacement by adventitious roots are points for particular attention, 
and also the formation upon it of any excrescences or buds. A sufficient 
number of seedlings must be grown to allow of proper study of these 
features. 

' 6. The form of branching of the stem and leaves may be studied in 
the mature plant, which may be gathered wild. The formation of false 
axes should be specially looked for, and the complex relations often re- 
sulting from branching may be worked out upon the young top of a 
mature plant. It is not necessary to wait for the maturing of the seed- 
ling, but reference back to the seedling will show whether any observed 
relations are of late or early development in the life-history. 

' 7. In the case of perennials, the mode of perennation is an interesting 
feature for observation, as well as the methods of vegetative propagation. 
In some cases the two processes are merged in one. Properly to under- 
stand perennation the perennating portions must be examined at all 
periods of the resting season as well as when they are starting anew into 
vegetative activity. Seedlings of perennating plants watched during 
two or three seasons will give a clue towards elucidation of the develop- 
ment. 

' 8. When the seedlings begin to form flowers the relation of the flower- 
shoots to the vegetative organs should be noted, and especially their 
sequence with reference to vegetative shoots. The succession of the 
flowers should be noted, as of course should be their structure and their 
adaptations to proper pollination. Many seedlings will not, of course, 
flower for years, and the sequence of flowers in such plants, and, indeed, 
in all cases, may be well traced in the mature plant growing wild. 

' 9. After flowering and pollination the development of fruit must be 
studied. The parts concerned in forming fruit, the adaptations to scat- 
tering of the fruit or seed are points to be precisely noted. 

' 10. The presence and position of any nectar-secreting structures out- 
side as well as inside the flower are of much significance, and they should 
be carefully studied. 

'11. In connection with every point observed of structure and develop- 
ment, the observer should ask himself. Why is this ? What is this for ? 
and endeavour to obtain some answer to the query. 

' 12. A series of observations upon a specific plant made by a careful 
observer will enable him or her to draw up a complete history of its life, 
such as is hardly to be found recorded at the present day. 

' I may add as a corollary that an interesting field for observation 
which local Societies might do good work in is that of the relation of P 
plants to animals as food plants. Some are discarded by browsing 
animals, others are preferred, and there are degrees of favouritism. Is 
there any principle of selection ? ' 

Professor F. O. Bower, the Delegate from the Natural History Society I 
of Glasgow, who was unable to be present at the meeting, forwarded the] 
following communication with reference to this subject : — 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 195 

' While heartily endorsing Dr. Balfour's proposal that local Societies 
should tarn their attention more directly to the study of the life-histories 
of plants rather than to mere record of new or rare forms, I fear that a 
direct diversion of the current of work into this direction will have its 
dangers, which the Societies must be prepared to meet at the outset. Of 
these the chief would be that in concentrating attention on the life-history 
the true identification of the species might be overlooked, and so observa- 
tions, otherwise of great value, might be worse than useless. This danger 
would not be serious in the case of experienced members, who would merely 
extend with further detail their present observations on species which 
they already know ; the danger is rather in the case of younger members, 
from whom the greater amount of work is to be expected. Unless there 
were some method of supervision there would be danger of observations 
on imperfectly identified plants being recorded. That even experienced 
botanists may make mistakes of identity of plants is shown by a case 
quoted in his address by the President of Section D, and this will serve to 
indicate that caution as to the true identity of the plants in question is 
imperative. I should suggest, therefore, in order to avoid such mistakes, 
that before any Society proceeded to publish observations, the identity of 
species to which the observations refer be carefully verified by a committee 
of experienced members, specimens being in all cases sent in with the 
drawings and descriptions ; these should be preserved as a guarantee of 
identity of the species in question. In the cases of critical species a 
reference of the specimens to some known specialist on that genus would 
certainly enhance the value of the observations. This may at the outset 
appear a needless waste of trouble, but I would urge that the value of 
such observations as those suggested in Dr. Balfour's admirably drawn- 
up schedule will depend greatly upon the true recognition of the plants 
concerned, while even a very few mistakes would cause a want of con- 
fidence in the whole scheme. I even think that a central registration of 
the results would be an advantage, so as to prevent disappointment by 
duplicate observation of the same plants, but the drawing together of so 
many independent and scattered Societies into one system would probably 
present too many difBculties for practical working. I have every wish 
for the success of the line of work suggested by Dr. Balfour.' 

Disappearances of Native Plants. — Professor Hillhouse said that he was 
in charge of a Committee appointed two years ago for the purpose of 
collecting information as to the disappearance of native plants from 
their local habitats. Their report for 1887 said the Committee intended 
presenting a report in 1888 concerning its inquiries in Scotland. He 
came to that meeting prepared with a report, and learnt to his sur- 
prise that the Committee had lapsed, but an application had been made 
to the Committee of Section D to have it reappointed. He gave 
some brief account of their work in the past year. The report for 
Scotland covered 85 flowers which were extinct, or were 'practically 
extinct,' and these were of the most varied kinds. It had been dis- 
covered that Nymphcea alba (the white water-lily) had been almost 
exterminated in the lochs about Dumfries; the name of the person 
who had committed the ravages upon it was brought before the local 
Natural History Society, an appeal was made to the proprietors of the 
lochs, and the individual was warned off estates in the neiijhbourhood on 
pain of prosecution for trespass. There was one plant that had only a 
single station in Scotland, Scheuchzeria pahistris, which was found in the 



196 REPORT — 1889, 

Boc of Methven, and it had been destroyed in all probability by 300 or 
400 black gulls settling in the bog and devouring everything in the shape 
of vegetation. Another plant which had been completely exterminated 
■was one known as Mertensia maritima, which grew in shingle on the Bay 
of Nigg, and which had been destroyed by the shingle having been used to 
make concrete blocks to be used in the construction of a pier near at 
hand. Then a grass which grew in a patch near the Moray Frith had 
been destroyed by the overturning of a tree, which caused a large hole 
into which all the moisture of the patch drained ; this grass was Melica 
uniflora. The Committee found that the disappearance of plants was 
caused in a great measure by the injudiciousness of individual bota- 
nists, and also by botanical exchanging clabs who held out inducements 
for the collection of 80 or 100 specimens of extremely rare varieties. 
The Committee hoped to present a report the following year. 

No recommendations or suggestions were made from the other 
Sections. Under Section H, Mr. Gray expressed a hope that some means 
would be taken to circulate the approved signs for the registration of 
prehistoric remains on the maps. 

Societies not enrolled as Corresponding Societies. 

Mr. White submitted a list of Societies which he suggested should 
become associated with the British Association. They were, of course, 
Societies which published papers and did local work. He thought that 
every county should be in some way represented at the meetings of the 
Conference of Delegates. In the list he had included only one or two 
antiquarian or archgeological Societies because these published papers on 
prehistoric remains, which was probably the limit which ought to be drawn 
in that direction. 

The Secretary pointed out that this could not be considered as an 
official invitation to the outstanding Societies to become affiliated with the 
British Association, as their Committee had no power to issue such an 
invitation ; but, having considered the list prepared by Mr. White, he 
(the Secretary) felt no doubt that most if not all the Societies mentioned 
therein would be admitted if application were made to the Committee in 
the usual way. Professor Meldola thought the Delegates might do good 
by calling the attention of the Societies in their own counties to the 
advantages arising from a general co-operation of all the working local 
Scientific Societies in the United Kingdom. 



^o^ 



At the conclusion of the Conference votes of thanks were passed to the 
Chairman and Secretary. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee have received applications for 
retention from all the Societies on the list, and they recommend that the 
General Committee should sanction their retention. The Corresponding 
Societies Committee have also received and considered applications from 
six new Societies, and they recommend that four of these, viz. : the 
Hampshire Field Club, the Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 
Society, the Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society, and the Wool- 
hope Naturalists' Field Club, should be enrolled as Corresponding 
Societies of the British Association. 



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COKRESPONDIKG SOCIETIES. 



217 



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21^ 



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COBRESPONDINa SOCIETIES. 



221 



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ON ELECTROLYSIS IN ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BE.VRIKQS. 223 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Fitzgerald 
(Chairman), Armstrong and 0. J. Lodge (Secretaries), Sir 
William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, Schuster, 
PoYNTiNG, Crum Brown, Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hartley, 
S. P. Thompson, McLeod, Roberts-Austen, Rccpcer, Reinold, 
Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, Captain Abney, Drs, Glad- 
stone, HoPKiNsoN, and Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, Shelford 
BiDWELL, W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. Bottomley, R. T. 
GrLAZEBROOK, J. Brown, E. J. LovE, and John M. Thomson, 
appointed for thepurpose of considering thesubject of Electrolysis 
in its Physical and Chemical Bearings. 



ft 



During the past year the following publications have been circulated 
among the members of the Electrolysis Committee and among a few 
others. 

1. The Report of the Committee presented at Bath, together with the 
appended papers. 

2. Some copies of a sketch of the electrical proceedings of Section A. 
at Bath, drawn up by the Physical Secretary. 

3. A reply by Dr. Arrheniusto some criticisms of Professor Armstrong 
regarding his theory, which were annexed to last year's Report. 

4. A translation by Professor Ramsay of some letters from Professor 
Ostwald regarding an experiment in the dissociation theory of 
Electrolysis published by him. 

5. Some criticisms by Mr. John Brown and by the Secretary regarding 
this experiment of Professor Ostwald. 

6. An explanation by the Secretary of a partial misunderstanding he 
had made in respect of this experiment. 

7. A reply by Professor Ostwald to Messrs. Brown and Lodge. 

8. Some copies of a paper communicated by Mr. John Brown to the 
Committee, and by them sent to the Pliilosophical Magazine on the subject 
of Helmholtz's views regarding dropping electrodes, and the cause of the 
E.M.F. when mercury drips from a funnel into an electrolyte. 

In addition to these. Professor A. M. Worthingtou has favoured the 
Committee with a paper On the Discharge of Electrification by Flames, 
which is to be read at the present meeting, and Mr. W. N. Shaw is 
communicating the first part of his report on the present state of our 
knowledge of Electrolysis. 

The money expended on printing has been kept low this year by the 
method adopted of publishing usually in the ' Electrician ' and purchasing 
a certain number of separate copies for the use of the Committee. Also 
by somewhat reducing the range of circulation. 

The expenditure has been : Printing, 3Z. 16s. 3d. ; postage and carriage, 
\l. 10s. 9d. ; total, hi. 16s. It is proposed to ask for reappointment with 
the lapsed portion of the grant of 15Z. renewed. 

BemarJcs hij Professor Armstrong. 

In the past,- as in the previous year, the Clausius dissociation hypothesis of 
electrolysis nas alone secured attention : its advocates, Ostwald especially, bave in 
a perfectly logical manner, without hesitation, extended its application to explain 



224 KEPORT — 1889. 

phenomena sncli as are involved in the formation of salts generally ; and it has 
become more than ever obvious that the solution of very many of the fundamental 
problems of chemistry must originate in that of electrolysis. As yet, however, 
no philosophical attempt has been made to discuss the subject except from the one 
point of view, or even to consider the objections which have been urged against 
the dissociation hypothesis. I have recently dwelt on the difficulty of accepting 
the conclusion that the solvent does not play an active part in a ' Note on the 
Determination of the Molecular Weight of Substances in Solution, especially CoUoids/ 
in the ' Proc. Chem. Soc' of June 20th, 1889, p. 109, to which I may refer. 

In my reply to Arrhenius in the last Report I spoke of Fitzpatrick's results 
as ' obtained with " commercial " alcohol,' adding, ' it is very important that jswre 
alcoholic solutions should be examined.' It is pointed out to me that this may be 
held to imply that Fitzpatrick had used very impure alcohol ; but nothing of the 
kind was intended by me : Fitzpatrick, I know, used the best alcohol that could 
be bought, and carefully dried it. No substance is more difficult to purify than 
alcohol, however, and pure alcohol is probably unobtainable : what I desired to 
imply was that experiments should be made with alcohol which had been purified 
with every possible precaution to the ultimate attainable limit — this has never 
been done. 

The Zeitschrift fur Phjsikalische Chemie, 1889, p. 236, contains a very brief 
reference to the last Report of this Committee, by the Editor, Professor Ostwald, 
who obviously entirely fails to appreciate the force of, or even to understand, my 
objections, and who unfortunately adopts the oft-hand tone of conscious certainty 
of the editorial ' We,' which hitherto has been altogether absent from scientific 
discussions, but is too frequently noticeable in the joui-nal in question. In this 
notice there is the following phrase: 'Zum Schluss wird die Anuahme, dass 
in o-alvanischen Elementen die chemische Energie vollig in electrische Energie 
iibergehe, trotz der vielen gegenteiligen Erfahrungen, aufrecht zu halten 
versucht.' It would have conduced to the proper understanding of this criti- 
cism if Professor Ostwald had quoted, however briefly, the ' gegenteilige 
Erfahrungen.' I presume he refers to the works of Braun and of Wright and 
his coadjutors ; but I have already shown that their conclusions cannot be re- 
garded as satisfactory. Meanwhile an important paper by Professor E. F. 
Herroun, ' On the Divergence of Electromotive Forces from Thermochemical Data,' 
has appeared in the 'Phil. Mag.' (1889, 27, 209), in which it is clearly 
shown that in calculating the E.M.F. corresponding to a chemical change from 
thermal values, although in some cases — that of zinc, for example — the heat of 
dissolution of the metal in the solution actually used is to be introduced into the 
calculation, in other cases — e.g., that of silver — the heat of formation of the 
anhydrous salt is to be chosen. This is a most valuable observation, and is in 
accordance with the statement in my reply to Arrhenius last year, that 'R in the 
formula C = E R was never regarded by me as simply the resistance of the solution 
in which the interaction takes place ; it is the resistance of the circuit in which 
interaction occurs. This latter may be quite different from the former, as, of a 
number of substances in solution, some only may be capable of entering into the true 
circuit of change.' It has recently been observed that considerable cooling takes 
place during the discharge of Faure secondary cells,' and this would point to the 
fact that not the dilute acid present in the cell, but a lower hydrate or H., SO4 
itself, is concerned in the change — i.e., operates in forming sulphate ; and that the 
cooling results from the dissociation of the hydrated acid. We must therefore 
picture to ourselves the possibility of two sets of actions taking place in certain 
cells — one set within the circuit, and contributing to the E.M.F. ; another set 
without the circuit, and not contributing to the E.M.F. We must picture to our- 
selves, in fact, a set of molecules swimming up from within the solution to the surface 
of the electrode, and there interacting with the latter ; and thereafter a product or 
products returning into the solution and becoming hydrated : as the dehydration and 

' See a paper ' On the Inherent Defects of Lead Secondary Batteries,' by Dr. 
Louis Duncan and H. Wiegand, read before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, New York, May 22, 1889 ; printed in the Electrical World, June 16. 



ON ELECTROLTSIS IN ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BEAEINGS. 225 

hydration both occur outside the true circuit of chang-e, they only afl'ect the tem- 

r nature of the cell, and have but an indirect and slight influence on the E.M.F. 
therefore repeat that ' I venture to think that up to the present no experimental 
disproof of Sir William Thomson's generalisation has been given.' In other words, 
we may calculate the E.M.F. of a cell from a knowledge of the heat disturbances 
corresponding to the various changes which occur in it, providing only that we know 
accurately what are the changes which occur in the circuit ; in cases in which the 
found and calculated value do not agree, we may fairly conclude that we have not 
accurately realised what the changes are, and in this way the determination of E.M.F. 
may be expected to afford most important aid in the study of chemical change. 

A discovery in electrolysis of much interest to chemists is that made by 
Warburg and Tegetmeier, that rock crystal conducts electrolytically, but in the 
direction of the principal axis alone; they conclude that conductivity is con- 
ditioned by the presence of sodium in the form of sodium silicate, and they 
consider that, according to the Clausius theory of electrolysis, this fact of electro- 
lytic conduction only taking place in the direction of the principal axis would 
tend to the inference that in the case of rock crystal not traversed by an electric 
current the interchange of atoms between the molecules can only take place, at 
any rate to a sensible extent, in the direction of the principal axis. It may, how- 
ever, be suggested that probably in the original formation of the crystal the 
impurity became included only in planes in the direction of the principal axis. 



APPENDIX. 

On the Discharge of Electrification by Flames. Bij A. M. WORTHINGTON, 
Boyal Naval Engineering College, Devonport. 

1. It is well known that an ebonite or glass rod that has been electrified by 
rubbing is immediately and completely discharged by passing it either through or 
over a flame, for example, of a Bunsen burner. It is, I think, less well known, 
though the observation seems to have been made by Priestley ', that the discharge 
takes place with apparently equal rapidity if the rod be held at the side of, or even 
below, the flame at a distance of, say, 5 cm. This is the case whether the Bunsen 
burner be insulated or not, and it is equally true of a candle flame. 

A red-hot piece of iron or copper discharges a rubbed rod that is held very 
near it, whether above, below, or at the side. If the rubbed rod be a very thick one, 
say of 3 cm. diameter, it is not at once discharged on the side remote from the flame. 
If held at a distance of, say, 8 cm. from the flame, a rubbed rod of 8 or 10 mm. in 
diameter is less rapidly discharged than at the nearer distance, but is still dis- 
charged in a few seconds ; but the rate of discharge diminishes very rapidly as the 
distance from the flame is increased. 

2. If a plate of metal, insulated or uninsulated, or a piece of wire gauze of even 
coarse textui'e be held with one side close to the flame and then a charged rod be 
brought up to the other side of the plate, no discharge takes place. A plate of 
glass or ebonite held in the same way between the flame and the rod equally pre- 
vents discharge. 

But when the ch.arged rod and glass plate are withdrawn together from the 
neighbourhood of the flame, then the glass plate is found to be charged on the side 
nearest the flame with a charge of opposite sign to that of the charge on the rod. 

8. The above experimental facts, which will be more or less familiar to 
physicists, are here cited in order that the significance may be perceived of the 
experiment that will next be described. 

Being under the impression, which I fancy is pretty general, that the flame and 
the surrounding air constituted a sort of conductor which removed the charge of 

' An historical resiivic of early observations on the electrical properties of flames 
is given in the paper of Peter Riess, ' Ueber die elektrischen Eigenschaften bren- 
nender Kiirper,' Pogg. Ann., vol. Ixi., 1844. 

1889. Q 



226 REPORT — 1889. 

the rod, as it were, by licking its surface, or, perhaps, as Van Rees ^ suggested, by 
throwing ofi" under the influence of the charged rod, finite portions of itself charged 
inductively with the opposite electriflcation, I made the experiment of surrounding 
the rod by a strong blast of air from a foot blow-pipe, expecting thereby to prevent 
the discharge by blowing away the conductive air before it reached the surface of 
the rod ; but I found that the interposed blast of air, however violent, was quite 
without influence on the discharge, which took place across it with perfect facility 
when the flame was approached. It should be mentioned that the blast alone 
without the flame was quite incompetent to discharge the rod. 

4. This observation makes it, I think, quite clear that the discharge is effected, 
not by the flame or mass of air round it acting as a whole, but by a molecular 
action, the velocity of propagation of which is very great compared with the 
velocity of the air in the blast. 

5. All the phenomena above mentioned, and others to which I shall shortly 
allude, appear to be explainable as follows, and, so far as I can see, in no other way. 

The flame contains a large number of dissociated atoms, each with +ve or — ve 
atomic charges. A charged body, such as the rod, attracts towards itself those of 
opposite sign and repels those of the same sign, and under this directive influence 
an electrolytic action is propagated across the intervening air, the discharge being 
effected by the liberation of free atoms on the surface of the body. When a glass 
or ebonite plate is interposed this liberation takes place on the surface nearest the 
flame, and the plate is thereby charged. 

The shortness of the mean free path of molecules, and presumably also of 
atoms in the air at atmospheric pressure, and the incompetence, so far as I can 
observe, of even the most violent interposed blast of air to aflect the discharge 
seems to preclude the supposition that the free atoms which reach the rod are those 
which were originally present in the flame. 

The flow iu the opposite direction of atoms bearing charges of the same sign 
as that of the rod was put in evidence by the experiment of placing a glass or 
ebonite plate near to an insulated flame, and then bringing up a charged rod to 
the opposite side of the flame, when the plate was found to receive a charge of 
the same sign as that of the rod. Care must be taken to withdraw the plate as 
the rod is approached, otherwise it also will be discharged. A variation of this 
experiment is to make the like charge flow on to and charge an electroscope by 
means of an interposed insulated flame. For some experiments of this kind a 
metallic conductor connected with an electrical machine by which the charge may 
be maintained was found more convenient than the charged rod. 

6. When a charged insulated body is discharged by the proximity of an 
insulated flame it is not at once obvious how the equal and opposite charge on the 
walls of the room in which the experiment is made, has been neutralised. I 
imagine that this must be efi'ected by an electrolytic discharge through the air 
between the flame and the walls, originating in the excess of atoms charged 
flimUarly to the body, which are left over when the charge on the body is 
neutralised, and on which the lines of force proceeding inwards from the walls of 
the room now terminate. Thus the discharge involves the shifting of the ends of 
these lines of force from the original rigid body on to atoms which are free to 
move under the directive stress. 

7. If this explanation of the discharge by a flame is correct, it should follow 
that discharge should be facilitated whenever free atoms are present, and I found 
on trial that when a rubbed ebonite rod was placed transversely in the path of the 
spark discharge, between the terminals of a Wimshurst machine, it lost a large 
amount of its charge at the passage of each spark, and was soon completely dis- 
charged. 

This appears to be a special instance of the phenomenon brought into notice 
by Dr. Schuster of a small electromotive force producing a current when the 
electrolyte has been broken down by a greater electromotive force. 

8. For investigation of the temperature at which a piece of hot metal begins to 
act like a flame in producir,g discharge, a storage cell was insulated and connected 

' Poffff. Ann., vol. Ixxiv., p. 379, 1849, 



ON ELECTROLYSIS IN ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BEAEINGS. 227 

with an electroscope, and charged statically; the terminals were then joined by 
a strip of thm platinum foil, whose length could he varied at will by means of 
insulating handles. The strip when shortened became more and more heated by 
the increased current, but only when a red heat was reached did I observe that the 
statical charge of the cell began to escape. 

This would seem to show that (in daylight at any rate) dissociated atoms are 
not found at the surface of the metal at a temperature below that of a red heat. 

The rate of escape of charge was much increased by holding an earth-connected 
conductor near to the red-hot platinum. This would increase the density of charge 
at the surface of the platinum, and therefore the electric force at the sui-face, i.e.. 
the directive force on the free atoms. 

9. By hanging side by side, in a large Bunsen flame, a sheet of copper and a 
sheet of platinum, which were connected outside the flame by a wire bavin"- in 
circuit a galvanometer of about 200 ohms resistance, a feeble current of about 
2 X 10 « amperes was obtained, the flame appearing to act as an electrolyte of 
very high resistance through which the cm-rent passed from the more oxidizable 
copper to the less oxidizable platinum. 

_ When, however, two sheets of platinum were hung in the flame so that one 
just touched the outside, while the other bisected the flame, a current of about the 
same magnitude was obtained, and in either direction at will, according to the 
relative positions of the plates in the flames, and the observation of Messrs. Elster 
and Qeitel was confirmed, that the outer mantle of the flame is at a hio-her 
potential than the interior of the flame. The eflect of this seemed to over-ride'and 
obscure any eflect due to the difference of the material of the two plates. 
_ 1 have not been able to obtain any more direct experimental evidence that there 
18 an excess of + ve atoms on the outside, and of- ve on the inside of the flame. 
• I V^^^. "°^^ experiment mentioned in this paper that I can suppose to be new 
18 that of the air-blast ; but in the light of this, the significance of the other experi- 
ments cited seems considerably changed, and the inference that a charge of either 
sign, indistinguishable from the charges that are produced by friction, may be 
obtained on a non-conductor in air, by the liberation of free atoms on its surface, 
IS not at present so familiar that any excuse seems required for emphasising it. 

Note.— Professor Poynting has suggested to me since the above was written, 
that the charges of the dissociated atoms might be so great and their masses so 
smaU, that the acceleration communicated under the electric stress would suffice 
to enable the original atoms present in the flame to traverse the air-blast. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of General Testing {Chair- 
man), Dr. H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Captain Abney, and 
Professor W. N. Hartley', on the Absorption Spectra of Pure 
Compounds. 

During the past year the research has not progressed so rapidly as it was 
hoped would have been the case, owing to various causes ; but a consider- 
able advance has been made in the methods to be employed in the 
research. Considerable difficulty was encountered in devising the method 
to employ with the various liquids, and a long series of observations 
were undertaken with the object of ascertaining what was the really most 
practicable plan. It was hoped at one time that a modified diffraction 
method might have been adopted, but experiment showed that although 
such a method was not impossible, it was impracticable. Eventually 
a double hollow prism was found to give the best results, with a com- 
pletely difPcrent arrangement of collimator and lens to that usually 
adopted. It would be premature to describe the apparatus in detail, 
ibis will be communicated when the results from the photographs of the 
compounds already taken have been tabulated. 

Q2 



228 " EEroET— 1889. 

Professor Armstrong has prepared a certain number of a series of 
compounds whicli it will be of interest to investigate ; and it is hoped 
that at the next meeting the Committee will be able to report more fully 
on the points which they have been called upon to investigate. 

The Committee request that they may be reappointed for another 
year. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. 
Armstrong, Professor W. E. Dunstan (Secretary), Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone, Mr. A. Gr. Vernon Harcourt, Professor H. M'Leod^ 
Professor Meldola, Mr. Pattison Muir, Sir Henry E. Koscoe, 
Dr. W. J. Russell (Chairman), Mr. W. A. Shenstone, Professor 
Smithells, and Mr. Stallard, appointed for the purpose of 
inquiring into and reporting upon the present methods of 
teaching Chemistry. 

In a report presented to the Bath Meeting the Committee gave an account 
of the replies they had received to a letter addressed to the head masters 
of schools in which elementary chemistry is taught. In this letter the 
Committee had asked for a report on the chemical teaching, and also for 
a statement as to the methods which had been found to render the teaching 
most effective as a mental training. In commenting on these replies the 
Committee pointed out that the evidence which had been collected waa 
conclusive in showing that much of the teaching of elementary chemistry 
is far from satisfactory, and needs to be considerably modified if it is to 
effect that valuable mental discipline which science teaching can afford. 

The Committee are convinced that the high educational value of in- 
Btruction in physical science has never been exhibited to its full advantage 
in most of our educational institutions. Nevertheless there exists already 
a considerable body of experience which proves that there is no more 
effective and attractive method of training the logical faculties than that 
which is afforded by a properly arranged course of instruction in physical 
science ; by no other means are the powers of accurately ascertaining 
facts, and of drawing correct inferences from them, so surely developed as 
they are by the study of this subject. 

Since the last meeting the Committee have been actively engaged in 
discussing the lines which a course of elementary instruction in 
chemistry should follow. The Committee were the more inclined to offer 
suggestions of their own, since they had learnt from the replies made 
to their letter of last year, by teachers in many of our well-known schools, 
that not only is the necessity for the adoption of improved methods fully 
recognised, but that teachers are anxious to receive advice and assistance 
in introducing them. 

It cannot be too strongly insisted that elementary physical science 
should be taught from the first as a branch of mental education, and 
not mainly as useful knowledge. It is a subject which, when taught 
■with this object in view, is capable of developing mental qualities 
that are not aroused, and indeed are frequently deadened, by the 
exclusive study of languages, history, and mathematics. In order that 
the study of physical science may effect this mental education, it is 
necessary that it should be employed to illustrate the scientific method in 
investigating nature, by means of observation, experiment, and reasoning 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 229 

with the aid of hypothesis ; the learners should be put in the attitude of 
discoverers, and should themselves be made to perform many of the ex- 
periments. The lessons ought to have reference to subjects which can be 
readily understood by children, and illustrations should be selected from 
objects and operations that are familiar to them in everyday life. Chem- 
istry is particularly well adapted for affording this kind of instruction, 
and the Committee are of opinion that a course which is mainly chemical 
will be most useful in developing logical habits of thought. 

Chemical inquiry involves, however, the use of various physical processes, 
and these are themselves of great value from the point of view from which 
the instruction is being given. It is also of great importance that the 
learners should become acquainted with the characteristic instrument of 
physical science, viz., measurement, and therefore quantitative processes 
should be largely made use of. 

Having agreed as to the general principles on which a scheme of 
elementary instruction in chemistry should depend, the Committee gladly 
accepted the offer of Professor Armstrong to draw up an account of such 
ft scheme in sufficient detail to serve as a guide to those who have to pro- 
vide such teaching. "Without pledging themselves to accept all its de- 
tails, the Committee consider that the scheme which Professor Armstrong 
has prepared (see pp. 229-250) is in general accordance with their views as 
to what should constitute a course of elementary instruction in physical 
science. 

With regard to the manner in which the scheme should be carried out, 
the Committee wish to lay stress on the following points. In order that 
the plan shall produce its full educational effect, the instruction should be 
commenced at an early age, and be extended to every child in the school. 
They do not desire to bring forward physical science as a substitute 
for any of the other pi-incipal subjects of study, but they ask that like 
these subjects it should be looked upon everywhere as a necessary 
part of education, and that it should receive a due share of the time 
devoted to school work. It is well known that at present science- 
teaching does not generally receive as much time and attention as is 
given to other studies. This was made clear in the report of the 
Committee last year. It will be necessary to allot more time to the 
subject, and to employ a greater number of teachers. A teacher should 
not be required to give practical instruction to more than from tifteen to 
twenty pupils at one time, although the classes at lectures and demon- 
strations might be somewhat larger. 

While the scheme now proposed may involve the employment of a 
larger number of teachers of natural science, on the other hand fittings 
and apparatus of the simplest description are all that will be absolutely 
needed, and the cost of maintenance will be relatively small. 

The Committee are aware that the course of instruction now sug- 
gested is not in conformity with the present requirements of examining 
bodies. Its general adoption must therefore depend on their co-operation. 

Suggestions for a Course of Elementary Instruction in Physical 
Science. Draiun iip by Professor Armstrong. 

Although the Committee are ostensibly charged to report as to methods 
of teaching chemistrii, chemistry pure and simple is not what is generally 
required in schools, and therefore the Committee must be prepared to 
take into consideration and make recommendations for a course of 



230 EEPOET— 1889. 

instraction preliminary to the natural science course proper, which 
in their opinion affords the most suitable and efficient preparation for 
later natural science studies. 

After the most careful consideration of the question daring at least 
ten years past, and after long holding the opinion that chemistry as 
usually understood is not the most suitable science subject for school 
purposes, I am now of opinion that a course which is mainly chemical is 
not only the best but also the only one possible if we are to secure all 
the objects aimed at in introducing science teaching into schools. Those 
objects are essentially : to train boys and girls to use their brains ; to 
train their intelligence ; to make them observing and reasoning beings, 
accurate observers, and accurate thinkers ; to teach them to experi- 
ment, and that, too, always with an object — more frequently than not 
with what may be termed a logical object — not for mere descriptive pur- 
poses ; to gradually inculcate the power of ' doing,' on which Charles 
Kingsley lias laid so much stress, and which undoubtedly is the main 
factor of success in life. It can scarcely be gainsaid that through 
chemistry more than through any other branch of natural science it is 
possible to give precisely that kind of ' practical ' training so requisite at 
the present day, because the student is able to ascertain by experiment 
what are the exact facts and thus to arrive independently at an explana- 
tion, whereas in the case of other sciences more often than not the 
explanation of necessity has to be given by the teacher. 

Chemistry as usually taught loses greatly in educational value because 
pupils are told, more often than not, that ' so and so is the case,' instead 
of being taught liow it has been found out that such is the case ; indeed, 
that which has to be proved is usually taken for granted. Practical 
chemistry has hitherto, as a rule, been interpreted to mean the prepara- 
tion of a few gases, &c., and the analysis of simple salts. Much useful 
information may be and is occasionally imparted during the performance 
of exercises of this kind, but the tendency undoubtedly is for analysis to 
degenerate into a mechanical drill, and, looking at the question from the 
practical point of view, and considering what is the general outcome of 
such teaching, probably we are bound to agree that the results thus far 
obtained are usually unsatiofactory. The difficulty, however, is to devise 
a course sufficiently simple both in conception and when carried into 
practice the cost of which is not too great ; but with respect to this item 
of cost the Committee have to make clear to parents and teachers the 
claim of natural science to a fair and proportionate share of the total 
expenditure, which certainly has never yet been granted to it. By the 
introduction of such studies into the school course a set of faculties are 
trained which it is all-important to develop, but which hitherto have 
been allowed to remain dormant, if not to atrophy, through neglect, and 
which, it is admitted by all competent authorities, cannot possibly be 
developed by any amount of attention to literary and mathematical 
studies. It is often not sufficiently clearly stated or understood that the 
advocates of natural science studies have no desire to displace any of the 
traditional subjects from the school course, and that all that they ask 
for is a fair share of the child's time, attention and brains — a share 
proportionate to the effect which such studies can demonstrably produce 
in developing the mental faculties of the individual : that, in fact, 
natural science claims to co-operate and in no sense puts in an appearance 
as a rival. 



ON TE.VCHING CHEMISTRY. 231 

Stage T. — Lessons on common and familiar objects. 

The first stage of instruction mnst be one of simple object lessons, but 
these should have an intimate relation to the child's surroundings, and 
should be made the pegs on which to hang many a tale. Probably the 
most satisfactory and practical mode of commencing is to get children 
to draw up lists of familiar and common objects under various heads, 
such as 

Natural objects. 

Things used in building construction. 

Things fi'om which household furniture is made or which are in daily 
use. 

Things used as clothing. 

Food materials. 

The children should be induced to describe these from observation as 
far as possible ; to classify them according to their origin into mineral 
and animal and vegetable or organic ; and occasion should be taken at this 
stage to give by means of reading lessons and demonstrations as much 
information as possible about the different things, their origin, how 
made, and their uses. It is obvious that in this way a great deal of 
geography and natural history (NaturJcunde) might be taught in an attrac- 
tive manner. Geikie's ' Science Primer on Physical Geography ' is the 
type of book which may be worked through with great advantage at this 
stage. 

Stage II. — Lessons in measurement. 

This stage should be entered upon as soon as children have learnt 
the simple rules of arithmetic, and are able to add, subtract, multiply and 
divide — and to use decimals. 

Lineal measurements may be first made, using both an English foot- 
rule with the inch subdivided in various ways and a metric rule sub- 
divided into millimetres. In this way the relation of the two scales is 
soon insensibly learnt. 

Measurements of rectangular figures and the calculation of their areas 
may then be made. 

After this 1)he use of the balance may be taught, and the relation 
between the English and French systems may bo learnt by weighing the 
same objects with the two kinds of weights. Use may then be made of 
the balance in determining the areas of irregular figures by cutting out 
rectangular and irregular figures from the same cardboai'd or thin sheet 
metal, and weighing these, &c. 

Solid figures are next studied : a number of cubes made from the 
same wood having been measured, their volumes are then calculated, and 
the results thus obtained are compared with those which are obtained on 
weighing the cubes. The dimensions and weights of cubes made from 
different woods or other materials are then ascertained, and thus it is 
observed that different materials differ in density. The study of the 
relative density of things generally is then entered upon. The ordinary 
method is easily learnt and used by children, a suitable bottle being pro- 
vided by filing a nick down the stopper of a common two-ounce narrow 
mouth bottle ; it may then be shown that the same results are obtained 



232 BEPORT— 1889. 

by the hydrostatic method of weighing in air and water, and it is not 
difficult to lead children to understand this latter method after they have 
determined the heights of balancing columns of liquids such as turpentine, 
water and saturated brine, of which they have previously ascertained the 
relative density. These hydrostatic experiments are of value at a later 
stage in considering the effects of atmospheric pressure. 

By determining the dimensions of a cube and the weight of the water 
which it will displace, an opportunity is afforded to point out that if the 
results are expressed in cubic centimetres and grams respectively, there is 
a practical agreement between the numbers, and hence, to explain the 
origin of the metric system of weights and the relationship between its 
measures and weights ; the irrationality of the English system may then 
be explained. 

The relative densities of a large number of common substances having 
been ascertained, the results may be tabulated and then the value of the 
data as criteria may be insisted on ; as an illustration of their value, 
quartz, flint, sand and gravel pebbles may be selected. The children 
liaving determined their relative densities, the agreement between the 
results ruay be pointed out and the identity of the material explained. 
By drawing perpendiculars corresponding in height to the densities of 
various substances, a graphic representation is obtained which serves to 
bring out the value of the graphic method of representation. 

A very valuable exercise to introduce at this stage is based on the 
well-known fact that in certain conditions of the atmosphere things 
appear moist : a muslin bag full of seaweed may be hung up under cover 
but freely exposed, and may then be weighed daily at a given time ; 
simultaneously the state of the weather, direction of the wind, the height 
of the barometer, and the state of the wet and dry bulb thermometer may 
be noted; on tabulating the results, and especially if the graphic method 
be employed, the variations and their relationship will be noticeable. 

The thermometer, having thus become a familiar instrument, may be 
used to examine melting ice and boiling water ; the construction of both 
the Centigrade and Fahrenheit thermometers may then be explained, and 
the effect of heat on bodies made clear. The density of ice and of water 
at various temperatures may then be determined, a Sprengel tube — which 
is easily made — being used for warm water ; the bursting of pipes in 
winter, the formation of ice on the surface of water, &c., may then be 
explained. Afterwards simple determinations of the heat capacity of a 
few metals, &c., and of the latent heat of water and steam, may be made 
in accordance with the directions given in a book such as Worthington's 
'Practical Physics.' 

Stage III. — Studies of the effect of heat on things in general; 
of their behaviour xohen burnt. 

As it is a matter of common observation that heat alters most things, 
the effects of heat on things in general should be studied ; in the first in- 
stance qualitatively, but subsequently, and as early as possible, quantita- 
tively. Bits of the common metals may be heated in the bowl of an 
ordinary clay pipe plunged into a clear place in any ordinary fire, or in 
such a pipe or a small iron spoon over a gas flame. The difference in 
fusibility is at once apparent, and in the case of metals like iron and 
copper it is noticeable that although fusion does not take place, a super- 



ON TEACniNG CHEMISTRY, 233 

ficial change is produced ; the gradual formation of a skin on the surface 
of fused lead and tin is also easily perceived. Observations like this 
become of great importance at a later stage, and indeed serve to suggest 
further experiments : this is a point of special importance, and from the 
beginning of this stage great attention should be paid to inculcating 
habits of correct observation ; the effect should first be recorded by the 
pupil, the notes should then be discussed and their incompleteness pointed 
out, and they should afterwards be re-written. The fusibility of sub- 
stances which are not affected when heated in the tobacco pipe may be 
tested by heating them with a Fletcher gas blowpipe on charcoal ; and by 
heating little bits of wire or foil in such a flame it is easy for children to 
discover the changes which metals undergo when burnt, especially in 
cases such as that of zinc or copper or iron. 

The further study of the effect of heat should be quantitative, and may 
well commence with water. It being observed that water disappears on 
heating, water may be put into a clock glass or glass dish placed on a water 
bath (small saucepan) ; it evaporates and it is then observed that some- 
thing is left. A known quantity of water by weight or volume is therefore 
evaporated and the residue weighed. This leads to the discovery that 
water contains something in solution. The question then naturally arises, 
What about the water that escapes ? so the steam is condensed and the 
distilled water evaporated. The conception of pure water is thus acquired. 
An experiment or two on dissolution — using salt and sugar — may then be 
introduced, a water oven or even an air oven (a small Fletcher oven) kept 
at a known temperature being used, and the residue dried until the weight 
is constant. Rain- and sea-water may next be examined ; the results 
afford an opportunity of explaining the origin of rain and of accounting 
for the presence of such a large quantity of dissolved matter in sea-water. 
Then the various common food materials may be systematically studied, 
commencing with milk ; they should first be dried in the oven, then car- 
bonised and the amount of char determined, then burnt and the percentage 
of ashes determined. A small platinum dish, 15 to 20 grams in weight, is 
required for these experiments, and a gas muffle furnace is of the greatest 
use in burning the char and in oxidising metals. In addition to the dis- 
cipline afforded by such experiments a large amount of valuable informa- 
tion is acquired, and the all-important fact is established that food materials 
generally are combustible substances. Afterwards mineral substances are 
examined in a similar manner, such as sand, clay, chalk, sulphur, &c., 
and then metals such as lead, copper, tin and iron may be studied ; their 
increase in weight is in striking contrast to theinalterability of substances 
like sand and salt, and the destruction of vegetable and animal substances. 
Chalk, from which lime is made by burning, is found to occupy a middle 
position, losing somewhat in weight when strongly heated. The ex- 
ceptional behaviour of coal among mineral substances, and of salt among 
food materials is shown to be capable of explanation inasmuch as 
coal is in reality a vegetable and salt a mineral substance ; but sulphur 
remains an instance of exceptional behaviour requiring explanation. It is 
not exceptional in being combustible as metals like magnesium and 
zinc are combustible, but in affording no visible product. The smell of 
burning sulphur, however, serves to suggest that perhaps after all there 
is a something tbrmed which is an invisible substance possessed of an odour, 
and then follows quite naturally the suggestion that perhaps in other 
cases where no visible or perceptible product is obtained — as on burning 



234 EBPOET-1889. 

charcoal, for instance — there may nevertheless be a product. Whereas, 
therefore, in Stage I. the pnpil will have learnt to appreciate the exist- 
ence of a great variety of substances, and will have gained the power of 
describing their outward appearance more or less fully ; and in Stage II., 
having learnt how to measure and weigh, will acquire the habit of deter- 
mining by measurement certain properties of substances, and will thus be 
in a position to express in exact terms the kind of differences observed ; 
in Stage III. the pupil will be led to see that profound changes take place 
on burning substances, and that these changes involve something more 
than the destruction of the things burnt. The foundation is thus laid for 
the study of change, i.e., chemical studies proper. 



Stage IV. — The prohlem stage. 

Many of the changes observed in the course of the experiments made 
in Stage III. might be examined and their nature determined, but the 
best to take first is a very familiar case, that of the rusting of iron. 

Problem I. To determine what happens lohen iron rusts. — The pupil 
w,ust be led in the first instance to realise that a problem is to be solved 
and that the detective's method must be adopted and a chie sought 
for. It is a familiar observation that iron rusts, especially when wet ; 
what happens to the iron, why does it rust, is the iron alone concerned in 
the change ? No information can be gained by looking at it — perhaps the 
balance which has brought to light so much in Stage III. may be of ser- 
vice, so the iron is allowed to rust in such a manner that any change in 
weight can be observed. A few grams of iron-filings or borings are put 
on to a weighed saucer or clock glass along with a bit of stiff brass or 
copper wire to be used as a stirrer ; the iron is weighed, then moistened 
and exposed under a paper cover to keep off dust, preferably in a 
warm place ; it is kept moist and occasionally stirred. After a few days 
it is dried in the oven and then weighed. The weight is greater. Some- 
thing from somewhere has been added to the iron. Thus the clue is gained. 
Where did this something come from ? The fact that when a tumbler, 
for instance, is plunged mouth downwards into water the water does not 
enter, and that on gradually tilting the tumbler to one side something 
escapes — viz., air — at once affords a demonstration of the presence of 
air in the space around us. The iron rusted in this air, but was kept 
moist, so it may have taken up the something from either the air or the 
water. To ascertain whether the air takes part in the rusting, some iron 
borings are tied up in a bit of muslin and the bag is hung from a wire 
stand placed in a (jam) pot full of water and a so-called empty (pickle) 
bottle, which in reality is full of air, is inverted over the iron ; in the 
course of a few hours, as the iron rusta, the water is observed to rise 
until it occupies about one-fifth of the jar (determined by measuring or 
weighing the water) ; the something added to the iron during rusting 
appears therefore to come from the air, and the all-important fact is thus 
discovered that the rusting is a change in which not the iron alone, but 
also the air, is concerned. The experiment is several times repeated, 
fresh iron being used with the same air and the same iron put in suc- 
cession into fresh portions of air, but the same result is always obtained : 
whence it follows that whatever it is in the air which takes part in the 
rusting, the air as a whole is not active. The changes previously ob- 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 235 

served to take place when iron, copper, lead, zinc, &c., were heated in air, 
are then recalled ; as the metals were found to increase in weight it 
would appear probable that in these cases of change also the air was 
concerned. 

These results at once suggest the question. What is air ? So much 
having been learnt by studying the change which iron undergoes ia 
rusting, other changes which happen in air therefore are next studied. 

PuOBLEM II. To determine the nature of the changes which take place 
on burning substances in air. — The use of phosphorus is introduced by 
reference to a match. Phosphorus is then burnt under a bell jar over 
water and the result noted : the disappearance of some of the air again 
shows that the air is concerned. The fact that phosphorus smokes when 
taken out of the water in which it is always kept suggests that some 
change is going on, so a stick of phosphorus is exposed in air as in the 
previous experiment with iron : soon one-fifth has disappeared and the 
phosphorus then ceases to smoke. The quantitative similarity of the two 
results suggests that iron and phosphorus behave alike towards air and 
vice versa, and serves to confirm the idea that some constituent of the air 
present only to the extent of about one-fifth is active. But nothing is to 
be taken for granted, so iron is exposed in the phosphorus-air residue 
and phosphorus in the iron-air residue : as no change occurs there is 
no room left for doubt. Recalling the experiments in which vai'ious 
metals were burnt in air in order to determine whether in these cases 
the same constituent of the air was concerned in the change, air from 
which the active constituent has been removed by means of iron is 
passed through a heated tube containing bits of the metals : no change 
is observed, so it is evident that as a rule, if not always, one and the 
same constituent of air is concerned. The experiments with iron and 
phosphorus, although they show that the air is concerned in the changes 
which are observed to take place, do not aSbrd any information whether 
or no the water which is also present is concerned in the change. 
Phosphorus is therefore burnt in a ' Florence ' flask closed with a rubber 
stopper : on removing the stopper under water some water enters, and 
by measuring this and the amount of water which will fill the flask the 
same result is obtained as in the previous cases. To be certain whether 
in this case anything enters or escapes from the flask it is weighed before 
and after the phosphorus is burnt. There is no change in weight. But 
does nothing escape ? Yes, much heat ; whence it follows that heat is 
not material: that, although some of the air disappears, it is mei'ely 
because it has become aflSxed to or absorbed by something else. This 
has been proved in the case of the rusting iron and the burnt metals. 
To obtain indisputable evidence in the case of the phosphorus this is 
burnt in a cun-ent of air in a tube loosely filled with asbestos to retain 
the smoke : the weight is found to increase. The observation that the 
phosphorus ceases to burn after a time suggests the introduction of a 
burning taper into the residue left by iron, &c. ; it is found to be extin- 
guished. Then a candle and subsequently a gas flame may bo burnt in 
a bell jar full of air over water. Reversed combustion may then be 
demonstrated in order to fully illustrate the reciprocal character of the 
phenomena. Thus it is ascertained that all ordinary cases of combustion 
are changes in which the air, and not the air as a whole but a particular 
constituent, is concerned, and no doubt remains that the same con- 
stituent is always active, but active under diflerent conditions ; it is 



236 REPORT — 1889. 

realised also that the production of heat is the consequence of the union 
of the substance burnt with the active substance in air. The experiment 
of exposing phosphorus in air affords the opportunity of demonstrating 
the evolution of heat even in a case where no visible combustion occurs, 
as the phosphorus is always observed to melt. At this stage careful 
note should be taken of the appearance of the different products of 
combustion and of a change such as that which occurs when the product 
from phosphorus is exposed to the air. 

Problem III. To se]parate the active from the inactive constituent of air. — 
It now has become of importance to get this active constituent of the air 
by itself, and the question arises whether it cannot be separated from one 
of the metals or other substances with which it has been found to 
combine. The pupil is therefore told to collect information about the 
different substances formed by burning metals, &c. — whether they can be 
obtained in sufficient quantity to work with, &c. Iron rust and iron scale 
are easily obtainable, and so is copper scale ; zinc is burnt to produce zinc 
white which is used as paint ; lead is also burnt on a large scale, and in 
this case it appears that one or other of two substances is formed — litharge 
at a high temperature, red lead at a lower temperature. This peculiarity 
of lead suggests the study of the two products in the hope of discovering 
the clue to a method. Weighed quantities of the litharge and red lead 
are heated ; it is observed that only the latter changes in appearance and 
that it loses weight. But what does it lose ? It was formed by merely 
roasting lead in the air and the something which it loses must therefore 
have been derived from the air. If the red lead is heated in a tube a gas 
is given off which is collected and tested — how ? with a taper or glowing 
splinter as it is to be supposed that the gas will support combustion if, 
as is to be expected, it is the active constituent of air. The discovery of 
the active constituent of air is thus made ! If air consist of this gas and 
that which remains after exposing phosphorus or iron in air, then by 
adding to such residual air as much of the gas from red lead as was with- 
drawn, air should be re-obtained ; this is found to be the case. The names 
of the two gases are now for the first time stated, and an easy method of 
preparing oxygen is demonstrated, such as that of heating a chlorate, but 
without any explanation. The conclusion previously arrived at, that 
probably in all the cases previously studied of cha,nges occurring in air 
the oxygen is the active substance, may now be verified by burning or 
heating in oxygen the substances which had been burnt in air. The com- 
parison of the densities of the two gases with that of air should then be 
made. 

So much having been learnt of the chemistry of air, the study of the 
pressure exercised by air may next be taken up, and the common pump, 
the force pump, the barometer and air currents may be discussed and 
explained. Nowadays the charts given in the daily papers, and the Ben 
Nevis and Glycerin barometer readings quoted in the ' Times ' make it 
particularly easy to explain the barometer. The pupils should be led to 
make baT'ometer curves. 

Problem IV. To determine what happens luhen chalk is hurnt to lime. 
— The discoveiy of the composition of the air in the course of experiments 
made with the object of determining the nature of certain changes natu- 
rally suggests tbat the attempt should be made to ascertain the composition 
of other things by studying the changes which they undergo. Chalk is 
known to give lime when burnt, and experiments made in Stage III. 



ON TEACIIINa CHEMISTRY. 237 

have indicated tliat chalk loses something -when burnt — the idea that an 
invisible something is given off is especially probable after the experi- 
ments with red lead have been made ; so it is decided to heat chalk 
strongly, but before doing this chalk and lime are examined comparatively. 
Chalk is observed not to be altered by water ; on shaking it with distilled 
water and evaporating some of the filtered liquid in a weighed dish, very 
little residue is obtained — so it is established that it is but very slightly 
soluble in water. Lime is slaked, weighed quantities of lime and water 
beino- used ; the retention of a considerable amount of water, even after 
exposing the slaked lime in the drying oven, shows that the slaking in- 
volves a definite change in composition — that slaked lime is lime and 
water. The solubility of the lime is next determined and found to be con- 
siderably greater than that of the chalk. It is found that chalk is but 
very slightly altered in weight when heated over a gas flame, and that it 
is only when it is strongly heated that it is converted into lime : so th© 
chalk is strongly heated in an iron tube in a Fletcher blowpipe furnace, 
■when gas is freely given off, and subsequently it is found that the chalk 
has become lime. The gas is tested with a taper, which it extinguishes, 
so it cannot be oxygen, but may be nitrogen ; its density is therefore 
compared with that of nitrogen and found to be greater, so evidently ii 
is a peculiar gas and may be called chalk gas. If chalk consist of this 
gas and lime, it should be possible to reproduce chalk from them ; so the 
gas is passed through a small weighed tube containing lime and the tube 
is found to get heavier. But lime and chalk are so much alike that it is- 
difficult to say that chalk is formed : perhaps dissolved lime will act simi- 
larly ; the gas is therefore passed into or shaken up with lime water. 
The precipitate which forms looks like chalk and probably is, but this 
remains to be decided. The discovery of this behaviour of chalk gas is- 
important as affording a means of again comparing the gas from chalk 
with nitrogen. In working with lime water it is scarcely possible to avoid 
noticing that a film forms on its surface ; by exposing a quantity of the 
lime water a considerable amount of the precipitate is obtained : its re- 
semblance to chalk is noted, and the possible presence of chalk gas in air 
is thereby suggested ; this and the precipitates previously obtained are 
collected, dried, and then introduced into pieces of narrow hard glass 
tnbinf, connected to wash-bottles containing lime water, and on heating 
strongly by means of a blow-pipe flame, while air is sucked through to 
carry forward any gas into the lime water, the white precipitates are 
again obtained, so no doubt remains that the original precipitates were 
chalk. Incidentally the discovery is thus made that air contains some- 
thing besides oxygen and nitrogen, viz., chalk gas. 

It being thus established that chalk consists of two things, lime and 
chalk gas, at this stage it is pointed out how firmly these two con- 
stituents hold to each other in the chalk. The absorption of the gas by 
the lime — its entire disappearance in fact — is commented on. Accurate 
determinations of the loss of weight on heating crystallised chalk (calc 
spar) should at this stage be carried out before the class, if not by the- 
pupils, so that the numbers may bo quoted and that it may become 
impressed on them that the proportions in which the lime and chalk gas- 
are present is constant. Their attention may be recalled to the oxides 
previously studied, it being pointed out that on inspection these afford 
no indication that they contain oxygen : that here again the gas entirely 
loses its individuality on entering into union or combination. That 
oxides contain their constituents in fixed proportions may be de- 



238 REPORT— 1889. 

monstrated experimentally by oxidising finely-divided copper and de- 
termining the increase in weight, lime being used as drying agent. 
In this way the characteristics of comjjounds are elucidated. Then the 
comparison may be made with air and the fact made clear that it be- 
haves as a mere mixture. Still no reference should be made to elements. 

Problem V. To determine ivhat happens lulien organic suhstances are 
liurnt. — The experiments thus far made have shown that phosphorus and 
a number of metals burn in the air because they combine with the oxygen, 
forming oxides, heat being given out as a consequence ; but that chalk 
when burnt is split up or decomposed into lime and chalk gas, this result 
beino- a consequence of the heating alone, the air having nothing to do 
with it. It remains to ascertain what happens when organic substances 
ai'e burnt, as these give no visible product beyond a little ashes. As in 
all cases when vegetable or animal substances are burnt a certain amount 
of ' char ' is obtained, which then gradually burns away, charcoal or coke 
is first studied. It having been discovered that the oxygen in air is the 
active cause of burning in many cases, it appears probable that the air 
is concerned in the burning of charcoal, coal, &c. As when once set fire 
to these continue to burn, the charcoal is at once heated in oxygen: 
it burns, but no visible product is formed ; it therefore follows that if the 
charcoal is oxidised the oxide must be an invisible gas. How is this to 
be tested for ? "What gases are already known to the pupil ? How are 
these distinguished ? Oxygen is excluded. Is it perhaps nitrogen, and 
is not perhaps the nitrogen in air merely used-up oxygen as it were, pro- 
duced by the burning of organic substances ? Or is it perhaps that gas 
which was found in the air along with oxygen and nitrogen, and which 
turned lime water turbid ? This last being an easy test to apply is at 
once tried ; the lime water is rendered turbid, and so as to leave no doubt a 
sufficient amount of the gas is prepared and passed into lime water, and 
the precipitate is collected : it is found to give off chalk gas when heated, 
and when the loss it suffers on heating is determined it is found to agree 
with that suffered by the precipitate prepared from chalk gas. Thus the 
discovery is made that chalk gas is an oxide of carbon, and that chalk 
consists of at least three things. 

It may be objected that to make the experiment in this manner takes 
too much time ; but to this it may be answered that such experiments 
are precisely similar to those made in actual practice, and that they 
exercise a most important influence in teaching the pupils to take nothing 
for granted, never to jump at conclusions, and to rest satisfied if they 
progress surely, however slow the advance may be. 

The char from a number of organic substances may now be burnt in 
oxygen, and the gas passed into lime water ; chalk gas is found in every 
case to be a product, and hence the presence of a common constituent- 
carbon — in all is established. In burning substances such as sugar, it is 
scarcely possible to avoid noticing the formation of a liquid product, so it 
is evident that chalk gas is not the only product of their combustion, or 
carbon their only constituent. 

Food materials generally having been found to contain ' carbon,' as 
they are obviously in some way destroyed within the body, and it is 
known that air is necessary for life, the question arises, what becomes of 
food, and why is air necessary for life ? Is the food, perhaps, in large 
part ' burnt up ' within the body, thus accounting for the fact that our 
bodies are always warm ? The characteristic product of combustion of 



ON TEACHING CUEMISTRT. 239 

carbonaceous substances is therefore tested for by breathing into lime 
water. The discovery thus made affords an opportunity for a digression 
and for explaining how plants derive their carbon from the air. 

PROBiiE.y VI. To determine what happens when sulphur is burnt. — From, 
the results of the experiments with carbon, it appears probable that the 
disappearance of sulphur when burnt is also really due to its conversion 
into a gaseous oxide, so it is kindled and introduced into oxygen : if it be 
burnt over water in a bell jar in a spoon passing through the stopper (a 
rubber cork), the water is seen to rise ; if, on the other hand, it be burnt 
in a dry flask closed by a rubber cork carrying a gauge-tube, as suggested 
by Hofmann,' the volume is seen to be almost unchanged after combus- 
tion. It follows, therefore, that the sulphur and oxygen unite and form 
a soluble product. Sulphur is next burnt in a tube in a current of oxy- 
gen, and the gas is passed into water ; a solution is thus obtained having 
the odour of the gas and sour (acid) to the taste. The fact that carbon 
and sulphur — both non-metals — behave alike in yielding gaseous oxides 
suggests that a comparison be made of their oxides : so the acid solution 
is added to lime water ; a precipitate is formed, which rsdissolves on 
adding more of the sulphur gas solution ; on the other hand, on add- 
ing the lime water to the acid liquid, this latter after a time loses its 
characteristic smell. There can be no doubt, therefore, that the sulphur 
gas does in some way act upon the lime. The discovery that the addition 
of more of the sulphur oxide leads to the dissolution of the precipitate 
which it first forms in lime water suggests trying the effect of excess of 
the carbon oxide on the lime water precipitate ; this is done, and the dis- 
covery is made that the precipitate gradually dissolves. The solubility 
of the new substance may then be determined by passing the gas into 
water containing chalk in suspension, filtering, and evaporating. This 
leads to the observation that a precipitate is formed on heating the liquid, 
and this is soon found to be chalk. An opportunity is thus afforded of 
explaining the presence of so much ' chalk ' in water ; of demonstrating 
its removal by boiling and by lime water ; and the effect it has on soap. 

The observation that the oxides of both carbon and sulphur combine 
with lime suggests trying whether the one will turn out the other, so 
the solution of the sulphur oxide is poured on to chalk : effervescence is 
observed, and on passing the gas into lime water a precipitate is obtained. 
The production of this effect by the acid solution suggests trying common 
vinegar — a well-known acid substance. This also is found to liberate 
chalk gas, and the discovery of an easy method of preparing chalk gas is 
thus made. The oxide formed on burning phosphorus, having previously 
been found to give an acid solution, is tried, and it is found that it also 
liberates chalk gas. As a good deal of vinegar is found to give very 
little chalk gas, the question arises. Are there not acids to be bought 
which will have the same effect and are stronger and cheaper? On 
incjuiry it is found that sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol, muriatic acid or 
spirits of salts, and nitric acid or aquafortis may be bought, and that these 
all act on chalk. The behaviour of chalk with acids affords a means of 
testing the lime water precipitate obtained in working out Problems IV. 
and V. In this manner the pupil is led to realise that certain agents may 

' iJy burning carbon also in this way a most effective demonstration is given of 
the fact that no loss or gain of matter attends the change, and that only heat 
escapes ; the results in the case of carbon and sulphur are particularly striking, as 
the products are gaseous and invisible. 



240 EEPORT— 1889. 

very readily produce effects which are only with difficulty produced by 
heating — that the chemical agent may produce very powerful effects. 
The ready expulsion of the carbon oxide of the chalk suggests that other 
substances not yet studied, such as the metals, when treated with acids 
may behave in a special manner which will afford information as to their 
nature. At this point, prior to making the experiments with the acids, 
an explanation may be given of the names oil of vitriol, spirits of salts and 
aquafortis ; the processes by which they are made may be described and 
illustrated, without, however, any attempt being made to explain them 
from the chemical point of view. The sulphuric acid should be made from 
green vitriol, and its behaviour on dilution should be demonstrated as 
well as its use as a drying agent. 

Problem VII. To determine what happens when metals are dissolved in 
acids. — Iron, zinc, lead, tin, copper and silver may be taken. On pour- 
ing diluted oil of vitriol on to iron or zinc, the metal dissolves with 
effervescence ; the gas is collected, and when tested is found to burn. 
Thus a new gas is discovered, differing from all which have previously 
been studied, inasmuch as it is combustible ; in order not to interrupt the 
study of the action of acids on metals, however, its further examination 
is postponed for a while. Resuming the experiments with metals, lead, 
tin, copper and silver are found not to be acted upon by diluted oil of 
vitriol. 

Muriatic acid, in like manner, dissolves iron and zinc and also tin 
with effervescence, and the gas which is given off in each case exhibits 
the same behaviour as that obtained from iron or zinc and diluted oil af 
vitriol. Lead, copper and silver are not appreciably affected. 

Aquafortis is found to dissolve not only iron and zinc but also copper, 
lead and silver, and to convert tin into a white substance — to attack all 
the metals in fact, thus justifying its name. The gas which is given off 
as the metal dissolves is observed to be coloured ; when it is collected 
over water, however, it is seen to be colourless, and to become coloured 
on coming into contact with air — oxygen and nitrogen are, therefore, 
added to portions of the gas over water. In this manner, not only is a 
new gas discovered, but also a test for oxygen ; and opportunity is afforded 
of here calling attention to the fact that air behaves exactly as oxygen, 
that the oxygen in air appears to be unaffected by its association with 
nitrogen- — that, in fact, it is uncombined. From these experiments it is 
obvious that metals and acids interact in a variety of ways. Finally, the 
dissolution of gold and platinum by aqua regia may be demonstrated. 

Problem VIII. To determine what happens when oxides are acted 
on hy acids. — In the course of the previous experiments a number of 
oxides have been prepared by burning various metals in air ; these are 
found to be unchanged by water. The discovery that acids act on metals 
suggests a trial of the effect which acids will have on their oxides ; so the 
oxides of zinc, iron, copper and lead are submitted to the action of the 
three acids previously used. Sulphuric acid is found to dissolve zinc 
oxide, iron rust and copper oxide, but no gas is evolved ; excess of the 
oxide may be used, and the filtered liquid concentrated ; the crystals 
which separate may be examined and compared with those obtained by 
dissolving the metal in sulphuric acid, &c. Litharge apparently is not 
changed by sulphuric acid, but red lead is, although not dissolved. 
Muriatic acid being used, all the oxides are found to dissolve, and in the 
case of red lead a greenish yellow gas is given off" possessing a most 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 241 

disagreeable smell ; this is noted as a case for study. The product from 
the lead oxides is observed to crystallise out from the hot liquid on 
standing, so the undissolved original product is boiled up with water, 
and the solution is filtered, &c. Attention is thus directed to the differ- 
ence in solubility of the products. Next, aquafortis is used ; again all 
are dissolved, except the red lead, which, however, is obviously altered. 
In the case of the lead oxides the product is again less soluble than those 
afforded by the other oxides, but more soluble than the product obtained 
on using muriatic acid. The pupil has already been led to realise that of 
two substances capable of acting on a third, such as chalk gas and 
sulphur gas, which both combine with lime, one may be the stronger, and 
may turn out the other, sulphur gas turning out chalk gas from chalk. 
A comparison of the three acids with the object of ascertaining which is 
the strongest is therefore suggested — the metal or oxide is dissolved in 
one of the acids, and the others are then added. No positive result is 
obtained in the case of zinc, iron or copper, but the solution of lead in 
nitric acid is precipitated by muriatic and by sulphuric acid ; the former 
precipitate is found to dissolve in boiling water and to crystallise out in 
exactly the same way as the substance obtained from lead oxide and 
muriatic acid. The sulphuric acid product is found to be almost insoluble 
in water, and also in muriatic and nitric acids ; these observations make 
it possible, by examining the behaviour towards muriatic and nitric 
acids of the products of the action of sulphuric acid on the lead oxides, to 
establish the fact that the product is the same whether lead be dis.solved 
in nitric acid and sulphuric acid be then added, or whether either of the 
oxides be treated with sulphuric acid. It is further evident that those 
acids whicli give difiBcultly soluble or in.soluble products act with difficulty 
if at all on the metal. Other metals besides those mentioned may be 
now studied, and, a solvent being found, the acids which do not dissolve 
the metal may be added to the solution. In this way, for example, the 
chloride test for silver is discovered. 

In experimenting with acids the pupils can hardly fail to stain their 
clothes and their fingers. The observation that acids alter colours serves 
to suggest experiments on the action of acids on colours, especially those 
of leaves and flowers. The use of litmus, methylorange, cochineal, &c., 
may then be explained. As various oxides have been fonnd to ' neu- 
tralise ' acids, the study of their effect on the colours altered by acids is 
suggested. Lastly, a few experiments with vegetable and animal sub- 
stances, sugar, &c., may be made, which demonstrate the corrosive action 
of oil of vitriol and aquafortis. 

Problkm IX. To determine tvhat Jiappens when the gas ohtained by 
dissolvir.g iron or zinc in siilplniric or 'inuriatic acid is hurnt. — The gas has 
been observed to burn with a smokeless, odourless flame. To ascertain 
whether, as in all other cases of combustion previously studied, the 
oxygen of the air is concerned in the combustion, a burning jet of the 
gas is plunged into a dry cylinder full of oxygen, in which it is not only 
seen to continue burning, but it is also noticed that drops of liquid 
condense on the cylinder above the flame ; this immediately suggests 
that the product is a liquid. The jet is found to be extinguished in nitro- 
gen, so evidently when the gas burns it forms an oxide. The experiment 
is repeated, and the gas burnt in a bell jar full of oxygen over water: 
the water rises as the combustion proceeds, proving that the oxygen is 
used up. To collect a sufficient quantity of the product for examination 

1889. R ' 



242 REPORT— 1889. 

the dried ^ gas is burnt at a jet underneath a Florence flask through 
■which a stream of cold water is allowed to circulate : the neck of the 
flask is passed through the neck of a bell jar and the flask and bell jar 
are clamped up in an inclined position, so that the liquid which con- 
denses may drop into a small beaker placed below the rim of the jar. 
What is the liquid ? It looks very like water, and is without taste or 
smell. Is it water ? How is this to be ascertained ? What are the 
properties of water ? The knowledge previously gained here becomes of 
importance. It has been observed that frozen water melts at 0° Centi- 
grade, that water boils at 100°, and that one cubic centimetre weighs one 
gramme at 4° C. ; so the liquid is frozen by the ice-maker's mixture of 
ice and salt, a thermometer being plunged into it so that the solid ice 
forms on the bulb : the melting-point is then observed. Subsequently the 
boiling-point is determined, a little cotton- wool being wrapped around the 
bulb of the thermometer. Lastly, the density of the liquid may be 
determined. It is thus established that the gas yields water when 
burnt, and the name of the gas may now for the first time be mentioned 
and explained. The results thus obtained leave little doubt that water 
is an oxide of hydrogen ; but in order to place this beyond doubt it is 
necessary to exclude nitrogen altogether. How is this to be done ? Red 
lead is known to consist of lead and hydrogen only, and readily parts with 
a portion at least of its oxygen ; so dried hydrogen is passed over red lead, 
which is then gently heated. Again a liquid is obtained which behaves 
as water, so there can be no doubt that water is an oxide of hydrogen. 
Water is not obtained on merely mixing oxygen and hydrogen ; it is only 
produced when combustion takes place. To start the combustion a flame 
is applied to a small quantity of a mixture of the two gases : a violent 
explosion takes place. An opportunity is here again aiJorded of calling 
attention to the entire change in properties which takes place when the 
compound is formed. On heating red lead in hydrogen, lead is obtained, 
although on heating it alone it loses only a portion of its oxygen, and 
the ' reduction ' takes place very readily ; evidently, therefore, hydrogen 
is a powerful agent. This observation suggests further expei-iments. 
Will it not be possible to remove oxygen by means of hydrogen from 
other oxides which are not altered on heating ? and will not other 
combustible substances besides hydrogen remove oxygen from oxides ? 

PROBLEM X. To determine what happens when hydrogen and other com- 
hustible substances are heated with oxides. — Zinc oxide, iron rust and 
copper oxide ai'e now heated in a current of hydi'ogen : the first remains 
unaltered, the other two are seen to change, a liquid being formed which 
it cannot be doubted is water ; the copper oxide evidently becomes 
reduced to copper. Is the iron rust similarly reduced to the metallic 
state ? How is iron to be tested for ? Iron is attracted by the magnet, 
and dissolves in diluted oil of vitriol with evolution of hydrogen. Apply- 
ing these tests, no doubt remains that the iron rust is deprived of its 
oxygen. 

Litharge and copper oxide may then be mixed with soot or finely 
powdered charcoal and heated in tubes ; gas is given oS" which renders 
lime water turbid, and metallic lead or copper is obviously obtained. It 
is thus estabhshed that some but not all oxides may be deprived of 

* The importance of dryinCT the gas is realised without difficulty, as previous 
observations have shown that the air is moist, and as the gas is given ofE in presence 
of water ; lime may be used. 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 243 

thoir oxygen by means either of hydrogen or carbon. Opportunity is 
here afforded of explaining the manufacture of iron. 

Several dried combustible organic substances, sugar, bread and meat, 
may now be burnt with copper oxide in a tube the fore part of which is 
clean and is kept cool : liquid is seen to condense, while ' chalk gas ' is 
given off; the liquid has the appearance of water, and sufficient may 
easily be obtained to ascertain whether it is water. The presence of 
hydrogen in organic substances is thus discovered ; its origin from water 
may now be explained, and the double function of water in the plant and 
animal economy may be referred to — viz., that it both enters into the 
composition of the animal and plant structure and also acts as a solvent. 
The combustion of ordinary coal gas, of alcohol, of petroleum, of oil and 
of candles, may then be studied, and the presence of hydrogen in all of 
these noted. 

Problem XI. To determine ivhetJier oxides such as tvater and chalk gas 
may he deprived of oxygen hy means of metals. — It being found that hydrogen 
and carbon withdraw the oxygen from some but not from all metallic 
oxides, it follows that some metals have a stronger, others a weaker, 
hold upon or ' affinity ' to oxygen than has either hydrogen or carbon ; 
the question arises whether any and which metals have so much greater 
an affinity to oxygen that they will withdraw it from hydrogen and 
carbon. Copper and iron have been found to part with oxygen, but zinc 
and magnesium did not, so these four metals may be studied compara- 
tively. Steam is passed through a red-hot copper tube full of copper 
tacks : no change is observed. The experiment is repeated with an iron 
tube charged with bright iron nails : a gas is obtained which is soon 
recognised to be hydrogen, and on emptying out the nails they are found 
to be coated with black scale. Zinc and then magnesium are tried, and, 
like iron, are found to liberate hydrogen. Chalk gas is next passed over 
red-hot copper, and is found to remain unchanged, but on passing it over 
red-hot iron or zinc a gas is obtained which burns with a clear blue 
smokeless flame : this gas is not absorbed by milk of lime, but on com- 
bustion yields chalk gas, so it evidently contains carbon, and is a new 
combustible gas. Like hydrogen, it is found to afford an explosive 
mixture with oxygen. Finally, magnesium is heated in chalk gas : it is 
observed to burn, and the magnesium to become converted into a 
blackish substance unlike the white oxide formed on burning it in air. 
But it is to be expected that this oxide is produced, and to remove it, as 
it is known from previous experiments to be soluble in muriatic acid, 
this acid is added : a black residue is obtained. AVhat is this ? Is it not 
probable that it is carbon ? If so, it will burn in oxygen yielding chalk 
gas. So the experiment is made. These experiments in which hydro- 
gen is obtained from water, and carbon from chalk gas, afford the most 
complete ' analytic ' proof of the correctness of the conclusions previously 
arrived at regarding water and chalk gas, and which were based on 
' synthetic ' evidence ; taken together, they illustrate very clearly the 
two methods by which chemists determine composition. 

As hydrogen and cai'bon form oxides from which oxygen may be 
removed by means of some metals but not by all, the question arises, 
which has the greater hold upon or affinity to oxygen — carbon or hydro- 
gen ? As it is the easiest experiment to perform, steam is passed over 
red-hot charcoal: a combustible gas is obtained which yields water 
and chalk gas when burnt, so evidently the hydrogen is deprived of its 

K 2 



244 REPORT— 1889. 

oxygen, and this latter combines witla the carbon, forming the combustible 
oxide of carbon. Will not carbon partly deprive chalk gas of its oxygen ? 
The experiment is made and it is found that it will. These results afford 
an opportunity of calling attention to and explaining the changes which 
go on in ordinary fires and in a furnace. 

Pkoblem XII. To determine the composition of salt gas, and the manner 
in tuhich it acts on metals and oxides. — It has previously been demonstrated 
that spirits of salt or muriatic acid is prepared by acting on salt with oil 
of vitriol and passing the gas which is given off into water; the solution 
has been found capable of dissolving various metals and oxides, chalk, 
lime, &c., and as water alone does not dissolve these substances the effect 
is apparently attributable to the dissolved gas, so it becomes of interest 
to learn more of this gas in order that its action may be understood. It 
is first prepared ; its extreme solubility in water is observed, and also the 
fact that as it dissolves much heat is given out ; and it is noted that 
although colourless and transparent it fumes in the air. How is its com- 
position to be determined ? Is there any clue which can be followed up ? 
Reference is made to the previous observations, and it is noted that its 
solution dissolves various metals with evolution of hydrogen; water alone 
has no such effect. Is this hydrogen derived from the water or from the 
dissolved gas ? The gas alone is passed over heated iron turnings, and the 
escaping gas is collected over water : it proves to be hydrogen, so evi- 
dently salt gas is a compound of hydrogen with something else. How is 
this something else to be separated from the hydrogen ? Do not previous 
experiments suggest a method ? Yes, they have proved that hydrogen 
has a mai'ked affinity to oxygen, and now it is recollected that on treating 
muriatic acid with red lead — a substance rich in oxygen — a greenish- 
yellow gas is obtained. The experiment is repeated on a larger scale and 
the gas is examined. If it is contained together with hydrogen in salt 
gas, perhaps salt gas will be obtained on applying a flame to a mixture 
of the two gases just as water is from a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen : 
the mixture is made and fired, and the result leaves little doubt that salt 
gas does consist of hydrogen in combination with the greenish-yellow gas 
— chlorine. Whence is this chlorine derived — from the salt or the 
sulphuric acid ? 

The notes are again consulted, and it is seen that a solution of silver 
in nitric acid gave a characteristic precipitate with muriatic acid but 
not with sulphuric, so salt solution is added to the silver solution, and a 
precisely similar precipitate is obtained, leaving little doubt that the 
chlorine is derived from the salt. It is now easily realised that the iron 
and zinc displace the hydrogen of the dissolved hydrogen chloride. 
What happens when the oxides are acted on ? In addition to the metal 
they contain oxygen, which is known to combine readily with hydrogen, 
forming water; is water formed? Zinc oxide is therefore heated in 
hydrogen chloride; a liquid is obtained which behaves exactly as a solu- 
tion of hydrogen chloride in water. When the action is complete, and all 
that is volatile has been driven off by heat, a solid remains very like fused 
common salt — doubtless zinc chloride, since it is to be supposed that as the 
hydrogen has taken the place of the zinc the chlorine has taken the place 
of the oxygen. What, then, is the action of hydrogen chloride on chalk ? 
It evidently not only separates the chalk gas from the lime, but also 
dissolves this latter. What is formed ? Dry (unslaked) lime is therefore 
heated in a current of hydrogen chloride. It behaves just as zinc oxide, 



ON TEACniNO CHEMISTRY. 245 

yielding a liquid product— evidently a solution of hydrogen chloride in 
water, as it dissolves zinc -with evolution of hydrogen, and the residue is 
like that of zinc chloride. The important discovery is thus made that 
lime also is an oxide— that chalk, in fact, is a compound of two oxides ; 
the resemblance of lime to zinc oxide and magnesium oxide is so striking 
that the conclusion is almost self-evident that lime is probably a metallic 
oxide, and it may be here pointed out that this actually is the case. The 
gradual discovery of the composition of chalk in the manner indicated is 
an especially valuable illustration of chemical method, and serves to show- 
how chemists are often obliged to pause in their discoveries and to await 
the discovery of new facts and methods of attack before they arc able to 
completely solve many of the problems which are submitted to them. 
The solids obtained on dissolving zinc oxide and lime in muriatic acid 
and boiling down the solution, when all the Avater is driven off, are white 
solids like fused salt, but on exposure they gradually become liquid. In 
60 doing they increase in weight, and evidently behave like sulphuric 
acid. Probably water is absorbed from the air : no change takes place 
when they are kept over sulphuric acid or dry lime. In this way two 
now desiccating agents are incidentally discovered. 

Problem XIII. To determine the composition of waslmig soda.~-The 
study of this substance is of importance as introducing the conception of 
an alkali. The preparation of washing soda from salt is first described. On 
heating the crystals they melt and give off 'steam' ; the experiment is made 
in such a way that a quantity of the liquid is obtained sufficient to place 
beyond doubt that it is water. The water is found to be easily driven off 
on heating the crystals in the oven, and to constitute a very large pro- 
portion of the weight of the crystals. The conception of water of 
crystallisation is thus gained. On heating the dried substance to full 
redness in the platinum dish, no loss occurs. The residue dissolves in 
water, and ' soda crystals ' may again be obtained from the solution, so 
that heat does not affect it. Perhaps acids which have been found to act 
so powerfully in other cases will afford some clue— on trial this is found 
to be the case : a colourless, odourless gas is given off, which extinguishes 
a burning taper. Is this perhaps nitrogen or chalk gas ? The lime- 
water test at once decides that it is the latter. So it is determined that 
•washing soda, like chalk, is a compound of chalk gas — but with what? 
With an oxide ? The dried substance is heated in hydrogen chloride : 
chalk gas is given off as before, and a liquid which is soon recognised as 
water saturated with hydrogen chloride. The residue dissolves in water, 
and separates from the concentrated solution in crystals exactly like salt, 
and, in fact, is soon recognised to be salt ; evidently, therefore, that 
■which is present in salt along with chlorine is present in soda crystals 
along with oxygen, chalk gas and water. The preparation of the metal 
sodium from soda is then explained. Acquaintance being thus made 
with compounds of chalk gas with two different oxides, the question 
arises, which oxide has the greater affinity to the chalk gas ? Will lime 
displace sodium oxide from soda or rice versa ? On adding lime water 
to soda solution, a precipitate of chalk is formed. What does the solu- 
tion contain ? Lime water contains lime in combination with water ; is 
the sodium oxide present in combination with water ? Soda is boiled 
with milk of lime (in an iron saucepan to avoid breakage) until it no 
longer affects lime water; afterwards the liquid is poured off and boiled 
down. The product is very unlike soda : it is very caustic, and when 



246 BEPORT— 1889. 

exposed to the air becomes liquid. If it is an analogous substance to 
slaked lime, it should combine with chalk gas and be reconverted into 
soda ; this is found to be the case. Caustic soda is thus discovered. 
Chalk and lime are known to neutralise acids ; both soda and caustic 
soda are found to do so, and their effect on vegetable colours is found to 
be the reverse of that of acids. At this stage the origin of the name 
alkali is explained, and it is pointed out that the oxides which have been 
studied may be arranged in two groups of alkali-like or allcylic and 
acid-forming or acidic oxides, the former being derived from metals, the 
latter from non-metals. The production of salts by the union of an oxide 
of the one class with the oxide of the other class is then illustrated by 
reference to earlier experiments. 

The point is now reached at which the results thus far obtained may 
be reconsidered. The student has been led in many cases to make 
discoveries precisely in the manner in which they were originally made ; 
and it is desirable that at this stage, if not earlier, the history of the 
discovery of the composition of air and water, &c., should be briefly 
recited. It is then pointed out that a variety of substances have been 
analysed and resolved into simpler substances — air into oxygen and nitro- 
gen, water into oxygen and hydrogen, &c. ; and that these simpler sub- 
stances thus far have resisted all attempts to further simplify them, and 
are hence regarded as elements. A list of the known elements having 
been given, the diverse properties of the elements may be illustrated 
from the knowledge gained in the course of the experiments. The fact 
that when elements combine compounds altogether different in properties 
from the constituents are formed also meets with manifold illusti'ation. 
Too little has been ascertained to admit of any general conclusion being 
arrived at with regard to the proportions in which elements combine, 
but it is clear that they may combine in more than one proportion since 
two oxides of carbon have been discovered, and in the only cases 
studied — viz. copper oxide and chalk — the composition has been found 
not to vary. The existence of various types of compounds has been 
recognised, and a good deal has been learnt with reference to the nature 
of chemical change. But, above all, the method of arriving at a know- 
ledge of facts has been illustrated time after time in such a manner as to 
influence in a most important degree the habit of mind of the careful 
student. New facts have been discovered by the logical application of 
previously discovered facts : the habitual and logical use of facts has 
been inculcated. This is all-important. It has become so customary 
to teach the facts without teaching how they have been discovered 
that the great majority of chemical students never truly learn the 
use of facts ; they consequently pursue their daily avocations in a 
perfunctory manner, and only in exceptional cases manifest those quali- 
ties which are required of the investigator ; their enthusiasm is not 
awakened, and they have little desire or inclination to add to the stock 
of facts. It must not for one moment be supposed that the object of 
teaching chemistry in schools is to make chemists. Habits of regu- 
lated inquisitiveness, such as must gradually be acquired by all who 
intelligently follow a course such as has been sketched out, are, however, 
of value in every walk of life ; and certainly the desire to understand all 
that comes under observation should as far as possible be implanted in 
everyone. 



ON TEACHINa CUEMISTBT. 



Stage V. — The quantitative stage. 



247 



The quantitative composition of many of the substances which have 
previously been studied qualitatively should now bo determined — in some 
cases by the teacher in face of the pupils, so that every detail may be 
observed and all the results recorded ; in other cases by the pupils. 

The composition of water is first determined by Dumas' method ; this 
may easily be done, and fairly accurate results may be obtained in tho 
course of a couple of hours. The results obtained by Dumas and subse- 
quent workers should then all be cited, and, attention having been drawn 
to the extent to which such experiments are necessarily subject to error, 
the evidence which the results afford that hydrogen and oxygen combine 
in certain fixed and invariable jjro;portions to form water is especially 
insisted upon. 

The composition of chalk gas is next determined; this also is easily 
done, as impure carbon (lampblack) may be burnt and the hydrogen 
allowed for. Again, attention is directed to the results obtained by 
skilled workers, and the evidence which they afford that chalk gas never 
varies in composition. 

The composition of copper oxide has already been ascertained ; it may 
be re-determined by reducing the oxide in hydrogen : in fact, m deter- 
mining the composition of water. 

The lead oxides may be reduced in a similar manner, the oxide 
obtained by ifjniting white lead as well as red lead and the brown oxide 
obtained by a'cting on red lead with nitric acid being used. In this way 
it is ascertained that the brown oxide is the highest oxide; the loss m 
weight which this oxide suffers when ignited may then be determined. 

Tabulating the results thus obtained, after calculating with what 
amount of the particular element that quantity of oxygen is associated 
which in water is combined with one part by weight (tinit weight) of 
hydrogen, numbers such as the following are obtained : — 

1 part of hydrogen is combined with 8 parts of oxj-gen in water 
3 „ carbon „ „ 8 „ „ chalk gas 

31-5 „ copper „ „ 8 „ „ copper oxide 

10,3-5 „ lead „ „ 8 „ ,. lead oxide (litharge) 

61-8 , „ 8 „ „ „ (brown) 

These clearly illustrate the fact that elements combine in very different 
proportions, and the results obtained with the lead oxides afford also an 
illustration of combination in multiple proportion. 

The amounts of silver and lead nitrates formed on dissolving silver and 
lead in nitric acid are next determined by evaporating the solutions of 
known weights of the metals in porcelain crucibles on the water-bath, and 
then drying until the weight is constant ; accurate results may bo easily 
obtained, and these two exercises afford most valuable training. The 
nitrates are subsequently evaporated with muriatic acid and the weights 
of the products determined. What are these products? Does the metal 
simply take the place of the hydrogen in hydrogen chloride as zinc does 
when it dissolves in muriatic acid ? If so, the products are silver and 
lead chlorides, and it may be expected that the same substances will bo 
obtained— that the same increase in weight will be observed, when, say, 
silver is combined directly with chlorine as when it is dissolved in nitric 
acid and the solution is precipitated with muriatic acid or salt. Silver 



248 KEPOET— 1889. 

is, therefore, heated in chlorine, and is found to increase in weight to the 
same extent as when it is dissolved in nitric acid, &c. ; a given weight of 
silver precipitated by salt is also found to increase to the same extent as 
when it is directly combined with chlorine. The composition of silver 
chloride having thus been ascertained, the amount of chlorine in salt is 
determined. The composition of salt being ascertained, purified dried 
washing soda is converted into salt, and also the amount of chalk gas 
which it contains is determined : from the data, the composition of sodiam 
oxide may be calculated. In like manner the composition of lime may be 
ascertained by converting chalk into chloride by igniting it in hydrogen 
chloride, and then determining the chlorine in the chloride ; the same 
method may be applied to the determination of the composition of the 
oxides and chlorides of zinc, magnesium, and copper. 

Discussing these various results, and comparing the quantities of 
oxygen and of chlorine which combine with any one of the metals examined, 
it is seen that in every case about 35'4 parts of chlorine take the place of 
eight parts of oxygen. Combination in reciprocal proportions is thus 
illustrated, and by considering the composition of chalk and washing 
soda it may be shown that this applies equally to compounds of two and 
to compounds of three elements. As 35 '4 parts of chlorine are found in 
every case to correspond to eight parts of oxygen, it is to be expected 
that hydrogen chloride contains one part of hydrogen in combination with 
35'4 parts of chlorine ; a solation containing a known weight of hydrogen 
chloride is, therefore, prepared by passing the gas into a tared flask 
containing water and the chlorine is then determined. 

It being thus clearly established what are equivalent weights of 
elements, the conception of equivalents may be further developed by 
exercises in acidimetry carried out by the pupils themselves. The pro- 
portions in which washing soda and hydrogen chloride interact may be 
determined by mixing solutions of known strength until neutralisation is 
effected ; if the solution be evaporated and the chloride weighed, the 
results may be used in calculating the composition of hydrogen chloride ; 
they serve, in fact, as a check on the conclusions previously arrived at as 
to the composition of washing soda and hydrogen chloride. Solutions 
of sulphuric and nitric acid may be similarly neutralised, and, the amounts 
of sulphate and nitrate formed having been ascertained, the equivalents 
of the acids may be calculated on the assumption that the action is of the 
same kind as takes place in the case of hydrogen chloride. Determinations 
of the strengths of acids, &c., may then be made. In a similar manner 
the volumetric estimation of silver may be taught and the percentage of 
silver in coinage and other alloys determined. 

Such a series of quantitative exercises as the foregoing, when carried 
out before and to a considerable extent hij the pupils, undoubtedly affords 
mental discipline of the very highest order, and is effective of good in so 
many ways that the value of such teaching cannot be over-estimated. 
The failure to grasp quantitative relationships which examiners have so 
frequently to deplore is without question largely, if not alone, due tO' 
students' entire ignorance of the manner in which such relationships hav^e 
been determined. Moreover, the appreciation by the general public of 
the principles on which quantitative analysis is founded would cer- 
tainly be directly productive of good in a multiplicity of cases. 



ON TEACniNG CIIEJIISTRT. 249 

Si'AOE VI. — Sludies of the physical properties of gases in comparison with 
those of liquids and solids. The violecidar and atomic theories and 
their application. 

A series of quantitative experiments on the effect of heat on solids, 
liquids and gases should now be made, and these should be followed 
by similar experiments on the efiect of pressure ; the similar 
behaviour of gases, and the dissimilar behaviour of liquids and 
solids, is thus made clear. The condensation of gases is then demon- 
strated and explained, and also tho conversion of solids and liquids into 
gases, and the dependence of boiling-point on pressure and temperature. 
Kegnault's method of determining gaseous densities is studied, and the 
method of determining vapour densities is illustrated. The molecular 
constitution of a gas is now discussed ; the phenomena of gaseous and 
liquid diffusion are studied and a brief reference is made to the kinetic 
theory of gases ; then Avogadro's theorem is expounded and applied to 
the determination of molecular weights ; and eventually the atomic 
theory is explained, and the manner in which atomic weights are 
ascertained is brought home to the pupils. The use of symbols must then 
be taught. Finally, the classification of the elements in accordance with 
the periodic law should be explained. 

It is all-important that at least a large proportion of the experiments 
in each of the stages should be made by the pupils ; but even if this were 
not done and the lessons took the form of demonstrations, much valuable 
instruction might still be given. 

The majority of pupils probably would not proceed to the fifth and 
sixth stages ; but those who pei-force must terminate their studies with- 
out gaining any knowledge of chemical philosophy should unfailingly be led 
to make a few simple quantitative experiments : for example, to determine 
silver volumetrically, and the method of determining the composition 
of water and chalk gas should be demonstrated in their presence : and it 
may be added that if only the examples in Stages I. and II. and Problems 
I. to V. of Stage III. were thoroughly worked out, most important educa- 
tional training would be given and much valuable information as to the 
nature of common phenomena would be gained. 

The complete course would undoubtedly take up considerable time, but 
so does a satisfactory mathematical or classical course of study, and it is 
absurd to suppose that useful training in science is to be imparted in a few 
months. If instruction be given in the manner suggested at all generally, 
it will be necessary, however, to modify the present system of testing results. 
Pupils could not be expected to pass at an early age examinations such as 
are at present held, and awards would have to be based chiefly on an 
inspection of the classes at work and of note-books and on viva-voce 
([uestioning. But all are agreed that the present system of payment on 
results tested by a terminal examination is a most unhealthy one, and 
that a more rational system must be substituted for it. I may suggest 
that if members of the staff of science colleges, such as are now 
established in so many towns, could be appointed supei-vising inspectors, 
■whose duty it would be to advise teachers in schools and occasionallij to 
inspect the teaching in company with the permanent inspector, it would 
be possible to secure the assistance of a body of men who are in touch 
with scientific progress and conversant with the improvements which are 
being effected. A man who ' once an inspector is always an inspector ' 
of necessity must get into a rut, and will escape from the wholesome 



250 REPORT — 1889. 

leavening and ronsing influence which is always more or less felt by 
those whose office it is to follow the march of scientific progress. 

It shonld also here be pointed out that the great majority of the 
experiments and exercises described may be carried out with very simple 
apparatus and with slight provision in the way of special laboratory 
accommodation. In but very few cases is there any production of 
unpleasant smells or noxious fumes. It is, in fact, a mistake to suppose 
that an elaborately fitted laboratory is in every case essential for success- 
ful teaching : much might be done in an ordinary schoolroom provided 
with a demonstration bench for the use of the teacher, a draught closet 
over the fire-place, a sink, a raised table for balances (raised so that the 
teacher might see what was going on), a cupboard for apparatus, and 
a long narrow bench provided with gas burners at which, say, twenty 
pnpils might stand ten a side. At present the Science and Art Depart- 
ment will not recognise ' practical chemistry ' unless it be taught in a 
laboratory fitted up in a certain specified manner, and their regulations 
are such as to enforce the provision of expensive laboratories in all cases 
where it is desired to obtain the grant. If gi-eater latitude in fittings 
were allowed, more attention being paid to the character of the work 
done and less to the tools with which it is accomplished, probably much 
less money would be wasted by inexperienced school authorities in pro- 
viding special laboratories, and there would be much greater readiness 
displayed to enter on the teaching of experimental science. The course 
which has been sketched out is one which doubtless might well be modified 
in a variety of ways according to circumstances. Thus many simple 
exercises in mechanics, in addition to those directly mentioned, might 
be introduced into Stage II., and the mechanical properties of common 
materials might be somewhat fully studied at this stage in disti-icts where 
engineering trades are largely established, and where such knowledge 
would be specially valuable. In like manner the physical effects of heat on 
substances might be studied in Stage III. instead of Stage VI. And there 
are other chemical problems and simple exercises besides those described 
which might be substituted for some of them, or included in the course. 

Probably, however, it would be found undesirable, if not impossible, 
as a rule, to continue the teaching of chemistry proper much, if at all, 
beyond the stage indicated in this scheme. Other subjects will have a 
prior claim should it ever be deemed essential to include in a compre- 
hensive scheme of school education the elements of the chief physical and 
biological sciences ; it certainly is of primary importance to introduce 
at as early a period as possible the conception of energy, and to explain 
the mechanical theory of heat, so that later on it may be possible to dis- 
cuss the efficiency of heat and other engines ; and, until the laws of the 
electric current are understood, the subject of chemical change can never 
be properly considered. 

In many cases, where it is convenient or desirable to continue the 
chemical studies, it probably will be advantageous as a rule that they 
have reference to specific (local) requirements — e.g., to agriculture in 
schools in agricultural districts ; to food materials and physiology in the 
case of girls especially, &c. But in any case more consideration must 
be paid in the future in schools where chemistry is taught to educational 
requirements — the teaching must have reference to the requirements of 
the general public ; and it must be remembered that the college, not the 
school, is the place for the complete study of a subject. 



ON TEACHING CHEMISTRY. 251 



With the object of presenting in an available form information as to 
the position occupied by chemistry in Board and other Public Element- 
ary Schools, which are controlled either by the Education Department, 
Whitehall, or the Science and Art Department, South Kensington, tho 
Committee now present a report on the subject which has been prepared 
by Professor Smithells. A consideration of this statement will show that, 
as in the higher grade public schools, with which the Report of the Com- 
mittee last year was chiefly concerned, the condition of the teaching in 
public elementary schools is far from satisfactory. As a rule chemistry 
is not taught on the proper lines. The pupils frequently receive the same 
kind of instruction in chemistry as they would at a later stage if they 
were preparing for a professional or technical career ; consequently the 
subject has failed to provide that mental education which it should bo the 
main object of elementary teaching to develop. It appears, too, that in 
many of these schools 2:)hysical science has not hitherto been regarded as 
a necessary part of the educational scheme. It is essential that this state 
of affairs should be altered, and that physical science should occupy a 
more favourable position in the Education Code, and that its teaching 
should be more thoroughly controlled. 

It is to be hoped also that the Education Department, as well as the 

|Science and Art Department, South Kensington, will take steps to 
arrange a more efficient mode of inspecting science teaching than that 
it present in vogue, which can only be regarded as satisfactory from a 
purely statistical standpoint. Under the present system little or no 
control can be exercised over the science teaching, since the Whitehall 
[nspectors are, as a rule, not qualified to form an opinion as to its value. 
There would seem to be no difficulty in obtaining the services of properly 
jualified jiersons to act as additional inspectors for the purpose of re- 

' porting on the character of the science teaching. It is probable that 
many of the professors and lecturers in University Colleges, and other 
educational institutions, might be willing to take part in such inspection, 
and it would thus become possible to maintain a high standard of excel- 
lence in the teaching. 



The Teachinr/ of Chemistry in Piihlic Elemeiitai'y Schools} 
Drawn up by Professor Smithells. 

In view of the rapid increase in the teaching of chemistry in connection 
with public elementary schools likely to take place, chiefly on account of 
the establishment of the so-called ' Higher Grade Board Schools,' and in 
view of the strenuous attempt that is being made to extend the teaching 
of science subjects by a separate Act dealing with technical instruction, 
it seemed of importance to prepare a short statement indicating the posi- 
tion occupied by chemistry in our state-aided elementary schools. Since 
the chemical teaching in such schools is practically dominated by the 
syllabus of the Education Code and of the Science and Art Department, 
any improvements or suggestions the central authorities at Whitehall or 

' I.e., in Voluntary and Board Schools receiving grants from the Education 
Department under the Education Acts. 



252 



EEPORT — 1889. 



South Kensington could be induced to accept would at once take effect 
throiighout public elementary schools dealing with four and a half millions 
of children, or between one-sixth and one-seventh of the total population. 

The following statement deals with the conditions under which 
chemistry is taught in Voluntary and Board Schools, and with the extent 
of such teaching, in England and Wales only. Notes are added with 
reference to chemistry teaching under the Scotch Education Department, 
and to other matters relating to tbe main question. 

The Education Code. — The subjects of instruction in the Education 
Code are divided into three classes : — 

1. Elementary or CoMPaLSORT Subjects. — Reading, "Writing, and 

Arithmetic (and Needlework for girls). 

2. Class or Optional Subjects. — English, Geography, Elementary 

Science, History, Singing, or other graduated subject approved 
by the Inspector. 

3. Specific Subjects. — Algebra, Euclid and Mensuration, Mechanics, 

Chemistry, Physics, Animal Physiology, Botany, Principles of 
Agriculture, Latin, French, Domestic Economy, and other 
subjects approved by the Inspector. 

All schools must take the elementary subjects in all the standards. 

Not more than two class subjects may be taken, one being English. 
(In the case of girls the second class subject must be needlework unless 
taken under the head of elementary subjects.) 

The specific subjects are only to be taken in the upper classes of a 
school, viz., in Standards V., VI., and VII. 

There is in the Code as it stands the possibility of an excellent course 
of instruction in elementary chemistry. It would really begin in the 
infant school with enlightened object lessons and kindergarten work, then 
in the elementary school proper it could be continued in the first four 
standards as the class subject ' elementary science,' lastly in the V., VI., 
and VII. Standards as the specific subject chemistry. 

The teaching in the infant schools is not circumscribed by detailed 
schedules or individual examination, and is admittedly the most satisfac- 
tory part of our educational system. 

The schedule for elementary science as a class subject is as follows: — 



III. Elementary Science 
A progressive course 
of simple lessons on 
some of the follow- 
ing topics, adapted 
to cultivate habits 
of exact observation, 
statement, and rea- 
soning 



Standard I. 



Standard II. 



Standard III. 



Common objects, such as familiar animals, plants, and 
substances employed in ordinarj' life. 



ON TEACHING CDEMISTRT. 



253 



standard IV. 


Stnudnrd V. 


Standard VI. 


Standard VII. 


A more advanced know- 


(a) Animal or plant life 


The pre- 


The pre- 


ledge of special groups 


lb) The chemical and 


ceding in 


ceding in 


of common objects, such 


physical principles in- 


fuller de- 


fuller de- 


as — 


volved in one of the 


tail 


tail 


(a) Animals or plants with 


chief industries of Eng- 






particular reference to 


land, among which 






af^riculture 


agriculture may be 






(J) Substances employed 


reckoned 






in arts and manufactures 


(c) The phj-sical and me- 






(c) The simpler kinds of 


chanical principles in- 






phj'sical and mechanical 


volved in the construc- 






appliances, e.g., the ther- 


tion of the commoner 






mometer, barometer. 


instruments, and of the 






lever, pulley, wheel and 


simpler forms of indus- 






axle, spirit level 


trial machinery 







Chemistry as a specific subject taken by boys in the V., VI., and VII. 
Standards is divided into three ' stages ' as follows, each stage represent- 
ing one school-year's work : — 



Stage I. 


Stage II. 


Stage III. 


Elementary and com- 
pound matter. Illus- 
trations of combination 
and decomposition in 
such bodies as hydro- 
chloric acid, water, 
oxide of mercury, and 
rust of iron 


Preparation and properties 
of the common gases, 
such as oxygen, hydro- 
gen, nitrogen, and chlo- 
rine 

The chemical character and 
constituents of pure air 
and pure water, and the 
nature of the impurities 
sometimes found in both. 
Effects of plants and ani- 
mals on air 


The properties of carbon 
and its chief inorganic 
compounds. Differ- 
ences between metal- 
lic and non-metallic 
bodies. Combination 
by weight and volume. 
The use of symbols and 
chemical formukc 



Any further teaching of chemistry than the above woald not earn 
Government grants from the Education Department, but niip^ht be pro- 
vided by school managers in extra classes or in a so-called Higher Grade 
School by money from the school funds or the rates (according as it were 
a Voluntary or Board School) and by means of grants obtained from the 
South Kensington Science and Art Department under conditions to bo 
subsequently explained. 

Inspection and Grants. — The teaching of the science in all stages 
would be subject to the inspection of one of H.M. Inspectors of Schools, 
on whose annual report the Government grant would be awarded. The 
examination, conducted once a year, in the elementary scienco is oral, 
and may be conducted as the Inspector likes. If the class is reported 
' fair ' a grant of Is. per head is allowed, if ' good ' 2s., and besides this 
the quality of work done in the class subject is considered in awarding 
the 'merit grant,' i.e., a grant awarded to the school on the general merits 
of the organisation, teaching and discipline, Is., 2s., or 3s., according as it 
is ' fair,' ' good,' or ' excellent.' 



254 



KEPOET — 1889. 



■ In 1887-8, 25,000 out of 4,500,000, i.e., 1 in 180, children in schools 
took this subject. 

The teaching of chemistry as a specific subject is also under the con- 
trol of H.M. Inspectors, who award a grant of 4s. on each pupil who 
passes at the annual written examination. The performance in specific 
subjects also counts in awarding the merit grant. 

Teachers and Apparatus. — The teachers in the earlier standards (in- 
cluding elementary science) are the usual school teachers, and have not 
necessarily any qualification of a scientific kind. 

The inspectors have instructions to ascertain that teachers of specific 
subjects have received training in a training college or have passed some 
public examination. The Department recommends the ' peripatetic ' 
system of science teaching by a 'demonstrator,' in which either the 
demonstrator visits the schools in rotation, or the pupils from the different 
schools attend a central laboratory for science instruction. This system 
has been adopted with success in several large towns, including London, 
Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, and Leeds. 

There is no stipulation in the Code for apparatus or experimental 
illustration, this being a matter for the school managers, subject to the 
criticism of the inspectors. 

Statistics. — The following are statistics as to the teaching of chemistry 
in elementary schools as a specific subject under the Whitehall Code for 
the year 1887-8 :— 





Total No. 
examined 


Passed 


Per- 
centage 


1st 
stage 


2nd 

stage 


3rd 

stag© 


Voluntary Schools 

Board Schools .... 


453 
1035 


327 
750 


72-2 
72-5 


181 
409 


127 
295 


19 
46 


Total .... 


1488 


1077 


— 


590 


422 


65 





Average nitmber of scholare 
in attendance in all subjects 


Proportion taking Chemistry 
(specific) 


Voluntary Schools 
Board Schools . 


2,216,854 
1,327,710 


about 1 in 5,000 
„ „ 1,280 



The proportion taking chemistry in Board schools is thus about four 
times that in Voluntary schools. 

Cheviistry as a Science Subject. — The preceding statements apply only 
to teaching under the Whitehall Education Department. The greater part 
of the chemistry teaching is carried out under the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, South Kensington. This is done in virtue of a regulation of 
that Department, whereby pupils in elementary schools receiving aid from 
the Whitehall Education Department may be 'registered' in a science 
subject provided that they have passed Standard VI. of the Code and are 
taught by a duly qualified teacher. Such teacher must have obtained a 
first class in the advanced stage of the May examinations of the Science 
and Art Department, or have obtained some qualification deemed equiva- 
lent by the Department. 

Pupils who have passed Standard VI. may thus form a class under 



ON TEACniNtt CUEMISTRY. 255 

the Science and Art Department, and present themselves at the usual 
May examinations in chemistry. 

For every pass in the elementary or advanced stage a payment of 21. 
for a first class and 1/. for a second class is made, subject to a deduction 
of 4s. if the same pupils have within the previous six months been 
examined and have obtained grants through the Whitehall Department 
for chemistry as a specific subject. 

For honours 4L and 21. for a first and second class respectively are 
granted. 

In pi-actical chemistry the following grants are made : — 

21. and 11. for first and second class elementary respectively 
Bl. „ 21. „ „ advanced ,, 

4Z. „ M. „ „ honours „ 

The conditions are : — 

(a) That the teacher is qualified as above. 

(l) That he has given at least 28 lessons during the session. 

(c) That each candidate has received 20 lessons. 

(cl) That the candidate does not present himself in more than two 
subjects. 

Stringent conditions are also made as to laboratory accommodation 
and the provision of apparatus, and grants are made for these purposes. 

The teaching is under the inspection of the South Kensington in- 
spectors, who are only four in number. They are assisted by ' acting 
inspectors,' consisting of officers of the Royal Engineers, who may inspect 
classes in the neighbourhood where they are for the time stationed. Such 
inspection is, however, as a rule, merely ' statistical ' as to apparatus and 
laboratory fittings. 

The syllabus of the examinations which regulate the teaching are too 
well known to need repetition here. They have been much improved in 
recent years by the ci'eation of an 'alternative first stage,' consisting of a 
course of chemistry of common things. 

An outline of suitable experiments for illustrating the courses, drawn 
np by Sir Henry Roscoe and Dr. Russell, is issued by the Department for 
the guidance of science teachers. 

Organised Science Schools. — The teaching of chemistry in elementary 
schools is further influenced by the Science and Art Department by 
means of 'organised science schools.' Under the regulations of the De- 
partment the scholars of an elementary school (provided that it is not 
receiving aid from the Whitehall Department on their account) may be 
formed into an organised science school. For this purpose a course of 
purely scientific instruction (with the addition of drawing) is laid down. 
The course includes substantial instruction in chemistry. 

For the pupils of such schools who register 250 attendances on the 
full course, and pass in one subject proper to each year, a capitation grant 
of 10s. is made in addition to what may be earned at the usual May 
examinations. Payments are not made for more than four years. The 
conditions are somewhat different for evening schools. 

'Organised Science Schools' exist in some largo towns, as Birming- 
ham, ]Manchester, Leeds, Brighton, and Middlesborough, the total number 
in the country being twenty-three. 

Statistics. — The following statistics show the number of pupils receiving 
instruction in chemistiy in classes registered under South Kensington, 



256 



REPORT — 1889. 



and the number of such who are also studjiug the subject in public 
elementary schools.^ 





Total DMiiiber of individuals 

registered under South 

Keiisiugtoii 


Total number of scholars of 

Public Elementary Schools 

registered under South 

Kensington 


Inorganic (theory) 
„ (practical) . 

Organic (theory) 

„ (practical) . 

Total taking theo- 
retical Inorganic 
and Organic 


14,241 

6,155